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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES}
BUREAU OF LABOR ST A T IST IC S)
INDUSTRIAL

ACCIDENTS

AND

*

#

*

HYGIENE

M
JO
WO* w
SERIES

RECORD OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS
IN THE UNITED STATES TO 1925




JANUARY, 1927

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1927

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This bulletin was prepared by Lucian W. Chaney, of the United
States Bureau of Labor Statistics,
ri




CONTENTS
P ftg e

1-4
Introduction..................................... ....................................... ......................
State accident records for 1917 to 1925_______________________________ 4-11
Industrial accident rates from State data_____________________________
12
Accident records of individual States............................................................13-29
Alabama..................................................................................................
13
Arkansas........... ............................................................................ .........
13
California......................................................... ......................................
14
Idaho............. ..................... ...........- ....................................... ..............
14
Illinois........................................................................- ............................
15
Indiana...................................... ................ .............................................
15
Kansas________ ______- .................. - .......................... ....... ................ 16
Kentucky........ ................................................................................. —
16
Maryland............ ................................................... ................................16, 17
Massachusetts....................................................................................... 17, 18
Minnesota................................... - ............................................- ...........
18
Montana________________________________________ __________ 19
Nevada______________________________ ______ - ------------ -------------19
New Hampshire------------------------------------- ------------ ---------------------20
New Jersey__________________________________ ______ ___________
20
New York_____________________________________________________ 20, 21
Oklahoma---------------------- ------- -------------------------------------------------21
Oregon............. ....................................................................................... 22, 23
Pennsylvania_________ :------------- _------- --------- ------------ --------------- 23-26
Washington............................................................................................. 26, 27
West Virginia........................ ................................................ .................
27
Wisconsin_____________________________________________________ 27-29
Wyoming.............. ...................... — .....................................................
29
Summary of State reports, 1920 and 1924........ ........................................... 30-36
Classification by industries............................... ..................................... 30-32
Cause of injury________________________________________________ 33, 34
Nature of injury............ - ................................. - .................................. 34, 35
Location of injury...................................................................................35, 36
Steam railways....................- ------------ ------------------------------- ----------------- 36-46
Casualties to trainmen on Class I railroads, 1916 to 1924___________39-43
Nontrain accidents, 1917 to 1924............. .................... ....................... 43-45
Grade crossing accidents, 1890 to 1924___________________________
46
Electric railways......................... - ......... — .................................................. 46, 47
Iron and steel industry--------------------------------------------- --------- ...........— 47-84
Accident experience of the departments of the industry............... ..... 50, 66
Blast furnaces............................. .............. ................................... 51,52
52
Bessemer converters................... ......................................... ...........
Open hearths............................................ .................. ..................
53
Foundries.......................................... ............... ........................... . 53, 54
Bar mills______________________________ ________ ___________
54
Heavy rolling mills.........................................................................54,55
Plate mills------------ ----------------- ---------- ---------- - -------------------55
Puddling mills..................................................................................
56
Sheet mills____________________ _______ ____________________
56
Rod mills..................................................................... - ..................
57
Tube mills.............. ......................................................................... 57.58
Unclassified rolling mills_______________ _______ _____________
58
Fabricating shops.......... ..................... ..........................................
59
59
Forge shops.....................................................................................
Wire drawing...................................... ...........................................
60
Electrical department_____ ______________ __________________ 60,61
Mechanical department...................................................................
61
Power houses-------------- ------------------------------------------------------62
Yards.................... .......................................................................... 62,63
Erection of structural steel............. ......................... .......... ......... 63, 64
Coke ovens............. .................... ....................................................
64
Other departments_____________________________ ___________ 64-66




hi

IV

CONTENTS

Iron and steel industry— Continued.
ra«®
Analysis of accident causes in the industry------------------------------------66-84
Accident experience of the departments compared....................... 66-73
Machinery.............................................. ...................... ...........
67
Power vehicles................................ - ....................................... 67, 68
Hot substances________________________________________ 68, 69
Falls of persons........................................................................ 69, 70
Falling objects..........................................................................70, 71
Handling...................................................................................71,72
Miscellaneous causes...................... _ - ....................................72, 73
Accident experience of the departments analyzed by causes____ 73-84
Blast furnaces_______________ - ........................ .................... 73, 74
Bessemer converters_____________________ ______ ________
74
Open hearths.......... - - ..............................................................
75
Foundries......... ............................... — ...................... ...........75, 76
Heavy rolling mills......... .........................................................
76
Plate mills................................................................................
77
Sheet mills............................................................. .................. 77,78
Tube mills___________ ________ ______________ __________ 78, 79
Fabricating shops___ 1............................................................
79
Mechanical department .....................................................—
80
Yards........................... ....................................... - .................. 80,81
Miscellaneous rolling mills......................................................
81
82
Electrical department............................ .................................
Wire drawing................. ................................... ...................... 82, 83
Hot rolling of sheets............... ..................................... ...........
83
Mines, quarries, and metallurgical works..................................................... 84 -91
Coal mines......................................... .................................................... 84-87
Location and causes of accidents___________________ _________85-87
Metal mines_______________________ _______ _______ _____________ 87-89
89
Quarries..... ................................................................................ - ...........
Metallurgical plants_______________ __________ ____________ ______
90
Coke ovens................ ............................................................................ 90, 91
Miscellaneous industries_____________________ __________ ___________ 91-109
State records....................................................................................... .. 91-102
103
Agricultural implements and supplies.................................................
Building construction........ ....................................................................
104
Explosives, dyes, and chemicals............................................ .......... 104, 105
Light and power........................... ............................. ........................105, 106
Manufacture of cameras__________________________ _______ ______
106
Portland cement_______________________________________________
107
Paper mills............................... ..............................................................
107
Petroleum refining.......... ....................................................................107,108
108
Rubber........ .................. .............................................. ........................
Woodworking-______ ____________________________________ ______
108
Textiles_____________________________________ ____ _____________
109
Accident frequency rates in Departments of the Federal Government-_ 109-111
Industrial accident experience of American industry in 1925.......... ..... 112,113




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
No. 425

WASHINGTON

Ja n u a r y ,

tta

RECORD OF INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES TO
1925
INTRODUCTION

The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics has issued three
bulletins 1 bringing together as far as possible the important records
of industrial acciaents on a national scale. Two of these were pre­
pared by Dr. Frederick L. Hoffman and were issued in 1908 and
1914. The third, prepared by the bureau staff, was published in
1923 and brought the data for the most part up to the year 1920.
In the introduction to the second bulletin Doctor Hoffman com­
ments as follows: “ At the present tnie there are no entirely com­
plete and trustworthy industrial accident statistics for even a single
important industry in the United States The most reiable data
are for the iron and steel industries, mining, and the railways/’ As
time has gone on, the three Federal agencies concerning themselves
with accident statistics, namely, the Interstate Commerce Com­
mission, the Bureau of Mines, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
have so improved their methods of collecting and handling accident
data that what they offer may be fairly claimed to be “ trustworthy,”
though in the nature of the case it would be beyond reasonable
expectation that they should be “ entirely complete.”
As compensation legislation spread rapidly over the several States
there rose necessarily a new and insistent demand for accident
statistics which would shed light on the various problems of com­
pensation administration. In response to this demand there has
been an immense accumulation of the raw material of statistics.
It would appear to be a rather simple matter to combine the records
of the several States and so produce a national compilation of much
interest and utility. Unfortunately the States have adopted pro­
cedures sufficiently different to make it difficult and in many cases
impossible to combine these records in a general exhibit. The
primary reason for this is that the State agencies have found them­
selves so involved in the multiplied problems of compensation that
they have been quite unable to give adequate attention to the really
more important problems of accident prevention.
Ultimately it will be necessary for all States to do what some have
already done, namely, to grapple with the matter of accident pre­
vention. It is to be hoped that when this time comes there will
be an intelligent correlation between the statistical service and the
inspection service so that the statistical information may contribute
its full share to the desired end.
It may be well, therefore, to restate the statistical items which
are essential to an effective accident prevention program.
* United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. .No. 78: Industrial accidents; Bui. No. 157: Industrial
accident statistics; and Bui. No. 839: Statistics of industrial accidents in the United States.




1

2

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IX

UNITED STATES

(1) Exposure to hazard.— A very large part of the statistical effort
regarding accidents has been devoted to the mere sorting and record­
ing of cases. That this gives little information which can be utilized
for the purpose now under consideration may be established by a
few illustrations. When the accidents for a 6-year period in Penn­
sylvania are grouped by industries it appears that coal mining has
300,524 accidents while metals and metal products have 343,163.
A hasty inference from this result would be that the production of
metals and metal products is more dangerous than coal mining. A
little reflection will show the inaccuracy of that conclusion. While
metals and metal products have more accident cases it may be that
there are many more people employed therein than in coal mining.
In other words, exposure to hazard in metals and metal products
may be much greater both because more people are employed and
because they work longer hours. Clearly, to understand the rela­
tion of these two groups something more is necessary than merely
to know the number of accidents occurring in each.
This raises the question of an appropriate method of expressing
this element of exposure to hazard. The Germans were the first to
attack the problem. Their solution was to note the number of days
during which each workman was employed. The sum of the days
worked by all the workmen was then divided by 300 on the suppo­
sition that the usual working year was one of 300 days of 10 hours
each. The quotient thus derived gave the number of 300-day or
full-year workers. The number of accidents was then divided by
this base and the quotient multiplied by 1,000 to avoid small decimals.
The use of this theoretical 300-day worker as a base for calculating
accident rates was adopted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics when
it began its accident studies.
There were, however, troublesome difficulties in the use of this
base and the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards
and Commissions finally determined, at the instance of its committee
on statistics and accident insurance cost, to cut loose from the idea
of the number of workers and use instead the hours of employment.2
It was agreed that accident frequency rates should be expressed as
number of cases per 1,000,000 hours of exposure while accident
severity rates should be expressed as number of days lost per 1,000
hours of exposure. The method of determining severity rates and
days lost is discussed in a succeeding paragraph.
The importance of exposure as an element in the study of industrial
accidents has become more and more recognized with the passage of
time. The Bureau of Labor Statistics was the first to utilize it on
an extended scale. For some years now the Bureau of Mines and
the Interstate Commerce Commission have presented their facts on
this basis and many sections of the National Safety Council develop
their accident data in this way.
(2) Number of accidents.— Having secured information regarding
exposure to hazard the next step is to secure a record of the number
of cases of injury. A serious difficulty presents itself at once in the
fact that the definition of an accident varies in the different States.
The most widely used definition is that of a “ tabulatable accident.”
This definition is “ an accident causing death, permanent disability,
* See United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 276, pp. 17 aud 68.




STATE ACCIDENT RECORDS

7

TABU 1.—N A TU R E OF IN F O R M A T IO N AS TO ACC ID E N TS F R O M 1930 TO 1921 SE­
CU RED FROM THE SEVERAL STATE 8-C ontinued
1933
States reporting accidonls by—
Location
Number Industry Cause of! Nature of of injury
injury
injury
(40)
A la ...

(11)
Ala.

(6)

(7)

(9)
Ala.

Expo*
sure

Source of information

(1)

C olo..
Conn.

First Quadrennial Report of Workmen's
Compensation Commissioner.
Report of State Mine Inspector for 1922.
Report of Industrial Accident Commission
for 1922-23.
Report of Industrial Commission for 1923-24.
Response to special request.

D el....
Oa___
Idaho..
Ill____
In d ....

Do.
Do.
Do.
Report of Department of Labor for 1922-23.
Report of Industrial Commission for 1924.

Ariz__. Ariz..

Ariz.i.
Calif..

Ariz...

111..

111...

Ky..

K y..

M d ...

M d ...

M d ....

M d :::

Mass..

Mass..

Mass...

Mass...

-i H I-.......

111..

Iowa...
K y ..-.
M e...
M d ..

Ky..

Mich..
M in n ... M in n ... M inn.. M in n ... M inn.
Mont.
Nebr.
Nev..

Nev__

N. H ..._ N. H..
N .J ..
N. Mex.
N. Y .
N. Dak.

Response to special request.
Report of Industrial Commission for 1921-22.
Response to special request.
Report of Labor and Compensation Com­
missioner for 1924.
Nev___ Report of Industrial Commission for 1920-1922.
Report of Bureau of Labor for 1921-22.
Response to special request.
Do!
Report of Workmen's Compensation Board
for 1922-23.

N. Dak.

Ohio.

Report of Department of Industrial Rela­
tions, 1923.
Response to special request.

Okla.
Oreg.
Pa.._.
R. I..

Do!
Do.

S. Dak..
Tenn___ Tenn..
Tex...
Utah..
V t . ..

J Tenn..
V t.

V a ...
W ash... Wash.
W . Va.
W is.....

Report of Workmen’s Compensation Service
for 1922.
Report of Workmen's Compensation Board
for 1921-22.
Responso to special request.
Report of State Industrial Accident Com­
mission for 1922.
Report of Department of Industrial Acci­
dents for 1922-23.

Wis..

W yo_
_

i Mines only.




t

V t.

:

Report of Industrial Commissioner for 1923.
Report of Department of Labor for 1923.
Response to special request.
Report of Commissioner of Industries for
1920-1922.
Response to special request.
Report of Department of Labor and Indus­
tries for 1922-23.
Response to special request.
Wisconsin Labor Statistics, November, 1925;
response to special request.
Report of Workmen's Compensation De­
partment for 1922.

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

8

T able 1.—N ATU RE OF IN FORM ATION AS TO ACCIDENTS FROM 1020 TO 1934 SE­
CU RED FROM THE SEVERAL STATES—Continued
19 93
States reporting accidents by—
Location
Nnmber Industry Cause of Nature of of injury
injury
injury

Expo­
sure

(14)

(I)

(39)

(13)

(8)

(10)

Ariz___ Ariz. . .

A riz.i...
Calif___
Colo___
Conn
Del.......

Report of State Mine Inspector for 1923.
Response to special request.
Report of Industrial Commission for 1923-24.
Response to special request.

Oa.........
Idaho...
Ill.......... 311.......... 111........ Ill.......... 111..........
Ind.......
Iowa___
F an s.... Kans___ Kans__
K y ........

Ky........

K y....... K y........

K y........

Me
M d . . . . Md . . . . Md . . . Md . . . . Md
M ass__ M ass. . . M ass. . M a ss... M ass. . .
Mich
M in n ... M in n ... M inn.. M in n ... Minn ..
Mont
Nebr
Nev

Source of information

Nev.......

Report of industrial Commission for 1923.
Response to special request.
Report of Department of Labor for 1923-24;
response to special request.
Report of Industrial Commission for 1924.
Response to special request.
Report of Court of Industrial Relations for
1923.
Report of Workmen’s Compensation Board
for 1923.
Response to special request.
Report of State Industrial Accident Com­
mission for 1923.
Report of Department of Industrial Acci­
dents for 1923-24.
Response to special request.
Report of Industrial Commission for 1923-24.
Report of Industrial Accident Board for 1923.
Report of Labor and Compensation Com­
missioner for 1924.
Nev___ Report of Industrial Commission for 19221924.

N. H___. N. H .... N. H ..
Report of Bureau of Labor for 1924.
N. J
N. Y .._. N. Y.___ N. Y ... N. Y .... N. Y ___ .............. Special Bulletin No. *126 of Department of
Labor.
N. Dak.
N.Dak.
Report of Workmen's Compensation Bureau
for 1923.
Ohio
Report of Department of Industrial Rela­
tions for 1923-24.
Okla
Oreg.
Pa

Pa

R. I
S. Dak
Tenn___ Tenn___ T enn ..
Tex.......
U tah.... U tah.... Utah
Vt
Vt
V t.........
Va

Va.

Va

Va.

Wash
W. Va
Wis....... Wis
W yo.

>Mines only.




Wis

Response to special request.
Do.
Report of Bureau of Workmen's Compensa­
tion for 1923.
Response to special request.
Report of Industrial Commissioner for 1923.
Report of Department of Labor for 1923.
Roport of Industrial Accident Board for 1923.
Bulletin No. 3 of Industrial Commission.
Report of Commissioner of Industries for
1922-1924.
Report of Industrial Commission for 1923.
Department of Labor and Industries* Report
to Governor, 1924.
Response to special request.
Labor Statistics, October, 1924; November,
1925.
Response to special request.

STATE ACCIDENT RECORDS

9

T able 1,—N ATU RE OP IN FO R M A TIO N AS TO ACCIDENTS FROM 1920 TO 1824 SE­
CU RED FROM TH E SEVERAL STATES—Continued
1924
States reporting accidents by—
Number Industry Cause of Nature of Location
injury
injury of injury
(39)

06)

(14)

(8)

(7)

Expo­
sure

Source of information

(1)

Ariz.1. . .
Ariz___ Ariz....... Ariz____
C alif.... Calif.*... Calif.*.. Calif.1
__ Calif.*
Colo___
Conn_
_
D el........

Report of State Mine Inspector for 1924.
Response to special request.
Report of Industrial Commission for 1923-24.
Response to special request.

Ga.........
Idaho... Idaho...
Ill..........
ln d ........
Iowa___

Do.
Do.
Do.
Report of Industrial Commission for 1924.
Response to special request.

Kans___ Kans___ Kans...
K y ........ K y____

K y____ Ky

M e........
Md
Md

Md

K y____

Mass
1
Mich
I
M in n ... M in n ... M inn.. M in n ... Minn
Mont .
Nebr ,,
Nev
Nev— —
N. H ___ N. H___ N. H
N. J
N. J
N. J
N. Y
& Dak.
N. Dak J
OWO

1

Okla.3 ' Okla
—
—i
Oreg . >
Pa
' Pa_____

Okla
Pa.........

R. I
1
S. Dak—<
________

Report of Court of Industrial Relations for
1924.
Report of Workmen’s Compensation Board
for 1924.
Response to special request.
Report of State Industrial Accident Com­
mission for 1924.
Response to special request.
Do.
Report of Industrial Commission for 1923-24.
Report of Industrial Accident Board for 1924.
Report of Labor and Compensation Com­
missioner for 1924.
Nev___ Reportof Industrial Commission for 1922-1924.
State report of Bureau of Labor for 1924.
Report of Department of Labor for 1924.
Response to special request.
Report of Workmen’s Compensation Bureau
for 1924-25.
Report of Department of Industrial Rela­
tions for 1924.
Report of State Industrial Commission for
1924.
Response to special request.
Report of Bureau of Workmen’s Compensa­
tion for 1924.
Response to special request.
Report of Industrial Commissioner for 1924.
Report of Department of Labor for 1924.
Report of Industrial Board for 1924.
Bulletin No. 3 of Industrial Commission for
1924.
Report of Commissioner of Industries for
1922-1924.
Response to special request.

Tenn___■ Tenn.... T e n n .. Tenn
Tex
!
Utah___j U tah.... Utah

Vt
i
Vt
V t.........
1
Va......... ■
................
!
W ash...! Wash.._ W ash.. Wash
Summary of Accidents, 1924, Department of
1
Labor and Industries (sheet).
W. V a ..; W. V a .. W. V a . W. V a .. W. V a .. . . . . . . . . . Report of State Compensation Commis­
sioner for 1924.
Wis
Wis_
Report of Industrial Commission of Wiscon­
sin, 1924; and Wisconsin Labor Statistic^
November, 1926.
W y o . . . j ...............
Report of Workmen’s Compensation Depart­
ment for 1924.
i

*Mines only.




*Six months.

* Fatal and nonfatal combined.

T able 3.—N U M BE R OF FA TA L A N D NON FATAL ACCIDENTS AS REPO RTE D BY THE STATES, 1917 TO 1825, B Y YEARS
1918

1917

1920

1919

State
Fata!

Nonfatal

Fatal

Nonfatal

36
1,261
150
57,014
14,730

*46,935
<»)

41

«43,188
6,107

«42,513
4,

- 21
492

2854
36,268

764
<i29

73,785
37,618

37,754

597

305
159
83

373
187

37,147
15,420
6,342
13.557
*980

268
J81
104
118

34,964
10,926
6,322
13,810
•876

291
154
118
493
*1

42,703
14,283
6,891
15,662
(*)

16.557
42,407
77,067
256, :m
29,716

52
u 183
356
256
215

18,666
46,692
66,884
231,421
27,068

153
376
313

18,463
53,525
65,112
227,045
32,659

5,697
7,053
1,960
759
»37,003

122
28
35

5,353
11,245
1,177

>543

<»)

59,055
12,480

110

(*)
201

1,127
(»)
57,991
11,157

Montana..............
Nebraska.............
Nevada................
New Hampshire.
New Jersey..........

307
15
52
9
361

8,018
13,2781
1,958,
459
12,3821

H 185

1,570

311,836

* 28
1,504

285,367

*21
1,815

855
141

158,786
15,027

956
195

161,253
19,723

8
70|

151,401

90
3,072
27

12,044
224,808

103
3,403
49

147
2.569

1,465

49

12,638
181,441
3,133
1,750
1,613

14.333
149,975
2,666
2,228
1,190

i7

21
6

»« 163
438
320
251
12i

J3
39
10

20

30,728

30

(»>

<38,764
2,611

201

4,820
13,626
1,143

94
50
33
40
285

28,556

*32
1,236
4
764
130

(»)
344,436
720
182,206
22,584

144
2,5281
28!
21!
i09;

13,275
172.451
2,951
17,455

STATES

14,738
37,303
78,308
112,477
30,926

7,144
958
1,405
69,813
14,100

UNITED

io 131
481
388
183

135
53
16
592
179

I
N

(-)

Maine..................
Maryland............
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Minnesota...........




6,453
724

5,"367
49,988

300

31
998

42.148
24,520
6,371
512,665
•819

Oregon»............. .
Pennsylvania_
_
Rhode Island i-_.
South Dakota....
Tennessee_______

Fatal' Nonfatal

Nonfatal

93
14
706
202

108
82

Indiana___
Iowa..........
Kansas......
Kentucky..
Louisiana..

New M exico...
New York........
North Dakota.
Ohio............ .
Oklahoma........

Fata]

ACCIDENTS

Connecticut...
Delaware____
Georgia_____
Idaho1
____
Illinois»_____

Fatal

INDUSTRIAL

Alabama i„.
Arizona
Arkansas...
California..
Colorado...

Nonfatal

96

21,222|

27,596
174,370
28,357
4,394
25,408
161;

Texas..
Utah______ ___ __
V erm on tllllllir
Virginia...............
Washington____

<»)

* 512
22,156

West Virginia....
Wisconsin______ _
Wyoming................
U n it e d S ta te s
C om p en sation
Commission........
Total.

<
»;

219
1*37

22,903
20,341
1726
1*15,849

90
49
*41
414
5471
163
24

52,502
*11,782
7,160
>846
26,892
1 | 198
9
571

73
28
144
(*)

8,816
6,258
10,776
21,905
<*)
18,204
605
25,171

4001
99
32
172

(13)

65,600
10,084
8,048
12,151
25,924

(18 )

171
43

18,270
776

427

19,653

308!
9l|
29
133
287

94,2561
9,932
7,724
5,327
19,729

429
181
51

214

95,109|
8,388
6,564
6,498
18,453

84
35
145

13,137
9,356
6,518
31,081

299
281
43
180
385

92,613
13,919
10.507
7,
39,270

357

24
144
227

18,806

443
191
33

21,855
20, irJO
1,198

501
168
82

28,269
22,099
1,719

751
134
88

30,608
25,062
1,669

586
246

31,045
20,891

18,042

353

17,905

279

17,713

278

20.260

314

2a 374

112

198

91,065
14,203
9,497
7,606
42,003

i* 11,3381? 1,363,080 w 12,531 1*1,545,787 is 10,806 i* 1,365,520 i» 11,062 >•1,636,837 9,392 1,327,369 9,434 1,294,220 10,947 1,641,145:11,479 1,666,522 10,5371,687,957

ACCIDENT
RECORDS




STATE

* Compensable cases.
1 Mines only.
* Not reported.
« Includes fatal accidents, the number of which is not reported.
* Estimated.
•March to December.
* Covers 10 months only.
*Includes fatal accidents, the number of which is not reported. Covers claims filed, for 11 months only.
* Figures for New Orleans Parish,
u Number of claims filed.
u Covers 8 months only.
1 Coal mines only,
2
i* Records destroyed by fire.
1 Covers 15 months.
4
1* Includes cases reported from Sept. 7,1916, to Dec. 31,1916.
ij Fatal cases in Connecticut and Kentucky are included under nonfatal cases, not being reported separately.
17 Includes fatal accidents in Connecticut and Kentucky, the numlier of which is not reported.
1* Fatal cases in Connecticut are included under nonfatal cases, not being reported separately.
Includes fatal cases in Connecticut, the number of which is not reported.

12

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT RATES FROM STATE D A TA 1

For some time past the Bureau of Labor Statistics has been collect­
ing from month to month for certain industries a report of the number
of employees upon the pay rolls of selected concerns. This informa-,
tion, supplemented by a few additional items secured by special
request from the firms, has made possible the determination of
exposure in terms of man-hours for a group of companies, and for the
same companies accident records have been obtained from the
State accident agencies. Table 3 contains the resulting compila­
tions. It should be noted, however, that the data here presented
were derived from a small number of States and some of the industries
have too small an exposure to be as authoritative as could be desired.
T a b l e 3 . — A CCIDEN TS A N D ACCIDEN T RATES IN SELECTED ESTABLISHM ENTS IN

SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES, 1024

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 ntours*
exposure)

Number of cases

Industry

Fullyear
work­
ers

Agricultural im­
plements____ . . . 3,142
Automobiles.... . . . 5,648
Auto tires.............. 5,772
Boots and shoes... 1,614
Brick...................... 3,514
Electrical machin­
ery...................... 4,626
Flour...................... 2,921
Foundry and ma­
chine shops......... 17,774
Furniture.............. 5,333
Glass...................... 1,283
Lumber and plan­
ing mills............. 1,852
Paper and pulp___ 1,171
Pottery..................
953
Slaughtering and
meat packing___ 19,911
Stoves.................... 3,278
Machine tools... . 3,635
Steam fittings____ 1,424
Structural
iron
work................... 1,187

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
rary Total Death nent rary Total Death nent rary To­
Death nent dis­
dis­
dis­ dis­
dis­ dis­ tal
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity

19 361 380
17 495 512
25 1,741 1,767
1
23
24
537
13 522

0.06
.19

1.00
1.40
.21
1.23

364
113

411
120

.07
.11

3.31 26.23 29.61
.68 12.89 13.68

.43

79 1,928 2,016
204 226
21
5 289 295

.15
.06
.26

15
13
2

145
162
62

98 1,311! 1,420
3 325! 331
9 322: 332
272!
275
3

46
6

11

6

128
148
60;

1

303

i

310

2.02 38.32 40.34

29.21 3a 21
97.18 98.64
4.75 4.96
49.52 5a 94

a68

.68

.68

2.99
.85

.34 3.76
.18 1.71

1.32 32.14 33.61
1.31 12.75 14.12
1.30 75.07 76.63

.90
.38
1.56

1.06
.91
1.36

.45 2.42
.26 1.55
.83 3.75

.36
.28

2.70 23.04 26.10
3.70 42.14 46.12
.70 21.00 21.70

2.16
1.71

5.17
2.83
.84

.71 8.04
.67 5.21
.47 1.31

.18
.31
.09

1.64
.31
.83
.70

1.10
1.83
.55

1.21
.24
.55
.49

.70 3.01
.31 2.38
.31 1.41
.79 lv 28

.28

1.68 85.06 87.02

1.68

.94

1.04 3.67

21.95 23.77

33.05 33.67

29.53 30.45
63.68 64.38

1.14

1.00
1.60
.06

1.62 2.30

.55 1.55
1.18 3.11
.11 .1 7
.97 2.79

a33

The highest frequency rate (98.64) shown in this table is found in
the manufacture of auto tires, followed by that in structural-iron
work (87.02). The highest severity rate (8.04) is in lumber and
planing mills. Both structural iron and planing mills have a rather
small exposure and therefore too great significance should not be
attached to these rates.
1 When this section of the report was orginally prepared the latest data available was for 1924. Sub­
sequently data for 1925 became available and are presented on p. 93, and for purposes of comparison the
1924 figures are there repeated.




STATE ACCIDENT RECORDS— ARKANSAS

13

ACCIDENT RECORDS OF INDIVIDUAL STATES

These records include those assembled for Bulletin No. 339 and
such later records as it has been possible to secure. For the most
part this brings into comparison the year 1920 with some later year,
most frequently the year 1924. While for some States the year 1925
is available it was thought better not to include it in the present
presentation.
ALABAMA

In 1922 in Alabama, as in all States where coal mining is important,
coal mining stood at the head in number of accidents both fatal (169)
and nonfatal. Lumber and wood products (16), metals and products
(14), and construction followed in order.
T a b l e 4.—N U M BER OF ACCIDENTS i IN ALABAM A, 1922, BY INDUSTRIES

Death

Industry
Agriculture__________. . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ ____ . . . ______________
Chemicals and p r o d u c t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ _____ . .
Cement and products__________ _____________________ . ____
Clay, glass, and stone.. . . . . . . . __ . . . . . . . . ______ __________ . . . .
Clothing........................................................................................
Construction
____ ________
Food products..___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ . . . ___ . . . . . . . .
Leather and products__________ . . . . . . . . . ___________________
Lumber and wood p r o d u c t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _______ —
Mercantile_________________ _______ . . . . _____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metals and products____ . . . . . . . . . . ___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mines, coal__ ____________________________________________
Mines (not coal) and q u a r rie s .................... ................... .........
Paper and products___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___ - ___
Printing and publishing_________ _______________ _____ _____
Public utilities and transportation..____ ___ ____ ___________
Textiles............ ...... . . . . . _________ ___________. . . . ______ ____
Unclassified.................... ................................................................
Total.....................................................................................

Perma­ Tempo­
nent
rary
disability disability
0
1
7
2

6
2
11
16
14
1C9
4
5
I

231

85
1
69
115
6
1
1
23
26
14
362

Total
a

2
50
67
43
5
314
42
7
462
117
967
1,831
103
5
7
858
181
115
5,176

n

52
7
340
42
7
563
118
1,040
2,116
113
6
8
886
207
133
iS 769
,

i Compensable cases.

ARKANSAS

Table 5 contains the latest information regarding accidents in
Arkansas which was available at the time this bulletin was prepared.
The notable item in Table 5, showing the fatal and nonfatal acci­
dents in Arkansas reported for 1920, is that the largest number of
deaths (11) was in the lumber and its remanufacture industry. It is
probable that agriculture was responsible for a considerable number
of deaths, but agriculture is not included under the compensation law.
T able 5.—NUM BER OF ACCIDENTS IN ARKANSAS, 1920, BY INDUSTRIES
Number of accidents
Industry

Non­
fatal

Fatal
Clay, glass, and stone............................................................................... . . . .
Food.............................. .................................................................................
Lumber and its remanufacture___ _____ ______________________________
Mercantile.......................................................................................................
Mines (not coal)...................................... ......................... ............................
Metals and products.......................................................................................
Printing and publishing................................................................................
Public service......... .............. .................... ............... ...................................
Textiles............................................................................................................
All other...........................................................................................................
Total.....................................................................................................

2063*—27-----2



11
2
1
2
10

£

1,149
5
63
13
6
12
2
128
1,404

Total
3
23
1,160
65
13
6
13
2
130
1,420

14

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IX UNITED STATES

CALIFORNIA

Accident data for California for 1920 and for six months of 1924,
are presented in Table 6. Assuming that the experience of the
second six months of 1924 would be like that of the first, it appears
that accidents were considerably more numerous in the later year.
There is no means of determining whether this represents a real
change for the worse or is simply Sue to greater industrial activity.
In 1920 public service had the heaviest fatality (122), while in six
months in 1924 construction had 65 eases.
T a b l e 6 .— NU M BER OF A C C ID E N T S » IN’ CALIFORNIA, 1920, AND SIX MONTHS ENDING
JUNE 30, 1921 BY INDUSTRIES

Accidents resulting in—
Permanent
disability

Death

Industry

: Jan.1
1920 to June
30,1924
Agriculture___________. . . . . . . . . . . . . ___
59 i
11
Chemicals,.____________ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Clay, glass, and stoue_____ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clothing....................................................
63
Construction_________________________
17
Food products______ _________________
Iron and steel___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ______
Laundries__________ _________________
i
Leather and rubber_______ ___________
Lumber and wood................................ .
60
14
Metals and metal product®......................
Mines (not coal) and quarries and oil___
C
O
Paper and printi ng..................................
4
Pulp and paper.............................. .........
Printing....................................................
Public service............ .................... .........
122
2?)
...................................... ......
Shipbuilding
1
Textiles and clothing...............................
All other___ _____ _______ . . . . . ________ 147
Total...............................................

Ten. 1
19-20 to June
30,1924

21

6
3

P .
,5
4j
1
!
31 !
10
44

43 !
1!
:
78 !

125
43
23
6
2*1
103
21"
14
208
287
170
54
143
144
4
263 |

307 : 1.929 !

502

Temporary
disability
1920

Jan. 1
to June
30,1924

Total accidents

1920

Jan. 1
to June
30,1924

4,102
2,300
2,241
4,286
1,964
1.039
2,018
1,058
705
735
1.039
1,057
227
233
102 ■ 8,003 “ 8,"146" 8,327 """8,313
5,274
2,412
2.443
27 j 5,154
3
237
241
362’
284
383"
290
6 ;
224
5
162
477
229
4,977
3,549
127 j 4,649
3,391
7,181
3,452
85 i 6,880 3,357
3,664
4,721
3,789
81 ; 4,191
808
866
3
46
49
9
296
305
9,132
2,088
12 ; 8,867
2,033
6 i 4,118
547
554
4,288
4 :» 132
269
273
137
151 i 16,960 14,178 17,370
14,407
38
13
15

«R7 ' R7 R84 43,403

70,405

44,397

1 Tabulatablfe accidents.

IDAHO

Lumbering and mining were responsible for the greatest number of
fatalities in Idaho in 1920 and in 1924. In 1920 there were 43 deaths
in lumbering and 13 in mines. The 1924 record is 56 deaths in
lumbering and 45 in mines.
T a b l e 7.—NU M BER OF ACCIDENTS INT IDAHO, YEARS ENDING OCTOBER 31, 1820 AND

1024. BY INDUSTRIES

Accidents resulting in—
Industry

Permanent
disability

Death

Temporary
disability

Total accidents

1919-201 1923-24 1919-20) 1923-24 1919-201 1923-24 1919-201 1923-24
1
Agriculture and stock raising___. . . . .
12
Construction...................... ......... . . . .
Lumber_______ __________. . . . . . . . . .
43
Mines________________________ . . . .
13
Manufacture........................
...............
Mercantile__________________. . . ___
1
Transportation and utility____ _____
Unclassified—_____________________
13
Total_______________________
------- 1

i Compensation claims allowed.




83

20 i
56
45
2
1!
10
6
140

fi
36
96
34

120
713
1,592
1,210

883

134
1,617
3,290
2,726
770
1,217
737
725

960

143
1,724
3,579
2,876
817
1,259
791
773

4,748

11,210

5,086

11,961

113
665
1,453
1,163

64

9
87
233
104
45
41
44
42

255

605

19

471”

49i"

STATE ACCIDENT RECORDS— INDIANA

15

ILLINOIS

In Illinois in the years 1920 and 1923 the coal mines had the greatest
number of fatalities, 171 in 1920 and 155 in 1923. Metals and prod­
ucts came next (86) in 1920 with construction and public service
following (68). In 1923 public service (74) and construction (80)
rank next to coal mines. Agriculture shows few cases as compared
with California, for example, because acceptance of the compensation
law is optional for farmers, and in Illinois rather few have elected to
come under the law.
T a b l e 8.—N U M BER OF ACCIDENTS i IN ILLINOIS, 1920 AND 1923, B Y INDUSTRIES

Accidents resulting in—
Permanent
disability

Death

Industry

1920

1923

1920

1923

7
G
7
74
2
103

95

1
9
6
5
66
17
1
9
16
63
274
3
14
8
1

246
39
311

28
3
102

675

Agriculture............................... .
Chemicals and products..........
Clay, glass, and stone...............
Clothing...................................
Construction.............................
Food, beverage, and tobacco...
Leather and rubber................. .
Lumber and wood...................
Mercantile................................
Metals and metal products___
Mines, coal...............................
Mines (not coal) and quarries.
Municipalities..........................
Oil and gas-well operation........
Paper and paper products.......
Printing and publishing___. . .
Public services.........................
Textiles......................................
Unclassified.............................. .

8,226

3
35
17
5
80
33
5
17
33
71
155
4

3
24
5
86
171
12
17

155
79
50
455
316
S3
379
65
2.085

20

Total,

10®

Total accidents

Tem;

1920
245
1,144
828
530
3.190
2.845
420
1,579
895
11,710
9,398
384
204
519
594
2,357
253
4,667

626 41,762

1923

1920

1923

281
1,060 1,324
1,436
916
736
581
5,105
3.713
4,589
3, m
690
506
2,610
1,982
965
2,117
12,673 13,881
14,170 13,249
161
437
516
231
312 I
602
m
705
818
3,175
2.67L
325
299
5,036
9,128

2,166
12,807
14,599
168
550
327
609
825
3,277
330
9,333

50,585

61,810

60,509

292
1,104
1,457
746
5,251
4.637
696

i Compensable cases.

INDIANA

The form of the Indiana report makes a separation of the fatal
and nonfatal accidents in the industries in that State impossible.
In both years shown in Table 9— 1920 and 1921— metal products
had the greatest number of accidents, with coal mines and public
service next in order and not far apart.
T a b l e 9 .—NUM BER OF ACCIDENTS IN INDIANA, 1920 AND 1921, B Y INDUSTRIES

Year ending
September 3 0 Industry

Industry
1920

Agriculture................
Chemicals..................

Clay, glass, and stone

Clothing.....................
Construction..............
Food...........................
Leather and rubber.Lumber......................
Mercantile.................
Metal products.........




Year endiug
September 3 0 -

189
156
1,614
135
2,731
2,452
454
3,355
1,176
17.101

1921
148
91
1,253
196
3,056
2,112
427
2,274
1,272
9,683

1920
Mines, coal...............................
Mines (not coal) and quarries___
Municipal................................
Paper products.........................
Printing....................................
Public service........................... .
Textiles......................................
Unclassified..............................
Total................................

4,222
477
32
682
248
4,843
154
2,973

1921
4»851
698
31
589
175
4,248
136
3,156

42,994 i1 34,396

16

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

KANSAS

Three years, 1920, 1921, and 1924 are covered in Table 10, showing
accident data for Kansas. The total for 1924 considerably exceeds
that of the other years. Public service had the greatest number of
fatalities in each of the years (57 in 1920, 24 in 1921, and 33 in 1924).
Oil and gas, which do not appear in some of the State reports, are a
considerable factor in Kansas accidents.
TABLE 10.—N U M BER OF ACCIDENTS IN KANSAS, 1920, 1921, AN D 1924, BY INDUSTRIES
Accidents resulting in—
Industry

Permanent
disability

Death

Temporary disa­
bility

1920 1921 1924 1920 1921 1924 1920
5
Cement and p ro d u cts......___
1
Clay, glass, and stone...............
1
1
5
5
Food products...........................
5
Lumber......................................
1
r
Metals and metal products ....
3 "iV
4
Mines, coal................................. 19 23
Mines (not coal) and quarries..
2 ..... .....
Oil and gas................................. 13
Public service............................. 57 24 33
16
7
Unclassified................................ 17
84
Total................................ 118 71

1921

1924

Total accidents

1920

1921

10
308
2
82
189 103
3
99
84
1
11
16 964 908 1,322 994 924
25
28
3
11
18
29
32
47
152
7
24 958
509 1,779 978
10
519
892 873 840
8 836 810
18
7
4
57
227
6
73 235
57
24 ” i« ' 31 1,205 1,245 1,298 1,242 1,271
39 1,844 1,609 2,281 1,944 1,657
13 24
14 21
562 899 2,404
47
593 927
167 93 192 |6,724 6,147 10,698 7,009 6,311

1924
323
192
1,343
163
1,814
904
77
1,338
2,353
2,467
10,974

KENTUCKY

The coal mines of Kentucky furnished considerably more than half
of its fatalities (64) in the year 1924, and nearly half of all recorded
accidents were in connection with this industry. The lumber and
wood products industry (6) stands next in number of fatalities.
T a b l e ll .- N U M B E R OF ACCIDENTS IN KEN TU CK Y, Y EA R ENDING JUNE 30, 1920 AND

1924, BY INDUSTRIES

Accidents in 1924 resulting in—
Industry

Death

Agriculture...._________ - ______ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chemicals and products___________ ______ . . . . . . . . .
Cement and products
. . . . . . . . . __ - __ . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clay, glass, and stone______ - _______ ____ _________
Clothing........................................................................
Construction____ __ _______ ______________ __
Food products.......... ...................................................
Leather products...........................
..............................
Lumber and wood products.............................. .
Mercantile.....................................................................
Metals and products______ ________ . . . . _________
Mines (coal) ...............................................................
Mines (not coal) and quarries........... - ______ _______
Oil and gas.....................................- ______ __________
Paper and products........................... ................ .........
Printing and publishing______. . . __ ____ __________
Public service_____ _____________ . . . . . . . . . . . . _____
Textiles.......................... ..............................................
U n c la s s ifie d ..................__ - ____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total..................................................... ............

Perma­
nent
dis­
ability

1
1
1

4
1
11

2
2

116
11

6
3
64
1

26
2
33
270
7
9
2

1

5

15
97

64
561

Tempo­
rary
dis­
ability
6
95
67
829
.85
4,027
757
216
2,115
226
1,264
11,239
414
567
110
88
342
167
4,861
27,475

Total accidents
1920

88
490
79
878
1,428
179
1,294
810
2,511
5,968
169
34
102
309
211
1,605
16,155

1924
6
100
69
841
85
4,145
770
216
2,147
228
1,300
11,573
422
576
112
88
348
167
4,940
28,133

MARYLAND

In both of the years shown for Maryland in Table 12 the fatalities
were most numerous in construction, there being 56 in 1920 and 19
in 1924. The fact that shipbuilding is included under construction



STATE ACCIDENT RECORDS— MASSACHUSETTS

17

accounts in part for these numbers. In 1920 metals and products
were second (30) and public service third (20). In 1924 public serv­
ice (16) was second and food products and metals (8) each were next.
T a b l e 1 2 . — N U M BER OF ACCIDENTS* IN M ARY LA N D , YEARS ENDING OCTOBER 31,
1920 AND 1924, BY INDUSTRIES
1923-24: Accidents resulting in—

1919-20

Industry

Non­

Fatal
acci­
dents

dents

10

62

72

441

444
41
2,494
284

Agriculture...............................
Chcmicals and products..........
Cement and products...............
Clay, glass, and stone...............
Clothing....................................

fatal

acci­

m3
284
210
100

Construction 2
.......................

Food products..........................
Leather and rubber..................
Lumber and wood products...
Mercantile.................................
Metals and metal products___
Mines (coal)..............................
Mines (not coal) and quarries.
Paper and paper products.......
Printing and publishing..........
Public service...........................
Textiles.....................................
Unclassified..............................
Total..

1,188

Total

Death

Perma­ Tem­
nent porary
dis­
dis­
ability ability

2

15
4
8
5
78
50
18
61
16
156

210
102

1,218

11

12
6

204
198
510
126

10
153

751
6,541

8

204
16

126
761

12
95

ft 694

* Compensation claims allowed, in 1020, and claims fiied, in 1924.

81

13
47
541

Total

17
567

19
586

2,444
1,378
243
796
490
2,420
391
209
160
151
1,684
117
1,457
13,283

345
335
%541
1,436
262
865
506
2,584
409
224
168
159
1,731
130
1,516
13,919

101

* Includes shipbuilding.

MASSACHUSETTS

In the published records of accidents of Massachusetts the indus­
trial groups are subdivided in great detail; for example, textiles are
shown under the following heads: Carpet mills, cotton mills, dyeing,
hemp and jute, knitting, lace, linen, print works, cordage, sails,
silk mills, woolen mills, and unclassified.
Table 13 presents the data for the years 1920 and 1923. In 1920
public service had the greatest number (135) of fatalities, with con­
struction (43) coming next. In 1923 construction (62) leads, fol­
lowed by the mercantile group.
T a b l e 1 3 .—-NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS IN MASSACHUSETTS, 1920 AND 1923, BY

INDUSTRIES

Accidents resulting l n Industry

1920
Agriculture.................................
Chemicals and products............
Cement and products................
•Clay, glass, and stone................
Clothing.....................................
Construction (building trades).
Food products............................
Leather and products................
Lumber and wood products___
Mercantile..................................
Metals and products................. .
Mines and quarries...................
Paper and products...................
Printing and publishing_______
Public service......................... .
Textiles..
Total.




Permanent
disability

Death
1923

3

11

1

43
7
12

4
36
36
3
8

1

135
37
40
376

1920

8
4
32
30

1
5

5
26
19
115
330

3
98
49
148
118
82
436
9
47
31

1,621

1923

Temporary
disability
1920

191
8
11
760
2
11 ' “ '392*
312
5
106 4,891
29 2,023
4,504
2,052
5,997
95
331 13,179
1 172
51
1,986

22

91
253
207
1,444

686

8,125
10,921
7,300
63,491

1923

Total accidents

1920
196
781

611
161
418
406
330
316
6,350
5,032
1,977
2,079
3,534
4,664
2,158
2,174
7,692
6,115
9,194 13,651
194
184
2,041
2,016
735
718
3,418
8,322
9,782 11,246
14,218
7,563
63,116 65,488

1923
339
631
164
431
335
6,518
2,014
3,631
2,294
7,819
9,555
196
%m

762
3,535
10;-054
14,540
64,890

18

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

Table 14 discloses the relation in Massachusetts between cases of
accident and losses due to such accidents. It appears on inspection
that frequency and severity do not move together. For example,
the cause group “ vehicles'* shows 6.3 per cent of the cases but 21.3
er cent of the loss, while “ handling, ” with 36.5 per cent of the cases,
as 16.6 per cent of the losses.

E

TABLE 14*—PER CEN T OF ACCIDENTS IN MASSACHUSETTS IN 1920 DUE TO EACH
SPECIFIED OAUSE AND OF DAYS LOST
Per cent
Accident cause
Acci­
dents
Machinery_____. ____ _____ . ____________ . . . ___ . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __
Explosives and hot substances____ ____ . . . . . __ . . . __ ______ ____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . ____
Fans of persons ......................... ...................................................................................
Fsliing objects not handled.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____. . . __ . . . . . _ ___ . . . . . . . . . ___
_
Handling objects________ - __ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling tools________ ____ __ . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . _. . . . . _ ___________ . . . . _ . .
_
_
Stepping on or striking objects____________ . . . . . ____ . . . . ____ ___________________
Other causes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .......................................................................................
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... ............. .... .......... .............................................

Days
lost

23.4
6.3
4.6
14.0
3.7
29.2
7.3
6.0
5.5

i
mi. o i

29'. 1
21.3
7.7
14.1
4.2
13.0
3.6
1.7
5.3
inn. n

\

MINNESOTA

In- Minnesota, in 1919-20, the iron mines had the largest number of
deaths (56) from accident, with lumber (34) second, and construction
(23) third. Food production, mainly in the manufacture of flour,
had a considerable number of deaths (13). The deaths in 1921-22
are not separable from other accidents in that year.
T able 15.—NUM BER OF A C C ID E N T S « IN M INNESOTA, YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1920
AND 1922, BY INDUSTRIES
j Accidents in 1919-20; resulting
in—
Industry
Death

Agriculture..... ......... ......... . . . . . . . . . ___ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chemicals and products___ . . . . . _______ . . . . . . _____
Clay, glass, ana s t o n e ........_______ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clothing
_____________ . . . . . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction.................................................................
Food products............................................................... i i
Leather and fur.............................................................;
Lumber and wood products........................................ !!
Mercantile.................................................................... !
Metals and products.................................................... I
Mines (not coal) and quarries......................................
Municipal... ___ _______ ________________ _______
Paper and products...................................................... i
Printing and publishing__________________________
Public service____________ _______ _______________
Textiles............................................ ...................... ....
Unclassified_______________ _____________________
Total....................................................................

i Compensation claims allowed.




Perma­ Tempo­
nent dis­ rary dis­
ability
ability

Total accidents

1919-20

1921-22

26

1
14
28
1
120
154
21
214
52
195
136
19
26
18
27
16
141

43
123
256
37
1,447
1,444
112
1.223
653
1,430
2,001
181
217
115
427
99
1,546

45
138
285
38
1,589
1,611
134
1,471
714
1,638
2,193
206
246
133
469
115
1,713

265
130
499
64
2,584

201

1,183

11,354

12,738

10,657

1
1
1
22
13
34
13
56
6
3
15

98
128
267
51
1,306
1,308
57
1,050
1,398
611
841

STATE ACCIDENT RECORDS— NEVADA

19

MONTANA

In Table 16 accident data for Montana for a five-year period are
consolidated. In these five years mining had 558 fatalities (an aver­
age of 112 per year), or more than two-thirds of all fatal accidents
recorded in the State.
Metals and products (66), construction (41), and lumber (36) are
other industries of high fatality hazard.
T a b l e 16.—N U M BER OF ACCIDENTS IN M ON TAN A FOR 5-YEAR PERIOD, JULY 1,1915,

TO JUNE 30, 1920, BY INDUSTRIES

Accidents resulting in—
Total
Perma­ Tempo­ accidents
nent dis­ rary dis­
ability
ability

Industry
Death

2
41
10

1
59
28

65
2,036
1,173

36
1
66
61
497
1
1
31

Clay and s t o n e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C o n s t r u c t io n ...................................................
Food______ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ ___ _______ . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leather.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ . . . . __ . . . . . __ . . . . . .
Lumber_____. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mercantile_________ _____ ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motals and products_______ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mines, coal___________________. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mines (not coal) and quarries______. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___
__________________. . . .Municipal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __
..........
P rin tin g and p u b l i s h i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Public service________ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Textiles....... .
U n cla ssifie d ...........__ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82
10
109
76
287

68
2,136
1,211
1
1,747
815
3,135
1,969
18,710
109
131
820
7
955
31,314

35

22

782

Total.....................................................................................

1,629
304
2,960
1,832
17,926
108
125
770
7
898

698

29,834

5
19

NEVADA

Metal mines in Nevada had 19 fatalities in 1919-20 and 18 in
1923-24. In each year the deaths in metal mines outnumber all
others in the State.
T a b l e 17 «-N U M B E R OF ACCIDENTS IN NEVADA, YEARS EN DIN G JUNE 30. 1920 AND

1924, BY INDUSTRIES

Accidents resulting in—
Industry

Permanent
disability

Death

Total accidents

Temporary
disability
1919-20 1923-24

1919-20 1923-24 1919-20 1923-24 1919-20 1923-24
Construction__. . . . . . . ______ . . . . . . . .
Food................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lumber____________________ . . . . . . .
Metals and products...................... ....
Mines (not coal) and quarries_______
Municipal______________ . . . . . . . . . . .
Public service________. . . . ___ . . . ___
Unclassified..........................................

1
3
3
17
3
2
1

3
18

Total..........................................

30

* 31
■




1
9

4
2
5
16
66
12
2I
1
9
116

2
17

14
30
46
111
686
43
37
63

101

1,030

5
77

41
940

28
339

18
33
54
130
769
58
41
73

1,245

1,176

1,377

33
845

31
365

20

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

NEW HAMPSHIRE

In 1924 lumber and its products was most productive of fatalities
(5 cases) in New Hampshire. Textiles, though an industry of rela­
tively low hazard, had 4 cases of fatality.
T a b l e 18*—N UM BER OF ACCIDENTS IN NEW HAMPSHIRE, 1924, BY

INDU STRIES

Fatal
Nonfatal
Total
accidents accidents accidents

Industry

Clay, glass, and stone___ ___________________ ____________ _____ ______

1

Construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ . . . . . . .
Food products............................................... ........................... . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leather and products_______ . . . . _______ _____________ _______ . . . . . . __
Lumber and wood p roducts...............____ ___________ __ . . . . . . . . .
Mercantile............ ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __. . . . . . . . . . . . . . __. . . . .. . .
Metals and products_______________________ ________ ____ ___ . . . . .
Paper ___ . . . . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ . . . . . . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing............................. . . . . . ________. . . ___________________ . . . . . . . .
Public service__ . . . . . . . . _________________ _____________ _____________
Textiles ____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unclassified____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

Total......................................................................................................

43
15
104
20
90
403

1

5

44
15
107
26
91
408

56

56
91
311
14

1

91
308
14
19
383
890

387
891

19

2,442

2,461

3
1

4

20

NEW JERSEY

In New Jersey in 1920 chemicals had the severest fatality (47)
while in 1921 and 1924 construction with 44 and 67, respectively,
was the chief cause of fatal injury.
T a b l k 1 9 . — N U M BER OF ACCIDENTS IN NEW JERSEY, YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1920

AN D 1921, BY INDUSTRIES
Fatal accidents

Industry
1920

1921

Chemicals__ _______ . . . . . . . . . __ ____
Clay, glass, and s t o n e ... ......... .....
Clothing____ . . . . . ____ ___ . . . . . . . . . .
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food products_______ _____________
Leather and leat her goods...................
Lumber and wood p r o d u c t s ..........
Metals and metal products...............
Mines (not coal) and quarries_____ _
Paper and paper p r o d u c t s ............
Printing and bookbinding___ ___
Rubber and composition g o o d s ..... .
Shipbuilding......... ...............................
Textiles_____ ____ ___ . . . . . . . . . . ____
U n c l a s s i f i e d .......................__

47
6
2
31
16
12

33
5
1
44
10
8

38
1
5

42
11

25
8
94

23
9
96

Total...........................................

285

282

| Nonfatal accidents

s
1924 ! 1920
i
39 < 1.708
8
414
93
67 i 5,965
7 i 381
8
586
2
31 :7.23i"
12 !
83
81
2'
65
3
5 2,792
6
269
98 ; 8,888

1921

1924

Total accidents
1920

1,326 1,943 1,755
420
349 1,011
95
348 1,324
6,951 11,492 5,996
397
529 1,816
598
277
676
993
5,22c" 9,276 7,269
434
84
215
154
417
86
91
65
67
726
374 ”2,817"
1,997
277
1,092 1,679
8,824 16,105 8,982

1921

1924

1,359
354
349
6,995
539
684

1,982
1,019
1,324
11,559
1,823
280
995
5,268
9,307
446
226
154
419
67
91
729
‘ 2,020”
379
1,101
1,685
8,920 16,203

283 28,556 27,754 47,958 28,841 28,036

48,241

NEW YORK

For some years the State of New York did not publish anything
regarding its accident experience. The latest published information
at the time of making this compilation is for the year 1923. Table
20 shows the distribution for that year. Naturally, construction, in
a State where great structures are being erected as nowhere else in
the country, leads in fatality (177), and public utilities and trans­
portation comes next (164).




STATE ACCIDENT RECORDS— OKLAHOMA

21

TABLE 20 .—N U M BER OF ACCIDEN TS I IN NEW Y O R K , 1923, B Y INDUSTRIES

Accidents resulting inIndustry
Death

Agriculture.....................................
Chemicals.......................................
Clay, stone, and glass....................
Clothing.........................................
Construction...................................
Food................................................
Leather...........................................
Lumber and wood products..........
Mercantile (trade)..........................
Metals and products......................
Mines and quarries........................
Paper and products.......................
Printing..........................................
Public utilities and transportation
Rubber and composition goods___
Textiles...........................................
Unclassified.....................................

8
8
177
18
4
23
49
52
15
15
3
164
4
7

101

Total.....................................

Total
Perma­ T e m p o ­ accidents
nent disa­ rary disa­
b ility
bility
79
219
197
203
1,640
557
704

2,204
92
366
217
1,266
93
310
1,126
10,327

853
798
1,759
8,407
2,454
1,003
1,868
3,997
6,854
o il

1,204
807
9,543
335
1,1
47,189

353
1,081
1,003
1,970
10,230
3,029
1,247
2,699
4,750
9,110
618
1,585
1,027
10,973
432
1,475
6,496
58,078

1 Compensable oases.

OKLAHOMA

The constitution of Oklahoma is so framed that fatal accident
cases are excluded from the operation of the compensation law.
While in 1920 and 1921 a record of such cases was published, from
that time no record is available. In 1920 the oil and gas industry
had 36 fatal cases, coal mines 25, and metal mines 15.
Table 21 shows a total of 22,714 nonfatal cases. In 1924 the total
of nonfatal cases was 46,517, of which 22,187 were in the oil and
gas industry. It would appear that from whatever point this
industry is considered it is highly hazardous.
T a b l e 2 1 . — N U M BER OF ACCIDENTS IN OKLAHOM A, YEARS ENDINO AUGUST 31,

1920 A N D 1924, B Y INDUSTRIES

Aocidqnts in 1919-20 re­
sulting in—
Industry

T ota l...




Perma­ Tempo­
nent dis­ rary dis­
ability
ability

1919-20

612

617

1,567
605

1,620
613

1,074
1,322
1,823
1,045
3,809
7,619

1,095
1,348
1,852

725
1,356

1 ,1 1 2

732
1,765

110

Death

Cement and products..............
Clay, glass, and stone. - ..........
Clothing....................................
Construction.............................
Food products...........................
Leather......................................
Lumber and wood products. . .
Mercantile................................
Metals and products................
Mines, coal___________ ____
Mines (not coal) and quarries.
Oil and gas................................
Paper and products..................
Printing and publishing..........
Public sevice.............................
Unclassified..............................

Total accidents

113
746
1,843

1,216
6,360
22,187
1
168
1,427

22,083

22,714

28
18
19
23
42

110

166

130

501

3,934
7,821

1923-24

137
959
18
5,039
589

1

4,231

46,517

22

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

OREGON

In 1920 Oregon worked out an exposure for each of the industrial
groups shown in Table 22. Where the exposure is equivalent to
2,000 or more full-year workers frequency and severity are shown.
The relations which appear between these rates emphasize again
the importance of both rates to an understanding of the accident
situation.
Of the 71,166 full-year workers which appear in the table, more
than a third (29.584) were engaged in logging and lumbering oper­
ations. Of these logging had a fatality rate in 1920 of 6.93 cases
per 1,000 full-year workers. This may be compared with 3.62 in
coal mining for the whole country.
The severity rate for Oregon logging operations was 21.56, which
may be compared with 25.9 in the erection of structural steel in
that same year.
The operation of Oregon logging railways is more hazardous than
average railway operation for the United States as is indicated by a
fatality rate of 6.30 per 1,000 full-year workers, contrasted with
1.76 for railway trainmen. However, yard brakemcn on all steam
roads had a rate of 6.67.
Construction, with a severity rate of 9.11, is closely similar to
this industrial group wherever it has been possible to compute rates.
T ablf. 3 3 .—N U M BER OP ACCIDENTS IN OREGON, 1920, BY INDUSTRIES
Rates for industrial
* groups of 2,(M ) or over
X

Accidents resulting in—
Industry

Fullyear
workers

Construction.........................
Food and allied products........
Leather and rubber................
Lumber and its remanufacture
Logging.................................
Logging railways...................

1,681
165
160
819
10,063
4,376
255
17,524
9.520
2,540
4,129
1,72^
65

Paper and printing................

Death

311
2, ‘589

Agriculture................................

Chemicals.............................

Clay, glass, etc..........................
Clothing. ..................................

Metals and metal products----Mercantile.................................
Mines, coal................................
Mines (not coal) and quarries..
Municipalities...........................
Public service...........................
Shipbuilding.............................
Textiles......................................
Unclassified...............................

Total............................

13

1

4
16
l i
24 ;

fir !
,
1i
:>

m

30
4
331
144
34
45
6
2

3

4, '.'23
1.208

1
1 12

20

1. ot)7

7,227
71, l«B i

Perma­ Tempo­
rary
nent
Total
disa­
disa­
bility bility

T!
144 i

17
4
47
6
34

122
27
60

21

1.670
741
25
3,836
1.979
247
1,022
89
22
214
19
401
142
1,009
114
627
12,387

135
23
04
22
1,798
772
29
4,191
2,189
297
1,069
95
24
237

22

418
151
1,062

Frequency! Severity
(per
(per
1,000,000

1,000

hours’
exposure)

hours'
exposure)

59. .*»
52. JO
72.72
76.65
38.97
86.31

* 9.11
2.94
i
!
j
!

10.36
21.56
20.24
5.67

58.33 j

2.30

‘“S.“82"|

*6.09

120

686
13,389

Table 23 summarizes the accident experience of a five-year period,
classified according to cause. The number and per cent of accidents
and of workdays lost from each 'cause are shown, the percentages
furnishing a comparison of the relative importance of each cause.
For example, machinery which causes 22.8 per cent of the cases is
responsible for 36 per cent of the loss of working time, while handling
objects, with 24 per cent of the cases, gives rise to only 7.1 per cent
of the lost time.



STATE ACCIDENT RECORDS— PENNSYLVANIA

23

T able 33.—N U M BER OF ACCIDENTS, AN D LOSS OF W ORKDAYS, IN OREGON, IN T HE
F IVE-YEAR PERIOD ENDING 1923, BY CAUSES
Accidents

Workdays lost

Cause
Number
Machinery..................................................... .
Falling and rolling objects..............................
Falls of workmen.......................................... .
Vehicles...........................................................
Handling objects........................................... .
Miscellaneous (including drownings)............
Using hand tools.......................................... .
Explosives, electricity, fires, hot substances.
Stepping on or striking against objects.........
Animals......................................................... .
Boilers................................... ....................... .

Per
cent

12,094
4,927
7,816
2,577
12,708
008
6,576
1,798
2,972
465
57

Number

.1

2,437,181
999,166
936,671
657,292
479,665
378,969
365,184
281,517
84,968
84,413
59,177

1C0.0

T o ta l...................... ............................

22.8
9.3
14.8
4.8
24.0
1.9
12.4
3.4
5.6
.9

6,764,203

Per
cent

14.8
13.8
9.7
7.1
5.6

5.4
4.2
1.3
1.2
.9

100.0

PENNSYLVANIA

Table 24 shows the accident occurrence in Pennsylvania and the
distribution thereof by industries each year from 1916 to 1924.
It so happens that the two largest industrial groups, metals and
products and coal mines appear side by side in the State tabulations,
which makes comparison easy. The metals group shows a very
substantial decrease in accidents while in coal mining the number
remains almost uniform. It would be a very natural inference that
conditions have improved in the metal industry while in coal mining
they have not changed greatly. It is known from other sources that
marked improvement has occurred in the metal industry and that
coal mining is definitely less hazardous, but unfortunately this con­
clusion can not be verified from these Pennsylvania figures because
the exposure to hazard is not known.
T a b l e 3 4 .- -NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS IN PENNSYLVANIA, 1916 TO 1924, BY YEARS AN D

INDUSTRIES

Industry

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

Chemicals..............................
Clay, glass, and stone...........
Clothing............................. .
Construction.........................
Food.......................................
Leather and rubber...............
Lumber and its remanufac­
tures....................................
Mercantile.............................
Metals and products.............
Mines (coal)...........................
Mines (not coal) and quar­
ries......................................
Municipal..............................
Printing and publishing.......
Public sorvice........................
Textiles..................................
Beverages...............................
Hotels and restaurants-------Jobbers and warehouses____
Laundries..............................
Tobacco..................................
Other industries....................

5,918
7,179
2,037
15,146
5,101
2,329

3,435
7,012
1,652
13,384
4,300
1,939

3,039
4,727
1,107
9,190
2,991
1,424

2,274
4,242
916
8,209
3,219
1,655

2,633
5,736
1,211
12,920
3,318
1,930

2,295
4,128
1,310
10,830
3,549
lr566

2,360
5*558
1,517
13,047
4,015
1,773

3,061
6*669
1,869
16,038
4*624
1,934

2,623
5,999
1,440
16*260
4,700
1,452

4,955
4,798
95,986
52,537

4,433
4,129
75,131
55,128

3,118
3,150
2,888
2,970
57,134 40,558
50^249 44,067

3,593
3,854
49,793
47,787

2,782
4,203
24,561
50,756

3,491
4,527
32,719
36*613

4,253
5,732
44,475
59,882

4,216
4,482
47,488
54,449

2,420
983
3,514
30,571
3,888
1,682
1,125
1,637
436
197
7,177

2,354
1,258
2,534
37,553
3,145
1,453
968
1,244
347
187
6,204

1,634
968
1,878
32,625
2,209
877
669
840
233
136
6,826

1,589
1,173
2,369
28,916
2,344
477
712
1,296
161
216
2,951

1,514
1,935
1,982
20^547
2,417
512
738
1,291
181
225
2,875

2,001
2,665
2,318
23,905

2,290
2,781
2,922
32,299
3,543
494
979
1,602
275
276
4,437

2,160
2,576
2,604
18,272
2,709
305
1,119
1,236
242
325
2,973

Total............................ 255*616 227,880 184,844 152,544 174,979 140,197 146*255 m 435

177,539




1,446
1,026
1,897
26,025
2,084
689
583
1,064
153
142
6*257

*a

734
1,625
233
217
3,636

1924

24

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

Table 25 presents the causes of accident by industries for 1920 and
for 1924. It is of interest to note that the injuries in coal mines due
to falling bodies are very much in excess of those due to explosions
which from time to time furnish spectacular evidence of coal mine
hazards. The fact is that the day by day injuries from material
falling from roof or face aggregate, in the course of a year, the most
serious hazard in the mines. As a result the number of fatalities
in the State in 1924, from falling bodies (553) was exceeded only by
those from power vehicles (554).




TABLE 25*—N U M BE R OF ACCIDENTS IN PENNSYLVANIA, 1920 AND 1924, B Y INDUSTRIES AND CAUSES
Accidents due to specified cause—
Machinery

Handling tools
or objects

Power ve­
hicles

Miscellane­
ous

Total

1920

1924

1920

1920

1924

292
322
210
692
606
216
494
582
30
1,184 1,563
396
593
141
623
424
510
56
32
1,351 1,331
485
353
66
10,170 10,457 3,877
1,829 1,965 2,039
165
288
68
60
128
45
880
897
60
1,425
420 1,177
864 1,043
78
72
25
50
58
74
96
148
123
20
59
87
10
84
158
549
606
101

357
313
56
739
235
84

176
582
32
1,733
183
103

127
901
27
1,689
185
59

219
115
176
3,750 4,018 3,148
2,249 12,697 14,837
87
317
286
147
184
90
124
153
118
720 1,617
531
152
88
95
16
13
20
178
24
25
65
66
26
8
2
2
8
9
5
210
175

449
919
626 2,672
632
180
189
305
2,664 3,171 4*467
567
553 1,278
228
169
731
374
348 1,200
862 1,252
986
4,257 3,733
3,220 3,039 15,793
165
197
617
367
447
244
286
303
715
4,104 1,855 11,873
409
403
548
103
49
172
207
245
238
240
196
543
31
35
27
37
78
768

876
2,282
397
5,375
1,568
474
1,482
1,645
16,743
14,675
784

21,935 22,151

9,679 22,378 22,613 20,187 17,614 65,398 53,959 18,369 27,975 17,991 23,548 174,979

177,539

390
9,289

2,209
175,330

8,721

7
0

222

277

122

1924

1920

1924

1920

1924

152
152
435
390
494
369
659 1,091
18
145
25
171
826 1,843 2,897
633
207
349
207
699
54
31
248
211
284
561
147
130
872
416
553
336
2,016 3,805 4,597 5,852
7,704 12,713 4,505 4,971
151
137
193
167
723
224
80
93
317
3,763 5,924 7,938 2,796 3,045
607
95
308
321
57
41
110
26
14
416
10
101
145
134
463
119
146
38
8
16
18
9
13
70
6
42
164
1,010
193
727
373

200

1920

1924

2,633
5,736

2^623
5,999
1,440
16,260
4,070
1,452
4,216
4,482
47,488
54,449
2,169
2,576
2,504
18,272

1,211

12,920
3,318

l,r~

3,854
49,793
47,787
1,589
1,173
2,369
28,916
2,344
477
712
1,296
161
216
2,951

305
1,119
1,236
242
325
3,603

RECORDS— PENNSYLVANIA

1924

ACCIDENT

Total____ ________

Falls of
persons

1920

1920
Chemicals and allied products...
Clay, glass, and stone products..
Clothing manufacture_________
Construction__________________
Food products.............................
Leather and rubber goods______
Lumber and its remanufacture..
Mercantile................... - ..............
Metals and metal products.........
Mines, coal........... .......................
Mines (not coal) and quarries...
Municipalities.............................
Paper and printing____________
Public service_________________
TextilesLiquor and beverages___
Hotels and restaurants...
Jobbers and wholesalers..
Laundries______________
Tobacco_______________
Miscellaneous__________

1924

Falling ob­
jects

Hot sub­
stances

STATE

LhliBtry

DEGBEE OP INJURY

Fatal___
Nonfatal.
Permanent disability__________________
Temporary disability, compensable-----Temporary disability, noncompensable.




273
93
13,067
8,502

345

21*923
21
5,035
3,320

647

” l8

113,089
8,624

22,060

236
13
11,862
8,076

185
17,429
49
32,099
33,152

103
^3,866

758

"1 2
6"

10,514
6,995

554
27,421

171
21
7,615
10,184

196

2,528
317'
93,281
78,853

to

Oi

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

26

In Table 26 the accidents of 1924 are classified by industry. Coal
mines lead in fatal accidents with 932 cases, public service (374),
metals and metal products (264), and construction (217) coming next
in order.
T a b l e 8 6 .— NU M BER OF FATAL AND NONFATAL ACCIDENTS IN PENNSYLVANIA,

1924, BY INDUSTRIES

Fatal I Nonfatal; Total
accidents■
accidents accidents

Industry

Chemicals and products............................
Clay, glass and stone products..................
Clothing......................................................
Construction and building.........................
Food and kindred products.......................
Laundries...................................................
Leather, rubber, and composition good3..
Lumber and its remanufacture.................
Mercantile..................................................
Metals and metal products........................
Mines, coal................................................
Mines (not coal) and quarries...................
Paper and printing...................................
Public service and transportation.............
Textiles.......................................................
Unclassified.............. .................................

r>i
57
3
217
19
1
9
26
40
264
932
34
15
374
18
150

2,572
5, yi2
1.438
16,043
4,051
241
1,443
4,190
4.442
47,224
53.517
2.135
2,489
17.898
2.691
9.014

2,023
5, UW
1,440
16,260
4,070
242
1,452
4.216
4.482
47,488
54,449
2,1*59

Total.................................................

2.200

175.330

177,539

2, 501
IS, 272
2, 709
9,161

WASHINGTON

In 1921 the State of Washington published an industrial accident
table which analyzed the accident experience of the State in consider­
able detail, and this table is reproduced below as Table 27. It shows
127 deaths in logging, 48 deaths in the manufacture of lumber, 18
deaths in coal mines and 17 deaths in construction.
T a b l e 2 7 .— NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS IN WASHINGTON. YEAR ENDING SEPTEM BER

30. 1921, BY IN 1>USTKIES

Industry

]
i Accidciits resulting in—
i
! — ---r
Total
!
Penua- ! Tempo- accidents
Death nent dis- \rary dis­
ability i ability

Chemicals.......................................................................................
Clay................................................................................................ !I
Construction.................................................................................. !
Logging...........................................................................................I!
Lumber........................................................................................... !
Mercantile......................................................................................
Mines, coal..................................................................................... ;i
Mines, not coal.............................................................................. \
i
Municipal....................................................................................... i
Paper.................... .......... ........................ ....................................J
Printing.......................................................................................... 1
!
Public service................................................................................. :
Shipbuilding...................................................................................
T extiles ........................................................................................... ji

Unclassified.......................................................................... .

Total........................................................................... i




i
I

1
1
17
3
127
48
2
9
IS
3
11
1
i
8
10
i
26
287

!

!
'
!

i

i
3;
6i
140 :
99
462:
665 I
15 i
142 j
79 !
25 j
63 !
35 i
23 :
23
87 ;
20 '
82 !
1,969 ;
i

18
27
560
492
1,733
2,158
39
561
348
79
366
92
35
150
252
54
351

22
34
717
594
2,322
5,193
56
712
445
107
440
128
59
181
349
75
459

7,315

9,571

STATE ACCIDENT RECORDS— WISCONSIN

27

For 1924 the analysis is less extended, covering only the 4 indus­
tries which in 1920 had the highest fatalities, namely, logging (211),
the manufacture of lumber (42), construction (32), and coal mines
(24).
T a b l e 28.—N U M BER OF ACCIDEN TS IN WASHINGTON (CLOSED CASES), B Y INDUS­

TRIES, 1924

Fatal
Nonfatal
Total
accidents accidents accidents

Industry
Construction_______________________________________________________
Logging___ ____ ___________________________________________________
Mining (coal)_________ ________________ ______ _____ _________________
Sawmills___________________________________________________________
Miscellaneous_________________ _
__________
Total.

__

1,500
5,205
643
4,019
7,617

1,532
5,416
667
4,061
7,715

407

_

32
211
24
42
98

18,984

19,391

WEST VIRGINIA

Table 29 contains the 1924 accident experience of West Virginia.
Naturally coal mining is far in excess of any other industry both in
fatal (593) and nonfatal (12,152) cases. Other industries with large
numbers of fatalities are lumber (29), public service (25), construc­
tion (24), and metal and products (21).,
T a b l e 29.—NU M BER OF ACCIDENTS IN WEST VIRGIN IA, Y E A R EN DING JUNE 30,

1924, BY INDUSTRIES

i
| Fatal |Nonfatal
;
Total
accidents accidents j accidents

Industry
Chemicals and products___________ ___________ ____ __ ______________
Clay products.____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____ . . . . . . . . __ ___ . . . . . . . . . . ____
Construction______________________________ ______ ____ _____________
Food products________ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ______ ______________ ______
_
Metals and products_______ . . . ___________ ____ . . . . . . _____ . . . . . . _ __
Mines (coal)_________ ___ ___ _______________________________________
Mines (not, coai)________ _________________________________ __________
Paper and printing_____ . . . . . . . . . . . . __. . . . . . __________ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
_
Public service..._ ____ _____________________ ________________
___ ________________ _________________________________ ______
Textiles
Unclassified____________________________ ____ ______________________

Total.......................................................................................................

2
3
24
5
29
21
593

377
2,503
2,347
391
1,691
7,122
12,152

465
316
1,450
339

379
2,505
2,371
396
1,720
7,143
12,745
472

316

25
4
16

1,455

1,471

729

30,608

31,336

1,475

343

WISCONSIN

In 1920 Wisconsin reported separately only five industries, which
appear in Table 30. The fatalities in these are in order, wood in­
dustries 38, construction 30, metals and products 22, paper and
products 10, and mines and quarries 3.
The classification in 1922 to 1924 is more extended but does not
separate the fatal and nonfatal, but the figures are important because
they show so clearly the increase in number of accidents which
occurred between 1922 and 1923, the increase continuing in a lesser
degree into 1924.




28

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

The comment of the Wisconsin statistician on this increase is
significant: “ The increase in the number of cases in 1924 over the
number of cases in 1923 is by itself not an indication of a change in
the actual accident frequency rate for the industry. The employee
exposure factor for the two periods is lacking.” The essential char­
acter of this “ employee-exposure factor” to the rational understand­
ing of accident statistics can not be too often or too urgently asserted.
T a b l e 3<h— N U M BER OF A C C ID E N T S » IN WISCONSIN, 1020 TO 1924, B Y Y EA R S A N D

INDUSTRIES

1920: Accidcnts resulting

Total accidents

in—

Industry

Perma­ Tempo­
Death nent dis­ rary dis­
ability
ability

A g r ic u lt u r e ....................___ . . . . . . .
Chemicals..____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clay, glass, and stone___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction_________ . . . . . . __ . . . . __ _
Food products........
Leather and rubber___. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lumber and products__ . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___
................ .
Mercantile
Metals and products..................................
Mines (not coal) and quarries______ . . . . .
Paper and paper products!___ . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper and p r i n t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PuDlic servToe_____ ________ ___________
Textiles............. .
Wood i n d u s t r i e s ..... ........ ......... ....
U n c l a s s i f i e d . ........ ......... ........ ....
Total______ . . . . . ___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1920

1922

1923

271
212
170
2,517
1,144
550
2,865

275
263
233
2,993
1,256
791

30

174

1,510

1,714

22
3
10

.532
24

4,005

4,559
334

38

87

306

307

929

2,543

1,026

1,176
1,600
281

3,252
1,507

1924

400
209
266
3,734
1,450
596
4,584

1,528

2,372
438

2,447

1,361

1,183

515

1,208
1,813
216

2,104
296

258

7,921

2,682

3,800

3,549

18,441

16,705

20,941

22,766

2,887

2,049

> Compensable cases dosed.

The Wisconsin statistical organization has carried out a more
extended and elaborate study o f various accident problems than has
been attempted by any other State. Table 31 is a condensed pres­
entation of the data regarding accident causes for the six-year period
1915 to 1920 and for 1924. In the six-year period machinery was
much the most important cause of death (232 cases), vehicles coming
next (176). Among machines hoisting apparatus exceeds any three
other causes. The nature of the disclosure by time losses is indicated
by the showing for machinery and handling. Machinery has 21,205
cases of injury and handling has 28,364, while the average time loss in
machine accidents is 221 days per case and that in accidents due to
handling is 63 days per case.
The indications from the data for the year 1924 are not materially
different from those of the 5-year period except that falls of persons,
with 32 cases of fatality, leads machinery, witji 29.




STATE ACCIDENT RECORDS— WYOMING

29

T a b l e 31.—N U M BER OF COMPENSABLE ACCIDENTS AND TIM E LOST T H E R E B Y, IN

WISCONSIN, 1915 TO 1920 AND 1924, BY CAUSES

Accidents resulting in-

Accident cause

Death

Total acci­
Perma­
dents
nent dis­ Temporary
disability
ability

Total days lost

1915- 1924 1915- 1924 1916- 1924 1915- 1924 1915-1920
1920
1920
1920
1920
Machinery......... ............ .........
Engines and motors______
Hoisting apparatus.......... .
Leather working.................
Metal working- .................
Punch presses..............
Paper..................................
Textiles...............................
Transmission____________
Woodworking___________
Saws...........................
Unclassified........................
Hot substances, electricity, etc.
Falling objects...........................
Falls of persons.........................
Handling objects and tools___
Vehicles...................................
Unclassified_____ . _____ . ____

232 29 3,991
9
68
108
11 385
1 165
2
1 1,439
24
2 . . . . . 545
7
204
1.....
55
31
83
25
7 1,164
12
4 547
25
3 428
151
18 185
152 10 283
160 32 303
80
12 1,225
176 20 256
103 34 525

Total................................ 1,054

978 16,982
13 660
84 2,728
43
585
280 5,111
85 762
47 1,271
13 389
20 428
328 4,125
169 1,824
150 1,685
37 5,382
73 7,405
125 10,869
451 27,059
92 5,108
133 8,809

3,331 21,205
59 737
556 3,221
96 752
864 6*574
113 1,809
189 1,482
79 445
89 542
776 5,314
427 2,383
623 2,138
880 6,718
1,183 7,840
2,818 11,332
7,572 28,364
1,578 5,540
3,360 9,437

4,338
72
651
140
1,145
198
238
92
113
1,111
600
776
935
1,266
2,975
8,035
1,690
3,527

1924

Aver­
age
days
lost
per
case
19151920

4,691,400 912,463 221.24
118,068
13,190 160.20
1,105,672 148,237 343.27
122,342
34,604 162.69
1,106,139 200,970 168.26
329,358
62,055 251.61
225,843
58,375 152.39
80,795
13,007 181.36
318,566
42,312 587.76
1,053,719 272,431 198.29
522,735 133,839 219.36
560,256 129,337 262.05
1.279.182 175,842 223.71
1.423.182 145,122 181.53
1,695,767 365,071 149.64
1,781,827 507,995 62.82
1,524,010 252,719 275.09
1,402,689 423,944 148.64

155 6,768 1,889 81,614 20,722 89,436 22.76fill3.798.057 2,783,156 154.28
i

1

WYOMING

Coal mining in Wyoming, as wherever it is an important industry,
is a prolific source of casualty, there being 28 fatalities in 1920 and 55
in 1924. Oil and gas are next in order with 6 fatalities in 1920 and
21
in 1924. It is probable that the marked increase in fatalities in
1924 over 1920 is in considerable degree due to expansion of industry.
T a b l e 3 3 .— N UM BER OF ACCIDENTS IN W YOM ING, 1920 AND 1924, BY INDUSTRIES

Accidents resulting i n Industry

1920
Cement and products......................................
Clay, glass, and stone______________ _______
Construction________ ______ ______________
Food products__ —___ _____ _____ _________
Lumber and wood products_____. _________
Mercantile.........................................................
...................... .................
Metals and products
Mines, coal.................................. . ......... .........
Mines (not coal) and quarries.........................
Municipal.........................................................
Oil and gas........................................................
Printing..____ _______ _____ _____ _________
Public service___ _________ _________. . . . . . .
U n cla ssified .........._____________________
Total_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
_

2063°—27----- 3




Permanent
disability

Temporary
disability

1924

1920

1924

1920

2
1
1

21
8
4
4
3
64

23
2
1

Death

1
2
2
1
1
28
2

55
1

6

21
7

1
41
1
1
10

88

158

1
43

8
6
124
31
72

1920

444

17

106
2
18
32

21
248

4
74
20
13
13
8
467
6
1
153
3
15
42

113

618

1,556

819

43
26

2
51
12
9
8
4
875
4

1924

i oiai
accidents

2
577
23

1924
9
6
149
34
74

a
S

675
491

21
272
1,757

30

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

SUMMARY OF STATE REPORTS, 1920 AND 1924

In Tables 33 to 36 an effort has been made to compare the State
accident data, by principal classification groups and by individual
States, for the years 1920 and 1924. In those cases where 1924 data
were lacking tne latest available data have been used. As already
noted, some of the States make no accident reports, and very few
classify their data at all completely.
CLASSIFICATION BY INDUSTRIES

Table 33 gives for the years 1920 and 1924, respectively, the num­
ber of accidents for the States which classify their accidents according
to industry. An attempt has been made, with a fair degree of suc­
cess, to use a uniform classification.
The 1920 compilation records 597,215 accident cases and the 1924
compilation 696,369. The States covered, however, are not abso­
lutely the same. The 1920 compilation relates to 21 States, while the
1924 compilation covers only 20 States and includes the important
State of New York which was not included in 1920. Therefore, no
inference can be drawn that the increase in accident cases represents
an increasing hazard. On the whole, indeed, this table gives no
definite answer to the question, “ Is accident hazard increasing?”
Nor can an answer be expected until the factor of employee exposure
is more exactly known than is at present the case.
It is much to be desired that other compensation States should
classify their accident cases in accordance with the comparatively
simple classification here used, and particularly is it a matter of regret
that the important State of Ohio must be omitted in these compila­
tions because of the lack of such a classification.




T a b l e 3 3 .— N U M BE R OF ACCIDENTS IN SPECIFIED STATES IN 1920 AND 1924, i B Y INDUSTRIES

California
Industry

Ala­ Ark­
bama. ansas,
19222

1920

Idaho *

Jan. 1
to
1920 June 1920

Indiana

Kansas

1924

1920

1923

1920

1921

1920

1924

Unclassified____________
Total.

1920

1923

1920

8,313

5,274 2,443
477
229
563 1,160 4,977 3*549

3,190 4,637 2,452 2,112
454
427
506
696
'§,'579 1,982 2,636 3,355 2,274

9941 1,343 1,428
770
179
216
47 j
163 1,294 2,147

1,259

810
228
508 6,115 7,819
714
978 1,814 2,511 1,300 1,218 2,584 13,651 9,555 1,638
90* 5,96811,573
873
409
235
77
1691
422
224
184
196
206

118
1,040
2,115
113

8
886
207

2,300
1,058
1,057

143

1/

965 2,166 1,176 1,272
13,881 12,807 17,101 8,683
13,249 14,599 4,222 4,851
65 ‘4,721 3*789 1,210 2,875
437
168
477
698
231
32
550
31
7,181 3,452

419
447
9,132
4,288

305
1,088
554

2
137
273
130 17,753 14,938

327
618
609
705
825
248
791 2,671 3,277 4,843

9C0 1,5

103,

192

6
19
196
339
88
100
586
781
72
631
841
444
490
345
406
431
79
85
41
335
316
335
878 4,145 • 2,494 2,541 5,032 6,518

1,242 1,338
34
1,944 2,353

5,769 1,420 70,405 44,397 5,086 11,961 50,585 61,81042,994 34,396

45
138
285
38

1922

19151920

1920

98
128
267
51
1,306 2,136

18

284 1,436 2,079 2,014 1,611 1,308 1,211
134
210 262 4,664 3,631
57
102 865 2,174 2,294 1,471 1,050 1,747

54

1

315
611 3,135
1,969
"841 18,710
109

130

769
58

576

102

175

330
154
136
5,036 9,333 2,973 3,156

» Where 1924 data were cot available, the latest available data are given.
* Compensable eases.




1 2 4 1924 4
90

309!

112
348

211
167
2,790 1,605 5,009

168 2,041 2,072
208
159
718
762
204
530 1,731 8,322 3,535

246
133

265
130

131

115
130 11,246 10.054
126
64
761 1,617 7,563 14,704 1,713 2,584

7
955

REPORTS

Textiles_________________

1924

STATE

Oil and gas.................... .
Paper and products.........
Printing and publishing.
Public service...................
Shipbuilding................. -

1920

O
P

Mercantile___________ ___ _
_
Metals and metal products___
Mines, coal...............................
Mines (not coal) and quarries.
Municipal.................................

120

Minnesota4

189
281
292
148
91
1,104
156
1* 8
916 1,457 1,614
581
746
135
196
713 1,724 3,713 5,251 2,731 3,056

62
52
7
340

4,286
2,018
735
233
8,327

chusetts

SUMMARY

Food products (including beverages)
Leather and rubber.......................
Lumber and its remanufacture...
Lumber: Logging..........................
Lumber: Logging railways...........

2

Maryland

Mon­
tana, Neva*
da,

30,
1924 s

Agriculture..................
Chemicals....................
Clay, glass, and stone.
Clothing......................
Construction............... .

Kentucky

73

10,974 16,155 28,133 6,694 13,919 65,488 64,890 12,73810,657 31,314 1,176

>Tabulatable accidents.
* Compensation claims allowed.

• Claims filed.
* Indudes shipbuilding.

09

T a b l e 3 3 . — N U M B E R OF ACC ID E N TS IN SPECIFIED STATES IN 1020 AN D 1924, BY INDUSTRIES-Continued

New Jersey
Industry

Ne­ Newvada, Hamp1924 shire,
1924

Ore­
gon,
1920

1920

41

365

Total..........................................

1,377

! 2,817

419 1,585
91 1,027
10,973
379

7,821 22,187
1
113
168
746 1,427

387jj 277 1,685 1,475
891: 8,982 16,932 6,496 1,843 4,368

74;
20;
13!!
1
1
1
13:
8
467
6
1

1920 « 1924 •
com­ com­
pila­ pila­
tion
tion

5,354 4,100
9,390 10,034
6 12,443 17,696
2,818 6,522
149 54,337 84,175
34 26,881 27,827
9,477 9,624
74 39,979 38,602
5*416
17,245 26,938
2 129,629 120,578
675 77,372 104,203
24 30,360 20,947
2,272 3,157

153;
418 2,369 2,504
151 28,916 18,272
1,062
120 2,344
666| 5,336

2,709
6,525

40
137

306
183
442

641
475 2,943

128
59
181
349

316 1,026 1,183
1,475

2,049

75
343
258
459 *7,'715 1,471 7,921 3,549

2,461 28,841 48,241 58,078 22,714 46,517 13,389|l74,979 177,539 2,724 17,189 9,571 19,391 31,336 18,441 22,766

491 9,216 24,919
5,794 7,685
3i
5,944 6,256
1|
5
21 59,682 54,024
8,516
933
i----I
15,754 18,218
4 | 281 68,752 104,515
2
|

819| 1,757 597,215 696,369
i

* Compensable cases.
« Compensation claims allowed.
i Compensable cases dosed.
•Indudes also data for Montana for 1915 to 1920 and for South Dakota, Tennessee, and Washington for 1921.
•Includes also data for Indiana for 1921, for Alabama and Minnesota for 1922, for Illinois, Massachusetts, and New York for 1923, and for California for first six months of 1924.




STATES

Textiles___________ . . . _ ______ . . . .
_
Unclassified.________ _____ '_______

86
65

56
1,526
712
7 , i « 4,559 2,447
445 ""667 12,745
334
515
107
472
440

4

1924

UNITED

31

400
375
22
379
209
504
34
2,505
266
67!
717 1,532 2,371 1,714 3,734
501 1,366
i
594
1,450
630 1,481
396
295
596
47 3,005 5,193 4,061 1,720 2,887 4,584
2,322 5,416

1920

102

56
4,750 1,348 1,356
j 3,854 4,482
59 1,229
91! 7.269 9,307 9,110 1,852 2,103 i .o d 49.793 47,488;
45 2,885!
!
2 | 47,787 54,449:
4
1,256
1,112 1,216
237! 1.589 2.
! 688 211
84
446 618 3,934 6,360
1 1.173 2.57fi:_____
311
14
20

1924

Total

I
N

940

Wisconsin7 Wyoming *

West
Vir­
ginia,
1924 1924 1920

ACCIDENTS

Oil and gas________ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper and products____________ . . . .
Printing and publishing___________
Public service._________. . . . . . . . . _
_
Shipbuilding........................................

1924

353
135
1,755 1,982 1,081
28 2,7)33 2,623
420i 1.019! 1.003
44
617 959
64 5,736 5,999
95; 1,324! 1,970
15
18
22 1,211 1,440
L
107 5.9&&11. 559 M 230 *1,620 5,039 1,798 12,920 16,260
1
j
26
397 1,823 3,029
613 589
772 3,795 4,375
1
91
598
29 1,930 1,452
280 1,679
408
995 2,699 1,095
725 4,191 3,593 4,216
2,189
271
9 |____ _

Food products_____________ _____ _
Leather and rubber...................... ......
Lumber and its remanufacture_____
Lumber: Logging. _______ _________
Lumber: Logging,railways . . . . . . . . .
Mercantile........... ........................ . . . .
Metals and metal products_________
Mines, coal......................... ................
Mines (not coal) and quarries.. . . . . .
Municipal_____________________ . . .

New
York,
1924 19232 1920

South Tenn­
Da­
kota, essee,
1924 1921 1921 1921

INDUSTRIAL

Agriculture____ ___________________
Chemicals________________________
Clay, glass, and stone______________
Clothing_________________________
Construction..____________ ____ __

1920

Washington

Pennsylvania

Oklahoma

SUMMARY OF STATE REPORTS

33

CAUSE OF INJURY

In the 1920 compilation there were 18 States whose accidents were
recorded according to a cause classification. The number of the
accidents so classified was 714,023.
For 1924 such a classification could be made for 17 States and
four others were available for the years 1922 and 1923. The total
accident cases for 1924 so classified are 647,495 and for 1922 and
1923 are 190,547, making a grand total of 838,042 for the later
period.
The handling of tools and objects gives rise to the greatest number
of accidents shown in Table 34, there being a total of 472,805 cases
in the two periods. Machinery comes next, with a total of 294,951.
In this table hoisting apparatus is considered as a form of machinery.
Not giving cranes and other hoisting and carrying apparatus a
separate classification tends to obscure the continued importance of
machinery as a cause of accident. If it were possible to show these
cases on a severity basis the high importance of machinery as an
industrial hazard would be still more strikingly evident.
TABLE 34.—NU M BE R OP ACCIDENTS IN TH E SPECIFIED STATES, 1920 AND 1924, B Y

CAUSE OF INJURY

Accidents due to specified cause
State

Han­
Hot
Ma­
sub­ Falling Falls of dling Vehi­ Unclas­ Total
chinery stances objects persons tools or cles
sified
objccts

1920
California.........
Idaho»_______
Illinois K______
Indiana_______
Kentucky *----Massachusetts.
Minnesota1
—
New Jersey.8. . .
North Dakota..
Ohio.................
Oregon..............
Pennsylvania..
Tennessee4___
Vermont..........
Washington
Wisconsin_____
Wyoming *
.......
T o ta l....
i Compensation claims allowed.
* Compensable cases only.
* Data for year ending June 30,1921.
* Data for 1921.




8,410
495
7,240
1,101
1,232
1,036
15,307
2,475
2,986
173
79,043
2,079
21,935
675
971
1,615
3,986
91

4,283
9,465
5,688
752
116 1,471
5,799
2,928 8,204
6,187
1,856
5,384
625
842 3,820
395
1,150
1,087
3,029
9,176
2,412
1,769
603
1,088
1,014
2,424
M 46
74
114
148
8,417
12,442
6,404
431
1,335
1,888
8,721 22,378 20,187
1,302
2,877
3,009
200 2,057
669
278
1,865
1,588
1,063
986
1,826
53
273
95

151,750 39,553

74,832

6)867 11,247
24,445
70,405
588
4,957
1,313
222
9,455
50,585
12,276 4,683
9,304
8,792
1,772
34,396
3,903
5,733
16,155
6,694
1,284 ’ “"588" 1,154
4,149
7,484
65,488
23,931
1,170 : 12,738
1,351
4,282
4,609 . 28,036
2,905
7,652
147
177 1 1,331
498
4,391 13,722 182,970
58,551
13,389
4,755
769
1,232
65,398 18,369 17,991 174,979
465 6,195
17,189
2,666
8,080
2,613
1,544
26
843
9.571
2,824
558
577 2,565
16,248
5,245
70
812
74
156

74,308 232,926

47,913

92,741

714,023

34

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

T a b l e 34*—N UM BER OF ACCIDEN TS IN THE SPECIFIED STATES, 1920 AND 1924, BY

CAUSE OF INJURY—Continued

Accidents due to specified cause
State

Han­
Hot
Ma­
sub­ Falling Falls of dling
chinery stances objects persons tools or
objects

1924
Alabama8 ...........................................
.
Arizona •....................................... ......
California K.........................................
Illinois»...............................................
Kansas.................................................
Kentucky............................................
Maryland 8..........................................
Massachusetts *_..................................
Minnesota...........................................
New Hampshire..................................
New Jersey..........................................
New York 1 ........................................
0
North Dakota1...................................
1
Ohio » ..................................................
Oklahoma............................................
Pennsylvania......................................
Tennessee.............................................
Utah.....................................................
Vermont M
..........................................
West Virginia»....................................
Wisconsin -m.........................................

764
88
7,216
5, T
.98
1.292
(32
2,147
11, sot>
1,015
fi04
8.708
11,28(1
tW

57.744
1, .340
22. ir>
i
2,077
1,510
1,379
1,408
4,338

Total.......................................... 143,201
1

792
52
3,170
3,652
650
671
647
2,926
649
55
1.393
2,646
94
8,794
1,852
7.720
1,066
1,001
339
1,985
1,018

Vehi­ Unclas­ Total
cles
sified

531
115
4,701
14.775
2,572
3,790
4,554
8,936
2,057
974
8,595
7,010
322
16,680
25,393
18,902
5,772
1,331
1,731
10,655
3,082

5,768
927
44,397
61,810
10,974
28, m
13,919
64,890
15,681
2,461
48,218
58,078
1,809
162,044
46,517
177,539
21,364
14,200
10,507
26,039
22,766

79,284 143,168

838,012

894
427
1,452
909
355
77
86
154
3,259
5,098
5,898 15,057
11,940
3,791
7,508 14,486
727
893 3,272
1,568
1.567
7,631
1,274
13,068
1,191
1,551
1,215
2,614
9,219 24,304
3,651
4,548
1,184
2,778
1,324
5,774
92
260
404
72
11,413
2,750
3,096 12,263
3,881
9,217 18,785
4,653
137
630
215
213
9,838
8,221 54,141
6,626
6,762
2,577
ft. 198 2,395
22,613 17,614 53,033 34,480
5,317
3,099
3,070
963
4,353
2,753
1,856
1,396
799 3,258
3,001
1,433
3,994
6,564
1,628 I 2,075 " 8,035" 1,0»0

41,172 111, 133

80.305 239,879

i Compensation claims allowed.
* Data for 1922—compensable oases only.
* Data for mines only.
7Data for first six months of 1924.
* Data for 1923—compensable cases.
* Compensation claims filed—data does not include 13 fatal cases.
1 Data for 1923—compensable cases only.
0
1 Compensation claims filed.
1
» Data does not include self-insured.
u Data does not include 43 fatal cases>
Compensable cases closed.

NATURE OF INJURY

In the 1920 compilation 12 States were found to have classified
their accidents by the nature of the injury. For 1924, 6 States had
such a record and for 1923 such classified data were available for
3 States.
The figures in the groups “ Bruises” and “ Cuts, lacerations and
punctures,” taken together, are much in excess of those in all others.
Several States do not indicate the nature of the injury in fatal
cases. There seems to be no good reason for this omission.




SUMMARY OF STATE REPORTS

35

T able 35 .—N U M BER OF ACCIDENTS IN SPECIFIED STATES, 1920 AND 1924, B Y NATURE
OF INJURY

Accidents, classified by nature of Injury
Cuts,
lacera­
IBruises tions,
and
punc­
tures

State
Ampu­ phyxi-i
tations atiGns

Frac­
tures

Sprains i
and . Unclasdisloca-j silled Total
tions !

i

1020
California......... .
Idaho »...............
Illinois *............ .
Indiana..............
Kentucky 1
____
Maryland 1
____
Massachusetts..,
Minnesota_____
Montana............
Pennsylvania__
Tennessee *
____
Wyoming»........ .
Total.

1,286
24
2.156
622
256

83
0

1,538
313

1,566
185
8,338

145 ; 17,987
130 1,280
043 ; 12,344
8.765
477 2,153
536
1,309
—“ I -,147 16,907
26
625 3,773
1.560
287 I 11,
7i; 128
........ I 1 233 ! 4,076
,
so: 4412

20,232
2,144
16,287
6,351
3,275
1,075
21,819
3,446
1,586
51,006
5,837

12,549
624
7,204
3,980
1 9 1,194
,1 1
876
.655
4,357 11,305
2,288
1,822
429
465
14,816 20.682
003
1,440
184 !
84

7,566
261
3,674
9,997
1,044
1,851
8,415
445
752
3,025
3,515
52

70,403
5,129
50,585
34,396
9,590
6,694
65,488
12,738
4,914
174,979
17,189
812

333 i 26,008 jl41,694 133,958

42,045 ! 61,968

38,597

452,919

1,813
4,810
626
1,545
7,137
373
2,446
1,310
1,327

44,397
61,810
28,133

21,387

316,711

(»)

7,641
657
5,877
2,790

1024
California
Illinois»___
Kentucky.
Maryland 8
Minnesota*_
_
New York 1~_
0
___
Vermont M
"Washington
Total...

1,052
2,282
124
387
1,430
153

20

‘ 107“

539
5,967

127

2,403
3,359
592
770
2,846
663
3,044
351
419

I 11,140
i 18.749
! 18,638
i 3,767
, 15,959
j 5,172
i»16,963
i 4,348
5,667

14,456 ;100,403

j 13,328
5,713
I 15,272
7,614
i 6,242
506
1,188
! 4,016
19,970 4,738
4.284
2.416
<22,427 “ 13,193
J,277 f
3.170
5,535
94,244

8,948
9,724
1,405

2
,122

12,810
<2,513
"M

39,918 ; 40,209

15,681
58,078
10,507
19,391

i Compensation claims allowed.
* Compensable cases.
* Data for 1921.
4 Including cuts, lacerations, and puncturos.
» Included under “ Bruises.”
* Data for first 6 months of 1024—tabular-able cases.
i Data for 1923.
* Data does not include 95 fatal cases.
* Closed cases.
i®Data for 1923—compensated case3.
ii Includes sprains.
i* Includes amputations and dislocations.
» Data does not include 43 fatal cases.

LOCATION OP INJURY

Table 36 records the accident experience of certain States in the
matter of location of injury. The 1920 compilation covered 11 States
and 460,534 cases and the 1924 compilation 10 States with 341,099
cases.
The location of injury has no great significance from an accidentprevention standpoint except as regards eye injuries. It can not, of
course, be assumed that because there are instances where the adop­
tion of protective measure has been followed by the reduction of eye
injuries to zero the same result can always be secured. It must,
however, be strongly suspected that the major portion of the 48,502
injuries to the eyes recorded in this table were needless. It may also
be urged that some progress has been made when it is noted that the
earlier compilation records 29,663 cases and the later 18,839. If this
change represents, as it very well may, a larger use of protective de­
vices, there is hope that eye injuries may ultimately cease altogether.



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

36

As might be anticipated, the upper extremities are most often
damaged, there being shown a total of 333,195 such cases. It is quite
certain that an examination of these cases from the standpoint of
severity would show other locations with greater severity rates.
T a b l e 3 6 . — N U M BE R OF ACCIDENTS IN SPECIFIED STATES, 1920 A ND 1924, BY LOCA­

TION OF INJURY

Accidents, classified by location of injury
State

Head,
face, and
neck

1920
California....................................
Idaho1........................................
Illinois3......................................
Indiana *.....................................
Kentucky....... ............... ..........
Maryland1
.................................
Massachusetts............................
Minnesota...................................
Oklahoma..................................
Pennsylvania..............................
Wyoming1.................................
Total................................. i
1924
Arizona.......................................
California4.................................
Idaho...........................................
Illinois8......................................
Kentucky...................................
Maryland...................................
Massachusetts •
..........................
New York...................................
Oklahoma...................................
Vermont •...................................
Total................................. j
i Compensable cases.
* Compensation claims allowed.

Eyes

Trunk

Upper ex­ Lower ex­ Unclassi­
tremities tremities
fied

Total

29,469
1,970
22,752
13,498
7,113
2,603
31,667
5,681
9,071
64,862
254

19,741
1,545
14,926
9,783
4,352
2,070
17,091
3,551
5,202
52,931
307

2,031
80

240
3,446
434
3,084
11,597
13

9,937
725
7,401
4,103
2,949
557
8,570
2,487
2,747
30,235
102

34

70,405
5,136
50,585
84,396
16,587
6*694
65,488
12,738
22,714
174,979
812

29,663

69,813

188,940

131,499

6,513

460,534

88
61
2,659
2,345
8il
996
2,623
3,708
2,570
1,166
552
490
6,284
2,461 ” ’ ’ i,’ 5i9‘
6,109
2,967
698
1,812

117
6,980
1,802
9,717
3,352
2,007
11,933
8,791
4,435
935

365
18,086
4,574
27,918
13,213
6,088
29,187
27,665
12,200
4,959

18,839

50,069

144,255

4,023
423
3.007
2,390
2,173
394
3,645
527
2.008
15,354
102
34,10G

21,030

5,204
393
2,439
2,813

3 Data for 1921.

1,809
830
1,069
58
602

260
46
12,551
1,776
3,467
311
17,844
7,796 .......... 36"
4,196
586
17,486
2,322
15,320
8,043
12,763
2,103
89,066

17,840

887
44,397
11,961
61,810
28,133
13,919
64,890
58,078
46*517
30,507
341,099

* Data for 1923.

4 Data for first 6 months of 1924. * Data does not include fatal cases.

STEAM RAILWAYS

The Interstate Commerce Commission publishes at regular
intervals accident bulletins giving very detailed information regard­
ing the accident experience of American steam railways. The data
in the tables which follow are derived from these bulletins.
Table 37 presents summary figures showing the number killed and
injured during the period from 1888 to 1924. For no other Ameri­
can industry has accident experience been recorded for so long a
time with equal completeness.
The greatly lessened hazard is shown very conclusively by the
figures for passenger casualty. The peak of passenger fatality was
in 1907 when 610 were killed. The high year for passenger injuries
was 1913 with 15,130 cases. From this point there has been an
irregular decline until 1924, when 153 passengers were killed and
6,023 injured.
The data for employees show the peak of fatality (4,534) also in
1907, the peak of injury (176,923) being in 1916. By 1924 fatalities
had declined to 1,479 and injuries to 124,655.




37

STEAM RAILWAYS

The peak for “ other persons” was in 1913, with 6,899 killed and
13,761 injured.
If the data for recent years could be put on a rate basis the decline
in casualty would be much more striking.
T a b l e 37 .—N U M BER OF PASSENGERS, EM PLOYEES, AND OTHER PERSONS KILLE D

OR INJURED IN REPORTABLE STEAM RA ILW A Y ACCIDENTS OF ALL KINDS IN
THE UNITED STATES, 1888 TO 1924, B Y YEARS i
Passengers

Employees

Other persons

Total

Year ending—
Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured
June 30,1888..................................
June 30, 1889..................................
Juno 30,1890..................................
June 30,1891..................................
June 30,1892..................................
June 30,1893..................................
June 30,1894..................................
June 30,1895..................................
June 30, 1896................................ .
June 30,1897................... ..............
June 30,1898......... .......................
June 30,1899............ .....................
June 30, 1900..................................
June 30,1901.............. ..................
June 30,1902..................................
June 30,1903..................................
Juno 30,1904___ _____ ..._ . . . . . .
_
June 30,1905..................................
June 30, 1906..................................
Juno 30, 1907..................................
June 30,1908..................................
June 30,1909..................................
June 30,1910.................................
June 30,1911..................................
June 30,1912................... .............
June 30,1913.................................
June 30,1914..................................
June 30,1915..................................
June 30,1916..................................
Dec. 31,1916..................................
Dec. 31,1917..................................
Dec. 31,1918..................................
Dec. 31,1919..................................
Dec. 31,1920..................................
Dec. 31,1921..................................
Dcc. 31,1922..................................
Dec. 31, 1923..................................
Dec. 31, 1924..................................

315
310
286
293
276
299
324
170
181
222
221
239
249
282
345
355
441
537
359
610
381
253
324
299
283
350
232
199
239
246
301
471
273
229
205
200
143
153

2,138
2,146
2,425
2,972
3,227
3,229
3,034
2,375
2,873
2,795
2,945
3,442
4,128
4,988
6,683
8,231
9,111
10,457
10,764
13,041
11,556
10,311
12,451
12,042
14,938
15,130
13,887
10,914
7,488
7,152
7,582
7,316
7,456
7,591
5,584
6 153
*
6,463
6*023

2,070
1,972
2,451
2,660
2,554
2,727
1,823
1,811
1,861
1,693
1,958
2,210
2,550
2,675
2,969
3,606
3,632
3,361
3,929
4,534
3,405
2,610
3,382
3,602
3,635
3,716
.3,259
2,152
2,687
2,941
3,199
3,419
2,138
2,578
1,446
1,648
1,940
1,479

20,148
20,028
22,396
26,140
28,267
31,729
23,422
25,696
29,969
27,667
31,761
34,923
39,643
41,142
50,524
60,481
67,067
66,833
76,701
87,644
82,487
75,006
95,671
126,039
142,442
171,417
165,212
138,092
160,663
176,923
174,247
156,013
131,018
149,414
104,530
116*757
151,960
124,655

2,897
3,541
3,598
4,076
4,217
4,320
4,300
4,155
4,406
4,522
4,680
4,674
5,066
5,498
5,274
5,879
5*973
5.805
6,330
6,695
6,402
5,859
5,976
6,495
6,667
6,899
6*811
6,270
6,438
6,814
6,587
5,396
4,567
4,151
4,345
4,477
5,302
4,985

Killed Injured

3,602
5,282
4,135
6,823
4,206
6,335
4,769
7,029
5,158
7,147
5,435
7,346
5,433
6*447
5,677
6,136
5,845
6,448
6,269
6,437
6*859
6,176
6,255
7,123
6*549 7,865
7,209
8,455
7,455
8,588
9,840
7,841
7,977 10,046
9,703
8,718
10,241 10,618
10,331 1 11,839
i
10,187 ! 10,188
10,309
8*722
11,385 9,682
12,078 10,398
12,158 10,585
13,761 10,964
13,563 10,302
8,621
13,034
12,224 9,364
12,647 10,001
12,976 10,087
11,246 9,286
10,579
6,978
11,304
6,958
10,571
5,996
6,325
11,961
13,289
7,385
13,061
6,617

25,888
26,309
29,027
33,881
36,652
40,393
31,889
33,748
38,687
36,731
40,882
44,620
50,320
53,339
64,662
76,553
81,155
86,008
97,706
111,016
104,230
95,626
119,507
150,159
169,538
200,308
192,662
162,040
180,375
196,722
194,805
174,575
149,053
168,309
120,685
134,871
171,712
143,739

1 Figures for years 1911 to 1915 include industrial and other nontrain accidents to employees only; and
for years 1908 to 1910 do not cover switching and terminal roads; otherwise, the statement covers all reportable accidents.

Table 38 shows for the years 1917 to 1924 a summary of (rain and
train service accidents for various classes of persons.




T a b l e 3 8 . — ACCIDEN TS ON STEAM R A ILW A YS OF ALL CLASSES IN THE UNITED STATES, 1917 TO 1924, BY YEARS A N D CLASSES OF PERSONS

INJURED

1917

1919

1918

1921

1920

1922

1924

1923

Class
Silled Injured Sailed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured

133
2,420

193
2,465

89
2,077

72
2,409

123

2,179

2,948

73
2,357

139
2,705

105
2,674

195
2,852

90
2,466

170
2,683

4,243

3,829

3,255

2,805

2,553

2,658

2,166

2,368

% 481

3,071

2,430

2,844

2,779

3,047

2,556

2,853

Employees on duty:
Trainmen...................... .......................... 1,492
Other employees................................... . 1,124
Employees not on duty........................... ......
m
Passengers................................... ............ .....
301
42
Persons carried under contract.....................
Other nontrespassers........................... ......... 2,200

47,887
4,349
544
7,582
762

1,606
1,153
169
471
48
1,995

42,944
4,017
595
7,316
760
5,701

984
709
66
273
28
1,882

32,844
3,436
321
7,456
691
5,195

1,265
842
91
229
35
1,867

42,840
4,080
314
7,591
865
5,728

658
438
41
205
21
1,743

25,968
2,556
223
5,584
560
5,362

719
522
57
200
25
1,898

29,311
2,880
243
6,153
651
5,907

937
625
82
138
21
2,339

36,195
3,281
258
5*847
674
7,162

672
520
54
149
20
2,244

29,224
2,950
227
5,354
557
7,206

Total non trespassers.............. .............. 5,324

67,141

5,442

61,339

3,942

49,943

4,329

61,418

3,106

40,253

3,421

45,145

4,143

53,417

3,669

45,518

Grand total______ _________________ 9,567 j 70,970

8,697

64,144

6,495

52,601

6,495

63,786

5,587

43,324

5*851

47,989

6,922

56,464

6,215

48,371

Total trespassers........................

189

NONTRESPASSERS

5,987

Nontrain accidents

418
102

121,467
2,308

491
98

108,457
1,974

379
104

94,417
2,035

380
83

102,180
2,343

309
100

75,783 !
1,578 j

359
115

84,763
2,119

381
82

112,944
2,304

297
105

92,918
2,450

Total_____________________________

520

123,835

589

110,431

483

96,452

463

104,523

409

77,361

474

86,882

463

115,248

402

95,368




STATES

I

Employees not concerned with operation
of trains.......................................... ............
Other persons.................................................

UNITED

98
2,707

I
N

74
3,181

ACCIDENTS

207
3,622

149
Employees......................................................
Other persons................................................ 4,094

INDUSTRIAL

Train and train service accident*
TRESPASSERS

STEAM RAILWAYS

39

CASUALTIES TO TRAINMEN ON CLASS I RAILROADS,4 1916 TO 1924

Table 39 is drawn from Accident Bulletin No. 93 of the Interstate
Commerce Commission (p. 112). The table has been rearranged to
permit comparisons which are somewhat difficult to make in the
original form. The rates have also been recalculated on the basis of
1,000,000 hours’ exposure rather than of 1,000 men employed. This
renders them fairly comparable with rates computed for other
industries. It is an important step toward general comparability
that the Interstate Commerce Commission has in recent years
required exposure to be reported in terms of man-hours.
The table is of particular interest in view of recent discussion
of the question “ Are accidents increasing?” In the course of such
discussion it has become quite evident that our accident statistics
are as yet neither sufficiently extended nor sufficiently precise to
make possible a general answer to this question. There is a strong
tendency to draw conclusions from current experiences, and if the
present year shows higher rates or greater cost than the preceding
year to suspect that this is an indication of a general tendency.
The showing of the railway accident statistics is accordingly
important because they have been kept long enough and are of such
a degree of accuracy as to justify regarding their indications as de­
pendable. They afford an opportunity for testing the immediate
impression by the trend disclosed by a longer interval.
In this case, as always, the really informative figures are those of
rates for fatality and for injury. If the number of trainmen, of
fatalities, and of injuries be considered separately it will be difficult,
if not impossible, to see clearly wliat the figures indicate. It is only
when it is possible to unite the exposure with the number of cases or
with the loss of time expressed in days and so to produce frequency
or severity rates that- the significance becomes evident. In this
railway group it is not possible to determine severit3r rates.
The following observations regarding accident frequency on the
railroads are suggested by inspection of the tables:
1. There was a marked drop from 1916 to 1924, this downward
tendency being evident in each of the occupational groups. The
fatality frequency for all trainmen declined 49 per cent and the
injury frequency 40 per cent.
2. There are two years during the period— 1920 and 1923—in
which there was a decided upward tendency as compared with the
preceding years. For all trainmen fatalities rose 19 per cent from
1919 to 1920 and 14 per cent from 1922 to 1923. Rates for injury
rose 23 per cent from 1919 to 1920 and 9 per cent from 1922 to 1923.
3. As a rule there was a drop from 1916 to 1920 and a further drop
from 1920 to 1923.
4. In fatalities the lowest rates are found in 1924, while the lowest
year in injuries is 1921.
These figures are quite conclusive that whatever may be true of
other industries, American railways have maintained a successful
fight against conditions which tend toward increased accident rates.
4 Class I roads are those roads whose annual operating revenues are above $1,000,000.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

40

T able 39.—N U M BER OF T R AIN M E N IN SERVICE ON CLASS I RAILROADS, N U M BE R OF
FATALITIES AND OF INJURIES A N D FREQUENCY RATES (PER 1,000,000 HOURS'
EXPOSURE) FOR FATALITIES AND INJURIES AMONG TR A IN M E N , 1916 TO 1924, BY
YEARS A N D OCCUPATIONS
NUMBER OF TRAINMEN IN SERVICE
Occupation

1916

1917

Yard service:
Engineers........ ................
Firemen..........................
Conductors......................
Brakemen........................

15,878
16, ISO
15,362
40,175

18,933
19,510
18,703
48,451

1918

'

j 1920

1919

21,310
21,97V
20,823
53,790

J9, 025
20,031
19,325
49,303

‘ 21,363
! 21,549
1 20,236
: 50,799

Total............................

87,605 I0‘> M3 j117,902 108,284 ! ll 3 ,947
,

Rood freight service:
Engineers........................
Firemen...........................
Conductors......................
Brakemen.......................

i
| 33,594
35,756
27,297
67,127

31,675
33,637
23,430
63,285

34,155
36,828
27,152
67,818

: 34,990
| 38,102
! 27,679
i 69,048

1922

16,929
17,343
16,745
42,721

18,703
19,249
18,639
46,953

1924

1923

!

!
!
;
i
.

1921

30,907
32,938
25,181
61,989

22,142
22,664
22,002
55,301 |

20,593
21,106
20,545
51,775

93,738 103,544 122,109 ; 114,019
28,317
30,317
22,598
50,620

29,372
31,507
23,254
57,746

34,137
36,504
26,901
65,750

31,015
33.346
24,864
60,539

Total............................ 154,027 165,953 !169,819 151,015 ;163,774 137,852 1
141,879 163,292

149,764

Road passenger service:
Engineers........................
Firemen...........................
Conductors......................
Brakemen........................
Baggagemen....................

12,924

13,297

12,709

12,442

13,105
10,655
14,854
5,524

12,419
10,444
14,423
5,371

12,112
10,382
14,904
5,442

12,630
10,788
15,849
5,661

12,768
10,546
15,315
5,751

57,435

13,429

55,366

55,282

57,858

57,304

12,930

12,710

12,977
12,674
11,730
14,369
5,846

13,042

12,491
11,380
14,350
5,729

12,754
11,756
14,558
5,871

56,660

57,981

57,596

All trainmen................ ,299,243 328,991 ;343,087 314,581 335,579 288,894 302,083 343,382

321,379

13,131
10,633
14,800
5,618

FATALITIES AMONG TRAINMEN
Number
Yard service:
Engineers........................
Firemen...........................
Conductors.....................
Brakemen........................

11
22
71
341

16
23
78
401

11
27
73
397

15
14
50
235

9
18
67
363

11
7
39
169

12
5
43
202

12
17
59
263

7
5
45
195

Total............................

445

518

508

314

457

226

262

351

252

Road freight service:
Engineers........................
Firemen...........................
Conductors......................
Brakemen........................

70
107
72
432

72
122
88
478

84
132
104
527

66
70
63
310.

63
84
62
396

32
36
48
186

46
44
37
201

55
59
60
262

37
43
47
168

Total............................

681

760

847

509

605

302

328

436 |

295

Road passenger service:
Engineers........................
Firemen..........................
Conductors......................
Brakemen.......................
Baggagemen....................

45
52
6
8
2

56
49
5
18
8

59
50
11
25
5

50
51
6
17

69
52
6
16
4

37
36
9
10
2

40
39
3
9
6

44
45
7
10
3

32
31
4
13
1

Total............................

113

136

All trainmen................

1,239

1,414




'

150 |
1,505

4

128

147

94

97

109

81

951

1,209

622

687

896

628

STEAM RAILWAYS

41

T able 39.—N U M BER OF T R A IN M E N IN SERVICE ON CLASS I RAILROADS, N U M BER OF
FATALITIES AND OF INJURIES AND FREQUENCY RATES (PER 1,000,000 HOURS'
EXPOSURES FOR FATALITIES AND INJURIES AM ONG TR AIN M E N , 1916 TO 1924, B Y
YEARS AN D OCCUPATIONS-Continued
FATALITIES AMONG TRAINMEN—Continued
Occupation

1916

1918

1917

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

Frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours' exposure)
Yard service:
Engineers........................
Firemen...........................
Conductors......................
Brakemon.......................

0.23
.45
l..r 4
>
2.83

0.28
.39
1.39
2.76

Total............................

1.69

1.64

1.1*
2.46

0.25
.23
.86
1.59

0.14
.28
1.10
2.38

0.22
.13
.78
1.32

0.21
.09
.77
1.43

0.18
.25
.89
1.59

0.11
.08
.73
1.26

1.44

.97

1.34

.SO

.84

.96

.74

.80
1.15
1.25
2.54

.71
.71
.83
1.67

.63
.78
.76
1.97

.38
.40
.71
1.09

.52
.47
.53
1.16

.54
.54
.74
1.83

.40
.43
.63
.93

0.17

Road freight service:
Engineers........................
Firemen...........................
Conductors......................
Brakemcn........................

.74
1.06
.94
2.28

.70
1.10
1.08
2.35

Total............................

1.47

1.53

1.06

1.12

1.23

.73

.77

.89

.66

Road passenger service:
Engineers........................
Firemen...........................
Conductors......................
Brakemen....... ................
Baggagemen....................

1.12
1.32
.19
.18
.12

1.40
1.25
.16
.40
.48

1.55
1.34
. 35
.58
.31

1.34
1.40
.19
.38
.25

1.78
1.37
.19
.34
.24

.95
.94
.28
.22
.12

1.05
1.04
.o&
.21
.35

1.12
1.18
.20
.23
.17

.82
.82
.11
.30
.06

Total............................
All trainmen...........

i

.65

.79

.90

.77

.85

.55

.57

.63

.47

1.38

1.43

1.46

1.01

1.20

.72

.76

.87

.66

INJURIES AMONG TRAINMEN
Number
Yard service:
Engineers........................ 1,078
Firemen........................... 1,644
Conductors...................... 1,993
Brakemen........................ 12,209

1,032
1,905
1,815
12,004

908
1,708
1,440
10,472

680
1,171
1,249
8,296

1,023
1,691
1,607
11,666

546
854
1,094
6,711

746
1,082
1,414
7,562

835
1,561
1,630
10,223

727
1,104
1,498
8,328

Total............................. 16,924

16,756

14,528

11,396

15,987

9,205

10,804

14,249

11,657

Road freight service:
Engineers........................ 2,360
Firemen........................... 5,145
Conductors...................... 3,051
Brakemen........................ 13,115

2,578
6,232
3,099
13,0M

2,547
5,706
2,832
11,938

1,888
3,945
2.253
8,829

2,130
5,085
2,593
11,439

1,404
2,791
1,921
7,012

1,649
3,274
2,227
7,613

1,832
4,036
2,501
9,409

1,370
2,747
2,209
7,629

T o ta l....,....................

23,671

25,003

23,023

16,915

21,347

13,128

14,763

17,778

13,955

Road passenger service:
Engineers........................
Firemen...........................
Conductors......................
Brakemen........................
Baggagemen....................

714
1,245
298
718
361

738
1,444
327
699
368

777
1,253
304
674
283

660
1,176
263
579
292

804
1,535
274
688
344

602
997
209
570
269

715
1,144
282
570
308

761
1,295
304
639
316

617
1,017
302
587
303

T o ta l.........................

3,336

3,576

3,291

2,970

3,645

2,647

3,019

3,315

2,826

All trainmen................ 43,921

45,335

40,842 31,281

40,979

24,980

28,586

85,342

28,438




42

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

T a b l e 39.—N U M BE R OF T R A IN M E N IN SERVICE ON CLASS I RAILROADS, N U M BER OF

FA TA LITIE S AND OF INJURIES AND FREQ U EN CY RATES (PER 1,000,000 HOURS*
EXPOSU RE) FOR FATALITIES AND INJURIES AM ONG TR A IN M E N , 1916 TO 1924, B Y
YEARS AND OCCUPATIONS—Continued
INJURIES AMONG TRAINMBN—Continued
Occupation

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1922

1921

1923

Frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours' exposure)
Yard service:
Engineers........................ 22.63
Firemen.......................... 33.85
Conductors...................... 43.25
Brakemen...................... 101.90
Total............................

64.40

14.20
25.90
23.05
64.89

j|
!
!
]
|

52.89 j 41.07

; 10.75
; 13.41
! 21.78
j 52.36

13.30
18,74
25.29
53.68

12.57
22.97
24.69
61.62

11.77
17.44
24.30
53.61

46.77 ! 32.73
i

34.78

38.90

34.08

15.96
26.16
26.47
76.55

11.55
19.49
21.54
56.09
35.08

1&17
32.54
32.35
82.59

i

Road freight service:
Engineers........................
Firemen...........................
Conductors......................
Brakemen.......................

24.83
50.99
39,99
69.03

25.16
56.41
38.05
64.36

24.26
49.91
34.10
57.63

20. 3 6 ; 21. 1 3 1 16.53

39.92 i 47.40 i 30.69
29.81 j 32.89 | 28.34
47.48 | 56.80 j 41.28
j

18.71
34.64
31.92
43.95

17.90
36.85
20.99
47.70

14.72
27.46
29.61
42.01

Total............................

51.23

5a 22 | 45.19

37.34 | 43.45 | 31.74

34.68

36.29

31.06

18.75
30.53
8.26
13.24
17.92

19.45
33.87
8.62
14.63
17.94

15.85
26.75
8.58

Road passenger service:
Engineers........................
Firemen...........................
Conductors......................
Brakemen........................
Baggagemen....................
Total............................
All trainmen................

:
17.72
31.60
9.34

18.50 j 20.38
33.63
36.73
10.23 ! 9.70

j

15.69 i 15.58
22.21 ; 17.56

17.68 ; 20.73 ! 15.53
32.36 ; 40.51 i 26.03
8.44
8.47
6.61
12.41
12.95
14.47
17.89
20.26 | 15.56

19.30

20.75 : 19.81

17.91

21.00 | 15.40

17.43

19.06

16.36

48.94

45.93 ! 39.68 j 33.15
j

40.70 i 28.82

31.54

34.31

29.50

16.17
21.42

1

13.62

17.2S

Tables 40 and 41 show the number of train accidents of specified
kinds and the number due to specified causes. These tables are
chiefly interesting in that they show that the improved condition on
American railways is a pervasive change, as in whatever way the
accident data is analyzed it will appear that improvement has taken
place. For example, in 1911 collisions caused 297 deaths and in
1924 only 85; and injuries from collisions declined over the same
period from 3,071 to 709. In 1911 there were 209 deaths from
coupling cars and in 1924 there were only 72 deaths.
T a b l e 40.—N U M BER OF T R AIN ACCIDENTS. 1911 TO 1924, BY YEARS A N D KINDS OF

ACCIDEN T

Year ending—

Collisions

Derail­
ments

Other
Locomo­
locomo­
tive
tive
holler
accidents accidents

Miscel­
laneous

Total

Fatalities
June 30,1911............ ......... ..........................
June 30,1912................................................
June 30,1913................................................
June 30,1914................................................
June 30,1915................................................
June 30,1916................................................
Dec. 31,1916................................................
Dec. 31,1917................................................
Dec. 31,1918................................................
Dec. 31,1919................................................
Dec. 31.1920................................................
Dec. 31,1921.................................................
Doc. 31,] 922.................................................
Doc. 31, 1923.................................................
Dec. 31, 1024.................................................
1lnciudeu under “ Miscellaneous” .




297
275
280
224
76
139
169
235
274
136
182
54
103
112
85

249
2-14
227
211
127
131
154
155
218
159
160
101
119
115
97

56
64
41
11
13
24
25
44
41
40
50
29
24
42
24

0)
M
0)
0)
i
2
6

18
13
9
6
5
10
9
4
14 !
22 ■
24
11
7
6
10

620
596
557
452
221
304
357
439
547
359
422
195
253
275
216

STEAM RAILWAYS

43

T a b l e 4 0 .—N U M BER OF T R A IN ACCIDEN TS, 1911 TO 1924, B Y YEARS AND KINDS OF

AC C ID E N T —Continued

"T

i

Locorao- j Other ,
tive i locomo- Miscel­
boiler ■ tive i laneous
accidents: accidcnts t

Year ending—

Total

Injuries
June 30,1911.
June 30,1912.
June 30,1913.
June 30,1914.
June 30,1915.
June 30,1916.
Dec. 31,1910..
Dcc. 31,1917..
Dec. 31,1918..
Dec. 31,1919..
Dec. 31,1920Dec. 31,1921.
Dec. 31, 1922Dec. 31, 1923.
Dee. 31, 1924.,

3,071
3,060
3,367
2,250
1,360
1,630
1,963
1
2,388 !
2,257
1,276

1.607
559
872
940
709

1,092
936
1,002
630
443
290
346
32ti
294
203

1.748
2,380
2,243
1,820
1,348

1, W
O
1,249
1,320
1,433
1,083

1,240
606
709
*39
652

246
54
47
57
45 !
£
f

0,601
7,098
6,905
4,823
3,371
3,352
3,731
4,214
4,179
2,955
3,385
1,296
1,711
1,939
1,477

690
722
293
123
211
196
183
122
146

(!)
l)
0)
0)
{*>
<
l>
58
49
49 1
!

344
235
59
54
88
58

57 i
18
29
15
13

»Included uuder “ Miscellaneous."
T a b l e 4 1 . — NUM BER OF TR A IN SERVICE AOOfDENT-3, 1911 TO 1924, BY CAUSES OF

ACCIDENT
Strik­

ing

Year ending—

Total

switches struo- •
| tures : off
Fatalities

'rune30,1911.
•
une 30,1912.
rune 30,1913.
June 30,1914.
June 30,1915.
June 30,1916Dec. 31,1916.
Dec. 31,1917.
Dec. 31, 1918.
Dec. 31, 1919..
Dec. 31, 1920.
Dec. 31,1921.
Dee. 31, 1922..
Dcc. 31, 1923.
Dec. 31, 1924..

7
tV

203
192
195
171
90
123
130
Ifid

ifil-

108
151

78

8
1
103

72

2|
2
3
11
14
23!
•|
}1
20;

45(
60,
22!
37j
2
41
34!

Ju
O
164
154
113
81
94
106
109
13I:
92
96
65
63

1,197
1,264
1,296
1,132
722
925
1,033
1,222

1,2 9
2
‘iiol
522

101

589

2,251
2,324
2,382
2,071
1,373

566
435
467 1,6 6 8
515; 1,853
537| 2,177

31 2 1
6; ,2 2

97> 1,334
1,232; 1.685
05 901
31
292!
988
403i 1,288
310!
976

Injuries
2,966
3,234
3.360
2,692
1,903
2,194
2,440
2,508
2.3321
1,975!
2,450
1,540,
1,498
1,954
1,592

June 30,1911.
June 30,1912.
June 30,1913.
June 30,1914.
June 30,1915.
June 30,1916.
Dec. 31,1916.
Dec. 31,1917.
Dec. 31.1918.
Dec. 31,1919.
Dec. 31, 1920.
Dec. 31,1921.
Dec. 31, 1922.
Dec. 31,1923.
Dec. 31,1924.

664
580
425 7,379, 1,971
590 9,4261 2,592
378 5,73a 1,623
393 6,187- 1,987
520 8,043! 2,571
430 5,877| 2,042

995
1,453
847
916
1,084
1,050

1,510 7,530
1,523 8» 150
1,835 9,358
1,490 8,498
1,083 6,306
1,310 7,234
1,538 8,403
1,572 8,601
1,349 7,755
1,000 6,162
1,2931 8,773
775 5,510
722 6,157
869 8,096
730 6,564

47
39
64

88
100
97

1,872
2,033
2,154
1,914
1,315
1,443
1,636
1,876
1,890

25,330
27,081
33,007
31,424
23,932

32,801
28,866
13,371
16,919
10,759
11,844
703 13,517
707 11,608

39,247

42.022
19,714
46,018
34,689
39,074
44,579
48.022
42,782
33,325
43,535
27,228
30,481
37,537
30,097

NONTRAIN ACCIDENTS, 1917 TO 1924

Table 42 shows how the hazard of various accident causes has
vaiied in nontrain accidents in the 8-year period covered. It should
-be noted that this shift is not disclosed by the number of cases



44

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

recorded. For example, the total deaths from nontrain accidents in
1917 were 376 while the total in 1923 was 441. Inspection of these
figures alone would suggest that 1923 was a decidedly less satisfac­
tory year than 1917, but if attention be given to the frequency
rates shown in the table it will appear that 1917 had a rate of 0.097
cases per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure while the rate for 1923 is 0.091.
The difference is small enough to suggest that it may represent a
chance relationship. The same situation exists, however, in the case
of total injuries. In 1918 the total injuries numbered 104,900 while
in 1923 there were 112,296. The frequency rates for the two years
are 26.46 for 1918 and 23.12 for 1923. It is perfectly clear that the
record of number of cases without regard to exposure is not a reliable
index of conditions.
TABLE

48 .-N O N T R A 1 N ACCIDENTS ON CLASS I RAILROADS IN
STATES, 1917 TO 1924, BY CAUSES OF A C CIDEN T

THE

UNITED

FATALITIES
1917 1 1918
|

1919 j 1920
|

1921

1922

1923

1924

Cause of accident
Number
Working machinery, engines, etc............
Transmission apparatus..............................
Handling......................................................
Flying particles..— . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
Hot substances.............................................
Electric currents..........................................
Collapse, fall, etc., of objects.......................
Falls of persons............................................
Miscellaneous...............................................
Total____ i .........................................

15
5
38
1
21
24
42
98
132
376

Working machinery, engines, elc...............
Transmission apparatus..............................
Handling......................................................
Flying particles_____ . . . ____ ___________
Hot substancos............................................
Electric currents..........................................
Falling objects.............................................
Falls of persons............................................
Miscellaneous...............................................
Total...................................................

0.004
.001
.010

38
7
42
4
21
25
56
111
149
453

17
6
52
16"
22
42
89
115
359

22
3
39
1
13
9
44
76
154
361

13
7
25
2
13
16
27
59
92
254

18
4
18
3
20
19
40
87
242
451

29
5
29
2
35
27
45
74
195
441

16
3
l£
17
82
48
49
205
383

Frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours1 exposure)
0.010 0.005
.002
.002
.011
.015
.001
.005' .005
.006
.006
.014
.012
.028
.025
.033
.028
.111
.097

! o06
.006
.011
.026
.032
.097

0.006
.006
.010

0.004 0.004
.002
.001
.004
.008
.001
.001
.004
.005
%
.002
.004
.005
.009
.009*
.011
.020
.021
.020
.035
.032
.058
.090 .106
.090

0.006
.001
.006

0.004
.001
.003

%

.006
.009
.015
.040
.091

.004
.007
.011
.011
.045
.086

4,699
4,087 2,919 2,997
489
343
495
553
35,489 25,858 28,862 39,193
5,744 4,227 4,759
6,760
8,757
2,648 1,875 2,467
124
273
270
221
11,822 8,341 10,3165 15,251
10,906 7,725 9,642 11,614
26,887 20,037 24,926 30,199
98,293 71,449 84,586 112,296

3,156
302
33,077
5,483
2,765
. 235
11,980
10,270
25,117
92,385

INJURIES
Number
Working machinerv, engines, e t c ...._____
Transmission apparatus_______ _________
Handling......................... .
Flying particles____ _____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hot substances_____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric currents..................... ...................
Collapse, fall, etc., of objccts.... . . . . . . . . __
Falls of persons............................ .............
Miscellaneous...............................................
T o t a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... ........

4,741
4,S35
530
585
44,855 37,196
6,897
7,423
2,949
2,857
185
245
14,087 13,132
13,892 12,474
28,548 26,679
117,210 104,900

3,885
460
33,340
5,536
2,356
223
10,536
9,871
24,635
90,842

Frequency rates (1,000,000 hours’ exposure)
Working machinery, engines, etc________
Transmission apparatus............................
Handling......................................................
Flying particles___. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hot substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric currents___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Falling o b j e c t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Falls of persons...______ . . . . . . . . . ____ __
Miscellaneous...............................................
Total...................................................




1.27
.14
12.03
1.99
.79
.05
3.78
3.73
7.40
31.18 |

1.23
.15
9.48
1.76
.73
.06
3.35
3.18
6.53
26.46

1.10
.13
9.47
1.57
.67
.06
2.99
£80
6.78
25.58

1.09
.13
9.43
1.53
.70
.06
3.14
2.90
7.09
26.12

1.04
.12
9.20
1.50
.66
.04
2.96
a 75
7.13
25.44

a 7i
.12
6.80
1.12
.58
.05
2.40
2.27
5.89
19.94

0.97
.11
8.07
1.39
.77
.06
3.14
2.39
6.22
23.12

a 71
.07
7.40
1.23
.62
.05
2.68
2.30
5.60
20.66

..

STEAM RAILWAYS

45

Until 1921 it was possible to separate the data for such industrial
groups as shopmen, station men, etc., but this can not be done
easily with the present arrangement of the items.
Since, however, this grouping presents interesting indications re­
garding the accident movement from year to year and the relations
of the several groups, Tables 43 and 44 are reproduced althotigh
they terminate with 1921.
T a b l e 43 .—N U M BER OF N ON TRAIN ACCIDENTS, N U M BER OF HOURS’ EXPOSURE,

AND ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY RATES (PER 1,000,000 HOURS’ EXPOSURE) FOR
INDUSTRIAL EM PLOYEES ON CLASS I RAILROADS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1917
TO 1921, BY YEARS AND OCCUPATIONS
1917

1918

1919

I
j

1920

1921

Occupation
Number of accidents
Shopmen.......................................................
Station men..................................................
Trackmen.....................................................
Bridge and building men.............................
Other employees...........................................

G7,445
15.035
2i;038
5,104
7,375

63,951
12,150
17,498
4,200
6,499

Total...................................................

116,595

104,298

52,318
11,206
17,250
3,835
5,806

57,397
11,664
19,113
4,167
5,653

41,748
6,944
15,778
3,398
3,835

90,415 S
!

97,994

71,703

Honrs of exposure (thousands)
Shopmen.......................................................
Station men............................................... ..
Trackmen.....................................................
Bridge and building men.............................
Other employees...........................................

1,400,734
689,174
1,019,263
203,314
415,005

1,582,114
690,048
1,031,366
202,575
418,927

1,456,460
620,370
888,206
165,072
391,372

1,584,884
644,202
955,570
168,550
410,764

Total....................................................

3,727,490

3,925,030

3,521,480

3,763,970 | 2,808,498

1,150,383
511,918
678,478
117,742
349,977

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure)
Shopmen.......................................................
Station men..................................................
Trackmen.....................................................
Bridge and building men.............................
Other employees...........................................

48.15
22.69
20.64
25.10
17.77

40.42
17.61
16.97
20.73
15.51

35.92
18.06
19.42
23.23
14.83

36.22
18.11
20.00
24.72
13.76

36.29
13.56
23.25
28.87
10.96

Total....................................................

31.28

26.57

25.68 |

26.03

25.53

Table 44 shows the frequency rates per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure
for non train employees for the five-year period, 1917 to 1921.
T a b l e 44.-— C CIDEN T FREQUENCY RATES (PER 1,000,000 HOURS’ EXPOSURE) FOR
A

NONTRAIN EM PLOYEES ON CLASS I RAILROADS IN THE U NITED STATES, 1917
TO 1921

Occupation
Shopmen______ _______ _____ __________________ ___________________. . . . ____
Station men________ _____________________________________'________________
Trackmen______________ ____________________________________ ______ . . . . . . .
Bridge and building men............................ ................................ ...........................

2063°—27------4




Fatalities

0.09
.03
.10
.30

All acci­
dents
39.54
18.30
20.00
24.29

46

IN U T A j accidents
D .S IU T

is

U IT D S A E
N E TTS

GRADE CROSSING ACCIDENTS, 1890 TO 1924

With the advent of the automobile, casualties at grade crossings
began to increase with startling rapidity. In 1911 there were slightly
over 1,000 deaths from this cause while in 1923, 2,268 constituted a
climax of the irregularly rising series.
This constant increase in spite of the earnest effort of the railways
is not much relieved by the fact that casualties per 1,000 registered
automobiles are declining. This is due to better quality in the
cars themselves, to added experience on the part of the drivers, and
to stricter regulations by the supervisory authorities.
It is to be hoped that the slight drop in fatality from 1923 to 1924
indicates a real improvement.
T a b l e 45.—NUM BER

OF PERSONS AND NUM BER OF TRESPASSERS KILLED OR
INJURED IN RAILW AY ACCIDENTS AT HIGHWAY GRADE CROSSINGS IN THE
UN ITED STATES, 1390 TO 1924 BY YEARS

Year ending—

Number of per­
sons—
Killed

June 30,1890...................................................................................
June 30,1891___ . . ___ _________________ ____ _________ ____ _
June 30,1802................................................................................ .
June 30,1803...................................................................................
June 30,1894............................................................... ..................
June 30,1895.... ...........................................................- _______—
June 30,1896............................................... .................... - ......... June 30,1897............ ...... ......................... ....................
June 30,1898..................................................................................
June 30,1899...................................................................................
June 30,1900...................................................................................
June 30,1901...................................................................................
June 30,1902...................................................................................
June 30, 3903...................................................................................
June 30,1904...................................................................................
June 30, 1905...................................................................................
June 30,190(5...................................................................................
June 30, 1907...................................................................................
June 30,1908...................................................................................
June 30,1909...................................................................................
June 30,1910............................................ ....................................
June 30,1911...................................................................................
June 30,1912............................................................. .....................
................. ............................................................... .
June 30,1913
June 30,1914................. 1................................................................
June 30,1915...................................................................................
June 30,1910...................................................................................
Dec. 31,1916...................................................................................
Dec. 31,1917...................................................................................
Dee. 31,1918...................................................................................
Dec. 31,191 &
...................................................................................
Dec. 31,1920...................................................................................
Dec. 31,1921...................................................................................
Dec. 31,1922..................................................................................
Dec. 31, 1923...................................................................................
Dec. 31,1824...................................................................................

402
504
568
596
571
508
615
575
657
671
730
S31
827
SS
O
SOS
m
m

934
837
735
839
992
1,032
1,125
1,147
1,086
1,396
1,652
1.969
L 852
1,784
1,791
1,705
1,810
2,268
2,149

Injured
675
863
942
1,064
817
961
1,058
1,033
1,123
1,087
1,297
1,351
1,335
1,481
1,463
1,574
1,892
1,817
1,762
1,833
1,939
2,434
2,506
3,080
2,935
2,981
3,267
3,859
4,764
4,683
4,616
5,077
4,868
5,383
6,314
6,525

Number of tres­
passers—
Killed
98
167
137
163
119
133
171
116
151
170
171
209
265
271
197
21.5
250
237
216
112
129
148
136
145
122
83
86
121
131
137
107
100
106
96
133
107

Injured
151
162
176
179
m

176
248
197
202
168

201
242

272
247
224
256
zn

274
32-)
211
1.33
124
138
172
119
72
83
101
128
1*0
216
273
166
163
148
168

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS

The comparison in Table 46 of the accident experience of American
electric railways for the years 1923 and 1924 is drawn from a recent
publication of the American Electric Railway Association. The
facts given are for 105 companies located in all parts of the country,
which companies reported fully on the items in the table.
It will be noted that in nearly every comparison possible to make,
the year 1924 was more satisfactory than 1923. This is particularly
true in cases of injury per 1,000,000 passengers carried, the figures
being 6.48 for 1923 and 5.53 for 1924.



IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

47

T able 46.—A C CIDEN T EXPERIEN CES OF 105 AM ERICAN ELECTRIC RAILW AYS IN
1923 AND 1924
1924

1923

448,489,978
Car-miles operated
Passengers carried---- 3,051,621,122
Number of accidents ;
to—
j
Employees...........
4,875
Passengers............1
1
19,784
Other persons___ !
9,691

rA i
n fQ

|

34,350

Number of fatalities. J!
Accidents per 1,000000 car-miles:
By collision with
motor vehicles..

337 ;
!

195.87

Item

446,200,730
3,239,039.582

Accidents per 1,000,000 car-miles—Con.

cars....................

9.65

8.03

4,627
17,935
9,758

To employees
To passengers___
Toother persons.

10.87
44.11
21.61

10.39
40.29
21.91

Total___ ______

76.59

72.59

Accidents to passen­
gers per 1,000,000
passengers carried..

Item

6.48

5.53

32,320

338

1923

1924

"D U lllo U with
v U &n
Dj oi\llicmli wit1
1

194.35

IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
The Bureau of Labor Statistics was called upon in 1910 to make
a special study of the iron and steel industry, and a section of the
investigation then conducted was devoted to the subject of accidents.
Since that time such information has been continuously assembled
and the results have been published from time to time. For detailed
discussion of the various phases of the accident problem as found in
the iron and steel industry recourse must be had to the published
bulletins,® particularly Bulletin No. 298.
It has been the constant endeavor so to present these statistics as
to make them significant and useful in accident prevention. There
can be no doubt that these statistical studies have been a very consider­
able factor in the results which are indicated by the tables which follow.
Tables 47 and 48 present two analyses of accident reduction based
on the experience of plants engaged primarily in the production of
fabricated products, sheets, wire products, tubes, and miscellaneous
steel products. These plants were chosen because they had been en­
gaged for a long time and very actively in accident prevention effort.
Table 47, which presents the accident data separately for the
plants manufacturing each specified product and also for the total
plants, records a very remarkable success and demonstrates what
can be done if an adequate effort is made. Rates were computed
for the years ending with each month from December, 1913, to
December, 1924, but the omission of the years ending with 9 of
the 12 months from December, 1913, to December, 1922, in order
to shorten the table, does not disturb the indication of continuous
reduction of the rates.
The following reductions in frequency rates appear: Fabricated
products from 100.3 to 33.4, or 66.6 per cent; sheets from 61.6 to
10.3, or 83.3 per cent; wire products from 59.3 to 6.2, or 89.5 per
cent; tubes from 27.2 to 5.1, or 81.3 per cent; steel products Group
A from 70.9 to 11.8, or 83.4 per cent; steel products Group B from
41.3 to 7.9, or 80.9 per cent; total, from 60.3 to 10.2, or 83.1 per cent.
It is doubtful whether any other equally hazardous industrial
groups can show a better record.
• Conditions of employment in the iron and steel industry of the United States, Vol. IV, accidents
and accident prevention (Doc. No. 110,62d Cong., 1st sess.); United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui.
No. 210: Accidents and accident prevention in machine building; Bui. No. 234: The safety movement
in the iron and steel industry; Bui. No. 256: Accidents and accident prevention in machine building;
Bui. No. 298: Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steel industry.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

48

T a b l e 47.—A C C ID E N T FREQUENCY RATES (PER 1,000,000 HOURS' EXPOSURE) FOR

M ILLS M A K IN G SPECIFIED PRODUCTS, BY YEARS ENDING W ITH A PRIL, AUGUST,
AN D DE C E M B E R , FROM DECEM BER, 1913, TO DEC E M B E R , 1922, A N D BY YEARS
EN DIN G EACH M ON TH OF 1923 AN D 1924

Year ending with—

Fabri­
cated
products

Sheets

Wire
products

Tubes

Miscellaneous steel
products

Total

Group A Group B
December, 1913................. .............
April, 1914......................................
August, 1914......................... .........
December, 1914.....___ . . . . . . . . . .
April, 1915................................. .
August, 1915...................................
December, 1915..............................
April, 1910......................................
August, 1916.................. ...............
December, 1916.......... ...... ......... .
April, 1917......................................
August, 1917...................................
December, 1917............... ..............
April, 1918......................................
August, 1918...................................
December, 1918..............................
April, 1919......................................
August, 1919...................................
December, 1919........................... .
April, 1920......................................
August, 1920...................................
December, 1920.................... ..........
April, 1921......................................
August, 1921...................................
December, 1921..............................
April, 1922......................................
August, 1922...................................
December, 1922..............................
January, 1923.................................
February, 1923...............................
March, 1923...................................
April, 1923......................................
May, 1923.......................................
June, 1923........................ ..............
July, 1923........................................
August, 1923...................................
September, 1923.............................
October, 1923..................................
November, 1923.............................
December, 1923..............................
January, 1924..................................
February, 1924...............................
March, 1924...................................
April, 1924......................................
May, 1924.......................................
June, 1924.......................................
July, 1924........................................
August, 1924...................................
September, 1924.............................
October, 1924.................................
November, 1924...... ......................
December, 1924..............................

100.3
88.2
66.7
69.0
63.3
60.9
63.5
62.7
64.7
52.1
54.3
52.7
51.3
46.9
42.6
38.2
35.8
32.3
32.8
33.7
35.6
35.3
34.5
32.0
28.4
25.6
31.5
33.8
33.9
34.0
34.2
34.5
34.2
33.2
33.8
33.2
32.4
32.5
32.7
32.6
33.6
34.3
34.9
35.7
35.0
34.7
34.1
34.1
34.2
34.1
33.8
83.4

61.6
56.6
49.4
47.2
44.7
39.0
37.3
37.1
36.1
34.0
32.3
34.9
33.9
32.7
27.5
25.9
25.6
24.7
25.8
24.9
24.1
22.7
21.5
20.3
17.5
16.1
16.8
16.9
17.4
17.9
17.6
18.2
18.7
19.0
19.0
18.8
]8.5
18.0
17.6
17.2
16.5
15.8
15.4
14.6
13.9
12.9
11.7

11.0

10.8
10.6
9.2
10.3

59.3
63.1
48.9
46.2
43.2
46.2
52.4
62.9
51.1
48.2
45.0
39.5
32.5
27.6
22.1
18.8
16.2
14.2
12.5
12.5
12.4
12.0
9.9
8.4
7.5
7.8
8.2
7.9
8.0
7.8
7.8
8.0
8.0
7.9
7.7
7.7
7.7
8.0
7.8
7.9
8.1
8.0
8.0
7.9
7.7
7.4
7.2
7.1
6.9
6.8
6.5
6.2

27.2
21.2
16.0
12.5
9.3
9.6
10.8
12.1
12.3
12.4
11.6
10.7
10.2
10.0
9.9
9.1
9.1
8.5
9.1
9.0
9.2
8.9
7.6
7.0
6.1
6.5
6.6
7.1
7.4
7.3
7.5
7.6
7.6
7.7
7.6
7.7
7.7
7.5
7.3
7.0
6.7
6.7
6.4
6.2
7.1
6.0
5.9
6.6
6.3
5.5
5.3
5.1

70.9
67.3
57.8
50.7
42.3
45.0
51.9
61.2
66.0
67.6
64.6
57.9
51.3
46.7
44.0
42.0
41.5
39.2
39.7
38.7
37.0
35.3
30.4
24.2
15.8
12.0
14.1
14.5
14.4
14.6
14.9
14.6
14.5
14.3
13.4
14.0
14.0
14.1
14.1
13.9
14.1
14.3
14.1
14.1
13.8
13.5
13.3
13.1
12.9
13.3
12.0
11.8

41.3
35.5
31.0
27.6
26.4
20.1
23.0
25.4
28.5
28.2
25.8
22.5
20.5
21.6
28.3
31.4
30.7
25.5
23.0
21.1
20.3
18.6
16.8
14.2
12.1
10.5
10.8
10.8
10.5
10.7
10.7
10.8
10.6
10.3
10.2
10.3
10.0
10.1
10.0
9.8
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.8
9.6
9.1
8.7
8.3
8.2
8.1
7.8
7.9

60.3
64.7
47.9
43.5
39.1
38.1
41.5
44.2
45.4
44.4
42.2
38.3
34.5
31.9
30.2
28.8
28.1
26.2
26.1
25.3
24.4
22.9
20.2
17.2
13.2
11.6
12.7
13.0
13.0
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.4
13.3
13.2
13.2
12.8
13.0
12.9
12.7
12.7
12.6
12.5
12.4
12.0
11.6
11.3

11.0
10.9
10.6
10.4
10.2

Table 48 presents the same experience as Table 47 but analyzed
with reference to accident causes.
Accidents due to handling were most numerous and declined
during the period from 26.7 to 3.85, or 85.6 per cent. Nearly onehalf of these handling accidents resulted from dropping when han­
dling, and the decline in this group was from 11.2 to 1.93. These
declines in a class of injury due almost wholly to lack of skill on the
part of the worker are convincing evidence that with proper selection
and training of the working force very satisfactory results can be
secured.




IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

49

If it were possible to present severity rates, they would show that
while accidents due to machinery are less numerous than those
due to handling they are much more serious. The decline in
frequency of machine accidents was from 7.3 to 2.03.
T a b l e 48.—
-ACCIDENT

FREQUENCY RATES (PER 1,000,000 HOURS’ EXPOSURE) IN
A PORTION OF THE IRON AN D STEEL IN DU STRY, 1913 TO 1924, BY YEARS AND
AC CIDEN T CAUSES
i
Accident cause

1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924

Machinery.................................. 7.3 5.0 4.9
Working machines............. 3.8 2.7 2.6
Caught in...................... 2.5 1.8 1.7
Breakage........................
.1
.1
.1
.8
.8
Moving material in....... 1.2
Cranes, etc........................... 3.5 2.3 2.3
Overhead....................... 2.8 1.9 2.0
.3
.2
Locomotive....................
.2
Other hoisting appa­
ratus............................
.4
.2
.1
Vehicles....................................... 2.3 1.9 1.6
Hot substances........................... 5.4 3.6 3.7
.5
.4
Electricity............................
.2
Hot metal............................. 3.6 2.1 2.3
1.3 1.1 1.2
Hot water, etc.....................
Falls of persons........................... 4.5 4.1 3.5
From ladders........................
.3
.1
.1
.2
From scaffolds.....................
.2
.2
Into openings.......................
.2
.1
.1
Due to insecure footing....... 3.8 3.7 3.1
Falling material not otherwise
specified................................... 1.2
.7
.7
Handling objects and tools........ 28.7 19.4 20.6
Objects dropped in han­
dling.................................. 11.2 7.3 7.6
Caught between object
handled and other object.. 3.4 2.6 2.6
Trucks.................................. 1.9 1.0 1.4
Lifting.................................. 2.5 2.3 2.5
.1
Objects flying from tools___
.2
.2
Sharp points and edges....... 3.8 3.4 3.8
Tools..................................... 3.7 2.6 2.6
Miscellaneous......... .................. 12.9 8.8 6.5
.1
Asphyxiating gas.................
.2
.3
Flying object not striking
.8
.6
.6
Flying object striking eye... 2.9 2.1 1.7
.4!
.9
.8
Heat.....................................
Other causes......................... 8.0 5.1 3.7j

1913
to
1924

5.4
2.6
1.7
.1
.8
2.8
2.5
.2

4.5
2.0
1.2
.1
.7
2.5
2.2
.2

4.0
1.8
1.1
.1
.6
2.2
1.9
.2

3.3
1.4
.9
.1
.4
1.9
1.6
.2

3.4 1.8
1.5 .8
1.0 .6
.1 .06
.4 .1
1.9 1.0
1.5 .8
.2 .2

2.2 2.3
1.1 1.0
.8
.7
.1 (0
.3
.2
1.2 1.3
1.0 1.1
.1
..1

2.03
.83
.58
.04
.21
1.18
.94
. 13

3.85
1.84
1.22
.08
.54
2.01
1.69
.17

.1
1.7
4.5
.4
3.0
1.1
3.7
.1
.2
.3
3.1

.1
1.7
3.6
.3
2.5
.8
3.2
.1
.3
.2
2.6

.1
1.3
3.0
.3
2.1
.6
2.8
.2
.2
.1
2.3

.1
1.2
2.8
.2
2.0
.6
2.8
.1
.2
.1
2.3

.2 .1
.1
.1
.1 .5
.4
.6
2.5 1.2
1.1 1.2
.3 .1
.1 0)
.7
.9
1.8 .8
.4 .2
.2
.3
2.5 1.7
1.5 1.4
.1
.1
.1 .09
.2 .]
.1
.1
.1 .07 (0
.1
2.1 1.4
1.3 1.1

.10
.48
.87
.07
.61
.19
1.35
.07
.13
.03
1.12

.15
1.23
2.79
.24
1.89
.66
2.74
.13
.19
.12
2.30

.4
.6
.4
.3
.1
21.5 15.7 12.8 11.7 ' lb'4 6.5

.1
5.8

.1
5.5

.09
.41
3.85 13.33

8.4

6.1

5.5

5.0

4.4 2.6

2.6

2.3

1.93

5.42

3.1
1.4
2.5
.1
3.1
2.9
7.0
.1

2.1
1.2
2.0
.1
2.2
2.0
5.4
.1

1.7
.9
1.4
.1
1.5
1.7
4.6
.1

1.7
.7
1.4
.1
1.3
1.4
4.1
.2

1.3 .7
.7
.6 .5
.4
1.1 .8
.8
.1 .07
.1
3.5 1.1
.6
.7
1.4 .8
3.1 1.3
1.9
.1 .5 0)

.7
.4
.5
.1
.6
.8
3.8
.1

.50
.21
.27
.04
.33
.59
1.60
.03

1.76
.89
1.51
.10
1.91
1.7ft
4.60
.12

.5
1.9
.4
4.1

.4
1.6
.1
3.2

.5
1.6
.2
2.2

.3
1.3
.1
2.2

.3
1.1
.1
1.5

.1
.3
.4
.2
.1 (0
1.3 1.1

.17
.33
.05
1.01

.39
1.31
.25
2.53

.2
.5
.06
.6

O
Total................................. C . 3 43.5 41.5) 44.4 34.5 28.8 26.3 22.0 13.3

13.0 12.8 10.22 28.96

i Less than one-tenth of 1.

The concerns for which data are presented in Tables 47 and 48 are
among the best in the industry. It will be enlightening to consider
what has occurred in the industry at large.
Table 49 has been prepared to show the relation between the
industry and certain of the important departments. Instead of
annual periods, 5-year periods are used in order to secure a large
enough volume to overcome the influence of local and temporary
conditions. With the exception of foundries a steady and quite
considerable decline appears in both frequency and severity rates.




50

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

T a b l e 49.—TR E N D OF ACCIDEN T RATES FOR 5-YEAR PERIODS IN THE IRON A N D

STEEL INDUSTRY

Five-year periods
ending—

Tho in- ! Blast
dustry j furnaces
i
I

1913..................................
1914..................................
1915..................................
1916..................................
1918.................................. !
1919.................................. i
1920..................................
iftai..................................
1922..................................
1923..................................
1924..................................

Open
hearth

Bes­
semer

Foun­
dries

Heavy I

■a?;

Sheet
mills

i

Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours* exposure)
69.2
65.1
62.1
59.2
53.3
51.3
48.2
43.6
41.6
41.1
39.5
36.5
34.9
33.6

!
i
1
!
;
:

!
I
!
i
?
i
!

76.1
67.7
62.4
62.3
50.3
47.8
44.1
40. 5
39.0
3S.0
36.3
34.0
32.9
30.7

!
!
j
.
:

i

i
1

!
'
;
|
|

101.5
79. 5
02.3
89.8
65.0
76.1
68.3
60.7
57.7
53.1
47.0
39.9
30.5
24.9

:
i
1
;
j
<
1
S

;
;

j
!
j
I
l
i

84.2 !
79.5
78.6
75.0
67.6
64.8
58.4
53.5
50.5
50.2
44.8 j
41.3 j
!
3 3 .0 !i
!
32.9 1
ji

60.1
61.5
65.1
63.6
59.3
57.8
60.4
57.0
61.0
61.0
63.1
60.4
61.7
62.7

61.0
57.0
51.7
46.1
39.4
37.3
32.1
31.1
32.4
31.4
29.9
27.6
23.8
21.2

69.4
60.8
55.9
49.9
44.7
41.5
36.6
39.8
39.2
38.4
37.6
36.7
31.4
29.4

;

i
!

j
j

44.4
47.9
49.1
51.1
48.1
47.4
41.3
35.8
32.7
33.7
33.4
35.2
37.2
35.1

Accident severity rates (days lost per 1,000 hours’ exposure)
1911..................................
1912.................................. !
1913..................................
1914.................................. !
1915..................................
1910..................................
1917.................................. !
191$..................................
1919.................................. 1
1020.................................. |
1921..................................
1922..................................
!
1921.................................. i

5.0
4.3
4.4
4. i
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.5
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.1
3.0
2.3

.
■
1
;

'
.
.

.

10.6
S.S
8.3
7 .0
6.2
5.8
5.6
5.4
5.8
5.7
5.7
5. 5
5.0
4.5

;
!
!

j

1

j
;

j
;
i
j

7.6
7.4
6.7
6.4
5.3
6.1
7.1
7.3

7.5
6.6
6.8
6.6
5.8
5.5
5.1
5.8

2.7
&1
3.5
3.6
3.3
3.1
3.3
3.2

4.4
4.2
4 .0
3.6
3.4
3 .5
3.6
3.4

6.9
6.3
5.4
4.2

6.5
6.3

3.4
3.2
3.2
2.7

3.9
3.5
3.3
2.9

2.7
2.8

2.4
2.3

3.2
2.6

5.8
5.3
4.2
4.2

5.1
4.1
3.8
3.9
3.1
2.8
2.6
2.6

3.1
2.8
3 .0
2.6
2 .2
2.3
2.1
1.8

2.5
2.6
2.5
2.5

1.6
1.8
1.7

2.4
2.4

1.8
1.9
2.1

To understand the course of events it will be necessary to refer to
another table— No. 50. In Table 47 it is seen that for the selected
concerns the frequency rate in 1913 was 60.3, and from Table 50 it
appears that for the industry at large the frequency rate was 59.6.
The difference between the two rates is too small to be significant. In
1924 the rate for the selected plants was 10.2 and for the industry 30.8.
Since the selected plants are included in the industry total they
manifestly have their influence in determining what the rate will be,
and since they constitute about 50 per cent of the industry and have
a rate of 10.2, it is evident that the rate for the other 50 per cent must
be close to 50.
While the selected plants have been reducing their rate from 60.3
to 10.2, the remainder of the industry has gone from 59.6 to about 50.
If the matter could be presented from the severity standpoint the
discrepancy would not be so great, but it would still be sufficient to
challenge attention. It means that in the iron and steel industry,
where remarkable results in accident reduction have been attained,
thm* is still room for improvement.
ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INDUSTRY

Tables 50 to 72 present in detail the accident experience of the
several departments of the iron and steel industry. While there is a
considerable group of concerns which were not able for one reason



IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

51

or another to furnish the data desired, the reports received cover so
large a portion of the workers that the rates derived may be regarded
as typical.
It has been the custom to undertake some special studies at the
close of 5-year periods. As the year 1924 completes a third such
period, there is accordingly in each table herewith presented a show­
ing for these three 5-year periods. It is interesting to observe that
with very few exceptions these figures, based on a greater volume of
material, show a steady drop from period to period both in frequency
and in severity.
The varying size of the working group from year to year is due,
with three exceptions, to changing industrial conditions. The regu­
lar accumulation of accident data was not begun until 1910, and very
few concerns had at that time records of earlier years. As a result
the group for 1907 was relatively small. It is included because, in
spite of its small size, it clearly indicates a condition still less satisfac­
tory than that of 1910. There can be no doubt that if it were pos­
sible to determine rates for earlier years a still worse condition
would be disclosed. In 1915 and 1916 it was not possible to secure
complete data.
From 1910 to 1925 the decline in frequency was 62.1 per cent and
in severity 51.9 per cent.
T a b l e 50.—ACCIDENTS AN D ACCIDEN T RATES IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY,

1907 TO 1925, BY YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS
Accident fr e q u e n c y
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Number of cases
Year or
period

Fullyear
workers

1907..............
27,632
1910.............. 202,157
1911.............. 231,544
1912.............. 300,992
1913.............. 319,919
1914.............. 256,299
1915............... 116,224
1916............... 166,646
1917............... 410,852
1918.............. 474,435
1919.............. 377,549
1920._______ 442; 685
1921............... 237,094
1922............... 335,909
1923............... 434*693
1924.............. 389,438
1910-1914___ 1,310,911
1915-1919___ 1,545,706
1920-1924___ 1,839,818
1925............... 445,223

Per- Tem­
maDeath ment porary
disa­
disa­ bility
bility
61
106
327 848
204 931
348 1,241
426 1,200
219 860
87 J 372
159 728
523 1,268
543 1,253
419 848
327 1,084
156 527
236 878
314 1,188
312 1,133
1,524 5*080
1,731 4,469
1,345 4,810
207 1,091

6,530
44,108
34,676
54,575
55,556
37,390
13,481
2a 655
57,094
54,293
41,009
49,482
21,279
3^120
41,766
34,481
226,305
186*532
179,128
36,404

Total

6,697
45,283
35»811
56,164
57,182
38,469
13,940
21,542
58,885
56,089
42,276
50,893
21,962
33,234
43,268
35,920
1232,954
192,732
185*277
37,772

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility
0.7
.5
.3
.4
.4
.3
.2
.3
.4
.4
.4
.2
.2
.2
.2
.3
.4
.4
.2
.2

Accident severity rates
(per 1.000 hours’ ex­
posure)

!
!

Tem­
Per- Tem­
po­
ma- po­
rary To­ Death ment rary To­
disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bility
bility bility

1.3 78.8
1.4 72.7
1.3 49.9
1.4 6a 4
1.3 57.9
1.1 48.6
1.1 38.7
1.4 41.3
1.0 46.3
.9 38.1
1.0 40.2
.8 37.3
.7 29.9
.9 31.9
.9 32.1
1.0 29.5
1.3 57.5
1.0 40.2
.9 ;! 32.5

•I
8

80.8
■74.7
51.5
!62.2
;59.6
j50.0
[
!40.0
|43.0
i47.7
!39.4
!41.6
;38.3
30.8
-33.0
;33.2
30.8
'59.2
41.6
>33.6
28.3

4.4
3.2
1.8
2.3
2.7
1.7
1.5
1.9
2.5
2.3
2.2
1.5
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.6
2.3
2.2
1.5
1.2

1.7
1.2
1.1
1.1
.9
.9
.7
1.0
.9
.8
.8
.8
.7
.8
.8
.9
1.1
.8
.8
.8

1.1
.8
.6
.8
.7
.6
.5
.6
.6
.5
.6
.4
.5
.5
.5
.5
.7
.6
.5
.4

7.2
5.2
3.5
4.2
4.3
3.2
9.7

3.5
4.0
3.6
3.6
2.7
2.5
2.7
2.7
3.0
4.1
3.6
2.8
2.5

BLAST FURNACES

The blast furnace must be regarded as one of the most hazardous
departments in the industry. It is subject more than any other
department to accidents causing injury to several men at the same
time.
From 1910 to 1925 accident frequency declined 72.4 per cent and
accident severity 54.2 per cent.



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

52

T a b l e 5 1 , — ACCIDEN TS AND A C C ID E N T RATES IN BLAST FURNACES, 1907 TO 1925, B *

YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Number of cases
Year or period

Fullycar
workers

1907..................
1910.................
1911..................
1912.................
1913.................
1914..................
1915..................
1916..................
1917..................
1918..................
1919..................
1920..................
1921..................
1922.................
1923..................
1924..................
1910-1914.........
1915-1919.........
1920-1924.........
1925.................

1,566
19,389
21,479
27,154
31,988
26,572
10,721
14,905
36,202
41,449
32,889
35,470
15,486
17,933
29,698
25,268
126,582
136,166
123,854
25,819

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility
11
68
54
87
80

9
68
52
73
86
45
19
23
79
102
<
„u
47
23
38
53
50
324
317
211
40

77
2A

57
93
72
67
58
24
35
68
66
366
312
251
51

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
rary Total Dcoth nent rary Total Death nent rary Total
disa­
disa­ disa­
disa­ disa
bility
bility bility
bility bility
456
4,971
3,303
4,790
4,749
3,935
981
1,763
4,440
4,358
3,745
3,214
1,160
1,586
2,702
2,248
22,578
15,287
10,910
1,789

476
5,107
3,409
4,950
4,945
4,057
1,023
1,843
4,612
4,532
3,906
3,319
1,207
1,659
2,823
2,364
23,268
15,916
11,372
1,880

1.9
1.2
.8
.9
.9
.6
.6
.5
.7
.8
1.0
.4
.5
.7
.6
.7
.9
.8
.6
.•5

2.3
1.2
.8
1.1
.8
1.0
.7
1.3
.9
.6
.7
.5
.5
.7
.8
.9
1.0
.8
.7
.7

97.1
85.5
51.3
58.8
58.1
49.4
30.5
39.4
40.9
35.0
38.0
30.2
25.0
29.4
30.3
29.7
60.4
37.4
29.4
23.1

101.3
87.9
52.9
60.8
59.8
51.0
31.8
41.2
42.5
36.4
39.7
31.1
26.0
30.8
31.7
31.3
62.3
39.0
30.7
24.3

11.5
6.9
4.8
5.4
5.3
3.5
3.5
3.1
4.4
4.9
5.7
2.7
3.0
4.2
3.6
4.0
5.2
4.7
3.4
3.1

2.7
1.7
.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
.6
.9
.9
.8
1.0
.9
.5
.4
.1
1.1
1.0
.9
.7
.9

1.8
1.0
.8
.8
.9
.7
.4
.6
.5
.5
.5
.4
.4
.5
.5
.5
.8
.5
.5
.4

16.0
9.6
6.5
7.2
7.2
5.2
4.5
4.6
5.8
6.2
7.2
4.0
3.9
5.1
4.2
5.6
7.0
6.1
4.5
4.4

BESSEMER CONVERTERS

The accident experience of the Bessemer department is very
erratic. The rates change from year to year in a fashion difficult
to explain. However, here, as elsewhere, the general tendency is to
decline.
From 1910 to 1925 frequency declined 92.9 per cent and severity
55.8 per cent.
T a b l e 53.—ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDEN T RATES IN BESSEMER CONVERTERS, 1907

TO 1925, BY YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases

Year or period

1907.....................
1910.....................
1911.....................
1912.....................
1913.....................
1914.....................
1916..............
1917.....................
1918.....................
1919.....................
1920.....................
1921.....................
1922.....................
1923.....................
1924.....................
1910-1914.............
1915-i919.............
1920-1924.............
1925.....................

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours' exixxsure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

FullPer­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
year
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
work­
nent rary To­ Death nent rary To­ Death nent rary T o­
ers
Death disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
ity
ity.
ity
ity
967
5,070
5,155
6,521
6,885
4,470
3,160
4,070
5,979
5,881
6,555
6,907
3,440
4,778
6,080
4,943
28,101
25,645
26,147
4,844




1
20
6
9
16
6
2
13
20
13
14
5
4
2
6
7
57
62
24
9

5
18
24
37
42
25
21
34
21
18
18
9
6
8
20
10
146
112
53
10

383
1,943
1,237
1,892
1,610
685
494
848
1,194
877
849
750
252
233
367
274
7,367
4,262
1,876
115

389
1,981
1,267
1,938
1,668
716
517
894
1,235
908
881
764
262
243
393
291
7,570
4,436
1,953
134

0.3
1.3
.4
.5
.8
.4
.2
1.1
1.1
.7
.7
.2
.4
.1
.3
.5
.7
.8
.3
.6

1.7 132.0 134.0
1.2 127.7 130.2
1.6 79.9 81.9
1.9 96.7 99.1
2.0 77.9 80.7
1.8 51.1 53.3
2.2 52.1 54.5
2.8 69.5 73.4
1.2 66.6 68.9
1.0 49.7 51.4
.9 43.2 44.8
.4 36.2 36.8
.6 24.4 25.4
.6 16.3 17.0
1.1 20.1 21.5
.7 18.5 19.7
1.7 87.4 89.8
1.5 55.4 57.7
.7 23.9 24.9
9.2
.7
7.9

2.1
7.9
2.3
2.8
4.6
2.2
1.3
6.4
6.7
4.4
4.3
1.4
2.3
.8
2.0
2.8
4.0
4.8
1.8
.7

0.9
.9
1.1
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.4
2.1
1.3
1.0
.5
.3
.4
.5
.5
.6
1.1
1.1
.4
3.7

2.4
1.6
1.1
1.5
1.2
.9
.8
1.2
1.2
.8
.9
.6
.4
.3
.5
.3
1.3
1.0
.4
.2

5.4
10.4
4.5
5.3
7.0
4.3
3.5
9.7
9.2
6.2
5.7
2.3
3.1
1.6
3.0
3.7
6.4
6.9
2.6
4.6

IKON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

53

OPEN HEARTHS

In open hearths from 1910 to 1925 accident frequency declined
74.3 per cent and severity 62.2 per cent. From year to year the
changes are somewhat irregular, but the 5-year periods show an
extremely uniform downward movement.
T a b l e 53.—ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDEN T RATES IN OPEN HEARTHS, 1907 TO 1925, B Y

YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours*
exposure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’
exposure)

X Uil-

Year or period

ycar
workers

1&
07..................
1910..................
1911.................
1912.............. .
1913..................
1914..................
IS15.................
1916.................
1917..................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................
1921..................
1922.................
1923..................
1924.................
1910-1914..........
1915-1919.........
1920-1924.........
1925..................

2,987
9,739
10,718
17,355
20,604
12,877
5,969
9,654
21,457
26,410
22,685
28,823
12,783
19,805
24,917
21,493
71,293
86,175
107,820
22,837

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility
14
29
18
47
35
14
8
12
47
71
53
43
9
22
42
32
143
191
148
25

14
53
45
99
95
41
20
37
86
103
71
70
21
46
74
67
333
317
278
73

Per- 1TemTem­
For- Tem­
;
ma- i POpo­
ma- po­
!
rary Total iDeath nent rary Total Death nent |rary Total
disa­ disa­
disa­ disa­
disability bility
bility bility
bility
908
3,028
1,890
4,039
4,368
2,484
832
1,458
3,187
3,983
3,103
3,164
1,082
1,036
2,145
1,864
15,809
12,563
10,191
1,769

936
3,110
1,953
4,185
4,498
2,539
860
1,507
3,320
4,157
3,227
3,277
1,112
2,004
2,261
1,963
16,285
13,071
10,617
1,867

1.6
1.6 101.3 104.5
1.0
1.8 103.6 106.4
.6
1.4 58.8 60.8
.9
4.9 77.6 80.4
.6
1.5 70.7 72.8
.4
1.1 64.3 65.8
.4
1.1 46.5 48.0
.4
1.3 50.3 52.0
.7
1.3 49.5 51.5
.9
1.3 50.3 52.5
.8
:
1.0 45.6 ! 47.4
.5
.8 37.0 38.3
.2
.6 28.2 29.0
.4
.8 32.6 33.8
.6 ’ 1.0 28.6 30.2
.5
1.0 28.9 30.4
.7
1.5 72.8 75.0
.7
1.2 48.6 50.5
.9 31.5 32.9
.5
.4
1.1 25.8 27.3

9.3
6.0
3.4
5.3
3.4
2.2
2.7
2.5
4.4
5.4
4.7
3.0
1.4
2.2
3.4
3.0
4.0
4.4
2.7
2.2

4.0
2.4
1.1
1.9
1.4
1.5
.9
.8
1.2
1.4
1.3
.8
.4
.9
1.1
.9
1.6
1.2
.9
1.0

1.1
1.4
.9
1.0
1.0
.8
.6
.9
.8
1.1
.8
.5
.5
.5
.7
.5
1.0
.9
.6
.5

14.4
9.8
5.4
8.2
5.8
4.5
4.2
4.2
6.4
7.9
6.8
4.3
2.3
3.6
5.2
4.4
6.6
6.5
4.2
3.7

FOUNDRIES

When compared with the basic metallurgical departments found­
ries have a distinctly lower accident severity and a higher accident
frequency. The changes from year to year are disappointing in
view of the fact that some of the better plants have clearly demon­
strated that the figures are higher than they need to be and that
reasonable reduction is possible.
When the 5-year periods are considered the situation looks some­
what better. From the first 5-year period to the third there has
been a decline of 1.4 per cent in frequency and 22.2 per cent in
severity.




54

INDUSTRIAL AGCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

T a b l e 5 4 .-A C C ID E N T S AND ACCIDEN T RATES IN FOUNDRIES. 1907 TO 1925, B Y YEARS

AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours'
exposure)

Number of cases

Year or period

Fullyear
workers

939
1907.....................
1910..................... 16,885
13,499
1911.....................
1912..................... 23,294
1913..................... 24,605
1914..................... 17,634
1,309
1915.....................
1,231
1916.....................
1917..................... 31,805
1918..................... 32,181
1919..................... 24,220
1920..................... 35,300
1921..................... 15,388
1922..................... 22,770
1923..................... 38,660
1924..................... 37,325
1910-1914
. . 95,917
1915-1919........... 92,746
1920-1924........... 149,441

1925.................. 35,570

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility
1
7
18
23
22
14
1
45
23
15
13
9
12
26
21
84

84
81
27

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours*
exposure)

1
1 Per- ! Tem-|
\
Per­ Tem­
Tem­
ma- j po- 1
ma­ po­
po­
:Total Death nent rary Total
rary T ota l!Death1nent; rary <
disa­ disa­
disa* j disa- i
disa­
i
bility bility
bility
i
!
1bility bilily!
l
1
i

183
179
3
78 2; 615 % 700
57 1,970 2,045
135 4,512 4,670
118 5*236 5*376
61 3,432 3,507
2
118
120
152
145
6
101 6,810 6,956
106 5,482 5,611
62 4,048 4,125
97 6,088 6,798
34 2,766 2,799
59 4,134 4.205
126 7,171 7,323
143 6,820 6.984
449 17,765 18,298
277 16,604 16,965

459 27,569 28,109
128 6,877 7.032

1

:
i
!

0.4
.1
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.5
.2
.2
.1
.2
.2
.2

.2
.3
.3

.2
.3

1.1
1.5
1.4
1.9
1.6
1.2
.5
1.6
1.1
1.1
.9
.9
.7
.9
1.2
1.3
1.6

j 63.5 : 65.0
! 51.6
48.6
; 64.6
I 70.9
! 64.9
30.0
39.3
71.4
56.8
65.7
63.2
59.7
60.5
61.8
60.9
61.7

1.0
1.0
1.2

59.7
61.5
64.5

2.1
1 33.2
.8
: 50.4
2.7
2.1
i 66.8
1.7
! 72.8
66.4
1.6
30.5
41.2 "‘ T o ’
2 .8
73.0
58.1
1.5
1.2
56.8
64.2
.7
60.6
1.2
61.6
1.1
63.2
1.4
62.4
1.1
1.8
63.6

0 .3
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.2
1.0
.2
.6
1.0
1.0
.8
.8
.7
.9
.8
1.1
1.1

1.0
.6
.6
.8
.8
.7
.4
.7
.9
.7
.7
.8
.8
.7
.8
.8
.7

1.8
1.1
1.5

.9
.9
1.3

.7
.8
.9

61.0
62.7
65.9

3.4
2 .4
4 .3
4 .4
3.7
3.3
.6
2.9
4 .7
3.2
2.7
2.3
2.7
2.7
3 .0
3 .0
3 .6

3.4
2.8
3.7

BAR MILLS

There are no available accident data prior to 1915 regarding bar
mills. From that year to 1925 accident frequency declined 58.0 per
cent and accident severity increased 15.8 per cent. The experi­
ence for the second 5-year period is below that for the first— 45.8
per cent in frequency and 29 per cent in severity.
T a b l e 55.—ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDENT RATES IN BAR MILLS, 1915 TO 1925, B Y YEARS

AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases

Year or period

1915.....................
1916.....................
1917.....................
1918.....................
1919.....................
1920.....................
1921.....................
1922.....................
1923.....................
1924.....................
1915-1919.............
1920-1924............
1925.....................

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours* ex­
posure)

Accident severity rales
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Fullyear
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
work­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
ers Death nent rary To- Death nent rary To­ Death
disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
ity ; ity
ity
ity
i
7
577
585
0.1
3.232
1
0.7 59.5 60.3
0.6
3,042
4
783 798
.4
11
1.2 i 85.8 87.4
2.6
34 1.940 1.9*2
.4
1.5 : 86.5 88.4
7,472
8
2.1
6
18 ! 7
f»r> 780 i
5,734
1.0 , 43.9 45.2
2.1
.3
4. SO
I
7 (589 M7 | . 1
1
.5 : 49.9 50.5
.4
3,880
531 S -1
5 • 525
.4 ! 44.8 45.3
.5
1
5 : 228 233 _____
1,912
.9 39.8 • 40.7
3,780
7
10 : 392 409 1 .6
.9 ; 34.6 ; 36.11 "” 3.7"
*.
4,003
17 ! 443 460 ...... 1.4 ! 3 5 4 37.8
7 i 285 294
4.093
2
!6 !! 23.2 • 24.0 " T o "
.2
24,081
20
77 14,745 4,842
1.7
.3
1.1 | 65.6 i 67.0
17,666
10
44 S
1,869 1,923 i
.8 I 35.3 1 36.3 i 1.1
.2
2
4,471
|
.2
1.0 | 24.2 i 25.3 i
13 ! 324 339 ;
\
•»
i

Per-1 Tem-'
ma- 1 po- j
nent j rary 1To­
disa­ disa- tal
bil­ bil- j
ity
ity !
i
0.7 ! 1.9
0.6
i
.0
!
1 .1 1 4.2
1.0
I
1.0 ! 4.0
.7
.7
3.5
.5
.7
1.6
.2
.5
1.2
1.6
1.0
.6
.8
.5
5.0
.7
1.3
.6
.5 i 1.7
.2
.7
.7 ! 3.1
.6
.5
2.2
.4 i 2.2
.9

1

HEAVY ROLLING MILLS

Heavy rolling mills show a steady change for the better in accident
experience. From 1910 to 1925 accident frequency dropped 79.4 per
cent and accident severity 53.8 per cent. Accident frequency in the



IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

55

third 5-year period is lower than that of the first period by 54 per
cent and accident severity by 36.1 per cent.
T able 56 .-A C C ID E N T S AND A C CIDEN T RATES IN HE A W ROLLING MILLS, 1907 TO
1925, BY YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases

Year or period

1907.....................
1910.....................
1911.....................
1912.....................
1913.....................
1914.....................
1915.....................
1916.....................
1917.....................
1918.....................
1919.....................
1920.....................
1921.....................
1922.....................
1923.....................
1924.....................
1910-1914.............
1915-1919.............
1920-1924.............
1925.....................

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

FullPer­ Tem­
year
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
work­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
nent rary
ers
nent rary
nent rary
Death disa­ disa­ To­ Death disa­ disa­ To­ Death disa­ disa­ To­
tal
tal
tal
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
4,550
9,442
12,409
16,258
17,569
11,985
7,148
10,076
20,530
19,807
17, fs05
20,787
9,000
14,574
16,602
13,162
67,663
75, IC
G
74,944
16,553

8
19
9
20
16
10
10
7
30
24
20
12
3
9
8
18
74
91
50
13

10 874
57 2,167
48 1,636
41 2,395
C 1,910
O
55 899
596
24
44
959
87 1,784
67 1,900
53 1,711
34 1,638
15 485
752
56
36 882
789
39
261 9,007
275 6,950
180 4,546
50 747

892
2,243
1,693
2,456
1,986
964
630
1,010
1,901
1,991
1,784
1,684
503
817
926
846
9,342
7,316
4,776
810

0.6
.7
.2
.4
.3
.3
.5
.2
.5
.4
.4
.2
.1
.2
.2
.5
.4
.4
.2
.3

0.7
2.0
1.3
.8
1.1
1.5
LI
1.5
1.4
1.1
1.0
.5
.5
1.3
.7
1.0
1.3
1.2
.8
1.0

64.0
76.5
43.9
49.1
36.2
25.0
27.8
31.7
29.0
32.0
32.4
26.3
16.5
17.2
17.7
20.0
44.4
30.8
20.2
15.0

65.3
79.2
45.4
50.3
37.6
26.8
29.4
33.4
30.9
33.5
33.8
27.0
17.1
18.7
18.6
21.5
46.1
32l4
21.2
16.3

3.5
4.0
L4
2.3
1.7
1.5
2.8
1.4
2.9
2.4
2.3
1.2
.6
1.2
1.0
2.7
2.1
2.4
1.3
1.6

0.3
1.5
.9
.9
.6
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.0
.9
1.1
.4
.3
.9
.8
.8
.9
1.0
.6
1.1

1.0
1.0
.7
.7
.6
.4
.3
.5
.5
.5
.5
.4
.3
.4
.3
.4
.0
.5
.4
.3

4.8
6.5
3.0
3.9
2.9
2.9
4.1
3.2
4.4
3.8
3.9
2.0
1.2
2.5
2.1
3.9
3.6
3.9
2.3
3.0

PLATE HILLS

The downward movement of the accident rates in plate mills is
unusually regular. From 1910 to 1925 frequency declined 64.2 per
cent, and in the same interval severity declined 43.9 per cent. The
accident experience of the third 5-year period is below that of the first
41.1 per cent in frequency and 38.5 per cent in severity.
T a b l e 57.—ACCIDENTS AND A C CIDEN T BATES IN PLATE MILLS, 1907 TO 1925, BY YEARS

A N D 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases
Year or period

1907.....................
1910.....................
1911.....................
1912.....................
1913.....................
1914.....................
1915.....................
1916.....................
1917.....................
1918.....................
1919.....................
1920.....................
1921.....................
1922.....................
1923.....................
1924.....................
1910-1914.............
1915-1919.............
1920-1924............
1925............... .....

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

FullPer­ Tcm-i
year
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po- ii
work­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
ers I Death nent rary To­ Death nent rary To­ Death nent rary i Todisa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
1,915
3,287
4,390
5*128
5,430
3,476
2,086
4,681
6,764
9,650
11,892
11,928
4,580
6,198
8,731
6,454
27,711
35.073
37,891
5*734




4
7
6
2
3
2
1
3
4
8
9
9
3
2
5
3
19
25
22
6

12
27
15
25
25
13
9
15
22
19
24
23
7
26
24
18
105
89
98
15

G
37
602
590
893
725
319
121
436
766
1,446
1,247
1,147
318
581
662
506
3,129
4,016
3,214
370

653
636
610
920
753
334
131
454
792
1,473
1,280
1,179
328
609
691
527
3,253
4,130
3,334
391

0.7
.7
.4
.1
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.3
.3
.3
.2
.1
.2
.2

.3
.2

.2
•4

2.1 110.9 113.7
2.7 61.1 64.5
1.1 44.8 46.3
1.6 58.0 59.7
1.5 44.5 46.2
1.2 30.6 32.0
1.4 19.3 20.9
1.1 31.0 32.3
1.1 37.7 39.0
.7 49.9 50.9
.7 35.0 36.0
.6 32.1 33.0
.5 23.1 23.8
1.4 31.2 32.7
.9 25.3 26.4
.9 26.1 27.2
1.6 48.0 49.9
.8 38.2 39.2
.9 28.3 29.4
.9 21.5 22.7

4.2
4.8
2.3
.8
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.3
1.2
1.7
1.5
1.5
1.3
.6
1.1
.9
1.8
1.4
1.2
2.1

3.7
1.6
1.0
2.0
1.2
1.0
.6
.7
.9
.6
.5
.6
.3
.9
1.2
.6
1.4
.6
.8
1.2

1.2
.7
.6
.8
.0
#5
.3
.5
.5
.7
.5
.4
.4
.5
.4
.5
.7
.5
.4
.4

i

9.1
6.6
3.9
3.0
2.9
2.6
1.9
2.5
2.6
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.7
2.0
3.9
2.5
2.4

3.7

56

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES
PUDDLING MILLS

Accident data for puddling mills are available only for 1917 and
succeeding years. Such data are shown in Table 58.
T a b l e 5 8 . — A CCIDEN TS AND A C CIDEN T RATES I N PUDDLING M ILL3, 1917 TO 1925, BY

YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Number of cases

Year or period

Fullyear
work­
ers

1917.....................
1918.....................
1919.....................
1920.....................
3923.....................
1924.....................
3917-1919.............
1920-1924.............
1925.....................

4,129
2,712
1,619
2,007
1,620
814
8,460
4,406
1,108

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
nent rary
Death disa­ disa­
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
1
3
1

4

!ii Per- Tem­
ma- po­
To­ Death: nent rary
tal
i disa- disa­
; bil- bil­
|! ity
ity

53
10 572 • 8
4 370 377
1 140
141
254
10 243
3 280 283
4
156
160
15 1,082 1,101
9
797 806
6
172
166

0.1
.4
.2
.2
.............!

0.8
.5
.2
1.7
.6
1.6
.6
.7
1.8

46.2
45.5
28.8
40.3
57.6
63.9
42.6
fiO.3
49.0

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
To­ Death nent rary To­
disa­ disa­ tal
tal
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
47.1
46.4
29.0
42.2
1 58.2
i 65. 5
: 43.4
i 61.0
I 51.7
1

0. o
2.2

0.6
.4

1.0

.1
.*

.9

1.1
1.2
.4
.8
2.8

0.6 ' 1.7
3.2
.6
.4
.5
2.4
.6
1.0
2.1
1.2
2.4
1.9
.6
1.9
1.1
.9
3.7

SHEET MILLS

At the outset of the period covered the sheet mills have rather
low accident rates. From that point there is an irregular but con­
tinuous decline. From 1910 to 1925 frequency declines 46.1 per
cent and severity 60.5 per cent. The accident experience of the
third 5-year period is below that of the first 31.4 per cent in fre­
quency and 19.2 per cent in severity.
T a b l e 5 9 . — ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDENT RATES IN SHEET MILLS, 1907 TO 1925, BY

YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases

Year or period

Fullyear
workers

1907.................
1910..................
1911..................
1912..................
1913.................
1914.................
1915.................
1916.................
1917..................
1918..................
1919.................
1920..............
1921..................
1922..................
1923..................
1924.................
1910-1914....
1915-1919....
1920-1924....
1925..................

2,211
18,501
29,710
32,087
25,938
22,187
16,266
24,722
26,855
17,278
19,214
24,279
15,845
24,391
29,814
28,247
128,423
104,335
121,552
32,043




Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility
2
28
9
19
21
11
7
13
11
3
3
14
5
10
14
7
88
37
50
10

8
52
71
67
67
51
23
62
38
17
32
59
38
66
61
54
308
172
278
56

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
po­
ma­ po­
rary Total Death nent rary Total Death nent rary Total
disa­ disa­
disa­
disa­ disa­
bility bility
bility
bility bility
274
3,310
3,625
5,497
3,717
3,113
1,901
2,655
2,687
937
1,854
2,979
1,702
2,951
2,390
2,457
19,262
10,034
12,479
3,096

284
3,390
3,705
5,583
3,805
3,175
1,931
2,730
2,736
i 957
! 1,889
! 3,052
i 1,745
|3,027
: 2,465
i 2,518
19,658
10,243
12,807
■3,162
1

0.3
.5
.1
.2
.3
.2
.1
.2
.1
.1
.1
.2
.1
.1
.2
.1
.2
.1
.1
.1

1.2
. .9
.8
.7
.9
.8
.5
.8
.5
.3
.6
.8
.8
.9
.7
.6
.9
.5
.8
.6

43.3
59.6
40.7
57.1
47.8
46.8
39.0
35.8
33.4
18.1
32.0
40.1
35.8
40.3
27.6
29.0
50.0
32.1
34.2
32.2

44.8
61.0
41.6
58.0
49.0
47.8
39.6
36.8
34.0
18.5
32.7
41.0
36.7
41.3
28.5
29.7
51.1
32.7
35.1
32.9

1.8
2.9
.7
1.2
1.6
.9
.9
.6
.8
.3
.3
1.2
.6
.8
1.0
.5
1.4
.7
.8
.6

1.9
.8
.7
.7
.5
.5
.3
.5
.6
.5
.4
.7
.5
.8
.7
.7
.6
.4
.7
.4

0.4
.6
.4
.7
.6
.6
.5
.5
.5
.2
.4
.8
.5
.9
.5
.5
.6
.4
.6
.6

4.1
4.3
1.8
2.6
2.7
2.0
1.7
1.6
1.9
1.0
1.1
2.3
1.6
2.5
2.2
1.7
2.6
1.5
2.1
1.7

IRON AND STEEL. INDUSTRY

57

ROD MILLS

The annual groups of workers in rod mills are not large enough to
give an entirely satisfactory basis for accident rates. However,
comparing the two 5-year periods shows declines from the first to
the second of 40 per cent in frequency and 52.8 per cent in severity.
T a b l e 6 0 . — ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDEN T RATES IN ROD MILLS, 1915 TO 1925, BY YEARS

AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases

Year or period

Fullyear
work­
ers

1915..................... 2,062
1916..................... 2,493
1917..................... 4,951
1918..................... 3,2*9
3919..................... 2,463
1920..................... 3,729
1S21..................... 2,099
1922..................... 2,6-45
1923..................... 3,224
1924..................... 2,828
1915-1919............ 15,218
1920-1924............ 14,425
1925..................... 2,907

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
nent rary
Death disa- disa­ To­ Death
tal
bilbil­
ity
ity

7
5
2
1
1
1
1
14
4
2

10 229 239
16 259 275
699. 729
23
11 350 366
10
184
196
9 344
354
6
126 132
5
196 202
10 189 200
7
127
135
70 1,721 1,805
37 982 1,023
7
146
155

0.5
.5
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1
.3
.1
.2

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
nent rary To­ Death
disa- disa­ tal
bil- bil­
ity
ity
1.6
2.1
1.5
1.1
1.4
.8
1.0
.6
1.1
.8
1.5
.9
.8

37.0
34.6
47.1
35.9
24.9
30.7
20.0
24.7
20.2
15.0
37.7
22.7
16.7

38.6
36.7
49.1
37.5
26.6
31.6
21.0
25.4
21.4
15.9
39.5
23.7
17.8

2.8
3.1
1.6
.5
.8
.6
.7
1.8
.6
1.4

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
nent rary To­
disa­ disa­ tal
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
0.7
1.9
1.4
1.0
1.4
.5
.7
.5
1.3
.7
1.3
.8
1.0

0.5
.5
.5
.6
.5
.4
.3
.5
.3
.4
.6
.4
.3

1.2
2.4
4.7
4.7
3.5
1.4
1.0
1.8
2.2
1.8
3.6
1.7
2.6

TUBE MILLS

Tube mills show a very marked decline in accident frequency.
This is undoubtedly due in considerable measure to the effective use
of a foreman's bonus 1 for accident reduction in some of the concerns
covered by this table.
From 1910 to 1925 accident frequency declined 71.6 per cent,
but accident severity did not change. When the 5-year periods
are considered, however, it becomes apparent, that both frequency
and severity have declined over the period as a whole.
>See United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 298, p. 158.




58

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

T a b l e 61.—ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDEN T RATES IN TUBE M ILLS, 1907 TO 1925, B Y

YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours* ex­
posure)

»
Per­ Tem­
Per- |Temma­ po­
ma- : ponent rary
nent! rary
Death disa­ disa­ To­ Death disa- j disa- To­ ;Death
tal
tal
bil­ bil­
bil- : bii­
i
ity ! ity
ity
ity
1
!
j
i
i
1907..................... 2,007 i
4 ! 575
0. i 9o. 5 96.4
580 0.2
1
1.0
1910..................... 9,7(i7 i
3
25 ;1,608 1,636
.9 ‘ 54.9 55.9
.1
.6
1911..................... 13,676
1
53 12,080 j t 134
.2
1.3 50.7 52.0
.03
f
1912..................... 17,080 | 10
60 |2,154 2,224 . .5
1.2 i 42.0 43.7
1.3
1913..................... 18, ‘J09 j
15
72 1,586 1,673
.3
1.3 i 28.0 i 29.6
I
1.6
1914..................... 13,906 !
7
39 1,195 1,241
.2
.9 28.6 |20.7
1.0
1915..................... 7,109 j
2
21 1 182 205
!
1.0 ; 8.5
.1
9.6
.6
1918..................... 11,355 I
2
26: 425 , 453
.4
.8 12.5!1 13.4
.1
1917..................... 19,819 :
17
51 i 1,967 12,035
.3
.9 33.1 134.3
1.7
1918.....................!! 18,499 i
41 i 1,127 1,176
!
8
1
.9
.7 20.3 I 21.1
.1
1919.....................j i 18,326 :
i
39 11,127 11,172
.2
.7 20.4 1 21.3
1.0
&
1920..................... 22,666 | 13
71 2.166 2,250
1.1
.2
1.0 ; 31.9 ': 33.1
1921.....................:1 14,622 I
4
1
.8 19.1 ! 20.0
35 ; 840 1 879
.1
.5
1922.....................i 19,635 .
8
40 1,332 il, 378
.7 . 22.7 23.5
.8
.1
1923.....................jI 24,766 :
8
54 -1,292 ;1,354
.7 j 17.4 i 18.2
.6
.1
1924..................... ■22, C i
iV
14
68 jl, 185 11,267
;
1.2
.2
1.0 : 17.2 | 18.4
1910-1914............ !! 73,338
36
249 8,623 ;8,908
1.1 ; 39.2 40.5
1.0
1915-1919.............1 75,108 •
178 i4,825 |o,041
38
.8 21.4 : 22.4
1.0
.2
1920-1924.............j104,577
,
45 268 jO 815 !7,128
.9 ! 21.7 : 22.7
.1
.9
64 ! l 142 1,216
,
.1
1925.................... j 25,511 >
10
.8 14.9 ] 15.9
.8
i
I
i
Year or period

Fullvear
workers

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
nent rary To­
disa­ disa­ tal
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
0.6
.4
.8
.8
.7
.6
.6
.3
.5
.4
.6
.5
.5
.6
.6
.6
.7
.6
.6
.6

1.5
3.1
.7
1.7
1.5
.5
2.6
.5
.4
2.7
.4
2.0
1.4
.2
1.0
.3
.4
2.6
.3
1.6
.3
1.9
.5
2.1
.4
1.4
.4
1.6
.3 i 1.6
.3 i 2.1
.5 ! 2.2
1.8
.3
.4 ! 1.9
.3 I 1.7
i

UNCLASSIFIED ROLLING MILLS

The group of unclassified rolling mills is of such miscellaneous
make-up that it has no great significance except as confirmatory of
the general downward trend almost universal in the industry.
From 1910 to 1925 accident frequency declined 78.8 per cent and
accident severity 68 per cent. The experience of the third 5-year
period is below that of the first, 46 per cent in frequency and 27 per
cent in severity.
T a b l e 63 .—ACCIDENTS AND AC CIDEN T RATES IN ROLLIN G M ILLS, 1910 TO 1925. BY

YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases
Year or period

Fullyear
workers;

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Per- TemS Per- Tem­
P er-! Tein-I
mapo­
211a- j po- 1
: 111a- po­
Death rtent J rary Total Death; nent rary Total Death nent j rary !Total
disa- i disa­
disa-1 disa­
! disa- disa­
i biiity bility
bility; biiity
bility] biiity

1

1910................. 14,434
1911................. 21,201
22,909
1913................. 23,382
1914.................. 22,873
1915.................. ».»67
1916.................. 8,082
1917.................. 27,978
1918................. 37,163
1919................. 25.106
1920................. 21,055
1921................. 12,068
1922.................. 19,382
1923.................. 26,357
1924.................. 21,664
1910-1914......... 104,829
1915-1919......... 102,696
1920-1924......... 109,555
1925................. 26.353




!
'
;
1
:
'
1
!
1
|
I
!
!
!
!

15
16
16
24
11
2
5
10
22
14
16
4
10
11
11
82
53
55
9

49
76
76
84
75
14
25
eo
74
45
68
36
59
92
77
360
218
345
59

j 4,861
! 3,388
1 4,660
' 5,051
! 3,541
i 475
922
1 4,285
4,015
I 2,967
i 2,785
1,479
2,416
2,830
2,193
21,501
12.644
12; 631
1,836

4,925
! 3,480
4,752
' 5.159
! 3,627
| 491
! 952
4,335
4,111
3.026
2,869
1,519
2,485
2,933
2,277
21,943
12,915
13,027
1.904

, 1.1 112.3 i113.7 i
! 1.2 53.2 j 54.7 |
i
1
!
1
1.1 67.8 i 69.1 |
: 1.2 72.0 73.5 ;
1.1 51.6 i 52.9 :
j
i 1.1 36.2 ! 37.5 i
i
1.0 38.0 ; 39.2 !
. .7 50.8 ! 51.6
: .7 36.0 36.9
.6 39.4 40.2
i 1.1 44.1 i 45.4
! 1.0 40.9 | 42.0
! 1.0 41.5 , 42.7
1.2 35.8 37.1
: 1.2 33.5 |34.9
: 1.2 ; 71.8 i 73.3
: .7 41.0 : 41.9
. 1.0 38.4 ; 39.6
.8 23.2
l 24- 1
-1 !

0.3
.3
.2
.3
.2
.2
.2
.1
.2
.2
» .3
-1
.2
.1
.2
.3
.2
.2

1.6 i 1.3
2.1
1 . 5 ; 1.1 j -7
i

1.5 i 1.0
.9
2.0 ; 1.1 ; 1.0
.8
.7
1.0
.5
.4
•»
1.2
.6
.7
.7
.7
.7
1.2
.5
.5
1.1
.4
.0
1.5
.9
.0
.7
.9
.7
.9
1.0
.7
.8
1.3
.6
1.3
.6
1.0
1.7
1.1
.9
.5
.6
1.0
1.0
hi
.6
.4
.7
.5

5.0
3.3
3.4
4.1
2.5
1.8
2.5
2.1
2.2
2.1
2.9
2.3
2.6
2.7
2.9
3.7
2.1
2.7
1.6

IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

59

FABRICATING SHOPS

For fabricating shops both accident frequency and accident
severity rates testify that the production of the structural elements
of bridges and building is a matter of considerable hazard.
The year to year changes are rather irregular, with a drop in fre­
quency from 1910 to 1925 of 87.4 per cent; and in severity of 68.5
per cent.
From the first 5-year period to the third, frequency declined 34 per
cent and severity 29.4 per cent.
T a b l e 6 3 .-A C C ID E N T S AND ACCIDEN T

RATES IN FABR IC A TIN G SHOPS, 1907 TO
1923, B Y YEARS A N D 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases
Year or period

Fullyear
workers

12
33
92
119
104
77
15
25
67
29
27
68
45
41
52
63
425
163
269
35

6
11
8
32
34
13
3
7
21
22
6
14
5
14
9
5
98
59
47
3

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours* ex­
posure)

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
po­
ma­ po­
rary Total Death nent rary Total Death nent rary Total
disa­
disa­ disa­
disa­ disa­
bility
bility bility
bility bility

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

1907.................. 2,081
1910.................. 8,713
1911.................. 19,530
1912.................. 28,988
1913.................. 30,470
1914.................. 20^837
1915.................. 3,818
1916.................. 4,980
1917.................. 23,614
1918.................. 29,166
1919.................. 19,407
1920.................. 17,216 ■
1921.................. 12,
1922................. 16.184
1923................. 22,547
.1924.................. 10,626
1910-1914......... 108,538
1915-1919 ..., 80,935
1920-1924......... 89,880
1925................. 15,718

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours* ex­
posure)

571
3,901
3,244
6,890
7,368
4,103
471
703
4,192
5,077
2,752
% 721
1,971
3,381
4.019
1,787
25,506
13,195
13,879
857

589
3,945
3,344
7,041
7,506
4,193
489
735
4,280
5,128
2,785
2,803
2,021
3,436
4.030
1,855
26,029
13,417
14,195
895

1.0
.4
.1
.4
.4
.2
.3
.5
.3
.3
.1
.2
.1
.3
.1
.1
.8
.2
.1

1.9
1.3
1.6
1.4
1.1
L2
1.3
1.7
.9
.3
.5
1.3
1.2
.8
.8
1.0
1.3
.7
1.0
.7

91.5
149.2
55.4
79.2
sa 6
65.6
41.1
47.1
59.2
58.0
47.3
52.7
50.9
69.6
59.4
28.3
78.$
54.3
51.5
18.2

94.4
150.9
57.1
81.0
82.1
67.0
42.7
49.3
6a 4
58.6
47.9
54.2
52.2
7a 7
60-3
29.4
79.9
55.2
52.7
19.0

5.8
15
.7
2.1
2.2
1.2
1.6
2.8
1.8
1.5
.7
1.6
.8
1.7
.8
.5
1.7
1.5
1.0
.4

2.9
1.0
1.0
.9
.8
1.0
.6
.7
.6
.5
.3
1.1
.7
.8
.7
.8
.9
.5
.8
.9

0.8
1.9
.6
.8
.8
.7
.7
.9
.7
.6
.5
.6
.6
.8
.7
.5
.6
.6
.4

9.5
5.4
2.3
3.8
3.8
2.9
2.9
4.4
3.1
2.6
1.5
3.3
2.1
3.3
2.2
1.8
3.4
2.6
2.4
1.7

FORGE SHOPS

Accident data for forge shops are available only for 1917 and suc­
ceeding years. Such data are shown in Table 64.
T a b l e 6 4 . — ACCIDENTS A N D A C C ID E N T RATES IN FORGE SHOPS, 1917 TO 1925, B Y

YEARS A N D o-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases
Year or period

Fullyear
workers

1917..................... 3,881
1918..................... 6,408
1919-.-................ 2,169
1920..................... % 197
1921.....................
902
1922..................... 1,514
2,049
192 3
192 4
2,272
1910-1914............. 6,249
1915-1919............. 12,667
1920-1924............. 8,901
1925..................... 3,794




Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours* ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
Per- j
jTcmma­ po­
ma- i po!
nent rary T o­ Death nent 1 rary
Death disa­
disa­ tal
disa­ : disabil­ bil­
bil­ ; bility i ity
ity
ity
3
4
2
1
2
1
8
9
4
3

15
26
4
5
3
8
9
9
19
45
34
11

917
1,009
257
380
107
233
309
567
1,080
2,189
1,596
893

935
1,039
263
385
111
243
319
576
1,107
1243
1,634
907

a3
.2
.3
.4
.4
.2
.4
.S
.1
.3

1.3
1.4
.6
.8
1.1
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.0

! 78.8
! 53.2
39.5
58.6
39.5
51.3
50.2
83.2
57.6
57.6
i 59.8
; 78.5

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
To­ Death nent rary To­
tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
80.4
1.5
1.2
54.8
40.4
1.8
59.4
41.0 ~'~Z2
53.5
2.6
51.9
1.0
84.5
59.0 “ " i e "
59.0
1.4
.9
61.2
79.7
1.6

1.6
1.1
.3
.8
1.0
1.7
.9
L5
.6
1.1
1.2
.9

1.3
.7
.6
.7
.7
.9
.7
1.2
.7
.9
.9
.8

4.4
3.0
2.7
1.5
3.9
5.2
2.6
2.7
3.9
3.4
3.0
3.3

60

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

WIRE DRAWING

From 1910 to 1925 accident frequency in wire drawing declined
69.2
per cent and accident severity 55.8 per cent. From the first
5-year period frequency dropped 63.5 per cent and severity 28.1
per cent.
When the 5-year periods are considered they show a rather remark­
able regularity of decrease. So far as severity is concerned this is
unquestionably due to the replacement of old equipment by im­
proved machinery, which is more efficient and much safer.
T a b l e 65.—ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDEN T RATES IN W IRE D R A W IN G , 1910 TO 1925, BY

YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases

Year or period

FuIIyear
workers

1910.................
1911.................
1912..................
1913.................
1914.................
1915.................
1916..................
1917..................
1918.................
1919.................
1920.................
1921..................
1922.................
1923..................
1924.................
1910-1914.........
1915-1919.........
1920-1924.........
1925..................

10,370
11,819
13,059
12,769
11,468
7,859
9,551
13,727
12,790
8,739
13,243
9,186
13,836
14,783
31,567
59,481
52,666
62,614
13,758

Per-1
maDeath nent
disa­
bility
5
4
4

6
2
1
4
3
4
2
4
3
2
12
11
2

84
89
104
59
47
62
104
63
60
32
63
36
53
54
44
383
321
250
47

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours*
exposure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
rary Total Death nent rary Total Death nent rary Total
disa­ disa­
disa­
disa­ disa­
bility bility
bility bility
bility

2,323
2,270
2,627
2,542
1,742
1,831
1,764
1,700
991
626
1,252
527
837
■ 919
j 711
ill, 504
I 6,912
1 4,246
! 938
i

2,412
2,363
2,735
2,607
1,791
1,894
1,872
1,766
1,055
658
1,317
567
893
975
755
11,908
7,215
4,507
987

0.2
.1
.1
.2
.1
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
.4
.1
.1
.1
.1

2.7
2.3
2.7
1.5
1.4
2.6
3.6
1.5
1.6
1.2
1.6
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.3
2.1
2.0
1.3
1.1

74.7
59.0
67.1
66.4
50.6*
77.7
61.6
41.3
25.8
23.9
31.5
19.1
20.2
20.7
20.5
63.5
43.7
22.6
22.7

77.6
61.4
69.9
68.1
52.1
80.3
65.3
42.9
27.5
25.1
33.2
20.6
21.6
21.9
21.8
65.7
45.8
24.0
23.9

1.0
.6
.6
.9
.4
.3
.8
.4
.6
.9
.4
.3
.7
.5
.4
.3

2.6
2.0
2.5
1.1
1.3
2.4
2.9
1.0
1.2
1.0
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.8
1.9
1.6
1.5
1.2

0.7
.6
.7
.7
.5
.8
.6
.6
.4
.4
.5
.4
.4
.4
.3
.6
.5
.4
.4

4.3
3.2
3.8
2.7
2.2
3.5
4.3
2.0
2.2
1.4
2.5
2.7
2.1
1.9
2.1
3.2
2.6
2.3
1.9

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT

The accident experience of the electrical department does not run
a uniform course and is less satisfactory in its reductions than is indi­
cated as possible by the experience of some of the plants.
From 1910 to 1925 frequency declined 78.9 per cent and severity
9.5 per cent. If the 5-year periods be considered, there was a decline
from the first period to the third of 56.5 per cent in frequency and
52.4
per cent in severity.




IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

61

T able 66.—ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDEN T RATES IN TH E E LE C T R IC A L D E P A R T ­
M EN T, 1910 TO 1925, BY YEARS AN D frYEAR PERIODS
Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Number of cases
Year or period

191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
192 0
192 1
192 2
1 9 2 3 -...
10 2 4

wio^oiY.
1915-1919
1920-1924
1925....... .

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours* ex­
posure)

FullPer­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
year
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
work­
nent rary
rary
nent
ers
Death disa­ rary To­ Death disa­ disa­ To­ Death nent disa^ To­
disa­
tal
tal
disa­ tal
i
bil­ bilbil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
1,526
2,700
3,796
4,012
2,327
612
1,635
4,385
4,747
4,644
4,473
3,025

287
368
544
524
315
25
301
603
505
503
411
193
169
228
184

495
301
23
289
571

403
188
164
215
171
1,957
1,851 1,
1,141 1,185
159
148

4,325
3,989
14,921
16,023
19,339
4,011

0.4
.4
.5
1.2
1.1
.5
1.2
1.2
.7
.9
.4
.2
.4
.4
.6
.8
1.0
.4
.5

0.7
1.1
1.3
1.2
.9
.5
1.2
1.2
.7
.5
.2
.3
.1
.6
.5
1.1
.8
.4
.4

61.6
43.0
45.9
41.1
43.1
12.5
58.9
43.4
34.1
34.7
30.0
20.7
15.5
16.6
14.3
45.2
38.5
19.7
12.3

62.7
44.5
47.7
43.5
45.1
13.5
61.3
45.8
35.5
36.1
30.6
21.2
16.0
17.6
15.4
47.1
40.3
20.5
13.2

2.6
2.2
3.1
7.0
6.9
3.3
7.3
7.3
4.2
5i6
2.2
1.3
2.3
2.3
3.5
4.6
5.7
2.4
3.0

0.9
.9
1.7
1.2
1.0
.2
.4
1.3
1.1
.9
.1
.6
.1
.4
.4
1.2
1.0
.3
.6

0.7
.5
.5
.5
.5
.1
.8
.7
.4
.5
.4
.3
.4
.3
.3
.5
.5
.3
.3

4.2
3.6
5.3
8.7
8.4
3.6
8.5
9.3
5.7

11

2.2
2.8
3.0
&2
6.3
7.2
3.0
3.9

MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT

The mechanics employed about steel mills are exposed to a
considerable hazard. Much of their work is urgent and difficult
repair work which must be carried on under such conditions of lighting
and location as add seriously to the danger.
From 1910 to 1925 there is recorded a decline of 70.6 per cent
in accident frequency and 27.0 per cent in accident severity. The
5-year periods show from the first to the third a 62.2 per cent drop in
frequency and a 30 per cent in severity.
T a b l e 67.—ACCIDENTS AND

A C CIDEN T RATES IN THE M ECH ANICAL D E P A R T ­
M EN T, 1908 TO 1925, BY YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases
! FullYear or period : year
workers

1908..................
1910..................
1911..................
1912..................
1913..................
1914..................
1915..................
1916..................
1917..................
1918..................
1919..................
1920..................
1921..................
1922..................
1923.................
1924..................
1910-1914.........
1915-1919..........
1920-1924.........
1925..................

Per­
ma­
!Death nent
disa­
bility

1.619
15,927
17,863
21,591
24,009
17,772
5,987
16,920
33,328
58,002
40,609
34,648
25,036
30,324
37,449
31,331
97,161
154,846
162,121
36,666

4
18
13
19
36
18
3
9
43
54
45
26
21
25
37
29
104
154
138
31

2063c—27------5



7
56
80
95
103
60
27
86
134
162
83
68
41
75
102
80
392
492
366
71

Accident frequency rates j Accident severity rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ : (per 1,000 hours’ ex­
exposure)
posure)

1
| Per- Tem­
!
Per­ Tem­
Tem­
ma­ po­
j ma- po­
po­
I
rary Total Death : nent rary Total;Death nent rary Total
disa­ disa­
disa­ disa­
disa­
bility bility
bility bility
bility
430
2,618
3,015
4,040
4,972
3,149
573
2,245
5,201
6,054
4,483
3,767
1,703
1,626
2,045
1,855
17,794
18,556
10,996
1,717

441
2,692
3,108
4,154
5,111
3,227
603
i, 340
5,378
6,270
4,611
3,861
1,775
1,726
2,184
1,964
18,292
19,202
11,510
1,819

0.8
.4
.2
.3
.5
.3
.2
.2
.4
.3
.4
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.4
.3
.3
.3

1.4
1.2
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.1
1.5
1.7
1.3
.9
.7
.7
.5
.8
.9
.8
1.3
1.1
.8
.7

89.1
54.8
56.3
62.4
69.0
59.1
31.9
44.2
52.0
34.8
36.8
36.2
22.7
17.9
18.2
17.8
61.0
39.9
22.6
15.6

91.3
66.4
58.0
64.2
70.9
60.5
33.6
46.1
53.7
36.0
37.9
37.2
23.6
19.0
19.4
18.9
62.7
41.3
23.7
16.6

4.9
2.3
1.5
1.8
2.9
2.0
1.0
1.1
2.6
1.9
2.2
1.5
1.7
1.6
2.0
1.7
2.1
2.0
1.7
1.7

0.6
.9
LI
1.2
1.0
1.0
.7
1.5
1.0
1.0
.7
.6
.5
.7
1.0
.6
1.1
1.0
.7
.7

1.1
.5
.7
.8
.9
.7
.4
.6
.8
.4
.5
.5
.4
.3
.3
.3
.8
.5
.4
.3

6.6
3.7
3.3
3.8
4.8
3.7
2.1
3.2
4.4
3.3
3.4
2.6
2.5
2.6
3.3
2.6
4.0
3.5
2.8
2.7

62

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES
POWER HOUSES

The shift in the relatively low accident rates of the power-housa
department is best shown by consideration of the 5-year periods.
From the first to the third, frequency declined 49.4 per cent and
severity 11.5 per cent.
T a b l e 68.—ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDEN T RATES IN POWER HOUSES, 1917 TO 1925, BY

YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Number of casos

Year or period

Fullyear
work­
ers

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
nent rary
Death disa­ disa­
bil­ bil­
ity
ity

1917..................... 4,552
1918..................... 3,699
1919..................... 4,093
1920..................... 4,591
1921..................... 2,344
1922..................... 3,361
1923..................... 4,070
1924..................... 4,511
1912-1914............. 8,063
1915-3919............. 13,219
1920-1924............. 18,878
1925.................... 4,218

7
9
11
4
2

7
10
2
1

6
5
6
27
17
3

5*
4
8
21
21
18
4

210
254
213
172
77
115
117
157
544
739
638
183

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
To­ Death nent rary To­ Death
tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
224
273
226
177
79
120
127
170
571
787
673
190

0.5
.8
.9
.3
.3
.5
.4
.2
.7
.8
.2

0.5
.9
.2
.1
.5
.3
.6
.9
.5
.3
.3

15.4
22.9
17.3
12.5
ia 9
11.4
9.6
11.6
22.4
18.6
11.3
14.5

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
nent rary T o­
disa­ disa­ tal
bil­ bil­
ity
ity

16.4
3.1
1.0
4.9
.6
24.6
5.4
18.4
.1
12.9
1.7
0)
11.2
1.7
“ ’.y
11.9
10.4 ’ “ ’ L T
.4
2.2
12.6
.6
23.5
1.5
.8
19.8
4.1
.6
11.9
1.8
.3
L4
15.0
.8

0.3
.4
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.2
.3
.3
.2
.3

4.4
5.8
5.7
1.9
1.9
.9
3.4
3.0
2.8
5.0
2.3
2.0

iLess than one-tenth of 1.

YARDS

The yard department presents many difficulties in accident reduc­
tion. The fact that the units of hazard are moving from place to
place and that often conditions render vision difficult or impossible
complicates the situation. Inspection of the accident rates shows
that these difficulties have not been entirely overcome.
From 1910 to 1925 frequency declined 23.4 per cent and severity
18.5 per cent. The accident experience of the third 5 -year period is
below that of the first, 48 per cent in frequency and 31.7 per cent in
severity.




IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
T able

63

ACCIDEN TS A N D A C C ID E N T RATES IN Y ARDS, 1807 TO 1925, B Y YEARS
A N D 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases

Year or period

year
work­
ers

1907.....................
1910.....................
1911.....................
1912.....................
1913.....................
191 4
191 5
1916.....................
1917.....................
1918.....................
1919.....................
1920.....................
1921.....................
1922.....................
1923.....................
1924.....................
1910-1914.............
1915-1919.............
1920-1924... ____
1925.............. . . . .

2,618
15,932
9,085
11,180
11,859
7,879
3,843
7,853
15,732
16,354
10,108
12,087
5,840
7,969
8,381
8,269
55,932
53,890
42,546
7,683

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Per- Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
mar po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
nent rary
Death nent rary T o­ Death disa­ disa­ To­ Death nent rary To­
disa­ disa­ tal
tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
5
40
11
23
28
10
12
36
33
25
10
6
15
12
10
112
106
53
12

10
49
43
64
50
87
15
56
77
62
48
33
22
16
35
19
243
258
125
24

509
2,054
1,336
1,940
1,807
975
417
929
1,792
1,526
1,021
922
422
536
693
617
8,112
5,685
3,190
755

524
2,143
1,390
2,027
1,885
1,022
432
997
1,905
1,621
1,094
965
450
567
740
644
8,467
6 049
^
3,366
791

0.6
.8
.4
.7
.8
.4
.5
.8
.7
.8
.3
.3
.6
.5
.4
.7
.7
.4
.5

1.2
1.0
1.6
1.9
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.4
1.6
1.2
1.6
.9
1.3
.7
1.4
.8
1.5
1.6
1.0
1.0

64.8
43.0
49.0
57.8
52.0
41.2
38.2
39.4
38.0
31.1
33.7
25.4
24.1
22.4
27.5
24.9
48.6
35.2
25.0
32.8

66.6
44.8
51.0
60.4
54.2
43.2
37.5
42.3 ‘ "
40.4
33.0
36.1
26.6
25.7
23.7
29.4
26.1
50.8
37.5
26.4
34.3

3.8
6.0
2.4
4.1
4.7
2.5
IT
4.6
4.0
19
1.7
2.1
3.8
2.9
2.4
4.0
3.9
2.5
3.1

2.6
1.0
1.9
1.4
1.0
1.4
1.0
2.2
1.7
1.2
1.9
1.3
1.9
.5
1.9
.9
1.4
1.6
1.2
1.6

LI
.5
.7
.8
.7
.6
.4
.6
.6
.6
.5
.5
.4
.5
.6
.6
.4
.6

7.5
6.5
5.0
6.3
6.4
4.5
1.4
5.9
6.9
5.8
7.4
3.4
4.4
4.8
5.2
3.8
6.0
6.1
4.1
5.8

ERECTION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL

The small size of the exposure from year to year impairs the
significance of this group but the 5-year periods may be regarded as
giving a true picture of conditions. From the first 5-year period to
the third, accident frequency rates declined from 121.7 to 97.5, or
19.9 per cent. Accident severity rates dropped from 31.4 to 19.9, or
36.6 per cent.
Thus far no other industrial group has been found which has a
ratio as high as these for the erection of structural steel. It remains
the most hazardous occupation after a steady and fairly large
reduction.
Oregon worked out rates for logging and logging railways in 1920,
and the severity rates for that year were 21.6 for logging and 20.2 for
logging railways. In the same year erection of structural steel had
a severity rate of 25.9. There is a very wide gap between these
rates and the next lower ones.
This situation in erection work is due to two important elements:
( 1) Activities of this nature constantly shift from place to place,
making it difficult to apply the methods which have been found
effective in settled industry. (2 ) There is nearly always strong
pressure for speed both from the owner and from the contractor. It
is therefore to be considered gratifying that there is evidence of
material improvement.




64

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

T a b l e 7 0 . — ACCIDENTS AN D ACC ID E N T RATES IN THE ERECTION OF STRU CTURAL

STEEL, 1915 TO 1925, BY YEARS AN D 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases

Year or period

Fullyear
work­
ers

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
nent rary To­ Death nent rary To­ Death nent rary ToDeath disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
ii
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
i
I
i

1915.....................|
|
1916................ —
1917.....................
1918.....................
1919.....................
1920.....................
1921.....................
1922.....................
1923....................
1924.....................
1912-1914.............
1915-1919.............
1920-1924.............
1925....................

803
1,011
1,156
1,234
775
<37
573
595
912
1,009
2,157
4.979
3,726
937

i
'
i1
;
i
i!
ii

!
1
j
i

266
251
264
251
442 469
364 377
214 226
204 222
177
168
129 136R
244
234
311
291
738 788
35 1,522 1,C02
35 1.026 1,090
3
188 200

7
3
15
3
7
12
4
2
7
10

8
10
12
10
5
6
5
3
10
26
45
29
9

3.3
3.3
3.5
2.7
2.2
3.3
2.9
2.8
1.1
3.3
4.0
3.0
2.6
3.2

2.9
1.0
4.3
.8
3.0
6.6
2.3
1.1
2.6
3.3
3.7
2.3
3.1
1.1

104.2
82.7
127.5
98.3
86.8
111.8
97.8
72.3
85.5
96.1
114.0
101.9
91.8
66.9

110.4
87.0
135.3
101.8
92.0
121.7
103.0
76.2
89.2
102.7
121.7
107.2
97.5
71.2

19.9
19.8
20.8
16.2
12.9
19.7
17.5
16.8
6.6
19.8
24.1
18.1
15.6
19.2

4.3
1.7
4.0
2.0
1.3
3.7
1.1
2.5
1.6
3.4
5.5
2.0
2.5
2.2

1.2 25.4
1.7 23.2
2.2 27.0
1.4 19.6
1.3 15.5
2.5 25.9
1.7 20.2
1.8 21.1
1.2
9.4
1.9 25.1
1.8 31.4
1.6 22.3
1.8 19.9
1.0 22.4

COKE OVENS

From 1915 to 1925 accident frequency in coke ovens declined
74.2
per cent while accident severity declined 33.3 per cent. The
5-year periods show a positive decline, frequency dropping from the

first to the third period 65.9 per cent and severity 62.9 per cent.
T a k l e 71.—ACCIDEN TS AND ACCIDEN T RATES IN

COKE OVENS,> 1915 TO 1925. BY
YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS

Number of cases

Year or period

Fullyear
work­
ers

1915..................... 1,648
1916..................... 2,195
1917..................... 6,641
1918..................... 9,395
1919..................... 9,022
1920..................... 8,620
1921..................... 5,768
1922..................... 6,554
1923..................... 8,961
1924..................... 7,506
1912-1914............. 13,282
1915-1919............. 28,901
1920-1924............. 37,409
1925..................... 7,599

Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Accident severity rates
(per 1.000 hours' ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
nent rary T o­ Death nent rary To­ Death nent rary T o­
Death
; disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
bil­ bil­
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
ity
2
5
26
21
12
6
2
2
7
9,
27
66 j
26
4 ’
|

4
128
6
150
10 508
14 662
10 647
11 518
4
182
1 207
14 416
15 ! 254
39 11,651
44:2,095
>
45 i 1,577
!
14 | 142
|
i

! 134
, 161
: 544
697
669
535
188
; 210
: 437
! 278
1,717
2,205
1,648
! 160
J

0.4
.8
1.3
.7
.4
.2
.1
.1
.3
.4
.7
.8
.2
.2

0.8
.9
.5
.5
.4
.4
.2
.1
.5
.7
1.0
.5
.4
.6

!

25.9
22.7
25.5
23.5
23.9
10.0
10.5
10.5
15.5
11.3
41.4
24.1
14.1
6.2

27.1
i 24.4
|27.3
i 24.7
i 24.7
i 10.6
: 10.8
! 10.7
i 16.3
! 12.4
' 43.1
• 25.4
i 14.7
. 7.0

2.4
4.6
7.8
4.5
2.7
1.4
.7
.6
1.6
2.4
4.1
4.6
1.4
1.1

1This table covers only those coke ovens operated in connection with steel works.
information see publications of the Bureau of Mines.

0.6
.5
.5
.5
.6
.7
.3
.2
1.1
.9
1.5
.5
.7
.9

0.3
.4
.4
.4
.4
.3
.2
.2
.3
.2
.6
.4
.2
.2

3.3
5.5
8.7
5.4
3.7
2.4
1.1
1.0
3.0
3.5
6.2
5.5
2.3
2.2

For more complete

OTHER DEPARTMENTS

Accident data and accident frequency and severity rates for other
departments of the iron and steel industry, for the 3-ears for which
thejr are available, are shown in Table 72.




IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

65

T a b l e 72*—ACCIDENTS AND AC C ID E N T RATES IN MISCELLANEOUS DEPA RTM E N TS

OF THE IRON A ND STEEL IN DU STRY, 1915 TO 1925, B Y YEARS AND 5-YEAR PERIODS
Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Number of cases
| FullYear or period ■ year
iworkers

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours* ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
po­
ma­ po­
rary Total Death nent rary Total Death nent rary Total
disa­ disa­
disa­
disa­ disa­
bility bility
bility bility
bility
Axle works

191 5 ...........
191 6
-1917.............
1018.............
191 9
192 0
192 1
192 2
192 3
■mu
»
1912^914 - 11
1915-1919...
1920-1924...
1925.............

191
372
713
009
582
743
242
490
774
516
1,326
2,467
2,764
436

21
17
81
156
63
100
12
11
30
22
438
338
175
6

1.7

22 i.

17
81
159
63

100

13
11
30
24
444
342
178
6

j.
•
I
.
i
1.3

36.6
15.2
37.9
1.6 85.4
36.1
44.8
16.5
7.5
12.9
.6 14.2
110.1
.5 45.7
.1 21.1
4.6

1.0

.2

38.3
15.2
37.9
87.0 ...........
36.1
44.8
8.3
17.9
7.5
12.9
3.9
11.4
8.0
111.6
46.2
21.5 '■ ’ i.T
4.6

3.1
3.9

.2
2.1
1.2
0)

0.3
.1
.9
1.1
.7
.7
.5
.1
.1
.2
1.6
.7
.8
.1

3.4
.1
.9
5.0
.7
.7
8.7
.1
.1
4.3
6.7
1.9
1.7
.1

0i7
2.1
.9
.6
1.0
.6
.7
.6
.8
.8
1.3
1.0
.7
.6

1.0
8.6
5.9
1.7
8.2
1.5
4.9
.6
2.8
2.9
4.7
3.9
2.3
1.9

0.1
.5
1.0
.3
.5
.1
.5
.3
.2
.3
.8
.5

2.4
88.6
13.0
6.0
10.9
8.3
.5
30.1
4.1
14.7
8.2
13.3
10.6

Car wheels
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
192 0
192 1
192 2
192 3
192 4
1912-1914.
1915-1919.
1920-1924.
3925.........

25
348
250
337
353
170
92
78
116
137
609
1,313
595
69

734
1,296

1,866

1,619
1,215
552
1,102
1,099
1,083
2,307
5,904
5,050
931 I

26
352
257
338
365
174
95
78
118
141
627
1,338
608
72

0.9
.8
.2
.2

0.9 21.4 22.3
.9 158.0 159.0
1.0 64.3 66.1
60.2 60.4
2.3 72.6 75.1
1.0 46.7 47.7
1.2 56.7 58.6
23.6 23.6
.3 35.2 35.8
.9 42.2 43.4
2.1 85.8 88.3
1.0 74.1 75.5
.7 39.3 40.2
1.1 24.7 25.8

5.4
4.6
1.1
1.2
3.0

0.3
1.0
.4
1.0
.0
.5

1.8
1.8
2.5
2.4
1.2

.2
.3
.9
.5
.4
1.3

30.8
11.3
5.4

2.3
7.3
.7
.3
10.4
2.9

Docks and ore yards
J915........
191 6
191 7
J918........
191 9
192 0
192 1
192 2
192 3
192 4
1911-1914
1915-1919
1920-1924
192 5

115
195 I
353 !
368 1
352
379
235
271
538
340
1,293
1,383
1,761

7
16
78
35
39
12
11
7
15
12
139
175
57
7

3
2
1

9
21
81
37
45
15
11
13
18
16
153
193
73
9

5.1
1.9
.9

3.7
.8
1.4
.8
1.7

5.8
3.4
.9
.9
5.7
1.8
'§.'7
1.9
3.9
2.8
2.9
2.3

20.3'
27.4
73.6
31.7
37.0
10.6
15.6
8.6
9.2

26.1
35.9
76.4
33.5
42.7
13.3
15.6
16.0

35.8
42.2
10.8
6.0

39.4
46.5
13.9
7.7

11.1

11.8 15.7

' 5. 3
*

22.2
4.6
&7
4.5
10.3

To
3.9
14.4
2.8
4.1
5.8

10.6

Woven wive fence
1915.
1916.
1017.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1915-1919.
19201925.

1,552
1.623
1,269
1,531
1,336
1,097
1,095
1,528
1,603
1,301
7,311
6.623
1,290




10
18
10
5
4
6
3
6
3
6
47
24
2

294
180
98
77
35
48
79
85
124
63
684
399
105

304
198
108
82
40
54
82
91
128
69
732
424
107

0.2

.2

2.1
3.7
2.6
1.1
1.0
1.8
.9
1.3
.6
1.5
2.1
1.2
.5

63.1
37.0
25.7
16.8
8.7
14.6
24.1
18.5
25.8
16.1
31.2
20.1
27.1

65.2
40.7
28.3
17.9
9.9
16.4
30.0
19.8
26.6
17.6
33.4
21.4
27.6

1.5

1.2

1.2
3.0
2.1
1.0
.6
2.9
.8
.7
.5
1.3
1.6
1.2
.2

0.5
.4
.4
.2
.2
.2
.4
.4
.2
.2
.3
.3
.4

1.7
3.4
2.5
1.2
2.3
3.1
1.2
1.1
1.9
1.5
2.2
1.8
.6

66

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

T a b l e 72.—ACCIDEN TS AND ACCIDEN T RATES IN M ISCELLANEOUS D E PA RTM E N TS

OF THE IRON AND STEEL IN DU STRY, 1915 TO 1925, BY YEARS A ND 5-YEAR PERIODS—
Continued
Accident frequency rates
(per 1,000,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Number of cases

Year or period

Fullyear
workers

Per­
ma­
Death nent
disa­
bility

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ poma­ po­
rary Total Death nent rary Total Death nent rary Total
disa­
disa­ disa­
disa­ disa­
bility
bility bility
bility bility
Vails and staples

1,546
1
1915.................
1,993
1916.................
1
1917.................. 2,323
1918...... . ......... 1,916
1919................. 2,040
1920................. 2,364
1
1921.................. 1,718
1
1922................. 2,366
1
1923................. 3,404
1924................. 1,939
9,818 ....... 2
1915-1919..
3
1920-1924......... 10,890
1925_________ 1,925

12
10
16
10
8
8
6
10
7
6
56
37
6

181
236
184
123
58
164
91
121
131
81
782
588
88

194
0.2
246
.1
201
133
66
172
98
.2
.1
132
.1
139
87
840 * : r
.i
628
94

2.6
.2
2.3
1.7
1.3
1.1
1.2
1.4
.9
1.0
1.9
1.1
1.0

39.0 41.8
1.3
39.5 39.7
26.4 28.8 “ .T
21.4 £3.1
9.5 10.8
23.1 24.2
17.7 19.0
1.2
17.0 18.5
.8
17.4 18.5
.8
13.9 14.9 . . . . . . .
26.5 28.5
18.0 19.2
.6
15.2 16.2

1.7
1.0
2.1
1.2
.5
.8
.6
1.3
1.2
1.0
1.3
1.0
1.6

0.3
1.4
.3
.2
.1
.1
.3
.3
.2
.2
.3
.2
,2

3.3
2.4
3.3
1.4
.6
.9
2.1
2.4
2.2
1.2
2.0
1.8
1.8

Hot mills
1923.................. 6,374
1924................. 5,780
1920-1924......... 30,018
1925____ _____ 7,773

2
1
11
4

9
7
39
19

820
831
634
642
3,223 3,273
913
936

0.1
.1
.1
.17

0.5
.4
.4
.81

42.9
36.6
35.8
39.1

43.5
37.1
36.3
4a 1

0.6
.3
.7
1.03

0.4
.5
.4
.74

0.5
.6
.5
.60

1.5
1.4
1.6
9.37

43.3
38.6
39.3
35.2
30.7
36.7
28.9
29.9
35.3
30.0
35.9
32.6
27.7

1.5
1.4
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.0
1.1
1.4
1.6
1.2
.7

0.6
1.4
.8
.9
.7
.9
.8
.8
.9
.9
1.3
.9
.7

0.6
.6
.5
.5
.4
.5
.5
.4
.5
.5
.5
.5
.4

2.7
3.4
3.1
2.9
2.6
2.8
2.6
2.2
2.5
2.8
3.4
2.6
1.8

Unclassified
1915.................
1916..................
1917.................
1918.................
1919..................
1920..................
192 1
192 2
1923..................
1924____ _____
1915-1919.........
1920-1924.........
1925.................

21,547
24,216
71,249
97,513
78,804
104,741
53,403
79,405
95,138
93,018
293,329
425,704
132,291

41 2,749
16
17
72 2,714
65
164 &165
79 284 9,930
60
145 7,054
72 261 11,208
36
134 4,468
39
233 6,848
52 *273 9,719
285 8,032
66
237
706 30,612
265 1,186 40,275
45
3G 10,648
8

2,806
2,803
8,394
10,293
7,259
11,541
4,638
7,120
10,044
8,383
31,555
41,736
11,001

0.2
.2
.3
.3
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.3
.2
.1

0.6
1.0
.8
1.0
.6
.8
.8
1.0
1.0
1.0
.8
.9
.8

42.5
37.4
38.2
33.9
29.8
35.7
27.9
28.7
34.1
28.8
34.8
31.5
26.8

* Less than one-tenth of 1.

ANALYSIS OP ACCIDENT CAUSES IN THE INDUSTRY
ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE 07 THE DEPARTMENTS COMPARED

The tables in this section present the experience of 13 departments
during two 5-year periods for 7 large cause groups. In the portion
of the tables pertaining to 1915-1919 the departments were arranged
in the order of their accident severity. To make comparison of the
two periods as easy as possible, in the portion of the table relating to
1920-1924 the departments are given in the same order as for 19151919 and not according to their accident severity.
The most striking feature of these tables is the constancy with
which practically every department records lower rates in the second
period.




IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

67

MACHINERY

In the first period the electrical department suffered most severely
from accidents. In the second period there is but one department
with a lower severity rate. Evidently the high severity rate of the
first period is not wholly typical. Since the group of the second
period is much larger, it may be assumed that it more accurately
reflects the relations of the departments.
The highest accident frequency (158.7) of the first period is found
in fabricating. In the second period the highest frequency (114)
appeal's in foundries.
T a b l e 73.—M A CH IN E RY AS A CAUSE OP AC C IDE N T: NU M BER OP CASES AND AC­

C ID E N T FREQUENCY AN D SE VERITY RATES, 1915 TO 1919, AND 1920 TO 1924, B Y
D E PA RTM E N TS

Number of cases

Department

Fullycar
work­
ers

Per­
ma­
nent
Death dis­
abil­
ity

Accident frequenc;irrates Accident se7erity rates
(per 10,000,000 j tours’
(per 10,000 hours' ex­
exposure)
posure)

Per­ Tem­
Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
po­
ma­ po­
rary Total Death nent rary Total Death nent rary
dis­
dis­ dis­
dis­ dis­ Total
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity ity
ity
ity ity

1915-1919
Electrical...............
Open hearths.........
Fabricating...........
Bessemer...............
Blast furnaces.......
Yards.....................
Foundries..............
Plate mills.............
Tube mills.............
Mechanical............
Heavy rolling mills
Sheet mills............
Unclassified...........

4,191
20; 525
11,110
5,450
17,021
9,819
10,222
14,711
11,021
24,752
27,123
5,920
55,534

5
16
6
4
9
5
4
6
4
8
7
18

65
76
6
4.0
22 365 403
2.6
529
1.5
40 484
4
46
54
2.4
19 125
153
L7
87
1.7
9
101
12 308 324
1.3
372
1.4
19 347
98
119
17
1.2
597 638
33
1.1
42 403 452
.9
8
65
73 _
68 1,125 1,211 ’ “i . T

4.8 51.7 60.5 23.86
3.6 59.3 65.5 15.59
12.0 145.2 158.7
9.00
2.4 28.1 33.0 14.68
3.6 23.6 28.9 10.22
3.1 29.5 34.3 i a 18
3.9 100.4 105.6
7.83
4.3 78.6 84. S 8.16
5.0 29.0 35.2
7.10
4.4 sa 4 85.9
6.46
5.1 49.5 55.5
5.16
4. o 36.6 41.1 _
4.1 67.5 72.7 "a is ’

6.44
2.12
6.74
1.28
3.72
2.78
3.18
2.65
3.99
3.17
4.32
2.70
3.64

1.08
1.54
2.81
.78
.58
.60
2.04
1.87
1.20
1.53
1.23
.84
L47

31.38
19.25
18.55
16.74
14.52
13.57
13.05
12.68
12.29
11.16
10.71
3.54
11.59

1.9 21.4
2.0 29.6
3.5 80.6
1.5 20.0
1.4 11.4
2.0 19.2
4.4 109.1
2.7 32.7
2.6 20.3
2.3 29.5
2.4 35.0
3.2 24.8
1.5 26.4

1.64
.61
.76
jl.83
!3.53 1.75
.55
;1.53
.29
!l.l6
!1.83
.45
12.56 2.05
!1.23
.84
:1.52 .56
1.78 .58
;1.39 .97
12.77 .65
1.29 .61

5.01
10.58
11.27
5.10
5.47
7.25
7.84
8.31
4.42
5.04
9.02
6.49
6.00

1920-1924
Electrical...............
Open hearths.........
Fabricating............
Bessemer...............
Blast furnaces.......
Yards.....................
Foundries..............
Plate mills.............
Tube mills.............
Mechanical............
Heavy rolling mills
Sheet mills............
Unclassified...........

14,002
60,087
20,049
19,853
54,773
20,118
37,129
22,428
68,335
89,481
48,082
45,618
107,317

2 ; 8
90
100
24 ! 36
533
593
21 485 512
« !
9
119
3
131
187
11: 23 116 221
5
12
133
49 1,215 1,270
«
7
18 220 245
8 ! 53 416 477
12 j 61
793 866
16: 35
505 556
7 ; 44 339 390
22 ! 49 851
922

.5
1.3
1.0
.5
.7
.8
.5
1.0
.4
.5
1.1
.5
.7

23.8
32.9
85.1
22.0
13.5
22.0
114.0
36.4
23.3
32.3
38.6
28.5
28.6

2.86
7.99
5.99
3.02
4.02
4.97
3.23
6.24
2.34
2.68
6.66
3.07
4.10

POWER VEHICLES

As might be expected yards have the greatest accident severity
(54.35 in 1915-1919 and 31.83 in 1920-1924) from power vehicles.
In accident frequency also this is the leading accident cause (165.3 in
1915-1919 and 66.4 in 1920-1924).
In the first period blast furnaces (18.96) stands next in severity
while in the second period open hearths (7.24) occupies this position,
[t will be noticed that their rates are very much lower than those
for yards. In fact, yards present a serious problem to any safety
man. It has been noted elsewhere that motion is iu many cases the




68

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

element of hazard. A localized machine with its moving parts
presents dangers. When the machine adds a motion from place to
place the dangers multiply. That the difficulties are not insoluble
the records of the two periods strikingly indicate.
T a b l e 74.—POWER VEHICLES AS A CAUSE OF ACCIDENT: N U M BER OF CASES AND

ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES, 1915 TO 1919 AND 1920 TO 1924, BY
DEPA RTM E N TS
: Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 10,000 hours' ex­
! (per 10,000,000 hours'
j exposure)
posure)

Number of cases

Department

Fullyear
work­
ers

Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
Death nent rary Total1Death
dis­ dis­
abil­ abil­
ity ity

Permanent
dis­
abil­
ity

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
rary Total Death nent rary Total
dis­
dis- dis­
abil- abil­
abil­
ity ity
ity

1915^-1919
Yards..............
Blast furnaces.
Open hearths....... ;
Heavy rolling mills.
Mechanical...........
Tube mills............
Electrical...............
Foundries.............
Fabricating...........
Plate mills.............
8heet mills............
Unclassified..........

9,819
17.621
5,450
20,525
27,123
24,752
11.621
4,191
10,222
11,110
14,711
5,920
55,534

443
131
41
178
48
48
7
7
21
13
14

487
149
49
202
61
52
9
7
21
13
20

6.8
2.8
1.8
1.3
.1
.3

192

213

.8

354
150
67
263
62
91
55
12
76
31
12
60
311

401
160
68
300
71
99
58
14
79
32
12
65

4.0
.5
.2
.9
.8
.2
.1
.5
.1
.2

150.4 165.3
24.8 28.2
25.1 3a 0
28.9 32.8
5.9
7.5
6.5
7.1
2.7
2.1
5.6
5.6
6.8
6.8
3.9
3.9
4.5
4.5
.4

11.5 .12.7

40.74
17.03
11.00
7.80
4.42
1.62

9.86
1.45
1.28
3.21
1.22
.86
.62

a 75 54.35
.48 18.96
1.22 13.50
.76 JL77
5.92
.28
.28
2.76
.18
.80
.16
.16
. 12
.12
.10
.10
.07
.07

5.04 1.17

.23

6.44

23.86 6.33
2.92 .16
1.01
5.33

1.64
.22
.34
.42
.12
.13
.07
.06
.15
.14
.08
.08
.24

31.83
3.30
1.35
7.24
2.37

1920-1924
20,118
54,773
19,853
Open hearths......... 60,087
Heavy rolling mills. 48,082
89,481
Mechanical.......
68,335
Tube mills........
14,002
Electrical..........
37,129
Foundries.........
20,049
Fabricating.......
22,428
Plate mills........
45,618
Sheet mills........
Unclassified.
107,317
Yards..............
Blast furnaces.

58.7
9.1
11.3
14.6
4.3
a4
2.7
2l9
6.8
5.2
1.8
4.4
9.7

66.4
9.7
11.4
16.6
4.9
a7
2.8
&3
7.1
5.3
1.8
4.7
ia 3

1.66

2.86
.54

1.00

" ‘ . 44
‘
2.42

.05

1.21

.07
2.92
.74
1.14
.08
1.00

S. 17

HOT SUBSTANCES

Accidents due to hot metal and the electric current are character­
istic accidents of the iron and steel industry. It is, however, some­
what surprising that the electrical department has, in both periods,
the second highest accident frequency (98.7 in 1915-1919 and 42.1
in 1920-1924).
This is, of course, due to the instances where electricians handle
live parts and get more or less severe burns. A comparison of the
two periods will indicate that the precautions w^hich have come into
use in the last five years have been very effective.




IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

69

T a b le * « .—HOT SUBSTANCES AS A CAUSE OF AC C IDE N T: NU M BER OF CASES AN D

ACC ID E N T FREQU EN CY A N D SEVERITY KATES, IMS TO 1919 AN D 1920 TO 1924, B Y
D E PA RTM E N TS

i
Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 10,000,000 hours’
(per 10,000 hours' ex­
exposure)
posure)

Number of cases

Department

year
work­
ers

Per­
ma­
nent
Death dis­
abil­
ity.

j
1
!
Tem­
j
po­
!
rary Total Death
dis­
abil­
ity

Per­
ma­
nent
dis­
abil­
ity

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
rary Total Death nent rary
dis­
dis­ dis­ Total
abil­
abil­ abil­
ity
ity ity

1915-1919
Electrical...............
Bessemer________
Open hearths.........
Foundries..............
Heavy rolling mills
Plate mills.............
Mechanical.______
Tube mills.............
Fabricating____
Sheet mills____ . . .
Y a n is ...________
Unclassified...........

4,191
6,450
17,621
20,625
10,222
27,123
14,711
24,752
11,621
11.110
6,920
9,819
55,534

4
6
13
14
3
6
2
3
1
1

14,002
19,853
54,773
60,067
37,129
48,082
22,428
89,481
68,335
20,049
46,618
20,118.
107,317

3
3
30
20

8

1
6
3
3'

4

119
114
418
764
167
236
160
181
53
40
39
61
632

124
120
436
781
170
245
162
184
64
41
39
51
644

3.2 0.8
3.7
2.5 " \ T
2.3
.5
1.0
.7 ' . 4’
.5
.4
.3
.3
.5

94.7
69.7
79.1
124.1
54.5
29.0
36.3
24.4
15.7
12.0
22.0
17.3
.2 37.9

98.7
73.4
82.5
126.9
55.5
30.1
36.8
24.8
16.0
12.3
22.0
17.3
38.6

19.09 4.77
22.02
14.76 2.'2i‘
13.64 .66
5.87
4.42 .66
2.72
2.42
1.78
1.80
2.88

.40

1.12
2.01
1.57
2.35
1.15
.62
.42
.37
.40
.15
.28
.27
.66

24.98
24.03
18.54
16.65
7.02
6.70
8.14
2.79
£18
1.95
.28
.27
3.94

.7
.6
.8
.9
.6
.3
.3
.2

4.9
3.7
12.3
7.8
.9
1.8
1.3
2.2
1.2
2.6
.8
.2
2.8

1920-1024
Electrical...............
Bessemer...............
Blast furnaces.......
Open hearths.........
Foundries_______
Heavy rolling mills
Plate mills.............
Mechanical............
Tube mills_______
Fabricating............
Sheet m i ll s ........
Yards__ _____ . . . .
Unclassified...........

2
1
8
3
2
1
12

4
2
2
1
1
1
1
6

174
177
165 168
576 610
894 : 916
440 442
245 248
116
1J8
382 391
302 305
78
81
300 301
68
68
628 645

.7

41.4 42.1
4.3
27.7 28.2
3.0
35.0 37.1
11.0
.6
49.6 50.8
6.7
.2
39.5 39.7 . . . . . . . .3
17.0 17.2
.1
17.2 17.5
.9
.1
14.2 14.6
1.8
.2
14.7 14.9
.9
‘ “.Y 13.0 13.5
2.0 ' “.T
22.0 22.0
.4
11.3 11.3
.4
.2 19.5 20.0
2.2
.3
.6

1.8
1.1

.2
.1
.2
.1
.2
.0

.8

.2
.3
.2
.3

FAILS OF PERSONS

That the electrical department again heads the list in the first period
in severity ( 11.21 ) of accidents due to falls of persons and is next to the
highest (3.40) in the second period is in part due to inclusion of linemen,
whose duties call for work at a height from which a fall may easily
occur. It is quite possible that some of these falls are chargeable to
electric shock, which causes the fall to occur. In the first period the
electrical department also has the highest accident frequency (58.1),
followed by open hearths (45.8).
In the second period the highest accident frequency (28.0) is found in
foundries; in the second period the highest severity rate (3.71) is in
blast furnaces.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

70

T abt .e 76.—FALLS OF PERSONS AS A CAUSE OF A CCIDEN T: NUM BER OF CASES AND

A CCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SE VERITY RATES, 1915 TO 1919 AND 1920 TO 1924, B Y
DEPA RTM E N TS

Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 10,000 hours’ ex­
(per 10,000,000 hours’
posure)
exposure)

Number of cases

Department

Fullyear
work­
ers

1915-1919
Electrical________
Blast furnaces.......
Mechanical______
Foundries..............
Fabricating______
Tube mills_______
Bessemer________
Open hearths_____
H eavy rolling m ills
Plate mills_______ '
Sheet mills_______
Yards.....................
Unclassified...........

4,191
17,621
24,752
10,222
11,110
11,621
5.450
20,525
27,123
14,711
5,920
9.819
55,534

1920-1924
Electrical............... 14,002
Blast furnaces____ 54,773
Mechanical______ 89,481
Foundries_______ 37,129
Fabricating______ 20,049
Tube mills_______ 68,335
Bessemer________ 19,853
Open hearths......... 60.087
Heavy rolling mills. 48,082
Plate mills_______ 22.428
Sheet mills__ ____ 45,618
Yards..................... 20,118
Unclassified........... 107,317

Per-i Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ms- po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
nent rary Total Death nent rary Total Death nent rary Total
Death dis­ disdis­ dis­
dis­ dis­
abil­ abilabil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity ity
ity : ity
ity ity
i
!
2
4
5
1
1
1

4
1

1

7

3

2
9 “ T
4
12
2
2
6
2
1
2
1
12

2
1
1
1

71
191
289
75
93
37
47
282
203
120
40
73
537

73
199
294
77
91
38
47
282
204
120
40
73
547

85
274
506
312
138
212
73
419
253
92
193
148
684

87
286
522
312
140
214
73
427
256
94
195
149
697

1.6
.8 " o T
.7
.3 " \ Y
.3
.3

.i
.4

.2

.5
.6
.5

.2
.2

.3
.1
.3
.1
.2
.2
.2
.4

.1
.1
.2
.0

56.5
36.1
38.9
24.5
27.9
10.9
28.7
45.8
24.9
27.2
22.5
24.8
32.2

58.1
37.7
39.6
25.1
28.2
11.2
28.7
45.8
25.0
27.2
22.5
24.8
32.8

9.54
1.67
4.54 2.19
.68
4.04
.89
1.96 ~.~20" .30
1.80
.50
.35
L78
1.36
1.04
.53
.09
.41
.41
.38
2.52 .07
.57

11.21
7.41
4.93
2.46
2.30
2.13
1.36
1.04
.62
.41
.41
.38
3.16

20.2
16.3
18.9
28.0
22.9
10.3
12.3
23.2
17.5
13.7
14.1
24.5
21.3

20.7
17.4
19.5
28.0
23.3
10.4
12.3
23.7
17.8
14.0
14.3
24.7
2L7

2.86
3.29
2.68

.54
.36
.50
.39
.47
.26
.35
.50
.36
.23
.26
.45
.40

3.40
3.71
3.27
.39
2.47
.85
.35
2.54
1.21
1.23
1.14
1.44
2.65

.06
.09

2.00
.59
2765
.83
.89
.88
.99
2.24

.04
.02
.11
.01

FALLING OBJECTS

The accident severity rate (8.61) for falling objects in the Bessemer
department in the first period is, in part at least, associated with the
feeding of scrap into the converting vessels. In the older types of
construction this was done in a manner permitting the material to
fall rather frequently and endangering the men working below, but
in recent construction this hazard has been largely overcome.
In the first period the highest accident frequency (78) is found in
foundries. The same department also has the highest frequency
(82.2) in the second period. This is one of the few cases in which
the second period has a higher rate than the first.




IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

71

T able 77.—PALLING OBJECTS AS A CAUSE OF A CCIDEN T: N UM BER OF CASES AND
A CCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES, 1915 TO 1919 AND 1920 TO 1924, BY
D E P A R T M E N TS
Accident frequencyrrates
(per 10,000,000 £tours'
exposure)

Number of cases

Department

Fullyear
work­
ers

1915-1919
Bessemer...............
Open hearths.........
Foundries..............
Blast furnaces.......
Fabricating______
Yards.....................
Mechanical...........
Plate mills..... .......
Heavy rolling mills
Sheet m ills ........
Tube m i ll s ........
Electrical__. . . . . . .
Unclassified...........

5,450
20,525
10,222
17,621
11,110
9,819
24,752
14,711
27,123
5,920
11,621
4,191
55,534

2
7
2
4
1
1
2

7

8

1920-1924
Bessemer................
Open hearths.........
Foundries_______
Blast furnaces.......
Fabricating______
Yards.....................
Mechanical............
Plate mills.............
Heavy rolling mills
Sheet m ills ....___
Tube mills.............
E lectrica l..........
Unclassified...........

19,853
60,087
37,129
64,773
20,049
20,118
89,481
22,428
48,082
45,018
68,335
14,002
107,317

1
8

2
10
3
3
5
1
8
.....

Accident severity rates
(per 10,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
nent rary
Death nent rary Total Death nent rary Total
Death
dis­ dis­
dis­ dis­
dis­ dis­ Total
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity ity
ity ity
ity
ity

1

2
2
3
2
2
3
6

2
3
2
1
4
1
2
3
9
1

1
9
1
6

65
351
235
185
192
102
380
299
307
39
63
32
860

69
361
239
190
197
104
384
302
316
40
64
32
875

1.2
LI
.7
.8
.3
.3
.3

167
622
912
291
255
146
626
262
389
213
460
70
790

170
640
915
296
262
147
637
264
398
214
472
71
802

.2
.4

.8

.4

.1
.8
.1
.3
.1
.2
.2

1.2
.5
.7
.2
1.2
.3
.3
.7
1.1
.6
.5

39.8
57.0
76.6
35.0
57.6
34.6
51.8
67.7
37.7
22.0
18.6
25.5
51.6

28.0
34.5
81.9
17.7
42.4
24.2
23.3
38.9
". d" 27.0
.1 15.6
.4 22.4
.2 16.7
.2 24.5
.3
.6
.3
.2
.8
.2
.3

a 37 0.90
.24 1.00
.20 1.68
.14
.82
.36
.94
.10
.80
.08
.84
.75 1.11
.92
.75
.17
.72
.19
.54
.53
‘ ."of .96

8.61
8.06
5.80
5.50
3.10
2.94
2.54
1.86
1.67
.89
.73
.53
4.09

.52
28.6
1.01 .10
.67
35.5
2.66 .32
.17 1.30
82.2
.38
18.0 ’ ’ "."73" .22
4a 6 2.00 1.20 .88
24.4
.10
.49
23.7 ' “ ~67_ .24
.52
39.2
1.78
.62
27.6
.83 ".’ 20‘ .63
15.6
.02
.33
.88 .13
.46
23.0
16.9
.07
.32
24.9
1.12 .19
.53
1
|

1.63
3.65
1.47
1.33
4.08
.59
1.43
2.40
1.66
.35
1.47
.39
1.84

42.2
7.34
6.82
58.6
3.92
78.0
4.54
36.0
59.1
1.80
35.2
2.04
52.4
1.62
68.4
38.8
22.6
18.9
25.5
52.5 "2.'52'

BANDUNG

It will be noted on inspecting Table 78 that the accidents recorded
exhibit high frequency and relatively low severity. A moment’s
reflection will make it clear that it is natural that in the manual
movement of material minor injuries might occur. In the absence
of severity rates this fact has been the cause of a somewhat erroneous
view regarding the importance of this type of injury. It has been
thought that the rapid reduction of this sort of cases represented a
highly successful accident prevention effort. In some instances
attention has been so completely directed to methods bringing about
decline in frequency that, while it was going on, the severity of
accidents was actually increasing. It is very clear that sufficient
study should be devoted to those departments and causes where
severity is high to bring about as large a reduction as circumstances
will allow, as it is the accidents of high severity which are costly and
disastrous.
In all preceding tables, sheet mills have been well down the list.
In the present cause group these mills are at the top in the first
ieriod in accident frequency (220.7) and in accident severity (5.49).
n the second period they occupy the same place in accident severity
(3.83) and are next to the top in accident frequency (127.4). This
arises in connection with the process of opening the packs of sheets.
No way has been discovered to do this except by hand. The sheets

f




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

72

have sharp and somewhat jagged edges on which the opener is
often cut and lacerated. The striking decline from the first to the
second period is evidence that care on the part of the worker will give
results even in so distinctively a hand operation as this.
T a b l e 7 8 .—
HANDLING OBJECTS AND TOOLS AS A CAUSE OF A C C ID E N T: N U M BE R

OF CASES, AND ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY AN D SEVERITY RATES, 1915 TO 1919 AND
1920 TO 1924, BY DE PA RTM E N TS

Number of cases

Department

Fullyear
work­
ers

Accident frequency rates Accidcnt severity rates
(per 10,000 hours' ex­
(per 10,000,000 hours'
posure)
exposure)

j
Per-ITemPer­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma-i poma­ po­
ma­ po­
nent- rary Total Death nent rary Total Death nent rary Total
Death dis-1 dis­
dis­ dis­
dis­ disable abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity i ity
ity ity
ity ity

1915-1919
Sheet mills.......
Mechanical.......
Foundries.........
Tube mills........
Blast furnaces..
Oj>en hearths____
Yards....................
Heavy rolling mills
Plate mills........... .
Bessemer..............
Electrical.............
Fabricating..........
Unclassified.........

5,920
24,752
10,222
11,265
17,621
20,525
9.819
27,123
14,711
5,450
4,191
11,110
55,534

6

386 392
1,064 1,089
546 552
214 221
576 584
867 881
294 300
761
780
613 621
128
132
84
88
405 409
2,612 2,652

3.4
3.3
2.0;
.3 1.8!
.2. 1.3;
.2 2.1
2.0j
2.3
1.8:
2.4;
3.2!
1.2:
2.4

0.1

217.3
143.3;
178.0:
63.31
109.0;
140.6;
99.8
93.5:
138.9;
78.3;
6a 8!
121.5!
15a 8;

220.7
1.
146.7! 0.81 2.53 1.91
2.18 2.21
180.0..
65.4
1.78 1.15 1.13
110.5: 1.14 1.48 1.41
143.1!
.97 .90 1.76
101.8!
1.78
95.8;
1.47 L36]
14a 7.
.75 1.74
80.71
.73 1.52
7a o!
1.31 ' . 93
122.71
.36 1:64
159.2
1.39 2.24

5.49
5.25
4.39
4.06
4.03
3.63
3.36
2.83
2.49
2.26
2.24

2.00

3.63

1920-1924
Sheet mills.......
Mechanical.......
Foundries.........
Tube mills.« ...
Blast furnaces..
Open hearths...
Yards................. . .
Heavy rolling mills
Plate mills.......
Electrical___
Fabricating..
Unclassified.

45,618
89,481
37,129
68,335
54,773
60,087
20,118
48,082
22,428
19,853
14,002
20,049
107,317

1,743
1,449
2,246
973!
683j
1,195
358
827
433
351
154
538

1,719
1,484
2,264
1,005
700
1,240
371
855
446
364
158
551
2,046

1.53 125.61:127.36
1.19 53.98! 55.28
1.62 201.64203.26
1.32 47.46 49.02
.97 41.57 42.60
2.39 66.29 68.79
1.99 59.32 61.48
1.94 57.33 59.27
64.35 6a 28
1.
2.18 58.93 61.11
.95 36.66 37.61
2.16 >.45 91.61
.09 .65 62.80 63.54

1.32
.67

.74
.74
"i.46 .58
.37 .43
.67 1.32
.99 1.11
.84
1.60

.56

2.12

.46

1.82
.84
2.46

2.25
3.20
2.84
1.49
1.06 3.05
.98 3.08
.92 1.76
.90 2.50
.98 1.96
.52
.80
1.50 3.62
1.00 2.02

MISCELLANEOUS CAUSES

The causes grouped under the term “ miscellaneous” are so varied
from department to department that the rates are not of very great
significance.
The high accident severity (14.03) in blast furnaces during the
first period is due to asphyxiating gas, a hazard not found to any
great extent in any other department. This department also leads
m accident severity (5.15) during the second period.




IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

73

T a b le 7 9 .—M ISCELLANEOUS CAUSES OF A CCIDEN T: NUM BER OF CASES AND ACCI­

D E N T FREQUENCY AN D SE VERITY RATES, 1915 TO 1»19 AND 1920 TO 1924, B Y
D E P A RT M E N TS

Accident frequency rates Accident severity rates
(per 10,000,000 hours'
(per 10,000 hours' ex­
exposure)
posure)

Number of cases

Department

1915-1919
Blast furnaces-----Yards________
Electrical______
Tube mills........
Mechanical____
Plate mills.---------IIeav y rolling mills
Fabricating............
Open hearths.........
Bessemer....... ........
Foundries_______
Sheet mills.............
Unclassified______
1920-1924
Blast furnaces.......
Yards.....................
Electrical________
Tube mills_______
Mechanical---------Plate mills.............
Heavy rolling mills
Fabricating...........
Open hearths__
Bessemer...........
Foundries_____
Sheet mills.......
Unclassified___

Fullyear
work­
ers

Per­
ma­
Death nent
dis­
abil­
ity

17,621
9,819
4,191
11,265
24,752
14,711
27,123
11,110
5,450
10,222
5,920

54,773
20,118
14,002
89,481
22,428
48,082
20,049
60,087
19,853
37,129
45,618
107,317

10
13

Per­ Tem­
Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
po­
ma­ po­
rary Total Death nent rary Total Death nent rary Total
dis­
dis­ dis­
dis­ dis­
abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
ity ity
ity
ity ity
400 414
177
185
88
89
113
117
540 549
286 288
327 331
298 301
449 452
90
91
263 266
129
130
997 1,018
455
208
125
599
770
261
874
297
608
196
988
573
902

2.1
1.4
.8
.6
.3
.5
.4
.8
.2

.6

471
209
127
609
779
263
378
297
618
201
990
575
927

75.7
60.1
70.0
33.4
72.7
64.8
40.2
89.4
72.9
55.0
85.8
72.6
59.8

78.4
62.9
70.8
34.6
73.9
65.3
40.7
90.3
73.5
55.6
86.8
73.2
61.1

27.7 28.7
34.5 34.6
29.8 30.2
29.2 29.7
28.7 29.0
38.8 39.6
25.9 26.2
49.4 49.4
33.7 34.3
32.9 33.8
88.7 88.9
41.9 42.0
28.0

12.49 1.02
8.15 3.19
4.77
27
3.55
1.62 1.94
2.72

2.21

.18
.58
1.10
.78
.17
3.60 .97
1.80
.97

4.75
1.43
1.17
1.12

2.00

.37

.44
2.98

.19

1.01 1.06

23

0.52
.75
.48
.53
.61
.71
.53
.61
.58
.64
.79

1.20
.74

14.03
12.09
5.25
4.35
4.17
8.43
2.96
2.59
2.13
1.74
1.57
1.37
5.30
5.15
.75
1.93
1.74
1.62
1.37
.84
.51
2.74
2.45
1.00
.89
8.54

ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE OF THE DEPARTMENTS ANALYZED BY CAUSES

In order to show the extremes of change the tables in this section
consist of two 5-vear periods separated by a 5-year interval. In
order to give readily comparable rates they are computed on the basis
of 10,000,000 hours' exposure for frequency and 10,000 hours’ for
severity.
It is well to note in this connection that the severity rates are
necessarily more irregular than the frequency rates. This is due to
the fact that in frequency a case of injury counts as one unit while
in severity the same case, if a death, is 6,000 units.
In a number of the tables which follow it will be observed that for
the first period rates for the causes which may be regarded as char­
acteristic of the department are given, while those which the depart­
ment shares with other industries are not separately given but are
included under “ Unclassified.” This omission which makes com­
parison of the two 5-year periods difficult, is due to the fact that when
the rates for the first period were'compiled only the characteristic
causes were considered, and when at the close of the second period it
seemed desirable to show all the primary cause groups it was not
possible to go back and compute the missing items.
BLAST FURNACES

In 1910 the highest frequency rate (143) was for falling objects;
in 1924 the highest (35.3) was for handling. In severity falls of persons
was highest (34.3) in 1910 and hot substances (19.73) in 1924.



INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

74

T a b l e 8 0 *— A CCIDEN T FREQU EN CY AND SE VERITY RATES FOR BLAST FURNACES,

1910 TO 1914 AND 1920 TO 1924, BY YEARS A N D A C C ID E N T CAUSES

Accident cause

1910

1911 | 1912

1913

1914

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours* exposure))
Machinery-_______________
Vehicles____ - ______________
Hot substances_______. _____
Falls of persons______ . . . ___
Falling objects______________
Handling___ . . . . . . . __ ______
Unflflfsnnpri______________ _

21.6
19.7
113.2
78.7
143.0
103.3
138.0

38.3
2.3
132.7
' 33.7
■
: 55.3
: 94.3
: 65.0

23.0
0.0
89.3
53.0
66.7
74.3
103.0

Total.............................. 622.5 ! 421.6

415.3

17.6
13.7
50.0
23.1
21.9
61.2
41.7

7.2
8.7
30.2
17.9
14.3
41.4
26.5

10.1
8.1
32.6
12.7
16.6
27.9
27.9

12.2
9.1
34.5
14.7
15.6
37.1
2a 9

15.2
6.8
30.2
15.8
18.7
35.3
20.5

249.5 229.2

146.2

135.9

144.1

142.5

28.0
8.7
4.0
86.6 ” 57.4
26.0
43.0
31.7
62.3
56.3
43.0
40.3
65.7
303.5

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours' exposure)
Machinery _______________
Vehicles______ . . . . . . . . . . . __
Hot s u b sta n c e s...........___
________ - ___
Falling objects______ __ ____
Handling__. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unclassified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T o t a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___

1.3 ! 0.6
2.0
5.3 ! 16.0
0.6
2.0 | 20.3
Falls 1.0
0.7
34.3 of persons
0.7
1.7 i 0.7
I
3.3 i 1.3
1.3
i
20.3 | 16.7
14.3

14.0

0.3

4.3
14.0
0.3
2.3
14.0

4.6
1.0
0.7
2.3
39.0

3.31
2.12
11.87
.31
1.08
1.56
3.00

1.10
.11
18.08
13.38
.28
.88
5.68

7.11
4.55
9.41
2.80
.37
.83
2.81

7.60
7.14
4.76
3.79
.43
1.14
7.01

8.04
2.05
19.73
2.32
4.35
2.82
7.78

68.2 ; 56.6

48.9

47.9

23.25

39.51

27.88

31.87

47.07

19.6

BESSEMER CONVERTERS

The exposure available in this department is not as large as could
be desired. In general it is not considered good practice to compute
rates unless the number of workers is 1,000 or more, but an exception
has been made in the case of the Bessemer department because it is
still an important steel-making process.
In both 1910 and 1924 the highest accident frequency is found to
be due to handling (136 and 34.4, respectively). In severity hot
substances are highest in 1910 and falling objects (5.32) in 1924.
T a b l e 81*—A C CIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR BESSEMER CON­

VERTERS, 1910 TO 1914 AND 1920 TO 1924, BY YEARS A N D A C C ID E N T CAUSES
Accident cause

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours* exposure)
45.0
Machinery............................... 81.0
Vohicles................................... 51.0 ■ 25.0
70.0
Hot substances........................ 106.0
Falls of persons........................ 0) j 0)
Falling objects.........................
0)
0)
Handling.................................. 136.0 I 65.0
Unclassified............................. 403.0 ! 259.0

25.0
30.0
140.0

8

42.0
15.0
91.0

8

21.0
334.0

65.0
206.0

Total.............................. 837.0 j 464.0 j 55a0

419.0

38.6
14.7
36.7
17.3
35.2
99.9
64.4

16.9
15.6
27.1
11.6
30.9
66.9
36.2

9.1
4.5
27.2
6.4
17.3
40.0
29.1

18.5
14.8
30.3
16.3
318
65.2
17.8

16.3
7.3
17.1
7.2
22.0
34.4
17.2

219.0 302.1

205.2

133.6

197.7

121.5

35.0
69.0

0
)

0)
17.0
98.0

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours* exposure)
Machinery...............................
Vehicles...................................
Hot substances........................
Falls of persons........................
Falling objccts.........................
Handling.................................
Unclassified.............................
Total..............................

8.09
.38
.64
.39
.48
1.75
1.61

a22
.13
.67
.17
.52
1.72
.40

9.14
4.97
9.57
.59
.94
2.38
3.03

1.79
.24
.42
.19
5.32
1.22
5.09

59.0

16.46

13.34

3.83

30.62

14.27

1.0
L0
2.0
(0
0)
0.3
8.7

6.0
1.0
27.0
2.0 ’ "’ i ’ o"

3.0

103.0! 21.0
<

13.0

34.0

>Not separately shown; included in “ Unclassified.”




46.0

6.19
.41
4.69
.35
.65
2.47
1.70

1.0
1.0
2.0
(0
(»)
14.0
3.0

2.0
1.0
61.0
0)
0)
2.0
37.0

8 8
1.0
5.0

IKON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

75

OPEN HEARTHS

In the first period the greatest accident frequency (133) in open
hearths is found in hot substances in 1911 while hot substances
leads in severity (23) in 1914. In the second period frequency is
highest in handling (99) and severity in machinery (15.37), both in
192°-

Frequency shows a very marked decline from period to period,
while severity is irregular with only a slight tendency downward.
T a b l e 82 .—ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR OPEN

HEARTHS,

1910 to 1914 AND 1920 to 192*, BY YEARS AND ACCIDEN T CAUSES

Accident cause

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

1920

1921

1922

1923

J 1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours’ exposure)
Machinery............................... 86.0
Vehicles...................... ............. 28.0
Hot substances. .......... .......... 122.0
Falls of persons........................
Failing objects.........................
8
Handling.................................. 111.0
Unclassified........................... 292.0

70.0
27.0
133.0

61.0
42.0
127.0

82.0
198.0

£#

209.0

Total.............................. 639.0

510.0

523.0

0)
0)

(0

44.0
49.0
110.0

225.0

75.0
169.0

49.6
28.0
72.1
27.8
41.0
99.0
51.7

26.0
15.0
50.2
28.1
42.7
87.9
43.2

25.9
13.3
39.8
21.4
37.5
57.8
30.5

33.5
13.6
47.1
21.7
29.7
47.6
26.7

23.2
10.1
43.4
28.2
33.1
59.8
21.4

505.0

382.0 369.2

293.1

226.2

219.9

214.2

I

47.0
8.0
83.0

<)
*

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours’ exposure)
19.3
U.0
3.0

10.0
10.0
3.0

8

8

1.0
3.0

1.0
10.0

1.0
44.0

Total..............................

50.0

27.0

34.0

81.0

3.0
13.7

2.0
12.0
9.0

1.0
17.0
18.0

Machinery...............................
Vehicles...................................
Hot substances........................
Falls of persons........................
Falling objects.........................
Handling.................................
Unclassified___ . . . . . . . . _____

8

8

1.0
4.0
23.0

?.
3.0

15.37
11.15
8.62
1.75
5.66
3.76
3.55

3.40
2.90
6.62
.50
.73
5.43
5.11

6.62
2.41
7.56
.38
2.59
1.30
.90

13.28
11.08
9.49
5.03
4.07
2.21
3.89

10 87
6.24
6.48
4.59
2.63
3.05
*26

33.0

49.86

23.69

21.76

49.05

33.12

i Not separately shown; included in “ Unclassified.”
FOUNDRIES

The foundries show on the whole high accident frequency and
moderate accident severity. The downward trend is not clearly
traceable, although a different presentation indicates that there
was such a trend, though not very pronounced.
The irregular character of the rates in this department is illustrated
when it is noticed that the highest frequency (251.6) occurs in han­
dling in 1923 of the second period, while the highest severity (57) is in
machinery in 1912 of the first period.
The failure of the foundries to make a significant change for the
better is disappointing, since some large concerns have done excellent
safety work with marked success.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

76
T a b le

83.—AC C ID E N T FREQUENCY AND SE VERITY RATES FOR FOUNDRIES, 1910 TO
191* AN D 1920 TO 1924, BY YEARS AND ACCIDENT CAUSES

Accident cause

1910

1911

1912

19)3

1914

1921

1922

1923

1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours' exposure)
Machinery............................... 131.0 84.0
Vehicles...................................
3.0
Hot substances........................ 118.0 91.0
Falls of persons.......................
(»)
0)
Falling objects.........................
(»)
(')
Handling............... ................. 165.0 206.0
Unclassified............................. 320.0 236.0
Total.............................. i 737.0

617.0

62.4
j /. 6
10.0
! 48.4
45.4
! 32. 7 . 33.6
•1118.6 ! 79.7
1236.2 251.6
■109.1 .112.2

183.0
3.0
79.0
0)
(»)
205.0
275.0

74.0
7.0
81.0
(*)
0)
145.0
191.0

108.0 116.6
6.0
6.0
34.0 38.4
23.0
(>)
80.6
(»)
120.0 195.1
260.0 94.5

98. 1
7.0
20. 5
27.5
53.7
151.3
84. 1

745.0

498.0

428.0 554. 2

442.2 j67f». 4

594.9

84.1
5.0
38.8
23.9
69.9
151.8
111.3
484.8

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours* exposure)
Machinery...............................
Vehicles...................................
Hot substances........................
Falls of persons.......................
Falling objects.........................
Handlini
Total-

3.0

32.0

2.0
0)
<*)
1.0
6.0

i.o
(0
0)
6.0
33.0

1.0
57.0 I 1.0
. !
.3
27.0
i.o
4.0
0)
(*)
(«)
0)
(*)
(»)
4.0
7.0
2.0
3.0
3.0 !
•'

12.0

72.0

66.0

r
;
;
i
1
:
!

8.83
.24
1.27
.26
1.22
2.74
1.55

35.0 | 10.0 I 16.11

:
:
j
!
i
!
j

2.73
9. 10
4. 50
.23
1.63
.60
.34
.62
1. 18
1.73
3. 10 ■ 3.36
. hi : .94
14.29

i 10.66
• .22
; .70
! .44
1.10
! 4.56
: 1.05

4.96
.07
.62
.28
2.19
2.03
1.17

14.48 ; 18.73

11.32

i Not separately shown; included in “ Unclassified.”
HEAVY ROLLING MILLS

In Table 84 there is a very conspicuous decline in frequency in
the second period and a less marked decline in severity.
The highest frequency (82) appears in machinery in 1911 and the
highest severity (14) is also in machinery in 1910 and in hot sub­
stances in 1913.
T a b l e 8 4 .—ACCIDENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR HEAVY ROLLING

MILLS, 1910 TO 1914 AND 1920 TO 1924, BY YEARS AND A C CIDEN T CAUSES
Accident cause

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914 j 1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours* exposure)
Machinery...............................
Vehicles...................................
Hot substances........................
Falls of persons.......................
Falling objects.........................

75.0
13.0
40.0
(*)
0)
0)
Unclassified............................. 343.0
Total.............................. 471.0

56.0
11.0
37.0
0)
(•)
0)
339.0

51.0
11.0
30.0
(«)
0)
(»)
240.0

45.0
3.0
25.0
(>)
(')
0)
118.0

44.8
7.4
25.9
22.3
33.1
89.7
37.8

36.1
3.4
15.4
16.8
23.7
60.9
21.4

34.4
3.8
12.6
13.2
30.6
45.9
23.6

33.9
5.0
15.1
15.4
21.2
42.0
18.8

40.9
3.0
11.0
18.9
24.9
38.8
21.4

465.0 j 443.0
!
i

332.0

191.0 |261.0

177.7

203.5

151.4

158.6

82.0
10.0
34.0
0)
0)
339.0

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours* exposure)
Machinery.......
Vehicles............
Hot substances.
Falls of persons.
Falling objects..
Handling..........
Unclassified___

14.0
1.0
5.0
0)
I1
)
0)
23.0

12.0
.3
6.0
(*)
(*)
0)
20.7

Total.......

43.0

39.0

1.0
.3
14.0
0)
(>)
0)
4.7

16.0
1

1Not separately shown; included in “ Unclassified.”




2.0
1.0
8.0
(»)
0)
(>)
4.0

9.09
.51
1.82
1.79
2.10
1.68
.45

6.87
1.17
.38
.45
.92
2.01
.29

7.30
4.27
2.37
2.44
1.16
1.63
1.18

8.91
3.71
.92
.38
2.52
1.98
1.74

13.52
2.87
.15
.29
.94
1.56
.40

20.0

2.0
1.0
6.0
(>)
(«)
0)
7.0

15.0

17.44

12.09

20.35

20.11

19.79

IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

77

PLATS MILLS

Plate mills are among the most regular in declining accident rates
of any department covered by this study. Machinery in 1910 has
the highest accident frequency (164) and the same cause has the
highest accident severity (34) in the same year.
Table 85 illustrates again rather forcibly that frequency rates are
not a complete indication regarding the places where accident pre­
vention may be profitably applied. If in tne second period frequency
alone be considered, it would appear that in every year of the
period except 1924 accidents due to handling should have the major
share of attention. Turning to severity, however, it will be found
that from that standpoint only in 1922 is handling of paramount
importance.
T a b l e 8 5 . - A C CIDEN T FREQUENCY A N D SEVERITY RATES FOR PLATE MILLS, 191*

TO 1914 AN D 1920 TO 1924, BY YEARS AN D ACCIDENT CAUSES

Accident cause

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914 1 1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours' exposure)
Machinery........ ...................... 164.0 120.0
Vehicles........................... . ...... 18.0
12.0
llot substances__-.... .............. 63.0
47.0
Falls of persons....................... 0)
(*)
Falling objects.........................
0)
Handling.................................
0)
0)
Unclassified............................. 491.0 45a 0
Total.............................. 726.0

629.0

434.0

49.3
1.6
23.0
16.1
40.8
101.0
220.0 68.4

31.9
2.2
15.4
11.0
27.5
87.6
39.5

699.0

295.0 300.2

215.1

135.0
18.0
55.0
0)

93.0
17.0
55.0

552.0
760.0

49.0
2.0
24.0

$ 1 f

35.4
1.6
24.4
15.0
53.5
62.1
40.1

27.5
a4
11.0
ao
33.7
41.2
9.6

82.0

232.1 (136.8

163.2

12.6
17.6
sa4
314
2a s

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hoars' exposure)
Machinery...............................
Vehicles...................................
Hot substances........................
Falls of persons__________ . . .
Falling objects.........................
Handling.................................
Unclassified.............................

34.0
15.0
1.0

2.0
.3
1.0

11.0

10.7

Total..............................

61.0

14.0

1.52
.02
.19
.11
a 82
a77
.70

1.66
.20
.54
.33
.82
2.36
.44

5.35
.16
.20
4.72
.64
ass
.23

aos

21.7

1.3 ■ 18.83
17.0
14.0 . . . . . . . ! .01
8.77
1.0
.21
.66
1.12
3.76
6.0
6.4

31.0

38.0

7.0

13.13

&35

14.88

17.68

ao
.3
1.0

I I 1 $ 1

2a 26

.42
5.57
2.40
.68

* Not separately shown; Included in “ Unclassified/*
SHEET MILLS

It was found in an earlier stu dy 7 of these mills that, in the 5-year
period ending in 1914 the hot-mill crews had rising accident rates
both in frequency and severity. While Table 86 does not go into
details as did the table in the earlier study, the rates shown for ma­
chinery and handling give an approximate idea of what is happening
among hot-mill workers. An examination of these groups m the
second 5-year period will show somewhat lower rates and a tendency
to decline.
’ United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 298, p. 81.

2063°—27----- 6




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

78

Since neither the machines nor the handling operations have been
materially modified in the second period as compared with the first,
this improvement must be largely due to greater skill and care on the
part of the workers.
The highest frequency (186) is found in handling in 1912 and the
highest severity (11) in machinery in 1911.
T a b l e 8 6 . — AC CIDEN T FREQUENCY A N D SEVERITY RATES FOR SHEET MILLS, 1910 TO

1914 AND 1920 TO 1924, BY YEARS AN D A C C ID E N T CAUSES
Accident cause

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914 | 1920 | 1921

1922

1923

1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours’ exposure)
Machinery________
Vehicles...................................
Hot substances_____________
Falls of persons_____. . . . ____
Falling objects..____________
Handling_____ ________- ___
Unclassified___ ______. . . ___
Total....... .

43.0
0)
16.0
0)
147.0
135.0
341.0

!
i
; 59.0 j 66.0
1 < > ! 0)
*
25.0 i 10.0
I 0)
0)
! 186.0 ! 125.0
! 305.0 ! 256.0

61.0 32.0 . 29.2
3.1 ! 3.9
0)
21.0 28.3 ! 23.5
i
13.3 ! 15.2
0)
14.2 j 18.4
!
(!)
61.0 158.7 ! l54.9
i
166.0 59.5 ; 54.0
|

34.0
8.7
30.4
24.6
29.3
179.8
55.0

29.9
4.1
15.3
10.5
H.6
85.8
27.1

15.6
4.0
11.8
7.8
7.8
57.3
13.4

363.0 |491.0 : 381.0
i
i
1
1

309.0 309.3 j299.1
!
i

361.6

1S7.3

117.2

64.0
(*)
15.0
(0
(*)
103.0
181.0

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours* exposure)
Machinery_____. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vehicles.___ __________ . . . . .
Hot substances......................
Falls of persons________ . . . . .
Falling objects_____________
Wprxiling___. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
_ _________ ___
Unclassified_ *

4.0
(*>
.3
0)
(■)
2.0
40.7

T o t a l.......__________

47.0

8
1.0
35.7

<03
0)
(*)
2.0
12.7

8
2.0
13.7

!
2.0 i 5.58
2.08
.3
.31
.27
0)
(i)
.14
1.0
4.30
15.7
.44

48.0

20.0

24.0

19.0 | 13.12

11.0
(*)
.3

5.0

8.0
0)

.3

0)

8.09
.06
.23
2.90
.39
2.98
3.23
17.88

4.99
.19
2.64
.33
1.07
5.43
.62

8.24
2.18
.32
.17
.39
3.56
.30

5.7-1
.08
.29
2.56
.23
2.50
.32

15.27 : If*. 16

11.72

> Not separately shown; included In “ Unclassified. ”
TUBE MILLS

While accident frequency rates in tube mills were very high in the
early part of the first 5-year period, a very rapid decline occurred
before the close of that period and continued to 1924. A decline in
accident severity in the first 5-year period is not easily observable
and in the second period the irregularities obscure the trend, but if a
12-month moving average be computed a downward trend will be
indicated.
When the two periods are considered in comparison it will be
evident that a remarkable reduction of both frequency and severity
has taken place.
Accident frequency (150) is highest in 1910 in machinery, while
accident severity (28) is highest in 1912 in machinery.




EBON AND STEEL INDUSTBY

79

T a b l e 87.—ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY AN D SE VERITY RATES FOR TUBE MILLS, 1910 TO

1914 AND 1920 TO 1924, B Y YEARS AN D A C C ID E N T CAUSES

Accident cause

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

1920

1921

1922 j 1923

1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,00,0009 hours’ exposure)
Machinery....... .
Vehicles............ .
Hot substances..
Falls of persons..
Falling objects...
Handling.......... .
Unclassified____
Total..

150.0

149.0

89.0

52.0

20.0

60.0
0)

82.0

50.0
0)

16.0
0)
0)
0)
194.0

17.0

8
552.0
702.0

})
})
»

753.0

561.0

23.9
1.6
17.1
9.3
23.3
48.7
39.4

21.2
4.6
17.7
15.0
27.2
50.9
35.7

151.0 213.5

422.0

33.8
3.6
23.5
10.1
20.0
73.9
48.6

163.3

172.3

8

0)
114.0

26.0
2.6
11.6

10.3
27.8
46.6
18.4

11.1

1.0
5.5
7.0
17.0
25.5
12.0

143.3 ; 79.1

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours' exposure)
Machinery_____
Vehicles.............
Hot substances..
Falls of persons..
Falling objects...
Handling............
Unclassified____

18.0

2.3

28.0

1.3

2.0

1.0
0)
0)
(»)
9.0

1.0
0)
7.7

.3
0)
0)
0)
4.7

1.0
(])
(i)
(i)
28.7

0)
0)
0)
8.0

Total........

28.0

11.0

33.0

31.0

10.0 j 15.15

h

4.09
2.75
1.76
1.53
1.79
1.47
1.76

!
4.51 j 3.53
1
.09
.14
2.80
.49
.22
.41
.58
.51
3.34 2.66
1.23
3.38
12.77

11.12

6.55
.09
1.53
1.60
.88
4.10
.75

3.40
.02
.13
.17
3.06
2.83
1.43

15.50

11.04

* Not separately shown; included in " Unclassified.**
FABRICATING SHOPS

Machines, including cranes and hoists, are the important elements
of hazard in these plants. Accident frequency reaches the top record
(373) for machinery in 1912 and drops to 51.4 in 1924; the percentage
of decline is 86 .2 .
Accident severity goes from 43 in 1910 to 8.68 in 1924, a drop of
19.8 per cent.
TABLE 8 8 . — ACCIDEN T

FREQUENCY A N D SEVERITY RATES FOR FABRICATING^
SHOPS, 1910 to 1914 and 1920 TO 1924, B Y YEARS AND A C CIDEN T CAUSES

Accident cause

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914 | 1920

1
1921 | 1922
1

1923

1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours' exposure)
M a c h i n e r y .................... 293.0
Vehicles_______ . . . ____ ____
(0
Hot substances_____________ 21.0
(i)
Falls of persons_____________
(i)
Falling o b j e c t s ................
Handling................................. 0)
Unclassified............................. 633.0
Total.............................. 947.0

292.0
0)
26.0
<*)
0)
(‘)
673.0

373.0
0)
35.0
0)
<0
I1
)
640.0

357.0 220.0 116.2
7.8
(»)
0)
29.0
11.0 20.5
24.9
0)
0)
56.6
0)
0)
140.2
0)
0)
580.0 430.0 96.0

991.0 1,048.0 966.0

661.0 462.2

84.9
4.8
10.9
IB. 4
49.2
98.3
47.9

92.6
3.9
10.4
24.6
44.4
88.9
67.1

77.2
6.0
12.7
19.5
36.0
74.9
16.5

51.4
3.5
. 10.5
36.6
33.8
57.2
21.9

314.4

331.9

242.8

204.4

Accident severity rates (per 10,090 hours* exposure)
M achinery...__ . . . ___ —___
Vehicles...................................
Hot substances_____________
Falls of persons_____________
Falling objects_____________
Handling.................................
Unclassified__ . . . __ . . . . . ___

43.0
(0

18.0
0)

0)
0)
0)
31.0

h)

0)
7.0

c>
24.0

Total..............................

74.0

25.0

58.0

0)

33.0
(l)
1.0
0)
V)

>Not separately shown; included in “ Unclassified.**




«
18.0

18.0 i 11.94
.11
(l) i 4.58
0) i .35
0) i .94
0) I 2.96
8.0 j
.81

17.80
.28
2.33
.16
1.54
2.81
.47

13.08
.09
.15
.57
6.41
2198
.74

7.39
4.62
.28
.35
7.25
4.74
.20

8.68
.14
4.34
9.25
3.85
4.34
.34

23.3

26.0 | 21.69

25.39

24.62

24.83

30.94

5,0
0)
0.3
(*)

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

80

MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT

Machinery is naturally a more important hazard in the mechanical
department than in most of the other departments. While frequency
of machine accidents declines, the rate going from 140 in 1910 to
19.3 in 1924, the severity of such accidents seems rather to increase.
However, the general frequency and severity are decidedly lower in
the second period than in the first. In the second period, accidents
due to handling are the most frequent in each of the five years. The
severity rates are on the whole highest for machinery, followed by
those due to falls of persons.
8 0 .—ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR M ECH AN ICAL
D EPARTM EN TS, 1910 TO 1914 AN D 1920 TO 1924, BY YEARS AND ACCIDEN T CAUSES

T able

Accident cause

1910

1911

1912

1913 | 1914

1920 ! 1921

1922

1923

1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours* exposure)
Machinery____________ -___ 140.0 I 125.0 : 101.0
Vehicles........ ............ ............. (*) i (0 : (0
:
Hot substances..-.-.^ . . . . ___ 33.0 : 50.0 ■ 30.0
Falls of persons........... .........
; (*>
0) i «
Falling objects.........................
: 0)
<
»>
Handling__________________
(') ! 8 : 0)
Unclassified______ __________ 442.0 : 311.0 : 279.0
Total.............................. 615.0 i 4Sfi. 0 |410.0

;
:
i 64.0 ! 54.0 '•36.2
1 <
»> ! 4.8 i 2.9
‘ 18.0 24.8 ; 15.0
27.3 ; 20.6
i (0
34.1 ! 30.1
i (»)
95.5
65.8
■ 0)
j 273.0 53.1 j 34.5

24.9
3.6
11.4
20.2
21.3
50.0
26.9

20.3
3.9
10.5
14.2
14.6
34.0
16.5

19; 3
2.5
8.4
13.2
16.8
23.6
16.3

368.0 j 355.0 293.6 !205.1

158.3

114.0

100.1

51. ft
0)
35.0
(»)
(*)
0)
282.0

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours’ exposure)
Machinery_________________
Vehicles_____- _________
Hot substances________ - ___
Falls of p e r s o n s ...............
Falling o b j e c t s ................
Handling..........
Unclassified...... ....... .............. 1
i

3.0
0)
.3
0)
0)
0)
40.0

3.0
(0
.3
0)
<V
(‘ >
27.0

4.0
(«>
.3
0)
(*)
(»)
16.0

2.0
(0
10.0
(0
0)
0)
25.0

Total.............................. 1 43.3

30.3

20.3

37.0

7.0
0)
.3
(»)

5.73 !
1.04 i
2.99
5.08 !
.75 :
0) ; 2. 1 2 !
6.0 ! *3 5 !
13.3 ; 18.06 I

3.41
. 12
.23
4.51
1.51
1.69
.76

4.04
3.70
2.44
.79
.55
4.70
2.48

5.89
1.39
2.40
1.52
2.67
2.36
4.66

5.49
.20
2.27
8.78
1.52
.79
i56

12.23 : 18.70
i
[

2a 89

14.61

1
!
:
:
'
i
;

>Not separately shown; included with “ Unclassified.”
YARDS

The interest as to yards centers around the experience with power
vehicles. The frequency rates of such accidents go from 123 in 1910
to 41.9 in 1924. This would be an excellent record if severity were
not considered. In 1910 severity of vehicular accidents was 26 and
in 1924 it was 37.03. In four of the five years the second period
records higher severity rates than corresponding years of the first
period.
It is a well-recognized fact that the hazards of power-vehicle oper­
ation are difficult to combat. The steel mills have always had the
dangers arising from the steam locomotive, both standard gauge
where the railways enter for bringing raw material and narrow gauge
for intraplant transportation. In recent years there has been an
increased use of motor trucks, thus transferring to new localities the
hazard of such moving bodies. Whether this has influenced the
severity rates it is not possible to determine from the available data.
The severity rates for handling are, in general, next to those for
vehicles.




IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

81

TABLE 9 0 . — A C C ID E N T FREQUENCY AN D SEVERITY RATES FOR YAR D S, 1910 TO 1914

AN D 1920 TO 1924, B Y YEARS A N D A C C ID E N T CAUSES

Accident cause

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

1920

1923

1921

1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours' exposure)
40.0

0)
36.0
0)
104.0

118? 0

19.0
88.9
16.5
21.5
17.5
70.4
46.9

23.0
69.5
15.0
27.1
31.3
94.9
36.2

17.7
40.8
2.6
14.2
18.6
40.8
19.5

31.7
73.6
9.2
36.8
37.8
50.1
33.7

240.0

241.0 280.7

297.0

154.2

272.9

Machinery.........
Vehicles............ .
Hot substances..
Falls of persons.,
Falling objects..
Handling............
Unclassified.......

23.0
123.0
19.0
0)
109.0
0)
209.0

18.0
79.0
17.0
0)
83.0
0)
166.0

14.0
0)
67.0
<0
172.0

11.0

17.0
74.0
5.0

Total____

483.0

363.0

405.0

112.0

22.0

67.0

f■?..
il

21.6

41.9
8.8
28.9
218
44.0
25.7

195.7

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours' exposure)
1.0
26.0
1.0
0)
1.0
0)
6.0

Total.

1.0
27.0
.3
0)
2.0
0)
4.0

14.0
11.0
.3
0)
3.0
(0
2.0

0.3
4.0

2.0
3.0

0)
1.0
(»)
2.0

fi0

34.3

30.3

7.3

25.0

0.51
37.33
.22

0)
1.0

35.0

Machinery____
Vehicles............
Hot substances.
Falls of persons.
Falling objects.
Handlii
ass

.44

11.24
23.31
.24
.57
.56
2.11
2.23

11.59
22.29
.05
5.68
.49
6.37

11.13
35.20
.14
.56
.72
2.70
.45

a 17
37.03
.22
.45
1.13
1.07
.76

42.07

4a 26

46.71

5a 90

48.83

* Not separately shown; included in “ Unclassified."
MISCELLANEOUS ROLLING MILLS

The group of miscellaneous rolling mills is of interest because it
contains a large number of hand-operated mills and may be regarded
as giving a fair idea of the experience of such mills. The records
cover omy the last 5-year period. In that period there has been a
marked decline in accident frequency and a definite downward trend
in accident severity.
T a b l e 9 1 .—A C C ID E N T FREQUENCY AN D SE VERITY RATES FOR MISCELLANEOUS

ROLLING MILLS, 1920 TO 1924, BY YEARS AN D A C CIDEN T CAUSES
Accident cause

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

Accident frequency rates (p er 10,000,000 hours'
exposure)
Machinery______ _______. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __
Vehicles............. ..........................................................
Hot substances............................................. . . . . . . . . .
Falls of persons............................................... ............
Falling objects___. . . . . . . . . ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unclassified... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T o ta l...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64.5
5.0
44.1
22.5
31.5
124.0
31.9

54.5
5.6
28.6
16.0
31.4
918
30.0

39.7
6.0
27.2
7.8
41.9
49.7
27.6

414
2.8
18.0
15.6
27.1
60.4
22.9

29.1
2.9
22.6
16.0
313
58.5
18.*

323.5

260.9

199.9

191.2

181.6

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours' exposure)
Machinery.....................................................................
Vehicles................................................... ................. .
Hot substances.......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Falls of persons............... .
Falling objects...............................................................
Handling..................................................... ..................
Unclassified............................ .....................................

3.62
2.26
3.65
1.83
3.17
2.71
.46

102
.18
.51
.20
.67
3.03
.52

3.39
2.82
4.87
2.83
.97
1.35
.39

4.97
.04
.37
.40
2.61
2.62
.55

7.97
.14
.53
.29
.86
1.36
.34

Total__________ ________________ _______ . . . .

17.70

- 9.13

16.62

11.56

11.49




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

82

ELECTRICA£ DEPARTMENT

In the electrical department during the five years 1920 to 1924
accident frequency declined but accident severity increased. Since
the same condition is found in the large group in which causes were
not recorded, it seems necessary to conclude that safety effort in this
department has not been so successful as in others.
Two observations are pertinent to the situation: 1 . When there
is a marked decline in accident frequency it is very easy to regard
this as a true index and to overlook the fact that accident severity is
rising; 2 . The use of electricity has been increasing enormously and
it may well be that this increase has outrun the precautions taken
to render its use safe.
T a b l e 02 .—ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR THE E LEC TR IC A L

D E P A R T M E N T, 1920 TO 1924, B Y YEARS AN D AC C ID E N T CAUSES
1920
Accident cause

1921

1922

1923

1924

Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours*
exposure)

Machinery_________. . . . . . . . . . . ____ . . . . __________
Vehicles.........................................................................
Hot substances__________________________________
Falls of p e r s o n s ..........______________ . . . . . . . . . . . .
Falliug objects____________ _______________ _______
Handling_____________________________ __________
Unclassified_____________________________________
Total_____________________________________

14.5
5.8
72.6
42.5
27.0
80.2
42.6

23.9
2.6
38.8
29.5
17.4
49.5
52.4

27.6
1.3
40.7
26.3
18.4
14.4
18.4

25.7
6.1
24.4
28.1
9.8
214
19.6

....... 26.2
17.8
9.5
8.4
16.7

284.2

214.1

147.1

138.1

91.7

13.1

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours' exposure)
Machinery__________ _____ ___________ __________
Vehicles________________________________________
_______ ________________ ____ _____
Hot substances
Falls of persons__________________________________
Falling objects.__. . . . . . . . . . . . . ____________________
Handling............... .......... ..........................................
U nclassified..........._. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ______ _

1.48
5.85
.85
5.78
.77
1.64
.31

0.37
.01
8.64
.48
.26
.57
1.53

2.82
7.88
.56
.71
.41
.21
.19

2.30
.20
7.89
8.55
.15
.82
.34

11.98
7.00
7.82
.65
.25
.49
.41

Total....................................................................

16.68

11.86

12.78

2a 25 j

28.60

WIRE DRAWING

Only the experience of the last 5-year period is available for the
wire drawing department. The record shows that accident fre­
quency declined to a considerable decree while accident severity
was pretty nearly the same in three of the years, going up sharply in
the other two. In 1921 there were serious accidents in the handling
of material, while in 1923 machinery furnished the heaviest severity
(22.50). With the old type of wire-drawing benches there was
very great danger that a workman’s hand would be caught in a kink
of the wire. If this happened, the loss of part or all of the hand was
almost sure to occur. The modem type of mill, now almost uni­
versal, has an automatic stop which greatly reduces this hazard.




3BQN AND STEEL INDUSTRY

83

T a b l e 9 3 .—A C CIDEN T FREQU EN CY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR WIRE DR A W IN G,

1910 TO 1924, BY YEARS AN D ACC INDENT CAUSES
1921

1920

1922

1924

Accident cause
Accident frequency rates (per 10,000,900 hours*
exposure)
42.0
2.0
21.0
21.0
17.0
m o
89.0

Total,

20.9
&.0
17.9
18.0
6.0
66.0
29.9

21.0
3.0
6.0
8.0
9.0
68.0
50.0

32.6
2.5
15.1
7.5
12.6
50.2
60.2

' ' 6.0'
6.0
8.0
34.0
22.0

313.0

Madtiiaory..,...
Vehicles............
Hot substances.
Falls of persons.
Falling objects.
Handlir'"
“
lass

161.7

165.0

180.7

109.0

33.0

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours* exposure)
Machinery___________ ___ ___ _____
Vehicles..................................................
Hot substances..................................... .
JFaM of persons_________ - __________
s
Falling objects...................................... .
Handling:.......................... ... ..............„
.......

Unclassified......................... ................ .
Total........................................... .

4.70
2.00
.10 . . . . . . ___
4.20
.10
.20
.70
4.70
14.30
.80
5.20

8.20
Q)

14.10

31.10

3.60
0)
.10
.20
.20
1.30
8.60

22.50
.70
.23
.11
.30
1.23
11.20

14.00

36.27

13.60
.20
(*)

.30
.50
.20

14.00

‘ Not separately shown; included in “ Unclassified.”
SOT B O IiE fG OF SHSBTS

The group on which the accident rates for hot rolling of sheets are
based is rather small and may not represent typical conations. Both
frequency and severity rates are highly irregular and do not exhibit
it consistent trend.
T a b l e 9 4 .-A C C ID E N T

FREQUENCY AN D SE V E RITY RATES FOR HOT SHEET
ROLLING, 1930 TO 1924, B Y YEARS A N D ACC ID E N T CAUSES
1920

1921

1922

|
[

1923

1924

Accident cause
Accident-frequency rates (per 10,000,000 hours'
exposure)
Machinery_____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _____ _____ . . . . . .
Vehddes________________ ____ ____________________
Hot substances_______. . . ______________ __________
Falls of person___________________________________
Fatting objects__. . . . . . __ _________________ . . . ____
Handling_________ _________ ___________ ________
Unclassified_____________________________________

28.0
2.0
14.0
26.0
25.0
180.0
72.0

11.7
23.0
17.0
41.0
40.0
103.0
30.0

18.0
16.0
53.0
m o
71.0

90.0
26.0
10.3
77.0
77.0
m o
23.2

36.0
3.0
3.0
11.0
15.0
67.0
17.0

T o t a l ........_________ ____________ . . . . . ___

347.0

265.7

374.0

433.5

152.0

36.0

Accident severity rates (per 10,000 hours* exposure)
Machinery__. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __________________
Vehicles................. ................ ......................................
Hot substances..............................................................
Falls of person...............................................................
Falling objects............................... .......................... .
Handling.......................................................................
Unclassified...................................................................

.20
.20
.50
2.20
.70

2.30
.30
1.20
1.20
2.70
1.30
1.40

0.90
.10
.10
3.30
1.50
1.80
4.70

8.90
3.00
2.00
4.60
1.20
1.37
3.60

12.30
.10
.10
.50
9.40
1.30
.50

Total....................................................................

6.60

10.40

12.40

24.67

24.20




2.80

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

84

The foregoing discussion gives a fair idea of the relative importance
of the main cause groups. Considered from the standpoint of accident
severity machinery still contributes the largest share of the damage.
On the accident frequency side handling of tools and material is the
major factor.
This situation suggests at once the nature and the point of appli­
cation of remedial measures. Machine accidents are mainly con­
trollable by various forms of “ engineering revision” which are dis­
cussed at length elsewhere.8 The cases due to handling may be
reduced by instruction, which renders the worker skillful ana properly
careful. Too much emphasis can not be placed upon the fact that
the development of skill is much more important than cautionary
exhortation.
MINES, QUARRIES, AND METALLURGICAL WORKS
COAL MINES

The following tables are derived from the publications of the
Bureau of Mines, which issues a comprehensive annual statement.
Rates in these tables are given in terms of 1,000,000 hours’ exposure.
This is an approximation, since it was impossible from the data
available to determine exactly the number of hours worked. The
relations of these rates among themselves are correct, but they are
not perfectly comparable with similar rates found in other portions
of this bulletin.
It will be noticed that in Table 95 there are two methods of pre­
senting the facts; namely, the rate per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure
and the rate per 1,000,000 tons mined. It is desirable to consider
both of these rates. That based on hours of exposure gives a meas­
ure of the hazard of fatal injury encountered by the men. The rate
by quantity mined measures the cost of coal in terms of fatal acci­
dents. It may be regarded as a satisfactory condition when both
these rates are declining with reasonable rapidity.
From 1907 to 1924 fatalities per 1,000,000 hours’ exposure declined
23.6 per cent, while fatalities per 1,000,000 tons mined declined 38.5
per cent. This more rapid decline of cost as compared with hazard
is undoubtedly related to the introduction of machinery and improved
methods. While a more rapid decline might fairly be expected, it
is gratifying that the movement is in the right direction.
•See United States Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 298, pp. 102-214.




MINES, QUARRIES, AND METALLURGICAL WORKS

85

9 5 .-M E N EM PLOYED, AVERAG E PRODU CTION PE R M AN, M E N KILLE D , AND
F A T A L IT Y RATES IN COAL M INES IN THE U N ITED STATES, 1907 TO 1926, B Y
Y EA R S

table

Men employed
Year

Tons mined
(short
tons)
Actual
number

1907.
1908
1909
1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
3917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
3921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.

477,892,536
409,309,857
460,807,263
501,596,378
496,371,126
534,466,580
570,048,125
513,525,477
531,619,487
590,098,175
651,402,374
678,211,904
553,952; 269
658,264,932
506,395,401
476,951,121
657,903,671
571,613,400
685,083,000

Fullyear
work­
ers

674,613
678,873

519,462
441,267

728,348
722,662
747,644
763,185
734,008
720,971
757,317
762,420
776,569
784,621
848,932
860,560
779,613

531,689
534,122
541,997
593,131
526.598
511.598
565,766
634,666
654,973
542,217
601,283
474,529
405,056
560,000
499,894

Average
production
per man
(tons)

Per
year

Per
day

708 3.07
603 3.09

740
762
673
724
818
713
839
615
565
764
733

§."i4
3.10
3.29
3.20
3.26
3.46
3.48
3.42
3.45
3.41
3.65
3.66
3.92
3.91
3.81

Fatality Produc­
rate per
Men 1 000,000 tion per
death
killed hours’
(short
exposure
tons)

,

3,242
2,445
2,642
2,821
2,656
2,419

iS

2,269
2,226
2,696
2,580
2,317
2,271
1,987
1,979
2,458
2,381
2,230

2.08
1.85
1.77

1.66

1.49
1.57
1.55
1.48
1.31
1.42
1.31
1.42
1.26
1.40
1.63
1.46
1.59

147.407
167.407
174,416
177,808
186,887
220,945
209,261
234,297
265,094
241,618
262,873
239,082
289,857
254,854
233,576
267,492
240,072

Fatali­
ties per

1,000,000
tons
mined

6.78
6.97
5.73
6.62
6.85
4.63
4.89
4.78
4.27
8.77
4.14
8.80
4.18
8.45
8.92
4.15
8.74
4.17

LOCATION AND CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS

Table 96 summarizes the facts regarding the place of occurrence
and the cause of accidents in coal mines from 1916 to 1924. The
underground occupations have much the larger share of fatalities,
and nearly or quite half of the underground fatalities result from falls
of material from roof or face. Attention has perhaps been too much
directed to those startling “ major casualties’ ’ in wnich by explosion
of gas or dust many hundreds of lives may be suddenly brought to
a close. Inspection of the rates in Table 95 will show that such explo­
sions stand third in order of importance.
Table 95 shows that since 1907 there has been a material improve*
ment in hazard but from 1916 on, the record is irregular, with a
tendency somewhat upward.
It would be advantageous if the underground and surface exposure
could be separated. The underground rates would doubtless be
higher and surface rates lower than those of the table, which are
based upon the entire exposure, it not being possible from the data
at hand to make this separation.




INJ>USTfiIAIi ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES
T a b l e 06*—FATALITIES IN COAL MINES IN T H E

UNITED STATES, 1 9 1 6 T O Mfi5, B Y
Y E A R , PLACE OF OCCURRENCE, AND CAU8E

Place and cause

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

1925

N u m b e r o f fatalities

Underground:
Falls of roof or face...................
Cars and locomotives..............
Explosions, gas or dust............
Explosives................................
Electricity................................
Miscellaneous...........................
Total underground________

962 1,218 1,294 1,100 1,132 1,024
506
341
381
408
482
390
191
16-1
129
116
170
362
128
152
135
111
206
146
88
76
90
79
69
80
129
112
118
m
127
130

905 1,162 1,062
341
415
350
372
311
536
92
114
100
74
75
81
77
117
100

1,078
360
345
102
84
100

2,027 2,379 2,281 ;2,077 2,020 1,831 1,800 2,255 2,229

2,060

Shaft__________________________

49

52

52

53

56

36

41

46

29

34

Surface:
Haulage.-...................................
Machinery__________________
Miscellaneous_______________

75
26
49

114
51
100

118
47
82

93
28
66

78
29
88

45
17
58

54
23
61

59
26
72

70
8
60

40
9
78

ldO

265

247

187

195

120

138

157

138

127

2,226 2,696 2,580 i2.317 2,271 1,987 1,979 2,458 2,396
I
!

2.230

Total surface______________
Grand total_______________

1

Fatality rates (p e r 1,000,000 hours* ex p osu re)

Underground:
0.57
Falls of roof or face...................
Cars and locomotives................ ........ .23
Explosions, gas or dust...................... .10
Explosives................................
.09
Electricity................................
.05
Miscellaneous............... ...........
.16

0.64
.25
.1 9
.06
.04
.07

0.66
.26
.07
.07
.04
.0 6

0.68 0.63
.23
.23
.1 2
.0 9
.0 7
.13
.04 j .04
.0 8 1 .0 6

0.72
.24
.0 8
.11
.06
.08

0.74
.2 8
.2 6
.08
.0 6
.06

0.69
.25
.2 2
.07
.04
.07

0.70
.23
.36
.07
.0 5
.07

Total underground________

1.19

1.25

1.16

!
1.28 i 1.12

1.29

1.48

1.34

1.48

Shaft__________________________

.03

.08

.0 3

.03 | .03
!

.03

.03

.03

.0 2

Surface:
Haulage------- ----------------------Machinery__________________
Miscellaneous...........................

.05
.02
.03

.06
.03
.05

.06
.02
.04

.0 6
.0 2
.04

.03
.01
.01

.0 5
.0 2
.0 5

.04
.01
.04

.0 5
.01
.03

.0 4
.0 2
.05

Total surface______________

.09

.14

.1 2

.11 j .11

.0 8

.1 2

.0 9

Grand total__________ ____

1.31

1.42

1.31

1.42 ; i.2 6

1.40

1.63

1.46

.09
1.59 ---------

1

Table 97 affords a comparison of the hazards o f coal mining aad
railway operation. There is a common opinion that coal mining
is an unusually hazardous occupation. This is due to the fact
that from time to time, much too often, a sudden catastrophe
overtakes the workers in a mine and many of them are killed.
Then comes possibly prolonged rescue work, recorded from day
to day in the public press. All this tends to impress the public,
to the exclusion of consideration of the men, both in mining and in
railway service, who are taken one or two at a time. The table
indicates that railway service is about as hazardous as anthracite
coal mining and is distinctly more hazardous than bituminous coal
mining.




MINES, QUARRIES, AND METALLURGICAL WORKS

87

T a b l e 87*-C O A L -M IN E FATALITIES VERSUS STEAM -RAILW AY FA TA LITIE S: F ATAL­

IT Y RATES (PER 1,000 EM PLOYEES), 1900 TO 191$, B Y YEARS
Fatality rates (per 1,000
employees)
Underground
workers in
Pennsylvania
coal mines

Year

I
Anthra-jBitumicite j nou3
1909...................................
1910...................................
m i ...................................
1912...................................
1913...................................

3.97 j
4.19 !
4.88!
3.90 i
4.33 I
!

Fatality rates (per 1,000
employees)

Rail­
way
train­
men

3.12
3.03
3.23
2.73
3. 59

4.87
5.41
5.49
5.22
5.05

Underground
workers in
Pennsylvania
coal mines

Year

Anthra­ Bitumi­
cite
nous
1914...................................
1915...................................
1916...................................
1917...................................
1918...................................

3.98
4.01
4.28
4.27
4.35

2.33
2.61
2.92
3.13
3.10

Rail­
way
train­
men

4.73
3.53
4.07
4.23
4.29

METAL MINES

Table 98, while not giving a very clear idea of the trend of accident
experience in metal mining, does give an idea of the relative impor­
tance of various types of mining. It is noticeable that since 1917
there has been a considerable decrease in the number of men em­
ployed, there being 200,579 in 1917 and 123,128 in 1924. This is
due in part to changed methods of mining.
T a b l e 98.—NUM BER OF M EN EM PLOYED AND NUM BER KILLED AND INJURED IN

M E TA L MINES IN THE UNITED STATES, 1917 TO 1924, B Y KIND OF MINE

^Siincl of mine

Men employed
Ac­
tive
oper­
ators Under­ Sur­ Total
ground face

1917
Copper....................................... 649 43,715 17,560 61,275
Oold, silver, and miscellaneous
metal....................................... 3,166 35,812 16.080 51,892
Iron............................................. 205 31,549 25,681 57.230
Lead and zinc (Mississippi Val­
ley).......................................... 369 15,075 5,194 20,269
NonmetalJic mineral................. 248 2,726 7,187
9.913
Total................................ 4,637 128,877 71,702 200,579
1918
Copper....................................... 524
Gold, silver, and miscellaneous
metal....................................... 2,429
Iron............................................. 176
Lead and zino (Mississippi Val­
ley).......................................... 236
Nonmetallic mineral................. 271

Men injured (time
lost more than 1 day)

Men killed

Under­ Sur­ To­ Under­ Sur­
ground face tal ground face Total

1352

22

374

16*532 3,403

19,935

166
135

30
56

196
191

7,144 1,241
8.872 3,406

a 385
12,278

65
9

3
14

68
23

727

125

767
714

4,544
1.144

852

36,755 9,531

46,286

17,201 3,312

20,513

5.429 2,418
6,858 2,763

7,847
9,621

601
854

3,746
1,188

646

32,967 9,948

42,915

42,286 17,161

59,447

180

40 220

28,061 15,582
28,775 24,890

43.643
53,665

152
128

29
51

181
179

3,660
9,157

14,004
11,847

43
10

4
9

47
19

Total................................ 3,636 112,156 70,450 182,606

513

133

10,344
2,690

1919
Copper....................................... 410 27,298 12,029
Gold, silver, and miscellaneous j
metal.......................................'2,430 21,868 10,262
Iron............................................. 157 28,234 19,442
Lead and zinc (Mississippi Val­
ley).......................................... 141 10,075 2,893
Nonmetallic mineral................. 245 3,356 9,805
Total................................ 3,383

3,145
334

!
39,327

120

20

140

10,002 2,234

12,239

32,130
47,676

113
107

13
32

126
139

4,656
813
G 907 2,191
,

5,469
9,098

12,968
13,161

42
5

3
12

45
18

363
2,822
414 1,104

3,185
1,518

90,831 54,431 145,262

388

80

468

24.801 6,705

31,506

I
1 Includes 161 fatalities due to the North Butte mine fire, Butte, Mont.




3,777
430

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

88

T a b l e 9 8 .-N U M B E R OF M E N E M PLO Y E D AN D NU M BER KILLED AND INJURED IN

M E TA L MINES IN THE U NITED 8TATE8, 1917 TO 1924, BY Y EA R S A N D KIND OF
MINES—Continued

Kind of mine

Men employed
Ac­
tive
oper­
ators Under­ Sur­ Total
ground face

1920
Copper....................................... 387 23,671 11,853
Gold, silver, and miscellaneous
metal...................................... 2,358 20,077 9,856
154 25,627 20,363
Iron............................................
Lead and zinc (Mississippi Val­
119 8,861 2, **7
ley).........................................
Nonmetallic mineral................. 263 3,149 10,619

Men injured (time
lost more than 1 day)

Men killed

Under­ Sur­ T o­ Under­ Sur­
ground face tal ground face Total

35,254

107

21

128

9,624 2,423

12,047

29,933
45,990

100
86

17
20

117
106

4,794
910
6,734 2,338

5,704
9,072

11,638
13,768

33
8

3
30

36
38

3,223
384
571 1,561

3*607
2,132

3,281 81,385 55,198 136,583
334
91 425 24,946 7,616 32,563
-- » . --- ----~
...S -- ■■■ = »
S
=
=====
■■■ ■ = = = =
■- ■ =
1921
357 12,865 5,435 18,300
649 4,722
Copper......................................
49
j 4,073
6
*
Gold, silver, and miscellaneous
!
12 78 ! 4,439
metal................................... 2,135 17,642 i 8,874 25,516
66
913
5,352
122 17,501 113, a>8 30,559
Iron...........................................
45
20 65 | 3,126 1,381
4,507
Lead and zinc (Mississippi
14
187 2,062
Valley)....................................
66 ! 5,302 j 1,646 6,498
14 I 1,875 1,334
8
10
Nonmetallic mineral.................. 216 i 2,630 |8,976 11,606
18 | 627
1,961
Total.

2,896 ; 55,940 37,989

Total1922

!
i
» ! | 17,547

93,929

1
8,192 j 25,739

Gold, silver, and miscellaneous
racial..................................... . 1,942 : 18,362 9,252 | 27,614
Iron........................................... . 110 ! 17,596 14,645 I 32,241
|
!
Lead and zinc (Mississippi
74 1 6,747 2,243
Valley)....................................
8,990
Nonmetallic mineral................. 199 j 2,530 8,583 11,113
;2,599 ! 62,782 42,915 ;105,697
1923
Copper................ .
Gold, silver, and r
metal................
Iron.....................
Lead and zinc

j
S
| 306 ! 21,655 10,822
!2,104 1 20,772 9,853
1 115 |20,086 18,333
! 82
i 218
i .
|2,825

Total.

j2,783 i

48

230 | 14,140 4,464
j

18,604

68

7

75

6,976 1,049

8,025

131
64

9
19

140
83

882
5,923
3,700 1,201

6,805
4,901

22
13

11

22
24

8,470
398
663 1,818

3,868
2,481

«

344 : 20,732 ',5,348

26,080

32,477

298 !
i
i
90 i

17

1
107 | 10,119 1,874

11,993

30,525
38,419

102 !
62 j

12
27

114 ! 7,078 1,594
89 ; 4,260 1,356
j

8,672
5*616

25 1 2
10 ; 20

27 | 4,455
439
30 | 796 1,592

4,894
2,388
33,563

8,649
4,959

! 7,728 2,498 10,226
i 3,346 8,286 11,632
i.... .
i 73,587 49,692 123,279
i
|

1924
Copper....................................... 271 ! 21,369
G<ud, silver, and miscellaneous
metal....................................... 2,097 1 19,617
Iron............................................
104 j 20,325
i
Lead and zinc (Mississippi
j 87 j 9,431
i
! 224 ! 3,344

182

11,108

32,477

101

20

367 1 26,708 6,855
r
!
121 j 9,623 2,235

10.101
16,304

29,718
36,629

135
71

10
26

145
97

7,402 1,247
3,708 1,251

3,303 12,734
8,226 . 11,570

34
12

9

34
21

492
6,226
682 1,252

74,086 49,042 !123,128
!

289 :

78

353 | 65
1

418 ; 26,641 3,477
j

11,858

33,118

Table 99 shows the accident rates for all metal mines from 1911 to
1924. The rate for injuries tends to rise. This is due, in considerable
measure, to better reporting rather than to increased hazard. This
appears when the fatality rates are considered. These decline for
underground workers from 1.83 in 1911 to 1.62 in 1924 (12 per cent).
Since fatalities are always more completely reported than are minor
injuries, this change may fairly be taken as an index of the shift in
hazard during this period. Inspection of the items of the table will
convince that there has been a real, though not very great, down­
ward tendency in accident frequency.




MINES, QUARRIES, AND METALLURGICAL WORKS

89

T a b l e 9 9 . — N U M BER OF FU LL-YEAR W ORKERS A N D A C C ID E N T FREQUENCY RATES

FOR M E TA L MINES IN THE UN ITED STATES (P E R 1,000,000 HOURS' EXPOSURE), 1911
TO 1924, BY YEARS
Accident frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours*
exposure)
Full-year workers
Year

Men killed
Under­ Surface
ground

1911....................................
1912.................................
1913....................................
1914....................................
1915....................................
1916....................................
1917...................................
1918....................................
1919....................................
1920....................................
1921....................................
1922....................................
1923....................................
1924....................................

Total

98,389
105,153
121,293
91,659
89,821
125,601
126,815
113,441
85,769
80,215
45,199
59,454
73,669
72,631

156,089
161,662
183,593
142,619
141,997
192,455
192,085
181,006
136,282
134,540
74,510
97,138
121,866
119,113

57,700
56,509
62,300
50,960
52,176
66,854
65,270
67,565
50,513
54,325
29,311
37,684
48,197
46,482

Men injured

Under­
ground Surface Total

Under­
ground * Surface Total

1.83
1.65
1.51
1.70
1.67
1.52
1.91
1.51
1.51
1.39
1.34
1.67
1.31
1.62

0.88
.82
.72
.61
.65
.61
.64
.66
.53
.56
.55
.41
.54
.46

1.48
1.36
1.24
1.31
1.30
1.21
1.48
1.19
1.14
1.05
1.03
1.18
1.00
1.17

72.43
78.81
70.15
87.27
106.62
102.04
96.61
96.87
96.39
103.66
104.28
116.24
120.85
122.27

3a 03
34.65
39.84
40.68
41.95
48.80
48.67
49.08
44.25
4a 73
5a 76
47.30
47.40
4a 43

56.76
63.37
59.86
7a 62
82.85
83.55
8a 32
79. O
S
77.06
8a 67
83.23
89.49
91.80
92.68

QUARRIES

The increase in injury rates for quarries which appears in Table 100
is undoubtedly due to more complete reporting. The fatality rate
of the first five-year period is slightly higher than that for the second
period and in the last four years there has been a further pronounced
drop. The exposure during the interval has been singulany uniform.
The slightly declining death rate reflects the improvement in equip­
ment and m method.
1 0 0 . — NUMBER OF M EN E M PLO Y E D ,
N U M BER OF M EN KILLE D A N D
INJURED, AND A C CIDEN T FREQUENCY RATES FOR QUARRIES IN TH E UNITED
STATES, 1911 TO 1920, BY YEARS

T able

Men employed
Men
killed

Year

Men
injured

Actual Full-year
number workers

Men
killed

1911...............................................................
1912...............................................................
1913..............................................................
1914...............................................................
1915...............................................................

110,954
113,105
106,278
87,936
100,740

84,417
93,837
87,141
68,187
82,447

Average, 5 y e a r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

103,803

83,206

1916...............................................................
1917...............................................................
1918...............................................................
1919...............................................................
1920...............................................................

90,707
82,290
68,332
75,505
86,488

76,457
71,525
59,285
63,794
77,089

11,161

0.74
.76
.70
.88
.60

182

7,437

.73

29.80

173
131
125
123
178

13,427
13,242
8,719
9; 199
11,217

.75
.61
.70
.64
.77

58.54
61.71
49.02
‘ 48.07
48.50

Average, 5 years___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80,682

69,630

146

92,243

76,418

164

77,185
79,081
92,455
94,242

59,958
68,861
85,153
84,246

120
132
143
138




Men
injured

' 5,390
6,552
7,739
7,836
9,671

188
213
183
180
148

Average, 10 years______________ ...!!
1921...............................................................
1922........................................ ..............; ___
1923...............................................................
1924...............................................................

Frequency
rates
(p e r
1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

9,299 |
10,465
11,839
14,990
14,777

21.28
23.67
29.60
38.31
39.10

.70

53; 43

.72

40.56

.67
.64
.56
.54

58.18
57.31
58.68
58.34

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

90

METALLURGICAL PLANTS

Ore-dressing plants and auxiliary works show no material improve­
ment in accident experience in the interval under consideration in
Table 101. In smelting plants the fatality rates declined from 0.64
to 0.18 (72 per cent) and injury rates declined from 58.24 to 37.55
(36 per cent).
T a b l e 1 0 1 .-A C C ID E N T 8

AND ACCIDEN T RATES IN M ETA LLU RG IC A L PLANTS IN
THE UNITED STATES, 1913 TO 1924, B Y YEARS
1
Men employed

Blind of plant and year

i
Full-yeur
Actual '=
number ; workers
!
1

Men
killed

Ore-dressing plants:
16,154
14,985
16
1913.................................................. .
1914.........................................................
23
IS, 225
15,128
1915.........................................................
18,564 , 19,107
30
19161
.......................................................
33
22,470 ; 23,470
1917«.....................................................
1
47
24,111 ! 24,372
19181.......................................................
2!. 809
22,517
35
19191
.......................................................
17,262 i 16,862
j
25
16,813
21
19201
.......................................................
19211
.......................................................
10,047
8,037
4
19221
....................................................... i 11,676
11,052
12
1923 *.......................................................! 14.899
24
14,782
1924 i......................................................
lo, < i>
3
16,093
20
Smelting plants: *
20,564
47
1913........................................................
24,309
1914.........................................................
27,879
33
32,336
1915..,....................................................
31.327
36,262
38
43,829
1910i.......................................................
49,363
36
19171
.......................................................
44,376
50,639
53
39,899
45,439
42
19181.......................................................
1 9 i.......................................................
28,777
34
31,324
20
30,411
1920».......................................................
26,099
14,f>21
14,204
19211
.......................................................
14
20,887
19221
.......................................................
19,495
16
19231.......................................................
17
22.439
26,677
1924 *.......................................................
24,941
29,231
16
Auxiliary works:
1913,1914,19153......................................
14
1916.........................................................
14.007
15,763
1917.........................................................
15,555
17,014
16
17
1918.........................................................
18,044
20,111
1C 172
,
5
1919.........................................................
15.GS1
18,363
1920.........................................................
16.306
20
9
8,762
1921.........................................................
8,308
17
12,829
1922.........................................................
14,069
17
1923.........................................................
16,533
18,040
15,520
17,024
19
1924.........................................................

Men
injured

Frequency
rates
(p o r
1,000,000
hours’ exposure)
Men
killed

Men
injured

1,977
1,434
2,095
3,184
2,952
3,142
2,057
2,624
16,827
1,214
1,984
2,549
2; 511

0.33
.50
.52
.17
.64
.55
.49
.41
.17
.36
.54
.41

40.79
31.40
36.55
45.22
40.37
46.51
40.74
54.75
50.35
59.84
67.48
52.01

4,247
5,673
5,718
9,656
7,745
G 743
,
4,431
4,147
2,129
3,002
3,487
3,293

.64
.31
.35
.24
.35
.31
.36
.23
.33
.26
.21
.18

58.24
58.48
52.66
65.20
50.90
.49.47
47.15
47..44
49.96
47.90
43.57
87.55

2,246
2,881
2,808
1,638
2,092
1,151
1,692
2,388
2,422

.30
.31
.28
.10
.37
.30
.40
.31
.36

47.37
66.44
46.54
33.76
38.73
46.18
40.09
44.12
45.81

* Not including auxiliary works such as shops, yards, etc.
* Not including iron blast furnaces.
■Included under ore dressing and smelting plants.

COKE OVENS

A striking feature of Table 102 is the very great falling off in the
number employed in the beehive ovens. There were less than a
third as many in 1924 as there were in 1916. This, of course, means
the discarding of a wasteful and inefficient method, but apparently
the increased use of machinery gives accident rates rather higher in
by-product ovens than in beehive ovens.




91

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES

The beehive o v e n s tend to higher rates both for fatality and far
injury. The by-product process records a decline in fatality rates
from 1.04 in 1917 to 0.42 in 1924 (60 per cent), and from 100.02 in
injury rates in 1917 to 23.78 in 1924 (76 per cent).
TABLE 10% .— N U M BE R OP M E N E M PLO Y E D AND ACCIDEN TS AND A C C ID E N T RATES

IN BEEHIVE A N D B Y-PROD U CT COKE OVENS, 1919 TO 1924, B Y YEARS

Men employed
Men
killed

Year

Men
injured

Actual Full-year
number workers

Frequency
rates
(p e r
1,000,000
hours’ exposure)
Men
killed

Men
injured

Beehive ovens:
1910.........................................................
1917.........................................................
1918.........................................................
1919........................................................
1920.........................................................

18,570
18,820
16,4-12
13,333
10,955

18,591
19,295
16,436
10,829
10,094

24
25
19
10
11

1,866
1,822
2,155
1,364
1,035

0.43
.43
.39
.31
.36

33.46
31.48
43.70
41.09
34.18

Average, 5 years__________________

15,624

15,049

18

1,649

.40

33.58

1921........................................................
1922........................................................
1923........................................................
1924........................................................
By-product ovens:
1916.........................................................
1917................................ ........................
1918........................................................
1919........................................................
1920.......................................................

6,011
7,871
8,515
0,150

2,835
4,823
7,144
4,025

5
8
12
3

336
474
875
457

.59
.55
.56
.25

39.51
32.76
40.83
*37.85

13,033
13,597
15,947
15,408
17,184

15,528
16,300
19,040
16,845
19,827

21
51
54
43
38

3,371
4,891
5,637
2,667
2,380

.45
1.04
.95
.85
.64

72.36
100.02
98.69
52.78
40.01

Average, 5 years.... ........... ......... ......

15,034

17,508

41

3,789

.78

72.14

1921............... ........................................
1922........................................................
1923........................................................
1924........................................................
AH coke ovens:

10,193
11,407
15,214
14,001

11,033
13,413
18,483
16,656

12
21
33
21

1,517
1.236
1,718
1,188

.36
.52
.60

45. B3
3a 72
30.98
23.7$

1918........................................................
1919........................................... ............
1920............... - ......................................

31,603
32,417
32,389
28,741
28,139

34,119
35,595
35,476
27,674
29,921

45
76
78
53
49

6.237
6,713
7,792
4,G31
3,415

.44
.71
.69
.64
.55

51. IS
62.86
73.21
48.50
38.04

Average, 5 y e a r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30,658

32,557

59

5,438

.60

55.68

1921.........................................................
1922.........................................................
1923.........................................................
1924.........................................................

16,204
19,278
23,729
20,451

13,868
18,236
25,627
20,681

17
29
45
24

1,853
1,710
2,593
1,645

.41
.53
.59
.39

44.54
31.26
33.73
26.51

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES
STATE RECORDS

In an earlier section of this report the accident record of the various
States has been presented classified by industries. That record dealt
solely with the number of casualties. Such a record has an inform­
ative value but fails entirely to afford any hint regarding relative
hazard, and consequently gives no suggestion regarding the place where
accident prevention methods may be profitably applied. For exam­
ple, the fact that Indiana had 506 casualties in the m a n u f a c t u r e of
agricultural implements in the year 1925 while Ohio had 194 may
mean simply that the production of such implements is on a larger
scale in Indiana than in Ohio, or it may mean that danger of casualty




92

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

is much greater in Indiana. It is entirely impossible to determine
the significance of the facts without further investigation.
The steps in the process of converting the bare facts into a form
which has real meaning are these:
1. It must be determined how many man-hours of exposure
occurred in the portion of the industry covered by the record in
each State.
2 . The number of casualties must be divided by the man-hours of
exposure, giving frequency rates.
When the resulting rates are compared it is found that the con­
cerns covered in Indiana had a frequency rate of 45.20 cases per
1,000,000 hours’ exposure in the manufacture of agricultural imple­
ments, while Ohio had 60.02 cases; that is, frequency of accident
was considerably greater in Ohio than in Indiana.
Of course, many other factors may need to be considered in reaching
a final conclusion, but so far as it goes such a comparison of rates
gives some real information regarding relative hazard and can there­
fore be used as a basis for accident-prevention study.
In view of the fact that rates have been so little used in accident
studies, outside of railways, mines, and the iron and steel industry,
theTJnited States Bureau of Labor Statistics has sought to encourage
the development of accident rates and has published such as were
available from time to time. Recently the bureau has sought to
utilize the information contained in the State accident reports by
relating such data for selected establishments to data regarding the
number of man-hours worked by such establishments. The accident
data were obtained through the cooperation of the various State
agencies. The employment data were obtained directly from the
establishments.
The selection of the establishments was as follows: For some time
the bureau has obtained monthly reports of volume of employment
from some 10,000 concerns. This list had bfeen carefully chosen to
cover adequately the various important industries and to include
plants of both large and small size. Fifty-two industrial groups are
covered by the employment studies. From these 24 were selected
as having the greatest significance from the standpoint of accident
study. A small amount of additional information from each concern
made possible the determination of a close approximation to the
man-hours of exposure. The combination of these items—namely,
exposure and accidents— gave the rates hereafter presented. Table
103 shows the accident rates for the only States (Ohio, Illinois, and
Minnesota) for which information was available for both 1924
and 1925.




MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES

93

T a b l i 1®3*— ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR SPECIFIED INDUS­

TRIES IN OHIO, ILLINOIS, AND M INNESOTA, 1924 AND 1925
A c c id e n t frequency
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Number of cases

industry

Fullyear
work­
ers

Per­
ma­
Death nent
dis­
abil­
ity

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
ma­ po­
po­
ma­ po­
To­ Death nent rary To­ Death nent rary To­
rary
dis­ dis­ tal
dis­ tal
dis­ dis­ tal
abil­ abil­
abil­ abil­
abil­
ity ity
ity ity
ity

1924
Agricultural im p le ments.......................... 3,142
Automobiles........
5,648
Automobile tires______ 5,772
Boots and s h o e s ........ 1,614
Brick..... ....................... 3,514
Electrical machinery... 4,626
Flour.............................. 2,921
Foundry and machine
shops........................... 17,774
Furniture....................... 5,333
Glass.............................. 1,283
Lumber—planing mills. 1,852
Machine tools................ 3,635
and pulp............. 1,171
Pottery...__ ___ ______
953
Slaughtering and meat
packing....................... 19,911
Steam fittings, appara­
tus, and supplies........ 1,424
Stoves............................. 3,278
Structural-iron work___ 1,187

1
2
1
1

ID 361 380
17 495 512
25 1,741 1,767
1
23 24
522 537
13
46
364 411
113 120
6

9
1
1
2
1
1

79 1,928 2,016
204 226
21
5
289 295
15
128 145
9
322 332
13
148 162
2
60 62

11

98 1,311 1,420

3
1

3
3
6

272
325
303

2.02 38.32 40.34
1.00 29.21 30.21
0.06 1.40 97.18 98.64
0.33
.21 4.75 4.96 ...........
.19 1.23 49.52 50.94
1.14
.43
.07 3.31 26.23 29.61
.68
.11 .681 12.89 13.68
1
.15 1.32 32.14 33.61
.90
.38
.06 1.31 ; 12.75 14.12
.26 1 . 30; 75.07 76.63
i
1.56
.36 2.70 23.04 26.10
2.16
.09 .83,, 29.53 30.45
.55
.28 3.70 42.14 46.12
1.71
.70, 21.00 21.70
1
.18 1.64, 21.95 23.77
1.10

275
331
310

.70 63.68 64.38
.31 .31 33.05 33.67
.28 1.68 85.06 87.02

20
266 292
12
182 196
52 2,962 3,017
124 124
9
629 641
21
360 382
6
191 201

.42 1.40 18.58 20.40
.13 .77 11.68 12.58
.07 1.16 66.32 67.55
1 12.39il2.39
1
.16 .47 32.75:33.38
.04 .82 14.1014.96
.39 .58, 18.49119.46

47 1,635 1,686
26 212 238
2
414 416
57
6
66
5
258 263
7
163 172
1
80 81

.07

1.83
1.68

1.62
1.00
1.60
.06
.68
2.99
.85

0.68
.55
1.18
.11
.97
.34
.18

2.30
1.59
3.11
.17
2.79
3.76
1.71

1.08
.91
1.36
5.17
.55
2.83
.84

.45
.26
.83
.71
.31
.67
.47

2.43
1.55
2.75
8.04
1.41
5.21
1.31

1.21

.70 3.01

.49
.24
.94

.79 1.28
.31 2.38
1.04 3.67

1925
A gricultural im p le­
ments......................... 4,771
Automobiles.................. : 5,193
Automobile tires............' 14,882
Boots and shoes_______ 1 3.336

Brick..............................s 6,402
Electrical machinery--J 8,512
Flour..............................1 3,443
Foundry, and machine
shops........................... 19,205
Furniture___ . . . __ . . . . 5,289
CHass... . . . . . . . . . ______ 1,552
Lumber—planing mills. 1,563
Machine tools___ . . . . . . 2,960
Paper and pulp............. 1,510
Pottery.......................... 1,206
Slaughtering and meat
packing....................... 19,648
Steam fittings, appara­
tus, and supplies____
692
Stoves............................ 1,753
Structural-iron w ork ... 2,069
!

6
2
3
3

1
4
4
3
2
15

63 1,300 1,378
2
2

4

14

122

124

275
459

277
477

2.51 1.18
.77 .79
.40 1.06
.94 1.00
.23 .65
2.32 .52

.42
.82 28.3829.27
1.64 13.37ll5.01
.43' 88.93*89.36
.64 1.28!! 12.15114.07
3.84
.56 29.0529.61
.44 1.55! 35.99137.98 " 2."65
.28 22.12 22.40
I
i
!
.25 1.07, 22.06 23.38
1.53

.69
1.15
.77
1.66
.39
1.59
.50

.31
.21
.74
.19
.51
.13
.25

4.00
1.77
2.20
.19
2.45
1.01
3.09

.34
.28
.75
.30
.29
.64
.31

1.45
1.43
1.52
5.80
.68
4.88
.81

.90

.43 2.86

.96 58.8059.76
.51
.48
.38 52.30 52.68
.64 2.26 73.94 76.84 """3.87 2.38

.81 1.32
.49 .97
.99 7.24

1

According to this table the frequency rates range in 1924 from 4.96
for boots and shoes to 98.64 for automobile tires. In 1925 the range
is from 12.39 for boots and shoes to 89.36 for glass. In 12 industries
there is a decline in the rate from 1924 to 1925 while 6 industries
show a rising rate.
2063°—27------7




94

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

The declines are as follows: Agricultural implements from 40.34
to 20.40, or 49 per cent; automobiles from 30.21 to 12.58, or 58 per
cent; automobile tires from 98.64 to 67.55, or 32 per cent; brick
from 50.94 to 33.38, or 34 per cent; electrical machinery from 29.61
to 14.96, or 49 per cent; foundries and machine shops from 33.61 to
29.27, or 13 per cent; planing mills from 26.10 to 14.07, or 46 per
cent; machine tools from 30.45 to 29.61, or 3 per cent; paper and
pulp from 46.12 to 37.98, or 18 per cent; slaughtering and meat pack­
ing from 23.77 to 23.38, or 2 per cent; steam fittings from 64.38 to
59.76, or 7 per cent; structural-iron work from 87.02 to 76.84, or 12
per cent.
The increases are: Boots and shoes from 4.96 to 12.39, or 150 per
cent; flour from 13.68 to 19.46, or 42 per cent; furniture from 14.12
to 15.01, or 6 per cent; glass from 76.63 to 89.36, or 17 per cent;
pottery from 21.70 to 22.40, or 3 per cent; stoves from 33.67 to 52.6S,
or 56 per cent.
Two cautions are pertinent regarding conclusions to be drawn
from these figures:
1. In several of the industrial groups the exposure is not large
enough to be as authoritative as could be desired.
2 . Percentages of increase and decrease are not comparable with
each other. Increases can be compared with increases and declines
with declines, but a per cent of increase is not comparable with a
per cent of decline.
Not only is it desirable to consider the frequency of accidents, but
if the whole story is to be told some device must be utilized which
will bring out the relative severity. To this end the Bureau of Labor
Statistics developed and has utilized the severity rate. This rate is
coming to be more generally used as industrial managers come to be
aware of the new light which it sheds on the accident problem .9
In the case of the three States from which data have been secured
for the years 1924 and 1925 it was possible to compute severity rates
and these are also shown in the table. They are expressed in terms
of days lost per 1,000 man-hours of exposure; death and permanent
disabilities are given a fixed time allowance in terms of days.
When these severity rates are examined it appears that in 12 indus­
tries there was a decline in severity and in 6 a rising severity rate.
The relation of the two rates to each other is indicated by the fol­
lowing: In 8 industries both frequency and severity declined. In 2
industries both rose. In 4 industries frequency declined and severity
rose. In 4 industries frequency rose and severity declined.
The amount of decline in severity in the different industries is as
follows: Automobile tires from 3.11 to 2 .20 , or 29 per cent; brick
from 2.79 to 2.45, or 12 per cent; electrical machinery from 3.76 to
1.01, or 73 per cent; foundries and machine shops from 2.43 to 1.45,
or 40 per cent; lumber from 8.04 to 5.80, or 28 per cent; machine
tools from 1.41 to 0.68, or 52 per cent; paper and pulp from 5.21 to
4.88, or 6 per cent; slaughtering and meat packing from 3.01 to 2.86,
or 5 per cent; furniture from 1.55 to 1.43, or 8 per cent; glass from
3.75 to 1.52, or 59 per cent; pottery from 1.31 to.0.81, or 38 per cent;
stoves from 2.38 to 0.97, or 59 per cent.
• For full account of standard method of computing frequency and severity rates, see U. S. Bureau of
Labor Statistics Bui. No. 276. p. 68.




MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES

95

The rising severity rates are in the following industries: Boots and
shoes from 0.17 to 0.19, or 12 per cent; flour from 1.71 to 3.09, or 81
per cent; agricultural implements from 2.30 to 4.00, or 74 per cent;
automobiles from 1.55 to 1.77, or 14 per cent; steam fittings from 1.28
to 1.32, or 3 per cent; structural-iron work from 3.67 to 7.24, or 97
per cent.
Table 104 summarizes by industries the data gathered from 11
States for the year 1925. It represents a fair sample from 24 indus­
tries located in 11 States, operating 1,272 plants and employing the
equivalent of 555,988 full-year workers. The exposure and the
number of cases are sufficient in nearly every case to make the rates
a fairly dependable index of average conditions. A further extension
of collection of such data into other States and additional industries
is greatly to be desired; in fact, it is necessary if a standard presenta­
tion is to be secured.




T a b l e 1 0 4 .-A C C ID E N T

FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES IN 11 STATES, 1925

Industry and State

Foundry and machine shops......................................................
Furniture. - ___________________ . . . . . ____ . . . . . . . . . . . ______ ;




Total

States
8
8
3
5
9
3
4
8
3
11
10
4
5
10
4
7
8
2
3
3
6
4
10
2

i
i
!
i

;
!

;

I
1

;

'i

55
73
23
31
94
19
31
71
27
25ft
165

40

26
64
22
48
34
13
13

7

44
29
60
25

16,295
: 189,385
20,097
11,200
15,595
10,999
11,609
: 60,653
'j
3,616
75,404
! 24,519
i 12,138
j
9,301
9,852
10,223
6,033
11,142
3,148
23,900
1,473
6,212
3,988
6,521
12,682

9
56
4
8
5
3
13
4
18

:
1 i
2
6
11 i
1!
5
I
15
1 ;
1 i
6
1 !

78
704
62
6
29
33
35
229
7
324
80
18
30
58
24
17
80
3
81
3
38
*
42
13

1,137
0.18
1,050
.10
i 4,247 | 5,007
!
! 3,068 j 3,134
.07
i
i
252 ;
j
258 . . . . . . .
■ 1,050 ! 1,087
!
94 1
.15
132
192
230
.09
.07
! 1,170 i 1,412
203
214
.37
3,763
.08
! 3,421
;
903
983
.03*
!
529
548
214
.07
!
182
605
541
.20
!
567
602
.36 j
i
332
350
.06 i
590
675
.15 i
156
160
.11
■ 1,645
1,741
.21 ;
75
78
335
.05
374
356
352
.08
559
.31
607
!
33
47
.03 <

1.60
1.24
1.03
. 18
.62
1.00
1.00
1.26
.65
1.43
1.09
.49
1.08
1.96
.78
.94
2.39
.32
1.13
.68
2.04
.25
2. 15
.34

23.31
2 7.80
57.08
0.88
30.46
4.87
5.63
0.46
1 T 71
S.
23.62
14.06
24.37
11.17
10.78
18.49
21.09
20.47
16.52
22.94
16.97
31.52
43.08
48.49 ■
1.59

25.09
9.14
59.08
10.06
31.25
6.02
6.72
10.79
19.73
25.13
16.05
24.89
12.32
21.94
19.63
22.09
23.01
16.95
24.28
17.65
33.61
43.41
50.95
1.96

1.10 ! 1.26
.59 ; 1.02
i
:
.4 0 j 1.06
1
.13
|'’ i.‘ o3i i .73
!
| .91 1.45
i .52 1.49
.43 1.12
.57
2.21
.48 1.24
.79
.16 ; .65
.43
.82
1.22 2.62
I 2.15
.66
.33
. 77
| .90 3.20
I
; .64
.87
!| 1.26
.94
;
.54
jr v i »
1.89
! .50
.24
! 1.84 J.95
''
.24
.16
i|

!!
!
!
i
j
,
!
|
;
:
i

0.42
.16
.84
.19
.55
.15
.18
.24
.27
.43
.25
.27
.29
.49
.48
.27
.75
.37
.42
. 19
.74
.45
.75
.05

2.78
1.77
2.30
.32
2.31
2.51
2.19
1.79
3.05
2.15
1.04
1.08
1.54
4.33
3.29
1.37
4.85
1.88
2.62
.73
2.95
1.19
4.54
.45

STATES

Slaughtering and meat packing.................................................
Stamped and enameled ware
- - __
Steam fittings, apparatus, and supplies...................................
Stoves______ . . . . ____ __________________ ________________
Structural-iron work..................................................................

Per- Tem­
maDeath ; nent porary
disa­
disa­ bility
bility

UNITED

Paper and pulp...........................................................................

Total

I
N

Leather........................................................................................ i
Lumber—planing mills...............................................................
Lumber—sawmills......................................................................

Per­ Tem­
ma­
Death nent porary
disa­
disa­ bility
bility

ACCIDENTS

Carpets..................................................................................... *.
Chemicals.....................................................................................
Electrical machinery...................................................................

Total

INDUSTRIAL

INDUSTRY »

Agricultural implements............................................................
Automobiles................................................................................
Automobile tires.........................................................................
Boots and shoes_________________________________________

Num­
Fullber of
Per­ Tem­
estab­
year
lish­ workers
ma­
Death nent porary
ments
disa­
disa­ bility
bility

Accident severity rates (per
1,000 hours’ exposure)

Accident- frequency rates (per
1,000.000 hours* exposure)

Number of cases
Num­
ber of
States
or in­
dus­
tries

I

\
Indus-'

Illinois.............
Indiana...........
Iowa................
Maryland.......
Michigan........
Minnesota___
New Jersey___
New York.......
Ohio................
Pennsylvania.
Wisconsin.......
Total..

i

trie*
13
13
9

12
7

12
14
15
15
19

11

J20

122

51.330

i
i

54
52 :
44

eo ;
113
J31 j
161 !
342 !
73 !
1,272

20,585

11,074
7,199
165.918
13,744
46,066
70,053
43,2J3
93,733
28,083
555,988

21 ; 134
1 51

i

j

2 ; 40 [

I i 12 !

48 ; 580 ;
14 ! 55 ;
7 : 223|
26 511
13 I 120 ;
- 26 i 226 i
12 > 95 I

i

1, 73'
2,219
880
478
3,624
1,141

1,010

1,733
7,043

1,631

1,892
2,271
922
491
4,252

. 14

1,210

.34
.03

1,240
2,270
7,176
252
1,738

.02
.06
.05

.10
.12
.10
.26
.14

3 II. 2fc
35.93
26.49
1.20
22.13
.56
*7.28
1.17
27.67
1.33
J4.65
1.03
2.43
38.25
.93
54.32
2.23
(4
>
1.13
19.36
.87
.83

i
:
;
:
i
!
;
;

12.29
36.78
27.75
22.74
8.55
29.34
5.71
10.80
55.35
2.48
20.63

.82

.10
.58
2.04

:8

.60
1.54
.85

i

.21
.37
.56
0)
.41

1.78
1.06
1.77
1.57
1.64
3.99
2.09
3.90
2.09
3.20
1.81

INDUSTRIES




.27
.50 !
.40
.45
.16
.49

MISCELLANEOUS

disabilities terminating in the first week.
* Data for temporary disabilities not available.

.69
.46
1.01
.84
.90
1.46
1.57
2.79
.93
1.66
.55

•si

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

98

Table 105 shows accident rates by industries for each of the 11
States. In general the Bureau of Labor Statistics avoids computing
rates where the exposure is less than the equivalent of 1,000 fullyear workers. In this case, however, it seemed best for the sake of
completeness to include even those groups in which the exposure was
less than the standard amount.
Some unfortunate deficiencies in the data must be pointed out.
The data for temporary disabilities in Pennsylvania could not be
secured, therefore in computing rates for temporary disabilities
Pennsylvania exposure was not used. Illinois, Michigan, and New
Jersey do not report disabilities ending in the first week. New York
has hitherto omitted those ending in the first two weeks. The effect
of these omissions is to lower the frequency rates for temporary disa­
bilities. The severity rates are so little influenced by these deficiencies
that the effect may be disregarded.
T a b l e 105.—ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES IN SPECIFIED INDUS­

TRIES, 1925, BY STATES

AGRICU LTU RAL IM PLEM ENTS

Number of cases

State

Illinois..............
Indiana............
Iowa.................
Minnesota___
New York.......
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin........
Total___

Num­ Fullber of year
estab­ work­
Per­
lish­
ma­
ments ers Death nent
disa­
bili­
ty
13|
9i
4'
5
3i
13j
5;
3j

2.808
3,732 .........i
418
2
886
1.615
1!
i
4
1,077
1,282
i
j
4,476
1!
55; 16,295|
9

9
17
2
14
9
3
24

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours* ex­
posure)

Accident freq u en cy
rates (per 1,000,000
hours' exposure)

!
Per­ Tem- ■
Per­ Tem­
Tem-J
ma­ P°- !
ma­ po­
po- 1
nent rary To­ Death nent- i-ary j Torary ; To­
disa­ disa-! tal
disa-! tal Death disa­ disa­ tal
bili­ bill- ;
bili­ bili­
bill- i
ty
ty
ty
ty 1
ty j
s
!
>65
74
0.68 i 0.15 0.83
! 1.07 17.72 8.79
0.54 1.38
.72 2.G4
488 506! 0.09 1.52 43.59 45.20
.44 .44
38 38.......... ;....... ! 30.2730.27
.75 . 75i 7.53i 9.03
4.52 '".'56
.08 5.16
20‘ 24
1.24 3.14 * 23 4.61
45
.21 2.89; *6.19 9.29
230
.9011.35
181 194j 1.24 2.781 56.00 60.02
7.43 3.02
.34 .........i .34
.78
3
i .78
<) :
3
.34 1.74
228 253j
.07 1.79; 16.9818.84
.45 .95

78 1,0501,137

.18 1.60- 23.3125.09
i
i
i

.42; 2.78

1. lOj 1.26

AUTOMOBILES
Illinois.............
Indiana______
Michigan.........
New Jersey___
New York
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin........
Total___

8 2.9901
2!
4 2.239 ..........
25 152.620
421
j
5 3,113
15 11,919
6
|
• 2,202
>
1
5 7,851 .........5:
1:
6 6.450
73 189,385

7 1 4 > 54 0.22
.r|
17ffl 185
9
549 3,2103,801
.09
25
721 97
.17
85'1 5 issi 279
5
137i 142.
4! (3 ! 46. ‘ ” .'21
)
.05
24
403

56' 704 4,247j5,007.
1

0.78 1 5.02 6.02
1.34
1.31 26.21 27.55
1.20 7.01 8.30 ""'."55
2.68 7.71 10.39
1.01
2.38 25.26 7.81
.76 20.73 21.49
1.95
i.27
1.74
1.24 '19.53 20.82
.31

.10 1.24

7.80 9.14

0.27 10.11
.47
.27
.91
.14
.19
2.28
.25
2.42 2
.35
1.50
1.22 . . . . . .
.41
.62

1.71
.74
1.60
2.47
3.68
1.85
2.49
1.34
1.77

.59 1.02
i

*16

AUTOM OBILE TIRES
!
0.12 1.21 1 11.76 13.09!
0.73 2,03! 10.37 3.13
10i1 1 97i 108
. 74 2.20
52!1 2,96213,017!
.07 1.161 66.32 67.55!
.40 1.06!
1.13
9 <) j
......... 1.22j.......... 1.22j. . .......
3

Total___

25; 20,097

4

62 3,068-3,134!

i Data for temporary disabilities ending in first week not available.
1 Date for temporary disabilities ending in first two weeks not available.
1 Data for temporary disabilities not available. ■




1
!

1

.07 1.03j 57.98 59.08*

1
•
1
1

1
3

2”

New Jersey___
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania..

t
7! 2,749
12! 14,888
6! 2,459

.40 1.06|

.84 2.30

MISCELL AX EO U IX I) U
S
STitlUS

99

T a b l e 1 0 5 t -ACCIDENT FREQUENCY ANT) SEVERITY RATES IX SPECIFIED INDUS­

TRIES, 1925, BY STATES—Continued
BOOTS AND SHOES

A ccidcn t f r o q u e n c y
rates (per 1,C O
O ,000
hours’ exposure)

Number of cases

State

Num­
ber of Fullyear
Per­
estab­ work­
lish­
ma­
ments ers Death nent
disa­
bili­
ty

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Per­ Tem­
Tein-j
Per- Temma­ po­
mo- J popo' ! Torary i m Death nent rary : To- Death nent rary To­
disa- disa- tal
disn-i tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bili- j bili.
bilibili­ bili­
i
ty j ty
ty
ty
ty

Illinois.............
Maryland........
New York.......
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin........

5 3,336
7 8.510
7 2,238
8 2.697
4 2,079

>124'
Mi
*21
(*)
53-

124
54
25
55!

.32

8.50; 8.82

Total___

11,200

252

258:.

.18

9.88:10.06

.......>12.3912.
___ ! 21.14 21.14
0. 60 * 3.13' 3. 73

0.51

10.19 0.19
. 44! .44
>.Uj .62

.14

.17: .31
.19; .32

BRICK
Illinois..........
Indiana.........
Iowa..............
Maryland___
Minnesota_
_
New Jersey. _
New York___
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania.
Total. .

94! 15,595

!

<

I

i

I

1197:
204 0.09: 0.53 117.27 17.890.53
166j 167.......... i .48! 79.5680.04'
74!
76
. 33 . 33: 24.36 25.02, 1."
52' 52................... ! 36.88 36.88:
6
1
6 .......... :....... j 34.9034.901
1 70: 78!.......... 1.40:112.2813.68:
259! 68!
.66 2.31*319.5122.48j 3.97
.
426! 431:
.26 . 39: 55.86 36.51; 1.57
3s (3) :
5.16 . 24:
.40!

12i 3,802
10|
696
16; 1,013
5;
470
57
1,900
iS 1,008
2,542
19; 4,106

■
a

S
i

29; 1,050; 1,087

.17

i

.62- 3a 4631.25|

!

I

i

1.03

1 .13 >0.45 2.11
.14
.10

.71 .85
.45 2.53
.99

1.01 1 [
1.62 >1.
.84
.62
.97
.73

1.29
6.62
3.03
1.27

. 55 2.31

CARPETS
New Jersey___ :
New York.......
Pennsylvania..Total___

3
2
14

857
5,571
4,571

19; 10,999

3! 127;
27; 267j
3 <)
3
5

33

1
2

!
1:
1222-

94

1.17 M 50111.67
O.
30!.
97. 0.18 1.
84.01 i 5.81
.15 .22 ........ ! .37

5i

. 15 1.00

132i

4.87 6.02

....... ! 3.23 ia 2 9 3.52
1.08! 2.31 *. 13 3.52
.88! .08
.96
.91 1.45

.15 2.51

CHEMICALS
M aryland...
New Jersey___
New York.......
Pennsylvania..
T otal..

17j 6,778j
7 3,236!
2
2 0 6 - ..
31: 11, (i
i

3o|

i
i
!
!
44; 45............ ! 0.25 11.03;11.28........... 0.0S
189! 102: 0.05 . 59! 1 4.381 5.02: 0.30 .65
*59; 83;
. 21 2.27! * C 08? 8.56s
.
1.2 3.96
!
!
1
“ i”
192| 230:
.09 1.00; 5.63 6.72

0.25 0.32
1.13 1.08
*26 5.46
.18 2.19

ELECTRICAL M A C H IN IS T
!
Illinois..............:

Iiidiana.......... !

Maryland........ j
Minnesota....... .
New Jersey___ !
New York........!
Ohio.................|
Pennsylvania..!
Total___ i

13:
3!
2
1
13!
9
17i
13i

4,914!
1
3,080..........
851=..........
8 ..........
8,329'
1
20,454
4
3,560!....
19,441
7

71 60,667!

13;

154
184
30
1
1140
2456
305
(0

69
0.071 0.94; i 3.64 4. to
187!........... I .32. 19.91 20.23
30!........... !........ * 11.75 11.75
I!........... ;........ i 43.17 43.17
203!
.04! 2.48: » 5.60 8.12
„
534i
.07! 1.211 *7.43 8.71
312........... : .66 28.56 29.22
76
.12! 1.18s..........} 1.30

1,170 1,412.

.07

9.4610.79

1 Data for temporary disabilities ending in first week not available.
* Data for temporary disabilities ending in first two weeks not available.
• Data for temporary disabilities not available.




0.40 0.54 10.07! 1.01
.17) .27
........ .10
.24? .24
2.37! 2.37
.24 2.47 U5i 2.86
.39: 1.29 * 33 2.01
.22 1.03
___ ! .81
.72 .80 ......... 1.52
.43i

112

.24

1.79

100

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

T a b l e 105.—A C CIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES IN SPECIFIED INDUS­

TRIES, 1925, BY STATES—Continued
FLOUR

Accident fre q u e n cy
rates (per 1,000,000
hours* exposure)

Number of cases

State

Num­ Fullber of year
estab­ work­
Per­
lish­
ma­
ments ers Death nent
disa­
bili­
ty

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours* ex­
posure)

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
ma­ po­
rary To­ Death nent rary To­ Death nent rary To­
disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bili­
bili­ bili­
bili­ bili­
ty
ty
ty
ty
ty

9

9

Iowa.................
Maryland........
Minnesota.......

6
2
19

143
29
3,443

4

1
6

3
4
191 j 201

Total___

27

3,616

4

7
|
i

203' 214
|

0.39
.37

20.86 20.86
11.31 33.94 45.25
.58 18.49 19.46,
.65 18.7M9.73 (
!

8.48
.52

0.57 0,57
.90 0.38
.25, 3.09

2.211 .57

.27j 3.05

2.32

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE-SHOP PRODUCTS
Illinois..........
Indiana..........
Iowa...............
Maryland___
Michigan___
Minnesota...,
New Jersey...
New Y o rk ...
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania.
Wisconsin....
T otal...

!
15
10
10
5
9
21
15
29
109
14

10,293
1,
2,785
1,317
4,078
1,282
5,672
10,104
7,629
27,121

257 75,404

5j
1!
18

I
J. J.
1239 266! 0.03! 0.84; >7.74 8.61
415 418 . ___! .58 78.281------73.76.
.12; 1.80; 37.8239.74
316 332
155 162:
.251 1.52! 39.2240.99
>133 149;
.081 1.23;>10.87 12.18
70 ^ |
5
.26| 1.04; 18.20 19.50;
>234! 291
.12; 3.23 *3.75 17.10
.10: 4.22 310.62 14.94:
*322 453!
1,326,1,345
.09 . 74; 57.93 58.761
64
.06; . 58!
47 (') I 52
.10, .82 21.7622.
21li 220
8
324 3,4213,763.

|
I
0.19. 0.78! >0.26
.16
.78
.72 1.38
.52
1.52; 3.35
.64
.49 .94 >.26
1.56. 1.25
.41
.71! 2.31 >.41
.59 3.90 *.58
.52 .46
.43
.371 .53.
.62 . 321 .43
.48, 1.24

1.23
.94
2.62
5.53
1.69
3.22
3.43
5.07
1.41
.90
1.37

. 43 2.15

FURNITURE
Illinois_______
Indiana__ ____
Iowa _______
Marvland____
Michigan_____
Minnesota.......
New York
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania-.
Wisconsin........
T o ta l....

165 24, 519

8
23
8
17
3

107}
469-'
36;
30.
32
46;
76
85!
17:.
I*)"
82
85:.

80

16 2,828!..........
50 6,086|..........
504!..........
5
7
422!..........
5 2,013;..........
8
634;..........
14 2.930_____
15 1.821
32 i,393|..........
13 2,888!...........

903j 983

10
11

1.18 >11.43 12.61
.60 25.09 25.69
23.79 23.79
23.72 23.72
>5.30 5.
4.20 19.97 24.17
2.
*6.03 8.65
1.46 14.09 15.55
1.29
1.29
.35 9."46 9.81

>97
458
36
30
>32
38
*53

0.71 >0.26
.26
.24
.19
.58
1.20
2.76
.36
2.70 *.27
1.26
.76
.14
.17

14.96ll6.05

0.97
J50
.19
.58

.20

3.12
2.97
1.55
.76
.31

.79

.25 1.04

1
1
!
2
65
67
0.63! 20.6121.24
0.19
7i >50; 58
0.07 .50: >3.60, 4.71
0.43 .76
2j 414! 416
.43; 88.9389.36
.77
7i 0 ) 1
j \/ | 7 .......... .4 8 ......... | .48 .......... .59

0.31 0.50
>.10 1.29
.75 1.52
.59

GLASS
Marvland........
New Jersey___
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania..
Total.. . .

4
6
5
25

1,051
4,632
1,552
4,903

40 12,138

!
........... I
1
|
........... !
........... 1
---------|

lj
1

18!
!

529j 548
1

.03

.49 24.37j24.89

.16

.65

.27 1.08

LEATHER
Illinois..............
New Jersey___
New York........
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin........
T o ta l....

5 1,378
7 1,455
6
763
14 3,870
4 1,835

1
1

7
15
3
2
3

26

2

30

9,301

1 58!

65.......... ! 1.69 >14.0315.72
1.91 >0.34
2.11 >.23
>33
48:.......... ! 3.43 >7.56il0.99
*17
2.62 1.84 *.35
21; 0.44! 1.31 *7.43 9.18
.05
2!.......... i .17 .........! .17
0)
78;
.18; .55 13.44; 14.17 ” 1.09 .16
.28
74
182! 2141 .07 1.08 11.17il2.32
.43 .82
.29
i
i
1
1

1 Data for temporary disabilities ending in first week not available.
* Data lor temporary disabilities ending in first two weeks not available.
* Data for temporary disabilities not available.




2.25
2.34
4.81
.05
1.53
1.54

101

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES

T able 105—-ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND REVERITY RATES IN SPECIFIED INDUS­
TRIES, 1025, BY STATES—Continued
L U M B E R -P L A N IN G M ILLS
Accident frequency
rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Number of cases

State

Num­ Fullber of year
Per­
estab­ work­
ma­
lish­
ments. ers Death nent
disa­
bili­
ty
8
667
8
624
7 1,770
5
272
1
260
4
458
14 2,682
3
438
5
735
9 1,946

Total___

2

64

Illinois..............
Indiana____. . .
Iowa ______
Maryland . . . .
Michigan.........
Minnesota____
New York.......
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania..
Wisconsin........

9,852

l

31
3
2
9

>28
93
44
38
139
2
>84
27
(»)
186

6

58

541

1
i
l

3
2
5
1
2

PerTem­
mapo­
rary To­ Death nent
disa­
disa­ tal
bili­
bili­
ty
ty

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours’ ex­
posure)

Tem­
Per­ Tem­
po­
ma­ po­
rary To­ Death nent rary To­
disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bili­ bili­
bili­
ty
ty
ty

33
1.00 1.50 U4.00 16.50 6.00
1.07 49.71 sa 78
95
.94 8.29 9.23
49
39
1 1.23 46.55 47.78
7.69
42
1.28 2.56 149.99 53.83
1.45 1.45
2 ....... i
3.85 >10.44 14.41 "“ “."75
116
31
.76, 2.28 20.53 23.57
4.56
.91 . . . . .
2
! .91 • - 1.03
196
.17, 1.54 31.86 33.57
605

.20' 1.96 19.78 21.94
1

2.40 10.48 8.88
.35 .67
.32
1.24
.20 1.44
3.68 1.15 4.83
2.50 11.04 11.23
.01 .01
6.03 >.51 7.29
2.28
.33 7.17
1.91
1.91
.80 ' .76 2.59

1.22 2.62

.49 4.38

LUMBER—SAW M ILLS
Maryland_____
Michigan.........
Minnesota.......
Wisconsin........

l!
2o!
5 5,455
5: 2,228
11 2,520]

4
1
6

Total-. . .

22 10,223]

11

J
2
7 U20 131— 6:24 0.43
5
123 129
.15 .75
12 322 340|
.79 1.59
24

567

602

. 36

33.17 33.17
17.33 8.00
18.40 19.30
42.59j44.97

.78 18.49*19.63
1

1.18 1.18
1.47 0.47 1.23 2.17
.50 2.36
.90 .96
4.76 .79 1.01 6.56
2.15

.66

.48 3.29

M ACHINE TOOLS
Illinois..............
Indiana............
New Jersey___
New York.......
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania. W isconsin........

5
3
5
6
19
7
2

Total___

48

120

1,197!.
124.
477;.,
551!
1,763!..
1,119L.
6,033j

15
110
>10

23
15
14
240

25

30
350

(K84 1 5.57 6.41
40.32 40.32
4.19 113.28 17.47
0.61 1.
>6.05 8.48
.38 44.99 45.37
12.47 13.72
.06 .94 21.09 22.09

0.25 1 0.19 0.44
.60 .60
3.78
4.07
3.63 2.18 >.27 6.08
.48 .37 .85
.22 .84
.77 .27 1.37

PAPER AND PULP
5
378
3
560
1
322
1 1,179
3 1,132
12 4,597
4 1,532
5 1,642

I llin o is .........
In d ia n a ........
Iowa.................
Michigan___ _
Minnesota.......
New York........
Pennsyl vania..
Wisconsin........
Total......

I

1

1
1
1
1

114
15
3
50 53
1
19
18
3 173
76
7
149 157
58 >235 294
3 (»)
4
57
5
51

34 11,142

5

80

590

675

0.88

.29
.07
.22
.20

i
112.34 13.22
5.29s
....... 10.21 5.50
1.79 29.78 31.57 ...........! 0.80 3.63 4.43
2.73 49.11 51.84 ...........1 2.05 1.36 3.41
.85 120.63 21.48 .......... 1 .25 1 .54 .79
1.77; 2.12
.78 4.67
2.06 43.89 46.24
4.21 >17.04 21.32
.44! 6.77 >.67 7.88
1.3i; .30 .........! 1.61
.65
.87
1.01 ”10.35 11.56
1.22j .40j .23 1.85

.15 2.39 20.47 23.01

.90! 3.20
j

.75 4.85
i

1 76 79 0.17 0.34 113.0413.55
80 8 1 .
.28 22.12j22.40
156 160
.11 .32 16.52:16.95

1.10

10.41 2.54
.31 .81
.37

PO T TE R Y
New Jersey___
Ohio.................
Total___

6 1,943
1,206
13 3,148

i;

3

1 Data for temporary disabilities ending in first week not available.
2 Data for temporary disabilities ending in first two weeks not available.
i Data for temporary disabilities not available.




I

.50
.64 .87

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

102

T a b l e 1 0 5 ,-A C C ID E N T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES IN SPECIFIED INDUS­

TRIES, 1925, BY STATES—Continued

SLAUGHTERING AND M EAT PACKING
Accident frequency
rates (per J.000,000
hours' exposure)

Number of coses

State

Accident severity rates
(per 1,000 hours' ex­
posure)

Num­ Fullber of year
L
estab­ work­
Per-!|TemPer-!i TemPer- Tem­
lish­
ma- j pom a-! po1
ma- po­
!
ers
nent,; rary To­ Death neut rary To­ Death neat : rary To­
ments
Death disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
disa­ disa­ tal
bili­ bili­
bili­ bili­
bili­ bili­
ty
ty
ty
ty
ty
ty

Illinois..............
Iowa_________
Minnesota.......

7 16,412
4 4,252
2 3,236

12

T o ta l....

13 23,900

15

3

41 1 767
18 345
22 533

820
363!1
558

81 1,645 1,741jj

0.24 0.83 1 15.58 16.65
1.46 0.50 10.33 2.29
.40! 1.51
1.41 27.04 28.45
1.11
.31 2.27 54.91 57.49 “ T £ 2.94
.91; 5.70

.21 1.13 22.94|24.28

1.26

.94

.42: 2.62

STAM PED AND ENAMELED W ARE
Indiana___
Maryland..
Ohio..........

24!

388...
187-..
098...

Total..

75

1,473:..........

....... 0.14 0.14
0.54'......... .54
1.00, .28 1.28

13.61113.61
1.79 .........! 1.79
.95 24.34125.29

1'.......

53j
78

16.97jl7.65
I

.54

.19

.73

STEAM FITTINGS, APPARATUS, AND SUPPLIES
Indiana............
Minnesota.......
New Jersey___
New York.......
Ohio.................
Pennsylvania..

1
1
5
4
9
24

T o ta l....

214|_,
261 ,
1,149|.
1,45-SI.,
m i..
2, 669:

43
2
1 70' 79
121
J20l 122
7
<3>
7
;j 335) 374

44

1

i

i

58. 71-68.71
25.55125.55
2.61 * 20.30;22.91
4.80 2 22.86:27.66
1.00 00.10-61.10
0.12 .75 ....... .87
. 05; 2.04 31. 52j33. 6i

a 55,
.40!
4.23 ». 56j
4.00 *. 88
.53; .82=
0.75 .26!.........:

0.55
.40
4.79
4. 88
1.35
1.01

.32 1. 89;

74: 2.95

0.17
“ ."48

0.54 0.71
.14 3.14
.49 .97
1.58

.50! .24

.45 1.19

STOVES
572
399
1,753
1,264

Indiana............
Maryland........
Ohio................
Pennsylvania..
T otal--..

72:
5i
275!
(*) j

29

3

352

73:
5 ....
277.....
1 0.26
356'

.08

0.58 41.9642.54
4.18 4.18
52.3052.68
........ i .26
. 25! 43.08 43. 41

1.58

STRU CTU RAL-IRON W ORK
Illinois..........
Indiana.........
Iowa..............
Michigan___
Minnesota...
New Jersey..
New York_
_
Ohio..............
Pennsylvania
Wisconsin___

929
1,419
2,681
212

T otal...

6 | 6,524
0

1 29
35

66

313
354

38
1.13; 9.02 '•32.69 42.8l!
3 0 ........... j 2. 17 : 76.07:78.24|.

6.76 9.58 » 1.1117.45
1.30
.52 1.82

2 i:::::::!T 2 6 ;r i^ 6 9 22: 351:

296
153

.941 5.65 8.47j

7.
1 .62| 8.60
. 27i 12.69
11.29 1.13

3.95,3 11.4815.79j
1.17; 99.5710C.97)
3.24!..........: 1.36;
3 .15! 25.17 28.32!.

2.15: 3.78 *.45
1.41 i 1.20 1.15 3.76
.75; .45
1.20
1.
“'.*57 2.22

9'

100

1.88:

,_J...........!....... !......... •
........L
11
5
10
2!
6

232
424
(»)
16

42i

559

44
.3630
. 23j
11
rl2
18:........... !

607j

. 31j 2.15! 48.49.50.95

1.84; 1.95

. 7 4.54
5|

WOOLEN GOODS
New Jersey___
Pennsylvania..
T o t a l....

4
21

6,910'.,. ...J
5,772;
l!

25 12,682j

lj

9! 133
4: (3)
13j

33

l ! 1- 0.06
47!
.03

0.43 »1.59 2.02
.23
.29
.34

1.59 1.96

1 Data for temporary disabilities ending in first week not available.
* Data for temporary disabilities ending in first two weeks not available
* Data for temporary disabilities not available.




0.35
.16

0.22 10.06* 0.27
.26 .........1
.24

.05! .45

1

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES

103

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS AND SUPPLIES

Table 106 rccords the experience from 1912 to 1924 of a large com­
pany engaged in the manufacture of agricultural implements and
supplies. The three sections of the industry have different hazards
and for this reason are shown separately. General manufacture
declined in frequency during the interval covered from 78.34 to 24.49,
or 69 per cent; woodworking from 64.41 to 23.77, or 63 per cent;
binder twine from 60.87 to 12.84, or 79 per cent.
Accident severity is much more irregular but when the whole
period is considered there is a definite downward trend. General
manufacture declined in severity from 1.80 to 1.16, or 36 per cent;
woodworking from 2.06 to 1.40, or 32 per cent; binder twine from
1.37 to 0.87, or 36 per cent.
.The rates shown in this table for 1924 may be compared with
those for agricultural implement manufacture in 1925, shown in
Table 105, as follows: Frequency 25.09 and severity 2.78.
T able 106..—N U M BER OF FULL-YEAR W ORKERS, N U M BER OF ACCIDENTS, A N D
A C C ID E N T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES FOR THE AGRICULTURAL M A ­
C H IN ERY AND SUPPLIES IN DU STRY, 1912 TO 1924, BY YEARS

Operation and year

Agricultural machinery, genera! manufacture:
1912..............................................................................
1913..............................................................................
1914..............................................................................
1915..............................................................................
1916..............................................................................
1917..............................................................................
1918..............................................................................
1919.............................................................................
1920..............................................................................
1921.............................................................................
1922 .........................................................................
1923 ............................................................................
1924....................... .........: ..........................................
Operation of woodworking machines:
1912............................................................................
1913..............................................................................
1914..............................................................................
1915..............................................................................
1916..............................................................................
1917..............................................................................
1918..............................................................................
1919..............................................................................
1920.............................................................................
1921..............................................................................
1922..............................................................................
1923..............................................................................
1924..............................................................................
Manufacture of binder twine:
1912..............................................................................
1913..............................................................................
1914..............................................................................
1915..............................................................................
1916..............................................................................
1917..............................................................................
1918..............................................................................
1919..............................................................................
1920..............................................................................
1921..............................................................................
1922.............................................................................
1923..............................................................................
1924..............................................................................




Full-year
workers

Frequency Severity
rates
Number of rates (per (per 1,000
1,000,000
accidents hours'ex­ hours' ex­
posure)
posure)

23,118
22,832
13,955
13,654
16, m
19,487
20.152
18,652
23.136
9,077
11,624
15,171
13,461

5,433
4,894
1,571
1,059
1,826
2,334
2,094
1,668
2,059
580
704
1,289
989

78.34
71.45
37.53
25.85
37.65
39.92
34.64
29.81
29.67
21.30
20.54
28.32
24.49

1.80
2.64
1.64
1.80
2.38
2.15
2.29
2.07
2.34
1.0ft
1.98
2.00
1.16

1,925
1,858
1,179
1,064
1,191
1,576
1,707
1,571
1,589
652
698
1,0?2
757

372
315
1G
8
82
122
134
197
123
125
38
38
102
54

64.41
56.52
30. 55
25.70
34.14
38.92
38.47
26.10
26.22
19.44
18.15
33.12
23.77

2.08
2.84
1.87
1.58
5.02
1.22
2.99
1.35
1.70
5.11
1.79
2.69
1.40

2,875
2,753
2,401
2,305
2,828
2,114
2,493
1,844
2,166
1,606
1,483
1,423
1,453

535
394
296
186
205
191
153
73
121
81
77
93
56

60.87
47.71
41.09
26.90
21.16
30.11
20.45
13.19
18.62
16.82
17.31
21.71
12.84

1.37
2.69
2.86
.58
1.80
.69
2.39
.73
.76
.45
.40
.58
.87

104

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Table 107 presents several interesting phases of hazard in building
construction*' The rates for Group A illustrate the effect of accidentprevention effort directed primarily toward severe accidents. In this
group there was marked improvement in the severity rates while
frequency rates were practical^ at a standstill. The rates for
Group B show what can be accomplished by intensive effort applied
to the reduction of both frequency and severity of accidents. Data
for Groups C l and C 2 illustrate the fluctuating and very high rates
which thus far have appeared in every record of experience in fabrica­
tion and erection.
T a b l e 107.—NUM BER

OF FULL-YEAR W ORKERS, NU M BER OF A C C ID E N TS, A N D
A C C ID K XT FREQU EN CY AN D SE VERITY KATES IN BUILD ING CONSTRUCTION,
1919 TO 102,% BY YEARS

Year

Group A (general contractors):
1919.....................................................................
1920......................................................................
1921......................................................................
1922 i....................................................................
1923 *....................................................................
1924 !....................................................................
Group B (general contractors):4
1919....... ......................... ....................................
1920......... ...................... .....................................
Group C 1 (fabricators and en-ctors):
1922 »......................................... ..........................
1923 *.............. ...................................................
Group ('2 (fabricatorsand erectors):8
1924......................................................................
1925......................................................................|
!
i National Safety News, July 1923, p. 48.
* Idem, July, 1924, p. 42.
* Idem, July, 1925, p. 40.

Hours of
exposure
(thou­
sands)

Fre­
quency
Full-year Number rates (per
workers of acci­ 1,000,000
dents
hours' ex­
posure)

Severity
rates
(per 1,000
hours’ ex­
posure)

4.140
7.035
3. (if*5
17,527
22,633
19,009

1.380
2,545
1.232
5,842
7.544
6,337

216
300
184
1,268
1,226
1,118

52.2
39.3
49.8
72.4
54.2
58.8

6.1
10.1
3.4
5.8
4.8
4.6

14.788
11,362

4,929
3,787

247
177

16.7
15.6

3.1
1.2

3,«4»
533

1,316
178

564
122

142.8
228.9

5.4
65.6

2.043
2.546
2,592

681
849
864

213
251
196

104.0
97.0
76.0

8.3
22.6
10.0

* Idem, August, 1921, p. 23.
• Idem, May, 1926, p. 10.

Construction will always present serious difficulties from a safety
standpoint which are not encountered in industries which have a local
r
habitation. The apparatus is necessarily so constructed that it can
be transported from place to place. This mobility involves some
hazards not pertaining to apparatus which can be installed perma­
nently. The men who carry on the construction processes are a more
fluctuating group than those concerned in manufacturing. Both
contractor and owner are apt to be anxious to push the job with all
practicable speed. All these things conspire to render difficult the
task of securing a reasonable degree of safety.
EXPLOSIVES, DYES, AND CHEMICALS

The first part of Table 108 records the experience to and including
the year 1920 of one large company engaged in the manufacture of
explosives, dyes, and chemicals. The second part covers the experi­
ence of several companies which are members of the chemical section
of the National Safety Council. The table is not extended enough
in some particulars to warrant conclusions, but the general impression




105

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES

is of a very decided declining tendency both in frequency and severity.
For example, between the industrially active years of 1910 and 1920
frequency dropped from 30.57 to 16.80, or 45 per cent, while severity
changed from 14.43 to 3.67, or 75 per cent.
Tit RLE 108.—N U M BE R OF FULL-YEAR WORKERS, NU M BER OF ACCIDENTS, A N D
A C C ID E N T FREQU EN CY A N D SEVERITY RATES IN THE M ANUFACTU RE OF
EXPLOSIVES, DYES, AN D CHEMICALS, 1908 TO 1924, B Y YEARS •

Hours of
exposure
(thousands)

Year

SS6 SS6 SS8S9 i i
^sfss'tfsfsf^sfsfsfssf
HHHfH

1908............................................................
1909............................................................
1910............................................................
3911............................................................
1912............................................................
1913........... ■...............................................
_
1914................ ..........................................
1915............................................................
1916............................................................
3917............................................................
>918............................................................
3919............................................................
3920............................................................

Frequency rates (per 1,000,000 hours’
exposure)
Full-year
workers

Fatal
accidents

Nonfatal
accidents

3.50
2.06
2.20
1.20
.80
1.71
.57
.59
1.07
.43
.46
.41
.50

25.87
36.05
35.33
25.69
18.22
16.30

3,321
4,043
4,690
4,728
4,573
4,291
4,133
53,466
37,527
39,734
65,135
17,208
16,132

Total

26.46
37.12
35.76
26.15
18.63
16.80

ii
1
Hours of
exposure
(thousands)

Year

Frequency
Number of rates (per
1.000,000
accidents
hours’
exposure)

Full-year
workers

14.070
4,690
1910............................................................
48,396
16,132
1920............................................................

430
813

Severity
rates
(per 1,000
hours*
exposure)

30.57
16.80

14.43
3.67

5.08

2.80

17.61

6.14

24.55
26.13

4.78
3.07

Explosives
2924 s..........................................................

4,330

1,443

22

Dye manufacture
1924*..........................................................

5,450

1,817

96
Chemicals

lf.23 *..........................................................
3-9243..........................................................

18,044
48,450

6,015
16,150

422
1,187

>National Safety News, Feb. 21,1921, p. 4.
s Idem, June, 1925, p. 31.

LIGHT AND POWER

No additional information has been secured regarding accidents in
the light and power industry since the publication of Bulletin No.
339. The experience then reported shows the possibilities of vigor­
ous safety effort so clearly that it seems desirable to reproduce the
table.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

106

109.—N U M BER OF FULL-YEAR W ORKERS, N UM BER OF ACCIDENT3, AND
A C C ID E N T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES IN A LIGH T AND POWER COM­
PAN Y, 1918 TO 1922, B Y YEARS

T able

Fre­
Hours of Equiva­
quency
Number Number rates (per
exposure
lent
of
1,000,000
(thou­ full-year of acci­
deaths hours’ ex­
dents
sands)
workers
posure)

Year

Group A : 1
1918.........................................................
1919.........................................................
1920........................................................
1921........................................................
1922........................................................
Group B: 1921_________ ____________ ___

2.059
2.059
2,100
1,931
2,317
16,800

686
686
700
643
772
5,600

3
2
7
5
2
5

74
69
123
47
31
387

35.9
33.5
58.6
24.3
13.3
22.8

Severity
rates
(per t.000
nour3’ ex­
posure)

9.03
6.23
20.90
15.99
5.40
2.00

» National Safety News, February, 1923, p. 33.

MANUFACTURE OF CAMERAS

Table 110 contrasts the accident occurrence in two 6 -month
)eriods for the manufacture of cameras. These rates are naturally
ow, since there is in the production of cameras a large number of
light and relatively nonhazardous operations. The table illustrates
what can be accomplished even in such circumstances by determined
effort. Accident frequency declined 30 per cent and accident sever­
ity 47 per cent.

I

1 1 0 .— N U M BER OF FULL-YEAR WORKERS, N U M BE R OF ACCIDENTS. AND
A CCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF
CAMERAS, JANUARY TO JUNE, 1919 AND 19201

T able

Hours of Equivalent Number of
exposure
full-year
accidents
(thousauds)
workers

Period

January to June, 1 9 1 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
January to June, 1 9 2 0 ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2,994
3,063

998
1,021

Frequency
rates (per
1.000,000
hours'
exposure)

44
30

13.2
9.2

Severity
rates
(per 1,000
hours'
exposure)
0.30
.16

» National Safety News, Aug. 30,1920, p. 7.

Table 111 shows a remarkably regular decline in frequency in the
industry during the period 1910 to 1922. The drop is from 36.6 to
5.6, or 85 per cent.
T a b l e 1 1 1 .— ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY RATES IN THE M A N U FACTU RE OF CAM ERAS,

1#10 TO 1922, BY YEARS
j
!
Year

1910............................
1911.............................
1912.............................
1913.............................
1914.............................




Frequency
rates (per
1,000,000
hours’
exposure)
36.6
23.9
20.4
18.4
9.1

Year

Frequency
rates (per
1,000,000
hours’
exposure)

1915...........................
1916........................... ii
1917........................... !
1918........................... !i
1919........................... 1
1
I
1

Year

7.3 ; 1920...........................
6.8 ; i92i...........................
7.2 S192!?...........................
8.0
9.2
i

Frequency
rates (per
1,000,000
hours*
exposure)
8.1
6.3
&6

107

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES

PORTLAND CEMENT

Table 112 is drawn from the publications of the Portland Cement
Association. This organization was among the first to compile
statistics on a satisfactory basis and their annual studies are models
of statistical presentation.
The table shows a very steady decline in both frequency and sever­
ity. Frequency declines from 43.50 in 1918 to 26.08 in 1925 (40
per cent) and severity goes from 6.05 to 5.00 (17 per cent) in the
same period.
T a b l k 11 3 ,-N U M B E R OF FULL-YEAR W ORKERS, NU M BER OF ACCIDENTS, A N D'ACCI­

DEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF PORTLAND
CE M E N T, 1918 TO 1925, BY YEARS i

Fre­
Hours of
quency Severity
exposure Fufl-year Number Number rates (per rates (per
1,000
of
(thou­
workers of acci­
1,000.000
dents
deaths hours’ ex­ hours' ex­
sands)
posure)
posure)

Year

1918...............................................................
1919...............................................................
1920....... -.............. - .....................................
If 21........................................ ......................
1922...............................................................
1923..............................................................
1924...............................................................
1925...............................................................

55,215
48,743
50,586
f2 247
H 27 I
SL&

76, fill
87.767
97,415

18,405
16,248
19,862
20.749
21.176
25,547
29,256
32,472

2,401
2,225
2,750
2,727
2,597
3,190
3,098
2,541

38
39
53
44
53
43
60
61 !

43.50
45.65
46.16
43.81
41.00
41.02
35.30
26.08

6.05
7.15
7.60
6.18
6.50
6.48
5.87
5.00

1 Portland Cement Association: Study of accidents, 1918; Accident Prevention Bulletin, SeptemberOctober, 1920; July-August, 1921; May-Jime, 1G22; May-June, lc»23; March-April, 1924; July-August,
1&25; and May-June, 1926.

PAPER MILLS

The figures in Table 113 show the experience of the concerns that
are members of the paper section of the National Safety Council.
In the interval from 1920 to 1924 frequency declines from 46.34 to
41.58, or 10 per cent, and severity from 2.60 to 2.07, or 20 per cent.
T a b l e 1 1 3 .— N UM BER

OF FULL-YEAR W ORKERS, N U M BER OF ACCIDENTS, AND
ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SE VERITY RATES, IN PAPER MILLS, 1920 TO 1924, BY
YEARSi

Hours of
exposure
(thousands)

Year

Full-year
workers

79,574
81,19$
106,830
115,902
100,300

Frequency
Number of rates (per
1,000,000
accidents
hours’
exposure)

26,525
27,065
35,610
38,634
33,433

1920.............................................................
1921...............................- ............................
1922............................................................
1923............................................................
1924............................................................

3,684
3,380
5,106
5,042
4,171

46.34
41.68
47.77
43.50
41.58

Severity
rates
(per 1,000
hours’
exposure)
2.60
2.83
2L36
2.73
2.07

i National Safety News, June, 1925, p. 30.

PETROLEUM REFINING

The data on petroleum refining are not as yet extensive enough to
permit the formulation of a judgment, but apparently the plants
covered by Table 114 have not thus far made any noteworthy
progress.




108

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

T a b l e 114.—N U M BER

OF FULL-YEAR W ORKERS, N UM BER OF ACCIDENTS, AND
ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES IN PETROLEUM REFINING, 1921
TO 1923, BY YEARS

Hours of
exposure
(thousands)

Year

Full-year
workers

Number of
accidents

Frequency
rates (per
1,000,000
hours’
exposure)

27,010
72,815
39,228

9,003
24,272
13,076

841
2,617
1,292

31.15
35.94
32.93

19211..........................................................
1922 2..........................................................
1923 (6 months)3........................................
* National Safety News July, 1922, p. 31.

* Idem, May, 1923, p. 24.

Severity
rates
(per 1,000
hours'
exposure)
1.86
1.86
1.91

9 Idem, October, 1923, p. 46.

RUBBER

The rubber section of the National Safety Council has maintained
a very carefully worked out statistical presentation of their experi­
ences for the past five years. The rates are somewhat irregular, with
no definite trend.
Besides the accident rates the section has prepared an excellent
analysis of accident causes.
T a r l k 115.—NUM BER OF FULL-YEAR W ORKERS,NUM BER OF ACCIDENTS, AND ACCI-

DENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES IN RUBBER INDUSTRY, 1921 TO 1925,* BY
YEARS

Hours of
exposure
(thousands)

Year

Full-year
workers

83,101
123,152
134,272
125,594
173,438

27.700
41,051
44,757
41,865
57,813

1921.............................................................
1922.............................................................
1923............................................................
1924............................................................
1925............................................................

Frequency Severity
Number of rates (per rates (per
1,000,000
accidents hours' ex­ 1,000 hours'
exposure)
posure)
2.196
4,431
4,182
3,449
6,241

26.42
35.97
31.15
27.46
35.98

0.94
.87
1.32
1.00
l.ll

* National Safety News, March, 1923, p. 15; August 1923, p. 39; November, 1923, p. 40; and February.
1920, p. 20.

WOODWORKING

The rates in Table 116 are too irregular to justify any conclusions
regarding accident trend in the woodworking industry. It is evident
that the hazards of woodworking plants are quite serious. Study
elsewhere indicates that saws of various types are an.important
factor and that the condition of the saw itself is often responsible for
the occurrence of accidents.
T a b l e 116.—NUM BER OF FULL-YEAR WORKERS, NUM BER OF ACCIDENTS, AND ACCI­

DENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES IN WOODWORKING, 1920 TO 1924,* BY
YEARS

Year

Hours of
exposure
(thousands)

Full-year
workers

Number of
accidents

14,367
52,122
88.769
58,822
56,228

4,789
17,374
29,590
19,607
18,743

616
2,851
5,657
2,486
2,787

1920............................................................
1921............................................................
1922............................................................
1923.............................................................
1924.............................................................
* National Safety News, June, 1925, p. 42.




Frequency Severity
rates (per rates (per
1,000,000
hours' ex­ 1,000 hours'
exposure)
posure)
42.09
54.70
63.72
42.26
49.56

4.38
1.47
2.70
3.36
3.08

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES

109

TEXTILES

The records of the textile section of the National Safety Council
have not been maintained long enough to warrant any very positive
conclusion beyond the confirmation of the . idea that the textile
industry is relatively of rather low hazard. When, however, accident
frequency in such mills is greater than that in some of the best steel
mills, it is obvious that there is opportunity for improvement. The
intrinsic hazard of the steel and iron concerns is obviously much
greater than that in textile establishments, and accident prevention
effort if undertaken with anything like the energy shown in the steel
mills should markedly influence the rates.
117.—NUM BER OF FULL-YEAR WORKERS, NUM BER OF ACCIDENTS, AND
ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY RATES IN TEXTILES, 1923 AND 1924

T able

Year

1923 *..........................................................
1924 >..........................................................

Hours of
exposure
(thousands)

Full-year
workers

46,343
53,196

15,448
17,732

* National Safety News, October, 1924.

Frequency Severity
Number of rates (per rates (per
1,000,000
accidents hours* ex­ 1,000 hours*
exposed
posed
604
601

13.03
11.29

0.67
.89

* Idem August, 192/5, p. 39.

DEPARTMENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

Table 118 shows the accident frequency rates in the various depart­
ments of the Federal Government. This presentation is from a
tabulation prepared by the United States Employees' Compensation
Commission. It concerns only civilian employees.
It is rather surprising to find that for the civilian employees of
some departments the degree of hazard is comparable in some cases
with that encountered in the iron and steel industry as a whole,
and in other cases the rates are as high as those for the better plants
of the iron and steel industry.
It is also noticeable that with the exception of the Government
Printing Office and the Department of the Navy there is observable
during this five-year period no tendency to declining rates. On the
contrary, with the exceptions noted, the rates tend to rise.
The changes (increases except where otherwise noted) are as fol­
lows: All services, from 13.13 to 15.37, or 17 per cent; Department
of Agriculture, from 13.85 to 26.21, or 89 per cent; Department of
Commerce, from 8.69 to 9.82, or 13 per cent; Government Printing
Office, from 8.27 to 2.71, or 67 per cent (decrease); Department of
the Interior, from 19.68 to 31.39, or 60 per cent; Department of
Labor, from 11.99 to 12.40, or 3 per cent; Department of the Navy
from 19.48 to 15.74, or 19 per cent (decrease); Post Office Depart­
ment, from 7.50 to 9.91, or 32 per cent; Department of the Treasury,
from 6.91 to 8.05, or 17 per cent; Department of War, from 46.68
to 60.64, or 30 per cent; other services, from 6.95 to 14.94, or 115
per cent.




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

110
T a b lf.

118.— N U M BE R OF ACCIDENTS A N D ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY RATES IN TH E
GOVERN M EN T SERVICE, 1921 TO 1925, B Y DEPA RTM E N TS AND YEARS

[Biased on number o f employees shown by the Civil Service Commission’s yearly reports and on num­
ber of accidents reported to the United States Employees' Compensation Commission]
Frequency rates (per 1,000,000
hours’ exposure)

Number of accidents
Year

Number of
employees
Fatal

i
1
Fatal Nonfatal 1
accidents accidents j Total

Total

Nonfatal

AU Government Services
560,073
535,185
535,781
546,981
538,290
Total....................

362
353
279
278
314

18,042
17,905
17,713
20,260
20,374

2,716,910

1,586

94,294

18,404
18,258
17,992
20,538
20,688

0.25
.26
.20
.20
.23

12.88
13.38
13.22
14.82
15.14

13. n
13.64
13*43
15.02
15.37

95,880

!
j
!
;

.23

13.88

14.11

Department of Agriculture

1823................................

18,722
19,773
20,078
20,385
20,008

10
11
17
25
art

638
919
971
1,287
1,291

:
j
:
i
|

648
930
988
1,312
1,317

0.22
.22
.34
.49
.52

13.63
18.59
19.34
25.25
25.69

13. Wi
l& tt
19.6*
25.74
26.24

Total....................

99,056

89

5,106 |

5,195

.36

20.62

20.98

Department of Commerce

T922................................
1923................................
1924................................
1925................................

11,748
11,267
11,199
12,119
14,631

9
IS
11
8
11

246
272
332
319
348

255
287
343
327
359

0l31
.53
.40
.26
.30

8.38
9.66
11.86
10.52
9.52

8.69
10.19
12.26
10.79
9.82

Total....................

60,964

54

1,517

1,571

.35

9.95

10.31

Government Printing Office
1921................................
W22.................................
H .....................
>23
1984.....................
1925................................

4,103
4,024
3,989
4,269
3,984

2
1

89
63
42
44
27

91
64
42
44
27

0.18
.10

8.09
& 26
4.21
4.13
2.71

8.27
6.36
4.21
4.13
2.71

Total....................

201669

3

265 i
1

268

.06

5.12

5.1*

Department of the Interior
1621.................................
1922.................................
1923................................
1924................................
m

.....................

Total....................

19,735 !
17,834 1
17,002
16,679 !
13,125
84,465

1
8
16
19
11

957
1,041
1,416
1,676
1,019

971
1,059
1,431
1,695
1,030

0.29
.41
.37
.46
.34

ia39
23.35
33.12
40.20
31.06

19.68
23.75
33.49
40.64
31.39

78

6,108

6,186

.37

28.93

29.29

11.99
10.99
11.72
11.56
12.40
11.71

14

Department of Labor
1921................................
1922................................
1923 ..........................
1924................................
192.’>
................................
Total....................




3,768
3,744
3,821
3,876
3,614 j
18,823

1
2

!
i j
5j

112
100
112
111
107

113
102
112
112
112

OU
l
.22
.11
.55

11.89
10.68
11.72
11.46
11.84

9 j

542

551

.19

11.52

DEPARTMENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

111

T a b l e 1 1 8 *— N U M BER OF ACCIDEN TS A N D ACCIDEN T FREQUENCY RATES IN THE

GOVERN M EN T SERVICE, 1921 TO 1925, BY D E PARTM EN TS AND YEARS—Continued

Frequency rales (per 1,000,000
hours' exposure)

Number of accidents
Year

Number of
employees
Nonfotal

Fatal

Total

Fatal Nonfotal
accidents accidents

Total

Department of the Navy
1921.................................
1922.................................
1923-------------------------1924.................................
1925.................................

60,653
42,515
40^557
42,686
42,342

36
27
30
28
24

2,918
1,516
1,423
1,®2
1,662

2,954
1,543
1*453
1,910
1,686

0.24
.25
.30
.26
.23

19.25
14.27
14.01
17.64
15.52

19.48
14.52
14.33
17.90
15.74

Total....................

229,253

145

9,401

9,546

.25

16.40

16.66

PoM Office Department
t
1921................................
1922.................................
1923................................
1924.....................
1923.................................

281,658
284,207
294,226
301,000
304,092

62
64
50
42
47

5,218
6^ 196
6,559
7,395
7,488

5,280
6,260
6,609
.7,437
7,535

0.08
.10
.07
*06
.06

7.42
8 72
k
8.92
9.83
&85

7.50
8.81
8.99
&*9
9.91

Total....................

1,465,183

265

32,8o6

33,121

.07

8.96

9.04

Department of the Treasury
1921................................
1922................................
1923................................
1924................................
1925................................

68,648
56,392
53,604
53,121
52,607

30
44
17
16
22

1,157
1,203
938
1,013
1,087

1,187
1,247
955
1,029
1,059

a 18
.31
.13
.12
.17

6.74
8.53
7.00
7.63
7.88

6.91
8.84
7.13
7.75
&05

Total....................

284,372

129

5,348

5,477

.18

7.52

7.70

Department o f War
1921................................
1922.................................
1923................................
1924................................
1925................................

53,553
46,840
44,842
45,906
38,975

124
104
96
102
115

6,125
5,648
4,913
5,295
5,79a

6,249
5,752
5,009
5,397
5,908

0.92
.89
.85
.89
1.18

45.74
48.23
43.82
46.14
59.45

46.68
49.12
44.68
47.03
60.64

Total....................

230,116

541

27,774

28,315

.94

48.28

49.22

All other Government Services
1921................................
1922.................................
1923...............................
1924................................
1925................................

37,785
48,589
46,373
46,940
44,322

74
67
42
37
53

582
947
1,006
1,238
1,602

656
1,014
1,050
1,275
1,655

0.78
.55
.36
.31
.48

6.16
7.80
8.70
10.55
14.46

6.95
8.34
9.06
10.86
14.94

Total....................

224,009

273

5,377

5,650

.« l

9.60

10109




INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS IN UNITED STATES

112

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE OF AMERICAN
INDUSTRY IN 1925

The National Safety Council in a report on industrial accident
experience for 19251 has, for the first time, attempted to compute
0
accident rates for American industry as a whole. The computations
are based on the statistical tabulations compiled by the industrial
sections of the council, with the exception of the cement and the min­
ing industries for which statistics furnished by the Portland Cement
Association and the United States Bureau of Mines, respectively,
have been used.
The reports, which cover 1,231 establishments or locations, show
an average frequency rate of 30.60 per million hours worked and an
average severity rate amounting to 2.02 days lost per thousand hours
worked. Since the majority of the companies for which data were
secured are more or less actively engaged in accident prevention, it
can be assumed, however, that the rates for the United States as a
whole are somewhat higher. It is impossible to make a fair com­
parison between the various industrial groups, because of varying
occupational risks, but it is of interest to note that in the textile
section 35,251 employees worked 77,924,601 hours with only one
accidental death.
The detailed record sheets of the council show that accident
frequency and severity rates have been reduced through the organized
safety work in different industries. This reduction is considered to
be due to a considerable extent to the fact that employees have been
impressed with the importance of reporting minor injuries promptly,
the installation of adequate first-aid facilities, and the cooperation of
industrial physicians. The report stresses the importance of a uni­
form method of keeping plant records and also of making yearly
reports in order that the statistics may more accurately represent the
accident experience of each industry.
The following table shows the accident experience of companies in
13 principal industries throughout the country for the year 1925:
T a b l e 1 1 9 . — INDUSTRIAL A C CIDEN T EXPERIEN CE IN A M ER IC A N INDUSTRY

IN 1925 •

Industry

Automotive.............. .
Cement.....................
Chemical....................
Construction............ .
Metals.......................
Mining...................... .
Packers and tanners.
Paper and pulp........
^aairy.
Rubber..
Textile............
Woodworking.
T ota l....

Nuin- i
berof I Total
eslab- j number
lish- |
merits of em­
orlo- | ployees
cations j
196

120

65
36
280

210

17
99
18
36

22

32

100

304,639
<»)
50,128
12,777
250,511
(*)
14,642
41,813
(>)
5,598
85,730
35,251
26,939

Number of cases of—
Total hours
worked

762,565,341
97,414,794
124,148,274
25,462; 441
661,189,970
68,518,787
35,485,110
104,623,437
214,054,563
15*322,643
173,438,000
77,924,601
69,836,087
2,429,984,048

Death

22
61
38
24
86
68
1
21
49
13
10
1
11
405

Perma­ Tem­
nent porary
disa­
disa­
bility bility

560 17,279
17,861
2,541
77 2,403
2,473
2,597
86
18
1,778
1,736
545 18,915 c 21,492
6,851
62 6,721
41
1,383
1,425
57 3,943
4,021
5,855
206 5,600
708
744
23
5,054
70 4,974
1,029
1,061
31
128 2,948
3,087
1,904 70,112 *74,367

* See page 96 for similar table derived from State data.
* Not available.
^
^
.
« This total is reported to be correct; figures for details were not given in every case.
* Not including 3 industries.
h National Safely News, Chicago, October, 1926.




Total

113

MISCELLANEOUS INDUSTBIES

T abl» 119.—IN DU STRIA L A C C ID E N T E XP E R IE N C E IN A M ER IC A N INDUSTRY
IN 1925—Continued
Number of days lost on account of—
Industry
Death

Automotive........................................
Cement...............................................
Chemical............................................
Construction......................................
Metals................................................
Mining...............................................
Packers and tanners..........................
Paper and pulp..................................
Petroleum........................................._
Quarry...............................................
Rubber...............................................
Textile................................................
Woodworking....................................
Total.........................................

132,000
366,000
228,000
144,000
516,000
408,000

60
,0 0

126,000
294,000
78,000
60,000

60
,0 0
6 ,0 0
60

2,430,000

Perma­
nent disa­
bility

Tempo­
rary disa­
bility

Total

245,262
(>)
70,632
20,491
398,773
72,675
23,139
39,862
112,401
27,317
63,700
16,420
67,374

405,730
«810,610
487,189
(*)
38,379
337,011
28,210
192,701
269,738 • 1,202,387
102,193
582,868
15,796
44,935
59,166
225,028
91,957
498,358
11,775
117,092
68,498
192,198
12,778
35,198
58,901
192,275

23.42
26.08
2a 91
69.54
32.50
99.99
40.15
38.43
27.35
48.56
29.15
13.61
44.20

.45
2.75

1,158,046

1,163,121 •4,917,850

3tt 60

2.02

> Not available.
• This total is reported to be correct; figures for details were not given in every case.




Fre­
quency Severity
rates
rates
(per
(per
10
,0 0
1
,000,000 hours'
hours'
expo­
expo­
sure)
sure)
1.06
5.00
2.71
7.57
1.82
8.51
1.27
2.15
2.33
7.64

11
.1