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Ue S. D EPAR TM E N T O F LABOR
JAMES J, DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

N 356
o.

B U LLETIN O F T H E U N IT E D STA T ES 1
B U REAU O F LA B O R S T A T IS T I C S /
WAGES

AND

HOURS

OF

LABOR

SERIES

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS IN
COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY
BY

W ILLIAM F. K IR K
SPECIAL AGENT, U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




OCTOBER, 1924

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1924




ADDITION AL COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
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AT

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CO NTENTS.
Page.

Introduction and summary________________________________________________
1-5
Rate of production________________________________________________________
5, 6
Cost of manufacture-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 -8
Scope and m ethod________________________________________________________
8-10
Hours of labor and earnings_______________________________________________ 10-12
Regular or customary hours of operation_________________________________ 12-15
Sale of prod u ct____________________________________________________________
16
Explanation of general tables_____________________________________________ 16, 17
T able A.— Average earnings and hours and classified full-time hours per
week, 1922, by process, occupation, and district________________________ 18-25
T able B.— Average full-time and actual hours and earnings, 1922, by proc­
ess, occupation, pay period,and district___________________________________26-34
T able C.— Average and classified earnings per hour of employees in se­
lected occupations, 1922, by process and district_______________________ 35-37
T able D .— Average and classified actual hours of employees in selected
occupations in one pay period, 1922, b y process, occupation, length of
pay period, and district________________________________________________ 38-43
T able E.— Average and classified actual earnings of employees in selected
occupations in one pay period, 1922, by process, occupation, length of
pay period, and district__________________________________________________44-50
Appendix A .— Description of operations and of equipm ent________________51-60
The clay p it___________________________________________________________ 51, 52
The machine room ___________________________________________________ 52-54
Drying the brick___________________________________________
Setting the brick in the kiln___________________________________________ 55-57
Burning the kiln______________________________________________________ 57-59
Loading_______________________________________________________________ 59,60
Appendix B.— Glossary of occupations____________________________________ 61,62
Appendix C.— W orking agreement, 1922-23---------------------------------------------- 63-71




hi

54,55




B U L L E T IN

OF

THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
N O. 356

W ASH IN G TO N

O C T O B E R , 1924

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS IN COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.
This report is the result of a study which was recently made of
the manufacture of common building brick in the United States,
beginning with the digging or gathering of the clay and ending with
the loading of the brick for shipment from the plant. It shows the
average time cost of labor and the average money cost of labor in
manufacturing 1,000 brick; describes the processes or methods of
manufacture, and the machinery and other equipment used; defines
the various occupations of the wage earners in the industry; and
also presents occupational wage rates or earnings and hours oi labor.
The average “ time cost,” expressed in hours and hundredths of
hours, and “ labor cost,” expressed in money, per 1,000 brick, are
shown in Table 1 for each oi the three processes of manufacture by
wage districts, and for each of the six departments into which the
work of manufacturing brick is divided, and for all departments
combined.
The three processes of manufacture are: (1) Stiff-mud, (2) Soft-mud,
and (3) Dry-clay. These processes are described on page 9.
The wage districts shown in this report were formed by grouping
or combining data of States in which the average earnings per hour
of employees in the industry were approximately the same, regard­
less of the geographical location, or by showing data for one State
only when the average earnings per hour were not approximately
the same as for any other State. Average earnings per hour are
shown under each process and for each district in Table 5, page 11.
The brick-yard departments are: (1) Clay-pit, (2) Machinehouse, (3) Setting, (4) Burning, (5) Loading, and (6) Miscellaneous.
The number o f establishments for which costs are shown for depart­
ments in some instances exceed the number for all departments.
This is due to the inclusion of data for one or more departments of
establishments in which there was no work in the clay-pit depart­
ment, no burning, no loading, etc., and the exclusion of the data for
such establishments from the data used in computing time and labor
costs per 1,000 brick for all departments combined. Of 17 establish­
ments covered in district 1, one dug no clay and reported only
incomplete figures on setting and burning, one reported incomplete
figures on burning, and three reported no loading during the period
covered, leaving 12 establishments for which complete or total cost,
figures are shown for all departments combined.




1

2

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.
T able 1.—AVERAGE T IM E AN D LABOR COST PER 1,000 B R IC K IN EACH
STIFF-M UD PROCESS.
Clay pit.

District.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Ne­
braska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Wisconsin...................
2. Florida, Georgia, Loui­
siana, M ississip p i,
South Carolina............
8. Maryland, North Caro­
lina, Virginia________
4. Illinois....... ....................
5. Arkansas, Missouri____
Total.........................

Machine-house.

Setting.

Time Labor
cost
Es- Em­ (man money
tab- ploy­ hours) cost
lishper
mts. ees. per
1,000 1,000
brick. brick.

Time Labor
cost
Es- Em­ (man money
tab- ploy­ hours) cost
lishper
per
mts. ees. 1,000 1,000
brick. brick.

Time Labor
cost money
EsEm­
tab- ploy­ (man cost
hours) per
lishmts. ees. per
1,000 1,000
brick. brick.

16

118

1.17

$0.49

16

178

2.08

$0.79

13

85

1.21

$0.58

9

77

1.21

.24

9

162

2.85

.50

8

119

1.72

.34

10
6
3

56
54
23

.88
.37
1.10

.25
.29
.40

9
5
3

123
226
53

2.02
1.42
3.21

.54
1.02
.89

10
6
2

112
108
21

1.65
.59
1.54

.51
.49
.58

44

328

.72

.33

42

742

1.86

.85

39

445

.97

.49

$1.20
1.31

4
3

77
39

3. 39
.99

$1.60
.70

SOFT-M UD PROCESS.
1. Connecticut, Massachu­
setts. ...........................
2. New Jersey, New York.
S. Kentucky, Ohio, Penn­
sylvania.......................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi,
Texas...........................
8. Michigan........................
Total.........................

7
4

43
55

1.07
1.07

$0.47
.59

4
5

65
190

2.72
2.71

5

28

.57

.25

5

60

1.26

.55

5

40

.94

.43

3
3

24
15

2.01
.45

.35
.36

4
3

56
56

3.47
1.52

.64
1.07

4
2

36
26

2.87
1.00

.58
1.01

22

165

.88

.43

21

427

2.19

1.04

18

218

1.50

.82

DRY-CLAY PROCESS.
1. Kansas, Missouri...........
2. Texas......................... .

3
3

23
26

2.02
1.97

$0.71
.40

3
3

17
19

1.52
1.26

$0.47
.28

4
3

37
23

2.42
1.70

$0.84
.42

Total.........................

6

49

1.99

.51

6

36

1.36

.35

7

60

2.02

.61

Reading line 1, of Table 1, in explanation of the table, it is seen
that' district 1, under the stiff-mud process includes establishments
in Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
and Wisconsin, so grouped because, as has already been stated, the
average earnings per hour for the employees in each of these States
are approximately the same; that for 16 establishments and 118
employees, the time cost for the work included in the clay-pit depart­
ment is 1.17 man hours per 1,000 brick, and the labor cost is $0.49
per 1,000; that for 16 establishments and 178 employees of the
machine-house department the time cost is 2.08 man hours per 1,000
and the labor cost is $0.79 per 1,000; that for the 13 establishments
and 85 employees shown for the setting department the time cost is
1.21 man hours per 1,000 and the labor cost $0.58 per 1,000; that for
the 15 establishments with 59 employees reporting costs of the
burning department the time cost is 1 man hour per 1,000 and the
labor cost is $0.42 per 1,000; that for the 8 establishments and 52
employees for which loading department figures were available the
time cost is 1.11 man hours per 1,000 and the labor cost is $0.57 per
1,000; that for the 12 establishments and 123 employees included in



INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.

3

DEPARTMENT AND FOR ALL DEPARTMENTS, BY PROCESS AND DISTRICT.
STIFF-M UD PROCESS.
Burning.

Loading.

Miscellaneous.

A n departments.

Time Labor
Time Labor
Time Labor
cost
cost
cost
Es­ Em­ (man money Es- Em­ (man money Es­ Em­ (man money
cost tab­
tab­
cost tabcost
lish- ploy­ hours) per lish- ploy­ hours) per lish- ploy­ hours) per
per
ees. per
mts. ees. per
1,000 mts. ees.
1,000 mts.
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
brick. brick.
brick. brick.
brick. brick.

15

59

1.00

$0.42

8

52

1.11

$0.57

Time Labor
cost
Es­ Em­ (man money
tab­
cost
lish- ploy­ hours) per
per
mts. ees.
1,000
1,000
brick. brick.

12

123

1.70

$0.70

12

570

8.74

$3.85

8

95

2.23

.40

7

76

1.28

.28

8

131

2.30

.53

8

578

11.95

2.37

10
6
2

64
29
5

1.41
.26
.57

.37
.18
.22

9
4
1

104
113
19

1.49
.73
2.08

.40
.61
.75

9
5
2

122
186
21

1.59
1.19
2.42

.42
.84
.70

8
5
2

508
637
147

9.12
4.34
10.27

£57
3.32
3.22

41

252

.78

.28

29

364

.99

.53

36

583

1.50

.73

35 2,440

6.82

3.23

13.29
8.66

$5.82
4.41

SOFT-M UD PROCESS.

2
3

402
429

.96

.45

5

233

6.97

3.10

3.66
1.40

.86
.94

1
2

52
118

16.16
6.27

2.66
4.41

16 1,234

8.74

4.27

0.65
1.15

3

12

1.02

.45

3

17

1.59

.71

2

27

3
2

8
4

.62
.23

.12
.14

3
1

17
10

1.34
.94

.31
.58

4
1

63
18

13

67

.73

.30

12

145

1.44

.68

14

272

2.10

.95

6
95

$1.02
.71

2
5

5
3

8
25

$0.25
.48

1.93
1.50

$2.44
.77

2
3

68
96

5.76
1.49

DR Y-CLAY PROCESS.
2
4

!

10
12

1.81
.97

$0.71
.27

4
1

17
3

2.14
.90

$0.77
.21

3
2

23
23

2.55
1.56

$1.00
.52

3
1

119
20

11.23
9.33

$4.04
2.57

22

i

1.15

.37

5

20

1.87

.65

5

46

1.97

.72

4

139

10.81

3.78

6

the miscellaneous department the time cost is 1.70 man hours per
1,000 and the labor cost is $0.70 per 1,000; and that for the 12 estab­
lishments and 570 employees of all departments for all establishments
for which complete cost figures were obtained the time cost is 8.74
man hours per 1,000 and the labor cost is $3.85 per 1,000 brick. .
The cost figures in the above table represent the average time cost
and the average labor cost per 1,000 brick when applied to the plants
and the States as grouped by districts. They do not, however, show
the very great differences in costs, production, and wage rates or
earnings per hour between individual plants. To illustrate the wide
differences, two plants, both included m Table 1 under the stiff-mud
process, have been selected for comparison. Plant “A” is in district
2 and plant “B ” is in district 4. Plant “B ” is very large, is equipped
with tne best improved machinery and labor-saving devices, and is
also efficiently organized and operated, while plant “A” is small and
not; so well equipped, organized, and operated.
In the clay pit of establishment “A” 6 employees worked 330
hours and earned $55.50, an average earning of $0,168 per hour, ami
dug and loaded by hand enough clay to produce 126,000 brick, an



4

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS---- COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

average of 382 brick per hour, a time cost of 2.62 man hours per
1.000 oriok, and a labor cost of $0.44 per 1,000 brick. In the clay
pit of establishment “'B” 11 employees worked 1,337 hours and
earned $1,021.41,' an earning of $0.76 per horn*, and dug and loaded
with machinery (steam shovel) enough clay to produce 5,838,000
brick, an average of 4,366 brick per hour, a time cost of 0.23 man
hours per 1,000, and a labor cost of $0,175 per 1,000.
In the machine house of establishment “A” 12 employees worked
640 hours and earned $69.50, an average earning of $0,109 per hour.
Using a small brick machine they molded 126,000 brick, an average
of 197 brick per hour, a time cost of 5.08 man hours per 1,000, and
a labor cost of $0.55 per 1,000. In establishment “B’f 80 employees
worked 8,607 hours and earned $6,445.44, an average earning of
$0,749 per hour. Using a large brick-making machine they molded
5.838.000 brick, an average of 678 bricks per hour, a time cost of
1.47 man hours per 1,000, and a labor cost of $1.10 per 1,000.
The setting crew of 9 employees of establishment “ A ” worked
375 hours and earned $69.05, an average of $0,184 per hour, and
transferred bv hand from the dryer to and set in kiln 102,000 brick,
an average of 272 brick per hour, a time cost of 3.68 man hours per
1.000 ana a labor cost of $0.68 per 1,000. The crew of 21 employees
of establishment "B” worked 2,463 hours and earned $2,028.63, an
average earning of $0.82 per hour, and transferred with machinery
from dryer to and set in kiln 5,838,000 brick, an average of 2,370
per hour, a time cost of 0.40 man-hours per 1,000, and a labor cost
of $0.33 per 1,000.
The burning crew of 3 employees of establishment “ A ” worked
193 hours and earned $37, an average earning of $0,192 per hour,
and using wood burned 75,000 brick, an average of 389 per hour, a
time cost of 2.57 man-hours per 1,000 and a labor cost of $0.49 per
1.000. The burning crew of 8 employees of establishment “B ”
worked 1,483 hours and earned $1,004.55, an average earning of
$0,677 per hour, and using oil and steam, burned 5,685,000, an aver­
age of 0.26 man hours per 1,000 and a labor cost of $0.18 per 1,000.
The loading crew of 2 employees of establishment “A” worked
60 hours and earned $12.55, an average earning of $0,201 per hour,
loaded by hand 50,000 brick, an average of 833 per hour, a time cost
of 1.20 man-hours per 1,000 and a labor cost of $0.25 per 1,000. The
loading crew of 46 loaders of establishment “B ” worked 4,932 hours
and earned $4,040.63/ an average earning of $0,918 per hour, loaded
with machinery 5,838,000 brick, an average of 1,184 per hour, a time
cost of 0.84 man hours per 1,000 and a labor cost of $0.69 per 1,000.
The 6 miscellaneous employees of establishment “A” worked 325
hours and earned $51.50, an average earning of $0,158 per hour, and
did the miscellaneous work necessary in producing 126,000 brick,
an average of 388 per hour, a time cost of 2.58 man hours per 1,000,
and a labor cost of $0.41 per 1,000. The 37 miscellaneous employees
of establishment “B ” worked 4,111 hours and earned $2,855.91, an
average earning of $0,695 per hour, and did the miscellaneous work
necessary in producing 5,838,000 brick, an average of 1,420 per hour,
a time cost of 0.70 man hours per 1,000 and a labor cost of $0.49 per
1
The average earning per hour for all employees of all departments
of establishment “A” is $0,153 compared with $0.79 for those of
.0 0 0 .




RATE O PRODUCTION.
l<'

establishment “ B ” while the labor cost for “ A ” is $2.82 per 1,000,
compared with $2.94 for “ B .” The time cost for “ A ” (17.73 man
hours per 1,000 brick) is higher and for “ B ” (4.02 man hours per
1,000 brick) lower than for any other plant under the stiff-mud
process, covered in this study. Thus it is shown that with modem
machinery and good management, time cost can be greatly reduced
and higher wages paid without an increase in labor money cost.
The above two plants compared were those having the greatest
difference in time cost. The highest total labor money cost among
stiff-mud plants was $5.92 in a plant in district 1, and the lowest was
$1.16 in a plant in district 2.

RATE OF PRODUCTION.
Table 2 presents for each district under the stiff-mud and the
soft-mud processes, the average production rate per man hour in the
plant as a whole and in the machine-house department only. The
plants included in this table cover only such as furnished detailed
information for all departments into which the manufacture of
brick is divided, the information for the machine house being com­
plete and not including in any case any work of any other depart­
ment.
In arriving at the average production rate for the plant, the num­
ber of employees actually necessary to operate all departments
combined was multiplied by the number of horns the brick machine
was in operation dining the pay period covered. The aggregate
man hours so obtained was then used as the divisor of the number
of thousand brick produced by the machine during that period.
The production rate for the machine house was obtained by the
same method by using the actual number of employees (complete
machine-house crews) necessary to operate that department.
The number actually necessary to man all departments or to man
the machine-house department only wr s used instead of the number
a
found on the pay records because it is frequently found that, owing
to the change (turnover) of the personnel, the number of individuals
appearing on the pay rolls exceeds the number of full-time men
actually necessary to man the plant as a whole or the machine-house
department alone.
By far the highest production per man horn* under the stiff-mud
process is in district 4, the plants of which are all located in or near
Chicago. This is due to the improved machinery generally used,
especially to the mechanical handling of the product, the character
of the clay, and to the process of burning. The same explanation,
in a large measure, also applies to district 3 under the soft-mud
process.




6

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

T able 2 .— PRODU CTION PER MAN-HOUR, A LL EM PLOYEES, AND M ACHINE-HOUSE

EM PLOYEES, BY PROCESS AND DISTRICT.

Number of
employees.
Num­
ber of
estab­
Ma­
lish­
ments. All de­ chinehousepart­
ments. depart­
ment
only.

District.

Production rate
per man hour
(number of
brick).

All em­
ployees,
all de­
part­
ments.

Em­
ployees
of ma­
chinehouse
depart­
ment
only.

Stiff-m ud process.
1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­

11
8
8

Arkansas, Missouri. .......... ..................................- ..................

2

501
477
426
446
126

Total...................................................................................

2.
3.
4.
5.

33

1,976

512

221.8

763.4

2
3
5
1
2

173
366
198
53
115

37
113
56
12
40

100. 6
125. 2
214. 4
51. 5
168.0

470.5
403.7
767.8
227.3
482.1

13

905

258

140.9

482.6

vania, Wisconsin----- --------- --------- - ....................................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina_
_
Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia........... ............... .........
Illinois

_

_________________________________

4

115
127
80
153
37

130.5
85.9
119.8
359.9
98.5

545.0
295.7
616.6
1,066.0
335.6

Soft-m ud process.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Connecticut, Massachusetts_____________________________
New Jersey, New York
__________________________
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania__________________________
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas __________________________
Michigan
_
_ ____________________________
T o ta l_____________________________________________

COST OF MANUFACTURE.
The manufacturing cost per 1,000 brick shown in Table 3 below
covers the labor cost in all the departments into which the industry
is divided in this study, and also the cost of materials and repairs.
This cost, of course, is limited to only such plants as were able to
furnish complete information covering the costs here specified.
The lowest cost ($5.78 per 1,000 brick) under the stiff-mud process
is found in district 4, notwithstanding the fact that wage rates in
district 4 are higher than in any other district under any process.
The low cost is due to the improved machinery used in making and
handling the product, to the method of burning, and to the great
capacity of the plants, resulting in lower “ time costs” — that is, less
man hours per 1,000 brick in district 4 than in any other district.
The exceptionally high cost shown for district 1 under the soft-mud
process is due to the method of making and handling the product,
to the high cost of materials, together with the wage rates, especially
when compared with the rates paid in district 4 under the soft-mud
process. The clay for one plant is dug and loaded by hand onto
carts, the clay for practically all plants is transferred by carts or
trucks to the machine house, the dried brick of all plants are loaded
by hand onto wheelbarrows or wheel cars and shoved to and set in
the kilns by hand, the kilns, except those of one plant, are burned
with wood or with wood and coal, and the brick of all plants are




7

COST OF MANUFACTURE.

loaded by hand from the kilns onto carts, trucks, and cars, thereby
resulting in a very high “ time cost” per 1,000 brick, which, of course,
piles up the “ labor cost.”
T able 3 .— M AN UFACTU RIN G COST PER THOUSAND BR IC K UNDER EACH PROCESS

OF M AN UFACTU RE, BY DISTRICT.

Manufac­
Establish­ Employees. turing cost
ments.
per 1,000
brick.

District.

Stiff-m ud process.
1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Wisconsin.......................................................................................
2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina............
3. Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia...............................................
4. Illinois__________________________ ____ _____________________
5. Arkansas, Missouri...........................................................................

8
7
7
5

2

334
527
420
637
147

$8.11
6.32
6.58
5.78
7.60

29

2,065

6.31

Connecticut, Massachusetts_________________________________
New Jersey, New York.___ _____________ __ ____ ____________
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.______________ ______ _________
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas____ ______________ _____________
Michigan............ ................... ......................................... ...............

7
3
4
3

561
429
165
96
175

$11.14
7.83
5.80
5.65
7.93

Total and average......... .... ................................ ........................

19

1,426

8.24

1. Kansas, Missouri___________________________ ______ __________
......... .................................................................................
2. Texas......

4
4

134
123

$7.32
6.30

Total and average— ___ _____ ___ ____ ____________________

8

257

6.72

Total and average........................................................................
Soft-m ud process.
1.
2.
3
.
4.
5.

2

Dry-clay process.

A comparatively few of the stiff-mud and soft-mud plants covered
in the study were found with cost figures segregated as to labor, mate­
rials, and repairs. The data so segregated were used in compiling
Table 4, which shows under each process and for each district money
cost per 1000 brick for labor, for materials, and for repairs, separately,
and for the three items combined, and also shows the percentage that
the cost of each item is of the total cost of the three combined. Some
plants included in Table 3 are not included in Table 4 because data
for them were not segregated as stated above.
The highest total cost under the stiff-mud process is $8.78 per 1,000
brick in district 5, segregated, $4.54, or 52 per cent, for labor; $3.11,
or 35 per cent, for materials, and $1.13, or 13 per cent, for repairs.
The lowest total cost under this process is $5.79 m district 4, of which
$3.38, or 58 per cent, is for labor; $2.02, or 35 per cent, is for materials;
and $0.39, or 7 per cent, is for repairs. The per cent that labor cost
is of the total cost under this process ranges from 33 in district 2 to 58
in district 4; the per cent that material cost is of the total cost ranges
from 35 in district 5 to 58 in district 2, and the per cent that cost of
repairs is of the total ranges from 7 to 13.




8

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

T able 4 .—M A N U FA C TU R IN G COST PER TH O U SAN D B R IC K , SEG R EG ATED AS TO
LABO R , M A T E R IA L S, A N D R EPAIR S, B Y PROCESS A N D D IST R IC T , 1922.

Labor.
Estab­ Em­
lish­
ploy­
ments. ees.

District.

Materials.

Repairs.

Total.

Cast
Cost
Cost
Cost
per
Per
Per
per
Per
per
Per per
1,000 cent. 1,000 cent. 1,000 cent. 1,000 cent.
brick.
brick.
brick.
brick.

Stiff-mud process.
1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin..........................
2. Florida,
Georgia,
Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina........
3. Maryland, North Carolina, Vir­
ginia................................................
4. Illinois................................................
A Arkansas, Missouri..........................
Total.............................................

4

188 $3.59

48 $2.83

15

$7.56

2

304

2.20

33

3.91

37 $1.14
58

.63

9

6.74

100

3
5
1

241
642
96

3.01
3.38
4.54

44
58
52

3.22
2.02
3.11

47
35
35

.60
.39
1 .13

9
7
13

6.83
5.79
8.78

100
100
100

15

1,471

3.28

53

2.37

39

.51

8

6.16

100

9 $11.01
10
9.84
7
7.71

100
100
100

100

Soft-mud process.
1. Connecticut, Massachusetts..........
2. New Jersey, New York..................
6. Michigan...........................................

3
1
2

234 $6.41
190 6.06
130 3.82

58 $3.6J
62 2.77
49 3.37

Total.............................................

6

554

56

5.12

3.21

33 $0.99
28 1.01
44
.52
35

.79

9

9.12

100

SCOPE AND METHOD.

This report was compiled in part from establishment cost state­
ments covering a specified period of time whenever such cost figures
were found to he available, and in part worked out from the number
of thousand brick produced and the individual hours worked and
individual earnings made by wage earners at their specified occupa­
tions during a sample pay period. The data were gathered by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics through its agents from the records of
79 manufacturers of common building brick, employing 5,076 wage
earners in 23 States for a pay period in the latter part of 1922 or
early in 1923.
The ‘ ‘ time cost” per 1,000 brick for each department was obtained
by dividing the total number of one-man hours worked in the several
departments during a stated period of time, by the number of thou­
sand brick produced in that period of time.
In like manner, “ labor cost” per 1,000 brick for each department
was obtained by dividing the total amount of the money earned by
employees in the departments during a stated period of time by the
number of thousand brick produced in that period of time.

The number of thousand brick usually differed as between the day
pit, the machine house, setting, burning and loading. A few plants
dug no clay during the time for which data were obtained, and a
number did no burning or no loading. For these plants there was,
of course, no time cost or labor cost for the departments in which
there was no production, nor could total cost figures be computed
for any such plants. This explains the difference between the number
of plants ana employees in Table 1 and in other tables of this report.




SCOPE AND METHOD.

9

The records of some plants did not show the entire number of
hours worked or all the money earned by employees at burning or at
loading brick during the pay period for which information was ob­
tained, because in such plants employees were temporarily shifted
from other departments to assist in doing the work of burning or of
loading. Consequently, in computing “ time cost” and “ labor
cost” for departments, it was necessary to exclude not only the
data for burning or for loading, but also for the departments from
which the employees were shifted, as the inclusion of the data as
shown on the records would have resulted in a lower “ time cost”
and “ labor cost” for burning or for loading and higher costs for the
other departments. In other words, while the pay roll was complete
for the plant, it was not clearly segregated by departments. Data
for such plants could not be used in computing costs for departments
so affected, but data for the establishment as a whole could be and
were used in computing costs for all departments combined. There­
fore, the sum total oi the costs of the departments as shown in
Table 1 frequently differ from the costs for all departments.
Stiff mud is clay of sue1
1
'
' '
1 ' 1 *1
1
11 ‘
from it can be stacked
machine without injuring
^
___ i
applied during the making.
Soft mud means that because of the application of water in quantity
during the process of manufacture the bricks molded from such clay
come from the machine so soft that they can not be lifted or movea
by hand. The clay is pressed into molds by the machine, after which
the molds are automatically ejected one by one from the machine and
the bricks dumped from the molds onto metal pallets. The dumping
of the brick from the molds onto metal pallets is done by hand or
automatically by the brick machine.
Dry clay is clay which is not tempered by the application of water.
The clay is gathered and usually “ weathered’ * several months
before it is made into brick. It is so dry and so compactly pressed
in the molds that the brick are taken directly from the brick-making
machine and set in the kilns where they are “ water-smoked” and
burned, it not being necessary to dry them in the dryer or in the open
air as must be done with green brick molded from stiff-mud or from
soft-mud clay.
It has been estimated by competent authorities that 50 per cent
of the common brick manufactured in the United States is produced
by the “ stiff-mud” process, 40 per cent by the “ soft-mud” process,
and 10 per cent by * dry-clay” process. Nearly 6,000,000,000 com­
mon brick were produced in the United States during 1922, an in­
crease of 30 per cent over 1921, and yet 10 per cent less than in 1914.
The clay-pit department includes the digging, loading, and trans­
ferring of clay from its source to the machine house.
The machine-house department includes the hoisting of the clay
to the pug mill, the pugging, granulating, tempering of the clay, the
molding of the clay into brick, the transferring o f the green brick
from the brick machine to the dryer or to the open-air drying yard,
and the drying of the brick.
The setting department includes the transferring of the dried brick
from the drying place to the kiln, and setting them in the kiln.




10

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

The burning department includes the firing or burning of the kilns
with wood, coal, oil, or gas.
The loading department includes taking the brick from the kilns
and loading them onto carts, wagons, trucks, railroad cars, boats, or
barges.
The miscellaneous department includes all work necessary in the
manufacture of common brick other than specified above.
In general, there is, either directly or indirectly, much piecework
in the brick industry— directly, when the rate of pay is so much per
thousand for loading brick from kilns onto cars, wagons, or trucks,
or for transferring to and setting brick in kilns; indirectly, when the
task or “ stint” system is in effect; that is, when a specified number of
thousand brick is allotted as a day’s work.
Under the task system, the rate of pay is so much per day, regard­
less of the number of hours required to do (produce) the day’s 1 stint.”
1
Owing to the variations in the working o f the clay and other condi­
tions, the time to do the “ stint” may, and frequently does, vary
from day to day. This system has been entirely discontinued in
Chicago or district 4 under the stiff-mud process and in some other
stiff-mud plants in other districts. The task system was reported
as still in effect in 14 of the 45 stiff-mud plants, 20 of the 26 soit-mud
plants, and in only 1 of the 8 dry-clay plants included in this study.
HOURS OF LABOR AND EARNINGS.

Table 5 shows the average full-time hours per week, average
earnings per hour, and average full-time earnings per week of all
wage earners, by districts, under each process or method of manu­
facture.
Average earnings per hour were computed by dividing the total
earnings of all employees by the total number of hours actually
worked. The average full-time hours per week were obtained by
dividing the aggregate full-time hours of all employees by the total
number of employees. Full-time earnings per week were computed
by multiplying the average earnings per hour by the average full-time
hours per week.
The nighest average full-time hours per week and the lowest average
earnings per hour for the stiff-mud group are found in district 2, whue
the lowest hours and the highest earnings are found in district 4.
Likewise in the soft-mud group the highest hours and lowest hourly
earnings are in district 4, while lowest hours and highest earnings are
found m district 5.
Both dry-clay districts show practically the same full-time hours,
but the hourly earnings in district 1 exceed those of district 2 by
51 per cent.




HOURS OF LABOR AND EARNINGS.

11

T able 5 .—AVER AG E FU LL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K , EARN IN G S PER H O U R , AND FU LL'
TIM E EARN IN G S PER W E E K IN TH E COMMON-BRICK IN D U STR Y UN D ER EACH
PROCESS OF M AN U FACTU RE, B Y DISTRICT.

Estab­
lish­
ments.

District.

Em­
ploy­
ees.

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week.

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour.

Aver­
age

full­

time
earn­
ings
per
week.

Stiff-m ud process.
1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Penn­
sylvania, Wisconsin...................................................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia..........................................
4 . Illinois..............................................................................................
5 . Arkansas, Missouri........................................................................

17
9
10
6
3

740
679
601
761
173

59.3
63.3
59.1
52.2
57.9

$0,428
.195
.279
.765
.310

$25.38
12.34
16.49
39.93
17.95

Total and average.....................................................................

45

2,954

58.3

.424

24.72

Connecticut, Massachusetts..........................................................
New Jersey, New York.................................................................
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania..................................................
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas......................................................
Michigan..........................................................................................

9
5
5
4
3

668
574
230
219
174

54.7
51.4
56.3
58.5
50.0

$0,432
.512
.430
.211
.723

$23.63
26.32
24.21
12.34
36.15

Total and average.....................................................................

26

1,865

53.9

.458

24.69

2 , Texas................................................................................................

t . Kansas, Missouri............................................................................

4
4

134
123

61.6
61.7

$0,355
.235

$21.87
14.50

Total and average.....................................................................

8

257

61.6

.300

18.48

2r Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina___

S o ft-m u d process.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Dry-clay process.

Table 6 shows for the more important occupations in the indus­
try—six for the stiff-mud and five for the soft-mud process— the
number of establishments, number of employees, the average earnings
per hour, and per cent of employees earning each classified amount
per hour. In this table data are for all districts combined. Because
of the few dry-clay-process plants scheduled no data are shown in the
table for that process.
In the table it will be observed that data are shown for burners
and kiln firemen, stiff-mud process, for 44 establishments and 207
employees; that the average earnings per hour were 32.8 cents; that
15 per cent of the 207 employees earned 10 and under 15 cents per
hour; 16 per cent earned 15 and under 20 cents; 14 per cent earned
20 and under 25 cents; 9 per cent earned 25 and under 30 cents; 8
per cent earned 30 and under 35 cents; 6 per cent earned 35 and
under 40 cents; 13 per cent earned 40 and under 50 cents; 8 per cent
earned 50 and under 60 cents; 1 per cent earned 60 and under 70
cents; and 8 per cent earned 70 ana under 80 cents.




12

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS--- COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

T able 6 .—A V E R A G E AN D CLASSIFIED EAR N IN G S P ER HOUR FO R EM PLO YEES IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, 1922, B Y PROCESS

Per cent of employees whose earnings per hour were—

Occupation.

Aver­
age
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 80 90
Estab­ Em­ earn­
lish­ ploy­ ings Un­ and and and and and and and and and and and cts.
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
ments. ees.
per
der der der der der der der der der der un­
hour. 10 der
cts. 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 80 90 der
cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. cts. $1.

$1
and
un­
der

$1.25

S tiff-m u d process.
Burners and kiln

fireman.................

Laborers....................
Loaders.....................
Off-bearers (hack­
ers)..........................
Setters.......................
Wheelers, pitchers,
tossers, and truck­
ers...........................

44
45
38

2Q 10.328
7
712 .388 * Y
415 .500

15
11
7

16
18
5

14
5
17

9
7
8

8
12

44
41

324
229

.441
.423

2

4
1

20

7
21

6
6

8

16

19

119

.346

18

25

(D

1
6
5

6
8
10

13
11
6

8
2
7

4
13

12
9

1 (l) 32
7 5 11

4

4
8

22

14

3

6

3

9

8
20 (D 0 )
9 10
7

0)

1

6

7

S o ft-m u d process.
Burners and kiln

fireman.................

Laborers and clay
wheelers_____ ____
Loaders.....................
Setters.......................
Wheelers, pitchers,
tossers, and truck­
ers...........................
1
i I^ess than 1 per cent.

21

5

73 $0,446

26
18
26

407
174
88

.423
.450
.561

25

283

.515

2

5

5

4

10

41

23

4

1

5

3

5

23

15
36
25

7

1
1

1

7

29
34
27

3

7

2

6

36

26

2 0)

13

4

7

7

7
5

2
1

10
2
1

2

2

0)

2

9
15

REGULAR OR CUSTOMARY HOURS OF OPERATION.

The regular or customary hours of an establishment are the hours
of operation when the plant is working its recognized standard
full time; that is, the time from beginning work in the morning to
the closing hour in the afternoon, less the regular time off duty for
lunch or dinner.
Table 7 shows average hours and earnings and classified full-time
hours per week, by processes and occupations, for the United States
as a whole.
In a few occupations in the brick industry it is customary for em­
ployees to work 7 days per week and 12 hours per day— as, for in­
stance, burners and kiln firemen, steam-dryer firemen, and stationary
engineers. Practically all of the 7-day employees are shown as work­
ing 56, 70, and 84 hours per week, the only others being a very few
of those whose regular or customary hours are over 60 and under
70 per week. Only 14 per cent of all employees in the stiff-mud
group worked 7 days per week and only 10 per cent worked 12 hours
per day. Regular or customary hours of 3 per cent of the burners
and kim firemen were 70 per week, or 10 per day for 7 days, and of
88 per cent were 84 per week, or 12 per day for 7 days. When the
hours of the entire stiff-mud group are considered it is seen that out
of 2,954 employees there were 3 per cent at 56 per week, or 8 per
day for 7 days; 1 per cent at 70, or 10 per day for 7 days; 10 per cent at
84, or 12 per day for 7 days; 37 per cent at 60, or 10 per day for 6




HOURS Ob OPERATION.
J1

18

days; 23 per cent at 48, or 8 per day for 6 days, and 10 per cent at
54, or 9 per day for 6 days. There were 12 per cent at over 60 hours
per week and 88 per cent at 60 hours or less per week. Approxi­
mately 86 per cent of the employees had work 6 days per week and
14 per cent had work 7 days per week.
Somewhat similar conditions were found in the soft-mud and the
dry-clay groups. The softr-mud group had 7 per cent of all employees
working 7 days per week and 4 per cent 12 hours per day, while the
dry-clay group had 12 per cent as 7-day employees and 10 per cent at
12 hours per day.
74987°— 24t------ 2




T able 7 .—AVER AG E HOURS AN D EARNINGS AND CLASSIFIED FU LL-TIM E HOURS PER W E E K , 1922, B Y PROCESS AN D OCCUPATION.

29
25
44
12
22
29
45
38
44
38
41
41
38
19
41

67
27
207
36
27
32
712
415
324
43
229
71
128
119
517

Total...................................................... .

45

2,954

3
33

68.5 $0,404 $27.67
54.4
.493 26.82
.328 27.09
82.6
56.4
.307 17.31
.467 25.92
55.5
.374 20.79
55.6
.388 22.47
57.9
55.4
.500 27.70
54.0
.441 23.81
55.4
.397 21.99
54.8
.423 23.18
.585 36.56
62.5
.408 22.73
55.7
.346 18.86
54.5
.474 26.83
56.6

6
1

24.72

i

58.3

.424

5
4

5
4

4

11
15
9
4
25
7
9
14
7
16
10
8

0)

6
1
4
3
5
2
3
3
8
1

0)

C
1)

23

2

1

3
2
1

28
22
25
17
40
32
26
25

i
i
4

i
i

0)
1
2
4
3

C
1)

C)
1

5

10

6
22
22
24
19
39
23
20
13
20
24
31

8

1

3

4
3
(i)
1
2
2
5
1
2

8
4

1

11
3
13
7
8
2
8
7
2
8
5

27
41
6
28
37
50
40
39
36
49
39
35
49
45
34

3

7

37

1
6

2
3
55
25
24
43

6 50
11
6
1 *7*
5
3 “ i*
5
2
4
7 “ i"
1
4

5
4

2

12

36

3

3

88

2

3

6

3

1

21

2

1

6

1

1

10

!1

S o ft-m u d process.
Boiler firemen and steam-dryer firemen..............
Burners and kiln firemen...........................................
Clay-cart drivers and scraper or wheeler operators.
Dumpers.........................................................................
Laborers and clay wheelers.......................................
Loaders...........................................................................
Mold pushers................................................................
Mold senders................................................................
Pallet b o y s...................................................................
Pug-mill operators.......................................................




19

24

43
73
40
63
407
174
15
41

13

2
0

21

14

21

26
18

8
22

66

66.4 $01501 $33.27
.446 35.90
80.5
.370 20.65
55.8
53.7
.469 25.19
52.2
.423 22.08 **i*
.450 25.02
55.6
.464 23.71
51.1
2
.387 18.79
51.9
3
.376 19.78
52.6
.520 26.99 10
51.9

35

14
2

5
2

2
1
2
3

7
2

1
2

3

7
8
48
40
29
53
34
47
50

3

3

3
3

(l)

22
20
15

14
3
3
0)

5
6

30
82

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

Boiler firemen and steam-dryer firemen. .
Brick-machine operators..............................
Burners and kiln firemen.............................
Clay-cart drivers............................................
Dinkey engineers...........................................
Hoist m en.......................................................
Laborers..........................................................
Loaders............................................................
Oil-bearers (hackers).....................................
Pug-mill operators.........................................
Setters..............................................................
Shovel engineers and stationary engineers
Transfer men and car pullers......................
Wheelers, pitchers, tossers, and truckers..
Other employees.............................................

T?.»(>lrftr<3
...
Setters T T r ....... ............... ...........
Shovel dl^g-liup and st^timuiry engineers_.
____ ___________
Striven5off ,
Transfer men and car pullers
Truckers t-0 dryer -t,nssers; and triifikers...............
..................... ......
Wheelers; nit.nners,
Other fimpmyflfis___________________________ I
Total..................................................................

23
90
26
88
20 31
43
19
5
17
3 44
25 283
26 327
26 1,865

52.5
49.9
55.9
51.7
55.4
49.5
50.1
54.3
53.9

.478
.561
.648
.518
.360
.446
,51o
.459
.458

25.20
27.99
36.22
26.78
19.94
22.08
25.80
24.92
24.69

7 2 1
9 3 19
5
3 3 3
11 2 23
1 (0 2
3 1 5

i
22
14
21
36
77
5 2
2 24
2 20 0) 0)

2
6
3

42
25
33
29
77
21
35
43
1 36

!
2 12
4
2 1

23
24
9
23
24
2
23
2 17
1 23

5 12

2

1 2 0)
1 1 0) j 0)

2
4

Dry-clay process.

i Less than 1 per cent.




7
5
5
5
7
8
7
8
8
8

23
13
47
19
11
16
35
49
44
257

83.0
58.8
59.6
58.5
59.5
59.3
59.8
59.2
59.6
61.6

$0,329
.242
.267
.336
.275
.352
.239
.284
.375
.300

$27.31
14.23
15.91
19.66
16.36
20.87
14.29
16.81
22.35
18.48

1

....... 1""
!
i
....... Ii
!
i
:
'" 'I....... f

!

19
16
9
6
3
10
11
1
0

23
11
6
4
18
6

77
74
74
91
88
97
86
61
72

10
0

4

7
2

'
j
j
l
L9

HOUBS OB 0PEBAT10.N.

‘Rnmers and kiln firemen. . .
....
Olay wheelers and feeder operators.........................
Laborers......................................................................
Loaders and wheelers. - ............................................
Off-bearers (hankers) ____ _________________
Setters___ ____________________ __________
Teamsters, drivers of wheelers, and scraper oper­
ators ..........................................................................
Truckers and brick wheelers....................................
Other employees.............................................._........
Total..................................................................

1G

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COM M ON-BRICK IN DUSTRY.
SALE OF PRODUCT.

Of the 45 stiff-mud plants 16 reported that the entire output was
as a rule sold and used in the locality of the plant. Five reported
as much as 90 and under 100 per cent, four 75 and under 90 per cent,
nine 50 and under 75 per cent, and most of the remaining eleven
reported 10 per cent or less used in the locality where manufactured.
Because of special contracts a few shipped to a distance practically
the entire 1922 product.
Ten of the 26 soft-mud plants reported that 100 per cent of the
product was used locally, three 90 and under 100 per cent, three 75
and under 90 per cent, two 50 and under 75 per cent, and three
25 per cent, while the remaining five shipped the entire product by
barge or rail to a distant market, practically all to New York City.
Four of the eight dry-clay plants scheduled disposed of 100 per
cent locally, one 50 per cent, two 25 per cent, and one 10 per cent.
EXPLANATION OF GENERAL TABLES.

In addition to the summary text tables already shown, general
wage tables A, B, C, D, and E are presented in this report (pages 18
to 50). These tables do not include data for dry-clay plants be­
cause so few were scheduled. The one soft-mud plant having a
monthly pay roll was also omitted from these tables.
Table A.—Average earnings and hours and classified full-time
hours per week, 1922, by process, occupation, and district.
Table B.— Average full-time and actual hours and earnings, 1922,
by process, occupation, pay period, and district.
Table C.—Average and classified earnings per hour of employees
in selected occupations, 1922, by process and district.
Table D.— Average and classified actual hours of employees in
selected occupations in one pay period, 1922, by process, occupation,
length of pay period, and district. The high number of hours in one
week shown for some employees is due to overtime at their prin­
cipal occupation or to their having made a turn at kiln firing after
completion of the regular day’s work.
Table E.— Average and classified actual earnings of employees in
selected occupations, in one pay period, 1922, by process, occupa­
tion, length of pay period, and district.
In Table B a comparison is drawn between the “ Average full-time
hours per pay period , or the regular hours during which under normal
conditions it is possible for employees in an occupation to work, and
the “ Average hours actually worked in one pay period” by all em­
ployees in the occupation, including those who worked less than the
hours of opportunity for work. In a parallel column is shown the per
cent of full time worked. A comparison is also made between the
full-time earnings and the actual earnings in the pay period. The
full-time earnings were computed by multiplying the average earn­
ings per hour actually made by the full-time hours in the pay
period. Reference to the column “ Per cent of fulltime worked”
shows that the great majority of employees in the industry worked
90 per cent or more of full time, in some cases over 100 per cent, due




EXPLANATION OF GEN EliAL TABLES.

17

to the fact that the employees worked overtime at their own occupa­
tion or did some work at one or more other occupations, being
credited and paid for such extra hours of work.
Tables C, D, and E are limited to the more important occupations
in the industry, six for the stiff-mud and five for the soft-mud process.
In Tables D and E data for establishments having one-week pay
rolls are shown separately from data for those having two-week or
half-month pay periods because it was not possible accurately to
separate the data of the latter so as to arrive at the equivalent of
a one-week pay roll.




T

able

A •— AVERAGE EARNINGS AND HOURS AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, 1922, BY PROCESS,
OCCUPATION, AND DISTRICT.

00

STIFF-M UD PROCESS.

42

Over
Over
Over
Over
54
44
48
50
and 48 and 50 and 54 and 55
44 un­
un­
un­
un­
der
der
der
der
50.
54.
48.
55.

Over
Over
56
60
and
56 un­ 60 and 70
un­
der
der
60.
70.

Over
72
72 and 84
un­
der
84.

B oiler firem en and steam -dryer firem en .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina.......................................... .
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia............ .
4 . Illinois........................................................... .
5 . Arkansas, Missouri........................................
Total.........................................................

10.368 126.75

1

72.7

7
7
5
1

.175
.387
.754
.300

12.60
20.29
46.37
25.20

72.0
70.7
61.5
84.0

29

.404

27.67

68.5

.487

27.37

56.2

.296
.302

17.38
16.34
40.27

58.7
54.1
48.0

26.82

54.4

1 .

_____
i

B rick-m achine operators.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina.......................................... .
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
4 . Illinois...........................................................
Total.........................................................

7
5
6
25

5
i 2
3 I i
....

1
2

1

9

„
|
t

_____

1

1

5

3

3 ! 14

1
1

1
7

1

3 ! 3

_____ ...J

5

9

2
2
6

1

8

2
== —

6
8
1
2
- ,_
26
---- T

4

l

2

1

l

1

1

6
3

|
2 1 1
* I

1

7

11

B u rn ers and kiln firem en .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
el
co 4 *6

Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississ: pi,
South Carolina...........................................
Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia..............
Illinois........................................................... .
Arkansas, Missouri....................................... .
Total.........................................................




17

62

.415

34.32

73
50
18
4

.183
.253
.707
.424

15.37
20.16
59.39
35.62

84.0
79.7
84.0
84.0

.328

27.09

1
0
6
2

44

207

82.6

59

3

82.7

9

1

6

i

6

73
38
18
4

6

6

192

!
!

1

1

3

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

Occupation and district.

Number of employees whose full-tim e hours per week were—

Aver- Aver­
Aver­ ag
age
age
full­
Estab­ Em­ earn­
lish' ploy­ ings time time Un­
earn­ hours
ments. ees.
per
ings
per der 40
hour. per week. 40.
week.

C lay-cart drivers.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
OiW *o
• •
•

6

25

.381

2 , Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

5«

21.15

6
3
2

.073
.22 8
.316

4.3 8
12.84
18.01

6 0 .0
5 6 .3
5 7 .0

36

.30 7

17.31

5 6 .4

4

Tnt.al

1
3
2
12

Arkansas, Missouri.........................................

2

2

55 .5

5

.447

24.67

5 5 .2

4
8
5
1

5
10
6
1

.32 2
.285
.853
.45 0

19.32
16.19
41.80
27.00

6 0 .0
5 6 .8
4 9 .0
6 0 .0

22

27

.467

2 5 .92

5 5 .5

2

1

1
1

2

6
1
1

1

4

2

2

18

......... L . . .

10

18

M
.

D in key engineers.

Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,

•

1.

2

1

2

1

3

....

3

5
2

5

1
1

6

4

1

3

____

3

10

C • O
rt^O•
•

•

2 , F lorida,. Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

5.

Arkansas, Missouri.........................................
Total...........................................................

1
. .

1

Of^CO •W• M
.
• • •
1.

Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
fthjn P en n sylvan ia W iscon sin

10

10

.411

22.52

5
7
5
2

6
9
5
2

.19 0
.22 8
.791
.274

11.40
12.97
37.97
16.44

6 0 .0
5 6 .9
4 8 .0
6 0 .0

Total...........................................................

29

32

.374

20.79

5 5 .6

17

172

.388

22.12

5 7 .0

9
10
6
3

166
146
186
42

.15 2
.239
.705
.263

9.5 8
14.12
37.22
15.67

6 3 .0
59 .1
5 2 .8
5 9 .6

45

712

.38 8

22.47

5 7 .9

14

83

.505

28.84

57 .1

1

2

1

5 4 .8

Smith Carolina _
3 - M aryland N n rfh Carolina V irginia
4-. Illinois
5 . Arkansas, Missouri.........................................

1

4

1

2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

6
1

1

....

1

5

4
2

7

2

12

4

3

1

2

1

16

Curfew •W• H
• • •

L aborers.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

5

2.

Smith Carolina.

3. Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............

4 . Illinois..

5. Arkansas, Missouri...........* .........................................
Total..............................................................................

13

1

47

16

2
5
150

1

167

5

6

2

2

8

....

78

2

9 |47

94

7

1
----

5

2

28

71
142
33
1
34

281

K

L oaders.
•

1.

Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,

Qitfteo •
K
•

O h io, P en n sylvan ia, W is c o n s in .

2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina.
3 . M arylan d , N o rth Carolina, V irginia
• «

4 . Illinois..
5.

Arkansas, M issouri.................................................
Total..............................................................................




8

75

5
2

130
28

.220
.262
.868
.352

13.20
14.80
44.09
19.75

6 0 .0
5 6 .5
5 0 .8
5 6 .1

38

415

.500

27.70

5 5 .4

9

99

8

14

15

12

60

70

12

....

3

46

4

9

....

27

75
32

4

21

....

30

163

10

18
78

15

104

3
1
7

ii

8

21
6
14

1
1

19

42

t

GENERAL TABLES.

i------

H oist m en.

T

ab le

A .—AVERAGE EARNINGS AND HOURS AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, 1922, BY PROCESS,
OCCUPATION, AND DISTRICT— Continued.

°

ST IF F -M U D PR O CESS—Concluded.

O ff-bearer* (hacker*).

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin................
2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina........................................ .
3* Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia...........
4. Illin ois.......................................................
5* Arkansas. Missouri......................................
Total.......................................................

i
17

2

73 60.376 621.36 56.8

2

9
10
5
3

62
56
116
17

.152 9.07 59.7
.260 14.31 55.1
.765 36.72 48.0
.246 14.42 58.6

7
116

5

44

324

.441 |23.81 54.0

2 126

10

P u g-m itt operators.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio. Pennsylvania. Wisconsin_
_
3* Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina.................................... . .
3. Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia..........
4. Illinois.........................................................
5 . Arkansas, Missouri.................................
Total..........................................................

13

5

3

16
10
7
7
3

.177 10.45 59.0
.278 14.65 52.7
.742 35.62 48.0
.328 19.02 58.0

38

43

.397 21.99 55.4

2

1j

2
7

1

110

2

1
1I

9

4

26 117 I
1
'
I . '
.
_______ _________ 1
___

1

1

13

67

.509 27.73 54.4

5 ....

9
10
3
3

66
55
31
10

.205 11.93 58.1
.301 16.56 55.0
.879 43.86 49.9
.391 19.00 48.6

4

Total.......................................................

41

229

.423

23.18 54.8

2

6

2

7

9
21

2

2

i
! 9
9 ....

2 |45

5

9

1...

1

1

2

9
1

1

1

9

1

1

3

.

i

4i

2

1

1 21
j

16

. . . j .......
....| .......
i

22

Setter*.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin ............
2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina................. . .............. .
3* Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia............
4. Illinois.........................................................
5. Arkansas, Missouri........................................




60
5

6 ....

6

22
1
!

1
j

1

4 39

4

1

.423 24.20 57.2

7
6
6
3

4

6

5

1
16

3

14

4 i 27
55
7

7
10
1

11

8 ....

15

32

11

8 ....

19 89

1

........i

....... l...
___

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS---- COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

Occupation and district.

Number of employees whose full-time hours per week were—
Aver­
Aver­ age Average
ftfllOver
Over
Over
Over
Over
Over
Over
Estab­ Em­ earn­ time
44
48
50
54
56
60
72
lish­ ploy­
time
ments. ees. ings earn­ hours Un­ 40 42 44 and 48 and 50 and 54 and 55 56 and 60 and 70 72 and 84
per ings per der
un­
un­
un­
un­
un­
un­
un­
hour. per week. 40.
der
der
der
der
der
der
der
week.
55.
48.
50.
54.
70.
84.
60.
|

Shovel, stationary, and dray-line engineers.

1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin................
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina...........................................
Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia............
Illinois............................................................
Arkansas, Missouri........................................

I
28

.569

35.18

62.1

5

0

.395

10
$
3

13
14
7

.390
.966
.455

25.71
22.03
60.28
33.17

65.3
56.4
62.4
72.9

41

Total.

16

71

.585

36.56

62.5

Transfer m e n a nd car pullers.

Total..........................................................

!

6

i

1

4

3

1

5

5

5

2

1

4

3
16

3
5

4

13

21

1

!
!

15

29

.387

22.02

56.9

5

34
18
41

3

6

.182
.251
.716
.234

10.92
13*55
36.80
13.81

60.0
54.0
51.4
59.0

38

128

.408

22.73

!
1
55.7 ____ 1
____

9
51

. I

...J . .
.
1.
..

___
9 |

4

20

2
24

5

1

l

4

2
2

2

3

4
L ..

15

i

i

2

2
2

3

2

5

1

2

1
1

!

18
34
| 3
3
5

2 163

!

g

29

.468

26.58

56.8

4
4
3

44
29
17

.198
.387
.383

11.07
20.51
18.92

55.9
53.0
49.4

7

Total..........................................................

19

119

.346

18.86

54.5 .

7

8

4

17

10

5

1 28

53

__

4

13
____

29
7 ....I

10

15

9

12

1

13

i

Other employees.
14

116

.420

24.71

58.8

8

g

101

15.25
17.75
38.15
18.59

61.3
58.3
51.7
56.5

1

85
183
32

.248
.304
.738
.329

517

.474

26.83

56.6

South Carolina...........................................
3* Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia............
Illinois............................................................
5. Arkansas, Missouri........................................

10
6
3

Total...................................................

41




1

2

1

7
3

;
i

j

South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia............
5. Arkansas, Missouri........................................

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin................

12

1
1
1

> ....
!

9

1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin................

2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

2

i

Wheelers, pitchers, tossers, a n d truchers.

2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

1

2

l

GENERAL TABLES,

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin................
2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia............
4 . Illinois............................................................
5. Arkansas, Missouri........................................

3 i

6

1

i4i*
l

6 ....

2

6

10

7

i

157

!
7 I

1

42

2

6

18

17
" l

2

6 66

2

2

4
5

9

2
2

93

15
4

1 j.......

8

25

7

6

15
17
24 197

*

11

2*
8

8
11
28

i

to

T

ab le

A .—AVERAGE EARNINGS AND HOURS AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, 1922, BY PROCESS,
OCCUPATION, AND DISTRICT— Continued.

10

SOFT-MUD PROCESS.1
Number of employees whose full-tim e hours per week were—

42

Over
Over
Over
Over
50
54
44
48
and 48 and 50 and 54 and 55
44 un­
un­
un­
un­
der
der
der
der
54.
55.
48.
50.

Over
Over
56
60
and 60 and 70
56 un­
un­
der
der
60.
70.

Over
72
72 and 84
un­
der
84.

Boiler firemen and steam-dryer firemen.
1. Onnnftfitifiiit, Massachusetts...........................
2 New Jersey/N ew Y ork .................................
m
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.....................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas........................
5. Michigan.........................................................
Total..........................................................

5
4
3
3
3
18

13 10.566 $34.30 60.6
11 .511 33.06 64.7
6 .401 29.15 72.7
4 .226 15,59 69.0
7 .641 51.28 80.0
41

.502

33.94

67.6

Burners and kiln firemen.
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas........................
5 . Michigan.........................................................

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts...........................

6
4
5
3
3

19
27
15
7
5

.449
.439
.436
.190
.583

34.62
35.91
34.84
15.96
48.97

21

73

.446

35.90

80.5

7
5
1

1
-— .. — = = =

=

- -1
=

i
■- ■
■
■
■

— 1

2, New Jersey, New York..................................

Clay-cartdrivers andscraper or wheeler operators.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Connecticut, Massachusetts...........................
New Jersey, New Y ork..................................
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.......................
Total........................................................

5
2
4
3
14

7




7

3
5

...—

| 1
=====

3

—

—

—

—

—

----- 1
,-------

.400
.596
.400
.171

53.9
48.0
58.4
59.2

1

40

. 37ft 1 2 t 55.8
0.ff
t

1

22
15
9

.432
.533
.469

—
----- 1

2
8

1
»

3

| 2

1

i

i

....

i

2
8

14

7

2

1
9
13

1

22

|
23.80 55.1
27.08 50.8
25.51 . 54.4 . . . .

4

-------i
1

1

3

1

9

—

2

5 i____1
___
—
— —

1
11

2

4

6

14
25
9
7
5

4

60

2

2

8
11
14

Dumpers.
1 . Connecticut, Massachusetts...........................
2 t New Jersey, New Y ork.
. _n
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................

21.56
28.61
23.36
10.12

15

2
2

4
2

3
1
6 |

3
4

i

1

77.1
81.8
79.9
84.0
84.0

Total...........................................................

3
2

6
6

1

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

Occupation and district.

Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ age
full­ age
age
Estab­ Em­ earn­ time full­
lish­ ploy ings earn­ time
ments. ees. per
ings hours Un­ 40
per
hour. per week. der
40.
week.

'

4-. T>nmRi»naJMississippi, T atss.
...............
A. Miohipan _____ .........................................

3
2

5
5

.230
.694

13.25
34.98

57.6
50.4

Total...........................................................

20

56

.476

25.51

53.6 —

1 * r*nnnAfttirait|MftSSAAhtiSAtts......................... .
2 . New Jersey, New Y ork..................................
3.
hhiflj PAnnsylTflpia....................
4 . T^nnisiftna,' Mississippi, fa xa s........................
A. Minhipan / .........*.*... ...................................

8
5
5
4
3

167
98
43
50
29

.398
.498
.406
.202
.636

21.97
24.80
21.72
11.39
31.67

55.2
49.8
53.5
56.4
49.8

5

T otal...........................................................

25

387

.426

22.75

53.4

5 —

1

1
3

1 —

1

6 ....

5

2

14

23

!

4
16

Laborers and clay wheelers.
10
62

6 ....

12

113
24

5

15
14

2

3

4

5 101

5

42

11

12 141

11

2

16
35
2

i

3

95

i

Loaders.
4
3
4
4
2

Total...........................................................

17

169

.448

24.95

55.7

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts..........................
2. New Jersey, New Y ork.................................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................

4
3
1

4
10
1

.391
.510
.275

21.11
25.70
12.93

54.0
50.4
47.0

Total..........................................................

8

15

.464

23.71

51.1

10
11
7
4
6

.382
.374
.379
.178
.634

20.86
18.77
18.91
10.15
30.75

54.6
50.2
49.9
57.0
48.5

6
.406 21.92 54.0
95 New Jersey, New Y ork .
2 . .493 26.77 54.3
20 .437 24.87 56.9
31
.216 12.55 58.1
17 .623 36.26 58.2

25
5
30

3

I

3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................... i
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.......................
5. M ichigan.........................................................

!

Total........................................................... ;

I

1 1
| 1

s
4
3

2
1

23

38

.390

20.20

51.8

1

3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.......................
5. M ichigan............ ..........................................

6
4
4
4
3

18
24
5
8
7

.344
.413
.326
.110
.649

18.68
21.27
15.91
6.44
30.57

54.3
51.5
48.8
58.5
47.1

....

Total..........................................................

21

62

.380

19.95

52.5

2

2

1 ....

46

1 I

i

Mold sanders.
1. Connecticut, Massachusetts..........................

6

30
11
26
10 7

6

10

!

Mold pushers.

2. New Jersey, New Y ork.................................

6
40

3

1

----- j........
6 .......1
j

8

j
i

5
4

===
==

2
7

1 .......I“ . ".
. . . .
i
3
— i.......
!
'
1 ...j
.......1
...............
i 13 1

i
r
i
.. . J

2
11

1

1

1

1Not including data for 98 employees of 1 establishment having a monthly pay period.




2

2
2

3 ....... L . j ..... 11
10 ....... L . j ........ 14
1
........
3 ....... i___ ■
17

—

2

i
i
27
1
------------—

.

___!.......
...J .

3
3
3

r

9 .......i ....

i ■
,

4

i

2
7

i

Pallet boys.
1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.........................

2. New Jersey, New Y ork.................................

-— -

4
4

6 ........i. . j .........
1

!

74

13

—

i =

L—
i
;**'

GENERAL TABLES,

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts...........................
................................
3 . Kentucky" t)hio, Pennsylvania....................
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas........................
5. Michigan.........................................................

T

a b le

A .— AVERAGE EARNINGS AND HOURS AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, 1922, BY PROCESS,
OCCUPATION, AND DISTRICT—Concluded.

^

CnjfkttKH




PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BE1CK INDUSTRY,

OirfkWW
H.

SO F T -M U D PROCESS—Concluded.

5
3

9
9

.512
.809

31.28
45.79

61.1

................................

Total..........................................................

19

42

.652

37.16

57.0

6
1
4
3

7
7
4
5
6

.525
.531
.471
.242
.728

29.24
25.49
22.28
13.94
35.31

55.7
48.0
47.3
57.6
48.5

1

18

29

.524

26.99

51.5

1

6
7

.433
.365

23.38
19,71

.

1
j 1
,

.... 1

2

2

!....... |
:
1
.......... ; 9 ;...........

!

13

1

5

2i 3

4

1

54.0
54.0

3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania......................

^

2

2

1

5

1

Strikers-off.

4

Total..........................................................

1

1

1

____ i

1i i
!

1

1
3

2

5

7

]
4

*
2

11

7

7 !.......

T ran sfer men, and car p u llers.

2
1
Total

.............

4

5

17

61
..........

7 .......
1

.210 12.60 60.0

.360 19.94 55.4

===== = =

—

—:
—

T ru ckers to dryer. *
.........................
..
.

1
1
1

9
34
1

.386 20.84 54.0
.467 22.42 48.0
.250 15.00 60.0

Total....................................................................................

3

44

7
5
5
4
3

104
84
20
28
.32

.442
.622
.386
.200
.859

Total................................................................

24

268

.520 25.95 49.9 30

1* Connecticut, Massachusetts___
2 . New Jersey, New York. . _r
.................
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania......................
4 / Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas........................
......................................

8
5
5
4
3

98
90
47
41
21

Total................................................................

25

297

—

.446 22.08 49.5

Connecticut, Massachusetts....................................
2 » New Jersey, New York. .
...........................
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.............................
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.
. .
3* Michigan 1
__

_____
13 1 ~ ~ ~
i

l . ftanneettoit, Massachusetts.
New Jersey, New York ......
Louisiana,Mississippi,Texas-

3*
4.

,

4
—

=

■■
■

'—

==
= = = = = ==

=

=

=

■
■

9

34

1
9

1

72
13

32

1

W heelers, pitch ers , tossers and tru ckers.

1.

—

4

24.71
26.50
19.69
11.58
36.08

55.9
42.6 18
51.0
57.9
42.0 12

*

5

53
3

2

8

5*

12

64 ___

10
23

5
85

“ i 5
I

GENERAL TABLES,

2

1

65

Other em ployees.

5. Michigan.

. .




53.7
51.9
56.1
58.5
51.0

2

.459 24.97 54.4

2

.439
.500
.429
.269
.751

23.57
25.95
24.07
15.74
38.30
!

1
1

7

5

19
41

68
40

9
10

i

7
4
1 15
29
5 1

2

5 79

7

1

110
i

1

12
12 ___
I

1
2

7 56

3

1
3

1
3
2
1

1

2

1

7

1

7
i

1

t>s
Cn

26

PB0DUCX1V1TY COSTS— COMMON-BBIOK INDUSTRY.

T a b l e B . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E A N D A C T U A L H O U R S A N D E A R N ­

IN G S , 1922, B Y PRO C ESS, O C C U P A T IO N , P A Y P E R IO D , A N D
T R IC T .

D IS ­

S T IF F -M U D P R O C E SS.

Occupation, pay period, and district.

Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
cent age hill- earn­
Estab­ Em­ age full- hours Per full
time
time actually of
ings
lish­ ploy­
earn­
hours
time
ments. ees. per pay worked worked. ings in actually
received
in pay
pay,
period. period.
period.

Boiler firemen a n d steam-dryer firemen—
O n e week.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 , Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
5 • Arkansas, Missouri........................................ |
2,

Total.......................................................... ;
|
j
1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin...............
2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
4 . Illinois............................................................

4

8

75.0

69.5

93

$25.65

$23.77

6
6
1

9
15
2

68.0
71.4
84.0

64.7
57.1
81.4

95
80
97

11.56
19.85
25.20

10.98
15.88
14.40

17

34

72.2

Boiler firemen a n d steam-dryer firemen— T w o
weeks or one-half month.

Total.......................................................... |
Brick-machine operators— O n e week.

1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............

2.

Total..........................................................

88 19.28
63.4
............. -------- - :- .......

16.94
'

1
s'

10

149.6

130.4

8?

58.19

50.76

i i
1!
5

5
1
17

162.4
130.0
131.3

149.2
90.0
135.9

92
69
104

24.05
54.21
99.00

27.59
37.55
102.51

12 i

33

136.6

134.9

99

74.45

73.51

1
i
4;
6:
«l
15 |

4

56.3

59.4

106

26.29

27.71

6
5

58.3
54.1

57.0
54.7

98
101

16.91
16.34

16.53
16.51

15

56.4

56.9

101

19.35

19.51
_______

Brick-machine operators— T w o weeks or onehalf month.

'

1 , Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................

3

3

121.3

130.2

107

62.35

66.94

South Carolina....................................f . . . .
4 . Illinois............................................................

1
6

2
7

120.0
104.0

119.5
137.6

100
132

37.80
87.76

37.68
115.50

io j

12

112.7

132.7

118

76.75

90.39

2 • Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

Total............................................. ............ 1
!
Burners a n d kiln firemen— O n e week.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina....................................I ? .'.
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
5 . Arkansas, Missouri........................................

7

25

82.6

83.0

100

31.88

32.97

8
9
2

52
48
4

84.0
79.5
84.0

70.4
76.6
84.0

84
96
100

14.78
19.48
35.62

12.40
18.74
35.63

Total..........................................................

26

129

82.1

75.6

92

20.94

19.29

2.

Burners a n d kiln firemen— T w o weeks or onehalf month.

164.8

161.8

98

71.52

70.29

21
2
18

180.0
168.0
180.0

135.6
120.0
168.4

75
71
94

35.82
75.60
127.26

26.93
54.00
119.08

£

Total..........................................................

37.

|
11
1
6
00

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina....................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
4 . Illinois...................... .....................................

2.

170.9

155.2

91

76.56

09.46

10

Clay-cart drivers— O n e week.

1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
5 . Arkansas, Missouri........................................

;
3

21

55.5

43.6

79

21.53

16.90

1
3
2

G
3
2

60.0
56.3
57.0

49.2
53.0
.58. a

82
94
102

4.38
12.84
18.01

3.60
12.11
18.33

9

32

56.5

46.4

82

17.12

14.04

2»

T o t a l....!..................................................




GENERAL TABLES,
T

27

B .— AVERAGE FULL-TIME AND ACTUAL HOURS AND EARN­
INGS, 1922, BY PROCESS, OCCUPATION, PAY PERIOD, AND DIS­
TRICT—Continued.

ab le

S T IF F -M U D PR O CESS—Continued.

Occupation, pay period, and district.

Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
Aver­
age
age full­ age
Estab­ Em­ age full­ hours Per cent time
earn­
lish­ ploy­ time actually of full
ings
earn­
ments. ees.
hours worked time
ings in actually
per pay in pay worked. pay received
period. period.
period. in pay
penod.

Clay-cart drivers— T w o w eeks or one-half m onth.

1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................

3

4

111.5

109.5

6. Arkansas, Missouri........................................

South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............

3
8
1

4
10
1

60.0
56.8
60.0

60.8
56.0
70.0

Total..........................................................

12

15

57.9

58.2

98 $3&13

$37.50

101
99
117

18.84
16.19
27.00

19.08
15.95
31.50

101

17.72

17.82

D in k ey engineers— O ne w eek.

2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

D in k ey engineers— T w o w eeks or on e-h alf m onth.

1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.................

4

5

116.0

106.3

92

51.85

47.56

South Carolina............................................
4 . Illinois............................................................

1
5

1
6

130.0
106.2

130.0
142.9

100
135

46.15
90.59

46.15
121.87

Total..........................................................

10

12

112.3

126.6

113

75.02

84.60

2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

H oist m en— O ne w eek.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin.................
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia............
6• Arkansas, Missouri........................................

3

3

56.3

56.3

100

24.38

24.38

4
6
2

4
6
2

60.0
55.3
60.0

58.0
51.9
71.5

97
94
119

11.28
11.17
16.44

10.93
10.48
19.63

Total..........................................................

15

15

57.4

57.0

99

14.69

14.60

H oist m en — T w o w eeks or on e-h alf m onth.

1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin................
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia............
4 . Illinois............................................................

7

7

110.9

115.6

104

44.47

46.32

1
1
5

2
3
5

130.0
130.0
104.0

99.5
100.0
115.1

77
77
111

25.09
36.27
82.26

19.25
27.93
91.09

Total..........................................................

14

17

114.5

110.8

53.06
97
54.85
:~"- = -----— - ...■=
■

Laborers— O ne w eek.

—

1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin..................
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina.................... ! .............. .
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
5 . Arkansas, Missouri........................................

7

87

56.5

54.0

96

23.11

22.07

8
9
3

101
143
42

60.9
59.1
59.6

47.2
38.5
49.0

78
65
82

8.71
14.07
15.67

6.72
9.17
12.90

Total..........................................................

27

373

59.0

45.6

77

15.46

11.94

Laborers— T w o w eeks or one-half m onth.

1. Kansas, Kentucky. Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin..................
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi
South Carolina..............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
4 . Illinois................................ ...........................
Total..........................................................

10

85

119.8

90.0

75

43.85

32.93

1
1
6

65
3
186

143.9
120.0
114.7

94.5
96.7
106.0

66
81
92

23.90
32.16
80.86

15.74
25.92
74.71

339

121.5

99.7

82

64.03

52.50

5

23

58.3

55.7

96

30.43

29.09

7
8

2

51
92
28

60.0
56.2
56.1

40,8
41.4
43.3

68
74

77

12:48
14.89
19.75

8.49
10.99
15.22

22

194

57.4

43.2

75

17.39

13.09

18
—

Loaders— O ne w eek.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin.................
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina . ..........................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, V irginia............
5. Arkansas, Missouri........................................
T o ta l........................................................




2 8

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

T a b l e B . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E A N D A C T U A L H O U R S A N D E A R N ­
IN G S , 1 9 22, B Y P R O C E S S , O C C U P A T IO N , P A Y P E R I O D , A N D D I S ­
T R I C T — C o n tin u e d ,
ST IFF -M U D PR O C ESS—Continued.

Occupation, pay period, and district.

Aver­
Aver­
age
Estab­ Em­ age full­ hours Per cent
lish­ ploy­ time actually of fuh
ments. ees.
hours worked time
per pay in pay worked.
penod. penod.

Aver­ Aver­
age full­ age
time
earn­
earn­
ings
ings in actually
pay, received
period. in pay
period.

L oa d ers— T w o w eek s or o n e -h a lf m on th .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin................
3 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
4 . Illinois............................................................

9

60

118.7

105.7

89 $59.11

1
1
5

24
7
130

130.0
120.0
110.0

103.3
31.0
89.2

79
26
81

31.98
26.88
95.48

25.39
6.93
77.48

Total..........................................................

16

221

114.9

93.4

81

77.33

62.84

$52.64

O ff-b ea rers (h a ck ers)— O n e w ee k .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin................
3. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
5 . Arkansas, Missouri....................................... .
Total.......... ...............................................

7

26

56.1

53.7

96

22.72

21.73

8
9
3

43
54
17

59.5
54.9
58.6

52.8
50.9
46.1

89
93
79

8.93
14.27
14.42

7.93
13.27
11.36

27

140

57.0

51.4

90

14.36

12.97"

10

47

120.2

109.1

91

43.27

39.27

1
1
5

19
2
116

130.0
120.0
104.0

87.0
100.0
91.0

67
83
88

20.54
30.96
79.56

13.75
25.80
69.64

17

184

111.0

95.3

86

64.82

55.64

O ff-b ea rers (hackers )— T w o w eek s or o n e-h a lf \
m on th .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin................
3 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
4 . Illinois............................................................
Total..........................................................

-

P u g -m ill o p era tors— O n e w eek.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin.................
3 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
5 . Arkansas, Missouri........................................

6

6

57.5

61.2

106

27.66

29.42

6
6
3

6
7
3

58.3
52.7
58.0

51.3
49.3
51.7

88
94
89

10.38
14.65
19.02

9.15
13.71
16.93

Total..........................................................

21

22

56.3

53.4

95

18.13

17.19

10

10

118.7

120.3

101

46.06

46.72

1
6

4
7

130.0
104.0

121.9
133.5

94
128

22.88
77.17

21.48
98.95

17

21

116.0

125.0

108

55.10

59.33

P u g -m ill op era tors — T w o w eek s or on e-h a lf
m on th .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin................
3 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
4 . Illinois............................................................
Total..........................................................
S etters— O n e w eek.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin.................
3 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
5 . Arkansas, Missouri........................................

6

15

55.3

64.1

116

29.92

34.70

8
9
3

53
50
10

57.6
54.5
48.6

41.7
47.2
45.0

72
87
93

11.69
16.19
19.00

8.48
14.03
17.56

Total..........................................................

26

128

55.4

46.7

84

17.12

14.44

10

52

117.8

116.1

99

58.90

58.01

1
1
3

13
5
31

130.0
120.0
106.5

112.0
100.0
107.9

86
83
101

27.95
40.56
93.61

24.07
33.84
94.88

15

101

116.0

112.2

97

65.89

63.76

S etters — T w o w eek s or o n e -h a lf m on th .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin.................
3 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
4 . Illinois............................................................
Total..........................................................




29

tables,

general

T able B .— AVERAGE FULL-TIME AND ACTUAL HOURS AND EARN­
INGS, 1922, BY PROCESS, OCCUPATION, PAY PERIOD, AND DIS­
TR IC T— Continued.
STIFF-MXJX) PROCESS—Continued.
Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
agefull­ hours Per cent age full­ earn­
Estab­ Em­
time
time
ings
lish- ploy­ hours actually of full
earn­
tim e
ments. ees. per pay worked worked. ings in actually
received
pay,
period. in pay
period. in pay
period.
period.

Occupation, pay period, and district.

S h ov el, sta tio n a ry i and d ra g -lin e en g in eers—
O n e w eek .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin................
3 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3* Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
5 . Arkansas/Missouri...........' . . . . T . ...................

6

12

67.9

65.7

97

$36.60

$35.41

5
9
3

6
12
7

60.0
56.1
72.9

60.3
58.5
73.7

101
104
101

24.12
21.37
33.17

24.21
22.29
33.51

Total..........................................................

23

37

63.7

64.0

100

28.86

28.98

10

16

121.8

127.0

104

71.13

74.15

1
1
6

3
1
14

163.3
130.0
125.0

178.3
100.0
150.8

109
77
121

62.05
65.00
120.75

67.82
50.00
145.62

18

34

125.6

140.5

112

91.44

102.31

7

10

57.0

54.7

96

23.66

22.66

3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia..............
5* Arkansas, Missouri........................................

5
8
3

11
16
6

60.0
53.2
59.0

59.0
47.2
51.7

98
89
88

9.48
13.57
13.81

9.30
12.04
12.08

Total..........................................................

23

43

56.6

52.6

93

14.89

13.81

117.4

Shovel, stationary , a n d drag-line engineers—
T w o w eeks o r on e-n aif m onth.

1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina.................. . .............. ; . . . .
3* Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.............
4 . Illin o is ............................! ...........................
2.

Total..........................................................
T r a n sfe r -m e n and ea r p u llers— O ne w eek.

3L Kansas, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Penn­
sylvania, W isconsin....................................
3 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

Transfer-men and car pullers— T w o weeks or on eh a lf m onth.

1.

Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio. Pennsylvania, W isconsin................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South C arolina................................. ..
Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia............

3*
3. Illinois.................................................................
4.

8

19

119.3

102

43.79

44.51

1
1
5

23
2
41

130.0
120.0
111.0

109.2
100.0
106.5

84
83
96

25.09
26.40
79.48

21.08
21.98
76.22

Total..........................................................

15

85

117.8

109.9

93

56.78

52.94

5

22

56.9

60.5

106

26.80

28.51

9.56
20.51
18.92

6.81
14.01
15.45

19.84

16.17

39.10

W h eelers, p itch ers, to ssers, a n d truckers— O n e
w ee k .

i

1.

Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin................
3. Florida, Georgia, Louisana, Mississippi,
South Carolina.................................. ..
3. Maryland, North Carolina, V irginia............
5 . Arkansas, Missouri........................................

3
4
3

21
29
17

51.4
53.0
49.4

36.7
36.2
40.3

71
68
82

Total..........................................................

15

89

52.9

43.1

81

3

W h eelers, p itch ers , to ssers , a n d tru ck ers— T w o
w eek s o r o n e -h a lf m on th .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin..............
3. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

South C arolina.................. ............... ...... .
Total......................................................

74987*—24t---- 3




7

114.6

85.2

74

52.60

1

23

130.0

100.4

77

27.04

20.91

4

30

126.4

96.8

77

32.86

25.16

30

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

T able

B . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E A N D A C T U A L H O U R S A N D E A R N ­
IN G S , 1 9 2 2 , B Y P R O C E S S , O C C U P A T I O N , P A Y P E R I O D , A N D D I S ­
T R I C T — C o n tin u e d .

STIFlF-MUD PROCESS—Concluded.

Occupation, pay period, and district.

Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
age
agefull­ hours Percent agefull­ earn­
Estab­ Em­ time
time ings
lish­ ploy­ hours actually of full earn­ actually
time
ments. ees. per pay worked worked. ings in received
in pay
pay in pay
period. period.
period. penod.

O th er em p lo y ees— O n e w ee k .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,

Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin..................
Florida, Georgia, Louisana, Mississippi,
South Carolina...............................................
3. Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia...............
5 . Arkansas, Missouri...........................................
Total...............................................................

5

31

59.0

56.7

96

$25.19

$24.20

7
9
3

33
83
32

60.2
58.3
56.5

53.7
51.9
53.9

89
89
95

12.46
17.61
18.59

11.10
15.68
17.71

24

209

58.8

53.3

91

17.46

15.87

2.

O th er em p lo y ees— T w o w eek s o r o n e-h a lf m on th .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey,

Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin..................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina...............................................
3. Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia..............
4 . Illinois.................................................................
Total...............................................................j

9

85

117.4

116.7

99

49.07

48.75

1
1

6

38
2
183

136.3
120.0
112.0

116.7
60.0
116.7

86
50
104

42.93
47.52
82.66

36.75
23.75
86.10

17

308

111.0

116.6

105

65.93

69.30

91 $33.95
100 33.60
67 26.43
94
14.58

$31.00
33.60
17.75
13.63

2*

SOFT-M UD PROCESS, i
B o iler firem en and steam -dryer firem en —
O ne w eek.

Connecticut, Massachusetts..........................
New Jersey,New Y o rk ...............................
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.......................

4
1
2
2

11
4
5
2

56.4
84.0
73.2
54.0

51.5
84.0
49.2
50.5

Total..........................................................

9

22

65.0

56.8

87

30.75

26.88

Connecticut, Massachusetts..........................
New Jersey, New York.................................
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.......................
Michigan........................................................

1
3
1
1
3

2
7
1
2
7

168.0
107.4
140.0
168.0
160.0

207.0
105.1
140.0
95.5
136.0

123
98
100
57
85

61.66
75.42
84.00
30.41
102.56

76.00
60.37
84.00
17.25
87.14

Total..........................................................

1.
3.
3.
4.

9

B oiler firem en and steam -dryer firem en—
Tw o w eeks or on e-h alf m onth.

1.
3.
3.
4.
5.

128.1
19 14L2
— ■. -in■
■
»
-- -- — —

91

75.68
68.58
■ __ __
■

76.7
77.3
78.4
84.0

99.3
47.4
72.0
52.4

129
61
92
62

34.44
32.62
31.44
15.62

44.59
20.01
28.87
9.73

B u rn ers and kiln firem en — O ne w eek.

1 . Connecticut, Massachusetts..........................
3 . New Jersey, New York.................................

3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................

5
1
4
2

18
9
11
5

T otal..........................................................

12

43

78.1

76.0

97

32.26

31.37

1

168.0
162.8
124.8
55.5
152.4

100
97
74
91

74.93
75.10
89.54
33.60
97.94

75.00
72.79
66.49
11.13
88.90

149.0

89

82.99

73.60

4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.......................

B u rn ers and kiln firem en — Tw o w eeks or
o n e -lm f m onth .

1* Connecticut, Massachusetts..........................
2* New Jersey, New York.................................
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................
4* Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.......................
5 . M ichigan........................................................

3
1

18
4

3

5

168.0
168.0
168.0
168.0
168.0

Total..........................................................

9

30

168.0

3.

1
1

2

33

*Not including data for 98 employees of I establishment having a monthly pay period.




31

GiSNJiRAL TABLES,
T

B .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME AND ACTUAL HOURS AND EARN­
INGS, 1922, BY PROCESS, OCCUPATION, PAY PERIOD, AND DIS­
TRICT— Continued.

ab le

SOFT-M UD PROCESS—Continued.

Occupation, pay period, and district.

Aver­ Aver­
age
Estab­ Em­ age full­ hours Percent
time
lish­ ploy­ hours actually of full
time
ments. ees. per pay worked worked.
in pay
period. period.

Aver­ Aver­
age full­ age
time earn­
ings
earn­ actually
ings in received
pay. in pay
period. period.

Clay-cart drivers a n d scraper or wheeler opera­
tors— O n e week.

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................

5
3
2

7
9
7

53.9
58.0
58.3

52.6
53.7
41.1

98 $21.56
93 21.87
70 11.14

Total...................................................

10

23

56.8

49.6

87

19.14

16.72

2
1
1

8
2
7

96.0
120.0
120.0

101.0
105.0
88.4

105
88
74

57.22
60.12
18.00

60.19
52.65
13.22

17

108.7
—
-

96.3

$21.07
20.24
7.86

Clay-cart drivers a n d scraper or wheeler opera­
tors— T w o weeks or one-half month.

2 , New Jersey, New York.............................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................

Total...................................................

4
..........1

89 45.11
—■ 39.96
>— —
M
1 i?—
-.— !. —

D u m p e r s — O n e week.

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4* Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................

7
4
2

22
4
3

55.1
47.3
56.0

61.0
40.2
52.7

111
85
94

23.80
21.81
14.34

26.32
18.55
13.50

Total...................................................

13

29

54.1

57.3

106

22.61

23.92

2 . New Jersey, New York— ........................
3, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................
5 , Michigan.................................................

3
1
1
2

15
5
2
5

101.6
120.0
120.0
100.8

93.0
94.0
57.0
96.0

92
78
48
95

54.15
57.00
22.92
69.96

49.58
44.65
10.88
66.60

Total...................................................

7

27

106.2

91.1

86

57.14

48.95

1, Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
2 , New Jersey, New York.............................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................

7
1
4
3

148
14
34
41

55.3
54.0
51.8
55.6

56.1
o2.3
51.6
32.1

101
97
100
58

21.95
18.09
20.82
11.79

22.28
17.54
20.35
6.83

Total...................................................

15

237

54.8

51.1

93

20.50

19.10

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
2 . New Jersey, New York.............................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................
5. Michigan.................................................

1
4
1
1
3

19
84
9
9
29

108.0
98.3
120.0
120.0
99.6

98.2
88.1
58.1
68.3
90.0

91
90
48
57
90

43.96
51.61
50.52
18.60
63.35

39.97
46.27
24.45
10.57
87.27

Total...................................................

10

150

102.4

86.8

85

52.12

44.13

2 . New Jersey, New York.............................

3
1
3
3

5
40
12
24

54.0
54.0
54.9
57.5

43.5
30.2
57.3
31.1

81
56
104
54

21.49
28.94
23.77
12.31

17.30
16.20
24.81
6.65

Total...................................................

10

81

55.2

35.3

64

23.02

14.71

3, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania..................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................
5. Michigan.................................................

1
2
1
1
2

1
55
8
7
17

108.0
109.1
120.0
120.0
116.5

105.0
86.5
96.4
78.9
92.9

97
79
80
66
80

47.95
50.40
53.16
26.88
72.58

46.67
40.00
42.71
17.66
57.85

Total...................................................

7

88

112.4

88.3

79

53.50

42.00

D u m p e r s — T w o weeks or one-half month.

Laborers a n d clay wheelers— O n e week.

Laborers a n d clay wheelers— T w o weeks or
one-half month.

Loaders— O n e week.

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.....................

Loaders— T w o weeks or one-half month.

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts............. ..........

2 • New Jersey, New York.............................




32

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

T able B . — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E A N D A C T U A L H O U R S A N D E A R N ­
I N G S , 1 9 2 2 , B Y P R O C E S S , O C C U P A T IO N , P A Y
T R I C T — C o n tin u e d .

P E R IO D , A N D

D IS ­

SOFT-MUD PROCESS—Continued.

Occupation, pay period, and district.

Aver­ . Average
Estab­ Em­ age full­ hours Percent
time
lish­ ploy­ hours actually of full
time
ments. ees. per pay worked worked.
in pay
penod. period.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age full­ earn­
time
ings
earn­ actually
ings in received
P fr. in pay
period. penod.

Mold pushers—One week.

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................

4
1

4
1

54.0
47.0

56.9
44.9

105 $21.11
96 12.93

Total...................................................

5

5

52.6

54.5

104

19.57

20.25

3

10

100.8

79.1

78

51. a

4R36

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts................ .......
New Jersey, New York.............................
3* Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.....................

6
1
4
3

10
1
6
3

54.6
54.0
48.2
56.0

63.0
54.0
45.3
39.3

115
100
94
70

20.86
16.20
17.50
10.98

24.06
16.20
16.45
7.70

Total...................................................

14

20

52.9

53.7

102

18.67

18.93

2 • New Jersey, New York.............................

3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................
5. Michigan.................................................

4
1
1
3

10
1
1
6

99.6
120.0
120.0
97.0

89.0
95.0
88.0
54.8

89
79
73
56

37.95
57.00
15.00
61.50

33.91
45.12
1L00
34.75

Total...................................................

9

18

101.0

77.9

77

43.53

33.54

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
New Jersey, New York.............................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania................
4* Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................

5
1
3
3

15
14
4
4

54.4
54.0
46.0
57.0

48.8
45.5
40.0
37.0

90
84
87
65

17.79
18.74
13.29
7.81

15.94
15.79
11.58
5.06

Total...................................................

12

37

53.6

45.3

85

16.83

14.23

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
New Jersey, New York.............................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................
5. Michigan..................................................

1
3
1
1
3

3
10
1
4
7

108.0
96.0
120.0
120.0
94.3

93.3
86.0
105.0
77.0
92.9

86
90
88
64
99

46.22
48.58
57.00
9.96
61.20

39.94
43.51
49.87
6.38
6U29

Total...................................................

9

25

101.8

88.1

87

48.66

42.09

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
2* New Jersey, New York.............................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................

3
1
1
2

0
1
1
2

54.0
54.0
60.0
54.0

58.1
54.0
23.0
44.0

108
100
38
81

24.14
17.82
24.60
16.58

25.99
17.82
9.43
13.50

Total...................................................

7

10

54.6

51.4

94

22.33

21.02

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
2 . New Jersey, New York.............................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
6 . Michigan..................................................

1
1
1
3

2
1
1
6

108.0
96.0
120.0
92.0

136.0
50.0
140.0
93.0

126
52
117
101

48.38
49.82
60.00
70.01

60.97
25.93
7a 00
7a 78

Total...................................................

6

10

98.4

102.0

104

61.99

64.26

$22.23
12.35

Mold pushers— Two weeks or one-half month.
2.

New Jersey, New York.............................
Mold sunders—One week.

2.

Mold sanders— Two weeks or one-half month.

Pallet hoys—One week.
2.

Pallet boys— Two weeks or one-half month.
2.

P ug-m ill operators— One week.

Pug-m ill operators— Two weeks or one-half
month.




88

GENERAL TABLES,
T

B .—AVERAGE FULL-TIME AND ACTUAL HOURS AND EARN­
INGS, 1922, BY PROCESS, OCCUPATION, PAY PERIOD, AND DIS­
TRICT—Continued.

able

SOFT-MUD PROCESS—Continued.

Occupation, pay period, and district.

Aver­ Aver­
age
Estab­ Em­ age full­ hours Percent
time
lish­ ploy­ hours actually of full
time
ments. ees. per pay worked worked.
in pay
penod. penod.

Aver­ Aver­
age
age full­ earn­
time
ings
earn­ actually
ings in received
pay in pay
penod. period.

Rockers— O n e week.

6
1
4
2

24
3
9
6

54.5
54.0
50.7
56.0

61.8
49.7
46.6
32.7

13

42

53.9

53.5

99

21.51

21.36

1* Connecticut, Massachusetts...................
3. New Jersey, New York.....................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.............
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas................
5. Michigan.............................................

1
3
1
1
3

3
20
5
2
15

108.0
103.2
120.0
120.0
91.2

84.2
87.1
78.3
89.5
86.2

78
84
65
75
95

54.00
50.57
54.00
18.00
68.31

42.08
42.64
35.23
13.40
64.53

Total.......... ...................................

9

45

102.1

85.7

78

60.94

47.77

Connecticut, Massachusetts............................
N ew Jersey, N ew Y o r k ...................................
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas........................

7
1
4
3

27
2
9
5

52.7
54.0
46.4
57.6

63.6
49.5
45.8
55.6

121
92
99
97

25.35
25.38
23.52
15.78

30.63
23.27
23.21
15.25

To ta l...............................................................

15

43

52.0

58.3

112

24.02

26.95

Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
New Jersey, N ew Y o r k ...................................
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas........................
Michigan.............................................................

1
4
1
1
3

3
17
8
2
9

108.0
81.2
120.0
120.0
83.3

78.3
83.9
102.8
91.5
77.6

73
103
86
76
93

57.02
59.76
66.24
24.24
76.40

41.34
61.78
56.75
18.45
71.01

To ta l...............................................................

10

39

93.7

86.3

92

64.12

59.08

1.
Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
3 . N ew Jersey, N ew Y o rk ...................................
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................

5
1
4

14
2
7

55.0
54.0
60.0

59.6
58.0
58.0

108
107
97

34.38
33.70
28.80

37.26
36.17
27.87

To ta l......................................... ......................

10

23

56.4

59.0

105

32.82

34.31

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts............................
2. New Jersey, N ew Y o rk ...................................
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................
5.
Michigan.........................................................

1
4
1
3

1
7
2
9

108.0
101.7
130.0
113.9

120.0
106.3
136.0
112.8

111
105
105
99

60.05
71.80
81.38
92.15

66.67
75.00
85.15
91.18

To ta l...............................................................

9

19

110.8

113.2

102

80.89

83.29

6
3
3

7
3
4

74.7
50.3
39.5

134
117
69

29.24
19.82
14.42

39.21
23.18
10.00

12

14

53.4 | 59.4

111

24.67

27.43

1.
2.
3.
4.

Connecticut, Massachusetts......
New Jersey, New York............
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas...
Total..............................................

113 $23.11
92 22.36
92 20.38
58 10.98

$26.17
20.59
18.77
6.39

Rackets— T w o weeks or one-half m o nth.

Setters— O n e week.

1.
2.
3.
4*

Setters— T w o weeks or one-half m o n t h

1.
2*
3.
4.
5.

Shovel, drag-line, a n d stationary engineers—
O n e week.

Shovel, drag-line, a n d stationary engineers—
T w o weeks or one-half month.

Strikers-ojf— O n e week.

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts...
3* Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.
4. Louisiana,Mississippi, Texas...
Total.................................




|
i

55.7
43.0 !
57.0 j

34

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

T able B — A V E R A G E F U L L -T I M E A N D A C T U A L H O U R S A N D E A R N ­
IN G S , 19 22, B Y P R O C E S S , O C C U P A T IO N , P A Y
T R I C T — C o n c lu d e d .

P E R IO D , A N D

D IS ­

SOFT-MUD PROCESS—Concluded.

Occupation, pay period, and district.

Aver­ Aver­
Aver­ Aver­
age
age full­ age
earn­
Estab­ Em­ agefull­ hours Percent time
time
ings
lish­ ploy­ hours actually of full
earn­
time
ments. ees. per pay worked worked. ings in actually
received
in pay
period. penod.
in pay
p S S d . penod.

S tr ik e rs * f f — T w o w eek s o r o n e-h a lf m on th .

1
7
96.0
92.3
New Jersey, New York.................................
1
1
120.0
128.0
3 . Kentucky/ Ohio, Pennsylvania....................
1
1
120.0
88.0
4* Louisiana/M ississippi, 'Texas.......................
3
6
97.0
88.3
5 . Michigan.'.............71 .'...................................
2,

96
107
73
91

$50.98
60.00
24.00
70.62

$49.02
64.00
17.60
64.33

6

15

99.6

92.8

93

57.97

54.05

1 . Connecticut, Massachusetts..........................
2 • New Jersey.' New York.................................
4 . Louisiana/M ississippi, Texas.......................

2
1
1

6
7
3

54.0
54.0
60.0

64.9
51.3
46.7

120
95
78

23.38
19.71
13.26

28.10
18.70
10.33

Total..........................................................

4

16

55.1

55.5

101

20.50

20.66

1
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................... _____
T ru ck ers to d ryer— O n e w eek .

1

120.0

87.0

73

21.00

15.25

1, Connecticut, Massachusetts..........................
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.......................

1
1

9
1

54.0
60.0

48.1
60.0

89
100

20.84
15.00

18.57
15.00

Total..........................................................

2

10

54.6

49.3

90

20.20

18.21

1

34

96.0

69.8

73

44.83

32.56

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts..........................
2* New Jersey, New York.................................
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania....................
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.......................

6
1
3

89
13
15
18

56.2
54.0
48.0
56.7

65.7
49.2
48.8
46.9

117
91
102
83

24.33
23.60
16.61
12.81

28.48
21.47
16.91
10.63

Total..........................................................

14

135

55.1

59.7

108

22.26

24.14

1

15
71

5

88.8
73.3
101.6
80.4
76.2

82
90
85
67
91

53.78
53.14
60.72
18.24
72.16

44.25
48.08
51.42
12.21
65.41

Total..........................................................
T ra n sfer m en a n d ca r p u llers— O n e w eek.

T ra n sfer m en an d ca r p u llers— T w o w eek s or
o n e-h a lf m on th .

T ru ck ers to d ryer— T w o w eek s o r o n e -h a lf m on th .
2 • New

Jersey, New Y ork................................

W h eelers , p itch ers , to s se r s , a n d tru ck ers— O n e
w ee k .

4

W h eelers, p itch ers , to ssers , a n d tru ck ers— T w o
w eek s o r o n e -h a lf m on th .

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts..........................
2 • New Jersey, New York.................................
3* Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4* Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................
5* M ichigan........................................................

4
1
1

3

10
32

108.0
81.0
120.0
120.0
84.0

Total...................................................

10

133

89.1

77.4

87

56.76

49.25

O th er em p lo y ees— O n e w eek .

7

3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas....................

1
4
3

90
31
34
39

53.3
55.0
53.7
58.4

53.2
50.7
52.7
37.2

100
92
98
64

23.13
24.31
21.96
15.59

23.10
22.43
21.56
9.93

Total...................................................

15

194

54.8

49.5

90

22.19

20.07

1

8
59

115.6
100.7
124.9
120.5
102.0

113.3
90.6

13
2
21

99.0
74.0
92.6

98
90
79
62
91

53.03
53.37
60.33
36.60
76.60

47.82
22.60
69.56

103

105.0

93.5

89

58.91

52.49

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts......................

2 • New Jersey, New Y ork .............................

O th er em p lo y ees— T w o w eek s o r o n e-h a lf m on th .

1, Connecticut, Massachusetts.......................
2 . New Jersey, New York .............................
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.......................
5. M ichigan.......................................................
Total..........................................................




4
1
1
3

10

55.64

48.03

T able C .— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, 1922,

BY PROCESS AND DISTRICT.
STIFF-MUD PROCESS.

Occupation and district.

Estab­ Em­
lish* ploy­
ments. ees.

Average
earn­
ings
per
hour.

Number of employees whose earnings per hour were—
25
30
20
35
40
50
60
80
10
15
70
$1
Un­ and and and and and and and and and and and 90 cts. and
and
der under under under under under under under under under under under under under
lOcts. 15cts. 20cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 35 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts. 80 cts. 90 cts. $1. $1.25.

B u r n e r s a n d k i ln f ir e m e n .

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania. W isconsin..................................................................
2 • Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, M ississippi, South Carolina—
3 . Maryland. North Carolina, Virginia.......................................
4 . I llin o is .....................................................................................
S* Arkansas, M issouri...................................................................

17
9
10
6
2

62
73
50
18
4

$0,415
.183
.253
.707
.424

30
2

Total.....................................................................................

44

207

.328

32

34

30

19

16

13

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, W isconsin.................................................. ...............
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, M ississippi, South Carolina—
Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia ....... ................................
Illinois....... ...............................................................................
Arkansas, M issouri..................................................................

17
9
10
6

172
166
146
186
42

.388
.152
.239
.705
.263

2
83
42

2
11
17

9
2i
14

37

65
11

43

Total.....................................................................................

45

712

.388

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, W isconsin..................................................................
2, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, M ississippi, South Carolina.. .
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia_____
4 . Illin ois.....................................................................................
5. Arkansas,Missouri -........................................... T___

14
8
9
5
2

83
75
99
130
28

.505
.220
.262
.868
.352

Total.....................................................................................

38

415

.500

2
11
17

2
3
12

14

2

1
1

1

16
1

27

16

3

17

39

65

12

5

1

14

2

39

140

1

1

2

1

1

2

12

8

4

5

2

22
3
1
1

GENERAL TABLES.

26
8

L a b o r er s .

2,
3.
4.
5.

3

5

4
5

28

2

2

5
1
6

76

127

34

53

82

55

77

14

44

141

ii

1
12
19

4
3
26

13

28
1

13

1

12
1

2

19

34
33

23

13
7
1

6

34

2

2

16

1

42
1

28

6

30

21

69

34

39

42

25

19

36

43

28

L o a d e rs .




29

CO
Ox

T

a b le

C .— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, 1922,
BY PROCESS AND DISTRICT— Concluded.

«
04

STIFF-MUD PROCESS—Concluded.

Occupation and district.

Estab­ Em­
lish­ ploy­
ments. ees.

earn35
40
50
80
60
70
10
15
ings
Un­ and and and and and and and and and and and 90 CtS. art
and
per
der under
under under under i
under under under under under niwlftr undier under
t
hour. lOcts. 15cts, 20cts. 25 cts. 30 cts. 35 cts. 40 cts. 50 cts. 60 cts. 70 cts. 80cts. 90 cts.
$1.25.

O ff-bearers (hackers).

1* Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin.........................................................
2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina...
3. Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.................................
4. Illinois...........................................................................
5 . Arkansas, Missouri.........................................................
Total.........................................................................

17
9
10

5
3

73
62
56
116
17

$0,376
.152
.260
.765
.246
-441

44

11

5
42
19

13

....
"IT

26

13

i3*

7

.....
27

14

'12

105

IT
14

1

’ioi'

Y

18

22

11

i

"IT

S etters.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin...........................................................
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina....
3. Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia..................................
4. Illinois..........................................................................
5. Arkansas, Missouri...........................................................

.205
.301
.879
.391

2.

Total...........................................................................

47

41

13

15

2
1

10

Wheelers, pitchers, tossers, and truckers.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin...........................................................
2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina—
3* Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia..................................
5 . Arkansas, Missouri...........................................................
Total...........................................................................




.468
.198
19

119

16

10

21

.346

21

12

30

10

17

17

12

25

15

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

Number of employees whose earnings per hour were—

Aver-

SO FT-M U D PR O C ESS.

6
4
5
3
3
21

19 $0,449
27
.439
.436
15
.190
7
5
.583
.446
73

9
5
5
4
3
26

187
98
43
50
29
407

.394
.498
.406
.202
.636
.423

5
3
4
4
2
18

11
95
20
31
17
174
36
19
17
7
9
88
119
84
20
28
32
283

.441
.622
.386
.200
.859
.515

1
5
1

8
15
7

4

3

4

4

3

7

30

23
9
7
39

81 73
6 18
5 26
1
1
93 118

5
38
5
12
60

4

2
39
19

4

60

4
2

.483
.708
.528
.253
.916
.561

8
5
5
4
3
25

3

3

.458
.493
.437
.216
.623
.450

9
5
o
4
3
26

2
2

4
3
5
5
17

1
1

8

19

11

5
4
11

8

19

11

20

1
12

13

4

13

4

3

4

1

1

4

1

1

1

3

1

1
1
. 1

23
6
29

6
6

4
56
1
1
62

15
15

1
1

18
2
3
1

11
1
10

3
9
1

2
1

24

22

13

80
15
8

25
44
4

17 103

73

2

12

1
2

6

i

4
41

G E N E R A L, TABL

Burners and kiln firemen.
1.
WftflwiphiifiPtts
, r>_ ,_ .................................
2. New Jersey/ New Ynrk_
.................................................
3. TfTAntneky^ rthin, Pfinnsylvanlft......... ......................................
4-. Lnni«riA.na/ Mississippi Ita-jras. .................................................
/*. M ichigan...........* t / T, . T. . . T....................................................
Total.........................................................................................
Laborers and clay wheelers.
1- CAnnectfcnt, Massachusetts........................................................
2* New Jersey/New York...............................................................
3* Kentucky” Ohio, Pennsylvania.................................................
4. Louisiana/ Mississippi, l*exas.....................................................
5* Michigan........................................................................................
Total..........................................................................................
Loaders.
1. Connecticut, Massachusetts........................................................
2* New Jersey, New York...............................................................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................................................
4* Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.....................................................
5. Michigan........................................................................................
Total.......................................................................................... |
Setters.
1. Connecticut, Massachusetts........................................................
2. New Jersey, New York...............................................................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................................................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.....................................................
5. Michigan........................................................................................
Total.......................................................................................... |

2

1

2

3

4
6

1
2

6

7

1

17

7

1

20
37

Wheelers, pitchers, tossers, a n d truckers.

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts........................................................
2. New Jersey, New York...............................................................
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................................................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.....................................................
5. Michigan........................................................................................
Total..........................................................................................




1
4

L . . ’.
4
11

6

6

1

5

15

6

6

1

14
3

12
12

4

T able D .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED ACTUAL HOURS OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, IN ONE
PAY PERIOD, 1922, BY PROCESS, OCCUPATION, LENGTH OF PAY PERIOD, AND DISTRICT.

CO

00

STIFF-M UD PROCESS.

XL

XL

Number of employees who during pay period worked-

16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 8 8 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 160 168 176
8
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 184
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ hrs.
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der and
16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 8 8 96 104 1 1 2 120 128 136 144 152 160 168 176 184 over.
hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs.

Burners and kiln firem en—One week.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New JerfiA fillM AviUlojiTlUUil^ ft I V U lJ ie •
tr
iSvj« VUin pAnnoirlmDlA WiSrtvn&in • •
/^
DV O L
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Smith riofAYino
MonrlonH X n ’h rtornlino Virorinio
TW
5. Arkansas, Missouri....................................
Tnt.^1

7

g
Q
2

26

1

83.0

2

52 84.0 70.4
48 79* 5 76 6
4 84! 0 84! 0

1
1

1

4

1

25

129

82.6

82.1

75.6

2

2

3
1

1
2

1

3

4

3

4

4
1

5

1

5

11

3

1

3

9
4

17
16
4

3

5

18

48

3

8
10

1
i

2

1

2

1
1

1
1

3

2 61i

1

1

6
10

2
2
2

1

1 ....
|
1
I
i

i
<. . . J . . . .

Burners and kiln firem en— Two weeks or onehalf month.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jer­
sey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin....
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina........................................
ST Maryland^ "Worth fiarnlina; Virginia
A. Illinois
................................ .

10

37 164.8 161.8

1

21
2

180.0 135.6 . . . .
168.0 1 2 0 .0
18 180.0 168.4

1

78 170.9 155.2

2

87 56.5

54.0

3

60.9
59.1

47.2
38.5

1

2.

Total......................................................

1

\

5
18

1

3

1

1

1

2

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jer-

Smith narnnnA
3. Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.........




7

g
9

101

143

4
11

4
2

1

3

1

1

2

1

2

5

3

3

7

9

1

l

Laborers—One week.
q jr fiViin PAnnwlvani a T lowiioiiu•
ot
Ot ^ \Jlll\Jf jrvl]lluJrlT<liil<ly WfoAOrisin ••
w
v
2 • Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,

3
3

2

g

2
0

2
1
21

8
11

4
1

8

20

37

3

18

19

12

22

35
25

4
7

12

4

2
2

2

1

1
1

5

4
2

6

6

7

1
11

10

3

1

3

2

13

4
10

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

Occupation, pay period, and district.

Aver­
Aver­ s e
horns
age
full- ac­
Estab- Em­ time tually Un­
lish- ploy­ hours work­ der
ed
in
ments ees.
8
in
pay
pay hrs.

Arkansas, Missouri........................................

5,

Tnt-^1 ,

...............................

3
27

42 59.6

49.0

59.0

45.6

85 119.8

7

2[ 3

1

34

23

21

13

49

s

3

1

3

2

90.0

373

17

8

6

2

1

73 105

20

6

7

1

1

4

2

3

5

14

12

1

1

1

8

4

2

4

7

8

5

8
10

Laborers— T w o weeks or one-half month.

1 , Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jer10

2•

Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................

4 . Illinois..............................................................
Total...........................................................

1
1
6

65 143.9 94.5 ___
3 1 2 0 .0 96.7
186 114.7 106.0 1
339 121.5

99.7

5

23 58.3

40.8
41.4
43.3

5
9

43.2

9

60 118.7 105.7

1
1

24 130.0 103.3
7 1 2 0 .0 31.0
130 1 1 0 .0 89.2

3 ....

4

1

1

5

3

3

13

10

9

6

9

2

11

5
5

2
1

55.7

7
s

6

4

18

1

2

12

7

2

3

2

2

1
1

2
2

2

1

2

4

9

19

30

47

8

6

7

7

6

14 26

48

63

15

7

9

7

2

3

2

4 ....

2

2

2

1

1

5

5i 3
!

4

6

9 1

5

1

9

8

2

6

21

19

12

11

8

8

2

4

2

7

4

2

....

6

Loaders— O n e week.

1.

2

51 60.0
92 56.2
28 56.1

Total...........................................................

22

j 194 57.4

6

13

1

12
2

7

6
2
1

1

3

3 7
13 27
4 6

7

22

46

53

10

1

1

1

1

2

3
5

14

12

19

1

1

1

2

1
1
10

2

1

io

10

Loaders— T w o weeks or one-half month.

1 . Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jer­
sey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin___
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina........................................
3. Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.........
4. Illinois..............................................................

5

Total...........................................................

16

221

114.9

93.4

*i*
3

5
u 1 13

3

1

5

1

2

10

1

2

1

2
2

2
10
1

Total.........................................................




7

26 56.1

53.7

1

s

43 1 59.5

1

17 j 58.6

52.8
50.9
46.1

1

1

1

140 : 57.0

51.4

1

3

6

9
3
27

54 ! 54.9

4

1

4

7

6

! 2

10

12

1

10

16

25
14

5

1

10

15 37

61

3

Off-bearers (hackers)— O n e week.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jer­
sey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin___
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South CaroHna.................................... ..
3. Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia........
5* Arkansas, Missouri........................................

5

1

3

7

2
*2*
2

9

6

4

7

28

19

24

4

12

7

9

11

38

31

31

14

27

6

4

GENERAL TABLES.

Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin.. . .
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................................
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, V irginia..
5 . Arkansas, Missouri........................................

T able D.— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED ACTUAL HOURS OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, IN ONE
PAY PERIOD, 1922, BY PROCESS, OCCUPATION, LENGTH OF PAY PERIOD, AND DISTRICT— Continued.

£■
°

STIFF-M UD PROCESS—Concluded.

XL

&

Number of employees who during pay period worked—

8
16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 8 8 96 104 1 1 2 1 2 0 128 136 144 152 160 168 176
and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and 184
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ hrs.
der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der and
16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 8 8 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 160 168 176 184 over.
hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs.

O ff-bearers (hackers)— T w o w eeks or on e-h alf
m onth.
1 . Kansas. Kentucky, Nebraska. New Jer­
sey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin....
3 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina........................................
3. Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.........
4 . Illinois.........................................................

Total................ ......................................

10
1
1

5
17

1 2 0 .2

109.1

19 130.0

47

87.0

2

1 2 0 .0

116 104.0
184

1 1 1 .0

mo
91.0

3

1

1

2

1

1

1

,l

2

2

2

4

1

3

4

3

1

95.3

1
1

2

10

8

1

2

2
2

1

7

14

33

35

18

15 36

49

27

11

2
2

1

7

4

1

1

7

4
3

1
2

1

10

6

1

6

1

... .I .......
i

Setters— O ne w eek.

1. Kansas. Kentucky, Nebraska. New Jer­
sey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin...
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina............................. .
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.........
ttm Arkansas, Missouri...................................

9
3

10

T otal.....................................................

26

128

6
8

15

55.3

64.1

1

41.7
47.2
45.0

7

55.4

46.7

7

5

1

2

2

53 57.6
50 54.5
48.6

3
2

3

7

1
2
8

1

7

5

4

5

11

16

3

6

1

12

20

1

15
4

13

34 39

2

1

1

1

1

1

10

2.




1

i

Setters— T w o w eeks or on e-h a lf m onth.

. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska. New Jer­
sey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, W isconsin....
Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
South Carolina................ ............ ..........
3 . Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia.........

1

1
1

52 117.8 116.1
13 130.0
5 1 2 0 .0

1 1 2 .0
1 0 0 .0

2
1

.... ....

1

3
1

3

1

2
1

4

14
1

5

3
4
4

4

1

5

1

5

2

2

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

Occupation, pay period, and district.

Aver­
Aver- age
age hours
full­ ac­
. Es- Em­ time tually
tab- ploy­ hours work­ Un­
lishin
ed der
ments ees. pay
8
in
pay hrs.

j

GEN K K A I TABLES.

1Not including data for employees of 1 establishment haying a monthly pay period.




T able D.— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED ACTUAL HOURS OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, IN ONE
PAY PERIOD, 1922, BY PROCESS, OCCUPATION, LENGTH OF PAY PERIOD, AND DISTRICT— Concluded.
'
SOFT-M UD PROCESS—Concluded.

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMoN-BRICK INDUSTRY




£
10

Loaders—

Two weeks or one-half month.

Connecticut, Massachusetts---New Jersey, New York............
Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania
Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas..
Michigan...................................
Total....................................
Setters— O n e week.

1 . Connecticut, Massachusetts......................
2 . New Jersey, New York................................

3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania................
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas...................
Total............................................................

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts...................
3 . New Jersey, New York.............................
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania.................
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.....................

5 . Michigan.....................................................
Total............................................................
Wheelers, pitchers, tossers, a n d truckers— O n e
week.

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts......................
2 . New Jersey, New York.............................
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania..............

GENERAL TABLES,

Setters— T w o weeks or one-half m an- h

4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.....................
Total............................................................
Wheelers, pitchers, tossers, a n d truckers— T w o
weeks or one-half month.

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts......................
2 . New Jersey, New York.............................
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania................
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.....................

5 . Michigan.....................................................
Total............................................................




Co

T able E .— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED ACTUAL EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, IN
ONE PAY PERIOD, 1922, BY PROCESS, OCCUPATION, LENGTH OF PAY PERIOD, AND DISTRICT.
STIFF-MUD PROCESS.

B u rn ers and

kUn firem en — O ne
w eek.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylcrania Wic/>nncin
2. Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina..
3. Maryland, North Carolina,
V i *ynio
ri
5. Arkansas, Missouri....................
Total......................................

$31.88
14.78
19.48
35.62
20.94

$32.07
12.40
18.74
35.63
19.29

10

71.52
35.82
75.60
127.26
76.56

70.29 1
26.93 1
54.00
119.08
69.46 2

B u rn ers and kiln firem en — T w o
w eeks or on e-h alf m onth.

1. Kansas,Kentucky,Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin..
. ..
2. Florid , Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi. South Carolina..
3. Maryland, North Carolina,
Viroinia
4. Illinois.........................................
Total............... ......................

1
1
4 6 2 4 4
7 8 12 1
2 3
13 6
5 1 3 3 8 8 6 5 4 1
4
*Y
1 1
19 7 10 11 20 10 6 10 11 5 8 8
1
j

7 25
8 52
g 48
4
2
26 129

1 2
1

1 2 1

3 1 3 2 7 7 1 3 4 1 1 1

1
6
18

37
21
2
18
78

7

87 23.11 22.07 3 1 3 5 7 5 6 33 12 7 3 1 1

1

1

2 2

1

4 4 2 2 2




1

4 3 5
1 4 5 2 2 2 4 1 4 3 7 7 1 3 4 1 5 4 5

Laborers— O ne week.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania. Wisconsin...................

1

1
1

2 2

t

6

7

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

Number of employees whose earnings in one pay period were—
Aver­
Aver- age
earn­
age
fuUEs- Em­ time ings
$10 $12 $14 $16 $18 $20 $25 $30 $35 $40 $45 $50 $55 $60 $65 $70 $75 $80 $85 $90 $95 $100
Occupation, pay period, and tab- ploy­ earn- actu­ Un­ $8 and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and $110L ao
ally
and
and
lishdistrict.
re­
un­ un­
un­ un­ and
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ments ees. . ings ceived der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der un­ un­ der der un­ un­ der der over.
$8.
in
der der
der der
pay in one
$10. $12. $14. $16. $18. $20. $25. $30. $35. $40. $45. $50. $55. $60. $65. $70. $75. $80. $85. $90. $95. $100 $110 $120
period. pay
period.

74987°—241
-

2 » Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi. South Carolina..
3. Maryland, North Carolina,
Virginia...................................
5. Arkansas, Missouri....................
Total......................................

8 101 8.71 6.72 67
9 143 14.07 9.17 69
3 42 15.67 12.90 6
27 373 15.46 11.94 1145

29
19
1
50

3
19
6
31

1
11 6 6 6
13 9 2 3
30 22 13 15

1
5
i 1
1
1
40 12 8 4 2 ! 1

1

j

___1___
!

L a borer*— T w o w eeks or one-half
m onth.

Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin...................
2 • Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi. South Carolina..
3 . Maryland, North Carolina,
Virginia...................................
4. Illinois.........................................
Total......................................
1.

32.93
15.74
25.92
74.71
52.50

10 2 1 2 2 1 2 7 5
17 3 3 5 2 4 4 20 5
1 2
1
2
3 2
5
29 5 5 1 7 4 10 6 31 14

9 18 10 5 2 2 2 2 3
1 1

5
7
8
2
22 ii

30.43
12.48
14.89
19.75
17.39

29.09
8.49
10.99
15.22
13.09

31
26
5
62

2
8
1
11

9 60 59.11
1 24 31.98
1 7 26.88
5 130 95.48
16 221 77.33
i-----)
r

52.64
25.39
6.93
77.48
62.84

2
3
5
9
19

2
2 1 3 9 12 8 2 4 2 1
4 2 5
1 1
3 3 9 3
1
1
1 1 2 3 2 1 4 3 3 10 20 19 21 18 2
2 3 1
2
2
4 3 ! 3 1 3 2 5 5 10 7 10 14 11 4 5 6 4 3 14 22 24 21 18 2
!— ^

1 1 6 8 16 30 29 22 13 8 4 7 4 'ii*
2
12 19 11 I 6 8 10 18 32 32 | 22 13 8 4 7 4 11
1
i1

11

Loaders— O ne w eek.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin..................
2 . Floriia, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina..
3. Mar land, North Carolina,
Virginia...................................
3* Arkansas, Missouri...................
Total......................................

23
51
92
28
194

1
2 4 11
10 15 16
2 3 2
14 1 23 i 29

1 1 2 7 7 1 3
1
2 5
1
9
4 4 7
14 7 14 7 8 2 i 3

!
1

Loaders— T w o w eeks or one-half
m onth.

1. Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Penn­
sylvania, Wisconsin..............
2 . Floriia, : eorgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, fcouth Carolina..
3* Mar land, North Carolina,
irsinia...................................
4* Illinois.........................................
Total....................................




1
1

1
1

GENERAL TABLES,

10 85 43.85
1 65 23.90
1 3 32.16
6 186 80.86
18 339 64.03

T able E .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED ACTUAL EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, IN
ONE PAY PERIOD, 1922, BY PROCESS, OCCUPATION, LENGTH OF PAY PERIOD, AND DISTRICT— Continued.

£
04

STIFF-MUD PROCESS—Concluded.

O ff-bearers (hackers)-—O ne week .

Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Penn­
sylvania. Wisconsin..............
2 . Florida, (Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina..
3 . Maryland, North Carolina,
Virginia............................... .
5 . Arkansas, Missouri...................
Total......................................
1.

1
15
11
1
28

1
4
14
4
23

1 6 4 6 4 2
1
1
6 8 1 4 1
6
14 14 5 10 5 2 1

1

26 $22.72
43 8.93
64 14.27
9
3 17 14.42
27 140 14.36

$21.73
7.93
13.27
11.36
12.97

10 47 43.27
1 19 20.54
1
2 30.96
5 116 79.56
17 184 64.82

1 8 1 3 10 5
1 7
6 1
39.27 2 2
13.75 3 3 2 3 1 2
5
2
25.80
1
1 1
1
1 1 3 4 6 37 9 41 6 3
69.64
1 2 2 14 3 4 10 6 1 4 11 6 43 10 41 6 3
55.64 5 5 3 3

7

8

20
5
2
27

3
3
4
10

1

O ff-bearers (hackers)— T w o weeks
or on e-h alf m onth.

Kansas, Kentucky. Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Penn­
sylvania. Wisconsin...............
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina..
3 . Maryland, North Carolina,
Virginia....................................
4. Illinois.........................................
Total......................................
1.

1
1
i

|

Setters— O n e w eek.

1.

Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin...................




6

15 29.92 34.70

2

5 1 2

1

2

1

1

..J

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS---- COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

Number of employees whose eamin gs in one pay period were—
Aver­
Aver- age
earn­
age
full­
Es- Em­ time ings
$10 $12 $14 $16 $18 $20 $25 $30 $35 $40 $45 $50 $55 $60 $65 $70 $75 $80 $85 $90 $95
Occupation, p%y period, and tab- ploy­ earn­ actu­
ally Un­ and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and $100 $110 $120
lishand and
re­
ments ees. ings ceived der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
in
$8. der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
pay in one
$10. $12. $14. $16. $18. $20. $25. $30. $35. $40. $45. $50. $55. $60. $65. $70. $75. $80. $85. $90. $95. $ 1 0 0 $110 $126
period. pay
period.

2*

3.

Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina..
Maryland, North Carolina,
Virginia ...................................
Total

Setters— T w o

..

.

......................

w eeks or
m onth.

53
50
3
10
26 128
S

9

11.69
16.19
19.00
17.12

8.48 17 3 20 12 1
14.03 10 3 10 2 3 10 3 5 4
4 4 1
1
17.56
14.44 27 6 30 15 6 14 7 11 5 2

i ....

....

2

1

....

1

on e-h a lf

Kansas.Kentucky, Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, WiR<vmsi'n-..................
2 . Florida) Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina.
3* Maryland, North Carolina,
A■TIlinnis_ ..................................
. Virginia..................................
1.

13

58.01
24.07 1
33.84
94.88
63.76 1

1
1
2

1 2 5 5 8 4
3
1 2 4 4
4
1
1! 2 7 5 6 5 5 9 4

3

3

9 6 4 1

....

1

1 1 4 .... 7 1 1
10 7 8 1 7 i 2 1

—

15
15

GENEBAL TABLES.

Total......................................

52 58.90
27.95
5 4a 56
3
31 93.61
15 101 65.89
10
1
1

W heelers, 'pitchers, tossers, and
truckers— O n e w eek

.
Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin....................
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina..
3 . Maryland, North Carolina,
Virginia .
__T ___
_T
S Arkansas, Missouri....................
m
1.

Total.................................

15

2
1
22 26.80 28.51
21 9.56 6.81 10 7 4
29 2a 51 14.01 6 2 4 4 3 3
1
5 4
17 18.92 15.45
89 19.84 16.17 17 9 9 9 7 5

3
1
4

7 52.60 39.10 1
23 27.04 20.91 2
30 32.86 25.16 3

5
3

4

3

1 5 5

1 2 4 1

1 1 5
7
9 6 10 1

2

!

4

1

i
1

W heelers, pitchers, tossers , and
truckers— T w o w eeks or on e-h alf
m onth.

Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska,
New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin...................
2 . Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina..
1.

Total....................................




2
....
....

1 2 2 1 1
1 2 2 1 1

3

|

in

3 ! 12

!

i

i

1
1

i

1

1

1
....

1

1

1

T able E — AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED ACTUAL EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, IN
ONE PAY PERIOD, 1922, BY PROCESS, OCCUPATION, LENGTH OF PAY PERIOD, AND DISTRICT— Continued.

£
05

SOFT-MUD PROCESS.*
Number of employees whose earnings in one pay period were—
Aver­
age
earn­
ings
actu­
$8 $10 $12 $14 $16 $18 $20 $25 $30 $35 $40 $45 $50 $55 $60 $65 $70 $75 $80 $85 $90 $95 $100
ally Un­ and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and $110 $120
and
re­ der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
ceived $8. der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
in One
$10. $12. $14. $16. $18. $20. $25. $30. $35. $40. $45. $50. $55. $60. $65. $70. $75. $50. $85. $90. $95. $100 $110 $120
pay
)
period.

B u rn ers em i kUn firem en — O ne
w eek,

1 . Connecticut,Massachusetts...
2m New Jersey. New York........
3 . Kentucky, Ohio. Pennsylvania
4* Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.
Total....................................

5
1
4
2

1

1

2

1 —

1

2

2

3

2

1 ....

12

43

32.26

31.37

1
3
1
1
3

1
18
4
2
5

74.93
75.10
89.54
33.60
97.94

75.00
72.79
66.49
11.13
88.90

9

30

82.99

73.60

7
4
3

148
14
34
41

21.95
18.09
20.82
11.79

22.28
17.54
20.35
6.83

3
1 *2*
1 1
24 8

15

237

20.50

19.10

29

2

1

1

1
1

1 ....
1
1

2

3 . . . . 10

3
2
1
6 *T
3

5

1

2

2

5

1

2

2

1 ....

3 ....

5

2

1
2

1
2

i

1

18 134.44 144.59
9 32.62 20.01
11 31.44 28.87
9.73
5 15.62

1

3 —

5

2

3 i 3

6

4

2

2

4

2

2

1
2
1 ....

1

4 ....

1

B u rn ers and kUn firem en— T w o
w eeks or on e-h a lf m onth.

1 . Connecticut, Massachusetts.. .
New Jersey, New York...........
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania
4 . Louisiana,Mississippi,Texas..
6. Michigan..................................

%•

Total....................................

1

1

1

1

1

5
1

6

2

1

l
. 1

4
1

1 ....

Laborers and d a y wheelers— O ne
w eek .

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts...
New Jersey, New York...........
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania
4 . Louisiana,Mississippi,Texas..

2m

Total....................................




1

2

1 8
1

11
2
6
1

7
1
3
2

22 54
1 4
2 15

24
2
4

8

10 20

13

25 73

30

1
0

4

2
----- = --—

1

----------------------__

2

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

Occapaitlon^pay^period, and

Aver­
age
full­
Es- Em­ time
tablish- ploy­ earn­
ments ees. ings
in
pay
period.

Laborers and d a p wheelers— T w o
w eeks or on e-h a lf m onth.

1* Connecticut, Massachusetts...
2. New Jersey, New York............
3. Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas..
5. Michigan.....................................
Total....................................
L oaders— O n e w eek.

1 . Connecticut, Massachusetts.. .
2* New Jersey, New York...........
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania......................................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.
Total.....................................

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.. .
2 . New Jersey, New York...........
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsyl­
v a n ia ..................................
4. Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas.
5 . Michigan...................................
Total.....................................
Setters— O n e w eek.

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts. . .
2« New Jersey, New York...........
3* Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania......................................
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas..

GENERAL TABLES,

Loaders— T w o w eeks or
on e-h a lf m on th .

Total.....................................
Setters— T w o

w eeks
m onth.

or

on e-h alf

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.. .
2. New Jersey, New York...........
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania......................................
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas..
5. Michigan. . ................................
Total....................................

>Not including data for employees of 1 establishment having a monthly pay period.




co

T

B .—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED ACTUAL EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, IN
ONE PAY PERIOD, 1922, BY PROCESS, OCCUPATION, LENGTH OF PAY PERIOD, AND DISTRICT—Concluded.

able

$5
0

SOFT-M UD PROCESS—Concluded.

W heelers, pitchers, tossers, and
truckers— O ne w eek.

10

9

5

14

10

9

5

5

1
5

3
7

3
9

3
11

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

8

11

5

14

16

16

10

13

11

6

3

4

1

2
1

4

1
5

15
7

22

13

5
5

2

1

7

2
2

2

i

1
1

2

2

24.14

10

5

5

8

5 1 6

10

24 24

53.78
53.14

44.25
48.08

1

1

5 60.72
10 18.24
32 72.16

51.42
12.21
65.41

....

1

56.76

49.25

1

2

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.. .
g, 'M Jersey, New York____
’ow
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, PennsylVAnift.
4 . Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas..

6
1

89 $24.33 $28.48
13 23.60 21.47

4
3

15
18

16.61
12.81

16.91
10.63

Total....................................

14

135

22.26

1. Connecticut, Massachusetts.. .
New York...........
3 . Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylv^njA
4 . Louisiana,Mississippi,Texas..
5 . Michigan...................................

1
4

15
71

1
1
3

Total....................................

10

1

1
i

1

- .

W heelers, pitchers, tossers, and
truckers— T w o w eeks or on e-h alf
m onth.
2 • New Jersey,




133

1
2
3

3

2
3

1

6
1
8

2

5

1

7

6

10

‘ is’

1
4

1

2

5

2

1
l

....

2
.......

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

Occupationy>ay^period, and

Number of employees whose earnings in one pay period were—
Aver­
Aver­ age
age earnEs­
ftdl- ings
tab­ Em­ time actu­
$8 $10 $ 1 2 $14 $161$18 $20 $25 $30 $35 $40 $45 $50 $55 $60 $65 $70 $75 $80 $85 $90 $95 $100 $ 1 1 0
lish. ploy­ earn- ally re­ Un­ and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and $120
ees.
ments
ings ceived der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ and
in pay in one $8. der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der der over.
period. pay
$10. $12. $14. $16. $18. $20. $25. $30. $35. $40. $45. $50. $55. $60. $65. $70. $75. $80. $85. $90. $95. $100 $110 $120
period.

APPENDIXES.
APPENDIX A.— DESCRIPTION OP OPERATIONS AND OF EQUIPMENT.

The different departments or steps in the manufacture of brick,
from the digging or mining of the clay to the loading of the burned
brick on trucks, railroad cars, or river barges, and the various opera­
tions in each department will be briefly discussed in their proper order,
and the more important kinds of machinery and equipment in use
will be described.
The Clay Pit.

The methods of digging the clay from which bricks are made vary
greatly at the different plants, even among those employing the same
process of manufacture. For instance, of the 45 stiff-mud plants
scheduled 3 used electric shovels for scooping up the clay and loading
it into clay cars, 28 used steam shovels, 3 used a “ drag-line” shovel,
and 11 used hand shovels. The steam or electric shovel is the most
modem, resulting in increased output in the handling of the clay,
especially where the usable clay extends to a great depth. At some
of the Chicago yards there seems to be no limit to the depth at
which good clay is found. To illustrate, at one of these yards the clay
pit ranged from 40 to 50 feet in depth, and tests to a depth of 100 feet
showed the clay to be as good as at 50 feet. At this yard a special
steam shovel, with extra long boom, scoops up 2 cubic yards of clay
at a time, the dipper passing all the way from the bottom to very near
the top of the pit, thus permitting a mixture of the different kinds of
clay found at varying depths. It was said that a better brick was
produced as a result of such mixture. The clay is loaded onto a clay
car which holds 4 cubic yards, the weight of this quantity of clay
being approximately 9,390 pounds, enough to make about 1,565
regulation size brick. Here, as at many other plants, the clay car is
hauled to the foot of the incline and is pulled up by cable to the
“ machine house,” where the bricks are formed. The cable hoist is
operated by the hoistman, who is stationed in the machine house at
the top of the incline.
At 16 of the 45 stiff-mud plants the clay cars were hauled to the foot
of the incline by “ dinkey” or gasoline engines; at 3 plants horse­
power was used, and at 16 the cable extended all the way to the
shovel. One plant used a gasoline tug for towing canal barges laden
with clay. At some plants the cars were run by gravity, at two the
clay was hauled to the machine house in auto trucks, and at others it
was hauled all the way in horse-drawn carts. Thirty-two of the 45
plants used the cable hoist.
Fourteen of the 26 soft-mud plants used steam shovels, 8 loaded the
clay on cars by hand, 2 used scrapers, and 1 plant used a drag line.
At 1 plant the clay was dredged from the river bottom.
Seven of the 26 plants used gasoline engines to haul the cars to the
foot of the incline, 1 plant used a tractor and 1 an aerial tramway,
and at 7 plants the cable extended to where the clay was loaded on the




51

52

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COM M ON-BRICK IN D U ST R Y .

cars. At 4 plants horsepower was used from the shovel to the foot of
the incline and at 4 from the shovel to the machine house. Thirteen
of the 26 used the cable hoist.
In the dry-clay process only 8 plants were scheduled, 7 of which
gathered the clay with a scraper drawn by horsepower. Three of the
7 plants dumped the clay into a chute leading to a clay car at the foot
o f an incline up which the car was pulled by cable; one plant con­
veyed the clay in buckets by an overhead electric tramway, and at 3
plants it was carried to the machine house by the scraper or clay
gatherer. At the remaining plant the clay was loaded onto the cars
by hand and run by gravity to the machine house, the cars being
checked by cable.
The Machine House.

The house or room in which the clay-grinding and the brick-forming
machines are located is commonly spoken of as the “ machine house °
or “ machine room.” Entirely different types of machines are
used in the three different processes of brickmaking.
In the stiff-mud process the character of the clay determines the
different kinds of machinery necessary to transform it into brick.
Some clays call for the use of a granulator, conical rolls, dry pan,
and pug mill, in addition to the machine which forms the brick.
Other clays go first to the pug mill and then to the brick machine.
In a few instances the character of the clay is such that it goes direct
to the brick machine.
A description is here given of the machinery found at a typical
Chicago yard.
As is the case at most Chicago yards, the clay cars are hoisted to
the machine house by cable. The hoistman also operates the ma­
chinery which tilts the clay car and dumps the clay into the hopper
of the granulator.
The purpose of the granulator is to so cut up the rough clay as to
)ermit it to go through a pair of corrugated conical rolls. The granuator consists of a strong cast-iron conical case in which revolves a
horizontal steel shaft to which large steel knives are spirally attached.
The revolution of the shaft forces the clay to the smaller end of the
machine, from which it drops to the rolls below. The conical rolls
moving against each other remove the stones from the clay.
From the rolls the clay empties onto an elevator belt which
elevates it to the pug mill where it is pugged, or mixed. The
clay is tempered by applying water to bring it to the proper con­
sistency to suit the bncK machine. It must be neither too dry nor
too wet. When too wet, dirt made by pulverizing burned brickbats
is applied and mixed up with the clay. The machine in which the
burned brickbats are ground up is called a dry pan. The pug mill is
somewhat similar in construction to the granulator.
The clay drops from the pug mill direct into the brick-forming
machine. The one here described, like those at practically afl
stiff-mud plants, is of the auger type. As the clay falls into the
machine it passes through another set of knives, which force the
clay to the screw, which m turn forces it through a hard steel double
die onto a measuring belt leading to a cutting machine.
As the ribbon of clay is foroed from the brick machine it is split
through the center by an upright knife, making two bars of clay

{




A PPENDIX A.---- OPERATIONS AND E Q U IPM EN T .

53

each of which is
inches thick and 4 inches wide. At most yards
the clay comes out through a single instead of a double die.
As the bars reach the wire cut-off they are cut into sections of
uniform length, 8i inches, thus forming the brick. The circular
end-cutting machine in use at this plant contains 6 piano wires
which cut 12 bricks with each revolution, and it makes 58 rev­
olutions per minute, resulting in 696 bricks per minute or more
than 40,000 per hour, the two machines at this yard having turned
out more than half a million per day. Four of the other Chicago
lants scheduled each produced between 30,000 and 35,000 per
our while the remaining one produced between 20,000 and 25,000
per hour. Of the stiff-mud plants outside the Chicago district,
three had capacities of 10,000 and under 15,000 per hour; eight,
7,500 and under 10,000; twelve, 5,000 and under 7,500; eleven, 2,500
and under 5,000; each of the remaining five made less than 2,500
per hour.
Leaving the cutting machine, the bricks travel on an off-bearing
belt from which they are removed by the hackers, at some plants
termed “ belt-boys” or “ off-bearers,” and “ hacked” or set on cars, 840
bricks to the car. The hacking crew at this typical Chicago yard
consists of 18 men to handle the product of one machine, and there
are two machines there.
The cars on which the bricks are hacked are nm parallel to the belt,
where they are loaded. They are then taken on a hand transfer at
right angles to the off-bearing belt and run into the drying tunnels.
A few plants were found where the wheel press is still m use. At
one of these the clay is conveyed on a 24-inch belt from a crusher to a
hopper over the mold and pressure wheels, which stand upright. As
the cla}^ is punched down through the hopper it is pressed by the
pressure wheel into the molds of the mold wheel as they revolve.
The bricks are dropped from the molds onto a belt, from which they
are removed and set on cars by the off-bearers.
Another type of brick machine consists of a horizontal mold wheel
and auger pressure. As the wheel revolves the clay is pressed into the
molds, from which they are automatically ejected onto a conveyor.
In the manufacture of brick by the soft-mud process very much
the same kind of machinery is used as in the stiff-mud process, up to the
brick machine. The capacity of this machine is low when compared
with the stiff-mud machine, only a few attaining as many as 8,000
or 9,000 bricks per hour while most of them range between 3,000 and
5,000. Because of the quantity of water added in mixing the clay
the bricks are so soft as they come from the machine that they can
not be handled by hand. Molds containing spaces for six or seven
bricks, after being sanded by the mold sander to keep the bricks from
sticking to the mold, are pushed into the machme by the mold
pusher and the clay is pressed into them. The striker-off smoothes
the top surface of the bricks with a small paddle, and the mold is
automatically ejected from the machine onto a table. The bumper
bumps the mold to loosen the bricks; the pallet boy places a metal
pallet on the table; the dumper picks up the mold and dumps the six
or seven bricks onto the pallet and starts it on a parallel cable
conveyor which carries it to the dryer. Here the rackers remove
the pallets from the conveyor and place them in the drying racks.
At other yards empty dryer cars equipped with racks are nm into the

E




54

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS---- COM M ON-BRICK IN D U ST R Y .

machine house, and the rackers remove the pallets from the table
and place them in the racks. The cars are then run by transfer to
the dryer.
At a few soft-mud plants automatic brick machines were found
which eliminate several of the employees mentioned above, and such
machines were being installed at some other yards at the time of the
special agent’s visit. As the mold is automatically ejected from the
machine it is inverted and bumped so as to loosen the bricks, which
are dumped onto a metal pallet, the empty mold being returned to the
machine.
In the dry-clay process the operations in the machine room, as in
most departments of the plant, are entirely different from those in
the stiff-mud and soft-mud processes and the machine capacity even
less than at soft-mud plants— one yard making 5,000 bricks per hounj
four making 4,000; two making 2,000; and one making 1,300. As
previously stated, the clay is stored under a long shed where it is
allowed to dry out or “ weather” for several months. The shed at
one plant was said to be large enough to store sufficient clay to run
the machine for two years.
The clay is shoveled from the dump into the feeder or grinder.
After going through the rolls the crushed, clay is carried by belt-bucket
conveyors to a rotary mixer. From the mixer it drops into the mold
box which contains from 5 to 10 molds, and as the powerful press
comes down the dry clay (no water whatever having been added) is
so compactly pressed into the molds that durable bricks are formed.
When the press is lifted the bricks are automatically ejected from
the molds and pushed out on a table, from which they are taken by the
off-bearer and placed on two-wheel trucks, usually 80 to the truck.
The truckers wheel these trucks direct to the kiln and toss the bricks
to the setter, brick made by this process being sufficiently free of
moisture to permit the elimination of the dryer.
Drying the Brick.

The green brick as it comes from the stiff-mud or the soft-mud
brick machine contains much moisture, and it is necessary to remove
the greater portion of this moisture before the brick is burned. There
are various methods of drying brick, each of which will be discussed
briefly.
Since either the waste hot air or the steam dryer is found at most
of the very large plants, a detailed description is here given of the
waste hot-air method as found at one of the Chicago yards. As
previously indicated, the cars on which the bricks are hacked are
run into the drying tunnels and allowed to remain from 24 to 30 hours.
It may be of interest to note here that the “ green” brick as it enters
the dryer weighs approximately 5 pounds; that it loses three-quarters
of a pound in the drying and an additional quarter of a pound in
the burning process.
The dryer at the yard under consideration contains 18 tunnels,
each. 175 feet long and holds 25 cars, making it possible to place
450 cars in the dryer at one time, which means a capacity of 378,000
bricks. The waste hot air is taken from the boilers and forced by
two 12-foot fans through an underground tunnel into the dryer. The
temperature carried averages about 250° F. The steam or vapor
coming from the bricks as they are being dried is carried off by
natural draft through brick stacks.




APPE N D IX A .— OPERATIONS AND EQ U IPM EN T .
At another yard of the same company the bricks are dried by steam
and the system is on a somewhat larger scale than the one described
above. The first 30 feet of the dryer has no steam pipes. The next
170 feet has steam coils under the tracks and cold-air inlets under
the coils, the cold air passing up through the coils, then through
the bricks, creating a vapor which is carried out through the ventilat­
ing stacks.
An exception to the general method employed in hot-air drying
was at a plant where the bricks were run by belt conveyor direct
from the machine house to any desired kiln and set in the lain, where
they were dried, thus eliminating the dryer entirely. This was
accomplished by setting the first day’s machine production in kiln
No. 1, then turning on the hot air, while the second day’s run was
set in kiln No. 2, and the third in kiln No. 3. The hot air was then
cut off at kiln No. 1, the crew returning to this kiln to set the fourth
day’s run of the machine, and so on until the bricks in the three
kilns were set and dried.
In a few plants visited bricks were dried by “ direct heat,” the
fire pans being built just beneath the dryer. Most of these plants
used wood and coal, but two used gas, one plant making its own gas.
The “ open-air” method of drying bricks is still found at a large
number of plants. This is of course less expensive, but it requires
from 7 to 10 days. At many “ open-air” plants drying racks are
found. At some the cars on which the bricks were hacked are run
on tracks under the drying shed, while at others the bricks are placed
on the ground to dry. In many instances the roofs of the sheds
are constructed in sections so that they may be lifted to let in the
air and light or closed to shut out the rain and snow.
To summarize as to drying methods, of the 45 stiff-mud plants
scheduled 14 dried the brick by steam, 7 by waste heat (sometimes
from the boilers, sometimes from kilns as they cooled off), 7 by
steam and waste heat, 8 by direct heat (2 of which used gas), 2 by
hot air, and 1 by waste heat and direct heat, 1 dried the bricks in
the kiln by hot air, and 5 dried in the open air.
In the soft-mud process the 26 plants scheduled dried brick as
follows: By steam, 15; open air, 9; steam and open air, 2.
In the dry-clay process the bricks are so free of moisture that
the dryer is eliminated entirely. All of the eight plants scheduled
set the bricks in the kiln direct, where they are slowly dried or “ water
smoked” by burning wood before the fire is increased to the degree
necessary in burning the brick.

Setting the Bricks in the Kiln.

After the bricks are dried the loaded cars are pulled from the dryer
and run onto an electric transfer, which holds three cars, and are
transferred to any desired point along the kiln shed where a kiln is
being set. (The shed at the yard mentioned in the first paragraph on
this page is 2,000 feet long with a holding capacity of twenty million
bricks. A single kiln may hold more than one and a quarter million.)
The cars are then taken off the transfer and run onto a track cross­
wise of the shed—that is, in front of the kiln.
Formerly it was the universal practice to set the bricks in the kiln
by hand, and this method is still followed at the great majority of
plants, but in recent years mechanical setting machines have been




56

PRODUCTIVITY

COSTS— COMMON-BRICK

IN D U STR Y .

successfully used at many of the larger stiff-mud plants, especially
in the Chicago district.
There are few, if any, permanent kilns in the Chicago district,
a kiln being built anywhere under a long shed. These are known as
“ scove” kilns, and vary as to capacity from 720,000 to 1,250,000.
When the dryer car loaded with brick is run under the shed the
entire unit of 840 bricks is lifted from the car by an overhead crane
by means of a “ fork.” The “ fingers” of the fork are shoved between
the “ finger” bricks, so called because they were so placed on the car
by the hackers that the eleven prongs or fingers of the fork would
pass between them. Upon being lifted by the crane the weight of
the unit forces little grip plates located in the “ fingers” of the fork
to grip the bottom bricks of the unit, thus preventing the bricks
from slipping. The unit is in this way moved to the kiln and set in
the position indicated by the brick setters. The electric crane is
operated by a man in the cage and the “ fingers” of the fork are
guided by a man on the ground. When the fork load is lowered
into the kiln and the fork relieved of its weight the grip plates auto­
matically drop back into place, thus releasing the fingers of the fork
so that they can be withdrawn from the unit.
When the transfer goes to the dryer for more loaded cars it re­
turns the empty ones to a point where they are picked up by an
electrically operated conveyor or hoist and are again run parallel
to the belt.
Having shown the course of the clay from the bottom of a 50-foot
hole in the earth to the point where the bricks are to be set in the kiln,
a description is now given of the building of the kiln after the manner
of this modern Chicago yard, said to be the largest brickyard in the
world, which turns out over half a million bricks per day.
The kiln is built by first laying a series of burned bricks on the kiln
ground, which are known as “ stringers.” Each set of “ stringers”
is 6 bricks wide and 53 bricks long and so placed as to cover the width
of the unit to be set, which is 34 inches. The sets of “ stringers”
extend across the shed, a distance of 40 feet. These burned bricks
are placed at the bottom of the kiln to keep the bricks yet unburned
from being affected by the moisture from the earth.
The first arch of the kiln is made by setting a tier of double-coaled
bricks across the shed at the end of the lain. The mixture of a
double quantity of hard coal screenings with the clay before the brick
is formed tends to draw the fire to these bricks, and their burning
tends to hold the heat within the kiln more readily.
Inside this tier of double-coaled bricks is set another tier of ordi­
nary bricks in which there is no coal composition. Then a space of
12 inches is left to permit the formation of the arch into which to
fire and burn the kiln after it is completed. On the next set of
“ stringers” a solid 4-brick unit is set, and so on.
On the sides of the kiln, from the point where the kiln is 8 bricks
high to the top of the kiln, there is laid a single tier of double-coaled
bricks, but at each end of the kiln this double-coaled tier extends
from the ground to the top. The purpose of this construction, as
indicated above, is to assist in burning the outside bricks of the kiln
which are most exposed to the cold.
After the kiln is set it is incased in a burned-brick wall which is one
brick wide and the wall is then daubed with loam to hold the heat




A PPEN D IX A .---- OPERATION S AND E Q U IPM EN T .

57

within the kiln. Small quantities of cement and water are usually
added to the loam. This work is known as the “ walling and daubing”
of the kiln. Similar work on the roof of the kiln is referred to as
“ platting/ ’
At the great majority of yards throughout the country where the
bricks are artificially dried, whether by steam, waste heat, or gas,
the cars are pulled from the dryer and shoved by hand to the kiln.
The tossers remove the bricks from the car and toss them, usually
two at a time, to the setters who set them in the kiln.
It is not unusual, however, especially at soft-mud plants, for the
wheelers to remove the pallets from the drying racks of a steam dryer,
stack the bricks on wheelbarrows and wheel them to the kiln. As a
rule, such wheelers do not toss the brick, this work being done by the
tosser while the wheeler takes an empty barrow to the dryer for more
brick.
As previously stated, it is the practice at dry-clay plants for the
truckers to wheel trucks of brick from the machine to the setter, who
sets them in the kiln, where they are slowly dried, or “ water smoked,”
by wood fire for 3 to 3 $ days in summer and 5 to 6 days in winter, after
which coal is used for burning. This can be done in the dry-clay
process because of the lower percentage of moisture in the brick as
they come from the machine. The advantage is that it reduces the
work of handling the brick by eliminating the dryer, as such.

Burning the Kiln.

The purpose of burning is to remove the remaining moisture and to
harden the brick. The burning causes a partial fusion of the various
constituents of the brick, cementing them so as to prevent disintegra­
tion.
In the burning of brick various kinds of fuel are used— namely, oil,
oil and steam combined, natural gas, artificial gas, wood, and coal.
The great majority of plants use wood or coal or both, but in some
sections oil or oil ana steam is used almost exclusively, particu­
larly in the Chicago district.
Since a description has been given of the work in other steps of
brickmaking as it is done at a typical Chicago yard, a brief description
will now be given of the burning of a kiln of bricks at the same yard
before taking up the burnii
:ith wood or coal.
The oil pipe lines are drawn up to the arch-holes, and both oil and
steam are forced into the nozzle. It is first turned in very slowly on
one side of the kiln and is lighted by a torch. The combination of
oil and steam is projected directly against a burned brick, known as
the “ target,” placed 18 inches inside the arch-hole, or “ dog” hole as
it is sometimes called, which aids in the ignition of the oil because
this brick gets hot quickly and thus increases the temperature of the
surrounding air in the arch-hole. One side of the kiln is usually
fully lighted before going to the other side.
As the temperature is raised to a point sufficient to keep the oil
burning the valves on the burners are opened, slowly at first, then
wide. The burning is kept up for about 18 hours, bv which time
the temperature in the lower part of the kiln reaches 1,900° to
2,000° F., sufficient to burn the bricks as high as the seventh from the
bottom. This is also the maximum temperature required during
the burning of an entire kiln.




58

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

After the initial 18 hours of burning the kiln begins to settle.
The oil is then turned off and air pipes are inserted in the arch-holes.
The steam is again turned on, whicn tends to suck air into the kiln,
the combination of steam and air forming a complete combustion
as it is forced through the kiln, causing the heat in the lower part of
the kiln to rise without further use of oil or fuel.
This method, which has come to be known as the “ blowing pro­
cess,” is continued until the forty-fourth hour of burning is reached,
by which time the temperature at the top of the kiln has reached
1,900° F., after which four hours more are required to complete the
burning of the kiln. The temperature at the bottom of the kiln,
which was 1,900° F. at the eighteenth hour, has then dropped to
400° F., due to the cold air that was drawn in at the bottom.
It is claimed that the “ blowing process” has resulted in a reduc­
tion of 40 per cent in the fuel consumed, as compared with the old
method of burning with oil, the number of gallons per thousand
bricks now being 12 to 14, as against 20 to 25 formerly.
Five to eight days are required in the Chicago district for the kiln
to cool off sufficiently to permit of the handling of the brick.
It has been stated above that it is the rule m the Chicago district
to have no permanent kilns but to erect “ scove” kilns. They are
so called because they are “ scoved” or smeared with clay. They
are invariably rectangular in shape and the entire structure is removed
after the kiln is burned.
In contrast to this, permanent kilns are found in most other sections
of the country. The great majority of these are rectangular, though
many round or “ beehive” kilns are still in use. The rectangular
kilns at stiff-mud plants range in capacity from 25,000 to 1,000,000
bricks, most of them from 400,000 to 600,000, while some Chicago
kilns hold 1,250,000. The round Idlns are small in comparison,
ranging from 25,000 to 50,000 capacity.
Tme “ continuous” kiln is another type, several of which were found
at some of the stiff-mud plants. These kilns are so called because
they can be operated continuously, resulting in a reduction in time
and fuel cost. A kiln of this kind is constructed of several sections
or chambers, which are set with bricks and burned in rotation. When
one section of the kiln has been set with V 3ks the fires are started and
the bricks in this chamber are being buruod while the bricks are being
set in other chambers. When the second chamber is fired the dampers
between the first and second are opened, so that the surplus heat
from the first may be let into the second, and so on. Sometimes
there is nothing but a paper wall between each two sections and this
is torn out to let the heat pass from one chamber to another. The
capacity of these kilns is very great, most of them ranging from
800.000 to 1,500,000 bricks, though some of 350,000 were found.
At practically all soft-mud yards the kilns are rectangular and
are of more uniform size, most of them being of 500,000 or 600,000
or 700,000 capacity. One however was as low as 180,000 and a few
were as high as 1,000,000 capacity.
At the few dry-clay plants visited the capacity ranged from
230.000 to 500,000, but the prevailing figures were 350,000 and
400,000.




APPENDIX A .— OPERATIONS AND EQUIPMENT.

59

Most plants outside of the Chicago district using oil for burning
reported from 5£ to 6 days as the time required for burning a kiln,
which is more than twice the time required by the “ blowing process”
used in Chicago.
At plants where wood or coal or both wood and coal are used for
burning brick the time required for burning a kiln varies considerably
with the weather as well as with the character of the clay and size
of the kiln. It is the practice at many yards to burn with wood for
the first 12 to 24 hours in order gradually to remove from the brick
such moisture as was not removed in the drying. This is known as
“ water smoking” and tends to prevent the bricks from cracking.
Wood is shoved into the arches of the kiln to a distance of 16 feet
from each side. When the burning is well under way coal is thrown
in at each end of the various arches, after which the ends of the
arches or “ dog holes” are closed up. The burning period ranges
from 5£ to 9 days and nights, though the majority of plants report
7 days. It then requires from 6 to 10 days for the kiln to cool off
to the point where the brick can be handled.
It requires from one to two days longer to burn with wood than
with wood and coal and from one to two days longer to burn a kiln
in winter than in summer.
Replies to inquiries at the principal dry-clay plants indicate that
it requires 3£ to 5 days for the brick to dry off in the kiln and an
additional 7 or 8 days to burn the brick. As previously stated,
bricks made by this process are so free of moisture that they are not
dried, either by steam or in open air, before being set in the kiln.

Loading.

The great majority of brick manufacturers still employ the hand
method of loading the bricks— whether on trucks, railroad cars, or
boats. The bricks are tossed down— two or three at a time— to the
wheeler who places them on a wheelbarrow and then rolls it along a
runway onto the railroad car or boat. Sometimes the wheeler stacks
the bricks in the car or on the boat, but more often this is done by
another man while the wheeler returns to the kiln with an empty
wheelbarrow for more bricks.
In practically all instances of hand loading on trucks the bricks
are simply tossed into the truck, no effort being made to stack them
in order.
Not infrequently there is found a semimechanical device for loading
bricks on railroad cars. This usually takes the form of a gravity
conveyor system, consisting of a carrier chain of iron rollers sloping
from the kiln toward the car. The loaders in the kiln start the bricks
on the rollers and the weight of the bricks is sufficient to keep them
moving until they enter the car, when they are removed and stacked
in order by other loaders at that end. In case of a curve to be
rounded by the bricks— and sometimes even where the course is
straight— a metal strip is fastened to either side of the carrier to
prevent the bricks from falling off.
Another semimechanical device consists of a multiple belt arrange­
ment. These belts are made in lengths ranging from 8 to 26 feet.
If it is desired to load onto a truck, one end of the belt is placed in the
kiln and the other is projected over the truck, the belt being supported
by an upright piece which may be folded up when the belt is lowered




60

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRTCK INDUSTRY.

flat on the ground. A hopper is placed over the end of the belt in
the kiln ana the edges of the belt at that end curve upward to keep
the bricks from falling off as they are dropped into the hopper and
started on their way by the moving belt.
When it is desired to carry the brick a greater distance— that is,
to a railroad car or a barge— the belts are made to overlap, thus
feeding one another until the bricks reach their destination.
Still another semimechanical scheme is used in some parts of the
South where open freight cars are used for transportation. The
bricks are taken from the kiln by hand and tossed into a crate which
holds about 500. The crate is picked up by an overhead crane and
conveyed to the open freight car. The supporting chain at one cor­
ner of the crate is released and the bricks slide from the crate into the
car. Because of weather conditions, the open freight car is little
used in the North.
A system used at some Hudson River yards is also a combination
hand and mechanical arrangment. The bricks are placed in crates by
hand. The crates are lifted by crane and placed on automobile
trucks and carried to the river landing, where another crane lifts the
crate from the truck and places it on board the barge. The bricks are
then removed from the crate by hand and stacked on the barge. In
some cases the crates go with the bricks to their destination and are
then returned.
A t some yards, where delivery is made by truck only, crates filled
with bricks are moved by crane to the autotruck, usually four crates
of 750 bricks each to the truck, the crates going with the bricks to
the delivery point, being returned later.
Strictly mechanical loading* as distinguished from semimechanical
and hand loading, has reference to the use of a machine which picks
up an entire unit of bricks, 750 to 1,000, and places them on a truck,
stacked in the same order as they left the kiln, without the necessity
of being touched by hand.
This is the same kind of machine as that used for setting an entire
unit of bricks in the kiln. It is found in use more often at the larger
stiff-mud plants. Thus it is seen that the bricks not only are set in
the kiln mechanically but also are removed mechanically. In fact,
with the exception ol removing the bricks from the belt to the dryer
cars, every operation is performed mechanically at the typical Chi­
cago plant referred to in various sections of this report.
A t the soft-mud plants it is more difficult to build up the unit of
bricks in such a way as to permit of mechanical handling to such an
extent as found at some of the larger stiff-mud plants. However,
the semimechanical loading on boats with the use of cranes, as
referred to above, is in common use at soft-mud plants.
Loading at dry-clay plants is usually done by nand with a wheel­
barrow.




APPENDIX B.— GLOSSARY OP OCCUPATIONS.

A brief description of each of the occupations for which figures are
presented in this report follows:
B oiler firem an and steam dryer firem an.— Fires the boiler in the power house
and at some plants acts as power engineer at night, or fires the steam dryer
system .
B rick-m achine operator.— Operates the machine which forms the brick.
Bum per.— Bum ps the molds to loosen the bricks so that they will not stick to
the molds.
Burner.— H as charge of the burning of the kiln, watches the temperature,
instructs the kiln firemen when to fire and when to cease firing the kiln, and sees
that the kiln laborers keep a sufficient supply of wood and coal near the arches
of the kiln.
Cable hooker.— H ooks cable to clay car at foot of incline from which it is drawn
up to the machine house.
Cart driver.— Drives cart, hauling away brickbats, etc.
Clay-car loader.— Digs and loads clay into clay cars by hand with use of pick
and shovel.
Clay-cart driver.— Where the clay pit is not too deep, drives horse-drawn car
of clay from clay pit to machine house and dumps the clay into a pit inside the
house, from which it can be shoveled onto a belt which feeds the pug m ill.
C lay-pit man.— W orks in front of steam shovel. Is really clay-pit laborer.
Sometimes called shovel man.
Clay-press operator, dry clay.— Operates the powerful press which presses the
clay into the molds so compactly that it forms a durable brick.
Clay wheelers.— In the dry-clay process the clay is left under a shed for several
months in order to let it dry out, or “ weather.”
When the nearer supply has
been shoveled into the feeder the wheelers use wheelbarrows to bring up the
supply as needed.
Conveyor man.— W atches the pallets as they m ove on parallel cable conveyor
to see that they round the curves and that none fall off.
Cranem an.— Operates overhead crane used in mechanical setting and loading
of brick.
D in k ey engineer.— Operates dinkey engine which pulls one or more clay cars
from the location of the shovel to foot of incline leading to machine house. A t
some plants, where the grade permits, the dinkey engine hauls the clay car into
the machine house.
D rag-line engineer.— Operates engine which furnishes power to “ drag line,”
which draws a large shovel, scooping up clay and carrying it to an elevation from
which it can be dumped into a clay car.
D ry-p a n man.— Operates dry pan in which burned brickbats are ground into
powder which is used for stiffening clays that are too soft.
D um per.— Dum ps the bricks from the molds upon the metal pallets and starts
pallet of 5 to 7 bricks on cable conveyor leading to drying racks.
E m pty-pallet boy.— W hen the brick have been dried and removed from the
pallets in the drying racks the boy places the em pty pallet on the lower part of
the conveyor which returns it to the brick machipe.
Gasoline engineer.— Operates gasoline engine used in lieu of dinkey engine.
Granulator man.— Operates the granulator in which the clay is ground up.
Groundman.— Guides the “ fingers” of the fork by which an entire unit of 840
bricks are lifted by the crane and lowered into the kiln.
H oistm an.— Operates the cable which hoists the clay car from the clay pit to
the machine house.
K iln firem an.— Under supervision of the burner, the fireman fires the kiln
with wood, coal, oil, or gas.
Laborer.— Does cleaning up under kiln shed and about the yard, helps to load
debris on carts, unloads coal or other material, and brings up wood and coal to
kiln.

74987°— 24t----- 5




61

62

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

Loader.— Tosses the burned brick from kiln to crates to be m oved by crane to
truck or open freight car. Tosses brick from kiln into wagon or truck. Tosses
brick down from kiln to wheelbarrow man to be wheeled to railroad car or barge.
Wheelbarrow man is also called a loader. Other loaders inside the car or on the
barge remove bricks from wheelbarrow and stack them in order in the car or on
the barge. Other loaders take bricks from the kiln, start them on gravity con­
veyor or m ultiple belt conveyor leading to freight car or truck. Some work at
other end of conveyor, removing the bricks therefrom and stacking them in order
in the freight car.
M old pusher.— Shoves the em pty molds into the brick machine.
M old sander.— Sands the em pty molds before they are shoved into the brick
machine. The sand keeps the wet clay from sticking to the m olds.
O ff-bearer {hacker).— Rem oves green brick from the belt and hacks or stacks
them on cars which are run into the dryer. A t some open-air plants, removes
brick from belt and places them on kind of a wheelbarrow used for wheeling
them to the drying shed, where they are hacked to be dried.
Pallet boy.— Places em pty m etal pallets in convenient position for brick to be
dumped upon them .
Pug-m iU operator.— Operates the pug m ill in which the clay is mixed.
R ocker.— Rem oves pallets of bricks from cable conveyor and places them in
drying racks. Where dryer cars are used instead of the cable conveyor the
racker places the m etal pallets in the racks of the car which is then shoved into
the dryer.
R oll operator.— Operates conical rolls which throw out stones from the clay.
Setter.— Sets the brick in the kiln to be burned.
Stationary engineer.— Operates the engine which supplies power for running the
brick machine.
Shovel engineer.— Operates the engine which furnishes power for the steam
shovel to scoop up clay from the earth and load it into a clay car. H e usually
looks after the engine and the crane, though at some large plants both an engi­
neer and a craneman are found on the steam shovel.
Steam-shovel firem an.— Fires the engine which supplies power for the steam
shovel.
Striker-off.— Strikes off surplus clay from the top of the molds, making an
even-surface brick.
T eam ster, driver o f wheeler, and scraper operator.— Drives the clay gatherer—
sometimes called a scraper, sometimes a wheeler— a kind of shovel which scrapes
up the clay and dumps it under the clay shed or into a chute leading to a clay
car at foot of the incline, from which the car is pulled up to the machine house
by cable. The clay-gathering machine is drawn by horse power.
T osser or pitcher.— Tosses to the setter brick to be set in the kiln for burning.
Trackm an.— Extends and keeps in repair the dinkey railroad track in the
clay pit.
Transfer man and car puller.— Pushes dryer car on which green brick are
hacked or racked onto transfer and into dryer and pulls car from dryer when
brick are dried, shoving it by transfer to kiln.
Trucker and wheeler.— W heels brick from machine to drying shed or from
dryer to kiln. Loaders who wheel the brick from the kiln to railroad cars or
barges are also called brick wheelers.
N o t e .— In the case of autom atic brick machines m ost of the above soft-m ud
occupations are elim inated, the work being done by the machine.




APPENDIX C.—WORKING AGREEMENT, 1922-23.

The following is a copy of the working agreement between the
Brickmakers' District Council No. 1 of the United Brick and Clay
Workers of America and the Common-Brick Manufacturers’ Asso­
ciation in the Chicago district, in effect during the period for which
wages data are shown in this report.1
B R IC K M A K E R S ’ D IS T R IC T C O U N C IL N O . 1.
WORKING AGREEMENT, 1922-23.
S e c t io n I .

A ll employees who are classified in the scale of wages of this agreement shall
be members of Brickmakers’ D istrict Council N o. 1 of the United Brick and
Clay Workers of Am erica. No distinction shall be made as to what local men
employed belong.
This organization hereby agrees that it will at all tim es furnish a sufficient
number of capable men to properly operate the yard or yards of the manufac­
turer. Should the organization fail, or be unable, to furnish men in sufficient
numbers within two days after being notified by the manufacturer to furnish
men, the manufacturer m ay em ploy men who are not members of the organiza­
tion, and m ay pledge such men 30 days’ work. A t the end of the 30-day period,
these men m ay be replaced by union men, but if the organization fails to supply
union men to replace such nonunion men at the end of said 30-day period, the
manufacturer m ay retain such nonunion men for a further period of 30 days
and continue to do so until this organization shall be able, at the end of some
30-day period to supply union m en: Provided, however, That such nonunion men
be em ployed with the understanding that they pay the same dues per month
as are paid by members of this organization and are subject to the same check­
off regulations as apply to union men.
After working 30 days temporary employees m ust be accepted into the union
if such employees elect to join.
The manufacturer on his part agrees to prom ptly notify the organization
when he is in need of men.
The manufacturer further agrees to check off all initiation fees, dues, fines and
assessments each m onth, provided that the local union or the business agent of
this organization subm it a list in duplicate to the manufacturer, arranged ac­
cording to yards when necessary, at least 10 days prior to pay day.
The manufacturer reserves the right in this agreement to adopt any and all
im proved machinery and methods in the conduct of his business which he may
deem advisable to adopt, and in case any new machinery is used which displaces
hand labor, such machinery shall be operated at a price not to exceed the price
paid to men operating similar machinery in brickyards in the Cook County dis­
trict.
The manufacturer shall have the right to discharge men not satisfactory to
him .
S e c t i o n II.
Eight hours shall constitute a day’ s work with the following exceptions:
1. Burners and their helpers m ay work hot to exceed 12 hours per day on all
oil-burning yards.
On yards where brick burning is done with wood and coal, the head burner
and second burner m ay each work not to exceed 12 hours per d a y; helpers,
however, m ust not work more than 8 hours a day, unless it is impossible to
secure enough men to do this work, in which event they, too, m ay work longer

1This agreement expired April 30,1923. The new agreement provides for an increase in wages of
approximately 12£ per cent and runs for one year from May 1,1923.




63

64

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,

hours. On wood and coal burning yards one man shall be em ployed for each
five arches of brjck or m ajor fraction thereof.
On yards th at have continuous burning with wood and coal there shall be
one man to each seven arches of brick.
2. Starting tim e for tossers shall be determined by the m anufacturer. Re­
gardless of starting tim e all trucks or team s under the kiln shed by 4 o’clock
shall be loaded at straight tim e. It is agreed that if more than 50 per cent of
the number of trucks or team s in use on th at day shall arrive between 3.30
o’clock and 4 o’ clock the excess trucks shall be loaded at tim e and one-half.
Any additional tossing shall be offered to such tossers at tim e and one-half.
If such tossers do not elect to do such tossing, then other men m ay do such
work, and regular tossers receive no pay for such work. If tossers are not at
work when loading m ust be done, such work m ay be done by any men belong­
ing to the union.
Team track brick tossers shall report for work at 6 o’clock a. m . A n y truck
or wagon reporting at team track after 4 p . m ., which shall then be loaded
shall be paid for at rate and one-half. In case trucks or wagons which arrive
after 4 p. m . are loaded by the driver or the chauffeur, or his assistant, the
tosser shall receive pay for such loading, but only at straight tim e. In case only
one load of brick remains in the car on team track at 4 p. m ., loaders m ay be
required to toss these brick at straight tim e. W herever practical, one tosser
shall be assigned to each four team s, or to two trucks, or to one truck and two
team s.
3. W allers and daubers m ay be required to work more than 8 hours— but
shall not be required to work in excess of 48 hours per week at walling and
daubing.
4. Starting tim e for loaders shall be determined by the manufacturer. N o
car loaders shall be required to wait longer than one hour for em pty cars. A ny
further waiting tim e asked for by the manufacturer after the first hour shall be
paid for at $1 per hour. Such loaders m ust remain at yard until released by the
manufacturer for the day. W hen extra loaders are needed the manufacturer
shall have the privilege of selecting whatever men he chooses for this work. A ll
loading to be paid for at straight tim e.
5. Setting gangs on machine setting yards shall be required to work 10
hours at straight tim e when, in the judgm ent of the m anufacturer, it is neces­
sary, and all men who m ay be required to assist setting gangs shall be required
to work at straight tim e. Setting gangs and all men assisting setting gangs
shall be allowed rate and one-half for all tim e in excess of 10 hours.
The hours for starting and completing a day’s work shall be designated by
the m anufacturer, and tim e shall be continuous within such designated hours,
unless work for the day is suspended; in which event men shall be given tim e
up to the hour of suspension.
Setters, transfer men and car pullers at dryer m ay be required to start work a
half-hour in advance of the regular starting tim e.
M en reporting for work in the morning, when ordered to report by the manu­
facturer, shall be allowed two hours’ tim e for so reporting on all days during
which the yard does not operate, unless such yard does not operate on account
of working conditions. In the event that they are em ployed at other than
their usual tasks on such days, they will be paid only for the tim e they work.
B elt men shall be given the same pay for extra work as is offered other men in
case there is extra work to be done on such days.
A ll employees m ust remain at their respective posts during working hours
unless work for the day is suspended.
Nothing in this agreement shall prohibit an em ployer, ^one forem an, or one
member of any firm from working on the yard not more than two hours on
any one day.
S e c t i o n III.
There shall be no work performed on Sundays, New Year’s D ay, Decoration
D ay, Fourth of July, Labor D ay, Thanksgiving D ay, and Christm as, except as
herein provided for.
A n y work outside of brickmaking on the yard m ay be performed on any of
the above-m entioned days, and shall be paid for at the rate of tim e and one-half.
A ll repair work after 8 hours shall be paid for at the rate of tim e and one-half.
W here it is necessary for men to work more than 8 hours for the proper operation
of the plant, they shall be paid straight tim e up to 10 hours, and tim e and onehalf thereafter. Fires shall not be set to kilns 24 hours preceding New Year’s




APPENDIX 0 .— WORKING AGREEMENT.

65

D ay, Decoration D ay, Fourth of July, Labor D ay, Thanksgiving D ay, and Christ­
m as. Burners and helpers to receive straight tim e.
A ll members of this organization who are citizens and who are entitled to vote,
shall be given opportunity to do so both on election and primary days: Provided,
however, That all employees who are entitled to vote shall, on the day previous
to election or primary day, notify the foreman of their intention to exercise
their right to vote, and shall give their address and polling place.
In localities where the polls close at 5 p. m ., the yard shall, if necessary, close
down for the day at 3 p. m ., and in localities where the polls close at 4 p. m .,
the yard shall, if necessary, close down at 2 p. m ., in order to give such men the
opportunity to vote, and all men entitled to vote and who do vote shall be en­
titled to and shall receive pay up to the regular quitting tim e. A ll other em ploy­
ees, however, shall receive pay only for the tim e they actually worked on such
days.
S e c t io n I V .

A ll yards shall have a stated pay day, to w it: A ll employees shall collect their
wages sem im onthly; the pay roll ending with the fifteenth day of the m onth
shall be paid on the tw enty-fifth day of such m onth, and the pay roll ending
with the last day of the month shall be paid on the tenth day of the succeeding
m onth. On yards where hand setting is done, kilns shall be paid for not later
than four days after the completion of the kiln. Upon discharge, men shall
receive their pay or a tim e check showing the amount due. In case a yard is
shut down by the manufacturer, all demands for labor shall become due and
payable within four days. M en leaving their em ployment shall not be entitled
to pay prior to the next regular pay day. If pay day falls on a Sunday or holi­
day, employees shall receive their pay on the previous day.
S e c t io n V .

Each yard shall have a steward, whose duty it shall be to enforce this agree­
m ent. In the performance of this duty he shall hear complaints of any and
all character made by either the employees or the manufacturer, or his agent,
the foreman, and shall then and there endeavor to settle such complaints. H e
m ay call upon the president of his local union for assistance, if he deems it neces­
sary to do so. Cases which can not be adjusted in this manner shall be reported
to the district council by him. If the district council can not settle the matter
in dispute with the manufacturer, the case shall be left to the decision of a man
to be agreed upon as umpire by the business agent of D istrict Council N o. 1
and the manufacturer. Said umpire shall render a decision within three days
after all evidence in the case shall have been presented to him , and his decision
shall be final and binding upon both parties.
Under no circumstances shall a yard be shut down by either the steward,
the men, or the local unions having jurisdiction over the yard where a complaint
is under investigation. Anyone, be he steward or any other individual, or the
local union guilty of bringing about the shutdown of a yard shall pay the penalty
prescribed in Section X X of this agreement.
If a steward is neglectful of his duty, and complaint to this effect is made
against him by the manufacturer or his foreman, he shall be removed from office,
if the charge against him be proven to the satisfaction of the business agent
of this organization and the business agent of the manufacturer.
S e c t i o n V I.

It is agreed that the business agent of Brickmakers, D istrict Council N o. 1
shall have free access to the yard of the manufacturer during working hours,
except during the tim e of strikes or lockouts.
S e c t i o n V II.

The label of Brickmakers’ D istrict Council N o. 1 and the name, initial, or num­
ber of the yard of the manufacturer shall be placed upon the brick manufac­
tured, except in the case of side cut brick, or in any other cases where the marking
m ay be impracticable. Such label shall at all times be the property of Brickmakers' District Council N o. 1 and m ay be withdrawn at any tim e for any
violation of this agreement.




66

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,
S e c t i o n V III.

There shall be a regular walling gang composed of two wallers and daubers
to each machine making from 100,000 to 150,000 brick per d ay; three wallers
and daubers for each machine making more than 150,000 per d ay; and four
wallers and daubers to each machine making more than 300,000 brick per day.
They shall perform no other work when walling and daubing requires their
attention. On yards where no regular gang of wallers is em ployed, this work
m ay be performed by other members of this union. I t is agreed and understood
th at such men be paid by the arch, as provided in Section X V I I. W allers and
daubers m ust complete their work on kilns within 24 consecutive hours (one full
day) after the setting gang has completed its work on the kiln, provided double
coal setting has been kept up with run of kiln, and provided further, that kilns
completed Saturdays be completed not later than 12 o’clock noon on that day.
N othing herein contained shall prevent the manufacturer from em ploying
other than the regular walling gang to complete the walling and daubing in case
it appears that the regular gang can not or will not complete their work on a
kiln within the tim e lim it herein specified. W allers and daubers shall not work
more than 48 hours a week at walling and daubing. M aterial for daubing
kilns shall be delivered by the manufacturer, and hot water for mixing daub
shall be furnished wallers during cold weather at all tim es where the thermometer
registers lower than 40 degrees above zero. The manufacturer shall furnish
one pair of rubber m ittens of standard make to each waller per season. W allers
and daubers shall be required to get their own burned brick for walling purposes,
but shall not be required to wheel such brick more than eight sections of kiln shed.
S e c t io n I X .

Brick loading shall be done in such type of cars as are supplied by the railroad
companies without discrimination.
Brick m ust be piled evenly throughout the entire length and width of cars,
and the space between doors shall be piled with brick in such a manner as to
com ply with section 1906 of the General Buies for Loading M aterials of the
American Railw ay Association— Revised Edition, 1918, and as illustrated by
Figure 107 in said rules, in case the manufacturer desires to have his brick loaded
in this manner.
W hen select or sewer brick are loaded at yards having a single loading track,
loaders shall be paid for 3,000 extra brick per car.
W hen tight-end gondola cars, or drop-end gondola cars, or hopper-bottom
cars are furnished for loading by railroad companies, these cars m ust be loaded.
In the case of tight-end gondolas and hopper-bottom cars, the manufacturer
shall furnish an extra man at loaders’ rates and another man at the hourly rate,
which latter shall pile brick until the three outer tiers in such cars have been
erected throughout the entire length of the car, when he shall be taken off.
The loading rule of the American Railw ay Association shall not apply to
tight-end gondolas, drop-end gondolas, or hopper-bottom cars, nor shall the
rate for loading according to said rule apply.
I t is further agreed and understood that each gang of loaders shall make a
separate loading ticket, of such form as m ay be determined by the manufacturer,
for each car of brick, which ticket shall show the Car number and initial, date of
loading, the number of tiers of brick in such car, the height of tier, and the num­
ber of brick in each tier. They shall also keep tally in the same manner as has
been done heretofore. Such ticket, after having been signed by the person
designated by such gang of brick loaders to do such signing, shall be handed to
the foreman before the brick loaders leave the yard on each day. A duplicate
ticket shall be retained by each loading crew.
Only merchantable brick shall be loaded. Any gang of loaders whose cars
contain clinker brick, half-green brick, or swelled brick, or more than 15 to 20
per cent of soft brick in a carload of kiln-run brick, or any but sewer or select
brick, when sewer or select brick are specified, shall be fined in accordance with
the provisions of Section X X of this agreement.
In case a loading gang is ordered by the foreman to load brick of such quality
as in their opinion m ight subject them to the fine provided for in Section X X of
this agreem ent, they shall write across the face of the loading ticket a short
statem ent to that effect, and in that event they shall not be found guilty of a
violation of this section, even though the car designated by such loading tickets
contains unmerchantable brick.




APPENDIX O.— WORKING AGREEMENT.

67

W hen loaders are required to load stuck brick, they shall receive an extra man
for each single gang, and for all brick thrown out of kiln they shall receive the
regular loaders' scale, except bats thrown out, which shall be paid for at the
regular rate in excess of four dum p-cart loads per section. A ll red brick shall be
carefully piled and paid for at the regular rate. N o soft brick, stringers, platting
or walling, or arch brick, or defective brick of any kind shall be visible in the
doorway of cars.
Brick will not be regarded as stuck brick when it is possible to separate them
without tools.
If brick are loaded by belt or other loading device, the manufacturer reserves
the right to do such loading by day labor.
S e c t io n X .

Where brick are set by hand there shall be at least five setting gangs, composed
of one setter and two tossers each for each and every 100,000 brick made on
dryer yards, and an additional gang for each additional 20,000 brick made.
Where brick are set from hacks there shall be at least four setting gangs, composed
of one setter and three wheelers each for each and every 100,000 brick made,
and an additional gang for each additional 25,000 brick. The same pro rata
rule will apply to yards making less than 100,000 brick.
On Builders' Brick Co. yard there shall be 18 men employed when brick are
set from belt to kilns. They shall also be required to lay bottom s and wheel
brick to belt for platting, and shall set double coal brick with each run of set­
ting as required. The company shall provide two extra men to help setters
when double coal brick are set.
S e c t io n X I .
The maxim um size of kiln-burned brick shall be 21 by 3 f by 8 inches.
A persistent violation of this section shall subject the manufacturer to the
penalty prescribed in Section X X . W hen the manufacturer permits his ma­
chine man to determine the size of die necessary to produce brick of the size
specified, he shall not be subject to fine if brick are oversize.
S e c t io n X I I .

The lim it of wheeling green brick shall be six sections of kiln shed. Any dis­
tance over this shall entitle each gang to one extra wheeler, and wheeling from
one kiln shed to another shall also entitle each gang to an extra wheeler. When
brick are set by hand they shall be set not over 45 brick high. Double coal
shall be kept up with run of kiln. The kiln ground is to be kept in such condi­
tion and at such grade that loaded cars need not be pushed upgrade. The
transfer track shall be kept in such condition that loaded cars need not be pushed
upgrade. On transfer yards, green brick men shall be given an extra man when
brick are set more than 30 sections of kiln sheds from the nearest side of the
dryer, and shall be paid the same rate as setters. W hen brick are delivered to
the kiln by electric transfer car or otherwise, the wages of such men necessary to
deliver the brick shall be paid by the setting gang.
If kiln ground is not kept in such condition as to enable setting gangs to con­
tinue at their work, the manufacturer shall be penalized as provided in Section
X X of this agreement.
Se c t io n X I I I .
N o member of this organization, whether he be pieceworker or a man working
on tim e, shall quit the yard in the course of the day before the regular quitting
tim e, without permission from the foreman. Any violation hereof shall be
penalized in accordance with Section X X of this agreement.
S e c t io n X I V .

Under no circumstances shall this organization or any of its members, deter­
mine when a yard is to be shut down; nor shall any excuse be resorted to for
shutting down a yard. The yard shall be operated on every day the manufac­
turer determines to operate, with such exceptions as are noted in Section I II ,
and it shall be the duty of the union to supply substitutes where men are obliged
to be temporarily absent from their post.




68

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY,
S e c t io n X V .

It is agreed and understood that no local union belonging to D istrict Council
No. 1 shall adopt any rules which in any way conflict with this agreement, or
any section thereof. Any rule conflicting with any of the provisions of this agree­
m ent shall be null and void, and subject the local unions to the penalty prescribed
in Section X X of this agreement.
S e c t i o n X V I.

N o intoxicating liquors of any kind shall be permitted on the yard o f the manu­
facturer, nor shall any em ployee be under the slightest influence of liquor during
working hours. A violation of this section shall be sufficient cause for discharge.
S e c t i o n X V II.

The following wage scale shall be paid:
A.

CLAY PIT.

Per hour.

$0. 92
Steam-shovel engineer-------------------------.9 2
Drag-line engineer_____________________
.8 3
Tug pilots---------------------------------------------Steam-shovel craneman________________
. 75*
.7 0
Steam-shovel fireman__________________
.8 0 *
Clamshell operator_____________________
Deckhand on dredge___________________
. 70
. 72*
Man in front of shovel_________________
.7 0
Other men working around shovel_____
D inkey engineer_______________________
. 83
.8 3
Gasoline engineers_____________________
.7 4 *
Electrical-dinkey engineers____________
.6 6 *
Drivers and other workers in clay hole.
Cable hooker___________________________
. 65*
.7 2 *
Shovelers in clay h ole__________________
.7 2 *
Cart drivers in clay h ole_______________
.7 2 *
Plowman in clay hole__________________
Steam-shovel engineers supplying clay for one machine shall do their own
firing; when supplying clay for tw o machines they shall be entitled to a fireman.
Dinkey engineers shall do their own firing.
Both steam-shovel and dinkey engineers shall raise their own steam in the m orn­
ing, and shall be allowed one hour at straight tim e therefor.
Steam-shovel and dinkey engineers shall be allowed an hour at straight time for
doing their own firing.
Plowman shall receive extra time for sprinkling.
MACHINE HOUSE.

Per hour.

Hoist men__________________________________
Steam-hoist m en____________________________
Granulator m en____________________________
Extra men to shovel dry stuff______________
Roller m en_________________________________
Pug-mill men_______________________________
Machine men_______________________________
M achine men where no hopper man is used.
D ry-pan men_____ __________________________
Sandman___________________________________

B.

$0.72
.7 6 *
.7 2

.66*

. 70
. 72
. 81
.8 3
.7 0
.7 0

The machine man m ay be designated as the general repair man in the machine
house, and if so appointed shall have general charge of repairs and be responsible
for and, if possible, do all oiling of all machinery in machine room before and after
hours, the hoist man, granulator man, and pug-mill man doing all oiling neces­
sary during running time. All men on machines, when available, shall help
repair their machinery when helpers are needed.
C.

BELT ROOM.

PerhOUT.

Belt men___________
$0. 75*
Cut-off m en____________________________________________________
. 84
Pulley m en_______________
. 84




69

APPENDIX 0 .---- WORKING AGREEMENT.

Transfer men:
Per hour.
Hand transfer______________________________________________ $0. 70
Power transfer____________________________________________
. 724
Car shovers in dryers__________________________________________
. 70
Em pty car shovers____________________________________________
. 70
Car oilers______________________________________________________
. 70
Clean-up m en_________________________________________________
. 664
Belt adjuster on Builders’ yard________________________________
.7 9
Brick switchers on Builders’ Brick Co. yard, per man, per kiln . 33. 20
Belt men on Lake View Brick C o.’s y a rd ________________ #
______
. 664
Belt wheelers and hackers on hacks____________________ *
______
. 754
Hackers from cars on open yards______________________________
. 724
Transfer men on open yards___________________________________
. 70
Em pty car shovers on open yards________________________ ________ 70
Any belt man who fails to catch his share of brick or who shall not properly
hack his brick on cars shall be fined in accordance with the provisions of Section
XX.
On La Bahn Bros.’ yard all belt men shall receive equal pay.
D.

BRICK SETTING.

Per hour.

D ryer men (car pullers)_______________________________________ $0 .70
.7 0
Transfer men on open yards----------------------------------------------------Controller men:
Three-m en transfer_______________________________________
.724
.7 4
Six-men transfer__________________________________________
Operators of electric cranes____________________________________
.754
.7 0
Helpers________________________________________________________
.7 0
Special labor under kiln shed not otherwise classified_________
.7 0
Bottom s men__________________________________________________
Setting and tossing green brick from cars, per M ______________
.874
Setting and tossing from wheelbarrows, per M -----------------------.934
Setting green brick on Builders’ Brick Co. yard (18 men), per
kiln per m an________________________________________________
On yards 3, 5, 22 and 35 of the Illinois Brick Co., and on the yards of the
Bach Brick Co., the setting gangs shall be paid 3 cents per hour in excess of the
rate above fixed on account of black brick.
On hand-set yards black brick shall carry an extra of 4 cents per M .
On all hand-set yards platting and stringers are to be paid for as brick set.
E.

BRICK BURNING.

Head burners_________________________________
Second burners_______________________________
Helpers-----------------------------------------------------------Cart drivers_________________:________________
Special labor not otherwise specified_________

Per hour.

_ $0,764
.7 4 4
.
.7 0
.
. 674
.
.7 0

P. BURNED BRICK HANDLERS.
PerM.

Loading burned brick in cars from machine-set kilns, 45 brick
high_________________________________________________________ $0.64
Loading burned brick in cars from machine-set kilns in excess
of 45 brick high, extra for each brick in excess_____________
.0 0 4
Loading burned brick in cars from hand-set kilns, 45 brick
high__________________________________________________________
.6 2
Loading brick in drop-end gondola cars_______________________
.7 9
Loading brick in tight-end gondola cars_______________________
.7 9
Loading hopper-bottom coal cars___________________________
.7 9
Loading drop-end, tight-end and hopper-bottom cars on Build­
ers’ y a rd ____________________________________________________
. 83
Loading according to American Railway Association rule_____
. 72
Tossing burned brick to wagons from kiln____________________
.2 5 4

(or 754 cents per hour)

Loading boxes at kilns_________________________________________
Tossing brick to trucks when no help furnished_______________
Loading trailers at kilns_______________________________________
Tossing brick to wagons from cars___________________________




. 394
.4 8
.4 8
.2 4

70

PRODUCTIVITY COSTS— COMMON-BRICK INDUSTRY.

Tossing brick to trucks or trailers at kilns when no help is fur- Per
nished_________________________________________________________$0. 48
Tossing burned brick to trucks or trailers when the chauffeur
and chauffeur's helper assist in loading--------------------------------. 24
Loading on Builders' Brick Co. yard---------------------------------------. 75J4
Loading burned brick on Builders' Brick Co. yard from kilns—
N o. 7— extra______________________________________________
. 02
• 03
No. 8— extra__________________________
Loading b y means of belt at Builders' Brick Co. yard---------. 70
MACHINE LOADING ON WAGONS, TRUCKS, OR CARS.

Per hour.

Operators o f electric cranes_____________________________________ $0. 75
Three helpers__________________________________________________
. 70
All other helpers_______________________________________________
. 68
When extra men are em ployed at brick loading they shall receive loaders'
wages.
All burned brick which are piled under shed b y the loading gang shall be paid
for at loading rates.
Runw ay planks must be delivered at kilns b y the manufacturer— the runways
m ust be erected b y the loaders at their own expense.
Brick tossers shall make out all delivery tickets and stubs (and m ay be required
to collect receipted tickets from drivers and chauffeurs).
WALLING GANGS.
Per arch.

W alling and daubing per arch, round top, 45 brick high-------- $4. 20
W alling and daubing per arch, square top, 45 brick high_____ 4.11J4
All kilns set more than 45 brick high, extra per brick per arch__
.0 5
W alling and daubing on Builders' Brick Co. yard------------------- 4 30
H. ENGINE AND BOILER ROOM.
Per hour.

Stationary engineers________________________________
Forem en___________________________________________
Coal passers________________________________________
Fan engineers (doing own firing)___________________
Independent furnace m en----------------------------------------

$ 0 .92

.75H
.66J^
.8 3

.72M

I. MISCELLANEOUS.
Per hour.

General repair m en________
Truck repair m en_________
General repair men helpers
Roustabouts_______________
Cart drivers_______________

$ 0 .83
.8 3
.7 2

.66H

.6 7 y2
Per ton.

Unloading coal_________________________________________________$0. 22
Unloading coal from hopper-bottom cars or cars with high
.sides_________________________________________________________
. 24
When men are em ployed at other than their regular occupation, they shall be
paid the rate fixed for the occupation at which they m ay be engaged for the tim e
being.
A ny men who are required b y the foreman o f any yard to do any oiling before
or after working hours shall be paid for the time actually consumed at their regular
rate.
A ny member or members of this organization, or any local unions belonging
to District Council No. 1, or any individual manufacturer w ho attem pts to
negotiate a separate wage scale except through his or their business agent, shall
be guilty o f a violation of this agreement, and shall suffer the fine or penalty
prescribed in Section X X of this agreement.
S e c t io n X V I I I .

N o strikes or cessation of w ork shall be called or brought about b y any indi­
vidual, group of individuals, or any local unions belonging to this organization
for any reason whatsoever.




APPENDIX C.---- WORKING AGREEMENT,

71

A strike may ho called only by District Council No. 1, and by it only after the
manufacturers, through their business agent, shall have had ample opportunity
to present their side of any controversy concerning the rules or scale of wages to
the men.
S e c t io n X I X .
N o private agreement or understanding of any character, no old established
usage o f any kind shall have binding force unless contained in this agreement.
S e c t io n X X .

The business agent of this organization and the business agent o f the manu­
facturer shall constitute the tribunal which is to determine whether or not this
agreement or any section thereof shall have been violated, and their decision
shall be final and binding upon both parties to this agreement.
Any individual who is guilty of bringing about the shutdown o f a yard in
violation of Section V of this agreement, shall be fined $25 for each and every
offense and m ay be discharged from the organization.
Loaders guilty of loading unmerchantable brick as described in Section I X of
this agreement shall be fined the cost of loading the car in question.
A persistent violation of Section X I of this agreement by the manufacturer
shall subject him to a penalty to be determined by the gravity of the case. The
maximum penalty shall be rate and one-half for loading brick, and on hand
setting yards rate and one-half for setting brick.
When kiln grounds on hand setting yards are not kept in order and the setting
gang is delayed thereby, the manufacturer shall be penalized by being obliged to
pay the setting gang for the actual time lost, at the rate fixed for special labor
under kiln shed.
Any member of this organization who shall be guilty of quitting his work in
the course of the day without permission of the foreman in violation of Section
X I I I , shall be fined $25, shall be discharged, and may be expelled from the
organization.
Any violation o f Section X I V by an individual member of this organization
shall carry a penalty of $25. A violation of this section by a local union shall
carry a fine of $200 with it.
Any violation of Section X V of this agreement by any local union shall be
penalized by a fine of $200.
Any violation of the wage-scale section of this agreement shall carry a fine of
$25 for individuals, a fine of $200 for local unions, and a fine of $100 for each
and every violation com m itted by a manufacturer.
Any belt man who does not catch his portion of the brick which pass the cut­
off man, and who willfully or negligently permits his share of brick to pass by
him, or who fails to hack his brick in a workmanlike manner, shall be fined from
$5 to $25, may be discharged and expelled from the organization.
Any violation of Section X V I I I by individuals shall carry a penalty of $25,
whereas local unions violating this section shall be fined $200.
All fines shall be checked off in like manner as dues and assessments are checked
off, and in such installments as may be agreed upon b y the tw o business agents.
S e c t io n X X I .

All collected fines shall be held in trust by the business agent of the manu­
facturers, and credited to an account called “ Relief Fund of D istrict Council
N o. 1 ,” and he shall pay out money frorfi this fund as may be agreed upon by
the tw o business agents provided for in this agreement.
S e c t io n X X I I .

This agreement shall be in force and effect from Novem ber 1, 1921, until
April 30, 1923, and all other agreements, particularly the agreement last entered
into and effective from M ay 1, 1920, until M ay 1, 1921, and all subsequent
amendments thereto, are hereby rescinded and repealed. Should either party to
this agreement desire to enter into a new agreement with the other party, notice
to this effect must be served on such other party on or before M arch 1, 1923.




o