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Productivity Trends in

SELECTED INDUSTRIES
Indexes Through 1950




Bulletin No. 1046
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin
—
Secretary
BUREAU
Ewan Clague

OF

LABOR

STATISTICS
Commissioner




Productivity Trends in
SELECTED INDUSTRIES
Indexes Through 1950

Bulletin No. 1046
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobir* - Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague - Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.




Price 45 cents

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

United States Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D. C., October 29, 1951.
The Secretary of Labor:
I have the honor to transmit a report on
productivity trends in selected industries vith
indexes through 1950. The publication summarizes the
statistics regularly presented in individual reports
by the Branch of General Productivity Measurements
of the
Bureau’s
Division of Productivity and
Technological Developments. The individual industry
reports contain analyses of the factors causing
changes in output per man-hour and unit man-hour
requirements as veil as more detailed statistics and
information on the methods used in computing these
indexes.
In addition to these indexes, the Division of
Productivity and Technological Developments prepares
reports on factory performance and on trends in man­
hours per unit of output for selected manufacturing
industries, based on material gathered directly from
manufacturers.
This report was assembled by Mary L. Kelly under
the general direction of Enzo A. Puglisi.
Evan Clague, Commissioner.
Hon. Maurice J. Tobin,
Secretary of Labor.




- it -

T A B L E

O F

C O N T E N T S

INTRODUCTION

1

I N D E X E S OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, M A N HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, A N D U N I T LABOR R E Q U I R E M E N T S

3

TECHNICAL NOTES

1*9

I n d e x Ta b l e s and T e c h n i c a l Not e s b y I n d u s t r y
T«bl«
I*

T.ohnio&l
Not*

MANUFACTURING
1. Beet Sugar Industry .......... ....... ..... .......
a* Best Sugar Produced ..................... ♦......♦
b. Sugar Bests Sliced ............... ......... .

3
3
3

50
50

U

Canning and Preserving Industries Group •••••••••••••*••

4

50

3.

Ceaisnt Industry ........... .......... ........

4

51

4.

Olay Construotion Products Industries Group ••••••••«*•«
a* Brick and Hollow Structural Tils Industry •••»*•«#
b* Clay Sewer Pipe and Kindred Products Industry ••••

5
5
6

52
52
52

Coke Industries Group
a* Byproduct Coke Ovens Industry »••«••»•*•••»•••••»•
b. Beehive Coke Ovens Industry •»••••••••••••*••«»•••

7
7

53
53
53

6.

Condensed and Evaporated Milk Industry

8

5*

7.

Confectionery Industry ............................... .

8

56

w
8. Flour and Other Grain-Mi 11 Products Industry *•*«*•••••«

3

57

3

58

5.

6

50

3.

Glass Containers Industry .................. ..........

10.

Hosiery Industries Group •
a. Full-Fashioned Hosiery Industry •«•»•••»•••<>••••••
b* Seamless Hosiery Industry «,«•••*•••••••••••••••••

10
10
11

53
53
53

li.

lee Cream Industry •«••••••••»••»•••••••••••••••••«•••••

11

60

12.

Malt Liquors Industry «•••••••••••••••**•......... .

12

62

13.

Paper and Pulp Industry

12

63

1* .
*

Primary Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous Metals Group
(Copper, Lead and Zinc)

13

64

15. Rayon and Other Synthetic Fibers Industry

13

65

16.

14
14

65
65

15

65




Tobacco Products Industries Group •«••••••••*•••«••••»»•
a. Cigars Industry
b. Cigarettes Industry, and Chewing and Stocking
Tobacco and Shuff Industry

Tabl*
IX.

MINING
X. The Mining In d u stries Group ................................

Technical
Note

16

67

2.

Anthracite Industry

18

<9

3.

Bituminous Coal and L im it s In d u stries • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

19

70

U.

Copper Ores Mining Industry ...............
a . Based on Ore Mined
b . Based on Mine Production o f Recoverable Metal . .

20

73
73
73

Iron Ores Mining Industry
...........
a . Based on Crude Ore Mined • • • . • • • • • • • • • • • « • • « • • • •
b. Based on Usable Ore Produced ..................... . . . . . . . .

22

Lead and Zinc Ores Mining I n d u s t r ie s ......... ..
a . Based on Ore Mined
b . Based on Mine Production o f Recoverable Metal • •

2**

25

75
75
75

PUBLIC UTILITIES
1. E le c tr ic Light and Power Industry • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • • • •

26

76

5.

6.

III.

2.

Line-Haul Operating R ailroad s Industry • • ......... • • ............
a . A ll Hourly B a sis Employees
( 1 ) Based on Revenue T r a f fl o (Freight end
P a s s e n g e r) ................................................
( 2) Based on Car-Miles (Freigh t and Passenger) •«
b. Road F reigh t Employees
( 1) Based on Revenue Ton-Miles o f F r e i g h t ........... ..
( 2) Based on F re i^ it-T ra in Car-Miles .......................
0. Road Passenger Employees
( 1) Based on Revenue Passenger M iles ............... ..
( 2) Based on Passenger-Train Car-M iles • • • • • • • • • •

21

23

74
7k
7k

78
28
29

78
78

30
31

78
78

32
33

78
78

3.

34

79

k.
IT .

Telegraph Industry .............................................. ..
Telephone Industry ....................... ..

35

79

36

81

38
39
40
>(1
42
43
44
“5
46
*7
48

81
81
61
81
81
81
81
61
81
81
81

AGRICULTURE
1. United S ta te s as a Whole ,

2.




A griculture by Areas
a . Com Area
b. Eastern D airy Area <
0. Western D airy Area <
d« Eastern Cotton Area
e . D elta Cotton Area .<
f . Western Cotton Area
g. S h a ll Grain Area
h. Middle Eastern Area
1 . Range Area
J . Northwestern Area .,
k. C a lifo rn ia

- iv

I N T R O D U C T I O N

B e t w e e n 19^9 a n d 1950 output p e r m a n - h o u r rose
in 27 of 29 m a n u f a c t u r i n g and n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries
f o r w h i c h statistics are curr e n t l y available.
Output per
m a n - h o u r was the h i g h e s t on r e c o r d in 19 of these
industries.

In 11 of the industries, increases of 10 percent
or more were noted between 19^9 and 1950. The greatest
gain was made in the beehive coke industry, which succeeded
in raising man-hour output 22 percent. The rise, which
accompanied an expansion of coking activity, represented a
recovery from the low 19^9 output per man-hour level. The
19 -percent gain made by the rayon and other synthetic
fibers industry, on the other hand, represents a continu­
ation- of a long-term trend of increasing production per
man-hour which has characterized the industry throughout
its history. Of all the industries included in this
report, the rayon industry has made the greatest gain
since 1939 — 186 percent. Other large gains were made in
the full-fashioned hosiery, and paper and pulp industries.
Output per man-hour in the full-fashioned hosiery industry
rose 12 percent between 19^9 end 1950 and 63 percent during
the years 1939-50. The paper and pulp industry experienced
an 11-percent gain during 1950 .
T h e indexes in this rep o r t cov e r the p e r i o d 1939
to date for m o s t of the 29 industries f o r w h i c h 1950 d a t a
are a v ailable for r e lease at this time.
T h e tables for
the ind i v i d u a l m i n i n g and public u t i l i t y industries
g e n e r a l l y go b a c k to the y e a r 1935T h e indexes for the
m i n i n g gro u p a n d for agriculture s h o w the changes that
h a v e t a k e n place o ver m ore t h a n three decades.
In
a d d i t i o n to these 29 industries, d a t a are p r e s e n t e d f o r a
f e w industries f o r w h i c h 1950 figures cure n o t y e t available.
A s s oon as the in f o r m a t i o n b e c o m e s available, 1950 figures
w i l l b e r e l e a s e d f o r these industries.
T h e B u r e a u of L a b o r
S t a t i s t i c s a lso pla n s to issue indexes of production, m a n ­
hours, a n d ou t p u t p e r m a n - h o u r f o r s e veral a d d i t i o n a l
industries, the d a t a for w h i c h are n o w b e i n g p r e p a r e d . *
T h e s e w i l l b e issued in the f o r m of supplements to this
report.
*
Among in d u strie s no* u tder study a re : b la s t furnaees, s te e l eorks and
r o llin g B i l l s ; newspaper p rin tin g and publishing; slau gh tering and meatpacking;
petroleum re fin in g ; a g ric u ltu ra l machinery; autom obiles; and t i r e s and tubes*




2

T h e industries i n c l u d e d in this r e p o r t do n o t
c o n s t i t u t e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of the entire e c o n o m y
o r of m a nufacturing.
I m p o r t a n t m a n u f a c t u r i n g industries
s u c h as automobiles, lumber a n d f u r n i t u r e products, tires
a n d tubes, b a s i c steel, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment, textile
m i l l products, a n d p e t r o l e u m are n o t included.
F o r this
reason, the B u r e a u cauti o n s users of its indexes n o t to
g e n eralize on the b a s i s of these f i gures f o r a l l m a n u f a c ­
t u r i n g or f o r the total economy.
P r o d u c t i v i t y indexes c o n stitute a "yardstick"
of the l o n g - r u n progress m a d e b y i n d u s t r y in r e d u c i n g the
amount of h u m a n ef f o r t n e e d e d to p r o d u c e the v a rious goods
a n d services u s e d in o u r society.
T h e e x p a n s i o n of the
A m e r i c a n s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g t h r o u g h g r e a t e r output, h i g h e r
r e a l wages, a n d inc r e a s i n g leisure is u l t i m a t e l y d e p e n d e n t
u p o n increases in ou t p u t p e r man-hour.
P r o d uctivity, or
ou t p u t p e r man-hour, is the m e a s u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p
b e t w e e n ou t p u t in p h y s i c a l units
a n d labor time — one of
the input factors.
I t is n o t a measure, however, of the
specific c o n t r i b u t i o n o f labor or of c a p i t a l o r of a n y
o t h e r one f a c t o r of production.
C h a n g e s in the r a t i o
b e t w e e n out p u t a n d m a n - h o u r s of w o r k s h o w the e f f e c t of the
o p e r a t i o n of a large n u m b e r of separate, t h o u g h interrelated,
i n f luences s u c h as t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvements, the r ate of
operation, the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to o u t p u t of pl a n t s at
d i f f e r e n t levels of efficiency, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of supplies
a n d the f l o w of m a t e r i a l s a n d components, as w e l l as the
s k i l l a n d e f f o r t of the w o r k force, the e f f i c i e n c y of
management, a n d the state of labor relations.




3

IN D E X E S OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, A N D U N I T LAB O R R E Q U I R E M E N T S I N S E L E C T E D INDUS T R I E S

1939 = 100

Output per
Production
Man-hour

Produotion
Year

Produotion

Man-hours

w orkers

1.

1.

1939
191*0
191a
19U2
19^3
i9 t t
19^5
191*6
191*7
191*8
191*9
1950

100.0
106.3
90.6
98.9
57 .6
6 0 .1
7 3 .3
86.3
106.1*
79-1*
9 0 .1
lll*.0

100.0
1 0 2 .6

9 5.3
10 8 .1
81*.9
87.0
96.3
10 3 .3
1 1 3 .6
89.9
87.9
100.1*
b.

1939
191*0
191*1
191*2
191*3
191*1*
191*5
191*6
191*7
191*8
191*9
1950

100.0
113 .1
95.6
108.0
59.8
6 1.8
7 8 .7
96.9
1 1 3 .9
87.0
9!*.!*
121*.9

100.0
10 2.6
9 5.3
10 8 .1
81*.9
87.0
96.3
10 3 .3
1 1 3 .6
89.9
87.9
100.1*

workers
per unit

worker

per unit

MANUFACTURING

Beet Sugar Industry

&•

Unit Labor Requirements
Man-hours
Production

1/

Beet Sugar Produced

100.0
102.0
9 1 .3
109.3
78.9
79. **
9 2 .1
10 t. 8
lit. 3
86.5
86.2
9 9 .1

100.0
10 3.6
9 5 .1
9 1.5
67.8
6 9 .1
7 6 .1
8 3.5
9 3.7
88.3
10 2 .5
113 .5

99*2
90.5
73-0
7 5 .7
79.6
8 2.3
9 3 .1
9 1.8
lo t. 5
1 1 5 .0

100.0
96.5
10 5.2
10 9 .3
lt 7 .t
lt t .8
131. t
1 1 9 .7
106.8
113 .2
97.6
8 8 .1

100.0
96.0
100.8
1 1 0 .5
13 7 .0
13 2 .1
12 5 .6
12 1.t
107. t
108.9
9 5.7
86.9

100.0
110 .9
lo t . 7
98.8
7 5 .8
7 7 .8
8 5 .5
9 2.5
99.7
100.6
10 9.5
126 .0

100.0
90.7
99.7
10 0 .1
l t 2 .0
lt 0 .8
12 2 .t
106.6
99.7
10 3 .3
9 3 .1
80. t

100.0
90.2
9 5.5
10 1.2
1 3 1 .9
12 8 .5
1 1 7 .0
10 8.2
100. t
99. ^
9 1 .3
79 .3

100.0
lOt. 2

Sugar Beets Siloed

100.0
102.0
9 1 .3
10 9.3
78.9
79. t
9 2 .1
lo t. 8
lit. 3
86.5
86.2
9 9 .1

100.0
110 .2
100.3
99.9
7 0 .t
7 1 .0
8 1 .7
93.8
100.3
96.8
10 7. t
1 2 t .t

1/
The but auger Industry indexes are on & f i s c a l year b a s is (Maroh through February) in
order” to include a complete produotion oyele fo r each 12-month period.




i*

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd

1939

w
Te a r

^
J Ai
j
Production

Production
wrker.

I.
2.

1939
19l*0
19 ia
19l*2
19 13
19l*l*
19i*5
19h6
19h7
19 18
19U9
1950

100.0
106.0
12 8 .5
13 5 .9
12 9 .5
11*9.2
1 5 8 .5
18 6 .2
159 .8
1 5 8 .7
16 3 .5
1 6 7 .1

M a n - hours

100.0
10 6 .5
131*. 3
11*8.2
108.1*
73-7
83-3
131*. 1
1 5 1.7
16 7-2
17 0 .2
18 2.8

na-lfot available




100

Output per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

Unit Labor Requirements
Production
Man-hours
workers
per unit
per unit

MANUFACTURING Cont'd.

Canning and Preserving Industries Group

100.0
9 8 .1
111*. 8
12 5 .9
1 2 0 .1
123.lt
129.0

100.0
96.2
1 1 8 .2
13 1.3
12 6 .3
1 3 3 .7
1 3 9 .1
15 9 .8
ll*3.8
13 6 .3
1 2 8 .1
12 7 .0

lkh * 2

13lu0
13 2 .0
12 2 .2
119 *6
3.

1939
19U0
191a
19l*2
19U3
19W*
19l*5
19lt6
191*7
191*8
19l*9
1950

-

na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na

100.0
10 8 .1
111.9
10 7.9
10 7.8
120 .9
12 2 .9
13 0 .5
1 1 9 .3
12 0 .2
13 3 .8
13 9 .7

100.0
11 0 .2
10 8 .7
10 3 .5
10 2 .5
111.6
1 1 3 .9
1 1 7 .8
111.1
116.1*
12 7 .6
13 1.6

100.0
92.5
89.3
92.6
92.7
8 2.7
61.1*
76.6
83.9
83.2
71*. 7
7 1.6

100.0
90.8
92.0
96.6
9 7.5
89.6
87.8
81*.9
90.0
85.9
78.3
76.0

100.0
100. i*
10 8 .3
108.1*
91*. 7
83.8
9 0 .1
10 8 .7
111.5
1 1 7 .8
120.1*
13 0 .7

na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na

100.0
99.6
9 2.3
92.2
10 5.6
119.1*
111.0
92.0
89.7
81*. 9
8 3 .I
7 6 .5

Cement Industry
100.0
10 6 .1
121*. 0
13 6 .7
111*.5
88.0
9 2.5
123.1*
1 3 6 .1
11*1.9
11*1.1*
139 .9

na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na

5
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Csnt'd.

1939

Tear

Production

Production
corker*

i.
i+
.

1939
19U0
19 ia
19U2
191+3
191+1+
191+5
191+6
191+7
19i+8
191+9
1950

100.0
92.8
10U.3
8 1.8 1+9.9
1+6.1+
52.9
1 0 1.7
111.5
1 2 6 .1
12 2 .7
13U. 7

1939
191+1
191+2
191+3
191+1+
191+5
191+6
191*7
191+8
191+9
1950

100.0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na

107*2

1 2 1 .9
1 1 8 .5
131*5

n& - Not a v a ila b le
974726 0 — 51------- 2




Man-hours

100

Output per —
Production
iinJnvr
corker

tfeit Labor Requirement*
Production
Man-hour*
corker*
per unit
par unit

M A N U F A C T U R I N G Cont'd.

C lay C o n s t r u c t i o n Products I n d ustries G r o u p

100.0
92.1+
101.1+
8 5 .7
60.9
5 3 .1
570
9 1.6
99.5
101*. 0
100.9
10 2.6

a.

191+0

“

100.0
88.2
10 0 .5
81*. 3
62.0
55.1+
6 0 .1
96.5
1 0 5 .1
109*7
101+.6
108.9

100.0
100.1*
10 2.9
95.1+
8 1.9
87.1+
92.3
111.0
1 1 2 .1
1 2 1 .3
1 2 1 .6
13 1-3

100.0
10 5.2
10 3.8
97.0
80.5
83.8
88.0
105.1+
10 6 .1
111+.9
1 1 7 .3
1 2 3 .7

100.0
99.6
97.2
101*. 8
12 2 .0
111+.1+
10 8 .3
9 0 .1
89.2
8 2.5
82.2
76.2

100.0
95.0
96.1*
1 0 3 .1
121+.2
119.1+
1 1 3 .6
91+.9
91+.3
87.O
8 5.2
80.8

100.0

100.0

B rick and Hollow Stru otural T ile Industry

100.0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na

92.9
96.3
93*6
96.0

10 0 .0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na

102.8

10 0 .0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
11$ . li
126 s 6

98.3
103*1*

137*0

99*6

126.6

100.0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na

10 7.6
118.6
120. $
127*2

na
na
na
na
na
na
na

na
na
na
na
na
na
na

86.7
79*0
79*0
73*0

92.9
8U.3
83*0
78.6

6

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.

1939 - 1QO

Output per —
Production
Year

Production

wo r k e r s

Man-hours

I*

1*.

100.0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
12 9 .6
li*2.7
13 9 .5
ll*7.1*

100.0
12 8 .0
11*6.6
15 8 .3
159 .0
161*. 1
11*7.9
128.0
161.1*
loi*.8
11*0.6
15 8 .3

na - Not a v a ila b le




worker

Unit Labor Requirements
Production
workers
per unit

Man-hours
per unit

M A N U F A C T U R I N G Cont'd.

Cont'd.

C l a y Sewer Pipe and Kindred Products Industry

100.0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
12 9 .6
13 8 .9
13U.2
1 3 2 .7
5.

1939
19l*0
19U1
19U2
19U3
19hU
191*5
191*6
19U7
191*8
191*9
1950

Man-hour

Clay Construction Products Industries Group
b*

1939
19i*0
19U1
19U2
19U3
19W*
19l*5
19i*6
19l*7
19U8
19U9
1950

Production

100.0
123.1*
11*2.6
1 5 3 .2
16 5 .9
16 1.6
11*7.9
1 3 5 .3
15 6 .3
16 5.8
li*8.5
1 5 5 .5

100.0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
130 • 2
1U1.U
133-9
13U.0

100.0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
100.0
10 2.7
10 3.9
111.1

100.0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
99.5
100.9
10U.2
110 .0

100.0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
100.0
9 7.3
96.2
90.0

100.0
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
10 0 .5
9 9 .1
96.0
90.9

100.0
101*. 1*
10 5 .3
10 6 .2
98.1*
1 0 3 .1
10 0 .5
97.0
10 6 .7
10 2.9
98.5
1 0 1 .$

100.0
96.1*
9 7.3
96.8
101*. 3
98.5
100.0
10 5 .7
96.8
100.6
10 5.6
98.2

100.0
95.8
95.0
9l*.2
10 1.6
97.0
99.5
10 3.0
9 3.7
9 7 .1
10 1.6
98.5

Coke Industries Group
100.0
12 2 .6
13 9 .2
11*9.1
1 6 1 .6
1 5 9 .1
11*7.2
1 3 1 .9
1 5 1 .2
16 0 .1
11*2.8
156 .0

100.0
10 3 .7
10 2.8
10 3 .3
95.8
1 0 1 .5
100.0
9U.6
10 3 .3
99.1*
91*. 7
10 1.8

7

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939 * 100

Y ear

P ro d u ctio n

P ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

M an-hours

[
].

5.

100.0
12 k .8
13k . 7
lk 2.9
lk 5.8
1 5 3 .3
lk0.8
12 2 ek
1 5 1 .8
15 5 .2
1 3 7 .2
1 5 1 .3

b.

1939
19k0
19kl
19k2
19k3
19kk
19k5
19k6
19k?
19k8
1 9k9
1950

100.0
210.6
k60.9
569*6
5k 6 .i
k79.8
358 .7
31k. 3
k60.9
k52.0
235*1
389-5




100.0
2 0 7 .3

k29*6
510. k
k57*0
3k5*i
2k8.3
197*9
289*7
3 15 .1
183-9
250.2

Cont'd.»

B ypro d u ct Coke Ovens In d u s tr y

100.0
1 1 9 .3
12 7 .8
13k . 5
lk 8 .5
lkfi.9
lk o .5
126 .9
1U2.8
1 5 1 .2
1 3 9 .k
1 5 0 .1

100.0
1 1 9 .3
12 8 .7
136 .0
1 5 1 .9
1 5 2 .7
l k 3 .l
1 3 2 .3
lk9.9
15 8 .6
lk6.8
150 .9

U nit Labor R equirem ents
P ro d u ctio n
Man-hours
w o rk e rs
p er u n it
p er u n it

M A N U F A C T U R I N G Cont'd.

Coke Industries G r o u p
a.

1939
19kO
19kl
I9k2
19k3
19kk
19k5
19U6
19k7
1918
19k9
1950

Output p e r —
P ro d u ctio n
Man-hour
w orker

100.0
10k.6
10k. 7
1 0 5 .1
96.0
100. k
98.k
92.5
1 0 1 .3
97.9
9 3.5
100.3

100.0
10k. 6
105. k
106.2
98.2
10 3.0
100.2
96.5
10 6.3
10 2.6
98.k
100.8

100.0
95.6
9 5.5
95.2
10k. 2
99.6
10 1.6
10 8 .1
98.7
10 2 .2
107.0
99.7

100.0
95.6
9k. 9
9k. 1
10 1.9
9 7 .1
99.8
10 3 .7
9k .l
9?.k
10 1.6
99*2

100.0

100.0
98.k
9 3.3
89.6

100.0
100.9
98.0
96.3
95.k
9 1.2
92.0
85.9
82.3
89.5
100.0
82.0

Beehive Coke Ovens Industry

100.0
2 1 2 .k
k 5i.8
5k8.k
520.9
k37-5
329.9
270 .1
379*k
kok.5
2 3 5 .2

3 19 .3

1 0 0 .0
1 0 1 .6
10 7 .2
111.6

1 1 9 .5
13 9 .0

ikk .5
158 .8
1 5 9 .1
lk3»k
12 7 .8
1 5 5 .7

9 9 .2

102.0
10 3.9
10k. 8
10 9.7
10 8 .7
116 . k
1 2 1 .5
1 1 1 .7

100.0
12 2.0

8 3 .7

7 1.9
69.2
6 3 .O

63.0
69.?
78.2
6k. 2

8

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont’d.

1939 * 100

Year

Production

Production
workers

I.
6.

1939
19l*0
19l*l
19U2
19JU3
19i*l*
19U5
191*6
191*7
191*8
191*9
1950

100.0
111*. 8
11*1.6
151*. 5
11*2.0
16 0 .1
17 9 .3
16 5 .0
16 2 .2
15 7 .9
11*8.1*
15 0 .7

100.0
10 7.6
1 2 1 .7
1 2 2 .3
126 .9
11*0.8
1 3 3 -7
12 9 .5
1 5 2 .7
1 5 7 .9
151*. 1*
16 3 .7




Unit Labor Requirements
Production
Man-hours
workers
per unit
per u n it

MANUFACTURING Cont'd.

Condensed and Evaporated Milk Industry

100.0
10 7.2
13 3 .0
166.1*
1 6 6 .1
1 7 2 .2
16 5 -3
156.1*
15 8 .8
150 .9
11*8.6
11*1*. 1
7.

1939
191*0
191*1
191*2
, 191*3
191*1*
191*5
191*6
191*7
191*8
191*9
1950

Man-hours

Output per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

100.0
10 0 .1
10 5 .3
10 3.0
106.8
111*. 7
110 .8
109.8
130.1*
1 3 1 .6
126.1*
12 7 .6

100.0
109.1*
13 9 .3
1 7 8 .5
18 2 .7
191*. 5
188.9
16 9 .5
167.1*
158.1*
15 2 .6
11*9.0

100.0
1 0 7 .1
10 6 .5
92.8
8 5.5
93.0
10 8 .5
10 5 .5
1 0 2 .1
10U.6
99.9
10l*.6

100.0
10U.9
1 0 1 .7
86.6
7 7 .7
8 2.3
91*. 9
9 7.3
96.9
99.7
9 7.2
10 1.1

100.0
93.1*
93.9
10 7 .7
1 1 7 .0
10 7.6
92.2
9l*.8
97.9
95.6
10 0 .1
95.6

100.0
9 5.3
98.1*
115 .5
12 8 .7
1 2 1 .5
105.1*
10 2 .7
10 3 .2
10 0.3
10 2.8
98.9

100.0
10 7 .5
113 .2
113 .1
10 9 .3
111.7
1 1 2 .2
1 1 2 .6
1 11.8
111*. 8
116.1*
1 2 1 .9

100.0
93.0
86.5
81*. 2
81*.2
8 1 .5
82.9
81*. 8
85.1*
8 3.3
8 I.9
77.9

100.0
93.0
88.3
88.1*
9 1 .5
89.6
89.2
88.8
89.5
8 7 .I
85.9
82.0

Confectionery Industry
100.0
10 0 .1
10 7 .5
10 8 .1
11 6 .1
1 2 6 .1
1 1 9 .2
1 1 5 .0
136 .6
1 3 7 .5
1 3 2 .7
13l*.3

100.0
10 7 .5
1 1 5 .6
1 1 8 .7
1 1 8 .8
12 2 .8
12 0 .7
1 1 7 .9
1 1 7 .1
120 .0
12 2 .2
12 8 .3

9
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS Hi SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.

1939 - loo

Year

Production

Production
workers

i.

8*

1939
19i*0
1910.
19U2
192*3
19l*l*
191*5
19U6
19U7
191*8
191*9
1950

Unit Labor Requirements
Man-hours
Production
per u n it
workers
per u n it

MANUFACTURING Cont'd.

Flour and Other Grain-Mill Products Industry

100.0
96.8
98.2
10 0 .1
111*. 3
1 1 7 .6
12 8 .8
1 1 9 .7
131*. 0
12 2 .1
10 3 .7
10 0 .1

100.0
97.2
95.6
97.0
110 .9
1 1 8 .2
1 2 1 .7
1 1 9 .6
12 6 .6
1 2 3 .7
1 1 8 .3
1 11.7
9.

1939
191*0
191*1
191*2
191*3
191*1*
191*5
191*6
191*7
191*8
191*9
1950

Man-hours

Output per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

100.0
106.lt
13 9 .2
1 5 5 .8
18 2 .8
19 8 .7
203.3
221*. 5
230.1*
200.1*
18 2 .7
2 1 3 .1




100.0
10 6 .2
1 2 5 .5
13U.8
11*1*. 8
11*3.7
150 .6
16 8 .9
16 2 .9
11*90
1 3 5 .7
11*8.9

100.0
9 5 .1
96.7
10 3 .2
12 7 .9
13 7 .8
11*2.1*
136 .8
11*6.7
135.1*
12 5 .0
1 1 6 .5

100.0
99.6
10 2 .7
10 3 .2
1 0 3 .1
99.5
10 5.8
10 0 .1
10 5.8
98.7
8 7 .7
89.6

100.0
10 1.8
10 1.6
97.0
89.1*
8 5 .3
90.1*
8 7 .5
9 1.3
90.2
83.O
8 5.9

100.0
100.1*
97.1*
96.9
97.0
10 0 .5
9lt.5
99.9
91*. 5
1 0 1 .3
111.6

100.0
98.2
98.5
1 0 3 .1
111.9
117 .2
1 10 .6
111*. 3
10 9 .5
110 .9
12 0 .5
116.1*

100.0
99.8
90.2
86.5
79.2
7 2 .3
71*. 1
7 5 .2
70.7
7l*.5
7l*-3
69.9

100.0
100.8
91*. 5
93.0
9 0 .1
8 2.6
81*.5
8 2 .7
7 7 .2
79.5
78.1*
71*. 7

n l* .i

(Hass Containers Industry
100.0
10 7 .3
1 3 1 .6
11*1*. 9
161*. 7
161*. 2
1 7 1 .7
18 5 .7
17 7 .8
15 9 .3
11*30
15 9 .2

100.0
10 0 .2
110 .9
1 1 5 .6
12 6 .2
13 8 .3
13 5 .0
13 2 .9
11*1.1*
13U .2
13l*. 6
11*3.1

100.0
99.2
10 5.8
10 7 .5
111.0
1 2 1 .0
118.1*
120 .9
12 9 .6
12 5 .8
1 2 7 .5
1 3 3 .9

10
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont»d

1939 “ 100

Year

Production

Production
workers

i.
10.

1939
19k0
191a
19U2
19U3
19UU
19U5
19U6
19U7
19U8
19U9
1950

100.0
9U.9
1 0 1 .1
9 2 .9
96.2
90.8
8 7 .0
100.5
9 5 .5
98.7
9 8 .0
109. U

Man-hours

100.0
9 5 .3
9 5 .1

Hosiery Industries Group

100.0
9 1 .2
91.2
78.8
72 .6
66 .8
6 2 .9
7 5 .5
79.5
80.2
75*0
7 6 .5

79.7
8 6 .1
82.8
78.5
90.9
8 7 .5
1 0 0 .6
101.8
1 1 6 .1

n a • N ot a v a i l a b l e




100.0
90 .7
8 7 .5
6 8 .9

6 1 .3
53 .9
5 0 .6
6 2 .6
6 5 .5
6 8 .7

6 6 .1
6 6 .6

Unit Labor Requirements
Production Man-hours
per u n it
workers
per u n it

MANUFACTURING Cont'd.

1 0 0 .0
87 .1
92 .0
81 .2
78.9
72 .0
6 6 .2
8 0 .6
8 3 .1
83.i1
77 .0
79.2
a.

1939
19ii0
19iil
19ii2
19U3
19i+ii
19U5
19ii6
19ii7
19ii8
19U9
1950

Output per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

1 0 0 .0
10U.1
1 10.9
117.9
1 3 2 .5
1 3 5 .9
1 38.3
1 3 3 .1
1 2 0 .1
1 2 3 .1
1 3 0 .7
1U3.0

1 00.0
1 0 9 .0
1 09.9
iiii.li
1 2 1 .9
1 2 6 .1
131. U
I2ii.7
11I1.9
118.3
127.3
1 3 8 .1

1 0 0 .0
9 6 .1
90 .2
8ii.8
75.5
73.6
72.3
7 5 .1
8 3 .3
8 1 .3
76 .5
6 9 .9

1 0 0 .0
9 1 .7
9 1 .0
87.il
8 2 .0
79.3
7 6 .1
8 0 .2
87.O
8U.5
7 8.6
72.U

1 0 0 .0
95 .2
9 2 .0
86. U
71.2
6 5 .1
6U.5

10 0 .0

Full-Fashioned Hosiery Industry

1 0 0 .0
na
na
71. ii
68.ii
6 0 .2
5U*6
6 9 .0

70.9
7 5 .3
70 .0
71.3

1 0 0 .0

10 0 .0

10 5 .1
1 0 8 .7

na
na
1 1 1 .6
125.9
1 3 7 .5
lii3 .8
131.7
123.ii
1 3 3 .6
lU5.ii
162.8

115.7
1U 0 .5

153.6
1 5 5 .1
11*5.2
1 3 3 .6

Ii16.i1
15U.0
17 I1.3

6 8 .9

7U.9
6 8 .3

6U.9
5 7 .U

na
na
8 9 .6
79.U
72.7
6 9 .6
7 5 .9
8 1 .0
7U.9
6 8 .8
6 1. u

11
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd

1939 - 100

Output per —
Tear

Produotion

Production
w orkers

Man-hours

Production
wor k e r

Man-hour

2/

MANUFACTURING Cont'd.

I.
10 .

Hosiery Industries Group Cont'd.
b.

1939
19l*0
191a
19U2
19ii3
19l*l*
191*5
19U6
19U7
191*8
19i*9
1950

100.0
91*. 1
*
1 0 9 .1
1 1 2 .5
109.1*
99.9
96.7
1 1 2 .3
105.1
96.7
91*. 1
10 2.9

Seamless H o s i e r y Industry

100.0
na
na
95.0
9 3 .5
88.6
82.1*
96.9
100.2
91*. 7
86.7
90.3

100.0
9 1-9
96.5
92.9
88.6
8 5 .1
80.1*
93.8
99.3
96.5
8 7.7
90.6
11.

1939
191*0
19i*l
191*2
191*3
19i*U
191*5
19U6
191*7
191*8
191*9
1950

100.0
10 2.6
120 .6
11*3.5
11*0.6
11*8.8
16 2 .9
222.2
1 9 5 .5
17 8 .8
1 7 3 .1
16 8 .6

U nit Labor Requirements
Production
Man-hours
workers
per unit
per unit

100.0
10 2 .2
1 1 6 .3
12 8 .9
1 2 3 -3
1 2 1 .8
116.1*
1 3 1 .6
11*2.9
13 3 .0
12 8 .7
1 2 3 .2

1 0 0 .0
102.7
1 1 3 .1
1 2 1 .1
123.5
117.1*
120.3
119.7
1 05.8
1 00.2
1 07.3
1 1 3 .6

100.0
na
na
118.1*
1 1 7 .0
1 1 2 .8
117.1*
1 1 5 .9
101*. 9
1 0 2 .1
10 8 .5
lll*.0

1 00.0
97.1*
8 8 .5
82.6
8 1.0
8 5.2
8 3 .1
8 3 .5
91*. 5
99.8
9 3.2
8 8 .0

100.0
na
na
81*.l*
8 5 .5
88 .7
85.2
86 .3
9 5.3
97.9
9 2 .1
8 7 .8

100.0
1 01.9
1 05.1
111.6
1 1 3 .8
121.1*
137.6
16 5 .3
1 37.7
138.6
138.1*
11*3.1*

1 0 0 .0
99.6
96.1*
8 9 .8
9 7.7
8 1 .9
7 1 .5
59.2
7 3 .1
7l*.l*
7U.1*
7 3 .1

1 0 0 .0
9 8 .1
9 5.2
8 9 .6
87.9
82.1*
7 2.7
60.5
72.6
7 2 .1
7 2 .3
69.8

Ice Cream Industry
100.0
100.7
111*. 8
12 8 .6
12 3 .6
12 2 .6
118.1*
131*. 1*
11*2.0
129.0
1 2 5 .1
1 1 7 .6

100.0
100. i*
103.7
111.3
11U.0
122.2
139 .9
168.8
136 .8
13U.1*
13U .5
136 .9

n& - Not available
2/
For tho loo Croaa Industry, reprosonts BLS produotion worker lndox adjusted to Census of
ifa««rm»tMrss data for "All Bspleyees" rather than "Produotion Workers" only.
See "Teohnieai notes."




12

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS FOR SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.

1939 - 100

Year

Production

Production
workers

Man-hours

Output per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

2/

I.

1939
19l*0
19 hl
19l*2
19l*3
19W*
1916

19l*6
1 9 k7
19l*8
19l*9
1950

100.0
98.ii
113.0
1 28.6
11*3.6
1 63.5
169.1*
1 61.3
1 7 8 .0
1 72.1
171*. 1
17U.6

MANUFACTURING Cont'd.

12.

Malt Liquors Industry

100.0
9 6 .3
100.1*
107.7
115.7
121.9
120.6
121.3
131*. 9
135.5
129.1*
129.2
13.

1939
19U0
19U1
19U2
19U3
19l*l*
19U5
19U6
19U7
19U8
19U9
1950

100.0
112.8
1 3 3 .0
129.6
12i*.l
121*. 2
126.8
11*1.1
155.3
162.6
153.8
183.O

Unit Labor Requirements
Man-hours
Production
per u n it
workers
per unit

100.0
1 0 6 .6
118.2
1 2 1 .6
120.1
119.8
121.5
U*3.0
15U. 5
157.1*
11*7.5
1 5 3 .1

100.0
96.3
106.1*
115.9
135.0
ll*6.1*
11*3.6
13U.0
152.2
11*8.6
138.9
1 3 7 .6

1 0 0 .0
102.2
1 1 2 .5
119.1*
121*. 1
131*. 1
11*0.5
1 3 3 .0
131.9
127.0
13l*« 5
135.1

1 0 0 .0
102.2
106.2
111.0
106.1*
111.7
1 1 8 .0
120.1*
1 1 7 .0
115.8
125.3
1 2 6 .9

1 00.0
9 7 .9
88 .8
83.7
8 0 .6
7U.6
71.2
7 5.2
75.8
78.7
71*. 3
7l*.0

1 00.0
9 7 .9
9i*.2
9 0 .1
91*. 0
89-5
81*.8
8 3 .I
8 5 .5
86 .3
79.8
78.8

1 0 0 .0
91*. 5
8 8 .9
93 .8
9 6 .8
9 6 .5
9 5 .8
101.3
9 9 .5
96 .8
9 5 .9
8 3 .7

1 0 0 .0
91*. 9
91*. 1
1 0 0 .1
1 11.2
111*. 9
11U.1
111.1*
1 09.1
105.7
100.9
9 1 .1

Paper and Pulp Industry

100.0
1 0 7 .1
125.2
129.7
1 3 8 .0
11*2.7
11*1*. 7
157.2
1 6 9 .5
171.9
1 55.2
166.8

1 0 0 .0
105.8
1 1 2 .5
1 0 6 .6
1 0 3 .3
1 0 3 .7
10l*.i*
9 8 .7
1 0 0 .5
103.3
10l*.3
1 1 9 .5

1 0 0 .0
1 0 5 .3
1 06.2
9 9 .9
8 9 .9
8 7 .0
8 7 .6
8 9 .8
9 1 .6
9U.6
9 9 .1
1 0 9 .7

y
for ths Milt Liquors Industry, represents BLS production worker indsn adjusted to Ceneue_of
Maaafastures data for "All Bapleyees" rathsr t i n "Production Workers" only* So# "Teehnloal Kotos*"




13
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.

1939

Year

Production

Production
workers

I,
It*.

1939
19l*>
19U
19l*2
19U3

19 hh
19U5
19U6
19l*7
191*8
19l*9
1950

19 hk
191*5
191*6
191*7
191*8
191*9
1950

Man-hours

100

Output per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

U nit Labor Requirements
Man-hours
Production
per u n it
workers
per u n it

MANUFACTURING Cont'd.

Primary Smelting and Refining of Non-Ferrous Metals Group
(Copper, Lead and Zinc)

100.0
119.7
129.3
130.0
129.1*
118.5
106.2
86.6
119.1
111*. 7
107.3
123.3

15.
1939
19U0
19lU
19U2
19l*3

-

100.0
123.0
153.1*
170.7
179.1
195.7
212.3
227.9
258.2
301*.3
260.7
353.0

974726 0— 51--- 3




100.0
113.6
127.6
125.6
121.0
106.3
99.1
96.2
117.0
lll*.l
105.1*
107.9

100.0
115.1*
131.3
13l*.8
139.7
129.0
118.6
102.7
126.5
123.1*
111.7
116.7

100.0
105.1*
101.3
103.5
106.9
109.1*
107.2
92.3
101.8
100.5
101.8
ni*.3

100.0
103.7
98.5
96,1*
92.6
91.9
89.5
86.5
9i*.2
92.9
96.1
105.7

100.0
91*.9
98.7
96.6
93.5
91.1*
93.3
108.3
98.2
99.5
98.2
87.5

100.0
96.1*
101.5
103.7
108.0
108.9
111.7
115.7
106.2
107.6
10i*.l
9l*.6

Rayon and Other Synthetic Fibers Industry
100.0
105.1*
110.9
108.5
108.8
109.0
112.3
119.6
119.7
123.9
111*. 8
119.0

100.0
108.5
111*. 7
113.1*
120.3
123.1*
12U.7
123.1*
12l*.8
129.2
117.0
123.1*

100.0
116.7
138.3
157.3
161*.6
179.5
189.0
190.6
215.7
21*5*6
2** 5
11.
296.6

100.0
113.U
133.7
150.5
11*8.9
158.6
170.2
181*. 7
206.9
235.5
239.9
286.1

100.0
85.7
72.3
63.6
6O.7
55.7
52.9
52.5
1*6 1
.*
1*0.7
1*0.9
33.7

100.0
88.2
7 8
1*.
66.1*
67.2
63.I
58.7
5 1
1*.
1*8.3
1*2.5
1*1.7
35.0

Ill
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.

1939

Year

Production

Production
workers

I.
16.

1939
19ii0
19l*l
19l*2
19li3
19l*l*
19l*5
191*6
191*7
19U8
19U9
1950

100.0
101.5
109.3
115.7
n il. 2
n il. 3
n 7 .7
n 5 .8
n li. 5
118.6
1 16.6
116.5

llan-hours

100.0
1 00.5
107.7
in . 8
1 0 2 .5
99.2
100.2
107.0
10Ji.2
1 07.5
101*. 1

102.2




100

Output per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

Unit Labor Requirenents
Production
Man-hours
per unit
workers
per u n it

MANUFACTURING Cont'd.

Tobacco Products Industries Group

1 0 0 .0
9 8 .7
101.0
102.0
97.2
9 0 .6
8 6 .7
9 1 .1
91.2
9 0 .0
8 5 .1
8 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
100.9
105.I*
111.2
111.9
106.7
101.7
101.2
9 8 .9
96.2
8 8 .9
8 5 .0
a#

1939
19l*0
19 ia
19U2
19it3
19 kh
19l*5
19U6
19U7
19U8
19l*9
1950

-

1 00.0
98.1*
10 1*. 0

102.3
88.6
75.9
7 1 .5
81*.6
8 7 .5
8 5 .6
7 8 .6
7 2 .5

1 00.0
102.8
108.2
113.1*
1 1 7 .5
1 26.2
135.8
1 2 7 .1
1 2 5 .5
131.8
1 37.0
11*5.6

1 00.0
1 00.6
103.7
10i*.0
1 0 2 .1
1 07.1
115.7
ni*.l*
115.8
123.3
1 31.2
1 3 7 .1

1 0 0 .0
9 7 .2
92.1*
8 8 .2
8 5 .1
79.3
73.7
78 .7
79 .7
7 5 .9
73 .0
6 8 .7

1 0 0 .0
99.1*
96.1*
9 6 .1
9 8 .0
93.1*
86.1*
87.1*
86.1*
8 1 .1
76.2
7 3.0

1 00.0
9 8 .7
98.1*
99 .3
98.8
107.2
1 18.0
1 1 2 .5
109.3
1 15.6
1 2 5 .0
132.2

1 00.0
97 .9
96 .6
9 1 .5
86.1*
76 .5
71.1*
79.1
81*. 0
79-6
7 5 .5
70.9

1 0 0 .0
101.3
101.6
100.7
101.2
93 .2
81*. 7
8 8 .9
91 .5
8 6 .5
8 0 .0
75 .6

Cigars Industry

1 0 0 .0
101.8
109.1*
n 2 .6
103.7
9 2 .5
81*.9
9 5 .1
95.3
9 3 .0
83 .3
77.3

1 0 0 .0
1 02.1
1 0 3 .6
109.3
115.7
130.7
11*0.1
1 2 6 .5
119.1
1 2 5 .6
1 3 2 .1
11*1.0

15
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd

1939

-

Production
Year

Production

Man-hours

worker*

1.

16.
b»

1939
19l*0
1910.
191*2
191*3
191*1*
191*5
191*6
191*7
191*8
191*9
1950

100
Output per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

Unit Labor Requirement*
Production
Man-hour*
per u n it
worker*
per u n it

MANUFACTURING Cont'd.

Tobacco Products Industries Group

Cont'd.

Cigarette* Industry, and Chewing and Smoking tobaeeo and Snuff Industry

1 0 0 .0

103.0
111.8
121.5
130.9
131*. 3
139.8
128.0
130.1
135.9
135.3
137.2




100.0
99.1
96.1*
101.5
109.1
108.3
107.7
100.2
96.3
96.2
9l*.l
90.1*

100.0
99.7
100.0
109.1*
122.9
125.6
121*.0
109.2
103.7
100.1*
96.3
95.2

100.0
103.9
116.0
119.7
120.0
121*.0
129.8
127.7
135.1
11*1.3
11*3.8
151.8

100.0
103.3
111.8

100.0
96.2
86.2

1 1 1 .1

8 3 .5

106.5
106.9
112.7
117.2
125.5
135.1*
ii*o.5
H*l*. 1

83.3
80.6
77.0
78.3
7l*.0
70.8
69.5
65.9

100.0
96.8
89.1*
90.0
93.9
93.5
88.7
850
79.7
73-9
71.2
69.1*

16
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939 * 100

Year

Production

Production
workers

Met -hours

II.
1.

Output per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

Unit Labor Requires a c ts
Production Man-hour*
workers
per unit
per w i t

MINING

The Mining Industries Group 4/

191$

89.2

na

183.9

na

1*8.5

na

206.2

1916

98.0

na

203.6

na

1*8.1

na

207.8

1917

103.1

na

212.6

na

1*8.5

na

206.2

1918

103.0

na

208.6

na

1*9.1*

na

202.5

1919

87.'$

na

176.1*

na

1*9.6

na

201.6

1920

100.1*

na

191*. 2

na

51.7

na

193.1*

1921

79.8

na

11*7.1*

na

5* 1
1.

na

181*. 7

1922

83.1*

na

11*5.0

na

57.5

na

173.9

1923

113.8

na

192.9

na

59.0

na

169.5

1921*

106.3

na

175.2

na

60.7

na

161*.6

192$

108.2

na

172.9

na

62.6

na

159.8

1926

119.1*

na

188.2

na

63.I*

na

157.6

1927

115.8

na

177.1*

na

65.3

na

153.2

1928

113.8

na

167.5

na

67.9

na

11*7.2

1929

121.7

na

17U.3

na

69.8

na

11*3.2

1930

106.7

na

11*6.1*

na

72.9

na

137.2

1931

87.9

na

lilt.O

na

77.1

na

129.7

1932

69.6

na

89.8

na

77.5

na

129.0

1933

75.6

na

96.0

na

78.8

na

127.0

1931*

83.1*

na

102.5

na

81.1*

na

122.9




17
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Corrt^d.

1939

Year

Production
workers

Production

Man-hours

11.
1.

-

100
Output per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

Unit Labor Requirements
Production
Man-hours
« o rk « rt
*»*• » » «
per u n it

MINING Cont'd.

The Mining Industries Group

Cont'd.

1935

88.0

na

103.7

na

8U.9

na

117.8

1936

101.9

na

117.6

na

86.6

na

115.1*

1937

108.9

na

123.7

na

88.0

na

113.6

1938

8 8 .5

na

98.2

na

90.1

na

111.0

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

191*0

113.0

109.6

110.7

103.1

102.1

97.0

98.0

19lil

123.9

n o .o

119.3

112.6

103.9

88.8

96.3

19l*2

136.0

113.9

130.8

119.1*

101*.0

83.8

96.2

19U3

139.6

106.8

137.5

130.7

101.5

76.5

96.5

1 9hh

11*5.8

103.1*

139.3

11*1.0

101*. 7

70.9

95.5

19h5

136.5

96.1

128.7

11*2.0

106.1

70.1*

9l*.3

19U6

129.8

98.8

121.1

131.1*

107.2

76.1

930

19l*7

11*7.7

107.1

133.0

137.9

111.1

72.5

90.0

191*8

11*7.1*

111.6

132.9

132.1

110.9

75.7

90.2

191*9

119.3

101*. 5

109.9

111*. 2

108.6

87.6

92.1

19 $0

13U. 5

101.6

111*.6

132.1;

117.1*

75.5

85.2

k/
The indexes fo r 1^15-3^ are based on m a te ria l published by the W N ational Rese&roh
PA
P ro je ct and cover almost a l l mining in d u stries*
The BLS indexes beginning with I 935 cover s ix
o f the p rin cip al mining in d u s trie s : bituminous o o a l; a n th ra cite $ oopper; iro n ; lead and sin e ; and
orude petroleum, n a tu ra l g a s, and n a tu ra l gasoline* The indexes fo r 5 o f the 6 individual mining
in d u stries are presented in the following pages* Pending fu rth e r review , the s e rie s fo r erude
petroleum, n a tu ra l g as, and n a tu ra l gasoline were not considered s u f f ic ie n tly re lia b le fo r p u b licatio n se p a ra te ly , although s a ti s f a c to r y fo r inclu sion in the combined indexes*

n a - N o t a v a ila b le




18
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd

1939

Year

Production

Production
worker*

Man-hours

.
ii.
2.

“

100
Output per —
Man-hour
Production
worker

Unit Labor Requirements
Man-hours
Production
per u n it
workers
per u n it

MINING Gont»d.

Anthracite Industry

193 £

101.3

111.6

127.7

90.8

79.3

110.2

126.1

1936

106.0

110.6

123.0

95.8

86.2

10i*.3

116.0

1937

100.7

110.8

115.2

90.9

87.1*

110.0

lli».l*

1938

89.5

100.1

91.1*

89.1*

97.9

111.8

102.1

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19 hO

100.0

103. k

101.5

96.7

98.5

103.1*

101.5

19U1

105.8

103.8

105.3

101.9

100.5

98.1

99.5

19l*2

112.1

100.0

121.7

112.1

92.1

89.2

108.6

19l*3

115.3

93.7

131.8

123.1

87.5

81.3

Hi*.3

19l*l*

122.7

90.8

133.1*

135.1

92.0

7i*.0

IO8.7

19l*5

106.2

81.6

119.1

130.1

89.2

76.8

112.1

19l*6

116.8

92.0

121*. 9

127.0

93.5

78.8

106.9

19l*7

109.9

89.2

121.1*

123.2

90.5

81.2

110.5

19l*8

109-9

90.7

121.5

121.2

90.5

82.5

110.6

191*9

82.1

87.1

90.6

9l*.3

90.6

106.1

110.1*

1950

85-3

81*.1
*

97.8

101.1

87.2

98.9

111*. 7




19
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont’d
1939

Year

Production
workers

Production

Man-hours

-

100

Output per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

Unit Labor Requirements
Production
Man-hours
workers
per u n it
per unit

II. MINING Cont’
d.
3*

Bituminous Coal and Lignite Industries

1935

9l*.3

117-5

ill*. 5

8O.3

82.1*

12i*.6

121.1*

1936

111.2

121.3

128.9

91.7

86.3

109.1

115.9

1937

112.8

12l*.l*

128.1

90.7

88.1

110.3

113.6

1938

8 8 .3

109.6

95 .0

80.6

92.9

121*.1

107.6

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

191*0

116.7

112.0

112.2

10U.2

10U.0

96.0

96.1

19U

130.2

111.1

12U.7

117.2

ioU.1*

85.3

95.8

191*2

11*7.6

122.3

11*3.5

120.7

102.9

82.9

97.2

191*3

11*9.1*

112.6

151.3

132.7

98.7

75.1*

101.3

191*1*

156.9

1 08.0

153.0

11*5.3

102.5

68.8

97.5

191*5

11*6.3

9 8 .6

138.1*

11*8.1*

105.7

67.1*

91**6

191*6

135-2

95-5

123.2

11*1.6

109.7

70.6

91.1

191*7

159.7

108.2

11*2.1*

11*7.6

112.1

67.8

89.2

191*8

151.8

111.1

135.9

136.6

111.7

73.2

89.5

191*9

110.8

1 0 0 .5

100.8

110.2

109.9

90.7

91.0

1950

129.6

105.1

1370

123.3

72.8

81.1




91*. 1
*

20

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Gont'd

193 9

Year

Pro duet ion
of ore

Pro duet ion
workers

Man-hours

II.
U*

*

100

Ore Mined per ~
Production
Man-hour
worker

Unit Labor Requirements
Production
Man-hours
workers per
per ton
ton of ore
o f ore

MINING Coat'd

Copper Ores Mining Industry
&
#

Based on Ore Mined

1935

3i+»6

na

53-0

na

65.3

na

153.2

1936

69.7

na

82.9

na

81+.1

na

118.9

1937

111.1+

na

123*5

na

90.2

na

110.9

1938

68.li

na

82.3

na

83.I

na

120.3

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

191+0

125.1+

117.6

117.0

106.6

107.2

93.8

93.3

191+1

11+2.0

131.1+

132.7

108.1

107.0

92.5

93.5

191+2

167.1

136.0

11+6.7

122.9

113 .9

81.1+

87.8

191+3

178.9

133.2

11+5*6

131+.3

122.9

71+.5

81.1+

111
9++

166.2

109.8

118.1+

151.1+

11+0.1+

66.1

71.2

191+5

11+0.3

87.1

92.9

161.1

151.0

62.1

66.2

19U6

112.7

82.1

83.9

137.3

131+.3

72.8

7U.1+

191+7

159.1

98.1+

105.2

161.7

15 1.2

61.8

66.1

191+8

153.1+

100.0

107.9

153.1+

11+2.2

65.2

70.3

191+9

137.6

97.2

98.1

11+1.6

11+0.3

70.6

71.3

1950

171.2

99.2

106.5

172.6

160.8

57.9

62.2

n a - Hot available




21

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939 - 100

Production
of
recoverable
n a ta l

Produotion
workers

Man-hours

II.
1.
*
b.

Recoverable Metal per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

Unit Labor Requirements
Production
Man-hours
per unit of
workers
per unit of recoverable
metal
recoverable
metal

MINING Cont'd.

Copper Ores Mining Industry

Cont'd.

Based on Mine Production o f Recoverable Metal

1935

51.7

na

53.0

na

97.5

na

102.5

1936

81*.3

na

82.9

na

101.7

na

96.3

1937

116.1

na

123.5

na

91* 0
.

na

106.1*

1938

76.5

na

82.3

na

93.0

na

107.6

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

191*0

120.8

117 .6

117.0

102.7

103.2

97.1*

96.9

191*1

131.8

13 1 .1*

132.7

100.3

99.3

99.7

100.7

191*2

11*9.1

136.0

11*6.7

109.6

101.6

91.2

98.1*

191*3

150.8

133.2

11*5.6

113.2

IO3.6

88.3

96.6

1ll
9**

133-9

109.8

118.1*

121.9

113.1

82.0

88.1*

191*5

106.0

8 7 .1

92.9

121.7

nl*.i

82.2

87.6

19U6

83. *
I

82.1

83.9

101.6

99.1*

98.1*

100.6

191*7

116.6

98.1*

105.2

118.5

110.8

8* 1
1. *

90.2

191*8

111*.6

100.0

107.9

111*.6

106.2

87.3

91* 2
.

191*9

102.1*

97.2

98.1

105.3

101*.1
*

9* 9
1.

95.8

1950

12l*.l

99.2

106.5

125.1

116.5

79.9

85.8

na - Mot available

974726 0 — 51




4

22

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd
1939 - 100

Crude Ore Mined per —
Production
Year

of
crude ore

Production

Production
Man-hours

workers

Man-hour

worker

Unit Labor Requirements
Man-hours
Production
per ton of
workers
per ton of

crude ore

crude ore

II.
5.

MINING Cont'd.

Iron Ores Mining Industry
a.

Based on Crude Ore Mined

1935

61.7

na

67.3

na

91.7

na

109.1

1936

95.6

na

95.1*

na

100.2

na

99.8

1937

11*1.1

na

13 1.6

na

107.2

na

93.3

1938

55-3

na

na

70.5

na

11*1.8

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

191*0

li*5.1*

112.6

121.1*

1 2 9 .1

119.8

77.1*

83.5

19l*l

187.8

133.8

152.2

ll*0.1*

123.1*

71.2

81.0

191*2

220.6

159.5

188.1

138.3

1 170

72.3

85-3

19U3

208.7

167.1*

200.7

121*. 7

101*.0

80.2

96.2

111
9**

193.6

11*9.6

181.1*

129.1*

106.7

77.3

93.7

19U5

1 8 $ . 1*

125.5

153.6

11*7.7

120.7

67.7

82.8

191*6

11*6.8

122.7

129.6

119.6

113.3

83.6

88.3

19U7

198.7

11*9.8

168.7

132.6

117.8

75.1*

81*.9

191*8

220.1

159.2

181*.2

138.3

119.5

72.3

83.7

191*9

182.8

1** 1
11.

160.6

126.9

113.8

78.8

87.9

1950

217.2

151.2

173-2

11*3.7

125.1*

6 9 .6

79.7

n a - Not available




78 .1*

23

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939 - 100

Production
Year

of
useable ore

Useable Ore per —
FroVTtfcTroh — Hfiri-WOT

Production
workers

Man-hours

worker

Unit Labor Requirements
Production
Man-hours
per ton of
workers
useable ore
per ton of
useable ore

II.
5*

MINING Cont'd.

Iron Ores Mining Industry
b#

Cont'd.

Based on Useable Ore Produced

1935

59.0

na

07.3

na

67.7

na

llk.l

1936

9k. 3

na

95. k

na

98.8

na

10 1.2

1937

139. k

na

13 1.6

na

105.>'

na

9k.k

1936

55.0

na

78 .h

na

70.2

na

lk2.5

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19k0

lk2.5

112 .6

12 1 .k

126.6

117- k

79.0

85.2

19kl

176.6

133.8

152.2

133.5

117.3

7k. 9

85.2

19k2

202.7

159.5

188.1

127.1

107.8

78.7

92.8

19k3

19k. 5

167. k

200.7

116.2

96.9

86.1

103.2

19kk

180.8

lk9.6

l8l.k

120.9

99.7

82.7

100.3

19k5

169.8

125.5

153.6

135.3

110.5

73*9

90.5

19U6

136.0

122.7

129.6

110.8

10it.9

90.2

95.3

19k7

176.9

l+
i 9.8

168.7

119.k

106.0

63.7

9k. 3

19 k8

19k. 3

159.2

18k .2

122.0

105.5

81.9

9k. 8

19U9

163.2

lkk.l

160.2

113.3

101.9

88.3

98.2

1950

188 .5

151.2

173.2

12it.7

108.8

80.2

91.9

na - Not available




2i*
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939 " 100

Tear

Production
of ore

Production
workers

Man-hours

II.

Ore Mined per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

Unit Labor Requirements
Production
Man-hours
workers
per ton of
per ton of
ore mined
ore mined

MINING Cont'd.

6.> Lead and Zinc Ores Mining Industries
a*

Based on Ore Mined

1935

76.9

na

86.7

na

88.7

na

112.7

1936

97.5

na

102.7

na

9l*.9

na

105.3

1937

118.1

na

122.5

na

96.1*

na

103.7

1938

850

na

91.1*

na

930

na

107.2

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19k0

116.3

111*.8

116.9

101.3

99.5

98.7

100.5

19hl

133.7

120.1

12l*.l

111.3

107.7

89.8

92.8

19l*2

lWi.3

126.0

11*1.0

111*.5

102.3

87.3

97.7

19U3

152.5

11*1.1

160.1*

108.1

95.1

92.5

105.2

19UU

158.0

127.6

11*5.7

123.8

108.1*

80.8

92.2

19U5

1** 3
11.

111.7

127.9

129.2

112.8

77.1*

88.6

191*6

135-0

119.6

128.9

112.9

101*. 7

88.6

95.5

191*7

118.2

127.0

135.5

93-1

87.2

107.1*

111**6

191*8

96.8

117.8

125.7

82.2

77.0

121.7

129.9

19U9

102.2

1 1 1 .0

118.7

92.1

86.1

108.6

116.1

na - Not av ailab le




25
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939 - 100

Production
of
recoverable
metal

Production
workers

Man-hour 8

II.
6.

Recoverable Metal per —
Production
Man-hour
worker

MINING Cont'd.

Lead and Zinc Ores Mining Industries
b#

U nit Labor Requirements
Production
Man-hours
workers
per u n it of
per u n it of
recoverab le
metal
recoverable
metal

Cont'd.

Based on Mine Production of Recoverable Metal

1935

86.3

na

86.7

na

99.5

na

100.5

1936

96.2

na

102.7

na

93.7

na

106.8

1937

110.it

na

122.5

na

90.1

na

111.0

1938

89.2

na

na

97.6

na

102.5

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19li0

112.7

lilt. 8

116 .9

98.2

96.lt

101.9

103.7

19U1

122.0

120.1

12lt.l

101.6

98.3

98.lt

101.7

1942

127-1*

126.0

lltl.O

101.1

90.lt

98.9

110.7

19U3

120.8

litl.l

l60.lt

85.6

75.3

116.8

132.8

19iUt

lilt. 8

127.6

Ht5-7

90.0

78.8

111.1

126.9

191*5

100.6

111.7

127.9

90.1

78.7

1 1 1 .0

127.1

19U6

90.9

119.6

128.9

76.0

70.5

13 1.6

litl.8

19^7

103.7

127.0

135.5

81.7

76.5

122.5

130.7

19U8

103.lt

117.6

125.7

87.8

82.3

113.9

121.6

191*9

101.2

111.0

118.7

91.2

85.3

109.7

117.3

1950

107.lt

105.5

113.lt

101.8

9* 7
1.

98.2

105.6

n a - Not available




91 . t
i

26

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd
193 ? - 100

O u tput per —
Employee
Man-hour

Production
Year

(energy

Employees

Man-hours

distributed)

unit

III.
1.

Unit Labor Requirements
Employees
Man-hours
per
per
unit

PUBLIC UTILITIES

Electric Light and Power Industry

1917

19.7

38.9

1*5.7

50.6

1*3.1

1918

na

na

na

na

1919

na

na

na

1920

27.2

na

1921

25*6

1922

197.5

232.0

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

30.0

56.1

65.2

53*5

1*6.0

I87.O

217.3

1923

36.1*

61.9

71.1*

58.8

51.0

170.1

196.2

1921*

1*0.0

70.5

81.5

56.7

1*9.1

176.3

203.8

1925

1*6.1

79.1

91.5

58.3

50.1*

171.6

198.5

1926

52.9

88.1

99.7

60.0

53.1

166.5

188.5

1927

58.8

96.7

111.6

60.8

52.7

161*. 5

189.8

1928

6* 5
1.

na

na

na

na

na

1929

71.9

112.3

133-0

6i*.0

5* 1
1.

156.2

185.0

1930

70.1*

117.9

11*0.5

59.7

50.1

167.5

199.6

1931

67.2

108.3

129.1*

62.0

51.9

161.2

192.6

1932

60.3

93.1

103.1*

61*.8

58.3

151**1*

171.5

1933

62.8

86.9

92.2

72.3

68.1

138.1*

11*6.8

193U

68.0

89.6

87.8

75.9

77.1*

131.8

129.1

n a - N o t available




na

27

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont’d.
1939

“

100

Output per —
Year

Production
(energy

Employee
Employees

Man-hour

Man-hours

distributed)

III.

1.

Unit Labor Requirements
Man - h o u r 0
Employees
per
per
unit
unit

PUBLIC UTILITIES Cont’d.

Electric Light and Power Industry

Cont’d.

1935

7U.8

91.1*

90.7

81.8

82.5

122.2

121.3

1936

86.6

97.1*

98.6

88.9

87.8

112.5

113.9

1937

9 6
1*.

103.8

105.6

91.1

89.6

109.7

111.6

1938

90.2

100.5

101.3

89.8

89.0

111.1*

112.3

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19^0

111.1*

102.3

102.6

106.9

108.6

91.8

92.1

191*1

129.0

10ii.2

10i*.7

123.8

123.2

80.8

81.2

191*2

11*3-5

97.2

98.1*

11*7.6

ll*$.8

67.7

68.6

191*3

165.7

86.3

90.7

192.0

182.7

52.1

5 7
1*.

191*1*

172.1*

82.9

90.2

208.0

191.1

1*8.1

52.3

191*5

168.8

6U.2

92.5

200.$

182.5

1*9.9

51*.8

191*6

167.8

99.1*

10l*.i*

168.8

160.7

59.2

62.2

191*7

189-9

107.2

113.7

177.1

I67.O

56.5

59.9

191*8

205.2

113.7

120.0

180.$

171.0

55.1*

58.5




28

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LA30R REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939 “ 100

Year

Revenue
t rafflo
(Freight
and

All h o u r l y
basis
employees

Revenue Traffic per —
Employee
Man-hour
Man-hours

passenger)

Unit Labor Requirements
Employees
Man-hours
per unit of
per unit of
revenue
revenue

traffic

III.
2.

traffio

PUBLIC UTILITIES Cont«d.

Line-Haul Operating Railroads Industry 5/
a,
(1 )

A ll Hourly B asis Employees

Based on revenue t r a f f i c (f r e ig h t and passenger)

1935

81*.2

100.1*

96.1

83.9

87.6

119.2

ni*.i

1936

101.1*

108.3

108.1*

93.6

93.5

106.8

106.9

1937

108.2

113.5

113.6

95.3

95.2

10l*.9

105.0

1938

88.0

9it.6

92.9

93.0

91*.7

107.5

105.6

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19l*0

111.1

10l*.3

105.6

106.5

105.2

93-9

95.0

ifia

11*1.0

116.5

122.1

121.0

115.5

82.6

86.6

19l*2

196.5

130.6

11*0.8

150.5

139.6

66.5

71.7

19l*3

237.U

139.5

1570

170.2

150.9

58.8

66.3

19UU

2l*l*.0

H*5.7

161*. 7

167.5

11*8.1

59.7

67.5

19l*5

227.0

11*6.3

162.7

155.2

139.5

61*.1
*

71.7

19i*6

189.8

139.5

11*7.0

136.1

129.1

73.5

77.1*

19i*7

197.1

138.8

11*6.0

11*2.0

135.0

70.1*

7U.1

19l*8

190.2

136.0

11*2.8

139.9

133.2

71.5

75.1

19L9

157.5

121.2

119.8

130.0

131.5

77.0

76.1

1950

172.1*

121*. 5

115.0

138.5

11*9.9

72.2

66.7

Formerly c a lle d "Steam R ailroad tra n s p o rta tio n "



29
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES C©nt*d.
1939 - 100

T « tr

C a r-a ile s
(F reig h t
and
passenger)

A ll hourly
b a sis
esaptoyees

III.
2.

Carnal Is s per
Enployee
Men-hour
ifea-hours

PUBLIC UTILITIES Cont'd.

Line-Haul Operating Railroads Industry
ft#
(2 )

U nit Labor Requireaents
Ea ploys# s
Man-hours
por
par
e a r-a lle
e a r-a lls

All Sourly B a sis In ploys# s

Cont'd.

Cent9d*

Based on e a r - a l l s s (f r e ig h t end passenger)

1535

89.1

100.1*

96.1

88.7

92.7

112.7

107.9

1936

101.2

108.3

108.1*

93.1*

93.1*

107.0

107.1

1937

106.2

113.5

113.6

93.6

93-5

106.9

107.0

1938

91.6

9l*.6

92.9

96.8

98.6

103.3

101.1*

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

191*0

108.2

10l*.3

105.6

103.7

102.5

96.1*

97.6

191a

127.2

116.5

122.1

109.2

10l*.2

91.6

96.0

191*2

153*0

130.6

li*0.8

117.2

108.7

85.1*

92.0

191*3

163.5

139.5

157-3

117.2

103.9

85.3

96.2

191*1*

166.6

11*5.7

161*. 7

111*.3

101.2

87.5

98.9

19U5

155.0

11*6.3

162.7

105.9

95.3

191*6

139.1*

139.5

11*7.0

99*9

9* 8
1.

100.1

105.5

191*7

11*5.1*

138.8

11*6.0

10U.8

99 * 6

95.5

100.1*

19U8

11*2.2

136.0

11*2.8

10l*.6

99.6

95.6

100.1*

191*9

127.3

121.2

119.8

105.0

106,3

95.2

9l*.l

1950

133.9

121*. 5

115.0

107.6

116.1*

93.0

85.9

97472(5 0 — 51----5




9 1
1*. *

105.0

30

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939 " 100

Tear

Revenue
ton -m iles
of
fr e ig h t

Road
fr e ig h t
employees

h i

2.

Mea-houre

Revenue Ton-miles
o f F re ig h t per —
Employee
Man-hour

.
. PUBLIC UTILITIES Cont'd.

Line-Haul Operating Railroads Industry
b.

(i)

f a i t Labor Requirements
Employees
Man-hours
p er revenue
per revenue
ton-m ile
ton-m ile
of fre ig it
o f fr e ig h t

Cont'd.

Roa d Freight Employees

Bas e d on revenue ton-miles of freight

6/

1935

8i*.6

100.0

97.1

81*.6

87.1

118.2

111*. 8

1936

101.7

109.9

113.5

92.5

89.6

108.1

111.6

1937

108.2

111*. 5

115.7

9l*.5

93.5

105.8

106.9

1938

87.0

96.6

93.2

90.1

930

111.0

107.1

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19l*0

113^9

105.1

108.2

106.5

103.1*

93.9

96.7

191*1

11*2.$

119.3

131.1*

119.1*

108.1*

83.7

92.2

191*2

191.1*

139.1*

166.3

137.3

115.1

72.8

86.9

191*3

218.0

11*8.3

181.6

11*7.0

120.0

68.0

83.3

191*1*

221.2

11*8.0

I83.6

11*9.5

120.5

66.9

83.O

191*5

201*.1

il*i*.5

17U.5

11*1.2

117.0

70.8

85.5

191*6

177.5

136.0

i5i*.o

130.5

115.3

76.6

86.8

19l*7

196.3

138.2

160.3

11*2.0

122.5

70.1*

8I.7

191*8

191.3

133.2

151.9

11*3*6

125.9

69.6

79.1*

191*9

157.9

111*.3

123.7

138.1

127.8

72.1*

78.3

1950

176.5

111*. 8

130.3

153.7

135.5

65.0

73.8

£/
A ton-*lie represents the transportation of one ton of freight for the distanee of one mile.
Revenue ton-miles o f freight represents the total of the produets derived b y m u l t i p l y i n g the weight
o f individual shipments and the distance the respective shipments are oarried:
/l .e« ^ (tons x m i l e s ) J




31

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939 “ 100

Year

F r e ig h ttr a in
e a r-w ile s

Road
fre ig h t
employees

h i

2.

Man-hours

.

F re ig h t-tr a in
Car-m iles per —
Employee
Man-hour

PUBLIC UTILTIES Cent'd.

Line-Haul Operating Railreads Industry
* Road Freig h t Employees
(2 )

Unit Labor Requirements
Man-hours
Employees
per
per
f r e ig h t f r e ig h t tr a in
tr a in
car-m ile
ear-m ile

Cent'd.

Cont'd,

Based on f r e ig h t-tr a in e a r•*l i e s

2/

1935

88.8

100.0

97.1

88.8

91.5

112.6

109.3

1936

101.6

109.9

113.5

92.t

89.5

108.2

111.7

1937

106.6

111*. 5

115.7

93.1

92.1

107. t

108.5

1938

90.7

96.6

93.2

93.9

97.3

106.5

102.8

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19t0

109.1

105.1

108.2

103.8

100.8

96.3

99.2

i9ti

129.8

119.3

131. t

108.8

98.8

91.9

101.2

19t2

156.6

139.1*

166.3

112.3

9t.2

89.0

106.2

19t3

165.6

11*8.3

181.6

111.7

91.2

89.6

109.7

19 kh

168.0

11*8.0

183.6

113.5

91.5

88.1

109.3

19t5

151*.t

l»* 5
ll.

17t*5

106.9

88.5

93.6

113.0

19t6

138.6

136.0

l5t.o

101.9

90.0

98.1

111.1

19t7

11*7.7

138.2

160.3

106.9

92.1.

93.6

108.5

19t8

1** 2
11.

133.2

151.9

IO8.3

9t.9

92.t

105.3

191*9

128.3

lit. 3

123.7

112.2

IO3.8

89.1

96.t

1950

136.3

lit. 8

130.3

118.7

10t* 6

6t.2

95.6

2/
* f r e ig h t -tr a in ear-m ile rep resen ts th e movement o f one f r e ig h t e a r one Mile* F re ig h t*
tr a in o ar-m iIts rep resen ts the t o t a l o f th e d lstan ees tra v e le d by the individual fre ig h t e a r s ,
loaded and empty*



32
IND E X E S OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, M A N - H O U R S
PRODUCTIVITY, A N D U N I T L A B O R REQU I R E M E N T S IN S E L E C T E D IND U S T R I E S Cont»d.

1939 “ 100

Tear

Revenue
passenger
m iles

Road

Man-hours

passenger
employees

in .
2.

PUBLIC UTILITIES Cont'd.

Line-Haul Operating Railroads Industry
o*
(1)

Unit Labor Requirements
Employees
Man-hours
p sr revenue
p er revenue
passenger
passenger
mile
a lls

Revenue
Passenger M iles per —
Employee
Maa-hcur

Cont'd.

R o a d Passenger Employees

Based on revenue passenger m iles

8/

1935

81.6

100.2

101.3

81.1*

80.6

122.8

12l*.l

1936

98.9

101*.o

107.2

95.1

92.3

105.2

108.1*

1937

108.8

107.5

109.7

101.2

99.2

98.8

100.8

1938

95*5

101.3

102.1

9l*.3

93.5

106.1

106.9

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19i*0

10li. 9

100.1

99.7

lOli.8

105.2

95.1*

95.0

19U.

129.6

101.7

103-5

127.1*

125.2

78.5

79.9

19 h2

236.9

108.0

119.7

219.1*

197.9

1*5.6

50.5

191*3

387.7

117.1*

138.5

330.2

279.9

30.3

35.7

19hh

1*21.8

121.7

.11*8.6

31*6.6

263.8

28.9

35.2

19U5

10* 9
*1.

123.6

152.1

327.6

266.2

30.5

37.6

191*6

285.6

121.3

137.2

235.1*

208.2

1*2,5

1*8.0

19U7

202.7

llii.0

123.7

177.8

163.9

56.2

61.0

191*8

181.8

111.1*

121.7

163.2

ll*9.1
*

61.3

66.9

1 9k9

151*. 9

I0i*.5

113.9

11*8.2

136.0

67.5

73.5

1950

11*0.2

99.1

108.8

11*1.5

128.9

70.7

77.6

8/

A passenger m i l # represents the transportation of one passenger for one mile*

m iles represents the total of the distances respective passengers were carried*




Revenue passenger-

33

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939

Yaar

Passings r tra in
ear-m ile*

Road
paasangar
amployaaa

h

2.

Man-hours

i

.

-

100

P assan g ar-train
C a r -a ils 8 par —
Employs#
Man-hour

PUBLIC UTILITIES Cent'd.

Line-Haul Operating Railroads Industry
9

(2)

.

U nit Labor Raqulramants
Employees
Urn-hours
par
par
p a ssa n g trpassan g a rtr a in
tr a in
oar-m ila
oar-m ila

Road Paasangar Employaas

Cont'd.

Cont’ de

Basad on p assan g ar-train o ar-m ilas % /

1935

91.1

100.2

101.3

90.9

89.9

110.0

111.2

1936

98.1

101*.0

107.2

9l*-3

91.5

106.0

109.3

1937

103-5

107*5

109.7

96.3

9i*.3

103.9

106.0

1938

98.2

101.3

102.1

96.9

96.2

103.2

10l*.0

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19i<Q

101.2

100.1

99.7

101.1

101.5

98.9

98.5

19U1

108.3

101.7

103.5

106.5

10i*.6

93.9

95.6

191*2

126.0

108.0

119.7

116.7

105.3

85.7

95.0

191*3

11*8.0

117.1*

138.5

126.1

106.9

79.3

93.6

19U1*

156.6

121.7

11*8.6

128.7

105.1*

77.7

9k 9

191*5

159.6

123.6

152.1

129.1

10l*.9

77.1*

95.3

19lt6

il*5.o

121.3

137.2

119.5

105.7

83.7

9i*.6

19U7

128.2

lll*.0

123.7

112.5

103.6

88.9

96.5

191*8

127.1

111.1*

121.7

lli*.l

iol*.l*

87.6

95.8

191*9

119.9

101*.$

113.9

111*. 7

105.3

87.2

95.0

19^0

115.8

99.1

108.8

116.9

106.1*

85.6

9l*.0

.

j / A pe«ssng*r-tr*in ear-aila represents th* voveeent of on* pas#«ng*r oar on* all*. Passengerj
traln ear-all*a repreaent* the total of the dletenees traveled by the Individual passenger ears.




3k
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd

1939

Tu

p

Production
(Sorvleo
rondorod
In i i i m c i
u n it*)

Total
•■plojtos

III.
3-

-

100

S*rvio* Rondorod p*r —
Inployot
M*n-hour
lion-hours

Unit Labor Roquirononto
Employs* s
iton-hours
por w ilt of
par unit of
u n riu
u rv ie t
rondorod
rondorod

PUBLIC UTILITIES Cont'd.
Telegraph Industry

19 35

92.2

10 6 .7

na

86.1*

na

115 .7

na

1936

100.6

111*. 7

na

8 7 .7

na

n l*.o

na

1937

106.9

111*. 9

na

93.0

na

10 7 .5

na

1938

98.9

10 2 .5

na

96.5

na

10 3.6

na

1939

100.0

100.0

na

100.0

na

100.0

na

19^0

98.3

10 6 .3

na

9 2.5

na

10 8 .1

na

191*1

106.1*

ill*. 5

na

92.9

na

10 7.6

na

191*2

11 2 .5

110 .9

na

101.1*

na

98.6

na

19l*3

11 9 .1

110 . 1*

na

10 7.9

na

92.7

na

191*1*

119 .9

10 7 .7

na

1 1 1.3

na

89.8

na

19l*5

12 5 .7

108.0

na

116.1*

na

85.9

na

191*6

1 1 6 .2

106.0

na

109.6

na

9 1.2

na

19U7

1 1 9 .1

98.1*

na

1 2 1 .0

na

82.6

na

191*8

107.1*

9 1.8

na

1 1 7 .0

na

85-5

na

191*9

99.3

81.1*

na

12 2 .0

na

82.0

na

1950

98.8

7 3 .3

na

131*. 8

na

7l*. 2

na

na - Not a v a ila b le




35
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd
1939 - 100

Year

Production
(Service
rendered
in sassage
u n ite)

Total
employees

in.
i.
*

S ervice Rendered per —
Esployee
Man-hour
Man-hours

Unit Labor Requl resent*
Esployees
Man-hours
per u n it o f
per u n it o f
s e rrie e
s e rrie e
rendered
rendered

PUBLIC UTILITIES Cont'd.
Telephone Industry

19 35

82.6

93.0

93.7

88.8

88.2

1 1 2 .6

113.1*

1936

89.8

96.5

98.5

9 3 .1

9 1.2

10 7 .5

109-7

1937

9l*.0

10 3 .6

10 $. 8

90.7

86.8

11 0 .2

1 1 2 .6

1936

95-0

10 0 .7

10 2.9

91*. 3

92.3

106.0

10 8 .3

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

191*0

10 7-3

10 3 .3

10l*>2

10 3.9

10 3.0

96.3

9 7 .1

191*1

118.1*

1 1 5 .9

119 .0

10 2 .2

99-5

97.9

10 0 .$

1 9l*2

126 . h

121*. 3

12 8 .7

1 0 1 .7

98.2

98.3

10 1.8

191*3

1 3 3 .7

12 7 .6

1 3 6 .$

10i*.8

97.9

95.1*

10 2 .1

19l*U

136 .0

1 2 8 .1

13 8 .$

10 7 .7

99.6

92.8

100.1*

191*5

ll*8.6

1 3 1*-5

1$0.1*

1 1 0 .$

98.8

90.$

10 1 .2

191*6

17U.2

17 2 .6

18 3 .7

100.9

91*. 8

9 9 .1

10 $. 5

191*7

18 7 .7

19 2.0

19 9 .7

97.8

9U. 0

10 2 .3

106.1*

191*8

200.3

202.6

211*. 6

98.9

93-3

10 1.1

10 7 .1

191*9

20$. 6

199. h

207.1*

1 0 3 .1

9 9 .1

97.0

100.9

1950

2 13 .8

191*. 7

201*. 6

109.8

101*.$

9 1 .1

9 $.7




36
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LAEOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont«d.

1939
Yoar

100

fioploynont

Pro duot ion

IV.

i.

-

Output p#r
vorkor

tfelit
Labor Roqulroaonts
Workort por unit

AGRICULTURE

United States as a Whole

1909

7 5 .5

113 .7

66. k

150 .6

1910

79.3

113 .1

7 0 .1

lk 2.6

19 11

8 2 .1

1 1 2 .1

7 3.2

13 6 .5

19 12

86.8

11 2 .1

7 7 .k

1 2 9 .1

19 13

8 1.2

1 1 2 .0

7 2 .5

13 7 .9

191k

88.7

111.7

7 9 .k

12 5 .9

19 15

85.9

11 1 .6

77.0

12 9 .9

19 16

8 2 .1

111.9

7 3 .k

13 6 .3

19 17

85.9

10 9.8

78.2

12 7 .8

1918

85-9

10 5 .7

8 1.3

1 2 3 .1

1919

8k. 0

10 3. k

8 1 .2

1 2 3 .1

1920

9 1.5

10 5.8

86.5

1 1 5 .6

19 2 1

78 .3

10 6 .3

7 3 .7

1 3 5 .8

1922

8k. 9

10 6 .5

79.7

12 5 .k

1923

86.8

106.0

8 1.9

12 2 .1

192k

88.7

10 5.8

83.8

1 1 9 .3

1925

9k.k

106.6

88.6

1 1 2 .9

1926

9 8 .1

10 7. k

91*3

10 9 .5

1927

9 2.5

10k. 7

88.3

113 .2

1928

97.2

10 5.9

9 1.8

109.0

1929

96.3

1 0 5 .1

9 1.6

10 9 .1




37
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,

PRODUCTIVITY, AN UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
D
1939 - 100
Year

Production

IV.
1.

finplo^ment

Output par
worker

Unit
Labor Roquireatnt*
Worker3 par u n li

AGRICULTURE Cont •d.

United States as a Whole

Cont'd.

1930

93-1*

10l*.0

89.8

n i .3

19 3 1

10 2.9

10 3.9

99.0

10 1.0

1932

96.3

1 0 3 .1

93.1*

1 0 7 .1

1933

9 1.5

10 2.6

69.2

n 2 .i

193U

77.1*

10 1.0

76.6

13 0 .5

1935

90.6

10 3 .6

87-5

ni*.3

1936

81*.0

10 2.9

8 1.6

1 2 2 .5

1937

106.8

10 1. U

10 5 .3

9l*.9

1936

98.3

10 0 .5

97-8

10 2 .2

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19U0

1 0 2 .1

99.6

10 2 .5

97.6

19l*l

10 3-7

97.U

10 6 .5

93.9

19i*2

115 .1

9 7.7

1 1 7 .8

61*. 9

191*3

11 1 .6

96.6

n5.5

86.6

191*1*

1 1 5 .6

91*. 3

12 2 .6

8 1.6

191*5

no.?

92.2

1 2 0 .1

8 3 .3

191*6

113 .7

91*. 6

12 0 .2

8 3 .2

191*7

1 1 0 .3

9 5.2

1 1 5 .9

86 .3

191*8

12 2 .9

91*. 5

1 3 0 .1

76.9

191*9

12 2 .9

9 1.8

13 3 .9

71*. 7

1950

115 .7

88.3

1 3 1 .0

76.3

9 7 4 7 2 6 0 — 51---- 6




38
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.

1939

-

100

Output per

Year

Production

Unit

worker

Labor Requirements

Employment

IV.

AGRICULTURE Cont*d.

2.

W
orkers per unit

Agriculture by Areas

ft* Com Art* 10/
1935

83.6

10 3.2

85.9

116 .5

1936

77.0

10 1.6

75.8

13 1.9

1937

97.6

10 1.0

96.6

10 3.5

1938

95.8

10 1.6

91*. 3

10 6 .1

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19ii0

98.6

102.0

96.7

103.1*

19HL

10 5 .1

99.9

105.2

9 5 .1

19U2

1 1 3 .7

100.6

113 .0

88.5

191*3

1 1 2 .2

98.8

1 1 3 .6

88.1

19l*l*

109.7

9 7.1

1 1 3 .0

88.5

191*5

111.6

96.7

H 5.it

86.6

I9I46

116 .9

98.1*

118 .8

81*. 2

19U7

100.5

99.1

101.I*

98.6

19l*8

12 0 .1

98.7

1 2 1 .7

82.2

191*9

117.1*

9U.8

123.8

8O.7

1950

113.1*

91.9

123.1*

81.0

10/




Com araa Includes tha following State a :

I llln o la , Indiana, Iowa, and Ohio

39

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd
1939 - 100

Yaar

Production

IV*
2.

Output p*r
worker

Eaployaent

AGRICULTURE Cont'd.

Agriculture by Areas

b
.

V olt
U b o r Requlrcaonto
Yorkers per u n it

lu tm

D airy Area

Cont'd.
11/

19 35

97.0

97.0

100.0

100.0

1936

92.7

96.5

9 6 .1

10l*.l

1937

100.6

96.6

10U .1

96.0

1938

99.U

98. h

10 1.0

99.0

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

I9IO
4

1 0 1 .7

99.5

10 2 .2

97.8

19 1a

1 0 3 .1

9 7.3

106.0

9h.h

19ii2

109.9

98.6

111.5

89.7

19U3

10 3 .6

97.9

10 5.8

9U.5

19l*i*

10 8 .7

95.6

113 .7

87.9

19bS

108.0

95.li

113 .2

88.3

19U6

1 1 2 .9

96.2

117.U

85.2

19 hi

110 .0

96.2

lll i .3

8 7.5

19U6

113. u

9U.8

1 1 9 .6

83.6

19h9

116 .9

9li.l

121*. 2

80.5

1950

1 2 1 .1

92.7

130 .6

76.5

11/
Eaatam D airy Area lncluda* tho fo llo w in g Statest
lfav Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania., and Vernont*




Conneotlout, M assachusetts,

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd

1939

Tm r

Pro duot ion

“

100

Output per
worker

B eplojaeat

Unit
Labor Requirements

__________________________________ ___ _____________ _____________ 'W r i per w YT
orS
IV.
2#

AGRICULTURE Cont‘d.

Agriculture by Areas
0

*

Western D airy Area

ConVd#
12/

1935

90.7

io$. 5

86.0

1 1 6 .3

1936

79.9

10 $ . 6

7 5 .7

13 2 .2

1937

9 3 .1

10 2.6

90.7

110 .2

1938

95.8

102.2

93-7

10 6 .7

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19l*0

10l*.l

100.8

10 3 .3

96.8

19 U

10l*.7

99.1*

10 5 .3

91*. 9

1 9 k2

llli.6

9 9 .2

ll$ .5

86.6

19l*3

111.$

98.3

113.1*

88.2

19l*l*

1 1 2 .$

96.8

1 1 6 .2

86.0

19U$

116 .6

9U.2

12 3 .8

60.8

19U6

1 1 6 .7

96.8

12 0 .6

82.9

191*7

1 1 0 .3

96. 1
*

lll*.l*

87.1*

191*8

1 1 $ .6

9$.9

12 0 .$

83.0

191*9

119 .9

93.6

12 8 .1

7 8 .1

1950

1 1 7 .0

90.6

1 2 9 .1

77.1*

12/
Western D airy Area in eludes the fo llo w in g States i
Wisconsin*




Michigan, Minnesota, and

i* i

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939

Tear

Production
IV.
2.

-

100

O
utput per
eortoer

Eaplojaent

Obit
Libor Requlresents
Yorkers per unit

AGRICULTURE Cont'd.

Agriculture by Areas

Cont'd.

d. Eastern Cotton Area i y
1935

105.1*

10 6.7

98.8

10 1 .2

1936

10l*.8

1 0 5 .1

99.7

10 0 .3

1937

129.0

102.1*

126 .0

79.1*

1938

10 7 .2

99.2

10 8 .1

9 2.5

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19U0

105*9

97.9

10 8.2

92.1*

19 ia

90.9

9U.6

9 6 .1

lOlt.l

19U2

10 3 .7

96.7

10 7 .2

9 3.2

19it3

108.6

95.2

llii.l

8 7 .7

19l*l*

111.2

92.3

12 0 .5

83.O

19U5

108.1*

89.8

12 0 .7

82.8

191*6

10 3.8

90.6

111*. 6

8 7 .3

19U7

10 7 .7

9 2 .1

116 ,9

8 5-5

191*8

1 1 8 .3

9 1.2

12 9 .7

7 7 .1

19l*9

10 7.6

88.9

1 2 1 .0

82.6

1950

1 0 1 .5

8 3.2

12 2 .0

82.0

1 3 / Kartern Cotton Aron Include, tho following Statist
South Carolina,




Alikina, Ooorgla, and

12
*

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYM
ENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd.
1939 - 100

Tear

Prodilation
IV*
2.

O
utput par
worker

fieplojnant

(felt
Labor Requlr«aent»
'W
orker* par unit

AGRICULTURE Cont'd.

Agriculture by Areas

Cont'd.

*• Dolt* Cotton Area w
19 35

79.6

10l*.2

76.1*

130 .9

1936

98.6

10 3.6

95.2

10 $ .l

1937

130 .0

101*. 7

121*. 2

80.$

1938

10 3 .3

1 0 1 .$

10 1.8

98.3

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1 9 bO

92.3

10 0 .$

9 1.8

108.9

19 la

95.8

9 8 .1

97.7

102.1*

h2

109. 1*

9 5 .1

11$. 0

86.9

19U3

99.5

9l*.3

1 0 $ .$

9l*.8

19U1a

10 3.2

90.2

lll*.l*

87.1*

1 9i*$

9 2.5

86.3

10 7.2

93-3

19i*6

8 2.5

89.8

9 1.9

108.8

19U7

90.0

87.1*

10 3.0

9 7 .1

19U8

1 2 2 .2

8 7 .2

11*0.1

71.1*

19l*9

10 1.0

8$.9

1 1 7 .6

8$.0

1950

93.9

83.9

111.9

89.1*

19

14/ Salta Cotton Ar*a lnoludaa tho following State*:
Mississippi.




Arkansas,Louisiana, and

U3

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd1939

Production

Year

100

Output per
worker

Employment

IV*
2.

-

AGRICULTURE Cont'd.

Agriculture by Areas
f.

Unit
Labor Requirement!
Workers per un it

Western Cotton Are*

Cont'd.
15/

1935

98.0

101.2

96.8

10 3 .3

1936

87.1*

101 . 1
*

86.2

116 .0

1937

12 6 .2

99.9

12 6 .3

79.2

1938

1 0 5 .1

98.9

IO6.3

9l*.l

1939

100.0

1 0 0 .0

100.0

100.0

19l*0

115 .1

95.8

1 2 0 .1

8 3.2

191*1

10 7.0

93-9

lll*.0

87.8

191*2

116.1*

9 5.2

1 2 2 .3

8 1.8

19U3

10 7.8

9 2.5

1 1 6 .5

85.8

191*1*

111*. 3

89.2

1 2 8 .1

78.0

191*5

93.8

8 7 .1

10 7 .7

92.9

191*6

9 1.7

89.6

10 2 .3

97.7

191*7

110 .0

90.7

1 2 1 .3

8 2.5

19l*8

10 3 .5

90.5

lll*.l*

87.1*

191*9

11*2.0

86.2

161*. 7

60.7

1950

10 6 .2

8 1 .3

130 .6

76.6

15/

Western Cotton Area lnoludos the fo llo w in g S tate s s Oklahoma and Tons,




i*i*

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd,
1939

Tiar

"

100

O
utput pur
uorkur

Pruduetlun

IV.
2.

felt
Labor SaquiraMati
feorkuru pur unit

AGRICULTURE Cont'd.

Agriculture by Areas
*• Shall Grain iroa

Cont•d.

16/

19 3$

10 3 .2

10 $. 7

97.6

102.1*

1936

7 3 .3

10 3.8

70.6

11*1.6

1937

8 9 .1

98.9

9 0 .1

m .o

1938

10li.O

99.0

10 $ .l

95.2

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19iiO

1 1 3 .0

1 0 1 .2

111.7

89.6

1910.

133*1*

1 0 2 .1

1 3 0 .7

76 .5

19ii2

15 9 -3

10 2 .$

155.1*

61*. 3

19U3

15 3 -3

10 1.6

150 .9

66.3

19UJ*

l 6 l .£

10 0 .1

1 6 1 .3

62.0

19U5

1 5 3 .2

98.3

15 5 .8

61*. 2

19i*6

ll*6 .1

10 1.9

ll*3»l*

69.7

19l*7

13 6 .5

10l*.2

13 2 .9

7 5.2

19l*8

153-0

10 2.0

150 .0

66.7

19U9

13 3 .0

96.3

13 8 .1

72.1*

1950

11*9.8

9 3.3

160.6

6 2 .3

16/
Sm I I Grain Araa inoludas tha fo llo w in g S tato ai
North Dakota, and South Dakota.




Kansas, Montana, Nabraaka,

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd
1939

Tour

100

Output pop
worker

Employment

Production

IV*
2.

-

AGRICULTURE Cont'd.

Agriculture by Areas
h
«

Obit
Labor Requirements
Workers per u n it

Middle Eastern A m

Cont• d.
22 /

19 35

89.2

10 7.0

83.U

120 .0

1936

8 2 .7

10 5 .5

78.U

1 2 1 .6

1937

10 2.8

10 3 .6

99.2

100.8

1938

9 2 .1

10 2.9

89.5

111.7

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19iiO

98.0

10 0.3

9 7.7

10 2 .3

19 ia

9 5.5

9 5 .7

99.8

100.2

19li2

105.il

95.3

1 10 .6

90.1;

19U3

99.6

95.0

10U.8

95.it

1 9 Uk

1 1 1.2

9 3.2

1 1 9 .3

83.8

19U5

10 8.9

90.5

12 0 .3

8 3 .1

19U6

119 .0

93.7

12 7 .0

78 .7

19U7

11U .9

9I1.1

12 2 .1

8 1.9

19U8

12 0 .7

9 3.3

129 . u

7 7 .3

1 9 k9

118 .1

9 1.2

12 9 .5

7 7 .2

1950

11U .6

8 7 .2

13 1.lt

7 6 .1

17/ Middle Eastern I r e * lneludee the follo w in g S tateet
C aro lin a , Tennessee, V irg in ia , and Vest V ir g in ia ,




Kentucky, Maryland, North

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd
1939

Year

2.

100

Output per
worker

Efcplopnent

Production

IV.

-

Unit
Labor Requireaent#
Workers per u n i?

AGRICULTURE Cont ‘ d.

Agriculture by Areas
i*

Rtngo Aron

Cont1d.

18 /

19 35

9 1 .1

10 6.7

85.1*

1 1 7 .1

1936

9 6 .1

10 9.2

88.0

1 1 3 .6

1937

1 0 5 .1

106.0

99.2

100.9

1938

1 0 5 .1

101.1*

IO3.6

96.5

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19ii0

10 7.8

9 5.7

1 1 2 .6

88.8

191*1

1 19 .9

99.6

120.1*

8 3 .1

1 9 h2

12 2 .8

99.3

1 2 3 .7

80.9

19U3

12 2 .1

98.9

1 2 3 .5

8 1.0

19U1*

1 2 1 .3

96.1*

12 5 .8

79.5

19U5

12 0 .5

95.0

126 .8

78.8

19 16

1 1 9 .2

95.0

1 2 5 .5

79.7

191*7

12 8 .5

9 7.5

1 3 1 .8

75.9

191*8

130.1*

9 7.5

1 3 3 .7

71*. 8

191*9

11*2.6

9 7 .1

11*6.9

6 8 .1

1950

129.1*

93.9

13 7 .8

72.6

18/ Rang* Ama lneludas the follow in g S ta ta s :
Otah, and Wyoalng.




Arizona, Colorado, Nawada, Haw Uazleo,

1*7

INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd
1939

Year

10 0

Output per
worker

Enplojment

Production

fa it
Labor Requirements
Yorkers per u n it

A G R I C U L T U R E Cont'd.

IV*

2.

“

Agriculture by Areas
J*

Cont'd.

Horthwosteni Area W

1935

95.0

9l*. 8

100.2

99.8

1936

95.0

96.1*

98.5

1 0 1 .5

19 37

98.8

93.8

10 5 .3

9i*.9

1938

100.9

95.8

10 5 .3

9i*.9

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19l*0

10 3 .5

98.1*

10 5.2

9 5 .1

191*1

109.8

97.6

1 1 2 .3

8 9 .1

191*2

1 1 2 .0

9 9 .1

1 1 3 .0

88.5

19U3

1 1 2 .0

9 8 .1

111*. 2

87.6

1914*

115 .3

98.1*

117 .2

8 5 .3

191*5

113 .7

96.9

117 0

85.2

191*6

116 .6

98.7

1 18.1

81*.6

191*7

1 1 2 .6

10 0 .3

1 1 2 .5

88.9

191*8

1 1 2 .8

98.1*

111*.6

8 7.2

191*9

1 1 2 .9

9 3 .1

12 1.3

8 2 .5

1950

111*. 7

90.3

12 7 .0

78.7

19/
Northwestern Area Includes the fo llo w in g S ta te st
Washington.




Idaho, Oregon, and

18
+
INDEXES OF PRODUCTION, EMPLOYMENT, MAN-HOURS,
PRODUCTIVITY, AND UNIT LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES Cont'd,
1939 « 100

Yoar

Produotloa

frplojnant

Output per
a orkar

Chit
Labor Requirements
W o rkers per unii

IV.

2.

AGRICULTURE Cont •d.

Agriculture by Areas
k*

Cont'd.

California

1935

85.9

91+.9

90.$

1 1 0 .$

1936

88.0

95.2

92.1+

10 8.2

1937

103*7

99.7

10 1.0

9 6 .1

1938

97.2

99.1+

97.8

10 2 .3

1939

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19 U
O

10 1.9

97.0

10 $. 1

95.2

19kl

10 2.6

10 0 .3

10 2 .3

97.8

191+2

10 3.9

10 3 .7

100.2

99.8

191+3

10 8.2

10 $.0

10 3.0

97.0

191+1+

1 1 3 .8

10$ .1*

106.0

92.6

19U5

11$. 6

10 $. 1+

10 9 .7

9 1.2

191*6

1 2 5 .3

10 5 .7

118 .$

81*. 1+

191+7

12 6 .$

109.0

11 6 .1

86.2

191+8

1 2 6 .1

110 .0

111+.6

8 7.2

191+9

13 5 .1

109.1+

1 2 3 .5

8 1.0

1950

1 3 2 .7

101+.7

12 6 .7

78.9




*9
T E C H N I C A L

N O T E S

GENERAL

The material in this publication is a summary of
the statistics in the individual reports issued regularly
by the Bureau's Branch of General Productivity Measurements
of the Division of Productivity and Technological Develop­
ments. For more detailed statistics and information on the
methods of computing these Indexes, as veil as for analyses
of the factors causing the changes in productivity, see the
individual industry reports.
In general the following procedures were used in
compiling these series: The production indexes were computed
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from data furnished by
other government and private agencies mentioned below. The
production worker employment indexes are based on series
compiled by the Division of Manpower and Employment Statistics
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. These production worker
indexes are derived from a sample showing the percent change
for identical establishments in overlapping two-month periods.
They generally cover only production and related workers and
exclude salaried officers, superintendents, other supervisory
employees, and professional and technical employees. The
man-hour indexes were computed from the employment Indexes
and the corresponding BIS series on average weekly hours.
The production and employment Indexes for the manufacturing
industries have for the most part been adjusted to the levels
indicated by the 1939 and 19^7 Census of Manufactures. Any
deviations from the above procedures are noted in the
technical note for the respective industry.
The indexes of man-hours per unit and production
workers per unit were obtained by dividing the indexes of
man-hours and employment, respectively, by the appropriate
production measure. Unless a statement to the contrary is
Biade below, the data used to compute the Indexes of man-hours
and unit man-hour requirements include man-hours paid for but
not worked — vacations, call-ins, etc. It is not possible
to eliminate from these indexes the effect of changes in the
proportion such man-hours bear to total man-hours, but it is
probable that the necessary adjustment would be small.
It is inappropriate to combine the Indexes for the
various manufacturing industries to obtain a series for
"all manufacturing," since data for a number of basic industries
are not now available.




MANUFACTURING

5 *

Beet Sugar Industry (S.I.C. Industry No.

2063)

The indexes for the beet sugar industry are on a
fiscal-year basis (March through February) in order to in­
clude a complete production cycle for each 12-month period.
Production
The sugar production index is compiled from data
for the aggregate output of beet sugar, raw value, obtained
from the monthly "Sugar Statistics" releases compiled by the
Production and Marketing Administration of the United States
Department of Agriculture from reports received from sugar beet
processors. Molasses and beet pulp are excluded from the index.
Their omission from the index is probably of little significance
since the production of beet sugar and of sugar byproducts is
essentially a joint operation and the additional labor needed
to process the byproducts is relatively small. The beets sliced
index is based on a special series representing total tonnage
sliced in each fiscal year. The series is derived from Produc­
tion and Marketing Administration crop year data which have been
adjusted to coincide with the sugar production series by trans­
ferring the crop from the Imperial Valley of California from the
year in which it is planted to the year in which it is harvested

Canning and Preserving Industries Group (S.I.C. Industry Nos.

2031T 2032, 2033 (including canned poultry products from
S .I .C . 2015), 203^, 2035, and 2037)

Production
For the production index the products of the various
canning and preserving industries have been combined into two
major components: (a) canned, preserved, and frozen fr u its
and vegetables and (b) canned and cured fis h . The production
index is an arithmetic mean, with 1939 man-hour weights, of
the production indexes fo r the two components.
The index fo r canned, preserved, and frozen fr u its
and vegetables fo r 1939-50 is a weighted arithmetic mean of
indexes fo r: ( l) canned and dried fr u its euid vegetables;
(2) preserves, jams, je l l i e s , and fr u it bu tters; (3) salad
dressing; and (^) quick frozen fr u it s and vegetables. Weights
used to combine the four series are 1939 employment as report­
ed in the 1939 Census.




51

The production index fo r canned and dried fr u its
and vegetables fo r 1939-^5 i s based on the output of 36
canned fr u its and vegetables, soups, and 6 dried f r u i t s ; fo r
19^5-^9 on 33 canned fr u its and vegetables and 6 dried fr u it s .
The 1950 figure is based on preliminary data fo r 32 canned
fr u its and vegetables and 6 dried fr u it s . The output of
fr u its and vegetables is measured in cases; production of
dried fr u its is measured in pounds. These quantities are
weighted by estimates of 1939 unit values added by manufac­
ture derived from the 1939 Census of Manufactures. Annual
data were obtained from the United States Department of
Agriculture, United States Department of Commerce, and the
National Canners Association.
The production index fo r preserves, jams, and
j e l l i e s is based on unweighted production data, measured in
millions of cases, as reported in Western Canner and Packer
magazine. The production index fo r salad dressing is an
unweighted measure based on s t a t is t ic s on the number of
gallons produced. The s t a t is t ic s were obtained from the
United States Department of Commerce fo r the years 1939-^9
and from Western Canner and Packer fo r 1950.
The index fo r quick frozen foods is based on the
commercial pack of 23 products combined with I9I& unit-valueadded weights. Production data (expressed in pounds) are
from Western Canner and Packer and from figures published
by the National Association of Frozen Food Packers.
For canned and cured fish the production index fo r
the period 1939-^9 was derived from production s t a t is t ic s of
the Fish and W ildlife Service of the United States Department
of In terio r, fo r 8 canned seafood products (measured in
standard cases) weighted with l$kM- unit labor costs. For
1950, 7 products were used.
Cement Industry (S .I .C . Industry No. 32^-1)
Production
The production index for 1939-^9 Is based on four
series, three representing successive stages in the production
and shipment of Portland cement — production of Portland
cement clinker, production of finished Portland cement, and
shipment of Portland cement — and a fourth series for the
output of finished masonry, natural and puzzolan cement. The
1950 production figure was estimated from data for Portland




cement only. The three Portland cement series were
by the estimated proportion of to ta l labor consumed
operation associated with each series — production
clinker, including quarrying; clinker grinding; and
and loading cement.

weighted
in the
of
bagging

Man-hours
The index of man-hours fo r 1939-^9 is based on a
series of Employment and In ju ries in Mineral Industries
published in the Minerals Yearbook. The Bureau of Mines
preliminary estimate was used fo r 1950.
Adjustment to the I9V7 Census
S t a t is t ic s on production have not been adjusted to
the leve ls shown in the 1939 and 19^7 Census of Manufactures
because the Bureau of the Census did not co lle ct commodity
s t a t is t ic s on cement in 1939« No adjustment was made in the
labor data because the Census and Bureau of Mines series are
not comparable. The Hydraulic Cement Industry, as defined
in the Census, excludes quarries connected with cement m ills,
whereas the Bureau of Mines data, on which the BLS series is
based, includes labor employed in quarries connected with
cement plants.
Clay Construction Products Industries Group ( S .I .C . Industry
NoS. 3251 and 325^)
Production
The production index fo r the group is a harmonic mean
of separate production indexes fo r the Brick and Hollow
Structural T ile Industry and the Clay Sewer Pipe and Kindred
Products Industry, weighted with current year man-hours. The
index fo r the brick and hollow t i l e segment fo r 1939-^6 is
based on quantity s t a t is t ic s fo r 6 product classe s, weighted
with 1939 unit values. The product classes are unglazed b rick ,
glazed brick, glazed hollow facing t i l e , unglazed hollow
facing t i l e and v it r if ie d paving b rick , measured in thousands
of ’units; and unglazed structured t i l e , measured in short tons.
The index fo r 19^7-50 excludes v it r if ie d paving b rick, fo r which
data were not available, and glazed b rick , production of which
was v ir tu a lly discontinued. Except fo r February 19 ^ 1 — Sepi
tember 19^2, the index was constructed from production data
published by the Bureau of the Census in the Census of
Manufactures, 1939; the Annual Census: 19^0, Clay Products
(including Pottery and Porcelain Ware), Nonclay R efractories,




53

and Sand F ire Brick; and the monthly Facta fo r Industry
se ries, Clay Construction Products. For February 19^1 September 19^2, production was estimated from data on
monthly shipments and stocks published in the Current
S t a t is t ic a l Service by the Bureau of the Census fo r a
sample of id en tical plants in overlapping 2-month
in te rv a ls.
The index fo r the sewer pipe component is based
on unweighted production data fo r tonnage of sewer pipe
produced. The sources of data fo r sewer pipe fo r 1939>
19^0, and 19^3 through I9U8 sure the same as those fo r the
brick industry. The index fo r 19 ^ 1 and 19^2 was completed
by means of estimates furnished by the Department of
Commerce and the C iv ilia n Production Administration.
Employment and Man-Hours
The indexes of employment and man-hours fo r the
group fo r years prior to 19^7 are based on to ta ls derived
from unpublished BLS series fo r the brick and the sewer
pipe industries. Adequate employment series fo r the
individual industries fo r the years between 1939 and 19^7
are not availab le. Beginning with 19^7, the em p lo y m e n t
series fo r the group and fo r the two industries are the
regularly published BLS series.

Coke Industries Group ( S .I .C . Industry Nos . 2 9 31 and 2932)
Production
The production index fo r the coke group is a
harmonic mean, with changing man-hour weights, of the
production Indexes fo r the Beehive Coke Ovens Industry
and the Byproduct Coke Ovens Industry.
The production measure fo r beehive coke fo r
1939-^9 was derived from aggregates fo r the quantities
of coke produced and the coke equivalent of recovered
breeze. The production index fo r byproduct coke was
derived from aggregates fo r the quantities of coke
produced and the coke equivalents of recovered coke-oven
gas, ta r, and lig h t o il.
The man-hour weights and the production
s t a t is t ic s are based on data published by the Bureau of
Mines in i t s annual report on Coke-Oven Accidents in the




54




United States and in the Minerals Yearbook. Data fo r
1950 are preliminary estimates of the Bureau of Mines.
No adjustment to the Census of Manufactures
has "been made fo r the product data, because commodity
s t a t is t ic s on coke were not collected by the Bureau of
Census fo r 1939*
Employment and Man-Hours
The employment indexes fo r the years 1939-49
fo r each industry and for the two industries combined
are based on data fo r man sh ifts published by the Bureau
of Mines. Data fo r 1950 are preliminary estimates of the
Bureau of Mines.

Condensed and Evaporated Milk Industry ( S .I .C . Industry
No. 2023) 1/
Production
The production index 1939-50 is based on s t a t i s ­
t ic s compiled by the Bureau of A gricultu ral Economics and
made available in the annual publication Production of
Manufactured Dairy Products. Unweighted Indexes fo r the
aggregate poundage of 2 major groups of products — liquid
products and dry products — were combined with 1939 total,
value weights derived from the Census of Manufactures,
These 2 categories encompass 16 classes of products shown
separately by BAE fo r 1939-42. Dry Ice cream mix, a new
product f i r s t produced in sig n ifican t quantities in 1943 >
was added to the dry-products group beginning with 1943.
The annual production series fo r the condensed
and evaporated milk industry was adjusted to levels in­
dicated by the Census of Manufactures fo r 1939 &ud 19^7•
The levels were based on indexes of quantities "made in
the industry" ( i . e . Census Industry No. 2023 and Census
Industry No. 4023 leas flu id milk distribution) of three

1^/ The industry has been in te rp re te d as including the milk concen­
tr a tin g departments o f establishm ents engaged in the d istrib u tio n of flu id
milk and oreara, as r e l l as establishm ents p rim arily engaged in manufactur­
ing concentrated milk products but not engaged in the d istrib u tio n o f
flu id milk and cream* The BLS in d u stry , th e re f o re , is sim ilar to the I
Census in d ustry ra th e r than the I U Census industry*

97

9
39

55
groups of products — (1) liquid products: canned and
bulk evaporated and condensed milk, (2) dried products
and (3) ice cream ml* and ice milk mix — each weighted
with 1939 total values. (Because a considerable amount
of condensed and evaporated milk is made in establish­
ments classified in other industries, in order to insure
greater comparability between the production, production
worker and man-hour series, only the quantity "made in
the industry" was used.)
For the 19^7 Census adjustment, the quantity
"made in the industry" was estimated as follows: (1)
For each of the three product groups, the percentage of
the value of product "made in the industry" to the
total "wherever made" was computed from published Census
figures. (2) These percentages were applied to the
group totals for quantity "wherever made." The "whereever made" quantity figures are those published in the
19^7 Census of Manufactures with the exception of the
bulk products of the liquid group. For the bulk
products, Bureau of Agricultural Economics quantity
figures were used because the Census quantity data
contain duplication.
For each of the three groups in 1939> produc­
tion in the industry was derived from data published in
the 1939 Census of Manufactures volume with the exception
of figures for the following constituent products which
were estimated from unpublished data furnished by the
Bureau of the Census: sweetened condensed milk case
goods, condensed and evaporated buttermilk, and concen­
trated skim milk for animal feed. Because data were not
available on the quantity of dried and powdered cream
"made in the industry," the "wherever made" figures were
used. Dry ice cream mix data for 1939 are available
only in terms of value. This product was classified in
the Special Dairy Products Industry in 1939> whereas in
19 ^7 , the product was reported in gallons and Included
with liquid ice cream mix. An estimate of the 1939
production of dry ice cream mix (liquid equivalent) was
made by dividing the value of dry ice cream mix by the
1939 unit value per pound of liquid ice cream mix "made
in the industry" and applying a conversion factor of
9.1 pounds per gallon.
Employment
The employment series is that regularly published
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The series was adjusted




56




to levels indicated by the 1939 and 19^7 Census of
Manufactures after adjusting the 19^7 Census employ­
ment figures to make them comparable to those of the
1939 Census industry. The Condensed and Evaporated
Milk Industry as published in the 1939 Census of
Manufactures, included both condenseries which did
not engage in the distribution of fluid milk and the
condensery departments of establishments which
engage in both the fluid milk and milk concentrating
business. For the year 19^7 the Census Bureau
published employment figures for two concentrated
milk industries — Industry 2023, establishments
primarily engaged in manufacturing concentrated milk
products but not engaged in house-to-house distri­
bution of fluid milk and cream; and Industry 1023,
condenseries which engaged in house-to-house distri­
bution in addition to manufacturing. The 19^7
production worker estimate is based on the assump­
tion that value per employee would be the same in
condenseries which did not engage in fluid milk
distribution (Census Industry 2023) and in concen­
trating departments of establishments which engaged
in both the concentrated milk and fluid milk
businesses (part of Census Industry 1023). To
obtain a I9I7 estimate for production workers
comparable to the figure for the 1939 industry, the
19l7 Census figure for value added by manufacture
for establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing
concentrated milk products, but not engaged in fluid
milk distribution, plus the value added figure for
the condensery departments of fluid milk distributors
was divided by value added per employee for Census
Industry 2023.

Confectionery Industry (S.I.C. Industry Ho. 2071)
Production
The annual production indexes are based on
data published in the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce's annual report, Confectionery Sales and
Distribution, on pounds of candy sold by groups of
identical establishments in overlapping 2-year periods.
The annual data were adjusted to exclude package goods,
bar goods, etc., made by establishments classified as
chocolate and cocoa products manufacturers. The sample,

however, does Include solid chocolate bars and similar
Items (generally considered products of the Chocolate
and Cocoa Products Industry) provided they are made by
confectionery manufacturers. The products were grouped
Into 8 product classes, weighted with their respective
average unit sales values (dollar per pound) in 1939,
and combined into an aggregative chain index of the
physical volume of sales. The product classes are:
plain and fancy package goods; solid chocolate and
chocolate covered bulk confectionery; other bulk
confectionery; molded chocolate candy bars; chocolate
covered candy bars; other candy bars; 5 - ®uad 10 -cent
packages; and penny goods. The index for 1950 is based
on unweighted figures for total pounds of candy sold
and is preliminary.
The annual production series was adjusted to
levels indicated by the 1939 and I9U7 Census of Manu­
factures for the above product classes, excluding solid
chocolate bulk and bar goods. The product classes were
weighted by their respective 1939 unit sales values.
These classifications agree with those published in the
19^7 Census of Manufactures. The product breakdown in
the 1939 Census, however, was not comparable and it was
necessary to distribute the total poundage reported to
the Census in 1939 on the basis of the ratios shown in
the annual report, Confectionery Sales and Distribution.

Flour and Other Grain-Ml1 1 Products Industry ( S .I .C .
Industry No. 205TJ
Production
The production index is based on an unweighted
series representing to ta l consumption of wheat ground
fo r regular flo u r and fo r granular flo u r.
Bata are from the Bureau of the Census Facts
fo r Industry series M16A, Flour M illin g Products.
The reported figu res on wheat ground fo r regular flo u r
have been adjusted to represent complete coverage by
the Bureau of the Census in cooperation with the Depart­
ment of A gricu ltu re. Data on wheat ground fo r granular
flo u r cover only the reporting m ills, but since most
granular flo u r has been produced in the larger m ills
which report to the Census regu larly, the data may be




58
accepted aa complete. Granular flour was made In sig­
nificant quantities only during the years 19^3 through
19^5. Although the production measure does not Include
grains other than wheat, the proportion of wheat to all
grains has been extremely stable In the past. Therefore,
it can be assumed that the trend of wheat millings ade­
quately represents the trend for all millings.

Glass Containers Industry (S.I.C. Industry No. 3221)
Production
The production index for containers is based
upon the following 9 classes of products, combined with
1939 unit-value weights: narrow neck, food; wide mouth,
food; pressed food ware (includes packers' tumblers and
domestic fruit jars and jelly glasses); beverage bottles
(nonalcoholic pressure and nonpressure ware); beer
bottles (returnable and nonreturnable); liquors (includes
wines and cordials); medicinal and toiletry containers;
general purpose containers (chemical, household, and
industrial); and milk bottles. The production data for
containers for 1939-^5 are from unpublished records
available at the Department of Commerce. Beginning with
I9U5 , the data are from the Census Bureau Facts for
Industry series, Glass Containers. For the period 19M*1*9, production data for ^ classes of products (narrow
neck, food; wide mouth, food; medicinal and toiletry; and
general purpose) were estimated from the total production
for the major classes "narrow neck, general use" and
"wide mouth, general use" and the distribution of shipments
among the classes of products included in these categories.
Beginning with 1950, the production data for 2 classes of
products (wide mouth, food; and pressed food ware) were
combined.

Employment and Man-Hours
The labor series were derived for 1939 and
from a special tabulation of data available in
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Interpolated for 19^0
by the use of the published series for the glass products
group which includes the tableware component. The labor
data for 19^7-50 Is that regularly published by BLS.

19 ^1-^7




Hosiery Industries Group (S.I.C. Industry Nos. 2251 and
2252)
Production
The production index for total hosiery is a
harmonic mean of production measures for full-fashioned
and seamless hosiery weighted with current year man­
hours in each industry. The production series for each
of the two branches of the hosiery industry were adjust­
ed to levels indicated by the Census of Manufactures,
1939 and 19^7.
The production index for full-fashioned
hosiery is based on the unweighted aggregate output of
women's full-fashioned hose. No account was taken of,
nor was adjustment made for, changes in the materials
used or changes in the construction of full-fashioned
hosiery, such as variations in the weight of y a m s
used or the number of threads per inch.
The index of production for the seamless
industry was derived from production data for four
product groups weighted with estimates of labor cost
per unit in 19^. The four product groups included in
the production measure are: women's seamless (includ­
ing misses' ribbed hose); cotton and woolen bundle
goods; men's socks (including men’s seamless half-hose,
slack socks, crew socks, and athletic socks); anklets,
and children's and infants' socks, and hose (including
men' 8, women's, children's, infants' anklets; women's
slack and crew socks; boys', missee', and children's
seamless hose, slack socks and crew socks; and infants'
seamless hose and anklets). The weights were obtained
from unpublished data of the Office of Price Adminis­
tration on total labor cost (direct and indirect) per
pair in a sample of companies manufacturing cotton
seamless hosiery.
Production data for both full-fashioned and
seamless hosiery were obtained for the years 1939-50
from annual reports compiled and published by the
National Association of Hosiery Manufactures. The
Association statistics are based on reports received
from mills representing approximately 80 percent of
the industry; the data for the remainder are estimated
by the Association.




60




Employment and Man-Hours
The production worker employment Index for
total hosiery Is based on the currently published series
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics adjusted to levels In­
dicated by the Census of Manufactures in 1939 and 19 kj.
Production worker employment for full-fashioned
hosiery and seamless hosiery was estimated from the
Bureau's adjusted employment total for both Industries
and the percentage of employment In each branch as shown
by statistics of the National Association of Hosiery
Manufacturers in Condensed Hosiery Statistics.
The man-hour Indexes were computed from the
employment series and the BLS figures on average weekly
hours. Average weekly hours data are available for
total hosiery in all years, but for Individual industries
these data are not available for the years 19*4-0 and

19* .
41

Ice Cream Industry

2/

Production
The production Index for 1939-50 Is an un­
weighted measure based on total gallons of ice cream
and sherbet produced at wholesale. The index for 1950
is a preliminary estimate. The production data are
compiled by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics and
published annually in Manufactured Dairy Products.
For wholesale and retail ice cream production BAE
publishes data separately, but shows only the total
for sherbet production. Sherbet produced at wholesale
was estimated on the assumption that the proportion so
produced was the same as for ice cream.

2/
The lee oream Industry as defined here eon form 3 with the l y 39
Census o f Manufactures d e fin itio n fo r the ice oream industry which in­
cluded establishments p rim arily engaged in the manufacture o f ice cream,
ic e s , and other frozen d e sserts including the ice oream manufacturing
f a c i l i t i e s o f establishm ents engaged in the d istrib u tio n o f f lu id milk
and cream, (The I939 Census industry did not inolude employees assigned
by these establishm ents to the d istrib u tio n o f f lu id milk*) In contrast
the d e fin itio n used in the I9U7 Census and SIC Industry Number 202*
+
excludes the loe oream made by establishm ents engaged in flu id m ilk and
oream d istrib u tio n and the employees assigned by these establishm ents to
the manufacture o f loe oream.

The annual production series vas adjusted to
levels Indicated, by the 1939 and 19^7 Census of Manu­
factures, for ice cream "made in the industry7” The
quantity "made in the industry" in 19^7 vas estimated
by dividing the total value of ice cream made by
establishments which were primarily ice cream producers,
but were not engaged in fluid milk distribution (i.e.
Industry 202h), and the value of ice cream made by
fluid milk distributors (Census Industry UQ2U) by the
average unit value (per gallon) of ice cream made in all
industries.
Employment
The production worker index regularly published
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics is used as an Indicator
of year-to-year trends in employment. The BLS production
worker Indexes are usually adjusted to the levels of pro­
duction worker employment indicated by the 1939 and 19^7
Census of Manufactures. The production worker figures in
the two Censuses, however, are not entirely comparable
for the Ice Cream Industry due to some differences in the
reporting of distribution workers to the Census. For
ice cream, therefore, it was necessary to use Census
figures for total employees in order to adjust the BIS
production worker index for trend between 1939 and 19 ^7 .
The use of Census total employee figures to adjust the
BLS production worker trend from 1939 to 19^7 has the
effect of assinning that the ratio of production workers
to all other employees did not change between 1939 and

19U7.
The Census Bureau did not publish comparable
figu res fo r to ta l employees in 1939 and 19^7 because of
changes in the Industry d efin itio n caused by the r e c la s s i­
fica tio n of establishments engaged in both the production
o f ice cream and the d istrib u tion of flu id milk and cream.
The "to ta l employee" fig u re s, therefore, had to be
estimated from the Census data as follow s: The 1939
employment le v e l is based on the figu re published in the
1939 Census of Manufactures volume le ss 306 employees.
This adjustment was made to exclude 268 production workers
and an estimated 38 nonproduction workers employed by
establishments that were primarily retail ice cream stores
The I9V 7 "total employee" estimate is based on the assump­
tion that value added per employee would be the same in
both establishments primarily engaged in ice cream







production, but not in flu id milk distribution ( S .I .C .
Industry 202k), and in the ice cream manufacturing
departments of flu id milk d istrib u to rs. The published
Census figure fo r value added by manufacturer fo r
establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing ice
cream but not engaged in milk distribution plus the
value-added figure for the ice cream departments of
flu id milk distributors was divided by value added per
employee fo r Industry 2024 to arrive at the 19^7
estimate of to ta l employees.

Malt Liquors Industry ( S .I .C . Industry No. 2082)
Production
The production index is based on the production (measured in barrels) of two types of fermented
malt liquor packs — case goods, and barrels and kegs - combined with I9V7 unit value weights derived from the
Census of Manufactures. The data are taken from
Annual Reports of the Commissioner of Internal ’Revenue.
The Bureau of Internal Revenue publishes only a to tal
figure fo r production but gives separate figures fo r
"tax paid withdrawals" of malt liquors in bottles and
cans and in barrels and kegs. The production to ta l
is prorated on the assumption that the ra tio of each
class to the to ta l is the same fo r to ta l production as
fo r tax paid withdrawals. For the years 1939~^9> tax
paid withdrawals covered between 93 and 96 percent of
to ta l production.
Employment
The production worker index regularly
published by the Bureau of Labor S t a t is t ic s is used as
an indicator fo r year-to-year trends in employment.
The BLS production worker indexes are usually adjusted
to the levels of production worker employment as
indicated in the 1939 and 19^7 Census of Manufactures.
The production worker figures in the two censuses,
however, are not e n tirely comparable due to differences
in the method of reporting distribution workers to the
Census. For malt liquors, therefore, i t was necessary
to use Census figures fo r to ta l employees to adjust the
BLS production worker index fo r trend between 1939 and

63

and I9V7. The use of Census to ta l employee figures to
adjust the BIS production worker series has the e ffe c t of
assuming that the ra tio of production workers to a l l other
employees did not change between 1939 and I9V7. To the
extent that the proportion of production to nonproduction
workers has increased (fo r example as a resu lt of the
tran sfer of some of the distribution functions from the
breweries to d istrib u to rs), the trend of output per
employee is overstated.

Paper and Pulp Industry ( S .I .C . Industry Nos.
and 2613)

2 6 11, 2612,

Production
The production index is an arithmetic mean of the
indexes fo r 2 components — (a) pulp and (b) paper and
paperboard — weighted with 1939 re la tiv e man-hours fo r
each industry. The indexes are based on data published
in the Census Bureau Facts fo r Industry series and the
Census of Manufactures.
The pulp production index is composed of 6 classes
of wood pulp — mechanical, unbleached s u lfite ; bleached
s u lfite ; unbleached su lfa te ; bleached su lfa te; and soda —
weighted with re la tiv e man-hours per ton in 19 35. The
weights were computed by the National Research Project of
the Works Progress Administration.
The paper and paperboard production index includes

6 classes of paper — book paper, w riting paper, newsprint
and sim ilar papers, tissu e, wrapping paper, and paperboard —
weighted with re la tive man-hours per, ton. Labor require­
ments fo r book paper, w riting paper, newsprint and tissue
paper, fo r unspecified dates in the early 19 3 0 's, were
presented by J . P. Hagenauer in "Labor Cost of Production
in the Paper and Pulp Industry," Paper Trade Journal,
A p ril 2 5 , 1935> page 36. The requirement fo r wrapping
paper is an average, weighted by 1929 production, of
figures fo r Southern States from Hagenauer and fo r Northern
States from C. W. Boyce, "Labor Costs and Value of Paper
Produced," Paper M ill and Wood Pulp News, February 2 3,
19 35, page ^5^ The requirement fo r paperboard is the
average of monthly figures fo r 1935 supplied by the National
Paperboard Association.




6k




The production indexes for each component vere
adjusted separately to levels indicated by the 1939 and
I9II7 Census of Manufactures. The Census adjustment fo r
pulp was based on Census data fo r 8 classes of pulp (the
6 given above plus 2 miscellaneous classes) weighted
with relative man-hour weights. The Census adjustment
for paper was based on the 7 classes of paper (the 6
given above and building paper) weighted with the rela tive
man-hour weights mentioned above.

Primary Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous Metals Group
(Copper, Lead! and Zinc) ( S .I .C . Industry Nos. 33 3 1,
3332, and 3333)
Production
The production index fo r 1939-50 is based
on Bureau of Mines output s t a t is t ic s combined with
1939 unit-value-added weights. The weights were
derived from the Census of Mineral Industries and
Bureau of Mines data by subtracting estimates of before­
processing value per unit from the respective fin a l
average price per unit. For the years 1939-^9, the index
is based on production at copper, lead, and zinc
primary smelters and re fin e rie s, of the following
product classes: primary copper (smelter and
refin ery production are treated separately), secondary
refined primary lead, antimonial lead, secondary lead,
primary zinc, re d is tille d secondary zinc, nickel, gold
from ore, gold from concentrates, s ilv e r from ore,
s ilv e r from concentrates, su lfu ric acid from blend,
sulfu ric acid from su lfu r, su lfu ric acid from copper
smelters, copper su lfate, and cadmium. The 1950 index
is based on preliminary figures fo r primary refined
copper, secondary copper, refined primary lead,
antimonial lead, primary zinc, and secondary re d is tille d
zinc. The production index was not adjusted to the
levels of the 1939 an(l 19^7 Census of Manufactures,
since the Census did not compile detailed production
data in 1939Employment and Man-Hours
The employment and man-hours series are based
on unpublished Bureau of Labor S t a t is t ic s data fo r
primary smelting and refining of copper, lead, and zinc,

fo r the years prior to 19^7* The data fo r 19^7-50 ere
those regularly published by BLS.

Bayon and Other Synthetic Fibers Industry ( S .I .C . Industry
No, 2925)
Production
The production index comprises two segments.
The 1939-tO segment re fle c ts the trend fo r rayon
output alone, the 19^0-50 segment is a harmonic mean of
separate production indexes fo r rayon and nylon, weighted
with estimates of to ta l man-hours required fo r each
product class in each year. The index fo r the rayon
component was constructed from production data fo r 5
denier groups of acetate yarn (87 denier and le ss, 8 8 -112
denier, 1 1 3 - 1 3 7 denier, 138 -16 2 denier, 163 denier and
over); fo r 7 denier groups of viscose and cuprammonlum
(the f i r s t t denier groups liste d fo r the acetate yams
plus yam s of 163-37^ denier, 375-999 denier, and 1000
denier and over); and rayon staple fib e r. Each group
was weighted with 1939 values. The production data fo r
rayon are compiled by the T extile Economics Bureau Inc.
and published in Bayon Organon. The nylon production
index is prepared from confidential data fo r to ta l
nylon yam and staple fib e r production.

Tobacco Products Industries Group ( S .I .C . Industry Nos.
” 2 1 1 1 , 2 1 2 1 , “ and 2 1 3 l)
Production
The production index fo r the group is a
harmonic mean of separate production indexes fo r the
three major products — ( l ) cig a rs, (2) cigarettes,
and (3) chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff. The
separate indexes were weighted with estimates o f
current year man-hours devoted to the manufacture of
each product.
The three component production indexes are
based on unweighted series fo r the aggregate output of the
following types of production ( l) large cigars, including
large cigars made in bonded warehouses; (2) large and







small cigarettes; and (3) chewing tobacco, smoking
tobacco, and snuff. The production data were obtained
fo r the years 1939-^9 from the annual reports of the
Commissioner of Internal Revenue. Preliminary data
fo r 1950 were obtained from the Bureau of Internal
Revenue.
The current-year man-hour weights used in
combining the three production indexes were derived
as follows: man-hours fo r establishments c la s s ifie d
in each of the three industries were obtained from
the BIS series fo r employment and average weekly
hours. The man-hour series fo r the Cigars Industry
was used as weights fo r the cigar production index,
since cigars account fo r v ir tu a lly the entire output
of establishments c la s s ifie d in the Cigars Industry.
The man-hours figure fo r the Cigarettes Industry had
to be redistributed between "cig a re ttes" and "chewing
and smoking tobacco and sn u ff," since a considerable
quantity of chewing and smoking tobacco is made in
the Cigarettes Industry. To estimate to ta l man-hours
Involved in the manufacture of chewing and smoking
tobacco and snuff, i t was assumed that the value of
chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff produced per
man-hour was the same for that part of the output made
in the Cigarettes Industry as fo r the output made in
the home industry. O the basis of 1939 and 19^7
n
Census of Manufactures data, the ra tio of the value of
chewing tobacco, e t c ., made in the Cigarettes Industry
to that made in the Chewing and Smoking Tobacco and
Snuff Industry was computed fo r the two Census years.
The ratio s were applied to the respective BIS
aggregates fo r man-hours in the Cigarettes Industry
to derive an estimate of man-hours devoted by the
Cigarettes Industry to the manufacture of chewing and
smoking tobacco and snuff. These estimates were sub­
tracted from the BLS aggregates fo r man-hours in the
Cigarettes Industry and added to the BLS aggregates
fo r man-hours in the Chewing and Smoking Tobacco and
Snuff Industry. For other years, no information was
available on either the quantity or the value of
chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff made in the
Cigarettes Industry. Ratios fo r intercensal years
were arrived at by interpolating the differences
between the 1939 and 19^7 ra tio s. For years a fte r
19^7, i t was assumed that the proportion of chewing
tobacco (in terms of value) made in the C igarettes

Industry remained the same as 19^7, and thus that the
man-hours devoted to cheving tobacco production in the
Cigarettes Industry remained a constant proportion of
to ta l man-hours expended in the manufacture of cheving
and smoking tobacco and snuff. The estimates of man­
hours devoted to each product are considered adequate
fo r use as weights, hut may not be s u ffic ie n tly
relia b le for the derivation of separate measures of
output per man-hour for cigarettes and for cheving and
smoking tobacco and snuff.

MINING

M i n i n g Ind u s t r i e s G r o u p

The indexes beginning with 1935 cover the
a c tiv it ie s of 6 of the Nation's principal mining
a c t iv it ie s , which together employ between 85 and Q
O
percent of a l l production workers in the mining group
of industries. The a c tiv itie s included cover the
mining of: bituminous coal; anthracite; copper; iron;
lead and zinc; and the extraction of crude petroleum,
natural gas, and natural gasoline. Indexes fo r 5 of
the 6 a c tiv it ie s are shown separately. The series fo r
crude petroleum, natural gas, and natural gasoline
were not considered suitable for separate publication.
The production index for this series was prepared from
production data of the Bureau of Mines for annual out­
put of crude petroleum, natural gas, and natural
gasoline, liquefied petroleum gases, and other products
(condensate kerosine, "sp ecial naptha," d is t illa t e fuel
o il, e t c .) , weighted with estimated unit man-hour re ­
quirements in 1939*
T h e series f o r 19 15 -3 5 r e p r e s e n t a l m o s t a l l
m i n i n g industries.
T h e y are b a s e d o n a n index p r e p a r e d
b y the N a t i o n a l B e s e a r c h P r o j e c t of the W o r k s P r o g r e s s
Adm i n i s t r a t i o n . J/ T h e N R P Indexes, c o m p u t e d o n the
b a s e 1929 = 100, h ave b e e n li n k e d to the BLS series.

j/
Production, Employment and P ro d u ctivity In the Mineral E xtractive
In d u strie s, lBHO-ldffl, Vivian 0 . Spencer. National Research P ro ject o f
the Works Progress Adm inistration, June l^hOo




68




Production
The production index fo r the mining group fo r
1935 to date, is a harmonic mean o f the production
indexes fo r the 6 component segments weighted with
current-year man-hours. The Index of usable ore was
used to represent iron mining. The recoverable metal
indexes, rather than those based on ore, were used fo r
the nonferrous mines in constructing the group index.
Employment
The employment index fo r the years 1939 to
date is based on to tals for the 6 component a c t iv it ie s .
The 5 series fo r coal and ore mining were obtained from
BIS data. The to ta ls fo r the crude petroleum, natural
gas, and natural gasoline series are based on data from
the Census of Mineral Industries fo r 1939, Bureau of
Mines fo r 19^0-hl, and BIS fo r 19^2 to date. The 1939
figure fo r regular producers and contractors was adjusted
fo r undercoverage and the figures fo r other years fo r
regular producers were adjusted to include estimates fo r
workers employed by contractors performing o il and gas
fie ld services.
Man-Hours
The man-hours index fo r the years 1935 to date
is based on to ta ls fo r the 6 component a c t iv it ie s . For
a description of the methods used in the construction
of the 5 series fo r coal and ore mining see the technical
n o t e s for the i n d i v i d u a l industries.
T h e series f o r crude
petroleum, n a t u r a l gas, a n d gasol i n e covers b o t h r e g u l a r
p r o d u c e r s and c ontractors p e r f o r m i n g gas a n d oil f i e l d
services.
T h e m a n - h o u r figures f o r 1939 w e r e o b t a i n e d
b y a d j u s t i n g f o r under c o v e r a g e the C e n s u s of M i n e r a l

Industries data fo r both regular producers and contractors.
Man-hours data fo r regular producers fo r 1935 are based
on an estimate of average annual hours and employment
figures from the 1935 Census of Business; fo r 1936-38
and 19k0-kl, from Bureau of Mines data; and fo r 19^2 to
date, from BIS employment and BIS average weekly hours.
The man-hours fo r contract workers fo r 1935 are a NRP
estimate; fo r 19 36 -38, estimates of man-hours per w ell
d rille d were obtained by interpolation from 1935 and
1939 data, and these estimates were applied to Bureau of
Mines annual data on number of w ells d rille d ; fo r 19^2

to date, 1939 man-hours per w ell d rille d were applied
to Bureau of Mines annual data on number of w ells.

Anthracite Industry (S .I .C . Industry No. 1 1 1 1 )
The anthracite mining industry Includes the
mining of a l l nonhitumlnous coal in Pennsylvania, and
coverage conforms to the Census of Mineral Industries
defin ition . Following the general p ractice, the
mining of semianthracite in Sullivan County is grouped
with anthracite mining. Operations include raining
and such further preparation (sizin g , washing, screen­
ing, e t c .) as is necessary to produce a marketable
product. Included under mining are -underground and
strip operations, working of culm banks, and dredging
of riv e r coal.
Production
The production index is based on Bureau of
Mines data fo r the number of tons of marketable coal
produced, adjusted fo r 19^1-50 to exclude ’’bootleg1'
coal sold to legitimate operators under an arrange­
ment made early in 19 ^ 1. "Bootleg" coal, except
that sold to legitimate producers, has been excluded
from the annual production figures published by the
Bureau of Mines and is excluded from the production
index. Total production of "bootleg" coal ranged
from 6,300,000 tons in 19^1 to 1,026,0-00 tons in 19^5*
Small tonnages of "slush" - - i . e . , settlin gs from water
used in cleaning anthracite — have also been excluded
by the Bureau of Mines from the production of market­
able co al.
Anthracite constituted 99*9 percent of the
to ta l value of products of the industry in 1939,
according to the Census of Mineral Industries. Pro­
duction reported by the Bureau of Mines f e l l short of
the Census of Mineral Industries to ta l by about 0 .7
percent.
Employment
The employment index is composed of two
segments linked in 1939* The indexes fo r 19 35-39 are







the BIS series adjusted to levels indicated "by reports
of the Bureau of the Census fo r 1935 and 1939* The
indexes for the years 1939"50 are the regularly pub­
lished BIS se ries, based on a sample shoving the per­
cent change for iden tical establishments in overlapping
2 -month periods.
The employment definition adopted — average
number of production workers employed during the 12
months of the year, including inactive periods — is
that used by the United States Bureau of the Census.
Since anthracite mining ordinarily is characterized
by intermittent operation, other employment concepts
such as the average number of workers employed on
active days tire also sig n ifican t.
Man-Hours
The index of man-hours is derived from the
employment series and the BLS series fo r average weekly
hours. The index, based on operations for the f i r s t
2-week period in each month, has been adjusted to
represent more adequately the entire year in 19^3, 19^5,
19^6, and I9U9, when major strik es occurred. The man­
hour index fo r months in which strik es occurred has been
adjusted by the ra tio of production fo r the entire month
to estimated production fo r the month at the rate
attained during the f i r s t 2 weeks.

Bituminous Coal and Lignite Industries (S.I.C. Industry
Nos. 1 2 1 1 and 1212)

The two industries, bituminous coal and
lig n ite , as reported in the 1939 Census of Mineral
Industries, are included. The combination covers the
mining of bituminous coal and lig n ite , and of semi­
anthracite and anthracite outside of Pennsylvania.
Operations performed in the two industries include the
mining of the coal, and the cleaning, washing, and
sizin g necessary to produce a marketable product.
Production
The production index is based on total tonnages
of bituminous coal and lignite, and of semianthracite

and anthracite mined outside of Pennsylvania. Produc­
tion data have been taken from the reports of the
Bureau of Mines on the number of short tons of market­
able coal produced by mines having an annual output of
1,000 tons or more. Included in the production to ta l
is coal loaded at the mine fo r shipment by r a i l or
water, shipped by truck or wagon, taken by locomotive
tenders a t the tip p le, shipped by conveyor to point
of consumption, used by mine employees, used at the
mine fo r power and heat, and made into beehive coke
at the mine. Data fo r Alaska are excluded.
Products included in the index represented
99-6 percent of the to ta l value of products of the
industry as reported by the Census of Mineral Industries
fo r 1939* Production reported by the Bureau of Mines
fo r 1939 exceeded that reported by the Census of
Mineral Industries by less than 0.0U percent.
Employment
The employment index is made up of two
segments — 1935-39 and 1939-50. For 1935-39 the
index compiled by the BLS has been adjusted to the
leve ls indicated by reports of the Bureau of the Census
fo r 1935 and 1939. The index series fo r 1939-50 is
that regularly published by the BLS and is based on a
sample showing the percent change fo r id en tical estab­
lishments in overlapping 2 -month periods. The series
covers only production and related workers and excludes
salaried o ffic e r s , superintendents, other supervisory
employees, and professional and technical employees.
The employment definition adopted by BLS - - average
number of production workers employed during the 12
months of the vear, including inactive periods — is
that used by the United States Bureau of the Census in
the 1939 Census of Mineral Industries.
The BLS employment series fo r bituminous
coal w ill not necessarily fluctuate in close accord
with employment series compiled by the Bureau of
Mines. Employment reported by the Bureau of Mines
relates to the number of production workers, plus some
supervisory and technical personnel, employed on
active days. Employment to tals reported by the
Accident S t a t is t ic s Division of the Bureau of Mines
are annual averages derived e ssen tia lly from to ta l




72




man-hour8 reported, average hours per s h ift , and the
number of active days reported. Emoloyment reported
by the Coal Economics Division of the Bureau of Mines
is the average number of workers reported for active
days during the year. Since bituminous coal raining
is ordinarily intermittent, the employment concept
used by the U. S. Bureau of Mines of average number
of workers employed on active days is also useful fo r
some purposes,
Man-Hours
The index of man-hours is derived from the
BIS employment series and the BIS reports of average
weekly hours. The weekly hours figures reported fo r
December 19^3 and fo r 1 9 ^ - ^9 have been adjusted to
exclude travel time, which is paid for tinder wage
agreements (beginning with the agreement reached in
November 19^3). The data reported to the BIS fo r
employment, and average weekly hours in coal mining
are generally based on operations during the f i r s t
2 weeks of each month and ordinarily are typ ical of
the entire month's a c t iv it ie s . When major shutdowns
occur, however, the 2-week s t a t is t ic s do not adequately
represent the labor time for the entire month. There­
fore, adjustments have been made in the reported
figures fo r months in which major work stoppages
occurred, fo r 1939 and la ter years. Man-hour data fo r
individual months were adjusted by the ra tio of r e ­
ported production fo r the month to estimated production
at the rate attained during the f i r s t 2 weeks.
The BLS index of man-hours may diverge some­
what from indexes derived from Bureau of Mines data,
in part, because of differences in the employment
series and, in part, because of differences in method
of derivation. Man-hours reported by the Accident
S t a t is t ic s Division of the Bureau of Mines are to tals
reported fo r the year by individual mines. Man-hours
may be derived from s t a t is t ic s of the Coal Economics
Division of the Bureau of Mines by multiplying average
employment on active days by the number of days the
mines and tipples were active to obtain to ta l man-days
worked, and multiplying the man-days to ta l by the
number of hours in the weighted average established
work s h ift. The resu lts are necessarily approximate,

but have been used for some purposes. Some variations
in man-hour totals may arise because of differences in
adjustment for travel time in the BLR series and in the
Bureau of Mines data.

Copper Ores Mining Industry ( S . I .C . Industry Ho. 1021)
The copper mining industry includes the mining
of ores containing 2 .5 percent or more copper and the
mining of ores vith lower copper content, i f valued
ch ie fly fo r copper. Operations include the mining and
m illing of ores, m illing of old ta ilin g s , leaching of
copper ores, and recovery of copper in mine water
p recip itates. The Bureau of Labor S t a t is t ic s ' industry
definition corresponds with the copper ore industry
reported by the Census of Mineral Industries fo r 1939,
which included "mines and m ills in the United States
producing ores and concentrates valued ch ie fly fo r
th eir copper content."
Production
Two production Indexes are shown. The f i r s t
se ries, fo r recoverable metal, is based on Bureau of
Mines data fo r copper recovered from "ore, old ta ilin g s ,
e t c . , sold or treated" and from mine water p recipitates.
The second production index is based on the to ta l
tonnage of ore mined (including old ta ilin g s ), sold, or
treated.
Employment
The employment index, which is available only
fo r the yew s since 1939, is that regularly published
by the BLS.
Man-Hours
The index of man-hours includes two segments.
The f i r s t , fo r 19 35-39, was derived from data published
by the Bureau of Mines in it s accident b u lletin s; the
second, fo r 1939-50, has been computed from the employ­
ment index and BLS figures fo r average weekly hours.
The Bureau of Mines figures exclude, and the BLS figures




7^




include, labor in ore preparation plants.

Iron Ores Mining Industry (S.I.C. Industry No. 1011)
The iron mining industry is defined to
include both open-pit and underground extraction of
all iron ore, with the exception of ore containing
5 percent or more manganese. This Industry defini­
tion corresponds to the iron ore industry reported
by the Census of Mineral Industries, except that
the Census industry includes the mining of iron ore
containing 5 percent or more manganese. Operations
performed in the industry relate to the mining of
crude ore and the benef 1 ciation necessary to
produce a marketable product.
Production
Two production indexes are presented. They
are based, respectively, on total tonnages of usable
iron ore and tonnages of crude ore, containing less
than o percent manganese, produced in each calendar
year. Production data have been taken from Bureau
of Mines reports on the number of gross tons of ore
produced by all iron mines and include all known
production. The usable ore is produced with the
desired iron content (by selective mining, mixture
of ores, washing, jigging, concentrating, sintering,
etc.) at or near the mine as a part of the mining
process. An index based on iron recovered would
follow substantially the same trend as the usable
ore indexes. Products included in the indexes
represented 99-9 percent of the total value of
products reported by the Census of Mineral Industries
for 1939* Usable iron ore produced in 1939» as
reported by the Bureau of Mines, exceeded the Census
tonnage by less than 1 .7 percent.
Employment
The employment index, available only for
and later years, is the series regularly pub­
lished by the Blf*.

1939

75
Man-Hours
T h e index of m a n - h o u r s includes two segments.
T h e first, f o r 1935-39? has b e e n d e rived f r o m data
c o l l e c t e d b y the B u r e a u of Mines; the second, f or
I 939-5 O, has b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m the emp l o y m e n t index
and B L S figures f o r average w e e k l y hours.
Although
the p r o d u c t i o n d a t a exclude the out p u t of iron ere
c o n t a i n i n g 5 p e r c e n t or more manganese, the labor used
to p r oduce this ore is included in the e m p l o y m e n t and
m a n - h o u r data.
I n c l u s i o n of raar.ganiferous ere in the
p r o d u c t i o n index w o u l d change the output p e r m a n - h o u r
i n dex less than one-half of one percent.

Lead and Zinc Ores Mining Industries (S.I.C. Industry
Nos.
1032, 1033 and I03U)
The B u r e a u of Labor Statistics' lead and
zinc mining industry classification includes the
mining of ores valued chiefly for their lead and zinc
content and corresponds with the lead and zinc ores
industry as reported by the Census of Mineral
Industries for 1939• Operations performed in the
industry include the mining and milling of lead and
zinc ores, and also the recovery of lead and zinc
concentrates from old tailings in the Tri-State region.
Production
Two production indexes are shown. The series
for recoverable metal (representing the output of the
end product of the industry) is based on the aggregate
output of recoverable lead and zinc (including lead
made into pigments and zinc recovered as zinc pigments
and salts directly from ore). These production
statistics include the recoverable metal content of
ores in all sections of the country and of old tailings
concentrated in the Central States. Metal recovered
incidentally, other than lead and zinc, (which is of
some importance in the Western States) is excluded
in order to make the production measure comparable
with the labor figures. The quantities of lead and
zinc recovered from ores processed by the industry are




76




weighted with average prices in 1939, the base year.
The second production index is based on the
to ta l tonnage of ore mined and old ta ilin g s concen­
trated in the Central S ta te s. A ll production data
are based on s t a t is t ic s collected by the Bureau of
Hines.
Employment
The employment index is that regularly
published by the ELS.
Man-Hours
The index of man-hours comprises three
segments. The f i r s t , fo r 19 35-36 , was obtained from
data published by the W.P.A. National Research
P roject; these data are based on a sp ecial tabulation
of Bureau of Mines figu res. The second, fo r 1936-39,
was derived from a sim ilar but less comprehensive
tabulation of s t a t is t ic s of the Bureau of Mines, and
from published figures of the Bureau of Mines fo r
man-hours in the Central S ta te s. The la s t segment,
fo r 1939- 50, was obtained from the employment index
and BLS figures fo r average weekly hours. The
Bureau of Mines figures exclude, and the BLS figures
include, labor in ore preparation plants.

PUBLIC UTILITIES
E le c tric Light and Power Industry ( S .I .C . Industry No.
1*911 and the e le c t r ic it y generation and distribution
part of 1*931)
Production
The production index represents kilowatt-hour
sales by the private u t i l i t i e s to ultimate consumers.
The source of production s t a t is t ic s fo r 19 17 , 1922,
1927, 1932, and 1937 was the quinquennial Census of
E le c tr ic a l Industries. Minor adjustments were made in
census data to account fo r changes in c la ssific a tio n

77

and reporting. For the intervening years, 19 17 to
19 3 7 , interpolations were made by means of s t a t is t ic s
on e le c t r ic it y generated by p rivately owned u t i l i t i e s ,
as reported by the Federal Power Commission. The
index was continued a fte r 1937 by use of data fo r
energy sold by class A and B u t ilit ie s to a l l customers
except e le c tric u t i l i t i e s , as published by the Federal
Power Commission. The class A and B u t i l i t i e s make
up a l l but a very small proportion of the e le c tric
u t i l i t y industry.
Employment
The employment index fo r the years 19 17 , 1922,
and 1927 is based on s t a t is t ic s from the Census of
E le c t r ic a l In dustries. Interpolations fo r some of the
intercensal years in this period were made by use of
a series on employment in private e le c tric companies
published by the Edison E le c tric In stitu te . For some
years, no adequate basis of estimation was available.
For the period since 1929, employment is represented
by the BLS index fo r the e le c tric lig h t and power
industry, which is e ssen tially comparable with the
Census figu res. A ll wage and salary employees are
included except main executives and the employees of
appliance sales departments. Construction workers
are included when th eir wages are paid out of regular
company p ayro lls. The BLS index is based on a sample
which gives high coverage (approximately
percent
in recent years) of the p rivately owned e le c tric
industry. The inclusion of some employees of gas­
manufacturing or distributing departments of companies
deriving most of th eir revenue from sales of e le c t r i­
c it y was necessary where separate reports were un­
obtainable, but probably does not a ffe c t the index
m aterially.

9
0

Man-Hours
The index of man-hours was derived from the
employment index and a series representing average
weekly hours of wage earners. For the period since
19 32, the BIS series on average weekly hours in the
e le c tric lig h t and power industry was used. Data on
average weekly hours fo r the years 1 9 1 7 - 3 1 were
obtained from a study published by the W.P.A. National




78

Kesearch Project. This series is based on data obtained fo r one
or tvo months in each year by the National Industrial Conference
Board, with adjustments and interpolations made to place the
series on an annual basis and provide figures fo r missing years.
The series was linked in 1932 to the BLS hours series fo r the
la te r years.

Line-Haul Operating Railroads Industry ( S .I .C . Industry No. toil)
A ll the indexes are baaed on data published by the
Interstate Commerce Commission fo r railroads c la s s ifie d by the
ICC as Class I steam line-haul railro ad s. (The term "steam
railroad" covers railroads using d ie se l-e le c tric and e le c tric
locomotives as w ell as those using steam. "Line-haul railro ad s"
do not include switching and terminal companies.) During the
period covered, these railroads accounted fo r a t lea st 98 percent
of the freigh t and passenger t r a f f i c and at lea st 9^ percent of
the to ta l employment of a l l steam railro ad s, including switching
and terminal companies.
The Indexes on pages 28 and 29 ( A ll Hourly Basis
Employees) re fe r to to ta l t r a f f i c and a l l hourly basis employees.
The index of to ta l revenue t r a ffi c represents aggregate passengermiles and fre ig h t ton-miles, each category being weighted by
respective average unit revenues in the base year 19 39 * The
index of car-miles is derived from unweighted aggregate car-m iles,
both freigh t and passenger. The index of employment refers to
a l l hourly basis employees and thus excludes executive, pro­
fessio n al, and main supervisory employees. The man-hour index
is comparable in scope with the employment index and represents
the to ta l of straigh t time actu ally worked, a l l overtime paid
fo r, and constructive-allowance hours of train and engine employees.
On pages 30 and 3 1 (Hoad Freight Employees), the Indexes
of employment and man-hours represent engineers, motormen, firemen
and helpers, conductors, brakemen, and flagmen attached to road
freigh t service. On pages 32 and 33 (Boad Passenger Employees),
the corresponding passenger service groups are represented, and,
in addition, tick et collectors and baggagemen. Since the employ­
ment and man-hour indexes are restricte d to the occupations most
d ire ctly associated with each type of service, the two tables
permit a comparison of the trends fo r fre ig h t and passenger
service. In both tab les, the man-hour indexes include a l l
straigh t time actu ally worked, a l l overtime paid fo r, and construc­
tive-allowance hours of the respective groups of employees.




79
Telegraph Industry (S.I.C. Industry No. 1*821)
The Indexes presented for the telegraph industry refer
to the operations of the principal wire-telegraph and ocean cable
carriers. The companies accounted for 97 percent of the total
number of messages reported for land and ocean telegraph systems
in the Census of Electrical Industries in 1937- The indexes for
1935-^1 were derived from statistics for those carriers vhich
filed annual reports with the Federal Communications Commission
in 19 l*l, and for 191*
2-50 from statistics for those carriers which
filed annual reports with FCC in the respective years. The data
were obtained from the annual FCC report, Statistics of the
Communications Industry in the United States.
Production
The production index is based on FCC series for:
(1)
number of domestic messages, land-line companies; (2) number of
foreign messages, land-line companies; (3) number of domestic
messages, ocean-cable companies; and (b) number of foreign
messages, ocean-cable. Each series was weighted by the corre­
sponding unit revenue in 1939 Employment
The employment index is based on FCC data on number of
employees, of all classes, in service at the end of selected months
(for 1935-^3> average of June and December; for 19W* and 191*5 average
of June and October; for l^b6 to 1950? October), adjusted to
represent annual averages by the use of ratios derived from BLS
employment data. The adjustment ratios for 19^7-50 are not
strictly comparable with those for prior years because they
reflect the inclusion of a snail number of radio-telegraph employees
but exclude employees compensated on a commission basis, divisional
headquarters personnel, trainees in schools, and messengers.

T e le p h o n e Ind u s t r y (S.I.C. I ndustry No. l*8ll)

The indexes for the telephone industry refer to Class A
telephone carriers. These companies accounted for 90 percent of
the total number of calls reported in the Census of Electrical
Industries for 1937- The indexes were derived for 1935-^1 from
statistics for those carriers which filed annual reports with
FCC in 19l*l and for 191*2-50 from statistics for those carriers
which filed reports with the FCC in the respective years. The




80

s t a t is t ic s were obtained from the annual FCC report, S ta tis tic s
of the Communications Industry in the United S ta te s . The
indexes fo r 19*49 & 1950 are based on unpublished FCC data.
n<i
Production
The production index is based on the weighted aggregate
of the average number of local and t o l l c a lls originated per
month. The weights represent average revenue per local c a ll and
per t o l l c a ll in 1939* In 19*47 most of the companies file d
reports with the FCC covering only 10 months (the months of A pril
and May were omitted owing to a work stoppage) and the 19*47
averages, therefore, are on a 10-month b asis.
Employment
The employment index is based on FCC data fo r a l l
classes of employees. Averages of the number of employees in
service at the end of selected months in each year (fo r 1935 ~*42,
June and December; for 19*43 and 19*45-* 48, June and October; fo r
19 *4 4 and 19*49 > April and October; and fo r 1950 October) were
*
adjusted to represent annual averages by the use of ratio s
derived from B LS employment data. For 19*47-50 these ratio s
r e fle c t a small number of radio-telephone employees included in
the B LS employment data and are not s t r i c t ly comparable with
prior years. In adjusting the 19*47 monthly average, B L S data
fo r only 10 months were used, data fo r A p ril and May being
omitted to make the employment indexes more nearly comparable
with the production index.
Man-Hours
The index of man-hours was derived from the employment
measure and a series fo r average weekly hours. The weekly hours
series was obtained from B L S data fo r the telephone and telegraph
industries combined fo r 19 35- 39> fo r the telephone industry
alone fo r 1939“^ , and the telephone industry including radio­
telephone employees fo r 19*47-50. The man-hour index fo r 19*47
was revised on a 10-month b asis, A p ril and May excluded, to
make i t more nearly comparable with the production se ries. For
the period 19*4-5 through June 19*49, the hours data r e fle c t
mainly the hours worked by employees subject to the F a ir Labor
Standards A ct; beginning with Ju ly 19*49 > the hours are that of
nonsupervisory employees.




81

AGRICULT U R E

Production
The BIS national production index "beginning with 1935
is based on s t a t is t ic s for 73 products — 8 types of livestock
products and 65 crops - - which in 1939 accounted fo r about 95
percent of to ta l cash farm Income. Because a number of products
were represented by more than 1 se ries, 90 separate production
series were incorporated into the index. The production figures
beginning with 1935 were obtained from releases and unpublished
records of the Bureau of A gricultu ral Economics of the United
States Department of Agriculture. The s t a tis tic s fo r 1950 are
preliminary.
The production s t a tis tic s for livestock and th eir
products refe r to calendar years. The production of meat animals
is estimated by the Bureau of Agricultu ral Economics "by deducting
the weights of animals shipped into each State from the weight
of animals sold o ff of and slaughtered on farms in each State
and by adding or subtracting changes in inventory weights between
the beginning and end of the year. The sum of the net production
figures fo r the several States gives a net production to ta l fo r
the United S ta te s." H
/
The production figures for crops refer to crop years, but,
in most cases, the crop year and the calendar year coincide. The
s t a t is t ic s for citru s fr u it production represent the crop from
the bloom of the designated year. The figures for truck crops
include the output of late varie tie s harvested in the previous
year. For several crops - - cotton, peanuts, tobacco, and ric e -the production data represent the crop year beginning in the
designated year.
The BAE figures fo r a few crops include quantities not
harvested or not available fo r market because of economic
conditions, marketing agreement allotments, shortages of harvest
labor, or damage a fte r harvest by weather conditions. The
s t a t is t ic s fo r fr u its and nuts also include quantities harvested
but not u tiliz e d because of excessive cullage, and quantities
donated to charity unharvested.

U/ Mut Animals — Farm Production and Incog*, 1935-^lt 0, S. Department of
Agriculture (April 30, 1^*2)




82

Because the index of production was computed for use
in the derivation of an index of productivity, series for gross
farm output were combined with the weights representing the
estimated labor requirements per unit of gross output. Gross
farm output includes to ta l production, whatever i t s ultimate
disposition. By the use of appropriate man-hour weights, the
weighted production aggregate contains l i t t l e or no duplication.
Thus, the man-hour weight fo r hogs does not include the labor
requirement fo r growing the corn fed to hogs.
Man-Hours per Unit of Output (weights fo r production indexes)
The estimates of man-hours per unit of output which
were used fo r weighting purposes were computed from data for
individual States published by the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, _£/ S t a t is t ic s fo r the individual States were combined
by use of State production data to derive estimates fo r the 1 1
areas and fo r the United States. The unit-labor-requirement
estimates fo r crops generally apply to 1939 practices and average
yield s per acre in recent years, in most cases the average yield
fo r the 10-year period 1930- 39 * The estimates for the livestock
products were based on data reflectin g farm practices of recent
yeeurs.
The figures fo r livestock "include d irect labor only
fo r such operations as feeding, caring fo r, and disposing of
the animals and th eir products. Labor fo r growing feed and
repairing buildings, fences and equipment is not included."_£/
The State figures fo r labor requirements in livestock production
were combined into weighted averages fo r each of the 1 1 areas
and fo r the United States as a whole; 19k l production figures
were used as weights.
The labor-requirements estimates fo r crops represent
man-hours per acre, in the "pre-harvest" and "harvest" periods
separately. These estimates Include the "hours fo r hauling
manure, plowing and fit t in g the land, planting and cu ltivatin g,
spraying, dusting, pruning, e t c ., and fo r harvesting and hauling
the crop to storage, lo cal market, or processing p lan t." Figures
fo r man-hours per unit of product were derived for each State
from the to tals fo r "pre-harvest" and "harvest" man-hours per
acre and data on average yield s per acre. Averages of the State

tabor Requlreaenta fo r Crops and LIv«stock, by H, R, Cooper, * , C. H o lley,
H« V , Hawthorne, and R, S . Washburn, U, S , Department o f A g ricu ltu re , B u lle tin F . M.

M (I9M3)
O

J/




Ibid

83
figures were prepared for the 11 areas and for the entire United
States by use of weights on average production In each of the States.

Employment
The employment figures for years prior to 1939 include
all persons engaged in fans work for two or more days a week,
regardless of age: proprietors, family workers, and hired workers.
For the period 1939-50; employment figures are based on a new
definition which agrees more closely with that used by the Bureau
of the Census In its Monthly Report on Labor Force. The revised
BAE figures for 1939-50 Include: (a) all farm operators who spend
1 hour or more during the survey week at farm work, chores, or In
the transacting of farm business; (b) hired workers or members of
the operator's family doing 1 hour or more of farm work or chores
for pay; and (c) members of the operator's family or household
doing unpaid farm work or chores, if they work 15 hours or more
during the survey week. When revisions are completed by BAE for
the period 1935-38, the Index of output per worker for these years
will be recomputed to conform with the new employment definition.
The estimates of farm employment developed by the National Research
Project and continued since 1935 by the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics are based on decennial Census data for the number of
persons gainfully occupied in agriculture. 7/ Interpolations for
Intercensal years were made by BAE by means of crop-reporter
estimates of the number of wage workers and the number of unpaid
family workers employed for 100 fans, adjusted to corresponding
Census levels, and a computed seasonal Index.
The production and employment Indexes for 1909-35 were
constructed by the National Research Project of the Works Progress
Administration In the course of its studies of changing techniques
and employment In agriculture. The NRP indexes, computed on the
base 192^-29 * 100, have been linked to the Bureau Indexes. The
=
methods used in deriving the two series are similar.

7/
Cal o m
llr

Fare Labor. 0 , S . Dapartaant o f Agrleultora (publlshad Monthly),
la are fre e w ipubllshad raeo rd a.




D ata fo r

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : O — 1951