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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
ROYAL M EEKER, Comm issioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES )
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS ]
INDUSTRIAL

ACCIDENTS

AND

• • • •
HYGIENE

X\f\

'JCl

LJ I

SERIES

PREVENTABLE DEATH IN COTTON
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY




By A R TH U R REED PERRY, M. D.

O C T O B E R , 1919

W A SH IN G T O N
G O VE R N M EN T P R IN T IN G OFFICE
1919




CONTENTS.
Page.

Introduction........................................................................................................ 9-15
Object of this study......................................................................................
9
Relation to earlier study.............................................................................. 9,10
Relation to other industrial studies.............................................................. 10,11
Method of study used............................................. .................................... 11-13
Paramount importance of-age at death........................................................
13
General failure to study noncasualty industrial deaths............................... 13,14
Practical limitations upon use of death-rate method................................... 14,15
Chapter I.—Scope and method of investigation................................................. 16-42
Place and years covered............................................................................... 16-18
18
Age period covered....................................................................... ...............
Methods of obtaining material..................................................................... 18-31
Material concerning the living.. . ........................................................ 18-21
Material concerning the decedents........................................................21-31
Items tabulated............................................................................................
32
Age-adjusted death rates.............................................................................. 32-35
Comparative study of selected groups and classes.......................................
36
Size of units considered................................................................................
37
Definition of terms........................................................................................37-40
Summary of totals for this and the earlier study......................................... 40-42
Chapter II.—Mortality in age group 15 to 44................................................... 43-101
Reasons for selection of group..................................................................... 43-48
Summary of component 5-year age groups.................................................. 48-66
Mortality in age group 15 to 19.............................................................. 52-54
Mortality in age group 20 to 24.............................................................. 54-56
Mortality in age group 25 to 29.............................................................. 56-58
Mortality in age group 30 to 34.............................................................. 58-60
Mortality in age group 35 to 39.............................................................. 60-62
Mortality in age group 40 to 44.............................................................. 63-65
Recapitulation....................................................................................... 65, 66
Mortality by sex...................................................................................... — 66-70
Mortality by nativity................................................................................... 70, 71
Mortality by race, nationality, or people..................................................... 72-76
Typical character of Irish data............................................................ 74, 75
Racial death hazards in the general population................................ 75, 76
Mortality by conjugal condition................................................................... 76-78
Mortality by industry................................................................................. 78-85
Hazard of operatives as compared with nonoperatives.......................... 79, 80
Constancy and degree of operative excess.............................................
81
Relative hazard by cause of death........................................................ 81, 82
Race as affecting excess of operative hazard............................. ..........
83
Summary................................................................................................ 83-85
Operative mortality by workroom............................................................. 85-101
Death rates, by age and sex, of each workroom group......................... 87-101
The card room................................................................................. 88-91
The spinning room.......................................................................... 91-94
The weave room.......................... ................................................... 95-98
The spooler room and miscellaneous............................................... 98, 99
Summary.......................................................................................99-101




3

4

CO N TE N TS.
Page.

Chapter III.—Mortality from specified causes, as officially certified............102-144
Classification of causes of death............................................................... 102,103
Mortality from tuberculosis..................................................................... 103-120
Tuberculous mortality by age........................................................... 106-110
Tuberculous mortality by sex........................................................... 110, 111
Tuberculous mortality by nativity....................................................
I ll
Tuberculous mortality by race........................................................... Ill, 112
Tuberculous mortality by industry.................................................... 112,113
Tuberculous mortality of operatives by workrooms........................... 113,114
Tuberculous mortality by conjugal condition.................................... 115-117
Summary............................................................................................ 117-120
Mortality from parturition......................................................................... 121-134
Preventable character of parturition deaths, and reasons for their
prevalence....................................................................................... 121-123
Deaths from parturition complicated with other causes.................... 123,124
Leading causes of parturition deaths................................................ 124-129
Prevalence, by industry, age, and race............................................. 129-131
Case histories...................................................................................... 131-134
Mortality from accident or violence.......................................................... 135-137
Mortality from nephritis, apoplexy, and diseases of the heart................. 137-140
Mortality from typhoid fever..................................................................... 140,141
Mortality from cancer................................................................................ 141-143
Mortality from nontuberculous respiratory diseases.................................. 143,144
Chapter IY.—Causes contributory to early death........................................... 145-176
Alcoholic addiction.................................................................................. 145-154
Reliability of data secured................................................................. 145,146
Prevalence of alcoholic addiction as a contributory cause of death.. 147-149
Importance of alcoholic addiction as a contributory cause of death.. 150-153
Rapid increase in prevalence with age.............................................. 153,154
Tuberculous kindred................................................................................. 154-160
Unhygienic condition of decedents’ dwellings......................................... 160-168
Conditions among female wage earners.............................................. 160-162
Conditions among total decedents...................................................... 162-164
Specific undesirable conditions.......................................................... 164-167
Summary of unhygienic conditions...................................................
168
Low income............................................................................................... 168-172
Years of cotton-mill employment.............................................................. 172,173
Work additional to wage-earning day.......................................................173,174
Prolificacy................................................................................................ 174-176
Average number of offspring and number of them dead................. 174,175
Short intervals between pregnancies............................................... 175,176
176
Poor heredity............................................................................................
Chapter Y.—General...................................................................................... 177-201
Amount of insurance and cost of funeral....................................................
177
Population, deaths, and death rates......................................................... 177-201
General tables.......................................................................................... 203-529
Table 1.—Number and per cent of operatives of all races employed in
specified workrooms and occupations, by age group and sex................ 204, 205
Table 2.—Deaths from tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all causes, of
operatives of all races employed in specified Workrooms and occupa­
tions, by age group and sex, 1908 to 1912............................................. 206-209
Table 3.—Number of operatives of each race employed in specified work­
rooms and occupations, by age group and sex...................................... 210-215




C O N TE N TS.

5

General tables—Continued.
Page.
Table 4.—Deaths from tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all causes, of
operatives of each race employed in specified workrooms and occu­
pations, by age group and sex, 1908 to 1912......................................... 216-233
Table 5.—Number of operatives of specified conjugal condition, sex, and
age group, by workrooms and race........................................................ 234-236
Table 6.—Deaths and death rates per 1,000 from tuberculous, nontuber­
culous, and all causes, of operatives of specified conjugal condition,
and age group, by sex and race, 1908 to 1912 ....................................... 237,238
Table 7.—Deaths and death rates per 1,000 from tuberculous, nontuber­
culous, and all causes, of operatives of specified conjugal condition,
and age group, by sex and workroom group, 1908 to 1912.................... 239-241
Table 8.—Population, deaths, and death rates per 1,000 from tubercu­
lous, nontuberculous, and all causes, for operatives and nonoperatives
in each 5-year age group, by sex, 1908 to 1912...................................... 242,243
Table 9.—Age percentage distribution of operative and of nonoperative
males and females, for population and for deaths from tuberculous,
244
nontuberculous, and all causes, 1908 to 1912........................................
Table 10.—Sex percentage distribution of operatives and of nonoper­
atives in each 5-year age group, for population and for deaths from
tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all causes, 1908 to 1912......................
245
Table 11.—Per cent of operatives and nonoperatives among males and
among females in each 5-year age group, for population and for deaths
246
from tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all causes, 1908 to 1912...........
Table 12.—Per cent of operative and nonoperative males and females in
total for each 5-year age group, for population and for deaths from
tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all causes, 1908 to 1912...................
247
Tabl^l3.—Per cent of males and females in each 5-year age group of
total operatives and of total nonoperatives, for population and for
deaths from tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all causes, 1908 to 1912..
248
Table 14.—Per cent of operatives and nonoperatives in each 5-year age
group of total males and of total females, for population and for
deaths from tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all causes, 1908 to 1912..
249
Table 15.—Per cent of operatives and nonoperatives of each sex and age
group, for population and for deaths from tuberculous, nontuberculous,
and all causes, 1908 to 1912...................................................................
250
Table 16.—Per cent of deaths from tuberculous and nontuberculous
causes among operative and nonoperative males and females, for each
5-year age group, 1908 to 1912...............................................................
251
Table 17.—Population, deaths, and death rates per 1,000 from tuber­
culous, nontuberculous, and all causes for operatives and nonoper- 252-259
atives of specified races, by age group and sex, 1908 to 1912....................
Table 18.—Population and deaths from tuberculous and nontubercu­
lous causes, and deaths and death rates per 1,000 from all causes, for
operatives and nonoperatives of specified races, by age group, sex, and
nativity, 1908 to 1912....................... .................................................... 260-267
Table 19.—Population, deaths, and death rates per 1,000 from tuber­
culous, nontuberculous, and all causes, for operatives and nonoper­
atives in each specified age group, by sex, conjugal condition, and
nativity, 1908 to 1912....................................................................... .... 268-279
Table 20.—Population, deaths, and death rates per 1,000 from tubercu­
lous, nontuberculous, and all causes, for operatives of specified races,
by age group, sex, conjugal condition, and nativity, 1908 to 1912........... 280-288




6

CO N TE N TS.

General tables—Continued.
Pago.
Table 21.—Comparison of death rates per 1,000 of native and foreign born
from tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all causes, by age and occu­
289
pational groups, race, conjugal condition, and sex, 1908 to 1912............
Table 22.—Comparison of death rates per 1,000 of males and females from
tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all causes, by age, occupational and
workroom groups, race, conjugal condition, and nativity, 1908 to 1912.. 290, 291
Table 23.—Comparison of death rates per 1,000 of single and married from
tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all causes, age group 15 to 44, by
occupational and workroom groups, race, sex, and nativity, 1908 to
1912.......................................................................................................
292
Table 24.—Comparison of death rates per 1,000 of operatives and non­
operatives from tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all causes, by age
293
group, conjugal condition, nativity, and sex, 1908 to 1912......................
Table 25.—Crude and age-adjusted death rates per 1,000 from tubercu­
lous, nontuberculous, and all causes, for operatives and nonoperatives
in age group 15 to 44, by sex, conjugal condition, and nativity, and in
age groups 45 to 64 and 15 to 64, by sex and nativity, 1908 to 1912___ 294-297
Table 26.—Per cent by which death rate exceeded or fell below death
rate for all persons in specified age groups, by cause of death, conjugal
condition, sex, age, occupational and workroom groups, and race,
1908 to 1912......................................................................................... 298-301
Table 27.—Percentage distribution of urban whites of registration States
and the District of Columbia, 1911, and per cent by which their death
rate exceeded or fell below the rate for all persons, Fall River, by age
group.....................................................................................................
302
Table 28.—Parturition: Age, race, occupation, other disease complica­
tions, prolificacy, and economic condition of each of 230 female dece­
dent operatives and nonoperatives whose pregnancy had ended within
9 months before death, 1908 to 1912...................................................... 304-319
Table 29.—Parturition: Female decedents dying not exceeding 9 months
and not exceeding 30 days after pregnancy had ended, by occupation
and by disease complication, 1908 to 1912............................................
320
Table 30.—Parturition: Female decedent operatives and nonoperatives
dying not exceeding 9 months and not exceeding 30 days after preg­
nancy had ended, by race and age group, 1908 to 1912........................
321
Table 31.—Parturition: Female decedents dying not exceeding 9 months
and not exceeding 30 days after pregnancy had ended, by race and by
disease complication, 1908 to 1912......................................................... 322, 323
Table 32.—Population, deaths, and'death rates per 1,000 from each speci­
fied cause in each age group, and percentage distribution of deaths,
for operatives by workrooms, and for nonoperatives, 1905 to 1907 and
1908 to 1912......... . ................................................................................ 324-349
Table 33.—Population of each specified class of males, and deaths and
death rates per 1,000 from tuberculous, nontuberculous (including
alcoholism), and all causes, according as alcoholic addiction was
reported as present or absent as a circumstance at least contributory
to death, by age, race, conjugal condition, and occupational and work­
room groups, 1908 to 1912---- ?............................................................... 350-353
Table 34.—Number and per cent of tuberculous and of nontuberculous
operative and nonoperative decedents of specified age, sex, and race
group who within 5 years before death or at any time had tuberculous
relatives or intimates, and average number of such relatives or inti­
mates per decedent having such, 1908 to 1912...................................... 354-357




CO N TE N TS.

7

General tables—Continued.
Page.
Table 35.—Number and per cent of tuberculous and of nontuberculous
decedents of specified sex, race, and workroom group, who within 5
years before death had tuberculous relatives or intimates, and average
number of such relatives or intimates per decedent having such, age
group 15 to 44, 1908 to 1912 ................................................................... 358, 359
Table 36.—Number and per cent of tuberculous and of nontuberculous
decedents of specified sex, age group, and workroom group, who within
5 years before death had tuberculous relatives or intimates, and aver­
age number of such relatives or intimates per decedent having such,
1908 to 1912............................................................................................ 360,361
Table 37.—Number and relationship of relatives and intimates who
within 5 years or at any time before death of decedent were tubercu­
lous, for operatives and nonoperatives of specified age group, by cause
of death, sex, and race.......................................................................... 362-367
Table 38.—Number and per cent of decedents who had occupied dwell­
ings of each specified size, by occupational group, cause of death, and
age group, 1908 to 1912..........................................................................
368
Table 39.—Average number of persons per room in dwellings last occu­
pied by decedents aged 15 to 64, by race, sex, occupational group, and
cause of death, 1908 to 1912..................................................................
369
Table 40.—Hygienic condition of last abode of decedents, by sex, age
group, occupational group, and cause of death, and by race for both
sexes, age group 15 to 64, 1908 to 1912.................................................. 370-372
Table 41.—Average annual rent per occupant of dwellings last occupied
by decedents aged 15 to 64, by race, sex, occupational group, and
cause of death, 1908 to 1912...................................................................
373
Table 42.—Hygienic condition of dwelling and circumstances possibly
contributory to death of female wage-earning operatives and nonoper­
atives dying from each cause, who had lived at home, by age group,
1908 to 1912............................................................................................ 374,375
Table 43.—Circumstances possibly contributory to death of female wageearning operatives and nonoperatives who lived at home, by age group,
cause of death, conjugal condition, and race, 1908 to 1912................... 376, 377
Table 44.—Tuberculous and nontuberculous decedents having families
of 2 or more members, by weekly earnings per member of family, and
by sex, age group, occupational group, and race, 1911 and 1912.......... 378-381
Table 45.—Number of operatives who had worked each specified num­
ber of years in cotton mills, by sex, nativity, age group, and race...... 382-385
Table 46.—Deaths and death rates per 1,000 of operatives who had
worked each specified number of years in cotton mills, by sex, nativity,
and age group, 1908 to 1912................................................................... 386, 387
Table 47.—Number and per cent of decedent mill workers employed in
cotton mills each specified number of years, by sex, age group, cause
of death, occupational group, and number of years out of mill before
death, 1908 to 1912................................................................................ 388-393
Table 48.—Number and per cent of decedent mill workers who had been
out of mill each specified length of time before death, by sex, age group,
and cause of death, 1908 to 1912............................................................ 394-397
Table 49.—Number and per cent of decedents in each specified age
group, by sex, classified according to occupational group, cause of
death, and years out of mill before death, 1908 to 1912................... ... 398-401




8

C O N TE N TS.

General tables—Concluded.
Table 50.—Population, deaths, and death rates (crude) per 1,000 of
married woman operatives, age group 15 to 44, having had specified
number of children, by cause of death and by number of children
living or dead, 1908 to 1912...................................................................
Table 51.—Prolificacy of decedents by age group, race, occupational
group, and cause of death, 1908 to 1912................................................
Table 52.—Prolificacy of decedent mothers, by age group, race, occupa­
tional group, cause of death, and intervals between pregnancies.........
Table 53.—Decedents having good, possibly good, or poor heredity, by
sex, age group, occupational group, and cause of death.......................
Table 54.—Average amount of insurance carried upon lives of decedents
and average cost of funeral, by race, sex, and occupational group.......
Table 55.—Circumstances having possible significance as contributory
causes of death for each person who died, aged 10 to 49 years, inclu­
sive, 1908 to 1912...................................................................................




Page.

402-405
406-411
412-417
418, 419
420,421

422-529

B U L L E T IN
U .

S .

B U R E A U

NO. 2S1.

O F

O F

T H E

L A B O R

S T A T I S T I C S .

W A SH IN G TO N .

October,

1919.

P E E T B E D A HINC T O M N F C U IN IN U T Y
R V NA L E T
OT N A UA T R G D S R.
IN T R O D U C T IO N .
OBJECT OF THIS STUDY.

T h e m a in p u r p o s e o f t h is m o n o g r a p h is t o s h o w t h e r e a l d e a t h
h a z a r d b y a g e g r o u p s , f o r w a g e e a rn e rs u n d e r 4 5 y e a r s , e s p e c ia lly f o r
th o s e e n g a g e d in th e s e v e r a l p ro c e s s e s o f c o t t o n c lo t h m a n u fa c tu r e ,
b u t i t a im s a ls o t o s h o w w h a t f a c t o r s h a v e b e e n e s p e c ia lly a c t iv e in
c u t t in g o ff th e liv e s o f w a g e e a r n e rs d u r in g a g e p e r io d s w h ic h a re
n o r m a lly o f g r e a te s t p r o d u c t iv e a c t iv it y .
I n o t h e r w o r d s i t is
s t u d y b o t h o f th e d e a th h a z a r d e x is tin g a m o n g in d u s tr ia l w o r k e r s
in t h e e a r lie r a g e g r o u p s a n d o f th e c a u s e s c o m m o n l y c o n t r i b u t i n g
th ere to.
RELATION TO EARLIER STUDY.

T h i s w o r k is s u p p l e m e n t a r y t o a n e a r l i e r r e p o r t u p o n t h e s u b j e c t
p u b lis h e d in 1 9 1 2 as V o lu m e X I V o f th e S e n a te r e p o r t o n th e c o n
d it io n o f w o m a n a n d c h ild w a g e e a r n e r s in th e U n it e d S ta te s , w h ic h
w a s p r e p a r e d u n d e r th e d ir e c t io n o f th e C o m m is s io n e r o f L a b o r b y
th e p r e s e n t w r ite r .
I n th a t r e p o rt th e d e a th h a za rd , b y age, se x , an d
ra ce , o f th e e n tir e o p e r a t iv e p o p u la t io n o f F a ll R iv e r w a s c o n t r a s t e d
w it h th e c o r r e s p o n d in g h a z a r d o f th e n o n o p e r a tiv e s o f th e c it y f o r th e
th r e e y e a r s 1 9 0 5 t o 1 9 0 7 , in c lu s iv e .
I n t h is r e p o r t t h e s a m e c o m p a r is o n
is m a d e f o r t h e s u c c e e d in g fiv e y e a r s , a n d in a d d it io n a c o m p a r a t iv e
s t u d y is m a d e o f t h e d e a t h r a t e s o f w o r k e r s in t h e d iff e r e n t r o o m s
w i t h i n t h e c o t t o n m i l l , i. e ., t h e c a r d r o o m , s p i n n i n g r o o m , s p o o l e r
room , and w eave room .
F o r e a c h o f th ese th e tru e d e a th h a z a r d i
g iv e n , f r o m t u b e r c u lo u s a n d n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s a n d a ll c a u s e s
c o m b i n e d , f o r e a c h a g e g r o u p , s e x , r a c e , a n d c o n ju g a l c la s s .
Th
fir s t s t u d y s h o w e d t h a t fo r th e th re e y e a r s c o v e r e d o p e r a tiv e s w e r e
m o r e lia b le t o d ie th a n n o n o p e r a t iv e s o f th e s a m e a g e , s e x , a n d r a c e ,
a n d g a v e th e d e g r e e b y w h ic h th e o p e r a t iv e e x c e e d e d th e n o n o p e r a t iv e
h azard.
T h is s t u d y s h o w s t h a t th e sa m e s itu a tio n as to th e g r e a te r
h a z a r d o f t h e o p e r a t iv e p e r s is t e d t h r o u g h t h e fiv e y e a r s f r o m 1 9 0 8




9

IN TR O D U C TIO N .

10

t o 1 9 1 2 , in c lu s iv e , a n d , in a d d it io n , it se e k s to
g r e a te r h a z a r d c a n b e a s c rib e d to a n y p a r tic u la r
o f m a n u fa c t u r in g c o t t o n c lo t h , o r w h e t h e r i t is
in d u s t r y a s a w h o le , n o o n e r o o m s h o w in g a n y
th e o th e r s in its d e a t h h a z a r d .

s h o w w h e t h e r t h is
p a rt o f th e p ro c e s s
a ttr ib u ta b le t o th e
m ark ed excess o v e r

RELATION TO OTHER INDUSTRIAL STUDIES.

A t th e tim e o f its fo r m a t io n th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r , w h ic h a fte r w a r d s
d e v e lo p e d in t o th e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , w a s a u th o r iz e d t o s t u d y
t h e c o n d it io n s o f la b o r , t o in v e s t ig a t e a ll m a t t e r s o f in t e r e s t t o t h e
w o r k in g m a n a n d w o m a n , a n d t o c o lle c t a n d p u b lis h d a t a b e a r in g
o n s u c h s u b je c t s .
U n d e r th is b r o a d a u t h o r iz a t io n , s t u d ie s w e r e a t
fir s t m a d e o f m a t t e r s a ffe c t in g t h e m a t e r ia l o r e c o n o m ic w e lfa r e o f
th e w o r k e r , s u c h a s w a g e s , le n g t h o f w o r k in g d a y , h o u s in g c o n d it io n s ,
u n e m p lo y m e n t , in s u r a n c e , c o m p e n s a t io n f o r in ju r ie s , a n d t h e lik e .
G r a d u a lly s tu d ie s w e r e a d d e d o f c o n d it io n s w ith in d iffe r e n t in d u s tr ie s
w h ic h , b y a ffe c tin g th e w o r k e r ’ s p h y s ic a l w e lfa r e , m ig h t in ju r e o r
d e s t r o y h is e a r n in g p o w e r , o r b y w h ic h , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h a t p o w e r
m ig h t b e in c re a s e d .
T h u s in v e s tig a tio n s w e r e m a d e o f in d u s tr ia l
a c c id e n ts , o f th e e ffe c ts o f th e fu m e s a n d d u s ts c o n n e c t e d w it h c e r ­
ta in in d u s tr ia l p ro c e s s e s , o f in d u s tr ia l p o is o n s , a n d e v e n , t o s o m e
e x t e n t , o f i ll h e a lth , w h ic h is a p p a r e n t ly r e la te d t o in d u s t r ia l e m p l o y ­
m e n t, a lth o u g h th e c o n n e c t io n c a n n o t a lw a y s b e d e fin ite ly e s t a b ­
lis h e d .
A ll th e s e m ig h t b e s u m m a r iz e d a s a t t e m p t s t o s h o w w h a t th e
w o r k e r r e c e i v e s i n r e t u r n f o r h i s p r o d u c t i v e p o w d e r, a n d h o w t h a t
p o w e r is a ffe c t e d f o r g o o d o r i ll b y t h e c o n d i t io n s u n d e r w h i c h i t is
e x e r c is e d .
T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , lik e its p re d e c e s s o r, th e r e p o r t o f 1 9 1 2 ,
g o e s s till fu r t h e r a n d u n d e r ta k e s t o s h o w ju s t h o w c o m m o n ly a n d
w h y , in a g e g r o u p s w h ic h s h o u ld r e p r e s e n t th e g r e a te s t in d u s tr ia l
e ffic ie n c y , th e w a g e -e a r n e r ’ s life it s e lf is l o s t a n d h is p r o d u c t i v e
p o w e r is d e s t r o y e d a b s o lu t e ly .
E v id e n t ly s u c h a n in q u ir y is fu n d a m e n t a l.
I f i t is i m p o r t a n t t o
k n o w h o w m a n y d ie in a g iv e n in d u s t r y fr o m s o m e o n e c a u s e , s u c h
a s in d u s t r ia l a c c id e n t s o r le a d p o is o n in g , i t is e v e n m o r e i m p o r t a n t
t o k n o w h o w m a n y d ie fr o m a ll c a u s e s a n d w h ic h o f th e s e c a u s e s is
m o s t e ff e c t iv e in s w e llin g t h e d e a t h r o ll.
I f it is im p o r t a n t t
im p r o v e th e c o n d it io n s u n d e r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s w o r k , i t is s t ill m o r e
im p o r t a n t t o k e e p th e e m p lo y e e s a liv e t o e n jo y t h e im p r o v e m e n t ,
a n d lo g ic a lly th e fir s t s t e p t o w a r d d o in g s o is t o fin d o u t w h a t in d u s ­
tr ie s , o r , m o r e s p e c if ic a lly s t ill, w h a t o c c u p a t io n s h a v e a n u n d u ly h ig h
d e a t h r a te , a n d ju s t w h a t c a u s e s t e n d t o p r o d u c e th is r a te .
A rm ed
w it h s u c h k n o w le d g e it w ill b e p o s s ib le t o p u t th e im p r o v e m e n t s
w h e r e t h e y w ill d o th e m o s t g o o d .
F o r in s ta n c e , in d u s tr ia l a c c id e n ts
o c c a s io n a lly h a p p e n in th e c o t t o n m a n u fa c t u r in g in d u s t r y , a n d s te p s




M E T H O D OF STU D Y USED.

11

s h o u ld , c e r t a i n l y b e t a k e n t o g u a r d a g a i n s t t h e m .
B u t a s t u d y o f th e
d e a th ra te s o f c o t t o n -m ill o p e r a tiv e s s h o w s t h a t d e a th s fr o m tu b e r c u ­
lo s is a re fr o m s e v e n t o e ig h t tim e s as c o m m o n a m o n g th e m as d e a th s
fr o m a c c id e n t a n d v io le n c e c o m b in e d .
N a tu r a lly , g u a r d s f o r th e m a ­
c h in e r y s h o u ld n o t b e n e g le c t e d , b u t a n e v e n m o r e i m p o r t a n t s t e p is t o
r e m o v e t h e u n d u e h a z a r d f r o m t u b e r c u lo s is , s o t h a t th e o p e r a t iv e m a y
l iv e to e n jo y th e b e n e fit o f th e s a fe g u a r d s a n d o t h e r im p r o v e d c o n ­
d it io n s w h ic h m a y b e in s t a lle d a s a r e s u lt o f fu r t h e r in v e s t ig a t io n s .
A p a r t fr o m its o w n fu n d a m e n t a l im p o r t a n c e a s t u d y lik e th
p r e s e n t o n e m a y a ls o s e r v e as a te s t o f o t h e r in v e s t ig a t io n s , s in c e
m a n y o f th e se a re u n d e r ta k e n w ith th e id e a o f im p r o v in g c o n d it io n s
if th e y are fo u n d to b e b a d , a n d a s t u d y o f d e a th ra te s s h o w s n o
o n l y h o w g o o d o r b a d t h e y a c t u a lly a re, b u t a ls o t o w h a t e x t e n
t h e c h a n g e s in t r o d u c e d a s a r e s u lt o f in v e s t ig a t io n a r e e ff e c t iv e
S u p p o s e , t h r o u g h t h e in v e s t ig a t io n o f a g iv e n in d u s tr y , c e r ta in c o n ­
d it io n s a r e f o u n d w h ic h a r e c o n s id e r e d h a r m fu l, a n d a s a r e s u lt o f
t h e in v e s t ig a t io n th e s e a re a lte re d .
A s t u d y o f th e d e a t h r a te s in
t h is in d u s t r y t h r o u g h a n u m b e r o f y e a r s w ill s h o w b e t t e r th a n a n y
o t h e r m e t h o d t h e d e g r e e t o w h ic h th e s e c h a n g e s h a v e b e e n b e n e fic ia l
o r o t h e r w is e .
I f , a fte r th e ir in t r o d u c t io n , th e d e a t h ra te s f o r w o r k e r s
o f e a c h g iv e n a g e, s e x , ra ce , a n d c o n ju g a l c o n d it io n s h o w a d e c lin e ,
t h e p r e s u m p t io n is v e r y s t r o n g t h a t t h e c h a n g e s h a v e b e e n h e lp f u l
t o th e w o r k e r s a n d th r o u g h th e m to th e c o m m u n it y ; b u t if th e d e a t h
r a t e s r e m a in u n c h a n g e d o r e v e n s h o w a n in c r e a s e , i t is e v id e n t e it h e r
t h a t th e in v e s tig a tio n u p o n w h ic h th e c h a n g e s w e r e b a s e d w a s in a c ­
c u r a te o r t h a t its fin d in g s w e r e m is in te r p r e te d .
A s tu d y o f d ea th
r a te s , th e r e fo r e , m a y b e s a id t o b e r e la te d t o o t h e r s t u d ie s o f h e a lt h
in in d u s t r y , fir s t, as a fo u n d a t io n , a n d , s e c o n d , a s a te s t.
METHOD OF STUDY USED.

A s in th e fir s t s t u d y , w h a t m a y b e c a lle d t h e d e a t h -r a t e m e t h o d
h a s b e e n e m p lo y e d .
A c c u r a t e d e a t h r a te s f o r th e w o r k e r s in th
in d u s t r y s e le c te d w e r e fir s t d e t e r m in e d , a n d n e x t , b y a c o m p a r is o n
o f th e se r a te s w it h th o s e o f p e rs o n s o f th e s a m e a g e , r a ce , s e x , a n d
c o n ju g a l c o n d it io n w h o w e r e n o t e m p lo y e d in th e in d u s tr y , c o n
c lu s io n s w e r e r e a c h e d as t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e in d u s t r y s t u d ie d u p o n
le n g t h o f life .
M o r e o v e r , b y s im ila r c o m p a r is o n s b e t w e e n g r o u p
d iffe r in g in s o m e o t h e r p a r t ic u la r th a n in d u s t r y , c o n c lu s io n s m a y b e
d r a w n a s t o th e e ff e c t o f th e p a r t ic u la r in w h ic h t h e y d iffe r .
Thus
it is p o s s ib le t o in d ic a t e th e e ff e c t u p o n le n g t h o f life o f r a c e , s e x
p a r t ic u la r o c c u p a t io n w it h in th e in d u s t r y , f o r w o m e n , th e r e la tiv e
p e r il o f m a r r ie d a s c o m p a r e d w it h s in g le life , e t c .
T h is m e th o d o
s t u d y in g th e e ffe c t o f a n in d u s t r y o r o t h e r m o d ify in g in flu e n c e u p o n
th e h e a lt h o f t h o s e a ffe c t e d b y i t d iffe r s s o w id e ly f r o m th e m e t h o d
u s u a lly e m p lo y e d t h a t i t s e e m s w o r t h w h ile t o q u o t e f r o m t h e fir s t




12

IN TR O D U C TIO N .

r e p o r t a b r ie f s u m m a r y o f th e re a so n s fo r p r e fe r r in g th e d e a t h -r a t e
m e th o d :1

T h e t w o m e th o d s m a y b e r e s p e c t iv e ly d e fin e d as t h e in s p e c t io n
m e th o d a n d th e d e a th -ra te m e th o d .
U n d e r th e fir s t m e t h o d a c a r e ­
f u l in s p e c t io n is m a d e o f a s m a n y a s p o s s ib le o f th o s e e n g a g e d in a
g iv e n i n d u s t r y a n d f r o m t h e p r e v a le n c e o f i ll h e a lth o r d is e a s e a m o n g
t h e m c o n c lu s io n s a r e d r a w n a s t o t h e h e a lth fu ln e s s o f t h a t p u r s u it.
B y th e s e c o n d m e th o d , th e d e a th r a te a m o n g th o s e e n g a g e d in a g iv e n
in d u s t r y is a c c u r a t e ly d e te r m in e d f o r a p e r io d s u ffic ie n tly lo n g to
e x c lu d e th e e ffe c t o f t e m p o r a r y d is tu r b a n c e s , a n d fr o m a c o m p a r is o n
o f t h is d e a t h r a t e w it h t h a t p r e v a ilin g in s im ila r a g e a n d s e x g r o u p s
o u ts id e o f th e in d u s t r y , c o n c lu s io n s a re d r a w n as to th e h e a lth fu l o r
n o n h e a lt h fu l c h a r a c t e r o f th e in d u s tr y .
^

vjj

T o s u m m a r iz e , i t m a y b e s a id t h a t f o r d e t e r m in in g th e h e a lth fu ln e s s
o f a g i v e n i n d u s t r y t h e d e a t h - r a t e m e t h o d , o f w h i c h t h e b a s i c u n i t is
a n in d iv id u a l d e a d , is p r e fe r a b le t o t h e i n s p e c t io n m e t h o d , o f w h ic h
t h e b a s i c u n i t is a n i n d i v i d u a l i n i l l h e a l t h , o n t w o p r i n c i p a l g r o u n d s :
I . P O T E N T IA L U T I L I T Y .

(1 ) I n d is c o v e r in g th e p r e v a le n c e o f th e c o n d it io n in q u ir e d in t o ,
s in c e d e a t h is a d e fin ite a n d u n c h a n g in g s t a t e a b o u t w h ic h th e r e c a n
b e n o q u e s t io n , w h ile ill h e a lt h is a v a g u e l y d e fin e d s t a t e w h ic h m a y
a t a n y t im e m e r g e e ith e r in t o d e a t h o r in t o g o o d h e a lth .
In oth er
w o r d s , i t s b o u n d a r ie s a r e a t o n c e ill d e fin e d a n d s h iftin g .
(2 ) I n d e te r m in in g t h e r e la tiv e im p o r t a n c e o f a n t ilo n g e v it y ca u s e s ,
b e c a u s e t h e s e v e r a l fa c t o r s w h ic h , c o m b in e d , b r in g a b o u t t h e d e fin ite
c o n d it io n , d e a th , a r e m o r e e a s ily is o la te d a n d m e a s u r e d a s t o th e ir
c o m p a r a t iv e h a r m fu ln e s s t h a n is th e c a s e w it h t h e fa c t o r s w h ic h ,
c o m b i n e d , b r i n g a b o u t t h e i n d e fin it e ^ c o n d i t i o n , i l l h e a l t h .
A n d a ls o
b e c a u s e th e s t u d y o f a c o m p le t e d life is a p t t o r e v e a l a g r e a te r n u m b e r
a n d v a r ie t y o f m o r b ific in flu e n c e s a n d e x p e r ie n c e s t h a n w ill b e fo u n d
i n t h e s t u d y o f a l i f e o f t h e s a m e l e n g t h t h a t is a s y e t u n f i n i s h e d .
II.

IN H E R E N T E X P E D I E N C Y .

(1 ) I n d is c o v e r in g th e p r e v a le n c e o f th e c o n d it io n in q u ir e d in t o ,
b e c a u s e , a s it s b a s ic u n it s c a n b e a b s o lu t e ly id e n t ifie d , i t is p o s s ib le t o
m a k e a c o m p le t e e n u m e r a t io n o f t h e m f o r & g iv e n c o m m u n it y d u r in g
a g iv e n p e r io d , w h e re a s it w o u ld b e p r a c t ic a lly im p o s s ib le t o m a k e an
e q u a lly c o m p le t e e n u m e r a tio n o f a ll th e ca s e s o f ill h e a lth o c c u r r in g
in t h e s a m e c o m m u n it y d u r in g t h e s a m e p e r io d .
(2 ) I n d e te r m in in g a n t ilo n g e v it y c a u s e s , b e c a u s e i t in c lu d e s th e
c a u s e s le a d in g u p t o e a c h a n d e v e r y d e a th o c c u r r in g in th e g iv e n
c o m m u n it y d u r in g t h e g iv e n p e r io d , a n d is t h e r e fo r e a t o n c e m o r e
in c lu s iv e a n d fa ir e r t h a n t h e in s p e c t io n m e th o d , w h ic h c a n o n ly c o v e r
t h e c a u s e s p r o d u c in g ill h e a lth in a s e le c t e d n u m b e r o f th e c a s e s
e x is tin g o n a g iv e n d a y w it h in th e g iv e n c o m m u n it y .
1 Report on Condition of "Woman and Child Wage Earners in the United States (S. Doc. 645, 61st
Cong., 2d sess.), Vol. X IV : Causes of death among woman and child cotton-mill operatives. Wash­
ington, 1912, pp. 22, 25, 26.




FA IL U R E TO STUDY N O N C A SU A LTY IN D U ST R IA L D EATH S.

13

A n d fin a lly , t h e h is t o r y o f a c a s e in w h ic h t h e a n t ilo n g e v it y f a c t o r s
h a v e w o r k e d o u t t h e ir fu ll e ffe c t — in o t h e r w o r d s , th e h is t o r y o f an
in d iv id u a l d e a d — e v id e n t ly a ffo r d s a m o r e c o m p le t e fie ld f o r s t u d y in g
t h o s e f a c t o r s t h a n t h e h is t o r y o f a c a s e in w h ic h t h o s e fo r c e s a re s t ill
a t w ork .
I n th e la t t e r c a s e w e k n o w t h a t th e s e fa c t o r s w ill a t la s t
c a u s e d e a th , b u t w e d o n o t k n o w h o w lo n g it w ill ta k e th e m t o d o so ,
a n d c o n s e q u e n t ly c a n n o t e s tim a te w h a t d e g r e e o f h a rm t h e y h a v e
a lr e a d y w o r k e d .
I n th e o n e c a s e w e a re d e a lin g w it h a c o m p le t e ,
in t h e o t h e r w it h a n in c o m p le t e , h is t o r y , a n d th e a d v a n ta g e s o f th e
fir s t f o r p u r p o s e s o f s t u d y a re o b v io u s .
PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE OF AGE AT DEATH.

F r o m a n in d u s tr ia l s t a n d p o in t , d e a th a t a g iv e n a g e m e a n s a fix e d
a n d d e fin ite lo s s .
A t e a c h a g e th e w o r k e r h a s a c e rta in e x p e c t a n c y
o f life , v a r y in g a c c o r d in g t o c e r ta in fa c t o r s , s u c h as s e x , r a c e , a n d
c o n ju g a l c o n d it io n , b u t s t ill d e fin ite ly c a lc u la b le .
A c e rta in p a r t o f
t h is l if e e x p e c t a n c y , v a r y i n g a c c o r d in g t o t h e p r e s e n t a g e , w ill a ls o
b e a p e r io d o f fu ll in d u s tr ia l e ffe c tiv e n e s s .
T h is in d u s tr ia l e x p e c ­
ta n c y , if th e te r m m a y b e so u s e d , a t a g iv e n a g e h a s n o t y e t b e e n
c a lc u la t e d , b u t its e x is te n c e w ill n o t b e q u e s tio n e d .
N a tu r a lly th e
y o u n g e r a w a g e e a r n e r i s t h e l o n g e r i s h is i n d u s t r i a l e x p e c t a n c y a n d
t h e g r e a t e r is t h e i n d u s t r i a l l o s s i n v o l v e d i n h i s d e a t h .
The am ount
o f t h is lo s s w ill n o t b e a ffe c t e d b y t h e m a n n e r in w h ic h t h e w o r k e r
d ie s .
D e a t h m a y c o m e s u d d e n ly a n d v io le n t ly t o th e v ic t im w h ile
h e is a t w o r k , a s b y a n i n d u s t r i a l a c c i d e n t , o r s u d d e n l y , t h o u g h n o t
v i o l e n t l y , t h r o u g h t h e f i n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f s o m e d is e a s e , a s a p o p l e x y ;
o r i t m a y c o m e n e i t h e r s u d d e n l y , v i o l e n t l y , n o r w h i l e t h e v i c t i m is
a t w o r k , b u t w it h in s o b r ie f a t im e a ft e r h e h a s g i v e n u p h is e m p l o y ­
m e n t t h a t th e e ffe c ts o f th e in d u s tr ia l c o n d it io n s t o w h ic h h e w a s
s u b je c t e d m a y b e c o n s id e r e d b e y o n d a ll q u e s t io n a s h a v in g b o r n e a
c a u s a t iv e r e la t io n t o h is d e a t h .
B u t in e a c h c a s e th e lo s s i n v o lv e d
d ep e n d s o n th e a g e a t d ea th , n o t o n th e ca u se o f d ea th .
F r o m th e
s t a n d p o in t o f th e w o r k e r d e a th a t a g iv e n a g e m e a n s th e lo s s o f ju s t
s o m a n y y e a r s o f h is l i f e e x p e c t a n c y ; f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h
in d u s t r y i t m e a n s th e lo s s o f ju s t s o m u c h p o t e n t ia l in d u s tr ia l a c t iv it y ;
a n d t o b o t h t h e w o r k e r a n d t h e i n d u s t r y t h e d e g r e e o f t h is lo s s , w h ic h
is m e a s u r e d b y y o u t h f u l n e s s a t d e a t h , is a f a r m o r e v i t a l q u e s t i o n
th a n th e p r e c is e m a n n e r in w h ic h d e a th w a s in c u r r e d .
GENERAL FAILURE TO STUDY NONCASUALTY INDUSTRIAL DEATHS.

I n v ie w o f th e im p o r t a n c e o f a g e a t d e a th as c o m p a r e d w it h c a u s e
o f d e a t h i t m ig h t s e e m s in g u la r t h a t s o l it t le h a s b e e n d o n e in t h e w a y
o f s t u d y in g in d u s tr ia l d e a t h r a te s b y a g e g r o u p s w h ile s o m u c h a tte n ­
t io n h a s b e e n p a id t o c e r ta in fo r m s o f d e a th , a s, f o r in s ta n c e , in d u s ­
tr ia l fa t a litie s a n d d e a t h s fr o m in d u s tr ia l p o is o n s ; b u t th e r e a s o n s f o r
t h is d is c r im in a t io n a r e n o t f a r t o s e e k .
D e a th s fr o m v io le n c e o




14

IN TR O D U C TIO N .

c a s u a l t y h a v e a c q u i r e d p r o m i n e n c e o u t o f a ll p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r
r e a l i m p o r t a n c e 1 th r o u g h th e ir v e r y c h a r a c t e r ; t h e y a re s u d d e n
a n d s h o c k in g ; t h e y fo r c e th e m s e lv e s o n th e a t t e n t io n .
A n d ju s t
b e c a u s e th e y a ttr a c t su ch n o tic e , th e y are r e m e m b e re d a n d an
e x a g g e r a t e d im p r e s s io n is f o r m e d o f t h e ir p r e v a le n c e .
A l s o , i t is
n o t d iffic u lt t o fix th e r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r s u c h d e a th s w it h r e a s o n a b le
c e r t a i n t y , w h ic h m a k e s a s t u d y o f t h e m e a s ie r a n d m o r e a t t r a c t i v e .
T h is l a t t e r a d v a n t a g e in h e r e s a ls o in d e a t h s f r o m in d u s t r ia l p o is o n s ,
fu m e s , o r d u sts.
D e a t h s f r o m o t h e r c a u s e s th a n c a s u a lt y , o n th e o t h e r h a n d , a re a p t
t o h a v e lit t le o f th e s p e c ta c u la r a b o u t th e m a n d t o p a s s u n n o t ic e d .
T h a t a ll m u s t d i e s o o n e r o r l a t e r is t h e t r i t e s t o f c o m m o n p l a c e s , a n d
t h e in d iv id u a l d e a t h a t t r a c t s lit t le a t t e n t io n u n le s s a c c o m p a n ie d b y
s t r ik in g d e t a ils o f s o m e k in d .
A ls o , n o n c a s u a lt y d e a th s u s u a lly
o c c u r e ls e w h e r e th a n a t th e p la c e o f e m p lo y m e n t , a n d th e ir c o n n e c ­
t io n w it h th e in d u s t r y in w h ic h th e v ic t im m a y h a v e s p e n t th e g r e a te r
p a r t o f h i s l i f e is s e l d o m f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d .
I t is o n l y w h e n t h e r e c o r d s
o f a la r g e n u m b e r o f d e a th s a re s t u d ie d t h a t th e fa c t s a re s u ffic ie n t ly
m a s s e d f o r th e ir im p o r t a n c e t o b e c o m e a p p a r e n t.
PRACTICAL LIMITATIONS UPON USE OF DEATH-RATE METHOD,

I n s p it e o f th e v a lu e o f a s t u d y o f d e a t h r a te s w h e n t h e e ffe c t
o f a n y g iv e n i n d u s t r y u p o n it s w o r k e r s is u n d e r c o n s id e r a t io n , t h e r e
a r e s e r io u s d iff ic u lt ie s in t h e w a y o f a p p l y i n g t h is m e t h o d u n iv e r s a lly
t o in d u s t r ie s .
S u c h a s t u d y m u s t fir s t o f a ll b e b a s e d u p o n r e c o r d e d
d ea th s.
I t w o u ld b e im p o s s ib le to h u n t o u t o n e b y o n e u n r e c o r d e d
d e a th s o c c u r r in g th ro u g h a p e r io d o f y e a rs , a n d if th e a tte m p t w e re
m a d e t h e r e c o u l d b e n o a s s u r a n c e t h a t it s r e s u lts w o u ld b e c o m p l e t e ;
in f a c t , i t is p r a c t ic a l ly c e r t a in t h a t t h e y w o u ld n o t b e , a n d n o o n e
c o u ld e v e n g u e s s in t e llig e n t ly h o w n u m e r o u s th e u n d is c o v e r e d d e a th s
m ig h t b e .
T h is m e a n s t h a t th e fir s t r e q u is ite f o r a s t u d y o f in d u s t r ia l
d e a t h r a t e s is t h a t t h e in d u s t r y u n d e r c o n s id e r a t io n s h a ll b e l o c a t e d ,
a t le a s t t o a c o n s id e r a b le e x t e n t , w ith in th e r e g is t r a t io n a r e a , i. e . ;
w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a ll d e a t h s i s c o m ­
p u ls o r y .
I n th e s e c o n d p la c e , a s t u d y o f in d u s tr ia l d e a t h r a te s , t o b e o f a n y
v a lu e , m u s t b e b a s e d u p o n a n u m b e r o f d e a th s s o la r g e t h a t th e
a v e r a g e a n n u a l n u m b e r o f d e a t h s is s ig n ific a n t.
T h ere are p r o b ­
a b ly n o in d u s tr ie s s o c o n c e n t r a t e d w it h in o n e c i t y t h a t t h e d e a th s
in t h a t c it y d u r in g o n e y e a r w o u ld b e s u ffic ie n t ly n u m e r o u s t o fu r n is h
1 Mortality Statistics, Bureau of the Census, 1909, pp. 30S, 309, and 325. This shows that in the registra­
tion area of the whole country during the decade 1900 to 1909 there were on the average 41,402 deaths an­
nually from violence. This is a sufficiently appalling fact; yet it must be remembered that during the
same period the average annual number of deaths from a single noncasualty cause —tuberculosis (like
wise very largely, if not wholly, preventable)—was 68,825, which is an excess of 66 per cent over thenumber of deaths from violence.




L IM IT A T IO N S U PO N USE OF D E A TH -R A TE M ET H O D .

15

a satisfactory basis of study. The requisite number of deaths may,
however, be secured by taking all occurring within several cities, or
all occurring within a single specified area during a number of years,
or by combining these two ways and taking all the deaths from several
designated areas through a series of years. But if deaths from differ­
ent cities are taken it is always possible that local factors affecting the
death rate may vary from place to place and so bring in an element
of error. This particular obstacle can be overcome by taking the
deaths from one place through a series of years; but when this method
is used another limitation appears. The scanty data of the
official death records must be supplemented by fuller information
gathered from relatives of the deceased, and since the memories of
survivors can not be trusted for details occurring long before the
time of the inquiry, it is necessary to limit the time covered to a very
few years.
This method of study is restricted, therefore, to industries which are
so concentrated in cities, similar in general health conditions and
situated within the registration area, that a number of deaths
of workers, sufficient to furnish significant annual death rates,
shall occur within these cities during a strictly limited period of
years. So few industries conform to these conditions that at present,
in spite of the value of the results obtainable from a study of indus­
trial death rates, the use of the method herein employed is not always
feasible. When, however, as in the case of the cotton manufacturing
industry, these primary requirements are met, the hygienic effect of
an industry upon its workers can be surveyed far more satisfactorily
through a study of deaths than through a study of cases of illness,
which has hitherto been the common method. In other words, the
effect of an industry upon the health of its workers is more conclu­
sively tested through study of their mortality than of their morbidity.




CHAPTER L— SCOPE AND METHOD OP INVESTIGATION,
PLACE AND YEARS COVERED.

T h e f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t is b a s e d u p o n s c h e d u le d i n f o r m a t io n s p e c ia l l y
o b t a in e d fr o m e a c h c o t t o n -m ill o p e r a t iv e o f F a ll R iv e r , w h a te v e
th e a g e (in 1 9 1 3 ) / a n d c o n c e r n in g e a c h c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e c e r t ifie d as
h a v in g d ie d in F a ll R i v e r (d u r in g th e y e a r s 1 9 0 8 t o 1 9 1 2 ), w h a te v e r
th e a g e a t d e a th .
R e s p e c t in g th e t o t a l F a ll R iv e r p o p u la t io n a n d
t h e d e a t h s o c c u r r i n g t h e r e i n d u r i n g 1 9 0 8 t o 1 9 1 2 , t h e s t u d y is b a s e d
u p o n F e d e ra l cen su s d a ta o f a g e g r o u p 10 t o 64 y e a rs o n ly . ’ It
s p e c ia l p u r p o s e is t o d e t e r m in e t h e p r e v a l e n c e a n d c a u s e s o f e a r ly
d e a th a m o n g th e w o r k e r s o f th e c o t t o n m a n u fa c t u r in g in d u s t r y
T h e f a c t t h a t i t is a n e x t e n s io n o f a n e a r lie r s t u d y 1 d e t e r m in e d t h e
c h o i c e o f t h e i n d u s t r y , b u t t h e r e a s o n s f o r s e le c t in g t h is in d u s t r y
in t h e fir s t p la c e m a y b e b r ie fly s u m m a r iz e d a s f o l l o w s : F ir s t , t h e
m a n u fa c tu r e o f c o t t o n g o o d s e m p lo y s a la rg e r w o r k in g fo r c e o
w o m e n a n d c h ild r e n t h a n a n y o t h e r in d u s t r y .
S e c o n d , it s w o r k in g
f o r c e is m o r e e q u a l ly d iv id e d b e t w e e n t h e s e x e s t h a n is t h e c a s e w it h
a n y o th e r la r g e in d u s tr y .
A n d t h ir d , i t is s u ffic ie n t ly c o n c e n t r a t e d
w it h in th e r e g is t r a t io n a r e a t o m a k e p o s s ib le th e u s e o f w h a t h a s
b e e n c a lle d th e d e a t h -r a t e m e t h o d o f s t u d y .
F o r s u ch a s t u d y F a ll R iv e r p re s e n ts s o m e e x c e p t io n a l a d v a n ta g e s .
I t is t h e le a d in g c o t t o n m a n u fa c t u r in g c i t y in t h e U n it e d S t a t e s
c o n t a i n i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t e n t h ( 9 .8 3 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e t o t a
n u m b e r o f a c tu a l c o t t o n -m ill w o r k e r s 2 in th e w h o le c o u n t r y ; m o r e ­
o v e r , i t h a s lo n g h e ld it s p o s it io n o f le a d e r s h ip , s o t h a t w h a te v e
in flu e n c e s m a y b e in h e r e n t in t h e in d u s t r y h a v e h a d t im e t o m a k e
t h e m s e lv e s fe lt .
I t h a s a h ig h e r p r o p o r t io n o f it s w o m e n e n g a g e d
in w a g e e a r n in g t h a n a n y o t h e r A m e r ic a n c i t y o f s im ila r s iz e .
Its
s it u a t io n a n d n a tu r a l r e s o u r c e s a re s u c h as s h o u ld m a k e i t p a r t ic u ­
la r ly h e a lth fu l, th u s e lim in a tin g th e c o m p lic a tio n s o f th e d e a t h r a t e
w h ic h m i g h t a r is e f r o m in s a n i t a r y l o c a t i o n , b a d w a t e r s u p p l y , o r
s im ila r u n fa v o r a b le c o n d it io n s .
M o r e o v e r , t h e p o p u la t io n is s o c o n ­
s t it u t e d as t o b e e s p e c ia lly s u it a b le f o r s u c h a s t u d y a s is h e r e u n d e r ­
ta k e n .
T h e m a k e -u p o f t h is p o p u l a t io n d e s e r v e s s o m e m e n t io n .
1 Report on Condition of Woman and Child Wage Earners in the United States (S. Doc. No. 645,61st
Cong., 2d sess.) Vol. X IV , 1912.
2 The term “ actual cotton-mill workers” is used to distinguish those regularly exposed to conditions
peculiar to the manufacture of cotton from those who, although on the pay roll of a cotton mill, meet only
such conditions as they would be likely to find anywhere else. Thus, an engineer or fireman works under
the same conditions in a cotton mill as anywhere else, and so do yardmen, truckmen, teamsters, and
others.

16




PLACE AND YEARS COVERED.

17

Distribution by sex.— In 1 9 1 0 Fall River had a population of
1 1 9 ,2 9 5 inhabitants, comprising 2 4 , 3 7 8 families, housed in 1 0 ,9 6 2
dwellings. Of those aged 1 0 years or over, 4 4 , 3 9 5 were males and
4 8 ,4 1 1 were females. Among those aged 1 5 years or over, the males
numbered 3 8 , 4 3 9 and the females 4 2 , 5 7 2 .
Distribution by race or people.— In 1 9 1 0 the French Canadians
formed almost one-fourth ( 2 4 per cent) of the total population; the
English and the Portuguese were almost equal in numerical impor­
tance, furnishing respectively 20 per cent and 21 per cent of the total;
the Americans furnished 12 per cent, the Irish 12 per cent, and the
aggregate “ Other” or miscellaneous races and peoples 11 per cent.
The colored, the Indians, and the Chinese together comprised but
4 3 8 , or less than one-half of 1 per cent of the entire population.
Distribution by nativity and conjugal condition.— O f t h e
tota l

p o p u l a t i o n o f 8 1 ,0 1 1 a g e d 1 5 y e a r s o r o v e r i n 1 9 1 0 o v e r o n e - h a l
(5 3 p e r c e n t ) w e r e f o r e i g n b o r n , w h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e i n e v e r y
f i v e (6 2 p e r c e n t ) h a d b e e n m a r r i e d .
Distribution by occupation.— I n 1 9 1 0 , o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a g e d 1 0 y e a r s
a n d o v e r , m o r e t h a n f o u r - f i f t h s (8 2 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e m a l e s a n d t w o f ift h s (4 2 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e fe m a le s w e r e g a in f u ll y e m p lo y e d , 2 9 a n d 2 8
p e r c e n t r e s p e c t iv e ly b e in g in th e c o t t o n m a n u fa c t u r in g in d u s tr y
T h u s a lm o s t id e n t ic a lly th e s a m e p r o p o r t io n o f th e m a le s a s o f th e
fe m a le s o f w o r k in g a g e w e r e c o t t o n - m i ll o p e r a t iv e s .
It m u st b
b o r n e in m in d , h o w e v e r , t h a t th e c o t t o n -m ill o p e r a t iv e s f o r m
m u c h m o r e i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f th e e n tir e w o r k in g f o r c e th a n o f th e
m a le .
O f th e w h o le n u m b e r o f fe m a le s g a in fu lly e m p lo y e d t w o -t h ir d s
(0 6 .8 p e r c e n t ) w e r e c o t t o n -m ill o p e r a t iv e s , w h ile o f th e g a in fu lly
e m p lo y e d m a le s th e c o t t o n -m ill o p e r a t iv e s fo r m e d b u t 35 p e r c e n t .
The even sex distribution of the population, especially of the
operatives, gives special opportunities for studying the relative
effect of cotton-mill work on males and females. The large foreign
element gives a wider range for study of racial tendencies than would
be found in a more homogeneous population, and the racial division
is also advantageous. The population falls naturally into six racial
groups, counting the miscellaneous as one. Of these, five are of
European stock, and are sufficiently alike in size to make a compara­
tive study possible. The French Canadian, English, and Portuguese
groups are nearly of the same size, and the largest of the five groups
the French Canadian, is only twice the size of the smallest. The
Irish and the American groups are identical in size. The advantage
of this comparative similarity in the size of the race groups when
racial comparisons are to be made is obvious.
For all these reasons— the healthfulness of its location, its position
as the leading cotton manufacturing city of the country, the size
of its operative population, the number of women engaged in its
88204°— 19— Bull. 251---- - 2




18

C H A P . I .---- SCOPE AN D M E T H O D OF IN V E ST IG A TIO N .

c o t t o n in d u s tr y , a n d th e a d v a n ta g e o u s d is t r ib u t io n o f th e p o p u la t io n
a s ter s e x , r a c e , a n d o c c u p a t i o n — F a l l R i v e r w a s c h o s e n a s t h e f i e l d
o f th is in v e s t ig a t io n .
T h e c h o ic e o f th e y e a r s to b e c o v e r e d w a s d e te r m in e d b y th e
e a r lie r in v e s t i g a t i o n .
T h e r e w e r e m a n ife s t a d v a n ta g e s t o b e g a in e d
b y m a k in g t h e s t u d y c o n t i n u o u s , i. e ., b e g in n in g t h is in v e s t i g a t i o n
a t th e d a te a t w h ic h th e fo r m e r h a d c o n c lu d e d , s o 1908 w a s ta k e n
a s th e fir s t o f th e y e a r s t o b e c o v e r e d .
I t w a s d e s ire d t o ta k e as lo n g
a p e r io d as p o s s ib le s o t h a t th e v o lu m e o f d e a th s m ig h t b e la r g e
a n d th e c h a n c e o f c o n c lu s io n s b e in g a ffe c te d b y s o m e a c c id e n ta l o r
t e m p o r a r y f a c t o r m ig h t b e r e d u c e d t o a m in im u m .
B u t as h a
a lr e a d y b e e n m e n t io n e d , th e le n g t h o f th e p e r io d w h ic h c a n b e
c o v e r e d is c o n d i t io n e d b y t h e m e m o r y o f s u r v iv o r s .
S in c e in fo r
m a t io n m u s t b e s o u g h t f r o m r e la tiv e s o f d e c e d e n t s , i t w o u ld n o t d o t o
m a k e th e p e r io d s o lo n g t h a t th e s e r e la tiv e s c o u ld n o t r e m e m b e r t h e
fa c t s c o n c e r n in g w h ic h in fo r m a t io n w a s d e s ire d .
F iv e y e a rs, i
w a s fe lt , w a s as lo n g a tim e a s c o u ld s a fe ly b e in c lu d e d in a n in q u ir y
d e p e n d in g o n th e m e m o r y o f p e r s o n s w h o h a d n o s p e c ia l in c e n t iv e s t o
r e m e m b e r th e d a t a w a n te d .1 T h e y e a r s 1 9 0 8 t o 1 9 1 2 , in c lu s iv e , w e r e
t h e r e fo r e t a k e n a s t h e t im e t o b e c o v e r e d b y t h is s t u d y .
S in c e th e
p r e c e d in g r e p o r t c o v e r e d t h e y e a r s 1 9 0 5 t o 1 9 0 7 , in c lu s iv e , th e t w o
to g e th e r g iv e a c o m p le t e s t u d y o f th e m o r t a lit y o f F a ll R i v e r fo r th e
e ig h t y e a r s 1905 to 19 1 2 .
AGE PERIOD COVERED.

S i n c e t h i s is a s t u d y o f t h e p r e v a l e n c e a n d t h e c o n t r i b u t o r y c a u s e s
o f e a r ly d e a t h in in d u s t r y , i t w a s m a n ife s t ly u n n e c e s s a r y t o in c lu d e
d e a th s o f th o s e t o o y o u n g t o b e e m p lo y e d in d u s tr ia lly .
In order,
h o w e v e r , n o t to o m it a n y p o s s ib le o p e r a t iv e d e c e d e n t, th e lo w e r
a g e lim it w a s fix e d a t 10 y e a rs .
F o r o p e r a t iv e s a n d f o r a ll t u b e r ­
c u lo u s d e c e d e n ts , n o u p p e r a g e lim it w a s fix e d , b u t f o r n o n o p e r a t iv e
d e c e d e n t s w h o d ie d f r o m c a u s e s o t h e r t h a n tu b e r c u lo s is 6 4 y e a r s w a s
ta k e n as th e u p p e r a g e lim it .
A n a d d it io n a l r e a s o n f o r s e le c t in g 10
y e a r s a s th e lo w e r a g e lim it w a s t h a t th e a g e g r o u p in g s in th e ta b le s
t h r o u g h o u t t h is s t u d y m ig h t c o in c id e w it h t h o s e ' o f t h e c e n s u s a n d
m ill t a b u la t io n s o f p o p u la t io n .
METHODS OF OBTAINING MATERIAL.
MATERIAL CONCERNING TH E LIVING.

A t t h e o u t s e t i t b e c a m e e v id e n t t h a t t w o lin e s o f w o r k w e r e n e c e s ­
s a r y : T h e a c q u is it io n o f d a t a c o n c e r n in g th e liv in g o p e r a tiv e s , as w e ll
as th e c o lle c t io n o f fa c t s c o n c e r n in g d e c e d e n ts .
T h e s tu d y o f th e
i The inquiry concerning decedents aged 15 to 44 dying during 1908, 1909 and 1910 was begun in 1911, so
that the longest possible interval between any one of these deaths and the inquiry was less than four years
and the average interval was rather less than two years. Investigation of the other deaths o;? 1908 to 1910
and of all deaths of 1911 was practically completed within the year 1912. Deaths of the year 1912 were
studied within as few months after their occurrence as was practically possible.




M ETH O D S OF O B TA IN IN G M A T E R IA L ,

19

liv in g o p e r a tiv e s w a s r e n d e r e d n e c e s s a r y b y th e fa c t t h a t th e c e n s u s
d a t a c o n c e r n in g th e m w e r e w h o lly in a d e q u a t e f o r e s ta b lis h in g a c c u r a t e
d e a th ra tes.
W h e n i t h a s b e e n le a r n e d , f o r in s ta n c e , th a t a g iv e
n u m b e r o f m a r r ie d fe m a le w e a v e r s a g e d 2 5 t o 3 4 y e a r s d ie a n n u a lly
o f t u b e r c u lo s is , i t is i m p o s s i b le t o c a lc u l a t e t h e ir d e a t h r a t e o r t o s a y
w h e t h e r o r n o t t u b e r c u lo s is is a la r m in g ly p r e v a le n t a m o n g t h e m u n t il
th e w h o le n u m b e r o f m a r r ie d fe m a le w e a v e r s in t h a t a g e g r o u p i
know n.
S im ila r ly , in fo r m a t io n w a s n e e d e d c o n c e r n in g th e d is tr
b u t io n o f th e w h o le o p e r a t iv e b o d y as t o a g e , s e x , r a c e , c o n ju g a
c o n d it io n , o c c u p a t io n , e tc .
N o s u c h b o d y o f d e t a ile d in fo r m a t io
w a s in e x is te n c e , a n d th e o n l y w a y o f g e t t in g i t w a s t o m a k e a c o m ­
p le te ce n s u s o f th e liv in g c o t t o n -m ill o p e r a tiv e s .
T h is w a s a s u
fic ie n t ly d iffic u lt ta s k , a n d w o u ld h a v e b e e n im p o s s ib le e x c e p t f o r th e
c o u r t e s y o f th e m ill o w n e r s , w h o p r a c t ic a lly u n d e r t o o k , a t th e ir o w n
e x p e n se , th e c o lle c t io n o f th e d a ta n e e d e d .
T h e l a b o r u n io n s a ls
c o o p e r a t e d , a n d e a c h o f th e fiv e lo c a l n e w s p a p e r s , in c lu d in g th o s e
p u b lis h e d in F r e n c h a n d in P o r t u g u e s e , e d it o r ia lly u r g e d th e fu lle s t
c o m p lia n c e w it h th e e ffo r t to s e c u r e th e c o m p le t e s t p o s s ib le in fo r m a ­
tio n .
A s a fir s t s te p t o w a r d s e c u r in g th e d a t a w a n te d , s c h e d u le s w e r e
d is t r ib u t e d t h r o u g h o u t a ll t h e m ills o f F a ll E i v e r e n g a g e d in m a n u ­
fa c t u r in g y a m , t w in e , t h r e a d , c lo t h , a n d c o t t o n m is c e lla n ie s . T h e s e
s c h e d u le s c o n t a in e d q u e s tio n s as t o a g e , s e x , r a c e ( b y n a t iv it y o
fa t h e r ), n a t iv it y , c o n ju g a l c o n d it io n , n u m b e r o f c h ild r e n b o t h liv in g
a n d d e a d , p a r t ic u la r w o r k d o n e in th e m ill, a g e a t b e g in n in g m il
w o r k , y e a r s (e n g a g e d i n t h e i n d u s t r y a n d i n t h e p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n ,
a n d th e n u m b e r o f w a g e e a r n e rs in t h e fa m ily .
O f th ese in d iv id u a
s c h e d u le s , 2 9 ,2 3 0 c o m p le t e ly fille d o u t w e r e fin a lly o b t a in e d . M o r e
t h a n o n e -h a lf w e r e fille d o u t b y c le r k s d e t a ile d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e fr o m
th e m ills ; th e r e s t w e r e w r it t e n b y th e in d iv id u a l o p e r a t iv e s a ft e r th e
c a r d s h a d b e e n d is tr ib u te d b y th e s e v e r a l o v e r s e e r s .
A r o u g h im m e ­
d ia t e c h e c k u p o n th e a c c u r a c y a n d c o m p le t e n e s s o f th e s e s c h e d u le s
w a s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h a c o m p a rwith t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ’ p a y ­
is o n
r o ll s c h e d u le s s e c u r e d f o r th e e a r lie r s t u d y in 1 9 0 8 .
A n y g r o s s d is
c r e p a n c y b e tw e e n th e tw o n o t s a t is fa c t o r ily e x p la in e d w a s fo r t h
w it h c o r r e c t e d b y a r e c a n v a s s o f th e w o r k e r s in th e s u s p e c te d w o r k ­
room .
T h is d e t e c t io n o f d is c r e p a n c ie s a n d t h e ir c o r r e c t io n a d d e
a b o u t 4 , 0 0 0 s c h e d u l e s t o t h e 2 5 , 0 0 0 o r m o r e a t f i r s t h a n d e d in .
F i f t y e s ta b lis h m e n t s w e r e c o v e r e d .
T h e s e m a y b e d iv id e d in t
th r e e g r o u p s , a c c o r d in g t o th e c lo s e n e s s w it h w h ic h t h e n u m b e r o
in d iv id u a l s c h e d u le s o b t a in e d a p p r o a c h e d th e t o t a l n u m b e r
o p e r a t iv e s a p p e a r in g o n th e p a y r o ll.
I n th e fir s t g r o u p a re th o s
in w h ic h th e n u m b e r o f in d iv id u a l s c h e d u le s s e c u r e d fo r m e d 95 p e r
c e n t o r m o r e o f th e n u m b e r o f o p e r a t iv e s s h o w n o n t h e p a y r o l l ; in
th e s e c o n d g r o u p a re t h o s e in w h ic h th e c o r r e s p o n d in g p e r c e n t a g e




C H A P . I .---- SCOPE AND M ETH O D OF IN V E ST IG A TIO N .

20

w a s 91 t o 94 , in c lu s iv e ; a n d in th e t h ir d t h o s e in w h ic h i t w a s 9 0 o r
le ss.
T h e n u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n ts , th e n u m b e r o f o p e r a t iv e s o n
t h e p a y r o lls , a n d t h e n u m b e r o f in d iv id u a l s c h e d u le s o b t a in e d w e r e ,
f o r e a c h g r o u p , as f o l l o w s :
NUM BER

OF ESTABLISH M ENTS COVERED, O PER ATIVES ON T H E P A Y RO LLS, AND
IN D IV ID U AL SCHEDULES OBTAIN ED .

Group I.

Group II.

Group III.

Total.

Number of mills.......................................................................
Number of operatives on pay roll........................................
Number of individual schedules obtained.........................

24
15,995
15,845

14
8,319
7,676

12
6,544
5,709

50
30,858
29,230

Difference between pay-roll and schedule totals. .

150

643

835

1,628

I t a p p e a r s f r o m t h is t h a t i n t h e l a r g e s t g r o u p , e n r o l l i n g 5 2 p e r c e n t
o f th e t o t a l n u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s s h o w n o n th e p a y r o lls o f a ll th e
m ills , th e d iffe r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p a y r o ll a n d t h e s c h e d u le t o t a ls w a s
n o t q u it e 1 p e r c e n t (0 .9 4 p e r c e n t ) ; t h a t in t h e s e c o n d g r o u p
e m p lo y in g 2 7 p e r c e n t o f th e p a y -r o ll o p e r a t iv e s , th e d iffe r e n c e
b e t w e e n th e t o t a ls w a s o n ly 8 p e r c e n t o f th e la t t e r ; a n d t h a t in th e
g r o u p e m p lo y in g 21 p e r c e n t o f th e p a y -r o ll o p e r a t iv e s th e d iffe r e n c e
a m o u n t e d t o 13 p e r c e n t . F o r t h e w h o l e n u m b e r o f m i l l s t h e d i f f e r e h c e
b e tw e e n th e s c h e d u le a n d th e p a y -r o ll to ta ls w a s o n ly 5 p e r c e n t.
T h e w h o le s u c c e e d in g s t u d y is b a s e d u p o n th e a s s u m p t io n t h a t
th e s e 2 9 ,2 3 0 s c h e d u le s r e p r e s e n t p r a c t ic a l ly th e e n t ir e m ill-w o r k in g
fo r c e o f F a ll R iv e r a m o n g w h o m o c c u r r e d th e o p e r a t iv e d e a th s
r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e f i v e y e a r s c o v e r e d . I t is w o r t h w h i l e , t h e r e f o r e ,
t o g o a t s o m e le n g t h in t o th e r e a s o n s f o r b e lie v in g t h a t £he s c h e d u le s
a r e r e a lly c o m p r e h e n s iv e a n d r e lia b le .
A s t o th e ir r e lia b ilit y , a n u n e x p e c t e d te s t o c c u r r e d w h e n o n e o f th e
la r g e s t m ills , d is r e g a r d in g t h e w r it e r ’ s s u g g e s t io n , d is t r ib u t e d th e
s c h e d u le s t o th e o p e r a t iv e s t o b e fille d o u t b y t h e m a n d l a t e r d ir e c t e d
i t s o v e r s e e r s t o f i ll o u t n e w s c h e d u l e s f o r t h e w h o l e m i l l f r o m i n f o r ­
m a t io n e a c h o p e r a tiv e g a v e .
A p p r o x im a t e ly 5 0 0 s c h e d u le s w e r e th u s
d u p lic a t e d .
V e r y fe w a n d n o n o t e w o r t h y d is c r e p a n c ie s h o w e v e r ,
w e r e fo u n d as a r e s u lt o f a c o m p a r is o n o f th e t w o s e ts o f s c h e d u le s .
T h e s c h e d u le s w e r e g a th e r e d in F e b r u a r y , 1 9 1 3 .
L a t e r th e m ill
s u p e r in te n d e n ts fu r n is h e d in fo r m a t io n as t o th e n u m b e r o f m a le s a n d
fe m a le s o f a ll a g e s w h o , o n t h e fir s t p a y d a y in M a r c h a n d in A p r il,
w e r e e m p lo y e d in th e s e v e r a l w o r k r o o m s o f e a c h m ill.
T h e in d i­
v id u a l s c h e d u le s w h ic h h a d a lr e a d y b e e n r e c e iv e d w e r e c h e c k e d u p
f r o m t h e s e l is t s , a n d p e r s o n a l l y , a t t h e m i l l s , t h e w r i t e r t r a c e d a n d
s e c u r e d a n y m is s in g s c h e d u le s .
I t is b e lie v e d t h a t t h is p r o c e s s w a s
c o m p le t e , a n d t h a t in th e e n d p r a c t ic a lly n o o p e r a t iv e fa ile d t o
fu r n is h th e v e r y i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n a l in fo r m a t io n c a lle d f o r b y th e
s c h e d u le .




M ETH OD S OF O B TA IN IN G M A T E R IA L.

21

T h e f a c t t h a t th e t o t a l n u m b e r o f s c h e d u le s o b t a in e d w a s s m a lle r b y
5 p e r c e n t th a n th e t o t a l n u m b e r o f o p e r a t iv e s g iv e n o n th e p a y r o lls
m ig h t s e e m t o s h o w th a t th e w o r k o f g e t t in g s c h e d u le s w a s in c o m
p le t e , b u t t h is d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r ily f o l l o w .
T h e p a y r o lls c o n t a i
m a n y d u p lic a t io n s .
E v e n as reg a rd s th e sa m e w o r k ro o m , if
o p e r a t i v e w o r k s o v e r t i m e h e is c o m m o n l y t w i c e r e g i s t e r e d o n t h
p a y r o l l , a n d t h e s a m e t h i n g o f t e n h a p p e n s i f h e is t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m
o n e w o r k r o o m t o a n o t h e r in t h e s a m e m ill, o r f r o m o n e m ill t o a n o t h e r
in th e s a m e c o r p o r a t io n .
A n d o f c o u r s e d u p l i c a t i o n is i n e v i t a b l e i
t h e e m p l o y e e w o r k e d a p a r t o f t h e c e n s u s w e e k in e a c h o f t w o m i l l s
b e lo n g in g t o d iffe r e n t c o r p o r a t io n s .
T h e n , t o o , p ie c e w o r k (a s , f o
e x a m p le , a c u t o f c lo t h ) , i f l e f t u n fin is h e d b y a n o p e r a t iv e w h o q u it s
a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t , is u s u a l l y n o t p a i d f o r u n t i l t h e s u c c e e d i n g o p e r a t i v e
fi n i s h e s t h e p i e c e o r c u t .
B u t u n t i l h e is p a i d t h e f i r s t o p e r a t i v e i
c a r r ie d o n th e p a y r o ll o f th e m ill h e q u it , as w e ll as u p o n t h a t o f th e
m ill h e n e x t e n te r e d .
T h e r e b e in g s o m a n y c o r p o r a t io n s in F a
R i v e r , t h e p r o b a b l e n u m b e r o f s u c h s h i f t s i n a n y g i v e n w e e k is b y n o
m e a n s in c o n s id e r a b le .
T h e m ills w e r e r u n n in g fu ll t im e in F e b r u a r y
1 9 1 3 , a n d i t is p r o b a b l e t h a t m a n y e x o p e r a t i v e s o r o t h e r p e r s o n s n o t
u s u a lly e m p l o y e d w e r e w o r k in g in t h e m ills .
I t s h o u ld a ls o b e b o r n e
in m in d t h a t s o m e w o r k e r s r e s id e o u t s id e t h e c i t y lim it s a n d t h a
d e a th s a m o n g s u c h w o r k e r s w o u ld n o t b e in c lu d e d a m o n g F a ll R i v e r
d e a t h s u n le s s t h e y o c c u r r e d in h o s p it a ls o f th e c it y .
MATERIAL CONCERNING THE DECEDENTS.

I n th e m a in th e d a t a c o n c e r n in g d e c e d e n t s w e r e o b t a in e d in th e
s a m e m a n n e r as in th e e a r lie r in v e s t ig a t io n .
T h e o ffic ia l r e c o r d s o
a ll d e a t h s o c c u r r in g w it h in t h e fiv e y e a r s t o b e c o v e r e d w e r e c o p ie d ,
a n d th e d a t a th u s o b t a in e d s u p p le m e n t e d b y ' in te r v ie w s w it h th
r e la tiv e s o r fr ie n d s o f th e d e c e a s e d .
T h e U n it e d S ta te s B u r e a u o
th e C e n s u s t r a n s c r ib e d th e d e a t h c e r t ific a t e s o f 1 9 0 8 t o 1 9 1 0 , in c lu s iv e ,
a n d th e M a s s a c h u s e tts S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e ’ s o ffic e t h o s e o f 1911 a n d
1912.
A t e s t o f t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e w o r k is f o u n d i n a c o m p a r i s o n o f
t h e fig u r e s o f t h e c e n s u s w it h t h o s e o f t h is s t u d y .
T h e ce n s u s g iv e s
t h e n u m b e r o f d e a th s o c c u r r in g in a g e g r o u p 10 t o 4 9 d u r in g th e fiv e
y e a r s c o v e r e d a s 2 ,2 7 7 , w h ile t h e n u m b e r u s e d h e r e is 2 ,2 7 2 , a v a r ia ­
tio n o f 5.
B u t i t is k n o w n t h a t o n e c a s e w a s o f f i c i a l l y r e c o r d e
t w ic e , t w o d e a t h c e r t ific a t e s f o r o n e m a le d e c e d e n t , e a c h s ig n e d b y a
d iffe r e n t p h y s ic ia n , h a v in g b e e n fo u n d o n r e c o r d .
T h is le a v e
t h e r e fo r e , a n e t v a r ia t io n o f 4 c a s e s in c id e n t t o c o p y in g o ffic i
ce r tifica te s .
H a v i n g th u s o b t a i n e d t h e o ff ic ia l r e c o r d s o f 3 ,7 5 0 d e a t h s , v is it s w e r e
m a d e to th e d e c e d e n t ’s la te h o m e , a n d th e d a ta o f th e c e r tific a t
s u p p le m e n t e d in n e a r ly e v e r y c a s e b y in q u ir ie s o f th e d e c e d e n t




22

C H A P . I.— SCOPE AND M E T H O D O F IN V E ST IG A TIO N .

relatives; but where that was impossible inquiries were made of his
personal friends and acquaintances. From this inquiry information
was gained as to the decedent’s family, habits, occupation, and con­
jugal experiences, exposure to communicable diseases, and other per­
sonal facts of possible significance in explanation of his death. More­
over, the investigator personally inspected the premises and made
note of certain hygienic conditions which might have had some effect
upon the decedent’s general health, or might themselves have been
among the debilitating factors which led up to his death. These visits
were all made by one person, the present writer, thereby avoiding
the variations which almost inevitably arise from differences of indi­
vidual judgment when different persons pass upon such matters.
The difficulty of locating relatives and gaining such information as
was desired increases greatly as the death of a given worker grows
more remote. In Fall River this difficulty has been much increased
by the progressive infusion into the operative body of Portuguese,
because relatives and acquaintances of these decedents are sometimes
undiscoverable. Everywhere, without exception, mill authorities
gave all the assistance possible, sometimes even detailing an employee
to prosecute inquiries among the foreign workers supposed to have
been acquainted with a decedent concerning whom information was
sought. This disposition to cooperate was manifested by people
generally, both in and out of the mills.
There are three ways in which the data thus collected might be
misleading or inaccurate. First, Fall River residents, finding them­
selves stricken with a fatal disease, may go elsewhere to die, or former
residents who have long been absent may, under similar circumstances,
return to Fall River to die, the result in either case being an inter­
ference with the representative character of the Fall River data.
In the second place, information obtained concerning decedents may
be erroneous. And third, and most important of all in its effect
upon a death-rate study, the data of the official death certificate
may be misleading or absolutely false. Each of these possibilities
of error deserves some consideration.

A s t o t h e f i r s t , t h e r e is l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h i s c a u s e d o e s o p e r a t e t o
m a k e th e F a ll R iv e r d e a t h r a te s , e s p e c ia lly as c o n c e r n s o p e r a t iv e s ,
im p e r fe c t ly r e p r e s e n ta tiv e .
S o m e te n ta tiv e r e se a rch e s u n d e r ta k e n
in F a ll R i v e r in 1 9 0 8 i n d ic a t e d t h a t , a s r e g a r d s t u b e r c u lo s is a t le a s t ,
th e r e c o r d s d o n o t te ll th e w h o le s t o r y .
R e p e a t e d l y t h e w r i t e r ’s
a t t e n t io n w a s c a lle d t o in s ta n c e s o f t u b e r c u lo u s d e c e d e n t s , w h o h a d
b e e n m ill o p e r a t iv e s u n t il t h e y w e r e n o lo n g e r a b le t o w o r k , b u t w h o ,
s h o r t ly b e fo r e d e a t h , h a d g o n e t o th e ir fo r m e r h o m e s in C a n a d a , in
th e A z o r e s , o r in s o u t h e r n E u r o p e in th e h o p e t h a t th e ir n a t iv e
c lim a te a n d fo r m e r m a n n e r o f liv in g m ig h t r e s to r e th e m to h e a lth , o r




M ETH O D S OF O B T A IN IN G M A T E R IA L .

23

failing that, that they might at least be buried in the land of their
birth. These cases, of course, were not included in the mortality
statistics of Fall River, yet presumably they had there contracted
the disease which proved fatal to them within a few months after
they left the city.
Since this tendency to return to an earlier home is particularly
manifest in cases of tuberculosis, it is probable that the mortality
rate from tuberculosis is too low, both for Fall River as a whole, and
for the operatives in particular. It is probable for the city as a
whole, because Fall River contains a very large foreign-born popula­
tion, among whom the tendency to return to an earlier home would
naturally manifest itself, while there is no reason to suppose that it
sends out to other cities anything like an equal proportion of its own
native-born population; hence the number leaving it before death
for this reason would naturally exceed the number of its own people,
living elsewhere, who would come back to it to die. It is probable
for operatives in particular, because a large proportion of the foreign
bom are in the cotton mills, and because tuberculosis is especially
prevalent among them. It is quite certain, at least, that the number
of tuberculous decedents among the operatives has not been exag­
gerated by the inclusion of nonresidents who have come home to die,
because no decedent has been classed as an operative unless a definite
statement to this effect was made by an informant whose name is on
<i$cord. This statement includes not only the fact that the decedent
liftd been employed, but usually also the specific occupation at which
Jbehad woi^ed, and always the fact that he had been employed at such
millwork within a specified period, not exceeding two years, before
his death. It is obvious that evidence so specific and detailed would
not probably be manufactured, especially as the informant had no
inducement to misrepresent the facts in either direction. But it is
equally apparent that such evidence, if correct, makes it impossible
that the death rate of operatives should have been unduly increased by
the inclusion of decedents who had worked elsewhere and merely
returned to Fall River to die. The death rates of operatives from
tuberculous causes may be, and probably are, somewhat too small;
they can not possibly be incorrectly large.
Naturally it would not be safe to say that there are no errors due
to this cause in the information obtained, but it is believed that the
probability of such error is so small that it may be disregarded. The
information was obtained nearly always from the decedent's nearest
of kin; when that was impossible, from friends or personal acquaintfances who had had abundant opportunity to become familiar with the
facts concerning which they were questioned. Most of these were
matters about which they would have no inducement to falsify, and
as to the few in which their feeling toward the deceased might lead




24

C H A P . I .— SCOPE AN D M E T H Q D OP IN V E ST IG A T IO N .

t o m is r e p r e s e n ta tio n , th e re s e e m e d c o n s id e r a b le r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e
t h a t t h is c a u s e w o r k e d i n c o n t r a r y d i r e c t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t c a s e s , s o
t h a t th e n e t r e s u lts w e r e v e r y p r o b a b ly a b o u t th e t r u t h .
(F o r a
d is c u s s io n o f t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f m is r e p r e s e n t a t io n as t o a l c o h o li c
h a b it s o f t h e d e c e d e n t , s e e p . 1 4 5 .)
D u r in g th e c o u r s e o f th e e a r lie r
in v e s t ig a t io n a n in c id e n t a l p r o o f w a s o b t a in e d o f th e g e n e ra l a c c u r a c y
o f th e in fo r m a t io n g a in e d .
F iv e m o n th s a fte r th a t in q u ir y h a d
b e g u n a c h a n g e in th e s c o p e o f th e in v e s t ig a t io n m a d e it n e c e s s a r y t o
r e c o r d c e r t a in a d d it io n a l d a t a c o n c e r n in g fe m a le d e c e d e n ts , w h ic h
c o u ld b e o b t a in e d o n ly b y r e v is it in g th e in fo r m a n t s w h o h a d a lr e a d y
b e e n q u e s tio n e d .
I n t h is r e in v e s t ig a t io n s e v e r a l h u n d r e d p e r s o n s
w e r e q u e s t io n e d a s e c o n d t im e o n p o in t s o n w h ic h t h e y h a d fir s t
g iv e n i n f o r m a t io n fiv e m o n t h s e a r lie r , y e t in o n l y t w o c a s e s w a s t h e ir
t e s t im o n y fo u n d t o d iffe r f r o m th e o r ig in a l s t a t e m e n t in a n y i m p o r ­
ta n t p a r tic u la r .
T h e r e s u lt o f t h is s e c o n d c a n v a s s s e e m s r a t h e r
c o n v in c in g p r o o f t h a t th e in fo r m a n t s m a d e th e ir s ta te m e n ts as a c c u ­
r a t e a s t h e ir m e m o r ie s p e r m it t e d , a n d t h a t t h e r e is n o p r o b a b i l i t y o f
s e r io u s e r r o r in th e d a t a o b t a in e d f r o m th e m .
A s in th e fir s t in v e s t ig a t io n , s t a t e m e n t s m a d e b y fr ie n d s a n d r e la ­
tiv e s o f th e d e c e d e n ts in re s p o n s e t o q u e s tio n s b y th e in v e s t ig a t o r
b r o u g h t o u t th e f a c t t h a t th e o ffic ia l d e a t h r e c o r d s c o n t a in e d e r r o r s
as t o f a c t a n d a ls o o m is s io n s o f f a c t w h ic h in t h e ir r e s u lt s w e r e a lm o s t
as m is le a d in g as a c tu a l m is s ta te m e n ts .
T h ese e rro rs w ere o f th ree
k in d s : T h e a c tu a l ca u se o f d e a th m ig h t b e m is s ta te d ; th e im m e d ia t e ,
ca u s e o f d e a th m ig h t b e g iv e n a c c u r a te ly , b u t th e e x is te n c e o f oth er, >
d e b ilita tin g fa c t o r s w h ic h p r o b a b ly h a d m u c h t o d o w it h b r in g in g
a b o u t d e a th a t t h a t t im e m ig h t b e p a s s e d o v e r in s ile n e e ; a n d t h e
d e c e d e n t ’s o c c u p a t io n m ig h t b e in c o r r e c t ly g iv e n .
T h e fir s t o f th e se
e r r o r s a p p e a r e d m o s t n u m e r o u s ly in c a se s in w h ic h t u b e r c u lo s is w a s
th e r e a l t h o u g h n o t th e r e c o r d e d c a u s e o f d e a t h ; i t a ls o p la y e d a n
im p o r t a n t p a r t in c o n c e a lin g th e n u m b e r o f d e a th s d u e t o c h ild b ir th .
T h e s e c o n d a ls o w a s f o u n d in c o n n e c t io n w it h p a r t u r it io n c a s e s , b u t
a p p e a re d fa r m o r e n u m e r o u s ly in c o n n e c tio n w it h ca se s in w h ic h th e
a d d ic t io n t o a lc o h o lic b e v e r a g e s w a s e v id e n t ly a c o n t r ib u t o r y ca u se ,
th ou g h n o t so record ed .
T h e t h ir d a ffe c te d b o t h o p e r a t iv e s a n d n o n ­
o p e r a tiv e s , t h o u g h in d iffe r e n t d e g re e s , s o m e o f e a c h c la s s b e in g
a s s ig n e d t o th e o th e r .
T h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h e a c h o f th ese e r ro rs p re ­
v a ile d , a n d th e d e g r e e t o w h ic h i t w a s p o s s ib le t o c o r r e c t th e m is le a d ­
in g d a t a , w ill b e d is c u s s e d s o m e w h a t fu lly .
T h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t t h a t t h e t u b e r c u lo s is r a t e w a s d im in is h e d
b y in a c c u r a t e s t a t e m e n t o f th e c a u s e o f d e a t h o n th e o ffic ia l c e r t ific a t e .
I n a n u m b e r o f c a s e s a m a r k e d v a r i a n c e w a s f o u n d b e t w e e n tfye
a p p a r e n t ly s u p e r fic ia l c a u s e o f d e a t h c e r t ifie d t o b y th e p h y s ic ia n a n d
th e p r o b a b le b a s ic ca u s e s u g g e s te d b y th e h is t o r y o f th e d e c e d e n t’s
illn e s s a s r e p o r t e d b y r e la t iv e s .
T h u s in ca se s in w h ic h th e p h y s i­




M ETH O D S OF O B TA IN IN G M A T E R IA L.

25

c i a n 's c e r t i f i c a t e g a v e s o m e s u c h e q u i v o c a l c a u s e o f d e a t h a s b r o n ­
c h it is o r h e m o r r h a g e , o r s o m e te r m in a l c o n d it io n , s u c h as b r o n c h o ­
p n e u m o n ia o r h e a r t fa ilu r e o r d e b ilit y , r e la tiv e s o f th e d e c e d e n t
te s tifie d t h a t f o r p o s s ib ly a y e a r o r m o r e b e f o r e d e a t h th e d e c e d e n t
h a d h a d a b a d c o u g h , h a d b e c o m e e x t r e m e ly e m a c ia t e d , h a d s u ffe r e d
fr o m n ig h t s w e a ts , h a d h a d o n e o r m o r e h e m o r r h a g e s o f b r ig h
b l o o d , a n d w a s th e s e c o n d o r t h ir d in t h e f a m i l y w h o h a d “ d ie d o f
c o n s u m p t io n 7 w ith in th e la s t fe w y e a r s .
7
S u ch te s tim o n y as to
m a t t e r s o f s im p le f a c t s e e m s e n t itle d t o c o n s id e r a b le c r e d e n c e .
A s p e c ia l c a n v a s s w a s m a d e t o se e ju s t h o w c o m m o n l y t u b e r c u lo s is
w a s m is r e p o r t e d o n th e o ffic ia l d e a t h c e r tific a te .
T h e re w e re 188
c a se s in w h ic h th e re w a s a m a r k e d d is c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n th e c a u s e o f
d e a th as g iv e n o n th e d e a th c e r tific a te a n d th e ca u se o f d e a th su g ­
g e s t e d b y t h e h is t o r y o f th e d e c e d e n t 7 illn e s s as g iv e n b y th e fa m i l y .
s
E v e r y p h y s i c i a n w h o h a d s ig n e d o n e o f th e s e 18 8 c e r t ific a t e s , i f s t ill
liv in g a n d in F a ll R iv e r , w a s v is it e d a n d q u e s tio n e d a b o u t th e d e a th .
B y t h is p r o c e s s t h e p r o b a b le c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e c e r t ifie d c a u s e w a s
s a t is fa c t o r ily e s t a b lis h e d c o n c e r n in g 31 o f th e s e c a se s.
I n 6 5 o f th e r e m a in in g 157 c a se s th e c e r t ify in g p h y s ic ia n h a d e ith e r
d ie d o r l e f t F a ll R i v e r o r e ls e p r o f e s s e d i n a b i l i t y t o r e m e m b e r t h e c a s e .
T h r e e o f th e s e 65 c a s e s h a d a n o v e r w h e lm in g ly t u b e r c u lo u s h is t o r y ,
y e t e v e n in th e s e in s ta n c e s i t w a s f e lt t h a t u n le s s a n a d m is s io n w a s
se cu re d fr o m th e p h y s ic ia n th a t th e r e c o r d e d c a u s e o f d e a th w a s
i n c o r r e c t th e . s t a t e m e n t o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t e m u s t b e t a k e n .
C on se
q u e n t ly th e s e , w it h t h e r e m a in d e r o f t h e 6 5 c a s e s , h a v e b e e n c la s s e d as
n o n t u b e r c u lo u s d e a t h s t h r o u g h o u t th is s t u d y , e x c e p t o n l y in th e
d is c u s s io n c o n c e r n in g t u b e r c u lo u s k in d r e d .
B u t th e r e m a in in g 9 2 a re e ith e r a d m itt e d ly o r d e m o n s t r a b ly ca se s
o f tu b e r c u lo u s d e a th s .
T h e s e h a v e t h e r e fo r e b e e n c la s s e d a s tu b e r ­
c u lo u s t h r o u g h o u t th is s t u d y .
T h e 9 2 m a y b e d iv id e d in t o th
fo llo w in g fo u r c la s s e s :
1. T h o s e in w h ic h t h e c e r t i f y in g p h y s ic ia n u n e q u i v o c a l l y s t a t e d t h e
c a u s e o f d e a t h t o b e tu b e r c u lo s is .
T h e s e n u m b e re d 70.
2 . T h o s e u n e q u iv o c a lly v o u c h e d f o r as t u b e r c u lo u s b y a p h y s ic ia n
w h o h a d a t t e n d e d t h e d e c e d e n t in h is la s t illn e s s , b u t h a d n o t s ig n e d
th e d e a th c e rtific a te .
R e c o u r s e w a s h a d t o th e s e o t h e r p h y s ic ia n s
o n ly b e c a u s e in e v e r y o n e o f th e s e ca s e s th e p h y s ic ia n w h o h a d s ig n e d
t h e c e r t i f i c a t e h a d e it h e r d ie d , l e f t F a ll R i v e r , o r f o r g o t t e n a ll a b o u t
th e ca se .
T h is f o r g e t f u ln e s s is e x p la in e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s ig n e r s
o f th e c e r tific a te s w e r e s o m e tim e s c it y p h y s ic ia n s , w h o h a d r e s p o n d e d
t o a n e m e r g e n c y c a ll, a n d p o s s i b l y h a d s e e n t h e d e c e d e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l ly
o h ly o n ce .
T h e s e c a se s n u m b e r e d 12.
3. T h o s e w h o , a fte r a s p u tu m e x a m in a tio n , h a d b e e n r e c o r d e d o n
c it y o r h o s p ita l r e c o r d s as t u b e r c u lo u s .
O f th ese th e re w e re 5.




26

C H A P . I .— SCOPE AND M E T H O D OF IN V E ST IG A T IO N .

4,
T h o s e s t a t e d b y t h e c e r t i f y i n g p h y s i c i a n t o h 1 vu b b e e n
a1t e e r ­
c u lo u s p r o b a b ly .”
T w o o f th e se h a d n o t b e e n c e r tifie d as tu b e r
c u lo u s b e c a u s e n o b a c t e r io lo g ic a l e x a m in a tio n o f th e s p u tu m h a d
b e e n m a d e , “ a n d s o ,” s a id th e p h y s ic ia n , c o n c e r n in g o n e o f th e s e
“ t h o u g h I k n e w t h e c a s e w^as t u b e r c u l o s i s I c o u l d n ’ t a c t u a l l y s w e a r
it w a s .”
T h is g r o u p lik e w is e n u m b e r e d 5 .
As a r e s u lt o f t h is s p e c ia l c a n v a s s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t n o t i m p r o b a b l y
o n e - s ix t h (1 7 p e r c e n t ) o f a ll t h e f a t a l t u b e r c u lo s is in t h e c i t y w a s
m is r e p o r t e d u n d e r n o n t u b e r c u lo u s d ia g n o s e s .
T h is a d m itt e d e r r o r
a m o u n t e d t o 19 p e r c e n t in t h e c a s e o f t h e F r e n c h C a n a d ia n s d y i n g
fr o m t u b e r c u lo s is a n d t o 10 p e r c e n t in s u c h d e a th s in th e g e n e r a l p o p u ­
l a t io n o f a ll r a c e s .
T h e d is tr ib u tio n b y s e x , a g e, r a ce , a n d o c c u p a t io n o f th e 9
d e c e d e n ts w h o w e r e th u s a d m itt e d t o b e v ic t im s o f tu b e r c u lo s is
t h o u g h n o t s o r e c o r d e d o n t h e d e a t h c e r t ific a t e , is a s f o l l o w s :
DECEDENTS A D M ITTED TO BE VICTIMS OF TUBERCULOSIS, T H O U G H NOT SO R E­
CORDED ON D E A T H CERTIFICATES, B Y S E X , A G E, RACE, AN D OCCUPATIONAL GROUP.

French
Canadians.
Sex, and age group.
Opera­
tives.

All other
races.

Irish.

Non­
opera­
tives.

All races.

NonOpera­ opera­
tives.
tives.

Opera­
tives.

Nonopera­
tives.

4
1

4

1
5
1

16
1

1
15
g

1
31
10

5

4

7

17

25

42

3
4

1
1

1
4
4

20
2

2
12
14

2
32
16

Opera­
tives.

Non­
Both
opera­
tives. classes.

MALES.
10 to 14 years............................
15 to 44 years....................
45 to 64 years............................

12
1

Total...............................

13

FEMALES.

6 I: : : : : : : :
7 .............
13 1
i
i
!
! I
5 i
7 |
6 i................ i

10 to 14 years............................
15 to 44 years............................
45 to 64 years............................

12
1

Total...............................

13

12 1

7

7

2

9

22

28

50

10 to 14 years............................
15 to 44 years............................
45 to 64 years............................

24
2

1
11
13

7

7
5

5
1

2
9
5

36
3

3
27
23

3
63
26

Total................................

26

25

7

12

6

16

39

53

92

BOTH SEXES.

I t w ill b e se e n t h a t b y fa r th e la r g e s t p r o p o r t io n o f th e s e ca s e s
(5 5 p e r c e n t ) o c c u r a m o n g t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s , w h o f o r m l e s s t h a n
o n e -q u a r t e r (2 4 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e p o p u la t io n .
T h e Ir is h a n d F r e n c h
C a n a d ia n s t o g e t h e r m a k e u p s l ig h t ly m o r e t h a n t h r e e - f o u r t h s (7 6
p e r c e n t ) o f th e w h o le n u m b e r o f th e s e v a r ia n t ca se s , th o u g h c o m ­
p r is in g o n ly 3 6 p e r c e n t o f th e w h o le p o p u la t io n .
T h e q u e s t i o n a r is e s a s t o w h y t h e t r u e c a u s e s h o u l d b e s o o f t e n
ig n o r e d o r m is le a d in g ly r e p o r t e d o n th e d e a t h c e r tific a te .
T her
s e e m t o b e s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r t h is .
S o m e p e rs o n s a re s e n s itiv e as t o




M ETH O D S OF O B T A IN IN G M A T E R IA L .

27

the existence of a case of tuberculosis in their family, and would
seriously object to having such a cause recorded upon a certificate.
The knowledge that this feeling is common may affect the physician
even in cases where no such prejudice exists. But apparently by far
the most effective reason is the attitude of some of the insurance
companies, who may delay payment of policies in cases where deced­
ents are officially certified to have died from tuberculosis, and who
also not uncommonly refuse to insure other members of the family
of such a decedent. Physicians when asked about these variant cases
occasionally admitted that the certificates were designedly mis­
leading, but justified them on the ground of personal financial
expediency arising from intense medical competition, and on the
added ground that only through such registration practices could
the decedent’s family secure promptly the amount they are entitled
to from the insurance companies.
As in the case of deaths from tuberculosis, other cases were found
in which the record was absolutely false, cases in which investi­
gation proved the death to have been really due to childbirth, but
in which the official certificate gave some equivocal or designedly
misleading term to designate the cause. But in addition to this,
certificates of female decedents were often seriously defective in that
they failed to give parturition as a contributory cause of death even
when a pregnancy had terminated within so short a period before the
death that it could hardly have failed to be a very important factor
m bringing it about. Since the death certificate is supposed to give
the cbntributory as well as the main cause of death, it is evident that
such an omission may have almost as misleading effects as the
failure to designate properly the principal cause of death. Indis­
putably, these omissions have served to obscure the real risks
involved in pregnancy, as will be shown more fully in the discussion
of parturition as a cause of death.

T h e c a s e s in w h ic h th e o ffic ia l c e r t ific a t e s c o n t a in e d a b s o lu t e ly e r ­
r o n e o u s s t a t e m e n t s a s t o ,t h e c a u s e o f d e a t h w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t .
I n 3 4 ca s e s in w h ic h d e a t h w a s im m e d ia t e ly a n d in d is p u t a b ly th e d i­
r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e e ith e r o f p a r t u r it io n o r o f its g r o s s m is m a n a g e m e n t,
t h e d e a t h r e c o r d c o n t a in e d n o t t h e s lig h e s t in t im a t io n t h a t p r e g n a n c y
o r c h ild b ir t h h a d b e e n in a n y w a y th e c a u s e , o r e v e n a c o n t r ib u t o r y
cau se, o f d ea th .
T h e s e c a s e s fo r m e d a b o u t o n e -fo u r t h (2 6 p e r c e n t )
o f t h e a c t u a l p a r t u r it io n c a s e s 1 o c c u r r in g in F a ll R i v e r d u r in g t h e
p e r io d o f t h is s t u d y .
O f t h e s e 3 4 c a s e s , 11 d ie d f r o m p u e r p e r a l s e p t i c e m i a ; 5 f r o m p u e r ­
p e r a l n e p h r i t i s , i . e ., e c l a m p s i a ; 7 f r o m p u e r p e r a l h e m o r r h a g e ; 4 f r o m
E m b o lis m ; 1 f r o m s h o c k c o i n c i d e n t w it h c h i l d b i r t h ; a n d 4 f r o m
1 Deaths from parturition, as the term is used here, include every fatal case in which a prcgnancy at any
stage (including full term) had ended not more than 30 days before death occurred.




28

C H A P . I .-----SCOPE AN D M E T H O D OF IN V E ST IG A TIO N .

p n e u m o n ia e n d in g w it h in 10 d a y s a fte r th e b ir t h o f a fu ll-t e r m b a b y .
A s i t 'w a s n o t c l a i m e d t h a t a n y o n e o f t h e s e 4 c a s e s h a d a n y p u l
m o n a r y s y m p t o m s o th e r th a n fe v e r , a n d as th e c e r tify in g p h y s ic ia n
w a s o n e w h o h a d a d m it t e d m is r e g is t r a t io n o f c a s e s o f t u b e r c u lo s is ,
i t is o v e r w h e l m i n g l y p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e s e 4 c a s e s w e r e a c t u a l l
p u e r p e r a l s e p t ic e m ia .
A n d fin a lly 2 c a s e s w e r e o ffic ia lly r e p o r t e d
u n d e r m is c e lla n e o u s d e s ig n a tio n s , e a c h o b v io u s ly h a v in g b e e
s p e e d ily fa t a l t h r o u g h p a r tu r itio n .
I n th e s e 3 4 c a s e s t h e p r o o f t h a t th e d e a t h w a s r e a lly d u e t o p r e g ­
n a n c y o r p a r t u r it io n w a s s o s t r o n g t h a t t h e o ffic ia l c e r t ific a t e s h a v e
b e e n d is r e g a r d e d , a n d t h e d e a t h s h a v e b e e n c la s s e d a s d u e t o p a r ­
tu r it io n .
I n 2 6 o t h e r c a s e s in w h ic h a p r e g n a n c y h a d te r m in a t e d w it h in 3 0
d a y s o f th e d e a th , th e c e r tific a te s c o n t a in n o m e n t io n o f e ith e r p r e g ­
n a n c y o r p a r tu r itio n as e v e n a c o n tr ib u to r y c a u se o f d e a th , a n d in d e e d
g i v e n o i n t im a t io n t h a t s u c h a s t a t e o f a ffa ir s e x is t e d .
Y e t it
e v id e n t t h a t w h e r e a p r e g n a n c y h a s t e r m in a te d w ith in s o b r ie f a
p e r io d b e f o r e d e a t h i t is h a r d ly p o s s ib le t h a t i t s h o u ld n o t h a v e b e e n
in s o m e d e g r e e a c o n t r i b u t o r y c a u s e .
I n th e s e c a s e s , th e r e fo r e
w h ile t h e c a u s e o f d e a t h a s g iv e n o n th e c e r tific a te s h a s b e e n r e ta in e d
a n d u s e d , th e r e c o r d s h a v e b e e n c o m p le t e d b y in c lu d in g p a r t u r it io n as
a c o n tr ib u to r y fa c to r .
O f th e s e 2 6 d e a th s 14 a r e o ffic ia lly a s c r ib e d
t o tu b e r c u lo s is , 3 t o t y p h o id fe v e r , 4 t o p n e u m o n ia , a n d 5 t o m is
c e lla n e o u s , n o n in fe c t io u s c a u s e s .
O n e o f th e se la s t w a s a c a s e o
c r im in a l a b o r t io n , in w h ic h t h e c a u s e o f d e a t h w a s o ff ic ia lly g iv e n
a s “ h e a r t s t o p p e d . 5’
T h is c a s e h a s b e e n c la s s e d t h r o u g h o u t th i
s tu d y as a d e a th fr o m v io le n c e , b u t fo r th e 25 o t h e r s ith e c a u s e o
d e a th as g iv e n o n th e c e r tific a te h a s b e e n a c c e p te d , a n d t h e y h a v e
b e e n c la s s e d a c c o r d in g ly .
T o s u m u p t h e s it u a t io n , in F a ll f t i v e r d u r in g th e p e r io d c o v e r e d
th e r e w e r e 163 fe m a le d e c e d e n ts w h o h a d h a d a p r e g n a n c y t e r m in a t ­
in g w ith in 3 0 d a y s o f d e a th .
I n 1 2 0 c a s e s t h e d e a th s w e r e c le a r ly
a t t r ib u t a b le t o p a r t u r it io n ; w h ile in 4 3 ca ses, a lth o u g h s o m e o th e r
ca u s e w a s a c c e p t e d as th e p r in c ip a l fa c t o r , p a r tu r itio n w a s p la in ly
a v e r y im p o rta n t c o n tr ib u to r y cau se.
E r r o r s d u e t o th e o m is s io n o f a n im p o r t a n t c o n t r ib u t o r y c a u s e o f
d e a th a p p e a r fa r m o r e n u m e r o u s ly in ca s e s in w h ic h a lc o h o lis m h a s
p la y e d a p a r t th a n in a n y o t h e r c o m b in a tio n .
E v e n as a c o n tr ib u
t o r y c a u s e o f d e a t h a lc o h o lis m is a lm o s t in v a r ia b ly o m it t e d .
A lc o
h o l ic a d d ic t io n , a s t h e t e r m is u s e d in t h is s t u d y , m e a n s t h a t t h e
d e c e d e n t c u s t o m a r ily d r a n k a lc o h o lic b e v e r a g e s d a ily , a n d b e c a m e
in t o x ic a t e d a t le a s t o n c e a m o n th .
P e r io d ic a l a t t a c k s o f a lc o h o lis m
th re e o r fo u r tim e s a y e a r , w it h a b s tin e n c e o r v e r y te m p e r a te u s e o f
a lc o h o lic b e v e r a g e s d u r in g t h e in t e r v a ls b e t w e e n s u c h “ s p r e e s ” h a v e ,
th e r e fo r e , b e e n e x c lu d e d as e v id e n c e o f a lc o h o lic a d d ic tio n , as a b o v e
d e fin e d .



M ETH O D S OF O B T A IN IN G M A T E R IA L.

29

I t is a p p r e c ia t e d t h a t t h e in f o r m a n t s ’ d e fin it io n o f “ i n t o x i c a t i o n ”
m a y r a n g e o v e r a c o n s id e r a b le la t it u d e .
I t is a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t
th e in fo r m a n ts m a y h a v e b e e n in flu e n c e d , o n th e o n e h a n d , b
p e r s o n a l r e s e n t m e n t , r e s u lt in g in a n e x a g g e r a t io n o f t h e d e c e d e n t ’s
t e n d e n c y t o a lc o h o lis m , o r o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , m a y h a v e b e e n in flu ­
e n c e d t h r o u g h a c h a r it a b le fo r g e t fu ln e s s o r m in im iz in g o f th e i
r e la t i v e ’ s a l c o h o li c h a b it s o r d is e a s e s .
T h e te n d e n cy to ex cu s
th r o u g h m in im iz in g th e d e p lo r a b le h a b its o f a d e a d s o n , fa th e r , o r
b r o t h e r s e e m e d t o th e w r ite r q u ite as s tr o n g as th e t e n d e n c y t
e x a g g e r a t e t h e m t h r o u g h b itte r n e s s o r m a le v o le n c e t o w a r d th e d e a d .
O n t h e w h o l e , t h e r e is p r o b a b l y u n d e r s t a t e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n o v e r ­
s ta te m e n t o f t h e p r e v a le n c e in F a ll R iv e r o f fa ta litie s d u e t o a lc o h o lic
a d d ic t io n , a t le a s t as a c o n t r ib u t o r y c a u s e .
A c c o r d in g t o th e t e s t im o n y o f th e n e x t o f k in o f d e c e d e n t m a le s
a g e d 25 t o 4 4 , th e h a b it u a l u se t o e x c e s s o f a lc o h o lic b e v e r a g e
c h a r a c te r iz e d 93 o f th e 187 d e c e d e n t Ir is h ; 74 o f th e 163 d e c e d e n t
F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s ; a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 d e c e d e n t o u t o f e v e r y 3 (3 6
p e r c e n t ) a g e d 2 5 t o 4 4 o f a ll r a c e s .
O f th e 2 4 8 w h o d ie d fr o
t u b e r c u lo s is , 1 1 0 (o r 4 4 p e r c e n t ) w e r e b y t h e ir n e x t o f k in a lle g e d
t o h a v e b e e n a d d ic t e d t o th e e x c e s s iv e u se o f a lc o h o lic b e v e r a g e s , as
w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 o u t o f e v e r y 1 0 (3 1 p e r c e n t ) n o n t u b e r c u l o u s
d e c e d e n t s o f a ll r a c e s a g e d 2 5 t o 4 4 .
F u r th e r m o r e , n o t m u c h s m a lle r
a lc o h o lic a d d ic t io n ” p e rc e n ta g e s w e r e o b t a in e d fo r th e g r e a t m o r ­
t a lit y a g e g r o u p , 4 5 t o 6 4 , v iz , 3 7 p e r c e n t o f th e t u b e r c u lo u s a n d 2 8
rp er c e n t o f t3n?e n o n t u b e r c u l o u s d e c e d e n t s .
A c a u s e w h i c h , a m o n g 1 ,4 7 4 d e c e d e n t s a g e d 2 5 t o 4 4 y e a r s , w a s t h u s
Jan a c c o m p & n y i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e o f 1 o u t o f e v e r y 3 ( 3 2 p e r c e n t
d e a th s a m o n g m a le s in th e m o s t a c t iv e w o r k in g a g e g r o u p s s h o u ld
fin d it s e lf r e fle c t e d o n o ffic ia l d e a t h c e r t ific a t e s t o a d e g r e e c o m m e n ­
s u r a t e s o m e w h a t w it h it s r e a l p r e v a le n c e a n d its g r e a t im p o r t a n c e
as a s t r ic t ly p r e v e n t a b le c a u s e o f d e a th .
T h r o u g h o u t t h is s t u d y a lc o h o lic a d d ic t io n , u n le s s c e r t ifie d t o a s
“ a lc o h o lis m ” b y th e a t t e n d in g p h y s ic ia n , h a s n o t b e e n s c h e d u le d
a m o n g t h e r e g u l a r o f f i c i a l l y s t y“ l ce adu s e s o f d e a t h . ”
I n a d d itio n t o th e e rro rs c o n c e r n in g th e c a u s e o f d e a th , w h e th e r
p r in c ip a l o r c o n t r ib u t o r y , t h e r e c o r d s w e r e fo u n d t o b e s e r io u s ly
in a c c u r a t e in th e ir s ta te m e n ts c o n c e r n in g th e d e c e d e n t ’s o c c u p a t io n .
F o r t u n a t e ly , it w a s p o s s ib le t o c o r r e c t th is e r r o r t o a v e r y c o n s id e r ­
a b le d e g re e , fa r m o r e s o th a n it w a s in th e c a s e o f e r ro rs r e s p e c tin g
th e ca u se o f d e a th .
I t w a s fe lt t h a t in t h is s t u d y it w a s n e c e s s a r y
t o a c c e p t t h e p h y s ic ia n ’s o ffic ia l s t a t e m e n t as t o t h e c a u s e o f d e a t h ,
.e x c e p t a s t o d e a t h s f r o m c h i ld b i r t h a n d p r e g n a n c y in w h i c h o n l y
q u e s tio n s o f fa c t w e r e in v o lv e d , u n le s s h e h im s e lf a c k n o w le d g e d t h a t
th e o r ig in a l c e r t ific a t io n w a s w r o n g ; a n d th is p o l i c y w a s fo llo w e d n o
m a t t e r h o w s e r io u s ly t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e c e r t ific a t e w a s d o u b t e d .




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C H A P . I .— SCOPE A N D M ET H O D OF IN V E ST IG A TIO N .

B u t a s im ila r a d h e r e n c e t o t h e r e c o r d w a s n o t c o n s id e r e d n e c e s s a r y
i n r e g a r d t o t h e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e d e c e d e n t 's o c c u p a t i o n , t h i s b e i n g
a m a t t e r o n w h ic h t h e p h y s ic ia n ’s p r o fe s s io n a l tr a in in g w o u ld h a v e
n o b e a r in g , a n d o f w h ic h n e ith e r h e n o r th e h u r r ie d a n d o fte n tim e s
c a r e le s s u n d e r t a k e r p r o b a b l y h a d p e r s o n a l k n o w le d g e .
W h e n , th e re ­
f o r e , a n i n f o r m a n t 's s t a t e m e n t a s t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f a g i v e n d e c e d e n t
d iffe r e d f r o m t h a t o f t h e d e a t h c e r t ific a t e , t h e fo r m e r w a s t a k e n as
a u t h o r it a t iv e .
T h e e rro rs o f th e d e a th c e r tific a te s as t o o c c u p a t io n w e re o f b o t h
o m is s io n a n d c o m m is s io n .
P e rs o n s w h o w ere r e a lly c o t t o n -m il
o p e r a tiv e s w e r e n o t s o r e c o r d e d , a n d o th e r s w e r e r e g is te r e d as o p e r a ­
t i v e s w h o h a d n e v e r w o r k e d i n a c o t t o n m i l l o r wrh o h a d n o t d o n e s o
f o r m o r e th a n t w o y e a r s p r e c e d in g d e a t h .1 T h e fo r m e r e r r o r w a s
t h e m o r e c o m m o n a m o n g fe m a le a n d th e la t t e r a m o n g m a le d e c e d e n ts .
T h e e x te n t o f th e s e erro rs as a c c u r a te ly d e te r m in e d in F a ll R iv e r
f o r t h e w h o le 8 -y e a r p e r io d s h o w s m o s t c o n c lu s iv e ly t h e s e r io u s n e s s
o f t h e m is a p p r e h e n s io n w h ic h w o u ld b e c a u s e d b y u s in g t h e o ffic ia l
c e r tific a te s w ith o u t in v e s t ig a t io n o f th e ir a c c u r a c y .
F o r th e 8 -y e a r p e r io d (1 9 0 5 -1 9 1 2 ) n e a r ly o n e -h a lf (4 9 p e r c e n t )
o f th e fe m a le d e c e d e n ts w h o w e r e fo u n d t o h a v e b e e n c o t t o n -m ill
o p e r a t i v e s w^ere n o t s o r e c o r d e d . 2 O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , o n e - e i g h t h
(1 3 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e g r o u p r e c o r d e d a s o p e r a t i v e s w e r e f o u n d 'o n
in v e s t ig a t io n n o t t o h a v e b e e n c o t t o n -m ill o p e r a tiv e s .
A m o n g th e
m a le s f o r th e s a m e p e r io d , 2 3 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w h o w e r e fin a lly
c la s s e d as c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e s w e r e r e c o r d e d o n t h e d e a t h c e r t ific a t e
as fo llo w in g s o m e o th e r o c c u p a t io n , w h ile o n e -fo u r th o f th o s e r e c o r d e d
as o p e r a tiv e s c o u ld n o t p r o p e r ly b e in c lu d e d a m o n g c o t t o n -m il
w orkers.
T h e r e c o r d e d n u m b e r o f m a le o p e r a t iv e d e c e d e n ts in F a ll R iv e r
fo r th e 8 -y e a r p e r io d w a s 9 1 5 .
O f t h e swere2 3f 3 u n d n o t t o
e,
o
h a v e b e e n c o t t o n o p e r a tiv e s , w h ile 2 0 7 w h o o n th e ir d e a th c e r tifi­
c a te s w e r e a s s ig n e d t o o t h e r o c c u p a t io n s h a d r e a lly b e e n c o t t o n
o p e r a t iv e s .
T h e re a l n u m b e r o f m a le o p e r a t iv e d e c e d e n ts , t h e r e
fo r e , w a s 8 8 9 , th e g r o u p as r e c o r d e d h a v in g b e e n la r g e r b y 2 6 th a n
t h e fa c t s ju s t ifie d .
O n th e o t h e r h a n d , th e r e c o r d e d n u m b e r o f fe m a le o p e r a t iv e d e c e ­
d e n ts in F a ll R i v e r f o r th e 8 -y e a r p e r io d w a s 5 4 8 .
O f th e s e 71 w e r e
1 A considerable part of this error is due to the vague use of the term “ operative,” which is frequently
omployed on death certificates with nothing to show whether the person concerned worked in cotton or
woolen mills, in dye works, bleaeheries or printeries, or in piano or hat factories.
2 For the 5-year period of the present study, 606 male decedents were recorded as cotton operatives, of
whom 130 proved not to be so, while 126 who were otherwise recorded proved to belong among the cotton
operatives, the net result being a group of 602 male cotton operative decedents, instead of the 606 give:i
on the records. Among the female decedents for the same period, 377 were recorded as cotton operatives,
of w hom 47 were found not to have been so, while 307 others who were recorded as having other or no occu­
pations were found to have been really cotton operatives. The net result was, therefore, to bring up the
number of female operatives among the decedents from 377 to 637.




M ETH O D S OF O B T A IN IN G MATERIAL,.

31

f o u n d n o t t o h a v e b e e n c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e s , w h ile 4 5 9 w h o w e r e r e ­
c o r d e d e i t h e r a s h a v i n g o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s o r n o o c c u p a t i o n a t a ll
p r o v e d o n in v e s t ig a t io n t o h a v e b e e n r e a lly c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e s .
The
c o r r e c t n u m b e r o f fe m a le o p e r a t iv e d e c e d e n t s , th e r e fo r e , w a s 9 3 6 ,
a n d th e g r o u p a s r e c o r d e d w a s t o o s m a ll b y 3 8 8 .
S in c e th e g r o u p o f m a le o p e r a t iv e d e c e d e n t s w a s t o o la rg e b y
w h ile th e g r o u p o f fe m a le o p e r a t iv e d e c e d e n t s w a s t o o s m a ll b y 3 8 8 ,
i t is e v i d e n t t h a t t h e w h o l e n u m b e r o f r e c o r d e d o p e r a t i v e d e c e d e n t s
w a s t o o s m a ll b y 3 6 2 , a n d t h a t th e u s e o f th e u n c o r r e c t e d r e c o r d s
w o u ld h a v e g iv e n a d e a th r a te c o n s id e r a b ly b e lo w th e c o r r e c t o n e .
A s a ll d e c e d e n t s 10 y e a r s o f a g e o r o v e r in F a ll R i v e r f o r t h e t h r e e
y e a rs 1905 t o 19 0 7 w e re in v e s tig a te d , th e o c c u p a t io n a l d a ta in th e
fir s t s t u d y w e r e f u ll y c o r r e c t e d .
I n th e p r e s e n t in q u ir y , c o v e r in g th e
fiv e y e a r s 1 9 0 8 t o 1 9 1 2 , a ll d e c e d e n t s a g e d 10 t o 6 4 y e a r s w e r e i n v e s t i ­
g a te d .
A l s o , a ll r e c o r d e d a s h a v i n g d ie d f r o m t u b e r c u lo s is , o r a s
h a v in g b e e n o p e r a t iv e s , w e r e in v e s t ig a t e d , w h a te v e r th e ir a g e
H e n c e , a ll t u b e r c u lo u s o p e r a t iv e s w e r e i n e v i t a b l y f o u n d , a n d i f n o t
a lr e a d y r e c o r d e d as o p e r a t iv e s w e r e a d d e d t o t h a t g r o u p .
A l s o , a ll
t h o s e in c o r r e c t ly r e c o r d e d as o p e r a t iv e s w e r e d is c o v e r e d a n d e x c lu d e d
fr o m th e o p e r a t iv e g r o u p .
B u t th o s e n o n tu b e r c u lo u s d e ce d e n ts , a g ed
6 5 y e a r s o r o v e r , w h o w e r e r e a lly o p e r a t iv e s , t h o u g h n o t s o r e c o r d e d ,
w e r e n o t d is c o v e r e d .1 H e n c e th e n u m b e r o f o p e r a t iv e d e c e d e n t s f o r
the 5 - y e a r p e r i o d 1 9 0 8 - 1 9 1 2 i s p o s s i b l y t o o The .e f f e c t o f t h i s
lo w
w o u ld b e t o c a u s e a s lig h t in a c c u r a c y in c o m b in a t io n s i n v o l v i n g th e
n o n t u b e r c u l o u s o p e r a t i v e d e c e d e n t s o f a ll a g e s , b o t h f o r t h e 5 a n d
fo r th e 8 -y e a r p e r io d .
S u m m in g u p th e w h o le s itu a tio n , th e n , as t o th e a c c u r a c y o f th e
i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g d e c e d e n t s o n w h i c h t h i s s t u d y is b a s e d , i t m a y
b e s a id t h a t as t o th e p r in c ip a l c a u s e o f d e a t h th e r e a re u n d o u b t e d ly
s o m e e r r o r s , b u t t h a t t h e s e a ll t e n d t o w a r d m a k in g t h e r a t e s f o r b o t h
t u b e r c u lo s is a n d p a r t u r it io n s m a lle r t h a n t h e y s h o u ld b e .
U n ques­
t i o n a b l y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n is o f t e n d e f e c t i v e a s t o c o n t r i b u t o r y c a u s e s
o f d e a th .
C o n t r ib u t o r y c a u s e s a re, h o w e v e r , t r e a te d o n ly in d is
c u s s io n , in w h ic h a t t e n t io n w ill b e c a lle d t o s u c h in a c c u r a c ie s .
The
o c c u p a t io n a l a n d t u b e r c u lo u s d a t a a re c o r r e c t f o r th e th re e y e a r s
c o v e r e d b y th e fir s t r e p o r t .
T h e s a m e d a t a f o r t h e fiv e y e a r s o f t h is
s t u d y a r e c o r r e c t f o r a ll c la s s e s f o r t h e a g e p e r i o d 10 t o 6 4 y e a r s , a n d
f o r t u b e r c u lo u s d e c e d e n t s o f a ll a g e s.
F o r n o n tu b e r c u lo u s d e ce d e n ts
a g e d 6 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r , h o w e v e r , t h e n u m b e r o f o p e r a t i v e s is p o s s i b l y
s o m e w h a t t o o s m a ll.
1 The cases of 44 males and 2 females aged 65 years or over were discovered to be incorrectly regis­
tered and are therefore excluded from this study.




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C H A P . I .---- SCOPE AN D M ET H O D OF IN V E ST IG A TIO N .

ITEMS TABULATED.

T h e fa c t s o b t a in e d b y th e s e m e th o d s h a v e b e e n t a b u la t e d w ith
v a r y in g d e g re e s o f c o m p le t e n e s s a c c o r d in g t o th e ir im p o r t a n c e .
The
f o llo w in g it e m s h a v e b e e n t a b u la t e d f o r t h e m illw o r k e r s in e a c h o c c u ­
p a t io n : (1 ) T h e n u m b e r o f d e a t h s ; (2 ) t h e c a u s e o f d e a t h a s g iv e n
o n t h e o ffic ia l c e r t ifi c a t e ; (3 ) t h e a g e o f d e c e d e n t s ; (4 ) t h e ir c o l o r
(5 ) s e x ; (6 ) t h e ir r a c e , a s d e t e r m i n e d b y b i r t h p l a c e o f f a t h e r ; (7
c o n ju g a l c o n d i t i o n ; (8 ) p e r i o d o u t o f e m p l o y m e n t b e f o r e d e a t h .
A
s c o r e o f o th e r p e rs o n a l d a ta c o n c e r n in g th e d e c e d e n t w h ic h m a y h a v e
b o r n e s o m e c a u s a tiv e r e la tio n t o le n g t h o f life h a v e b e e n t a b u la t e d
u n d e r s o m e h a lf d o z e n c la s s ific a t io n s — a g e , s e x , c a u s e o f d e a th
in d u s tr y , s p e c ific o c c u p a t io n , p e r io d o u t o f e m p lo y m e n t b e fo r e d e a th ,
an d race.
I t is b e lie v e d t h a t t h e r e p e a t e d c o m p a r is o n s w h ic h e v e r y s t a t is t ic a l
it e m u n d e r g o e s in th e s e n u m e r o u s t a b u la t io n s a n d c la s s ific a tio n s
t e n d t o le s s e n th e im p o r t a n c e o f a d v e n t it io u s a n d in c id e n t a l fa c t o r s ,
a n d t o b r in g in h e r e n t a n d b a s ic e le m e n ts in t o g r e a te r p r o m in e n c e .
I f a g i v e n f a c t o r m a k e s it s a p p e a r a n c e in o n l y o n e t a b u la t i o n , t h e r e is
r e a s o n f o r lo o k in g u p o n i t a s th e r e s u lt o f s o m e s t r ic t ly lim it e d c a u s e ;
w h ile t h e m o r e f r e q u e n t ly i t a p p e a r s in t h e v a r io u s a g e g r o u p c la s s ifi­
c a t io n s a n d t a b u la t io n s , t h e g r e a t e r th e r e a s o n f o r l o o k in g u p o n i t a s
o f b a s ic s ig n ific a n c e .
AGE-ADJUSTED DEATH RATES.

T h e c o m p a r is o n s w e r e m a d e la r g e ly b e tw e e n th e d e a th r a te s o f th e
v a r io u s g r o u p s , as d e s c r ib e d in th e e x p la n a t io n o f th e ^ d e a t h -r a t e
m e t h o d " g iv e n in th e in t r o d u c t io n .
(S e e p . 1 1 .)
W h e n d e a th ra tes
a re c a lc u la te d f o r p e r io d s o f 5 o r 10 y e a r s , a c o m p a r is o n b e t w e e n
t h e m g iv e s a r e lia b le t e s t o f th e c o m p a r a t iv e m o r t a lit y in th e g r o u p s
f o r w h ic h th e r a te s a re c a lc u la t e d .
B u t a n y c o m p a r is o n b e tw e e n
t h e d e a t h r a t e s o f t w o g r o u p s f o r a b r o a d a g e p e r io d is a p t t o m is ­
le a d b e c a u s e o f th e d iffe r e n t a g e d is t r ib u t io n o f th e t w o g r o u p s w it h in
th e p e r io d c o v e r e d .
T a k e , f o r in s ta n c e , th e F a ll R iv e r p o p u la t io n
a g e d 15 t o 6 4 .
T h e a g e g r o u p 15 t o 2 4 c o n t a i n s n e a r l y h a l f ( 4 5 p e r
c e n t ) o f t h e o p e r a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n , b u t le s s t h a n o n e - f o u r t h (2 4 p e r
c e n t) o f th e n o n o p e r a t iv e , w h ile th e a g e g r o u p 4 5 t o 64 c o n t a in s o n ly
13 p e r c e n t o f t h e o p e r a t i v e a g a in s t 2 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e n o n o p e r a t i v e
p o p u la tio n .
T h a t is , t h e o p e r a t i v e s h a v e n e a r l y t w i c e a s l a r g e a p r o ­
p o r t i o n o f th e ir t o t a l n u m b e r in t h e y o u n g e s t g r o u p a s is t h e c a s e w it h
th e n o n o p e r a t iv e s , w h ile th e la t t e r h a v e tw ic e a s la rg e a p r o p o r t io n
a s th e o p e r a t iv e s in th e a g e g r o u p s b e y o n d 4 4 .
B u t s in c e th o s e in
y o u t h f u l a g e g r o u p s a r e n o r m a ll y f a r le s s lia b le t o d ie t h a n t h o s e in
a d v a n c e d life , a c o m p a r is o n o f t o t a l d e a t h r a te s f o r o p e r a t iv e s a n d
n o n o p e r a t i v e s c o v e r i n g t h e w h o l e p e r i o d m i g h t b e , a n d i n f a c t is ,




AG E-AD JU STED D EATH RATES.

33

e x c e e d i n g l y m i s l e a d i n g To s h o w t o w h a t e x t e n t t h i s i s t r u e ,
.
suppose
i t is d e s i r e d t o c o m p a r e t h e d e a t h r a t e s f r o m n o n t u b e r c u l o u s c a u s e s
o f o p e r a t i v e s a n d n o n o p e r a t i v e s f o r t h e 3 0 - y e a r p etoi o d , 1t5h e
r 44
2 0 - y e a r p e r i o d 4 5 t o 6 4 , a n d t h e 5 0 - y e a r p e r i o d 1 5 The a g e
to 64.
d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s 5 0 - y e a r p e trhi o d
and
e
d e a t h r a te s fo r th e s e v e r a l 1 0 -y e a r a g e g r o u p s a re as fo llo w s :
D ISTRIBUTIO N B Y 10-YEAR AGE GROUPS OF O PER ATIVES AND N O N O PER ATIVES,
AND D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,000 FROM NONTUBERCULOUS CAUSES W IT H IN EACH
AGE GROUP.
Operatives.
Age group.
Number.

Nonoperatives.

Death
Per cent. rate per
1,000.

15 to 24 years..............................................
25 to 34 years..............................................
35 to 44 years..............................................
45 to 54 years..............................................
55 to 64 years..............................................

12,683
7,042
4,773
2,822
932

45
25
17
10
3

Total............................ ...................

28,252

100

2.08
4.60
6.29
12.54
33.05

Number.

Death
Per cent. rate per
1,000.

12,472
13,748
12,022
8,300
5,628

24
26
23
16
11

52,170

1.57
3.70
5.87
11.08
27.40

100

Here in each 10-year age group the death rate of the operatives
is higher than that of the nonoperatives, but when the death rates
are calculated for the three broad age periods mentioned, the follow­
ing results are obtained:
D E A T H R ATES PER 1,000 AMONG O P E R A T IV E S A N D N O N O P E R A T IV E S , FROM NON­
TU BER CU LO U S CAUSES, B Y A G E GROUP.

Age group.

15 to 44 years...........................................................................................................................
45 to 64 years...........................................................................................................................
15 to 64 years...........................................................................................................................

Operative
death rate.

3.62
17.64
5.49

Nonoperative
death rate.
3.69
17.67
7.42

That is, a comparison of the actual or crude death rates shows
that while in each 10-year age group the operatives have the higher
death rate, yet when two, three, or more of the 10-year age groups
are combined the nonoperatives invariably have the higher rates.
This apparent anomaly is due, of course, to the different age distri­
bution of the two populations, the nonoperatives having the larger
proportion in the upper age groups where the death-rates are high,
and hence having the larger actual number of deaths. But however
explicable it may be, this contradiction in the rates for the whole
period as compared with the rates for the 10-year periods evidently
obscures the real situation. In order to make any valid comparison
88204°—19—Bull. 251------3




34

C H A P . I .---- SCOPE AN D M ET H O D OF IN V E ST IG A TIO N .

between the death rates of the two groups for any long period, it is
necessary to use age-adjusted death rates, which are thus obtained:
The actual or crude death rates of both operative and nonoperative
populations by 10-year age groups are first calculated. The 10-year
age groups of the operative population are then taken as a standard
and the corresponding 10-year age groups of the nonoperative popu­
lation are arbitrarily made to agree with this standard. The death
rates already calculated are then applied to these standardized
10-year age groups and the total number of deaths thus obtained is
used as the basis for the death rate for the whole period.

T o illu s t r a t e t h is m e t h o d , t a k e t h e c a s e a lr e a d y u s e d o f a c o m ­
p a r is o n b e tw e e n th e d e a th ra te s fr o m n o n tu b e r c u lo u s ca u se s o
o p e r a t iv e s a n d n o n o p e r a t iv e s f o r 3 0 , 2 0, a n d 5 0 -y e a r p e r io d s .
The
a c t u a l d is t r ib u t io n o f th e t w o p o p u la t io n s a n d th e ir d e a t h r a te s fr o m
n o n t u b e r c u lo u s ca u se s b y 1 0 -y e a r a g e g r o u p s h a v e a lr e a d y b e e n
g iv e n .
S i n c e t h e o p e r a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n is t a k e n a s a s t a n d a r d , t h e
r a te s fo r o p e r a tiv e s a re le ft u n c h a n g e d .
T o a d ju s t th e d e a t h r a te s
f o r n o n o p e r a t i v e s t o t h is s t a n d a r d , t h e n u m b e r o f o p e r a t iv e s i n e a c h
1 0 -y e a r a g e g r o u p is s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e n u m b e r o f n o n o p e r a t i v e s in
t h a t g r o u p , a n d th e c r u d e d e a th r a te s a lr e a d y c a lc u la t e d f o r n o n
o p e r a t iv e s a r e a p p lie d t o th e s e a lte r e d g r o u p s .
T h is g iv e s th
fo llo w in g r e s u lts :
A V E R A G E A N N U A L D E A T H S FROM N O N TU BER CU LO U S CAUSES AM ONG N O N ­
O P E R A T IV E S IN EACH A G E GROUP, COMPUTED ON BASIS OF N U M B E R OF OP­
E R A T IV E S IN EACH AG E GROUP.

Age group.

15 to 24 years.........................................................................................
25 to 34 years.........................................................................................
35 to 44 years.........................................................................................
45 to 54 years......................................................................................... 1
I
55 to 64 years.........................................................................................

Number in
standard
age group.

Crude death
rate for non­
operatives.

12,683
7,042
4, 773
2,822
932

1.57
3.70
5.87
11.08
27.40

Average an­
nual deaths
in stand­
ardized age
group.
19.91
26.05
28.02
31.27
25.53

C o m b in in g a s t o p o p u la t io n a n d a ls o as t o d e a th s th e 1 0 -y e a r a g e
p e r io d s , a n d c a lc u la t in g a n e w d e a th r a te fr o m th e t o t a ls th u s o b ­
ta in e d , w e h a v e t h e fo l l o w i n g r e s u lt s f o r t h e 3 0 , t h e 2 0 , a n d t h e 5 0 y e a r a g e p e r io d s :
D E A T H R A T E S (A G E-AD JUSTED ) FROM N O N TUBER CU LO U S CAUSES, AM ONG N O N ­
O P E R A T IV E S, B Y A G E GROUP.

Age group.

15 to 44 years.........................................................................................
45 to 64 vears.........................................................................................
15 to 64 years.........................................................................................




Number in
group.

Average an­
nual deaths.

Age-adjusted
death rate.

24.498
3,754
28,252

73.98
56.80
130.78

3.02
15.13
4.63

35

AGE-AD JU S T E D D EATH RATES.

The revised or age-adjusted death rates thus obtained are abso­
lutely comparable with the death rates of the operatives, since they
are based on the number of deaths which would have taken place
among the nonoperatives had their number and age distribution
been the same as those of the operatives, their actual death rates
remaining unchanged. But the difference which this age adjustment
makes in the comparison between the death rates of the operatives
and nonoperatives is so striking that it is worth while to nresent an
illustration in tabular form:
DIFFERENCE IN R ESULTS O BTAINED B Y COMPARING CRUDE A N D AGE-AD JU STED
D E A T H RATES FROM NONTUBERCULOUS CAUSES OF O PER ATIVES AN D NON­
OPERATIVES.

Crude rate.
Age group.
Operative
rate.

15 to 44 years...............................
45 to 64 years...............................
15 to 64 years...............................

3.62
17.64
5.49

Age-adjusted rate.

Per cent of
Nonexcess in
operative rate for non­ Operative
rate.
rate.
operatives.

Non­
operative
rate.

3.62
17.64
5.49

3.02
15.13
4.63

3.69
17.67
7.42

1.9
.2
35.2

Per cent of
excess in
rate for op­
eratives.
19.9
16.6
18. ft

T h e n o n o p e r a t iv e e x c e s s w h ic h th e c r u d e r a te s s h o w d is a p p e a r s
e n t ir e ly w h e n th e a g e -a d ju s t e d r a te s a re u s e d a n d in its p la c e a p p e a r s
a n o p e r a t iv e e x ce s s .
T h e cru d e ra tes sh o w fo r th e a g e g r o u p 15 to
6 4 a n e x ce s s in d e a th r a te a m o n g th e n o n o p e r a t iv e s a m o u n tin g t o
o v e r o n e -th ir d , b u t w h e n th e ra te s h a v e b e e n m a d e r e a lly c o m p a r a b le
b y a d ju s tin g t h e m t o th e a g e d is t r ib u t io n o f th e s ta n d a r d g r o u p , t h e
o p e r a t iv e s s h o w a d e a t h r a t e la r g e r b y n e a r ly o n e -fift h t h a n t h a t o f
th e n o n o p e r a tiv e s .
T h e c o m p a r is o n o f t h e c r u d e r a t e s s h o w s r e s u lt s
n o t o n ly erro n e o u s, b u t e rro n e o u s t o su ch a d e g re e t h a t th e rea
s it u a t io n is c o m p le t e ly o b s c u r e d a n d t h e fu n d a m e n t a l f a c t c o n
c e r n in g t h e r e la tiv e d e a th h a z a r d fr o m n o n t u b e r c u lo u s ca u se s o f th e
t w o c la s s e s is m is r e p r e s e n t e d .
T o a v o id th e p o s s ib ilit y o f s u c h m is r e p r e s e n ta tio n s , th e a g e
a d ju s t e d d e a t h r a t e s w ill b e u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h is s t u d y w h e n
e v e r i t is d e s ir a b le t o c o m p a r e a g e g r o u p s c o v e r i n g 2 0 , 3 0 , o r 5
y e a r s , p r o v id e d , w h ic h is u s u a lly t h e c a s e , th e c o n s t it u e n t 5 o r 1 0
y e a r a g e g r o u p s a r e o f a s iz e lik e ly t o g iv e a r a t e w h ic h w
its e lf b e r e a s o n a b ly ty p ic a l.
I n e v e r y c a s e th e t o t a l o p e r a t iv e p o p u ­
l a t i o n , a s d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s a g e g r o u p s , is t a k e n a s t h
s t a n d a r d in c a lc u la t in g th e a g e -a d ju s t e d d e a th r a te s fo r a n y g r o u p
s h o w n in t h is r e p o r t .




36

C H A P . I .— SCOPE AN D M E T H O D OP IN V E ST IG A TIO N .

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SELECTED GROUPS AND CLASSES.

The age period 1 5 to 4 4 years was selected for special intensive
study, first, because more than one-half of the entire population is
found within its limits, so that it presents a wider field for study than
a more limited age group could present. Moreover, for a study of
causes of deaths among cotton operatives, this group presents unique
advantages, since more than four-fifths ( 8 4 per cent) of the entire'
operative population is included within it. Second, within its limits
are found over three-fourths ( 7 6 per cent) of the entire number of
deaths of tuberculous persons aged 1 0 or over, nearly two-thirds ( 6 5
per cent) of the whole operative mortality from all causes, and almost
nine-tenths (88 per cent) of the deaths of operatives from tuber­
culosis. Third, it represents a period of full industrial activity dur­
ing which the death rate would normally be low. It is customary
to present vital statistics by age groups of .10 years. If this period
from 1 5 to 4 4 years, inclusive, be divided into these customary
groups of 10 years, the death rates of these three groups are suffi­
ciently similar to justify considering the three together as a single
age group characterized throughout by a low mortality.
In regard to sex, special attention has been given to the study of
female decedents as compared with the corresponding classes of male
decedents.

S p e c ia l a t t e n t io n h a s a ls o b e e n g iv e n t o r a c ia l f a c t o r s .
In th e
c o u r s e o f th e in v e s tig a tio n o f 1 9 0 5 -1 9 0 7 , it b e c a m e e v id e n t t h a t th e
Ir is h in e a c h a g e, s e x , a n d o c c u p a t io n g r o u p , a lm o s t w it h o u t e x c e p ­
t io n , p r e s e n te d a h ig h e r d e a t h r a t e t h a n a n y o t h e r r a c e o r p e o p le .
T h is d iffe r e n c e w a s s o m a r k e d t h a t th e in c lu s io n o f t h e I r is h in a n y
ta b u la t io n s o f th e a g g r e g a te p o p u la t io n p r o v e d lik e ly t o c a u s e e x c e e d ­
i n g ly m is le a d in g r e s u lts a n d e r r o n e o u s c o n c lu s io n s .
I n th e s e c o n d in ­
v e s t ig a t io n it w a s fo u n d t h a t t h e I r is h s t ill m a n ife s t e d t h e s a m e e x c e p ­
t io n a l fe a tu r e s , a n d t h a t in a d d it io n t h e F r e n c h C a n a d ia n s d is p la y e d
s o m e p e c u lia r itie s in t h e ir d e a t h r a te s .
I n th e fo llo w in g t a b u la t io n s ,
th e r e fo r e , th e d a ta fo r th e se t w o r a ce s a re s o m e tim e s c o m b in e d a n d
c o n t r a s t e d w it h s im ila r d a t a f o r t h e r e m a in in g r a c e s .
Cotton-mill work was selected for special investigation because it
employs a larger number of women and children than any other
industry, and because it, more frequently perhaps than any other
large industry, subjects its workers to the inhalation of irritant
vegetable dust, which in the underfed and overworked elsewhere has
generally been found to be specially conducive to bronchitic, asthma­
tic, and tuberculously infectious pulmonary diseases.

F in a lly t u b e r c u lo s is w a s s e le c t e d f o r s p e c ia l in t e n s iv e s t u d y
b e c a u s e i t w a s fo u n d t o b e th e m o s t p r e v a le n t im m e d ia te c a u s e o f
d e a t h w ith in th e a g e p e r io d 15 t o 4 4 , w h ic h p e r io d c o m p r is e s o n e -h a lf
th e t o ta l a n d fo u r -fifth s o f th e o p e r a t iv e p o p u la tio n .




D E F IN IT IO N OF TE R M S.

37

SIZE OF UNITS CONSIDERED.

T h e m e t h o d o f s e c u r in g th e d a t a h a s a lr e a d y b e e n d e s c r ib e d (p . 1 8 ).
A s th e m o r t a lit y p e r io d c o v e r e d b y th e t w o in v e s tig a tio n s w a s e ig h t
y e a r s , a n d a s F a ll R i v e r in c lu d e s a b o u t o n e -q u a r t e r o f th e c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e s o f M a s s a c h u s e tts , N e w H a m p s h ir e , a n d R h o d e I s la n d , it
fo llo w s t h a t th e m o r t a lit y s ta t is t ic s h e r e g iv e n w ill r o u g h ly r e p r e s e n t
t h e d e a t h s a m o n g a ll t h e c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e s o f t h e t h r e e S t a t e s f o r a
p e r io d o f n e a r ly t w o y e a rs .
T h is fa c t , a n d th e a d d it io n a l fa c t th a t
th e d e a t h s h e r e in e n u m e r a t e d a r e c o m p le t e f o r t h e a r e a a n d th e
p e r io d s s p e c ifie d , e n t itle s th e c o n c lu s io n s o f th e fo llo w in g s t u d y t o a
w e ig h t w h ic h o t h e r w is e c o u ld n o t b e a c c o r d e d t h e m in v ie w o f th e
c o m p a r a t iv e ly s m a l l 1 n u m b e r o f ca ses o n w h ic h t h e y a re b a s e d .
I t m u s t b e c o n s t a n t ly b o r n e in m in d t h a t h o w e v e r s m a ll i
s o m e o f t h e a g e g r o u p s u b d iv is io n s t h e b a s ic n u m b e r in t h is s t u d y
m a y b e , s t i l l i t is a p p r o x i m a t e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l t h e d e a t h s
o c c u r r in g in t h a t s u b g r o u p a m o n g th e c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e s o f th e e n tir e
c o u n t r y f o r a p e r i o d o f 1 0 m o n t h s ; i t i s a c l o s e a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o a ll
d e a t h s f o r 2 4 c o n s e c u t iv e m o n t h s a m o n g c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e s in a S ta te
d o in g th r e e -fifth s o f th e c o t t o n m a n u fa c t u r in g o f th e N o r t h ; a n d it
re p re s e n ts th e a c tu a l fa c ts fo r a c it y d o in g a b o u t a q u a rte r o f th e
c o t t o n m a n u fa c t u r in g o f th e N o r t h , d e r iv e d fr o m a n in v e s t ig a t io n
k n o w n t o b e c o m p le t e fo r p e r io d s b o t h o f o n e y e a r a n d th re e y e a rs , o f
fiv e y e a rs , a n d o f e ig h t y e a rs .
DEFINITION OF TERMS.

T h e t e r m “ d e c e d e n t ” w it h in t h e s c o p e o f t h is i n q u i r y in c lu d e s a ll
tu b e r c u lo u s d e c e d e n t s 10 y e a r s o f a g e a n d o v e r , a ll o p e r a t iv e s w h o
d ie d w h a t e v e r t h e ir a g e , a n d a ll o t h e r p e r s o n s w h o d ie d a g e d 1 0 t o 6 4 .
I t a p p lie s o n l y t o th o s e d y in g w it h in th e lim its o f F a ll R i v e r w it h in
th e y e a rs 1908 t o 1912.
E x c e p t in th e c a s e o f 3 4 n o n t u b e r c u lo u s d e a th s w h ic h w e r e c o in ­
c id e n t w it h c h ild b ir t h , a n d 9 2 ca se s, w h ic h th e a t t e n d in g p h y s ic ia n s
s t a t e d w e r e t u b e r c u lo u s , a lt h o u g h t h e y h a d n o t b e e n o ffic ia lly r e ­
c o r d e d a s s u c h , t h e t e r m “ fa t a l d is e a s e ,” w h e r e v e r u s e d in t h is s t u d y ,
m e a n s th e c a u s e o f d e a t h a s s t a t e d in t h e o ffic ia l d e a t h c e r tific a te
s ig n e d b y th e p h y s ic ia n la s t a t t e n d in g th e d e c e a s e d .
The term “ cotton operative” is used to mean only those persons,
from overseers down to scrubbers, whose work had been such as to
expose them many hours daily to the processes or hygienic condi­
tions peculiar to a mill that manufactures cotton wadding, cloth,
yarn, or thread. Others, although on a cotton-mill pay roll, are not
included in the operative class, and neither are employees of bleacheries, dye works, and printeries. Those thus excluded comprised 6
i It is based on an aggregate of 5,636 deaths occurring in age group 15 to 64 during eight years, of which
1,749 occurred among operatives and 3,887 among nonoperatives.




38

C H A P . I.---- SCOPE AN D M ET H O D OF IN V E ST IG A T IO N .

per cent of the total pay roll, their numbers and classification being
as follows:
Office force.................................... .... 327
Firemen............................................. 238
Carpenters..................................... .... 118
Watchmen..................................... .... 135
Dyers.............................................
96
Engineers...................................... .... 129

Machinists.....................................
Painters.........................................
Bleachers.......................................
Yardmen........................................

276
56
102
533

Total.................................... 2»010

The term a cotton operativeM has been still further restricted by
limiting it to those who were either working in a cotton mill up to
the time of death, or who had left it not more than two years before
death.1 This arbitrary limit was fixed upon after consultation with
eminent medical men as being probably well within the period during
which the effects of mill influences, even if latent while the decedent was
in the mill, might yet be considered beyond question as having borne
a causative relation to the death. In the course of this study many
facts were elicited showing resemblances, sometimes almost to identity,
between the class just outside the two-year limit and the operative class.
It was felt that this fact gave a strong indication that the two-year
limit erred, if at all, on the side of conservatism, and, that a limit of
three or even four years, or the inclusion of nearly life-long cottonmill workers retired through age, would possibly have been fairer.2
Those who had worked as cotton operatives but had left the mills
more than two years before their deaths were divided into two groups,
those who had been out of the mills not more than two but less than
six years before their deaths, and those who had left the mills more
than six years before their deaths. The following table shows the
1 Since decedents are classed as operatives, even if two years had intervened between their death and
their last employment in a cotton mill, it may be felt that the operative population on which the death
rates are calculated ought to include not only all those working at the time the schedules were taken, but
likewise all who within two years preceding had retired from the industry. It was not possible to canvass
the city and take a census of such retired operatives; nevertheless it is believed that the population basis
used is substantially correct. For at the time when the schedules of the operative force were taken—
February, 1913—the Fall River mills were running full time with a full force and were clamorous for addi­
tional operatives. Under these circumstances, it is not improbable that mill overseers were largely suc­
cessful in securing the reentry into the industry of women of proved efficiency in mill work who had retired
therefrom (“ women, ” because they are more apt than men to retire before age makes it really neces­
sary). The very considerable increase of females in the older age groups in 1913 over the number shown
for the previous study supports this view, and so do their increased numbers as compared with those of
males.
Those who may have failed to reenter the industry are probably more than offset by the many persons
enrolled in this study as mill operatives of Fall River whose residence, as indicated on their individual
schedille cards, is known to be outside the city, and whose deaths therefore could not be enrolled in the
data of Fall River mortality.
Finally, any possible error consequent upon the practical impossibility of including in the basic popu­
lation the average number of retirements within two years is still further compensated for by having the
mill population based upon the aggregate of 1913, instead of 1910, the median year of the quinquennial
period studied.
2 The application of this definition of cotton operative has eliminated from the investigation 46 non­
tuberculous decedents aged 65 and over who were mill veterans. Of these 44 were males and 2 females;
all had been certified officially as operatives.
Fourteen of these had left the mill less than six years before their deaths; 13 of these averaged each 45
years cotton-mill work, while for one the time thus spent was unreported. The other 32 (1 not reported)
had averaged 47 years in the mills. Other nontuberculous decedents aged 65 years and over included
a female silk weaver of 66, and 4 males who had never been operatives, though officially certified as such.




39

D E F IN IT IO N OF TE R M S.

n u m b e r o f d e c e d e n t s in t h e s e v a r io u s c la s s e s , t o g e t h e r w it h t h e t im e
o u t o f th e m ill b e fo r e d e a th o f th o s e w h o a re s t ill c la s s e d as o p e r a t iv e s :
N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T O F T O T A L M IL L W O R K E R S A G E D 15 TO 64 Y E A R S D Y I N G
FROM TU B E R C U LO U S, N O N T U B E R C U L O U S , A N D A L L C AU SES, W H O H A D B E E N O U T
O F T H E M IL L F O R S P E C IF IE D P E R IO D S B E F O R E D E A T H , 1908 T O 1912.
Number of decedents from—
Occupation classification a n d
time out of mill before death.

Per cent of decedents from—

Nontuberculous
causes.

Tuber­
culous
causes.

A ll causes.

Nontuberculous
causes.

Tuber­
culous
causes.

All causes.

OPERATIVES .1

Under 2 weeks...............................
2 and under 8 weeks....................
2 and under 4 m onths.................
4 and under 7 m onths................
7 and under 13 m onths..............
13 and including 24 months—

4
23
67
90
157
73

193
135
104
94
142
107

Total, 2 years and under.

414

775

1 ,1 8 9

Over 2 and under 4 years..........
4 and under 6 years.....................

22
23

45
70

T o ta l......................................

45

6 and under 11 years...................
11 and under 16" vears.................
1 6 and under 2 6 years.................
26 years and over..........................

47

T o ta l.....................................
Grand total.........................

1

197
158
171
184
299
180

10
8

14
9
7
7

4

12

10
8

9
9
15
9

74

55

60

67
93

4
4

3
5

3
5

115

160

8

8

S

195
126
193
113

8

.10

4
5

6

148
104
164
107

10
6
10
6

104

523

627

18

37

32

563

1 ,4 1 3

1 ,9 7 6

100

100

100

16
28
13

5 -Y E A R O PERATIVES .1

E X -O P ER AT IV ES .1

22
29

7

12
8

1

* u Operatives,” for the purposes of this report, may be defined as those who were either working in a
cotton mill up to the time of death or who had left it not more than two years before death; “ 5-year oper­
atives” as former operatives who had given up cotton-mill work more than 2 but less than 6 years before
death; and “ ex-operatives” as those who had not worked in a cotton mill for at least 6 years before death.

T h i s s h o w s 1 ,1 8 9 w h o w e r e c o u n t e d a s o p e r a t i v e s , w h e t h e r o r n o t
t h e y w e r e a c t u a lly w o r k in g in t h e m ills a t t h e t im e o f d e a t h , a n d 7 8 7
w h o w e r e n o t c la s s e d as o p e r a t iv e s , a lt h o u g h t h e y h a d b e e n m i
w o r k e r s a t s o m e p e r io d e a r lie r t h a n t w o y e a r s b e f o r e t h e ir d e a th s
T h e f o l l o w i n g t a b le s h o w s f o r a ll th e s e d e c e d e n t s , c la s s ifie d a c c o r d in g
to tim e o u t o f m ill w o r k b e fo r e d e a th , th e n u m b e r o f y e a rs e m p lo y e d
in c o t t o n m ills :
N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T O F D E C E D E N T S A G E D 15 TO 64 Y E A R S W H O H A D B E E N
E M P L O Y E D IN C O T T O N M IL L S E A C H S P E C IF IE D N U M B E R O F Y E A R S , 1908 TO 1912.
Number of decedents.

Years employed in cotton mills.

Out of
mill
not
over 2
years.

Out of
Out of
mill
mill 6
over 2
years
but
and
under
over.
6 years.

Per cent of decedents.

Total.

Out of
mill
not
over 2
years.

Out of
Out of
mill
mill 6
over 2
years
but,
and
under
over.
6 years.

Total.

44
75
87
147
147
220
316

11
20
12
10
30
29
48

22
43
73
86
168
145
90

77
138
172
243
345
394
454

4
7
9
14
14
21
31

7
13
7
6
19
18
30

3
7
12
14
27
23
14

4
8
9
13
19
22
25

T o ta l....................................................
Years employed not reported................

1,036
153

160

627

1,823
153

100

100

100

100

Grand total.......................................

1,189

160

627 | 1,976

Under 2 years...............................................
2 and under 4 years....................................
4 and under 6 years...................................
6 and under 10 years.................................
10 and under 16 vears...............................
16 and under 26 years...............................
26 years and over........................................




-

40

C H A P . I .---- SCOPE AND M ETH O D OF IN V E ST IG A TIO N .

I t w il l b e s e e n f r o m t h is t a b l e t h a t 5 1 0 , a lm o s t t w o - t h ir d s (6 5 p e r
c e n t ) o f th e fo r m e r c o t t o n - m i ll w o r k e r s w h o a re e x c lu d e d fr o m th e lis t
o f o p e r a t iv e s , a s t h e t e r m is u s e d in t h is r e p o r t , w e r e p e r s o n s w h o
h a d b e e n in c o t n - m ill w o r k f o r 10 y e a r s o r m o r e .
SUMMARY OF TOTALS FOR THIS AND THE EARLIER STUDY.

T h e fo llo w in g ta b le s h o w s f o r th e tw o in v e s tig a tio n p e rio d s , 1905
t o 1 907 a n d 1908 t o 19 1 2 , th e e s tim a te d p o p u la t io n a g e d 10 y e a rs
a n d o v e r in 1 9 0 6 a n d in 1 9 1 3 , a n d th e d e a th s , b y s e x a n d o c c u p a t io n ,
o n w h ic h t h is s t u d y is b a s e d :
N U M B E R O F D E C E D E N T S , A G E D 10 Y E A R S A N D O V E R , F R O M T U B E R C U L O U S , N O N ­
T U B E R C U L O U S , A N D A L L C A U S E S IN 1905 T O 1907 A N D IN 1908 TO 1912, B Y S E X A N D
O C C U P A T IO N A L G R O U P .

Males.
Investigation period, population, and
cause of death.

Both sexes.

Females.

Nonoperati yes.

Opera­
tives.

Opera­
tives.

Nonoper­
atives.

Opera­
tives.

Population, 10 years and over, 1906...............

13,010

27,325

12,148

33,183

25,158

60,508

Deaths, 1907:
Tuberculous...................................................
N ontuberculous.............................................

40
78

56
346

47
70

39
409

87
148

95
755

Nonoper­
atives.

FIRST STUDY.

A ll causes....................................................

118

402

117

448

235

850

Deaths, 1905 to 1907:
Tuberculous...................................................
N ontuberculous.............................................

94
193

152
945

112
187

108
1,163

206
380

260
2,108

A ll causes.....................................................

287

1,097

299

1,271

586

2,368

SUPPLEMENTARY STUDY.

Population, 10 vears and over, 1913..............

14,373

32,115

14,857

35,596

29,230

67,711

Deaths, 1912:
Tuberculous...................................................
N ontuberculous.............................................

31
82

55
i 175

43
89

37
i 209

74
171

92
i 384

A ll causes.....................................................

113

Deaths, 1908 to 1912:
................. ..............................
Tuberculous
N ontuberculous.............................................

184
418

A ll causes....................................................

602

(2)
258
i 928
(2)

* Age group 10 to 64, for nontuberculous nonoperatives.




132
232
405
637

(2)
225
U , 100
(2)

245

(2)

416
823

483
i 2,028

1,239

2 N ot reported.

(2)

41

S U M M A R Y OF TOTALS.

I N V E S T I G A T I O N P E R IO D S C O M P A R E D : A V E R A G E A N N U A L N U M B E R O F D E A T H S
F R O M T U B E R C U L O U S , N O N T U B E R C U L O U S , A N D A L L C A U S E S O C C U R R IN G IN
E A C H O F T H E T W O I N V E S T I G A T I O N P E R IO D S , 1905 TO 1907, A N D 1908 T O 1912, B Y
A G E G R O U P , S E X , A N D O C C U P A T IO N A L G R O U P O F D E C E D E N T S .
N ontuberculous.

Tuberculous.
group, class and investiga­
tion period.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Total.

Males.

A ll causes.

FeTotal.
males. 1

Males.

Fe­
males.

Total.

I
15 TO 24 YEARS.

Operatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Both classes:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................

9
8

15
21

24
29

12
14

17
13

29
27

21
22

32
34

53
56

7
7

6
7

13
14

13
12

12
7,

25
19

20
19

18
14

38
33

16
15

21
28

37
43

25
26

29
20

54
46

41
41

50
48

91
89

10
10

15
14

25
24

11
10

15
22

26
32

21
20

30
36

51
56

13
14

13
12

26
26

23
24

29
27

52
51

36
38

42
39

78
77

23
24

28
26

51
50

34
34

44
49 .

78
83

57
58

72
75

129
133

25 TO 34 YEARS.

Operatives:
1905 to 1 907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Both classes:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
35 TO 44 YEARS.

Operatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................

9
12

5
8

14
20

9
12

17
18

26
30

18
24

22
26

40
50

12
13

4
10

16
23

35
33

35 i
38 1

70
71

47
46

39
48

86
94

Both classes:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................

21
25

9
18

30
43

44
45

52 i
56 1

96
101

65
70

61
74

126
144

28
30

35
43

63
73

32
36

49
53

81
89

60
66

84
96

144
162

32
34

23
29

55
63

71
69

76
72

147
141

103
103

99
101

202
204

60
64

58
72

118
136

103
105

228
230

163
169

183
197

346
366

29

TOTAL, 15 TO 44 YEARS.

Operatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Both classes:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................

125 1
125

TOTAL, 45 TO 64 YEARS.
1

Operatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Nonoperatives:
1905 to 1 907..............................
1908 to 1 912..............................

4
7

2
3

6
10

25
40

12
26

37
66

47

14
29

43
76

14
13

9
11

23
24

122
106

157
140

279
246

136
119

166
151

302
270

Both classes:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................

18
20

11
14

29
34

147
146

169
166

316
312

165
166

180
180

345
346

GRAND TOTAL, 15 TO 64 YEARS.

Operatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................

32
37

37
46

69
83

57
76

61
79

118
155

89
113

98
125

187
238

46
47

32
40

7S
87

193
175

233
212

426
387

239
222

265
252

504
474

Total, both classes:
1905 to 1907.....................
1908 to 1912..............................

78
84

69
86

147
170

250
251

294
291

544
542

328
335

363
377

691
712




42

C H A P . I .— SCOPE A N D M E T H O D OF IN V E ST IG A TIO N .

S in c e i t is c o m m o n k n o w le d g e t h a t t h e r e w a s a v e r y m a t e r ia l i n ­
c re a s e (e s t im a te d a t a b o u t 8 p e r c e n t ) in F a ll R i v e r s w h o le p o p u la ­
t io n d u r in g th e p e r io d b e t w e e n 19 0 6 a n d 1 9 1 0 , th e m e d ia n y e a r s o f
t h e t w o i n v e s t i g a t i o n p e r io d s , a n y t h in g le s s t h a n a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n ­
c re a s e in th e a v e r a g e a n n u a l n u m b e r o f d e a th s in e a c h a g e g r o u p o f
t h e v a r io u s s e x a n d o c c u p a t i o n p o p u l a t io n c la s s e s is p r im a f a c i e
e v i d e n c e o f i m p r o v e d g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r 3r.h e c i t
t
I t w ill b e s e e n t h a t in t h e im p o r t a n t a g e g r o u p 15 t o 2 4 , th e
a v e ra g e d e a th s in th e 5 -y e a r p re s e n t in v e s t ig a t io n w e r e a c t u a lly
l e s s (2 p e r c e n t ) t h a n i n t h e 3 - y e a r f o r m e r s t u d y , d u e t o a s m a l l e r
fe m a le m o r t a lit y , t h o u g h th e fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s s h o w e d a n in c r e a s e
o f d e a th s in th is a n d in e v e r y a g e g r o u p .
E s p e c ia l l y n o t e w o r t h y is t h e s h o w in g in a g e g r o u p 4 5 t o 6 4 , w h e r e
t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l n u m b e r o f fe m a le d e a th s w e r e id e n t ic a l f o r th e
t w o p e r io d s , a n d d e a th s o f m a le s a v e r a g e d b u t 1 a d d it io n a l in th e
la te r s tu d y .




CHAPTER II.— MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
REASONS FOR SELECTION OF GROUP.

W h ile t h is s t u d y , a s a w h o le , d e a ls w it h c a u s e s o f d e a t h a f f e c t in g
th e t o t a l p o p u la t io n a g e d 10 t o 64 , th e a g e g r o u p 15 t o 4 4 h a s b e e n
s e le c t e d f o r s p e c ia l c o n s id e r a t io n a n d c o n t r a s t w it h th e a g e g r o u p
45 to 64.
S in c e i t is c u s t o m a r y t o c o m p a r e d e a t h r a te s o n l y w it h in
p e r io d s n o t e x c e e d in g a d e c a d e , th e s e le c tio n o f s o lo n g a p e r io d as
t h a t c o m p r is e d b e t w e e n 15 a n d 4 4 fir s t d e m a n d s e x p la n a t io n .
T h is
is f o u n d i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d e a t h r a t e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e
t o b e c o n s id e r e d s h o w , in g e n e r a l, t h e s a m e r e la t io n f o r a n y
o r 1 0 -y e a r p e r io d w it h in th e 3 0 y e a r s t h a t t h e y s h o w f o r th e p e r io d
as a w h o le .
T h is d o e s n o t , o f c o u r s e , e x p la in th e c o m p a r is o n
a 3 0 - y e a r p e r i o d w i t h a 2 0 - y e a r p e r i o d , b u t t h i s is r e n d e r e d e q u i
t a b ly p o s s ib le b y m e a n s o f th e d e v ic e o f a g e a d ju s tm e n t , w h ic h h a s
a lr e a d y b e e n d e s c r i b e d .1 B y a d is c r im in a t e u s e o f t h is d e v i c e c o m ­
p a ris o n o f th e d e a th h a z a r d s o f g r o u p s c o v e r in g 20 , 30, o r e v e n 5 0
y e a r s c a n b e m a d e w it h o u t d a n g e r o f o b t a in in g fa lla c io u s c o n c lu s io n s
th e r e fr o m .
T h r e e p r in c ip a l r e a s o n s le d t o t h e c h o i c e o f t h is g r o u p f o r s p e c ia l
s t u d y : F ir s t , t h e m a s s in g o f c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e s w it h in it s lim it s r e n ­
d e rs its s e le c t io n d e s ir a b le , in o r d e r t h a t th e c o m p a r is o n s b e t w e e n
o p e r a t iv e s a n d n o n o p e r a t iv e s m a y b e fa ir ly e q u it a b le , e v e n w it h o u t
a g e a d ju s t m e n t o f t h e d e a t h r a t e s ; s e c o n d , t h is is t h e p e r i o d w it h in
w h i c h t u b e r c u l o s i s is m o s t f a t a l l y a c t i v e , a n d s i n c e t u b e r c u l o s i s is
t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s in g le c a u s e o f e a r ly d e a t h in F a ll R iv e r , i t i
e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s a g e g r o u p is e s p e c i a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r d e t a i l e d s t u d y
in t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t ig a t io n ; t h ir d , t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e g r o u p f r o m
th e c o m p lic a t io n s o f e ith e r in fa n c y o r a g e r e n d e r s i t p o s s ib le t
t r a c e th e e ffe c t o f a s p e c ifie d c a u s e u p o n d e a t h r a te s fa r m o r e e a s ily
t h a n c a n b e d o n e in t h e h ig h e r a g e g r o u p s , in w h ic h t h e in flu e n c e o f
a d v a n c in g y e a r s s e r io u s ly a ffe c ts th e m o r t a lit y .
E a c h o f th e
r e a s o n s d e s e r v e s s o m e c o n s id e r a t io n .
F ir s t , a s t o t h e m a s s in g o f t h e c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e s w it h in t h is a g e
g r o u p , th e fo llo w in g t a b le s s h o w h o w la r g e ly t h e y a re in c lu d e d w it h in
its lim it s :
A G E P E R C E N T A G E D IS T R IB U T IO N O F O P E R A T I V E S A N D N O N O P E R A T I V E S O F E A C H
S E X , 1910.®
Males.
Age group.

Opera­
tives.

Females.

Nonop­
eratives.

Opera­
tives.

Nonop­
eratives.

10 to 14 years.....................................................................................................
15 to 44 years.....................................................................................................
45 to 64 years.....................................................................................................

3
78
19

18
58
24

3
89
8

16
55
29

T otal........................................................................................................

100

100

100

100

a The operative distribution is that which was found to prevail in February, 1913, when the operative
census, already described, was taken. See p. 19.
1 See p. 32.




43

44

C H A P . n . ---- M O R T A L IT Y IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

E v i d e n t l y t h e a g e d is t r i b u t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t iv e s d iffe r s s o w id e l y
fr o m t h a t o f th e n o n o p e r a t iv e s t h a t n o v a lid c o m p a r is o n c a n b e
d r a w n b e t w e e n t h e i r d e a t h r a t e s u n l e s s a l l o w a n c e is m a d e f o r t h i s
d iv e r g e n c e .
T a k e , f o r in s ta n c e , th e fe m a le p o p u la t io n .
O n ly 8 p e r
c e n t o f th e o p e r a t iv e s a re o v e r 4 4 , w h ile 2 9 p e r c e n t o f th e n o n o p e r ­
a tiv e s a re 4 5 o r o v e r .
B u t a b o v e 4 4 th e d e a th r a te in c r e a s e s r a p id ly ,
o w in g t o th e e ffe c t o f a d v a n c in g y e a rs .
I f , th e r e fo r e , th e d e a t h r a te
o f fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s b e c o m p a r e d w ith th e d e a th r a te o f fe m a le n o n ­
o p e r a t iv e s , th e r e a l r e la t io n w ill b e o b s c u r e d b y t h e h ig h e r d e a t h
h a z a r d a m o n g t h e o l d e r g r o u p s o f n o n o p e r a t i v e s , w h o s e i n f l u e n c e is
n o t o ff s e t b y s im ila r o ld e r g r o u p s o f o p e r a t iv e s .
T h e sa m e s itu a tio n ,
t h o u g h n o t t o s o m a r k e d a n e x t e n t , p r e v a ils a m o n g th e m a le p o p u ­
la t io n .
M o r e o v e r , th e s a m e d is s im ila r it y o f a g e g r o u p in g p r e v a ils a m o n g
t h e o p e r a t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t w o r k r o o m s , a s is a p p a r e n t
fr o m th e fo llo w in g t a b le :
P E R C E N T O F O P E R A T I V E S IN E A C H W O R K R O O M , B Y S E X A N D A G E G R O U P , 1913.

Per cent of operatives in—

Sex, and age group.
Card
room.

Spooler
Spinning room and
room.
miscel­
laneous.

W eave
room.

A ll work­
rooms.

MALES.

15 to 44 years...............................................................................
45 to 64 years...............................................................................

1
81
18

Total...................................................................................

100

4
84
12
.

5
79
16

2
75
23

3
78
19

100

100

100

100

FEMALES.

10 to 14 years...............................................................................
15 to 44 years...............................................................................
45 to 64 years...............................................................................

3
87
10

3
95
2

3
91
6

3
84
13

3
89

Total...................................................................................

100

100

100

100

100

8

i

T h e a g e d is t r ib u t io n o f th e o p e r a t iv e s in th e s e d iffe r e n t r o o m s d o e s
n o t d iffe r s o w id e ly a s t h a t o f t h e o p e r a t iv e s a n d n o n o p e r a t iv e s , b u t
i t is n e v e r t h e l e s s t o o g r e a t t o p e r m i t c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n t h e d e a t h
ra te fo r th e to ta l w o r k r o o m g ro u p s.
T a k in g th e fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s ,
i t is e v i d e n t t h a t t h e w e a v e - r o o m g r o u p , w i t h 1 3 p e r c e n t i n t h e a g e
g r o u p 4 5 t o 6 4 , c a n n o t fa ir ly b e c o m p a r e d w ith th e s p in n in g -r o o m
g r o u p , o f w h ic h o n ly 2 p e r c e n t a re 4 5 o r o v e r , n o r c a n th e s e b e
fa ir ly c o m p a r e d w it h th e c a r d -r o o m g r o u p , in w h ic h 10 p e r c e n t a re
in t h e o ld e s t a g e g r o u p .
B u t in e v e r y w o r k r o o m th e g r e a t m a jo r it y
o f th e w o r k e r s a re fo u n d in th e a g e g r o u p 15 t o 4 4 , th e m a jo r it y
b e in g s o la r g e t h a t t h is a g e g r o u p it s e lf m a y b e t a k e n a s r e p r e s e n t in g
th e ro o m .




45

REASONS FOR SELECTION OF GROUP.

T h e s e c o n d r e a s o n f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h i s g r o u p , i. e ., t h e s p e c i a l
a c t i v i t y o f t u b e r c u lo s is w it h in it s lim it s , n e e d s l it t le d is c u s s io n .
Of
th e w h o le n u m b e r o f d e a th s fr o m t u b e r c u lo s is a m o n g th e p o p u la ­
tio n a g e d 10 y e a r s o r o v e r d u r in g th e p e r io d 1 9 0 8 t o 1 9 1 2 , 73 p e r
c e n t o f th e m a le d e a th s , 7 9 p e r c e n t o f th e fe m a le , a n d 76 p e r c e n t
o f t h e t o t a l f o r b o t h s e x e s o c c u r r e d a m o n g t h o s e a g e d 15 t o 4 4
A m o n g t h e o p e r a t iv e s t h e m a s s in g o f t u b e r c u lo u s d e a t h s w it h in t h is
a g e g r o u p is e v e n m o r e m a r k e d , a s a p p e a r s p l a i n l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g
ta b le :
PE R CENT T H A T D EATH S FROM TUBERCULOSIS AMONG OPER ATIVES OF EACH
W ORKROOM IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44 W E R E OF T O TAL D EA TH S FROM TUBERCULOSIS
AMONG SUCH W O R K R O O M OPERATIVES, 10 Y E A R S OF AG E OR OVER, 1908 TO 1912.
Workroom.

Females.

Males.

Both
sexes.

Card room....................................................................................................................
Spinning room...........................................................................................................
Spooler room and miscellaneous............................................................................
Weave room.................................................................. .............................................

75
82
67
83

92
100
93
88

86
92
90
85

All operatives..................................................................................................

80

94

88

S in c e th r e e -fo u r th s o f th e d e a th s fr o m t u b e r c u lo s is a m o n g th e g e n ­
e ra l p o p u la t io n , n e a r ly fo u r -fift h s o f th o s e a m o n g th e fe m a le p o p u ­
la t io n as a w h o le , a n d n o t fa r fr o m n in e -t e n t h s o f th o s e a m o n g th e
w h o le o p e r a t iv e p o p u la t io n t o o k p la c e in th e a g e g r o u p 15 t o 4 4 , i t
is e v i d e n t t h a t a s t u d y o f t u b e r c u l o s i s , e s p e c i a l l y a m o n g f e m a l e s a n d
o p e r a t iv e s , m a y p r o p e r ly b e b a s e d in th e m a in u p o n th e d a t a f o r
th is a g e g r o u p .
T h e t h i r d r e a s o n f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s g r o u p is i t s f r e e d o m f r o m t h e
d is t u r b in g in flu e n c e s o f in fa n c y a n d o ld a g e , as a c o n s e q u e n c e o
w h ic h th e d e a th ra te s r e fle c t th e e ffe c t o f a g iv e n ca u se , s u c h a
o c c u p a t io n , m o r e c le a r ly th a n w h e n t h e y a re c o m p lic a t e d b y th
f a c t o f a d v a n c in g y e a r s .1
T h e c o m p a r a t i v e f r e e d o m o f t h is g r o u p f r o m t h e m o r t a l i t y d u e t o
a g e is c le a r ly s h o w n in t h e fo l l o w i n g t a b l e :
D E A T H RATES PER 1,000 AND P E R ‘ CENT OF T O TA L P O PU LATIO N OF 1910 AN D OF
TO TA L D EATH S IN EACH 10-YEAR AGE GROUP, 1908 TO 1912.

Age group.

Death rate
per 1,000 of
1910 popu­
lation.

Per cent
of popu­
lation of
1910.

Per cent
of total
deaths
(average).

Under 10 years..............................
..................................................
10 to 14 years....................................................................................................
15 to 24 years....................................................................................................
25 to 34 years....................................................................................................
35 to 44 years...................................
........................
......
45 to 54 years...................................................................................................
55 to 64 years...................................................................................................
65 years and over............................................................................................

42.25
2.05
3.70
6.67
8.98
13.43
35.54
80.67

22
10
20
17
14
9
5
3

51
1
4
6
7
7
9
15

Total, all ages.......................................................................................

18. 28

100

100

Total, 10 years and ovei*....................................................................
Total, 15 to 44 years............................................................................
Total, 45 to 64 years............................................................................

11.43
6.10
20.46

78
51
14

49
17
16

1 The 5 years from 10 to 14, which are equally free from this complication, were not included, because
the number of operatives under 14 is practically negligible.




4S

C H A P. I I .-----M O R T A LITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

I t m a y a s s is t in im p r e s s in g u p o n t h e m i n d th e s e a g e g r o u p
d iffe r e n c e s in th e d e a t h h a z a r d o f t h e w h o le p o p u la t io n t o n o t i c e
t h a t n p t o m id d le life , 4 4 , t h e d e a t h r a te , b e g in n in g in t h e y o u n g e s t
i n d u s t r ia l a g e g r o u p , 1 0 t o 1 4 , a t 2 .0 5 p e r 1 ,0 0 0 , in c r e a s e s i
e a c h 1 0 -y e a r a g e g r o u p b y a p p r o x im a t e ly 2 ; a n d t h a t fr o m 4
o n w a r d e a c h 1 0 -y e a r a g e g r o u p h a s r o u g h ly d o u b le th e r a te o f th e
p r e c e d in g o n e .
T h a t is , t h e s u d d e n r is e in t h e d e a t h r a t e p r e s u m a b ly
a ttr ib u ta b le t o a d v a n c in g y e a r s d o e s n o t a ffe c t t h e p e r io d 15 t o 4 4 ,
a n d th e h ig h e s t r a te f o r a n y o n e o f th e th r e e d e c a d e s c o n t a in e d in it
is lo w a s c o m p a r e d w it h th e r a te fo r a n y s u c c e e d in g d e c a d e .
A ls o
t h e v a r ia t io n s b e t w e e n t h e r a te s f o r a n y t w o d e c a d e s o f th is p e r io d
a r e r e la tiv e ly s m a ll, s o t h a t f o r t h e p e r io d a s a w h o le th e d e a t h r a te s
m a y b e r e g a r d e d a s b o t h r e la tiv e ly lo w a n d r e la tiv e ly u n ifo r m .
S o m e a d d it io n a l r e a s o n s w e r e o f w e ig h t in t h e s e le c t io n o f th is
p a r tic u la r g r o u p .
O n e o f t h e f a c t o r s w h ic h m u s t b e c o n s id e r e d
in o r d e r t o a c c o u n t a d e q u a t e ly f o r th e m o r t a lit y w ith in a n in d u s t r y
is th e n a t io n a lit y orv ra ce o f its w o r k e r s .
T h e age grou p d ea th h azard
is g iv e n h e r e in a c c u r a t e ly f o r c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e s o n l y .
A t p resen t
th e re a re n o d a t a a v a ila b le s h o w in g th e a g e d is t r ib u t io n o f th e
n o n o p e r a t iv e p o p u la t io n b y r a c e , b u t o n l y fig u r e s s h o w in g h o w t h e
e n t ir e p o p u l a t io n o f a ll a g e s is d iv id e d r a c ia lly .
T h e r e fo r e , i
c o m p u t in g n o n o p e r a t iv e d e a t h r a te s o f t h e d iffe r e n t r a c e s o r p e o p le s
h j a g e g ro u p s , it h a s b e e n te n ta tiv e ly a ssu m e d th a t th e r a c e d is ­
t r ib u t io n o f t h e t o t a l m a le a n d fe m a le p o p u la t io n w it h in a n y s p e c ifie d
a g e g r o u p is id e n t ic a l w it h t h a t w h ic h th e c e n s u s s h o w s t o e x is t
in th e p o p u la t io n a s a w h o le .
F o r e x a m p le , i t h a s b e e n a s s u m e d
t h a t th e E n g lis h a g e d 10 t o 14 fo r m th e s a m e p r o p o r t io n o f th e w h o le
g r o u p a g e d 1 0 t o 14 t h a t th e E n g lis h o f a ll a g es fo r m o f th e p o p u la t io n
o f a ll a g e s .
F o r im m ig r a n t r a ce s o f lo n g s t a n d in g t h is is p r o b a b ly
a c o r r e c t a s s u m p t io n , b u t f o r m o r e r e c e n t im m ig r a n t s , s u c h a s t h e
P o r tu g u e s e w h o fo r m an im p o r ta n t p a r t o f th e F a ll R iv e r o p e r a tiv e
b o d y , i t is m o r e a p t t o b e t r u e a s r e s p e c t s t h e a g e g r o u p 15 t o 4 4
th a n f o r th e p o p u la t io n a s a w h o le .
F o r th e s e n e w e r a r r iv a ls a re
t o a la r g e e x t e n t p e r s o n s o f w o r k in g a g e , w h o h a v e n o t b e e n h e r e
l o n g e n o u g h t o h a v e m a r r ie d a n d h a d c h ild r e n , o r t o h a v e g r o w n
i n t o t h e h ig h e r a g e g r o u p s .
I n o th e r w o r d s , th e re are lik e ly t o b e
r e la t iv e ly f e w c h ild r e n a n d f e w a g e d p e o p le a m o n g t h e m , a n d h e n c e
th e r a c ia l d e a th ra te s c a n p r o b a b ly b e c o m p u te d m o r e a c c u r a t e ly
b y a g e , w it h in th is g r o u p in w h ic h t h e y a r e m a s s e d , th a n t h e y c o u l d
b e i f th e s a m e a s s u m p tio n w e r e a p p lie d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o le p o p u ­
l a t io n o f a ll a g e s.
A g a in , th is p a r t ic u la r g r o u p n o t o n l y fu r n is h e s th e g r e a t m a jo r i t y
o f d e a t h s fr o m tu b e r c u lo s is , b u t a m a jo r it y o f a ll d e a th s a m o n g




47

REASONS FOB SELECTIO N OF GROUP.

c o t t o n o p e r a t iv e s o c c u r w ith in
th e fo llo w in g ta b le :

its lim it s .

T h is is a p p a r e n t fr o m

PER CENT T H A T D E A T H S FROM A L L CAUSES AMONG COTTON O P E R A T IV E S OF EACH
SPECIFIED W O R K R O O M , IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44 A R E OF T O T A L FROM A L L CAUSES
AM ONG O P E R A T IV E S A G E D 10 Y E A R S OR O VER O F EA C H SPECIFIED ROOM.
i

Females.

O^

Males.

«8

Workroom.

Card room........................................................................................................ ..........
Spinning room...........................................................................................................
Spooler room and miscellaneous............................................................................
Weave room............................................................................................... ................

63
67

39
53

71
96
82
64

64
80
74
58

All rooms..........................................................................................................

54

76

65

A lt h o u g h th e s e p e r c e n ta g e s a re n o t s o la r g e a s th o s e f o r t u b e r c u lo u s
d e a t h s t h e y a re q u it e s u ffic ie n t t o e s t a b lis h t h e f a c t t h a t t h is a g e
p e r io d is f a ir ly r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o f t h e a g g r e g a t e o p e r a t iv e d e a th s .
F in a lly , t h e s iz e o f t h e n u m b e r s n e c e s s a r ily i n v o l v e d in th
v it a l s ta tis tic s o f a n a g e g r o u p c o v e r in g 3 0 y e a r s a d d s c o n c lu s iv e ­
n e s s t o t h e r e s u lt s o b t a i n e d .
W h e n th e m o r ta lity d a ta o f o n
in q u ir y c o v e r in g th r e e y e a r s a n d o f a n o th e r c o v e r in g th e s u c c e e d in g
fiv e y e a r s b o t h p r e s e n t c e r t a in fe a tu r e s , t h is d u a l a c c o r d fu r n is h e s
a s t r o n g p r e s u m p t io n t h a t th e s e a r e r e a lly b a s ic f a c t s , e v e n t h o u g h
in e a c h c a s e th e g r o u p s fr o m w h ic h th e d a ta h a v e b e e n d ra w n m ig h t
b e s m a ll.
B u t w h e n th e sa m e a c c o r d a p p e a rs in d a ta b a se d u p o n
g r o u p s in c lu d in g o v e r h a lf th e p o p u la tio n , th e in fe r e n c e a s t o th e
b a s ic c h a r a c te r o f th e fa c t s t h u s d is c lo s e d b e c o m e s m u c h s tr o n g e r .
T h e c h a r a c t e r is t ic s o f th e a g e g r o u p 15 t o 4 4 w h ic h h e lp e d t o
d e t e r m in e it s s e le c t io n f o r d e t a ile d s t u d y m a y , t h e r e fo r e , b e th u s
s u m m a r iz e d :
1. It includes more than four-fifths of the operative population,
and can therefore be used more suitably than any other age group
for comparisons between operative and nonoperative mortality,
even if no age adjustment of death rates were employed.
2 . N e a r ly t w o -t h ir d s o f t h e e n tir e o p e r a t iv e d e a th s , m o r e th a n
th r e e -fo u r th s o f t h e e n t ir e fa t a l tu b e r c u lo s is a m o n g p e r s o n s a g e d 1 0
y e a r s a n d o v e r , a n d a lm o s t n in e -t e n t h s o f th e w h o le n u m b e r o
o p e r a t iv e d e a t h s fr o m tu b e r c u lo s is o c c u r w it h in its lim its .
T h ere
fo r e i t is e s p e c ia lly s u it a b le f o r in t e n s iv e s t u d y in a n in v e s t ig a t io n o f
d e a t h c a u s e s a m o n g c o t t o n o p e r a tiv e s .
3 . I t r e p r e s e n ts t h a t p e r io d o f life w h ic h s h o u ld n o r m a lly b e a lm o s t
w h o lly fr e e fr o m fa ta litie s , e x c e p t f o r a ra re o c c a s io n a l d e a t h fr o m
in b o r n d e fe c t.
A p e r io d , th e r e fo r e , in w h ic h p r a c t ic a lly e v e
d e a t h is in it s e s s e n c e a c a s u a lt y , n o m a t t e r w h a t c o n v e n t io n a l te r m
m a y o ffic ia lly b e g iv e n as th e “ c a u s e ” ; a p e r io d , t o o , in w h i
u n q u e s t io n a b ly d e a t h is v e r y la r g e ly p r e v e n t a b le e v e n n o w t h r o u g h
th e in t e llig e n t a p p lic a t io n o f p r e s e n t k n o w le d g e .




48

C H A P . I I .---- M O R T A L IT Y IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

4 . I t is p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n , t o t n i s a g e g r o u p o f t h e
c e n s u s p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e r a c e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the* e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n
g iv e s a s m a lle r e r r o r in th e r a c ia l d e a t h r a te s o f n o n o p e r a t iv e s t h a n
w o u ld b e th e c a s e w it h a n y o t h e r a g e g r o u p .
R a c ia l d e a th ra te s
f o r o p e r a t iv e s a re b a s e d u p o n k n o w n p o p u la t io n d a ta .
5 . F in a lly , in th e n u m b e r o f in d iv id u a ls i n v o l v e d t h is g r o u p ,
in c lu d in g m o r e th a n h a lf o f th e t o t a l p o p u la t io n , p o s s e s s e s d e c id e d
a d v a n t a g e s o v e r o t h e r a g e g r o u p s f o r s t a t is t ic a l a n a ly s is .
SUMMARY OF COMPONENT 5-YEAR AGE GROUPS.

A s h a s a lr e a d y b e e n s a id , th e v a r ia t io n s in th e d e a th r a te s f o r th e
5 -y e a r a g e g r o u p s w it h in t h is 3 0 -y e a r p e r io d a r e r e la t iv e ly s m a ll
as c o m p a r e d w it h t h e d iffe r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e d e a t h r a te s f o r a n y
5 o r 1 0 -y e a r a g e g r o u p s o u t s id e th e p e r io d , o r f o r th e p e r io d its e lf as
a w h o le a n d a n y o f th e h ig h e r a g e g r o u p s in c lu d in g a n e q u a l n u m b e r
o f yea rs.
N e v e r th e le s s , i f th e c o m p a r is o n b e c o n fin e d to th e d e a th
r a te s o f th e se c o m p o n e n t 5 -y e a r a g e g r o u p s w it h o u t r e fe r e n c e to
r a t e s p r e v a ilin g o u t s id e o f t h e p e r io d , c o n s id e r a b le d iffe r e n c e s
ap pea r.
M o r e o v e r , t h e m a s s in g b y s e x a n d o c c u p a t io n d iffe r s f r o m
g r o u p to g r o u p , th e r e la tiv e im p o r t a n c e o f t u b e r c u lo u s a n d n o n ­
tu b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s o f d e a t h v a r ie s , a n d in th e s u b d iv is io n s b y s e x
a n d o c c u p a t io n th e d e a th r a te s f r o m tu b e r c u lo s is in s te a d o f in c r e a s in g
s t e a d ily fr o m b e g in n in g t o e n d o f th e p e r io d s h o w s o m e t e n d e n c y t o
fa ll a fte r th e a g e o f 3 4 .
I n d is c u s s in g t h e m o r t a lit y o f t h e g r o u p
as a w h o le th e s e v a r ia tio n s a re o f im p o r t a n c e , a n d c o n s e q u e n t ly it
s e e m s a d v is a b le to p r e fa c e th e c o n s id e r a t io n o f c o n d it io n s in th e a g e
g r o u p 15 t o 4 4 b y a b r ie f s t a t e m e n t o f c o n d it io n s in e a c h o f its c o m ­
p o n e n t 5 -y e a r a g e g r o u p s .
A t th e o u t s e t , in o r d e r to p r e s e n t a c o m p r e h e n s iv e v ie w o f th e
v a r ia t io n s a b o u t t o b e d is c u s s e d , a n d in o r d e r a ls o t o s h o w t h e
r e la t io n b e t w e e n t h o s e in t h is g r o u p a n d t h o s e in t h e w h o le p o p u ­
la t io n a g e d 15 to 6 4 , th e fo llo w in g ta b le s a re p re s e n te d , s h o w in g
th e g e n e r a l d is t r ib u t io n o f th e p o p u la t io n a n d th e d e a th s , t o g e t h e r
w it h a c o m p a r is o n o f th e d e a t h r a te s f o r o p e r a t iv e s , b o t h a s a w h o le
a n d b y w o r k r o o m g r o u p s , a n d fo r n o n o p e r a t iv e s in e a c h 5 -y e a r a g e
grou p.




49

S U M M A R Y OF C O M P O N E N T 5 -YEAR AGE GROUPS.

PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION, IN EACH 5-Y E A R AGE GROUP, OF POPULATION AN D
OF DEATHS, OF O PER ATIVES ACCORDING
TO W O RK R O O M AN D OF NON­
OPERATIVES, B Y SE X .

Picker
room and Spinning
card
room.
room.

Spooler
room and
miscel­
laneous.

Weave
room.

Non­
operatives.

Opera­
tives.

Both
classes.

Sex, and age group.
Pop­
Pop­
Pop­
Pop­
Pop­
Pop­
Pop­
ula­ Dths ula­ Dths ula­ Dths ula­ Dths ula­ Dths ula­ Dths ula­ Dths
tion.
tion.
tion.
tion.
tion.
tion.
tion.
MALES.

to 19 years....................
20 to 24 years....................
25 to 29 years....................
30 to 34 years....................
35 to 39 years....................
40 to 44 years....................
15

1
1
17
16
13

1
1

1
2
1
2
1
1

6
7
1
0
1
0
13
1
2

69

77

58

17

3

1
1
2
0

24
18

1
1

9

8
8
6
1
2

31

23

42

134

6 ,7 7 0

16
18
13

35
24

1
2
8
6

16

4

83

59

89

45 to 54 years....................
55 to 64 years....................

1
2
5

2
0
2
1

Total, 45 to 64 years.

17

41

Grand total, 15 to 64
years (basic num­
ber or 100 per cent).

2 ,4 1 5

1
0
6
6

Total, 15 to 44 years.

8

90 3 ,1 8 0

14
15
13

6

27
17

1
2
1
1
9
8

13
5
4
9

5

2
0
17
14

1
1
1
1
9

9

1
0
iot
8'
11
1
1
0

13
14
15

3

1
1
13
1
0

6
8
9
1
0
1
1

5

16
15
14

7

8

1
2
1
2

9
10
11

9

36

82

58

76

47

78

50

13

2
1
2
1

14

1
0

2
1

14

5

25
39

32

21
29

16

64

18

42

24

53

84

1
1

2 83^ 1,459

5

56 1 3 ,8 2 4

8
2
2

50

563^ 24,558 1 ,1 1 4 ^ 3 8 ,3 8 2 1 ,6 7 7

FEM ALES.

15 to 19 years....................
20 to 24 years....................
25 to 29 years....................
30 to 34 years....................
35 to 39 years....................
40 to 44 years....................

24
24
15

Total, 15 to 44 years.

8
16

9

7

10

90

11

23

33
35
13

14
15
9

27
19

8
6

2
2
2
2
15
10
10

3

12
11
5

72

98

97

87

2

1

2

152 2,925

45 to 54 years....................
55 to 64 years....................

8
2

14
14

Total, 45 to 64 years.

10

28

Grand total, 15 to 64
years (basic num­
ber or 100 per cent).

2 ,7 1 5

0)

7

29

U

26
17

1
0
11
1
1

17

1
1
2
0

26
27

1
2

1
0

15

15
13

13
13

10
11

12
12

10

16

U

2
3
7
9
9

16
16
14
12
11
9

6
7
10
10
9
10

9

18
7

5

10

6
6

94

83

92

77

71

40

78

52

10

25

5

12

15

17

23

14

3

9

5

*7
1

3

13

34

17

8

23

112

4 ,9 4 4

2

8

16

1

8

1
6

224 3 ,8 4 4

8
6

138 1 4 ,4 2 8

10

1
2

37

8

21
27

29

60

22

48

626 2 7 ,6 1 2

1 ,2 6 0

8

42,040 1,886

BOTH SEXES.

15 to 19 years....................
20 to 24 years....................
25 to 29 years....................
3 0 to 3 4 years....................
35 to 39 years.................
40 to 44 years....................

34
29
13

9

8
13
12
12
10
12

Total, 15 to 44 years.

87

67

93

45 to 54 years....................
55 to 64 years....................

10

5
2
7

242 6 ,1 0 5

18

20
16
13

1
1

8
6
3

3

17
16

Total, 45 to 64 years.

13

33

Grand total, 15 to 64
years (basic num­
ber or 100 per cent).

5 ,1 3 0

19

22
16

17

5

18

14

23

11

10
16
12
8
9

22
14

13

12
14

7

10
7

12
11
10
11

12
12
11

10
10

16
15
14
12
11
10

73

43

78

51

22
35

14

8

21
28

57

22

49

194 2 8 ,2 5 2 1 ,1 8 9 5 2 ,1 7 0 2 ,3 7 4 8 0 ,4 2 2

3,563

1
1
8
6

1
1
12

13

9

13

82

81

61

91

70

87

6
8

24
15

7
2

15
15

10
3

18

12

14
5

14

16
11

18

19

39

9

30

13

32

27

246

11,714

6

6

507 5 ,3 0 3

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

88204°—19—Bull. 251----- 4




1
2

15

15
10
8

28
24

10
10
10

1
1

3
4
9

5
7
9
10
10
10

50

C H A P. II .— M O R T A L IT Y IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

COM PARISON OF D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,000 FOR O P E R A T IV E S A N D N O N O P E R A 'H V E S
IN EACH 5-Y E A R AGE GROUP, B Y W O R K R O O M AN D S E X .
Picker room and
card room.

Spinning room.

Spooler room and
miscellaneous.

Weave room.

Age group.
Fe­ Both Males Fe­ Both Males Fe­ Both Males Fe­ Both
Males males
males sexes
males sexes
males sexes
sexes
15 to 19 vears.......................... 6.18
20 to 24 years.......................... 3.95

4.06
7.26

Total, 15 to 24 years.. 4.89

5.68

25 to 29 years.......................... 3 33 10.65
30 to 34 years.......................... 3.19 14.57
Total, 25 to 34 years.. 3.27 12.31

4.67
6.11

3.79
6.31

5.33
5.85

4.51
6.04

3.35 2.29
3.S
O 5.28

5.43

4.82

5.60

5.22

6.96 IsTST loTST 9.88
8.26 11.43 11.72 11.57
7.54

9.89 11.18 10.53

35 to 39 vears.......................... 6.90 11.91 I m ST 8.12 14.04 10.87
40 to 44 years.......................... 10.41 14.58 12.15 12.70 15.58 13.79
Total, 35 to 44 years.. 8.50 13.11 10.44
Total, 15 to 44 years:
•Age adjusted........ 5.13 9.03 7.01
Crude..................

5.31

4.19
3.17

4.03
3.03

3.15

3-70

3.57

0)

~8.87~
13.37

7.42
9.25

0)

10.51

8.13

2.79
4.56

3-59
0)

3.59

3.82 I 3.71

6.12
7.12

5.89
9.96

6.02
8.23

6.58

7.53

6.98

9.19 9.80 9.42 T l 9 ~ "(M B’ 6.80
9 3 0 18.82 12.57
0 ) 13.21 10.40
9.24 13.61 10.83

6.30

9.34

833

7.27

8.94

5.55

6.79

3.20

6.76

5-81

6.53

8.92

9.91 14.52 11.91

7.58

6.21

6.92

3.26

6.36

8.05

6.04

45 to 54 years.......................... 12.12 19.21 15.21 11.76 " o r 10.56 12.19 21.44 15.10 17To7~ 16.00
55 to 64 years.......................... 31.41 100.00 49.08 50.47
0 ) 53 21 25 49 27 27 25.98 64.71 46.67
Total, 45 to 64 years:
Age adjusted........ 16.91 39.27 23-62 21.37
0 ) 21.15 15.49 22.89 17.80 28.90 23.61
Crude.................. 17.70 31.73

Grand total, 15 to 64
years:
Age adjusted........ 6.69 13.05
Crude..................

9.22

7.45 11.20

Operatives.

Age group.

15.75 22.79

2^.20 12.00

9.14 29.35
8.43

9.79

7.66

6.87

8.93

8.36

3.93
5.22

3. 89
4.93

Total, 15 to 24 years. 4.14

4.58

4.40

25 to 29 years................... 5.70 8. 54
30 to 34 years................... 6.13 12.13

7. 22
8.96

Total, 25 to 34 years. 5.89

2.13
3. 73

2.02
2.68

2.08
3.23

2.93

2.36

4. 97
6.86

4. 78
6. 05

7.60

6.61

9.00

7.68

7.18

8.64

Per cent of excess in death rates.

Both
classes
and
both
Fe­ Both
Fe­
Males males sexes Males males Both sexes.
sexes

15 to 19 years................... 3.83
20 to 24 years................... 4.48

27.08

31.03 20.00

9.06

Nonoperatives.

16.48
59.18

Operative over Female Male
nonoperative.
over
over
male female
nonoper­
Fe­
Males. males. atives. oper­
atives.

3.01
4.07

ro
20

95
95

2.66

3. 54

41

4.88
6.41

5. 71
7.22

15
»11

3
17

5
39

94

31

24

79
100

50
98

4
13

7. 95

5. 80

5.40

5.59

6.39

2

84

69

7

35 to 39 vears................... 8.37 10.02 9.11
40 to 44 years................... 9.51 16.18 12.25

7. 46
9. 56

6. 66
8.13

7.04
8. 76

7. 66
9. 70

12
31

50
99

20
70

12
18

Total, 35 to 44 years. 8. 88 12.55 10.48
Total, 15 to 44 years:
Age adjusted_
_ 5.57 7.67 6.60

8. 41

7. 38

7.85

8.60

6

70

41

14

4. 82

4.21

4.51

5.35

16

38

14

5.56

5.14

4

82
42

25

8

45 to 54 years................... 12. 55 18.99 14. 81 13.60 12.16 12. 77
55 to 64 years................... 34.09 44. 74 36.70 29.64 28.89 29. 21
Total, 45 to 64 years:
Age adjusted
17.90 25.38 20. 25 17.-58 16.32 16. 85

13.29
30. 27

38
15

56
56

51
31

12
3

17.50

2
38

56

42

8

26

28

7

11
3 10

72

39

*5

12
61

Crude...............

5.81

9.94

7.28

Crude............... 18.53 23.81

Grand total, 15 to
64 years:
Age adjusted. . .

Crude...............

7. 21 10.03
8.15

8.68

20.15 18.87

8. 42

6. 52

5.82

9.07

9.13

6.15

6.96

1 Less than 5 deaths in population group; rate not computed.
8 Average rate estimated. Crude rate 45 to 64 used instead of atypical rates of subgroups.
3 Per cent by which operative rate fell below nonDperative rate.
4 Per cent by which operative rate fell below nonoperative rate; fallacious because of dissimilar age
distribution. See detailed explanation, p. 32.
6 Per cent by which rate for nonoperative males fell below rate for nonoperative females; fallacious
because of dissimilar age distribution. See detailed explanation, p. 32.




S U M M A R Y OF C O M P O N E N T 5-Y EAR AGE GROUPS.

51

T h e fir s t o f t h e t w o p r e c e d in g t a b le s b r in g s o u t t h e m a s s in g o f th e
fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s in th e e a r lie r a g e g r o u p s , w h e r e n o r m a lly th e d e a t h
r a t e is l o w .
O v e r o n e - h a l f (5 3 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e f e m a le o p e r a t iv e
a r e f o u n d in t h e t w o g r o u p s a g e d 15 t o 19 a n d 2 0 t o 2 4 y e a r s , w h ile
o n l y a b o u t o n e - f i f t h (2 1 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e f e m a l e n o n o p e r a t i v e s a r e
fo u n d in th e s e t w o a g e g r o u p s . T h e r e la tiv e y o u t h fu ln e s s o f th e o p e r a ­
t iv e s g r e a t ly in c r e a s e s t h e im p r e s s iv e n e s s o f t h e ir h ig h d e a t h r a t e s .
T w e n t y -e ig h t p e r c e n t o f th e fe m a le o p e r a t iv e d e a t h s a g a in s t o n ly
5 p e r c e n t o f th e fe m a le n o n o p e r a t iv e d e a th s o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n th e
a g e s o f 15 a n d 2 4 .
A m o n g m a le o p e r a t iv e s t h e m a s s in g in t h e lo w e r
a g e g r o u p s is n o t s o p r o n o u n c e d .
O v e r o n e - t h i r d (3 7 p e r c e n t ) o
t h e m a le o p e r a t iv e s , h o w e v e r , a g a in s t a b o u t o n e - f o u r t h (2 7 p e r c e n t )
o f t h e n o n o p e r a t i v e s a r e f o u n d in t h e t w o a g e g r o u p s c o v e r i n g 1 5 t o
2 4 y e a r s , a n d 19 p e r c e n t o f t h e o p e r a t i v e d e a t h s a s c o m p a r e d w it h
9 p e r c e n t o f th e n o n o p e r a t iv e o c c u r in th e s e t w o a g e g r o u p s .
C o m p a r in g th e d e a t h r a te s o f o p e r a t iv e s a n d n o n o p e r a t iv e s , as
s h o w n in th e s e c o n d o f th e ta b le s , i t w ill b e s e e n t h a t a m o n g th e m a le s
t h e g r e a t e s t o p e r a t iv e e x c e s s is f o u n d in t h e g r o u p a g e d 15 t o 39
T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h is g r o u p is in d ic a t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t i t c o n t a in s
o n e - f i f t h o f a ll t h e m a l e o p e r a t i v e s .
I n th e a lm o s t e q u a lly im p o r t a n t
g r o u p a g e d 2 0 t o 2 4 y e a r s t h e o p e r a t iv e e x c e s s is o n l y 2 0 p e r c e n t .
I n t w o o f t h e o £ h e r f i v e - y e a r a g e g r o u p s t h e e x c e s s is o n t h e s i d e o f
th e n o n o p e r a t i v e s , t h o u g h in n e it h e r c a s e is i t la r g e .
A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e d e a t h r a t e s o f t h e f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n w il
s h o w th a t th e o p e r a t iv e in v a r ia b ly e x c e e d s th e n o n o p e r a t iv e ra te ,
a n d t h a t t h e e x c e s s is s o m e t im e s v e r y la r g e .
T h e g r e a te s t o p e r a tiv e
e x ce s s , 100 p e r c e n t , a p p e a r s in th e g r o u p a g e d 3 0 t o 3 4 , w h ic h c o n ­
ta in s o n e -t e n t h o f th e t o t a l fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s .
I n th e g r o u p ag ed
4 0 t o 4 4 t h e o p e r a t i v e e x c e s s i s 9 9 p e r c e n t , b u t t h i s g r o u p is n u m e r ­
i c a l l y l e s s i m p o r t a n t , c o n t a i n i n g o n l y 6 p e r c e n t o f a ll f e m a l e o p e r ­
a tiv e s .
I n th e m o s t im p o r t a n t a g e g r o u p , 2 0 to 24 y e a rs , w h ic
c o n t a in s 2 7 p e r c e n t o f a ll fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s , t h e e x c e s s in t h e o p e r ­
a t iv e d e a t h r a t e is 9 5 p e r c e n t , a n d in t h e n e x t m o s t im p o r t a n t g r o u p ,
1 5 t o 19 y e a r s , c o n t a i n i n g 2 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e f e m a l e o p e r a t i v e s , t h e
e x c e s s is a g a in 9 5 p e r c e n t .
T h e v e r y g r e a t e x c e s s in th e d e a t h r a te s o f o p e r a t iv e s o v e r n o n ­
o p e r a t i v e s a m o n g t h e y o u n g e s t w o r k e r s , t h o s e a g e d 15 t o 1 9 , m u s t
b e c o n s id e r e d e s p e c ia lly s ig n ific a n t, f o r th e s e g r o u p s c o n t a in la r g e
n u m b e r s , a n d a ffo r d a c o m p a r is o n b e t w e e n b o y s a n d g ir ls w h o h a v e
b e e n e m p lo y e d f o r a fe w y e a r s a n d b o y s a n d g ir ls o f e q u a l a g e s o m e
o f w h o m h a v e n o t b e e n e m p lo y e d a t a ll a s w a g e e a r n e r s .
T u r n in g n o w fr o m th e ta b le t o a c o n s id e r a t io n o f th e s e p a r a te fiv e y e a r a g e g r o u p s , i t m a y b e s a id t h a t in t h is p r e f a t o r y d is c u s s io n d a t a
c o n c e r n in g p o p u la t io n a n d m o r t a lit y fr o m tu b e r c u lo u s a n d fr o m
n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s w ill b e c o n s id e r e d c h ie fly b y s e x a n d o c c u p a ­




52

C H A P . II .---- M O R T A L IT Y IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

tio n , w h ile in th e t r e a t m e n t o f w o r k r o o m m o r t a lit y t h e d is t in c t io n
b e t w e e n t u b e r c u lo u s a n d n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s o f d e a t h w ill b e
d i s r e g a r d e d , a n d t h e d i s c u s s i o n w i l l b e l i m i t e d t o d e a t h s f r o m a ll
ca u se s o n ly .
I t m a y b e w e ll t o p r e m is e t h a t th e c o n d it io n s p r e v a ilin g in th e
s e p a r a te fiv e -y e a r a g e g r o u p s r a r e ly d iffe r fr o m t h o s e in th e w h o le
3 0 -y e a r p e r io d in s u c h a w a y as t o a ffe c t s e r io u s ly th e r e la tiv e d e a th
r a t e o f t h e s e v e r a l c la s s e s .
A n y e x c e p t i o n s t o t h is g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t
w ill b e n o t e d .
MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 19.

T h e p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l p o p u la t io n a n d o f th e t o t a l d e a th s in e a c h
s e x a n d o c c u p a t io n c la s s o f t h e a g e g r o u p 15 t o 19, a n d th e d e a t h
r a t e p e r 1 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n i n e a c h s e x a n d o c c u p a t i o n c l a s s , a s w e l l
a s in a ll c o m b i n e d , a r e s h o w n in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :
PERCENTAGE D IST R IB U T IO N OF PO PULATION AND OF D E AT H S, AN D D E A T H
R ATES PER 1,000 FROM TU BER CU LO U S, N O NTUBER CU LO U S, AN D A L L CAUSES,
B Y S E X AN D OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AGE GROUP 15 TO 19,1908 TO 1912.

Percentage distribution of population and of deaths.
Males.

Cause of death.
Opera­
tives.

Popula­
tion and
number of
deaths.

Females.
•

Both
Nonoper­
atives.
classes.

Opera­
tives.

Nonoper­
Both
atives.
classes.

Population.....................................

22

26

48

29

23

52

12,634

Deaths:
Tuberculous............................
Nontuberculous.....................

17
36

14
22

31
58

49
30

20
12

69
42

86
104

All causes.............................

27

19

46

39

15

54

190

Death rates per 1,000.
Tuberculous...................................
Nontuberculous............................

1.10
2.73

0.73
1.40

0.90
2.00

2.23
1.70

1.18
.84

1.78
1.33

1 1.36
i 1.65

All causes.............................

3.83

2.13

2.90

3.93

2.02

3.11

1 3.01

i Death rate for both sexes and both classes combined.

Mortality by sex .— I n t h i s g r o u p f e m a l e s a r e a l i t t l e m o r e n u m e r o u s
t h a n m a le s , fo r m in g 52 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l.
T h e y fu r n is h a s lig h t ly
la r g e r p e r c e n ta g e o f th e d e a th s , 54 p e r c e n t , th a n th e ir n u m e r ic a l
ex ce ss w a rra n ts.
B o t h o p e r a t iv e a n d n o n o p e r a t iv e fe m a le s s h o w a
s m a lle r p r o p o r t io n o f d e a th s fr o m n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s th a n th e
m a le s o f th e c o r r e s p o n d in g g r o u p s .
C o m p a r in g th e d e a t h h a z a r d
o f t h e t w o s e x e s a s s h o w n b y t h e i r d e a t h r a t e s , t h e f e m a l e h a z a r d is
s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r — 3 .1 1 a g a i n s t 2 . 9 0 , a n e x c e s s o f 7 p e r c e n t .
The
e x c e s s is f o u n d o n l y a m o n g t h e fe m a le s d y i n g o f t u b e r c u lo s is , t h e
fe m a le s in t h e o t h e r s u b g r o u p s s h o w in g a lo w e r r a t e t h a n t h e m a le s .
I n n o o t h e r a g e g r o u p is th e t o t a l d e a t h h a z a r d o f e a c h s e x s o lo w ,




53

S U M M A R Y OF C O M P O N E N T 5 -YEAR AGE GROUPS.

n o r , e x c e p t in th e n e x t a g e g r o u p , a re t h e h a z a r d s o f t h e s e x e s s o
n e a r ly e q u a l.
Mortality by cause .— T u b e r c u l o s i s is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
86 o u t o f
1 9 0 d e a t h s in t h is g r o u p , o r n e a r ly o n e -h a lf.
A b o u t o n e r t h i r d (3 1
p e r c e n t ) o f th e m o r t a lit y o f m a le s , o p e r a t iv e s a n d n o n o p e r a t iv e s
t o g e t h e r , i s c h a r g e a b l e t o t u b e r c u l o s i s , w h i l e n e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s (5 7
p e r c e n t ) , o f t h e w h o l e d e a t h h a z a r d o f t h e f e m a l e s is d u e t o t h i
c a u s e .. T h is d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r , m e a n t h a t t u b e r c u lo s is w a s e s p e
c ia l l y p r e v a le n t s o m u c h a s t h a t in t h is e a r ly a g e g r o u p o t h e r c a u s e s
o f d e a th w e r e n o t a c t iv e .
I n a ctu a l h a za rd , as sh o w n b y th e d e a th
r a te s , t h e r is k f r o m t u b e r c u lo s is w a s s m a lle r in t h is a g e g r o u p f o r th e
p o p u la t io n a s a w h o le a n d f o r e a c h a n d e v e r y s u b g r o u p th a n in a n y
o t h e r o f th e s ix 5 -y e a r a g e g r o u p s w it h in th e p e r io d 15 t o 4 4 .1
Mortality by industry .— A l t h o u g h c o t t o n o p e r a t i v e s f o r m b u t h a l f
o f t h is a g e g r o u p t h e y fu r n is h t w o - t h ir d s o f it s t o t a l d e a t h s .
T h is
g r e a te r h a z a r d o f th e o p e r a t iv e a p p e a rs in v a r y in g d e g r e e s a m o n g
m a le s a n d fe m a le s fr o m b o t h t u b e r c u lo u s a n d n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s
o f d ea th .
I n n o o th e r g r o u p d o e s th e m a le o p e r a t iv e e x c e e d th
n o n o p e r a t iv e in t o t a l d e a t h h a z a r d s o m u c h as h e re , w h e r e th e m a le
o p e r a t iv e d e a t h r a t e is 8 0 p e r c e n t h ig h e r t h a n t h e n o n o p e r a t i v e .
Operative mortality by workroom .— T h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
t h e m a le a n d f e m a le o p e r a t iv e s a n d o f t h e ir d e a t h s f r o m a ll c a u s e s
a m o n g t h e d iffe r e n t w o r k r o o m s , a n d th e ir d e a t h r a te in e a c h r o o m ,
a re fo r th is a g e g r o u p as fo llo w s :
PERCENTAGE D ISTR IBUTIO N OF M ALE AN D FEM ALE O PER ATIVES AN D OF D EATH S
FROM ALL CAUSES, AND D E A T H R ATES PER 1,000, B Y W O R K R O O M , AGE GROUP
15 TO 19.

Card
room.

Item.

Spooler
Spinning room and
room.
miscella­
neous.

Weave
room.

Total.

MALES.

Per cent population............................................................
Per cent deaths....................................................................
Death rates per 1,000...........................................................

10
15
6.18

41
40
3.79

14
14
3.59

35
31
3.35

o2,712
«52
3.83

17
18
4.06

26
35
5.33

29
31
4.19

28
16
2.29

« 3 ,763
074
3.93

14
17
4.67

32
37
4.51

23
24
4.03

31
22
2. 79

o6,475
ol26
3.89

FEMALES.

Per cent population............................................................
Per cent deaths....................................................................
Death rates per 1,000...........................................................
BOTH SEXES.

Per cent population............................................................
Per cent deaths....................................................................
Death rates per 1,000..........................................................

a Basic number (100 per cent),
i The difference between the actual hazard from tuberculosis, as shown by the death rate, and the pro­
portion of deaths due to tuberculosis appears with special clearness among the female nonoperatives of
this age group. Nearly three-fifths (59 per cent) of their total mortality is attributed to tuberculosis. At
no other age throughout adult life is the proportion of tuberculous deaths among them so high; and yet at
no other age, under 65 were they so little liable to die from tuberculosis as at 15 to 19.




54

C H A P. II .---- M O R T A L IT Y IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

T h e c a r d r o o m h a s th e h ig h e s t d e a th r a te h e re , d u e t o th e m o r ­
t a l it y a m o n g t h e m a le s , f o r w h o m t h is r o o m s h o w s b y fa r t h e g r e a t e s t
h azard.
N e x t in g e n e r a l h a z a r d s ta n d s th e s p in n in g r o o m , w h ic h
s h o w s t h e h ig h e s t fe m a le d e a t h r a te , w h ile th e m a le d e a t h r a te h e r e
is h i g h e r t h a n a n y w h e r e e ls e e x c e p t i n t h e c a r d r o o m .
A s th e s p in ­
n in g r o o m c o n t a in s n e a r ly o n e - t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l o p e r a t iv e s o f t h is
a g e g r o u p i t s h i g h r a t e is o f i m p o r t a n c e b o t h a b s o l u t e l y a n d r e l a ­
tiv e ly .
T h e s p o o le r r o o m s h o w s r e la tiv e ly a lo w r a te fo r m a le s a n d
a h ig h r a t e f o r fe m a le s , w h ile f o r b o t h s e x e s t h e w e a v e r o o m s h o w s
a m u c h lo w e r r a te t h a n t h a t f o r th e w h o le o p e r a t iv e g r o u p .
T h i s is
t h e o n l y a g e g r o u p i n w h i c h a w o r k r o o m d e a t h r a t e f o r m a l e s is
f o u n d h ig h e r t h a n a n y r o o m r a t e f o r fe m a le s , a n d e v e n h e r e th e
h ig h e s t m a le r a t e e x c e e d s th e h ig h e s t fe m a le r a t e b y o n l y 16 p e r
c e n t .1
M O RTALITY IN AGE GROUP 20 TO 24.

T h e p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l p o p u la t io n a n d o f th e t o t a l d e a t h s in e a c h
s e x a n d o c c u p a t io n c la s s o f th e a g e g r o u p 2 0 t o 2 4 , a n d t h e d e a t h r a t e
p e r 1 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n i n e a c h s e x a n d o c c u p a t i o n c l a s s , a s w e l l a s i n a l l
c o m b in e d , a re s h o w n in t h e f o llo w in g t a b le :
PERCENTAGE D ISTR IBUTION OF POPULATION AN D OF D EA TH S,, AN D D E A T H
R ATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, A N D A L L CAUSES,
B Y S E X AND OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AGE GROUP 20 TO 24, 1908 TO 1912.
Percentage distribution of population and of deaths.
Males.

Cause of death.
Opera­
tives.

Nonop­
eratives.

Popula­
tion and
number
of deaths.

Females.
Both
classes.

Opera­
tives.

Nonop­
eratives.

Both
classes.

Population.....................................

20

26

46

30

24

54

12,521

Deaths:
Tuberculous...............................
N ontuberculous.........................

20
22

16
33

36
55

50
28

14
17

64
45

129
126

All causes............................

21

24

45

39

16

55

255

Death rate per 1,000.
Tuberculous...................................
Nontuberculous............................

2.16
2.32

1.26
2. 47

1.64
2.41

3.37
1.85

1.21
1.47

2.42
1.68

i 2.06
1 2.01

All causes.............................

4. 48

3.73

4.05

5.22

2.68

4.10

i 4.07

1 Death rate for both sexes and both classes combined.

Mortality by sex .— I n t h i s g r o u p a g a i n t h e f e m a l e s g i v e a s l i g h t l y
la r g e r p r o p o r t io n o f t h e d e a t h s th a n t h e y f o r m o f t h e p o p u la t io n ,
a n d t h e i r t o t a l d e a t h h a z a r d is v e r y s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f
1 Table 55, giving detailed individual death causes, shows that of the total eight deaths of card room
males in this age group, two were from appendicitis, one from scarlet fever, one from typhoid fever, two
from pneumonia, and two from casualties, a distribution which seems to suggest that the card room death
rate for males in this age group may not improbably be atypical.




S U M M A R Y OF C O M P O N E N T 5 -YEAR AGE GROUPS.

55

m a le s .
T h i s e x c e s s is d u e t o t h e h i g h d e a t h r a t e f r o m t u b e r c u l o u
c a u se s a m o n g fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s .
I n e v e r y o t h e r s u b g r o u p th e fe m a le s
fu r n is h a s m a lle r p r o p o r t io n o f th e d e a t h s t h a n o f t h e p o p u la t io n a n d
t h e i r d e a t h r a t e is s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g m a l e g r o u p .
I n n o o t h e r a g e g r o u p a r e th e t o t a l d e a t h r a te s o f m a le s a n d fe m a le
s o n e a r ly e q u a l.
Mortality by cause .— T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t u b e r c u l o u s d e a t h s (5 1
p e r c e n t ) is l a r g e r t h a n i n a n y o t h e r a g e g r o u p .
T h i s is d u e
th e v e r y h ig h p r o p o r t io n o f t u b e r c u lo u s d e a th s a m o n g o p e r a t iv e
e s p e c ia lly fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s , a m o n g w h o m 6 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a
d e a t h s w e r e f r o m t h is c a u s e .
A s in t h e p r e c e d in g g r o u p , t h is m e a n
s im p ly t h a t o t h e r ca u s e s o f d e a t h h a d n o t y e t b e c o m e a c t iv e , n
t h a t tu b e r c u lo s is w a s m o r e p r e v a le n t th a n e ls e w h e r e .
In a ctu
h a z a r d , a s s h o w n b y t h e d e a t h r a t e , t h e r is k f r o m t u b e r c u lo s is in t h is
a g e g r o u p w a s s m a lle r th a n in a n y o t h e r , e x c e p t t h e g r o u p a g
15 t o 19 y e a r s .
Mortality by industry .— I n g e n e r a l , o p e r a t i v e s i n t h i s a g e g r o u p
s h o w a d is t in c t ly h ig h e r d e a t h r a t e th a n n o n o p e r a t iv e s o f th e s a m
sex.
T h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n t o t h is g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n i s f o u n d a m o n g t h
m a le s d y in g o f n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s , w h e r e th e n o n o p e r a t iv e e x c e e d s
th e o p e r a t iv e h a z a r d b y 6 p e r c e n t.
T h e c o m p a r a t iv e ly h ig h d e a t
r a te fr o m tu b e r c u lo s is a m o n g fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s h a s a lr e a d y b e e
m e n t io n e d , b u t e v e n f r o m n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s th e ir d e a t h r a
e x ce e d s th a t o f th e n o n o p e r a tiv e s b y 2 6 p e r c e n t.
F ro m tu b
c u lo s is t h e y a re n e a r ly th r e e t im e s (2 7 9 p e r c e n t ) as lia b le t o d ie a
n o n o p e r a tiv e s .
Operative mortality by workroom .— T h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
t h e m a le a n d f e m a le o p e r a t iv e s a n d o f t h e ir d e a t h s f r o m a ll c a u s e
a m o n g t h e d iffe r e n t w o r k r o o m s , a n d t h e ir d e a t h r a t e in e a c h r o o m
a r e f o r t h is a g e g r o u p a s f o l l o w s :
PERCENTAGE D ISTRIBUTIO N OF MALE AND FEM ALE O PER ATIVE S AN D OF DEATHS
FROM A L L CAUSES, AND D E A T H R ATES PE R 1,000, B Y W O R K R O O M , AG E GROUP
20 TO 24.




1 Basic number (100 per cent).

56

C H A P . II .— M O R T A L IT Y IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

A g a in t h e c a r d r o o m s h o w s t h e g r e a te s t d e a t h h a z a r d , c a u s e d in
th is c a s e b y t h e h ig h d e a t h r a t e a m o n g th e fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s e m ­
p lo y e d h e re .
F o r fe m a le s t h is is t h e r o o m o f g r e a t e s t p e r il, t h e i r
d e a t h r a t e h e r e e x c e e d in g t h a t o f a ll fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s in t h is a g e
g ro u p b y 39 p er ce n t.
F o r m a l e s t h e s p i n n i n g r o o m is t h e p o i n t
o f g r e a t e s t d a n g e r , th e ir d e a t h r a t e h e r e e x c e e d in g t h a t o f a ll m a le
o p e r a t iv e s b y 41 p e r c e n t .
F o r b o th se x e s th e s p o o le r r o o m h a s th e
lo w e s t h a z a r d , th e w e a v e r o o m s ta n d in g n e x t lo w e s t .
M O R TALITY IN AG E GROUP 25 TO 29.

T h e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u la t io n a n d o f th e t o t a l d e a th s in e a c h
s e x a n d o c c u p a t io n c la s s o f t h e a g e g r o u p 2 5 t o 2 9 , a n d t h e d e a t h
r a t e p e r 1 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n in e a c h s e x a n d o c c u p a t i o n c la s s , a s w e ll
a s in a ll c o m b in e d , a r e s h o w n in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b le :
PERCENTAGE D ISTR IBUTIO N OF PO PULATION AND OF D EATH S, AN D D E A T H
R ATE P E R 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES, B Y
S E X AN D OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AGE GROUP 25 TO 29, 1908 TO 1912.

Percentage distribution of population and of deaths.

Opera­
tives.

Nonop­
eratives.

Popula­
tion and
number
of deaths.

Females.

Males.

Cause of death.

Both
classes.

Opera­
tives.

Nonop­
eratives.

Both
classes.

Population.....................................

17

31

48

19

33

52

11,456

Deaths:
Tuberculous....... ...................
Nontuberculous.....................

18
16

26
29

44
45

32
26

24
29

56
55

126
201

17

27

44

29

27

56

327

All causes............................ !

Death rate per 1,000. r
Tuberculous...................................
Nontuberculous............................

2.43
3. 27

1.75
3.22

1.98
3.24

3.67
4.87

1.66
3.12

2. 41
3. 76

12.20
13.51

All causes.............................

5.70

4.97

5.22

8.54

4.78

6.14

i 5.71

1 Death rate for both sexes and both classes combined.

Mortality by sex .— I n t h i s a g e g r o u p f e m a l e s s t i l l f o r m m o r e t h a n
h a lf o f th e p o p u la t io n a n d s h o w a d is p r o p o r tio n a te n u m b e r o f th e
to ta l d ea th s.
T h e ir d e a t h r a te is h ig h e r b y 18 p e r c e n t th a n t h a t o f
th e m a le s , th e e x c e s s a p p e a r in g in d e a th s f r o m b o t h t u b e r c u lo u s a n d
n o n tu b e r c u lo u s ca u se s.
T h e m a le s , b o t h a s a w h o le a n d in t h e n o n ­
o p e r a t iv e s u b g r o u p , fu r n is h a s m a lle r p r o p o r t io n o f th e d e a t h s t h a n
o f th e p o p u la tio n .
M a le n o n o p e r a t iv e s s h o w a h ig h e r d e a t h r a te th a n fe m a le n o n ­
o p e r a t iv e s , b u t t h e e x c e s s , 4 p e r c e n t , is s m a lle r t h a n in a n y o t h e r
a g e g r o u p w it h in th e 15 t o 4 4 y e a r s p e r io d , t h o u g h i t is n e a r ly e q u a le d
in a g e g r o u p 15 t o 1 9 , w h e r e t h e c o r r e s p o n d in g e x c e s s is 5 p e r c e n t .




57

S U M M A R Y OF CO M P O N E N T 5 -YEAR AGE GROUPS.

A m o n g o p e r a t iv e s fe m a le s h a v e m u c h th e g r e a t e r h a z a r d , t h e ir d e a t h
r a te e x c e e d in g t h a t o f th e m a le s b y 50 p e r c e n t.
Mortality by cause.— B y t h e t i m e t h e a g e o f 2 5 is r e a c h e d j i o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s o f d e a th a re b e c o m in g m u c h m o r e a c t iv e th a n
in t h e e a r lie r y e a r s , a n d c o n s e q u e n t ly , t h o u g h t u b e r c u lo s is is r e a lly
m o r e p r e v a le n t h e re t h a n in th e y o u n g e r g r o u p s , it fo r m s a s m a lle r
p r o p o r t io n — 39 p e r c e n t — o f th e t o t a l d e a th s th a n in e ith e r o f th e
p r e c e d in g a g e g r o u p s .
I n t h is a g e g r o u p f o r t h e fir s t t im e t h e in c r e a s e
i n t h e d e a t h h a z a r d f r o m n o n t u b e r c u l o u s c a u s e s is g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t
fr o m t u b e r c u lo s is , th e in c r e a s e in th e d e a t h , r a t e f r o m t u b e r c u lo s is
o v e r t h a t in a g e g r o u p 2 0 t o 24 b e in g o n l y 7 p e r c e n t , w h ile th e in ­
c r e a s e in t h e d e a t h r a t e f r o m n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s is 75 p e r c e n t .
H e r e a ft e r th e h a z a r d fr o m n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s in c r e a s e s in e a c h
f iv e - y e a r a g e g r o u p m o r e r a p id ly th a n t h a t f r o m t u b e r c u lo s is .
Mortality by industry .— O p e r a t i v e s s h o w a g r e a t e r l i a b i l i t y t o d e a t h
fr o m b o t h t u b e r c u lo u s a n d n o n t u b e r c u lo u s ca u s e s th a n d o n o n ­
o p e r a tiv e s o f th e s a m e s e x .
T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e c a s e
o f fe m a le o p e r a tiv e s , w h o s e d e a th r a te fr o m t u b e r c u lo u s c a u se s
e x c e e d s t h a t o f th e n o n o p e r a t iv e s b y 121 p e r c e n t.
T h i s e x c e s s is
s o la r g e t h a t i t fu r t h e r a u g m e n t s th e o p e r a t iv e e x c e s s o f o v e r o n e h a lf in th e d e a t h r a t e f r o m n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s , m a k in g t h e
o p e r a t iv e d e a t h r a t e f r o m a ll c a u s e s a m o n g fe m a le s 79 p e r c e n t
h ig h e r t h a n th e n o n o p e r a t iv e .
A m o n g m a le s th e o p e r a t iv e s as a
w h o le h a v e a d e a t h r a t e o n l y s l ig h t ly h ig h e r (1 5 p e r c e n t ) t h a n t h e
n o n o p e r a t iv e s , a lt h o u g h t h e y s h o w a v e r y c o n s id e r a b le e x c e s s in th e
d e a t h r a te fr o m t u b e r c u lo s is , th e ir r a te e x c e e d in g t h a t o f th e n o n ­
o p e r a tiv e s b y 39 p e r c e n t.
Operative mortality by workroom .— T h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
th e m a le a n d fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s a n d o f th e ir d e a th s fr o m a ll ca u s e s
a m o n g th e d iffe r e n t w o r k r o o m s , a n d t h e ir d e a t h r a te in e a c h r o o m ,
a re f o r t h is a g e g r o u p a s f o llo w s :
PERCENTAGE D ISTR IBU TION OF MALE AND FEM ALE OPER ATIVES AND OF
D E A T H S FROM A L L CAUSES, AN D D E A T H R AT E PER 1,000, B Y W ORKROOM S,
AGE GROUP 25 TO 29.

Card
room.

Item.

Spooler
Spinning room and
room.
miscel­
laneous.

Weave
room.

Total.

M ALES.

22
13
3.84

20
31
8.90

9
4
2.25

48
52
6.12

i 1,895
1 54
5.70

19
24
10.65

18
22
10.85

8. 87

29
30

34
24
5.89

1 2,178
1 93
8.54

20
20
6.96

Per cent population.
Per cent deaths____
Death rate Der 1.000_______________________________

19
26
9.88

20
20
7.42

41
34
6.02

1 4,073
1 147
7.22

FEMALES.

Per cent population.
Per cent deaths____
Death rate per 1,000............................................................
BOTH SEXE S.

Per cent population.
Per cent deaths.......
Death rate per 1,000




1 Basic number (100 per cent).

58

C H A P. I I .-----M O R T A L IT Y IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

T h e s p in n in g r o o m s h o w s th e h ig h e s t d e a th r a te f o r m a le s a n d
f e m a le s a lik e , t h is b e i n g t h e o n l y c a s e w it h in t h e f i v e - y e a r a g e g r o u p s
u n d e r c o n s id e r a t io n in w h ic h t h e h ig h e s t d e a t h r a t e s f o r b o t h s e x e s
a r e fo u n d in th e s a m e r o o m .
T h i s h i g h d e a t h r a t e is e s p e c i a l l
s e r io u s o n a c c o u n t o f th e im p o r t a n c e o f th e r o o m , n e a r ly o n e -fift h
o f th e t o ta l o p e r a tiv e p o p u la t io n o f th e g r o u p b e in g e m p lo y e d h ere .
F o r fe m a le s t h e c a r d r o o m , in w h ic h a lm o s t t h e s a m e p r o p o r t io n o f
t h e ir t o t a l n u m b e r is e m p l o y e d , h a s a lm o s t a s h ig h a d e a t h r a t e
w h ile fo r m a le s th e h a z a r d o f th e w e a v e r o o m , th e n e x t in p o in t o f
d a n g e r , fa lls b e lo w t h a t o f th e s p in n in g r o o m b y 31 p e r c e n t .
Fo
m a le s th e s p o o le r r o o m a n d f o r fe m a le s th e w e a v e r o o m s h o w th e
lo w e s t d e a th h a za rd s.
T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h is f a c t d iffe r s f o r th
s e x e s , h o w e v e r , s in c e t h e s p o o l e r r o o m c o n t a in s le s s t h a n o n e - t e n t h
o f t h e m a le o p e r a t iv e s o f t h is a g e g r o u p , w h ile t h e w e a v e r o o m c o n ­
t a in s o v e r o n e -t h ir d o f th e fe m a le o p e r a tiv e s .
M O R TALITY IN AGE GROUP 30 TO 34.

T h e p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l p o p u la t io n a n d o f th e t o t a l d e a th s in
e a c h s e x a n d o c c u p a t io n c la s s o f t h e a g e g r o u p 3 0 t o 3 4 y e a r s , a n d
t h e d e a t h r a t e p e r 1 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n i n e a c h s e x a n d o c c u p a t i o
c la s s , a s w e l l a s i n a l l c o m b i n e d , a r e s h o w n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :
PERCEN TAG E DISTR IBU TIO N OF POPULATION A N D OF D E A T H S, AN D D E A T H
R A T E PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULO US, N ON TUBER CU LO U S, AN D A L L CAUSES,
B Y SE X AN D OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS, AGE GROUP 30 TO 34, 1908 TO 1912.
Percentage distribution of population and of deaths.
Males.

Cause of death.
Opera­
tives.

Females.

Non oper­
Both
atives.
classes.

Opera­
tives.

Nonoper­
atives.

Both
classes.

Popula­
tion and
number
of deaths.

Population.....................................

17

30

47

15

38

53

9,334

Deaths:
Tuberculous...........................
Nontuberculous.....................

19
11

31
28

50
39

26
25

24
36

50
61

122
215

All causes.............................

14

29

43

25

32

57

337

1.64
4.41 j

2.47
5.30

i 2.61
i 4.61

6.05

7.77

i 7.22

Death rate per 1,000.
Tuberculous................, ................
N ontuberculous...... .....................

2.94
3.19

2.69
4.17

2.78
3.82

4.57
7.56

All causes............................

6.13

6.86

6.60

12.13

1 Death rate for both sexes and both classes combined.

Mortality hy sex .— F e m a l e s s t i l l o u t n u m b e r t h e m a l e s i n t h e g e n e r a l
p o p u l a t i o n , b u t i n t h i s g r o u p fo r * t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e y f o r m l e s s t h a n
h a lf o f th e o p e r a t iv e s .
B o t h s e x e s fu r n is h n e a r ly th e s a m e p r o p o r
t io n o f th e tu b e r c u lo u s d e a th s as o f th e p o p u la t io n , b u t th e m a l
t u b e r c u lo u s d e a t h r a t e is s lig h t ly h ig h e r t h a n t h e fe m a le .
T h is m a le
e x c e s s o c c u r s w h o lly a m o n g th e n o n o p e r a tiv e s , a s a m o n g o p e r a t iv e s
t h e t u b e r c u lo u s d e a t h r a t e f o r fe m a le s is h ig h e r t h a n t h a t o f th
m a le s b y 55 p e r c e n t.
F r o m n o n tu b e r c u lo u s ca u se s th e d e a th ra te s




59

S U M M A R Y OF C O M P O X E K T 5-Y E A R AGE GROUPS.

o f f e m a l e o p e r a t i v e s a n d n o n o p e r a t i v e s a l ik e e x c e e d t h o s e o f t h
c o r r e s p o n d in g m a le g r o u p s .
A m o n g n o n o p e r a t iv e s th is f e m a le e x c e s s
i s s l i g h t (6 p e r c e n t ) , b u t a m o n g o p e r a t i v e s i t r u n s u p t o 1 3 7 p e r c e n t .
T h e p a r t u r it io n h a z a r d o f fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s , w h ic h is e s p e c ia ll
h ig h in t h is g r o u p , a c c o u n t s f o r a c o n s id e r a b le p a r t o f t h e e x c e s s .
Mortality by cause .— T u b e r c u l o s i s , t h o u g h r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s m a l l e r
p e r c e n t a g e (3 6 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e t o t a l m o r t a l i t y i n a g e g r o u p 3 0 t
3 4 t h a n in a n y o f t h e t h r e e p r e c e d in g a g e g r o u p s , is a c t u a
m o r e p r e v a le n t h e re th a n in a n y g r o u p y e t c o n s id e r e d .
The onl
g r o u p in w h i c h it is m o r e p r e v a le n t is t h e a g e g r o u p 3 5 t o 3 9 , in w h ic h
t h e t u b e r c u l o u s d e a t h r a t e f o r a l l p e r s o n s , 2 . 7 2 p e r 1 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ,
e x c e e d s t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g r a t e f o r t h is g r o u p b y o n l y 4 p e r c e n t
F e m a le s a r e m o r e lia b le t o d ie f r o m t u b e r c u lo s is in t h is a g e g r o u p
th a n in a n y o th e r , b u t f o r m a le s th e n e x t a g e g r o u p s h o w s th e h ig h e s t
tu b e r c u lo u s d e a t h h a z a r d fo u n d .
Mortality by industry .— A m o n g t h e f e m a l e s o f t h is g r o u p t h e d e a t h
r a t e o f o p e r a t i v e s f r o m a ll c a u s e s e x c e e d s t h a t o f n o n o p e r a t i v e s b y
1 0 0 p e r c e n t , a n e x c e s s g r e a t e r t h a n is f o u n d i n a n y o t h e r a g e g r o u p .
I t a ls o e x c e e d s th e c o r r e s p o n d in g d e a t h r a t e o f m a le o p e r a t iv e s b y
p r a c t ic a l ly 1 0 0 p e r c e n t , w h ic h is lik e w is e t h e g r e a t e s t e x c e s s o f th is
k in d fo u n d in a n y a g e g r o u p .
A m o n g m a le s t h is is t h e fir s t a g e g r o u p
in w h ic h o p e r a tiv e s fa ll b e lo w , n o n o p e r a t iv e s in t o t a l d e a th h a z a r d ,
th e n o n o p e r a t iv e d e a t h r a t e e x c e e d in g t h e o p e r a t iv e b y 12 p e r c e n t .
S m a l l a s t h is e x c e s s s e e m s i t is g r e a t e r t h a n i s f o u n d a n y w h e r e e l s e
a m o n g m a le s a g e d 15 t o 4 4 ; i n d e e d , in t h e o n l y o t h e r g r o u p in w h i c h
s u c h a n e x c e s s o c c u r s , a g e g r o u p 4 0 t o 4 4 , i t is m e r e l y n o m i n a l , b e i n g
l e s s t h a n 1 p e r c e n t ( 0 .5 p e r c e n t ) .
Operative mortality by workroom .— T h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
t h e m a le a n d fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s , a n d o f t h e ir d e a t h s f r o m a ll c a u s e s ,
a m o n g th e d iffe r e n t w o r k r o o m s , a n d th e d e a th r a te f o r e a c h r o o m
a re f o r t h is a g e g r o u p as fo llo w s :
PERCENTAGE D ISTR IBUTIO N OF MALE A N D FEM ALE O P ER ATIVES, AN D OF D EA TH S
FROM A L L CAUSES, AN D D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,000, B Y W O R K R O O M , AG E GROUP
30 TO 34.

Card
room.

Item.

Spooler
Spinning room and
room.
miscel­
laneous.

Weave
room.

Total.

MALES.

24
13
3.70

16
29
11.43

10

50
58
7.12

1 1,567
i 41
6.13

22
25
14.57

17
18
11.72

25
28
13.37

36
29
9.96

1 1, 402
'J 85
12.13

Per cent population............................................................
23
21
..................................................................
Per cent deaths.
Death rates per 1,000...........................................................
£.26

16
21
11.57

18
18
9.25

43
40
8.23

i 2,969
1 133
8.96

Per cent population............................................................
Per cent deaths....................................................................
Death rates per 1,000 .....................................................
FEMALES.

Per cent population............................................................
Per cent deaths....................................................................
Death rates per 1,000...........................................................
BOTH SEXES.




1 Basic number (100 per cent).

60

C H A P . I I .— M O R T A L IT Y IN AGE GROUP' 15 TO 44.

I n t h is a g e g r o u p th e d iffe r e n t w o r k r o o m s r a n k a s t o d e a t h h a z a r d
p r e c is e ly as t h e y d id in a g e g r o u p 2 5 t o 2 9 , th e s p in n in g r o o m s t a n d ­
in g a t th e h e a d , fo llo w e d in o r d e r b y th e s p o o le r r o o m , c a r d r o o m , a n d
w eave room .
F o r m a le o p e r a tiv e s , t o o , th e r o o m s h a v e th e s a m e r a n k
as t o h a z a r d a s in th e p r e c e d in g a g e g r o u p ; f o r fe m a le s , h o w e v e r , th e
a r r a n g e m e n t is v e r y d iffe r e n t , t h e c a r d r o o m s t a n d in g h ig h e s t a n d t h e
s p o o le r r o o m n e x t.
T h e r e is a m u c h w id e r r a n g e f o r th e r a te s a m o n g
m a le s t h a n a m o n g fe m a le s , th e h ig h e s t r o o m r a t e f o r t h e m a le s , t h a t
o f th e s p in n in g r o o m , e x c e e d in g th e g e n e r a l m a le o p e r a t iv e r a t e b y
86 p e r c e n t , w h ile t h e c o r r e s p o n d in g e x c e s s a m o n g t h e fe m a le s is
o n ly 20 p e r cen t.
T h e fa c t th a t fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s h a v e a m u c h
h ig h e r d e a t h h a z a r d th a n m a le s , w h ic h h a s a lr e a d y b e e n d is c u s s e d ,
sh o w s- o u t s t r ik in g ly h e re in e v e r y r o o m .
T h e n earest a p p roa ch to
a n e q u a lit y o f h a z a r d b e t w e e n th e s e x e s is fo u n d in th e s p in n in g r o o m ,
w h ic h e m p lo y s a s m a lle r p r o p o r t io n o f th e fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s o f t h is
a g e g r o u p t h a n a n y o t h e r r o o m in th e m ill.
M O RTALITY IN AGE GROUP 35 TO 39.

T h e p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l p o p u la t io n a n d o f th e t o t a l d e a th s in e a c h
s e x a n d o c c u p a t io n c la s s o f t h e a g e g r o u p 3 5 t o 3 9 , a n d t h e d e a t h
r a t e p e r 1 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n i n e a c h s e x a n d o c c u p a t i o n c l a s s , a s w e l l
a s i n a ll c o m b i n e d , a r e s h o w n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :
PER CEN TAGE D ISTR IBUTION OF PO PULATIO N AN D OF D EA TH S, AN D D E A T H R A T E S
PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOU S, AN D A L L CAUSES, B Y S E X
A N D OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AG E GROUP 35 TO 39, 1908 TO 1912.
Percentage distribution of population and of deaths.
Males.

Cause of death.
Opera­
tives.

Nonoper­
atives.

Popula­
tion and
number
of deaths.

Females.
Both
classes.

Opera­
tives.

Nonoper­
Both
atives.
classes.

Population.....................................

17

33

50

13

37

50

9,062

Deaths:
Tuberculous...........................
N ontuberculous.....................

27
13

33
32

60
45

17
18

23
37

40
55

123
224

All causes.............................

17

33

50

18

32

50

347

Death rate per 1,000.
Tuberculous...................................
N ontuberculous.............................

4.45
3.92

2. 71
4. 75

3.28
4.48

3,45
6. 57

1.68
4.98

2.15
5. 41

i 2.72
i 4.94

All causes.............................

8.37

7.46

7.76

10.02

6.66

7. 56

1 7.66

1 Death rate for both sexes and both classes combined.

Mortality by sex .— T h i s is t h e o n l y a g e g r o u p i n w h i c h b o t h p o p u ­
la t io n a n d d e a th s a re e q u a lly d iv id e d b e tw e e n th e s e x e s , e a c h h a v in g
50 p er ce n t o f ea ch .
T h is e q u a lit y o f d iv is io n d o e s n o t h o ld , h o w ­
e v e r , in t h e o c c u p a t i o n c la s s e s ; t h e fe m a le s f o r m le s s t h a n h a l f t h e




S U M M A R Y OF C O M P O N E N T 5 -YEAR AGE GROUPS.

61

o p e r a t iv e s b u t fu r n is h a lit t le o v e r h a lf th e o p e r a t iv e d e a th s , a n d ,
fo r m in g a little m o r e th a n h a lf th e n o n o p e r a t iv e s , g iv e s o m e th in g
le s s t h a n h a lf o f th e n o n o p e r a t iv e d e a t h s .
T h i s is t h e o n l y o n e o
t h e f i v e - y e a r a g e g r o u p s in w h ic h f e m a le n o n o p e r a t i v e s r e a c h t h e
n u m b e r o f d e a th s fr o m n o n t u b e r c u lo u s ca u s e s w h ic h c o r r e s p o n d s to
th e ir p o p u la t io n q u o t a .
(F r o m tu b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s t h e y n e v e r r e a c h
t h is c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . )
T h i s is a l s o t h e o n l y i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h t h
m a l e d e a t h r a t e f r o m a l l c a u s e s is h i g h e r t h a n t h e f e m a l e , t h e e x c e s s
b e in g f o u n d s o l e l y in t h e t u b e r c u lo u s d e a t h s o f m a le s .
A s a t h ir d
p e c u l i a r i t y , t h i s is t h e o n l y a g e g r o u p i n w h i c h o n e o f t h e s e
o r o c c u p a t io n c la s s e s h a s a s m a lle r d e a t h r a t e th a n th e s a m e c la s s
in a n e a r lie r a g e g r o u p .
H e r e th e d e a th r a te s o f th e fe m a le o p e r a ­
tiv e s fr o m b o t h t u b e r c u lo u s a n d n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s a re lo w e r
th a n th e c o r r e s p o n d in g ra te s fo r a g e g r o u p 30 to 3 4 , a n d a lth o u g h
th e d e a th ra tes a m o n g th e n o n o p e r a tiv e s c o n fo r m to th e g e n e ra
r u le , th e d e fic it a m o n g th e o p e r a t iv e s b r in g s d o w n t h e d e a t h r a t e
f r o m a ll c a u s e s f o r f e m a l e s i n g e n e r a l s l i g h t l y b e l o w t h a t o f t h
p r e c e d in g a g e g r o u p .
Mortality by cause.— T h e n u m b e r o f d e a t h s f r o m
t u b e r c u lo s is
is l a r g e r in t h i s t h a n i n t h e g r o u p j u s t p r e c e d i n g , a n d is b u t s i
s m a lle r th a n th e la r g e s t n u m b e r in a n y o f th e s ix 5 -y e a r a
grou ps.
D e a th s fr o m o th e r ca u se s, h o w e v e r, are so m u ch m o r
n u m e r o u s t h a n a t t h e e a r lie r a g e s t h a t t h e p r o p o r t io n o f d e a t h
f r o m t u b e r c u l o s i s is s m a l l e r t h a n i n a n y p r e c e d i n g a g e g r o u p .
The
a c t u a l p r e v a le n c e o f tu b e r c u lo s is , as s h o w n b y th e d e a t h r a te , i
g r e a t e r in t h is a g e g r o u p , a s a w h o le , t h a n in a n y o t h e r .
T h e h azard
d iffe r s in t h e d if f e r e n t s u b g r o u p s , h o w e v e r .
A m o n g fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s
i t is le s s t h a n i n t h e p r e c e d i n g a g e g r o u p , b u t a m o n g n o n o p e r a t i v e s ,
b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e , i t is h i g h e r t h a n i n a n y o t h e r a g e g r o u p
A m o n g o p e r a t iv e s as a w h o le , o n l y th e s u c c e e d in g a g e g r o u p , 4 0 t o
44 y e a r s , s h o w s a g r e a t e r d e a t h h a z a r d f r o m tu b e r c u lo s is .
Mortality by industry.— O p e r a t i v e s , b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e , s h o w a
h ig h e r d e a t h r a te th a n p r e v a ils a m o n g n o n o p e r a t iv e s o f th e s a m e s e x .
A m o n g f e m a l e s t h e o p e r a t i v e e x c e s s , 5 0 p e r c e n t , is s m a l l e r t h a n t h e
e x c e s s fo u n d in a n y o t h e r a g e g r o u p , th e n e x t s m a lle s t e x c e s s , 79 p e r
c e n t , o c c u r r in g in a g e g r o u p 2 5 t o 2 9 .
A m o n g m a le s , a lt h o u g h th e
o p e r a t i v e e x c e s s is b u t 1 2 p e r c e n t , i t s t i l l m a r k s a c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a n g e
fr o m t h e p r e c e d in g a g e g r o u p , in w h ic h th e n o n o p e r a t iv e s s h o w e d
th e h ig h e r r a te s .
T h e o p e r a t iv e s as a w h o le s h o w o n e c u r io u
p a r a lle lis m n o t s e e n in a n y o t h e r a g e g r o u p ; m a le a n d fe m a le o p e r a ­
t iv e s c o m b in e d fu r n is h 3 0 p e r c e n t o f th e g r o u p ’ s p o p u la t io n a n d 31
p e r c e n t o f th e n o n t u b e r c u lo u s d e a th s o c c u r r in g w it h in it.
T h is i
th e o n l y a g e g r o u p in w h ic h a m o n g t h e m a le o p e r a t iv e s d e a t h s f r o m
t u b e r c u lo s is e x c e e d d e a t h s f r o m a ll n o n t u b e r c u l o u s c a u s e s .




62

CH A P. I I .— M O R T A L IT Y IlsT AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

Operative mortality by workroom .— T h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
t h e m a le a n d fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s , a n d o f t h e ir d e a t h s f r o m a ll c a u s e s ,
a m o n g t h e d iff e r e n t w o r k r o o m s , a n d t h e ir d e a t h r a t e in e a c h r o o m
are as fo llo w s :
PERCENTAGE D ISTR IBUTION OF M ALE AND FEM ALE O P ER AT IV ES AN D OF
DEATHS FROM A LL CAUSES, AND D EAT H R ATE S PER 1,000, B Y W O R K R O O M ,
AGE GROUP 35 TO 39.

Card
room.

Item.

Spooler
Spinning room and
room.
miscella­
neous.

Weave
room.

Total.

MALES.

Per cent population..........................................................
Per cent deaths...................................................................
Death rate per 1,000............................................................

22
18
6.88

13
13
8.12

9
8
7.19

56
61
9.19

ll, 482
i 62
8.37

19
23
11.91

14
20
14.04

25
16
6.62

42
41
9.80

i 1,218
i 61
10.02

20
21
9.03

14
16
10.87

16
12
6.80

50
51
9.42

i 2,700
i 123
9.11

FEMALES.

Per cent population............................................................
Per cent deaths....................................................................
Death rate per 1,000...........................................................
BOTH SEXES.

Per cent population...........................................................
Per cent deaths...................................................................
Death rate per 1,000............................................................

1 Basic number (100 per cent).

H e r e , as in th e t w o p r e c e d in g a g e g r o u p s , th e s p in n in g r o o m
s h o w s th e h ig h e s t t o t a l d e a t h h a z a r d , fo llo w e d in o r d e r b y th e w e a v e
r o o m , ca rd r o o m , a n d s p o o le r r o o m .
A m o n g m a le s , th e w e a v e r o o m
f o r th e fir s t tim e s h o w s th e h ig h e s t d e a t h r a te , th e ir h a z a r d h e r e
e x c e e d in g t h a t o f a ll m a le o p e r a t iv e s b y 10 p e r c e n t .
F o r fe m a le s
t h e s p i n n i n g r o o m is t h e d a n g e r p o i n t , t h e i r d e a t h r a t e h e r e e x c e e d ­
in g t h a t o f a ll fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s b y 4 0 p e r c e n t .
T h e r e is t h is im ­
p o r t a n t d iffe r e n c e b e t w e e n th e s e x e s , t h a t w h e r e a s t h e h ig h e s t m a le
d e a t h r a t e o c c u r s in a r o o m e m p l o y in g m o r e t h a n h a lf t h e m a le
o p e r a t i v e s o f t h is a g e g r o u p , t h e h i g h e s t f e m a l e d e a t h r a t e i s f o u n d
in a r o o m e m p l o y i n g l e s s t h a n o n e - s i x t h o f t h e f e m a l e o p e r a t i v e s .
T h e fe m a le d e a t h r a te s f o r b o t h th e w e a v e r o o m a n d th e s p o o le r
r o o m fa ll b e lo w th e c o r r e s p o n d in g ra te s f o r th e n e x t y o u n g e r a g e
g r o u p , th o se a g e d 30 to 3 4 .
T h i s is a c c o u n t e d f o r b y a m a r k e d
d im in u t io n in p a r t u r it io n d e a t h s in t h is o ld e r g r o u p .
S p in n in g r o o m m a le s a ls o s h o w a s m a lle r d e a t h r a t e th a n a p p e a r s in t h e n e x t
you n ger age grou p .
T h i s is t h e y o u n g e s t a g e g r o u p i n w h i c h t h e w e a v e r o o m s h o w s ,
f o r b o t h s e x e s c o m b i n e d , a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e d e a t h s t h a n is
ju s t ifie d b y its p o p u l a t io n q u o t a .
E v e n h e r e t h is e x c e s s is f o u n d
s o le ly a m o n g th e m a le s . T h e im p o r t a n c e o f th e w e a v e r o o m , i
w ill b e n o t ic e d , h a s in c r e a s e d s t e a d ily t h r o u g h o u t t h e s u c c e s s iv e
a g e g r o u p s , u n til h e re it c o n t a in s h a lf th e o p e r a t iv e p o p u la t io n ,
n e a r ly th r e e -fifth s o f th e m a le s a n d o v e r t w o -fift h s o f th e fe m a le s
b e in g e m p lo y e d w it h in i t . 1
1 In both this and the succeeding age group loom fixers, whose work is in the weave room, comprise 10 per
cent of all operative males.




63

SU M M A R Y OF C O M P O N E N T 5 -YEAR AGE GROUPS.
M O R TALITY IN AGE GROUP 40 TO 44.

T h e p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l p o p u la t io n a n d o f th e t o t a l d e a th s in e a c h
s e x a n d o c c u p a t io n c la s s o f th e a g e g r o u p 4 0 t o 4 4 , a n d th e d e a t h
r a t e p e r 1 ,0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n i n e a c h s e x a n d o c c u p a t i o n c l a s s , a s w e l
a s in a ll c o m b i n e d , a r e s h o w n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBU TION OF POPULATION AND OF D EAT H S, AND D EA TH
R ATES PER 1,030 FROM TUBERCU LOU S, NON TU BER CU LO U S, AND A L L CAUSES,
B Y S E X AND OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AGE GROUP 40 TO 44, 1908 TO 1912.

Percentage distribution of population and of deaths.

Opera­
tives.

Popula­
tion and
number
of deaths.

Females.

Males.

Cause of death.

Nonoper­
Both
atives.
classes.

Opera­
tives.

N onoperatives.

Both
classes.

Population.....................................

16

32

48

11

41

52

7,733

Deaths:
Tuberculous............................
Nontuberculous.....................

29
11

31
32

60
43

19
13

21
39

40
57

96
279

All causes...........................

15

32

47

19

34

53

375

Death rate per 1,000.
Tuberculous...................................
Nontuberculous............................

4.59
4.92

2.39
7.17

3.11
6.43 1

4.22
11.98

1.27
6.86

1.90
7.94

12.43
i 7.22

All causes.............................

9. 51

9.56 |
1

9.54

16.18

8.13

9.84

19. 70

i

1 Death rate for both sexes and both classes combined.

Mortality by sex .— I n t h i s g r o u p f e m a l e s f u r n i s h a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r
p r o p o r t io n o f th e d e a th s th a n o f th e p o p u la t io n , th e u n d u e p r o p o r t io n
b e in g fo u n d o n ly a m o n g o p e r a tiv e s .
A s u s u a l, t h e t o t a l fe m a le d e a t h
r a t e f r o m a ll c a u s e s is h ig h e r t h a n t h e m a le .
F r o m t u b e r c u lo s is
h o w e v e r , m a le s i n e a c h o c c u p a t io n g r o u p s h o w a m o r t a l it y h ig h e
th a n th a t p r e v a ilin g in th e c o r r e s p o n d in g fe m a le g r o u p .
A m on g non­
o p e r a t iv e s t h e m a le r a t e f r o m n o n t u b e r c u lo u s c a u s e s is h ig h e r t h a n
th e fe m a le , b u t t h e fe m a le o p e r a t iv e s h a v e s u c h a n e x c e e d in g ly h ig h
r a te fr o m th e s e c a u s e s th a t it b r in g s th e r a te f o r th e s e x as a w h o le
a b o v e t h a t o f t h e m a le s .
Mortality by cause . — I n t h i s g r o u p t h e r e a r e 9 6 d e a t h s f r o m t u b e r ­
c u lo s is , w h i c h f o r m o n l y a b o u t o n e - f o u r t h (2 6 p e r c e n t ) o f th e t o t a
d e a th s , a s m a lle r p e r c e n t a g e th a n tu b e r c u lo s is h a s fu r n is h e d i n a n y
p r e c e d in g a g e g r o u p .
A s c o m p a r e d w it h o th e r ca u se s o f d e a th , th e re ­
fo r e , t u b e r c u lo s is is r e la t i v e l y u n im p o r t a n t h e r e ; y e t a b s o lu t e ly th e
h a z a r d , as s h o w n b y th e t o t a l d e a t h r a t e f r o m t u b e r c u lo s is , is o n l y
10 p e r c e n t le s s t h a n in t h e p r e c e d in g a g e g r o u p w h e r e i t r e a c h e d it s
h e ig h t, a n d o n ly 5 p e r c e n t b e lo w th a t o f a g e g r o u p 30 t o 34 , th e s e c o n d
in p o in t o f d a n g e r fr o m tu b e r c u lo s is .
F o r m a le o p e r a t iv e s th e t u b e r ­
c u lo u s m o r t a l it y r e a c h e s it s h ig h e s t p o i n t in t h is a g e g r o u p , w h ile f o r




64

C H A P. I I .---- M O R T A L IT Y IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

f e m a l e o p e r a t i v e s i t is e x c e e d e d o n l y i n a g e g r o u p 3 0 i o 3 4 .
A m ong
f e m a le n o n o p e r a t iv e s , o n th e o t h e r h a n d , th e t u b e r c u lo u s h a z a r d is
s m a lle r t h a n a n y w h e r e e ls e e x c e p t in t h e fir s t t w o 5 - y e a r a g e g r o u p s .
I n t o t a l d e a t h r a t e e a c h s e x a n d o c c u p a t io n c la s s n a t u r a lly fin d s it s
h ig h e s t p o i n t in th is o ld e s t o f th e 5 -y e a r g r o u p s .
Mortality by industry .— T h e o p e r a t i v e s i n t h i s a g e g r o u p f o r m o n l y
2 7 p e r c e n t o f th e p o p u la t io n , b u t fu r n is h 34 p e r c e n t o f th e d e a th s .
T h is e x c e s s o c c u r s m a in ly a m o n g th e d e a th s fr o m tu b e r c u lo s is , b o t h
m a le a n d f e m a le o p e r a t iv e s h a v in g f r o m t h is c a u s e a n e n o r m o u s ly
g re a te r h a z a r d th a n n o n o p e r a tiv e s .
F e m a le o p e r a t iv e s h a v e h ig h e r
d e a th ra te s th a n n o n o p e r a t iv e s fr o m e a c h g r o u p o f c a u s e s , th e ir t o t a l
h a z a r d b e in g n e a r ly d o u b le (1 9 9 p e r c e n t ) t h a t o f th e n o n o p e r a t iv e s .
M a le o p e r a t iv e s , o n th e o t h e r h a n d , a lt h o u g h t h e y e x c e e d n o n o p e r a ­
tiv e s in tu b e r c u lo u s h a z a r d , fa ll s o m u c h b e lo w th e m in n o n t u b e r ­
c u lo u s h a z a r d t h a t th e n o n o p e r a t iv e s s h o w a b a r e ly a p p r e c ia b le e x c e s s
(l e s s t h a n 1 p e r c e n t ) o v e r t h e o p e r a t i v e s i'n t o t a l d e a t h r a t e .
Operative mortality by workroom .— T h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
t h e o p e r a t iv e p o p u l a t io n a n d o f d e a t h s o f t h is a g e g r o u p t h r o u g h th e
d iffe r e n t m ill r o o m s a n d th e d e a t h r a te f o r e a c h r o o m a re as f o llo w s :
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MALE AND FEMALE OPER ATIVES A N D OF DEATHS
FROM A LL CAUSES, AND D E A T H R ATES PER 1,000, B Y W O RK R O O M , AGE GROUP
40 TO 44.

Card
room.

Item.

Spooler
Spinning room and
room.
miscella­
neous.

Weave
room.

Total.

MALES.

Per cent population............................................................
Per cent deaths....................................................................
Death rate per 1,000............................................................

22
24
10.48

10
14
12.70

9
5
5.22

58
57
9.30

»1,220
158
9.51

23
20
14.58

9
9
15.58

24
20
13.21

44
51
18.82

1 853
169
16.18

22
22
12.15

10
11
13.79

16
13
10. 40

52
54
12.57

12,073
1 127
12.35

FEMALES.

Per cent population............................................................
Per cent deaths....................................................................
Death rate per 1,000............................................................
BOTH SEXES.

Per cent population............................................................
Per cent deaths....................................................................
Death rate per 1,000............................................................

i Basic number (100 per cent).

F o r th e fo u r t h tim e th e s p in n in g r o o m s h o w s th e g r e a te s t h a z a r d
f o r th e o p e r a t iv e fo r c e r e g a r d le s s o f s e x , it s r a te e x c e e d in g th e g e n e ra l
r a t e b y 12 p e r c e n t .
N e x t in o r d e r c o m e th e w e a v e r o o m , c a r d r o o m ,
a n d s p o o le r r o o m .
T h e s p in n in g r o o m s h o w s th e h ig h e s t d e a t h r a te
fo r m a le s ; in th e w e a v e r o o m , c o n tr a r y t o th e s itu a tio n in th e p r e ­
c e d in g a g e g r o u p , th e m a le s fu r n is h a s lig h t ly s m a lle r p r o p o r t io n o f
th e to t a l o p e r a tiv e d e a th s th a n o f th e o p e r a tiv e p o p u la t io n .
A m ong
fe m a le s f o r th e fir s t tim e th e w e a v e r o o m s h o w s th e h ig h e s t r a te , a n d




SUMMARY OF COMPONENT 5-YEAR AGE GROUPS.

65

this rate, 18.82, impressive enough in itself, is made more important
by the size of the room, which employs over two-fifths of the total
females in this age group. This high death rate occurring in a
populous room is really the most striking mortality fact respecting
the workroom death hazards of this age group.
RECAPITULATION.

Hazard by age.— In the population as a whole, and in the large sub­
divisions by sex and by operative or nonoperative condition, with
one exception the total death hazard increases with each 5-year age
group up to the close of the 15 to 44 year period, although there is
considerable diversity in the degree of increase. The one exception
is found among the female operatives, whose total death hazard in
the age group 30 to 34 is greater than that in the next age group.
The female nonoperatives conform to the general rule, but among the
operatives the irregularity is so great that it determines the rate for
the whole sex; and consequently for females as a whole, as well as
for female operatives, the death rate is higher in age group 30 to 34
than in the age group 35 to 39. This exception, due in part to a
drop in the nontuberculous parturition deaths from 21 in the younger
to 51 in the older group, obtains not only among female operatives
as a whole but also among those in every workroom except the spin­
ning room. In this room over four-fifths (81 per cent) of the female
workers are under 30; consequently the 5-year age groups above 30
are so small numerically that this exception is not significant.
Turning from the large subdivisions to the smaller workroom groups
among the operatives, several irregularities are found. The cardroom males aged 15 to 192 have a higher death rate from all causes
than those in the next three age groups; the spinning-room males
aged 30 to 34 have a higher death rate than those aged 35 to 39;
the females of all except the spinning room, as mentioned above,
show this same irregularity; the spooler-room females aged 15 to 19
have a higher rate than those aged 20 to 24; in the same room the
females aged 35 to 39 have a lower rate than those in either of the
two age groups next below them, and the females in age group 40 to
44 have a lower death rate than those in age group 30 to 34. This
last is the only exception found in any subgroup or subdivision to
the general rule that those aged 40 to 44 have a higher total death
rate than is found in any of the lower age groups.
Hazard by sex.— Considering the death rates for each sex without
regard to industrial classification, females show the higher total death
hazard in every one of the six 5-year age groups except the fifth, 35
1Including one typhoid-fever-parturition death.
2 As to the probably atypical character of this rate see note, p. 54.

88204°— 19— Bull. 251------ 5




66

CHAP. II.— MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

to 39 years, in which males have the higher total risk. Comparing
the sexes according to their industrial divisions, female operatives
invariably show a higher rate than male operatives, while female
nonoperatives just as invariably show a lower rate than either non­
operative or operative males. In the separate workrooms, however,
there are several exceptions to the general rule that female operatives
exceed the males in total death hazard, higher rates being found
among the males of the card room aged 15 to 19, spinning room males
aged 20 to 24, spooler room males aged 35 to 39, and weave room
males aged 15 to 19 and 25 to 29 than among the females of the same
groups. These exceptions will be discussed at length in the con­
sideration of workroom mortality.
Hazard by industry.— In every age group the operatives as a whole
show a higher death rate from all causes than the nonoperatives in
the same group. This is true also of female operatives as compared
with female nonoperatives, but male operatives show a lower rate
than male nonoperatives in age groups 30 to 34 and 40 to 44. Com­
paring the operatives themselves as to occupational risk, in every
5-year age group, the spinning room shows a higher total death rate
than any of the other rooms, except that in the youngest age groups,
15 to 19 and 20 to 24, the card room exceeds it slightly.
MORTALITY BY SEX.

In the table on pages 178 to 201 are given the sex distribution and
the death rates by sex for the Fall River population aged 15 to 44 as a
whole, and for each of the subdivisions of nativity, race, conjugal con­
dition, industry and, for operatives, the workroom in which employed,
these details being given for each of the 10-year periods and for the
30 years as a whole. Moreover, to furnish a standard of comparison,
the tables give also the sex distribution and the death rates by sex
of the total urban white population in the registration States of the
United States in 1911, these data being given for the native and the
foreign born separately, as well as for the total. These death rates
for those aged 15 to 44, as well as those of the Fall River groups,
have been age adjusted so that they are strictly comparable with
those of the operatives.
Looking first at the death rates by sex of the whole Fall River
population aged 15 to 44 it is at once apparent that females
have appreciably the higher death hazard. From tuberculosis
their death rate exceeds that of the males by 12 per cent, from
nontuberculous causes by 5 per cent, and from all causes combined
by 8 per cent. There are some minor exceptions to the general rule
in the 10-year age groups. In age group 15 to 24, males exceed
females in hazard from nontuberculous causes of death, the male
death rate from these causes being 2.20 and the female rate 1.51.




MORTALITY BY SEX.

67

This is true of all the subdivisions of the population in this age
group, except the Portuguese, and the combined Irish and French
Canadians of the spooler and miscellaneous rooms. These two
classes together form less than one-fifth (19 per cent) of this age
group. A second exception is found in age group 35 to 44, in which
males are more than one-half (58 per cent) more liable than females to
die from tuberculosis. Considering deaths from all causes, however,
the greater female hazard appears throughout the 10-year age groups
as well as in the 30-year period, the female excess being 4 per cent
in the group aged 15 to 24 years, 18 per cent among those aged 25
to 34, and 0.8 per cent among those aged 35 to 44.
Yet while this statement as to the higher female death hazard
is true of the population as a whole, it is absolutely untrue of that
portion of it (61 per cent) which does not work in cotton mills, for
among these three-fifths the male death rate exceeds the female by
14 per cent. This is true of both the native and the foreign born,
the excess of the male rate being among the native born 25 per cent
and among the foreign born 9 per cent. It is true, also, in general
of the separate 10-year periods, although in the two groups aged 25
to 34 and 35 to 44 foreign born females have the higher rate from
nontuberculous causes, parturition fatalities being very prominent
among these deaths. Also in age group 15 to 24 native bom, non­
operative females have a higher death rate than males from tuber­
culosis.
Looking now at the corresponding data for the population of the
registration States, which numbered over 18,000,000 urban whites,
it appears that among these the males had the higher death rates,
and that with the exception only of the males aged 15 to 24 this held
true throughout the three decades, as well as for the period as a whole.
The male excess is found among both native and foreign born, though
it is far more marked among the native born.
Comparing the Fall River data with these, it appears that while
the nonoperatives who comprised three-fifths of the city’s popula­
tion aged 15 to 44 conform to the sex mortality rule prevailing
throughout the registration area, the other two-fifths, the operatives,
depart from it to such a degree that they completely hide the situa­
tion prevailing among the three-fifths, and make the death rates
for the population as a whole appear radically at variance with those
of the registration area.
The general rule for Fall River, then, is that females show the
higher death rate. Considering the death rates in more detail, it
appears first that there is an exception to this rule in the case of the
native born. Among these for the 30-year period the male death
rate shows a slight excess (2 per cent) over the female. This excep­
tion, however, does not exist in the death rate from tuberculous




68

CHAP. II.— MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

causes, the native-born females here showing a rate higher by 6
per cent than that of the males.
Taking up the question of race, as distinguished from nativity, it
appears that in general the different race groups conform to the Fall
River rule and display a higher mortality among females than among
males. The English and the Irish, however, present some divergencies
from this. The English, who form more than one-sixth (18 per cent) of
the total operatives, show a female excess of 10 per cent in death hazard
from tuberculosis, but in deaths from nontuberculous causes and in
deaths from all causes they conform to the general rule of the regis­
tration area and show a male excess. The Irish just reverse the situa­
tion, for among them, while the females had the higher death rate
from all causes, the male rate from tuberculosis was higher by 12 per
cent than the female. This, too, though Irish females were fully
two-thirds more liable to die from tuberculosis than were females of
the aggregate non-Irish races. In deaths from all causes the Irish
female rate showed an excess over the male of 15 per cent. Through
volume of deaths the Irish were a very large factor in establishing the
Fall River rule of female excess in mortality.
Turning to the workroom groups there is but a single instance of
divergence from the general rule of the city as to sex mortality. The
weave-room workers who constitute almost two-fifths (39 per cent) of
the entire cotton operative force aged 15 to 44 have a slightly greater
male than female death rate from tuberculosis only, the male rate
being higher by 4 per cent. Looking at the racial divisions of the
weave room, it appears that the Irish and French Canadians combined
have no share in this exception, but show the familiar excess in the
female death rates from both tuberculous and nontuberculous
causes. The combined other races of the weave room, however,
constituting nearly two-thirds of the weave-room force, and onetenth of the total population aged 15 to 44, show higher death rates
for males than for females throughout, the excess being in the case of
tuberculous deaths 34 per cent, in the case of nontuberculous deaths
negligible, and in deaths from all causes combined 11 per cent. The
English, who make up more than two-fifths (43 per cent) of the nonIrish and non-French Canadian weave-room workers, might help to
account for the higher male rate in nontuberculous deaths, but since
they themselves show a higher female than male rate from tuberculous
causes, the considerable male excess in death rates from tuberculous
causes can not be even partially explained by their racial tendencies.
So far the discussion has dealt with three classes— the native born,
the nonoperatives and the English— who deviate from the general
rule of the city as to sex mortality, conforming instead to the rule
which prevails among the urban whites of the registration States, the
rule that males have the greater death hazard. One other important




MORTALITY BY SEX.

69

division of the population falls into this class— the single. The
detail tables already referred to (see table on pp. 178 to 201) show 29
population classes, in each of which the male and female single may
be compared as to death hazard from tuberculous and nontubercu­
lous causes and all causes combined, making 87 possible comparisons.
Taking the total age group 15 to 44 years, the single males show the
higher hazard in 78 of these 87 comparisons, and the nine exceptional
cases in which the single females have the higher hazard represent less
than 11 per cent of the total population. Five of these exceptions are
found among the deaths from tuberculosis, one among the deaths
from nontuberculous causes, and three in the deaths from all causes
combined. These last three concern only three of the 29 population
classes, all relatively inconsequential. The card-room workers show
a female excess of 5 per cent, the workers in the spooler and miscel­
laneous rooms a female excess of 1 per cent, and the non-Irish, nonFrench Canadian workers in the spooler and miscellaneous rooms a
female excess of 112 per cent. This last group is less important than
its heavy excess would seem to indicate, as it comprises but 3 per cent
of the entire population.
The greater death hazard of single males as compared with single
females appears in the main throughout two of the three decades
comprised in this study, but the age group 15 to 24, whose single com­
prise one-third of the total population aged 15 to 44, presents in its
death hazard from tuberculosis a noteworthy divergence from the
general rule. In this youthful age group all single females have a
death hazard from tuberculosis more than one-half greater (51 per
cent) than that of single males. This female excess appears in 26 of
the 29 population classes, the only exceptions being two of the racial
groups, the Irish, and the combined Americans and unspecified races,
and one of the work-room groups, the weave-room workers who are
neither Irish nor French Canadians.
This age group, in fact, presents a double divergence from the stan­
dards prevailing in the two other age groups of the 30-year period.
If the single alone be considered, the females show a higher death
rate from tuberculosis than the males, contrary to the situation pre­
vailing among the single in the other age groups; while if conjugal
condition be disregarded, the males show a higher death rate from
nontuberculous causes than the females, which again is contrary to
the situation in the other age groups.
Summing up the situation, then, as to sex mortality in Fall River
among those aged 15 to 44, it appears that females are more liable
than males to die from either tuberculous or nontuberculous causes,
and from both combined, but there are several exceptions to this
general rule. Prominent among these are the native-born, the
English, the nonoperatives, and the single. Of these the single and




70

CHAP. II.----MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

the nonoperatives are the most important, the single constituting 48
per cent and the nonoperatives 61 per cent of the entire population
aged 15 to 44. Several variations from the general rule, and even from
these special exceptions, occur in separate age groups, but in deaths
from all causes the rule holds good throughout the period. The
most striking feature of the discussion is the fact that among the
operatives the excess of female death hazard is so great that it
reverses the situation prevailing among the larger, nonoperative
group, and establishes the rule for the entire population, a rule
directly at variance with that which is known to have prevailed
among the entire urban white population of the registration States.
MORTALITY BY NATIVITY.

Taking up the subject of mortality in connection with nativity
the detail tables already referred to (see table on pp. 178 to 201)
show that in the population aged 15 to 44 the total death hazard of
the native bom exceeds that of the foreign born by 9 per cent.
This liability, however, varies with the cause of death, since the
native bom are actually less liable than the foreign born to die from
tuberculosis, though the difference between the death rates here is
less than 1 per cent, while from nontuberculous causes their death
rate is higher by 15 per cent than that of the foreign born. The
greater hazard of the native bom from all causes combined appears
throughout the three 10-year age groups, also, except that among
those aged 15 to 24 the rates for the native and the foreign bom are
exactly even. The native born show the higher death rates from
tuberculosis everywhere except in age group 25 to 34, where the death
rates of the foreign born are the higher by 11 per cent. This is not
a large excess, yet it is sufficient to counterbalance the much smaller
excess among the native born of the two other groups and to make
the entire population aged 15 to 44 show a higher death rate from
tuberculosis among the foreign than among the native born. The
native born show the higher death rates from nontuberculous causes
everywhere except in age group 15 to 24. In general, throughout
the different population groups the native born show the higher
rates from all causes combined, while the foreign born rather fre­
quently show the higher rates from tuberculosis, though this is not
true of females, nor of the aggregate male and female operatives.
The excess of tuberculous hazard among the foreign bom is especially
noteworthy among the operatives aged 25 to 34, where it is so de­
cided that it determines the excess for the whole operative population
aged 15 to 44, which shows a death rate of the foreign bom from
tuberculosis greater by 5 per cent than that of the native born.
As respects females, the native born have, in general, total death
rates but little, if at all, higher than those of the foreign born. This




MORTALITY BY NATIVITY.

71

does not hold true of the married in the two younger age groups,
among whom the native born are much more liable to die than are
the foreign born; in age group 35 to 44, however, this situation is
reversed, the foreign born married having much the greater hazard
from tuberculosis. Males very generally show a considerably higher
death hazard from all causes among the native than among the foreign
born. To this, single male operatives in age group 25 to 34 present
a striking exception.
The French Canadian operatives, the only racial group within which
a comparison between the native and the foreign born is possible,
depart from the general rule that the native born have the greater
death hazard from all causes, its foreign born operatives having, in
the population aged 15 to 44, a death rate higher by 22 per cent
than that of the native born. To this the married females present an
exception, the native born among them having much the higher death
rate. The native born married, however, form such a small propor­
tion of the French Canadian females, that while their high death rate
counterbalances much of the excess found among the foreign born
single it does not entirely overcome it, so that for French Canadian
females as a whole the foreign born still show a slightly greater
liability to death from all causes, the death rate being 8.71 for the
native born against 8.89 for the foreign born. The general rule that,
regardless of sex, the foreign born among the French Canadian
operatives have a higher death rate than the native born holds good
not only in the entire population aged 15 to 44, but in the two younger
age groups also. In age group 35 to 44, however, they conform to the
general rule of the city, though barely, the excess of hazard among
the native born being but 3 per cent.
Summing up the matter, then, it may be said that in the Fall
River population aged 15 to 44 and distributed as to age as are all
operatives, the native born are in general more liable to die than are
the foreign born, and that this greater liability is more marked among
males than among females, except in the case of the married females,
where the native born have a decided death hazard excess. In gen­
eral, however, the foreign born are more liable than the native born to
die of tuberculosis, this being especially noticeable in the group aged
25 to 34. The high death rate from tuberculosis among the foreign
born of this age group is, indeed, the principal explanation of their
excess of such deaths in the whole population aged 15 to 44 years.
In its general rule respecting mortality by nativity, Fall River
differs little from the average experience as to death rates of the
urban white population of the registration States, except that among
the latter the foreign bom in the age group 15 to 24 are about onefourth (28 per cent) more liable to die from all causes than are the
native bom.




72

CHAP. II.----MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
M O RTALITY BY RACE, N ATIONALITY, OR PEOPLE.

Members of the various racial groups in Fall River who have reached
at least the age of 15 years differ greatly in their liability to die before
reaching the age of 45 years. In fact the race variations as to the
hazard of dying thus early are so great as to show very clearly the
inconclusiveness of deductions respecting the industrial death hazards
of any population unless its racial distribution by age, sex, and con­
jugal condition is fully known.
Elsewhere in this study the assumption has been made that the race
distribution by sex of the whole population within each and every age
group is the same as its distribution within the total population of all
ages.1 In this discussion, however, it has been deemed best to ex­
clude all assumption and to limit the study of death hazard by race
mainly to operatives; for concerning operatives the exact facts are
known as to race distribution by age, by sex, by nativity, by con­
jugal condition, and by workroom occupation, so that these personal
characteristics, either singly or in any combination, may be studied
in their relation to hazard from any and every cause of death without
apprehension that the conclusions may be unsound owing to the in­
completeness or inaccuracy of the data on which they are based. (In
this part of the discussion “ causes of death’ ’ will be limited to the
three groups— tuberculosis, the combined nontuberculous causes, and
all causes combined.)
Taking up first the Irish, it appears that in the total operative
population aged 15 to 44 they are nearly twice (188 per cent) as
liable to di§ from all causes as are the aggregate non-Irish operatives.
This extra hazard varies at different ages and from different causes,
as is shown by the following table:
P£R CENT BY WHICH DEATH HAZARD OF IRISH OPERATIVES EXCEEDS THAT OF
NON-IRISH OPERATIVES, BY AGE GROUP, SEX, AND CAUSE OF DEATH.
Xontuberculous.

Tuberculous.
Age group.
Males.

Fe­
Both
males. sexes.

All causes.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Both
sexes.

FeMales. 1 males.

Both
sexes.

15 to 24 years..........................
25 to 34 years..........................
35 to 44 years..........................

130
67
308

32
70
155

60
86
205

3
71
89

16
93
84

7
115
111

50 1
70 j
187 !

26
84
103

35
103
146

Total.............................

160

67

101

46

71

78

94

69

88

It will be seen that there is not a single case in which the death
rates of the Irish, either male or female, fall below those of the nonIrish, that there are only three cases— the deaths from nontuber­
culous causes in age group 15 to 24—in which their rates even
approach the level of the others, and that in many cases, especially
1 For the reasons on which this assumption is based see p. 46.




MORTALITY BY RACE, NATIONALITY, OR PEOPLE.

73

in the deaths from tuberculosis, the Irish excess is enormous. The
Irish rate is not infrequently twice, and sometimes three or even four
times, that of the combined other operatives.
If, instead of making the comparison between the Irish and the
total non-Irish, it is made between the Irish and the four other race
groups separately, the results are not very dissimilar. Comparing
the death hazard from all causes of the Irish operatives, male and
female separately, with that of the corresponding classes of the other
races throughout the three 10-year age groups, only two instances
appear in which the Irish death rate is exceeded. Both of these
occur in age group 15 to 24, where the death rate of the English
males exceeds that of the Irish males by 4 per cent, and the death
rate of the French Canadian females exceeds that of the Irish females
by 8 per cent. If the comparison be extended to the subgroups
showing conjugal condition, seven cases of non-Irish excess are
found. In age group 15 to 24 no deaths occurred among the married
Irish males, so each of the four other race groups here exceeds the
Irish in death hazard. In age group 25 to 34, among the single males,
the Americans and unspecified races, the English, and the French
Canadians all show higher death rates than the Irish. These are
the only cases in which, in any of the subdivisions of the 10-year age
groups, any race shows a higher death rate from all causes combined
than the Irish. Most of these exceptional death rates prevail only
in small groups. If the smaller divisions be ignored, and the races
be compared by sex as to death hazard, there are only the two in­
stances mentioned in age group 15 to 24 of non-Irish excess. If sex
be ignored and the comparison be restricted to the race groups by
age, there is not one instance of departure from the rule of Irish
excess. It is to be noted that the excess of the Irish death hazard
is often very great, and that it appears even more uniformly in deaths
from tuberculosis than in those from the aggregate nontuberculous
causes.
Of the other races, the French Canadians show the greatest liability
to die between 15 and 44, but their tendency in this direction is not
so marked and uniform as that of the Irish. Comparing the race
groups, both sexes combined, aged 15 to 44, by total death hazard,
their order stands: Irish, French Canadians, English, American and
unspecified races, and last of all, Portuguese. If the same com­
parison be made for the three 10-year age groups, the order is identi­
cal, except that in the group aged 25 to 34 the Portuguese change
places with the group of American and unspecified races. If the
comparison be made by sex, the female order is much the same as
that for the general population, except that in age group 15 to 24
the French Canadians stand first, and in both this and the next age
group the Portuguese stand third in order instead of fifth, the group




14

CHAP. II.— MORTALITY IK AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

of Americans and unspecified races taking their place at the foot of
the list. Also among the total females aged 15 to 44 the Portuguese
have risen one place, the order being: Irish, French Canadians,
English, Portuguese, Americans and unspecified races. Among the
males aged 15 to 44, the order is: Irish, English, French Canadian,
American and unspecified races, and Portuguese; but in the three
10-year age groups there are a good many variations from this order.
Summing up the situation as to racial death hazards among the
operatives aged 15 to 44, it seems safe to say that while no other race
holds such a striking and unquestionable place as the Irish, the
French Canadians stand second in order, closely followed by the
English, with the Americans and unspecified races in fourth place
and the Portuguese last.
TYPICAL CHARACTER OP IRISH DATA.

In considering the high death rate of the Irish the question naturally
arises whether this is typical. The Irish operatives, who form about
10 per cent of the total operative body aged 15 to 44, number alto­
gether 2,410, and when the deaths occurring in this group are divided
according to cause of death, the rates are necessarily based on rather
scanty data. Nevertheless, it is believed that the constancy with
which they exceed the rates of other race groups shows their typical
character. An excess occurring once in a small race group may be an
accident, but if that race group is subdivided by age, sex, or other
classifications, and a similar excess appears with very general uni­
formity throughout these subdivisions, the presumption is justified
that it represents a genuine race characteristic, and the more con­
stantly the excess appears the stronger the presumption will be. To
apply this test the population unit or race group may reasonably be
divided into four mutually exclusive groups:1 Males, single and
married, and females, single and married. Each of these groups is
subject to hazard of death from tuberculosis and from nontuber­
culous causes, so that there will be eight entirely independent death
rates for each of the three 10-year age groups, or 24 in all. Each
of these rates for the Irish may be compared with the corresponding
rate for each of four other racial groups. (See table on pp. 178 to 201.)
The single Irish males, for instance, in age group 15 to 24, may be
compared as to death hazard from tuberculosis and from nontuber­
culous causes of death with the same group among the Americans
and unspecified races, the English, the Portuguese, and the French
Canadians, and similar comparisons may be made in each of the other
mutually exclusive population divisions. This process, if carried
through the three 10-year age groups, will give 96 comparisons.
i This division is justified by the differences which have been shown in preceding sections to exist
between the death hazards of men and of women, and of the single and married of each sex.




75

MORTALITY BY RACE, NATIONALITY, OR PEOPLE.

The following table shows how often and in what divisions the Irish
lead when these comparisons are made:
NUMBER OF CASES IN WHICH THE IRISH LEAD WHEN COMPARED WITH FOUR
OTHER RACE GROUPS AS TO DEATH HAZARD FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.
N ontuberculous.

Tuberculous.
Age group.

Females.

Males.
Single.

Married.

Single.

Females.

Males.

Married.

Single.

Married.

Single.

Married.

15 to 24 years............
25 to 34 years.............
35 to 44 years.............

4
3
4

4
4

3
2
4

4
4
4

2
1
3

4
3

4
4
4

4
4
4

Total................

11

8

9

12

6

7

12

12

The Irish lead in 77 of the 96 comparisons possible, that is, in 80
per cent. Such constancy of excess seems to indicate rather strongly
that the excess already shown in the group as a whole, and in its
larger subdivisions, is not due to accidental circumstances, but is
thoroughly typical of the race and that therefore, although the
population unit here used is smaller than that of some of the other
race groups, it affords a valid basis for conclusions as to the relative
death hazard of the Irish as compared with other operative groups.
RACIAL D EATH HAZARDS IN TH E GENERAL POPULATION.

Concerning the operative population of Fall River, the actual
facts are known as to race distribution, age, sex, and conjugal con­
dition, but for the general population these facts are known much
less certainly; indeed, as to some of them, only estimates are availa­
ble. The data concerning the racial hazards of the general popula­
tion are therefore less reliable than those for the operatives, and it
is not worth while to discuss them in detail. For the total popula­
tion aged 15 to 44, age adjusted so as to be comparable with the
operative population, the death rates by race groups are as follows:
DEATH RATES (AGE ADJUSTED) PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCU­
LOUS, AND ALL CAUSES, AMONG THE POPULATION OF FALL RIVER, IN AGE
GROUP 15 TO 44, BY RACE.

Race.

Aggregate non-Irish races.......................................................................
Irish..........................................................................................................
American and unspecified......................................................................
English....................................................................................................
Portuguese...............................................................................................
French Canadian....................................................................................




From tu­ From non­
berculosis. tuberculous
causes.
1.81
4.17
1.76
1. 53
1.19
2.62

2.87
6.32
3. 20
3.10
1. 92
3.21

From all
causes.
4. 68
10. 49
4.96
4.63
3.11
5.83

76

CHAP. II.— MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

The order of the race groups shown here closely resembles that
which was found to exist among the operatives. From each group of
causes the Irish lead in death hazard and the French Canadians
stand second. The English and the American groups have changed
places, however, the American and unspecified races standing third
in hazard from each group of causes while the English sink to fourth
place. The Portuguese, just as among the operatives, take the lowest
place. The Portuguese, it must be remembered, are the newest
comers, and have most recently been vouched for by immigration
inspectors as a class comparatively free from debilitated and mori­
bund members.
M O RTALITY BY CONJUGAL CO ND ITIO N.

There is no classification, except possibly that of race, under which
the different population groups present wider divergencies in their
death hazards than they show when classified by conjugal condition.
In studying mortality by conjugal condition, however, one caution
is to be observed: The relative hazard of the single as compared
with the married differs radically in the two sexes, so that any com­
parison of death rates by conjugal condition must be confined to a
single sex if results of any value are to be obtained. For when the
males and females of a given conjugal condition are combined, the
sex differences tend to counterbalance each other, and a comparison
between the total married and the total single, regardless of sex, gives
almost meaningless results. Comparing the single and the married
within each sex, however, as to the relative hazard of death of each,
conjugal condition gives noteworthy results.
The most constant rule respecting hazard of death within the age
group 15 to 44 is that the death hazard increases as age increases.
But the next most constant rule is that whatever be the age, nativity,
race, industry, or workroom occupation of females the married are
much more liable to die than are the single of the same age.
This appears plainly in the table already referred to (see table on
pp. 178 to 201) where death rates from tuberculosis, nontuberculous
causes, and all causes are given for the single and married of each sex
throughout 29 population divisions. Comparing first the death
hazard from all causes of the single and the married females, 87
comparisons may be made, 29 for each 10-year age group. Out of
this whole number there are only four instances in which the single
show a greater liability to death than the married, these exceptions
being found among the foreign-born nonoperatives aged 15 to 24,
the native-born nonoperatives aged 35 to 44, and two workroom
groups— the spinning-room workers, and the “ other races” of the
combined spooler and miscellaneous rooms— in age group 35 to 44.
The two workroom groups are entirely unimportant numerically,




MORTALITY BY CONJUGAL CONDITION.

77

while the two nonoperative groups form respectively but 3 and 4 per
cent of the total population aged 15 to 44. If instead of being carried
through the three 10-year age groups the comparison be made for
the total group aged 15 to 44, there is not one case in which the
single females exceed the married in total death hazard.
If the comparison be made by cause of death, several exceptions
to the general rule are found in the three 10-year age groups, the most
important being foreign-born nonoperatives, aged 15 to 24 and 25 to
34, and native-born operatives and nonoperatives, aged 35 to 44.
In all of these, the single show a greater death hazard than the
married from tuberculosis, and in the first and third groups the
single have the greater hazard from nontuberculous causes also.
If the comparison by causes of death be limited to the total group
aged 15 to 44 only one instance is found of a higher death rate among
single than among married females, this occurring among the foreignborn nonoperatives dying from tuberculosis.
As respects females, therefore, the case may be thus summarized:
In Fall River, married females between the ages of 15 and 44 are
much more liable to die, both from tuberculosis and from all non­
tuberculous causes, than are the single. This greater liability ap­
pears, with very few exceptions, in all the population divisions
throughout the three 10-year age groups, as well as in the total group
aged 15 to 44, and is often extremely marked.
Among males, however, the situation as to death hazard by con­
jugal condition is just the opposite, since the single males are almost
invariably far more liable to die early than are the married of the
same age. This is* less generally true in the age group 15 to 24,
where the married are relatively very few, than in either of the other
10-year age groups or in the total population aged 15 to 44. Even
in age group 15 to 24, however, the male operatives show a greater
liability to death from nontuberculous causes among the single than
among the married, and this is sufficiently large to offset the greater
liability of the married to die from tuberculosis, and to make the
death hazard of single male operatives from all causes exceed that
of the married. In the two succeeding age groups the greater
tendency to early death of the single is almost constant and fre­
quently extreme, appearing alike in respect to tuberculosis and to
nontuberculous causes of death. In these two age groups the only
classes of any numerical importance in which the married show
higher death rates than the single are the following:
From tuberculosis: The Irish and Portuguese operatives aged 25
to 34, and the operative group of Americans and unspecified races
aged 35 to 44.




78

CHAP. II.— MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

From nontuberculous causes: Irish operatives aged 25 to 34; all
native-born operatives aged 35 to 44, and all English operatives in
the same age group.
The othgr exceptions are found only in workroom groups where
the numbers involved are too small to be indicative.
It is to be observed that the age groups and population classes
conforming to the general rule of the higher death hazard of the
married are so much more important numerically than those pre­
senting exceptions to it that, when the classes and groups are com­
bined, the exceptions are overweighted and disappear. In the total
group aged 15 to 44 there is but one case 1in which in any population
division the total death hazard of the married exceeds, or even equals,
that of the single.
For males, then, the situation as to death hazard by conjugal con­
dition may be thus summarized:
In Fall River single males between the ages of 15 and 44, except
for those aged 15 to 24, are almost invariably far more liable to die
from all causes combined than are married males of the same age.
And although in the age group 15 to 24 a number of exceptions to the
general rule are found they affect the general situation so little that
in the total population aged 15 to 44 only one exception, and that in
a class comprising only 1 per cent of the whole population, is found
to the general rule that the male single have a very much greater
death hazard from all causes than have the male, married. The
same rule holds good, though with a number of exceptions, especially
in the group aged 15 to 24, as respects the greater liability of single
as compared with married males to die early from tuberculosis.
M O R TALITY BY INDUSTRY.

In the discussion of Fall River it has already been pointed out
(see p. 32) that there are probably few persons in the city within the
age group 15 to 24 whose standard of living is other than that of the
wage earner. Consequently in such a city comparisons between the
death hazards of cotton operatives and all other persons of corre­
sponding age are peculiarly defensible. If such comparisons show
great and constant differences between the death rates of the cotton
operatives and the nonoperatives, many of whom are wage earners
outside of the cotton mills, and many others of whom form the
families of wage earners, then tentatively the induction may be made
that at least a part of the difference is attributable to the industry—
cotton manufacturing— which is characterized by such well-nigh
invariably excessive death hazards.
i This exception is found among the “ other races” of the spooler and miscellaneous rooms, a group
comprising only 752 males.




MORTALITY BY INDUSTRY.

79

In this connection it is well to remember when considering the
high death hazard of Fall River females that the nonoperative females
are no more liable to early death than the females outside of Fall
River; in fact, their hazard is slightly less than that of females else­
where. The table on pages 178 to 201 gives the death rate of all
females aged 15 to 44 within the cities of the registration States in
1911, adjusted as to age so as to be comparable with the corresponding
rate for Fall River. This shows a total death hazard higher by 2
per cent than that of the Fall River female nonoperatives from 1908
to 1912, inclusive. The difference is very small, but it is sufficient
to show that the high death rates appearing among the female
operatives of Fall River can not be attributed to any local condition
independent of the cotton mills, peculiarly unfavorable to females
in general, since the Fall River women and girls who do not work in
cotton mills are slightly less liable to die young than the women and
girls of the registration States generally.
Yet in making any inductions as to the effect of the cotton manu­
facturing industry upon the mortality of its operatives, it is to be
remembered that there is a racial hazard independent of occupation
which must be taken into account, and in the case of females there
is the additional fact to be borne in mind that at least some deaths
occurring among operatives are doubtless chargeable to prolificacy
and to neglect or incompetent care of the expectant mother, quite
apart from occupational influences.
HAZARD OF OPERATIVES AS COM PARED W ITH N ON OPERATIVES.

The death rates of operatives and nonoperatives are given in much
detail in the tables already used, but for convenient reference and
also to show more clearly the possible influence of such factors as
age, sex, nativity, and conjugal condition in connection with indus­
try, the following table is inserted.




80

CHAP. II.----MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

PER CENT BY WHICH DEATH RATES OF OPERATIVES EXCEEDED (+ ) OR FELL BE­
LOW ( - ) THE CORRESPONDING RATES OF NONOPERATIVES, BY CAUSE OF DEATH,
NATIVITY, AGE GROUP, SEX, AND CONJUGAL CONDITION.

Age group 15 to 24.
Tuberculous.
Sex and conjugal condition.

Nontuberc-ulous.

All causes.

Foreign All na­ Native |
Foreign All na­
Native Foreign All na­ Native 1
born. tivities. born. | born. tivities. born.
bom.
born. tivities

Males:
Single...............................
Married............................

+ 28
+ 165

+171
+ 13

+ 63
+ 52

+ 57 j + 3 4
- 47 | - 62

+ 47
— 59

+ 47
+ 14

Total.............................

+ 36

+ 102

+

+

+

32

+

44 | + 4 0

Females:
Single...............................
Married............................

+110
+238

+107
+617

+

95
+351

+ 5
+419

- 3
+347

+

64
+316

+ 18
+464

+ 46
+349

+113

+230

+ 134

+ 53 | + 4 9

+ 53

+ 118

+

+170

+ 113

+

+

+
+

87

+

64

+

+65

Total.............................
Both sexes, both classes........

98

60

48 | + 1 3

!
I

38 I

- 26
+341

+

24

32

j
j

+68
- 32

72 |

+ 53
- 19

+

41

94

Age group 25 to 34.
Males:
Single...............................
Married............................

- 60
- 75

+ 104
+ 79

+ 11
+ 43

-

2
3

+

5
8

- 2
- 14

- 27
- 25

+ 40
+ 25 |

+
+

4
6

Total.............................

- 65

+ 86

+ 23

-

2

-

4

-

~ 26_

+ 29 |

+

2

Females:
Single...............................
Married............................

- 23
+290

- 11
+283

- 14
+277

+ 30
+162

+105

+171

+ 144

+ 17

+124

+ 77

Total.............................
Both sexes, both classes........j

11

+ 2
+ 75

+ 16
+ 100

+ 13
+198

- 5
+132

+ 4
+149

+ 75

+ 47

+ 58

+ 84

+ 87

+ 84

+ 44

+ 19

+ 24

+ 35

+ 55

+ 42

Age group 35 to 44.
!

Males;
Single...............................
Married............................

+ 81
+ 95

+ 61
+ 84

+ 56
+ 82

- 54
+ 11

-.3 4
- 25

- 40
- 20

— 7
+ 35

- 10
+ 9

- 10
+ 11

Total.............................

+ 99

+ 83

+ 76

-

-

25

- 25

+ 22

+

+

Females:
Single...............................
Married............................

+163
+172

+ 32
+177

+ 88
+186

- 14
+ 94

+ 89
+ 52

+ 27
+ 63

+ 20
+ 105

+ 75
+ 80

+ 40
+ 87

+ 49

+ 70

+ 70

+ 70

+ 43

+ 32

+ 34

-

+
-

13

Total.............................

+ 186 | +139

+154

+ 48

+ 50

Both sexes, both classes........

+123 1 +109

+112

+ 16

+

6 | +

7

7

6

Age-adjusted total group, 15 to 44.
Males:
Single...............................
Married............................

+ 19
+ 65

+ 95
+ 47

+ 41
+ 57

-

17
15

Total.............................

+ 17

+ 91

+ 51

+

7

Females:
Single...............................
Married............................

+ 79
+247

+ 37
+358

+ 54
+292

+ 5
+202

- 36
- 37

- 12
- 34

+

-

-

3

+ 10

+ 26

+ 16

+ 16
+135

+ 31
+218

+ 26
+ 182

+ 30
+185

5

+ 20
+109

3
6

7
6

6
3

Total.............................

+120

+182

' +142

+ 60

+ 49

+ 63

+ 80

+ 89

+ 82

Both sexes, both classes.......

+ 75

+135

+100

+ 32

+ 15

+ 20

+ 46

+ 52

+ 46




MORTALITY BY INDUSTRY.

81

CONSTANCY AND DEGREE OF OPERATIVE EXCESS.

It is evident from this table that operatives as compared with
nonoperatives show a rather constant, and frequently a Very consid­
erable excess, in their liability to die under the age of 45. Taking
the operative body as a whole, without distinction as to sex or con­
jugal condition, the operatives, whether native or foreign bom, inva­
riably show a death hazard greater than that of nonoperatives.
When the comparison is made by sex and conjugal condition, as
well as by nativity and age groups, there are a good many exceptions
to the general rule, but the operatives lead with a fair degree of con­
stancy. The table shows for each sex four mutually exclusive divi­
sions—the single and the married of the native and of the foreign
born—each of which is affected by two groups of death causes—
tuberculosis and the combined nontuberculous causes. This gives
for each sex 8 entirely independent death rates in each age group, or
24 in the three 10-year age periods. The death rates of operatives
show an excess over those of nonoperatives among males in 14, or 58
per cent of these cases, and among females in 20, or 83 per cent; or,
considering the whole 48 comparisons, the operatives lead in 34, or
70 per cent, while if the total group aged 15 to 44 be considered, they
lead in 12, or 75 per cent, of the 16 comparisons.
Even more striking is the degree by which the death hazard of the
operatives exceeds that of the nonoperatives. Considering the whole
operative body without respect to sex, nativity, conjugal condition,
or cause of death, the excess of operative hazard ranges from about
two-thirds (65 per cent) in the group aged 15 to 24—a group which
comprises 52 per cent of the operatives aged 15 to 44—to about onethird (34 per cent) among those aged 35 to 44, while in the total
group aged 15 to 44 it reaches 46 per cent; that is, the operatives
taken as a whole, are on the average one and one-half times as liable
to die as nonoperatives of practically identical age.
RELATIVE HAZARD BY CAUSE OF DEATH.

When operatives and nonoperatives are compared by cause of
death, age, sex, nativity, etc., some variations appear from the gen­
eral rule as to their relative hazard. When the death hazard from
tuberculosis only is considered the operatives generally show an excess,
and frequently a very great excess, over nonoperatives. The only
exceptions are found in age groups 25 to 34, where all native-born
males, regardless of conjugal condition, and all single females, re­
gardless of nativity, show a lower mortality among operatives than
among nonoperatives. The death rates from tuberculosis invariably
show a greater operative excess among married than among single
females of the same age, and usually this excess is enormously greater
88204°— 19— Bull. 251------ 6




82

CHAP. II.----MORTALITY IX AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

among the married than among the single. The only exception to
this is found among the native-born females of age group 35 to 44,
where the operatives form only 1 per cent of the total population aged
15 to 44, and even in this group the excess of the married is greater
than that of the single, though only slightly so. In the two younger
groups of foreign born, both male and female have a much higher
degree of operative excess in tuberculous death rate over nonopera­
tives of the same age than obtains among the native born. In age
group.35 to 44, however, the situation is reversed, the native born
showing the greater degree of excess.
From nontuberculous causes of death the operatives as a whole
show a tendency to early death greater by one-fifth (20 per cent)
than that which obtains among the nonoperatives, but when the
comparison is made in greater detail the sexes are found to differ
greatly. Female operatives show an excess over female nonopera­
tives in 10 of the 12 comparisons possible in the three 10-year age
groups, while male operatives show an excess in only 4 of these 12
comparisons. That is, while female operatives show in general a
greater liability to death than nonoperatives do from nontubercu­
lous, just as from tuberculous, causes of death, male operatives show
a smaller liability from nontuberculous causes, the only important
exception to this statement being the single males of age group 15
to 24, where the operatives show an excess of from one-third to nearly
three-fifths over nonoperatives.
From nontuberculous causes the native-born married females in­
variably show a much larger percentage of excess in the operative as
compared with the nonoperative death rate than is disclosed in the
case of the foreign-born married females. In the two older age
groups, and in the total group aged 15 to 44, this operative excess of
the native born is practically double that which obtains among the
foreign born.
Attention has already been called to the fact that from tuberculous
causes the excess of operative over nonoperative death rates is greater
among married than among single females; this same fact is strikingly
true of the death rates from nontuberculous causes also. Whether
native or foreign born, the married female operative exceeds in a
degree varying from one and a half to nearly four and a half times
the death hazard of the married female nonoperative from non­
tuberculous causes, among which parturition is the most noteworthy.
Furthermore, married females regularly show a much higher excess
of operative over nonoperative death rates from nontuberculous
causes than is true of the single females of each corresponding age
and nativity class. The female foreign born of age group 35 to 44
constitute the sole exception to this rule.




MORTALITY BY INDUSTRY.

83

RACE AS AFFECTING EXCESS OF OPERATIVE HAZARD.

The suggestion is sometimes made that the excess of operative
hazard is due to the racial tendencies of the operatives rather than
to anything in the industry. The data gathered in this investigation
seem to tell against this theory. It is true that both the Irish and
the French Canadians have high death rates, in some cases excessively
high, and that both are numerously represented among the operatives.
If they were less numerous among the nonoperatives it would be a
reasonable assumption that the operative death rates were unfairly
weighted by their greater relative number, and that a part at least
of the operative excess was due to the racial composition of the
operative body. The race data, however, do not warrant this assump­
tion. In the total group aged 15 to 44, the combined Irish and
French Canadians form 36.8 per cent of the operatives and 34.9 per
cent of the nonoperatives. That is, the excess of their percentage
among the operatives is 5 per cent. But for this same total group
aged 15 to 44 the operative excess in death hazard is 46 per cent;
obviously the 5 per cent excess of Irish and French Canadians can
not be responsible for any considerable part of this. Moreover, in
the group aged 15 to 24, where the operative excess of death hazard
is greatest, the Irish and French Canadians combined are actually
less numerous among the operatives than among the nonoperatives,
forming 32 per cent of the operatives and 39 per cent of the
nonoperatives. Again, the tables of operative and nonopera­
tive death rates by race show that among the combined nonIrish and non-French Canadian races operatives exceed nonoperatives in death hazard more constantly than is the case among
either the Irish or the French Canadians. If the death rates of the
operatives, male and female, from tuberculosis and from nontuber­
culous causes, be compared with the corresponding death rates of
nonoperatives throughout the three 10-year age groups, we have 12
comparisons. Among the combined non-Irish, non-French Canadian
races, there is not a single instance in these 12 cases in which the
operative death rate does not exceed that of the nonoperatives, but
if a similar comparison be made with the other races there are four
instances among the Irish and three among the French Canadians in
which the nonoperatives show the higher death rates. It seems
reasonable to consider, therefore, that the general fact of an operative
excess in death hazard can not be explained on the ground of the
racial composition of the operative body, but that there is a distinct
hazard of industry, quite independent of racial tendencies.
SUMMARY.

Fall River cotton operatives between the ages of 15 and 44 are
about one-half (46 per cent) more liable to die from all causes com­
bined than are nonoperatives of the same age, their hazard from




84

CHAP. II.— MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

tuberculosis being 100 per cent and from all nontuberculous causes
of death 20 per cent greater than the hazard of all other persons.
The difference in death hazard between cotton operatives and nonpperatives varies widely, however, according as the comparison is
made by age group, sex, nativity, or for each sex by conjugal con­
dition, additional variations being discovered when two or more of
these factors are considered in the comparison.
Taking up first the comparison by age, the most striking fact dis­
closed is that the excess of the operative over the nonoperative death
hazard from all causes diminishes as age increases. This steady
decrease is found mainly among the deaths from nontuberculous
causes, the figures for the different causes being as follows:
P E R C E N T B Y W H IC H D E A T H R A T E S O F O P E R A T IV E S E X C E E D E D T H E C O R R E ­
S P O N D IN G R A T E S O F N O N O P E R A T IV E S F R O M T U B E R C U L O U S , N O N T U B E R C U ­
LOU S, A N D A L L CAU SES, B Y A G E G R O U P.

T u b e r cu ­
lo u s.

N o n tu b e r ­
cu lou s.

113
77

A g e gro u p .

32
24
7

15 t o 24 y e a r s .............................................................................................................
25 t o 34 y e a r s ............................................. ................................................................
35 t o 44 y e a rs.............................................................................................................

12
1

A ll
causes.

65
42
34

The variation in the excess from tuberculosis appears wholly irregu­
lar, while that from nontuberculous causes shows a progressive
diminution in the higher age groups.
Turning to the comparison by sex, it appears that the operative
excess is at once more constant and greater among females than
among males. The figures for the comparison by sex are as follows:
P E R C E N T B Y W H IC H D E A T H R A T E S O F O P E R A T I V E S E X C E E D E D ( + ) O R F E L L B E L O W
( - ) T H E C O R R E S P O N D IN G R A T E S O F N O N O P E R A T IV E S , B Y C A U SE O F D E A T H , S E X ,
AND AGE GROUP.

T u b ercu lou s.

N o n tu b e rcu lo u s.

A ll causes.

A g e g rou p .
M ales.

F em ales.

M ales.

F em ales.

M ales.

F e m a le s.

15 t o 24 y ears..........................................................
25 t o 34 years..........................................................
35 t o 44 y ears..........................................................

+60
+23
+ 76

+134
+ 144
+ 154

+32

-11
-2 5

+53
+ 58
+ 49

+ 41
+ 2
+ 6

+94
+ 84
+ 70

T ota l, 15 to 44 yea rs.................................

+ 51

+ 142

-

+ 53

+ 16

+ 82

3

This table shows that even among the males an operative excess
is the general rule, though in the two older age groups it approaches
the vanishing point. It is quite pronounced in the youngest group,
however, and this group contains nearly one-half (45 per cent) of all
male operatives aged 15 to 44 years. Also, from tuberculosis the




MORTALITY BY INDUSTRY.

85

operative excess among males is considerable and appears throughout
the three 10-year age groups. Among females the operative excess
appears in every age group and from both groups of causes; it is
considerable even when only deaths from nontuberculous causes are
considered, and from tuberculosis it is strikingly large. This excess
from tuberculosis is particularly great among married females, the
operative excess in this case for the age group 15 to 44 being 292
per cent.
Taking up the question of nativity it appears that foreign-born
operatives average a somewhat greater excess over nonoperatives in
death liability from all causes than obtains respecting native-born
operatives. This is due to the large excess of deaths of foreign born
from tuberculosis which obtains in the cases of the male single and
the female married. From nontuberculous causes the native born
show a greater excess of operative over nonoperative death hazard
than appears among the foreign born.
As to racial variations, the combined Irish and French Canadian
operatives almost without exception exceed, and generally exceed
greatly, operatives of all the other races combined in death hazard,
both from tuberculosis and from all nontuberculous causes. The
non-Irish, non-French Canadian operatives show a constant, but
smaller, excess of death hazard over the nonoperatives of the same
combined race groups.
Turning to conjugal condition, married operatives, male as well as
female, though the former in far less degree, average a greater excess
over nonoperatives in death hazard, especially in that from tubercu­
losis, than is true of the operative single. In the case of the
female married this excess of operative over nonoperative hazard
is always large and sometimes enormous, varying in respect to
tuberculosis from 105 to 617 per cent.
OPERATIVE MORTALITY BY WORKROOM.

It has been shown that in the age group 15 to 44 operatives are
considerably more liable to death than nonoperatives. The degree of
their extra hazard varies in different groups, but in some degree it
appears so generally as to leave no reasonable doubt that there is a
hazard inherent in the industry regardless of the age, sex, conjugal
condition, or race of the operative; these different circumstances
affect the degree but not the fact of an excess of hazard. Naturally
the next question which rises is whether this hazard affects the indus­
try as a whole or can be traced to particular occupations within it.
In testing this the occupations have been grouped according to the
workroom within which they are carried on. This has been done
partly because a consideration of the occupations separately would
lead to such subdivision of the operative body that the resultant




86

CHAP. II.— MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

groups would be too small to give significant results, and partly
because certain physical conditions of the rooms must affect almost
equally all who work within them. Thus the card room is dusty and
ill ventilated, and these conditions are likely to be as harmful to one
worker as another, whether he be employed as card grinder, speeder
tender, slubber tender, or in any other capacity. The classification of
rooms and workers is as follows:
Card and picker 1 'ooms (usually called in this study simply card
room).—Picker tenders and picker bosses, male card grinders, etc.,
female speeder tenders, male and female slubber tenders and drawingframe tenders, and female doffers.
Spinning room.—Mule spinners (male), ring and frame spinners
(male and female), male doffers, and back boys.
Weave room.—Loom fixers (male), weavers (male and female),
miscellaneous employees.
Spooler room and rooms not otherwise speciiied.—Spooler tenders,
drawers-in, warper tenders, winders and reelers, slasher tenders and
helpers, cloth-room hands, and miscellaneous employees, and among
decedents those not reported as to workroom occupations.
The following table shows what proportion of the total operative
force is employed in each of these workroom groups, by age and sex:
N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T O F O P E R A T IV E S E M P L O Y E D IN S P E C IF IE D W O R K R O O M S ,
B Y AGE GROUP AND SEX.

Males.

Fem ales.

B o th sexes.

A g e g rou p a n d w o rk ro o m .
N u m b e r. P e r cen t. N u m b e r. P e r cen t. N u m b e r.

P er cen t.

13 to 24 years:
Card r o o m ........................................................
S pin n in g r o o m ...............................................
W ea v e r o o m ...................................................
S p ooler ro o m a n d m iscella neous..............

2.5
7.6
8.2
2.6

2,001
2,146
2,110

5.3

2,008
635

8.2
8.8
8.6

1,915
3,869
4,154
2,745

7.8
15.8
17.0

T o t a l..............................................................

5,124

20.9

7,559

30.9

12,683

51.8

25 to 34 years:
Card r o o m ........................................................
S pin n in g r o o m ...............................................
W ea v e r o o m ...................................................
Spooler r o o m a n d m iscella n eou s............

796
627
1,701
338

3 .2

715
626
1,249
990

2.9

7.0
1.4

5.1
4 .0

1,511
1,253
2,950
1,328

6.2
f> 1
.
12.0

T o t a l ..............................................................

3,462

14.1

3,580

14.6

7,042

28.7

35 t o 44 years:
# Card r o o m .......................................................
S pin n in g r o o m ...............................................
W ea ve r o o m ...................................................
S pooler ro o m a n d m iscella n eou s............

588
323
1,537
254

2.4
1 .3
6.3

1.7

3.6

1.0
2.1

1,015
571
2,419
768

4.1
2.3
9.3
3.1

T o t a l..............................................................

2,702

1.0
11.0

427
248
882
514
2,071

8.5

4, 773

19.5

T o ta l, 15 to 44 years:
Card r o o m ........................................................
S p in n in g r o o m ...............................................
W eave r o o m ...................................................
Spooler ro o m a n d m iscella n eou s............

1,997
2,818
5,246
1,227

2,444
2,875
4,277
3,614

10.0

11.5
21.4
5.0

11.7
17.5
14.8

4,441
5,693
9,523
4,841

18.1
23.2
38.9
19.8

T o t a l..............................................................

11,288

46.0

13,210

54.0

24,498

100.0




613

1,868

2.6

8.1

1,302

2.6

11.2

5.4

87

OPERATIVE MORTALITY BY WORKROOM.

Numerically the weave room is the most important, containing
nearly two-fifths of the total force. Relatively, however, it is far
more important in the upper than in the lower age groups, employing
about one-third of the workers aged 15 to 24, more than two-fifths (42
percent) of those aged 25 to 34, and over one-half of those aged 35 to 44.
Next in numerical importance is the spinning room, which is relatively
most important among the youngest workers, the proportion employed
in it ranging from 31 per cent of those aged 15 to 24 to 12 per cent of
those aged 35 to 44. The card and spooler room groups are of about
the same size, each accounting for nearly one-fifth of the total opera­
tive force aged 15 to 44, but the card room, like the weave
room, is relatively more important among the older workers, while
the spooler room has its largest representation in the youngest age
group, employing 21 per cent of those aged 15 to 24, but only 16
per cent of those aged 35 to 44. The spooler-room group is the only
one in which females outnumber males throughout.
DEATH RATES, BY AGE AND SEX, OF EACH WORKROOM GROUP.

The death rates of the different groups of workers are given in much
detail in the table on pages 178 to 201, but for convenience of discussion
the following summary is given here of the death rates in the different
rooms; for purposes of comparison, the death rates of the total
operative group and of the total nonoperatives are also given:
D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000, F R O M A L L C A U S E S , O F E A C H W O R K R O O M G R O U P A N D
T O T A L O P E R A T IV E S A N D N O N O P E R A T IV E S , B Y A G E A N D S E X .

A g e g rou p an d w o rk room .

Males.

Fem ales.

OF

B o t h sexes.

15 to 24 years:
Cara r o o m ...........................................................................................................
S pinning r o o m ..........................
...............................................................
W e a v e r o o m .......................................................................................................
S pooler r o o m a n d m iscella n eou s................................................................

4.89
4.82
3.59
3.15

5.68
5.60
3.82
3.70

5.43
5.22
3. 71
3.57

T ota l o p e r a tiv e s ...........................................................................................
T o ta l n o n o p e ra tiv e s ...................................................................................

4.14
2.93

4.58
2.36

2. 66

25 to 34 years:
Card r o o m ...........................................................................................................
Spinning r o o m ..........
....
.......................................
W e a v e r o o m .......................................................................................................
.....................................
S pooler ro o m a n d m iscella n eou s.......

3.27
9.89
6.58
1.18

12.31
11.18
7.53
10.51

7. 54
10.53
6.98
8.13

T ota l o p e r a tiv e s ...........................................................................................
T ota l n o n o p e ra tiv e s ...................................................................................

5. 89
5. 80

9.94
5.40

7.95
5.59

35 to 44 years:
Card r o o m ...........................................................................................................
Spinning r o o m ..................................................................................................
W eave r o o m .......................................................................................................
Spooler r o o m a n d m isce lla n e o u s........................... ....................................

8.50
9.91
9.24
6.30

13.11
14.52
13. 61
9.34

10. 44
11.91
10.83
8.33

T ota l o p e r a tiv e s ...........................................................................................
T ota l n o n o p e ra tiv e s ....................................................................................

8.88
8.41

12.55
7.38

10. 48
7.85

T o ta l 15 t o 44 years (age a d ju s te d ):
C ard r o o m .......... ■
...............................................................................................
S pinning r o o m ..................................................................................................
W e a v e r o o m .......................................................................................................
Spooler r o o m a n d m isce lla n e o u s................................................................

5.13
7.27
5.55
3.20

9.03
8.94
6.79
6.76

7.01
8.05
6.04
5.81

T o ta l op e r a tiv e s ...........................................................................................
T o ta l n o n o p e ra tiv e s . . . .
.............................................................

5.57
4.82

7.67
4.21

6.60
4.51




4. 40

88

CHAP. II.— MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

This table shows at once that tha spinning room has the highest
death rate, followed in order by the card room, the weave room, and
the spooler room. The spinning room was shown by the preceding
table to have a larger proportion of young people among its work­
ers than any other room, over two-thirds (68 per cent) of the spinningroom employees being in the age group 15 to 24, while only one other
room (the spooler room) has as high a proportion as 50 per cent in
this age group. In order to see the meaning and incidence of these
death rates the rooms will be considered separately.
THE CARD ROOM.

Card rooms not infrequently have poor light, poor ventilation,
and an atmosphere that is hazy with vegetable fiber, dust, or “ fly.”
These conditions are not necessary, and in the best mills they are not
found, but outside of the best they are common. The work done
by males in this room is in the main unskilled and poorly paid. In
Fall River it goes naturally to the recent immigrant, who usually
gives it up and goes on to a job which pays more as soon as his better
acquaintance with the English language enables him to do so. Cardroom women, on the other hand, may earn quite as much as does the
average female mill worker, and therefore their connection with the
card room is apt to be much longer than that of the males. For
women, card-room work involves lifting bobbins of roving weighing
from 2 to 4 pounds each and placing them on frames from 5 to 6 feet
high— above the head, therefore, for most women.
Comparing the death rates of card-room workers with those of
nonoperatives of the same sex, a striking difference appears, as is
shown by the following table:
P E R C E N T B Y W H I C H D E A T H R A T E S O F C A R D -R O O M W O R K E R S E X C E E D E D ( + ) O R '
F E L L B E L O W ( - ) T H E C O R R E S P O N D IN G R A T E S O F N O N O P E R A T IV E S , B Y S E X ,
CAU SE O F D E A T H , A N D A G E G R O U P.

Males.
A g e group.
T u b e rcu ­
lous.

Fem ales.

N o n tu ­
bercu­
lo u s.

A ll
causes.

T u b e rcu ­
lous.

N o n tu ­
bercu ­
lo u s.

A ll
causes.

15 t o 24 yea rs..........................................................
25 t o 34 y ears..........................................................
35 t o 44 y ears..........................................................

+30
-3 0

+86

+86

-5 2
- 4

+67
-7 7
+ 1

+ 156
+290
+311

+ 125
+ 57
+ 19

+ 141
+ 128
+ 78

T ota l...............................................................

+ 24

-

+ 6

+235

+ 56

+ 114

3

The death rate of nonoperatives is taken as the standard of measure­
ment because it gives a fairer idea of the real hazard of a workroom
than if the operative rate were used. Previous discussion has shown
that the operative, by the mere fact of being an operative, is apt to
have a greater liability to death than the average person not employed




89

OPERATIVE MORTALITY BY WORKROOM.

in the cotton mills. If the operative rate is used as a standard this
fact is obscured, and the workroom which shows a death hazard less
than that of the total operative force may appear to be a reasonably
salubrious place, even though all the while its death rate may be
much higher than that which prevails among nonoperatives.
The"difference shown here between the sexes is striking. For the
group as a whole males arc very little more liable to death than the
average nonoperative male, while females have more than twice as
great a death hazard as the females outside of the mills. In the second
age group males are actually less liable to die than nonoperative
males of the same age, and in the third the two classes have prac­
tically the same hazard. In the first decade the higher rate is ac­
counted for in part by some cases of drowning. Except in this decade
the percentage of deaths from all causes combined is little if at all
greater among card-room males than among the nonoperative males
of their own age. This situation is probably explained by the facts
mentioned above concerning the card-room employment of males.
Since to a large extent they are newly arrived immigrants, they are
still in good physical condition, for any definite weakness would have
barred them from entering the country, and since they leave the
card room for better-paying work as soon as possible they are not
so long exposed to the dust, poor light, and bad ventilation as the
females are; also, even if they remain long enough to become affected
by these conditions that fact may not become apparent until after
they have left the card room.

The female workers of the card room in each case exceed non­
operative females of the same age in their liability to death, but the
degree of excess differs considerably according to their conjugal con­
dition and cause of death. The table just given shows that their
extra hazard from tuberculosis is impressively large, but the greater
part of this excess is found among the married. For the total
group aged 15 to 44 the percentages by which the death hazard of
card-room workers exceeds that of nonoperative females of the same
age, according to conjugal condition and cause of death, are as follows:
P E R C E N T B Y W H IC H D E A T H R A T E S O F F E M A L E C A R D -R O O M W O R K E R S E X C E E D E D
T H E C O R R E S P O N D IN G R A T E S F O R F E M A L E N O N O P E R A T IV E S , B Y C A U SE O F
D E A T H A N D C O N JU G A L C O N D IT IO N .

Con jugal c o n d itio n .

Single fem a les................................................................................................
M arried fem ales__________________________________________________
A ll fem ales




T u bercu lou s.

N o n tu b e r­
culous.

A ll causes.

93
323

35
81

57
163

235

56

114

90

CHAP. II.---- MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 4-L

Were it not overshadowed by the greater peril of the married,
the excess of the hazard of single females from tuberculosis would
seem large, for even the single operatives are nearly twice as liable
to die from tuberculosis as are single nonoperative women, but this
situation is not so unusual. Among the single, tuberculosis kills
more than all other reported causes of death combined in every
workroom except the weave room. But the card room is the only
workroom in which, among the married, deaths from tuberculosis
exceed those from all other causes. Comment on the excess of their
hazard from this cause as compared with nonoperative married
females is unnecessary.
In considering the total hazard from tuberculosis among the
women working in the card room, the abundance of vegetable dust
in the air and the lack of light and ventilation inevitably suggest
themselves as probable causes. For the high death rate of married
females from causes other than tuberculosis, the character of work
done by women in the card room may afford some explanation.
As mentioned before it involves continual lifting of bobbins of
roving and placing them upon frames often above the woman’s head.
So much lifting may quite probably constitute a contributory cause
of death from prematurely terminated pregnancy and from child­
birth. The racial factor appears to enter into the matter. Un­
questionably a large part of the high female death rate is incidental
to the considerable proportion of Irish married women among cardroom workers aged 15 to 44. These form less than one-fifth (19.6
per cent) of the married women of the card room, but contribute
one-third of all the card-room deaths of married females, and onethird the parturition deaths uncomplicated with tuberculosis.
Among the single a similarly disproportionate mortality appears.
The Irish formed but one-fifth (20 per cent) of the single female
workers of the card room in this age group, yet they furnished 8 of
the 19 deaths from nontuberculous causes— that is, 42 per cent—
occurring among them. The Portuguese also bring up the death
rate unduly. The Portuguese married composed only about onefourth (26 per cent) of the married card-room females, yet they fur­
nished one-half all the deaths from parturition occurring among
them.
Card-room work requires more strength than any other cottonmill occupation women engage in, so that presumably few carders
are weaklings when they enter the occupation. The high death rate
of females in the card room is therefore especially noteworthy,
particularly that of married females.
To sum up the situation then, in the card room, male workers
show little more liability to death before 45 than do nonoperative




91

OPERATIVE MORTALITY BY WORKROOM.

males of the same age. Female workers show a much greater lia­
bility to death than is fouhd among nonoperative females; this
is greater among married than among single women, and reaches
its* maximum in the hazard of married card-room females from
tuberculosis.
TH E SPINNING ROOM.

The most striking physical features of the spinning room are the
heat and moisture of the atmosphere. The cotton can not be spun
successfully if it is dry, and the effort to keep it sufficiently moist
for good handling often leads to an excess of humidity. The work
on which women are employed—ring and frame spinning—does not
involve any heavy strain, though in the course of the day much
walking is done. It will be remembered that the spinning room
employs a larger number of operatives than any other except the
weave room, and that the spinning-room employees are in the main
young, 68 per cent of all spinning-room workers and 70 per cent
of the women being under 25 years old.
The table on page 87 shows that the spinning room leads all the
other rooms in its total death hazard, and that this greater hazard
appears in two of the three decades as well as for the total group
aged 15 to 44. Moreover, it is rather uniform as between the sexes,
thus differing from the situation which prevails in the card room.
The following table shows the degree to which spinning-room
workers exceed nonoperatives of the same sex and age in their
liability to death:
P E R C E N T B Y W H I C H D E A T H R A T E S O F S P I N N I N G -R O O M W O R K E R S E X C E E D E D
( + ) O R F E L L B E L O W ( - ) C O R R E S P O N D IN G R A T E S O F N O N O P E R A T IV E S , B Y S E X ,
CAU SE OF D E A T H , A N D A G E G R O U P.

Males.
A g e grou p.
T u b e rcu ­
lous.

N o n tu ­
bercu ­
lous.

Fem ales.

A ll
causes.

T u b e rcu ­
lous.

N o n tu ­
be rcu ­
lous.

A ll
causes.

15 t o 24 yea rs..........................................................
25 t o 34 years..........................................................
35 t o 44 yea rs..........................................................

+ 82
+ 151
+ 70

+55
+23
- 5

+65
+ 71
+ 18

+ 183
+ 190
+ 282

+90
+ 70
+50

+ 137
+107
+ 97

T ota l, 15 t o 44 years (age a d ju s t e d )..

+ 104

+23

+50

+207

+66

+ 112




92

CHAP. II.---- MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

The hazard of the male workers, as shown on page 87, is greater than
in any of the other rooms. Mule spinners contribute materially to
this high risk, especially to the very high death rate from tubercu­
losis, 10 of the 14 deaths of mule spinners aged 15 to 44 having been
from tuberculosis. Mule spinners constitute but 6 per cent of the
spinning-room male population, yet they contribute almost one-fourth
(24 per cent) of all tuberculous deaths of the spinning-room males.
In general, however, tuberculosis is rife among the males of the
spinning room; their death rate from this cause invariably exceeds
that of nonoperatives, and usually also that of operatives in the
other workrooms.
The hazard of spinning-room males from nontuberculous causes is
not so marked, but still they exceed nonoperatives in this respect
by over one-fifth (23 per cent) except in the age group 35 to 44,
where they are slightly less liable to die than nonoperative males
of the same age. An examination of the detailed tables shows that
this lesser liability is due solely to the married males, while the
single follow the usual rule of a spinning-room excess.
As regards the female workers of the spinning room, the age group

15 to 24 appears to represent the peculiar conditions of the room
most fairly. This group is unique in several respects. For females
it is by far the most important of the spinning-room groups, contain­
ing seven-tenths of all spinning-room females aged 15 to 44 and twothirds of those aged 15 to 64. The French Canadian and the Portu­
guese are the dominant races, forming 89 per cent of its single and
92 per cent of its married spinning-room workers. This reflects very
closely the situation in the total female spinning-room group aged
15 to 44, in which the French Canadians and Portuguese combined
form 87 per cent of the single and 88 per cent of the married. The
single female spinners of these two races in age group 15 to 24 form
three-quarters of all single female spinners aged 15 to 44, while the
married of these two races form about two-fifths of the married female
spinners aged 15 to 44.
A study of the detailed tables shows that the most important factors
in the female mortality in this age group are tuberculosis and parturi­
tion. How important they are may be judged from the following
table, which contrasts the prevalence of these causes of death in the
spinning room with their prevalence elsewhere in Fall River:




OPERATIVE MORTALITY BY WORKROOM.

93

P O P U L A T IO N , D E A T H S F R O M P A R T U R IT IO N A N D
O T H E R CAU SES, A N D D E A T H
R A T E S P E R 1,000 O F F E M A L E S P IN N I N G -R O O M O P E R A T I V E S O F E A C H S P E C IF IE D
R A C E , A N D O F A L L F E M A L E O P E R A T IV E S A N D N O N O P E R A T IV E S , A N D A L L
F E M A L E S , I N A G E G R O U P 15 TO 24, B Y C O N J U G A L C O N D I T I O N .

F e m a le ..

W ork ro o m , race,
a n d occu p a­
tion al group.

N u m b e r o f de ce d e n ts.

D eaths
o f mar­
ried
w om en
from
M ar­ B o th
par­
T u - N onT u - N on T u - N onried . classes.
turi­
ber- tuber- A ll
b er- tuber- A ll
ber- tuber- A ll
tio n .1
cucu - causes. cu c u - causes.
cu - causes. cu lous. lous.
lous. lous.
lous. lous.
Single.

S in­
gle.

S p in n in g room :
F ren ch Cana­
dian
P o r tu g u e s e .. .

12
0

M arried.

29
23

3
27

52

34

56

210
1
211

106

67

173

328

35

34

69

<5

141

11
0

242

633

1
0
14

2
1
1
1

24

32

14

13

27

34

31

65

1
2

n

23

46

42

8 |
8

16
3

6

19
9

5

B o th r a c e s .. 1,437
U n s p e c ifie d
races..........
174

358

1,795

19

9

28

13

32

206

A ll races___ 1,611

390

2,001

1
2
0

9

29

A ll op e r a tiv e s ... 6,373 1,186
A l l nonopera­
tiv e s .................. 3,972 1,884

7,559

72

36

108

5,856

23

23

46

A ll fem ales. 10,345 3,070 13,415

95

59

154

1

8
1
2
2
0
2
22

6
1
1
2

705
1,090

3

256

603
834

B o t h classes.

8
1

5

2

3

.4

i
P er
cen t
each
classified group
is o f its w h ole
15 t o 64 fem ale
age g ro u p total.

Sp in n in g room :
F ren ch Cana­
dian ..............
P o r t u g u e s e ...

D eath rate p e r 1,000.

73
95

2
1

54
87

5.31
.7 2

0.99
1.44

6.30
2.16

9.81
6.25

9.80
4.69

19.61
10.94

5.97

2.28

67

2.02 2.20

8.25
4.22'

5.88
5.47

B o th ra c e s ..
U n s p ecified
races..............

85

42

70

2.79

1.25

4.94

7.26

6.15

13.41

3.56

2.23

5.79

5.59

74

24

56

( 6)

( 6)

( 6)

( 6)

( 6)

( 6)

(6)

(6
)

A ll races___

83

39

6
8

2.48

1.12

3.60

7.18

6.67

13.85

3.40

2.20

5.60

5.64

A ll o p era tiv es ...
A l l nonop era­
t iv es..................

71

53

2.26

1.13

3.39

5.73

5.23

10.96

2.81

1.77

4.58

4.72

51

2
1

1.16

1.16

2.32

1.27

1.17

2.44

1.20

1.16

2.36

A ll fem ales.

62

2
2
1
0
1
2

32

1.84

1.14

2.98

3.00

2.73

5.73 ■ 2.10

1.51

3.61 !

(6)

.53
2.15

1A ll cases, in c lu d in g com plication s, w here p r e g n a n cy e n d e d n o t e x ce e d in g 30 d a ys before death.
2In clu d in g 2 cases co m p lica te d w ith tuberculosis, 1 co m p lica te d w ith p n eu m on ia, a n d 1 w here d e ce d e n t
was u n m a m e d .
a In clu d in g 4 cases co m p lica te d w ith tuberculosis, 1 com p lica ted w ith p n e u m o n ia , a n d 3 w here d e ce d e n t
w as unm arried.
4In clu d in g 1 case co m p lica te d w ith tuberculosis.
6In clu d in g 5 cases com p lica ted w ith tuberculosis, 1 co m p lica te d w ith pn e u m o n ia , a n d 3 w here d e ce d e n t
w as u n m a m e d .
6L ess th an 9 d ea th s; n o rate co m p u te d .

A very striking feature of this table is the high death rate of the
married from parturition. As compared with all nonoperatives, the
death rates from parturition of the Portuguese and the French Cana­
dians respectively show an excess from this cause of 932 per cent and
1,009 per cent. Even as compared with the death rate from this
cause of all females— that is, including themselves and other opera­
tives— they show excesses respectively of 154 per cent and 173 per
cent.




94

CHAP. II.— MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

Of all the workrooms the spinning room has the largest percentage,
over one-half (51 per cent), of the total nontuberculous deaths of
married females 15 to 44 years of age ascribable to parturition. This
preeminence holds true also of the tuberculous decedents of the
spinning room, one-eighth (13 per cent) of whom had had within
30 days of their deaths a terminated pregnancy as a complicating
circumstance.
The death rate from parturition not complicated with tuberculosis
among married women of the spinning room for the age group 15 to 24
is 5.03 as contrasted with 3.02 for the corresponding females of the
other workrooms. This is a spinning-room death rate excess from
nontuberculous parturition of two-thirds (67 per cent) in an age
group that includes seven-tenths of all spinning-room females aged
15 to 44. This excess does not seem to be a racial matter, except that
since the French Canadians and the Portuguese make up the great
majority of the spinning-room married in this age group they nat­
urally have the majority of these deaths. But in proportion to their
number the other races show about the same degree of mortality
from this cause. This is shown by the following figures:
PERCEN TAGE

D IS T R IB U T IO N O F M A R R IE D F E M A L E S
P A R T U R IT IO N , B Y R A C E .

AND

R a ce .

F ren ch C anadians.....................................................................................................................
P ortu gu ese..
O ther races..

OF

DEATHS

P ercentage
o f m arried
fem ales
fro m each
race grou p.

26

FROM

P ercentage
o f partu ri­
t io n deaths
fro m each
race grou p.

27
64
9

Probably the nature of the work done by women in the spinning
room has much to do with the prevalence of these parturition deaths.
There is nothing heavy about the work, but it demands almost'con­
stant walking or standing in a hot, moist atmosphere. “ She did her
daily marathon/’ said the sister of one spinning-room girl decedent,
describing the work.
The hazard from tuberculosis appears very clearly in this table.
For single women of the spinning room the liability to death from
this cause is 114 per cent and for married women 465 per cent greater
than among nonoperative women of the same age and conjugal con­
dition. This extreme liability to tuberculosis exists throughout the
female force of the spinning room, the death rate from this cause for
those aged 15 to 44 being among single women 90 per cent and among
married women 379 per cent greater than among nonoperatives.
This is the only workroom in which, among the single women, deaths
from tuberculosis outnumber those from all other causes, nearly two
out of every three deaths (62 per cent) being from this cause.




OPERATIVE MORTALITY BY WORKROOM.

95

THE WEAVE ROOM.

From a physical standpoint the weave room is free from some of
the objectionable features found in other rooms. The atmosphere
must contain a great deal of moisture, but is not necessarily as hot
and humid as that of the spinning room. In this respect conditions
differ from mill to mill. At the time of this investigation in some of
the older mills the air was kept damp by a jet of live steam beside
the loom, so that as the weaver stood at his work he got the full
effect of its heat and moisture. But most of the mills had humidi­
fiers, by the nse of which the atmosphere is kept at the required
point of moisture without exposing the workers to such undesirable
conditions. The noise and vibration of the looms constitute an
objectionable feature of the room, which is much the same in all
mills and is apparently inseparable from the work. Well-equipped
mills are all supposed to have shuttles which thread automatically
but at the time of the investigation many still used the old-fashioned
shuttle, which the weaver threads by putting it to his lips and sud­
denly drawing in his breath. The use of such shuttles has long been
thought to be a principal cause of the tuberculosis among weavers.
The weave room, it will be remembered, is much the largest of the
workrooms, the weavers in age group 15 to 44 numbering almost as
many as the card-room and spinning-room workers combined. As
is the case in all the other rooms, the age group 15 to 24 is the most
important numerically, containing 44 per cent of the total weaveroom workers, but the predominance of this group is not so marked
as in some of the other rooms, especially with regard to women
workers. Both absolutely and proportionately women of the upper
age groups are more numerous in the weave room than in any of the
other rooms, women aged 35 to 44 constituting 21 per cent of the
weave-room female employees as against 9 per cenf in the spinning
room, 17 per cent in the card room, and 14 per cent in the spooler
room.
The table on page 87 shows that for the total group aged 15 to 44
the weave room stands third in liability to death from all causes,
and that it holds this same position for the group aged 15 to 24.
For the total weave-room group the hazard of death from all causes
is a little below that of all operatives, but exceeds that of all non­
operatives by 34 per cent.
Turning to the male workers, the table on page 87 shows that the

male death rate increases more regularly throughout the decades
in the weave room than elsewhere. This arises entirely from the death
rate of the single men and more especially the death rate from
tuberculosis, which, beginning at 1.37 in the youngest age group is
more than trebled in the second decade, where it is 4.73; this in
turn is almost trebled among those aged 35 to 44, their rate reach­




96

CHAP. II.----MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

ing 11.60. From nontuberculous causes there is no such rapid in­
crease, the death rates for the three decades being 2.16, 5.51, and
6.52.1
The death hazard of female weavers differs so widely according
to conjugal condition and cause of death that the following table is
presented to show these variations as compared with the corre­
sponding variations among nonoperatives of the same sex, age, and
conjugal condition:
PER CENT BY WHICH DEATH RATES OF FEMALE WEAVERS EXCEEDED (+ ) OR FELL
BELOW ( - ) THE CORRESPONDING RATES FOR FEMALE NONOPERATIVES.
Single.
Age group.

Married.

Tubercu­
lous.

Nontu­
bercu­
lous.

15 to 24 years.................................................
25 to 34 years.................................................
35 to 44 years.................................................

+40
0)
+75

-3 4
- 4
+42

+ 3
-4 3
+49

+430
+135
+111

+418
+ 89
+ 100

+424
+102
+102

Total..........................................................

- 5

+ 7

+ 4

+266

+ 160

+194

AH
causes.

Tubercu­
lous.

Nontu­
bercu­
lous.

All
causes.

1 No deaths in workroom group.

From all causes combined the death hazard of single female weavers
in the total group aged 15 to 44 barely exceeds that of single non­
operative females, while from tuberculosis the nonoperative females
actually have the higher hazard, as they also have in two of the age
groups, from nontuberculous causes. This low mortality is at least
partly due to the numbers of single English operatives, who have a
low mortality and who form about one-third of the single female
workers in the weave room as against about one-sixth in the other
rooms. Although they form 30 per cent of the single female weavers,
the English contribute but 17 per cent of their deaths, from tubercu­
losis and nontuberculous causes alike. The low death hazard in each
age group of all non-Irish single females of the weave room is a striking
feature of workroom mortality in the cotton-manufacturing industry.
The hazard of married women in the weave room, on the other
hand, is uniformly high, not only as compared with nonoperatives
but in relation to other operatives also. For the age group 15 to 44
the death rate of married female weavers from tuberculosis is only
6 per cent less than that of all female married operatives, while from
nontuberculous causes it is higher than in any other workroom, sur­
passing the rate for all female married operatives by 11 per cent.
This relative hazard is of special importance since the weave room
contains not far from as many married female workers as any two
of the other rooms combined.
This high death rate of the married may at least in part be explained
by two factors— the nature of the work, with the surroundings in
1See chapter on alcoholic addiction, p. 145, for possible cause.




97

OPERATIVE MORTALITY BY WORKROOM.

which it is done, and the racial composition of the group. As to the
first, weavers have to do much bending over the looms. Also, at the
time of this investigation it was customary in some mills to require
the weavers to carry the completed cut of cloth to the scales, which
are sometimes at a considerable distance from the looms. Thus a
small woman might have to carry 15 or 18 pounds of cloth 100 feet
or more. The load is bulky and rather troublesome for a woman to
manage. The male weavers usually lift it onto their shoulders, but
in 1913 the women whom the writer saw invariably carried it in their
hands before them. It will readily be appreciated how much fatigue
such lifting induces, and how great is the danger to the expectant
mother, especially during the last half of her pregnancy. The sur­
roundings also in many cases are unfavorable. The din of the looms
is actually deafening, their vibration is disturbing, the lighting is
sometimes bad, and the ventilation is seldom adequate. Moreover
in some of the mills in 1913 the drinking water in open pails, the
common drinking cup, and the old style, nonautomatic ally threading
shuttle were still in use, though the more progressive mills had sub­
stituted for them modern weave room hygienic equipment, including
humidifiers and adequate systems of ventilation and lighting.
As to the racial factor, just as among the single, the English kept
down their death rate, so among the married the Irish and the French
Canadians bring up the hazard. It will be remembered that both
these races are characterized by a high mortality among their married
female operatives, and reference to the detail table on pages 178 to 201
shows that this mortality is greater in the weave room than any­
where else in the mill. For the total age group 15 to 44 the death
rates of married women in different workrooms and in the mill as a
whole were for the combined Irish and French Canadians and for the
combined other races as follows:
DEATH RATES PER 1,000 OF MARRIED WOMAN OPERATIVES, IN AGE GROUP 15 TO
44, FOR EACH WORKROOM AND FOR THE MILL AS A WHOLE, BY RACE.
Irish and
FrenchCanadian.
In card and spinning room combined...............................................................................
In spooler room and miscellaneous...................................................................................
In weave room.............................................................................................................
In mill as a whole...............................................................................................................

19.42
18.11
25.30
20.50

Other
races.

10.31
6.87
8.82
9.09

The weave room, it will be seen, takes for the Irish and French
Canadians the place of peril which for the other races is held by the
spinning room, but with even a greater excess of hazard over that
of the mill in general. An indication of their high death rate is
shown by the fact that while in the age group 15 to 44 the Irish
88204°— 19— Bull. 251------ 7.




98

CHAP. II.— MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

and the French Canadians combined form but 32 per cent of the mar­
ried female weave-room workers they furnish 54 per cent of the 107
deaths occurring in the group.
TH E SPOOLER ROOM AN D M ISCELLANEOUS.

Spooler-room workers and the miscellaneous operatives of unspeci­
fied workrooms comprise about one-fifth of all millworkers aged
15 to 44. Besides the spooler-room workers, the group includes
the operatives of the slasher room, who are all males and whose
death rate is very high, owing largely to the extreme heat and the
steamy atmosphere of the slasher room; those of the drawing-in
room, of the winding and reeling, the warper-tending and the cloth
rooms. Drawers-in and most cloth-room hands sit while at work.
Three-quarters of the total group are females. Comparing the death
hazard of this group of workers with that of nonoperatives of the
same sex, for the total group aged 15 to 44, it appears that the death
rate of the males falls below that of nonoperatives by 34 per cent,
while females show an excess of 61 per cent over nonoperatives.
Here, as is usually the case throughout the mill, the female excess
is largely due to the high rates prevailing among the married women.
Males in general have a lower death rate here than in any other
workroom, the only exception being found among the married
males whose death rate from tuberculosis exceeds the corresponding
rate in each of the other workrooms. The high death rate from
tuberculosis of the small slasher-room male contingent— 2.93 per
1,000 in the total group aged 15 to 44— probably accounts largely
for this excess.
In the number of women employed, the spooler-room aggregate
stands second only to the weave room, containing 3,614 women, or
about half as many again as the card room, and about one-fourth
more than the spinning room. Throughout the age groups it has a
lower total death hazard for women than any of the other rooms,
except in age group 25 to 34, where it stands next to the lowest.
Nevertheless, as compared with female nonoperatives, the women of
this group show an excess of death hazard ranging from 27 per cent
for the group aged 35 to 44 to 95 per cent in the age group 25 to 34.
An examination of the detail tables on pages 178 ta 201 shows
that this excess is mainly due to the married, whose death hazard
both from tuberculosis and from nontuberculous causes is greater
than that of the single. As compared with the corresponding class
of nonoperatives, single females of the spooler-room group show an
excess in death hazard of 29 per cent, while that of the married is
139 per cent. Comparing the married and the single women within
the group, the married exceed the single in their liability to death
from tuberculosis by 91 per cent and from nontuberculous causes by
155 per cent.




99

OPERATIVE MORTALITY BY WORKROOM.

In the main this excessive liability to death from nontuberculous
causes of married females is due to parturition fatalities, especially
in age group 25 to 34. Of the 20 within this age group who died
from nontuberculous causes 10 had had within 30 days of their
death an interrupted pregnancy—full term or otherwise. The
parturition hazard of married women of the spooler-room aggregate
is in this age group 4.48 per 1,000 population. Corresponding
parturition rates of the married of other workrooms are: Weave
room, 3.81; card room, 4.41; and spinning room, 5.21, if a pneumonia
fatality that was complicated by a prematurely interrupted pregnancy
is included, or 4.64 omitting that case. From nontuberculous
parturition the married women of the spooler-room aggregate had
more deaths per 1,000 population than had the married of any other
room, excepting only the spinning room, in which the corresponding
rate was higher by one-sixth (16 per cent).
SUMMARY.

The following table brings together the hazard of employees in
the several workrooms as compared with the hazard of nonopera­
tives of the same age, sex, and conjugal condition:
PER CENT BY WHICH THE DEATH RATES OF OPERATIVES EXCEEDED (+ ) OR
FELL BELOW ( - ) THE CORRESPONDING RATES FOR NONOPERATIVES, BY SEX,
CAUSE OF DEATH, CONJUGAL CONDITION, WORKROOM, AND AGE GROUP.
Males.
Workroom, and age group.

Tubercu­
lous.
Sin­
gle.

Mar­
ried.

Females.
Tubercu­
lous.

Nontuber­
culous.

All causes.

Sin­ Mar­
gle. ried.

Sin­ Mar­ Sin­ Mar­
gle. ried. gle. ried.

Nontuber­
culous.

All causes.

Sin­ Mar­
gle. ried.

Sin­ Mar­
gle. ried.

Card room:
C + 148 +201 + 99 + 40 + 124
1)
15 to 24 years................. + 67
C) +112
1
0) +134
25 to 34 years................. 0) + 24 - 52 - 46 - 71 - 22 - 12 +471 + 20 + 79 + 7
35 to 44 years................. + 105 + 152 - 56 - 25 - 54 + 29 + 166 +362 + 8 + 26 + 41

+213
+189
+ 93

62 - 28 - 41 + 93 +323 + 35 + 88 + 57

+163

+ 90 + 54 + 74 - 58 + 79 - 19 + 114 +465 - 3 + 47 + 55
+ 105 +206 + 38 + 12 + 65 + 79 + 43 +286 - 36 + 124 - 4
+ 94 + 48 + 17 - 20 + 41 + 1 + 126 +337 + 143 + 27 + 140

+468
+170
+ 89

Total, 15 to 44 years.. + 97 + 97 + 34 - 27 + 56 + 15 + 90 +379 + 48 + 156 + 64

+228

Weave room:
15 to 24 years................. + 44 l+ 84 + 16 + 37 + 26 + 79 + 40 +430 - 34 +418 + 3
25 to 34 years................. + 39 + 20 + 9 + 9 + 21 + 13 C) + 135 - 4 + 89 - 42
1
35 to 44 years................. + 95 + 59 - 50 - 10 - 5 + 11 + 75 + 111 + 42 + 100 + 49

+424
+ 102
+ 102

Total, 15 to 44 years..
Spiiming room:
15 to 24 years.................
25 to 34 years.................
35 to 44 years.................

- 47 +

1 - 18 -

Total, 15 to 44 years.. + 65 + 59 - 20 -

15 +

9 + 30 -

5 +266 +

7 + 160 +

3

+194

Spooler room and miscel­
laneous:
15 to 24 years................. + 43 +235 - 9 C + 8 + 18 + 103 +232 - 27 + 187 + 38
1)
25 to 34 years................. (x
C) + 48 +288 + 58 + 115 + 54
1
)
C - 39 <
1)
l) - 63
35 to 44 years................. (*) + 84 - 15 - 59 - 42 - 17 + 49 + 70 - 20 + 47 - 6

+ 21
+ 163
+ 52

Total, 15 to 44 years.. - 73 + 98 - 21 - 88 - 39 - 26 + 72 +216 +
Basic nonoperative death
rate:
15 to 24 years.................
25 to 34 years.................
35 to 44 years.................
Total, 15 to 44 years
(age adjusted)........




3 + 103 - 29

+ 139

0.95
3. 41
5.94

1.30 1.86
1.53 5.07
1.99 13.12

2.39 2.81
2.92 8.48
4.60 19.06

3.69
4.45
6.59

1.16
1.74
1.34

1.27
1.62
1.51

1.16
2.56
4.98

1.17
4.18
6.07

2.32
4.30
6.32

2.44
5.80
7.58

2.63

1.50

2.97

4.47

1.36

1.42

2.31

2.99

3.67

4.41

4.98

7.61

i No operative deaths.

100

CHAP. II.----MORTALITY IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

Considering first the male employees, it appears that in the card
room they average about the same death rate from all causes as
nonoperative males, but as respects tuberculosis card-room males are
considerably the more liable to die. This, as has already been men­
tioned, is probably due to the fact that the card-room workers are in
the main newly arrived immigrants who are in good physical con­
dition when they go into the card room, and who stay in it but a
short time, so that if they are affected by its unhygienic conditions
the effects do not become apparent until after they have left this
employment. The spinning and weave rooms are the two work­
rooms showing the greatest peril for male workers; in each the death
rates both of single and married men from all causes are greater than
the corresponding rates of nonoperatives. Of the two, the spinning
room shows the greater degree of hazard, a fact of importance since
the spinning-room group is distinctly younger than the weave-room
group; among the spinning-room males 66 per cent are under 25,
while among the weave-room males only 38 per cent are under this
age. In both rooms tuberculosis is mainly responsible for the extra
hazard of the operatives as compared with nonoperatives, and from
this cause the peril of the spinning room exceeds that of the weave
room.
The spooler-room group, like the card-room group, shows a lower
death rate for operatives than prevails among males of the same age
outside the mill. Unlike the card-room group, however, its married
males show nearly twice as great a liability as nonoperatives to death
from tuberculosis. This is probably due entirely to the slasher
tenders and helpers whose work is carried on under very undesirable
conditions of heat and dampness. The group is a small one, however,
and their high death rate is not sufficient to offset the low rates pre­
vailing elsewhere among this group, so that for married men as well
as for single the total liability to death is below that of nonoperatives.
Among female operatives a very different situation prevails. In
general, in every workroom they are more liable to die before reach­
ing 45, both from tuberculosis and from nontuberculous causes, than
are nonoperatives. In a few groups single female operatives are less
liable to death than are single female nonoperatives of the same age,
but there is not one case in which married women in the cotton mill
have as low a death rate as married women of the same age outside
it. Usually the married female operatives of every age group and
in every workroom are at least twice as liable to death as are married
women of the same age who are not operatives.
Taking up the separate rooms, the card room and the spinning
room show the greatest total peril of death to the female workers.
For single females the risks of the two rooms are nearly the same,
but for married females, especially from nontuberculous causes, the
hazard of the spinning room is much greater. In the preceding dis­




OPERATIVE MORTALITY BY WORKROOM.

101

cussion it has been shown how large a part of the mortality among
married women from nontuberculous causes is due to parturition
fatalities. In both rooms the conditions of work are well adapted
to induce both tuberculosis and parturition fatalities. The card room
often is dark, dusty, and ill ventilated, and the work done by women
involves much lifting and reaching upward. The spinning room has
a hot, damp, debilitating atmosphere, and the women must be con­
tinually on their feet, and in the course of the day must do a great
deal of walking.
The weave room stands third in the list in its total hazard to women
aged 15 to 44, but shows an unequal distribution of this peril between
single and married workers. The single women of the weave room
have a death hazard from tuberculosis lower than is found anywhere
else in the mill and lower by 5 per cent than that of single female
nonoperatives, while from nontuberculous causes their death rate
is only 7 per cent higher than that of single nonoperatives; but mar­
ried women have a higher death rate from nontuberculous causes
of death than anywhere else in the mill. As has been said before,
this seems due to the peculiar susceptibility of the Irish and^ French
Canadian women to the influences of the weave room. They form
a smaller proportion of the weave-room force than of any of the other
workroom groups, being 32 per cent of the married women in the
weave room, 35 per cent of those in the spooler and miscellaneous
rooms, and 39 per cent of those in the spinning and card rooms, but
their death rate is 30 per cent higher than in either of these other
groups, so that in spite of their smaller number they are an important
factor in raising the death rate for the married women of the weave
room as a whole.
The spooler room and miscellaneous group has a lower total hazard
for female employees than is found in any of the other rooms, but as
in the weave room, this hazard is unequally distributed between the
single and the married. The single barely exceed in death hazard
from nontuberculous causes the single nonoperatives of the same age,
while from tuberculosis the excess of their hazard is 72 per cent.
But the married women of this group exceed nonoperatives in their
hazard from tuberculosis by 216 per cent and from nontuberculous
causes by 103 per cent.
Summing up the situation, it may be said that the workroom hazard
of women aged 15 to 44 varies according to their conjugal condition.
For the single the spinning room shows the highest death rate, fol­
lowed in order by the card room, the spooler room and rooms not
otherwise specified, and the weave room. For married women the
spinning room leads, followed in order by the weave room, the card
room, and the spooler room and rooms not otherwise specified. For
both single and married the spinning room is the room of greatest
peril, a fact which is of great importance because the spinning room
females are a youthful group, 70 per cent being under 25.




CHAPTER III.— MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES AS
OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED.
In the foregoing sections the mortality in the Fall River population
aged 15 to 44 has been discussed by age, sex, nativity, race, conjugal
condition, industry, and, in the case of operatives, by workroom in
which employed. It is now proposed to discuss the mortality of the
same population according to the cause of death as certified in the
official death certificates.
Within this age group “ death causes” as officially reported, other
than parturition, casualty, the infections and neoplasms, and degen­
erations from industrial poisonings, have comparatively little signifi­
cance in preventive medicine and industrial hygiene, because for
the most part they are only names conventionally prescribed to desig­
nate merely the manner of a death of which the essential cause is wear
and tear. Each and all of these terms, by emphasizing the manner
of death, tend to distract attention from the vastly more important
fact that a life has been cut off at a premature age. Moreover,
these names, conventional as they are, are far from being uniformly
applied, owing to the varying fallibility of physicians.
CLASSIFICATION OF CAUSES OF D E A T H .

Nevertheless, these terms have been recognized, at least, through
classification of all deaths into eight groups according to the cause
or group of causes to which they are officially attributed. The
deaths from each of these causes have been tabulated by age, sex,
industry, and in the case of operatives by workroom. The classi­
fication is as follows: (1) Tuberculosis; (2) parturition; (3) accident or
violence; (4) nephritis, apoplexy (including arterial diseases), and
diseases of the heart wall and valves: (5) typhoid fever; (6) cancer,
including all malignant growths; (7) nontuberculous respiratory
diseases, many of which in reality are cases of tuberculosis misreported; and (8) all other or unclassified causes of death.
In the following sections it is proposed to discuss the fatalities
due to each of these groups of causes during the period covered.
Some of these causes are most active in the older age groups, and in
order to give a fair view of their fatal prevalence as compared with
that of other causes, the age period 45 to 64 will be included in the
discussion. Of course deaths occurring before the age of 45 repre­
sent usually far greater economic and social losses than those in
the upper age groups; nevertheless, in studying the fatal prevalence
102




CLASSIFICA TIO N OF CAUSES OF D E A TH .

103

of various death causes or groups of causes, these deaths at higher
ages must be taken into account.
It must be borne in mind that no attempt is made in this study to
show disease virulency, i e., to show how fatal a given disease is.
In the discussion of typhoid fever, for instance, the effort is not to
show how many deaths occur per 1,000 of those attacked by the dis­
ease, but only to show the prevalence of typhoid fatalities— the
average annual number of deaths per 1,000 persons, whether sick
or well, of the sex or other specified population class. In the same
way, the married women of the city are not differentiated as to
whether during the period of this study they had had a pregnancy
terminate whether by miscarriage prematurely or by childbirth at
full term, married decedents only being thus differentiated. Hence,
except by indirection, this study does not show how liable pregnancy
is to terminate fatally, but only how prevalent childbirth deaths are
among married females.
M O R TALITY FR O M TUBERCULOSIS.

In taking up the study of deaths due to tuberculosis it may be
well to begin by restating the fact already pointed out (see p. 55)
that a high percentage of deaths from any given cause occurring
in a group does not necessarily mean that that cause is very preva­
lent within the group; it may simply mean that deaths from other
causes are few. Yet in the discussion of deaths from any specified
cause the confusion between a high percentage of deaths from that
cause and great prevalence of that cause is often made, and the
results of this confusion are apt to be extremely misleading. To
emphasize the difference between high percentage and great preva­
lence, the following table is given, showing for each age group in the
Fall River population the number of deaths, the number and per cent
of those due to tuberculosis, and the death rate from tuberculosis.
The latter is an accurate measure of the prevalence of fatal tuber­
culosis, since it shows how many deaths from that cause occur annu­
ally in each 1,000 of the population, while the percentage merely
shows what proportion of the deaths occurring in any age group
was due to tuberculosis.
Incidentally this table may possess an added interest, as showing
that the crude and the age-adjusted death rates from tuberculosis
for the 30 and for the 20 year period covered are not widely differ­
ent, as would, of course, be expected concerning a disease whose
fatalities are distributed so generally throughout every age group
of the population.




104

C H A P . I I I .---- M O R T A L IT Y FR O M SPECIFIED CAUSES.

DEATHS FROM ALL CAUSES, AND DEATHS, PER CENT OF DEATHS, AND DEATH
RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOSIS, AMONG OPERATIVES AND NONOPERA­
TIVES, BY SEX AND AGE GROUP.
Males.

Operatives.

Nonoperatives.

Deaths from
tuberculosis.

Age group.

Total
Total
deaths
deaths
from
Death from
all
all
Per
causes. Num­ cent. rate causes.
per
ber.
1,000.

Per cent
by which
operative
exceeds
nonopera­
Death tive rates.
Num­ Per
rate
ber. cent.
per
1,000.
Deaths from,
tuberculosis.

59

10 to 14 years....................................
15 to 19 years....................................
20 to 24 years....................................

15
26

29
48

7

12

1.10
2.16

35
62

12
21

34
34

4
52
54

0.73
1.26

51
71

15 to 24 years..........................

106

41

39

1.60

97

33

34

1.00

60

25 to 29 years....................................
30 to 34 years....................................

54
48

23
23

43
48

2.43
2.94

91
97

32
38

35
39

1.75
2.69

39
9

25 to 34 years..........................

102

46

45

2.66

188

70

37

2.16

23

35 to 39 years....................................
40 to 44.................... ........................

62
58

33~
28

53~
48

4.45
4.59

113
120

41
30

36
25

2. 71
2.39

64
92

35 to 44 years..........................

120

61

51

4.51

233

71

30

2.56

76

Total 15 to 44 years...............
Crude death rate .............

328

148

45

2.47

518

174

34

1.64

51

1.87

40

45 to 54 years....................................
55 to 64 years....................................

115
120

25
10

22
8

2.73
2.84

238
358

35
29

15
8

2.00
2. 40

37
18

Total 45 to 64 years...............
Crude death rate...............

235

35

15

2. 75

596

64

11

Grand total 15 to 64 years___
Crude death rate...........

563

65 years and over.............................

35

2.62

2. 76

183

33

2.51

1,114

238

21

3

1.15

31
28

1.70

48

1.94

2.65

1

2.10
2.16

0)

13

C)
1

87

1.53

225

Females.
10 to 14 years....................................

3

1

33

0.50

55

15

.27

15 to 19 years....................................
20 to 24 years....................................

74
99

42
64

57
65

2.23
3.37

29
40

17
18

59
45

1.18
1.21

89
179

15 to 24 years..........................

173

106

61

2.81

69

35

51

1.20

134

25 to 29 years....................................
30 to 34 years....................................

93
85

40
32

43
38

3.67
4.57

89
107

31
29

35
27

1.66
1.64

121
179

25 to 34 years..........................

178

72

40

4.02

196

60

31

1.65

144

35 to 39 years....................................
40 to 44 years....................................

61
69

21
18

34
26

3. 45
4.22

111
128

28
20

25
16

1.68
1.27

105
232

35 to 44 years........................,

130

39

30

3.76

239

48

20

1.48

154

Total 15 to 44 years...............
Crude death rate...............

481

217

45

3.34

504

143

28

1.38

142

1.46

125

45 to 54 years....................................
55 to 64 years....................................

94
51

7
7

7
14

1.41
6.14

292
464

35
22

12
5

1.46
1.37

348

Total 45 to 64 years.......... .
Crude death rate............

145

14

10

2.58

756

57

8

1.44

79

1 .4 2

62

Grand total 15 to 64 years___
Crude death rate...............

626

1.39

133

1.45

121

65 years and over.............................

8

1 Not reported.




S. 28

2. SO

231

37

3.24

1,260

200

16

S. 20

0)

10

C)
1

.87

* Per cent by which operative falls below nonoperative rate.

23

MORTALITY FROM TUBERCULOSIS.

105

This table shows that within industrial age groups tuberculosis is
by far the commonest single cause of death, and that within four of
the 5-year age groups it is responsible for more deaths than are all
other causes combined.1 But a glance at the death rates from
tuberculosis shows that the assumption that these groups are more
prone to die of tuberculosis than groups in which the percentage of
such deaths is smaller would be extremely fallacious. Among the
female operatives aged 20 to 24, for instance, tuberculosis is respon­
sible for 65 per cent of the deaths, yet the death rate from tuber­
culosis, 3.37, is smaller than among the female operatives aged 30
to 34, where the percentage of deaths due to tuberculosis is only 38,
but the tuberculous death rate is 4.57. Among female nonoperatives
aged 15 to 19 the percentage of deaths due to tuberculosis is 59,
and among those aged 20 to 24 it is 45, but the death rate in the first
group is 1.18 against 1.21 in the second. The tuberculous deaths
form precisely the same percentage (45 per cent) of the total deaths
of male and of female operatives aged 15 to 44, but among the female
operatives the death rate from tuberculosis is higher by 35 per cent
than among the male operatives. In fact, the table contains many
illustrations of both the probable and the unavoidable fallacies con­
sequent upon any but the most discriminating comparisons and de­
ductions drawn from the percentages which tuberculous deaths form
of all deaths, if uncorroborated by corresponding death rates from
tuberculosis.
This table shows not only the greater importance of tuberculosis
among operatives as compared with nonoperatives, but the diminu­
tion of its relative importance as a cause of death in the higher age
groups where other causes are increasingly destructive. Among those
aged 15 to 44, both male and female operatives, except in age group
15 to 19,2 show a greater percentage of deaths due to tuberculosis,
and without exception a higher death rate from tuberculosis than
nonoperatives; but the difference is much greater among females
than among males. Among female nonoperatives it will be noticed
that the highest percentages of tuberculous deaths are found in the
age groups 15 to 19 and 20 to 24, although such deaths are fewer there
than in the next two age groups, the reason for the high percentages in
the earlier groups being of course that deaths from nontuberculous
causes are not common at these earlier ages. Among the female
operatives of the same ages deaths from other causes are much more
numerous and consequently, though the tuberculous deaths are
1These groups are the male operatives aged 35 to 39; female operatives aged 15 to 19; female operatives
aged 20 to 24; female nonoperatives aged 15 to 19. Three of the 10-year age groups, male operatives aged
35 to 44, female operatives aged 15 to 24, and female nonoperatives aged 15 to 24, show the same situation,
though except among the female operatives aged 15 to 24, this is due only to the weight of the younger
5-year group in the decade.
2Among females outside of this age limit, another exception occurs in age group 45 to 54, where nonoperatives have both a higher percentage of tuberculous deaths and a higher death rate from tuberculosis.




106

CHAP. III.— MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

three times as numerous as among nonoperatives, the percentage
they form of the total deaths is by no means proportionately greater,
nor in the age group 15 to 19 is it even as great. In the case of male
operatives aged 35 to 39 tuberculous deaths outnumber all others
to such an extent that they overbalance the reverse situation prevail­
ing in the next 5-year age group and make the whole decade, 35 to
44, show more than half its deaths due to tuberculosis. This decade
is the only one of the age groups in which the highest percentage
of tuberculous deaths coincides with the highest death rate from
tuberculosis.
TUBERCULOUS M O R TALITY BY AGE.

Tuberculosis is unique among the causes of death to which wageearners are ordinarily exposed, not only because it is by far the
commonest, but because its prevalence increases with age only to
early middle life and thenceforth gradually lessens. There are some
differences between the sexes as to the period of greatest danger,
so their risks will be considered separately.
Females.—-Taking the female population aged 15 to 44 as a whole
the greatest hazard from tuberculosis appears in the group aged 25
to 34,1 where the rate is 2.44. This hazard differs considerably
according to industry and conjugal condition, and, among married
women, according to whether or not parturition comes in as a com­
plicating factor.2 The following table shows the varying risks accord­
ing to these classifications:
DISTRIBUTION OF FEMALE POPULATION BY AGE GROUP, INDUSTRY, AND CON­
JUGAL CONDITION, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 OF EACH GROUP FROM TUBER0VLOSIS.
Female population.

Death rate per 1,000 from
tuberculosis.

Age and occupational groups.
Single.

Married.

Single.

Married.

Both
classes.

15 to 24 years:
Operatives...............................................
Nonoperatives.........................................

6,373
3,972

1,186
1,884

2.26
1.16

5.73
1.27

2.81
1.20

Both classes.........................................

10,345

3,070

1.84

3.00

2.10

25 to 34 years:
Operatives...............................................
Nonoperatives.........................................

1,613
1,952

1,967
5,310

1.49
1.74

6.10
1.62

4.02
1.65

Both classes.........................................

3,565

7,277

1.63

2.83

2.44

634
1,044

1,437
5,437

2.52
1.34

4.32
1.51

3.76
1.48

35 to 44 years:
Operatives...............................................!
Nonoperatives.........................................

1,678

6,874

1.79

2.09

2.03

15 to 44 years:
Operatives...............................................
Nonoperatives.........................................

8,6206,968

4,590
12,631

2.09
1.36

5.56
1.42

3.34
1.38

Both classes.........................................

15,588

17,221

1.77

2.77

2.18

Both classes.........................................

1If the hazard bo considered by 5-year age groups, the highest rate for all women is found in age group
30 to 34, where it is 2.47. For married women, alike for operatives and nonoperatives, the greatest peril
is found in age group 15 to 19, where the rate is 4.24, and for single nonoperatives 20 to 24 is the period of
highest tuberculous death rate.
2For discussion of parturition as a complicating factor, see p. 116




107

MORTALITY FROM TUBERCULOSIS.

The single operatives differ from all the other groups in that the
decade from 25 to 34 is their period of lowest risk, while for the others
it is their time of greatest hazard. Among the single nonoperatives
this period deserves attention as being the only age group in which
among those aged 15 to 44 the tuberculous death rate of nonopera­
tive females exceeds that of operatives, their rate, 1.74 per 1,000
population, being greater by one-sixth (17 per cent) than the tuber­
culous death rate of the single operatives.
Among married women the hazard of the decade from 25 to 34,
although surpassing that of any other 10-year period, is but little
greater than that of the preceding decade. Considering only mar­
ried operatives, in the group aged 15 to 24 years, 16 of the 34 tuber­
culous deaths, or 47 per cent, were cases in which a pregnancy had
terminated either naturally or prematurely during the last nine
months of life. In the group aged 19 to 24 there are 19 such deaths—
32 per cent of the 60 tuberculous deaths giving a rate of 1.93 against
a rate of 2.70 in the younger group.
Throughout the two decades from 15 to 34, which comprise the
principal childbearing years of life, the native born married women,
both operatives and nonoperatives, are considerably more prone to
die from tuberculosis than are the foreign born, and this difference
is especially marked in the first decade.1 Also in each of these age
groups operative married women are about four times as liable to
perish from tuberculous infection, with or without parturition as a
complication, as are the corresponding nonoperatives.
The following table shows for female operatives the variation, by
age, in the death rate from tuberculosis m the different workrooms:
AGE DISTRIBUTION OF FEMALE OPERATIVES, BY WORKROOM, AND DEATH
RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOSIS BY AGE GROUP, CONJUGAL CONDITION,
AND WORKROOM.
Married.

Single.
Workroom and age group.
Number.

Card room:
15 to 24 years......................
25 to 34 years......................
35 to 44 years......................
Spinning room:
15 to 24 years......................
25 to 34 years......................
35 to 44 years......................
Weave room:
15 to 24 vears......................
25 to 34 years......................
35 to 44 years......................
Spooler room and miscella­
neous:
15 to 24 years......................
25 to 34 years......................
35 to 44 years......................
Total:
15 to 24 years......................
25 to 34 years......................
35 to 44 years......................




Death
rate per
1,000.

Number.

Both classes.

Death
rate per
1,000.

Number.

Death
rate per
1,000.

1,040
261
112

2.88
1.53
3.57

262
454
315

3.82
9.25
6.98

1,302
715
427

3.07
6.43
6.09

1,611
242
66

2.48
2.48
3.03

390
384
384

7.18
6.25
6.25

2,001
626
626

3.40
4.79
4.79

1.62
1,849
566
255 ...........2.35

297
683
627

6.73
3.81
3.19

2,146
1,249
882

2.33
2.08
2.95

1,873
544
201

2.35
2.57
1.99

237
446
313

4.22
6.28
2.56

2,110
990
514

2.56
4.24
2.34

6,373
1,613
634

2.26
1.49
2.52

1,186
1,967
1,437

5.73
6.10
4.32

7,559
3,580
2,071

2.81
4.02
3.76

1 See basic table, pp. 268-279.

108

CHAP. III.----MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

It has just been remarked that for single female operatives as a
whole the decade from 25 to 34 is the period of lowest hazard from
tuberculosis. The table shows that this is due to the situation in two
rooms, the card and the weave room. In the spinning room the
death rate from tuberculosis is no lower in the group aged 25 to 34
than in the group aged 15 to 24, and in the spooler and miscellaneous
rooms it is higher in this decade than in either of the other age groups.
In the card room, on the other hand, the tuberculous hazard in this
age group is 47 per cent lower than in the group 15 to 24, and 57 per
cent lower than in the group aged 35 to 44. It is the weave room,
however, which really determines the situation for the single female
operatives as a whole, for here there is not one tuberculous death
among the single females aged 25 to 34. As the group numbers 566
this is a noteworthy fact. It might perhaps be explained on the
supposition of wrong age reporting, but some explanation would then
be needed of the reason why wrong age reporting should concentrate
itself on this particular group. But the death rate of the married
women of the weave room is also low in this age group— only about
three-fifths (62 per cent) of the rate prevailing among all married
female operatives. Moreover, there is no such compensatory exces­
sive rate from nontuberculous causes in this age group as would sug­
gest erroneous official certification here as to the cause of death. It is
therefore probably a safe induction from these data that the single
female operatives of the weave room aged 25 to 34 are but slightly
liable to die from tuberculosis.
The married women of the weave room show a peculiarity not
found in any of the other rooms in that their tuberculous hazard is
greatest in the youngest age group, and decreases steadily in the two
following age groups. The married women of the spinning room
share this peculiarity to the extent of having their highest tubercu­
lous death rate in the youngest group, but they do not have the
regular diminution thereafter which appears in the weave room.
One of the most noteworthy features of the mortality by age of the
married female operatives is the high death rate from tuberculosis
in the card room in the group aged 25 to 34, where it reaches 9.25 per
1,000 population. This is a higher tuberculous hazard than is found
in any other workroom group of females of all races combined.
Males.— The following table shows the tuberculous hazard of
males aged 15 to 44:




MORTALITY FROM TUBERCULOSIS.

109

DEATH RATES OF MALES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOSIS, BY AGE AND OCCUPA­
TIONAL GROUPS, AND CONJUGAL CONDITION.

J

Single.
Age and occupational groups.
Number.

Death
rate per
1,000.

j

Married.

Number.

Death
rate per
1,000.

Total.

Number.

Death
rate per
1,000.

15 to 24 years:
Operatives..........................
Nonoperatives...................

4,518
5,695

1.55
.95

606
921

1.98
1.30

5,124
6,616

1.60
1.00

Both classes.................. .

10,213

1.22

1,527

1.57

11,740

1.26

25 to 34 years:
Operatives..........................
Nonoperatives...................

1,001
2,171

3.80
3.41

2,461
4,315

2.19
1.53

3,462
6,486

2.66
2.16

Both classes....................

3,172

3.53

6,776

1.77

9,948

2.33

35 to 44 years:
Operatives..........................
Nonoperatives...................

433
808

9.24
5.94

2,269
4,733

3.62
1.99

2,702
5,541

4.51
2.56

Both classes....................

1,241

7.09

7,002

2.52

8,243

3.20

It will be noticed here that in every group the danger from
tuberculosis increases with age. This increase differs considerably
among the married, especially the married nonoperatives being
relatively small, while among the single operatives the death rate
in a given decade may be twice or three times that of the preceding
decade; but in every case the tuberculous death rate of any 10-year age
group is greater than that of the next younger group. This holds
true, also, when the male population is divided into native and
foreign born. Comparing operatives by sex, it appears that the
age of greatest hazard from tuberculosis is 10 years later for males
than for females, but that at the time of greatest danger for each
sex their death rates are not very dissimilar— 4.51 for male opera­
tives and 4.02 for female operatives.1
Taking up the tuberculous hazard by age in the different work­
rooms, in the card room during the five years covered by this study
there were no tuberculous fatalities among the married carders aged
15 to 24, nor among the single carders aged 25 to 34. This probably
renders the tuberculous death rate of card-room males aged 15 to
44 somewhat atypically low. The spooler and miscellaneous rooms
also show an absence of any tuberculous deaths among males, both
single and married, aged 25 to 34, and among the single males
aged 35 to 44, but in both cases these groups are small, numbering
338 in the first instance and 36 in the second.
1 This appears still more strikingly if the death rates be computed for five-year periods. The point
of highest danger for male operatives is in the group aged 39 to 44, where their death rate from tubercu­
losis is 4.59 per 1,000, while for female operatives it is in age group 29 to 34, where the tuberculous death
rate is 4.57. That is, at their respective periods of greatest danger from tuberculosis male and female
operatives have practically the same death rate from tuberculosis.




110

CHAP. III.----MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

The spinning room is notable for the high tuberculous death rate
in age group 25 to 34 of both its single and its married males, which
far exceeds the corresponding rates for any other room. In the age
group 35 to 44 both the spinning and the weave room show enor­
mously high death rates among the single males— 11.54 and 11.60,
respectively— as compared with the rates of their married, which
are 2.95 and 3.17.
TUBERCULOUS M O RTALITY BY SEX.

Taking the population aged 15 to 44 as a whole, all females are
rather more liable to die from tuberculosis than all males, whether
the death rate used as the standard of measurement be the crude
or the age-adjusted. Among those aged 45 to 64,1 however, the
situation is reversed, the males having by either rate a hazard higher
by one-half (52 per cent or 53 per cent, according to which rate
is used). The elimination among females of child bearing almost
wholly, and of wage earning very largely, are characteristics of the
group aged 45 to 64, which may in a measure account for this change
in the relative hazard of the sexes.
Among operatives females exceed males in their death hazard
from tuberculosis by one-third, their excess being 35 per cent in
the group aged 15 to 44 and 29 per cent in the total group aged 15
to 64.1 This higher death rate of female operatives prevails in
every age group, except among those aged 35 to 44, where their
tuberculous hazard is lower by one-sixth (17 per cent), and among
those aged 45 to 54, where it is lower by 48 per>cent than that of
the males. Among nonoperatives an exactly opposite situation
prevails, all males aged 15 to 44 averaging a tuberculous death
rate greater by 19 per cent than that of all nonoperative females,
while among those aged 45 to 64 the male excess is 46 per cent.
Taking the population aged 15 to 44 as a whole, single males
are more and married males are less liable to die of tuberculosis
than are the corresponding classes of females. The death rates
from tuberculosis for these divisions of the population are as follows:
DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOSIS, AMONG MALES AND FEMALES OF
FALL RIVER, IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44, BY CONJUGAL CONDITION.
Males.
Single...................................................................................................................................
Married................................................................................................................................
Both classes..........
.........
............
....................
...

3.03
1.81
1.94

Females.
1.77
2.77
2.18

It appears from these figures that even the added hazard of
married life does not bring the tuberculosis hazard of women quite
up to that of single males, while single females fall below the tuber­




1See table on p. 104.

I ll

MORTALITY FROM TUBERCULOSIS.

culous hazard even of married males. When, however, the com­
parison is confined to operatives this relation changes, as shown by
the following figures, which give the death rates from tuberculosis of
operatives aged 15 to 44:
DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOSIS, AMONG MALE AND FEMALE
OPERATIVES, IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 44, BY CONJUGAL CONDITION.
Conjugal condition.
Single..................................................................................................................................
Married................................................................................................................................
Both classes..............................................: ........................................................................

Males.
3.70
2.36
2.47

Females.
2.09
5.56
3.34

Here the single females still show a lower death rate than do
the married males, but the hazard of the married women has
increased so materially that it exceeds that of the single males by
50 per cent.
TUBERCULOUS M O R TALITY BY NATIVITY.

Taking the population aged 15 to 44 as a whole, the death rate
from tuberculosis is very slightly higher among the foreign bom
than among the native born; this is the case also among operatives
as a whole. Considering separate groups, it appears that among
the nonoperatives in each sex and conjugal condition the native
born lead in death hazard, excepting only among the married males.
Among operatives, the males, both single and married, show an
excess of tuberculous hazard among the foreign born, while the
females, both single and married, show the greater hazard among
the native born.
TUBERCULOUS M O RTALITY BY RACE.

The rule which prevails among the operatives aged 15 to 44 as
to the relative tuberculous mortality of the sexes by conjugal con­
dition holds true for operatives of each race group without a single
exception— the female married greatly exceed the male single in
their liability to perish from tuberculosis.
In other respects the variations which characterize the different
race groups of operatives 1 are striking. Among males the Portu­
guese and among females the English have lower tuberculous death
rates than any other races, and for each sex the operatives of the
American and unspecified races have the next lowest rates. Almost
without exception the Irish of each sex in each age group far exceed
every other race in their liability to die of tuberculosis. Next to
them stand the French Canadians. In age group 15 to 24, however,
among the female single and the male married operatives the French
* — ----------------------------------------------a
----- ---------------------------------------------1 This discussion is confined to the tuberculous mortality of the operatives, since it is only among opera­
tives that the racial distribution of the population is accurately known.




112

CHAP. III.----MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

Canadians somewhat exceed the corresponding classes of Irish in
their hazard from tuberculosis, and this excess is reflected in the
tuberculous death rate of the total group aged 15 to 44.
A peculiarity of the tuberculous death hazard of Irish males is its
great accentuation at ages above 34 years. Thus in the age group
35 to 44, the death rate from tuberculosis of Irish males is 13.11,
which is more than three times as great as the corresponding rate for
English males, who stand next in order with a tuberculous death
rate of 3.81. In general, in the age group 15 to 44, the tuberculous
death hazard of the Irish operatives averages for males about two
and a half times (260 per cent) and for females one and two-thirds
times (167 per cent) the corresponding hazard of the aggregate
non-Irish operatives.
TUBJERCTJLOUS M O RTALITY BY INDUSTRY.

The general rule is that operatives of a given class exceed non­
operatives of the same class in their liability to die of tuberculosis.
The table on page 104 shows that for the whole population aged 15
and over there are only two exceptions to this rule, both falling
outside the important industrial group aged 15 to 44. In the group
aged 45 to 54 the tuberculous hazard of female operatives falls
below that of female nonoperatives by 3 per cent, and in the group
aged 65 and over the tuberculous hazard of male operatives falls
below that of male nonoperatives by 25 per cent. Apart from these,
males aged 30 to 34 form the only important age group in which
nonoperatives even approach operatives in their death rate from
this disease. Here operatives have only 9 per cent the greater
hazard. In considering this small difference, however, it must be
borne in mind that in this age group the male nonoperatives reach
almost their highest point of tuberculous mortality, their death rate,
2.69, being exceeded only by that of the next 5-year period, where
it is 2.71, while for male operatives the death rate in this group,
2.94, is only two-thirds of that in the next 5-year age group, which
in its turn is exceeded by that of the group aged 40 to 44. For the
group aged 15 to 44 as a whole the tuberculous death hazard of male
operatives is 51 per cent greater than that of the male nonoperatives,
and for the group aged 45 to 64 it is 31 per cent greater.
The constancy of this operative excess among males is peculiarly
significant because in Fall River nearly all males are wage earners,
and the relatively few who are not are almost all engaged in indus­
trial pursuits. Within certain broad limits, therefore, their economic
level is more nearly the same, and comparisons between the two
groups are more indicative than in communities of more diversified
openings. The excess of tuberculous hazard among the operatives,
under these circumstances, strongly suggests that cotton-mill con­




MORTALITY FROM TUBERCULOSIS.

113

ditions are at least conducive to tuberculous fatalities, even if they
do not actually cause them.
Among females the operative excess in tuberculous hazard is as
constant as among males and considerably larger. The table on
page 104 shows that among those aged 15 to 44, whether the death
rates be compared by 5 or by 10 year age groups, the operative
excess invariably amounts to over 100 per cent, except in age group
15 to 19, where it is 89 per cent. For the whole group aged 15 to
44 the operative excess is 142 per cent; for the group aged 45 to 64
it is 79 per cent.
A comparison between female cotton workers and all other fe­
males of the city does not resolve itself so sharply as in the case of
Fall River males into a comparison of cotton-mill wage earners
with all other wage earners of the city, since the female nonoperatives
include many who do not work for wages at all, as well as many
wage earners who are not cotton operatives. Nevertheless, the
constancy and degree of operative excess in tuberculous hazard has
a value as indicating the influence of cotton-mill work, especially
since it is uniformly in accord with the trend among males.
In age group 15 to 44 the rule that operatives exceed nonoperatives
in their liability to die from tuberculosis obtains not only for all
operatives of each sex and conjugal condition, but also for the
separate workroom classifications. To this there are but three
exceptions, the tuberculous death rates of single males of the card
room, of single males of the spooler and miscellaneous rooms, and of
single females of the weave room falling below the corresponding
rates of nonoperatives. Furthermore, the rule holds good throughout
the race classifications, the only exceptions being the English married
males, single males of the American and unspecified races, and both
single males and single females of the Portuguese.
TUBERCULOUS M O RTALITY OF OPERATIVES BY W O R K R O O M S.

The general rule as to tuberculous hazard among operatives by
sex and conjugal condition is that single males are more and single
females less liable to die than the married of their respective sexes.
This holds true for females in the different workrooms, without a
single exception, throughout the three decades and for the period
15 to 44 as a whole. For males, however, there are numerous ex­
ceptions. In the age group 15 to 24, except in the card room, single
males have the lower death rate; in the age group 25 to 34 they fall
below married males in tuberculous mortality in the card room and
in the spooler and miscellaneous rooms, and the same situation
prevails both in age group 35 to 44, and for the period 15 to 44 as a
whole.
88204°—19— Bull. 251------8




114

CHAP. III.----MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

It will be remembered that in the population in general single
males exceed married females and married males exceed single
females in tuberculous hazard, but that among operatives the hazard
of married females is so increased that it exceeds that of single males.
Among those aged 15 to 44 this greater mortality from tuberculosis
of married females as compared with single males prevails in every
one of the workroom groups. The other part of the rule, the greater
mortality of married male, as compared with single female operatives,
finds, an exception in the card room, where the single females have a
tuberculous death rate higher by 73 per cent than the married males,
but prevails elsewhere throughout the workroom groups.1
Males of the spinning room and females of the card room are more
liable to die from tuberculosis than are respectively the males and
females of any other mill workroom. But females of the spinning
room have almost the same tuberculous death hazard as those of
the card room (a rate of 4.24 against 4.62), while for married women
the hazard of the spinning room is even greater than that of the card
room.
Disregarding the relatively very unimportant group of single males
in the spooler room whose tuberculous death rate is extremely low
(0.70 per 1,000), the most noteworthy low tuberculous death hazard
is that of the single females of the weave room, their death rate from
this cause being 1.29 per 1,000. This is lower by nearly two-fifths
(38 per cent) than the tuberculous hazard of all female operatives.
This rate is, however, probably not typical, owing to the fact that
during the five years covered no tuberculous death was reported
among the single females of the weave room aged 25 to 34. These
number 566, which is the equivalent of an annual population of
2,830, and gives probably an atypical death hazard, due perhaps to
erroneous concentration within the age group 15 to 24 (which has 15
tuberculous deaths) of several tuberculous fatalities which rightly
belong in the next age group. Even the crude rate, unadjusted as
to age, for the period 15 to 44, is for single females of the weave
room but 1.35 per 1,000. The married women of the weave room,
however, have a death rate from tuberculosis lower by only 6 per
cent than that of all married female operatives.
Considering all operatives aged 15 to 44, regardless of sex or con­
jugal condition, the highest death rate from tuberculosis is found
among the operatives of the spinning room, this rate exceeding that
of the card room by 10 per cent, that of the weave room workers by
52 per cent, and of the spool room aggregate by 45 per cent.
1 The Irish and French Canadians of the spooler and miscellaneous rooms present an exception to the
general rule, the tuberculous death rate of their single females being 1.92 and of their married males 0.95.




MORTALITY FROM TUBERCULOSIS.

115

TUBERCULOUS M O RTALITY BY CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The variations as to tuberculous death rates between the single**
and the married of each sex are next in degree to those between
the different race groups, and are even more important than the
latter because of the large numbers involved. These differences by
conjugal condition are particularly great in the case of females.
In the group aged 15 to 44 males, both operatives and nonopera­
tives, native and foreign born, have in general, especially outside of
age group 15 to 24, a higher tuberculous death rate for the single
than for the married.
Among females the reverse holds true, the married almost inva­
riably showing the higher death rate from tuberculosis. The situa­
tion in this respect differs materially between operatives and non­
operatives. Among the latter the married in general show but a
slight excess in tuberculous hazard over the single, and even in a
few cases fall below them. This occurs, for instance, among the
foreign-born nonoperatives aged 15 to 24, the foreign-born non­
operatives aged 25 to 34, and the native-born nonoperatives aged
35 to 44. Among operatives, on the other hand, up to the age of
35 the married invariably exceed the single in tuburculous hazard,
usually by a very large degree, and in age group 35 to 44 there are
but three subgroups in which this rule does not prevail; these are
the native-born operatives, among whom the single have a death
rate from tuberculosis higher by 34 per cent than that of the married;
the English operatives, among whom the hazard of the single is
higher by 151 per cent than that of the married; and the non-Irish,
non-French Canadian races of the weave room, among whom the
tuberculous death rate of the single is the higher by 18 per cent.
These are all small groups, the native-born operatives numbering
635 and the other two, respectively, 495 and 464.
This tendency to a practically constant excess of the tuberculous
hazard of married female operatives as compared with the single is
of peculiar importance and interest, because to a considerable extent
the high rates of the married females seem susceptible of improve­
ment. Reference has already been made to the fact that among
married women the tuberculous deaths are frequently complicated
with parturition. The following table shows the number of tuber­
culous deaths among married women aged 15 to 44, the number and
per cent of these complicated with parturition, and the death rates
according to whether or not this complication existed, as well as for
the total tuberculous deaths.




116

CHAP. III.----MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

DEATHS AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 OF MARRIED WOMEN IN AGE GROUP 15 TO
44, BY CAUSE OF DEATH AND BY AGE AND OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS.
Death rate per 1,000.

Deaths.
Age and occupational groups.

Not par­ Parturition com­
plicated.
turition
compli­
cated.
Number. Per cent.

Total.

Not par­
turition
compli­
cated.

Parturi­
tion
compli­
cated.

Total.

15 to 24 years:
Operatives............................
Nonoperatives......................

18
g

16
4

47
33

34
12

3.03
.85

2.70
.42

5.73
1.27

Both classes......................

26

20

43

46

1.70 |

1.30

3.00

25 to 34 years:
Operatives............................
Nonoperatives......................

41
34

19
9

32
21

60
43

4.17
1.28'

1.93
.34

6.10
1.62

2.06 |

.77

2.83

Both classes......................

75

28

27

103

35 to 44 years:
Operatives............................
Nonoperatives......................

29
35

2
6

5
15

31
41

4.04
1.29

.28
.22

4.32
1.51

Both classes......................

64

8

11

72

1.86

.23

2.09

15 to 44 years:
Operatives............................
Nonoperatives......................

88
77

37
19

30
20

125
96

3.56
1.06

2.00
.36

5.56
1.42

Both classes......................

165

56

25

221

1.83

.94

2.77

This shows very clearly the importance of parturition as a con­
tributory cause of tuberculous deaths among married women and
more especially among married operatives. Practically one-third
(30 per cent) of the 125 tuberculous deaths occurring among married
operatives aged 15 to 44 were thus complicated. Also, it shows the
greater importance of this factor in the younger age groups. Among
the married operatives aged 15 to 24 nearly one-half (47 per cent)
and among the married nonoperatives one-third (33 per cent) of
the tuberculous decedents had had a pregnancy terminate within
the last nine months of life. Naturally in this age group the mar­
ried are comparatively few, comprising only one-third (32 per cent)
of the nonoperative and one-sixth (16 per cent) of the operative
females, but they are nevertheless an important group. Most of
the first pregnancies obviously occur within this age group, and these
frequently entail unusually hard delivery, convalescence from which
may be abnormally slow. Evidently such pregnancies form a
heavy drain upon a young woman’s strength, a drain which may
allow a latent tuberculosis to become active, and which is practically
sure to accelerate existing tuberculosis.
Among the married of the next decade parturition has lost some
of its importance as a contributory cause of tuberculous death, but
still it appears in connection with one-third (32 per cent) of the
operative and one-fifth (21 per cent) of the nonoperative married
decedents. In the age group 35 to 44, as would naturally be expected,




117

MORTALITY FROM TUBERCULOSIS.

it has still further decreased in importance, being found in connec­
tion with only 11 per cent of the total deaths from tubefculosis of
married females. Of the 221 married women in the age group 15
to 44 who died of tuberculosis, 56, or one-fourth, had had this
experience of childbirth (or miscarriage) not longer than nine months
before death. And it is to be borne in mind that tuberculosis is a
disease usually of more than nine months’ duration.
Reasonable inductions from these facts are that for women who
have tuberculosis or are tuberculously disposed, childbearing and
millwork each tend to arouse the disease, or to hasten its course if it
is already active, and that for married operatives the period of great­
est danger from these factors is under 25 years, while for married
nonoperatives the danger reaches its climax in the next decade, 25 to
34 years.
SUM M ARY.

The following table is presented as giving in brief compass a com­
prehensive view of the tuberculous hazard of the Fall River popula­
tion aged 15 to 44, by sex, conjugal condition, and nativity, and
for operatives by race and workroom.
AGE-ADJUSTED DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOSIS, IN AGE GROUP 15
TO 44, AMONG OPERATIVES BY RACE, NATIVITY, WORKROOM, SEX, AND CON­
JUGAL CONDITION, AND AMONG NONOPERATIVES BY NATIVITY, SEX, AND CON­
JUGAL CONDITION.
Operatives.
Sex and conjugal
condition.

For­
Amer­
Total Native- eignNonborn
Irish
icans
Irish
born
French Portu­ opera­ opera­ opera­
and
Nontives. tives.
nonand Eng­ Cana­
French French Irish. Irish. un­ lish. dians. guese.
tives.
speci­
Cana­ Cana­
dians.
fied.
dians.

MALES.

Married....................
Single......................

1.86
2.26

3.79
5.18

2 .2 2

2.92

3.24
6.95

2.11
1.99

1.26
2.70

3.65
4.09

2 .2 2

2.36
3.70

2.29
3.67

2.36
3.84

Total..............

1.90

3.47

2.15

5.59

2.02

2.14

2.79

1.60

2.47

2 .2 2

2.63

Married....................
Single......................

3.91
1.59

9.37
2.71

4.86 13.37
1.94 2.58

3.68
1.83

3.13
1.80

7.96
2.64

4.59
.57

5.56
2.09

6.31
2.41

5.22
1.77

Total..............

2.47

4.51

2.98

4.97

2.43

2.36

4.07

2.83

3. 34

3.19

3.35

Total, both
sexes...........

2 .2 2

4.15

2.63

5.29

2 .2 2

2.33

3.57

2.13

2.98

2.88

3.01

1.77

FEMALES.




CHAP. III.----MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

118

AGE-ADJUSTED DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOSIS, IN AGE GROUP 15
TO 44, AMONG OPERATIVES B Y RACE, NATIVITY, WORKROOM, SEX, AND CON­
JUGAL CONDITION, AND AMONG NONOPERATIVES B Y NATIVITY, SEX, AND CON­
JUGAL CONDITION—Concluded.

Operatives of the

S ex and conjugal
condition.

Nonoperatives.

Spooler Total
Card
room Spin­ Weave room opera­ Native
tives.
and
ning
and
mis­
born.
picker room. room. cella­
room.
neous.

For­
eign
bom.

Operatives and
nonoperatives.

Total Na­ For­
non- tive eign
opera­ bom. bom. Total.
tives.

MALES.

Married....................
Single.......................

1.52
1.39

2.95
5.19

2.39
4.33

2.97
.70

2.36
3.70

1.39
3.09

1.61
1.97

1.50
2.63

1.62
3.27

1.92
2.85

1.81
3.03

Total..............

2.04

3.35

2.47

1.43

2.47

1.90

1.38

1.64

2.00

1.97

1.94

Married............. .....
Single......................

6.00
2.63

6.80
2.59

5.20
1.29

4.48
2.34

5.56
2.09

1.82
1.35

1.14
1.29

1.42
1.36

3.06
1.84

2.59
1.64

2.77
1.77

Total..............

4.62

4. 24

2.38

3.00

3.34

1.45

1.19

1.38

2.12

2.16

2.18

Total, both
sexes...........

3.44

3.79

2.49

2.62

2.98

1.65

1.28

1.49

2.06

2.08

2.08

FEMALES.

Age.— This table does not show the hazard by age. Concerning
that, it is perhaps enough to say that for males, both operatives and
nonoperatives, the death rate from tuberculosis reaches its high­
est point in the group aged 35 to 44, but that for females, both oper­
atives and nonoperatives, the preceding decade, 25 to 34, shows the
highest tuberculous hazard.1 If the population be considered as a
whole, without regard to sex or industry, the group aged 35 to 44
leads in tuberculous death rate.
Sex.— Taking the population aged 15 to 44 as a whole, females have
a higher death rate from tuberculosis than males— 2.18 against 1.94.
Comparing the sexes by conjugal condition, the general rule is that
single males are more, and married males less liable to die of tuber­
culosis than the corresponding classes of females. For operatives
this rule holds good throughout all the race and nativity groups, but
in the workroom groups two exceptions are found, the single males
in both the card room and the spooler and miscellaneous rooms having
a much lower death rate from tuberculosis than the single females of
these rooms. In both of these rooms, however, the single males are
relatively few. Among nonoperatives, while the single males inva­
riably have a greater hazard from tuberculosis than the single females,
married males also exceed married females in this respect, except
among the native born, where the females lead.
1 In age group 55 to 64 the female operatives have a higher tuberculous death rate than in the group aged
25 to 34, but the older group falls outside of the great industrial period, 15 to 44, with which this summary
is especially concerned.




119

MORTALITY FROM TUBERCULOSIS.

Nativity.—Among males the tuberculous hazard of the native and
the foreign born is almost identical, the former leading by only 1 per
cent. The situation differs as between operatives and nonoperatives,
however; among the former the foreign born and among the latter
the native born being most liable to die of tuberculosis. There is no
very great difference in this respect, however, except among the single
male nonoperatives, where the death r#te from tuberculosis of the
native born exceeds that of the foreign born by 57 per cent.
Among females, taking the population aged 15 to 44 as a whole, the
foreign born are slightly more liable than the native born to die of
tuberculosis. Among nonoperatives, however, the native born show
the higher mortality from this cause, and so do all women, whether
operatives, nonoperatives or both combined, when divided according
to conjugal condition. The greatest difference is found among the
married nonoperatives, where the native born exceed the foreign
born in tuberculous hazard by 60 per cent.
Race.—The most striking features of the racial hazard from tuber­
culosis are the high death rates of the Irish and French Canadians,
and the almost uniform hazard of the three other groups. Since the
importance of a death rate is closely related to the importance in the
community of the class or group among whom it prevails, the follow­
ing summary is given, showing for each of these race groups its numer­
ical size, the percentage it forms of the total operative group, and its
death rate from tuberculosis:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF OPERATIVES OF EACH RACE AND DEATH RATES PER
1
1,000 FROM TUBERCULOSIS.

Race.

Number.

Percentage Death rate
of operative from tuber­
group.
culosis.

Irish.........................................................................................................
French Canadian....................................................................................
American and unspecified......................................................................
English....................................................................................................
Portuguese...........................................................................................

2,410
6,595
5,234
4,473
5,786

10
27
21
18
24

5.29
3.57
2.22
2.33
2.13

Total..............................................................................................

24,498

100

2.98

Excluding the Irish and the French Canadians, the three remaining
races are so similar both in size and in tuberculous hazard that, as
appears in the table on page 117 the tuberculous death rate of the
Americans and unspecified is identical with that for the three
groups combined. In the tuberculous hazard within their own limits,
however, these three races differ considerably from one another. The
Portuguese single women have the lowest and their married women
the highest tuberculous death rates found in any subdivisions of the
three groups. English males exceed and English females fall below
the corresponding classes of the American and unspecified races,




120

CHAP. III.— MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

while Portuguese males have the lowest and Portuguese females the
highest death rates from tuberculosis for their respective sexes.
Of the two other groups the Irish lead in fatal susceptibility to
tuberculosis. In both groups the high tuberculous hazard of the
single males and the married females is remarkable, and particularly
so among the Irish, where the tuberculous death rate of the married
female operatives exceeds the corresponding rate for all operatives by
141 per cent, and of all non-Irish operatives by 175 per cent. The
Irish single females and married males, however, have a slightly lower
hazard than the same groups of French Canadians.
Industry.— Operatives as a body considerably exceed nonopera­
tives in tuberculosis hazard, their respective death rates from this
cause being 2.98 and 1.49. The greater hazard of operatives is shown
by both sexes and in both conjugal conditions, but is most marked
among the married female operatives. Among nonoperatives,
females, both single and married, have lower death rates from tuber­
culosis than males of the same conjugal condition. Among opera­
tives, the single females still fall below the single males in this respect,
but the married females far exceed either married or single males in
their tuberculous death rate.
Workroom.— Among male operatives the spinning room and among
females the card room is the place of greatest danger from tuberculosis.
The tuberculous death rate of males in the spinning room, however,
is higher by 36 per cent than that of any other workroom, while the
tuberculous death rate of females in the card room is very little (only
9 per cent) higher than the same rate for the spinning room. For
married females the hazard of the spinning room is even greater than
that oi the card room.
Conjugal condition.— The situation as to the relative hazard of the
married and single differs for the sexes, single males being far more
and single females much less liable to die of tuberculosis than the
married of their respective sexes. For nonoperatives and for the
population as a whole single males have a higher hazard from tuber­
culosis than married females, while married males have a higher
hazard than single females. Among operatives the latter part of
this statement holds good, the death rate from tuberculosis of the
married males being 2.36 against 2.09 among the single females, but
the other part is reversed, the married women exceeding the single
males in tuberculous hazard by 50 per cent. A considerable propor­
tion of the tuberculous deaths of married women are complicated
with parturition or pregnancy, this complication occurring far more
frequently among operatives than among nonoperatives. One-fourth
of the tuberculous deaths among married women aged 15 to 44 were
thus complicated, the rate for these deaths being 2 for operatives and
0.36 for nonoperatives.




M O R T A L IT Y FRO M P A R T U R IT IO N .

121

M O R TALITY FR O M PARTURITION.
PREVENTABLE CHARACTER OF PARTURITION D E A TH S AN D REA SO N S
FOR THEIR PREVALENCE.

Deaths from childbirth, with such rare exceptions as to be almost
negligible, are preventable. For this reason and because obviously
they must come from age groups which are highest in productive
and reproductive importance, deaths from pregnancy and parturi­
tion should arouse the active interest and highest concern of advo­
cates of preventive medicine. Yet as a matter of fact little atten­
tion has been paid to the subject, and far less has been attempted
along the lines of prevention in connection with childbirth fatalities
than in regard to tuberculosis, for instance, or typhoid fever. For
this general apathy there seem to be several reasons. False or mis­
leading certificates of death conceal the real extent of the mortality
in which childbirth is either the principal or a contributory cause;
underpaid physicians permit wholly unnecessary deaths, sometimes
through ignorance, sometimes through carelessness, or occasionally
cause them by illegal operations; and a misunderstanding of religious
teachings on the subject results in some cases in sacrifice of the
mother’s life.
Beginning with the matter of misleading certification of the causes
of death, this was found to be fairly common in Fall River in connec­
tion with cases in which parturition or pregnancy had played at
least a part in bringing about the death.1 In this study the ground
has been taken that when a pregnancy has terminated, either nat­
urally or prematurely, within 30 days of the decedent’s death, that
pregnancy may fairly be looked upon either as the cause, or as an im­
portant contributory cause, of the death. In Fall River during the
five years covered, 163 women died under such circumstances, yet in
the case of 60 (37 per cent) of these there was nothing upon the offi­
cial death certificate to show that pregnancy or parturition had been
either the cause or a contributory cause of death. Yet in more than
half of these 60 cases death was immediately and indisputably the
consequence either of parturition or of its gross mismanagement,3
and nearly one-third were such instances of puerperal nephritis,
puerperal hemorrhage, or puerperal embolism as scarcely could have
preceded death by more than minutes, hours, or, very rarely, at
longest by more than two or three days. In this one city, therefore,
more than one-third of the mortality in which parturition played a
part was concealed by the carelessness or worse of the doctors who
signed the death certificates. Deaths from parturition, even when
they are due solely to this cause, are usually accepted by the family
1 For a discussion of the extent to which cases of parturition are misreported, see pp. 27 and 28.
2 See pp. 27 and 28.




122

C H A P . II I .-----M O R T A L IT Y FRO M SPECIFIED CAUSES.

of the victim as inevitable fatalities, and do not attract the atten­
tion given to some sudden visitation like typhoid, in which numbers
die at or about the same time from causes not so submissively ac­
cepted as natural. It is only through study of official records, there­
fore, that the prevalence of parturition fatalities is likely to be real­
ized, and such a realization must come before any widespread and
earnest effort is made to reduce their number. The seriousness of
such misleading or absolutely false certification of the cause of death
is therefore apparent.
Taking up the next cause mentioned above, medical carelessness
or incompetence, there can be no question that this accounts for
some part of the childbirth mortality of Fall River. The symptoms
which indicate a danger of eclampsia, for instance, should be familiar
to the veriest beginner in obstetrical practice, yet there were re­
ported to the writer instances in which pregnant women had con­
sulted doctors to know the meaning of “ these spells of blindness” or
“ dizziness” or “ terrible headache” only to be dismissed without ex­
amination of the urine, or advice other than “ Oh, you’ll be all right;
don’t worry.” Not even the basic cause of such carelessness— the
prevailing absurdly low compensation for childbirth cases— can ex­
cuse such unprofessional conduct, although explaining it. The usual
fee for these cases is $10, a sum which is grossly incommensurate with
the work required to safeguard life properly before and after the child
has been delivered, to say nothing of recompensing the physician for
his skill in the delivery itself, which is always a time of anxiety. In­
stead of giving careful medical oversight for a minimum of 10 days
or a fortnight after the birth it is a not uncommon practice among a
certain class of Fall River accoucheurs to make but two visits after
the delivery of the child.
But it is not only through carelessness that physicians fail to dQ
their part in preventing deaths in childbirth, as evidenced by a re­
mark made by one of them to the writer during a discussion of puer­
peral septicemia: “ Well, doctor, if one could discover the cure for
(childbirth) blood poison he’d make all the money he’d want,
wouldn’t he?” That even one among the Fall River physicians
could be so uninformed concerning the essentials of obstetrics sug­
gests that lack of proper compensation to the physician is not the
full explanation for deaths from eclampsia, nor for the even more rep­
rehensible record concerning fatalities from puerperal septicemia or
blood poison.
The third cause, a misapprehension of certain religious teachings,
appears especially in connection with deaths from eclampsia, i. e.,
the nephritis or “ convulsions” of pregnancy. The largest number
of fatalities (45) occurring from any one cause within 30 days of a
terminated pregnancy were instances of eclampsia. The regular




M O R T A L IT Y FROM PA R T U R IT IO N .

123

treatment, usually effective, of inducing profuse sweats, followed, if
the condition is unrelieved, by immediate evacuation of the uterine
contents, was pursued in but very few of these 45 fatal instances.
This arose largely, no doubt, from the widespread teaching of certain
clergymen, a teaching disseminated by them among Fall River physi­
cians of their faith, that no circumstances can exist which render it
ethically permissible to empty a uterus of its contents when it con­
tains a living fetus which can not possibly live outside the uterus.
This seems to be a misinterpretation by the clergymen in question
of the published teaching of their church, which is that such inter­
ruption of pregnancy can not be intentionally accomplished without
danger of “ grave error/’ The danger of grave error in such a case
is universally admitted, and it is in order to avoid it as far as is
humanly possible that physicians of good repute seek other medical
advice (except, of course, in cases of extreme emergency) before
undertaking such premature deliveries.
Specifically, of course, even the law recognizes no exception that
favors the life of the mother through the intentional sacrifice of the
fetus, but where the evident purpose is to save the living woman at
the expense of the only possibly living child, the courts everywhere
have in effect decided that deliberate operative intervention in behalf
of the mother’s life is justifiable. This seems also to be the real
attitude of the church in question. Not only is its published teach­
ing limited to the warning that in such interference there is danger
of grave error, but medical schools which, as part of a university, are
under the nominal jurisdiction of high officials of the church, instruct
their medical students through courses upon obstetrics in accordance
with medical teaching generally, i. e., to sacrifice the fetus if only
thereby can the prospective mother’s life be saved, since through the
mother’s death the fetus must inevitably die ultimately, anyway.
And, moreover, in at least one well authenticated Fall River instance,
a young husband, upon the physician’s statement that only through
immediate interruption of pregnancy could the patient’s life be saved,
interrogated his pastor as to whether he could rightfully consent to
the proposed operation. The pastor replied in effect: “ Do whatever
the doctor says is necessary.” Incidental to the delay in getting the
clergyman’s quasi approval, however, the young wife died.
D EATH S FROM PARTURITION COMPLICATED W ITH OTHER CAUSES.

The investigation at the homes of the decedents added, as stated
above, 60 cases to the list of those whose deaths were due wholly or in
part to pregnancy or parturition. With these additions, there were
163 cases in which women died within 30 days of a terminated preg­
nancy. Of these, 45 died from eclampsia, 42 from puerperal septi­
cemia, 17 from hemorrhage, including placenta prsevia, 12 from




124

C H A P . I I I .---- M O R T A L IT Y FRO M SPECIFIED CAUSES.

pneumonia, 9 from embolism, 3 from typhoid fever, 2 from heart
disease, and 16 from miscellaneous causes ranging from exhaustion
and childbirth shock to suicide during childbirth insanity. Seven­
teen cases were complicated with tuberculosis. In the present dis­
cussion all these cases are treated as deaths due in part, at least, to
parturition; elsewhere in the study, deaths which are directly con­
sequent upon parturition, such as the deaths from hemorrhage,
eclampsia, puerperal septicemia, etc., are scheduled as parturition
deaths, but deaths from casualties, as burns and suicide, are not thus
scheduled, nor are cases of tuberculosis, typhoid fever, or heart
disease. Four of the 12 cases of fatal pneumonia occurring within
two weeks after pregnancy had ended had a history so like that of
septicemia, were so atypical of pneumonia, and were so closely con­
nected with the puerperal period that they are included among
puerperal deaths. The other pneumonia cases occurred during the
progress of pregnancy and have been scheduled under the heading
of “ Nontuberculous respiratory diseases” in the general tables.
Altogether there are 18 deaths of operatives which occurred with
parturition as an accompanying circumstance which have been sched­
uled, except in this chapter, under nonparturition designations.
Twelve of these were cases of tuberculosis, which have been dis­
cussed in the preceding section. Of the 6 others, 2 were Portuguese
employed in the spinning room, aged, respectively, 20 and 25 years,
whose deaths are scheduled as due to pneumonia. Two were English,
a weaver, aged 19, scheduled as having died from appendicitis, and a
carder, aged 24, whose death from burns is classed among deaths
from accident. The other 2 were French Canadians and were
single. One, a spooler aged 18, whose certificate giving as cause of
death “ heart stopped” proved to cover a death from abortion, has
been scheduled elsewhere as a case of death from violence, and the
second, a spinner aged 38, who had typhoid, which with the preg­
nancy proved fatal, has been classed as having died from typhoid
fever.
LEADING CAUSES OF PARTURITION D EATH S.

Before considering the incidence of these parturition deaths as to
age, race, etc., it may be well to consider separately the two forms
in which they most often appeared, eclampsia and puerperal septi­
cemia. Eclampsia, as has already been stated, was responsible for
more of these childbirth fatalities than any other one cause, and
eclampsia is largely preventable by proper medical care during preg­
nancy. The following table shows the incidence of the deaths and
the death rates due to this cause:




M O R T A L IT Y FROM P A R T U R IT IO N .

125

DEATHS AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM PUERPERAL NEPHRITIS, OR
ECLAMPSIA, AMONG OPERATIVES AND NONOPERATIVES, BY AGE GROUP AND
RACE.
Decedents dying in
first pregnancy.

Total decedents.

Number.

Age group and race.

Number.

Death rate per 1,000.

Non­
NonNon­
Opera­ opera­ Both Opera­ opera­ Both Opera­ opera­ Both
tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes.
AGE GROUP.

15 to 19 years.........................
20 to 24 years.........................

2
5

3

2
8

2
7

3

2
10

2.70
1.35

0.37

0.94
.60

1.52

.32

.65

1.32

.49

.71

.20

Total, 15 to 24 years.. .

7

3

10

9

3

12

25 to 29 years.........................
30 to 34 years.........................

6
1

4
1

10
2

9
4

6
7

15
11

Total, 25 to 34 years.. .

7

5

12

13

13

26

2

4
1

6
1

35 to 39 years.........................
40 to 44 years.........................
Total, 35 to 44 years
Total, 15 to 44 years...

2
8

22

5

7

.28

.18

24

21

45

1.22

.34

.58

1.05

14

.83

.52

Crude death rate
RACE (AGES 15 TO 44).

Americans and unspecified..
English...................................
Irish........................................
French Canadian...................
Portuguese.............................

2
1
4
5
2

3
2
2
1

5
3
6
6
2

4
3
6
8
3

3
7
3
5
3

7
10
9
13
6

Total, all races.............

14

8

22

24

21

45

Crude death rate

.91
.65
2.42
1.40
.52
1.22
1.05

The hazard of the younger operatives from eclampsia is very
marked. In the group aged 15 to 24 the hazard (1.52) of the mar­
ried operatives from this one of the accidents of pregnancy is
almost exactly that suffered by all foreign-born single girls of the
same age from tuberculosis (1.53). It is greater by 20 per cent than
the hazard from tuberculosis of married female nonoperatives aged
15 to 24 (1.27), and only 17 per cent less than the tuberculous death
rate (1.84) of all single females, operatives and nonoperatives com­
bined, in this age group. Irish operatives average the highest death
rate (2.42) from eclampsia, French Canadians have the next highest
average, and Portuguese operatives are least liable of any race thus
to die.
The table shows also how much more frequently eclampsia occurs
to complicate fatally a first rather than a later pregnancy. Onehalf (49 per cent) of the 45 deaths from this cause were among
women pregnant for the first time, and 83 per cent of all eclampsia
deaths in the group aged 15 to 24 were likewise among women preg­
nant for the first time. In this age group such deaths were five




126

C H A P . I I I .---- M O R T A L IT Y FRO M SPECIFIED CAUSES.

times as common among operatives (1.52) as among nonoperatives
(0.32), and for the total age period 15 to 44, operatives were about
four times as liable thus to die as nonoperatives. Of the 24 deaths of
operatives from eclampsia, eleven (46 per cent) were from the weave
room, though this room comprises but 35 per cent of all married
female operatives.
Next in frequency to eclampsia as an immediate cause of partu­
rition deaths is puerperal septicemia, or u blood poison, ” with 42
cases. In 10 of these cases there was nothing upon the death certifi­
cate to indicate that pregnancy or childbirth had been in any way a
contributory factor of death, the qualifying and enlightening word
“ puerperal” having been omitted. This is an almost entirely pre­
ventable cause of death, its development usually being due to lack of
scrupulous cleanliness in the management of the confinement. The
scanty compensation given to physicians and the scanty after-care
often given by them suggest an explanation for the frequency of this
death cause.
Though operatives comprise but one-fourth (27 per cent) of the
married women aged 15 to 44, they suffer 55 per cent of all deaths
from puerperal septicemia (23 cases out of 42). All but two of
these operative cases— 91 per cent—lived in homes that were unhy­
gienic; whereas only 58 per cent of all the nonoperative septicemia
cases were from such homes.
How these 42 cases are distributed by race, industry, and hygienic
or unhygienic character of abode may be seen from the following
table:
DEATHS AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM PUERPERAL SEPTICEMIA, IN AGE
GROUP 15 TO 44, BY RACE AND OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AND NUMBER OF DECE
DENTS WHOSE HOMES WERE JUDGED UNHYGIENIC.
Decedents from unhy­
gienic housing con­
ditions.

All decedents.

Number.

Race.

Number.

Death rate per 1,000.

NonNonNonOpera­ opera­ Both Opera­ opera­ Both Opera­ opera­ Both
tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes.
1

American................................
............
English....
Irish........................................
French Canadian...................
Portuguese.............................
Other races.............................

2
5
10
3

Total, all races.............

21




3
1
5

1
2
2
8
11
8

1
2
2
5
10
3

1
2
2
8
1
5

2
4
4
13
11
8

0.76
.44
.81
.35
1.73
.98

11

32

23

19

42

i 1.00

2

1 Crude rate, not age-adjusted.

*0.30

10.49

MORTALITY FROM PARTURITION.

127

It will be noted that the Portuguese, who form only one-quarter
(25 per cent) of the total married operatives, furnish nearly one-half
of the operative decedents shown in the above foregoing to have
come from unhygienic homes. The Portuguese death rate (1.73 per
1,000) from puerperal septicemia is nearly double that of the race
group having the next highest rate, more than double that of the
Irish, and practically four times as great as that of the English.
There occurs an average of 1 death from puerperal septicemia to
every 1,000 married woman operatives; 1 to every 3,000 married
nonoperatives; and 1 to every 2,000 married women of all occupa­
tional classes within the age group 15 to 44 in Fall River; and yet
one-fourth of the mortality from this cause is undiscoverable from
any data upon the official certificate of death.
Turning from this consideration of deaths from special “ accidents
of pregnancy ” to parturition deaths in general, it is to be observed
that though deaths from parturition may conceivably occur even
up to the age of 54, yet no death from this cause actually did occur
during the period covered by this study outside of the group aged
15 to 44, and but 7 decedents from this cause were over 39 years old,
the oldest being 43.
There were 6 deaths in five years from parturition among the single
women of Fall River, and these have been included among the
deaths of the married from parturition for parturition death rates
only. Without these 6, the total parturition cases would be 157
instead of 163, as herein scheduled, and the parturition cases would
then comprise 23 per cent instead of 24 per cent of the total deaths
of Fall River married women.
The following table gives the entire death hazard of the 17,221
married women in which recent parturition played any part, as con­
trasted with their death rates from all causes not thus complicated,
and as compared with the total death rates of the 15,558 single
women from all causes.




128

CHAP. m . ---- MORTALITY PROM SPECIFIED C U SES.

D E A T H S A N D D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 OF SIN G LE A N D M A R RIE ft) W O M E N F R O M
A L L CAU SES, A N D O F M A R R IE D W O M E N F R O M P A R T U R IT IO N , B Y A G E G R O U P ,
R A C E , A N D O C C U P A T IO N A L G R O U P .

Single
women.

Age group, race, and occu­
pational group.

Married women.

N ot com pli­
cated with
parturition.
Death
Deaths rate
pei
1,000.

Complicated with
parturition.

Both classes.

Total.

Per cent Death
Death
Death
of all
Deaths rate Deaths deaths of rate Deaths ’rate
per
per
per
married
1,000.
1,000.
women. 1,000.

Death
Deaths rate
per
1,000.

OPERATIVES.

Irish, and French Cana­
dian:
15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............

49 4.30
25 5.56
24 11.57

13 9.59
47 14.26
67 18.93

15
20
5

54 11.07
30 6.07
7
1.41

28 20.66
67 20.33
72 20.34

77
92
96

6.04
11.81
17.10

127 12.75

40

24

7.75

167 20.50

265

9.85

37 8.09
75 11.47
30 8.23

96
86
34

3.83
8.51
7.17

Total, 15 to 44 years.

98

6.08

A ll other races:
15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years...............

59
11
4

2. 88
3.08
3.65

24
49
27

5.25
7.49
7.44

13
26
3

35
35
10

2.84
3.98
.82

100

6.32

42

30

2.77

142

9.09

216

5.83

37 6.24
96 9.76
94 13.08

28
46
8

43
32
8

4.72
4.68
1.12

65 10.96
142 14.44
102 14.20

173
178
130

4.58
9.94
12.55

Total, 15 to 44 years.

74

3.09

A ll races:
15 to 24 years...............
25 to 34 years...............
35 to 44 years................

108
36
28

3.39
4.46
8.83

Total, 15 to 44 years.

172

4. 76

227

8.58

82

27

4.01

309 12.59

481

7.67

15 to 24 years.......................
25 to 34 vears.......................
35 to 44 years.......................

46
42
33

2.32
4 . 30
6.32

17
109
176

1.80
4.11
6.47

6
45
30

26
29
15

.64
1.69
1.11

23
154
206

2.44
5.80
7.58

69
196
239

5 .4 0
7 .3 8

Total, 15 to 44 years.

12X

3.67

302

3.38

81

21

1.03

383

4.41

504

4 .2 1

15 to 24 years.......................
25 to 34 years.......................
35 to 44 years.......................

154
78
61

2.98
4.38
7.27

54
205
270

3.52
5.64
7.85

34
91
38

39
31
12

2.21
2.50
1.11

88
296
308

5.73
8.14
8.96

242
374
369

3 .6 1

Total, 15 to 44 years.

293

4.22

529

4.97

163

24

2.08

692

7.05

985

5 .5 3

NONOPERATIVES.

2.36

ALL CLASSES.

6.90
8.63

i

Looking first at the total hazard, it appears that parturition
occurring within 30 days of death is exactly as prevalent a cause,
either principal or contributory, of fatalities among all married
women aged 15 to 44 (that is, 2.08 per 1,000 population) as tuber­
culosis is among all Fall River persons of both sexes having a like
age distribution.
The common parturition-tuberculous factor enters into 17 deaths,
and these give a rate of 0.29 per 1,000, which obviously is twice
counted in the above comparison—once in the death hazard from
tuberculosis and once in that from parturition. Properly it may be
included under either head, but whenever the total death hazard of
a population class is cited this common parturition-tuberculous rate




MORTALITY FROM PARTURITION.

129

obviously must be included as all parturition or as all tuberculosis.
In this study it is included regularly with the latter.
PREVALENCE BY INDUSTRY, AGE, AND RACE.

Turning from the total hazard complicated with parturition to the
hazard of separate groups, one of the most striking features is the
difference in this respect between married operatives and married nonoperatives. This difference varies with age. In the group aged 15 to 24,
operatives are more than seven times as liable to die from causes
thus complicated as are nonoperatives; in the age group 25 to 34 they
are nearly three times as liable, and in the age group 35 to 44, the
peril for the two classes is practically equal. Among operatives the
hazard from this cause is enormous. In the decade 15 to 24, their
death rate from causes complicated with parturition, 4.72, is larger
by 39 per cent than the total death rate from all causes of single
operatives in the same age group; in the next decade it is 5 per cent
higher than that of single operatives from all causes, but falls off
sharply in the third where it is only 1.12 per 1,000.
In considering the high mortality among operatives from parturi­
tion either as principal or as contributory cause, in the age group
15 to 24, it is to be remembered that the great majority of the first
pregnancies fall within this youngest age group, and first pregnancies
have the highest legitimate death hazard normally inherent in
pregnancies of any order. But that this inherent danger from first
pregnancies should normally be slight is evidenced by the death rate
of married nonoperatives in this age group, which is only 0.64 per
1,000—less than one-seventh of the hazard of the operatives.
In any consideration of death rates it is of importance to know
whether the populations involved are large enough to give typical rates.
In age group 15 to 24 married operatives numbered 1,186 and married
nonoperatives 1,884. As the study covered five years, these are
equivalent to annual populations respectively of 5,930 and 9,420,
from which occurred the equivalent of 65 operative and 23 nonoper­
ative deaths annually. Of these deaths 28 among operatives and 6
among nonoperatives were complicated with a pregnancy terminate
ing not more than 30 days before death.
These basic data represent populations sufficiently large to justify
certain definite inductions. One-fifth of the married female opera­
tives of Fall River had never been parturient, yet taking the married
operatives altogether, in age groups 15 to 24 and 25 to 34 they are
somewhat more liable to die from parturition complications than are
the single operatives in these age groups from all causes combined.
These two age groups, it is to be remembered, contain 84 per cent
of all female operatives aged 15 to 44. This relation between the
88204°— 19— Bull. 251-------9




IS O

CHAP. IIL.— MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

deaths of the single from all causes, and of the married from parturi­
tion or causes complicated with parturition, holds not only for opera­
tives as a whole, but practically for operatives of all the non-Irish,
non-French Canadian races, while for the Irish and French Canadian
the relation is considerably exaggerated, the parturition death rate
of married operatives of these races aged 15 to 24 being almost three
times (11.07 against 4.30) that of the single from all causes. Also,
in a comparison of this kind it must be remembered that the anti­
longevity effect of parturition is probably considerably understated
when its influence as a debilitating agency is limited, as in the pre­
ceding table, to cases in which the decedents died not longer than
30 days after a pregnancy had ended either prematurely or at full
term.
Even with the parturition factor eliminated, however, married
operatives in each of the two younger 10-year age groups are about
twice as liable to die from all nonparturition causes as single operatives
of the same age groups, while in the third decade they are about
half again as liable as the single to die from all nonparturition
causes. This great disparity in the death hazard of the married and
the single operatives shows that there are other debilitating factors
besides parturition that conduce to early death among married opera­
tives. Also, it is to be borne in mind that the antilongevity effect of
parturition is probably considerably understated when its influence
as a debilitating agency is limited, as in the preceding table, to cases
in which the decedents died not longer than 30 days after a pregnancy
had ended either prematurely or at full term.1
Another striking feature of this table is the high parturition mortal­
ity shown among the Irish and the French Canadian operatives. This
is not only much higher than that of the other races (their parturition
complicated death rate for the total group aged 15 to 44 being 7.75
against the 2.77 of the other races), but is further remarkable as
being heavier in the youngest age group, 15 to 24, than anywhere
else. The Irish and the French Canadians together form oi*ly 23 per
cent of the total married female operatives in the age group 15 to 24,
.but their mortality from parturition is so large that when combined
with the married operatives of other races they bring up the mor­
tality from this cause for the whole age group above that of the
next decade. This makes the married operatives present a strong
contrast to the married nonoperatives, among whom the death rate
i During the five years covered there were 230 instances in Fall River in which not more than 9 months
intervened between an ended pregnancy and the wom an’s death; in 67 of these cases the pregnancy ended
more than 30 days before death. Thirty-nine of these cases were tuberculous, and it is very likely, con­
sidering the long period covered b y a tuberculous illness, that the pregnancies were important debilitating
factors that ensured or hastened the wom an’s ultimate death from tuberculosis. There remain, then,
28 nontuberculous decedents whose deaths occurred m ore than 30 days b ut not exceeding 9 m onths after a
pregnancy had terminated either naturally or prematurely. In the case of at least some of these 28, the
pregnancy or the childbearing m ay well be presumed to have exercised a debilitating effect that conduced
to the wom an’s death from some cause officially given a nonparturition designation.




MORTALITY FROM PARTURITION.

131

from parturition in the age group 25 to 34 is more than twice that in
the age group 15 to 24. The Irish and the French Canadian operatives
present another peculiarity in the remarkable similarity in the death
rates from all causes of their married women in the three 10-year
age groups, these rates being respectively 20.66, 20.33, and 20.34 per
1,000 population. Here, again, their heavy mortality effects the
whole group of married operatives, making their death rates from
all causes far more nearly equal in the three 10-year age groups than
are the corresponding rates of married nonoperatives.
The most striking points, then, in regard to the death hazard of
married women from parturition, either as a principal or as a contrib­
utory cause of death, are the prevalence of such deaths in the early
age groups, the very high death rates of operatives as contrasted
with nonoperatives, and the enormous mortality of Irish and of French
Canadian operatives as contrasted with operatives of other races.
For women of all classes, operatives and nonoperatives, aged 15 to 44,
the total hazard from this cause is 2.08, exactly the hazard from
tuberculosis of all persons in Fall River aged 15 to 44.
In the foregoing discussion parturition has not been considered
as even a contributory cause of death unless a pregnancy ended within
30 days of death. If, however, all pregnancies ending within 9
months of death be deemed debilitating circumstances probably
contributory to death, then there are 230 instances of such parturition
complicated deaths. One third (33 per cent) of the total 692 deaths
of Fall River married women were thus complicated with a parturi­
tion terminating not longer than 9 months before death. In the
group aged 15 to 44, in the equivalent of an annual population of
86,105 married women, the total average death hazard from parturi­
tion, either as the cause of death or as a cause contributory thereto,
based upon these 230 deaths, is 3.01 per 1,000 if age-adjusted, or 2.67
per 1,000 if the crude rate be used. This is somewhat higher than
the total hazard from tuberculosis (2.77) of married women of the
same age group. The 56 tuberculously complicated parturition
deaths, however, are included in both this total parturition
and total tuberculosis death rate, and are therefore counted twice.
This doubly reckoned factor amounts to a parturition-tuberculosis
rate of 0.94 age-adjusted, or 0,65, crude rate, per 1,000.
CASE HISTORIES.

The following brief histories of women whose deaths were due to
pregnancy or childbirth, at least as a contributory cause, may give a
clearer idea of the complexity of the problem of isolating and
measuring death factors than can be conveyed by tables:
No. 2051. An Irish card-room girl, aged 17 years, who left the mill at marriage,
9 months before her death at full term from eclampsia. “ Her religion forbade inter­
ruption of pregnancy.7!
3




132

CHAP. III.---- MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

No. 2067. A Portuguese spinner, aged 19 years, who had left the mill 5 months,
died 3 weeks after a full-term childbirth, from puerperal septicemia. The physician’s
fee for her operative delivery at the hospital was $125.
No. 393. Tuberculous Irish carder; aged 22 years; 7 months pregnant; had pre­
viously 4 times miscarried during the 4 years of married life; 5 pregnancies therefore
in 4 years. Husband did not work; she had been 5 months out of millwork. Though
tuberculous and 7 months pregnant, she had just returned to Fall River, after
having walked from New Hampshire with her husband, 70 miles, and slept in door­
ways on the route. Then she miscarried and 2 days later died.
No. 2093. Single Irish weaver, aged 23, out of mill 5 months; died from puerperal
septicemia 15 days after end of full-term pregnancy. “ Danced to excess.” Mother
had died from tuberculosis.
No. 2095. Irish weaver, out of mill 1 week; twice pregnant in 3 years of married
life; died from eclampsia at the termination of 8§ months pregnancy. “ She had
meant to allow 2 weeks out of the mill before baby should com e,” said her mother.
“ She always walked to and from the mill, a mile distant from her hom e.”
No. 2115. Portuguese weaver, aged 23; out of mill 3 months; died from nephritis
8 months after full-term first pregnancy had ended through a forceps delivery. She
returned to millwork 2 weeks after the birth of the baby (who died), bu t after work­
ing 4 or 5 months she became so ill as to be confined to the bed; and 3 months later
she died.
No. 2167. Irish weaver, aged 27; out of mill 5 months; died from “ accidental
bleeding in w om b,” officially according to the hospital interne, 1 hour after prema­
ture delivery at 8J months. Her husband had been out of work and was then in
the hospital ill of pneumonia. She was in good health, though in 5 years of married
life she had had 4 pregnancies, and then had, besides the expected arrival, 3 babies,
the oldest but 4 years. She told her mother (who was the writer’ s informant) that,
though well, she felt on account of her babies she could not take any risks, bu t ought
to be confined at the hospital where everything could be done for her if any emergency
arose. The physician’s degree of pride in what really was “ done for her ” is reflected
in the death certificate “ accidental bleeding in w om b,” which contains obviously
no intimation that the death was puerperal “ postpartum hemorrhage ” from “ retained
placenta” or less probably from “ intertia uteri.” But these are the commonest
complications met b y obstetricians, and, especially in a hospital, should never be^
fatal. Whether a more sinister meaning (as rupture of the uterus from inept instru­
mentation) is concealed b y the certificate designation “ accidental b leedin g” the
writer could not learn.
No. 2220. Irish nonoperative dry goods clerk, aged 28; 4 months away from wage
earning; died from eclampsia within 24 hours of the termination, b y the physician,
of a 7 months’ pregnancy, the decedent’ s pastor assenting to the operation when
appealed to.
No. 2236. French Canadian nonoperative (ex-spinner, retired from the mill 6 years),
aged 25 years, died from septicemia 4 weeks after full-term b a b y ’s birth. She had
had 6 pregnancies in 6 years. First physician in last confinement made but 2 visits.
No. 2243. Portuguese nonoperative non wage earner, aged 29; died after an instru­
mental delivery had ended 2 days of labor. The death certificate stated she was
an “ operative,” but the informant, a friend, stated decedent never had worked in a
cotton m ill, and accordingly herein she has been scheduled as a nonoperative.
No. 537. Tuberculous, cloth room, English, aged 34; out of m ill 6 weeks, having
left because of a miscarriage when 4 months pregnant. F ive weeks after the mis­
carriage she entered the tuberculosis hospital, where she died within a week. During
9 years she had 5 miscarriages, 7 months being the longest pregnancy. She did
much (4 hours) work in the home outside millwork. “ Stress killed her.”




MORTALITY FROM PARTURITION.

133

No. 2250. Retired spooler tender of the so-called “ other races,” aged 25. Probably
intentional abortion (certified as “ hemorrhage” ) upon woman in perfect health b y
7hysician “ who failed to be prosecuted because husband consented to abortion and
soon afterwards was fatally injured himself.”
No. 2257. English carder, aged 32; 2 years out of the m ill; 8 pregnancies in 8 years
of married life; never regained consciousness after an operative delivery. Death
certified as “ shock,” with no intimation that 4 hours before death a baby had been
born. Last 4 pregnancies ended prematurely at 5 months, 6 months, 8 months,
and 8 months, and the last 2 were but 9 months apart.
No. 544. Tuberculous Irish weaver, aged 33 years; 1 year out of the m ill; married
4 years; 3 children, the last being born 4 months prior to decedent’s death from
tuberculosis. She worked very hard, living upon scanty food, though the $20 weekly
family incom e provided “ g ood ” housing and the home was neat. The children
were poorly clothed and fed. There was $400 insurance, and through odd coincidence
the funeral cost just $400.
No. 2280. Irish weaver, aged 33 years; out of mill 1 week; married 11 years; 7
pregnancies; died from placenta prsevia 5 hours after delivery of child. Physician
(French Canadian name) allowed her to bleed 2 days in “ spurts.” Physician arrived
at 3.30 a. m. Baby born unaided next day at 4 p. m. Decedent died 9 p. m.
No. 2287. French Canadian spinner, aged 32; out of mill 1 year; twice married in
17 years, first time at 15; 17 pregnancies, 10 children living. She died from “ pneu­
m onia.” “ Age probably 40.” Last husband died 1 month after decedent.
No. 2305. Weaver of the “ other races,” aged 30; out of mill 1 year; never strong
after first childbirth, 2 years before death; “ weaving was much harder for her.”
She died from hemorrhage, 2 days after birth of child at full term.
No. 2345. Irish nonoperative (ex-weaver, 12 years out of m ill), aged 34; sciatica
8 years before; 4 pregnancies in 9 years; last one, the physician wished to terminate
b y Caesarean section at 7 months, but husband alleged his religion on no account
allowed him to consent. Child stillborn after mother’s death from valvular heart
disease.
No. 583. Tuberculous French Canadian nonoperative (ex-spinner, out of mill 6
years), aged 30 years. Died 1 hour after having miscarried at 3 months. Her death
was certified as ‘ 4congestion of the liver, ’ ’ and nothing on the certificate intimated
that either tuberculosis or pregnancy was even a contributory death factor. And
yet decedent’s brother and sister had died from tuberculosis and she herself was an
inmate of the city tuberculosis hospital 7 months before she died. When interro­
gated concerning the case, the physician who signed the death certificate said he
remembered decedent had a most severe cough and miscarried at 3 months, after
pneumonia. He said he did not remember whether the case was tuberculous or
not. The hospital records, however, state that the case was one of tuberculosis.
(This same physician is responsible for the second largest number of erroneously
certified deaths that avowedly b y the physician himself were really tuberculous.)
No. 2362. French Canadian nonoperative housewife, aged 30; eight pregnancies;
11 years married. First«6 children living; interim between pregnancies, in months,
10, 11, 17, 12, 12, 9, 56; seventh pregnancy miscarried at 3 months. Death from
eclampsia 1 day after delivery of 7 months premature child.
No. 2364. French Canadian nonoperative; seamstress, aged 31 years; died from
“ dropsy’ ’ 1 week after having miscarried at 6 months. Boy in hospital with hip
disease; husband a drunkard. “ Sewed night and d a y .” Insurance lapsed 2 weeks
before death; was buried a pauper.
No. 2386. American weaver, aged 39; 2 months out of the mill; died from eclampsia
2 hours after the birth of full-term child. She had had a cough 2 years; was a “ great
drinker’ ’ and was very emaciated.




134

CHAP. III.---- MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

No. 2417. French Canadian spooler tender, aged 38; 7 months out of m ill; married
at 16; 12 children in 17 years, but thirteenth came after interim of 7 years. Husband
said “ I did n ’t work her much, though she kept wanting to go into the mill. She was
always feeble during her pregnancies. ” She lived in a house of poor hygienic condi­
tion, and died from puerperal septicemia 1 week after full-term baby was bom , though
the death certificate ‘ ‘ peritonitis and salpingitis’ 7 is not very illum inative as to the
real death cause.
No. 2442. English nonoperative (ex-carder, out of mill 7 years), aged 38. Eight
pregnancies in 11 years married life; miscarried at 3 months. Physician’s last visit
was on second day; told decedent she was ‘ ‘ all right” after giving her a medicine,
instead of curetting to expel uterine contents.
No. 2478. French Canadian nonoperative (ex-dom estic), aged 37; died 10 days after
having miscarried at 1 month; French Canadian physician summoned second day
after abortion, and said patient probably would die; gave medicine only; attended 8
days.
No. 2490. Portuguese nonoperative (ex-dressmaker), aged 39; fourteen pregnancies
in 21 years married life; 10 children living. House in bad hygienic condition. Very
capable manager; “ used to work in garden at 4 and 5 a. m .” Forceps delivery; death
from embolism. No intimation of parturition on death certificate. Husband re­
married within a month.
No. 2553. French Canadian weaver, aged 40; out of mill 6 months; died from placenta
prsevia 9 hours after full-term child was born. She worked from 5 a. m. to 10.30 p. m.
In mill during first 5 months of pregnancies, and returned thereto 2 months after
pregnancies.

These 27 abstracts of fatal parturition histories, 16 operative and 11
nonoperative, 4 tuberculous and 23 nontuberculous, show the fallacy
of assuming that occupation or any single factor, except perhaps igno­
rance, adequately explains the fact that a life has been cut off at a
premature or presenile age. And it must be noticed that much of
the ignorance may not have been the decedent’s own lack of common
sense, experience, or foresight, but that of a hospital attendant or
physician in whom presumably trust could be reposed. Midwives
who do much of the obstetrical routine of Fall River are not supposed
to possess especial skill; however, to state that they are responsible
for no greatly higher parturition death rates than are the medical
accoucheurs might be an unjust reflection, and certainly could not be
construed as commendation.
However, though no single factor can be held accountable for the
parturition death rate, it is evident that some factors have more
weight than others in producing it. The data of this study make it
seem wholly probable that mill work is a factor generally in early
death from parturition, although in some cases influences only
indirectly, if at all, connected with the mill certainly seem to have been
predominant in cutting off life prematurely among pregnant and
parturient cotton-mill operatives.




MORTALITY FROM ACCIDENT OR VIOLENCE,

135

MORTALITY FROM ACCIDENT OR VIOLENCE.

The following table shows the deaths and death rates from accident
or violence during the five years covered:
D E A T H S A N D D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 F R O M A C C ID E N T S O R V IO L E N C E A M O N G
O P E R A T IV E S A N D N O N O P E R A T IV E S , 1308 TO 1912, B Y S E X A N D B Y A G E G R O U P .
Males.

Operatives.
Age group.

Nonoperatives.

Both classes.

Deaths.

15 to
25 to
35 to
45 to
55 to

24 years.....................................................
34 years.....................................................
44 years.....................................................
54 years.....................................................
64 years.....................................................

Death
rate per
1,000.

Deaths.

Death
rate per
1,000.

Deaths.

8
8
14
14
7

0.31
.46
1.04
1.53
1.99

14
35
29
24
17

0.42
1.08
1.05
1.37
3.41

22
43
43
38
24

0.38
.87
1.04
1.42
1.54

0.16
.11
.29
1.41
.88

2
5
5
6
9

0.07
.14
.15
.25
. 56

8
7
8
13
10

0.12
.13
.19
.45
.58

Death
rate per
1 ,0 0 a

Females.
15 to
25 to
35 to
45 to
55 to

24 years..... ..............................................
34 years.....................................................
44 years.....................................................
54 years.....................................................
64 years.....................................................

6
2
3
7
1

A larger proportion of the deaths of males than of females from
this cause, it will be seen, occurred in the important industrial age
group 15 to 44 years, the numbers being 108, or 64 per cent of the
deaths of the males, and 2Sr or 50 per cent of the deaths of the fe­
males. Among operatives the proportions are nearly equal, 59 per
cent of the deaths of the males and 58 per cent of those of females
having occurred in age group 15 to 44; but among nonoperatives
66 per cent of the deaths of males against only 44 per cent of those
of females are found in this group. In the age group 15 to 64 years
casualty accounts for 10 per cent of the male and about 2 per cent
of the female deaths.
A difference between the sexes is shown also with respect to the
relative as well as the absolute importance of accident or violence
as a death cause. The death causes to which males are liable have
been divided into six specified groups and those to which females
are liable into seven.1 Among males aged 15 to 24, casualty stands
third in prevalence of these groups, being exceeded only by tuber­
culosis and the degenerative diseases, while among females only
cancer, from which there are no deaths in this age group, falls below
it in importance. In the next age group, among males only tuber­
culosis is responsible for more deaths, while among females only
1 Specified groups of death causes: (1) Tuberculosis; (2) parturition; (3) accident or violence; (4) ne­
phritis, apoplexy, and heart disease; (5) typhoid fever; (6) cancer; (7) nontuberculous respiratory diseases.




136

CHAP, I II .-—MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED . CAUSES.

typhoid fever, with a death rate of 0.04, is responsible for fewer. In
age group 35 to 44, among males it again takes third place, while
among females it falls to the very foot of the list, with a death rate
of 0.19. In age group 45 to 54 it stands third for males and fifth
for females, while in the final age group it ranks fifth in importance
for both sexes.
Among males nonoperatives show higher casualty death rates than
operatives in the first two age groups, in the third the rates for the
two classes are practically identical, and in the last two operatives
have the higher rates. Among females up to 44 the variations be­
tween operatives and nonoperatives in casualty death rates seem
quite irregular; beyond that age operatives show the higher death
rates.
The casualty death hazard closely resembles the noncasualty death
hazard in its tendency to increase as age increases. The following
table brings this fact out clearly:
P E R C E N T B Y W H IC H C A S U A L T Y A N D N O N C A S U A L T Y D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 OF
M A LE S IN E A C H A G E G R O U P E X C E E D E D T H E C O R R E S P O N D IN G R A T E S IN T H E
N E X T LO W E R AGE GROUP.

Casualty.

Noncasualty causes.

Age group.
Oper­
atives.
25 to
35 to
45 to
55 to

34 years.....................................................
44 years................ ...................................
54 years.....................................................
64 years.....................................................

48
126
47
30

Nonoper­
atives.
157
i3
30
3

Both
classes.
129
20
36
8

Oper­
atives.
42
44
41
191

N onoper­
Both
atives.
classes.
88
56
66
131

61
52
57
146

i Per cent b y which rate of specified age group falls below rate of next lower age group.

Except among operatives and in age group 25 to 34, it will be
noticed, the decennial increase in death rate is less from casualty
than from noncasualty causes. The percentage of increase in the
casualty rate, however, is especially significant, for it shows that
although inexperience, which in most industries is almost synony­
mous with youthful age, is a very large factor in fatalities from
accident, yet the infirmities incident to increasing years would seem
to exert among males in cotton manufacturing cities an even greater
influence in cutting off lives through casualty, as well as in abridging
them through noncasualty causes, called diseases.
Of Fall River’s total 216 deaths from casualty in age group 15 to
64, during 1908 to 1912, 25 per cent were self-inflicted intentionally,
there being among males 31 cases, or 18 per cent of their casualty
deaths, and among females 23, or 50 per cent of their total casualty
fatalities. These deaths from suicide are thus distributed:




MORTALITY FROM ACCIDENT OR VIOLENCE.

137

M O R T AL IT Y FROM SUICIDE AMONG O PER ATIVES AN D N O N O PER A TIV ES, 1908 TO 1912,
B Y S E X AN D AGE GROUP.
Number of deaths.

Males.
Age group.
Oper­
atives.

Females.

N on­
Both
Oper­
oper­
atives. classes. atives.

Both sexes.

NonBoth
Oper­
oper­
atives.
atives. classes.

N on­
Both
oper­
atives. classes.

15 to 44 years............................
45 to 64 years............................

8
5

9
9

17
14

4
6

7
6

11
12

12
11

16
15

28
26

Total, 15 to 64 y e a rs .. .

13

18

31

10

13

23

23

31 I

54

Average age at death in years.
15 to 44 years............................
45 to 04 years............................

35
55

32
47

33
50

22
50

30
57

27
53

31
52

31
51

31
51

Total, 15 to 64 years_
_

43

39

41

39

43

41

41

41

41

0.07
.26

0.10
.59

0.08
.22

Death rate per 1,000 (crude rate).
15 to 44 years............................
45 to 64 years............................

0.14
.39

0.10
.30

0.11
.33

0.06
.99

0.07
.15

0.09
.29

Per cent suicides form of all deaths from casualty.
15 to 44 years............................
45 to 64 years............................

27
24

12
22

16
23

36
75

58
40

48
52

29
38

18
38

21
33

Total, 15 to 64 years. . .

25

15

18

53

48

50

33

33

25

The lowest suicide death rate is among female operatives aged 15
to 44, and the highest among female operatives aged 45 to 64, where
it is 0.99 per 1,000 population—exactly what the death hazard from
tuberculosis is among all female native born of this age group. The
mortality from suicide is greater among operatives of each age and
sex, except female operatives aged 15 to 44, than among nonoper­
atives, and except for operatives aged 45 to 64, males of each age
and occupation classification have a higher rate from this cause
than do females.
To sum up: Accident or violence is a far more important cause
of death among males than among females, and like most groups of
death causes it increases in prevalency with age. Suicide accounts
for a considerable proportion of the total casualty deaths, and, like
other forms of violent death, is more common among* males than
among females.
MORTALITY FROM NEPHRITIS, APOPLEXY, AND DISEASES OF THE
HEART.

Generally speaking, the mortality from nephritis, apoplexy, and
diseases of the heart is really due to the wear and tear of existence.
Deaths from these diseases are largely the result of earlier com muni-




138

CHAP. III.---- MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

cable diseases, or of dissipation, or of overwork. Not uncommonly
they are the result of two or all three of these debilitating agencies.
Their real seriousness is obscured by the fact that the physical con­
dition represented by this group of death causes furnishes a soil in
which not uncommonly tuberculosis flourishes, and when this hap­
pens the resultant death is attributed to tuberculosis only. Hence,
in all youthful age groups, in which, as has already been demon­
strated, tuberculosis is responsible for much of the mortality, the
real death hazard from the renal and circulatory affections of this
group of causes will inevitably be understated. It is far from im­
probable that, were data available concerning the full injury wrought
by infectious diseases in childhood, we should find that the economic
loss really ascribable to hearts and kidneys thus weakened in youth
would greatly exceed the loss consequent upon external injury or
accident.
Because of this there is hope that in time a greatly lowered mor­
tality from these diseases in the earlier life periods may follow from
the improved methods of treating many of the infectious diseases.
For example, the general administration of antitoxin in the treat­
ment of diphtheria, especially during the last two decades, will
assuredly result in lowering the death rates from circulatory and
renal causes, though it may be, perhaps, a score of years yet before its
benefits in this direction are fully realized. The merit of anti­
toxin in cases of diphtheria is not only that when administered early
it saves most of the lives that formerly would have been lost through
merely local treatment, but that it stops the ravages of the diphtheria
bacilli, and thereby checks the heart degeneration usually before the
heart valves have become irreparably damaged. Hence, it decreases
the likelihood of serious circulatory troubles later on.
Again, no physician doubts that a large aggregate annually, partic­
ularly of males, die from arterial degeneration consequent upon
alcoholic addiction and upon luetic disease, which is, perhaps, inher­
ited.1 No adequate data are available respecting the prevalence of
i The following excerpt, from an address b y Louis I . D ublin, P h. D ., before the section on vital statistics
o f the American Public Health Association, September, 1913, and published in the American Journal of
Public Health, pages 1266 and 1267, is m ost appropriate in this connection:
The effects o f the intem perate use o f alcohol upon m iddle age m ortality are closely related to those o f the
venereal diseases; indeed, there seems to b e a distinct correlation betw een these tw o forms o f indulgence.
The statistical analysis o f the subject is full o f difficulties, in view o f the reticence o f physicians t o report
the facts o f alcoholism on the death certificate. Y e t the evidence is unmistakable that there is a marked
influence on m iddle and old age m ortality from this cause. The title “ Alcoholism ” (acute and chronic)
in the census returns showed, in 1911, the n o t very significant sate o f 4.9 per 100,000; b u t this is o n ly a
trace of the deaths resultingfrom alcoholism. N o one can estimate the annual m ortality loss that is hidden
behind such returns as “ pneum onia,” “ acute and chronic nephritis,” “ cirrhosis o f the liv e r,” “ organic
heart disease,” and “ arteriosclerosis,” all o f which causes are now , as we observed, on the increase in their
incidence a t th e higher ages. I f further evidence o f the causal relation betw een alcoholism and higher
mortality were necessary, we should need on ly refer to the b od y o f facts which have been accumulating i n
insurance offices, showing that total abstainers are b y far the best risks, and that the m ortality rates
observed in various occupations are significantly tinged b y the degree of exposure t o alcohol, which is
characteristic o f the occupation.
W e can not, therefore, observe w ithout alarm the reports o f the steadily increasing consum ption of
alcoholic beverages in the U nited States during the last 30 years, as shown b y the reports o f the Commis­
sioner of Internal Revenue. In the period 1881-1890 the per capita consum ption o f liquors and wines was
13.21 gallons, whereas in 1912 the figure per capita had risen to 21.98 gallons, an increase o f 66.4 per cent
since the earlier date.




139

MORTALITY FROM NEPHRITIS, APOPLEXY, ETC.

either as a cause contributory to death, but the common observation
and experience of physicians have convinced them that both are
serious factors in the causation of the degenerative diseases. The
prevalence of both can be lessened, and probably is even now being
lessened, by the present day campaigns in favor of temperance and
social prophylaxis, and any such reduction must in time be reflected
in decreased death rates from diseases of this group.
The following table shows the deaths and deatn rates from this
group of causes during the period studied:
D E A T H S A N D D E A T H R A T E S F R O M N E P H R IT IS , A P O P L E X Y , A N D D ISEA SES OF T H E
H E A R T AM ONG O P E R A T IV E S A N D N O N O P E R A T IV E S , 1908 T O 1912, B Y S E X A N D B Y
A G E G R O U PS.
Males.

Operatives.

Nonoperatives.

Both'classes.

Age group.
Deaths.

15 to
25 to
35 to
45 to
55 to

24 years.....................................................
34 years.....................................................
44 years.....................................................
54 years.....................................................
......................
64 years............................. *

Death
rate.

14
16
27
35
41

Deaths.

Death
rate.

Deaths.

Death
rate.

0.55
.92
2.00
3.82
11.65

12
24
61
82
189

0.36
.74
2.20
4.69
15.65

26
40
88
117
230

0.44
.80
2.14
4.39
14.74

0.29
1.67
3.87
8.49
23.68

12
37
70
105
198

0.41
1.02
2.16
4.37
12.33

23
67
110
147
225

0.34
1.24
2.57
5.08
13.08

Females.
15 to
25 to
35 to
45 to
55 to

24 years.....................................................
34 years..................................................
44 years...................................................
54 years................................................
64 years...................................................

11
30
40
42
27

This table shows very clearly the rapid increase in fatalities in the
upper age groups due to these diseases. Among males the death
rate from this group of causes in age group 35 to 44 is more than
double that in age group 25 to 34, in the next age group it more than
doubles again, and in age group 55 to 64 it is more than three times
the rate of the preceding age group. Among women the increase is
not quite so even, but is marked, nevertheless. The rate in age
group 25 to 34 is nearly four times as. great as in age group 15 to 24,
and among those over 34 the rate practically doubles or more in
each successive decade.
The relative importance of this group of death causes as compared
with others is even greater among women than among men. For
males the degenerative diseases stand second only to tuberculosis in
the first and third age periods (in age group 25 to 34 they are exceeded
also by accident or violence), but from 45 onward more deaths are
assignable to them than to any other group of causes. Among
females they are exceeded by both tuberculosis and parturition up to
the age of 35, after which they are responsible for heavier death rates
than any other group of causes. As respects the mortality of oper­




140

CHAP. III.---- MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

a tiv e s a n d n o n o p e r a t iv e s fr o m
t h e s e d is e a s e s t h e s e x e s d i f
A m o n g m a le s f o r t h e fir s t t w o a g e g r o u p s o p e r a t iv e s le a d , b u t t h e r e
a fte r n o n o p e r a t iv e s s h o w th e la r g e r d e a th r a te s .
A m o n g fe m a le s , i
t h e a g e g r o u p 15 t o 2 4 , n o n o p e r a t iv e s h a v e t h e h ig h e r d e a t h r a
fr 6 m th is g r o u p o f c a u s e s , b u t th e r e a ft e r o p e r a t iv e s h a v e t h e h ig h e
m o r t a lit y .
MORTALITY FROM TYPHOID FEVER.

T y p h o id fe v e r is m o s t d e s t r u c t iv e in th e lo w e r a g e g r o u p s .
Th
fo l l o w i n g t a b le g iv e s a s u m m a r y o f t h e d e a t h s f r o m t h is c a u s e
F a ll R i v e r d u r in g th e fiv e y e a r s c o v e r e d :
D E A T H S A N D D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 FR O M T Y P H O ID F E V E R , A M O N G O P E R A ­
T IV E S A N D N O N O P E R A T IV E S , 1908 TO 1912, B Y S E X A N D B Y A G E G R O U P .
Males.

Operatives.
Age group.

Nonoperatives.

Both classes.

Deaths.

15 to
25 to
35 to
45 to
55 to

Deaths.

Death
rate per
1,000.

Deaths.

9
3
1
2

24 years.............................
34 years.............................
44 years.............................
54 years.............................
64 years.............................

Death
rate per
1,000.
0.35
.17
.07
.22

8
8
4
3

0.24
.25
.14
.17

17
11
5
5

0.29
.22
.12
.19

0.18
.11
.29

5

0.17

12

6

. 19
. 17
.12

0.18
.04
.21
. 14
.11

Death
rate per
1,000.

i
Females.
15 to 24 years.....................................................
25 to 34 years.....................................................
35 to 44 years.....................................................

7
2
3

45 to 54 vp.ars___________________________________

55 to 64 years..................................................... L , ..............

4
2

2
9

4
2

Nearly one-half ( 4 5 per cent) of the 3 8 male and two-fifths (4 1
per Cent) of the 2 9 female deaths from typhoid fever in the total
population aged 1 5 to 6 4 occurred among those aged 1 5 to 2 4 —
about three-fifths in the case of operatives of each sex, and about
one-third among the nonoperatives. Its fatal prevalence was great­
est among male operatives aged 1 5 to 2 4 , among whom it killed one
in three thousand ( 0 . 3 5 ) , or slightly more than perished through
nontuberculous respiratory diseases, chiefly pneumonia.
Even in age group 1 5 to 2 4 , however, typhoid fever is responsible
for but 8 per cent of all male deaths, among both operatives and non­
operatives, and for but 5 per cent of all deaths of females. Among
males of this age group no scheduled group of death causes except
cancer has so few fatalities, whereas among females casualty and
the nontuberculous respiratory diseases each cause fewer deaths, and
cancer causes none at all. In the total population aged 1 5 to 6 4 ,
in the period 1 9 0 8 - 1 9 1 2 an aggregate of 6 7 deaths occurred from this
,
wholly preventable cause—more than one a month.




141

MORTALITY FROM TYPHOID FEVER.

In each age group, except 35 to 44 and 55 to 64, the males of each
occupational classification were much more liable than the corre­
sponding class of females to die of typhoid fever, but in the age
group 35 to 44 the death rate of all women from this cause (0.21)
was higher by 75 per cent than that of all males (0.12), and in age
group 55 to 64 there were no male, deaths from typhoid. In each
age group under 45, female operatives were more liable to die from
this cause than female nonoperatives; whereas among males, except
in age groups 15 to 24 and 45 to 54, the reverse holds true.
Omitting the year 1911, for which the Census Office published no
death rates, the relative prevalence of typhoid fever in Fall River
as a death cause, compared with its prevalence among whites of all
ages in all registration cities, and in all Massachusetts cities, is seen
from the following:
D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 FR O M T Y P H O ID F E V E R F O R A L L U R B A N R E G IS T R A T IO N
W H IT E S OF A L L A G E S.

Year.

United
States.

•

1908...................................................................................................................
1909....................................................................................................................
1910....................................................................................................................
1912....................................................................................................................
1913....................................................................................................................

Massachu­
setts.

0.250
.212
.228
.154
.152

Fall River.

0.161
.118
.134
.086
.087 '

0.122
.213
.150
.089
.180

M O R TALITY FR O M CANCER.

In the study of deaths from cancer in Fall River the term has been
used to include not only carcinoma but all malignant growths or
neoplasms as well. The following table shows the incidence of
deaths from this cause during the period covered:
D E A T H S A N D D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 F R O M C A N C E R , 1908 T O 1912, B Y S E X , A G E
G R O U P , A N D O C C U PA TIO N A L G R O U P .

Males.
Operatives.
Age group.
Deaths.

15 to
25 to
35 to
45 to
55 to

24 years.....................................................
34 years.....................................................
44 years.....................................................
54 years.....................................................
64 years.....................................................

Death
rate per
1,000.

2
1
1
9
10

N onoperatives.

Both classes.

Deaths.

Death
rate per
1,000.

Deaths.

0.08
.06
.07
.98
2.84

2
4
20
29

0.06
.15
1.14
2.40

2
3
5
29
39

0.03
.06
.12
1.09
2.50

0.39
1.45
3. 84
4.39

16
44
57
61

0. 44
1.36
2.37
3.80

23
59
76
66

0.42
1.38
2.62
3.84

Death
rate per
1,000.

Females.
15 to
25 to
35 to
45 to
55 to

24 years.....................................................
34 years.....................................................
44 years.....................................................
54 years.....................................................
64 years.....................................................




7
15
19
5

142

CHAP. III.---- MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

Two characteristic features of cancer are brought out clearly in
this table—the fact that in the main it is a disease of the upper age
groups, and the fact that it is much more prevalent among women
than among men. As to the first, it will be noticed that in the whole
population of Fall River during the five years covered there were
only two deaths from cancer among persons aged 15 to 24. In the
group aged 15 to 44 the total number of deaths, regardless of sex,
from this cause was 92, while in the group aged 45 to 54 such deaths
number 105; that is, in this single 10-year age group the deaths
from cancer were more numerous by one-eighth (14 per cent) than
in the 30-year age group 15 to 44. Moreover, each 10-year age
group of the group 15 to 44 contains many more people than the
age group 45 to 54. In the 20-year age group, 45 to 64, such
deaths numbered 210, more than double the number occurring in
the earlier 30-year group.
The greater liability of women to cancer is apparent early in life.
It is true that the only two cases of cancer in age group 15 to 24
occurred among males, but from that.age onward women lead in such
deaths in every age group. In the age group 25 to 34 their death rate
from cancer is seven times that of the males, in age group 35 to 44
it is nearly twelve times as great, in age group 45 to 54 it is considera­
bly more than twice as great, and in the final age group, 55 to 64, it
exceeds the male rate by 54 per cent.
Taking up the danger from cancer by sex, it appears that although,
among males, in the age period 15 to 44 years, the death rate in each
succeeding decade is just double that of the preceding, cancer first
attains serious proportions as a death factor in the group aged 45 to
54, wherein on an average it kills annually 1.09 victims per 1,000
males. In the next age group, 55 to 64, the death rate from cancer is
more than doubled and is identical with that from tuberculosis in this
same age group (2.50).
Among women cancer begins to be a serious factor in mortality
earlier than among men. Among those aged 25 to 34 it annually
kills 0.42 per 1,000, and in the next decade the death rate from this
cause rises to 1.38, or considerably higher than it is among men in
age group 45 to 54 (1.09). From age group 25 to 34 onward, cancer is
increasingly prevalent among women, although its rates of increase
are irregular. The death rates from cancer and the percentage of
increase in each decade among women may be compared with the
corresponding data for the “ wear and tear” diseases, that is, the ag­
gregate degenerative diseases— apoplexy, nephritis, and heart disease.
The following table gives the figures for women for both of these
groups of death causes:




MORTALITY FROM CANCER.

143

DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM CANCER AND PER CENT OF INCREASE OVER PRE­
CEDING DECADE COMPARED WITH CORRESPONDING DATA FOR AGGREGATE
DEGENERATIVE DISEASES, BY AGE GROUP.
A poplexy, nephritis, and
heart disease.

Cancer.

Death
rate per
1,000.

Per cent of
increase over
rate of
preceding
decade.

0.42
1.38
2.62
3.84

229
90
47

A ge group.

25 to
35 to
45 to
55 to

34 years.............................................................................
44 years.............................................................................
54 years.............................................................................
64 years.............................................................................

Death
rate per
1,000.

Per cent of
increase over
rate of
preceding
decade.

1.24
2.57
5.08
13.08

107
98
157

As might naturally be expected the death rates from the “ wear and
tear” diseases show their highest percentage of increase in the highest
age group, while for cancer the greatest percentage of increase comes
in the decade of early middle life, 35 to 44, where economically and
socially & death is of greater importance than it is twenty years
later. In the age groups from *35 onward among women cancer as a
death cause is respectively one-half (54 per cent), one-half (52 per
cent), and one-third (29 per cent) as common as are these three “ wear
and tear” causes combined.
M O R TALITY FR O M NONTUBERCULOUS RESPIRATORY DISEASES.

Deaths due to this group of causes are mainly those from pneu­
monia, bronchitis, and pleurisy. In Fall River, to judge from the
situation prevailing during the period of this study, the number of
such deaths especially is apt to be unduly augmented by the in­
clusion, through either careless or fraudulent registration, of deaths
really due to tuberculosis. Twenty-four deaths of males and 27 of
females, *vhich occurred during the five years covered and which were
certified as due to this group of causes, were stated to the writer by the
certifying physician to have been really tuberculous; these have been
scheduled as cases of tuberculosis everywhere throughout this study,
and the number of deaths ascribed to nontuberculous respiratory
diseases has been diminished by just so much. In addition, five
other deaths certified under equivocal designations as due to non­
tuberculous respiratory diseases proved to have been tuberculous
in reality, and have been so scheduled. Thus there were 56 cases in
which the certifying physicians themselves admitted that the oiiginal
assignment of death to a nontuberculous respiratory disease was in­
correct. These formed 61 per cent of the total 92 “ variant” cases
really tuberculous, but originally otherwise certified as to cause. Had
the original certification been accepted, the number of deaths at­
tributed to this group of causes would have been 362 instead of 306;
that is, it would have been larger by nearly one-fifth (18 percent)
than the facts justified.




CHAP. III.— MORTALITY FROM SPECIFIED CAUSES.

144

The deaths and death rates from this group of causes during the
period covered were as follows:
D E A T H S A N D D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 FR O M N O N T U B E R C U L O U S R E S P I R A T O R Y
CAUSES, 1908 TO 1912, B Y S E X , A G E G R O U P , A N D O C C U P A T IO N A L G R O U P .

Males.
Operatives.

Nonoperatives.

B oth classes.

Deaths.

Death
rate per
1,000.

Deaths.

Death
rate per
1,000.

Deaths.

8
15
5
8
19

0.31
.87
.37
.87
5. 40

10
17
24
24
30

0.30
.52
.87
1.37
2.48

18
32
29
32
49

0.31
.64
.70
1.20
3.14

0.21
.50
.77
.81
4. 39

11
9
31
61

0. 30
.28
1. 29
3.80

20
17
35
66

0.12
.37
.40
1.21
3.84

Age group.

15 to
25 to
35 to
45 to
55 to

24 years.....................................................
34 years.....................................................
44 years ..................................................
54 years.....................................................
64 years.....................................................

15 to
25 to
35 to
45 to
55 to

24 years.
34 years,
44 years.
54 years.
64 years.

Death
rate per
1,000.

Females.
8
9
8
4
5

One-half (49 per cent) of all the male deaths occurring within the age
group 15 to 64 for which this group of -causes is responsible occur under
45 years of age. This obtains alike for operatives, among whom 51 per
cent of these deaths are in the age group 15 to 44, and for nonopera­
tives, among whom 49 per cent are found here. In the case of females,
however, this group of causes is plainly much more prevalent in
the age group 45 to 64 years, 69 per cent of their total deaths occur­
ring here. Only 8 per cent of the female operatives, however, are
older than 44 years. Obviously, therefore, even though this group
of causes is far more fatally prevalent at ages over 44, yet among
female operatives the great bulk of its occurrence must naturally
be among the 92 per cent who are under 45, and 25 of the total 34
deaths from these causes (74 per cent) among female operatives are
found in age group 15 to 44.
Among female operatives one-fourth of the total deaths from non­
tuberculous respiratory causes is found in each 10-year age group up
to the age of 45, and the remaining one-fourth is about equally dis­
tributed between age groups 45 to 54 and 55 to 64.
Up to the age of 45 males of each occupational classification, except
male operatives aged 35 to 44, are considerably more liable than are
females to die from this group of causes, but in the higher age groups
there is nd great difference in the death hazard of the sexes therefrom.
Among females aged 55 to 64 the hazard from this group of causes
is identical, both for operatives and for nonoperatives, with that from
cancer, there having occurred 66 deaths from each cause during the
five \ears covered. Among males, on the other hand, this cause is
more important in age group 55 to 64 than cancer, being responsible
for 49 deaths against 39 from cancer.
Like cancer and the “ wear and tear” diseases, nontuberculous
respiratory deaths, since they occur principally in age groups over 44
years, are by no means the most important causes of death.




CHAPTER IV.—CAUSES CONTRIBUTORY TO EARLY DEATH.
The official certificate of death is expected to give the immediate
or principal cause of death, and in addition to name any other disease
or circumstance which contributed to the death. Attention has
already been called (see pp. 24 to 29) to the fact that such important
contributory causes as parturition occurring within thirty days of
death and alcoholic addiction were frequently omitted, so that
even for causes commonly and officially recognized as contributory
to death the certificates are often incomplete. But there are a
number of other circumstances which are never included in death
certificates, even though common sense indicates that they may
have had much to do with the fact that death occurred at the
time it did. In the house-to-house investigation made as to the cir­
cumstances of each decedent, questions were included covering
many of these contributory causes. The factors which may have an
effect in determining early death are numerous; on some it was
impossible to obtain complete information, while as to others we are
not yet in a position to decide definitely what their influence may be.
Concerning a few points, however, it was felt that the data gathered
were sufficiently important and significant to justify presentation in
this study, and the following discussion is therefore presented of cer­
tain factors, such as alcoholic addiction, tuberculous kindred, unhy­
gienic condition of the decedent’s dwelling, low income, long mill
service, short life of parents, additional work of mill workers, and
prolificacy, which will generally be admitted to have had an influence
in bringing about early deaths.
ALCOHOLIC ADDICTION.

RELIABILITY OF DATA SECURED.

Information on this point, outside of that furnished by the official
death certificate, was gained by inquiry almost always from the
decedent’s relations, otherwise from his intimates. If a decedent
had habitually become intoxicated once or more every month he was
classed as having used alcoholic beverages to excess, and alcoholic
addiction was entered as a contributory cause of his death. The
question, of course, at once arises whether information gained in
this way on such a point can be regarded as reliable. In the very
nature of the case it can not be as incontrovertible, as regards a
specified individual, as the information concerning some of the other
points covered. Whether, for instance, a specified woman decedent
88204°— 19— Bull. 251------ 10




145

146

CHAP. IV.— CAUSES CONTRIBUTORY TO EARLY DEATH.

had had a pregnancy terminate within a definite period precedent to
her decease is a fact of record, or of medical knowledge, which can
ordinarily be established beyond the possibility of doubt. Such
verification is lacking for the data concerning alcoholic addiction,
which for the most part rests on the assertion of the nearest relative
or friend of the decedent who could be found. Certainly these rela­
tives and friends had abundant opportunity io know the facts; how
far were they under temptation to misrepresent them? There are
two tendencies to be taken into account, the tendency to minimize
or conceal altogether circumstances uncomplimentary to the memory
of a father, husband, or brother, and the tendency to exaggerate that
relative’s shortcomings and discreditable excesses. It can not be
assumed that inherently the latter tendency is the stronger; if the two
are of equal strength and prevalence, the facts as to intemperance
will at least not be exaggerated, and if, as many will think probable,
the charitable impulse to hide the weaknesses of the dead is the
stronger, they will be understated. The writer, having talked per­
sonally with the relatives or friends of every man herein set down as
an alcoholic addict, believes that the data on this point, though not
susceptible of absolute verification, are in the main reliable. He
was impressed with the candor with which relatives, when once they
understood the purpose of this effort to collect the facts relating to
contributory circumstances of death, gave full information about
habits as to intemperance which they might naturally feel a reluc­
tance to disclose. Nevertheless, in spite of this candor, he believes
that the data presented in the following tables as to the prevalence
of alcoholic addiction as a contributory cause of death err on the side
of understatement. For this belief there are three reasons:
First, some cases in which alcoholism was undoubtedly a con­
tributory cause of death escaped classification under this head be­
cause the decedents, according to the testimony of members of their
household, had been able to drink regularly very considerable amounts
of alcoholic beverages without becoming intoxicated. These in­
stances included those who “ drank hard but never showed it, n and
those who “ drank regularly7 or who “ always drank, but it never
7
interfered with his working. ”
Second, because those who “ occasionally got drunk” and those
who “ went on a spree three or four times a year” escaped classifica­
tion as alcoholic addicts, since they did not regularly become intoxi­
cated at least once a month.
Third, because male decedents concerning whom nothing could be
learned are quite as liable to have been intemperate users of alcoholic
beverages as the average decedent whose habits in this respect were
reported. Those concerning whom no information could be gained
have invariably been excluded from the number of alcoholic addicts.




147

ALCOHOLIC ADDICTION.

PREVALENCE OF ALCOHOLIC ADDICTION AS A CONTRIBUTORY CAUSE
OF DEATH.

Turning now to the actual prevalence of this contributory cause of
death, as shown by the testimony of friends and relatives of the de­
ceased, the first consideration is the size of the population in which
it prevailed. The special study of the subject has been limited to
those in the industrially important groups under 45 years of age.
Also, since ordinarily it is not to be expected that any man under the
age of 25 years will have developed such addiction to the intemperate
use of alcoholic beverages as to become intoxicated at least once in
each month of the year, decedents aged 15 to 24 are excluded from
the following statistical analysis;1 and as alcoholic addiction was
decidedly the exception among female decedents,2 they also are ex­
cluded. This leaves the male population aged 25 to 44 years among
whom the prevalence of alcoholic addiction as a cause contributory
to death has been studied. This population was thus divided:
D IS T R IB U T IO N OF M A LE S IN A G E G R O U P 25 TO 44 B Y W O R K R O O M , R A C E , OCCUPA­
T IO N A L G R O U P , A N D C ON JU G AL C O N D ITIO N .

W orkroom , race, and occupational group.

Single.

Married.

Both
classes.

Operatives:
Spinning room .........................................................................................
French Canadian.............................................................................

252
129

698
326

Card and picker room ............................................................................

233

1 ,151~

1,384

W eave room:
French Canadian.............................................................................
Irish.................................................................................................... '
English...............................................................................................
All other races..................................................................................

219
127
187
251

800
201
606
847

1,019
328
793
1,098
3,238

950
455

Total, weave room ................................................................

784

2,454

Spooler room and miscellaneous.........................................................

165

427

592

French Canadian.....................................................................................
Irish...................................................................................................: ____
English......................................................................................................
Portuguese...............................................................................................
All other races..........................................................................................

422
209
282
208
313

1,307
329
859
1,253
982

1,729
538
1,141
1,461
1,295

Total, operatives.................................................................................
Total, nonoperatives......................................................................................

1,434
2,979

4,730
9,048

6,164
12,027

Total, both classes...............................................................................

4,413

, 13,778

18,191

1 Among the 203 male decedents aged 15 to 24, there were 7 whose relatives declared them to have been
alcoholic addicts in the sense in which the term is here use£.
2 Among the 743 female decedents aged 25 to 44, there were 45 in whose cases alcoholic addiction had been
a contributory cause of death.




148

CHAP. IV.---- CAUSES CONTRIBUTORY TO EARLY DEATH.

The prevalence of alcoholic addiction, as a contributory cause of
death, among the male population thus distributed, is shown by the
following tables:
M A LE D E C E D E N T S 25 TO 44 Y E A R S O F A G E A N D N U M B E R A N D P E R C E N T W H O S E
A D D IC T IO N TO A L C O H O L IC B E V E R A G E S IS R E P O R T E D T O H A V E R E S U L T E D IN
IN T O X IC A T IO N ONCE A M O N TH O R O F T E N E R , B Y W O R K R O O M , R A C E , A N D OCCU­
P A T IO N A L G R O U P , 1908 TO 1912.
Decedents.
Single.

B oth classes.

Married.
Total.

W orkroom , race, and occupational
group.
To­
tal.

T AY*
i>er
cent
having
alco­
holic
addic­
tion.

T o­
tal.

Per
cent
having
alco­
holic
addic­
tion.

To­
tal.

Tuberculous.

Having
alcoholic
addiction.

To­
tal.

N um ­ Per
ber. cent.

Having
alcoholic
addiction.
N um ­ Per
ber. cent.

Operatives:
Spinning room ...................................
French Canadian...........................

21
10

38
40

26
13

50
69

47
23

21
13

45
57

24
13

11
7

46
54

Card and picker room ......................

5

40

33

24

38

10

26

20

7

35

W eave room:
French Canadian...........................
Irish..................................................
E nglish............................................
A ll other races................................

14
16
11
10

57
81
27
40

20
13
29
14

25
54
21
29

34
29
40
24

13
20
9
8

38
69
23
33

20
17
13
9

6
13
3
3

30
76
23
33

55

76

35

127

50

39

59

25

42

6

50

10

3

30

4

nr

75

39
70
21
7
30

64
45
47
33
33

27
32
11
2
12

42
71
23
6
36

36
27
17
15
12

14
21
4
2
5

39
78
24
13
42

Total, weave room .....................

51

Spooler room and miscellaneous. . .

4

French Canadian...............................
Irish..........: ........................................
English................................................
Portuguese......................................
A ll other races....................................

26
22
14
6
13

46
73
29
46

38
23
33
27
20

Total, operatives............................
Total, nonoperatives............................

81
169

47
43

141
252

33
30

222
421

84
148

38
35

107
141

46
64

43
45

Total, both classes.........................

250

44

393

31

643

232

36

248

110

44




ALCOHOLIC ADDICTION.

149

D E A T H RATES P E R 1,000 OF M A LE S A G E D 25 TO 44 F R O M C AU SES W I T H W H IC H
A D D IC T IO N TO A L C O H O L IC B E V E R A G E S R E S U L T IN G IN IN T O X IC A T IO N ONCE A
M O N TH O R O F T E N E R W A S A C O M P L IC A T IN G CIRC U M STAN C E A N D F R O M CAU SES
N O T TH U S C O M P L IC A T E D , B Y W O R K R O O M , R A C E , A N D O C C U P A T IO N A L G R O U P ,
1908 TO 1912.

Death rate per 1,000 population of males aged 25 to 44 years (cru de).
B oth married and single.
of death.
W orkroom , race, and occupa­
tional group.

Operatives:
Spinning room ............. ...........
French Canadian..................

Com­
pli­
cated
with
alco­
holic
ad­
dic­
tion.

1
lY.fc 11 U All
J U U ,---A 1
causes of death.

A ll causes of
death.

Tuberculosis.

Com­
Com­
Com­
pli­
pli­
pli­
Not
cated N ot
cated N ot
cated N ot
thus To­ with thus
with thus
thus
T o­ alco­ com ­ T o­ with com ­ Tocom ­
alco­ com ­
alco­
pli­ tal. holic pli­ tal. holic pli­ tal. holic pli­ tal.
cated.
ad­ cated.
ad­ cated.
ad­ cated.
dic­
d ic­
dic­
tion.
tion.
tion.

6.35 10.32 16.67
6. 20 9.30 15.50

3.73
5.52

3.72 7.45
2.46 7.98

4.42
5. 71

5.47 9.89
4.40 10.11

2.31
3.07

2.74 5.05
2.64 5.71

1.72

2.57 4.29

1.39

4.34 5. 73

1.44

4.05 5. 49

1.01

1.88 2.89

W eave room:
French Canadian..................
7. 31
Irish......................................... 20. 47
English............. ..................... 3. 21
A ll other races.......................
3.19

5. 48 12.79
4.73 25.20
8.56 11.76
4.78 9.97

1.25
6.97
1.98
.95

3.75
5.97
7.59
2.36

5.00 2. 55
12.94 12.19
9. 57 2. 27
3.31 1.46

4.12 6.67
5. 49 17.68
7.82 10.09
2.91 4.37

1.18
7.93
.76
.55

2.75 3.93
2. 44 10.37
2. 52 3.28
1.09 1.64

5.87 13.01

1.79

4.40 6.19

3.09

4.76 7.85

1.54

2.10 3.64
.34 1.35

Card and picker room .............

Total, weave room ............

7.14

Spooler room and miscellane­
ous........................................

4 84 4.84

French Canadian..... ............ 5.69
Irish......................................... 15.31
English...................................
2. 84
Portuguese.............................
A ll other races.......................
3.84

1.41

1.41 2.81

1.01

2.37 3.38

1.01

6.63 12.82
5. 74 21.05
7.09 9.93
5.77 5.77
4.47 8.31

2. 29
9.73
1.63
.32
1.22

3.52 5.81 3.12:
4. 25 13.98 11.90
6.05 7.68 1.93
.28
3.99 4. 31
2.85 4.07 1. So

4.28 ” 7.40
4.83 16. 73
6.31 8.24
4.24 4.52
3. 24 5.10

L 62 " 2.54 4.16
7.81 2. 23 10.04
.70 2.28 2.98
.28 1.77 2.05
.77 1.08 1.85

Total, operatives...............
Total, nonoperatives...................

5.30
4.84

6.00 11.30
6.51 11.35

1.94
1.68

4.02 5.96
3.89 5. 57

2. 72
2. 46

4. 48 7.20
4.54 7.00

1.49
1.06

1.98 3.47
1.28 2.34

Total, both classes:
Crude...........................................
Age-adjusted.............................

4.99

6.84 11:88

3.rr!
1.65j

8.98 5.70

2.55

3.82 5.47

2. 46

4.52 7.07

1.21

1.52 2.78

5.89

6.64 12.53

4.47 6.93

1.17

1.51 2.68

The 18,191 males of this age group comprise roughly two-thirds
(61 per cent) of all males aged 15 to 44, and nearly one-half (47 per
cent) of all males aged 15 to 64 years. Their mortality for a period
of five years is the equivalent of the annual death hazard of 90,955
males, aged 25 to 44, for a single year. The 6,164 operatives of the
group comprise 55 per cent of all male operatives aged 15 to 44, and
45 per cent of all aged 15 to 64. Their mortality for five years is
equivalent to the average annual mortality of 30,820 male operatives
aged 25 to 44. The population considered is therefore large enough
to be indicative.
The table shows that in this population there were 643 deaths from
all causes, of which 232, or 36 per cent, were complicated with alco­
holic addiction. Of the 248 deaths from tuberculosis 110, or 44 per
cent, and of the 395 deaths from nontuberculous causes 122, or 31
per cent, were complicated with alcoholic addiction.



150

CHAP. IV.— CAUSES CONTRIBUTORY TO EARLY DEATH.

IMPORTANCE OF ALCOHOLIC ADDICTION AS A CONTRIBUTORY CAUSE
OF DEATH.

The most important question raised by the tables is as to the weight
which should be allowed to this factor of alcoholic addiction in causing
the deaths in connection with which it appears. In a very few cases—
nine, to be exact— alcoholism is given as the immediate and direct
cause of death; in some others it is plainly the indirect cause. When,
for instance, a drunken teamster falls from his seat and is crushed
beneath the wheels of his own wagon, most observers would put the
responsibility for his death upon his alcoholic habits. In by far the
largest number of cases, however, while intemperance probably had
a large effect in bringing about the decedents’ death, it is impossible
to say just how far it should be held accountable. When a man, for
instance, who has been in the habit of drinking to intoxication at
least once a month dies of tuberculosis, it is questionable just to
what degree his intemperance should be considered responsible for
his death. Probably no one would deny that such a use of alcoholic
liquors constitutes a debilitating experience, increasing the chance
of the drinker’s being infected with tuberculosis, lessening his power
of resistance to it, and diminishing the likelihood of his adopting
such measures as would give him a chance of overcoming it or at least
of protracting its siege. It is entirely likely, therefore, that a drink­
ing man who dies of tuberculosis might not have developed the disease
had he been temperate, or that if he had taken it he might have built
up an effective resistance against it, and that at the worst, if he
had been infected with tuberculosis and had not been able to resist
it, his death might not have taken place until considerably later
in life than it actually occurred. Nor is the case much clearer
when the certified cause of death is pneumonia or nephritis or heart
disease.1 Whatever the principal cause assigned, intemperance of
the degree described would almost certainly have played a consider­
able part in bringing about the death, but what its part is can not be
definitely ascertained. In the following discussion, then, when the
4 alcoholic addiction death rate” is spoken of, the term is used only for
6
the sake of brevity, and without any intention of implying that the
whole responsibility for this mortality rests at the door of intemperance.
It will be noticed that operatives invariably show a higher death
rate than nonoperatives from causes complicated with alcoholic addic­
tion, but among themselves different groups of operatives differ con­
siderably in regard to this factor. Taking the single males, the weave
room shows a higher alcoholic addiction death rate than any other room,
while among the married this position is held by the spinning room,
which has also the highest rate for all males regardless of conjugal con­
dition. The most striking feature of the workroom death rates is the
enormously high rate of the single Irish in the weave room from causes
complicated with alcoholic addiction. Of the 16 deaths occurring




i See note, p. 138.

151

ALCOHOLIC ADDICTION.

among them, 81 per cent were thus complicated, a larger proportion
than is found in any other racial, occupational, or conjugal condition
group. They have much the highest alcoholic addiction death rate
found among the single, 20.47 per 1,000 population, against 7.31, the
next highest rate, which is found among the single French Canadians
of the weave room, and 7.14, the rate for all single males of the weave
room regardless of race.
Taking up the hazard by race, it will be seen that the Irish opera­
tives, both single and married, greatly exceed those of every other
race in the size of their death rate from causes complicated with
alcoholic addiction. This is very noticeable among the single, where
the death rate from such causes, 15.31 per 1,000, exceeds by 169 per
cent the next highest rate, 5.69 among the French Canadians; but a
still greater percentage of excess is shown among the married, where
the alcoholic addiction rate of the Irish, 9.73 per 1,000, exceeds the
nexthighestvrate, again that of the French Canadians, by 325 percent.
It can not, of course, be assumed that all the mortality complicated
with alcoholic addiction is due to alcoholic addiction; nevertheless,
it is impossible not to see some significance in the fact that the race
having the highest mortality found exceeds the other races so greatly
in its death rate from causes complicated with intemperance. If the
mortality from causes not thus complicated be compared, the Irish
stand second to the English, and exceed the French Canadians and
the Portuguese by only 13 and 14 per cent, respectively.
A somewhat similar situation appears in regard to the death
rates of the married and the single. It repeatedly has been shown
that in each age group the death rate of single men is much higher
than that of the married. This table shows that in the population
considered a large part of this difference lies in the deaths complicated
with alcoholic addiction. From such deaths the rates of the single
are in general nearly three times as great as those of the married,
while from all causes not so complicated the death rates of the
single men seldom exceed those of the married by even two-thirds.
Taking the male population aged 25 to 44 without regard to’occu­
pation, deaths with alcoholic complications form a more important
part of the mortality from tuberculosis than of that from all causes,
being responsible for 44 per cent of the first against 36 per cent of the
second. As between operatives and nonoperatives, however, there
is a difference in this respect. Their death rates, adjusted for age,
are for the two groups of causes as follows:
D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 OF O P E R A T IV E S A N D N O N O P E R A T IV E S F R O M T U B E R C U ­
LO U S A N D N O N T U B E R C U L O U S C A U S E S C O M P L IC A T E D W I T H A L C O H O L IC A D D IC ­
T IO N .

Occupational group.

Operatives ....................................................................................................................
N onoperati ves ............................................................................................................




N ontubercu­
Tuberculosis lous causes
complicated com plicated
with alcoholic with alcoholic
addiction.
addiction.
1.45
1.03

1.21
1.32

152

CHAP. IV.---- CAUSES CONTRIBUTORY TO EARLY DEATH.

Among operatives, therefore, alcoholic addiction appears as a
complication of deaths from tuberculosis more frequently by 41 per
cent than among nonoperatives, while among nonoperatives it a p p e a r s
as a complication of deaths from nontuberculous causes more frequently
by 9 per cent than among operatives.
The subject of alcoholic addiction as a contributory cause of
death is so important, and has been so left out of sight in general,
that it may be worth while to give a more detailed view of its occur­
rence. The following table is therefore presented:
D E A T H S A N D D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000, O F M A LE S A G E D 25 TO 44, F R O M C AU SES
C O M PLIC A TE D A N D N O T C O M PL IC A T E D W IT H A L C O H O L IC A D D IC T IO N , B Y CON­
JU G A L C O N D ITIO N , O C C U P A T IO N A L G R O U P , A N D A G E G R O U P , 1908 TO 1912.

Deaths.
N ot
com plicated
with alcoholic ad­
diction.

Occupational group, race, and age
group.

Single. Mar­
ried.
OPERATIVES.
Irish, and French Canadian:
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44 years................................
Total, 25 to 44 years................
A ll other races:
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44 years................................

T o­
tal.

Complicated with alcohplic addiction.
Mar­
Single. ried.

T o­
tal.

23
27

9
19

12
19

21
38

30

50

28

31

59

29
36

45
43

8
2

5
10

13
12

11
9

12
18

20
16
7

B oth classes.
Single. Mar­
ried.

T o­
tal.

24
37

44
65

48

61

109

24
9

34
46

58
55

20
28

Total, 25 to 44 years................
A ll races:
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44Jyears................................

23

65

88

10

15

25

33

80

113

27
16

41
54

68
70

17
21

17
29

34
50

44
37

58
83

102
120

Total, 25 to 44 years................

43

95

138

38

46

84

81

141

222

NONOPERATIVES.
A ll races:
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44 years................................

63
34

73
103

136
137

29
43

23
53

52
96

92
77

96
156

188
233

Total, 25 to 44 years................

97

176

273

72

76

148

169

252

421

A ll races:
25 to 34 years................................
35 to < 4 years................................
4

90
50

114
157

204
207

46
64

40
82

86
146

136
114

154
239

290
353

Total, 25 to 44 years................

140

271

411

110

122

232

250

393

643

3.93
6.34

10.23
23.33

7.09
7.72

8.24
10.84

15.52

7.34

BOTH CLASSES.

Death rate1 per 1,000 population.
OPERATIVES.
Irish, and French Canadian:
25 to 34 years.....................
35 to 44 years.....................
Total, 25 to 44 years—
Age-adjusted.......... .
Crude....................... .

6.49

3.62

4.39

6.84

8.67

4-41

8.87

S. 79

6.21

15.21

7.46

9.62

A ll other races:
25 to 34 years.....................
35 to 44 years.....................

5.25
7.26

3.25
5.49

3.76
5 . 72

2.62
2.07

.56
1.53

1.09
1.60

7.87
9.33

3.81
7.02

4.85
7.32

2.40

.95

Total, 25 to 44 years—
Age-adjusted----Crude...................

5.63
7. 76

3.54
3.76

4.31
4.50

4.60
15.57

3.55
3.96

9.03

3.72

4.90

9.29

m
6.06

4 . 16

6. 73 4.20

4.55

4.52

2.49

.97

1.30

1.28

8.46

8.22

5.11

6.17

5.85

6.80

1 The reader will note that the variation between age-adjusted and crude death rates is greatest in the
cases of the male single—especially nonoperative male single—and the operative female single. In each
instance the age-adjusted rate regularly is higher than the crude rate.




ALCOHOLIC ADDICTION.

153

D E A T H S A N D D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000, O F M A L E S A G E D 25 TO 44, F R O M C AU SES
C O M P L IC A T E D A N D N O T C O M P L IC A T E D W I T H A L C O H O L IC A D D IC T IO N , B Y CON­
J U G A L C O N D IT IO N , O C C U P A T IO N A L G R O U P , R A C E , A N D A G E G R O U P , 1908 TO 1912—
Concluded.
Death rate per 1,000 population—Concluded.

Complicated with al­
coholic addiction.

Mar­
Single. ried.

Occupational group, race, and age
group.

N ot
complicated
with alcoholic ad­
diction.

Mar­
Single. ried.

Total operatives:
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44 years................................

5.39
7.39
6.20

Total, 25 to 44 years—
A ge-adjusted.....................

3.33
4.76
3.90

To­
tal.

3.93
5.18

3.40
9.70

1.38
2.56

To­
tal.

1.96
3.70

B oth classes.

Mar­
Single. ried.

T o­
tal.

8.79
17.09

4. 71
7.32

5.89
8.88

6.00 4.02

Total nonoperatives:
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44 years................................
Total, 25 to 44 years—
Age-adjusted.....................

4.44

5; 94

1.86

2.66

12.14

5.76

7.10

4-48

S. 30

1.94

B. 72

11.30

5.96

7.00

5. 81
8.42

Crude..............................

3.38
4.35

4.20
4.94

2. 67
10.64

1.07
2.24

1.60
3.47

8.48
19.06

4.45
6.59

5.80
8.41

1.54

2.35

12. 75

5.31

6.85

2.46

11.35

5.57

7.00

1.73
3.54

8.57
18.37

4.55
6. 83

5.83
8.56

Crude..............................

6.86

3.77

4.50

5.89

6.51

3.89

4-54

4.84

1.68

T otal, both classes:
25 to 34 years................................
35 to 44 years................................

5.67
8.06

3.37
4.49

4.10
5.02

2.90
10.31

1.18
2.34

6.64

3.82

4.47

5.89

1.65

2. 46

12. 53

5.47

6.93

6.34

3.93

4.52

4.99

1.77

2.55

11.33

6.70

7.07

Total, 25 to 44 years—
Age-adjusted.....................

Crude..............................

RAPID INCREASE IN PREVALENCE WITH AGE.

One of the most striking facts shown in this table is the rapidity
with which the death rate from causes complicated with alcoholism,
as compared with the death rate from causes not so complicated, in­
creases in the age group 35 to 44. This appears more clearly in the
following summary:
P E R C E N T B Y W H IC H D E A T H H A Z A R D OF S P E C IF IE D C LASSES IN A G E G R O U P 35
TO 44 E X C E E D E D T H A T O F T H E C O R R E S P O N D IN G C LASSES IN A G E G R O U P 25 TO 34,
1908 TO 1912.
Death not com plicated
with alcoholic ad­
diction.

Death com plicated with
alcoholic addiction.

Both classes.

Occupational group.
Single.

Mar­
ried.

Total.

Single.

Mar­
ried.

Total.

Single.

Mar­
ried.

Total.

MALES.
Operatives................................
N onoperatives..........................

37
45

43
29

31
18

185
299

86
109

89
117

94
125

55
48

51
45

Both classes...................

42

33

22

256

98

105

114

50

47




154

CHAP. IV.---- CAUSES CONTRIBUTORY TO EARLY DEATH.

A certain degree of mortality increase from one age decade to the
next older is natural and to be expected. But the figures just given
show that this increase is enormously greater when alcoholic addiction
enters into the situation than when it does not. The highest per cent
of excess for the older age group, when causes complicated with al­
coholic addiction are excluded, is 45, while for causes complicated
with alcoholic addiction the lowest percentage of excess is nearly twice
this, 86, and the highest is 299.
A wholly reasonable induction from these figures is that for males
at ages normally of greatest industrial efficiency alcoholic addiction
is an antilongevity factor of most noteworthy importance.
TUBERCULOUS KINDRED.

The inquiry as to whether the decedents had had tuberculous
kindred, and if so, how many and of what degree, was undertaken
not only for its own sake, but more for its value in throwing
light upon the true cause of death independently of the cause given
upon the death certificate. The discovery of tuberculous kindred
might give to the investigator the first intimation that the decedent
whose life was being studied and whose death perhaps had been cer­
tified as due to some nontuberculous cause had in reality died from
tuberculosis. And the decedent’s exposure to infection, through
the constant and necessarily very intimate association with a member
of his own family who within the preceding five years had died of
tuberculosis, might prove the weightiest single item explanatory of
the death of the decedent himself.
An additional reason for undertaking the inquiry was the desire to
see whether the data thus gained would tend to confirm any one of
the three theories now advanced to explain the greater number of
tuberculous deaths in some families than in others. These theories
respectively explain this difference on the ground of exposure to
volume of infective bacilli, family strain (i. e., family inherent tubercu­
lous tendency), and recrudescence. This last theory is based upon the
assumption that tuberculosis is generally acquired in infancy or early
childhood and remains latent thereafter until in adult life some
profoundly debilitating circumstance starts it up again. The second
theory is self-explanatory, and so, on the whole, is the first. If a
single member of a family becomes tuberculous, the other members
are evidently exposed to a greater volume of infective bacilli, and
their exposure is more continuous than it is in the case of persons who
have no such invalid in their homes. Also, the closer their associa­
tion with the invalid relative the greater and more constant is their
exposure; thus a wife nursing her tuberculous husband is far more ex­
posed to infection than is some inmate of the house who is not brought
into close contact with the patient. Note was therefore taken of the




155

TUBERCULrQUS KtKTDEED.

closeness of the relationship in all cases in which a decedent had had
tuberculous relatives or intimates, and also of the number of years
intervening between the decedent’s death and the time at which he had
each tuberculous relative. Obviously if a decedent had had tubercu­
lous relatives within five years of his own death they were far more
likely to have had a causative relation to his death than if they had
died 10 or 15 years before he did.
The following table shows the number and per cent in each main
age group of tuberculous and nontuberculous decedents who had had
tuberculous relatives within specified periods of their deaths:
N U M BER AND P E R CENT OF TU BERCU LO U S £ N D N ON TU BERCU LO US DECED EN TS
O F S P E C IF IE D A G E G R O U PS W H O W IT H IN 5 Y E A R S B E F O R E D E A T H O R A T A N
E A R L I E R P E R IO D H A D T U B E R C U L O U S R E L A T IV E S OR IN T IM A T E S .

Decedents having tuberculous relatives or intimates—

Age group.

W ithin 5 years
preceding
death.
N um ­
ber.

Per
cent.

T otal having
had such asso­
ciates.

A t earlier
period.

N um ­
ber.

Per
cent.

N um ­
ber.

Per
cent.

Total
dece­
dents
of
speci­
fied
class.

Tuberculous decedents:1
15 to 44 years....................................................
45 to 64 years....................................................

317
69

44
36

67
29

9
15

384
98

54
51

716
194

T otal, 15 to 64 years....................................

386

42

96

11

482

53

913

Nontuberculous decedents:3
15 to 44 years....................................................
45 to 64 years....................................................

114
140

10
9

67
153

6
10

181
293

16
19

1,115
1,538

Total, 15 to 64 years....................................

254

10

220

8

474

18

2,653

1 Including 34 decedents aged 15 to 44, and 24 aged 45 to 64, very probably tuberculous but elsewhere
tabulated as nontuberculous, because the certifying physician did not remember the case, and therefore
could not say whether or not the certificate o f death was correct.
2 N ot including the 58 decedents mentioned in N ote 1.

This table shows that tuberculous relatives were found far more
commonly in connection with tuberculous than with nontuberculous
decedents. Considering only those who had had such relatives
within five years of their own deaths, proportionately four times as
many of the tuberculous as of the nontuberculous decedents in each
age group had had tuberculous intimates. The disparity is much
greater in this group than among those who had had tuberculous
relatives at some earlier period. That is, when we deal with tuber­
culous relationships so far in the past that there is little probability
of their having had a direct influence in bringing about the decedent’s
death, there is comparatively little difference in the proportion of
tuberculous and nontuberculous decedents who have had such con­
nections ; but when we deal with relationships which in point of time
are entirely capable of having had an influence upon the decedent's
own death at a given date, then the tuberculous decedents are found




156

CHAP. IV.---- CAUSES CONTRIBUTORY TO EARLY DEATH.

to have had this experience far more frequently than the nontuber­
culous. It also appears that decedents aged 15 to 44 had had
tuberculous relatives within five years of their own deaths far more
commonly than had decedents aged 45 to 64, and that this disparity
is much greater in the case of tuberculous than of nontuberculous
decedents.
Fuller details concerning tuberculous kindred of decedents aged
15 to 44 are given in Table 34 (see pp. 354-357).1 From this it
appears that the proportion of decedents who had had such relatives
within five years of death is very nearly the same for the two sexes.
For the total age group 15 to 44, female decedents, whether tuber­
culous or nontuberculous, show a slightly higher proportion having
had such kindred than do the corresponding classes of males, although
in the five-year age groups this is not always true.
Considering the decedents by five-year age groups, it rarely hap­
pens that the highest death rate from tuberculosis of any given class
occurs in the ag-e group in which this class has the largest percentage
of decedents having tuberculous kindred, or in which the highest
average number per decedent of such kindred is found. For in­
stance, among males the highest tuberculous death rate is found in
the age group 40 to 44, but the highest percentage— 55— of tubercu­
lous decedents having had tuberculous kindred appears in age group
20 to 24, while the average number per decedent of such kindred is
but 1.6 for decedents of age group 40 to 44, against 2.2 in age groups
20 to 24 and 25 to 29.
In fact, among decedent tuberculous operatives classified by age,
sex, and workroom, and among decedent tuberculous nonoperatives
classified by five-year age groups and sex, only three cases are found
of the coincidences referred to above. The first is found among all
females aged 30 to 34, whose tuberculous death rate— 2.47 per
1,000— and whose proportion having tuberculous kindred— 52 per
cent— are alike the highest found. The second instance occurs among
all spinning-room males, whose death rate of 2.91 per 1,000 is higher
than that of males of any other workroom or industrial classifica­
tion, and a much higher percentage— 57—of whose tuberculous
decedents had had tuberculous relatives within five years of their
own death. The third is a coincidence between highest tuberculous
death rate and highest average number of tuberculous kindred per
tuberculous decedent, and is found among males of the card room
aged 40 to 44.
Taking up the matter by race, a similar lack of correlation between
these factors appears. Considering only operatives 2 who had had
1 From this point onward, except where expressly stated otherwise, the discussion deals only with
decedents aged 15 to 44 who had tuberculous relatives or intimates within five years of their own deaths.
2 The discussion is lim ited to operatives because the racial data concerning them are known to be correct,
while for nonoperatives the correctness of these data is less certain.




157

TUBERCULOUS KINDRED.

tuberculous relatives within five years of their own death, the
following summary shows, for those aged 15 to 44, the relation
among the three factors, by race:
D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 P R O M T U B E R C U L O SIS , P E R C E N T OF T U B E R C U L O U S
D E C E D E N T S H A V IN G T U B E R C U L O U S R E L A T IV E S , A N D A V E R A G E N U M B E R OF
SUCH R E L A T IV E S P E R D E C E D E N T H A V IN G SUCH A M O N G M A LE S A N D F E M A L E S
A G E D 15 TO 44, B Y R A C E .

Sex and race.

Males:
Irish.................................................................................................
American........................................................................................
English...........................................................................................
French Canadian..........................................................................
Portuguese.....................................................................................
Other races.....................................................................................
Females:
Irish.................................................................................................
American........................................................................................
English...........................................................................................
French Canadian..........................................................................
Portuguese.....................................................................................
Other races.....................................................................................

Death rate
from
tuberculosis.

Per cent of Average num­
tuberculous ber of tuber­
decedents
culous rela­
having tu­
tives per
tuberculous
berculous
decedent.
relatives.

5.59
2.13
2.14
2.79
1.60
1.79

42
40
48
50
46
20

2.2
2.5

4.97
1.95
2.36
4.07
2.83
1.64

50
57
44
54
50
27

1.8

1.5
1.9
1.8
1.0

2.2
2.3
2.4
1.8
1.0

It will be seen that there is no correspondence whatever between
the highest death rate and the highest racial standing in either of
the other two particulars. Irish males, for instance, far exceed any
other race group in their death rate, but they stand second in the
number of tuberculous relatives per decedent, and three race groups
surpass them in the percentage having tuberculous relatives.
If, instead of considering each racial group as a whole, the death
rate in its various occupational divisions is compared with the corre­
sponding figures for percentage of decedents having tuberculous
relatives, and average number of tuberculous relatives per decedent,
not much greater correlation is found than in the above comparison.
Four instances of such correlation are found, one in the spinningroom, one in the weave-room, and two in the spooler-room group, but
as there are six racial groups, each divided according to sex, and four
work-room groups for each race, the fact that there are only four
such instances emphasizes the lack of accord.
On the whole, the rarity of these coincidences of highest tubercu­
lous death rate with the highest per cent of decedents who had had
tuberculous kindred within five years of their own death, and with
the highest average number of such kindred per decedent, rather
argues against the theory of tuberculous fatal infection having
generally occurred because of volume of fresh infective bacilli at
close range in the home.
The degree of relationship between the decedents and their tuber­
culous kindred is of importance, as determining the intimacy of their




158

CHAP. IV.— CAUSES CONTRIBUTORY TO EARLY DEATH.

association. The following table shows the distribution of the
tuberculous kindred by sex and relationship:
N U M B E R A N D R E L A T IO N S H IP O F T U B E R C U L O U S K IN D R E D
S P E C IF IE D A G E G R O U P S W H O H A D H A D SUCH K IN D R E D
P E R IO D S B E F O R E T H E IR O W N D E A T H S .

OF D ECED EN TS OF
W IT H IN S P E C IF IE D

Decedents aged 15
to 44 who had had
such kindred—

Decedents aged 45
to 64 who had had
such kindred—

Decedents aged 15
to 64 who had had
such kindred—

W ithin 5
years be­
fore
death.

W ithin 5
years be­
fore
death.

W ithin 5
years be­
fore
death.

Relationship to decedent.
A t any
time.

A t any
time.

A t any
time.

Tuberculous decedents.

H usbands...........................................................
Sons....................................................................
Other males.......................................................

48
108
23
17
79

80
159
26
17
111

9
8
35
14

g
23
9
45
16

48
117
31
52
93

89
182
35
62
127

Total, males...........................................

275

393

66

102

341

495

M oth ers.............................................................
Sisters.................................................................
W ives..................................................................
Daughters..........................................................
Other females....................................................

36
172
19
19
101

81
236
20
20
139

2
10
40
16

4
9
15
55
24

36
174
29
59
117

85
245
35
75
163

Total, females........................................

347

496

68

107

415

603

Grand total, both sexes.......................

622

889

134

209

756

1,098

Nontuberculous decedents.

Other males.......................................................

11
39
13
7
17

29
66
18
7
47

15
4
44
15

11
56
19
86
28

11
54
17
51
32

40
122
37
93
75

Total, m ales...........................................

87

167

78

200

165

367

Mothers...............................................................
Sisters.................................................................
Wives
.............................................................
Daughters..........................................................
Other females...................................................

6
35
5
6
26

18
61
6
7
43

1
10
6
56
22

24
63
14
105
60

7
45
11
62
48

42
124
20
112
103

Fathers...............................................................
Brothers.............................................................
Husbands. ........................................................

Total, females........................................

78

135

05

266

173

401

Grand total, both sexes.......................

165

302

173

466

338

768

Taking up first the most intimate relationship, it will be noticed
that the tuberculous kindred include 60 husbands and wives of
tuberculous and 28 of nontuberculous decedents, all tuberculous
within five years of the deaths of their respective spouses. These
often had themselves had a tuberculous family history, and the
death from tuberculosis of the first of the married pair to die may,
therefore, have had no causative relation with the disease of the
other. Disregarding the period at which the relationship existed,
the table shows that there were 72 tuberculous husbands who had
lost wives aged 15 to 64, and that in more than one-half (37, or 51
per cent) of these cases the wives had died from nontuberculous causes,




TUBERCULOUS KINDRED.

159

while in the remaining 35 they had died from tuberculosis. On the
other hand, there were 55 tuberculous wives who had lost husbands
aged 15 to 64, and in only about one-third (20, or 36 per cent) of
these cases had the husbands died from nontuberculous causes, the
remaining 35 having died from tuberculosis. That is, in this par­
ticular group, it was a commoner thing for tuberculous widows
dying within the five years covered to have had husbands who had
also died of tuberculosis than for tuberculous widowers dying within
the same period to have had wives who had died of the same disease.
The group under consideration includes 127 tuberculous husbands
and wives. Even if in every case the partners of these tuberculous
decedents had also died of tuberculosis, the number of cases would
still be far too few to justify any such far-reaching induction as that
volume of tubercle bacilli involved in close daily juxtaposition to a
tuberculous relative at home in itself probably accounts for the dece­
dent’s having died of tuberculosis. Still less can such an induction
be made when in nearly half the cases (45 per cent) the conjugal
partner had died from nontuberculous causes.
Taking up the degree of relationship, it will be noticed that in age
group 15 to 44 brothers and sisters, and in age group 45 to 64 sons
and daughters, comprise about one-half (respectively 45 and 48 per
cent) of the total number of relatives and intimates who were tuber­
culous not only within five years of the decedent’s death from
tuberculosis, but at any period preceding that death. Parents,
on the other hand, comprise but about one-sixth of the total tuber­
culous kindred of tuberculous decedents.
Generally speaking, females are more numerous than males among
the tuberculous kindred. Among the tuberculous kindred of tuber­
culous decedents, total females outnumber total males in every
classification shown in the above table, while among the tubercu­
lous kindred of nontuberculous decedents, they outnumber males in
four out of the six groups.
This predominance of female tuberculous kindred quite agrees
with the probabilities, because females with tuberculosis would
seem more likely than males to remain within the house, and thus
become disseminators of infection to child members of the family,
especially to little girls. Girls probably play indoors more than
boys do, and thus more frequently than boys may be infected by
mothers and aunts. Daughters of tuberculous decedents aged 45
to 64 years, rather more commonly than sons, are seen to have been
tuberculous before their parents died, though this female excess is
small, and may in part be attributable to the general preponderance
of females in the Fall River population generally.
Whatever be the explanation, the sisters of decedents aged 15 to
44 comprised more than three-fifths (61 per cent) of the 280 sisters




160

CHAP. IV.— CAUSES CONTRIBUTORY TO EARLY DEATH.

and brothers who had been tuberculous within five years of the death
of decedents from tuberculosis, and but slightly over one-half
(56 per cent) of those 115 brothers and sisters whose tuberculosis
was remote from the decedent’s tuberculous death by more than, five
years. Not improbably the first-mentioned kindred were about
the same ages as their tuberculous brother and sister decedents,
whereas the second class more probably were not. If this be true
the infection of the decedent and of the tuberculous brothers and
sisters from a common household source during infancy and early
childhood would seem to be rather strongly suggested, and the
“ volume of infective bacilli” theory of accounting for tuberculous
fatalities among adults would seem thereby to be correspondingly
discredited.
In the absence of more “ tuberculous kindred” data, especially
concerning tuberculosis in both husbands and wives, not much
more can be said in summary upon infectivity of tuberculous kindred
than that they are very much more commonly an accompanying cir­
cumstance of tuberculous than of nontuberculous deaths, and that
such kindred are more commonly females than males.
UNHYGIENIC CO N D ITIO N OF D EC ED EN T S’ D W ELLIN G S.

The subject of hygiene of dwellings is the only one considered in
this study that rests upon the judgment of the investigator. The
standard is arbitrary and indefinable, not being founded upon any
system of numerical aggregates or percentage ratings; but these data
as to hygiene do possess the advantage of being estimates made by
the same individual, and hence the point of view is always essentially
the same. The factor of hygiene of dwellings can not, of course, be
isolated absolutely, nor can we always be sure whether, bad hygiene
is the cause or the ultimate manifestation of other phenomena, as for
example of tuberculosis.
CONDITIONS AMONG FEMALE WAGE EARNERS.

Before taking up the subject of hygiene of dwellings among the
whole group of decedents, some attention may be given to the female
wage earners of whom a special study was made. The study included
all the female decedents aged 15 to 44 who had been wage earn­
ers, numbering 600. Of these, however, 70 had not lived at
home, and they are therefore omitted from the following table, which
deals only with those living in the dwellings whose hygienic condi­
tion is estimated. For the 530 who had lived at home the table
shows the relation between hygiene of dwelling and average length
of life, by age, cause of death, conjugal condition, and occupation,
while for the 435 who were operatives the relation is shown also by
racial division.




161

UNHYGIENIC CONDITION OF DECEDENTS ’ DWELLINGS.

R E L A T IO N B E T W E E N H Y G IE N IC C O N D IT IO N OF D W E L L IN G S A N D A V E R A G E
L E N G T H O F L IF E O F D E C E D E N T F E M A L E W A G E E A R N E R S , IN A G E G R O U P 15
TO 44, 1908 TO 1912.

Hygienic condition sat­
isfactory.
Age, conjugal condition, race, and cause of death.
N um ­
ber.

AGE GROUPS.
15 to 24 years:
Tuberculous.....................................................................
N ontuberculous...............................................................
25 to 34 years:
Tuberculous.....................................................................
N ontuberculous...............................................................
35 to 44 years:
Tuberculous.....................................................................
N ontuberculous...............................................................

Per
cent.

Hygienic condition un­
satisfactory.

Aver­
age
length Num ­
ber.
of life
(years).

Aver­
Per
cent.

age

length
of life
(years).

51
28

46
40

20.8
20.4

59
42

54
60

20.2
19.8

28
66

39
48

29.1
29.3

44
71

61
52

29.4
29.7

17
67

47
64

39.1
39.4

19
38

53
36

39.0
39.8

Total, 15 to 44 years:
Tuberculous.....................................................................
N ontuberculous.............................................................

96
161

44
52

26.5
31.9

122
151

56
48

26.5
29.5

A ll causes......................................................................

257

48

29.9

273

52

28.1

CONJUGAL CONDITION.
Single............................................ ...........................................
Married.................................................................... ...............

109
148

61
42

26.7
32.3

71
202

3d
58

22.3
30.1

OCCUPATION.
Operatives:
R aee:#
Irish, and French Canadian.................................
Others........................................................................
Certified cause of death:
Tuberculous.............................................................
Nontuberculous........................................................

122
79

51
41

30.7
28.0

119
115

49
59

30.5
25.7

81
120

42
49

26.8
31.6

111
123

58
51

26.8
30.5

Total, operatives.................................................
N onoperatives........................................................................

201
56

46
59

29.7
30.8

234
39

54
41

28.1
28.2

Grand total..................................................................

257

48

29.9

273

52

28.1

It appears from the table that one-half (52 per cent) of this group of
female wage earners had died in abodes judged hygienically unsatis­
factory, and that the proportion having died in such abodes is (1)
materially higher among operatives than among nonoperatives; (2)
much higher among the married than among the single; and (3) ex­
cept in age group 15 to 24, higher among the tuberculous than among
the nontuberculous. In other words, the classes which show the
higher death rates show also the higher proportions who lived in un­
hygienic dwellings. To this general rule there is one exception. It
will be remembered that the Irish and the French Canadian operatives
have a much higher death rate than the aggregate operatives of other
races, yet the latter group have amuch higher proportion of their deaths
from all causes associated with bad housing conditions than is the case
with the combined Irish and French Canadians. This exception is
probably due to the situation among the Portuguese and aOther races/'
These, it will be remembered, comprise together more than one-half—
53 per cent— of all the non-Irish, non-French Canadian female op8 8 2 0 4 0— 19— B u ll. 2 5 1 -------- 11




162

CHAP. IV.---- CAUSES CONTRIBUTORY TO EARLY DEATH.

eratives. They are for the most part recent immigrants, and are apt
to be crowded together in the cheapest and poorest buildings the com­
munity offers, and therefore obviously the majority of deaths occurring
among them would take place in unsatisfactory surroundings.
Another point of interest is the average length of life in relation to
housing conditions. In general, the decedents who had lived in
hygienic dwellings averaged an appreciably longer lease of life than
those whose housing hygiene was poor. This is not invariably the
case; age group 25 to 34 presents an exception, and so, among those
dying from nontuberculous causes, does age group 35 to 44,
while in the total group, ages 15 to 44, the two classes show exactly
the same length of life among those dying from tuberculosis. How­
ever, in the cases in which the decedents dying in unhygienic dwellings
had the longer lives their excess is very slight, only once reaching as
much as half a year, while in the other cases the decedents dying in
hygienic dwellings had lived from one-tenth of a year to 4.4 years
longer than the decedents of the same classes from unhygienic dwell­
ings. It is impossible, of course, to say what part of this difference
can be ascribed to hygiene of dwelling. But the general correlation,
first of highest death hazard with highest proportion of decedents
who had been unhygienic ally housed, and second of hygienic housing
with greatest average length of life, at least justifies the conclusion that
among female wage earners in age group 15 to 44 unhygienic housing
is a contributory cause of early death, and probably one of consider­
able importance.
CONDITIONS AMONG TOTAL DECEDENTS.
Turning to the subject of hygiene of dwellings among the total de­
cedents of the 5-year period, Tables 38 to 42 give the facts in much
detail. For the purposes of the present chapter the following sum­
mary may prove useful:1
P E R C E N T O F D E C E D E N T S A G E D 15 TO 64, O F E A C H S P E C IF IE D CLASS, W H O
L A S T L IV E D IN A B O D E S J U D G E D U N S A T IS F A C T O R Y H Y G IE N IC A L L Y , 1908 TO 1912.

Females.

Males.
Age and cause of death.

Both sexes.

Non­
NonB oth Oper­ op er­
B oth
B oth Oper­ NonOper­ oper­
operatives. atives. classes. atives. atives. classes. atives. atives. classes.

15 to 64 years:
Tuberculous............................
N ontuberculous...........................

62
44

A ll causes..................................
15 to 44 years.......................................
45 to 64 years.......................................

47
31

53
35

56
50

42
34

50
38

59
47

45
33

52
37

50

35

40

52

35

41

51

35

41

55
42

38
32

45
35

53
50

41
32

47
35

54
45

39
32

46
35

i The total number of decedents aged 15 to 64 was 3,563. Concerning the apartments of 65, or approxi­
m ately 2 per cent of these, no report is made.




UNHYGIENIC CONDITION OF DECEDENTS’ DWELLINGS.

163

P E R C E N T O F D E C E D E N T S A G E D 15 TO 64, O F E A C H S P E C IF IE D C L A S S , W H O
L A S T L IV E D IN A B O D E S J U D G E D U N S A T IS F A C T O R Y fH Y G IE N IC A L L Y , 1908 T O
1912—Concluded.
French
Canadian.

Other
races.

Portu­
guese.

A ll
races.

Age, sex, occupation, and cause of
death.

Ameri­
can.

15 to 44 years:
Males.............................................
Fem ales.........................................

20
20

27
24

36
39

42
44

92
83

65
75

40
41

Operatives....................................
Nonoperatives.............................

35
17

32
22

44
35

52
38

92
81

91
61

51
35

Tuberculous.................................
Nontuberculous..........................

29
17

29
25

53
33

49
40

89
86

90
63

52
37

A ll classes and all causes..................
15 to 44 years.......................................
45 to 64 years.......................................

20
24
16

26
24
27

37
40
35

43
46
39

87
90
81

70
83
42

41
46
35

English.

Irish.

D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 P O P U L A T IO N , IN A G E G R O U P 15 TO 64.

Age-adjusted rates.
Males.
Age and cause of death.

Females.

Both sexes.

NonBoth
Oper­ NonBoth
Oper­ NonB oth
Oper­ oper­
oper­
atives. oper­ classes. atives. atives. classes. atives. atives. classes.
atives.

15 to 64 years:
Tuberculous.................................
N ontuberculous..........................

2.51
4.70

1.70
4.82

2.00
4.79

3.24
6.79

1.39
4.43

2.10
5.02

2.93
5.49

1.52
4.63

2.05
4.91

A ll causes..................................

7.21

6.52

6. 79

10.03

5.82

7.12

8.42

6.15

6.96

15 to 44 years........................................ 5.57
45 to 64 years........................................ 17.90

4.82
17.58

5.13
17.56

7.67
25.38

4.21
16.32

5. 53
17. 45

6.60
20. 25

4. 51
16.85

5. 35
17.50

2.93
5.49

1.68
7. 42

2.12
6.74

Crude rates.
i
15 to 64 years:
Tuberculous.................................
N ontuberculous..........................

2.65
5.50

1.94
7.13

2.19
6.55

3.20
5.48

1.45
7.68

2.05
6.92

All causes..................................

8.15

9.07

8. 74

8.68

9.13

8.97

8.42

9.10

8.86

15 to 44 years........................................ 5. 81
45 to 64 years........................................ 18.53

5. 56
20.15

5.65
19.67

7.28
23.81

5.14
18. 87

6.00
19.52

6.60
20.25

5.34
19.41

5.84
19.59

In these tables, as in the table concerning female wage-earning de­
cedents (see p. 161), there is a general correlation between a high
death rate and a high proportion dying in unhygienic dwellings.
As between the sexes, there is little difference in either of these
respects. Comparing the decedents by their industrial classifica­
tion, operatives invariably exceed nonoperatives both in death rate
and in proportion of decedents unhygienically housed. Comparing
them by cause of death, the tuberculous invariably lead in the pro­
portion from dwellings of unsatisfactory hygiene. A comparison by
race shows the same exception noted on page 161: The Irish and
the French Canadians, though leading in death rates, are exceeded
by the Portuguese and “ Other races ” in the proportion from insani­
tary dwellings. As suggested before, this is probably due to the




164

CHAP. IV.— -CAUSES CONTRIBUTORY TO EARLY DEATH.

fact that these latter races, as the most recent immigrants, are crowded
into the poorest and cheapest tenements of the city, and that there­
fore their deaths of necessity occur for the most part in unsatisfactory
surroundings.
SPECIFIC UNDESIRABLE CONDITIONS.

The hygienic condition of a dwelling depends upon a number of
factors. The amount of direct sunlight it receives, its possibilities
in the way of ventilation, its water supply and toilet accommoda­
tions, its freedom from flies and vermin, its degree of overcrowding
or freedom from crowding— these are only some of the items which
determine its general sanitary condition. It is not possible to take
up all of these items separately, but the data concerning three
important factors— amount of direct sunlight, location of toilets, and
degree of crowding— have been abstracted from Tables 39 and 40, in
which they are treated in detail, and brought together in the follow­
ing summary table:
P E R C E N T OF D E C E D E N T S A G E D 15 TO 64,i OF E A C H S P E C IF IE D CLASS, W H O
HAD
D IE D
IN
D W E L L IN G S
C H A R A C T E R IZ E D
BY
S P E C IF IE D
FEATURE,
A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F P E R S O N S P E R R O O M A N D R OOM S P E R P E R S O N , A N D
A G E -A D JU S T E D D E A T H R A T E S , 1908 TO 1912.

Per cent whose living room had less than four hours of sunshine.
Females.

Males.

B oth sexes.

NonNonBoth
Oper­ oper­
Both
Oper­ oper­
Oper­ NonB oth
atives. atives. classes. atives. atives. classes. atives. oper­ classes.
atives.

Cause of death.

Tuberculous.........................................
N ontuberculous..................................

26
22

25
18

25
19

30
23

26
19

28
20

28
22

25
18

26
19

All causes..................................

24

20

21

26

20

22

24

19

21

Per cent having toilet located outside of apartment.
Tuberculous........................................
N ontuberculous..................................

48
37

37
29

42
31

35
47

32
30

34
34

41
42

35
29

38
33

All causes..................................

40

31

34

42

30

34

41

30

34

Average number of persons per room.
Tuberculous........................................
N ontuberculous..................................

1.29
1.08

1.06
.88

1.16
.94

1.15
1.03

0.99
.89

1.07
.93

1.21
1.06

1.03
.89

1.12
.93

A ll causes..................................

1.15

.92

.99

1.08

.91

.96

1.11

.91

.98

Average number of rooms per person.
Tuberculous........................................
Nontuberculous..................................

0.77
.92

0. 94
1.14

0. 86
1.06

0.87
.97

1.01
1.12

0. 93
1.08

0.82
.94

0. 97
1.12

0.89
1.08

All causes..................................

.87

1.09

1.01

.92

1.10

1.04

.90

1.10

1.02

Age-adjusted death rates, total population, ages 15 to 64.
Tuberculous.........................................
Nontuberculous..................................
All causes..................................

2.51
4. 70

1.70
4.82

7.21 | 6.52

3.24
6. 79

1.39
4.43

2.10
5.02

2.93
5.49

1.52
4.63

2.05
4.91

6. 79 j 10.03

5. 82

7.12

8. 42

6.15

6.96

2.00
4.79

i The study covers 3,563 decedents aged 15 to 64. The number of cases in which no report was obtained
concerning a specified item was as follows:
Less than four hours sunshine, 78, or approxim ately 2 per cent.
Toilet location, 75, or approxim ately 2 per cent.
Crowding, 126, or approximately 4 per cent.




UNHYGIENIC CONDITION OF DECEDENTS* DWELLINGS.

165

Taking up first the item of insufficient sunlight in living rooms, it
appears that without exception a larger proportion of the tuberculous
than of the nontuberculous decedents came from dwellings having
less than four hours of sunshine daily, and the same holds true of
operatives as compared with nonoperatives. Also, females as com­
pared with males show the larger proportion from such dwellings.
In other words, in each case the higher death hazard coincides with
the higher proportion from dwellings having insufficient sunlight.
When subclasses are compared the coincidence does not invariably
appear, but in the main classes it is sufficiently common to lend
weight to the opinion that scanty sunlight in living rooms conduces
in some degree to shortened life.
Toilet location outside of apartment.— The location of a toilet out­
side of a dwelling in a corridor, basement, or yard makes resort to it
less convenient and increases the difficulty of keeping it clean and
in sanitary condition. When, as is often the case with outside
toilets, its use is shared by several families, both of these objections
are strengthened, and others are added. In itself, therefore, the
outside location of a toilet is undesirable from a hygienic standpoint,
but in addition such a location is apt to indicate that the house is of
the older type and built with less regard to the requirements of
health than houses in which the dwellings are self-contained. As in
the case of the insufficiently sun-lighted apartments, operative
decedents invariably show a higher percentage coming from dwellings
with the toilet located outside than prevails among nonoperative
decedents, and in general tuberculous decedents lead the non­
tuberculous in this percentage. The following table shows the racial
differences in this respect:
P E R CEN T OF D E C E D E N T S W H O S E A P A R T M E N T S H A D O U T SID E T O IL E T S , B Y R A C E .

Classified group.

NonIrish.

Irish.

A m eri­
can.

Eng­
lish.

French PortuCana­
dian. . guese.

Other
races.

A ll
races.

M a les...-....................................
Females......................................

32
30

40
43

31
28

34
28

23
22

49
46

33
44

35
34

Operatives.................................
Nonoperatives...........................

38
27

53
37

32
29

38
26

28
20

54
41

50
34

41
30

Tuberculous..............................
N ontuberculous........................

33
30

50
39

34
28

35
30

26
22

43
49

45
36

38
33

A ll causes...................................

31

42

29

31

23

47

38

34

In every race the proportion of decedents from houses character­
ized by an outside location of the toilet is larger among operatives
than among nonoperatives, and except among the Portuguese is
larger among those dying from tuberculosis than among the non­
tuberculous. The races show considerable variation in this par­
ticular. The Portuguese, probably for the reasons given earlier,




166

C H A P . IY .-----CAUSES CO N TR IB U TO R Y TO E ARLY D E A T H .

show the highest percentages from houses with the toilet located out­
side. A more suggestive fact, however, is the very high percentage
(42) of all Irish decedents from dwellings of this kind. As noted in
the earlier study,1 these percentages of the Irish are much higher
than those of any other race, except races of very recent immigration
like the Portuguese.
How much more common residence in this old type of dwelling in
the years 1905 to 1907 was among the 548 female Irish decedents
(8 per cent unreported) than among the 1,022 female decedents of
Fall River of aggregate non-Irish races (9 per cent unreported), the
following shows:
P E R CEN T OF S P E C IF IE D F E M A L E D E C E D E N T S 10 Y E A R S A N D O V E R (1905 T O 1907)
H A V IN G B A S E M E N T L O C A T IO N OF T O IL E T .

Race.
Non-Irish.............
Irish......................

j
.....................1
.....................!
i

Operatives.
14
48

Nonoperatives.
20
31

Both classes.
19
34

Overcrowding.—Overcrowding is rather an indefinite term. For
census purposes the English definition counts a tenement as over­
crowded when it contains more than two adults to a room, two chil­
dren under 12 being considered equal to one adult. In this country
it is more common to consider that anything over one and one-half
persons per room constitutes overcrowding. The laws, however,
generally do not attempt to fix the number of persons who may be
housed in a given number of rooms, but content themselves with
prescribing a specified amount of cubic air space per occupant. It
has not been practicable in this study to go into the subject of
crowding in such detail as this, but the table on page 164 shows the
average number of persons per room and the average number of rooms
per occupant for decedents of the specified classes. It will be noticed
that operative decedents of each sex and from each cause of death show
a higher degree of crowding in their last dwellings than do the non­
operatives; also, tuberculous decedents invariably show a larger
number of persons per room than do the nontuberculous. As between
the sexes, however, the coincidence between higher death hazard
and greater degree of crowding does not hold, each sex seeming to
1 R ep orton Condition of W om an and Child W ageE am ers in th e U nited States, V ol. X I V (S. D o c .N o .645,
61st Cong., 2d sess.), p. 156, as follows:
“ The operative Irish of our decedentperiod, though scattered throughout th e city,largely still evinced
an apparent reluctance to quit the im m ediate neighborhood of the mills in the central section, where a not
very uncom m on typ e o f dwelling was a wooden, tw o-story, four-apartment building, often in ill repair,
its three low-studded rooms—one large three-window living room and tw o bedroom s (a one-window and
a tw o-w indow )—usually housing a fam ily of from three to five. In such apartments culinary and other
household conveniences, notably gas stoves, were not unusually conspicuous b y their absence. Moreover,
the com m on toilet, sometimes befouled or even unflushable, was usually located in the basement, or, in
the larger dwellings, occasionally was of! the hall in a closet frequently unUghted, or d im ly lighted only
through an aperture in the closet door. * * * ”




167

U N H Y G IE N IC CO N D ITIO N OF D E C E D E N T S' D W E L L IN G S.

be a rule to itself. Table 39 shows that in the number of persons
per room the Portuguese led, followed in order by the “ Other races/’
the French Canadian, the Irish, the English, and the Americans.
In other words, the degree of crowding is proportional to the recency
of ingress to the country.
Average per capita rent.—Rent can not in itself be called a hygienic
condition, yet it is to some degree an index of the hygienic condition
of the dwellings for which it is paid. In the case of 660, or 19 per cent
of the total 3,563 decedents aged 15 to 64, the dwelling was owned
by a member of the decedent’s immediate family. In 137 additional
cases (4 per cent) the rent of the dwelling was not reported. For the
remaining 2,766 decedents the figures in the following table show the
average per capita rent paid.
A V E R A G E A N N U A L R E N T P A ID P E R C A P IT A .

Males.
Cause of death.

Tuberculous.........................................
N ontuberculous..................................
A ll causes.............................................

Females.

B oth sexes.

Oper­ NonOper­ NonBoth
Both Oper­ N onBoth
atives. oper­ classes. atives. oper­ classes. atives. oper- classes.
atives.
atives.
atives.
$18
21
20 !
!

$22
27

$20
25

$20
22

$24
26

$22
25

$19
22

$23
27

$21
25

26

23

21

26

24

21

26

24

Without exception, operative decedents had paid a lower rent
than nonoperative, and tuberculous decedents than nontuberculous.
This agreement with the showing of the preceding tables in respect
to various items going to make up an unsatisfactory condition in re­
spect to hygiene seems to indicate that in this case the rent paid is
rather a reliable index to the general condition of the building for
which it is paid. Also, since ordinarily people insist upon living
under as favorable conditions as they can afford, rent is, roughly, an
index of their economic condition. A study of Table 41 shows
that the rent paid is closely associated with the degree of crowding,
the Portuguese averaging the lowest per capita rent—$16—of all
the races, the “ Other races” coming next, then the French Canadi­
ans, Irish, English, and Americans. In general the races paid rent
that was low directly in proportion to the recency of their immigra­
tion.
The average rent of $2 per month per member of the decedent’s
family is identical with the findings of the previous study concern­
ing all female decedents aged 10 years and over.1
i Report on Condition of W om an and Child Wage Earners in the United States, Vol. X I V (S. Doc. No,
645, 61st Cong., 2d sess.), p. 159.




168

C H A P . IV .— CAUSES C O N TR IBU TO RY TO EARLY D E A TH .

SUMMARY OF UNHYGIENIC CONDITIONS.

Very generally, except for the races of most recent entry into the
country, the race and occupation classes which are shown to have
been most liable to die from tuberculosis and from all nontuberculous causes are the very classes of which high percentages of the de­
cedents lived in dwellings hygienically unsatisfactory.
Furthermore, the dwelling factors of (1) scanty sunlight in living
room, (2) location of toilet outside of apartment, (3) overcrowding,
and (4) low rent, in the main are accordant with this high percentage
of homes adjudged unsuitable, and with a demonstrably high hazard
of dying at a presenile age and especially from tuberculosis.
These coincidences in varying degrees suggest contributory par­
ticipation in cutting off lives prematurely.
LO W IN C O M E .

It is probably safe to assume a very considerable degree of accu­
racy in informant relatives’ memory of so important an economic
item as the number of family members who were working at the time
their decedent family wage earner relinquished work before death
occurred; and at least a fair degree of accuracy concerning the usual
amount each such family wage earner was receiving weekly; because
all deaths of the years 1911 and 1912 were investigated almost im­
mediately upon the close of each of those years, and data respecting
the deaths of age group 15 to 44 for the three other years were gath­
ered on the average within two years from their occurrence.
Rather convincing confirmatory indication of the tolerably close
approximation of the income data cited to the actual income facts
exists in the constancy of accord of the cited income figures with cor­
related data that are known to be obtainable with essential ac­
curacy.
Thus very little difficulty was experienced in learning the actual
rent of any apartment from the informant relative, or in confirming
that information from other sources. It proved to be an item
knowledge of which pervaded very generally the whole section in
which decedent’s apartment was located, and there was encountered
practically no hesitation in any informant’s imparting data as to rent.
The presumption is common that rent is an important index of a
family’s economic status. Furthermore, in manufacturing cities cer­
tainly, a rule generally applicable is, that the lower the rent the more
liable is the hygienic condition of the apartment to be unsatisfactory.
When, therefore, the gathered data respecting rent discloses that,
among female decedents of each and every classification comparable
in age, those who had lived in apartments unsatisfactory as to hygiene
paid a rent without exception from one-sixth (16 per cent) to one-




L O W IN C O M E .

169

third (35 per cent) less than the rent paid by 4ecedents whose hous­
ing was hygienic, then the essential correctness of the investigator’s
classification of apartments as to alleged hygienic or unhygienic con­
dition is thereby rather strongly evidenced or confirmed, and recip­
rocally the income data also are to a certain degree thereby verified.
Of course in summarizing from the tabulated *data respecting low
income what evidence exists suggestive that this item conduces to
early death, it must be plainly understood that any precise weigh­
ing or measuring of the income factor in the absence of correlative
income data about the population is at present impossible. And
yet indirectly, through multiple coincidences among the circum­
stances known to have characterized a life or class of lives known to
have been shortened, a chain of accordances may be disclosed so
strong as most plausibly to be explained through the suggestion that
their relationship is one of cause in effecting early death. The
oftener and more striking a specified factor (as for example low in­
come) appears among these accompanying circumstances of early
death, the greater is its probable weight or malignity in producing
the fatal result.
Here the reader may be perhaps advantageously reminded that
the factors which end life at a specified age must be in aggregate po­
tency or malignity always the same, since however few or however
many those factors may have been they together produced the same
fundamental result or catastrophe, the measure of which in any par­
ticular instance always is the youthfulness of the adult decedent vic­
tim. If one factor is very prominent (as in death from casualty)
the others will be few and proportionately less prominent.
B y age.—The younger age group decedents from all causes average
considerably the smaller total family income, and much the smaller
per capita income-decedent males and females having had a weekly
family income respectively of $21 and $20 in age group 15 to 44
years, and $29 and $25 in the total age group 15 to 64 years. The
age group 15 to 44 averaged less in per capita income than the total
age group— the males by one-third (36 per cent), the females by
one-quarter (24 per cent).
By certified death cause.—As a circumstance possibly explanatory
of fatal tuberculosis, the income, both total and per family member,
of 280 families of tuberculous decedents which had each two or more
persons, regularly (except for the unimportant class of female oper­
atives aged 45 to 64 and the female English) was less than the in­
come of each of 30 corresponding age group, sex, industry, and race
classes of the 861 persons who died during the years 1911 and 1912
from nontuberculous causes, except that for two classes of female
decedents there was equality of average total income of the tuber­




170

C H A P . IV .— CAUSES C O N TR IBU TO RY TO E ARLY D E A TH .

culous and nontuberculous, and even in these two classes the income
per family member of the tuberculous fell below (by one-sixth) that
of the nontuberculous.
Furthermore, the lower income of tuberculous decedents is not
only general when thus averaged as to the whole family and as to
each family member, but also a far larger percentage of all the
tuberculous than of all the nontuberculous decedents had had an
income per family member lower than $3 per week. This bulking of
tuberculous decedents among decedents whose family member in­
come was less than $3 per week characterizes each specified age,
race, and industry classification. It averages 29 per cent, as com­
pared with the 14 per cent which obtains among the nontuberculous.
Of 17 classifications, including totals, in age group 15 to 64, only
one tuberculous group (comprising the second fewest decedents)
has a smaller concentration in the low (or $3) income class than 20
per cent, and but four a smaller than 28 per cent. On the other
hand, the bulking of nontuberculous decedents is at the opposite
or high-income end of the scale— there being but four classes that
had a greater concentration than 20 per cent of their total within
the section characterized by a per capita family income of less than
$3 per week, seven classes having had not exceeding 10 per cent of
their total decedents possessed of a per capita income so low as $3.
In age group 15 to 44 the proportion (31 per cent) of tuberculous
decedents thus characterized with having had less than $3 weekly
income per member of their famity is one-half higher than the pro­
portion (20 per cent) of nontuberculous decedents that had an
income as low. Furthermore, as respects age group 45 to 64, the
proportion the low-income tuberculous form of the total tuberculous
at that age (24 per cent) is one and two-thirds greater than the per­
centage of nontuberculous decedents having the low income of $3
per week per capita (9 per cent).
The far greater bulking of tuberculous decedents at the lower end
of the income scale in the 15 to 44 age group than in the age group
45 to 64 would seem to indicate that low income is an antilongevity
factor, and especially so in connection with tuberculosis.
By sex.—Females of most classifications averaged a smaller income
than males both as respects total and per capita. But in age group
15 to 44 operative females averaged more than operative males.
Respecting this exception to the rule it is to be borne in mind not
only that a fair size per capita or total family income may represent
through diversions and abstractions (possibly by family member
alcoholic addicts) only a small net income available for necessities,
but that even that sum may include the wages of a female of the
family whose drafting into wage earning helped complete the vicious
circle—the less the home comforts, the greater the alcoholic addic­




L O W IN C O M E .

171

tion, and the more the alcoholic addiction the less the physical and
financial ability available to provide the home comforts of com­
panionship, shelter, good food, and adequate rest.
Generally, then, among Fall River decedents of 1911 and 1912, in
the age group 15 to 64, females had a lower income than males, both as
respects each family member and as to income total, though this
rule does not apply to age group 15 to 44, where females exceed
males as to this item. Here, however, the larger family gross
receipts may not indicate a net better economic status for the family
members, since it frequently involves absence from home of the
mother home maker.
B y race.—The statistical evidence respecting income receipts as
explanatory of race differences in death hazard is inconclusive owing
doubtless largely to race idiosyncrasies and varying race standards
in income expenditure, as well as to variations in gross income
incidental to recency of entry into the country. Priority of immigra­
tion here seems largely to determine priority in income receipts among
decedents, but seems not correlatable, either in the same order or
regularly in the inverse order, with liability to die before middle
life has been attained. Aptitude in income production characterizes
Fall River race groups apparently therefore progressively according
to length of residence in America, whereas, evidently much of what
each race has evolved and learned respecting such an expenditure
of a specified income as will surest enable the race group to escape
early death, had been experienced prior to advent here.
There is found, then, no constant correlation among the several
nationalities and peoples between low income and high mortality,
the generally higher incomes of the races longest resident in the
country being not improbably largely absorbed by the more expensive
standards of living they respectively maintain. For example, as
regards headdress of women, the latest immigrant races may be
satisfied with perennial shawls, whereas among the older immigrant
races the annual cost of millinery may represent two or three weeks’
wages.
By conjugal condition.—The wage-earning married decedents, who
in each subgroup of age group 15 to 44 are demonstrably much more
liable to die than are the corresponding single, are also characterized:
(1) By somewhat the lower family income, despite the inclusion
therein of the decedent’s own wages; (2) by considerably the greater
average time devoted to household work outside the wage-earning
day; and finally (3) by very much the greater proportion of decedents
housed unhygienically.
By industry.—Comparing all cotton operative decedent females
aged 15 to 44 with all other females as to income, that of the former
class was yet the lower despite the inclusion of their own wages, both




172

C H A P . IV .---- CAUSES C O N TR IBU TO RY TO E A RLY D E A TH .

as respects total family income and as respects income per family
member. This suggests that (1) economic pressure forced the
operative decedent into wage earning; and that (2) loss of dece­
dent’s wages was a material handicap against restoration to health,
averaging greater in the case of the operative than in the case of
the nonoperative decedent, because the nonoperative’s loss of health
did not so invariably involve loss of one of the family wage earners.
Likewise, comparing cotton operative females with all other
wage-earning nonoperative females similarly within age group 15 to
44, operatives of every group had the smaller income, except in
group 15 to 24 where the income of each decedent class was prac­
tically identical per capita, and except for those lately having lived
in unhygienic apartments, who similarly had the same per capita
family income, whereas operative female decedents aged 15 to 44
whose late apartments were hygienic had an income per week onefourth less than that of the nonoperative female wage earners whose
apartments likewise were hygienic.
By unsatisfactory apartment hygiene.—The more than one-half (52
per cent) of the female wage-earning decedents of age group 15 to
44 who were characterized by having last lived in apartments
unsatisfactory as to hygiene, were characterized also as compared
with the decedents that had been housed hygienically, by their
having had about (1) one-quarter the less income; (2) one-fourth the
less rent outlay for apartment; (3) one-fifth the greatest prolificacy,
and double the average number of infants dying under the age of
one year; (4) by one-fifth the greater proportion dying from tuber­
culosis; and finally (5) by about one-fifth the greater bulking of
decedents within age group 15 to 24.
YEARS OF C O T T O N -M IL L E M P L O Y M E N T .

In the age group (15 to 19 years) which is nearest the wage-earning
beginner period, the death rate of operative females (2.68 per 1,000
population) is 33 per cent higher than that of the nonoperative
females (2.02). But female operatives within the age group 15 to 44
whose mill employment was even so short as two and three years
had an increased death hazard of 42 per cent over that of female
operatives employed less than two years; while those whose mill
employment lasted 4 and 5 years, and those of 6 to 10 years of
mill work, were respectively twice and two and one-half times
as liable to die as were operatives of the beginner class (i. e., females
of less than two years in cotton mills).
Furthermore, within age group 25 to 34, wherein is located onequarter of all female operatives, the women who had worked in
cotton mills from 6 to 10 years were only one-half as liable to die
as were those who had worked from 11 to 15 years, despite the fact




YEARS OF C O T T O N -M IL L E M P L O Y M E N T .

173

that the decedents of the former class (i. e., those of from 6 to 10
years’ work in cotton mills) were slightly older—the average age of
the two classes being respectively 27.8 and 27.7 years.
The rule that among similarly aged cotton operatives the class
which has worked longer in cotton mills is the one the more liable
to die holds true without any important exception respecting males
of all races and all activities of each sex.
On the whole, an entirely warrantable induction from the. data
would seem to be that among cotton-mill operatives of similar age
the factor of mill work as a contributory cause of death is active
commonly according to length of the period of employment in the
mill.
W O R K AD D ITIO N AL TO W A G E -E A R N IN G D AY.

The old adage that “ man works from rise to set of sun but woman’s
work is never done” is happily losing point in its present application
to man’s work, but it still largely applies to the actual working
hours of woman, because the woman wage earner, almost without
exception, especially in manufacturing cities, performs household
duties that lengthen materially her working day.
Obviously, upon such a topic precise and accurate information
practically is not obtainable. Under these circumstances no sub­
division of an hour was recorded, but such daily extra work averaged
2.8 hours for the 814 female wage-earning decedents reported as to
this item; 118 were not reported, including 26 domestics.
The data, which are based only upon female decedent wage earners
aged 15 to 64 years, disclose that the percentage of operatives, both
tuberculous and nontuberculous who had worked three hours or more
in excess of the wage-earning day, exceeded that of nonoperatives both
in age group 45 to 64 and in age group 15 to 44. In age group 15
to 44, data respecting this item of extra labor show as regards 530
nonboarding female wage-earning decedents that the married exceeded
by almost one-half (48 per cent) the single, and that the operative
exceeded by one-eighth (12 per cent) the nonoperative, in average
number of hours each worked daily outside the regular wage-earning
day.
This factor of extra hours of work of the married operatives as
compared with the single operatives may account in great measure
for the fact that even with the parturition factor eliminated from the
married total death hazard, the death rate of the married operatives
is still about double that of the single in age groups 15 to 24 and 25
to 34 years, while in group 35 to 44 the married are about one-half
the more liable to die. Since with the parturition factor eliminated *
the operative married differ from the operative single of the same
age conspicuously as respects this one item of extra hours of house-




174

C H A P . IV .-----CAUSES C O N TR IBU TO RY TO EARLY D E A TH .

hold work, a not unreasonable induction is that some part of the
great excess in liability of their dying before the age of 45 is due to
this single circumstance of more extra work at home. And since
this is a factor in causing early death among the married, it may
not illogically be presumed to be an antilongevity factor for all
wage-earning women.
PROLIFICACY.

The points brought out most strikingly by the specific death rates
computed upon 4,590 married female cotton operatives aged 15 to
44 years, of whom but 6 per cent (262) were unreported as to pro­
lificacy and 18 per cent had never borne a child at the time of the
schedule taking, are—
First. Cotton operative mothers under 45 who had lost each a
specified number of children less than seven were practically without
exception themselves far more liable to die both from tuberculosis
and from all nontuberculous causes than were those operative
mothers who had each the same corresponding number of children
living (their hazard is much greater than could be accounted for on
the score of their probably somewhat older age); and that—
Second. Cotton operative mothers aged under 45 years who had
borne one child Qnly were quite as liable themselves to die, despite
their obviously younger average age, as were operative mothers aged
15 to 44 years who had each borne two, three, five, or six children.
AVERAGE NUMBER OF OFFSPRING AND PERCENTAGE OF THEM DEAD.

The 2,210 decedent parents aged 15 to 64 had had a total of 11,829
offspring, or an average of 5.4 children apiece, of whom 4,519, or
38 per cent, had died before the death of their parents.
It is especially noteworthy that decedent mothers and operative
parents, but especially operative mothers, were much more liable to
have lost a very large percentage of their total offspring, than were
decedent fathers and nonoperative parents.
The loss by operative mothers of one-half (age-group 15 to 44,
48 per cent; 45 to 64, 50 per cent) of their children suggests as a not
unreasonable induction that Fall River decedent operative mothers
were in the cotton mill largely through economic stress (high infant
mortality being commonly an accompanying circumstance of low
economic condition of the family). It also confirms as respects 1908
to 1912 what had been earlier1 deduced, viz, “ However few the chilniren, therefore, motherhood conjoined to cotton-mill work in Fall
River constituted a combination of duties that was prejudicial to
child life; and conversely, for Fall River female decedent operatives
of 1905 to 1907 any extra work outside this mill including the care of
i Causes of Death A m ong W om en and Children Cotton Operatives, V ol. X I V , 1912 (S. D oc. N o. 645,
61st Cong., 2d sess.), p. 153.




PR O L IFIC A C Y .

175

the children, however few, constituted a seemingly debilitating
influence that in the average case, even in the absence of tuberculous
infection, was inimical to maternal longevity. ”
SHORT INTERVALS BETWEEN PREGNANCIES.

The most significant fact developing from the data upon this topic
is the rarity of a brief interval between pregnancies of decedents
aged 45 to 64— only 5 per cent of them having been characterized by
an average interval shorter than 16 months, whereas 27 per cent of
the mothers dying aged 15 to 44 years were thus characterized. An
interval between pregnancies averaging less than 16 months was
also a very common characteristic both of operative and of tubercu­
lous decedent mothers. A plausible induction from this data is
that intervals between pregnancies which for each decedent mother
average less than 16 months constitute an antilongevity factor for
the mother, especially if the latter be tuberculous or a cotton opera­
tive. And furthermore that since the lives of the mothers were
thus shortened incident to childbearing at brief intervals, the
mothers thus characterized (1) bore fewer children and (2) had a
larger per cent of their children dead before the latter were one year
old than obtained respecting decedent mothers whose average
interval between births exceeded 15 months.
Respecting prolificacy of Fall River female decedents the following
inductions seem abundantly warranted:
I. The death of mothers early (1) decreases obviously the number
of children that can be born; and (2) lessens the proportion of children
that will survive the mother.
II. Either (1) cotton-mill work by mothers conduces to a high
percentage of children dead; or (2) the very high percentage of
children dead among operative mothers themselves dead suggests
probable economic stress in the family that may account (a) both
for the children’s death, (6) and either the mother’s mill employment
before death or (c) very improbably the mother’s death independent
of her mill employment.
III. Employment in the cotton mill for mothers of child-bearing
age, however few are the total children born but especially however
few are the children who have died, is generally inimical to the
longevity of such operative mothers.
IV. Operative mothers of children dead are themselves far more
liable to die than are mothers having each the corresponding number
of children living. Respecting operative mothers who have borne
but one or two children, the mothers with children dead are more
than twice as liable themselves to die as the mothers whose children
are alive. But—
Y. Operative mothers possessing the intelligence, vigor, or past
tolerable freedom from economic stress suggested by possession of




176

CHAP* I V — CAUSES C O N TR IBU TO RY TO EARLY D EATH .

all the children living from the total one or two childbirths each
already had managed themselves to survive, are practically no more
liable to die before 45 years of age than are all married operatives who
have never borne a child, though probably the childless on the average
are the younger class. Hence—
VI. (1) Operative employment and (2) the economic stress com­
monly responsible for the presence of mothers in cotton mills, plus
(3) the additional household work outside the mill almost always
necessarily to be done by the married operative whether she has
children or not, are circumstances seemingly more effective in
causing the married woman’s fatal breakdown than is childbearing
in strict moderation, especially if success both for mother and for
child shall have attended the first birth.
POOR HEREDITY.

Though husbands or wives or grown children were usually entirely
satisfactory informants respecting most circumstances in the per­
sonal history respectively of decedent wives, or husbands, or parents,
they often had no knowledge as to the age of both parents of their
decedent relatives, and the percentage of unreported respecting this
item of heredity or age of parents is therefore the largest encountered
regarding any subject.
On the whole the data disclose pretty regularly that the class of
decedents who died averaging the younger age corresponds with the
class characterized with having had the higher percentage either (1)
of both parents dead aged under 50 years, or (2) of one parent either
living or, if dead, aged over 49 years, and the other parent dead
aged less than 50 years; i. e., corresponds with the class possessing
the higher percentage of parents constituting heredity that averaged
either obviously poor or only possibly good.
A wholly reasonable induction from the data reported is that
short-lived parents conduce, somewhat, to short-lived offspring.




PR O L IFIC A C Y .

177

CHAPTER V —GENERAL.
A M O U N T OF INSURANCE AND COST OF FUNERAL.

Of the 3,563 decedents in age group 15 to 64 all but 349 (10 per
cent) were reported as to insurance and all but 350 (10 per cent) as
to funeral cost. All but 26 per cent of all decedents were insured,
the average amount of such insurance being $441 (males $611,
females $293). The average funeral cost was $135 for males and
$134 for females.
Of all the race groups, the Irish had the most expensive funerals
($159), carried next to the lowest insurance ($400), and had the
highest proportion (85 per cent) of their decedents insured. The
race aggregate styled “ Other races” were the exact opposite to the
Irish in their characteristics respectively upon each of these items.
Less than one-halt the Portuguese decedents carried insurance, and
those insured averaged but $256 each; whereas the Americans carried
most insurance, averaging $723 each, and 60 per cent having been
insured; their funeral cost, averaging $146, was exceeded only by
the English ($148) and the Irish ($159). French Canadians aver­
aged a funeral cost of $108 and carried each $420 of insurance on the
average. Eighty-three per cent of all English decedents carried
insurance—many of them however at an astonishingly low rate in a
local burial society— the Philanthropic. The State insurance, then
only lately (1907) inaugurated, had seemingly in 1908 to 1912 been
only slightly availed of despite its comparatively low cost.
About two-fifths (39 per cent) of the total insurance of operatives
goes to pay funeral expenses. The Irish of all classes spend for
funerals the largest percentage (40) of the insurance received of
any race group, and the so-called “ Other races” expend the smallest
part (15 per cent). It would seem that the insurance policy lure
prompts to funeral extravagance, and that the pitiless extortions
consequently exacted from the poor by a certain class of undertakers
aggravates needlessly the anguish of the bereaved, and calls for
indignant protest from the public upon whom, in some instances,
the victims immediately thereafter become a charge.
PO PU LATIO N , D E A T H S, AND D EATH RATES.

The following table shows in detail the population, deaths, and
death rates per 1,000 from tuberculous, nontuberculous, and all
causes in specified age groups, by conjugal condition, sex, nativity,
and occupational groups. The same data are given for operatives
by nativity, race, and workroom group.
88204°— 19— Bull. 251------ 12




178

POPULATION, DEATHS,, AND DEATH RATES.

P O P U L A T IO N , D E A T H S , A N D D E A T H
RATES
P E R 1,000 F R O M
TUBERCULOU S,
JU G A L C O N D IT IO N , S E X , N A T I V IT Y , A N D O C C U P A T IO N A L G R O U P , A N D

AGE &ROTJP 15 TO ?A\ POPULATION AND DEATHS.
P o p u la tio n .

Single.

N a t iv it y , race, o ccu p a tio n a l g r o u p , a n d
w o rk ro o m group.

M ales.

M arried.

F e­
F e­
M ales.
m ales.
m ales.

10,213 10,345 . 1,52

A l l p e r so n s _______ . ________ _______ _
N a tiv e b o r n ................................................. ..

B o th classes.

3,070

M ales.

:

11,740 :

562 1 , 1 1 2
505 : 6,6807,067
3,708 3,665n ....................................................
965 1,958
4,673
F oreign b o r

N on op erativ es:
N a tive b o m ........................................... .......... 4 ,149
F oreign b o r n .............x.................................... 1,546

Fem ales.

B oth
sexes.

13,415

25,155

7,792
5,623

14,859
10,296

3,031
941

408513

751
1,133

4,557
2,059

3,782
2,074

8,339
4,133

5,695

3,972

921

1,884

6,616

5,856

12,472

O peratives:
N ative b o r n . .................... ............. ..
2,356
Foreign b o r n ................................................... , 2,162

3,649
2,724

154
452

361
825

2,510
2,614

4,010
3,549

6,520
6,163

T ota l, o p e r a tiv e s ....................................... ' 4,518

12,683

Total', n o n o p e ra tiv e s...............................

I r is h ............................................................ ..
N on-Irish—
A m ericans an d u n s p e c ifie d ...............
E n g lis h ......................................................
P ortu g u ese...............................................
F ren ch Canadians—
N ative b o m .....................................
F oreig n b o m ...................................

6,373

606

1*186

5,124

7,559

216

459

14

35

230

494

724

1,092
731
1,302

1,486
1,158
1,452

162
60
268

272
151
512

1,254
791
1,570

1,758
1,289
1,964

3,012
2,080
3,534

820
357

1,207
d ll

51
51

124
112

1,331
723

2 ,2 0 2
1,131

236

T o ta l F r e n c h C an adian s......... . 1,177

1,8-18

102

T ota l n o n -I r is h ........................

, 4,. 302

5,914

592 ; 1 , m

600
559

866
576

36
60

I r is h , an d F ren ch Canadians—
Card - room an d spin n in g - room
w o rk e rs.................................................
W ea v e-room w o rk e rs ..........................
Spooler-room a n d m iscellaneous
w ork ers ..............................................

146
56

871
408 ;
1,279

2,054

3,333

4,894 ;

7,065

11,959

636
619

1 ,0 1 2
632

1,648
1,251

234

835

20

69

254

904

1,158

T ota l,Irish ,a n d F ren ch Canadians 1,393

2,277

116

271

1,509

2,548

4,057

O th er races—
C a r d -r o o m an d sp in n in g - r o o m
w o rk e rs.................................................. 1,572
W ea ve-room w orkers............................ 1,198
S pooler-room a n d m iscellaneous
w ork ers...................... ..................... ..
355

1,785
1,273

273
191

506
241

1,845
1,389

2,291
1,514

4,136
2,903

T o ta l, oth er races...............................
A ll races—
C ard-room w o rk e rs ...............................
S pin n in g-room w o rk e rs .......................
W ea ve-room w o rk e rs ..........................
S p coler-room a n d m iscellaneous
w ork ers ..............................................
T o ta l, all r a c e s ...................................

1,038

26 :

168

381

1,206

1,587

3,125

s rm

490

915

3,615

5,011

8,626

504
1 ,6 6 8
, Ibl

1,040
1,611
1,849

109
200
251

262
390
297

613
1 ,8 6 8
2,008

1,302
2 ,0 0 1
2,146

1,915
3,869
4,154

■1

589

1,873

46

237

635

2 ,1 1 0

2,745

4,518

6,373

606

1,186

5,124

7,559

12,683

C rb a n w hites o f registration States an d
D istrict of C olu m bia (1-911): 2
N a tiv e b o m .....................................................
F oreign b o r n ...................................................

3,170,288 2,525,187 5,695,475
: 750,374 1 69$,686 1,442,060
;

T o t a l . . . . .......................................................




•
............. f.............

1 Less than 1 per cent.

3,920,662 3,216,873 7,137,535

179

DEATHS, ETC., BY SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS.
NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL CAUSES, IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS,
FOR OPERATIVES, BY NATIVITY, RACE, AND WORKROOM GROUP.

BY CON-

AGE GROUP 15 TO 24: POPULATION AND DEATHS.

Percentage distribution of the total.
D eaths (b o th classes).

P o p u la tio n .
D e a th s (b o t h cla sses).
M arried.

Single.

; M ales.

F e­
m ales.

B o th
sexes.

Males.

B o th classes.

F e­
F eMales.
m ales.
m ales.

Males.

F e­
m ales.

B o th
sexes.

Males.

F e­
m ales.

B o th
se x e s.

203

445

41

41

6

12

47

53

100

46

54

100

143
99

263
182

26
15

26
15

2
4

5
7

28
19

31
22

59
41

27
19

32
22

59
41

67
30

48
21

115
51

16
7

12
4

2
2

3
4

18
9

15
8

33
17

15
7

11
4

26
11

97

69

166

23

16

4

7

27

23

50

22

15

37

53
53

95
78

148
131

10
8

14
11

2

2
3

10
10

16
14

26
24

12
12

21
18

33
30

106

173

279

18

25

5

20

30

50

24

39

63

7

14

21

1

2

I

2

3

2

3

5

28
25
20

30
26
40

58
51
60

4
3
5

6
4
6

P>

1
1
2

5
3
6

7
5
8

12
8
14

6
5
5

7
6
9

13
11
14

14
12

*

242

120
83

39
24

53
36

4
1

4
3

P>
(*>

1

4
1

5
3

9
4

3
3

9
5

12
8

0 )

C>

2
0 )

(0
1
1
C
1)

63

89

5

7

99

159

258

17

23

20
9

40
17

60
26

2
3

3
2

20

24

1

4

77

110

6

9

53
24

93
51

7
4

7
5

13

6

14

20

47

22

36

58

1

2
3

4
2

6
5

5
2

9
4

14

(*)

0)

1

4

5

1

4

5

1

6

10

16

8

17

25

2
1

8
5

9
6

17
11

9
6

12
5

2
1
1
1

0 )

40
27

8
28

(*>

33

5
19

(*>
(*)

4

1
5

1
1

26

2

1

1

6

6

19

25

1

4

5

&

1

5

a

73

96

169

12

16

2

4

14

20

34

16

22

38

15
45
36

37
56
41

52
101
77

2
7
7

4
6
7

(l>
1
1

1
2
1

2
8
8

5
8
8

7
16
16

4
10
8

8
13
9

23
17

f1 )

12

9

11

2

9

1
1

20

30

50

24

39

63

17,504
5,659

44
11

36
9

80
20

39
14

37
10

76
24

23,163

55

45

100

53

47

10
0

10

39

49

2

8

0 >

106

173

279

18

25

2

9,073
3,257

8,431
2,402

12,330

10,833

1
5

2

2
T h ese figures are co m p ile d from th e T h irte e n th Census, V o ls. I, I I, a n d I I I, P o p u la tio n , 1910. I n
ascertain ing figures for 1911 th e average y e a rly per c e n t o f increase from 1900 t o 1910, as s h o w n o n p. 32,
Y o l. I, w as ad d ed t o th e figures fo r 1910.




180

POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES.

POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
JUGAL CONDITION, SEX, NATIVITY, AND OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AND FOR
AGE GROUP 15 TO 24: DEATH RATES PE R 1,000.
T u b e rcu lo u s.

N a t iv it y , race, occu p a tio n a l gro u p , a n d
w o rk ro o m grou p.

Single.

M ales.

M arried.

F e­
m ales.

M ales.

Fe­
m ales.

B o t h classes.

M ales.

F e­
m ales.

B o th
sexes.

A ll person s .................................................................................

1.22

1.84

1.57

3.00

1.26

2.10

1.71

N a tiv e b o m .........................................................

1 . 17
1.29

2. 00
1.53

1.42
1.66

3. 78
2.55

1.19
1.37

2.26
1.88

1.75
1.65

1.06
.65

1.25
.85

.98
1.56

2.13
.71

1.05
.87

1 43
.77

1.22

.95

1.16

1.30

1.27

1.00

1.20

1.09

1. 36
1. 76

2.63
1.76

2.60
1.77

7.20
5.09

1.43
1.76

3.04
2.54

2.42

1.55

2.26

1.98

5.73

1.60

2. 81

2.32

11.43

3.48

3.64

3.59

2.08
1.52
1.15

2. 27
2. 48
2.04

2.19
2.11
1.64

3. 61
4. 70

2.54
3.89

F o r e ig n h o r n ____ r,

. . - T- ______ _________ _____

N on op era tiv es:
N a tiv e b o r n .........................................................
T o ta l, n o n o p e ra tiv e s ....................................
O peratives:
N a tive b o m .........................................................
T ota l, o p e r a tiv e s ...........................................

.82

2.21

3.70
N on-Irish—
A m ericans and u n sp e cifie d ...................
E n g lish ..........................................................
P ortu gu ese...................................................
F ren ch Canadians—
N a tiv e b o m .........................................
F oreign b o m .......................................

3.05

2 . 01
1.64
1.07

1.89
2.42
1.10

* i. 49

4.41
3.05
4.69

.73
2. 24

2. 98
3. 60

3.92
3.92

9.68
10. 71

.92
2.45

10.17

1.41

3. 99

3.00

1.51

2. 75

2.24

9.59
14.29

2.52
.97

5.34
3.48

4.25
2.24

8.70

1.58

2.65

2.42

10.33

1.72

3.92

3.10

1.41
1.73

2.36

1.85

1.94
1.79

2.47

T ota l, F ren ch C a n a d ia n s ........ ..

1.19

3.19

3. 92

T ota l, n on -Irish ..............................

1.44

2.20

2. 03

Irish , and F ren ch C anadians—
C ard-room an d spin n in g-room w o rk ­
ers................................................................
W ea v e-room w ork e rs...............................
Spooler-room
and
m iscellaneous
w ork ers......................................................

2.33
.71

4.62
2.43

5.56
3.33

1.71

2.15

1.58

3.16

3.45

1.52
1.67

1.68
1.26

.74
2.10

T o ta l,Ir is h , and F ren ch Cana­
dians ..............................................

5.56 |

O ther races—
C ard-room an d spin n in g-room w o rk ­
ers
.
....................................
W ea v e-room w o rk e rs ...............................
S pooler-room
an d
m iscellaneous
w o r k e r s ................................................

1.13

2.50

7.69

2. 38

1.58

2.49

2.27

T o ta l, other races.................................

1.53

1.76

1.63

4.37

1.55

2.23

1.95

1. 59
1.80
1.37

2 .88
2. 48

3.82

7.18

1.30
1 . 82

3.07
3.40

6.73

1.50

2.33

2.51
2.64
1.93

AH races—
Card-room w ork ers...................................
Spinning-room w o rk e rs...........................
W ea ve-room w o rk e rs...............................
Spooler-room
and
m iscellaneous
w ork ers..................................................
T ota l, all ra ces........................................
U rb an w hites o f registration States and
D istrict o f Colum bia (1911):
N a tiv e b o r n .........................................................
Foreign b o r n .......................................................
T o t a l...................................................................




4.74
4.98 i

1.62

2 .00
2. 39

1.36

2.35

4.35

4.22

1.58

2.56

2.33

1.55

2.26

1.98

5.73 |

1.60

2.81

2. 32

181

DEATHS, ETC., BY SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS.

NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL CAUSES, IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS, BY CONOPERATIVES, BY NATIVITY, RACE, AND WORKROOM GROUP—Continued.
AGE GROUP 15 TO 24: DEATH RATES PE R 1,000.
N ontuberculous.
Single.

Males.

Married.

Fe­
Fe­
Males. males.
males.

A ll causes.
Both classes.

Single.

Fe­
Both
Males. males.
sexes.

Married.

Both classes.

Fe­
Fe­
Both
Males. males. Males. males. Males. Females. sexes.

2.25

1.14

1.84

2.73

2.20

1.51

1.83

3.47

2.98

3.41

5.73

3-46

3.61

3.54

2.21
2.32

1.02
1.36

2.13
2.66

3.78
£. 15

2.21
2.18

1.41
1.64

1.79
1.89

3.38
3 61

3-02
2.89

3-55
332

7.56
4.70

3.40
3-55

3-67
3.52

3-54
3-54

1.83
1.94

•99
1.70

2.45
2.34

1.60
.88

1.89
2.04

1.11
1.25

1.54
1.65

2.89
2.59

2.24
2-55

343
3-90

3.73
1.59

2.94
2.91

2.54
2-02

2.76
2.47

1.86

1.16

2-39

1.17

1.93

1.16

1.57

2.81

2-32

3-69

2.44

2.93

2.36

2.66

2.88
2.59

1.04
1.25

1.30
.88

8.31
0.88

2.79
2.30

1.70
1.86

2.12
2.04

4.24
4.35

*3.67
3.01

3-90
2.65

15.51
8.97

4.22
4.06

4.74
4.40

4.54
4.25

.99

2.97

2.74

1.13

2.78

1.31

5.23

2.54

1.77

2.08

4.29

3.39

11.43

2.61

?, 03

2.21

6.48

4.36

2.75
4.65
1.54

.94
1.21 "6 '6 7 *
1.24
.75

2.21
4.58
4.29

2.39
4.80
1.40

1.14
1.55
2.03

1.66
2.79
1.76

4.76
6.29
2.61

2.83
3.63
2.34

2.44
3.92

1.00 ...........
1.31

14.52
5.36

2.29
343

2.25
1.94

2.27
2.48

3.17
6.16

3.98
4.91

2.89

1.10 ...........

10.17

2.66

2.14

2.34

4.08

2.74

1.11

1.01

5.04

2.54

1.75

2.07

4.18

4.00
2.15

1.38
.70

9.59
14.28

377
1.94

2.57
1.90

3.03
1.92

6.33
2.86

6.00
3.13

1.71

1.20

8.69

1.57

1.77

1.73

3.42

3.35

2.87

1.14

10.33

2.65

2.12

2.32

4.45

4.30

3.31
2.17

1.68
.78

.73
2.09

4.35
4.15

2.93
2.16

2.27
1.32

2.56
1.72

4.83
3.84

3.36
2.04

10.96

4.14

4.58

4.40

22.86

6.09

5.67

5.80

2.47
6.67
2.24

6.62
7.63
8.98

4.47
6.32
2.55

3.41
4.03
4.07

3.85
4.90
3-40

3-92
3-92

24.19
16.07

3-21
5.88

5.86
6.64

4.81
6.37

4.29

3-92

20.34

4.07

6.13

5.34

3.31

3-04

10.60

4.05

4.50

4.31

5.56
3-33

19.18
28.57

6.29
2.91

7.91
5.38

7.28
4.16

17.39

3.15

4.42

4.15

3-45

20.66

4.37

6.04

5.42

1.47
4.19

9.09
9.13

4.34
3.89

4.63
3.17

4.50
3-51

1.69

.58

1.19

1.57

.66

.88

2.82

3.08

7.69

3.57

3-15

3.15

3.15

2.69

1.12

1.23

3.72

2.49

1.60

1.97

4.22

2.88

2.86

8.09

4.04

3.83

3.92

4.36
3.24
2.16

2.31
1.12
.76

1.00
1.59

3.81
6.67
6.06

3.59
3.00
2.09

2.61
2.20
1.49

2.92
2.58
1.78

5.95
5.04
3.53

5.19
3.60
2.38

3.00
3.98

7.63
13.85
12.79

4.89
4.82
3.59

5.68
5-60
3-82

5.43
5.22
3.71

.85 ...........

3.37

1.57

1.14

1.24

3.06

3.20

4.35

7-59

3.15

3.70

3.57

5.23

2.54

1.77

2.08

4.29

3.39

2.97

10.96

4.14

4.58

4.40

2.86
4.34

3-34
3-47

3.07
3.92

3.14

3.37 j

3.25

1.70
2.74

1.13




.99

POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH BATES.

182

POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
JUGAL CONDITION, SEX, NATIVITY, AND OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AND FOR
AGE GROUP 15 TO 24: PERCENTAGE COMPARISON OF DEATH RATES,
Per cent b y which death rates exceeded ( + ) or fell beiovr
( —) rate for all persons.
Tuberculous.
Nativity, race, occupational group, and work­
room group-.
Married.

Males.

-

All persons............

25
-

38

44

Total, nonoperatives.
Operatives:
N ative b o m ..
Foreign born.

Males.

+

+ 17
- 11
-

Fe­
males.

-

32

17
3

-

30
20

-

39
49

-

42

-

58

24

+ 52
+ 4
+ 32

+321
+198

+

- 16
+ 3

+235

16

+116

+ 78

+ 18
4
- 37

+ 11
+ 42
- 36

- 57
+ 31

+ 74
+ 111

+ 129
+ 129

Total, French Canadians.

+ 87

+ 129

+ 29

+ 19

+225
+ 95

+461
+736

+ 78
+ 49

F ren ch C anadians—

N ative b orn .....................
Foreign b orn ...................

Irish, and French Canadians—
Card - room and spinning - room
workers...............................................
Weave-room workers.......................... .
Spooler-room
and
miscellaneous
workers...............................................

+ 36
- 58

36

+ 41
+ 29

+568

+ 44
‘- 1 3

+ 26

+104

+113

+110

+158
+ 78
+174

+ 22
- 11
- 33

+ 33
+ 45
+ 19

+ 28
+ 23
4

+466
+526

- 46
+ 43

+ 111
+ 175

+ 49
+ 127

+ 133

+ 75
+ 31

+ 47
- 43

+212
+ 104

+ 149
+ 31

-

11
2

+ 42

+504

+ 129

+ 81

-

2
26

- 57
+ 23

+177
+191

+ 38
+ 8'

+ 13
+ 5

+350

+ 39

+ 46

33

3

-

5

+156

30

+ 14

+ 68
+ 45
5

+ 17
+ 40

+123
+320
+ 294

- 24
+ 6
- 12

+ 80
+ 99
+ 36

+ 47
+ 54
+ 13

+ 37

+154

+147

-

+ 50

+ 36

+ 64

+ 36

34

Total, other races.
A ll races—
Card-room workers..............................
Spinning-room workers......................
Weave-room workers.......................... .
Spooler-room
and
miscellaneous
workers............................................... .

+ 55

+ 102

+

Other races—
Card - room and spinning - room
workers...............................................
Weave-room workers..........................
Spooler-room
and
miscellaneous
workers...............................................

+409

+ 85

(2)

Total, Irish, and French Canadians.

-

7

+ 5
- 20
-

20

+ 32

Total, all races.
Urban whites of registration States and Dis­
trict of Columbia (1911);
Native b orn ..................................................
Foreign b orn................................................
Total.




2
4

-

+225

+170
+ 42

+
-

+ 64

+495

Total, non-Irish..................

Irish.................................................
Non-Irish—
Americans and unspecified.
English....................................
Portuguese..............................

Both
sexes.

+ 23

+121
+ 49
+ 25

-

27
50

3

Total, operatives.

Fe­
males.
+ 75

29

N ative b o m . .
Foreign b orn .
Nonoperatives:
Native b e a n ..
Foreign b o m .

Fe­
males

Both classes.

1 Basic death rate.

+235

- 18
+ 1

8

183

DEATHS, E TC ., BY SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS.

NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL CAUSES, IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS, BY CONOPERATIVES, BY NATIVITY, RACE, AND WORKROOM GROUP—Continued.
AGE GROUP 15 TO 24: PERCENTAGE COMPARISON OF D EATH RATES.

Per cent b y which, death rates exceeded ( + ) or fell below ( —) rate for all persons.

Nontuberculous.
Single.

Married.

All causes.
Single.

B oth classes.

Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males.

Fe­
Males. males. Both
sexes.

Married.

Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males.

+ 23

-3 8

(2)

+ 49

+ 20

-1 7

1 1 . 83

-

2

-1 6

+ 21
+ 27

-4 4
-2 6

+ 16

+107
+ 17

+ 21
+ 19

-2 3
-1 0

- 2
+ 3

-

5
+ 2

-1 5

-1 8

- (\

+ (2)c
6

-4 6
_

+ 34
+ 28

-

13
52

+ 3
+ 11

-3 9
-3 2

-1 6
-1 0

-1 8
-2 7

-3 7
-2 8

+

2

—37

+ 31

-

36

+

5

-3 7

-1 4

-2 1

+ 57
+ 42

-4 3
-2 2

-

29
52

+354
+112

+ 52
+ 26

- 7
+ 2

+ 16
+ 11

-

46

-

9

Both classes.

Males.

+ 62

-

+

2

13.54

+114

+ 33

- 4 , +
(2)

4

± 0
db o

3
+ 10

+
5
- 55

-1 7
-1 8

-

28
43

-

22
30

-3 4

+

4

-

31

-1 7

-

33

-

25

+20
+ 23

+ 4
-1 5

+

-

10
25

+338
+ 153

+ 19
+ 15

+ 34
+ 24

+ 30

-

16

+210

+ 17

+ 29

+ 24

+546

+ 72

+

60

+ 64

-

4

2

F e­
Both
males. sexes.

1

+ 28

+ 50

-3 8

+186

+ 39

-

3

+ 14

+ 21

-

+ 52

-2 8

+525

+ 43

+ 11

+ 21

+ 83

+ 23

+ 50
+154
- 16

-4 9
-3 4
-3 2

+ 21
+150
+134

+ 31
+ 62
- 23

-3 8
-1 5

- 9
+52
- 4

+ 34
+ 78
-2 6

-2 0
+ 3
-3 4

- 21
+ 88
- 37

+177
+ 116
+ 154

+ 26
+79
-2 8

-

4
+ 14
+ 15

+
9
+ 38
4

+ 33
+114

-4 5
-2 8

+693
+193

+ 25

+ 87

+23
+24
+ 6 * +35

-1 0
+74

+ 12
+39

+ 11
+ 11

+583
+354

- 9
+66

+ 66
+ 88

+ 36
+ 80

+ 58

-4 0

+ 50

-3 9

+119
+ 17

"+264*
- 59

+ 11

4

+456

+ 45

+ 17

+28

+15

+21

+ 11

+475

+ 15

+ 73

+ 58

+175

+ 39

-

4

+13

+18

-

-

14

+199

+ 14

+ 27

+ 22

—25
-6 2

+424
+680

+106
+ 6

+40
+ 4

+66
+ 5

+ 79
-1 9

+69
—12

+ 57
6

+442
+707

i +78
i -1 8

+123
+ 52

+106
+ 18

-

45

6

7

-3 4

+375

-

14

— 3

— 5

-

+391

i -1 1

+ 25

+

+ 57

-3 8

+464

+ 45

+16

+27

+ 26

+21

— 3

+484

! +23

+ 71

+ 53

+ 81
+ 19

- 8
-5 7

+138
+127

+ 60
+ 18

+24
-2 8

+40
- 6

+ 36
+ 8

- 5
-4 2

- 58
+ 18

+157
+ 158

+23
+ 10

+ 31
- 10

+ 27
1

-

-

-

-

- 60
+ 14

3

-

5

17

8

—68

14

—64

-5 2

-2 0

-1 3

+ 117

+

1

-1 1

-

11

-

11

+ 47

-3 9

-

33

+103

+ 36

-1 3

+ 8

+ 19

-1 9

-

19

+129

+14

+

8

+

11

+138
+ 77
+ 18

+26
-3 9
-5 8

45
13

+108
+264
+231

+ 96

-

+ 64
+ 14

+43
+20
-1 9

+60
+41
- 3

+68
+ 42

+ 12

+116
+291
+261

+38
+36

(2)

+47
+ 2
-3 3

— 15

-

+ 60
+ 58
+
8

-

7

-5 4

+ 84

-

-3 8

-3 2

-1 4

-1 0

+ 23

+114

-1 1

+

+ 50

-3 8

+186

+ 39

-

+ 14

+ 21 !

+ 4

-

+210

+ 17

+ 29

[

-1 9
+23

-

2

+

13
11

i

~ n

i -

5

-

8




-

46

35

14

3

i

2 Less than 1 per cent.

16

+

1

5

6

+ 53
+ 47
+
5
+

1

+ 24

POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES.

184

POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
JUGAL CONDITION, SEX, NATIVITY, AND OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AND FOR
AGE GROUP 25 TO 34: POPULATION AND DEATHS.

Population.
N ativity, race, occupational group, and
workroom group.

Single.

B oth classes.

Married.

Males.

3,172

7,277

9,948

10,842

20,790

2,050
1,515

2,299
4,477

2,648
4,629

3,967
5,981

4,698
6,144

12,125

1,293
878

Nonoperatives:
Native b o r n ..
Foreign b orn .

6,776

1,504

N ative b o m . .
Foreign born.

3,565

1,668

A ll persons.

Fe­
Fe­
Males. males,
males,

1,189
763

1,783
2,532

2,085
3,225

3,076
3,410

3,274

6,350
7,3""

5,310

6,486

7,262

13,748

563
1,404

891
2,571

1,424
2,156

2,315
4,727

3,580

7,042

Total, nonoperatives.

2,171

Operatives:
Native b orn ........... t ___
Foreign b orn ...................

375
626

Total, operatives.

752

2,461

1,001

B oth
sexes.

772

621
376
787

864
564

658
757
607

1,552
1,321
1,573

158
. 430

251
630

297
676

548
1,306

973

1,854

1,192

2,372

3,275

2,995

6,270

307
263

234
388

326
198

373
577

633
461

1,006
1,0“ ''

329

Foreign b orn ................. .

270
325
119
151
327

243
188
179

N a tiv e b o r n ......................

55

135

118

677

659

1,068

1,558

825
805

512
485

1,050
1,124

708
788

1,758
1,912

526

746

478

Total, French Canadians
Total, non-Irish.................
Irish, and French Canadians—
Card-room and spinning-room
workers............................................
Weave-room workers...................... .
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers........................................... .

139
189

Total, Irish, and French Canadi­
ans .................................................

391

Other races— •
Card-room and spinning-room
workers............
W eave-room workers...................... .
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers..................... ......................

225
319

196
303

A ll races—
Card-room workers.......................... .
Spinning-room workers...................
Weave-room workers......................
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers...........................................

215

154

311

220

610

Total, other races..

714

1,784

1,308

2,394

164
200
508

261
242
566

632
427
1,193

454
384

796
627
1,701

715
626
1,249

1,511
1,253
2,950

3,462

3,580

7,042

129

544

209

446

1,001

1,613

2,461

1,967

Urban whites o f registration States and
District of Columbia (1911): 2
Native b o m ..............................................
Foreign b o m .............................................

1,328

1,875,026 1,956,722 3,831,748
1,184,340 1,596,042 2,780,382
3,059,366 3,552,764

Total.




Females.

585

Irish ................................................
Non-Irish Americans and unspecified..
E nglish.................................. .
Portuguese.............................
French Canadians—

Total, all ra ces.

516
1,945

Males.

1 Less than 1 per cent.

>,612,130

185

DEATHS, ETC., BY SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS.
NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL CAUSES,
OPEKATIVES, BY NATIVITY, RACE, AND

SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS, BY CONWORKROOM GROUP—Continued.

IN

AGE GROUP 25 TO 34: POPULATION AND DEATHS.

Percentage distribution of the total.
Deaths (both cl?isses).

Population.
Deaths (both classes).

Fe­
males.

Males.

Both
sexes.

Both classes.

Married.

Single.

Both
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males.
Males. males. Males.
males. sexes.
males.

Males.

Fe­
Both
males. sexes.

290

374

664

48

52

100

44

56

100

130
160

171
203

301
363

19
29

23
29

42
58

20
24

26
30

46
54

107
81

95
101

202
182

15
16

16
19

31
35

17
12

14
15

31
27

188

196

384

31

35

66

29

29

58

23
79

76
102

99
181

4
13

7
10

11
23

3
12

12
15

15
27

102

178

280

17

17

34

15 j

27

42

9

47

56

1

3

4

1

7

8

20
21
17

22
34
30

42
55
47

4
3
5

3
3
3

7
6
8

3
3
3

4
5
4

8
7

6
29

13
32

19
6i

1
3

2
3

3
6

1
4

2
5

3

35

45

I
80 ........... I............

4

5

9

5

7

12

93

131

16

14

30

14

20

34

2
2

3
3

5
5

3
3

7
4

10
7

1

2

3

3

3

•
..

! i
.....

1 i
i
|. . .

224

7

9

1
20
23

44
25

64
48

1

23

24

44

92

136

5

8

13

6

14

20

24
33

35
22

59
55

5
6

4
3

9
9

4
5

5
3

8

i
! * '■ * !

C
1)

9

1

29

30

1

2

3

5

5

58 j

86

144

12

9

21

9

13

22

13
31
56

44
35
47

57
66
103

______ i______ 1
I

4
3
8

4
3
6

8
6
14

2
5
8

7
5
7

9
10
15

1

C
1)

2

52

54

2

4

6

8

8

102

178

280

17

17

34

15

27

42

12,074
6, 579

9 818
4,617

21,892
11,196

28
18

30
24

58
42

36
20

30
14

66
34

18,653

14,435

33,088

46

54

100

56

44

100

0

1
* These figures are com piled from the Thirteenth Census, Vols. I, II, and III, Population, 1910. In ascer­
taining figures for 1911 the average yearly per cent of increase from 1900 to 1910, as shown on p. 32, V ol. I,
was added to the figures for 1910.




POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES.

186

P O P U L A T IO N , D E A T H S , A N D D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 F R O M T U B E R C U L O U S ,
JU G A L C O N D IT IO N , S E X , N A T IV IT Y , A N D O C C U P A T IO N A L G R O U P S , A N D F O R
A G E G R O U P 25 T O 34: D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000.

Tuberculous.
N ativity, race, occupational group, and
workroom group.

Single.

Males.

Married.

Fe­
males.

Males.

Fe­
males.

B oth classes.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Both
sexes.

.........................................................

3.53

1.63

1.77

2.83

2.33

2.44

2.39

Native b o rn ....................................................
Foreign b orn ..................................................

3.48
3.59

1.37
1.98

1.31
2.01

2.95
2.76

2.22
2. 41

2.26
2.57

2.24
2.49

4.02
2.50

1.51
2.10

1.57
1.50

1.82
1.49

2.60
1.76

1.71
1.61

2.14
1.68

3.41

1.74

1.53

1.62

2.16

1.65

1.89

.90
3.27

3.51
4.36

2.50
3.77

A]] persons

Nonoperatives:
Foreign b orn ..................................................

Operatives:
1.60
1.16
7.10
.39
Native b o rn ....................................................
5.11
1.86
5.70
2.68
Foreign b orn .........................*........................
3.80

Non-Irish—
Americans and. unspecified.................
English
..............................................
Portuguese ..........................................
French Canadians—
N ative born .................................
Foreign born ..................................

1.49

2.19

6.10

2. 66

4.02

3.35

4.08

.95

4.50

19.51

4.28

6.15

5.70

3.29
2.13
1.12

2.96

.64
2.13
2.03

3.61
4.63
4.92

1.39
2.13
1.86

3.35
2.64
3.95

2.23
2. 42
2.67

1.59
6.03

2.69
5.03

2.19
5.51

2.15
9.00

3.67

1.27
4.65

5.48
6.30

Total French Canadians.........

6.82

2.51

3. 74

6.06

4. 77

4.32

4.53

T otal non-Irish..........................

3.77

1.68

2.11

4.89

2.56

3. 61

3.06

Irish, and French Canadians—
Card-room and spinmng-room work­
ers .........................................................
Weave-room workers ........................
Spooler-room
and
miscellaneous
workers.................................................

7.19
7.41

3 . 26

6.84
2.58

9.20
10.10

6.97
4.16

6.32
4.34

6.56
4.24

3. 88

3.09

Total, Irish, and French Canadians

6.14

3.84

9.41

4.68

5.01

4. 88

Other races—
Card-room and spinning-room work­
ers...........................................................
W eave-room workers............................
Spooler-room
and miscellaneous
workers.................................................

1.78
3.13

1.94
1.49

7.03
1.24

1.90
1.96

5.09
.76

3.18
1.46

4.56

3.22

Total, other races...............................

2.30

1.12

1.57

4.44

1.76

3.27

2. 44

A ll races—
Card-room workers................................
Spinning-room workers........................
W eave-room workers............................
Spooler-room
and miscellaneous
workers.................................................

1.53
7.00
4.73

2.48

1.90
4.68
1.84

9.25
6.25
3.81

1.51
5. 42
2.70

6.43
4.79
2.08

3.84
5.11
2.44

4.24

3.16

Total, all ra ces....................................

3.80

2.19

6.10

2.66

4.02

3.35

Urban whites of registration States and Dis­
trict of Columbia (1911):
Native b orn ....................................................
Foreign b orn ..................................................
Total.............................................................




1.82
1.78

8.89

3.72

5.14

2.57

1.49

6.28

DEATHS, ETC .7 BY SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS.

187

NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL CAUSES, IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS, BY CONOPERATIVES, BY NATIVITY, RACE, AND WORKROOM GROUP—Co&tinfied.
AGE GHOUP 25 TO 34: DEATH B A TE S PE R 1,000.
A ll causes.

Nontuberculous.
Married.

Single.

Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males.

Both classes.

Males.

Single.

Married.

B oth classes.

Fe­
Both
Both Males. Fe­
Fe­
Females. Males. males. Males. males. sexes.
males. sexes.

5,04.

2.75

2.78

5.31

3.50

4.46

4.00

8.57

4.38

4.55

8.14

5.83

6.90

6.39

5.39
4.65

3.41
1.85

3.57
2.&7

6.19
4.80 .

4.33
2.94

5.02
4.04

4.68
3.51

8.87
8.24

4.78
3,83-

4.88
4.38

9.14 t 6.55
7.56 , 5.35

7.28
6.61

6.92
6.00

5.42
4.56

3.03
1.83

3.59
2.45

4.61
3.91

4.36
2.99'

4.09
3.46

4.19
3.27

9.44
7.06

4.54
3.93

5.16
3.95

6.43 i 6.96
5.46 | 4.75

5.80
5.07

6.33
4.95

5.07

2.56

2.92

4.18

3.64

3.75

3.70

8.48

4.30

4.45

5.80

5.80

5.40

5.5£

5.33
4.79

3 .%
1.86

3.49
2.26

12.08
6.84

4.26
2.88

7.16
5.10

6.05
3.89

6.93
9.90

5.11
3.72

3.88
4.94

19.18
12.54

5.16
6.15

10.67
9.46

8.55
7.66

4.99

2.97

2.52

8.34

3.23

5.92

4.60

8.79

4.46

4.71

14.44

5.89

9.94

7.95

4.08

5.70

6.74

20.73

5.35

9.92

8.81

8,16

6.65

11.24

40.24

9.63

16.97

14.51

5.76 1 1.48
&51
3.08
2,23

2.26
3.72
1.53

4.69
8.80
7.38

3.24
5.32
1.66

3.34
6.34
5.93

3.29
5.91
3.31

9.05
10.64
3.35

4.44
3.08

2.90
5.85
3.56

8.25

13.43
12.30

4.63
7.45
3.52

6.69
8. 98
9.88

5.52
8.33
5.98

4.30
4.00

3.97
1.22

2.53
2.79

8.22
7.45

6.06
3.19
3.18 ; 4.44

4.74
3.83

6.45
13a
00

3.97
4.89

3.80
7.44

13.70
13.75

4.78
9.21

8.75
9.47

6.93
9.34

4.10

2.09

2.72

7.68

3.18

4.93

4.10

10.92

4.60

6.46

13.74 , 7,95

9.25

9.63

5.0$

2.01

2.36

7.22

z .n : 5.14

4.09

8,86

3.69

4.47

12.11

5.68

8,75

7.15

4.32
4.23

3.25
3” 80
.

3.42
3.61

11.66
io. ia

3.75 . 7.58
3.81
6.51

6.16
5.01

11.51
11.64

6.51

10.26
6.19

20.86
20.20

10.72
7.97

13.90
10.85

12.72
9.25

3.17

4.26

10.37

1.69

6.03

5.16

3.17

6.08

19.26

1.69 ■ a 9i

8.25

4.09

3. 78 | 3.25

io . n

3.56

6.80

5.48

10.23

5.56

7.09

20.33

a. 24

11. s i

10.36

5.33
6*27

1.02
1.32

2.67
4.80
3.91 ; 4.82

3.53
4.29

7.11 ; 1.02
1.32
9.40

3.88
4.47

13.28
8.25

4.57
5.87

9.89
5.58

6.71
5.75

3.03

3.72

8.36

.91

6.47

4.82

3.03

7.44

.91

11.03

8.04

5.57

1.96

2.24

7.03

3. ©ft

5.24

4.08

7.87

3.08

3.81

11.47

4.85 | &S-1

6.52

2.44
T.OO
5.51

a. 07
1.65
2.47

1.58
3.28
3.19

7.49
1.76
9.38 ' 4.47
7.9© ' 3 .m

5.88
6.39
5.45

3.70
5.42
4.54

2.44
14.00
10.24

4.60
4.13
2.47

3.48
7.96
5.03

16,74
15.63
11.71

3.27
9.89
6.58

12.31
11.18
7.53

7.5-4
10.53
6.98

3.10

4.05

8.97

1.18

6.27

4.97

3.10

6.62

15.25

1.18

10.51

8.13

4.99

2.9-7

2.52 ! 8.34

3.23

5.92

4.60

ft. 79

4.46

14.44

5.89

9.94

7.95

6.44
5.55

5.02
2.89

5.71
4.03

; 6.10

4.06

5.00

1.94
2.98

6,25
7.01

3.80

13.50

1

|
1




~

4.71

POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES.

188

POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
JUGAL CONDITION, SEX, NATIVITY, AND OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AND FOR
AGE GROUP 25 TO 34: PERCENTAGE COMPARISON OF D EATH RA TE S.
Percent b y which death rates exceeded ( + ) o r fell below (—)
rate for all persons.
Tuberculous.
Nativity, race, occupational group, and
workroom group.

Married.

Single.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Males.

Both classes.

Fe­
males.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Both
sexes.

+ 48

26

+ 18

-

3

+

2

12.3

— 45
- 16

+ 23
+ 15

+

7
1

+

5
8

-

6

+

4

-

Native b o m . .
Foreign born.

-

+ 46
+ 50

A ll persons.

34
37

-

+ 9
- 26

_ 28
- 33

-

10
30

+ 47
+ 82

+ 5
+ 58

Nonoperatives:
Native b o r n ..
Foreign b o m .

24
38

+ 43

-2 7

-

36

32

Operatives:
Native born.
Foreign born............

- 33
+ 114

-5 1
-2 2

- 84
+ 12

+197
+ 138

Total, operatives.

+ 59

-3 8

-

Total, nonoperatives .

Irish...............................................
Non-Irish—
American and unspecified.
English..................................
Portuguese............................
French Canadians—
Native b o m ...................
Foreign b orn .................

+ 38

-

11

-

53

-

+24

10

+ 155

+ 11

+716

+ 79

+ 167

+ 138

-

73
11
15

+ 51
+ 94
+106

-

42
11
22

+ 40
+ 10
+ 65

7
+ 1
+ 12

+ 40

+277

+129
+164

- 33
+ 152

+ 13
+ 110

8
+ 131

+ 5

+ 56 j +154

+ 103

+ 81

+ 90

-3 0

-

+

7

+ 51

+201
+210

Irish, and French Canadians—
Card-room and spinning-room w ork­
ers ........................................................
Weave-room workers..........................
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers...............................................

- 47
+ 95

+ 58

Total, non-Irish..................

+54

+ 185

Total, French Canadians .

+36

+ 186 '

+ 192
+ 74

+ 164
+ 82

+

12 I +105

8 .

-2 4

Total, Irish, and French Cana* dians................................................

+285
+323

+ 174
- 77
+29

+272

+ 194
- 48

+113
- 68

33

+ 115

+ 91

+ 35

-53

Total, all races .

+ 104

+ 86

+ 37

+ 2

+169
+100
- 13

+ 61
+ 114
+ 2

+ 77

+ 32

-26

+ 61

+ 31

Total, other races.
All races—
Card-room workers................................
Spinning-room workers........................
Weave-room workers............................
Spooler-room
and
miscellaneous
workers...............................................

+ 110

+56

+ 157

Other races—
Card-room and spinning-room w ork­
ers ..........................................................
Weave-room workers............................
Spooler-room and miscellaneous work­
ers ..........................................................

+ 193
+ 98

-36
+ 4

- 21
+ 96
- 23

+294

+287
+ 162
+ 59

+ 96

- 37
+ 127
+ 13

+163
+

59

Urban whites of registration States and
District of Columbia (1911):
Native b o m ....................................................
Foreign born..................................................
Total.




8

+ 88

+ 71

i Basic death rate.

+ 155

+ 11

+ 40

189

DEATHS, ETC., BY SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS.
NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES, IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS, B Y
OPERATIVES, B Y N A T IV IT Y , RACE, AN D W O RK R O O M GROUP—Continued.

CON-

A G E G R O U P 25 T O 34: P E R C E N T A G E C O M P A R IS O N O F D E A T H R A T E S .

Per cent by which death rates exceeded ( + ) or fell below (—) rate for all persons.

Nontuberculous.
Single.

Males.

■All causes.

Married.

Single.

Both classes.

Fe­
Fe­
males. Males. males.

Males.

Fe­
Both
males. sexes.

+ 26

-3 1

-3 0

+ 33

-1 2

+ 12

14.00

+ 35+ 16

-1 5
-5 4

-1 1
-4 1

+ 55
+ 20

+ 8
-2 6

+ 26
+ 1

+ 17

4- 36
+ 14

-2 4
-5 4

-1 0
-3 9

+ 15

+ 9
-2 5

+ 2
- 13

+ 5

+ 27

-3 6

-2 7

+ 20

-

-

+ 33
+ 20

1

-5 3

-1 3
-4 3

+202
+ 72

+ 7
-2 8

+ 25

-2 6

-3 7

+109

+

2

+ 43

+ 69

+ 44
+ 113
- 44

-6 3
-2 3

-4 3
- 7
—62

+ 8
+ (*)

- 1
-6 9

+

-

Married.

Both classes.

Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males.

Males.

Fe­
Both
males, j sexes.

+ 34

-3 1

-2 9

+ 27

-

9

+ 8

i 6.39

+

39
+ 29

-2 5
-4 0

-2 4
-3 1

+ 43
+ 18

+ 3
-1 6

+ 14
+ 3

+ 8
- 6

+ 48
+ 10

-2 9
-3 8

-1 9
-3 8

+

-1 8

-

1
15

+ 9
-2 6

- 9
-2 1

- 1
-2 3

-

7

+ 33

-3 3

-3 0

-

9

-

9

-1 5

-1 3

+ 79
+ 28

+51
- 3

+ 8
+ 55

-2 0
-5 8

-3 9
-2 3

+200
+ 96

-1 9
- 4

+67
+48

+34

-1 9

+ 48

+ 15

+ 38

-3 0

-2 6

+ 126

-

+ 56

+ 24

+ 418

+ 34

+ 148

+120

+ 28

+ 4

+ 76

+530

+ 51

+151 1 +127

+ 16
+120

-1 9
+33
—68

- 16
+ 59
+ 48

-

+ 48

+ 42
+ 67

-3 1
-5 2

+ 85

— 17

— 48

-5 5
- 8
—34

+ 29
+ 110
+ 92

-2 8
+ 17
-4 5

+ 5
+ 41
+ 55

-3 7
-3 0

+106
+ 86

-2 0
-2 0

+ 52
+ 11

+ 19
4

+

1
+103

-3 8
-2 3

-4 1
+26

+ 114
+115

-2 5
+44

+ 37
+ 48

+ 8
+ 46

-

2

9

-1 2

6

18

8

+20

-

14

+ 30
—

6

3

-4 8

-3 2

+ 92

-2 0

+ 23

+

3

+ 71

-2 8

+ 1

+ 115

+24

+ 45

+ 35

+ 27

-5 0

-4 1

+ 81

-2 2

+ 29

+

2

+ 39

-4 2

-3 0

+ 90

-1 1

+ 37

+ 12

+

-1 4
-1 0

+192
+153

-

6
5

+ 90
+ 63

+ 54
+ 25

+ 80
+ 82

+ 2
-4 0

+61
- 3

+226
+216

+68
+25

+ 118
+ 70

+ 99
+ 45

+159

-5 8

+ 51

+ 29

-

40

—5

+201

-7 4

+ 55

+ 29

+

8
6

-1 9
- 5

-

21

+ 7

+

2

5

-1 9

+173

-1 1

+ 70

+ 37

+ 60

-1 3

+ 11

+218

+29

+ 85

+ 62

+ 33
+ 57

-7 4
-6 7

-6 1
-7 5

+ 56
+ 75

-3 3
- 2

+ 20
+ 21

- 12
+ 7

+ 11
+ 47

-8 4
-7 9

-3 9
-3 0

+ 108
+ 29

-2 8
- 8

+ 55
- 13

+

-

-

-

5
10

24

— 7

+109

-7 7

+ 62

+ 21

-

53

+ 16

+ 111

-8 6

+ 73

+ 26

+ 39

-5 1

-4 4

+ 76

-2 3

+ 31

+

2

+ 23

-5 2

-4 0

+ 80

-2 4

+ 33

+

-

-2 3
-5 9
-3 8

-6 0
-1 8
-2 0

+ 87
+135
+ 98

-5 6
+ 12
- 3

+ 47
+ 60
+ 36

-

7

+ 38

+ 36
+ 14

- 62
+ 119
+ 60

-2 8
-3 5
-6 1

-4 5
+ 25
-2 1

+162
+ 145
+ 83

-4 9
+55
+ 3

+ 93
+ 75
+ 28

+ 18
+ 65
+ 9

— 22

+ 1

+124

-7 0

+ 57

+ 24

-

51

+ 4

+139

-8 2

+ 64

+ 27

+ 25

-2 6

+109

-1 9

+ 48

+ 15

+ 38

-3 0

+ 126

-

8

+ 56

+ 24

+ 1
-1 3

- 21
— 55

-

11

-

37

-

-

-

22

39

+ 75

-3 7




* Less than 1 per cent.

-2 6

5

3G

2

P O P U L A T IO N , D EATH S, AN D D E A TH BATES.

190

POPULATION, D EATH S, AND D E A T H R ATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
JUGAL CONDITION, S E X , N A T IV IT Y , AN D OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AN D FOR
AGE GROUP 35 TO 44: POPULATION A N D D E A T H S.

Population.
Nativity, race, occupational group, and
workroom group.

Single.

Both classes.

Married.

Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males.

Males.

Females.

Both
sexes.

1,241

1,678

7,002

6,874

8,243

8,552

16,795

Native b o m ..
Foreign born.

562
679

842
836

2,207
4,795

2,143
4,731

2,769
5,474

2,985
5,567,

5,754
M,041

Nonoperatives:
Native born..
Foreign born.

422
386

570
474

1,740
2,993

1,780
3,657

2,162
3,379

2,350
4,131

4,512
7,510

808

1,044

4,733

5,437

5,541

6,481

12,022

140
293

272
362

467
1,802

363
1,074

607
2,095

635
1,430

1,242
3,531

433

634

2,269

1,437

2,702

2,071

4,773

111

267

240

296

351

563

914

70
94
29

51
141
27

361
483
466

218
354
157

431
577
495

269
495
184

700
1,072
679

28
101

25
123

116
603

49
363

144
704

74
486

218
1,190

All persons.

Total, nonoperatives .
Operatives:
Native born..
Foreign born.
Total, operatives .
Irish.................................................
Non-Irish—
Americans and unspecified.
English.....................................
Portuguese..............................
French Canadians—
Native b om .....................
Foreign bom ........ ..........
Total, French Canadians.

129

148

719

412

848

560

1,408

Total, non-Irish.................

322

367

2,029

1,141

2,351

1,508

3,859

62
157

125
153

264
613

301
265

326
770

426
418

752
1,188

21

137

82

142

103

279

382

240

415

959

708

1,199

1,123

2,322

59
119

53
102

526
648

196
362

585
767

249
464

834
1,231

Irish, and French Canadians—
Card - room and spinning - room
workers.............................................
Weave-room workers........................
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers............................................
Total, Irish, and French Cana­
dians..............................................
Other peoples or races—
Card - room and spinning - room
workers.............................................
Weave-room workers........................
Spooler - room and miscellaneous
workers.............................................

All races—
Card-room workers.......................... .
Spinning-room workers.................. .
Weave-room workers...................... .
Spooler - room and miscellaneous
workers.............................................

15

64

136

171

151

235

386

193

Total, other races..

219

1,310

729

1,503

948

2,451

69
52
276

112
66
255

519
271
1,261

315
182
627

588
323
1,537

427
248
882

1,015
571
2,419

36

201

218

313

254

514

768

433

Total, all races .

634

2,269

1,437

2,702

2,071

4,773

Urban whites of registration States and
District of Columbia (1911): 2
Native bom................................................
Foreign b o m .............................................
Total.




1,428,283 1,454 241 2 882 524
950,977
755,603 1,706,580
2,379,260 2,209,844 4,589,104

1 Less than 1 per cent.

191

D E A TH S, E T C ., B Y SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS.
NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES, IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS, B Y
O PER ATIVES, B Y N A T IV IT Y , RACE, AN D W O RK R O O M GROUP—Continued.

CON-

AGE GROUP 35 TO 44: POPULATIO N AN D D E A T H S.
Percentage distribution of the total.
Population.

Deaths (both classes).

Deaths (both classes).
Single.
Both
sexes.

Married.

Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males,

Both classes.
Fe­
Males. males.

Both
sexes.

Fe­
Males. males.

Both
sexes.

Males.

Fe­
males.

353

369

722

49 ;

51

100

49

51

100

145
208

121
248

266
456

16
33

18
33

34
66

20
29

17
34

37
63

108
125

83
156

191
281

13
20

14
25

27
45

14
18

12
21

26
39

233

239

472

33

39

72

32

33

65

37
as

38
92

75
175

3
13

4
8

7
21

6
11

5
13

11
24

120

130

250

16

12

28

17

18

35

36

56

92

2

3

5

5

8

13

13
26
16

9
20
5

22
46
21

3
3
3

1
3
1

4
6
4

2
4
2

1
2
1

3
6
3

5
24

6
34

11
58

1
4

1
3

2
7

1
3

1
5

2
8

I

29

40

69

5

4

9

4

6

10

84

74

158

14

9

23

12

10

22

20
40

37
42

57
82

2
5

3
2

5
7

2
6

6
6

8
12

5

17

22

2

2

1

2

3

65

96

161

7

7

14

9

14

23

21
31

9
18

30
49

3
5

1
3

4
8

3
4

1
2

4
6

C)

3

7

10

1

1

2

1

1

2

55

34

89

9

5

14

8

4

12

25
16
71

28
18
60

53
34
131

3
2
10

3
1
5

6
3
15

3
2
10

4
3
8

7
5
18

8

24

32

1

4

2

3

5

120

130

250

16

12 |

28

17

18

35

14,270
8,980

10,002
, 5,797

24,272
14,777

31
21

1
32
16 I

63
37

37
23

25
15

62
38

23,250

15,799

39,049

52

48

100

60

40

100

1
........... I............
1

3

2 These figures are compiled from the Thirteenth Census, Vols. I, II, and III, Population, 1910. In
ascertaining figures for 1911 the average yearly per cent of increase from 1900 to 1910, as shown on p. 32, Vol.
I, was added to the figures for 1910.




192

PO P U L A T IO N , D E A TH S, AND D EATH RATES.

POPULATION, DEATHS, AN D D E A T H B AT ES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
JUGAL CONDITION, S E X , N A T IV IT Y , AN D OCCUPATIONAL G R O U P , A N D FOR
AGE GROUP 35 TO 44: D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,000.

Tuberculous.
Nativity, race, occupational group, and
workroom group.

Single.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Married.

Both classes.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Both
sexes.

A ll persons.............................................................

7.09

1.79

2.52

2.09

3.20

2.03

2.61

Native bom ....................................................
Foreign bom ..................................................

8.54
5.89

2.14
1.44

2.63
2.46

1.31
2.45

3.83
2. 89

1. 54
2.30

2.64
2. 59

Nonoperatives:
Native bom ....................................................
Foreign bom ..................................................

7.11
4.66

1.40

2.19
1.87

1.01

1.75

3.14
2.19

1 . 10

1.26

1.69

2. 09
1.92

Total, nonoperatives................................

5.94

1.34

1.99

1.51

2. 56

1.48

1.98

Operatives:
Native bom ....................................................
Foreign bom ..................................................

12. 86
7.51

3. 68
1.66

4.28
3.44

2.75
4.84

6. 26
4.01

3.15
4. 04

4. 02

Total, operatives.......................................

9.24

2.52

3.62

4.32

4.51

3.76

4.19

Irish.................................................................
Non-Irish—
Americans and unspecified................
English.....................................................
Portuguese..............................................
French Canadians—
Native bom .....................................
Foreign bom ...................................

19.82

3.74

10.00

9.46

13.11

6.75

9.19

6.38
6.90

2.84

3. 32
3.31
2.15

1.84
1.13
3.82

2. 78
3. 81
2.42

1.49
1.62
3.26

2.29
2.80
2.65

9.90

1.63

5.17
2. 32

4.08
4.96

4.16
3.41

2.70
4.11

3.67
3.70

Total, French Canadians.........

7.75

1.35

2. 78

4.85

3.54

3.93

3.69

Total, non-Irish...........................

5.59

1.63

2.86

2.98

3. 23

2.65

3.01

Irish, and French Canadians—
Card-room and spinning-room work­
ers..........................................................
"Weave-room workers............................
Spooler-room and
miscellaneous
workers.................................................

9.68
16.56

4. 80
2.80

6.06
3.91

9.97
5.28

6.75
6.49

8.45
4.31

7.71
5.72

1.46

4.88

2.82

3. 88

2.15

2.62

2. 89

4. 59

6.78

6.34

5.34

5.86

1.96

3.42
2.47

2.04
1.66

3. 42
2.87

1.61
1.72

2.44

Total, Irish, and French Cana­
dians ..................................................
Other races—
Card-room and spinning-room work­
ers..........................................................
"Weave-room workers............................
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers.................................................

13.33

3.39
5.04

4.67

2. 88

3.13

2.94

2.34

1
2.65 [

2.55

2.59

Total, other races.............................

4.15

1.83

2.90

1.92

3.06

1.90

2.61

A ll races—
Card-room workers................................
Spinning-room workers........................
Weave-room workers............................
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers.................................................

2.90
11.54
11.60

3.57
3.03
2.35

5.01
2. 95
3.17

6.98
6.60
3.19

4.76
4. 34
4.69

6.09
5.65
2.95

5.32
4.90
4.05

1.99

3.67

2.56

3.15

2.34

2.60

2.52

3.62

4.32

4.51

3. 76

4.19

Total, all races....................................

9.24 j

Urban whites of registration States and Dis­
trict of Columbia (1911):
Native bom ....................................................
Foreign bom ..................................................
Total.

.

............................................




1
" ' “ " ' 1 ............. 1
........

i
1
i

193

D EATH S, E T C ., B Y SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS.
NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L CAUSES, IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS,
OPER ATIVES, B Y N A T IV IT Y , RACE, AND W O RK R O O M GROUP— Continued.

BY

CON-

A G E G R O U P 35 TO 44: D E A T H B A T E S P E R 1,000.

N ontuberculous.
Single.

Married.

Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males.

All causes.
Both classes.

Males.

Single.

Married.

Fe­
Bpth
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males.
males. sexes.

Both classes.

Males.

Fe­
Both
males. sexes.

11.28

5.48

4.31

6.87

5.36

6.60

5.99

18.37

7.27

6.83

8.96

8.56

8.63

8.60

11.03
11.49

5.70
5.26

5.53
3.75

6.90
6.85

6.64
4.71

6.57
6.61

6.61
5.67

19.57
17.38

7.84
6.70

8.16
6.21

8.21
9.30

10.47
7.60

8.11
8.91

9.25
8.26

12.80
13.47

5.97
3.80

5.40
4.14

5.96
6.13

6.85
5.21

5.96
5.86

6.38
5.56

19.91
18.13

7.37
5.06

7.59
6.01

6.97
7.88

9.99
7.40

7.06
7.55

8.47
7.48

13.12

4.98

4.60

6.07

5.85

5.90

5.87

19.06

6.32

6.59

7.58

8.41

7.38

7.85

5.71
8.87

5.14
7.18

6.00
3.11

11.57
9.31

5.93
3.91

8.82
8.77

7.41
5.89

18.57
16.38

8.82
8.84

10.28
6.55

14.32
14.15

12.19
7.92

11.97
12.81

12.08
9.91

7.85

6.31

3.70

9.88

4.37

8.79

6.29

17.09

8.83

7.32

14.20

8.88

12.55

10.48

12.61

10.49

5.00

15.54

7.40

13.14

10.94

32.43

14.23

15.00

25.00

20.51

19.89

20.13

5.71
2.13
13.79

3.92
1.42

2.77
5.80
3.43

5.50
8.47
2.55

3.25
5.20
4.04

5.20
6. 46
2.17

4.00
5.78
3.54

5.71
8.51
20.69

3.92
4.26

6.09
9.11
5.58

7.34
9.60
6.37

6.03
9.01
6.46

6.69
8.08
5.43

6.29
8.58
6.19

6.42
6.05

7.14
17.82

8.13

6.90
4.98

24.49
15.98

6.94
6.82

16.22
13.99

10.09
9.75

7.14
7.92

**6*50*

1.73
2.66

20.41
11.02

2. 78
3. 41

13.52
9.88

7.75

5.41

2.51

12.14

3.30

10.36

6.11

15.50

6. 76

5.29

16.99

6.84

14.29

9.80

6.21

3.27

3.55

8.41

3.92

7.16

5.18

11.80

4.90

6.41

11.39

7.15

9.81

8.19

12.90
7.64

11.20
11.19

3.97
2.94

7.79
18.87

5.52
3.90

8.92
15.79

7. 45
8.08

22.58
24.20

16.00
13.99

9.85
6.85

17.94
24.15

12.27
10.39

17.37
20.10

15.16
13.80

19.05

4.38

2.44

15.49

5.83

10.04

8.90

19.05

5.84

7.32

18.31

9.71

12.19

11.52

10.00

8.68

3.13

13.56

4.50

11.76

8.01

23. 33

11.57

7.72

20.34

10.84

17.10

13.87

6.78
5.04

1.96

3.42
5.25

7.14
7.18

3.76
5.21

5.62
6.04

4.31
5.52

10.17
10.08

3.92

6.84
7.72

9.18
8.84

7.18
8.08

7.23
7.76

7.19
7.96

3.12

1.47

3.51

1.32

3.41

2.59

6.25

4.41

5.85

3.97

5.96

5.18

5.18

1.82

4.12

6.31

4.26

5.27

4.65

9.33

3.65

7.02

8.23

7.32

7.17

7.26

5.80
15.38
6.52

5.36
12.12
7.06

3.47
3.69
4.13

7.62
7.69
12.12

3. 74
5.57
4.55

7.02
8.87
10.66

5.12
7.01
6. 78

8.70
26.92
18.12

8.93
15.15
9.41

8. 48
6. 64
7.30

14.60
14.29
15.31

8.50
9.91
9.24

13.11
14.52
13.61

10.44
11.91
10.83

11.11

3.98

1.83

8.94

3.15

7.00

5.73

11.11

5.97

5.50

11.50

6.30

9.34

8.33

7.85

6.31

3.70

9.88

4.37

8.79

6.29

17.09

8.83

7.32

14.20

8.88

12.55

10.48

9.99
9.44

6.88
7.67

8.42
8.66

9.77

7.15

8.51

t

88204°— 19— B u ll. 251-------13




194

P O P U L A T IO N , D EATH S, AN D D EATH BATES.

PO PU LATION, DEATHS, AND D E A T H BATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
JUGAL CONDITION, S E X , N A T IV IT Y , AN D OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, A N D FOR
AGE GROUP 35 TO 44: PERCENTAG E COMPARISON OF D E A T H R A T E S.

Per cent by which death rates exceeded (-j-) or fell below
(—) rate for all persons.
Tuberculous.
Nativity, race, occupational group, and
workroom group.
Single.

Males.

Both classes.

Married.

Fe­
males.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Both
sexes.

A1Vpersons.............................................................

+172

-3 1

-

3

-

20

+ 23

-

22

i 2.61

Native born....................................................
Foreign born..................................................

+227
+126

-1 8
-4 5

+
-

3
6

-

50
6

+ 47
+ 11

-

41
12

+
-

1
1

Nonoperatives:
Native born....................................................
Foreign born..................................................

+172

-4 6
-5 2

-

16
28

-

+ 79

-

61
33

+ 20
6

-

58
35

-

20
20

Total, nonoperatives.................................

+128

-4 9

-

24

-

42

-

-

43

-

24

Operatives:
Native born....................................................
Foreign born..................................................

+393
+188

+41
-3 6

+ 64
+ 32

+

5

+ 85

2

+ 140
+ 54

+ 21 * + 79
+ 55
+ 54

Total, operatives........................................

+254

-

3

+ 39

+ 68 | + 73

+ 44

+ 61

Irish..................................................................
Non-Irish—
Americans and unspecified...................
English.....................................................
Portuguese..............................................
French Canadians—
Native born.....................................
Foreign born....................................

+659

+43

+283

+262

+402

+i59

+252

+144
+164

+ 9

+ 27
+ 27
+ 18

-

29
57
+ 46

+ 7
+ 46
7

- 43
- 38
+ 25

- 12
+ 7
+ 2

+279

-3 8

+ 98
- 11

+ 56
+ 90

+ 59
+ 31

+ 3
+ 57

+ 41
+ 41

Total, French Canadians.........

+ 197

-4 8

+

7

+ 86

+ 36

+ 51

+ 41

Total, non-Irish...........................

+114

-3 8

+

10

+ 14

+ 24

+

Irish, and French Canadians—
Card-room and spinning-room work­
ers...........................................................
Weave-room workers............................
Spooler - room and miscellaneous
workers.................................................

+271
+534

+84

+ 132

+ 7

+ 50

+282
+102

+ 159
+ 149

+224
+ 65

+ 195
+ 119

-4 4

+ 87

+

8

+ 49

-

+(*>

+411

+ 11

+ 76

+160

+ 143

+ 105

+ 125

Other races—
Card-room and spinning-room work­
ers...........................................................
Weave-room workers.. . .*....................
Spooler - room and miscellaneous
workers.................................................

+ 30
+ 93

-2 5

+ 31
5

-

22
36

+ 31
+ 10

-

+ 10
7

+20

+ 13

-

10

+

2

-

2

Total, other races..............................

+ 59

-3 0

+ 11

-

26

+ 17

-

27

+ (2)

All races—
Card-room workers................................
Spinning-room workers........................
weave-room workers............................
Spooler - room and miscellaneous
workers.................................................

+ 11
+342
+344

+37
+ 16
-1 0

+ 92
+ 13
+ 21

+167
+153
+ 22

+ 82
+ 66
+ 80

+ 133
+ 116
+ 13

+ 104
+ 88
+ 55

-2 4

+ 41

-

2

+ 21

-

-

Total, all races....................................

+254

-

+ 39

+ 66

+ 73

+ 44

Total, Irish, and French Cana­
dians ..............................................

3

Urban whites of registration States and Dis­
trict of Columbia (1911):
Native born....................................................
Foreign bom...................................................
T o t a l...........................................................................




i Basic death rate.

2

18

38
34

10

+

-

15

1

(*)

+ 61

195

DEATHS, ETC., BY SPECIFIED AGE GEOOTS.
NONTUBERCULOUS, A N D A L L CAUSES, IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS,
OPER ATIVES, B Y N A T IV IT Y , RACE, AN D W O R K R O O M GROUP— Continued.

BY

CON-

AGE GROUP 35 TO 44: PER CENTAGE COMPARISON OF D E A T H R A T E S.

Pe^ dent by which death rates exceeded ( + ) or fell below ( —) rate for all persons.

Nontuberculous.
Single.

Married.

All causes.
Single.

Both classes.

Both classes.

Married.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe.
Fe- 1 Both
Fe­
Both
Males. males. Males. males. Males.
Males. males. Males. males. Males.
males. sexes.
males. sexes.
+ 88

-

9

-2 8

+ 15

-ll

+ 10

15.99

+ 114

-1 5

-2 1

+

4

-

+

1

i 8.60

+ 84
+ 92

-

5
12

- 8
-3 7

+ 15
+ 15

+ 11
-2 1

+ 10
+ 10

+10
- 5

+128
+ 102

- 9
-2 2

- 5
-2 8

+

5
8

+ 22
- 12

-

6

+

4

+
-

8
4

+ 114
+ 125

-

(*)

-1 0
-3 1

-

+14
-1 3

-

1
2

+ 7
- 7

+132
+111

-1 4
-4 1

19
8

16

-3 0

-

+

+

1
2

-1 2

37

-

14

-

18
12

-

2
13

+ 119

-

17

-2 3

+

1 i

— 2

-

2

-

2

+ 122

-2 7

-2 3

-

12

-

2

-

14

-

9

-

+ 48

- 14
+ 20

+ (*)
-4 8

+ 93
+ 55

- 1
-3 5

+ 47
+ 47

+24
- 2

+116
+ 90

+ 3
+ 3

+20
-2 4

+ 67
+ 65

+ 42
8

+ 3r

+

5

-3 8

+ €5

-2 7

+ 47

+ 5

+ 99

+ 3

-1 5

+ 65

+

3

+ 46

+ 22

+ iii

-

75

+ 17

+159

+24

+ 119

+83

+277

+65

+74

+ 191

+138

+131

+ 134

5
- 64
+130

-

35
76

-5 4 -

8
+ 41
- 57

—46
-1 3
—33

+

13
8
— 64

-3 3

-

— 3
—43

-

-5 4
-5 0

-2 9
+ 6
—35

- 15
- 30 ; - 22
+ 12 . +
5 6
— 26
— 25 — 37

- ( 2)

—71
-5 6

+241
+ 84

—54
-4 3

5

+ 1»

+

32

+

9

1

+ 39
+ 49

—41

34
1
+141

+ 65

+ 7
+ 1

— 17
+ 107

-

5

—20
-4 2

+ 185
+ 86

— 19
- 21

+ 89
+ 63

+ 126

4

-

+ 40
+ 15

-

27

— 28

+
+

17
13

+ 29

— 10

-5 8

+103

-4 5

+ 73

+ 2

+ 80

—21

-3 8

+ 98

-

20

+ 66

+

14

+

4

— 45

—41

+ 40

—35

+ 20

+14

+ 37

-4 3

-2 5

+ 32

-

17

+ 14

+

5

+ 115
+ 28

+ 87
+ 87

-3 7
-5 1

+ 33
+ 215

- 8
-3 5

+ 49

+ 164

+ 24
+35

+163
+181

+86
+63

+15
-2 0

+109
+181

+ 43 : +102
+ 21 +134

+ 76
+ 60

+218

-

27

—59

+ 159

-

3

+ 68

+49

+ 122

-3 2

-1 5

+ 113

+

13

+ 42

+ 34

+ 67

+ 45

-4 8

+ 126

-2 5

+ 96

+34

+171

+35

-1 0

+137

+ 26

+ 99

+ 61

+ 13
- 16

—43
-1 2

+ 19
+ 20

—37
-1 3

—
+

6

-

1

—28
- 8

+ 18
+ 17

-5 4 :

—20
-1 0

+
+

7
3

— 17
6

— 16
- 10

— 16
7

67

— 48

-7 5

-

41

-7 8

-

43

-5 7

-2 7

—49

-

32

-

54

-

31

-

40

-

70

-3 1

+

5

-2 9

-

12

-2 2

+

8

-5 8

-1 8

-

4

-

15

-

17

-

16

3
+157
+ 9

-

11

-4 2
-3 8
-3 1

+ 27
+ 28
+102

-3 8
- 7
-2 4

+ 17
+ 48
+ 78

-1 5

+
1
+213
+ 111

+ 4
+76
+ 9

- 1
-2 3

+ 70
+ w
+ 78

+ 85

-

34

-6 9

+ 49

—47 : + 17

-

+ 29

-3 1

-3 6

+ 34

-

27

+ 31

+

5

-3 8

+ 65

-2 7

+ 5

+

+ 3

-1 5

+ 65

+

3

+ 46

+ 22

+ 16
+ 10

— 20
- 11

+

2
1

+ 14

-

-

1

-

14

+ 102
+ 18,




+ 47

2

+ 17
+13,

4

99

Less than 1 per cent.

-1 5

1
+ 15
+ 7

+ 52
+ 60
+ 58

+

9

17

+ 21
+ 38
+ 26

-

-

3

196

PO P U L A T IO N , D E ATH S, AN D D E A TH RATES.

PO PULATION, D EATH S, AN D D E A T H R ATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
JUGAL CONDITION, S E X , N A T IV IT Y , AN D OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AN D FOR
AGE GROUP 15 TO 44: POPULATION A N D D E A T H S.

Population.
Nativity, race, occupational group, and
workroom group.

Single.

Males.

Married.

Both classes.

Fe­
Males. Fe­
males.
males.

Males.

All persons........................................................ 14,626 15,588 15,305 17,221
Native born............................................... 8,735
Fnrftign horn______ __________________ 5,891

Females.

Both
sexes.

29,931

32,809

62, 740

13,803 .
16,128

15,475
17,334

29,278
33,462

9,795
8,848

9,572 5,068 5,903
6,016 10,237 11,318

9,406
10,193

19,201
19,041 .

18,643

19,599

38,242

N onoperatives—
___________

5,864
2,810

4,790
2,178

3,931
6,038

Total, nonoperatives...........................

8,674

6,968

9,969 12,631 |

2,871
3,081

4,782
3,838

1,137
4,199

1,287
3,303

4,008
7,280

6,069
7,141

10,077
14,421

5,952

8,620

5,336

4,590

11,288

13,210

24,498

425
Irish............................................................
Non-Irish—
Americans and unspecified............ 1,405
English................................................ 1,013
Portuguese.......................................... 1,510
French Canadians—
941
Native born................................
658
Foreign born..............................

1,147

1,642

2,410

F o re ig n born , , T. _ _ _ ______

Operatives—

Total, operatives..................................

343~

4,616
8,015

495

768~

1,807
1,624
1,598

1,144
919
1,521

878
917
1,157

2,549
1,932
3,031

2,685
• 2,541
2,755

5,234
4,473
5,786

1,383
1,061

325
1,084

319
824

1,266
1,742

1,702
1,885

2,968
3,627

1,599

2,444

1,409

1,143

3,008

3,587

6,595

Total, non-Irish..................... 5,527

7,473

4,993

4,095

10,520

11,568

22,088

Total, French Canadians. . .

Irish, and French Canadians—
Card-room and spinning-room
workers...........................................
Weave-room workers.......................
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers............................................

801
905

1,298
992

534
1,061

773
519

1,335
1,966

2,071
1,511

3,406
3,477

318

1,301

157

346

475

1,647

2,122

Total, Irish, and French Cana­
dians ............................................

2,024

3,591

1,752

1,638

3,776

5,229

9,005

Other races—
Card-room and spinning-room
workers............................................
Weave-room workers......................
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers............................................

1,856
1,636

2,034
1,678

1,624
1,644

1,214
1,088

3,480
3,280

3,248
2,766

6,728
6,046

436

1,317

316

650

752

1,967

2,719

Total, other races............................

3, 928

5,029

3,584

2,952

7,512

7,981

15,493

1,413
1,919
2,670

1,260
898
2,705

1,031
956
1,607

1,997
2,818
5,246

2,444
2,875
4,277

4,441
5,693
9,523

All races—
737
Card-room workers..........................
Spinning-room workers................... 1,920
Weave-room workers...................... 2,541
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
754
workers............................................
5, 952

Total, all races...............................

2,618

473

996

1,227

3,614

4,841

8,620

5,336

4,590

11,288

13,210

24,498

Urban whites of registration States and
District of Columbia (1911): 2
Native born...............................................
Foreign bom .............................................
Total........................................................




1 Less than 1 per cent.

12,409,747
5, 929,022
9 359 988 8 Q 481 18,338,769
7Q
'
’
r

197

D E A TH S, E T C ., B Y SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS.
NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES, IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS,
OPERATIVES, B Y N A T IV IT Y , RACE, AND W ORK R OO M GROUP— Continued.

BY

CON-

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44: POPULATION AND D E A T H S.

Percentage distribution of the total.
Deaths
(both classes).

Population.
Deaths
(both classes).
Single.

Males. Females.

Both
sexes.

Both classes.

Married.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Both
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. sexes.

Fe­
Males. males. Both
sexes.

846

985

1,831

23

25

25

27

48

52

100

46

54

100

395
451

435
550

830
1,001

14
9

16
9

8
17

9
18

22
26

25
27

47
53

21
25

24
30

45
55

282
236

226
278

508
514

10
4

8
3

6
10

7
13

16
14

15
16

31
30

15
13

13
15

28
28

518

504

1,022

14

.11

16

20

30

31

61

28

28

56

113
215

209
272

322
487

4
5

8
6

2
7

2
5

6
12

10
11

16
23

6
12

11
15

17
27

328

481

809

9

14

9

7

18

21

39

18

26

44

52

117

169

1

2

1

1

3

4

2

7

9

61
72
53

61
80
75

122
152
128

2
2
2

3
3
2

2
1
3

1
1

4
3
5

4
4
4

8
7
9

4
4
3

3
4
4

7
8
7

25
65

58
90

83
155

1
1

2
2

1
2

1
1

2
3

3
3

5
6

2
3

3
5

5
8

0)

90

148

238

2

4

3

2

5

6

11

5

8

13

276

364

640

8

12

9

6

17

18

35

16

19

35

60
72

121
84

181
156

1
1

2
2

1
2

2
1

2
3

4
3

6
6

3
4

7
5

10
9

10

60

70

1

2

1

2

3

3

3

142

265

407

3

6

3

3

6

9

15

7

15

22

85
91

97
64

182
155

3
3

3
3

2
3

2
1

5
6

5
4

10
10

5
5

5
3

10
8

0)

(*)

0)

10

55

65

2

1

1

1

3

4

1

3

4

186

216

402

6

8

6

4

12

12

24

11

11

22

53
92 ;
163

109
109
148

162
201
311

1
3
4

2
3
5

2
1
5

2
2
2

3
4
9

4
5
7

7
9
16

3
5
9

6
6
8

9
11
17

0)

20

115

135

1

4

1

1

2

5

7

1

6

7

328

481

809

9

14

9

7

18

21

39

18

26

44

54,233

41,067

95,300

67
33

68
32

63,668
31,632
51

49

100

57

43

100

a These figures are compiled from the Thirteenth Census, Vols. I, II, and III, Population, 1910. In ascer­
taining figures for 1911 the average yearly per cent of increase from 1900 to 1910, as shown on p. 32, Vol. I,
was added to the figures for 1910.




198

P O P U L A T IO N , D E A TH S, A N D D EATH RATES.

POPULATION, D EATH S, A N D D E A T H K ATES PER 1,000 FROM T U B E R C U L O U S ,
JUGAL CONDITION, S E X , N A T IV IT Y , A N D OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, AN D FOB
AGE GROUP 15 TO 44: D E A T H B A T E S PER 1,000 (AGE A D JU STE D ).

Tuberculous.
Nativity, race, occupational group, and
workroom group.

Single.

Males.

All persons.... . .............. .
Native bora...................................................
Nonoperatives:
Native bom ....................................................
Tdtal, nonoperatives................................
Operatives:
Native b om ....................................................

Married.

Fe­
males.

Fe­
Males, i males.

Both classes.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Both
sexes.

3.03

1.77

1.81 ;

2.77

1.94

2.18

2.08

3.27
2.85

1.84
1.64

1.62 ,
1.92

3.06
259

2.00
1.97

2.12
2.16

2.06
2.08

3.09
1.97

1.35
1.29

1.39
1.61

1.82
1.14

1.90
1.38

1.45 ;
1.19

1.65
1.28;

2.63

1.36

1.50

1.42

1.64

i .3 8 :

1.49

3.67
3.84

2.41
1.77

2.29
2.36

6.31
5.22

2.22
2.63

3.19
3.35 ,

2.88
3.01

Total, operatives.......................................

3.70

2.09

2.36

5.56

2.47

3.34 |

2.98

Irish.................................................................
Non-Irish—
Americans and unspecified..................
English...................................................
Portuguese........................ .....................
French Canadians—
Native born.....................................
Foreign b om ....................................

6-95

2.58

3.24

13.37

ir & r

4.97

S. 29

1.99
2.70
222

1.83
1.80
.57

2.11
1.26
1.77

3.68
3.13
4.59

2.02
2.14
1.60

2.43 *
2.36 '
2.83

2.22
2.33
2.13

1.00
S. 68

1.54
3.24

3.40
3.82

7.38
8.32

1.74
3.67

3.17
4.68

2.66
4.32

Total, French Canadians..........

4.09

2.64

3.65

7.96

2.79

4.07

3.57

Total, non-Irish..........................

2.92

1.94

2.22

4.86

2.15

2.98

2.63

5.16
5.72 *

4.25
1.80

6.02
3.23

9.5$
11.33

4.62
2.96

6.22
3.89

'5.59
3.49

Irish, and French Canadians—
Card-room and spinning - r o o m
workers......................... - ...............
Weave-room workers...... .....................
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers........................ ......................

.88

1.92

.95

761

1.57

2.90

2.65

Total, Irish, and French Canadians.

5.18

2.71

3.79

9.37

3.47

4.51

4.15

Other races—
Card-room and spinning - r o o m
workers.................................................
Weave-room workers............... ...........
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers......................... - .....................

1.96
2.74

.87
1.03

1.61
2.00

4.87
3.26

1.94
2.02

3.00

2.48
1.82

.58

2.97

4.55

3.17

1.34

3.10

2.60

Total, other races..............................

2.26

1.59

1.86

3.91

1.90

2.47

2.22

All races—
Card-room workers........ .......................
Spinning-room workers........................
Weave-room workers............................
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers........... ...................................

1.39
5.10
4.33

2.63
2.59
1.29

1.52
2.95
2.39

6.00
680
5.20

2.04
3.35
2.47

4.62
4.24
2.38

3.44
3.79
2.49

Total, all races...................................
Urban whites of registration States and
District of Columbia (1911):
Native bom ....................................................
Foreign born..................................................
Total.............................................................




1.51

.70

2.34

2.97

4.48

1.43

3.00

2.62

3.70

2.09

2.36 !

5.56

2.47

3.34

2.98

|
j

199

D E ATH S, E T C ., B Y SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS.
NONTUBERCULOUS, A N D A L L CAUSES, IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS, B Y
O PER ATIVES, B Y N A T IV IT Y , RACE, AN D W O RK R O O M GROUP—Continued.

CON-

A G E G R O U P 15 T O 44: D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 (A G E -A D J U S T E * )).

All causes.

N ontuberculous.
Married.

Single.

Single.

Both classes.

Married.

Both classes.

Fe­
Both
Fe­
Fe­
Both
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. sexes. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. sexes.
4.81

2.45

2.59

4.28

3.19

3.35

3.27

7.84

4.22

4.40

7.05

5.13

5.53

5.35

4.84
4.76

2.62
2.26

3.21
2.27

5.03
3.83

3.68
2.89

3.45
3.30

3.56
3.09

8.11
7.61

4.46
3.90

4.83
4.19

8.14
6.42

5.68
4.86

5.57
5.46

5.62
5.17

5.00
6.90

2.55
2.15

3.35
2.72

3.32
2.77

3.57
2.93

2.91
2.78

3.25
2.88

8.09
8.87

3.90
3.44

4.74
4.33

5.14
3.91

5.47
4.31

4.36
3.97

4.90
4.16

4.98

2.31

2.97

2.99

3.18

2.83

3.02

7.61

3.67

4.47

4. 41

4.82

4.21

4.51

4.14
4.45

2.68
2.58

2.85
1.71

10.03
5.79

3.82
2.78

4.66
4.14

4.28
3.32

7.81
8.29

5.09
4.35

5.04
4.07

16.34
11.01

6.04
5.41

7.85
7. 49

7.16
6.33

4.38

2.67

1.96

7.03

3.10

4.33

3.62

8.08

4.76

4.32

12.59

5.57

7.67

6.60

4.33

6.46

5.81

12.02

6.94

6.15

28.27

9.92

11.43

11.10

5.07

4.36

2.91

14.90

4.19
5.27
4.13

1.67
1.79
.64

1.19
5.65
1.50

3.55
6.55
4.84

2.80
5.03
1.99

2.56
3.88
3.18

2.59
4.27
2.55

6.18
7.97
6.35

3.50
3.59
1.21

3.30
6.91
3.27

7.23
9.68
9.43

4.82
7.17
3.59

4.99
6.24
6.01

4.81
6.60
4.68

3.89
4.72

1.66
2.29

1.07
1.32

13.85
7.07

2.65
3.35

5.54
4.21

3.79
3.56

4. 89
10.40

3.20
5.53

4.47
5.14

21.23
15.39

4.39
7.02

8.71
8.89

6.45
7.88

4.18

2.22

1.27

9.83

2.93

4.55

3.59

8.27

4.86

4.92

17.79

5.72

8.62

7.16

4.09

1.79

1.89

6.33

2.97

3.78

3.26

7.01

3.73

4.11

11.19

5.12

6.76

5.89

5.82
3.82

3.84
3.64

1.72
1.61

9.87
13.97

4.11
2.86

5.25
5.93

4.79
4.01

10.98
9.54

8.09
5.44

7.75
4.84

19.42
25.30

8.73
5.82

11.47
9.82

10.38
7.50

5.51

2.70

.48

10.50

2.44

4.61

4.11

6.39

4.62

1.43

18.11

4.01

7.51

6.76

4.61

3.37

1.54

11.13

3.27

5.34

4.34

9.79

6.08

5.33

20.50

6.74

9.85

8.49

4.57
3.91

1.16
1.17

1.60
2.96

5.44
5.56

3.02
3.26

3.65
3.25

3.18
3.20

6.53
6.65

2.03
2.20

3.21
4.96

10.31
8.82

4.96
5.28

6.65
4.76

5.66
5.02

1.75

1.98

.29

3.70

1.33

3.27

2.35

2.33

4.95

4.84

6.87

2.67

6.37

4.95

4.00

1.50

2.08

5.18

3.01

3.36

3.10

6.26

3.09

3.94

9.09

4.91

5.83

5.32

4.09
6.69
3.97

3.12
3.41
2.48

1.13
2.18
2.54

5.61
7.65
7.77

3.09
3.92
3.08

4.41
4.70
4.41

3.57
4.26
3.55

5.48
11.88
8.30

5.75
6.00
3.77

2.65
5.13
5.93

11.61
14.45
12.97

5.13
7.27
5.55

9.03
8.94
6.79

7.01
8.05
6.04

3.96

2.38

.35

6.07

1.77

3.76

3.19

4.66

4.72

3.32

10.55

3.20

6.76

5.81

4.38

2.67

1.96

7.03

3.10

4.33

3.62

8.08

4.76

4.32

12.59

5.57

7.67

6.60

6.76
5.68

4.51
4.12

4.87
4.88

5.28

4.30

4.78




200

P O P U L A T IO N , D E ATH S, AN D D E A TH RATES.

POPULATION, D EATHS, AN D D E A T H R ATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
JUGAL CONDITION, S E X , N A T IV IT Y , AN D OCCUPATIONAL GROUP, A N D FOR
AGE GROUP 15 TO 44: PER CENTAG E COMPARISON OF D E A T H RATES.

Per cent by which age-adjusted death rate^xceeded ( + )
or fell below ( —) rate for all persons.

Tuberculous.
Nativity, race, occupational group, and
workroom group'

Single.

Married.

Fe­
Males. males.
All persons.

15

+ 46

Males.

-

13

Native born..
Foreign born.

+

57
+ 37

- 22
- 8

Nonoperatives:
Native born..
Foreign born.

+ 49
+
5

-

33
23

-

Both classes.

Fe­
males.
+ 33

28

Total, nonoperatives.
Operatives:
Native born..
Foreign born.

+ 76
+ 85

+ 10

+ 16
- 15

Fe­
Males. males. Both
-

7

5

12.08

- 1
+ (2
)

- 12

- 21

-

30
43

- 21

-

-

34

+ 7
+ 26

+ 53
+ 61

+ 38
+ 45

45

+ 13

+203
+151

78

- ( 2)

13

+ 167

19

+ 61

+ 43

+234

+ 24

+ 56

+543

+169

+139

+154

+ 12
+ 2
+ 28
+ 108

Total, operatives.
Irish.................................................
Non-Irish—
Americans and unspecified.
English..
Portuguese.
French CanadiansNative born...
Foreign born..

- 12 +

1

39
15

+ 121

+ 3
- 23

+ 17
+ 13
+ 36

- 26
+ 56

+ 63
+ 84

+255
+ 300

- 16
+ 76

+ 52
+ 125

4
+ 30
+
7

-

- 52
+ 173

-

13
73

+ 77
+ 50

Total, French Canadians.

+

+ 27

+ 75

+283

+ 34

Total, non-Irish..................

+ 40

-

+

+184

+

+ 148
+ 175

+ 104
- 13

+189
+ 55

+359
+445

-

-

-

54

+266

+ 82

-

23

-

Irish, and French Canadians—
Card-room and spinning-r o o m
workers................................................
Weave-room workers............................
Spooler-room, and miscellaneous
workers................................................
Total, Irish, and French Canadians
Other races—
Card-room and spinning-room work­
ers........................................................ .
Weave-room workers............................
Spooler-room and miscellaneous
workers...............................................

97

58

+149

Card-room workers.
Spinning-room workers..................... .
Weave-room workers.......................... .
Spooler-room a n d miscellaneous
workers............................................... .

+
-

- 33
+ 150
+108

- 66
+ 78

Total, all races.

8

+ 30

72
9

7

32

+

Total, other races.

All races—

43

-

+ 26
+ 25
+

72
26

+ 199
+ 87

+ 169

+ 42
-

+ 39

+ 27

+ 350

+ 117

+ 100

4

+134
+ 57

+ 26
- 27

+ 19

+119

+ 52

+122

25

+ 68

- 12

36

+ 49

+ 25

- 27
+ 42
+ 15

-

9

+ 19

+

-

4- 61
+ 19

13

+115

-

(2
)

+ 167

i Basic death rate.

7

96

3

+188
+227
+ 150

Total.

+

+ 43

7

24

Urban whites of registration States and
District of Columbia (1911):
Native born..................................................
Foreign bora.................................................




+

+ 47
+ 25

31

2 +122

7

+ 65
+ 82

+104
+ 14

+ 20

+ 44

+ 26

+ 01

+

43

D EATH S, E T C ., B Y SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS.

201

NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L CAUSES, IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS, B Y CONOPER ATIVES, B Y N A T IV IT Y , RACE, AND W ORK R O O M GROUP—Concluded.
AGE GROUP 15 TO 44: PERCENTAGE COMPARISON OF D E A T H R ATES.

Per cent’

which age-adjusted death rates exceeded ( + ) or fell below (—) rate for all persons.

N ontuberculous.
Single.

Married.

Both classes.

Males.

Fe­
Fe­
Males. males.
males.

+ 47

-

+ 4«
+ 46

_ 20
- 31

+ 53

25

-

All causes.

Fe­
Males. males. Both
sexes.

Married.

Both classes.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Both
sexes.

21

+ 31

-

2

+

2

i 3.27

+ 47

— 21

-

18

+ 32

-

4

+

3

i 5.35

2
31

+ 55+ 17

+ 13
— 13

+
+

6
1

+
-

9
6

+ 52
+ 42

_ 17
- 27

_ 10
— 22

+ 52
+ 20

+ 6
— 9

+

+

4

2

+
-

5
3

+

+ 8
— 11

-

11
15

-

1
12

+ 51
+ 66

27
36

4

+

-

11
19

-

-

-

27

2
19

-

19
26

-

8
22

3

-

13

-

8

+ 42

-

31

-

16

-

18

-

10

— 21

— 16

6
— 24

+205
+106

+ 13
+ 1

+ 47
+ 40

+ 34
+ 18

+ 111

-

22
34

+ 2
- 17

-

2
15

+ 52

-

29

-

9

-

9

+ 27
+ 36

-

18
21

-

13
48

+ 34

-

18

-

40

+115

-

+ 55

+ 33

-

11

+356

+ 28
+ 61
+ 26

49
45
80

64
+ 73
- 54

+ 9
+ 100
+ 48

_ 14
+ 54
— 39

+ 19
+ 44

_
_
“
_
-

49
30

-

67
60

+ 324
+ 116

+

+ 28

-

32

-

61

+201

-

45

-

42

+ 94

+ 78' + 17
+ 17 + 11

-

47
51

+202
+327

+ 25

Single.

-

+207

+ 77

-

+ 16
— 16

+ 43
+ 27

+ 31
+ 2

+ 46
+ 55

-

5
19

5

+ 32

+ 11

+ 51

-

11

19

+135

+

4

+ 43

+ 23

+ 32

+ 98

+ 78

+125

+ 30

+ 15

+428

+ 87

+114

+107

-

22
+ 19
3

-

-21
+ 31
- 22

+ 16
+ 49
+ 19

_ 35
— 33
— 77

_ 38
+ 29
— 39

+ 35
+ 81
+ 76

_ 10
+ 34
— 33

7
+ 17
+ 12

-

19
2

+ 69
+ 29

+ 16
+ 9

9
+ 94

_ 40
+ 3

_ 16
— 4

+ 297
+ 188

_ 18
+ 31

+ 63
+ 66

+ 21
+ 47

10

+ 39

+ 10

+ 55

-

8

+233

+

7

+ 61

+ 34

9

+ 16

4

+ 26

+ 10

+ 26
— 13

+ 61
+ 81

+ 46
+ 23

_(*)_ + 31

9

-

-

10
+ 23
- 13

30

23

+ 105
+ 78

+ 51
+ 2

+ 45
— 10

+263
+373

+ 63
+ 9

+ 114
+ 84

+ 94
+ 40

-

+ 69

-

17

-

85

+220

-

25

+ 41

+ 26

+

73

+239

-

25

+ 40

+ 26

+ 41

+

3

-

53

+240

+ (2)

+ 63

+ 33

+ 83

+ 14

+ (2)

+283

+ 26

+ 84

+ 59

+ 40
+ 20

-

65
64

-

51
9

+ 66
+ 70

-

8
(2)

+ 12
1

-

+ 22
+ 24

62
— 59

40
— 7

+ 93
+ 65

7
— 1

+ 24
- 11

+
-

6
6

-

-

39

-

91

+ 12

-

58

+ (2)

— 28

-

-

+ 19

-

7

-

54

-

34

+ 58

-

8

+

-

+ 17

+

-

1

-

65
33
22

+134
+138

6
+ 20
6
-

+ 35
+ 44
+ 35

+ 9
+ 30
+ 9

+

+

5
4
24

+ 72

+105
+ 21
+ 21

-

27

-

89

+

-

46

+ 15

-

46

+ 22

-

-

18

-

40

86

+115

-

5

3

+ 32

2

+ 11

10

+ 28

-

50

26

+ 70

-

8

2
+ 122
+ 55

+ 7
+ 12
— 30

50
— 4
+ 11

+ 117
+170
+ 142

4
+ 36
+ 4

+ 69
+ 67
+ 27

+ 31
+ 50
+ 13

-

-

-

38

+ 97

-

30

+ 26

+

-

19

+ 135

+

4

+ 43

+ 23

- 16
— 23

-

_

-

56

13

2

7

12
11

+ 51

1
i

1
........... 1
............




5

42

+ 26
+ 6

+ 25

+ 34

3
2

19

14

+109 |

Less than 1 per cent.

-

1

9

20

9

9
9

- 11
----------







G E N E R A L

T A B L E S

203

204

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b le 1.—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF OPERATIVES OF ALL RACES

GROUP

NUMBER.

Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Workroom and occupational
groups.

15 to 19
years.

14 years.

20 to 24
years.

2 > to 29
J
years.

j
30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Mal^g. males.
Picker room...............................
Card room..................................
Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame. - Spinners, mule.................
Miscellaneous..................
Total.................................

1
30

86

26

80

121

9
250

36
318

661

55
365

247 1,023
27
487 ........3

641

163
28
191

385

964

5

286
5
816

147

85

1,107

975

761

1,026

3
6

19
32
7
31

412
111
41
198

19
24
18
19

11

413

52
324

**302’
238

2

135
37
73

382

387

245

239

360
122
79
115

19
6
20
4

228
83
59
65

13
4
12
3

132
70
45
30

1

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders................
Winders and reelers..........
Slasher
tenders
and
helpers.............................
Miscellaneous...................

13

44
15
2
17

3
32

13

21
162

44

31
57

42

33
34

19

43
28

10

Total.................................

57

91

272

806

168

718

116

454

103

287

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers......................
Miscellaneous.....................

83

120

7

640
110
36

499

18

798
80
37

740

47

958
58
36

1,080

11

792
8
156

1,001

50

Total.................................

13a

131

956

1,048

1,052

1,098

915

747

786

502

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees.......

6
2

8

101
17

53
24

243
50

33
29

152
25

34
23

61
11

Grand total.....................

376

401

2,712

2,412

3,796

1,895

2,178

1,567

1,402

278
15.
3,763

3

PER CENT IN EACH WORKROOM AND OCCUPATION.
Picker room.............................
Card room..................................
Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame...
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................
Total.................................
Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers.........
Slasher
tenders
and
helpers..............................
Miscellaneous.....................

0)

8

21

7

20

32

1

39

21

1
2

11
4
1
4

3

0)

9

i7

11

26

0)

30

0)

10
1
20

18
27
.0 )

41

26

31

27

1
1

11
3
1
5

1
1
1
1

10
3
2
3

1

1
2

0)

1

1
8

3

1
6

Total.................................

15

23

10

21

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

22

30

29

27

13

3

(1)6

Total.................................

35

33

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees........

2
1

2

Grand total.....................

100

100




2
13

3
19
9
1
10

3

19

21

18

9
2
5

0)

20

18

1

10
4
3
3

0)

l

0)

22
17
0)

16

17

1

9
5
3
2

C)
1

1

C
1)

1

2
2

1

3
2

1

7

19

6

21

7

20

40
2
2

28

41
7
2

36

1

42
4
2

34

1

35

28

44

29

48

34

4
1

8

2
1

6
1

2
2

7
1

100

100

100

100

100

0)
h xT

i Less than 1 per cent.

0)

50
2
1 |
100

0)
36
4
1
100

205

GENERAL TABLES.

EM PLO YED IN SPECIFIE D W ORKROOM S AND OCCUPATIONS, B Y AGE
A N D SE X .
NUM BER.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.
35 to 39
years.

Males.

50
269

15 to 44
years.

40 to 44
years.

45 to 54
years.

55 to 64
years.

65 years and
over.

Total (14 to 65
years and
over).

Fe­
Fe­
Mates. Fe­
Males. Fe­
Males. males. Males. Fe­
Males. Fe­
Males. Fe­
males.
males.
males.
males.
males.
males.

235

63
206

192

265
1,732

2,444

91
206

229

2,804

3

1

48

107

2

31

1

3,358

3,011

83
25
33
14

3
2
2
1

13
3
5

1
1

2

125
80
89
78

1,475
501
327
474

130

41
25

4

15
19
42

45

1
171

126

77

2,818

2,875

255

118
40
29
21

13

83
32
34
13

97
69
73
61

1,333
458
287
442

22
2
13
3

3

205
317

7
2

402
2,066

1,084
2,984
282
1,992 ........27

51
87
117

14
3
9
2

3

1
4
26

991 2,857
155
1,672 " ’ ’ is"

197

3
19

2

77

170

42

15
36
56

57
27
42

103
31
63

42
79

48
12

12

29
24

88

220

75

165

822

2,650

106

159

646
146
35

509

542
118
50

371

77

857
171
88

511

1

4,376
520
350

4,200

1

827

510

710

372

5,246

4,277

1,116

513

28
23

>9
6
13

22
18

36
11

271
131

839
125

35
23

482

1,218

1,220

853 |11,288 13,210

1,832

1

270
406

6
13

147

21

21

3

1,048

2,924

298
152
41
69 ........2

58
3
32

19

5,672
735
589

5,002

408

154

93

19

6,996

5,094

24
17

21
5

8
1

6

1
1

339
164

880
144

990

704

228

173

28 14,373

14,857

2

92

P E R CENT IN EACH WORKROOM AND OCCUPATION.
3
18
7
2
4

19
14

14

1

10
3
2
2

1
C)

2
15

19

9

9
1
15

10

9

25

22

1

10
4
4
1

1

10
4
2
3

1
0)

3
1

1

2
2

6

18

6

44
10
2

42

44
10
4

0)

23

5
2
3

0)

13

(i)

5
17

(i)

1
0)

5
11

22

3
5
6

23

6
11

2
11

19

1

1
2
15

4

8
2
14

14

5

15

1

18

4

24

20

1

8
3
3
2

1

6
1
2

i
l

1

10
4
2
3

(0

0)

0)

1

0)

0)
i1)
0)
2
3

1

19

7

20

6

16

6

9

12

44

39
5
3

31

47
9
5

52

42
6
10

67

1

1

0)

0)

42

58

44

47

32

61

52

58

2
2

6
1

2
2

4
1

3
1

6
1

2
1

2
2

3
1

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100 j

7
G)
4

2
2

0)

3
14

2
5
8

2
3

0)

11

5

56




18

100

3
7

1

C
1)

20
(*)

2
3

1

11

7

20

34
2
18

68

40
5
4

33

68

54

68

49

34

4

3

3
3

2
1

6
1

100

100

100

100

0)
100 j

1

206

GENERAL, TABLES.

T a b l e 2 . — D E A T H S P R O M T U B E R C U L O U S , N O N T U B E R C l fL O U S , A N D A L L

WORKROOMS AND OCCUPATIONS, BY AGE
D E A T H S: T U B E R C U L O U S.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Workroom and occupational
groups.

14 years.

;

15 to 19
years.

25 to "29
years..

20 to 24
years.

Fe­
fe ­
FeMales. males. Males,; males. : Males.; Fe- ;
males. ^ - j n S T e s .
males.

Males.

\
s
_ ____ 1. ____

S

1

Card rooni. . . .........................

6

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame
Spinners, mule-_________
Miscellaneous........ „ ..........

4

Total................................

5

13

1

1
3

9
1

1

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders. . . » ..........
Drawers-in.........................
Warper tenders................. ■
* Winders and reelers_____
Slasher tenders and help­
ers......... ............. ............
Miscellaneous........

13

14

2
1
9

21

12

21

2

14

4

9

4

8

3
4
2

7

8

9

7

4
8 :

4
2
1
3

1

8
2

1
2
2
1

10

6

1
1

Total....... ............ ............

1

11

1

11

6

Weave room:
Weavers.... ............ ............
Loom fixers........... .
Miscellaneous___________

6

8
1

17

i

.

---------- .---------- ..

Cloth room......... .......................
Miscellaneous employees-___
Grand total__ _________

1

6

7

2
1

Total................................

30 to 34
years.

2
3

15

42

11
2

7

1
9

18

13

7

9
1

6

10

€
4j

1
64

23

40

23

32

10

5

8

2

13

2
1
9

9

3
1
5

13

1

7

12

9

9

13

2

4
4

26

D E A T H S : JTOJSTTUBERCrOXOUS.
Picker room.............................
Card room..................................
Spinning Toom:
Spinners, ring or frame
Spinners, m u l e . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous.....................

1

Total................................

!
1 1

1

1

1

i
7

7

4

13

12

1
2

4

16

13

1

3

3

1
2

1

2

6

4

2

12

6

1

5

10

13
1
1

15

16 .
2

19

1
11

15

15

18

19

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in.........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders arid reelers.____
Slasher tenders and help­
ers.....................................
Miscellaneous___ _______

7

1

Total................................

5

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers...............
Miscellaneous.....................

2 ,

Total.................................

4
i

11 .

2~

5

11
2~'

1

Grand total.....................




10
^=■=^7

37

1
~32~

1

4

4,

2

Cloth room.............................
Miscellaneous employees........

9

28

J"
1

1
35

10

31

53

T
1
25*

53~

207

GENERAL, TABLES.

CAUSES, OP OPERATIVES OF ALL RACES EMPLOYED IN SPECIFIED
GROUP AND SEX, 1908 TO 1912.
DEATHS: TtrBEECTTLOUS.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.
35 to 39
years.

40 to 44
years.

45 to 54
years.

15 to 44
years.

55 to 64
years.

65 years and
over.

Total (14 to 65
years and
over).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. Fe­
males.
2
3

8

2
1

5

5

4
20
12
10
19

2

41

1

56

1

25
5
3
8

1
2

1
2

1
5

56

2
4
4

4
2

56

2

5

3

1
8

2

20
3

6

12
1

23

6

1
1

1

33

21

4 '

28

56

50

56

1

27
5
4
8

1

1
1

4
1

1

1

42

1

2

1

1

6

45

48

11
1

3

2

4

79
9
1

55

4

89

58

4
3

9
3

6 '
!
1

66
- 8

7 i

74:

51

3
2

9
3

148

217

18

13
17
20

1

1 i
:

13

61

3

6

3
3

9
23

2

2
1

1
1

1

1

3
12

3

3
1
1

25

7

10

3

7

1

184

232

19

8

13
55

93

3

18
28
42

55

3

88

57

5
2

40
10
7
6

D E A T H S : NONTTTBERCTTLOTTS.
2
4

5
6 24

1
4

3
1
1

7

5

7

1

53

16
4
31

52

1
5
3

1

1
16
7

2

1

4

4

51

53

9

1

24

2

5
2
1

2
2

29
8
4
6

6
1
3

3

3
1

19

6

4

2

1
1

18
2

47

4

10

9

4

2

2

22

63

28

74
8
7

96

47
8
1

52

32
6
11

17

16
2
2

6

169
24
23

171

1
97

56

52

49

17

20

6

216

172

7
17

13
7

418

405

28

89

1
40

13
2

7

20

2

2
2

9 i
5 I

4 j
5 1

3
1

1
9

1
1

1

30

51

180

264 |

90 j

87

110

44

34

1
29~

2

8

7

15

2
16

1

2
1

19

20

3

2

10
3
2

6
6

3
1

5
2

3

9




8

1

G EN ERAL TABLES.

208

T able 2 ___D EATH S FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L
W ORKROOM S AN D OCCUPATIONS, B Y AG E
DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Workroom and occupational
groups.

15 to 19
years.

14 years.

20 to 24
years.

25 to 29
years.

30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. Fe­ Males. Fe­
males.
males.

1

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................

1

Total................................

1

2
1

1
7

13

5

26

.21

26

2

Picker room...............................
Card room
..................................

12
1
1
3

16
1

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
D rawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers..........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers .....................................
Miscellaneous...........

2
5

24

7

22

6

22

4
2
18

30

7
1
9

21

4
4
6

14

24

30

17

21

14

14

2

12
4

7
2
2
3

6

1
1

1

.

1

.

.

17

1

15

2

22

19
1

27

24
3
1

22

25
3

25

2

28

22

28

25

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

12

11

2

4

1

Total................................

2

16

12

20

29

2
2

2
4

2

1

52

74

54

99

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees........




.

3

Total................................

Grand total.....................

10
2
3
1

4

3

I

5
1
54

93 j

16

7
1
48 j

85

209

GENERAL TABLES.

CAUSES, OF OPERATIVES OP ALL RACES EMPLOYED IN SPECIFIED
GROUP AND SEX, 1908 TO 1912— Concluded.
D E A T H S ; A L L CAUSES.

Operatives of specified age group and sex.
35 to 39
years.

40 to 44
years.

15 to.44
years.

55 to 64
years.

45 to 54
years.

65 years and
years.

Total (14 to 65
years and
over).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. Fe­
males. Males. males.
4
7

14

5
2
1

12

8

12

1

2
12

9
44

109

10
8

22

2
17

5

28
14
50

108
1

2
10
3

1

1
18
8

8

6

92

109

15

1

27

2

7
2
1
1

3
2

54
13
7
14

7
1
4

3

22
78
31
45
62

111

3

138

113

6
2

67
15
U
14

2

1

1
8

3

21

3
5

4
1

6
2

2

ii

2

5

5
1

1

2

1
1

6
1

154

2

17
3

1

3

8

2

11

11

89

5

12

10

5

2

2

28

108

30
6
2

25

30
3

34

140
16
7

144

34
6
12

21

16
2
2

6

248
33
24

226

4

58
9
1

55

1

38

25

33

35

163

148

68

55

52

21

20

6

305

230

1
1

2

1

1
2

5
4

18
8

4
5

3
1

2
10

1
1

1

11
20

22
10

58

69

328

481

115

94

120

51

35

602

637

; 62

61 |

88204°— 19— Bull. 251------ 14




8

4

210

GEN ERAL TABLES.

T a b l e 3 . — N U M B E R O F O P E R A T IV E S O F EACH R A C E E M P L O Y E D IN SPECI
AM ER ICAN .

Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Workroom and occupational
groups.

15 to 19
years.

14 years.

20 to 24
years.

25 to 29
years.

30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. Fe­
Males. males. Males. Fe­
males. Males. males. Males. males.
males.
Picker room...............................
0»rd room . . . . . .

4

19

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame.. .
Spinners,
.T
.........
Miscellaneous.....................

3

6

18

Total.................................

...........
21
6

41

92

1
25

46

1
13

33

12

16

13

43

3
2
15

14

9
3

12

1

9
1
20

23

73
86

44

30

23

20

14

12

12

7
8
1
5
5

52
14
6
35

2
13
4
2
5

25
19
7
16

1
1
3

10
16
7
10

2

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers..........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers.
Miscellaneous.....................

2

2

9

5

27

8

3

8

2

4

Total................................

13

19

53

115

29

75

11

47

6

10

18
5

102
1
30

160

8

60
62
10
3 ........2*

40
4
4

Total................................

18

23

133

174

86

103

73

64

48

45

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees........

3

4

30
6

76
4

15
9

61
4

6
2

29
2

7

7
1

Grand total....................

59

71

349

505

195

312

I
85 |

s^T

2
26

123

1
27

n

Weave room:
AVeavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

2

10
2

14

4

74
98
8
4 ........5*

1
9
3
4

4

126 1 '• 189 j

1
n |

i |

ENGLISH.
Picker room...............................
Card room..................................
Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame...
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................
Total................................

1
10

22

3

3

20

1
50

117

1
24

72

13

1
15
9

11

4
24
9

8

1

5
17
32

74

20

54

13

25

11

37

8

1
9
1
12

40
20
13
57

6
1
4
4

28
15
10
31

4
1
S

12
12
5
14

4
3
7
1

9
7
1
9

19

2

5
3
66

23

5

4

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers.........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers .....................................
Miscellaneous.....................

3

8
4
1
7

1
7

%

6
37

6

4
9

6

2
11

4

8
14

3

Total...............................

15

22

66

136

28

90

26

47

37

29

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

17

33

131
239
29
8 ........3*

153
39
6

209

3

157
21
12

275

16

Total................................

33

36

240

306

190

282

168

242

198

210

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employee s ........

2
1

1

33
6

103
6

17
4

84
9

6
4

52
1

Grand total...................

85

86

470

688

321

G
01

254

425




292
190
2
48 ” ’ *i4*

7

i(T
310

1

14
332

211

GENERAL TABLES.

FIE D W ORKROOM S AND OCCUPATIONS, B Y AG E G RO U P AN D S E X .
AM ERICAN.

Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Males.

1
8

15 to 44
years.

40 to 44
years.

35 to 39
years.

55 to 64
years.

65 years and
over.

Total (14 to
65 years and
over).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. Fe­
males.
males.
1
8

13

6
3
3

4

12

4

6

1

3
3
1
4

2

1

3

6

14

4

32
6
1

26

21
5

39

26

26

3

6

69

63

8

2

1
1
2

45 to 54
years.

4
107

208

4
11

3

2
2

1

1
2

1

45
10
111

99

3

166

100

4

1

3

2
2
2
2

13
22
11
8
20

93
63
26
71

2

2
6
2

1

35

24

1

8

109

277

7

10

3

1

16

329
34
42

406

29
5
1

14

10
1

4

22

16

405

428

35

14

11

1

5

62
17

184
11

3

7

46 1

40

870

1,208

1

5
1

3

1

4

4

64 1

10
124

232

49
16
131

108

2
2

196

107

18
22
11
10
26

105
72
28
73

1
2

1

45

35 |

29

132

307

1

379
40
51

442

4

1

470

469

3

3

1

24

9

4

5
17

13

4

18
228

6
20
4

4
4

32
160
161

71

8

353

74

29
24
38
26

118
71
35
128

72 1
17 1
1

27

198
11

1,021 | 1,324

ENGLISH.
1
21

1
24

54

5
12
5

11

22

11

12

3
1
6
1

10
6

4

11
1

34

7
172

471

20
82
122

64

2
7
3
2
2

5
25

35
4

1

3
54
11

224

65

68

4

30

22
15
32
20

106
63
31
116

6
2
5
2

3
4
3
5

1
2
1
1

34
78

2

21

8
8

3

6
2

10
2

2

4
5

23

21

21

14

201

337

31

15

21

189
40
7

188

150
33
8

140

970
164
89

1,343

295
76
19

184

25

236

188

191

140

1,223

1,368

390

U ,
’ 1

20

12
1

11

89
16

284
16

15

, 294

262

201

1,932

2,541 1

534

,

315




1

7
9

1

541

3

4
4

54
106

23

1

9

277

375

140
20
25

51

39
3
14

14

1,461
1,625
263
163 ........28

184

185

51

56

14

1,887

1,653

4

11

1

4

121
17

290
16

242

269

66

81

2,901

2,949

14

212

G ENERAL TABLES.

T a b le 3 . —

NUM BER OF O P E R A T IV E S OF EACH RACE EM PLO YED IN SPECI
IRISH .

Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Workroom and occupational
groups.

15 to 19
years.

14 years.

20 to 24
years.

25 to 29
years.

30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males.
males.
Picker room...............................
Card room..................................

3

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................

6

1
20 i
|
I
1
4 [
1
24 !

Total................................

6

28

1

7

2

3
3

2

5

19
5
1
13

1
3

3
16

2

2

30

2

3

3

2

5

5

1
2

Total................................

3

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................
Total................................

2

Cloth room....................; ...........
Miscellaneous employees........
Grand total....................

10

89

14

17

14

69

15

88

7

2
3
5

15

12

7

10

15

20
23
4
13

3
2
1
2

20
18
7
8

1

4
25
8
4

4
7

3

7
1

2

5
3

4

40

17

63

16

55

10

45

33

56

52
3
5

1

26
8
2

109

5

35
90
1
6 ........2

129

16
49

61

42

92

60

130

36

109

12
1

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in..........................
W arper tenders.................
Winders and reelers.........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers .....................................
Miscellaneous.....................

7

36
1

11
2

44
4

6
2

40
: 3

141

200

89

294

110

-304

77

2
21

48

2
18

61
1

2
4
3

4
8

1

4 .
2

24
281

FRE NC H CAN AD IAN .

6

13

1
57

90

19

64

8

41

61

360

339

92
1
52

206

6

61
2
103

366

166

339

145

8
10
3
5

204
59
18
77

5
7
8
9

103
60
44
44

Picker room...............................
Card room..................................
Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame...
Spinners, mule..................
Miscellaneous.....................

44

2

266

Total................................

52

43

327

29
169

1

98
4
32

207

134

170

6
2
7
1

55
34
32
27

3
1
1
1

35
27
30
11

1

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Brawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers.........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers.....................................
Miscellaneous.....................

5

14
8
1
8

11

5

3
63

18

12
25

12

11
9

6

18
5

2

Total................................

16

36

92

376

66

263

36

154

29

105

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous....................

32

41

9

1

Total................................

41

Cloth room...............................
Miscellaneous employees........

1
1

Grand total.....................




117 |

268
248
4
24 ........9 ’

209
220
21
2 ........2*

191
33
4

143

199
48
6

78

42

296

257 1
I

232

222

228

143

253

79

1

16
2

35
1

5

38
3

6
2

23

3
2

-4A

135

791

1,125

488

929

440

575

441

OO
V

1

1

GENERAL TABLES.

213

FIED WORKROOMS AND OCCUPATIONS, BY AGE GROUP AND SEX—Con,
IRISH.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.
35 to 39
years.

15 to 44
years.

40 to 44
years.

45 to 54
years.

65 years and
over.

55 to 64
years.

Total (14 to 65
years and
. over).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males.

83

19

1
28

96

3
7
2

10

2
106

486

19
27
47

44

8
42

5
22

118

4
22
5

1
13
4
18

8

10
9
5

9

24

9

12

10

93

44

31 •

8

1

13
12
7
3

2

10
8
8
2

12
5
3
10

86
91
35
43

6
3
1

14
8
12
4

37
28

14

95

269

11
1

3

7

13

38

9

28

74
10
3

155

120
20
5

101

87

155

145

6
3

30

3
1

Z
15.

199 1

22

•

39

2

340
640
42
37 ........8*

183
28
12

172
1

101

419

648

223

12
1

42
11

186
9

3
1

248

768

1,642

328

635

24
62
63

52

1
1

1
1

20

15
181

2

149

52

18
5
6
11

104
100
48
47

2
1
1

1

10

8

1
3

50
34

15

4

4

124

314

57
10
4

54

10

2

6

173

71

56

16

8
3

4

3

349

122

85

29

2

i

1152

|

3

592
872
80
62 ........i3

3

734

'885

1

49
12

198
12

6

1,264

2,096

2
4

38
231

315

1,331
480
26
609 ........12

FRENCH C AN ADIAN .
5
28

22

3
30

16

10
36

25

6
1
27

2

1
13

1

34

2

14

1

1,115

1,343

2

37
21
22
21

520
229
182
185

31

56

429
18
501

1,263

1

41
7
14

9

36
7
24

134

62

56

948

1,272

67

25

35
16
18
9

3

28
19
21
5

33
21
22
16

460
215
163
173

4

2

75
115

13
12

35
5
15
3

76
4
34

133

114
8
1
2

1

20
3

2

11
10

34

80

25

75

229
80
7

76

167
53
2

86

316

76

222

4
1

9

502

321

:

13
173 ” *269’

9
1
3

1

i

4
6

282

1,053

24

59

10

13

4

1,263
239
45

851

279
50
3

107

6

1

- 71
9
16

29

12

86

1,547

863

332

108

96

29

15

6
3
1 ...........

37
8

125
5

5
1

4
1

1
2

1

3,008

425

228

168

47

48

3

336

1,164

2

1,651
298
82

1,030

2

2,031

1,044

45
12

131
7

7

3,808

4,004

1

239

92
143

1

42

13
7

346




3,587 j
|

4

9

40

14

214

G ENERAL TA B LE S.

T able 3 . — N UM BER OF O PE R A T IV E S OF EACH RA CE EM PLO Y E D IN SPECI
PORTUGUESE.

Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Workroom and occupational
groups.

*

j

14 years.

25 to 29
years.

20 to 24
years.

30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Males. males. j Males. Fe­
Males. Fe­ Males. Fe­ Males. Fe­
males.
males.
males.
males.

Picker room...............................
Card room.
.... ....................
R T vin riwm •
fU iT oi
Spinners, ring or frame. - Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................

26

1

Total.................................

37

28

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders.................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers..........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers.....................................
Miscellaneous................... .

15 to 19
years.

6
11

17 |
27

5
48
194
2
353

488

30
138

190

43
196

153
597
3
308 ........3

56
5
98

124

116

43
164

1

549 • 490

464

600

159

125

40

23

67
2
2
3

4
2

162

3
1

125
2
g
1

3

12
2

71
1
3

1

2 |

1

2
9

3

52

16
2
22

5
2

179

6

5
8

8

g
8

3

23

7
5

Total.................................

5

5

12

80

19

184

21

139

16

75

Weave room:
Weavers ..........................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

16

16

' 97
1
13

100

170
A
8

107

131
2
13

35

74
4
14

14

Total.................................

24

16

111

100

182

107

146

35

92

14

1
2

1
2

2
7

3
28

2
18

19

7
19

9

842

1,112

585

434

38!

173

8
97

75

6
88

46

8

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees........
Grand total.....................

72

66

728

852 j

O TH E R RACES.
Picker room...............................
Card room..................................
Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame.. .
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................
Total.................................

1

8

1
34

102

3
100

149

1

3

9

53

19

49

23

1

21

6
1
5

11

34

11
1
9

43

54

40

49

21

23

12

11

1
2
4

30
11
1
13

1
1
1

22
5
2
9

2

6
1

2

12
1

1

5

1

2

7
8

3

1

5
1

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers.........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers.....................................
Miscellaneous.....................

3
1

2
10

4

1
5

5

3

Total.................................

5

7

19

59

9

43

6

12

5

15

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

6

9

102

145

1

148
7
4

45

2

233
3
4

132

5

313
3
4

290

25

Total.................................

12

9

127

150

320

292

240

133

159

45

2

9

27
1

3
2

13
2

7
1

8

3

2

29

233

393

477

548

380

251

273

119

1

6

Cloth room.
.................
Miscellaneous employees........
Grand total.....................




26

1
1

215

GENERAL TABLES.

F IE D W ORKROOM S AN D OCCUPATIONS, B Y AG E G RO U P AND S E X — Con.
PORTTTGTTESE.

Operatives of specified age group and sex.
40 to 44
years.

35 to 39
years.

Males.

42
74

2

20

9 |

3

26

9

36

3

4
2
14

1

45

1

6

71

3

3

1,258

1,250

78

6

32

12
4
2

502
6
27
8

4

22

1

2

18

118

1

17

24

3

11

1

269

62

14

10

15
78

4
80

3
20

228

66

3,031

2,755

299

1

12

267

20
563

636

57

J

1

1
1

2

11 |

2

1

2
9

269

2

32

2

530
6
27

1

525
16
95

48

17
6
4

3

2

23

1,284

7

89

11

1,396

1,244

1

30
3
15

3

426
15
817

35

14

2

3

20

14
24

32
39

50 |

1,274

19

445
15
936

18

2

6
6

265
857

52
67

22

[

7

Total (14 to 65
years and
over).

1
3

589
36

198
757

2
3
3

65 years and
over.

55 to 64
years.

Fe­ Males. Fe­
Fe­
Fe­ Males.
Fe­
Males. Fe­
Males. Fe­ Mafes.
Males.
males.
males.
males.
males.
males.
males.
males.

35
137

1

45 to 54
years.

15 to 44
years.

1

1
1

1

35
53

626

10

9

21

115 |

593

555
17
171

286.

18

1

21

743 |

288

13

2
3

1

62

87

4

3
2

2

50

3

20
101
8

4
94

3,497 j 2,887

O TH ER RACES.
8
56

27

15
42

22

2
1
2

4

5

3

5

4

1

12
2
1
2

41
417

421

12
25

24

52
3
74

143

1

4

1

6

2

3

129

144

7

4

2

4

5
2
3
7

86
20
5
31

3

7
2
1
1

1

7
22

9

1

2

46

151

7

12

3

60
11
3

33

3
8

1
1
1

2
2

4

5

17

2

5

92
7
2

53

61
5
3

26

1

101

54

69

27

1,016

701

74

33

2

4
1

2
1

2

26
4

56
4

6
1

107

139

59

1,679

1,477

132 |

74;




1

949
691
25
42 **’ ‘ io‘

455
150

3

54
3
92

3

149

151

1

6
2
8
10

98
23
7
32

1
1

13
25

11

1

3

64

171

17
1
6

14

2

24

14

1

1

177

56
445

1

17

5

1

1,034
747
37
60 ........io
1,131

757

32
5
34

3

59
4

11

1,882 ; 1,597

216

G ENERAL TABLES.

T a b le 4=.— D E A TH S FROM TU BERCULOU S, N O N TU BE R C U LO U S, A N D A L L
W O RKRO OM S A N D OCCUPATIONS, B Y
D E A T H S : TUBERCULOUS.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Race, workroom group, and
occupational group.

14 years.

15 to 19
years.

20 to 24
years.

25 to 29
years.

30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. Fe­
Males. Fe­
males. Males. males.
males. Males. males.
AMERICAN.
3

2
Spinning room:

1

1
2

Miscellaneous..............
1

Total.................................
Spooler room:

2
2

Warper tenders.................

1

1

1

2

1

3

2

1

Slasher tenders and help­
ers..................................
"Miscellaneous_______ ^. T
.
Total.................................
Weave room:
Weavers.............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

1

1

2

3

4

1

3

4

1

Total.................................

1

2

Cloth room......... .......................
Miscellaneous employees........

1

1
1

Grand total........ - ...........

3

7

1
5

8

3 1

1

4

2

3

ENGLISH.
Picker room.................. ............
Card room..................................

4

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame
S-ninnPTS. rrmle.... ..........
Miscellaneous..................... !............

2

Total.................................

3

4

1

1

1

2

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders.................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers..........
Slasher
tenders
and
helpers.............................
Miscellaneous.....................

1

2

1
1

i

1

2

1

Total.................................

1

1

Weave room:
' Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

2

1

1

3

2

2

Total................ ...............

2

1

1

3

2

2

Cloth room................................. ........... 1 ..........
Miscellaneous employees........ ........... .............
1
1
Grand total____ _____




i

1
2

7

2

2
T

4

9

2

3

4

7

217

G EN ERAL TABLES.

CAUSES, O F O PE R A TIV E S OF EACH RACE EM PLO YE D IN SPE C IFIE D
AGE GRO U P AN D S E X , 1908 TO 1912.
D E A T H S : TtTBERCITLOrS.

Operatives of specified age group and sex.
35 to 39
years.

55 to 64
years.

45 to 54
years.

15 to 44
years.

40 to 44
years.

65 years and
over.

Total (14 to 65
years and
over).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males

6

6
1

1

2

2

3

3
2
1

2
1

4

4

7

7

1

1

6

1

6

6

1

22

1

7 j

6
2
1

r

1 1
_1
11

22

!

is

2
1

10

6
1

6

6

1

:
1

]

14

1

1
1

=

»

=

=

1

2

7

1

1
6
2

1

2

1
4
2

2

9 |

1

1

2
i
........... 1

=

r

2

2

.
1

3

3
i

1
1

i

2

5

3

19
1

10

3

20

10

1
1
4

i

1

4

1

7

4

16

5

1

15
X

4
1

5

7

4

1
4

1




7

3

3

3
23

30

7

1

i

3

. 31

34

218

G EN ERAL TAB LES.

.T a b le 4 . — DEATHS PROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL
W ORKROOM S AN D OCCUPATIONS, B Y AG E
D E A T H S ; TU BER CULO US—Continued.

Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Race, workroom group, and.;
occupational group.

15 to 19
years.

14 years.

20 to 24
years.

25 to 29
years.

SO to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­ Males.
Fe­
Fe­
Males. Fe­ Males.
males.
males.
males. Males. males.
males.

Males.

IRISH.

Picker room .............................
Card room..................................

3

3
!

t

4
1
1 ........... 1

i

i
I

Total................................

1

Spooler Toom:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers..........
Slasher
tenders
and
helpers..............................
Miscellaneous.....................

1

1

1

1

1

1
!
!

1

!
i

Total.................................

1

Cloth room................................. ......... 1 ... .
|
Miscellaneous employees........

2

2

1
2

1

j

1

1

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers...... ..................
Miscellaneous.....................
Total.................................

2

i...........

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame.. .
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................

2

2

3

j

2

1

3

3

3

3

|
1

1

1

Grand total.....................

1

3

1

6

3

1

2

14

4

4

li

3 ...........
7
4

10

'8

2

2

FEENCH CANADIAN.

Picker room...............................
Card room..................................

1

1

Spinning Toora:
Spinners, ring or frame...
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................

2

Total.................................

2

7

1

3
1

1
2
1

4

5

7

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers.........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers .....................................
Miscellaneous.....................

1
3
4

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

1

Total.................................

2

1

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees........ •




5

4

5

2
1
1
1

1
1

Total................................

Grand total.....................

2
1
1

1
1

4

2
R

1
2

!
|
1

5

5 j

3

4

3
1

4

4

1
1
1

3

15

6

26

ia |

13

8

8

GEN ERAL TAB LES.

219

CAUSES, OF OPERATIVES OF EACH RACE EMPLOYED IN SPECIFIED
GROUP AND SEX, 1908 TO 1912— Continued.




D E A T H S ! TU BER CU LO U S—Continued.

220

G EN ERAL TABLES.

T able

4 . — DEATH S FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L
W ORKROOM S AND OCCUPATIONS, B Y AGE
D E A T H S : TU BERCULOUS—Concluded.

Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Race, workroom group, and
occupational group.

14 years.

15 to 19
years.

25 to 29
years.

20 to 24
years.

30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males.

Males.

i
PORTUGUESE.
Picker room...............................

1
1

Spinning room:

3

6

Rpinnfvrs, mnlA____ ______
|M
isr»ellR -ons....................
TlP
Total.................................

2

1

2

Spooler room:

1

6

3

1

3

2

1
5

1

1

2

4

3

5

2

3

1

5

1
i

Warper tenders.................
Wrndp.rs and rp.p.lprs_____
Slasher tenders and help­
ers .....................................
Miscellaneous.................. .

1
1

1 .
i
1 I

1

1

2

1

1

1

2 !

1

6

11 I

3

1

1
I
1 1

2

Total.................................
Weave room:
W eavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................
Total.................................

5

1

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees........
3

Grand total.....................

9

OTHER RACES.
Picker room...............................
Card room..................................
Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................

1
l
1
!

1

........... |
............

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in.
. . . . *___
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers.........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers .....................................
Miscellaneous.....................

1

j
........... 1
............

1
1

i
|

1
1

______ I............

1

i

i

!

Total.................................

|
i

i

I
1
........... t............

1

2

2

2

3

1

2

2

2

3

, . 1

Total...............................

1

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees. . . .

1

i

Grand total.....................

2

i




f 1

!

Total.................................

Weave room:
W eavers................. ...........
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

6

f v ii

• ' 1
'
3

4

2

1

3

3

221

GENERAL, TABLES*

CAUSES, OF O PE R A TIV E S OF EACH RACE EM PLO YED IN SPECIFIED
GRO U P AN D SEX, 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
D E A T H S i TTTBERCTTLOTTS—Concluded.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.
35 to 39
years.

40 to 44
years.

15 to 44
years.

45 to 54
years.

55 to 64
years.

65 years and
over.

Total (14 to 65
years and
over).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­ Males.
Fe­
Males. males. Males.
Males. males. Males. males. Males.
males.
males. Males. males.
males.

1

2
8

2

8

2

1
1

14

2

1

6
8
1

5
8

9

2

1

14

6
14

8

10

14
10

1
1

2

10

2

10

3

1

2

2

3

2

3

3

1

2

1

3

1

24

35

5

2

i
3

1

1
3

3

1

1

3

27

36

1
5

2

1
1

■

1

1
2

2

2

2

2

2

........... i............
j

1

!

2

9

5

9

5

1

2

9

5

l
9 |

5

1

1
1

i

1
1

15

11

i **-.
1
2

2

3




1

I

........... 1
............
1

16 |

11

G EN ERAL TAB LES.

222
T able

4 . — D EATH S FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, A N D A L L
W ORKROOM S AN D OCCUPATIONS, B Y AGE
D E A T H S : NONTTTBEBCTJXOTTS.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.
I

1

20 to 24
years.

15 to 19
years.

14 years.

Race, workroom group, and
occupational group.

25 to 29
years.

i

Fe­ Males. Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. nfatos. M ales'
males.
males.
males.

Males.

AMERICAN.

j
1

1

Spinning room:

........... ............. I............

2

i

i

2

1

1
1
1

1 |

1

3

!

2

1
Spooler room:

1

1
1

1

1

1

!

1
Slasher tenders
helpers.
Total

.

30 to 34
years.

“ 1

1

1

.

and
i
;

.................

1

Weave room:
Weavers . . .
- .......
Loom fixers
. . .....
Miscellaneous..........

'

1

1

1

1
1
1

3

2

M

1

1

3

3

2

6

2

3

3

6

4

1

2

Picker room............. .....................
Card room... .....................................

2

2

2

1

3

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous....................

4

1
1

Total.................................

4

2

Trrf-.nl
--------

_ _ . ___________

X

2
2

_

1

Cloth room ............... .. .......... ..
Miscellaneous employees........
Grand total.....................

\

I

1

1

.

ENGLISH.

3

1

1

Spooler room:
Snnnlp.r ten ders.

_
_

____

Drawers-in........... . . . . . . . . 1 ............
Warper tenders._________ I............
W in d e r s an d reelers

1
1

_____________

1
3

Slasher tenders and
helpers.
Miscellaneous.....................
1

2

Total................................

4

2

3




1

7

7

4

8

7

.............. i...............

3

5

ij

5

2
10

4

\

Cloth room................................. 1
............
M iscellaneous em nlovees. ____ *____ .
Grand total.................... 1

5

4

5

1

Total................................
Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers......... .............
Miscellaneous.....................

6

f

9

4 |

1

1
6

12

2
9

12

G EN ERAL TABLES.

223

CAUSES, OF O PE R A TIV E S OP EACH RACE EM PLO YED IN SPECIFIED
GKOUP AN D SE X, 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
D E A T H S : NONTUBEBCTTLOUS.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.
40 to 44
years.

35 to 39
years.

55 to 64
years.

45 to 54
years.

15 to 44
years.

Total (14 to 65
years and
over).

65 years and
over.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males.

2

2

2

1

1
=

5

3

=

1
1
5

1

1
1
5

1

7

1

7

1

1

1
2

1

1
3

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

2

2
1

4
2
3

9

2

2

3

9

9

2

3

5

1

1

7
2
3

lb

1
2

1

1

1

1

12

10

1
1

2

1

1

2

2

20

16

3

2

2

2

1

27

21

1

* ,

3

13

1

5

2

5

2

8

23

2
5

1
1

1

1
3

7

1

1

2
1

2

8
1
9

3
1

2

----------

:

15
6
21
1
1

1

1
3
1
1
4

1

4
3

2

2

3

1

7

1

9

9

1

7

3

2

4

3
2

4

9

6

31
3
2

25

24
5

23

18
5
2

10

10
2

4

83
15
4

62

5

4

9

6

36

25

29

23

25

10

12

4

102

62

2

3
1

2
2

4
5

4
1

50

40

149

100

1
5 |

8

10




8

49

1
2
30

42

1
16

IS

4

224

G EN EBAL TABLES.

T able 4 — D EATH S FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L
WORKROOM S AND OCCUPATIONS, B Y AGE
D E A T H S : NONTTJBERCTTLOTJS—Continued.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Race, workroom group, and
occupational group.

15 to 19
years.

14 years.

20 to 24
years.

25 to 29
years.

30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males.
males. Males. males.
IRISH.
Picker room...............................

2

1

1

2

6

Spinning room:
Spinnp.rs, ring or fram.fi...
Spinners, mule...................

1
1

i
Total.................................
Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................

---------- ----------

----------

1

-

2

1
”

2

----------

1
1

2
Warper tenders.................
Slasher tenders
helpers.
Misop,]]an
___

and
I
........... I............

Total...............................
Weave room:
W eavers... .
Loom fixers.........
Miscellaneous............... .

1

1

Grand total.....................

2

2

3

8

5

2
i

Cloth room
Miscellaneous employees. . .

1

5

2
.......1 .:.::..

1

Total.....................

2

3

8
1

3
3

12

2

5

2

17

FRENCH CANADIAN.
Picker room....................
Card room..................................
Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame.
Spinners, mule.................
Miscellaneous...................
Total.................................

1
1
1
1

2

4

1

7

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..............
Drawers-in......................
Warper tenders...............
Winders and reelers
Slasher tenders and help­
ers ...................................
Miscellaneous...............

1

4

8

4

2

4

1

3

1

3
8

3

2

3

1

Total................................

1
1

5

2

3

2

1

1

Total.................................

1

4

3

1

4

1

1

4

4 1

1

11

4 1

3

3

3

2

4
1

3

2

5

7

15

7

1

1

1
2

1

!

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees........




2
1

1

Weave room:
Weavers............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

Grand total.....................

2
1

1
8

6

14 |

9

225

G EN ERAL TABLES.

CAUSES, OP O PE R A TIV E S OP EACH RACE EM PLO YED IN SPECIFIE D
GROUP AND S E X , 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
D E A T H S : HONTTTBERCTJLOUS—Continued.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.
35 to 39
years.

40 to 44
years.

15 to 44
years.

55 to 64
years.

45 to 54
years.

65 years and
over.

Total (14 to 65
years and
over).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. Fe­
males.

3

1

1

1

4

1

1
7

3

2

1
2

2

3

7

2
1

1

3
3

14

5

1
17

1

7

5

1

18

1
1
3

1
1

14

2

2
11
3

3

1

16

3

1

1

6
4

3
1

1

46

1

9

1

1
5

5

3
9

9

3
1
4

1
7

14

1

6

15

12
1

39

15

13

23

1

39

1

21

71

23

6

2

3

6

1

2

4

2

3

21

41

1

2

1
1

28

1
1

69

2

45

69

4

5
4

1

5

2

3

3

27

2

13

6

2

6

17
2

15

3
8

1

19

15

9

1
1

5

1

45

75

13

88204°— 19— B u ll. 251-------15




3

21
2
6
1

1

2

22

16

30

1

4

6

30

17

3

1

4
6

1

1

2

8

30

3

34
3
3

21

3

40

21

3

2

3

8

1

1

1

2
135

3
4

2

86

9

11

1

2

15
2
4

5
3

35
4
6

2

3

1
8

31

2

1

1
1

2

3

2

10

2

2

19

1
1

1

5

28

3

1

1

8

3

3

13

23

8

11

3

5

1

1

1

8
1
4

2

2 1
2

15

23

3

5

1
6

13
2

1

1

1

4

5

8

1

4

9

24

1

5
5

4
I ....... ■

2

88
1
........ —

1

2

92

226

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b le 4 ___DEATHS FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL
W ORKROOM S AN D OCCUPATIONS, B Y AGE
DEATHS: NOHTTJBEBCTJ3U>TJS—C«cl«ded.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Race., workroom group, and
occupational group.

14 years.

Scales.

20 to 24
years.

15 to 19
years.

23 to 29
years.

30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­ Males.
Males. Fe­ Males.
males. Males. males.
males.
males.
males.

PORTUGUESE.

Picker room...
C T 1 T rar - .........
'H < *0©

1

2

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame.
Rpli?rW
T'?Jmnle_
MiapeJlaTieoiis

2

9

2

2
1

3

2

3 j

2

3

4

4

3 ,

1
3

3

6

6

i______ 1
______

Warper tenders..............
Winders and reelers
__
Slasher tenders and help­
ers .....................................
Mfsfv^ianeoTiR.....................

i

Total.................................

2

1
1

1

1

1
I
1 i
l...........
s
1

1
Cloth room.................................
lyfanftHflnftpais employees........
Grand total.....................

2 ;

1

9

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders.................

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers
Miscellaneous...................

2

1

Total.................................

5

1

2

1

1

t

3

i|
1 ........

6

12

5

8

6,

1
1

1

1
1

2

i.

1
|
............

2 ,

7

2

11

OTHER RACES.

Picker room...............................
Card room..................................
Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame
Spinners, mule.
Miscellaneous. . . . . . . __

|
i
i
i

1

T otals-......... ................. !

1

1

1

...........

1

1

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers
Slasher tenders and help­
e rs.-................................
Miscellaneous........ ............

1

Total.................................

1

Weave room:
Weavers__
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous............... .....

1

1

1

4

Total.................................

1

1

1

i
4j




1

1

1

1

1

3

1

2

|
1

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees____
Grand total.....................

1

3

2 |

3

3 .

6 j

227

GEN ERAL TABLES.

CAUSES, OF O PE R A TIV E S OF EACH RACE EM PLO YE D IN SP E C IFIE D
GROUP AN D S E X , 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
D E A T H S : NONTTJBERCtTLOTTS—Concluded.

O p eratives of specified age group and sex .

35 to 39
years.

15 to 44
years.

40 to 44
years.

45 to 54
years.

55 to 64
years.

65 years and
over.

Total (14 to 65
years and
over).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males.

2
2

2
10

3

1

9

5
1

i 1

1

13

1

1

7
14

10

6

17

1

1

3

11

2

1

3

17

19

17 1

7

3

1

6
1

1

18
7

8

1

i
|
_____ i______
7
1

1

----------

8

— .... - = == = =

2

3

2

3

2

2

1

1

3

7

1

2

4

4

1

3

9

4

1

1
2

1
2

10

50

44

1

2
7

3

2

1
1

29

40

10

2
6

3

i______
7

3

1

1

2

1
4 1

t

1
!

3

3

3

3
|
i

|

1

1

1

1
1
l

1

!

........... I............
»i
i

i

1 1

1

2




R

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

R

1

8

6

5

1

8

6

18

13

1
8 1

16

12 1

1

1

1

228
T able

G EN ERAL TABLES.

4 ___D EATH S FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L
WORKROOM S AND OCCUPATIONS, B Y AGE
D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES.

Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Race, workroom group, and
occupational group.

15 to 19
years.

14 years.

Males.

25 to 29
years.

20 to 24
years.

30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. Fe­
males.
males.

AMERICAN.

Picker room...............................
Card room..................................

1

1

Spinning room:
Ppinnpirs,

2

2

1

Spooler room:

4

1
1
1

1

1

3

1

4

2

Total.................................

1

1

1

1

..................

3

2

1

2

2

1

3

2

Drawers-in..... ....................

1

Winders and reelers..........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers .....................................
'Miscalla.noniis______ ____

1

Total.................................

1

4

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

1

3

4

5

1
1
1

3

1

2

2

Total.................................

3

3

4

5

3

3

1

2

Cloth room. .
......................
Miscellaneous employees........

1

1
1

9

9

Picker room...............................
Card room......................... ........

2

6

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................

4

Total.................................

4

Grand total.....................

1

1

1

1
8

2

5

6

4

1

7

1
1
3

1

1

5

1

8

11

6

ENGLISH.

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers.........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers .....................................
Miscellaneous.....................

2
1

1

1

5

6

4

7

4

9
1

9

4

6

4

7

4

10

9

1

6

2

2

~ 13

13

1

1
4

2

Total.................................

1

2

Total.................................

1

1

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees........
Grand total.....................




2

4

_______
12

4

1
_______j_______
13
8 j
15

3
13

19

GENERAL TABLES.

229

CAUSES, OP O PE R A TIV E S OF EACH RACE EM PLO YED IN SPECIFIE D
GROUP AND SE X, 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.
40 to 44
years.

35 to 39
years.

Males.

15 to 44
years.

45 to 54
years.

65 years and
over.

5a to 64
years.

Total (14 to 65
years and
over).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. Fe­
Males. Fe­
Males. Fe­
Males. Fe­
Males. males. Males.
males.
males.
males.
males.
males.
males.

2

2

8

5

9

2
1
7

1

2
1
7

1

10

1

10

1

1

3
3

1

3
4

1

1

i

1

5

5

1

11

2
1

10
2
3

15

2
1

3

15

15

3

1

1

2

1

2

........... 1 ____

1

13
3
3

16

1

1

19

16

2
1

4
1

38

43

1

4

2

2

2

1

1

6

2

5

2

8

38

1
21
8

2

2
2

30

2

2

30

1
38

3

27

1

2

1

2

2

4

3

2

1

1

2

6
7

3

|

1

2

1

4
1

2

8

5

14

3

12

1 1
1

1

1

1

9

5

1

1
1

1

7

1

3
1

4

1

8

1

11

14

102
16

72

1

7
2
9

9

5

13

1

12

4

2

6

46
4
2

32

28

23

18

52

32

33

2

6
1

2
2

11

72

80

47

1

5

9

14

17




1

5

1
1

2

6

5
1

•1
7

1

13

5

!
23 |

2
25

102

4

4

13

12

122

2

31 |

43

1

19

18

4

|
|

72

4
5

4

1

7
1

180

134

230

GENERAL TABLES.

T able 4 ___D EATHS FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS. AN D A LL
W ORKROOM S AND OCCUPATIONS, B Y AGE
D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES—Continued.

Operatives of specified age group an d sex.

Race, workroom group, and
occupational group.

Males.

20 to 24
years.

15 to 19
years.

14 years.

25 to 29
years.

30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­
males. Males. males.

Fe­
Fe­ Males.
Males.
males.
males.

imsn.
Picker room...............................
Card room..................................

2

4 1

3

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frnmpi
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous... . . .

1

Total.................................

1

5

i

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders................
Drawers-in
Warper tenders..................
Winders and reelers..........
Slasher tenders and help­
ers .....................................
Miscellaneous___.. . ,

10

1

2
1
2

|

1

1

1

3

2

I
.
............| .........:
l

Total.............................
Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

1
2
1 ..........

|
Total.................................
i
Cloth room.................................
i
............
Miscellaneous employees........ ........... 1
.......... j............
1
Grand total.....................

2

i

i

1

I
1

!
1

2

1

!
!

1
1

3

2

1

1

|

4

2

1

1

2

4 |

1

.. . J

3

5

1

1

1

1

2

11

4

8

3

11

8

3

11

2

1

1

'

3

i

. .

i ____

!

2

3

9

3

20

6

4

1

4

4

12

3
1
2

8

12

6

8

27

FRENCH CANADIAN.

Picker room...............................
Card room..................................
Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................

1

Total................................

1

7
1

9

11

1

1
1
4

18

6

18

10

3
2
2

1

6
1
1

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders.................
Drawers-in.........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers.........
Slasher
tenders
and
- helpers..............................
Miscellaneous.....................

1

Total................................

2

8

1

1

1

4

Total................................

1

1
|
2

1

1
1

14

6

1

5
1

2

6

1 ______ i
23

1

5

8

8

6

7
2

8

6

9

1

I...........

2

2
1
2
1

8

1

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees........




6

1

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

Grand total...................

2

12 |

9
1

1
1

40 |

20 |

28

15

17

231

GENERAL TABLES.

CAUSES, OF O PE R A TIV E S OF EACH RACE EM PLO YED IN SPECIFIE D
GROUP AND SE X , 1908 TO 1912—Continued,
D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES—Continued.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.
35 to 39
years.

Males.

40 to 44
years.

55 to 64
years.

45 to 54
years.

15 to 44
years.

65 years and
over.

Total (14 to 65
years and
over).

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­ Males. Fe­
Fe­
Males. Fe­ Males. males. Males. Fe­
Males
males. Males. males.
males
males.
males.
males.

14

38

67

11:

15

15

10

16

10

1

21

25

20
15

19

25

14

33

16

10

65

63

10

38

63
31

6
8
2
1

48
27

'2
8

7

41

29

11
1
12

34

2
10

35

2
2
17

20




12

20

90

148

19

144

232

G EN EEAL TABLES.

T able 4 .—DEATHS FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL
WORKROOMS AND OCCUPATIONS, BY AGE
D E A T H S : A L L .CAUSES— Concluded.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.

Race, workroom group, and
occupational group.

14 year??.

Fe­
Males. males.

15 to 19
years.

20 to 24
years.

25 to 29
years.

30 to 34
years.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males.
males. Males. males. Males. males.

PORTUGUESE.
1

Picker room...............................
Card room..................................

1

3

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame, ..
Spinners, mule...................
Mi S fil1 aoiis .
O q/n

2

15

Total................................

6

5
2

4

Spooler room:

15

8

2

5

2

6

5
1

2
8

4

2
2

.1
2

6

2

1

Warper tenders.................
Winders ftT repilfirs. .
id
Slasher
tenders
and
helpers..............................
Miscellaneous.. . . - ...............

6

7

1

6

7

1

Total...............................

2

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
...............
Loom fixers
Miscellaneous.....................
Total.................................

1

2

1

9

'

1

1

2

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

8

12

1

Cloth room.................................
Miscellaneous employees........
Grand total.....................

8

6

4

1

5

1

11

19

9

18

1
2

3

2

1

1

1

21

OTHER RACES.

Picker room...............................
Card room..................................

1
1

1

Spinning room:
Spinners, ring or frame
Spinners, mule...................
Miscellaneous.....................

2

1

2

Total.................................

2

1

2

Spooler room:
Spooler tenders..................
Drawers-in..........................
Warper tenders.................
Winders and reelers.........
Slasher
tenders
and
helpers..............................
Miscellaneous.....................

1

Total................................

1

Weave room:
Weavers..............................
Loom fixers........................
Miscellaneous.....................

2

1

3

2

6

1

3

2

6

1

Total................................

2

1

Cloth room.............•..................
Miscellaneous employees........

1
5

3

4

2

4

2

1

Grand total.....................

'




1
6

7

8

4

4

5

GENERAL, TAB LES.

233

CAUSES, OF O PE R A TIV E S OF EACH RACE EM PLO YE D IN SPECIFIE D
GRO U P AND SE X, 1908 TO 1912— Concluded.
D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES—Concluded.
Operatives of specified age group and sex.
35 to 39
years.

Males.

40 to 44
years.

15 to 44
years.

45 to 54
years.

65 years and I Total (14 to 65
years and
over.
over).

55 to 64
years.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males.
males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males.
males.

3
3

4
2 18

5

17

1
1

3

12
22

1

19

8

7
1

31

8

31

1

13

1

1

1

3

17

2

1

21

32

1

1

3

25

33

1

1
1

17

1
1

2

18

2

1

1

2
1

17

5

5

2

1

2

2

1

2

1

7

7

1
1

1

2

1
1

53~

75

12~

4

2
11

5

2

1
10

3

6

3 j...........

2

3

|

18

5

1

7

2

3
1

5

3

12

7

1

1
3

1
2

rT

80

3
12

5

10

r

r

---------=

|
........... 1

1

|

5

5

5

5

1

1

1
1

1

1

1

1

3

1

3

4

3

1 l

1

1

1

4




1

17

10

1

17

11

17

10

1

17

11

1

1

1
1

1

1
1

31

23

34

24

_______
2

1

1

234

G EN ERAL TABLES.

NUM BER OP O PE R A TIV E S OF SPECIFIED CONJUGAL CONDI­
TION, SE X, AND AGE GROUP, B Y W ORKROOM G RO U P AND RACE.

T able 5 .—

MALES.
Operatives of specified conjugal condition and age group.
Single.
Workroom group
and race.
14
years.

20

35
15
25
45
to
to
to
to years
34
44
24
and
19
years. years. years. years. over.

Picker and card room:
American.......
English...........
Irish.................
French Canadian
Portuguese..........
Other races...
Total.

74
28
325
546
43

1,102

Total.
Spooler, drawing-in,
warping, winding,
and slashing room:
American.............
English................
Irish......................
French Canadian
Portuguese..........
Other races...

14
38
37
51
270
109

632

519

19
44
9
175
156
24

17
26
25
151
43
9

7
94
45
108

52
171
80
462
441
56

427

106

144
182
69
653
955
93

200

140
323
29

13
18
13
104
43
9

29 2,096

7

1

26
141

11

271

364

1,262

87

271
131
240
49
295
108
125
133

69
153
36
179
131
241
809

508

578

142

163

470

52
355
157
456

37
566
237
387
82
87

178
1,209
444
1,241
414
615

243 1,193 1,261 1,396

4,101

70
251
44
344
177
307

276

101

140

1
1

19
65
18
18
17
17

4

101

44

26

185

41

Total................
Total male opera­
tives:
American.............
English................
Irish......................
French Canadian
Portuguese..........
Other races.........

17

20

16

64

36

347
470
141
787
720
230

158
261
75
390
582
357

89
188
98
293
179
154

129
29
50

1,823

1,001

433




1,667

292
678
290
790
329
516

51
115
52
137
61
92

948

21

59
85
17
117
72
26
376

44
134
135
153
872
329

37
139
52
140
76

Total.
Miscellaneous em­
ployees:
American........... .
English................
Irish.................... .
French Canadian
Portuguese. . .
Other races. . .

Total...

15
55
74
69
156
38

95
138
72
196
39

Total.
Weave room:
American.......
English...........
Irisn......................
French Canadian
Portuguese. . .
Other races...

To­
tal.

28
384
153*

801

248

21
47
6

12
22
33

61
.116
250
172

14
108
75
256

20

15
25
35
45
to
to
to
to years
34
44
24
19
and
years. years. years. years. over.

112

20
8

31

To­
tal.

90

23

Spinning room:
American........
English...........
Irish......................
French Canadian
Portuguese. . .
Other races...

Total.
Cloth room:
American.
English...
Irish_____ _______
French Canadian
Portuguese.
Other races

Married, widowed, and divorced.

94

111

16
82 1,180
91
533
72 1,788
9 1,591

37
60
14
98
260

21

291 6,619

120

17

122

376
89
588
787
499

589 2,461

43

154

27
95
483
240
719
466
266

61

100

76

332
1,721
731

611
385
156

2,020

,269 2,418

7,754

1,906
1,044

235

GENERAL TAB LES.

T able 5 .— NUM BER O F O PER A TIV E S OF SPECIFIE D CONJUGAL CONDI­
TION, SE X , AND AGE GROUP, B Y W ORK RO OM G RO U P AND RACE—
Continued.
FEMALES.

Operatives of specified conjugal condition and age group.
Single.
Workroom group
and race.

20

25
35
45
to
to years
to
34
44
24
and
years. years years. over.

14
years

Picker a n d c a r d
room:
American...........
English................
Irish.....................
French C a n a ­
dian...................
Portuguese. . .
Other races.. .

Total.
Spooler, drawing-in,
warping, winding,
and slashing room:
American...........
English..............
Irish......................
French C a n a ­
dian...................

Total.
Miscellaneous e m ployees:
American............
English................
Irish.....................
French C a n a ­
dian..................
Portuguese.........
Other races.........
Total.




1,560

230

1

10
7
11

77
44

21

4

354
445
53

249
389
34

164
35
15

864
902
107

914

697

112

66

135
40

77
58

373

211

2,015

48
46
90
154

72

Total.,

40
134

15
9

57

Cloth room:
American...........
English..............
Irish....................
French C a n a ­
dian.................
Portuguese........
Other races........

35
84
62

221

431

Other races...
Total.

20

15
25
35
45
to
to
to
to years
24
34
44
19
and
years. years. years. years. over.

193
339

171
95

P ortu gu ese. . .

Weave room:
American............
English................
Irish.....................
French C a n a ­
dian...................
Portuguese.........
Other races.........

To­
tal.

164
308
335

90
108
59

Total.,
Spinning room:
American...........
English...............
Irish....................
French C a n a ­
dian.................
Portuguese........
Other races........

Harried, widowed, and divorced.

92

77
233
87

251
92
141

178
61
199

131 1,014

835

29
48
47

287
234

454

122

213

1,244

16

12
11

11
11

3

30
30
31

211

213
113
19

141
9

15

479
382
44

329

384

1

90

61

40

11
81
122

10

15
24

53
81
51

847
225
108

34

65
178
164

233
300

17
30

105
180

105

317
368
63

21

68

19

121

4
49
104

347
880
542

44
274
75

31
247
134

179
422

123
39
128

131
13
71

683

14

627

31

” io'

21

1,991

133

167
303
60

68

15
56

120

263

34

789

To­
tal.

2,999

34

263

200

128

111
1
34

933

122

773
343
415
107
335
2,095

74
103
36

172
235
178

26
55

34

101

30

1

27

4
47

275

20

737

*i2
59

40

143

4

2
3
63

12
14

1

24

13

7
3

236

GEN ERAL TABLES.

T able 5 .— NUM BER OF O PERA TIVES OF SPECIFIED CONJUGAL CONDI­
TION, S E X AN D AGE GROUP, B Y W ORKROOM G R O U P AND RACE—
Concluded.
FEM ALES—Concluded.
Operatives of specified conjugal condition and age group.
Single.

Married, widowed, and divorced.

Workroom group
and race.
14
years.

Total female opera­
tives:
American............
English................
Irish.....................
French C a n a ­
dian...................
Portuguese..........
Other races..........
Total.................




20
25
45
15
35
to
to years
to
to
34
44
24
and
19
years. years. years. years. over.

To­
tal.

15
20
25
35
45
to
to
to
to years
24
44
19
34
and
years. years. years. years. over.

To­
tal.

489
674
196

254
484
263

169
325
421

33
141
267

9 1,025
63 1,773
188 1,349

16
14
4

58
117
31

119
432
164

70
354
296

36
259
252

299
1,176
747

135 1,099
66
783
374
29

719
669
369

478
119
101

148
27
18

59 2,638
16 1,680
908
17

26
69
19

210
443
179

495
488
269

412
157
148

223
50
74

1,366
1,207
689

401 3,615 2,758 1,613

634

352 9,373

148 1,038 1,967 1,437

894

5,484

71
86
14

237

GENERAL TABLES.

T able 6 . — DEATHS AND D EATH RATES P E R 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL CAUSES, OF O PE R A TIV E S OF SPECIFIED
CONJUGAL CONDITION AND AGE GROUP, B Y SE X AN D RACE, 1908
TO 1912.
DEATHS: TUBERCULOUS.
Operatives of specified conjugal condition and age group.
Single.

Married, widowed, and divorced.

Sex and race.
45
45
15 to 20 to 25 to 35 to
15 to 20 to 25 to 35 to years
14
24
34
24
44
34
19
44 years
years. 19 years. years.
and Total, years. years. years, years. and Total.
years, over.
years.
over.
MALES.

American...............
English..................
Irish........................
French Canadian.
Portuguese...........
Other races...........

3
19
24
34
17
9

20

Total.

19

20

27

41

32

106

FEM \LER.

8

American...............
English..................
Irish........................
French Canadian.
Portuguese............
Other races...........

17
36
41
28
7
36

Total.

12

95

28

60

31

1
2

5
22
18
19
13
6

5
96
60
50
22
3

14
131
83
90
52
16

137

DEATHS: NONTUBERCULOUS.

MALES.

American....................
English........................
Irish.............................
French Canadian___
Portuguese.................
Other races.................
Total.................

9
12
3
14
9
5

7
11
4
10
8
5

5
10
4
16
3
6

4
18
10
3
2

4

52

45

44

37

1

7
12
4
19
15
3

7
9
6
20
2
4

5
5
14
11

1
3
19
5

60

48

36

1
2
1

2
12
17
2
1

24
49
46
54
25
18

2
3
1

3
11
5
19
14
6

34

216

9

58

83

236

386

10
20
5
2

21
39
63
62
19
8

2
1
1
4
6

4
4
3
20
17
3

8
29
33
34
30
8

4
17
37
35
5
4

4
44
49
15
3
1

22
95
123
108
61
16

37

212

14

51

142

102

116

425

FEMALES.

American....................
English........................
Irish.............................
French Canadian___
Portuguese.................
Other races...............
Total.................




2

3

1
28

238

G ENERAL TAB LES.

6 . — D EATH S AND D EATH R A TES P E R 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L CAUSES, OF O PE R A TIV E S O F SP E C IF IE D
CONJUGAL CO ND ITIO N AND AGE G RO U P, B Y S E X AN D RACE, 1908
TO 1912— Concluded.

T able

D E A T H K A T E S PE R 1,000: TU BER CU LO U S.
Operatives of specified conjugal condition and age group.
Single.

Married, widowed, and divorced.

Sex and race.
45
45
15 to 20 to 25 to 35 to
15 to 20 to 25 to 35 to years
14
34
44 years Total.
34
44
TotaL 19
24
24
19
and
years. years. years. years. years. and
years. years. years, years.
over.
over.

MALES.

1.73 5.06
.85 3.07
2.84 5.33
.76 2.05
.83 • 1.37
1.74 1.12

American..............
English..................
Irish.......................
French Canadian.
Portuguese........... .
Other races...........

2. 25
2.13 6.38
4.08 19.82
6.83 7.75
1.12 6.90
3.90

2.44
4.40

22.22

2.19

3.80

9.24

2.75

2.45
2.08
3.06
2.37
1.53
.53

3.94
2.89
3.04
4.45

.95
2.51

2.84
3.75
1.35

3.17
1.06

1.99

2.61

TotaL.

2.32
2.03
7.13
2.46
1.26
1.67

5.41
4.08
1.54
1.67

2.11
2.13 3.31
4.49 10.00
3. 74 2. 78
2.03 2.15
3.76

2.63
1.75
5.15
3.60
1.04
1.28

1.81
2.21
6.57
3.37
1.78
1.72

2.3

2.04

2.19

3.61

2.65

2.73

2.73 12.50 10.34 6.73
1.92
3.42 4.63
12.90 19.51
2.80
9.52 6.06
.95
4.06 4.92
2.23 2.23

1.13
9.46
4.85
3.82
2. 71

2.32
3.17
3.59
4.00

6.10

4.32

2.68

5.00

FEMALES.

American..............
English..................
Irish.......................
French Canadian.
Portuguese...........
Other races...........

1.48

Total.................

.50

1.49

2.52

1.14

2.22

2.03

11

5.39

5.35
2.89
9.64

6.00

4.64
2.03

D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,000: N ONTUBERCULOUS.
MALES.

American...............
English..................
Irish........................
French Canadian.
Portuguese...........
Other races...........
Total.

3.80
5.36
5.33
3.08
1.37

1.68

25.00 4.64
8.99
8.51 2.13 26.83 6.27
4.08 1.26 32.97 10.13
4.10 7.75 5.56 3.58
2.23 13.79
1.89
2.63
3.90

2. 75

3.42
2.78

3.46
4.26
1.42
2.80
1.67
2.61

2. 74

4.99

1.57

2.37

4.92
3. 72
6. 74
2.72
’*.’ 77* 1.52
1.60

4.17

6.06
1.42 28.57
5.70 10.49
2.09 5.41 16.95
25.00

1.37
2.48
7.12
1.90
1.31

2.97

10.53
22.19
25.77
12.77
10.39
2.56

6.63
13.20
16.14
5.54
3.67
1.34

1.02

8.00

7.85 20.62

8.42
5.80
5.00
2.50
3.43

3.70 16.87

7.21

6.67

2.49

2.52

FEMALES.

American...............
English..................
Irish........................
French Canadian.
Portuguese............
Other races............
Total.................

2.82
48

1.00

.41
1.48

1.02
1.09
2.30
1.07
1.33

1.52

1.11

.87

20.21

6.31 19.8

12.50
14.29
50.00
15.38
8.70

22.22

3.45 6.72 11.43
3.42 8.80
47 31.66
6.45 20.73 15.54 35.71
9.52 7.68 12.14 9.87
3.61 7.38 2. 55
3.72 2. 70 2.70

8.00

1.12
4.43

8.34

9.36
13.27
23.29
9.81
5.47
2.61

23.27

10.50

5.41 4.92 10.53 13.16
25.00 6.97
29.27 8.31
6.67 5.85 9.11 23.94
37.36 17.26 ..........
11.24 15.00 30.93
T 08* 6.46 5.29 16.37
5.56 6.04
22.22 3.14
2.31 3.56 5.58 11.43
4.30
1.67 2.40 4.51 3.85

8.43
15.22
22.71
8.91
5.46
3.07

D E A T H R ATES P ER 1,000: A L L CAUSES.
MALES.

American.................... 3.39
English........................
Irish.............................
French Canadian___ 3.42
Portuguese................. 2.78
Other races.................

5.19 8.86 11.24
5.11 8. 43 10.64 8 .51
4.26 10.67 8.16 32.43
3.56 5.13 10.92 15.50
2.50 2.75 3.35 20.69
4.35 2.80 7.79 8.00

2.13

3.86

4.94

8.79 17.09 23.37

6.53

American.................... 2.82
English........................
Irish.............................
French Canadian___ 2.96
Portuguese.................
Other races.................

2.86
3.56
4.08
3. 46
3.83
1.60

5.51
3.72
4.56
5.56
.58
2.17

5.92 6.06
3.08 4.26 3i.'75
6.65 14.23 21.28
4.60 6.76 16.95
25.00
1.98

4.10
4.40
9.34
4.70
2.26
1.76

Total................. 1.50

3.32

3.48

4.46

4.52 18.92

Total.................

7.32 19.52

9.96

25.00 13.79 13.45 11.43 22.22
14.29 6.84 13.43 9.60 33.98
50.00 19.35 40.24 25.00 38.89
30.77 19.05 13.74 16.99 13. 45
17.39 7.67 12.30 6.37 12.00
3.35 5.95 5. 41 2. 70

14.72
16.16
32.93
15.81
10.11
4.64

3.06

4.71

FEMALES.




8.83 21.02

9.83 14.44 14.20 25.95

15.50

239

GENERAL TABLES.

T able 7 . — DEATHS AND D EATH R A TES P E R 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
JNON TUBERCULOUS, AND A L L CAUSES, OP O PE R A TIV E S OP SPECIFIE D
CONJUGAL CONDITION AND AGE G RO U P, B Y S E X A N D W ORKROOM
G RO U P, 1908 TO 1912.

DEATHS: TTrBEB.CTn.OtTS.
Operatives of specified conjugal condition and age group.
Single.

Married, widowed, and divorced.

Sex and workroom
group.
14
years.

20
15
20
15
25
35
45
35
45
25
years Total. to
to
to
to
to
to
to years Total.
to
34
34
24
44
24
44
19
19
and
and
years. years. years. years. over.
years. years. years. years. over.

MALES.
Picker and card
rooms.....................
Spirmingromn.,T .
r
Spooler, drawing-in,
warping, winding,
a n a s la s h in g
.............
rooms
Weave room.............
Cloth room...............
Miscellaneous em­
ployees ...................

5

4
10

7

1
3

1
1

6
26

1
6
2

6

12

16

1
1

2
41
2

15

20

19

20

4

78

5
10

10
10

2
3

2
1

9
7
2

8
8

4

1

Total...............

2

6
10

13
4

7
8

26
24

1
3

11

2
20
1

1
14
1

4
48
2

1

1

2

6

27

41

32

106

1

FEMALES.

Picker and card
rooms.....................
Spinning room.........
Spooler,drawing-in,
warping,winding,
a n d s la s h in g
rooms......................
Weave room.............
Cloth room...............
Miscellaneous em­
ployees...................
Total...............

1

20
24

36

4
11

21
12

11
6

4

41
32

2

3
10

12
13
2

4
10

3
5

24
38
2

6

28

60

31

12

137

3
2

2

3

21
20
7

12

8

2

95

3
1

1
3

3
36

D E A T H S : NONTUBERCU LO U S.
MALES.

Picker and card
rooms.....................
S p i n n i n g room.........
Spooler,drawing-in,
warping,winding,
a n a s la s h in g
rooms.....................
Weave room.............
Cloth room...............
Miscellaneous em­
ployees ...................
Total...............

1
1

8
16

2

2
10

4

37

1

3
11

2
7

2
4

2
4

18
43

1

5
7

9
5

36
32

50
45

2
14

2
9

2
17
1

8
61
3

2

19

1
26

13
108
4

14
155
4

4

5

1

11

12

25

25

17

30

138

3

31

42

204

280

6
9

6

4
2

3
4

7
2

27
18

1
4

4
9

17
18

12
7

32
1

66
39

4
4

2
3
1

9
7
2

3
9
1

7
19

25
42
4

2
1

2
8

13
27
5

12
38

9
56
4

38
130
9

2

2

2

6

12

24

20

35

117

8

23

82

71

104

288

9
2

1

FEMALES.

Picker and card
rooms.....................
Spinning room.........
Spooler, drawing-in,
warping, winding,
a n a s la s h i n g
rooms.....................
Weave room.............
Cloth room...............
Miscellaneous em­
ployees ...................
Total...............




1
2

24

1

240

GENERAL TABLES.

7 . — DEATHS AND D EATH BATES P E R 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,
NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL CAUSES, OF O PE R A TIV E S OF SPECIFIED
CONJUGAL CONDITION AND AGE GROUP, B Y SE X AN D W ORKROOM
G RO U P, 1908 TO 1912— Continued.

T able

DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.
Operatives of specified conjugal condition and age group.
Single.

Married, widowed, and divorced.

Sex and workroom
group.
15

14
years.

20
20
25
35
45
15
25
35
45
to
to
to
years Total. to
to
to
to
years
44
24
24
34
19
and
34
44
19
and
years. years. years. years. over.
years. years. years. years. over.
to

Total,

MALES.

Picker and card
rooms.....................
Spinning room.........
Spooler, drawing-in,
warping, winding,
a n a s la s h in g
rooms
...........
Weave room.. . . . . . .
Cloth room ...........
Miscellaneous em­
ployees . . . . . . . . .

1
1

8
21

7
21

2

3
16
2

15
2

2
14

3
7

3
5

2
26

2
25

3
18
1

22
9

43
40

76
69

30

3
46
1

14
122
5

18
203

2

12

14

6

2
4

52

45

44

37

34

216

2
1

11
19

16
10

6
5

5
5

7
2

47
42

13
11
2

T o ta l.............

11
17

1
5

10
102
5

4

3

24
69

10
11
1

13
7
5

3
12
3

7
21

46
62
11

48

36

28

37

212

6

9

58

83’

236

386

2
7

8
20

38
30

23
13

36
1

107
71

4
1

5
18

25
40
7

16
48

12
61
4

62
168
11

2

2

2

6

14

51

142

102

116

425

1.90
4.68
1.84

5.01
2.95
3.17
3.67

3.44
4.40
2.01
2.39

3.12
3.80
2.34
2.21

FEMALES.

Picker and card
rooms........ ...........
Spinning room.........
Spooler, drawing-in,
warping, winding,
an d s la s h in g
rooms
.............
Weave room.............
Cloth room
Miscellaneous em­
ployees .................

4

Total...............

3

60

4

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: TUBERCULOUS.
MALES.

Picker and card
rooms.....................
Spinning room.........
Weave room.............
Other rooms.............

0.91
1.27
? 06

Total...............

6.06
6.90
.90
25.00

1.50
2.48
2.83
1.21

2.05
2.47
4.44

9.24

2.75

2.36

2.04

2.19

3.62

2.65

2.73

3.57
3.03
2.35
1.99

2.56 6.25
2.38 9.84
1.33
2.22 i9.’ 05*

3.48
6.69
7.60
2.78

9.25
6.25
3.81
6.28

6.98
6.60
3.19
2.56

3.76

2.02

2.05*
3.92

6.59
6.43
3.63
4.53

2.52

1.14

2.03

5.39

6.10

4.32

2.68

5.00

3.23
3.53
1.48

2.90
7.00 11.54
4.73 11.60

1.11

2.19

3.80

Picker and card
rooms..................... 2.33
Spinning room.........
Weave room.............
Other rooms.............

1.64
2.19
1.38
2.60

4.64 1.53
2.87 2.48
1.91
2.01 *2.57*

.50

1.99

2.61

FEMALES.

Total...............




1. 49

8.11

241

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b l e 7 ___ D EATHS AND D EATH RA TES P E R 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS,

NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D ALL CAUSES, OF O PERA TIVES OF SPECIFIED
CONJUGAL CONDITION AND AGE GROUP, B Y S E X AN D W ORKROOM
GROUP, 1908 TO 1912—Concluded.
DEATH RATES PEK 1,000: NONTTTBERCTXLOTTS.
Operatives of specified conjugal condition and age group.
Single.

Married, widowed, and divorced.

Sex and workroom
group.
14
years.

20
15
20
25
35
15
25
35
45
45
to
to
to
to
to years Total
to
years Total. to
to
34
34
44
24
44
24
19
and
19
and
years. years. years. years. over.
years. years. years. years. over.

MALES.

Picker and card
rooms..................... 6.45
Spinning room......... 1.36
Weave room............. 3.01
Other rooms.............

6.25
2.90
2.11
1.54

2.42
3.89
2. 22
2. 00

2.44 5.80 12.12
7.00 15.38 27.59
5.51 6.52 15.39
3.10 11.11 175.00

4.49 .........
4.10
T ra
4.21
1.65
3.87

1.58
3.28
3.19

3.47
3.69
4.13
1.83

17.69
17.58
15. 47
22. 31

6.00
7.13
7.56
8.29

2.13

2. 75

2. 74

5.00

Total...............

7.85

20.62

4.17

1.02

2. 52

3.70 16. 87

7.22

1.97 2.78
1.97
.79 ".'72
.93
.75

3.07 5.36
1.65 12.12
2. 47 7.06
4.05 3.98

22.95
36.36
19.19
17.05

3. 46 6.25
1.79 13.11
2.80 5. 88
19.05

3.48
5. 47
6.08
1.85

7. 49 7.62 30.05
9.38 7.69 5.00
7.90 12.12 22. 95
8. 97 8.94 19. 61

10.61
7.83
12.41

1.33

2.97

19.89

2.49 10.81

4. 43

8.34

9.88 23.27

10.50

3. 48
7.96
5.03

8.48
6. 64
7. 30
5.50

21.13
21.98
17. 48
24.70

9.12
10.94
9.90
10.50

FEMALES.

Picker and card
rooms..................... 2.33
Spinning room......... 2.35
Weave room.............
Other rooms.............
Total...............

1.00

.87

6.31

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.
MALES.

Picker and card
rooms..................... 6. 45
Spinning room......... 1.36
Weave room............. 3. 01
Other rooms.............

6. 25
3. 81
3.38
3.60

5. 65 2.44 8.70 18.18
7. 42 14.00 26.92 34. 48
3. 71 10. 24 18.12 16.29
2.00 3.10 11.11 200.00

5.99
6. 58
7.05
5.08

3.08
4.12
4. 44

Total............... 2.13

3.86

4. 94

8.79 17.09

23.37

6.53

3.06

4.71

7.32 19.52

9.96

Picker and card
rooms..................... 4.65
Spinning room......... 2.35
Weave room.............
Other rooms.............

3. 61
4.16
2.17
3.53

7. 42
2. 87
2.63
2. 77

4.60 8.93
4.13 15.15
2. 47 9. 41
6. 62 5.97

22.95
36.36
21. 21
17.07

6.03 12. 50 6.96 16.74
4.17 22. 95 12.16 15.63
4.13 5. 88 13.69 11.71
4. 36 38.10 4.63 15.25

14. 60 33.80
14.29 5.00
15.31 25.00
11.50 23.53

17.20
14.26
16.04
13. 75

1.50

3.32

3.48

4.46

21.02

4.52 18.92

9.83 14.44 14.20 25.95

15.50

FEMALES.

Total...............

88204°— 19— Bull. 251------ 16




8.83

242

G EN ERAL TABLES.

Table 8*—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM
TIVES AND NONOPERATIVES IN EACH 5Population and deaths.
Males.

Age group and cause
of death.
Opera­
tives.

Females.

NonBoth
opera­ classes. Opera­
tives.
tives.

Both sexes.

NonBoth
opera­ classes. Opera­
tives.
tives.

Non­
Both
opera­ classes.
tives.

15 TO 19 YEARS.
Population...............................

2,712

3,293

6,005

3,763

2,866

6,629

6,475

6,159

12,634

Deaths:
Tuberculous.....................
N ontuberculous...............

15
37

12
23

27
60

42
32

17
12

59
44

57
69

29
35

86
104

Total, all causes...........

52

35

87

74

29

103

126

64

190

20 TO 24 YE A E S.
Population...............................

2,412

3,323

5,735

3,796

2,990

6,786

6,208

6,313

Deaths:
Tuberculous.....................
N ontuberculous...............

26
28

21
41

47
69

64
35

18
22

82
57

90
63

39
63

129
126

Total, all causes...........

54

62

116

99

40

139

153

102

255

25 TO 29 YEARS.
Population...............................

1,895

3,659

5,554

2,178

3,724

5,902

4,073

7,383

11,456

Deaths:
Tuberculous.....................
N ontuberculous...............

23
31

32
59

55
90

40
53

31
58

71
111

63
84

63
117

126
201

12,521

Total, all causes...........

54

91

145

93

89

182

147

180

327

30 TO 34 YEARS.
Population...............................

1,567

2,827

4,394

1,402

3,538

4,940

2,969

6,365

9,334

Deaths:
Tuberculous.....................
N ontuberculous...............

23
25

38
59

61
84

32
53

29
78

61
131

55
78

67
137

122
215

Total, all causes...........

48

97

145

85

107

192

133

204

337

35 TO 39 YEARS.
Population............................ ..

1,482

3,031

4,513

1,218

3,331

4,549

2,700

6,362

9,062

Deaths:
Tuberculous.....................
N ontuberculous...............

33
29

41
72

74
101

21
40

28
83

49
123

54
69

69
155

123
224

Total, all causes...........

62

113

175

61

111

172

123

224

347

40 TO 44 YEARS.
Population...............................

1,220

2,510

3,730

853

3,150

4,003

2,073

5,660

7,733

Dearths:
Tuberculous.....................
N ontuberculous...............

28
30

30
90

58
120

18
51

20
108

38
159

46
81

50
198

96
279

Total, all causes...........

58

120

178

69

128

197

127

248

375

15 TO 44 YEARS.
Population...............................

11,288

18,643

29,931

13,210

19,599

32,809

24,498

38,242

62,740

US
180
323

174
su
518

322
524
846

217
264
481

143
361
504

360
625
985

365
4U
809

317
705
1,022

682
1,149
1,831

Deaths:
Tuberculous i ...................
Nontuberculous1.............
Total, all causes1.........
AGE-ADJUSTED RATES.

Tuberculous............................
N ontuberculous......................
Total, all causes...........




i The rates here are cmde rates, not age-adjusted.

243

GENERAL TABLES.

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L
Y E A R AGE G RO U P, B Y SE X , 1908 TO 1912.




CAUSES, F O R

O PE R A

244

G EN ERAL TABLES.

9 — AGE PERCEN TAG E D IST R IB U T IO N OF O P E R A TIV E AND OF
N O N O PER ATIVE M ALES AND FEM ALES, FO R POPULATION AND FOR
DEATH S FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL CAUSES,
1908 TO 1912.

T able

Males.
Age group and cause of
death.

Opera­
tives.

Females.

NonBoth
opera­ classes. Opera­
tives.
tives.

Non­
opera­
tives.

Both sexes.

Both
Opera­
classes. tives.

Nonopera­ Both
tives. classes.

15 TO 19 YEARS.
24

18

20

28

15

20

26

16

20

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

10
21

7
7

8
12

19
12

12
3

16
7

16
16

9
5

13
9

Total, all causes............

16

7

10

15

6

10

16

6

10

20 TO 24 YEARS.
21

18

19

29

15

21

25

16

20

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous. . ...........

17
15

12
12

15
13

30
13

13
6

23
9

25
14

12
9

19
11

Total, all causes............

16

12

14

21

8

14

19

10

14

17

20

19

17

19

18

17

19

18

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

16
17

18
17

17
17

18
20

22
16

20
18

17
19

20
17

18
17

Total, all causes............

16

17

17

19

18

19

18

18

18

25 TO 29 YEARS.

30 TO 34 YEARS.
............................

14

15

15

11

18

15

12

17

15

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

16
14

22
17

19
16

15
20

20
22

17
21

15
17

21
19

18
19

Total, all causes............

15

19

17

18

21

20

16

20

18

Population................................

13

16

15

9

17

14

11

17

15

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuberculous...............

22
16

24
21

23
19

10
15

19
23

14
20

15
16

'22
22

18
20

Total, all causes............

19

22

21

13

22

17

15

22

19

Population

35 TO 39 YEARS.

40 TO 44 YEARS.
Population ..............................

11

13

12

6

16

12

9

15

12

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

19
17

17
26

18
23

20

8

14
30

10
25

12
18

16
28

14
24

Total, all causes............

18

23

21,

14

25

20

16

24

21

Population................................ 11,288

18,643

29,931

13,210

19,599

32,809

24,498

38,242

62,740

TOTALS, AGE GROUP 15 TO 44
YEARS (100 PER CENT),
UPON WHICH AGE GROUP
PERCENTAGES ARE BASED.

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuberculous...............

148
180

174
344

322
524

217
264

143
361

360
625

365
444

317
705

682
1,149

Total, all causes............

328

518

846

481

504

985

809

1,022

1,831




245

GENERAL TABLES.

SE X PERCEN TAG E D ISTR IB U TIO N OF O PE R A TIV E S AND OF
NO N O PER ATIVE S IN EACH 5-Y E A R AGE GROUP, FO R PO PULATION
AND FO R DEATH S FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND
ALL CAUSES, 1908 TO 1912.

T ab le 1 0 .—

Nonoperatives.

Operatives.
Age group and cause of
death

Per cent.

Males.

Per cent.

Both
sexes
(100 per
Fe­
males. cent).

Males.

Fe­
males.

Both classes.

Both
sexes
(100 per
cent).

Per cent.

Males.

Both
sexes
(100 per
Fe­
males. cent).

15 TO 19 YEARS.
42

5S

6,475

53

47

6,159

48

52

12,634

28
54

74
46

57
69

41

6
6

59
34

29
35

31
58

69
42

86
104

41

59

126

55

45

64

46

54

190

39

61

6,208

53

47

6,313

46

54

12,521

Nontuberculous...............

29
44

71
56

90
63

54
65

46
35

39
63

36
55

64
45

129
126

Total, all causes............

35

65

153

61

39

102

45

55

255

Deaths:

20 TO 24 YEARS.

Deaths:

25 TO 29 YEARS.
Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

53

4,073

50

50

7,383

48

52

11,456

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

37
37

63
63

63
84

51
50

49
50

63
117

44
45

56
55

126
201

Total, all causes............

37

63

147

51

49

180

44

56

327

30 TO 34 YEARS.
Population..............................

53

47

2,969

44

56

6,365

47

53

9,334

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuber culous...............

42
32

6
8

58

55
78

57
43

43
57

67
137

50
39

50
61

122
215

Total, all causes............

36

64

133

48

52

204

43

57

337

35 TO 39 YEARS.
Population...............................

55

45

2,700

48

52

6,362

50

50

9,062

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

61
42

39
58

54
69

59
46

41
54

69
155

60
45

40
55

123
224

Total, all causes............

50

50

,123

50

50

224

50

50

347

Population................................

59

41

2,073

44

56

5,660

48

52

7,733

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

61
37

39
63

46
81

60
45

40
55

50
198

60
43

40
57

96
279

Total, all causes............

46

54

127

48

52

248

47

53

375

Population................................

46

54

24,498

49

51

38,242

48

52

62,740

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

41
41

59
59

365
444

55
49

45
51

317
705

47
46

53
54

682
1,149

Total, all causes............

41

59

809

51

49

1,022

46

54

1,831

40 TO 44 YEARS.

15 TO 44 YEARS.




246

G EN ERAL TABLES.

T able 1 1 .— P E R CENT O F O PE R A TIV E S AND N O N O PER ATIVE S AMONG
M ALES AN D AM ONG FEM ALES IN EACH 5-Y E A R AG E GROUP, FO R
PO PU LATIO N AND F O R D EATH S FROM TUBERCULOUS, N O N TU BER­
CULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES, 1908 TO 1912.
Females.

Males.
Per cent.
Age group and cause of death.
Opera­
tives.

Nonopera­
tives.

Per cent.
Both
classes
(100 per
Noncent). Opera­ opera­
tives.
tives.

Both sexes.
Per cent.
Both
classes
(100 per
Noncent). Opera­ opera­
tives.
tives.

Both
classes
(100 per
cent).

15 TO 10 YEARS.
45

55

6,005

57

43

6,629

51

49

12,634

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuberculous................

56
62

44
38

27
60

71
73

29
27

59
44

66
66

34
34

86
104

Total, all causes............

60

40

87

72

28

103

66

34

190

42

58

5,735

56

44

6,786

50

50

12,521

55
41

59

47
69

78
61

22
39

82
57

70
50

30
50

129
126

47

j
53 |

116

71

29

139

60

40

255

Population_________ ________

34

66

5,554

37

63

5,902

36

64

11,456

Deaths:
Tuberculous. .....................
N ontuberculous................

42
34

58
66

55
90

56
48

44
52

71
111

50
42

50
58

126
201

Total, all causes............

37

63

145

51

49

182

45

55

327

Population...............................

36

64

4,394

28

72

4,940

32

68

9,334

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuberculous................

38
30

62
70

61
84

52
40

48
60

61
131

45
36

55
64

122
215

Total, all causes............

33

67

145

44

56

192

39

61

337

33

67 | 4,513

27

73

4,549

30

70

9,062

74
101

43
33

57
67

49
123

44
31

56
69

123
224

20 TO 24 YEARS.

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuberculous................

25 TO 29 YEARS.

30 TO 34 YEARS.

35 TO 39 YEARS.
Population................................
Deaths:
Tuberculous.....................
N ontuberculous...............

45
29

55
71

Total, all causes............

35

65

175

35

65

172

35

65

347

Population................................

33

67

3,730

21

79

4,003

27

73

7,733

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuberculous................

48
25

52
75

58
120

47
32

53
68

38
159

48
29

52
71

96
279

Total, all causes............

33

67

178

35

65

197

34

68

375

Population................................

38

62

29,931

40

60

32,809

39

61

62,740

Deaths:
Tuberculous...................
N ontuberculous...............

46
34

54
66

322
524

60
42

40
58

360
625

54
39

46
61

682
1,149

39

61

846

49

51

985

44

56

1,831

1

40 TO 44 YEARS.

15 TO 44 YEARS.

Total, all causes........




247

GENERAL TABLES.

P E R CENT OF O PE R A T IV E AND N ON O P E R A T IV E MALES
AND FEM ALES IN TO TAL F O R EACH 5-Y E A R AG E GROUP, FO R POPU­
LATION AND FO R D E A TH S FROM TUBERCULO US, NONTUBERCULOUS,
AND ALL CAUSES, 1908 TO 1912.

T able 1 2 .—

Males.
Age group and cause of
death.

Females.

Both sexes.

Nonopera­
tives.

Both
classes.
(100 per
cent).

51

49

12,634

69
42

66
66

34
34

80
104

15

54

66

34

190

Nonopera­
tives.

Opera­
tives.

Nonopera­
tives.

Population................................

22

26

48

29

23

52

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

17
36

14
22

31
58

49
30

20
12

Total, all causes............

27

19

46

39

Both Opera­
classes. tives.

Both Opera­
classes. tives.

15 TO 19 YEARS.

20 TO 24 YEARS.
Population................................

20

26

46

30

24

54

50

50

12.521

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuberculous...............

20
22

16
33

36
55

50
28

14
17

64
45

70
50

30
50

129
126

Total, all causes............

21

24

45

39

16

55

60

40

255

Population...............................

17

31

48

19

33

52

36

64

11,456

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

18
16

26
29

44
45

32
26

24
29

56
55

50
42

50
58

126
201

Total, all causes............

17

27

44

29

27

56

45

55

327

Population................................

17

30

47

15

38

53

32

68

9,334

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuberculous...............

19
11

31
28

50
39

26
25

24
36

50
61

45
36

55
64

122
215

Total, all causes............

14

29

43

25

32

57

39

61

337

Population................................

17

33

50

13

37

50

30

70

9,062

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuberculous...............

27
13

33
32

60
45

17
18

23
37

40
55

44
31

56
69

123
224

Total, all causes............

17

33

50

18

32

50

35

65

347

Population...............................

16

32

48

11

41

52

27

73

7,733

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuberculous...............

29
11

31
32

60
43

19
18

21
39

40
57

48
29

52
71

96
279

Total, all causes............

15

32

47

19

34

53

34

66

375

Population................................

18

30

48

21

31

52

39

61

62,740

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
N ontuberculous...............

22
16

25
30

47
46

32
23

21
31

53
54

54
39

46
61

682
1,149

Total, all causes............

18

28

46

26

28

54

44

56

1,831

25 TO 29 YEARS.

30 TO 34 YEARS.

35 TO 39 YEARS.

40 TO 44 YEARS.

15 TO 44 YEARS.




248

G EN ERAL TABLES.

T a b l e 1 3 — P E R CENT OF M ALES AND FEM ALES IN EACH 5-Y E A R AGE

G RO U P O F TO TA L O P E R A T IV E S AN D O F T O T A L NO N O PER ATIVE S,
F O R PO PU LATIO N AN D F O R D EATH S FROM TUBERCULOUS, NON­
TUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES, 1908 TO 1912.
Operatives.

Nonoperatives.

Both classes.

Age group and cause of death.
Males.

Fe­
males.

Both
sexes.

Males.

Fe­
males.

Both
sexes.

Males.

Fe­
males.

11

15

26

9

7

16

10

10

20

4
9

12
7

16
16

4
3

5
2

9
5

4
5

9
4

13
9

7

9

16

3

3

6

4

6

10

10

15

25

8

8

16

9

11

20

7
6

18
8

25
14

6
6

6
3

12
9

7
6

12
5

19
11

7

12

19

6

4

10

6

8

14

Population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

9

17

9

10

19

9

9

18

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous. . . . . . . . .

6
7

11
12

17
19

10
9

10
8

20
17

8
8

10
9

18
17

Total, all causes............

7

11

18

9

9

18

8

10

18

Both
sexes.

15 TO 19 YEARS.

Deaths:

Total, all causes............
20 TO 24 YEARS.

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Total, all causes............
25 TO 29 YEARS.

30 TO 34 YEARS.

Population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

6

12

8

9

17

7

8

15

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

6
5

9
12

15
17

12
8

9
11

21
19

9
8

9
11

18
19

Total, all causes............

6

10

16

10

10

20

8

10

18

35 TO 39 YEARS.

Population................................

6

5

11

8

9

17

7

8

15

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

9
7

6
9

15
16

13
10

9
12

22
22

11
9

7
11

18
20

Total, all causes............

7

8

15

11

11 [

22

10

9

19

Population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

4

9

7

8

15

6

6

12

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

8
7

4
11

12
18

10
13

6
15

16
28

8
10

6
14

14
24

Total, all causes............

7

9

16

12

12

24

10

11

21

40 TO 44 YEARS.

15 TO 44 YEARS.

Population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

54 124,498

49

51 138,242

48

52

i 62,740

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

40
41

60
59

l 365
l 444

55
49

45
51

1317
i 705

47
46

53
54

i 682
i 1,149

Total, all causes............

41

59

i 809

51

49

U ,022

46

54

i 1,831




i Total on which percentages are based.

249

G EN ERAL TAB LES.

T able 1 4 .— P E R CENT OF O PE R A TIV E S AND N O N O PER ATIVE S IN EA CH
5-Y E A R AGE G RO U P O F TO TAL M ALES AND O F TO T A L FEM ALES,
FO R POPULATION AND F O R D EATH S FROM TU BERCU LO U S, NON­
TUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES, 1908 TO 1912.
Males.
Age group and cause of death.
Opera­
tives.

Females.

NonBoth Opera­
opera­ classes. tives.
tives.

Both sexes.

Non­
opera­ Both Opera­
tives. classes. tives.

NonBoth
opera­
tives. classes.

15 TO 19 Y E A R S.

10

10

20

16

9

6

4
3

13

7

3

10

7

3

10

12

9

21

10

10

20

9

11

20

11

5
7

3
5

8

11

12

5

2

6

4

10

7

8

11

19

7

Deaths:

Total, all causes............

9

20

5

9

20 TO 24 Y E A R S.

Deaths:

8

8

15
13

18
5

5
4

23

5

9

13
6

6
5

19
11

7

7

14

10

4

14

8

6

14

7'

12

19

7

11

18

6

12

18

7

9

25 TO 29 Y E A R S.

Population................................
Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

6
6

10
11

17
17

1
1

9

9

9

20
18

9
7

10

18
17

11

17

10

9

19

8

10

18

Population................................

5

10

15

4

11

15

5

10

15

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

7
5

12
11

19
16

9

8

13

8

17
21

8
7

10
12

18
19

6

11

17

9

11

20

7

11

18

10

14

5

10

15

Total, all causes............
3 0 TO 34 Y EA R S.

Total, all causes............
35 TO 39 YEA R S.

Population................................

5

10

15

4

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

10
5

13

23

6

14

19

7

13

20

6

14

20

Total, all causes............

7

14

21

6

11

17

7

12

19

8

12

2

10

12

3

9

12

8

14

8

10

18

40 TO 44 YEA RS.

Population................................

4

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

9

9

8

5
17

10
25

7

17

18
23

5

a

7

177

14
24

Total, all causes............

7

14

21

7

13

20

7

14

21

61

162,740

15 TO 44 Y E A R S.

Population................................

38

62 129,931

40

60 i 32,809

39

Deaths:
Tuberculous......................
Nontuberculous...............

46
34

6
6

i 322

60
42

40
58

i 360
i 625

54

46

i 524

39

61

i 682
i 1,149

Total, all causes............

39

61

i 846

49

51

i 985

44

56

i 1,831




54

1 Total on which percentages are based.

250

GENERAL TAB LES.

T able 1 5 .— P E R CENT O P O PE R A TIV E S AND N O N O PER ATIVE S OF
EACH S E X AND AG E G RO U P, FO R PO PU LATION AND FO R D EATH S
FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES, 1908
TO 1912.
F em ales.

M ales.
A g e group an d cause of d eath.

B o th sexes.

O per­
a tiv es.

Nonopera­
tiv e s.

B o th
classes.

O p er­
a tives.

Nonopera­
tiv e s.

B o th
classes.

O per­
a tives.

N onopera­
tiv e s.

P o p u la t io n .......................................

4

6

10

6

4

10

10

10

20

D e a th s:
T u b e r c u lo u s ...........................
N o n tu b e r c u lo u s ...................

3
3

1
2

4
5

6
3

3
1

9
4

9
6

4
3

13
9

T o ta l, all c a u se s...............

3

1

4

4

2

6

7

3

10

P o p u la t io n .......................................

4

5

9

6

5

11

10

10

20

D e a th s:
T u b ercu lo u s............................
N o n tu b erc u lo u s...................

4
3

3
3

7
6

9
3

3
2

12
5

13
6

6
5

19
11

T o ta l, all ca u se s...............

3

3

6

5

3

8

8

6

14

P o p u la tio n .......................................

3

6

9

3

6

9

6

12

18

D e a th s:
Tu b ercu lou s............................
N o n tu b e r c u lo u s...................

3
3

5
5

8
8

6
4

4
5

10
9

9
7

9
10

18
17

T o ta l, all ca u se s..............

3

5

8

5

5

10

8

10

18

P o p u la t io n .......................................

2

5

7

3

5

8

5

10

15

D e a th s:
T u b ercu lo u s............................
N o n tu b e r c u lo u s...................

3
2

6
6

9
8

5
5

4
6

9
11

8
7

10
12

18
19

T o ta l, all ca u se s..............

2

6

8

5

5

10

7

11

18

P o p u la t io n .......................................

3

4

7

2

6

8

5

10

15

D e a th s:
T u b ercu lo u s...........................
N o n tu b e r c u lo u s...................

5
2

6
7

11
9

3
4

4
7

7
11

8
6

10
14

18
20

T o ta l, all c a u se s...............

4

6

10

3

6

9

7

12

19

1

5

6

3

9

12

4

3
10

6
14

7
7

7
17

14
24

7 ■

14

21

B o th
classes.

15 to 19 YEARS.

20 TO 24 YEARS.

25 TO 29 YEARS.

30 TO 34 YEARS.

35 TO 39 YEARS.

40 TO 44 YEARS.
P o p u la t io n .......................................

2

4

6

D e a th s:
T u b ercu lo u s...........................
N o n tu b e r c u lo u s ...................

4
3

4
7

8
10

T o ta l, all ca u se s..............

3

7

10

4

7

11

P o p u la t io n .......................................

18

30

48

21

31

52

39

61

i 62 ,740

D e a th s:
T u b ercu lo u s...........................
N o n tu b e r c u lo u s...................

22
16

25
30

47
46

32

23

21
31

53
54

54
39

46
61

1682
11,149

T o ta l, all c a u se s...............

18

28

46

26

28

54

44

56

il,831

a

15 TO 44 YEARS.




1 Total on which percentages are based.

251

GENERAL TABLES.

T able 1 6 .— P E R CENT OF D EATH S FROM TU B ERC U LO U S AND NONTU­
BERCULOUS CAUSES AMONG O P E R A T IV E AND N O N O PE R A TIV E
MALES AND FEMALES, FO R EACH 5-Y E A R AGE GROUP, 1908 TO 1912.
Males.
Age group and cause of death.

Females.

Both sexes.

N onNonNonOper­
Oper­
Oper­
B oth
Both
Both
atives. opera­ classes. atives. opera­ classes. atives. opera­ classes.
tives.
tives.
tives.

15 TO 19 Y E A R S.
Per cent of deaths:
Tuberculous.....................................
Nontuberculous.............................

29
71

34
66

31
69

57
43

59
41

57
43

45
55

45
55

45
55

Number, all causes (100 per ce n t). .
Death rates per 1,000, all causes___

52
3.83

35
2.13

87
2.90

74
3.93

29
2.02

103
3.11

126
3.89

64
2.08

190
3.01

Per cent of deaths:
Tuberculous.....................................
Nontuberculous.............................

48
52

34
66

41
59

65
35

45
55

59
41

59
41

38
62

51
49

Number, all causes (100 per c e n t). .
Death rates per 1,000, all causes___

54
4.48

62
3.73

40
2.68

139
4.10

153
4.93

102
3.23

255
4.07

Per cent of deaths:
T uberculous...................................
Nontuberculous.............................

43
57

35
65

38
62

43
57

35
65

39
61

43
57

35
65

39
61

Number, all causes (100 per cen t). .
Death rates per 1,000, all causes___

54
5.70

91
4.97

145
5.22

93
8.54

89
4.78

182
6.17

147
7.22

180
4.88

327
5.71

Per cent of deaths:
Tuberculous.....................................
Nontuberculous.............................

48
52

39
61

42
58

38
62

27
73

32
68

41
59

33
67

36
64

Number, all causes (100 per cen t). .
Death rates per 1,000, all causes___

48
6.13

97
6.86

145
6.60

85
12.13

107
6.05

192
7.77

133
8.96

204
6.41

337
7.22

Per cent of deaths:
Tuberculous.....................................
N ontuberculous.............................

53
47

36
64

42
58

31
66

25
75

28
72

44
56

31
69

35
65

Number, all causes (100 per cen t). .
Death rates per 1,000, all causes___

62
8.37

113
7.46

175
7.76

61
10.02

111
6.66

172
7.56

123
9.11

224
7.04

347
7.66

Per cent of deaths:
Tuberculous.....................................
Nontuberculous.............................

48
52

25
75

33
67

26
74

16
84

19
81

36
64

20
80

26
74

Number, all causes (100 per ce n t). .
Death rates per 1,000, all causes___

58
9.51

120
9. 58

178
9.54

69
16.18

128
8.13

197
9.84

127
12.25

248
8.76

375
9.70

45
55

34
66

38
62

45
55

2S
72

37
63

45

55

31
69

37
63

20 TO 24 Y E A R S .

ncT
4.05

99~
5.22

25 TO 29 Y E A R S.

30 TO 34 Y E A R S.

35 TO 39 Y E A R S.

4 0 TO 44 Y E A R S.

1 5 TO 44 Y E A R S.

Per cent of deaths:
Tuberculous.....................................
Nontuberculous.............................
Number, all causes (100 per cen t). .
Death rates per 1,000 (crude), all
causes.....................................................
Death rates per 1,000 (age adjusted),
all causes...............................................




328

518

840

481

504

985

809

1,022

1,831

5 .8 1

5 .5 6

5 .6 5

7 .2 8

5.14

6 .0 0

6 .6 0

5 .3 4

5 .8 4

5.57

4.82

5.13

7.67

4.21

5.53

6.60

4.51

5.35

252

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b le

1 7 — POPULATION, DEATHS, AND D EATH B A TES P E R 1,000 PROM

ATIY E S AND NON O PERA TIVES OP SPECIFIED

AGE GROUP 15 TO 24.
Males.

Race.
Oper­
atives.

Females.

Non­
Both
Oper­
oper­
classes. atives.
atives.

Both sexes.

NonBoth
Oper­
oper­
classes. atives.
atives.

Non­
Both
oper­
classes.
atives.

POPULATION.
Non-Irish......................................

4,894

5,666

Irish................................................
American......................................
English..........................................
French Canadian.......................

230
544
701
1,279

950
867
1,523
1,544

10,560 1 7,065
1,180
1,411
2.314
2,823

4,667

11,732

11,959

10,333

22,292

1,189
847
1, 420
1,227

494
817
1,289
2,054

1 ,6S3
1,664
2.709
3,281

724
1,361
2,080
3,333

2,139
1,714
2,943
2; 771

2,863
3,075
5,023
6,104

D E A T H S : TUBERCULOUS.
Females.

Males.

Race.
Oper­
atives.

Non­
Oper­
Both
oper­
classes. atives.
atives.

Both sexes.

NonBoth
oper­
classes.
atives.

Oper­
atives.

Nonoper­
atives.

Both
classes.

Non-Irish.....................................

37

30

67

97

30

127

134

60

194

Irish...............................................
American.....................................
English.........................................
French Canadian..................... !
Portuguese..................................
Other races..................................

4
9
9
5

3
11
8
8
1
2

7
19
14
17
10
7

9
15
16
41
20
5

5
11
7
8
2
2

14
26
23
49
22
7

13
23
22
50
29
10

8
22
15
16
3
4

21
45
37
66
32
14

All races...........................

41

33

74

106

35

141

147

68

215

Non-Irish and non-Fiench
Canadian.................................

28

22

50

56

22

78

84

44

128

8
6

D E A T H S : NONTUBERCULOUS.
Non-Irish.....................................

62

55

117

62 |

30

92

124

85

209

Irish...............................................
American.....................................
English.........................................
French Canadian......................
Portuguese......... .........................
Other races..................................

3
9
19
17
11
6

9
14
15
11
6
9

12
23
34
28
17
15

5
5
10
22
20

4
11
4
4
4
7

9
16
14
26
24
12

8
14
29
39
31
11

13
25
19
15
10
16

21
39
48
54
41
27

A ll races...........................

65

64

129

67

34

101

132

98

230

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian.................................

45

44

89

40

26

66

85

70

155

60

5

D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES.
99

85 |

184

159

219

258

145

403

Irish
...................... *..........
American.....................................
English.........................................
French Canadian.__ . . . . . . . .
Portuguese
......................

7
17
25
26
20
11

12
25
23
19
7
11

19
42
48
45
27
22

14
20
26
63
40
10

9~
22
11
12
6
9

23
42
37
75
46
19

21
37
51
89
60
21

21
47
34
31
13
20

.4 2
84
85
120
73
41

All races...........................

106

97

203

173

69

242

279

166

445

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian

73

66

139

96

48

144

169

114

N o n -Irish ...................................




283
-------------

GENERAL TABLES.

253

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A LL
RACES, B Y AGE G RO UP AND SE X, 1908 TO 1912.

CAUSES

FO R

OPER

AGE GROUP 15 TO 24.
Males.
Race.
Oper­
atives.

Females.

NonOper­
Both
operclasses. atives.
atives.

Nonoper­
atives.

Both sexes.

Both
Oper­
classes. atives.

Non­
Both
oper­
classes.
atives.

POPULATION.
Portuguese...................................
Other races...................................

1,570
710

1,024
708

2,594
1,418

1,964
941

759
414

2,723
1,355

3,534
1,651

1,783
1,122

5,317
2,773

All races............................

5,124

6,616

11,740

7,559

5,856

13,415

12,683

12,472

25,155

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..................................

3,615

4,122

7,737

5,011

3,440

8,451

8,626

7,562

16,188

D E A T H R ATES PER 1,000: TUBERCULOUS.
Males.

Oper­
atives.

Females.

Nonop­
eratives.

Both
classes.

Oper­
atives.

Nonop­
eratives.

Both sexes.

Both
classes.

Oper­
atives.

Nonop­
eratives.

Both
classes.

1.51

1.06

1.27

2.75

1.29

2.16

2.24

1.16

1.74

3.48
2.94
1.52
1.41
1.15
1.41

.63
2.54
1.05
1.04
.20
.57

1.19
2.69
1.21
1.21
.77
.99

3.64
3.67
2.48
3.99
2.04
1.06

.84
2.60
.99
1.30
.53
.97

1.66
3.13
1.70
2.99
1.62
1.03

3.59
3.38
2.11
3.00
1.64
1.21

.75
2.57
1.02
1.16
.34
.71

1.47
2.93
1.47
2.16
1.21
1.01

1.60

1.00

1.26

2.81

1.20

2.10

2.32

1.09

1.71

1.55

1.07

1.29

2.23

1.28

1.85

1.95

1.16

1.58

D E A T H R ATES PER 1,000: NONTUBERCULOUS.
2.54

1.94

2.21

1.75

1.28

1.57

2.07

1.65

1.88

2. 61
3.31
4.80
2. 66
1.40
1.69

1.90
3.23
1.97
1.42
1.17
2.54

2.03
3.26
2.94
1.98
1.31
2.11

2.03
1.23
1.55
2.14
2.03
1.07

.67
2.59
.56 .
.65
1.05
3.38

1.07
1.92
1.03
1.58
1. 76
1.77

2.21
2.06
2.79
2.34
1.76
1.33

1.21
2.91
1.29
1.08
1.12
2.86

1.46
2.53
1.91
1.77
1.54
1.95

2.54

1.93

2. 20

1.77

1.16

1.51

2.08

1.57

1.83

2.49

2.13

2.30

1.60

1.51

1.56

1.97

1.85

1.92

*

D E A T H R ATES PER 1,000: A L L CAUSES.
4. 05

3.00

3.48

4. 50

2. 57

3.73

4.31

2. 81

3.62

6. 09
6.25
6.32
4.07
2.55
3.10

2.53
5.77
3.02
2.46
1.37
3.11

3.22
5.95
4.15
3.19
2.08
3.10

5. 67
4.90
4.03
6.13
4.07
2.13

1.51
5.19
1.55
1.95
1.58
4.35

2. 73
5.05
2.73
4.57
3.38
2.80

5.80
5.44
4.90
5.34
3.40
2.54

1.96
5.48
2.31
2.24
1.46
3.57

2.93
5.46
3.38
3.93
2.75
2.96

4.14

2.93

3.46

4.58

2.36

3. 61

4.40

2. 66

3.54

4.04

3.20

3.59

3.83

2.79

3.41

3.92

3.01

3.50




GENERAL TABLES.

254
T a b l e 1 7 .— P O PU LA TIO N ,

D EATH S, AND D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 FROM
A T I Y ES AN D N ON OPE R A T IY E S OF SP E C IFIE D RACES,
AGE GROUP 25 TO 34.
Males.

Race.
Oper­
atives.

Non­
oper­
atives.

Females.

Oper­
Both
classes. atives.

Nonoper­
atives.

Both sexes.

Both
Oper­
classes. atives.

Non­
oper­
atives.

Both
classcs.

POPULATION.
Nfl&-Irish.....................................
Irish...............................................
Am erican.....................................
E nglish...............- ...................
French Canadian......................

3,275

5,673

8,948

2,995

6,481

9,476

6,270

12,154

18,424

187
211
564
881

813
985
1.397
1,511

1,000
1,196
1,961
2,392

585
288
757
973

781
1,057
1,434
1,680

1,366
1,345
% 191
2,653

772
499
1,321
1,854

1,594
2,042
2,831
3,191

2,366
2,541
4,152
5,045

D E A T H S : TU BER CU LO U S.
Females.

Males.
Race.
Oper­
atives.

NonBoth
Oper­
oper­
classes. atives.
atives.

Both sexes.

NonOper­
B oth
operclasses. atives.
aiiv-es.

NonB oth
oper­
classes.
atives.

N on-Irish.....................................

42

43

85

54

39

93

96

82

178

Irish...............................................
American.....................................
E nglish.........................................
French Canadian......................
Portuguese..................................
Other races..................................

4
1i
6
21
9
5

27
6
11
17
5
4

31
7
17
38
14
9

18
7
10
21
12
4

21
8
3
23
3
2

39
15
13
44
15
6

22
S
16
42
21
9

48
14
14
40
8
6

70
22
30
82
29
15

A ll races............................

46

70

116

72

60

132

118

130

248

Non-Trish and non-French
Canadian.................................

21

26

47

33

16

49

54

42

96

D E A T H S : NON TUBER CU LOU S.
Non-Irish.....................................

51 :

93

144

77

107

184

128

200 :

328

Irish.............................................
Am erican....................................
E nglish.........................................
French Canadian.. ...............
Portuguese..................................
Other races............................ ..

5
7
15
14
8
7

25
21
18
29
14
11

30
28
33
* 43
22
18

29
6
24
24
18
5

29
25
20
36
11
15

58
31
44
60
29
20

34
13
39
38
26
12

54
46
38
65
25
26

88
59
77
103
51
38

A ll races............................

53

118

174

106

136

242

162

254

416

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian.................................

37

64

101

53

71

124

90

135

225

D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES.
Non-Irish.....................................

93

136

229

131

146

277

224

282

506

Irish...............................................
American.....................................
English.........................................
French Canadian......................
Portuguese..................................
Other races..................................

9
8
21
35
17
12

52
27
29
46
19
15

61
35
50
81
36
27

47
13
34
45
30
9

50
33
23
59
14
17

97
46
57
104
44
26

56
21
55
80
47
21

102
60
52
105
33
32

158
81
107
185
80
53

A ll races............................

102

188

290

178

196

374

280

3S4

664

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..................................

58

90

148;

86

87

173

144

177

321




GENERAL TABLES.

255

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES
B Y AG E G RO UP AN D S E X , 1908 TO 1912—Continued.

FOR OPER

AGE GROUP 25 TO 34.
Males.
Race.

%
Oper­
atives.

Females.

B oth sexes.

N onN onBoth
Oper­
Both
Oper­
oper­
oper­
classes. atives.
classes. atives.
atives.
atives.

N onBoth
oper­
classes
atives.

POPULATION.
Portuguese...................................
Other races...................................

966
653

1,231
549

2,197
1,202

607
370

1,590
720

2,197
1,090

1,573
1,023

2,821
1,269

4,394
2,292

A ll races............................

3,462

6,486

9,948

3,580

7,262

10,842

7,042

13,748

20,790

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..................................

2,394

4,162

6,556

2,022

4,801

6,823

4,416

8,963

13,379

D EA T H B A T E S PEE, 1,000: TUBERCULOUS.
Males.

Opera­

tives.

Non op­
eratives.

Females.

Both
classes.

Operatives. Nonopera­
tives.

Both sexes.

B oth
classes.

Operatives.

Nonopera­
tives.

Both
classes.

2.56

1.51

1.90

3.61

1.21

1.96

3.06

1.35

1.93

4.28
.95
2.13
4.77
1.86
1.53

6.64
1.22
1.57
2.25
.81
1.45

6.20
1.17
1.73
3.18
1.28
1.50

6.15
4.86
2.64
4.32
3.95
2.16

' 5.38
1.51
.42
2.74
.38
.55

5. 71
2. 23
1.19
3.32
1.37
1.10

5.70
3.21
2.42
4.53
2.67
1.76

6.02
1.37
.99
2.51
.57
.94

5^92
1-73
1.44
3.25
1.32
1.31

2. 66

2.16

2.33

4.02

1.65

2. 44

3.35

1.89

2.39

1.76

1.25

1.43

3.27

.66

1.44

2.44

.94

1.44

D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,000: NO NTUBERCULOUS.
3.12

3.28

3.22 j|

5.14

3.30

3.89

4.09

3.29

3.56

5.35
6.63
5.32
3.18
1.66
2.15

6.15
4.26
2. 58
3.84
2.28
4.01

6.00
4.68
3.37
3.59
2.00
2.99

9.92
4.17
6.34
4.93
5.93
2. 70

• 7.42
4.73
2.79
4.28
1.38
4.17

8.49
4.61
4.01
4.52
2.64
3.67

8.81
5.21
5.91
4.10
3.31
2.35

6. 78
4.51
2.68
4.07
1.77
4.10

7.44
4.65
3.71
4.08
2.32
8.31

3.23

3.64

3.50

5.92

3.75

4.46

4. C
O

3. 70

4.00

3.09

3.07

3.08

5.24

2.96

3.63

4.08

3.01

3.36

D E A T H R A T E S PE R 1,000: A L L CAUSES.
5.68

4.79

5.12

8. 75

4.51

5.85

7.15

4.64

5.49

9.63
7.58
7.45
7 95
3.52
3.68

12. 79
5.48
4.15
6.09
3.09
5.46

12.20
5.85
5.10
€.77
3.28
4.49

16.07
9.03
8.98
9.25
9.88
4.86

12.80
6.24
3.21
7.02
1.76
4.72

14. 20
6.84
5.20
7.84
4.01
4. 77

14.51
8.42
8.33
8.63
5.98
4.11

12.80
5.88
3.67
6.58
2.34
5.04

13.36
6.38
5.15
7.33
3.64
4.62

5.89 .

5.80

5.83

9.94

5.40

6.90

7.95

5. 59

6.39

4.85

4.32

4.51

8.51

3.62

5.07

6.52

3.95

4.80




GENERAL TABLES.

256
T able

17*—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM
TIVES AND NONOPERATIVES OF SPECIFIED RACES,
AG E GROUP 35 TO 44.
Males.
Race.

Females.

Both sexes.

NonNon­
Oper­ oper­ Both. Oper­ oper­ Both Oper­
B°th
atives. atives. classes. atives. atives. classes. atives. atives. classes-

£& 1

POPULATION.
N on -Irish ....................................

2,351

5,064

7,415

1,508

5,961

7,469

3,859

11,025

14,884

Irish...............................................
Am erican.....................................
English.........................................
French Canadian......................

351
115
577
848

477
876
1,048
1,134

828
991
1,625
1,982

563
103
495
560

520
959
1,233
1,534

1,083
1,062
1,728
2,094

914
218
1,072
1,408

997
1,835
2,281
2,668

1,911
2,053
3,353
4,076

D E A T H S : TU BERCU LOU S.
Males.
Race.
Oper­
atives.

Females.

NonOper­
Both
oper­
classes. atives.
atives.

Both sexes.

NonOper­
Both
oper­
classes. atives.
atives.

Non­
oper­
atives.

Both
classes.

Non-Irish.....................................

38

44

82

20

33

53

58

77

135

Irish...............................................
Am erican.....................................
E n glish.........................................
French Canadian......................
Portuguese..................................
Other races.............................

23
1
,11
15
6
5

27
8
9
22
2
3

50
9
20
37
8
8

19
4
11
3
2

15
4
6
12
6
5

34
4
10
23
9
7

42
1
15
26
9
7

42
12
15
34
8
8

84
13
30
60
17
15

A ll races...........................

61

71

132

39

48

87

100

119

219

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian.................................

23

22

45

9

21

30

32

43

75

D E A T H S : NONTUBERCULOU S.
Non-Irish.....................................

46

99

145 |
I

54

136

190

100

235

335

Irish...............................................
Am erican.....................................
E nglish.........................................
French Canadian......................
Portuguese..................................
Other races.................................

13
4
15
14
10
3

63
25
27
31
8
8

76
29
42
45
18
11

37
5
16
29
2
2

55
19
32
43
21
21

92
24
48
72
23
23

50
9
31
43
12
5

118
44
59
74
29
29

168
53
90
117
41
34

A ll races...........................

59

162

221

91

191

282

150

353

503

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian.................................

32

68

100

25

93

118

57

161

218

f

D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES.
Non-Irish.....................................

84

143

227

74

169

243

158

312

470

Irish...............................................
Am erican.....................................
English.........................................
French Canadian......................
Portuguese..................................
Other races.................................

36
5
26
29
16
8

90
33
36
53
10
11

126
38
62
82
26
19

56
5
20
40
5
4

70
23
38
55
27
26

126
28
58
95
32
30

92
10
46
69
21
12

160
56
74
108
37
37

252
66
120
177
58
49

A ll races...........................1

120

233

353

130

239

369

250

472

722

Non-Irish and non-French I
Canadian................................. j

55

90

145

34

114

148

89

204

293




GENERAL TABLES.

257

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L CAUSES
B Y AGE G ROUP AN D S E X , 1908 TO 1912— Continued.

FO R

O PERA

AGE GROUP 35 TO 44.
Males.
Race.
(Nativity of father.)

Females.

Both sexes.

Non­
NonOper­ oper­
Both Oper­ oper­
Both Oper­ NonBoth
atives. atives. classes. atives. atives. classes. atives. oper- classcs.
atives.
POPULATION.

Portuguese...........................
Other races..........................

495
316

1,327
679

1,822
995

184
166

1,544
691

1,728
857

All races.....................

2,702

5,541

8,243

2,071

6,481

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

1,503

3,930

5,433

948

4,427

679
482

2,871
1,370

3,550
1,852

8,552

4,773 12,022

16,795

5,375

2,451

10,808

8,357

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: TUBERCULOUS.

Males.
Oper­
atives.

Nonop­
eratives.

3.23

1.74

13.11
1.74
3.81
3.54
2.42
3.16

11.32
1.82
1.72
3.88
.30
.88

4. 51

2. 56

3.06

1.12

Females.
Both
classes.

Oper­
atives.

Nonop­
eratives.

Both classes.
Both
classes.

Oper­
atives.

Nonop­
eratives.

Both
classes.

2. 65

1.11

1.42

3.01

1.40

1.82

12.07
6.75
1.82 ..................
2.46
1. 62
3.73
3.93
3.26
.88
1. 61
2.41

5.77
.84
.97
1.56
.78
1.45

6.28
.75
1.16
2. 20
1.04
1. 63

9.19
.92
2.80
3.69
2. 65
2.90

8.43
1.31
1.32
2.55
.56
1.17

8.79
1.27
1.79
2.94

3.20

3. 76

1.48

2.03

4.19

1. 98

2.61

1.66

1.90

.95

1.12

2.61

1.03

1.39

2. 21

.96

1.62

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: NONTUBERCULOUS.

3.92

3.91

3. 91

7.16

4. 56

5.09

5.18

4. 26

4. 50

7.40
6.96
5.20
3.30
4.04
1.90

26.42
5.71
5.15
5.47
1.21
2.36

18.36
5.85
5.17
4.54
1.97
2.21

13.14
9.71
6.46
10.36
2.17
2.41

21.15
3.96
5.19
5.61
2.72
6.08

16.99
4.52
5.55
6.87
2.66
5. 37

10.94
8.25
5.78
e. u
3.54
2.08

23. 67
4.79
5.17
5.55
2.02
4.23

17.58
5.16
5.37
5.74
2.31
3.67

4.37

5.85

5.36

8. 79

5.90

6. 60

6.29

5.87

5.99

4.26

3.46

3. 68

5.27

4.20

4. 39

4.65

3.85

4.03

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.

7.15

5,65

6.12

9.81

5. 67

6. 51

8.19

5.66

6.32

20. 51
8.70
9.01
6.84
6.46
5.06

37.74
7.53
6.87
9.35
1.51
3.24

30.43
7.67
7.63
8.27
2.85
3.82

19.89
9.71
8.08
14.29
5.43
4.82

26.92
4.80
6.16
7.17
3.50
7.53

23.27
5.27
6.71
9.07
3.70
7.00

20.13
9.17
8.58
9.80
6.19
4.98

32.10
6.10
6.49
8.10
2.58
5.40

26. 37
6.43
7.16
8.68
3.27
5.29

8.88

8.41

8. 56

12.55

7.38

8.63

10.48

7. 85

8.60

7.32

4.58

5. 34

7.17

5.15

5.51

7. 26

4.88

5.42

-88204°— 19— Bull. 251-------17




GENERAL TABLES.

258

T a b le 1 7 .— P O PU LA TIO N , D E A TH S, AN D D E A T H RA TE S P E R 1,000 FRO M

T IV E S AN D N O N O PE R A TIV E S O F SP E C IFIE D RACES,

TOTAL, AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
Males.
Race.

Females.

Both sexes.

NonNonNonBoth Oper­ oper­
Both Oper­ oper­ Both
Oper­ oper­
atives. atives. classes. atives. atives. classes. atives. atives. classes.
POPULATION.

Non-Irish............................. 10,520

16,403

26,923

11,568

768
870
1,932
3,008

2,240
2,728
3,968
4,189

3,008
3,598
5,900
7,197

1,642
1,208
2,541
3,587

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................

17,109 28,677 22,088 33,512
2,490
2,863
4,087
4,441

4,132
4,071
6,628
8,028

2,410
2,078
4,473
6,595

4,730
5,591
8,055
8,630

55,600
7,140
7,669
12,528
15,225

DEATHS: TUBERCULOUS.

Males.
Race.

Females.

Both sexes.

Non­
NonNon­
Opera­ opera­ Both Opera­ opera­ Both Opera­ opera­ Both
tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes.

Non-Irish.............................

117

117

234

171

102

273

288

219

507

Irish................................ .
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races..........................

31
10
23
45
24
15

57
25
28
47
8
9

88
35
51
92
32
24

46
22
30
73
35
11

41
23
16
43
11
9

87
45
46
116
46
20

77
32
53
118
59
26

98
48
44
90
19
18

175
80
97
208
78
■4
4

All races.....................

148

174

322

217

143

360

365

317

682

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

72

70

142

98

59

157

170

129

299

DEATHS: NONTUBERCULOUS.

Non-Irish.............................

159

247

406

193

273

466

352

520

872

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races............'..............

21
20
49
45
29
16

97
60
60
71
28
28

118
80
109
116
57
44

71
16
50
75
40
12

88
55
56
83
36
43

159
71
106
158
76
55

92
36
99
120
69
28

185
115
116
154
64
71

277
151
215
274
133
99

All races.....................

180

344

524

264

361

625

444

705

1,149

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

114

176

290

118

190

308

232

366

598

DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.

Non-Irish.............................

276

364

640

364

375

739

640

739

1,379

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races..........................

52
30
72
90
53
31

154
85
88
118
36
37

206
115
160
208
89
68

117
38
80
148
75
23

129
78
72
126
47
52

246
116
152
274
122
75

169
68
152
238
128
54

283
163
160
244
83
89

452
231
312
482
211
143

All races.....................

328

518

846

481

504

985

809

1,022

1,831

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

186

246

432

216

249

465

402

495

897




GENERAL TABLES.

259

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L CAUSES F O R
B Y AGE G RO U P AN D S E X , 1908 TO 1912— Concluded.

OPERA

TOTAL, AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
Females.

Males.

R
ace.

Both sexes.

NonNonOper­ Nonoper­ Both Oper­ oper­ Both Oper­ oper­ Both
atives. atives. classes. atives. atives. classes. atives. atives. classes.
P.OPULATION.

Portuguese............. .............
Other races...........................
All races.....................
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................




3,031
1,679

3,582
1,936

6,613
3,615

2,755
1,477

11,288 18,643 29,931

13,210
7,981

7,512

12,214

19,726

3,893
1,825

6,648
3,302

5,786
3,156

7,475
3,761

13,261
6,917

19,599 32,809

24,498 38,242

62,740

12,668 20,649

15,493

24,882

40,375

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: NONTUBERCULOUS.

GENERAL TABLES.

260

T a b l e 1 8 .— PO PULATION AND D EATHS FROM TUBERCULO US AND NON

FROM A LL CAUSES, F O R O PE R A TIV E S AND

N O N O PER ATIVE S OF

AGE GROUP 15 TO 24.
Native bom.
Both sexes.
Males.
Females.
Non­
NonNonOpera­ opera­ Both Opera­ opera- Both Opera­ opera­ Both
tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes.

Race.
(Nativity of father.)

POPULATION.

Non-Irish.............................

2,294

3,928

6,222

3,564

3,123

6,687

5,858

7,051

12,909

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races...........................

216
531
592
871
172
128

629
866
747
755
911
649

845
1,397
1,339
1,626
1,083
777

446
806
970
1,331
217
240

659
836
745
439
693
410

1,105
1,642
1,715
1,770
910
650

662
1,337
1,562
2,202
389
368

1,288
1,702
1,492
1,194
1,604
1,059

1,950
3,039
3,054
3,396
1,993
1,427

All races.....................

2,510

4,557

7,067

4,010

3,782

7,792

6,520

8,339

14,859

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian.........................

1,423

3,173

4,596

2,233

2,684

4,917

3,656

5,857

9,513

DEATHS: TUBERCULOUS.

Non-Irish.............................

16

22

38

55

22

77

71

44

115

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races...........................

2
8
4
4

2
11
6
5

4
19
10
9

6
15
12
24
3
1

5
11
6
5

11
26
18
29
3
1

8
23
16
28
3
1

7
22
12
10

15
45
28
38
3
1

All races.....................

18

24

42

61

27

88

79

51

130

12

17

29

31

17

48

43

34

77

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

DEATHS: NONTUBERCULOUS.

Non-Irish.............................

32

37

69

29

17

46

61

54

115

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races...........................

3
8
12
10
2

6
14
12
9
1
1

9
22
24
19
3
1

5
5
7
15
1
1

4
11
2
3
1

9
16
9
18
1
2

8
13
19
25
3
1

10
25
14
12
1
2

18
38
33
37
4
3

All races.....................

35

43

78

34

21

55

69

64

133

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

22

28

50

14

14

28

36

42

78

DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.

Non-Irish.............................

48

69

Irish.....................................
5~
8~
American.............................
25
16
English................................
18
16
14
14
French Canadian.................
Portuguese........... ...............
2
1
.......................... Other races 1
All races.....................
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian.........................

107

84

39

123

132

98

230

13
41
34
28
3
1

11
20
19
39
4
2

9
22
8
8

16
36
35
53
6
2

17
47
26
22
1
2

33
83
61
75
7
4

1

20
42
27
47
4
3

53

67

120

95

48

143

148

115

263

34

45

79

45

31

76

79

76

155

DEATH RATES PER
1,000: ALL CAUSES.

Non-Irish.............................

4.18

3.00

3.44

4.71

2.50

3.68

4.51

2. 78

3.56

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races...........................

4.63
6.03
5.41
3.21
2.33

2.54
5.77
4.82
3.71
.22
.31

3.08
5.87
5.08
3.44
.55
.26

4.93
4.96
3.92
5.86
3.69
1.67

2.73
5.26
2.15
3.64
.49

3.62
5.12
3.15
5.31
.88
.92

4.84 : 2.64
5.52
5.39
4.48
3.49
4.81
3.69
.12
3.08
1.08
.38

3.38
5.46
3.99
4.42
.70
.56

All races.....................

4.22

2.94

3. 40

4.74

2.54

3.67

4.54

2. 76

3.54

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

4.78

2.84

3. 4
4

4.03

2.31

3.09

4.32

2.60

3.26




•• •

GENERAL TABLES.

261

TUBERCULOUS CAUSES, AND DEATHS AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000
SPECIFIED RACES, BY AGE GROUP, SEX, AND NATIVITY, 1908 TO 1912.
AG E G BO U P 15 TO 24.
Foreign bom.
Males.
Opera­
tives.

Females.

Both sexes.

Nonop­
eratives.

Both
classes.

2,600

1,738

4,338

3,501

1,544

5,045

6,101

3,282

9,383

14
13
199
408
1,398
582

321
1
776
789
113
59

335
14
975
1,197
1,511
641

48
11
319
723
1,747
701

530
11
675
.788
66
4

578
22
994
1,511
1,813
705

62
24
518
1,131
3,145
1,283

851
12
1,451
1,577
179
63

913
36
1,969
2,708
3,324
1,346

2,614

2,059

4,673

3,549

2,074

5,623

6,163

4,133

10,296

2,192

949

3,141

2,778

756

3,534

4,970

1,705

6,675

3.92

2.99

3.55

4.28

28.57
2.49
15.38
9.05 ........i.2 9 ’
5.88
1.27
10.62
2.58
3.78
33.90

3.58
14.29
2.87
2.84
3.18
6.55

12.50
4.39
6.64
4.12
2.28

.89
1.02
18.18
400.00

4.06

2.91

3.55

4.40

3.56

4.43

3.82

3.67 i

Operatives. Nonopera­
tives.

Both
classes.

Operatives. Nonopera­
tives.

Both
classes.

POPULATION.

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.




3.81

4.13

2.86

3.69

1.04

.94

2.01
3.71
4.63
4.54

16.13
8.33
6.18
6.37
3.43
2.96

1.10
1.14
13.41
57.14

1.97
5.56
2.44
3.32
3.97
5.50

2.03

3.52

4.25

2. 47

3.54

4- 5<
>

3.85

3.62

4.46 S

3.84

2. 72

..

GENERAL TABLES.

262

18.—POPULATION AND DEATHS FROM TUBERCULOUS AND NON
FROM ALL CAUSES, FOR OPERATIVES AND NONOPERATIVES OF SPEC

T able

AG E GROUP 25 T O 34.
Native born.
Race.
(Nativity of father.)

Females.

Males.

Both sexes.

Non­
Non­
Non­
Opera­ opera­ Both Ojpera- opera­ Both Opera­ opera­ Both
tives. tives. classes.
tives. classes. tives. tives. classes.
POPULATION.

Non-Irish.

750

2,646

3,396

1,004

2,973

3,977

1,754

5,619

7,373

Irish.....................
American.............
English................
French Canadian.
Portuguese...........
Other races...........

141
203
257
251
9

430
976
456
608
255
351

571
1,179
713
859
264
381

420
282
362
297
20
43

301
1,038
404
699
431
401

721
1,320
766
996
451
444

561
485
619
548
29
73

731
2,014
860
1,307
686
752

1,292
2,499
1,479
1,855
715
825

3,967

1,424

3,274

4,6

2,315

6,350

8,665

2,537

707

2,274

2,981

1,206

4,312

5,518

DEATHS: TUBERCULOUS.
21
12
15
18

27

18

30

48

12

33

All races.
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian.........................

891
499

Non-Irish.

2,038

Irish.....................
Ameiican.............
English................
French Canadian.
Portuguese...........
Other races..........
All races.
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................
Non-Irish.............................

10

40
20

12

DEATHS: KroyTUBERCULQirS.
65
18
47
30
48

78

48

95

13

22
13
20
13
1
1

39
46
23
22
2
2

146
59
43
35
3
3

1

12

13

11

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races..........................

1
7
7
4

20
21
9
14
2
1

21
28
16
18
2
1

21
6
13
9
1
1

19
25
14
8
1

40
31
27
17
1
2

All races.....................
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian.......................

19

67

86

51

67

118

70

134

204

14

33

47

21

40

61

35

73

108

Non-Irish.............................

DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.
21
45
60
86
65

105

66

125

191

33
20
24
19
1
2

77
59
30
31
2
3

110
79
54
50
3
5

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian..............
Portuguese...........................
Other races..........................

2
8
7
6

42
27
15
20
2
1

44
35
22
26
2
1

31
12
17
13
1
2

35
32
15
11
2

66
44
32
24
1
4

All races.....................
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

23

107

130

76

95

171

99

202

301

15

45

60

32

49

81

47

94

141

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.
Non-Irish.............................
5.60
4.91
5.07
8.96
4.04
5.28

7.53

4.45

5.18

18.31
6.67
8.36
4.82
.44
1.80

11.76
8.25
7.75
6.93
6.90
5.48

21.07
5.86
6.98
4.74
.58
.80

17.03
6.32
7.30
5.39
.84
1.21

5.80

7.28

8.55

6.36

6.95

4.31

5.43

7.79

4.36

5.11

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese........................... 1
Other races..........................

2. 84
7. 88
5.45
4.78

19.53
5.53
6.58
6.58
1.57
.57

15.41
5.94
6.17
6.05
1.52
.52

14. 76
8.51
9.39
8.75
10.00
9.30

23.26
6.17
7.43
3.15

All races.....................
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian........................

5.16

6.96

6.55

10.67

6.01

4.42

4.73

9.05




1.00

GENERAL TABLES.

263

TUBERCULOUS CAUSES, AND DEATHS AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000
IPIED RACES, BY AGE GROUP, SEX, AND NATIVITY, 1908 TO 1912—Con.
AG E GROUP 25 TO 34.
Foreign bom.
Females.

Males.
Opera­
tives.

Operatives. Nonopera­
tives.

Nonop­
eratives.

Both
classes.

2,525

3,027

5,552

1,991

46
8
307
630
957
623

383
9
941
903
976
198

429
17
1,248
1,533
1,933
821

165
6
395
676
587
327

2,571

3,410

5,981

1,895

2,124

4,019

72

71

143

7

10

17

14
29
17
12

14
26
17
14

79

81

43

45

Both sexes.
Both
classes.

Both
classes.

Operatives.|

POPULATION.
3,508
5,499

4,516

6,535

11,051

480
19
1,030
981
1,159
319

645
25
1,425
1,657
1,746
646

211
14
702
1,306
1,544
950

863
28
1,971
1,884
2,135
517

1,074
42
2,673
3,190
3,679
1,467

2,156

3,988

6,144

4,727

7,398

12,125

1,315

2,527

3,842

3,210

4,651

7,861

DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.
86
86
172

158

157

315

28
55
34
26

16
1
17
32
29
7

15
1
8
48
14
15

31
2
25
80
43
22

23
1
31
61
46
19

25
1
22
74
81
29

48
2
53
135
77
48

160

102

101

203

181

182

363

88

54

38

92

97

83

180

5.70

4.69

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.
5.15
8.64
4.90
6.26
7.00

30.43

5.22

7.93

9.12
9.21
3.55
3.85

2.98
5.76
3.48
14.14

6.15
4.54

4.80

5.70

4.49
7.17
3.52
6.33

19.39
33.33
8.61
9.47
9.88
4.28

6.25
10.53
1.55
9.79
2.42
9.40

9.61
16.00
3.51
9.66
4.93
6.81

21.80
14.29
8.83
9.34
5.96
4.00

5.79
7.14
2.23
7.86
2.90
11.22

8.94
9.52
3.97
8.46
4.19
6.54

4.75

5.35

9.46

5.07

6.61

7.66

4.92

5.99

4.24

4.38

8.21

3.01

4.79

6.04

3.57

4.58




264

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b l e 1 8 . — POPULATION

AND DEATHS FROM TUBERCULOUS AND NON
FROM ALL CAUSES, FOR OPERATIVES AND NONOPERATIVES OF SPEC
AG E GROUP 35 TO 44.
Native bom.
Females.

Males.

Race.
(Nativity of father.)

Both sexes.

NonNonNonOpera­ opera­ Both Opera­ opera- Both Opera­ opera- Both
tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes.
POPULATION.

Non-Irish.............................

439

1,895

2,334

356

2,131

2,487

795

4,026

4,821

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian..................
Portuguese...........................
Other races...........................

168
108
165
144
2
20

267
868
319
435
50
223

435
976
484
579
52
243

279
98
148
74
6
30

219
941
287
518
142
243

498
1,039
435
592
148
273

447
206
313
218
8
50

486
1,809
606
953
192
466

933
2,015
919
1,171
200
516

All races.....................
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian...........................

607

2,162

2,769

635

2,350

2,985

1,242

4,512

5,754

1,460

1,755

282

1,613

1,895

577

3,073

3,650

295

D E A T H S : TUBERCULOUS.

9

■Rriglish ,. r ,

7

10

12

22

7
2
1

6
3
3
1

13
3
5
2

17
1
7
4

25
11
6
4

1

34

53

10

13

23

29

47

76

6

All races.....................
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

3

29
9
8
6

1

Portuguese...........................

24

19
8
3
3

19

___

15

10
1
5
3

12

18

2

6

8

8

18 |

26

1

1|

34
42
12
13
8
1

D E A T H S : NONTUBERCULOUS.

Non-Irish.............................

11

42

53

14

35

49

25

77

102

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races...........................

7
4
5
2

32
25
9
8

39
29
14
10

14
5
4
5

35
19
11
4

49
24
15
9

21
9
9
7

67
44
20
12

88
53
29
19

1

1

All races.....................
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

18

74

92

28

70

98

46

144 |

190

34

43

9

31

40

18

65

83

9

1 I........ 1

D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES.

Non-Irish.............................

20

57

77

17

42

59

37

99

136

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese..
Other races..........................

17
5
10
5

51
33
12
11

68
38
22
16

21
5
6
6

41
22
14
5

62
27
20
11

38
10
16
11

92
55
26
16

130
65
42
27

2

2

All races.....................
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian...........................

37

108

145

38

83

121

75

191

266

15

46

61

11

37

48

26

83

109

1

1

1

1

D E A T H R AT E S PER 1 00 A L L CAUSES.
,0 :

ik
l

Non-Irish.............................

9.11

6.02

6.60

9.55

3.94

4.74

9.31

4.92

5.64

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races...........................

20.24
9.26
12.12
6.94

38.20
7.60
7.52
5.06

31.26
7.79
9.09
5.53

15.05
10.20
8.11
16.22

37.44
4.68
9.76
1.93

24.90
5.20
9.20
3.72

17.00
9. 71
10.22
10.09

37.86
6.08
8.58
3.36

27.87
6.45
9.14
4.61

.90

.82

.82

.73

.86

.78

All races.....................
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian...........................

12.19

9. 99

10. 47

11.97

7.06

8.11

12.08

8. 47

9.25

10.17

6.30

6. 95

7.80

4.59 . 5.07

9.01




5.40 | 5.97,.
1

265

GENERAL TABLES.

TUBERCULOUS CAUSES, AND D EATH S AND D E A TH R A TE S P E R 1,000
IF IE D RACES, B Y AG E GRO UP, S E X , AND N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912— Con.

AGE GROUP 35 TO 44.
Foreign bom.
Males.
Opera­
tives.

Both sexes.

Females.
Both
classes.

Nonop­
eratives.

Both.
classes.

1,912

3,169

5,081

1,152

3,830

4,982

3,064

6,999

10,063

183
7
412
704
493
296

210
8
729
699
1,277
456

393
15
1,141
1,403
1,770
752

284
5
347
486
178
130

301
18
946
1,016
1,402
448

585
23
1,293
1,502
1,580
584

467
12
759
1,190
671
‘ 432

511
26
1,675
1,715
2,679
904

978
38
2,434
2,905
3,350
1,336

2,095

3,379

5,474

1,436

4,131

5,567

3,531

7, 510

11,041

1,208

2,470

3,678

606

2,814

3,480

1,874

5,284

7,158

Operatives. Nonopera­
tives.

Operatives. Nonopera­
tives.

Both
classes.

POPULATION.

DEATHS: TUBERCULOUS.
29

29

58

17

26

43

46

55

101

13

8

21

12

6
19
2
2

12
31
8
7

2
10
3
2

21
1
5
21
9
7

25

6
12
6
5

9
1
3
11
6
5

8
22
9
7

17
1
9
30
8
7

42
1
17
52
17
14

42

37

79

29

35

64

71

72

143

17

10

27

7

15

22

24

25

49

DEATHS: NONTUBERCULOUS.
35

57

92

40

101

141

75

158

233

6

31

37

23

20

43

29

51

80

10
' 12
10
3

18
23
8
8

28
35
18
11

12
24
2
2

21
39
21
20

33
63
23
22

22
36
12
5

39
62
29
28

61
98
41
33

41

88

129

63

121

184

104

209

313

23

34

57

16

62

78

39

96

135

DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.
64

86

150

57

127

184

121

213

334

19

39

58

35

24
42
10
10

40
66
26
18

14
34
5
4

64
1
38
84
32
29

54

16
24
16
8

29
1
24
50
27
25

30
58
21
12

68
1
48
92
37
35

122
1
78
150
58
47

83

125

208

92

156

248

175

281

456

40

44

84

23

77

100

63

121

184

5.43

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.
7.39
7.90
9.90
6.63
5.90

6.09

6.64

20. 77

37.14

29.52

24.65

7.77
6.82
6.49
5.41

6.58
12.02
1.57
4.39

7.01
9.41
2.94
4.79

8.07
13.99
5.62
5.88

19.27
11.11
5.07
9.84
3.85
11.16

23.13

21.88
8.70
5.88 ..........7.91
9.75
11.19
6.26
4.05
5.56
9.93

26.61
7.69
5.73
10.73
2.76
7.74

24.95
5.26
6.41
10.33
3.46
7.04

7.92

7.40

7.60

12. 81

7.55

8.91

9.91

7.48

8.26

6.62

3.56

4. 57

6.91

5.47

5.75

6.72

4.58

5.14

6. 09




GENERAL TABLES.

266

T a b l e 1 8 .— PO PU LATIO N AN D D EATH S FROM TUBERCULOUS AN D NON

FROM A L L CAUSES, FO R O P E R A T IV E S AN D N O N O PER ATIVE S OF SPEC
TOTAL, AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
Native bom.
Females.

Males.

Race.
(Nativity of father.)

Both sexes.

Non­
NonNonOpera­ opera- Both Opera­ opera­ Both Opera­ opera­ Both
tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes. tives. tives. classes.
POPULATION.

Non-Irish.............................

3,483

8,469

11,952

4,924

8,227

13,151

8,407

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
FrQnch Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races..........................

525
842
1,014
1,266
183
178

1,326
2,710
1,522
1,798
1,216
1,223

1,851
3,552
2,536
3,064
1,399
1,401

1,145
1,186
1,480
1,702
243
313

1,179
2,815
1,436
1,656
1,266
1,054

2,324
4,001
2,916
3,358
1,509
1,367

1,670
2,028
2,494
2,968
426
491

16,696 25,103
2,505
5,525
2,958
3,454
2,482
2,277

4,175
7,553
5,452
6,422
2,908
2,768

All races.....................

4,008

9,795

13,803

6,069

9,406

15,475

10,077

19,201

29,278

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

2,217

6,671

8,888

3,222

6,571

9,793

5,439

13,242

18,681

D E A T H S : TUBERCULOUS.

Non-Irish.............................

28

55

83

73

41

114

101

96

197

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese .
..............
Other races..........................

13
10
9
9

43
25
15
14

56
35
24
23

27
21
10
9

1

1

50
42
28
38
3
3

36
31
27
38
3
2

70
46
25
23

1

23
21
18
29
3
2

2

106
77
52
61
3
4

All races.....................

41

98

139

96

68

164

137

166

303

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

19

41

60

44

32

76

63

73

136

D E A T H S : N ONTUBERCULOUS.

Non-Irish.............................

61

126

187

73

100

173

134

226

360

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races..........................

11
19
24
16
2

58
60
30
31
3
2

69
79
54
47
5
2

40
16
24
29
2
2

58
55
/ 27
' 15
3

98
71
51
44
2
5

51
35
48
45
4
2

116
115
57
46
3
5

167
150
105
91
7
7

All races.....................

72

184

256

113

158

271

185

342

527

Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian..........................

45

95

140

44

85

129

89

180

269

D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES.

Non-Irish.............................

89

181

270

146

141

287

235

322

557

Irish.....................................
American.............................
English................................
French Canadian.................
Portuguese...........................
Other races..........................

24
29
33
25
2

101
85
45
45
3
3

125
114'
78
70
5
3

63
37
42
58

85
76
37
24

4

4

148
113
79
82
g
8

87
66
75
83
7
«
4

186
161
82
69
Q
O
7

273
227
157
152
10
11

113
... '
64

282

395

209

226

435

322

508

830

136

200

88

117

205

152

253

405

All races.....................
Non-Irish and non-French
Canadian.....................




5

GENERAL TABLES.

267

TUBERCULOUS CAUSES, AND DEATHS AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000
IFIED RACES, BY AGE GROUP, SEX, AND NATIVITY, 1908 TO 1912—Concld.
TOTAL, AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
Foreign born.
Females.

Males.
Opera­
tives.

Nonop­
Both
Nonopera­
eratives. . classes. Operatives.
tives.

Both sexes.
Both
classes.

Operatives. Nonopera­
tives.

Both
classes.

POPULATION.

7,037

7,934

14,971

6,644

8,882

15,526

13,681

16,816

30,497

243
28
918
1,742
2,848
1,501

914
18
2,446
2,391
2,366
713

1,157
46
3,a64
4,133
5,214
2,214

497
22
1,061
1,885
2.512
1,164

1,311
48
2r651
2,785
2,627
771

1,808
70
3,712
4,670
5,139
1,935

740
50
1,979
3,627
5,360
2,665

2,225
66
5,097
5,176
4,993
1,484

2,965
116
7,076
8,803
10,353
4,149

7,280

8,848

16,128

7,141

10,193

17,334

14,421

19,041

33, 462

5,295

5,543

10,838

4,759

6,097

10,856

10,054

11,640

21,694

D E A T H S : TUBERCULOUS.

89

62

151

98

61

159

187

123

310

18

14

32

14
36
24
15

13
33
8
8

27
69
32
23

23
1
12
44
32
9

14
2
6
34
11
8

37
3
18
78
43
17

41
1
26
80
56
24

28
2
19
67
19
16

69
3
45
147
75
40

107

76

183

121

75

196

228

151

379

53

29

82

54

27

81

107

56

163

D E A T H S : NONTUBERCULOUS.

98

121

219

120

173

293

218

294

512

10
1
25
29
27
16

39

31

30

61

26
46
38
10

29
68
36
40

55
114
74
50

41
1
51
75
65
26

69

30
40
25
26

49
1
55
69
52
42

59
108
61
66

110
1
110
183
126
92

108

160

268

151

203

354

259

363

622

69

81

150

74

105

179

143

186

32£




268

GENERAL, TABLES.

T a b l e 1 9 .— PO PU LATION , D EATHS, AND D EATH RA TES P E R 1,000 FROM

TIV E S

AND

N O N O PER ATIVE S

IN

Operatives.
Age group.

EACH

SPECIFIED

MALES, SINGLE.

For­
Native. eign.

AGE GROUP,

Nonoperatives.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

POPULATION.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

0)
(0

(0
0)

2,695
1,823

15 to 24 years........................
26 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................

2,356
375
140
0)
0)

2,162
626
293
P
0)

4,518
1,001
433
0)
0)

0)
0)
4,149
1,293
422
0)
0)

C)
1
0)
1,546
878
386
0)
0)

3,250
2,445

4,059
2,446

1,886
1,822

5,945
4,268

5,695
2,171
808
0)
C)
1

6,505
1,668
562
C)
1
0)

3,708
1,504
679
0)
0)

10,213
3,172
1,241
0)
0)

D E A T H S : TUBERCULOUS.

Nonoperatives.

Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

15 to 19 years........................

9
7

6
13

15
20

11
11

1
4

12
15

20
18

7
17

27
35

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 54 years.......................
35 to 44 years........................

16
3
9

19
16
11
2
1
1

35
19
20
2
1
1

22
26
15
1

5
11
9
7
2

27
37
24
8
2

38
29
24
1

24
27
20
9
3
1

62
56
44
10
3
1

65 yfiftrs and ov^r,. , . , _____
Total, 15 years and
over.........................

28

50

78

64

34

98

92

84

176

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years. ...*..................

28

46
3

74
3

63
1

25
9

88
10

91
1

71
12

162
13

28

49

77

64

34

98

92

83

175

Total, 15 to 64 years...

D E A T H S : NONTUBERCULOUS.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years.......................

23
11

14
14

37
25

19
19

4
11

23
30

42
30

18
25

60
55

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years......................
45 to 54 vears........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

34
10
4
7
2
1

28
15
13
10
6
4

62
25
17
17
8
5

38
35
27
16
18

53
55
53
31
29
C)
1

72
45
31
23
20
(*)

43
35
39
25
17

C)
1

15
20
26
15
11
0)

0)

115
80
70
'48
37
0)

O)

0)

0)

0)

Total, 15 years and
over................... ......

58

76

134

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

48
9

56
16

104
25

0)
100
34

0)
61
26

Total, 15 to 64 years...

57

72

129

134

161
60

148
43

117
42

265
85

87

221

191

159

350

D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

32
18

20
27

52
45

30
30

5
15

35
45

62
48

25
42

87
90

15 to 24 vears........................
25 to 34 vears........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

50
13
13
7
2
1

47
31
24
12
7
5

97
44
37
19
9
6

60
61
42
17
18
0)

20
31
35
22
13
0)

80
92
77
39
31
C)
1

110
74
55
24
20
0)

67
62
59
34
20
C)
1

177
136
114
58
40
0)

Total, 15 years and
over ' ........................
l

86

126

212

102
19

178
28

86
35

0)
249
70

(l)
239
44

0)

76
9

0)
163
35

C)
1

15 to 44 years2
......................
45 to 64 years2
......................

188
54

0)
427
93

Total, 15 to 64 years 2..

£5

121

206

198

121

319

283

242

525




1 Not reported.

GENEEAL TABLES.

269

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS AND A LL CAUSES, F O R OPERA
B Y SE X , CONJUGAL CONDITION, AN D N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912.
MALES, SINGLE.
Nonoperatives.

Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

PO PULATIO N.

0)

62

28

42

70

0)

9,084

9,018

6,309

15,327

5,952
283

0)
5,864
190

2,810
158

8,674
348

8,735
255

5,891
376

14,626
631

6,235

6,054

2,968

9,022

8,990

6,267 | 15,257

8

65 years and over.................

0)

0)

Total, 15 years and over.

0)

6,243

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

2,871
65

0)
3,081
218

Total, 15 to 64 years ..

2,936

3,299

(0

D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,000: TU BER CU LO U S.

Operatives.
Native.

Foreign.

Both classes.

Nonoperatives.
Total.

Native.

Foreign.

Total.

1.76
5.11
7.51

1.55
3.80
9.24

Total.

0.74
1.23
1.06
4.02
7.11

0.65
2.50
4.66

.

0.98
1.47

0.74
1.87

0.91
1.94

.95
3.41
5.94

1.17
- 3.48
8.54

1.29
?. 59
5.89

1.22
3.53
7.09

2.16

1.11
2.20
1.36
1.60
12.86

Foreign.

Native.

2.04

2.66

2.30

2.41
6.38

2.22
4.12

2.65

2.29

1.91
2.74

2.02
2.58

2.32
4.65
11.49

2.25
5.04
11.28

3. 97
22.34

3.62
26.94

5.07

4.59

25.00
2.50
1.95

2.99
2.75

2.49
2.12

1.91

2.97 |

2.15
1.05

1.78
11.39

2.03
5.75

2.08
.78

2.47

2.11

2.29

2.17

2.05 |

D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,000: NONTUBERCULOUS.

1.41
2.45

2.75
2.74
2.88
5.33
5.71

2.74
4. 99
7.85

2.59
4.79
8.87

1.83
5.42
12.80

1.94
4. 56
13.47

1.86
5.07
13.12

2.07 1
2.45 1
2.21
5.39
11.03

.

i
1

125.00

1

4. 29
3.34
27.69

3.63
14.68

3.49
17.67

3.41
35.79

4.34
32.91

3.71
34.48

3.88

4.37

4.14

4.43

5.86

4.90

3.39
33.73
4.25 |

D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,000: A L L CAUSES.

3.86
4.94
4.24
6.93
18.57

4.35
9.90
16.38

4.29
8.79
17.09

2.15
3.68

3.05
3.92

2.65
4. 61

2.93
4.22

2.89
9.44
19.91

2.59
7.06
18.13

2. 81
8.48
19.06

3.38
a 87
19.57

3.61
8.24
17.38

3.47
8.57
18.37

150.00
6.79
5.29
27.69

6.62
17.43

5.98
19.79

5.56
36.84

6.12
44.30

5.74
40.23

5.47
34.51

6.38
28.72

5.84
31.06

5.79

7.34

6.61

6.54

8.15

7.07

6.30

7.72

6.88




a The death rates for this group are crude rates, not age-adjusted.

270

GENERAL TABLES.

19.—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM
TIVES AND NONOPERATIVES IN EACH SPECIFIED AGE GROUP, BY

T a b le

FEM ALES, SINGLE.
Nonoperatives.

Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Total. Native, eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

POPULATION.

15 to 19 years..
20 to 24 years.

(})

15 to 24 years..
25 to 34 years..
35 to 44 years..
45 to 54 years..
55 to 64 years .

3,649
861
272
C)
1
C)
1

C
1)

3,615
2,758

0)
(x)

6,373
1,613
634
0)
0)

C
1)
(0
2,724
752
362
C
1)
C)
1

3,031
1,189
570
(*)
C)
1

2,589
1,383

8
941
763
474
C)
1

4,128
2,552

2,076
1,589

6,204
4,141

3,972
1,952
1,044
C
1)
0)

6,680
2,050
842
0)
0)

3,665
1,515
836
P>
C)
1

10,345
3,565
1,678
C)
1

D E A T H S : TUBER CU LOU S.

Nonoperatives.

Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

26
22

10
14

36
36

11
8

3
1

14
9

37
30

13
15

50
45

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

48
5
5

24
7
3
1
1

72
12
8
1
1

19
9
4
2
2

4
8
3
7
1

23
17
7
9
3

67
14
9
2
2

28
15
6
8
2

95
29
15
10
4

Total,15years and over.

58

36

94

36

23

59

94

59

153

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

58

34
2

92
2

32
4

15
8

47
12

90
4

49
10

139
14

Total, 15 to 64 years...

58

36

94

36

23

59

94

59

153

16
9

36
23

D E A T H S : NONTUBERCULOUS.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

12
7

12
5

24
12

8
7

4
4

12
11

20
14

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

19
17
7
8
1

17
7
13
13
9
4

36
24
20
21
10
4

15
18
17
20
11
0)

8
7
9
11
19
0)

23
25
26
31
30
C
1)

34
35
24
28
12
0)

25
14
22
24
28
C
1)

59
49
46
52
40
0)

0)

C
1)

0)

C)
1

~

Total, 15years and over.

52

63

115

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

43
9

37
22

80
31

50
31

24
30

74
61

93
40

0)
61
52

0)
154
92

52

59

111

81

54

135

133

113

246

Total, 15to 64years...,1

D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

38
29

22
19

60
48

19
15

7
5

26
20

57
44

29
24

86
68

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

67
22
12
8
1

41
14
16
14
10
4

108
36
28
22
11
4

34
27
21
22
13
C)
1

12
15
12
18
20
C
1)

46
42
33
40
33
0)

101
49
33
30
14
0)

53
29
28
32
30
0)

154
78
61
62
44
(l)

Total, 15 years and
over2.......................

110

99

209

71
24

172
33

~~ 39
38

0)
121
73

0)

101
9

C)
1
82
35

C)
1

15 to 44 years 2......................
45 to 64 years 2......................

183
44

0)
110
62

0)
293
106

110

95

205

117

77

194

227

172

399

Total, 15 to 64 years 2.




1 Not reported.

271

GENERAL TABLES.

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L CAUSES, FO R O PE R A
S E X , CONJUGAL CO N D ITIO N , AND N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912—Continued.
FEMALES, SINGLE.
Nonoperatives.

Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

POPULATION.
65 years and over..................

C)
1

C)
1

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

0)
4,782
95

0)
3,838
251

Total, 15 to 64 years ..

4,877

4,089

Total,15 years and over

C)
1

0)

164

79

91

170

0)

7,983

10,204

6,751

16,955

8,620
346

0)
4,790
458

2,178
393

6,968
851

9,572
553

6,016
644

15,588
1,197

8,966

5,248

2,571

7,819

10,125

6,660

16,785

6
8,972

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: TUBERCULOUS.
Nonoperatives.

Operatives.
Native.

Foreign.

Total.

Native.

Foreign.

Both classes.
Total.

Native.

Foreign.

Total.

1.08
1.30

1.99
2.61

1. 79
2. 35

1.25
1.89

1.61
2.17

1.16
1. 74
1.34

2.00
1.37
2.14

1.53
1.98
1.44

1.84
1.63
1.79

1.25
1.51
1.40

0.85
2.10
1.26

1.48

1.84

1. 75

1.80

~2.~13
1.16

1.33
1.74

1.38
4.07

1.35
2.82

1.88
1.45

1.63
3.11

l778
2.34

2.10

1.37

1.79

1.51

1.85

1. 77

1.82

2.63
1.16
3.68

1. 76
1.86
L 66

2. 26
1.49
2.52

2.42

1. 77
1.59

2.38

1. 76

2.10

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: NONTUBERCULOUS.
0. 93
1.59

1.33
.87
1.04
3. 95
5.14

1.25
1.86
7.18

1.13
2. 97
6.31

0. 99
3.03
5.97

1.70
1.83
3.80

133.33

0.97
1.10

1. 54
1. 13

1.16
1.11

1.16
2.56
4.98

1. 02
3.41
5. 70

1. 36
1.85
5. 26

1.14
2. 75
5.48

0)

2.56

0)

0)

0)

C)
1
1. 94
14.46

C)
1
2.03
16.15

0)

2.63

3. 40

2.93

1.80
18. 95

1.93
17.53

1.86
17.92

2.09
13.54

2.20
15. 27

C)
1
2.12
14.34

2.13

2.89

2. 47

3.09

4.20

3.45

1.98
15.37

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.
3.32
3.48
3.67
5.11
8.82

3. 01
3. 72
8.84

3.39
4.46
8.83

2. 01
2.89
2.24
4.54
7.37

2.55
3.93
5.06

133. 33

2. 76
3. 45

2.79
3. 02

2.77
3.28

2.32
4. 30
6. 32

3.02
4. 78
7.84

2.89
3.83
6. 70

2.98
4.38
7.27

0)

0)

0)

C)
1

4.66

0)

0)

0)

4.22
18.95-

3.70
19.12

3. 99
19.08

3. 42
15. 28

3.58
19.34

3. 47
17.16

0)
3. 82
15. 91

4.51

4. 65

4.57

4.46

5. 99

4. 96

4. 48




2 The

death rates for this group are crude rates, not age-adjusted.

3.66
19.26

3.76
17. 71

5.17

4.75

272

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b l e 1 9 .— PO PU LA TIO N , D E A TH S, AN D D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 FROM

T IV E S AN D N ON O P E R A T IV E S IN EACH SP E C IFIE D AGE GROUP, B Y
BOTH SEXES, SINGLE.
Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Native. eign.

Nonoperatives.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

POPULATION.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................
15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................

0)
C
1)

6,005
1,236
412

8

6,310
C)
1
4,581
(»)
4,886 10,891
1,378 2,614
655 1,067

I?

8

0)
0)
7,180
2,482
992

8

0)
C)
1

5,839
3,828

8,187
4,998

3,962
3,411

12,149
8,409

2,487
1,641
860
0)
C)
1

9,667
4,123
1,852
(>)
(■)

13,185
3,718
1,404

7,373
3,019
1,515
0)
0)

20,558
6,737
2,919
0)
0)

(l)
C)
1

D E A T H S : TUBERCULOUS.

Nonoperatives.

Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

35
29

16
27

51
56

22
19

4
5

26
24

57
48

20
32

77
80

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over..................

64
8
14

43
23
14

107
31
28

1

1

41
35
19
3
2

9
19
12
14
3

50
54
31
17
5

105
43
33
3
2

52
42
26
17
5
1

157
85
59
20
7
1

Total, 15years and over

86

86

172

100

57

157

186

143

329

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

86

80
5

166
5

95
5

40
17

135
22

181
5

120
22

301
27

Total, 15 to 64 years...

86

85

171

100

57

157

186

142

328

D E A T H S : N ONTUBERCULOUS.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

35
18

26
19

61
37

27
26

8
15

35
41

62
44

34
34

96
78

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

53
27
11
15
3
1

45
22
26
23
15
8

98
49
37
38
18
9

53
53
44
36
29

C)
1

23
27
35
26
30
0)

76
80
79
62
59
0)

106
80
55
51
32
C
1)

68
49
61
49
45
C
1)

174
129
116
100
77
0)

Total, 15years and over

110

139

249

(')

C
1)

C
1)

0)

0)

0)

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

91
18

93
38

184
56

150
65

85
56

235
121

241

S3

178
94

419
177

Total, 15 to 64 years...

109

131

240

215

141

356

324

272

596

D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

70
47

42
46

112
93

49
45

12
20

61
65

119
92

54
66

173
158

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

117
35
25
15
3
1

88
45
40
26
17
9

205
80
65
41
20
10

94
88
63
39
31

126
134
110
79
64
0)

211
123
88
54
34
C)
1

120
91
87
66
50
0)

331
214
175
120
84

0)

32
46
47
40
33
0)

0)

Total, 15 years and
over 2.......................

196

225

421

0)

15 to 44 years 2.....................
45 to 64 years 2.....................

177
18

173
43

350
61

245
70

0)
125
73

0)
370
143

0)
422
88

0)
298
116

0)
720
204

Totaf, 15 to 64 years 2. .

195

216

411

315

198

513

510

414

924




1 Not reported.

GENERAL TABLES.

273

TUBERCULOUS. NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES, FO R O PERA
S E X , CONJUGAL CO N D ITIO N , AN D N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
BOTH SEXES, SINGLE.
Nonoperatives.

Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

POPULATION.

65 years and over.................

0)

Total, 15 years and over

14

0)

(1
)

0)

15,215

226

(x
)

17,067

133

240

19,222 13,060

107

32,282

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

<
l)
7,653
160

C)
1
<
l>
6,919 14,572 10,654
648
469
629

4,988
551

15,642 18,307 11,907
808 1,020
1,199

30,214
1,828

Total, 15 to 64 years...

7,813

7,388

11,302

5,539

16,841

32,042

15,201

19,115

12,927

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: TUBERCULOUS.

Operatives.
Native.

Foreign.

Total.

Native.

Foreign.

1.62
2.44
2.13
1.29
6.80

1.76
3.34
4.27

Both classcs.

Nonoperatives.

1.96
2.37
5.25

Total.

Native.

Foreign.

Total.

0.89
1.26

1.27
1.90

1.04
2.62
3.35

1.59
2.31
4.70

1.41
2.78
3.43

1.53
2.52
4.04

1.51

0.72
2.32
2.79

1.01
1.88

.83

1.84

1.14
2.82
3.83

1.39
1.92

1.94

2.19

2.04

14.29
2.26
2.25

2.31
2.13

2.28
1.59

1.78
1.54

1.60
6.17

1.73
3.67

1.98
1.24

2.02
4.32

1.99
2.95

2.20

2.30

2.25

1.77

2.06

1.86

1.95

2.20

2.05

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: NONTUBERCULOUS.

1.93
1.62
1.77
4.37
5.34

1.84
3.19
7.94

1.80
3.75
6.93

1.20
2.14

1.52
1.76

1.72
1.99

1.58
1.86

1.48
4.27
8.87

1.85
3.29
8.14

1.57
3.88
8.53

1.61
4.31
7.84

1.85
3.25
8.06

1.69
3.83
7.95

2.82
20.06

3.41
20.33

3.00
20.18

2.63
20.54

2.99
18.43

2.78
19.37

5.09

4.23

3.39

4.21

3.72

128.57
3.27
2.38
22.50

2.69
16.21

2.52
17.81

2.79

3.55

3.16

3.80 j

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.

3.55
4.06
3.90
5.66
12.14

3.60
6.53
12.21

3.76
6.12
12.18

2.09
3.40

2.91
3.68

2.73
3.87

2.85
3.76

2.62
7.09
12.70

2.57
5.61
10.93

2.61
6.50
11.88

3.20
6.62
12.54

3.26
6.03
11.49

3.22
6.35
11.99

5.01
26.50

4.73
23.85

4.61
21.78

5.01
22.75

4.77
22.32

6.09

5.34

142.86
5.53
4.63
22.50

5.00
18.34

4.80
19.40

4.60
21.60

4.99

5.85

5.41

5.57

7il5 j

3 The death rates for this group are crude rates, not age-adjusted.

88204°— 19— Bull. 251------ 18




6.41 |

5.77

GENERAL TABLES.

274

19.—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM
TIYES AND NONOPERATIVES IN EACH SPECIFIED AGE GROUP, BY

T able

M ALES, M ARRIED.
Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Native. eign.

Nonoperatives.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

POPULATION.

15 to 19 years.
20 to 24 years,
15 to 24 years.
25 to 34 years,
35 to 44 years.
45 to 54 years.
55 to 64 years.

17
589

0)
(*)
154
516
467
C
1)
0)

606
2,461
2,269

452
1,945
1,802

8

43
878

0)
C)
1
408
1,783
1,740
*)
C)
1

513
2,532
2,993

24
538

36
929

60
1,467

921
4,315
4,733
(0
C)
1

562
2,299
2,207
0)
0)

965
4,477
4,975
0)
0)

1,527
6,776
7,002
(l)
C
1)

0)
0)

ll)
0)

DEATHS: TUBERCULOUS.

Operatives.

Nonoperatives.

Both classes.

Age group.

For­
For­
For­
Native. eign. Total. Native. eign. Total. Native. eign. Total.
•
15 to 19 years........................
6
6
2
4
2
12
4
4
20 to 24 years........................
8
15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 vears........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

2
1
10
4
1

4
26
31
19
8

61
27
41
23
9

4
19
28
22
17
9

2
14
19
5
10
4

6
33
47
27
27
13

4
15
29
9
11
4

45
59
41
25
9

8

12
60
88
50
36
13

Total, 15years and over

18

88

106

54

99

153

72

187

259

15 to 44 years........... ............
45 to 64 years........................

13
5

61
27

74
32

35
15

51
39

86
54

48
20

112
66

160
86

Total, 15 to 64 years...

18

88

106

50

90

140

68

•
178

246

DEATHS: NONTUBERCULOUS.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

1

2

3

5

6

11

6

8

14

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
85 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

1
9
14
11
8
1

2
22
28
62
94
28

3
31
42
73
102
29

5
32
47
62
86

C)
1

6
31
62
110
214
C)
1

11
63
109
172
300

0)

6
41
61
73
94
C)
1

8
53
90
172
308

0)

14
94
151
245
402
0)

Total, 15 years and over

44

236

280

0)

0)

(l)

24
19

52
156

76
175

84
148

0)
183
472

0)

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

0)
99
324

Total, 15 to 64 years...

43

208

251

232

108
167

151
480

259
647

423 ;

655

275

631

906

DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

3

6

9

7

10

17

10

16

26

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

3
10
24
15
9
1

6
48
59
81
102
28

9
58
83
96
111
29

7
46
66
67
96

17
96
156
199
327
C1)

10
56
90
82
105
0)

16
98
149
213
333

239
295

0)

10
50
90
132
231
0)

Total, 15 years and
over 2.......................

62

324

386

0)

15 to 44 years 2.....................
45 to 64 years 2.....................

37
24

113
183

150
207

119
163

(»)
150
363

(*>
269
526

Total, 15 to 64 years2. .

61

296

357

282

513

795




1 Not reported*

C1)

26
154

438
0)

(*)
263
546

0)

156
187
343

809

1,152

C1)

419
733

GENERAL TABLES.

275

TUBERCULOUS, NO NTUBE RCULOUS, AND ALL CAUSES, FOR OPERA
SEX, CONJUGAL CONDITION, AND NATIVITY, 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
M A L E S , M AKREEB.
Operatives.
Age group.

Nonoperatives.

Both classes.

For­
For­
Native,; eign. 1 TotaL . N
aafciv& eign. : Total. Native. eign.
J For­

Total.

PO
PtTXATIO
IT.

■ 5years and. over... .........
6

C)
1

Total, 15years and over

C)
1

C)
1

■ C)
1

m
; 7,754 ;

C)
1

1,634

<*)

17,170

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years *..............

1,187

m

4,1$9
1,948

5,m

(*)
3,9St

i,m

6,038
3,748

Total* 15to 64 years___

1,442

6,147

7,589

5,780

9,756

2,25$

440 . 1,359

1,799

17,262

24,924

7,662

9,969 5,068 ' 10,237 1 15,305
5,567 : 2,154 5,666
7,S20
15,536

7,222 ^ 15,903

23,125

DEATH SATES PEB U »0 ; TtTBEBLCXTLOUS.

Operatives.
Native.

Foreign.

Total.

Native.

Foreign.

2.04
2,60
.39;
4.28

1- 77
2.68
3.44

Both classes.

Nonoperatives.

1,982* 19
&62

Total.

Native.

Foreign.

Total.

1.37
0.98
1.57 ;
2.19

1,56
1.50
1.87

1.49

1.72 :

l.«4

1.30 ^
1.53
1.99!

1.42
1.31
2.63

1.66
2.01 '
2.46

1.57
1.77
2.52

1.59
2. 29 .
3.28

2.90
2.77

2.50 .

2.86

1.82 ,

1.32 i

1.45

1.78

2.74

1.88

2.17

2.08

2.77
2.84

1.78
1.62

1.69
2.10

1.73
1.94:

1.90
1.86

2.19
2.33

2.09
2.20

2.79

1.73

1,85

1.8©

1.88

2.24

2.13

DEATH RATES PEE 1,400: JfTONTUBEB.Ctrl.OrS.

1.02
1.30
3. 49 ;
6.00

0.88
2.26
3.11

.99
2.52
3.70

2.50,

2.23

1.72 ,

1.91

2.45
3.59
5.40

2.34
2.45
4.14

2.39
2.92
4.60

2.13
3.57
5.53

1.66 ;
2.37
3.75

1.84
2.78
4.31

3.52
7.22
4.22
12. 46

2.48
16.02

2.85
15.53

4.27
16.01 ,

3.28
17.43

3.67
16.96,

4.26
15.50

2.95
16.94

3.39
16.55

5.96

6.77

6.62

8.03

8.67

8.43

7.62

7.93

7.83

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.

2 The death rates lor this group are crude rates, not age-adjusted.




276

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b l e 1 9 .— PO PU LATIO N , D EATH S, AN D D E A TH R A TE S P E R 1,000 FROM

T IV E S A N D NON O P E R A T IV E S IN EACH SPECIFIE D AGE GROUP, B Y
FEMALES, MARRIED.
Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Native. eign.

Nonoperatives.

ForT
Total. Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

POPULATION".

15 to 19 years.........................
20 to 24 years.........................

0)
0)

15 to 24 years.........................
25 to 34 years................ ........
35 to 44 years.........................
45 to 54 years.........................
55 to 64 years.........................

361
563
363
(>)
0)

0)
0)
825
1,404
1,074
0)
0)

148
1,038

0)
C)
1
751
1,186
1,967 2,085
1,780
1,437
- C)
1
(1)
0)
V)

0)
(>)
1,133
3,225
3,657
0)
0)

277
1,607

161
951

264
1,694

425
2,645

1,884
5,310
5,437
(»)
(x
>

1,112
2,648
2,143
0)
0)

1,958
4,629
4,731
(1?

3,070
7,277
6,874
0)
0)

DEATHS: TUBERCULOUS.

Operatives.
Age group.

Nonoperatives.
For­
Total. Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

1

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

2
11

4
17

6
28

1
7

2
2

3
9

3
18

6
19

9
37

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 vears........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
.65 years and over.................

13
20
5
1
1

21
40
26
5
5

34
60
31
6
6

8
19
9
4
3
2

4
24
32
22
16
8

12
43
41
26
19
10

21
39
14
5
4
2

25
64
58
27
21
8

46
103
72
32
25
10

Total, 15years and over

40

97

137

45

106

151

85

203

288

38
2 -

87
10

125
12

36
7

60
38

96
45

74
9

147
48

221
57

40

97

137

43

98

141

83

• 195

278

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................
Total, 15 to 64 years...

DEATHS: NONTUBERCULOUS.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years.....................

5
10

3
13

8
23

6

5

11

5
16

3
18

8
34

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

15
34
21
5
3

16
48
50
61
31
4

31
82
71
66
34
4

6
48
53
53
71
C)
1

5
63
112
173
341
0)

11
111
165
226
412
0)

21
82
74
58
74
0)

21
111
162
234
372
0)

42
193
236
292
446
0)

0)

0)

Total, 15years and over

78

210

288

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

70
8

114
92

184
100

107
124

0)
180
514

0)
287
638

Total, 15 to 64 years...

78

206

284

231

.694

0)

177
132

_ (0 _
294
606

925

309

900

1,209

471
738

DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.

15 to 19 years..
20 to 24 years..

7
21

7
30

14
51

1
13

2
7

3
20

8
34

9
37

17
71

15 to 24 years........
25 to 34 years........
35 to 44 years........
45 to 54 years........
55 to 64 years........
65 years and over..

28
54
26
6
4

37
88
76
66
36
4

65
142
102
72
40
4

14
67
62
57
74
0)

9
87
144
195
357
(*)

23
154
206
252
431
0)

42
121
88
63
78
0)

46
175
220
261
393
0)

88
296
308
324
471
0)

0)

(1)

0) _ ( 1
)_
251
441
141
654

692
795

Total, 15 years and
over 2 ......................

Total, 15 to 64 years




307

425

10

.

118

m

15 to 44 years a.
45 to 64 years a.

201
102

309~
112

0)
143~
131

118

303

421

274

1 Not reported..

V40
552

383
683

792

1,066

392 . 1,095 | 1,487

277

GENERAL TABLES.

TUBERCULOUS, NO NTUBERCULO US, AND ALL CAUSES, FO R O P E R A
S E X , CONJUGAL CO ND ITIO N, AND N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912—Continued.
FEMALES, MARRIED.
Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Native. eign.

Nonoperatives.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

POPULATION.

22

65 years and over.................

2,136

561

1,597

2,158

0)
8,015
5,217

21,929

8,548

18,865

27,413

4,590
872

0)
4,616
1,945

12,631
7,162

5,903
2,084

11,318
5,950

17,221
8,034

5,462

6,561

13,232

19,793

7,987

17,268

25.255

(>)

C)
1

5,484

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

1,287
139

3,303
733

Total, 15 to 64 years . . .

1,426

4,036

Total, 15years and over

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: TUBERCULOUS.

Operatives.
Native.

Foreign.

Nonoperatives.
Total.

Native.

Foreign.

5.09
5.70
4.84

5.73
6.10
4.32

Total.

Native.

Foreign.

Total.

2.17
1.12

8.11
5.40
7.20
7.10
2.75

Both classes.

2.13
1.82
1.01

0.71
1.49
1.75

3.73
3.79

4.55
2.24

4.24
2.80

1.27
1.62
1.51

3.78
2.95
1.31

2.55
2.76
2.45

3.00
2.83
2.09

.94

.71

1.00

.93

1.38

5.00

1.99

2.15

2.10

5.90
2.88

5.27
2.73

5.45
2.75

1.56
.72

1.50
1.46

1.52
1.26

2.51
.86

2.60
1.61

2.57
1.42

5.61

4.81

5.02

1.31

1.48

1.42

2.08

2.26

2.20

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.

18.92
9.83
15.51
19.18
14.32

8.97
12.54
14.15

10.96
14.44
14.20

2.17
2.49

9.94
7.15

6.82
4.37

8.00
5.37

3.73
6.43
6.97

1.59
5.40
7.88

2.44
5.80
7.58

7.56
9.14
8.21

4.70
7.56
9.30

5.73
8.14
8.96

36.36
15.50
16.78
14.39

12.17
27.83

13.47
25.69

6.20
13.47

5.99
21.16

6.06
19.07

8.50
13.53

7.79
21.98

8.04
19.79

16.55

15.02

15.42

8.35

11.97

10.77

9.82

12.68

11.78




* The death rates for this group are crude rates, not age-adjusted.

GENERAL TABLES.

278

T a b u s 1 9 . — PO PU LATION , D EATH S, AN D D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 F R O M

T IY E S AND N O N O PER ATIVE S IN EACH SP E C IF IE D AG E G R O U P , B Y
BOTH SEXES, MARRIED.
Nonoperatives.

Operatives.
Age group

For­
Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

Total.

POPULATION.

15 to 19 years...................
15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 vears...................
55 to 64 years................... .

C
1)
C
1)

0)
0)

165
1,627

515
1,079
830
C
1)
C)
1

1,277
3,349
2,876
C
1)
(1
)

1,792
4,428
3,706
0)
(*)

0)
0)
1,159
3,868
3,520
0)
0)

0)
(l)

320
2,485

185
1,489

300
2,623

485
4,112

1,646
5,757
6,650
(1)
0)

2,805
9,625
10,170
(*)

1,674
4,947
4,350
0)

2,923
9,106
9,526
(l)
C)
1

4,597
14,053
13,876
0)
(1
)

0)

0)

DEATHS; TUBERCULOUS.

Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Native. eign.

Nonoperatives.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

15 to 19 years.,............. .
20 to 24 years.............. ........

13

2

4
21

6
34

1
9

2
6

3
15

3
22

6
27

9
49

25 to 34 years........................

15
21
15
5

25
66
57
24
13

40
87
72
29
15

10
33
28
9
13
6

8
43
60
44
33
17

18
76
88
53
46
23

25
54
43
14
15
6

33
109
117
68
46
17

58
163
160
82
61
23

85 to 44 years........................

45 to 54 years...................... .
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

2

Total, 15years and over

58

185

243

99

205

304

157

390

547

15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

51
7

148
37

199
44

71
22

111
77

182
99

122
29

259
114

381
143

58

185

243

93

188

281

151

373

524

Total, 15 to 64 years___

DEATHS: NONTUBERCULOUS.

15 to 19 years.....................
20 to 24 years........................

5
11

3
15

8
26

11

11

22

5
22

3
26

8
48

15’ to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years......................
35 to 44 years........................
45 to 54 years........................
55 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................

16
43
35
16
11
1

18
70
78
123
125
32

34
113
113
139
136
33

11
80
100
115
157
C)
1

11
94
174
283
555
0)

22
174
274
398
712
0)

27
123
135
131
168
C)
1

29
164
252
400
680
C)
1

56
287
387
537
848
0)

(l)

C)
1

Total, 15years and over

122

446

568

94
27

166
248

260
275

0)
191
272

(!)

15 to 44 vears........ ...............
45 to 64 years........................

279
838

470
1,110

285
299

_ 0 )_
445
1,086

_ 0 )_
730
1,385

Total, 15 to 64 years...

121

414

535

463

1,117

1,580

584

1,531

2,115

DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.

15 to 19 years........................
20 to 24 years........................

7
24

7
36

14
60

1
20

2
17

3
37

8
44

9
53

17
97

15 to 24 years........................
25 to 34 years........................

31
64
50
21
13
1

43
136
135
147
138
32

74
200
185
168
151
33

21
113
128
124
170
0)

19
137
234
327
588
0)

40
250
362
451
758
0)

52
177
178
145
183
(1
)

62
273
369
474
726
C
1)

114
450
547
619
909
e>

(l)

(*)

407
328

C
1)
704
1,200

1, 111
1,528

735

1,904

2,639

45 to 54 years........................
65 to 64 years........................
65 years and over.................
Total, 15 years and
over 3.......................

18a

631

811

15 to 44 years *.....................
45 to 64 years2......................

145
34

314
285

459
319

262
294

390
915

0)
652
1,209

Total, 15 to 64 years *..

179

599

778

556

1,305

1,861




1 Not reported.

C
1)

C)

279

GENERAL TABLES.

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES, F O R O P E R A
S E X , CONJUGAL CO ND ITIO N, AN D N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912—Concluded.
BOTH SEXES, MARRIED.
Operatives.
Age group.

For­
Native. eign.

Nonoperatives.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Both classes.

For­
Total. Native. eign.

Total.

POPULATION.

65 years and over.................

C)
1

Total, 15 years and
over.........................
15 to 44 years........................
45 to 64 years........................

0)
2,424
444

Total, 15 to 64 years ...

2,868

C)
1

187

C)
1

13,238
C)
1
7,502 9,.926
2,681 3,125

8,547
3,794

13,051

12,341

10,183

3,770

0)

C)
1

39,099

1,001

2,956

3,957

16,210 36,127

52,337

14,053 22,600 10,971 21,555
8,935 12,729 4,238 11,616

32,526
15,854

22,988 35,329

48,380

C)
1

33,171

15,209

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: TUBERCULOUS.

Operatives.
Native.

Foreign.

Nonoperatives.
Total.

Native.

Foreign.

7.27
4.18

Both classes.
Total.

Native.

Foreign.

Total.

4.46
3.93
3.88

3.91
3.94
3.96

0.97
1.49
1.81

3.67

4.00
2.06

3.71
2.38

1.28
1.58
1.73

2.99
2.19
1.98

2.26
2.40
2.46

2. 52
2.32
2.30

1.20

1.15

1.16

1.56

1.72
1.71
1.59

3.24
2.96

1.22

5*83
3.89
3.62

1.88
1.21

1.94

2.16

2.09

4.21
3.16

3.95
2. 76

4.01
2.82

1.66
1.16

1.58
1.72

1.61
1.56

2.22
1.37

2.40
1.96

2.34

4.04

3.63

3.72

1.51

1.63

1.59

1.99

2.25

2.17

1.81

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: NONTUBERCULOUS.

1.77

5.41
2.95

2.00
1.98

3.30
2.34

1.34
3.27
5. 23

1.57
3.61
5.39

3.22
4.97
6.20

1.98
3.60
5.29

2.44
4.08
5 58

0)

0)

0)

0)

C)
1

0)

0)

9.70
3.20
6.21
7.97
8.43

2. 82
4.18
5.43

3.80
5.10
6.10

1.90
4.13
5.68

35. 29
8.58
7.75
12.16

4. 42
18. 50

5. 24
17.60

4.47
14.34

3.97
18. 76

C)
1
4.16
17. 44

8.44

8.13

8.20

7.50

9.72

8.95

5,20
14.11

4.13
18.70

4.49
17.47

7.68

9.23

8. 74

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.

16.97
7.38
12.04
11.86
12.05

6.73
8.12
9.39

8.26
9.03
9.98

1.88
2.98
3.62
5.84
7.27

35.29

6.00
4.04

7.01
4.72

2. 85
5.19
7.12

2.31
4. 76
7.04

8.65
5.91
6.21
7.16
8.18

4.24
6.00
7.75

4.96
6.40
7.88

0)

0)

0)

(0

12. 25

(l)

C)
1

11.96
15.32

8.37
21.26

9. 25
20.42

6.13
15.50

5.55
20.48

5. 77
19.00

0)
7.42
15.48

0)
6.53
20.66

12.48

11.76

11.92

9.01

11.35

10. 54

9.67

11.48




2 The

death rates for this group are crude rates, not age-adjusted.

6.83
19.28
10.91

280

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b le

2 0.—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM
TIVES OF SPECIFIED RACES, BY AGE GROUP, SEX,
AGE GBOUP 15 TO 24.
Males.

Native.

Both sexes,
both classes.

Married.

Single.

Married.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

Single.

Race.

Females.

For­
eign.

For­
Native. eign.

POPULATION.

203
496
550
820

Irish........................
American................
English...................
French Canadian...

13
35
42
51

13
9
181
357

1
4
18
51

44
7
278
611

415,
736
880
1,207

31
70
90
124

4
4
41
112

662
1,337
1,562
2,202

62
24
518
1,131

DEATHS: TUBERCULOUS.

Males.

Native.
Irish........................
American..
English...................
French Canadian...
Portuguese .1..........
Other races.............

2
7
4
3

All raccs........

16

Both sexes,
both classes.

Married.

Single.

Racc.

Females.

For­
eign.
2

Single.

Married.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

1

2
4
7
4

1

1
2
1

19

2

4

4
11
12
18
3
48

3
2
11
5
3
24

2
4

For­
Native. eign.
5

1

2
6
12
1

8
23
16
28
3
1

6
22
26
9

13

21

79

68

1
3
11
1

8
13
19
25
3
1

1
10
14
28
10

16

69

63

16
36
35
53
6
2

5
1
16
36
54
19

148

131

6

DEATHS: NONTUBERCULOUS.

Irish........................
American . . . . . . . .
English...................
French Canadian...
Portuguese.............
Other races.............

3
8
11
10
2

All races. . ___

34

1
6
7
8
6
28

1

1
1

1

2

3
3
5
6
1
1

2
4
8
3

19

17

2
2
2
9
15

DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.

Irish........................
American............
English...................
Ffceneh Canadian...
Portuguese ...........
Other races.............

5
15
15
13
2

All races........

50




2
1
8
11

1
1
1

47

3

15
10

3

4
6

1
1
3
1

7
14
17
24
4
1

4

15
13
6

2
15

1

3
9
23
2

6

67

41

28

37

GENERAL TABLES.

281

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L CAUSES, FO R
CONJUGAL CONDITION, AND N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912.

O PE R A

AGE GROUP 15 TO 24.
Males.
Race.

Females.
Both sexes,
"both classes.

Single.

Married.

Single.

Married.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

POPULATION.

Portuguese.............
Other races.............

163
124

1,139
463

9
4.

259
119

187
224

All races........

2,356

2,162

154

452

3,649

2,724

30
16.

1,265
519

389
368

3,145
1,283

825

361

482
182

6,520

6,163

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: TUBERCULOUS.

Females.

Males.
Married.

Single.
Native.

Foreign.

Native.

Single.

Foreign.

1.97
30.77
2.82
1.45 .......2.2i
2.24
.73
1.23
1.73

3.92

3.92
1.54
1.68

1.36

2.60

1.77

1. 76

5.71

Both sexes, both
classes.

Married.

Native.

Foreign.

Native.

1.93
2.99
2.73
2.98
3.21

13.64

12.90
11.43

2.63

1.76

1.44
3.60
.79
1.16

Foreign.

Native.

i2.5o"

2.42
3.44
2.05
2.54
1.54
.55

16.13

9.76
10.71
4.98
1.10

7.20

5.09

2.42

2.21

4.88
5.36
4.56
1.10

2.41
1.94
2.43
2.27
1.54
.54

8.33
3.86
2.48
1.78
1.56

3.88

2.12

2.04

14.63
16.07
9.54
2.20

4.83
5.39
4.48
4.81
3.08
1.09

16.13
8.33
6.18
6.37
3.43
2.96

8.97

4.54

4.25

9.68

Foreign.

2.32
3.89
1.65
1.40

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: NONTUBERCULOUS.

2.96
3.23
4.00
2.44
2.45
2.88

22.22
6.63
3.92
1.40
2.59
2.59

4.76

11.11
.77

1.30

.88

1.45
.82
1.14
1.00
1.07
.89

1.44
1.31
1.26
1.16

1.04

1.25

12.90
5.71
4.44
14.52
8.31

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.

4.93
6.05
5.45
3.17
2.45

30.77
22.22
8.84
6.16
2.63
4.32

5.71
4.76
3.92

4. 24

4.35

3.90




25.81
17.14
2.88
4.44
4.91
24.19
2.06 ...............
2.31
12.50

3.37
3.80
3.86
3.98
4.28
.89

13.64

11.11
3.92
2.32
1.68
2.65

3.67

3.01

15.51

GESTEBAL TABLES.

282

him FROM
TIVES OF SPECIFIED RACES, BY AGE GROUP, SEX,

T a b l e 2 0 .—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER

AGE GBOUP 25 TO 34.
Males.
Single.

Race.

Females.
Married.

For­
Native. eign.

Single.

For­
Native. eign.

Native.

Both sexes,
both classes.

Married.

For­
eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

POPULATION.

86
88
92
93

Irish...........................

American................
English...................
French Canadian.. .

12
1
96
200

55
115
165
158

34
7
211
430

323
166
185
151

98
3
140
327

97
116
177
146

67
3
255
349

561
485
619
548

211
14
702
1,306

DEATHS: TUBERCULOUS.

Males.
Single.

Race.

Married.

For­
Native. eign.

Irish......................

1
1

American................
English.............. .
French Canadian...
Portuguese.............
Other races............

1

All races........

3

Females.

For­
Native, eign.

1

2

2

4
10
8
2

9

1
3
16

1
1

Both sexes,
both classes.

Single.

26

Married.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

1
3

1

Native.

6

9
3
4
4

7
1
6
11
12
3

.1

11
1
12
36
. 21
8

7

20

40

29

89

1
8

22
7
13
10
1
1

li
l
16
24
29

7

33
20
24
19
1
2

23
1
31
61
46
19

14

54

88

99,

181

1
5

11
7
4
6

For­
eign.

DEATHS: NONTUBERCULOUS.

Irish........... ............
American,..............
English...................
French Canadian...
Portuguese.............
Other races.............

i
5
4
3

All races........

13




3
6
13
3
6
31

1
3
3
3
10

4
8
16
14
6
48:

9
5
4
3

5

1
22

GENERAL. TABLES.

28&

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AN D A L L CAUSES, FO R O PE R A
CONJUGAL CO N D ITIO N , AND N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO m 2 — Continued.
AGE GROUP

25 TO 84.
Females.

Males.

Both, sexes,
both classes.

Slagle.

Married.

Single.

Married.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

Race.

For­
Native. eign.

POPULATION.

Portuguese. . . . . . . . .
Other races........

2
14

177
140

7
16

780
483

9
27

110
74

11
16

477
253

29
73

All races.....

375

626

516

1,945

861

752

563

1,404

2,315

1,544

m

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: TUBERCULOUS.

Females.

Males.
Single.
Native.
2.33
*2.27
........ 2. id
1.60

Single.

Married.
Foreign.

Native.

Foreign.

Native.

16.67

11.76
1.27

3.79
4.65
2.05
.83

0.62
3.61

2.04

4.17
0.00
1.13
4.29

3.67

18.56
5.17
4.52
5.48

S. 11

.39

1.86

7.10

Foreign.

Native.

2.68

Foreign.

7.41
1.16

Both sexes, both
classes.

Married.

Native.

20.90
3.92
66.67
2.89
4.71
1.29
6.30
2.19
5.03
2.37 .......2. 74*
5. 70

2.50

Foreign.
10.43
14,2%
3.42
5.51
2.72
1.68
3.77

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: NONTUBERCULOUS.

I
|
I

3133
9.0£
8.70 .......i*3§*
4.30
4M
±26

3.64
S. 22
2.64
2. 53

11.76

3.49

2.26

4.29

r
5.33

4.79

3.79
2.79
1.54
1.66

4.%
2.41
4.32
3.97

8.16
1.43
1.22

11.94
26.80
6.90
10.17 .......7.84*
8.22
7.45
18.18
7.13
12.50
3.16

7.84
11.37
5.36
6.46 *....... i'.ii
4.74
3.8$
6.90
3.24
2. 74
2.32

3.95

1.86

12.08

6.84

6.05

3.89

DEATH RATES PER 1,090: ALL CAUSES.

2.33
11.36
8.70
6.45

50.00

6.93

9.90

12.50
13.00
139
8.57




3.64
23.53
S. 22
3.64 *‘ *'*7.*58*
3.80
7.44
3.59
2.48

5.57
6.02
4.32
3.97

3.88

5.11

4.94

ia20
1.43
4.89

45.36
12.07
14.69
13.70
18.18
12.50

32.84
66.67
12.55
13.75
12.16
5.53

11.76
8.25
7.75
6.93
6.90
5.48

21.80
14.29
8.83
9.34
5.96
4.00

3. 72

19.18

12.54

8.55

7.66

7. ii

GENERAL. TABLES.

284

T a b l e 2 0 .— PO PU LATION , DEATHS, AND D EATH B A TES P E R 1,000 FROM

TIV E S OF SPECIFIED RACES, B Y AG E GROUP, SE X,
AGE GROUP 35 TO 44.
Males.
Race.

Single.
Native.

Females.
Married.

For­
eign.

Single.

For­
Native. eign.

Native.

Both sexes,
both classes.

Married.

For­
eign.

Native.

For­
eign.

For­
Native. eign.

POPULATION’.

Irish......................
American................
English...................
French Canadian...

sa
19
36
28

58
1
58
101

115
89
129
116

125
6
354
603

144
33
59
25

123

135
65
89
49

82
123

161
5
265
363

447
206
313
218

467
12
759
1,190

DEATHS: TUBERCULOUS.

Males.

Females.
Both sexes,
both classes.

Trish . . ....... .............

American . . . . . . . . .
English...................
French Canadian
Portuguese.............
Other races.............
All races........

Married.

Single.

Married.

For­
Native. eign.

Race.

Single.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

6
3

9

5
5
1
11

4
1
2
3

10

For­
Native. eign.

8

4

1

3

11

6
7
5
5

1

1
1

1
1

1
9
3
2

31

5

3

)
5

26

29

71

8

15

21
9

29

7

22
36
12

17
1
7
4

25
8
, 22
9
7

DEATHS: NONTUBERCULOUS.

Irish.......................
American. . . _____
English..................
French Canadian ..
Portugus©.............
Other races............

3

4

1

1
4
2

All races.......

4

4
4

5
1

2

13

2
9

6
1

8
8

8
1
4

4
4
5

1
14

28

11
20

2

9

5

2'
7

13

21

50

46

104

26
12
29
5
4

38
54
10
16 ....... 30*
11
58
21
12

76

75

DEATHS: ALL CAUSES.

Irish........................
American. . . . . . . . .
English...................
French Canadian...
Portuguese.. ...
Other races

9

9

3
1

1
9
3
2

All races........

13

24




8
5
7
4

24 |

10

10
1

9

15
15
13
6

t

2
5

11
4
5
6

59

12

16

26

175

285

GENERAL, TABLES.

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L C A U S E S , FO R O PERA
CONJUGAL CO ND ITIO N, AND N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
AGE GROUP 35 TO 44.
Males.

Females.
Both sexes,
both classes.

Single.

Married.

Single.

Married.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

Race.

For­
Native. eign.

POPULATION.

Portuguese.............
Other races.............

1
3

28
47

All races........

140

293

1
17

465
249

2
9

25
9

4
21

153
127

8
50

671
432

467 j 1,802

272

362

363

1,074

1,242

3,531

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: TUBERCULOUS.

Males.
Married.

Single.
Native.
22.64
16.67

12.86

Females.

Foreign.

Native.

Foreign.

17.24

6.96
2.25
3.10
5.17

12.80

5.56

3.39
2.32
2.15
4.02

3.39

4. 28

3.44

3.68

1.66

9.90
7.14
7.51

Native.

Both sexes, both
classes.

Married.

Single.
Foreign.

Native.

Foreign.

Native.

1.63

4.44

13.66

2. 25
4. 08

.75
4.96
3.92
3.15

7.61
.97
4.47
3.67

. 10.71

2.44
1.63

2. 75

4.84

4. 67

4.02

Foreign.

3.70
2.68
3.24

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: NONTUBERCULOUS.

7.14

7.92
14.29
8.51

6.96
8.99
7. 75
1. 73

3.20

3.45

5.71

8.87

6.00

3.11

11.32

13.79

8.33
6.06

5.08
2.66
3.44
.80

5.15

13. oi

11.85
12.31

18.63

....... 2.44*
6.50

a 99

20.41

8.30
11.02
2. 61
3.15

7.18

11,57

9.31

9.40

12.42
8.74
5. 75 .........5.80
6.42
6.05
3. 58
2.31
7.40

5.89

DEATH RATES PER 1,000: ALL CAUSES.
33.96
16. 67
7.14

3.45
17.82
21.43
8.51

16.00
13.91
11.24
10.85 ....... 8*47*
4.98
6.90
5.59
4.82

18.57

16.38

10.28

31.03




6.55

13.89
6.06
3.39

14.63

16.30
12.31
11.24
24.49

32.30

4.88
8.13

9.06
15.98
6.54
6.30

17.00
23.13
9.71
10.22 .........7.91
10.09
9.75
6.26
5.56

8.82

8.84

14. 33

14.15

12.08

'

9.91

286

G EN ERAL TAB LES.

T a b le

20» — POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PEE 1,005 FROM
TIVES OF SPECIFIED RACES, BY AGE <xROtTP, SEX,
AGE GROUP 45 TO €4.
Males.

Race.

Single.

Native.

Females.
Married.

For­
eign.

Native.

Stogie.

For­
eign.

Native.

Both sexes,
both classes.

Married.

For­
eign.

Native,

For­
eign.

Native.

For­
eign.

POPULATION.

Irish.........................
American................
English....................
French Canadian,..

23
15
9
13

108
39
62
55

66
1
68
58

253
3
664
517

63
8
14
3

122

$0
36
21
12

49
54

254 ;
m
4
128
106
1,005
83
835

189
224
206

D E A T H S ’ TUBERCULOUS.

Males.
Married.

Single.

Race.

Native.

Females.

For­
eign.

Native.

Irish.......... ..............
American. ___
English....................
French Canadian
Portuguese.,..........
Other races............

2
1

1
1
1
2

All races.........

3

5

For­
eign.

Native,

Both sexes.
both classes.

Married.

Single.
For­
eign.

Native.

For­
eign.

9

1

1

3

6
9
2
1

1

1

2
4
1

27

2

2

1
4
2

Native.

For­
eign.

2
1
2
2

15

10

7

42

44

1

36
10
1
1

21
9
12
1
1
1

116
50
23

8

92

45

286

47

23
10
14
s

10
13
3
1

D E A T H S : NONTUBER CULOU S.

Irish.........................
American................
English....................
French Canadian
Portuguese..............
Other races.......

7
1
1

All races.........

9

8
2

16

35

7

10

66
34
20
1

2

6
4
2

1

6

19

156

9

6
4
7
1

22

D E A T H ® : A L L CAUSES.

7
1
1

AUr aces.........

9




8
9
2

19

44

7

11

72
43
22
2

2

7
4
2

24

183

9

7
5
8
3

2

-

1

Irish.........................
American.............
English....................
French Canadian
Portuguese..............
Other races..............

95

24

2
4
3
1

38
14
2
1

M

102

i Number of deaths in 5 years exceeds population at census taking.

I

1
52

110
126 ,
63
26
3
328

GENERAL TABLES.

287

TUBEB€ULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL CAUSES, FOR OPERA
CONJUGAL CONDITION, AND NATIVITY, 1908 TO 1912-Oontinued.
AGE GXOUP 45 TO 04.
Males.
Race.

Single.

Females.
Married.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

Bath sexes,
both classes.

Single.

Married.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

POPULATION.

i
Portuguese............!............
5
Other races........... I
AHraoes......

9
16

376
135

7

16
10

10

50
64

1
32

451
225

218

65

1
10
305

1,948

95

251

139

733

604

3,150

D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,000: TU BERCULOUS.

Males.

Females.
Married.

Single.

Single.

Foreign.

Native.

Foreign.

6.06
2.94

1.85
2.90
3.23
7.27

2.75

Native.

3.28

Native.

Both sexes, both
classes.

Married.

Foreign.

Native.

Foreign.

Native.

7.11

1.64

3.33

3.17

1.81
3. 48
1. 06
1.48

4.08

9.52

1.79
3. 88
4.00

1.57
1.56
3.77
4.82

2.77

1.59

2.88

2.73

Foreign.
4.76

1

1.99
3.11
1.33
.89

2.32

2.67

30.16

9.71
4.00
3.13

16. 54
14.06
22.64
2.41
200.00
6.25

25.10

14.90

18.16

49.74

18.11
15.63
26.42
7.23
200.00
6. 25

34.92

33.93
13. 59
8.00
3.13
27.83

17. 22

20.83

D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,000: NONTUBERCULOUS.

60.87
13.33
22.22

27.69

18.18
23.53
6.90
14.68

11.11
11. 59
22.58
3.64

27.27

22.22

16.39

19.88
13.15
10.64
'
20.00 1.48

28.57

24.49
14. 81
25.00

0)

16.02

18.95

17.53

11.51

12.46

3.33
22.22
19.05

46.56

23.08
11.98
10.20
1.78

D E A T H R A T E S PER 1,006: A L L CAUSES.

24.24

12.96
' 14. 49
25. 81
10.91

27.69

26.47
6.90
17. 43




34.78

22.22

18.03

21.69
16.63
11.70
2.96

28.57

20.00

60. 87
13. 33
22.22

28.57
14. 81
25.00

0)

15.74

18.79

18.95

19.12

14.39

6. 67
22. 22
28.57

25.07
15.09
11.53
2.67

GENERAL TABLES.

288

2 0 .—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH BATES PEE 1,000
FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL CAUSES, FOR
OPERATIVES OF SPECIFIED RACES, BY AGE GROUP, SEX, CONJU­
GAL CONDITION, AND NATIVITY, 1908 TO 1912—Concluded.

T a b le

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
Females.

Males.
Married.

Single.

For­
Native. eign.

Race.

Single.

For­
Native. eign.

For­
Native. eign.

Both sexes,
both classes.

Married.

For­
For­
Native. eign. Native. eign.

POPULATION.

Irish........................
American................
English...................
_
French Canadian_
Portuguese..............
Other races..............

342
603
678
941
166
141

83
11
335
658
1,344
650

183
239
336
325
17
37

160
17
583
1,084
1,504
851

882
935
1,124
1,383
198
260

265
10
500
1,061
1,400
602

263
251
356
319
45
53

232
12
561
824
1,112
562

1,670
2,028
2,494
2,968
426
491

740
50
1,979
3,627
5,360
2,665

All races........

2,871

3,081

1,137

4,199

4,782

3,838

1,287

3,303

10,077

14,421

14
7
5
11

36
31
27
38
3
2

41
1
20

80

1

18
1
9
26
27
>
6

38

87

137

228

19

D E A T H S : TU BERCU LOU S.

Irish........................
American................
English...................
French Canadian_
_
Portuguese..............
Other races..............

9
8
7

All races........

28

4

8
4

18
9
7
46

4
2
2
5
13

10
18
15
8

9
14
13
18
3
1

3
18
5
3

61

58

34

10

5

56
24

D E A T H S : NONTUBERCULOUS.

Irish........................
American................
English...................
French Canadian....
Portuguese.. . . . . . . . .
Other races..............

6
12
15
13
2

6
1
11
15
12
11

5
7
9
3

All races........

48

56

24

4

17
6
9
9
1
1

12

14
14
15
5

4
10
8
3

23
10
15
20
1
1

22
36
30
7

51
35
48
45
4
2

41
1
51
75
65
26

52

43

37

70

114

185

259

17

D E A T H S : A L L CAUSES.

Irish........................
American................
English...................
French Canadian....
Portuguese...........
Other races..............

15
20
22
17
2

14
1
15
33
21
18

9
9
11
8

All races.........

76

102

37




14
24
32
30
13

26
20
22
27
4
2

7
28
13
6

37
17
20
31
1
2

37
1
31
62
57
13

87
66
75
83
7
4

82
2
77
155
121
50

113

101

71

108

201

322

487

GENERAL TABLES.

289

T a b l e 2 1 .— COMPARISON OF D EATH R A TES P E R 1,000 OF N A T IV E AND

FOREIGN BORN FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L
CAUSES, B Y AGE AND OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS, RACE, CONJUGAL
CONDITION, AND SE X , 1908 TO 1912.
Death rates per 1,000 (age-adjusted).
Tuberculous.
Age group, occupational
group, race, conjugal con­
dition, and sex.

Nontuberculous.

Per cent
of excess
For­ of native Na­
Na­
tive eign over for­ tive
born. born. eign born born.
rate.

All causes.

Per cent
Per cent
of
For­ of excess Na­
For­ of excess
native tive eign of native
eign over for­
over for­
born. eign born born. born. eign bom
rate.
rate.

15 T 44 YEARS.
O
Operatives:
Irish, single and mar­
ried—
Males........................
Females...................
English, single and mar­
ried—
Males........................
Females...................
French Canadian, single
and married—
Males........................
Females....................
SingleMales. .......................
Females...................
Married—
Males........................
Females...................
Nonoperatives:
SingleMales........................
Females...................
Married—
Males........................
Females...................

3.69 i 7.43
3.73 10.91

8 50
2 66

3.47
5.99

6.27
5.94

2 45
1

7.16 113.70
9.72 16.85

1.89
2. 45

2.73
2.40

» 31

4.84
3.86

6.09
3.92

2 21
22

6.73
6.31

8.82
6.32

1.74
3.17

3.68
4.68

2 53

a32

2.65
5.54

3.35
4.21

221

32

8. 71

4.39

7.03
8.89

238

3.67
2.41

3.84
1.77

24
36

4.14

4.45

2.68

2.58

27
4

7.81
5.09

8.29
4.35

26
17

2.29
6.31

2.36
5.22

*3

22

2.85
10.03

1.71
5. 79

67 5.04
73 16.34

11.01

4.07

24
48

3.09
1.35

1.97
1.29

57
5

5.00
2.55

6.90
2.15

2 28

19

8.09
3.90

8.87
3.44

29
13

1.39
1.82

1.61
1.14

2 14
60

3.35
3.32

2. 72
2.77

23

20

4.74
5.14

4.33
3.91

9
32

Operatives and nonopera­
tives, single and married:
Males..............................
Females..........................

2.00
2.12

1.97
2.16

2
22

3.68
3.45

2. 89
3.30

27
5

5. 68
5. 57

4.86
5. 46

17

Both sexes..................

2.08

2.08

21

3.56

3.09

15

5.62

5.17

9

Operatives and nonopera­
tives, single and married:
Males..............................
Females..........................

1.62
.94

2.62
1. 74

2 38
2 46

16.07
12.18

14.91
17.39

8
2 30

17.69
13.12

17.53
19.13

Both sexes...................

1.26

2.17

a 42 14.02

16.20

2 13

15.28

18.37

Operatives and nonopera­
tives, single and married:
Males..............................
Females-..........................

1.95
1.97

27

25

5.33
4.61

4.49
5.17

19

2 11

7.28
6.58

6. 54

2.11

Both sexes...................

1.96

2.09

26

4.95

4.83

2

6.91

6.92

2

248
242

224
(3)
22

2

45 TO 64 YEARS.

1

2 31
2 17

15 T 64 YEARS.
O
2.05

11
2 10

7.28

(3)

1In computing this age-adjusted rate the component 15 to 24 age group was deemed too small to be rep­
resentative, so age group 15 to 24, males, all races, was substituted for it.
2 Per cent by which death rate of native born falls below that of foreign born.
3 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.
88204°— 19— Bull. 251-------19




290

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b le 2 2 .— COMPARISON O F D EATH R A T E S P E R 1,000 OF M ALES AN D

FEM ALES FROM TU BERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND ALL
CAUSES, B Y AGE, OCCUPATIONAL AND W ORKROOM GROUPS, RACE,
CONJUGAL CONDITION, AND N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912.
Death rates per 1,000 (age-adjusted).

Occupational group, work­
room group, race, conjugal
condition, and nativity.

Tuberculous.

N ontuberculous.

All causes.

Per cent
Per cent
of excess
Fe­ of excess
Fe­ of female Males. males. of female Males. Fe­
Males. males. over male
over male
males.
death
death
rate.
rate.

Per cent
of excess
of female
over male
death
rate.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
OPERATIVES, SINGLE AND
MARRIED.

Card room workers, all nativ­
ities, all races.....................
Spooler room and mill work­
ers not specified.................
Spinning room workers, all
races..................................
French Canadian, all na­
tivities.........................
Portuguese, all nativities.
Weave room workers, all
races..................................
English, all nativities---Irish, all nativities..........
Aggregate with Irish race.
All mill rooms, all nativities:
Irish, all nativities..........
Aggregate non-Irish races,
all nativities................
French Canadian—
Native born.............
Foreign born............
Single, all races—
Native born.............
Foreign born............
Married, all races—
Native born.............
Foreign born............
Single and married, all
races—
Native bom .............
Foreign born............

2.04

4.62

126

3.09

4.41

43

5.13

9.03

76

1.43

3.00

110

1.77

3.76

112

3.20

6.76

111

3.35

4.24

27

3.92

4.70

20

7.27

8.94

23

3.97
1.38

5.48
2.21

38
60

4.03
2.63

4.70
6.33

17
141

8.00
4.01

10.18
8.54

27
113

2.47
2.17
5.28
2.13

2.38
1.08
5.07
1.93

i4
150
i4
i9

3.08
5.49
4. 45
2.93

4. 41
3.29
8.13
3.35

5.59

4.97

*11

4.33

6.46

83
14
49

9.92

11.43

15

2.13

2.98

40

2.95

3.78

28

5.08

6. 76

33

1.74
3.68

3.17
4.68

82
27

2.65
3.35

5.54
4.21

109
26

4.39
7.03

8. 71
8.89

98
26

3.67
3.84

2.41
1.77

i 34
154

4.14
4.45

2.68
2.58

135
1 42

7.81
8.29

5.09
4.35

135
1 48

2.29
2.36

6.31
5.22

175
121

2.85
1.71

10.03
5.79

252
238

5.04
4.07

16.34
11.01

224
170

2.22
2.63

3.19
3.35

44
27

3.82
2.78

4.66
4.14

22
49

6.04
5.41

7.85
7.49

30
38

2.47

3.34

35

3.10

4.33

40

5.57

7.67

38

3.09
1.97

1.35
1.29 ;

156
135

5.00
6.90

2.55
2.15

1 49
1 69

8.09
8.87

3.90
3.44

152
161

1.39
1.61

1.82
1.14

31
129

3.35
2.72

3.32
2. 77

11
12

4.74
4.33

5.14
3.91

1 10

1.90
1.38

1.45
1.19

1 24
1 14

3.57
2.93

2.91
2.78

1 18
15

5.47
4.31

4.36
3.97

1 20

1.64

1.38

* 16

3.18

2.83

1 11

4.82

4.21

1 13

3.27
2.85

1.84
1.64

1 44
1 42

4.84
4. 76

2.62
2.-26

1 46

153

8.11
7. 61

4.46
3.90

1 45
1 49

1.62
1.92

3.06
2.59

89
35

3.21
2.27

5.08
3.83

58
69

4.83
4.19

8.14
6. 42

69
53

Single and married:
Native born...................
Foreign born..................

2.00
1.97

2.12
2.16

6
10

3.68
2.89

3.45
3.30

16
14

5.68
4.86

5.57
5.46

12

All nativities...............

1.94

2.18

12

3.19

3.35

5

5.13

5.53

8

All nativities........

43

1 40

5.55
6.79
7.66 4.37
9. 73 13.20
5.06 5.28

22

143

36
4

NONOPERATIVES, ALL RACES*

Single:
Native born...................
Foreign born..................
Married:
Native born...................
Foreign bom ..................
Single and married:
Native born...................
Foreign born..................
All nativities...............

8

18

OPERATIVES AND NONOPERA"
TIVES, ALL RACES.

Single:
Native born...................
Foreign born..................
Married:
Native born...................
Foreign born..................

1 Per cent by which female death rate falls below that of male.




12

GENERAL TABLES.

291

T a b l e 2 2 . — COMPARISON

O F D EATH R A TE S P E R 1 ,0 0 0 OF M ALES AND
FEM ALE S FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A LL
CAUSES, B Y AG E, OCCUPATIONAL A N D W ORK RO OM GROUPS, RACE,
CONJUGAL CONDITION, AND N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912— Concluded.
Death rates per 1,000 (age-adjusted).
Tuberculous.

Occupational group, work­
room group, race, conjugal
condition, and nativity.

N ontuberculous.

Percent
of excess
Fe­
Fe­ of female
Males. males. over male Males. males.
death
rate.

All causes.

Per cent
of excess
of female Males. Fe­
over male
males.
death
rate.

Per cent
of excess
of female
over male
death
rate.

AGE GROUP 45 TO 64.
OPERATIVES AND NONOPERA­
TIVES.

Single and married, all races.
Native bom ...................
Foreign born..................

1.62
2.62

0.94
1.74

i 42 16.07
134 14.91

12.18
17.39

l 24 17.69
17 17.53

13.12
19.13

126
9

All nativities...............

2.31

1.51

135

15.94

5 17.56

17.45

11

15.25

AGE GROUP 15 TO 64.
OPERATIVES AND NONOPERA­
TIVES.

Single and married, all races:
Native born...................
Foreign born..................

1.95
2.05

1.97
2.11

1
3

5.33
4.49

4.61
5.17

114
15

7.28
6.54

6.58
7.28

110
11

All nativities...............

2.00

2.10

5

4.79

5.02

5

6. 79

7.12

5




i Per cent by which female death rate falls below that of male.

GENERAL TABLES.

'3 9 2

T a b l e 2 3 .— COMPARISON OF D EATH R A TES P E R 1,000 OF SINGLE AND

M A R R IE D FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A LL
CAUSES, AGE G RO UP 15 TO 44, B Y OCCUPATIONAL AND W ORKROOM
GROUPS, RACE, S E X , AND N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912.
Death rates per 1,000 (age-adjusted).
Tuberculous.
3ex, occupational group,
workroom group, race, ana
nativity.

Nontuberculous.

All causes

Sin­
gle.

Operatives, all races:
Native born.................. .
Foreign born..................
Nonoperatives, all races____
Native born.................. .
Foreign born..................
Operatives and nonopera­
tives, all races:
Native born.................. .
Foreign born..................
All nativities...............

Per cent
of excess
Mar­ of married
ried. over sin­
gle death
rate.

2.34
2.08
2.63
3.53
1.82

4.48
7.17
6.00
13.34
4.52

91
245
128
278
148

2.38
2.42
3.12
5.38
1.49

6.07
9.74
5.61
11.12
5.06

155
302
80
107
240

4.72
4.50
5.75
8.91
3.31

10.55
16.91
11.61
24.46
9.58

124
276
102
175
189

2.59
4.24

6.80
8.07

163
90

3.41
3.25

7.65
9.43

124
190

6.00
7.49

14,45
17.50

141
134

1.29
1.02

5.20
4.34

303
325

2.48
.95

7.77
6.38

213
572

3.77
1.97

12.97
10.72

244
444

2.41
1.77

6.31
5.22

162
195

2.68
2.58

10.03
5.79

274
124

5.09
4.35

16.34
11.01

221
153

1.35
1.29

1.82
1.14

35
i 12

2.55
2.15

3.32
2.77

30
29

3.90
3.44

5.14
3.91

1.84
1.64

3.06
2.59

66
58

2.62
2.26

5.08
3.83

94
69

4.46
3.90

8.14
6.42

83
65

1.77

2.77

56

2.45

4.28

75

4.22

7.05

67

3.67
3.84

2.29
2.36

»38
*39

4.14
4.45

2.85
1.71

i 31
i 62

7.81
8.29

5.04
4.07

135
151

3.09
1.97

1.39
1.61

1 55
i 18

5.00
6.90

3.35
2.72

133
161

8.09
8.87

4.74
4.33

i 41
151

3.27
2.85

1.62
1.92

i 50
133

4.84
4.76

3.21
2.27

i 34
i 52

8.11
7.61

4.83
4.19

i 40
i 45

1.81

i 40

4.81

2.59

i 46

7.84

4.40

i 44

2.80
2.70

4.84
3.93

73
46

3.21
3.42

7.15
3.72

123
9

6.01
6.12

11.99
7.65

100
25

2.15
1.59

1.69
1.29

i 21
i 19

3.56
3.48

3.28
2.65

i8
i 24

5.71
5.07

4.97
3.94

i 13
122

2.40
2.20

2.56
2.34

7
6

3.60
3.46

4.31
3.09

20
i 12

6.00
5.66

6.87
5.43

15
14

2.31

Spinning-room workers, all
races..................................
French Canadian...........
Weave-room workers, all

Per cent
'
of excess
Mar­ of married Sin­
ried. over sin­ gle.
gle death
rate.

. 3.03

Spooler-room and mill work­
ers not specified, all races...
French Canadian............
Card-room workers, all races.
Irish......................

Per cent
of excess
Mar­ of married Sin­
ried. over sin­ gle.
gle death
rate.

2.42

5

3.52

3.52

5.83

5.94

2

•

32
14

MALES.

Operatives, all races, all
workrooms:
Native born...................
Foreign born..................
Nonoperatives, all races:
Native born...................
Foreign born..................
Operatives and nonopera­
tives, all races:
Native born.................. .
Foreign born..................
All nativities.
BOTH SEXES.

Operatives, all races, all
workrooms:
Native born.................. .
Foreign born..................
Nonoperatives, all races:
Native born...................
Foreign born..................
Operatives and nonopera­
tives, all races:
Native born.................. .
Foreign born..................
All nativities.

i Per cent by which death rate of married falls below that of single.




.GENERAL TABLES.

293

2 4 .— COMPARISON OF D EATH R A TES P E R 1,000 OF O PERA TIVES
AN D N O N O PER ATIVE S FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS,
AND A L L CAUSES. B Y AGE GROUP, CONJUGAL CONDITION, N A T IV IT Y
AND SE X , 1908 T O 1912.

T able

Death rates per 1,000 (age-adjusted).
Tuberculous.
Age group, conjugal condi­
tion, nativity, and sex.

Nontuberculous.

All causes.

Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
of excess
of excess
of excess
of opera­
Non­ of opera­ Opera­ Non- tive over Opera­ Non- of opera­
Opera­ opera­ tive over
tive over
tives. tives. nonopera­ tives. opera­ nonopera­ tives. opera­ nonoperar
tives.
tives.
tive
tive
tive
death
death
death
rate.
rate.
rate.

15 T 44 YEARS.
O
Single:
Native born—
Male..........................
Female.....................
Foreign born—
Male.........................
Female.....................
Married:
Native born—
Male.........................
Female.....................
Foreign born—
Male.........................
Female.....................
Single and married:
Native born—
Male......... ................
Female.....................
Foreign born—
Male.........................
Female.....................
All nativities—
Male.........................
Female.....................

3.67
2,41

3.09
1.35

19
79

4.14
2.68

5.00
2.55

in
5

7.81
5.09

8.09
3.90

13

3.84
1.77

1.97
1.29

95
37

4.45
2.58

6.90
2.15

i 36
20

8.29
4.35

8.87
3.44

17

2.29
6.31

1.39
1.82

65
247

2.85
10.03

3.35
3.32

1 15
202

5.04
16.34

4.74
5.14

218

2.36
5.22

1.61
1.14

47
358

1.71
5.79

2. 72
2. 77

i 37 4.07
109 11.01

4.33
3.91

16
182

2.22
3.19

1.90
1.45

17
120

3.82
4.66

3.57
2.91

7
60

6.04
7.85

5.47
4.36

10
80

2.63
3.35

1.38
1.19

91 2. 78
182 . 4.14

2.93
2. 78

15
49

5.41
7.49

4.31
3.97

26
89

2.47
3.34

1.64
1.38

51
142

3.10
4.33

3.18
2.83

i3
53

5. 57
7.67

4.82
4.21

16
82

2. 98

1.49

100

3.62

3.02

20

6.60

4.51

46

Single and married, all nativ­
ities:
Male................................
Female...........................

2.75
2.58

2.10
1.44

31 15.15
79 22.80

15.48
14.88

i 2 17.90
53 25.38

17. 58
16.32

2
56

Both sexes...................

2.61

1.72

52

17.65

15.13

17 20.25

16. 85

20

Single and married, all nativ­
ities:
Male................................
Female...........................

2. 51
3.24

1.70
1.39

48
133

4.70
6.79

4.82
4.43

i2
53

7.21
10.03

6.52
5.82

11
72

Both sexes...................

2.93

1.52

93

5.49

4.63

19

8.42

6.15

37

Both sexes............

31
26
6

45 T 64 YEARS.
O

15 T 64 YEARS.
O

1 Per cent by which operative death rate falls below that of nonoperative.




GENERAL TABLES.

294

T a b l e 2 5 . — CRUDE AN D AGE-ADJUSTED D E A TH RA TE S P E R 1,000 FROM

TIY E S AND N O N O PERATIVES IN AGE GRO U P 15 TO 44, B Y
AND 15 TO 64, B Y S E X AND N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1912.

SE X , CON

Males.

Nativity and occupational group.

Single.
Crude
rates.

Married.

Age-ad­
justed
rates.

Crude
rates.

Total.

Age-ad­
justed
rates.

Crude
rates.

Age-ad­
justed
rates.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44: TUBERCULOUS.

N
ATIVE BORN.
Operatives.................................................
Nonoperatives...........................................

1.9 5
2 .1 5

3.67
3.09

2.2 9
1.7 8

2.29
1.39

2 .0 5
2 .0 0

2.22
1.90

Both classes.....................................

2 .0 8

3.27

1.9 0

1.62

2.01

2.00

Operatives.................................................
Nonoperatives...........................................

2 .9 9
1.7 8

3.84
1.97

2.9 0
1 .69

2.36
1.61

2 .9 4
1.72

2.63
1.38

Both classes.....................................

2 .41

2.85

2.1 9

1.92

2 .2 7

1.97

Operatives.................................................
Nonoperatives...........................................

2 .4 9
2 .0 3

3.70
2.63

2 .7 7
1 .7 3

2.36
1.50

2 .6 2
1.8 7

2.47
1.64

Both classes.....................................

2 .2 2

3.03

2 .0 9

1.81

2 .1 5

1.94

FOREIGN BORN.

A N
LL ATIVITIES.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44: NONTUBERCULOUS.

NATIVE BORN.
Operatives__ -...........................................
Nonoperatives...........................................

S. 84
8.41

4.14
5.00

4 .2 2
4 .2 7

2.85
3.35

8.5 9
3. 76

3.82
3.57

Both classes.....................................

8 .8 9

4.S4

4 .2 6

3.21

3.71

3.68

Operatives.................................................
Nonoperatives...........................................

8 .6 8
4.3 4

4.45
6.90

2 .4 8
8 .2 8

1.71
2. 72

2 .9 7
8.62

2.78
2.93

Both classes.....................................

8.9 7

4.76

2 .9 5

2.27

3. 32

2.89

Operatives.................................................
Nonoperatives...........................................

8 .4 9
8. 71

4.38
4.98

2 .8 5
8.6 7

1. 96
2.97

8.1 9
8.6 9

3.10
3.18

Both classes.....................................

8.6 2

4.81

8 .8 9

2.59

3.5 0

3.19

FOREIGN BORN.

ALL N
ATIVITIES.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44: A L L CAUSES.

NATIVE BORN
.
Operatives.................................................
Nonoperatives...........................................

5 .2 9
5 .5 6

7.81
8.09

6.51
6 .0 5

5.04
4.74

5 .6 4
5. 76

6.04
5.47

Both classes.....................................

5. 47

8.11

6 .1 6

4.83

5. 72

5.68

Operatives.................................................
Nonoperatives...........................................

6 .6 2
6 .1 2

8.29
8.87

5 .3 8
4 .9 7

4.07
4.33

6.91
5 .3 4

5.41
4.31

Both classes.....................................

6 .3 8

7.61

5 .1 4

4.19

5 .5 9

4.86

Operatives.................................................
Nonoperatives...........................................

5 .9 8
5. 74

8.08
7.61

5 .6 2
5 .4 0

4.32
4.47

5. 81
5 .5 6

5.57
4. 82

Both classes.....................................

5.8 4

7.84

5 .4 8

4.40

5 .6 5

5.13

FOREIGN BORN
.

ALL N
ATIVITIES.




GENERAL TABLES.

295

TUBERCULOUS. NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L CAUSES. FO R O PE R A JUGAL CONDITION, AN D N A T IV IT Y , A N D IN AGE GRO U PS 45 TO 64

Females.

Both sexes.

Married.

Single.

Total.

Crude Age-ad- Crude Age-ad- Crude
rates. justed rates. justed rates.
rates.
rates.

Single.

Married.

Total.

Age-ad­ Crude Age-ad- Crude Age-adjusted rates. justed rates. justed
rates.
rates.
rates.

Crude
rates.

Age-ad­
justed
rates.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44: TUBER CU LO U S.

2.42
1.33

2.41
1.35

5.90
1.66

6.31
1.82

3.16
1.45

3.19
1.45

2.25
1.78

2 . 80

2.15

4.21
1.66

4.84
1.69

2.72
1.73

2.88
1.65

1.88

1.84

2.51

3.06

2.12

2.12

1.98

2.40

2.22

2.56

2.07

2.06

1.77
1.38

1.77
1.29

5.27
1.50

5.22
1.14

3.39
1.47

3.35
1.19

2.31
1.60

2.70
1.59

3.95
1.58

3.93
1.29

3.16
1.59

3.01
1.28

1.6S

1.64

2.60

2.59

2.26

2.16

2.02

2.20

2.40

2.34

2.27

2.08

2.13
1.35

2.09
1.36

5.45
1.62

5.56
1.42

3.28
1.46

3.34
1.38

2.28
1.73

2.72
1.94

4.01
1.61

4.20
1.45

2.98
1.65

2.98
1.49

1.78

1.77

2.57

2.77

2.19

2.18

1.99

2.31

2.34

2.42

2.18

2.08

'

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44: NONTUBERCULOUS,

1.80
2.09

2.68
2.55

10.88
4-64

10.03
3.32

S. 73
3.34

1.94

2.62

5.99

5.08

4.66
2.91

3.49

2.38
2.82

3.21
3.56

7.75
4.47

7.15
3.28

8.67
8.55

4.28
3.25

3.45

2.63

3.60

5.20

4.31

3.59

3.56

1
1.93
2.20

2.58
2.15

6.90
4^49

5.79
2.77

4.23
4.00

4.14
2.78

2.69
3.41

3.42
3.48

4.42
3.97

3.72
2.65

3.59
3.82

3.32
2.88

2.03

2.26

6.19

3.83

4 .1 0

3.30

2.99

3.46

4.13

3.09

3.72

3.09

1.86
2.12

2.67
2.31

8.02
4.54

7.03
2.99

4 .0 0

3.68

4.33
2.83

2.52
3.00

3.36
3.59

5.24
4.16

4.62
2.90

3.62
3.69

3.62
3.02

1.98

2.45

6.47

4.28

3.81

3.35

2.78

3.52

4.49

3.52

3.66

3.27

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44: A L L CAUSES.

4.22
3.42

5.09
3.90

16.78
6.20

16.34
5.14

6.89
4.79

7.85
4.36

4.63
4.60

6.01
5.71

11.96
6.13

11.99
4.97

6.39
5.28

7.16
4.90

3.82

4.46

8.50

8.14

5.61

5.57

4.61

6.00

7.42

6.87

5.66

5.62

3.70
3.58

4.35
3.44

12.17
5.99

11.01
3.91

7.62
5.47

7.49
3.97

5.00
6.01

6.12
5.07

8.37
5.55

7.65
3.94

6.75
5.41

6.33
4.16

3.66

3.90

7.79

6.42

6.36

5.46

6.01

5.66

6.53

5.43

5.99

5.17

3.99
3.47

4.76
3.67

13.47
6.06

12.59
4.41

7.28
6 .1 4

7.67
4.21

4.80
4.73

6.08
5.53

9.25
5.77

8.82
4.35

6.60
5.34

6.60
4.51

3.76

4.22

8.04

7.05

6.00

5.53

4.77

5.83

6.83

5.94

5.84

5.35




296

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b l e 2 5 .—CRUDE AND AGE-ADJUSTED D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 FROM

TIV E S AND N O N O PE R A TIY E S IN A G E G RO U P 15 TO 44, B Y S E X ,
64 A N D 15 TO 64, B Y S E X AN D N A T IV IT Y , 1908 TO 1 9 I2 -€ on clu d ed .
Tuberculous.
Males.

Nativity and occupational group.

Crude
rates.

Females.

Age-ad­
justed
rates.

Crude
rates.

Both sexes.

Age-ad­
justed
rates.

Crude
rates.

Age-ad­
justed
rates.

AGE GROUP 45 TO 64.
Operatives.................................................
Nonoperatives...........................................
Both classes—
Native born...............................
Foreign born.............................

2.76
2.16

2.75
2.10

2.30
1.42

2.58
1.44

2.61
1.74

2.61
1.72

1.74
2.58

1.62
2.62

.99
1.76

.94
1.74

1.35
2.15

1.26
2.17

All nativities..........................

2.34

2.31

1.54

1.51

1.92

1.89

AGE GROUP 15 TO 64.
1 .9 4

2. 51
1.70

3.20
1.45

3.24
1.39

2.93
1.68

2.93
1.52

1.97
2.35

1.95
2.05

1.96
2.12

1.97
2.11

1.96
2.24

1.96
2.09

2.19

2.00

2.05

2.10

2.12

2.05

Operatives.................................................
Nonoperatives...........................................
Both classes—
Native born...............................
Foreign born.............................

2.65

All nativities..........................




297

GENERAL TABLES.

TUBERCULOUS, NONTUBERCULOUS, AND A L L CAUSES, F O R O PE R A CONJUGAL CO N D ITIO N , AN D N A T IV IT Y , AND IN AG E GROUPS 45 TO

Nontuberculous.
Females.

Males.

All causes.
Both sexes.

Crude Age-ad­ Crude Age-ad­ Crude
rates. justed rates. justed rates.
rates.
rates.

Females.

Males.

Both sexes.

Age-ad­ Crude Age-ad­ Crade Age-ad­ Crude
justed rates. justed rates. justed rates.
rates.
rates.
rates.

Age-ad­
justed
rates.

AGE GROUP 45 TO 64.
15.77
17.99

15.15
15.48

21.51
17.45

22.80
14.88

17.64
17.67

17.64
15.13

18.53
20.15

17.90
17.58

23. 81
18. 87

25.38
16.32

20.25
19.41

20.25
16.85

17. U
17.28

16.07
14.91

13.04
19.96

12.18
17.39

15.14
18.68

14.02
16.20

19.18
19.86

17.69
17.53

U- 03
21. 72

13.12
19.13

16.49
20.83

15.28
18.37

17.33

15.25

17.98

15.94

17.67

15.61

19.67

17.56

19. 52

17.45

19.59

17.50

AGE GROUP 15 TO 64.
5.50
7.13

4.70
4.82

5.48
7.68

6.79
4.43

5.49
7.42

5.49
4.63

8.15
9.07

7 . 21

6.52

8.68
9.13

10.03
5.82

9.10

8.42
6.15

5.75
7.13

5.33
4.49

4.88
8.47

4.61
5.17

5.29
7.82

4.95
4.83

7.72
9.48

7.28
6.54

6.84
10.59

6.58
7.28

7.25
10.06

6.91
6.92

6.55

4.79

6.92

5.02

6.74

4.91

8.74

6.79

8.97

7.12

8.86

6.96




8 .4 2

29 S

GENERAL TABLES.

2 6 —PER CENT BY WHICH DEATH RATE EXCEEDED OR FELL
BY CAUSE OF DEATH, CONJUGAL CONDITION, SEX, AGE, OCCUPA

T able

Per cent by which death rate exceeded (+ ) or
fell below (—) rate for all persons.
Age group, occupational
group, workroom group,
and race.

Percentage distribu­
tion of population.
Single.
Fe­
Both
Males. males. sexes.

All persons:
15 to 24 years.................
25 to 34 years.................
35 to 44 years.................
Average, 15 to 44 years
(age adjusted).........

+ 75 - 26 + 23 21.71
+ 18 - 3 + 2 2 2.39
- 20 + 23 - 22 2 2. 61
- 13

+ 26

35

- 9
+ 59
+254

30

+ 32
- 38
- 3

+ 78

(3)

31

18

- 20
- 33
+393

Average, 15 to 44
years (age ad­
justed).............. .

-

- 32
- 27

Native born—
15 to 24 years.......... .
25 to 34 years..........
35 to 44 years.......... .

7

2 2. 08

- 42
- 4
- 2

- 30
- 31
- 43

- 32

- 21

- 34

+ 16 +235
- 8 + 155
+ 39 + 66

+ 11
+ 73

+ 64
+ 68
+ 44

+ 36
+ 40
+ 61

- 16
- 62
+ 140

+ 78
+ 47
+ 21

+ 41
+ 5
+ 70

28

+ 13

- 36
- 21
- 24

+ 167

+ 54 + 52 +321
- 51 - 84 + 197
+ 41 + 64 + 5
+ 16 + 10

+203

+

+ 53

+ 38

+ 85 +102
- 26 + 61
+ 11 + 76

+504
+294
+160

+ 1 + 129
+ 96 +110
+ 143 +105

+ 81
+ 104
+ 125

+ 149

+ 30

+ 82

+350

+ 67

+ 117

+ 100

- 11
- 4
+ 59

+ 3 - 5
- 53 - 34
- 30 + 11

+156
+ 86
- 26

- 26
+ 17

+ 30
+ 37
- 27

+ 14
+ 2
(3
)

+

-

9

+ 19

+ 78 - 11
+ 94 - 11
- 57 + 46

+ 45
+ 10
- 38

+ 23
+ 1
+ 7

+ 50

+ 13

+ 12

16

15

Other peoples or races—
15 to 24 years.......... .
25 to 34 years.......... .
35 to 44 years.......... .
12

76

+ 157
+411

10

Irish and French Cana­
dians—
15 to 24 years.......... .
25 to 34 years..........
35 to 44 years.......... .
Average, 15 to 44
years (age ad­
justed).............. .

Average, 15 to 44
years (age ad­
justed).............. .

46

50 - 44
+ 43
+128

Operatives:
15 to 24 years.................
25 to 34 years.................
35 to 44 years.................
Average, 15 to 44 years
(age adjusted).........

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­ Both
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. sexes.

162,740

48

Both classes.

Married.

125,155 - 29 + 8
120,790 + 48 - 32
116,795 + 172 - 31

Nonoperatives:
15 to 24 years.................
25 to 34 years.................
35 to 44 years.................
Average, 15 to 44 years
(age adjusted)........

Tuberculour.

24

7

9

- 24

11

English15 to 24 years.......... .
25 to 34 years.......... .
35 to 44 years.......... .

- 4
- 11
+ 144

+ 42

-100

9

-100
- 11
f- 27

Average, 15 to 44
years (age ad­
justed).............. .

+ 30

- 13

39

Irish—
15 to 24 years.......... .
25 to 34 years.......... .
35 to 44 years...........

+116
+ 71
+659

+ 78 -100 +568
- 60 + 88 +716
+ 43 +283 +262

+104
+ 79
+402

+113
+ 167
+ 159

+ 110
+ 138
+252

Average, 15 to 44
years (age ad­
justed)...............

+234

+ 24

+ 169

+ 139

+ 154

1Total on which percentages are based.




+

+ 56

+543

* Basic death rate.

299

GENERAL TABLES.

BELOW D E A T H R A T E F O R A L L PERSONS IN SPECIFIE D AGE GROUPS,
T IO N A L AND W O RK RO OM GROUPS, AN D RACE, 1908 TO 1912.
Per cent by which death rate exceeded (+ ) or fell below (—) rate for all persons.
Nontuberculous.
Married.

Single.

All causes.
Single.

Both classes.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males.

Both
sexes.

Married.

Both classes.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­ Both
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. sexes.

+ 23
+ 26
+ 88

- 38
- 31
- 9

(3
)
- 30
- 28

+ 49
+ 33
+ 15

+20
-12
-11

- 17
+ 12
+ 10

2 1.83

- 2
24.00 + 34
25.99 ; +114

-16
-31
-15

- 4
- 29
- 21

+ 62
+ 27
+ 4

-

2 +
9 +
1 +

2
8
1

23.54

+ 47

- 25

- 21

+ 31

- 2

+

2

23. 27

+ 47

-21

- 18

+ 32

-

4

3

25.35

+ 2
+ 27
+119

- 37
- 36
- 17

+ 31
- 27
- 23

- 36
+ 20
+ 1

+ 5
- 9
- 2

- 37
- 6
- 2

- 14
- 7
- 2

- 21
+ 33
+122

-34
-33
-27

+ 4
- 30
- 23

- 31
- 9
- 12

- 17
- 9
“ 2

- 33
- 15
- 14

- 25
- 13
- 9

+ 52

- 29

-

-

9

- 3

- 13

-

8

+ 42

-31

- 16

- 18

- 10

- 21

- 16

+ 50
+ 25
+ 31

- 38
- 26
+ 5

- 46
- 37
- 38

+186
+ 109
+ 65

+39
-19
-27

- 3
+ 48
+ 47

+ 14
+ 15
+ 5

+ 21
+ 38
+ 99

- 4
-30
+ 3

- 16
- 26
- 15

+210
+ 126
+ 65

+ 17
- 8
+ 3

+ 29
+ '56
+ 46

+ 24
+ 24
+ 22

+ 34

- 18

- 40

+115

- 5

+ 32

+ 11

+ 51

-11

- 19

+135

+

4

+ 43

+ 23

+ 57
+ 33
- 5

- 43
- 1
- 14

- 29
- 13
(3)

+354
+202
+ 93

+52
+ 7
- 1

- 7
+ 79
+ 47

+ 16
+ 51
+ 24

+ 20
+ 8
+116

+ 4
-20
+ 3

+ 10
- 39
+ 20

+338 + 19
+200 - 19
+ 67 + 42

+ 34
+ 67
+ 39

+ 28
+ 34
+ 40

+ 27

- 18

— 13

+207

+16

+ 43

+ 31

+ 46

- 5

-

6

+205

+ ia

+ 47

+ 34

+ 57
+ 2
+ 67

- 38
- 5
+ 45

-100
- 19
- 48

+464
+ 173
+126

+45
-11
-25

+ 16
+ 70
+ 96

+ 27
+ 37
+ 34

+ 26
+ 60
+171

+21
-13
+35

- 3
+ 11
- 10

+484
+218
+ 137

+ 23
+ 29
+ 26

+ 71
+ 85
+ 99

+ 53
+ 62
+ 61

+ 41

+

3

- 53

+240

(3
)

+ 63

+ 33

+ 83

+14

(3)

+283

+ 26

+ 84

+ 59

+ 47
+ 39
- 14

- 39
- 51
- 70

- 33
- 44
- 31

+103
+ 76
+ 5

+36
-23
-29

- 13
+ 31
- 12

+ 8
+ 2
- 22

+ 19
+ 23
+ 8

-19
-52
-58

- 19
- 40
- 18

+ 129
+ 80
- 4

+ 14
- 24
- 15

+ 8
+ 33
- 17

+ U
+ 2
- 16

+ 22

- 54

- 34

+ 58

- 8

+

-

5

+ 17

-42

- 26

+ 70

-

8

+\ 9

-

+154
+ 113
— 64

- 34
- 23
- 76

+264
- 7
- 3

+150
+ 120
+ 41

+62
+33
-13

- 15
+ 59
+ 8

+ 52
+ 48
- 4

+ 78
+ 67
- 1

+ 3
-52
-50

+ 88
- 8
+ 6

+116 + 79
+ 110 + 17
+ 12 + 5

+ 14
+ 41
- 6

+ 38
+ 30
(3)

+ 61

- 45

+ 73

+100

+54

+ 19

+ 31

+ 49

-33

+ 29

+ 81

+ 34

+ 17

+ 23

+ 52
+ 2
+ 111

- 28
+ 43
+ 75

-100
+ 69
- 17

+525
+418
+ 159

+43
+34
+24

+ 11
+ 148
+ 119

+ 21
+120
+ 83

+ 83
+ 28
+277

+23
+ 4
+ 65

-100
+ 76
+ 74

+546
+530
+ 191

+ 72
+ 51
+ 138

+ 60
+151
+ 131

+ 64
+127
+134

+ 55

+ 33

- 11

+356

+32

+ 98

+ 78

+ 125

+30

+ 15

+428

+ 87

+ 114

+107

9




3

s Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

+

2 6.39
28.60

1

GENERAL TABLES.

300

T a b le 2 6 .— P E E CENT B Y W HICH D EATH R A T E E X C E E D E D O R F E LL

B Y CAUSE OF D EATH , CONJUGAL CONDITION, SE X , AGE, OCCUPA
Pier cent by which death rate exceeded (+ ) or
fell below (—) rate for all persons.
Age group, occupational
group, workroom group,
and race.

Percentage distribu­
tion of population.

Tuberculous.
Married.

Single.

Both classes.

Both
Fe­
Fe­
Fe­ Both
Fe­
Males. males. sexes. Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. sexes.
Operatives—Concluded.
French Canadians—
15 to 24 years............
25 to 34 years............
35 to 44 years............

5
4
5

8
5
4

13 - 30
9 +185
9 +197

+ 87 +129 +495
+ 5 + 56 +154
- 48 + 7 + 86

Average, 15 to 44
years (age ad­
justed)................

5

6

11

+ 27

+ 75

+283

+ 34

Card-room workers—
15 to 24 years............
25 to 34 years............
35 to 44 years............

2
4
3

5
4
3

7 - 7 + 68
8 -100 - 36
6 + 11 + 37

-100
- 21
+ 92

+123
+287
+ 167

- 24 + 80 + 47
- 37 +169 + 61
+ 82 + 133 + 104

Average, 15 to 44
years (age ad­
justed)................

+ 188 -

+ 97

- 18 +133
+100 + 81
+ 36 + 51

+ 75
+ 90
+ 41

+ 96

+ 72

3

4

7 - 33

+ 26

- 27

2

+ 122 + 65

Spinning-room workers—
15 to 24 years............
25 to 34 years............
35 to 44 years............

8
3
2

8
3
1

16 + 5
6 + 193
3 +342

+ 45
+ 4
+ 16

+ 17 +320 + 6
+ 96 + 162 + 127
+ 13 + 153 + 66

Average, 15 to 44
years (age ad­
justed)................

+ 99 + 54
+100 +114
+ 116 + 88
1

4

5

+ 42

+227

+ 61

+104

+ 82

Weave-room workers—
15 to 24 years............
25 to 34 years............
35 to 44 years............

*8
8
10

8
6
5

16 - 20
14 + 98
15 +344

- 5 + 40
-100 - 23
- 10 + 21

+294
+ 59
+ 22

- 12
+ 13
+ 80

+ 36
- 13
+ 13

+ 13
+ 2
+ 55

Average, 15 to 44
years (age ad­
justed)................

9

7

16 +108

- 38

+ 150 + 19

+ 14

+ 20




9

+ 150 + 25

* Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

+ 15

GENERAL TABLES.

301

BELOW DEATH RATE FOR ALL PERSONS IN SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS,
TIONAL AND WORKROOM GROUPS, AND RACE, 1908 TO 1912—Concluded.
Per cent by which death rate exceeded (+ ) or fell below (—) rate for all persons.
Nontuberculous.
Married.

Single.

All causes.
Both classes.

Single.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­
Both
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. sexes.

Married.

Both classes.

Fe­
Fe­
Fe­ Both
Males. males. Males. males. Males. males. sexes.

+++

- 40
- 48
- 10

-100

- 32
- 58

+456
+ 92
+103

+45
-45

+ 17
+ 23
+ 73

+ 28
+ 3
+ 2

+ 15
+ 71
+ 80

-21

-28

+ 11
+ 1
- 38

+475
+115
+ 98

+ 15
+ 24
- 20

+ 73
+ 45
+ 66

+ 56
+ 35
+ 14

+ 28

- 32

- 61

+201

-1 0

+ 39

+ 10

+ 55

- 9

-

8

+233

+

7

+ 61

+ 34

+138
- 39
- 3

+ 26
- 23
- 11

- 60
- 42

-100

+108
+ 87
+ 27

+96
-56
-38

+ 43
+ 47
+ 17

+ 60
- 7
- 15

+ 68
- 62
+ 1

+47
-28
+ 4

-100

- 45
- 1

+116
+162
+ 70

+ 38
- 49
- 1

+ 60
+ 93
+ 52

+ 53
+ 18
+ 21

5

- 65

+ 72

- 6

+ 35

+

+ 7 - 50

+117

-

4

+ 69

+ 31

+ 77
+ 75
+157

- 39
- 59

- 45
- 18
- 38

+264
+135
+ 28

+64
+12

+102

- 7

+ 20
+ 60
+ 48

+ 41
+ 36
+ 17

+ 42
+119
+213

+ 2
-35
+76

- 15
+ 25
- 23

+291
+ 145
+ 66

+ 36
+ 55
+ 15

+ 58
+ 75
+ 69

+ 47
+ 65
+ 38

+105

+

4

- 33

+134

+20

+ 44

+ 30

+122

+ 12

_

+ 170 + 36

+ 67

+ 50

+ 18
+ 38
+ 9

- 58
- 38
+ 18

- 13
- 20
- 31

+231
+ 98
+102

+14
- 3
-24

- 19
+ 36
+ 78

- 3
+ 14
+ 13

C
1)
+ 60
+111

-33
-61
+ 9

+ 12
- 21
- 15

+261
+ 83
+ 78

+
+
+

1 + 8
3 + 28
7 + 58

+ 5
+ 9
+ 26

+ 21

- 24

- 22

+138

- 6

+ 35

+

+ 55

-30

+ 11

+142

+

4

+ 27

+ 13

+ 25 -




-20

9 +

9

2

+21

4

GENERAL TABLES.

302

T a b l e 2 7 . — PERCEN TAG E D ISTR IB U TIO N OF U RBAN W H ITE S O F REG ­

ISTRATIO N STATES AND TH E D IST R IC T OF COLUMBIA, 1911, AND
P E R CENT B Y W HICH T H E IR D EATH R A T E E X C E E D E D O R F E LL
BELOW TH E R A T E FO R ALL PERSONS, FA LL R IV E R , B Y AG E GRO UP.

Percentage distribution of urban
whites (1911).
Age group.
Males.
15 to 24 years........................................
25 to 34 years........................................
35 to 44 years........................................
Average, 15 to 44 years (age ad­
justed)....................................

55

Females. Both sexes.

Per cent by which death rate
exceeded ( + ) or fell below
( —)rate for all persons in
each age group, Fall River.
Males.

Females.

Both
sexes.

46
52

45
54
48

* 7,137,535
1 6,612,130
i 4,589,104

—11
+ 14

—5
—36
-17

—8
—
22
- 1

51

49

» 18,338,769

- 1

-20

-11

* Total on which percentages are based. These figures are compiled from the Thirteenth Census, Vols.
I, II, and III, population, 1910. To ascertain figures for 1911 the average yearly per cent of increase from
1900 to 1910 as shown on p. 32, Vol. I, is added to the figures for
1910.







304

GENERAL TABLES.

T ab l e 2 8 .— P A R T U R IT IO N : AGE, RACE, OCCUPATION, O TH E R D ISE ASE

EACH OF 230 FEM ALE
D EATH , 1908 TO 1912.

Case
No.
of
de­ Age.
ced­
ent.

Race.

Bom
in
u. S.

D ECEDEN T

Occupa­
tion.

Period
lived
after
quit­
ting
trade.

O PE R A TIV E S

Period
lived
after
preg­
nancyended.

AND

N ONOPERA

Total
number of—

Other disease Mos.
complication. preg­ Mis­ Preg­ Years
nant.
car­ nan­ mar­
riages cies. ried .

AGE GROUP 15 TO 19: OPERATIVES.

1
2

18 American... Yes. Spooler__ 5 m os.. 1 day... Tuberculosis..
19 .......do.......... Yes. .. .do......... 5 mos.. 2 mos.. .......do.............

6
7

1

1
1

11-

3

19 English

Yes. Weaver... 1 m o... 10 days. Appendicitis..

6

1

1-

4
5

17 Irish............ Yes. Carder. . . . 9 mos.. 1 day... Eclampsia___
19 French Car No.. Spooler.... 2 yrs... 5 m os.. Tuberculosis..
nadian.
18 .......do.......... Yes. Spinner... 11 mos. 13 days. Septicemia___

9
9

1

1
2

1

1

7

1

1

1

8

18 .......do.......... Yes. W a rp e r lw k ... 2 wks.. Embolism......
tender.
18 .......do.......... Yes. Spooler.... 1 day... 1 hr ..

3

1

1

0

9
10

19 Portuguese.. No.. Spinner... 11 mos. 3 w ks.. Tuberculosis..
16 .......do.......... No.. ...d o ......... 8 m os.. 1 wk.. . Septicemia___

6
9

1

1
1

1
1

11
12

19 .......do.......... No.. ...d o ......... 5 mos.. 3 wks.. .......do.............
18 .......do.......... No.. ...d o ......... 2 mos.. 1 day... Eclampsia___

9
7

1

1
1

1
1

6
7

9

AGE GROUP 15 TO 19: ITON OPERATIVES.

American... Yes. W asherwoman.
Portuguese.. No.
___ do.......... No.

4 mos.. Tuberculosis.

9

1

1

1 wk... .......do...........
3 mos.. .......do...........

8 mos.

9
9

1
1

1
1

4

3
4
1
5

4
6
1
4

1

0

1

2

3

2

7

AGE GROUP 20 TO 24: OPERATIVES.

16
17
18
19

23
24
22
22

Tuberculosis..
Bums.............
Pneumonia —
Tuberculosis..

9
9
9
7

20.

_
21 ...... do.......... Yes. ...do.......... 5 m os.. 15 days. Septicemia_

9

21

23 ...... do.......... Yes. Weaver... 1 wk__ 1 day... Eclampsia___

22

23

American...
English__
...... do..........
Irish............

French Ca­
nadian.

Yes.
Yes.
No..
Yes.

Weaver...
Carder.__
Weaver...
Carder___

6 mos. .
18 mos.
6 mos..
5 mos..

3 mos..
2 days..
3 mos..
2 days..

81

Yes. Spinner... 2 yrs... 8 mos.. Tuberculosis..

9

23

20 ...... do.......... Yes. ...do......... 11 mos. 7 m os.. .......do.............

7

1

1

24
25

21 ...... do......... Yes. Spooler__ 1 y r .... 9 m os.. ...... do.............
23 ...... do.......... No.. ...do......... 1 yr — 6 mos.. ...... do.............

9
9

1
1

2
2

26
27

24 ...... do.......... No.. Carder___ l yr— 1 w k ... “ Pneumonia”
22 ...... do.......... No.. Spinner... l y r . . . . 1 w k ... Valvular heart
disease.
22 ...... do.......... No.. ...do......... 5 m os.. 1 day... Eclampsia___
24 ...... do.......... Yes. Spooler— 4 m os.. 10 min. ...... do.............

9
3

4

7
3

9
8

1
1

1
1

20 ...... do.......... Yes. W a rp er 3 m os.. 1 d a y .. .......do.............
tender.
...... do.............
23 ...... do.......... Yes. Weaver... 18 mos. 3 hrs

9

1

1

31

9

1

1

32
33
34

22 ...... do.......... Yes. ...do......... 6 m os.. 3 days.. ...... do.............
22 ...... do.......... Yes. . ..do......... 4 mos.. 3 days.. ...... do.............
21 Portuguese.. No.. Carder___ 6 m os.. 7 m os.. Tuberculosis..

6
9
9

1
1

3
1
2

28
29
30




1

GENERAL TABLES.

305

COMPLICATIONS, PROLIFICACY, AND ECONOMIC CONDITION OF
TIVES WHOSE PREGNANCY HAD ENDED WITHIN 9 MONTHS BEFORE

Number of
children.
Dead
Liv­ un­
ing. der 1
year.

Number of—
In­
come
Hy­
of Rent
gienic
fam­ per
con­
ily week. Occu­
dition.
per
pants. Rooms,
week.

No.
Remarks.

of

de­
ced­
ent.

AGE GROUP 1 TO 19: OPERATIVES.
5

$10 Own.
13 $2.50

3.00

Poor..
Fair+ “ Lazy husband” ; cough5months; 4 or 5 hemor­
rhages.
Good.. Appendectomy 10 days after parturition.
Delay.
Fair- “ Religion forbade interrupting pregnancy” ......
Fair + Parents and sister died from tuberculosis. Hus­
band, also, 1 year later.
Fair- French Canadian physician at first.....................

2.25

Fair+

20 2.25
2.40
1.50

Caesarean section; decedent’s wages, $11; hus­
band’s, $7 (doffer).
Fair- Single. Criminal abortion; died and was dis­
membered in physician’s office.
Fair— Sister had Potts disease.......................................
Poor.. Husband remarried in 4 weeks; ugly; maltreated
wife.
Fair- Bad obstetrics(?). Operation cost $125..............
Poor. . “ Oedema of brain.” Vomiting throughout preg­
nancy.

3.50
2.00
1.65
2.00
1.50

4

5
«

7

8
9

10

11
12

AGE GROUP 1 TO 19: NONOPERATIVES.
5

1
1

$16 $2.50

7

4 Bad... Colored. Forceps delivery..................................

13

1

12 1.90
8 1.60

4
3

4 Poor.. Officially reported “ operative” ......................
3 Bad... Overwork. Sister died from tuberculosis pre­
vious year.

14
15

AGE GROUP 2 TO 24: OPERATIVES.
0

15 1.75

5

3

Poor..

17 2.50

5

6

Fair+

1

15 1.50

3

3

Poor..

18 5.00

18

15

Poor..

1
1

1

4 Fair-f
4 Poor..
4 Fair3 Bad. ..

1

3
1

5
5
3
8

1
1

$1.85
1.40
2.00
1.00

1

1
3
1
1

3 1.60
15 2.25

4
12

11
6

Bad...
Fair-

1

15 1.90
25 1.75

5
10

5
4

Poor
Fair—

1

17 1.75
18 1.75

2
2

6
4

Fair+
Fair-jFair+

2
1

$10
12
18
21

Father (Irish name) died from tuberculosis........
Lighting fire with kerosene..................................
“ Discarded abdominal band too soon” ...............
Husband a loafer; prolificacy; pregnant 7
months, she walked 70 miles, sleeping on the
way in doorways; then miscarried.
Single; “ danced to excess” ; mother died from
tuberculosis.
“ Meant to allow 2 weeks out of mill before
baby came.”
Father and 3 sisters died from tuberculosis;
brother, mother, and 1 sister probably now
have it.
Mother and sister-in-law died of tuberculosis;
coughed 6 years.
Venereal disease from husband; separated..........
Husband “ drunken loafer” ; made wife sleep on
floor.
Physician engaged 2 weeks..................................
Physician not engaged nor previously con­
sulted.
Married 9 months.................................................

1
1
1
1

15 1.90

2

4

1

12 2.50

2

1

18 2.20
18 1.60
15 2.25 i

5 Good.. Physician engaged 1 month; instruments; fmorphine administered.”
4 Fair—
4 Fair+
5 Poor.. Constantly ill since parturition.

2
3
11

88204°—-19— Bull. 251------20




16
17
18
19
20
21
22

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

GENERAL TABLES.

306

T ab l e 2 8 . —P A R T U R IT IO N : AGE, RA CE, OCCUPATION, O T H E R D ISE A SE

EACH O F .230 FEM ALE D ECE D E N T
D EATH , 1908 TO 1912—Continued.

Race.

Born
in
TJ.S.

Occupa­
tion.

Period
lived
after
quit­
ting
trade.

Period
lived
after
preg­
nancy

AND

Total
number of—

'
Other disease
complication.

NOtS'OPTORA

tn

Case
No.
of
de­ Age.
ced­
ent.

O P E R A T IV E S

Mis­ Preg­ Years
car­ nan­ mar­
riages cies. ried.

AGE GBOTTP 20 TO *4: OPERATIVES—Concluded.

35

21

Portuguese . No... Spinner... l y r . . . . 2 m os.. Tuberculosis..

9

36
37
38

22 ....... do.......... No... . ..do......... 7 m os.. 2 wks.. ...... do.............
22 ...... do.......... No.. ...do......... 5 mos.. 4 mos.. ...... do.............
24 ___ do......... ■No- Weaver... 1 yr— 6m o s .. ...... do.............

9
4
9

39

23 ...... do.......... No.. Carder___ l y r —

6 m os.. Pneumonia(?).

9

1

2

40
41

22 ...... do.......... No.. . ..do......... 3 mos.. 9 days.. Septicemia---20
No.. -Spinner... 4 m os.. 4 wks.. ...... do.............

9
9

1
1

1
1

42
43

No .. .do......... lOdays. 1 day... Pneumonia. . .
.20 ...... do.......
23 ...... do.......... No.. Weaver... 3m os.. -8mos.. Nephritis.......

5
9

1
1

1
1

1
1

1

1

1

1
2
2

1

44

22

Other races. Yes. Spinner... 2 m os.. 9 m os.. Tuberculosis..

9

45

20 ...... do.......... No.. Carder___ 2 days.. 1 day... Septicemia----

8i

1

0

46

23 ...... do.......... No.. Spinner... 2Taos.. 10 days. ...... do.............

9

4

5

1

5

1
1

1
0

3
1

4
1

1

AOE O
B.O T 80 TO » : HOKOPEKATIVES.
O

47

24 American.... Yes. Cloth room 8 y rs... 1 day... Eclampsia......

7

48
-1
9

22 ____do.......... Yes
1 day... .......do.............
22 English___ Yes. Loom,har­ 6 mos.. 1 day... Tuberculo sis

5
3

50
51

ness faoand eclamp­
tory.
sia.
22 Other races.. No.. Bookkeep’r 4yrs... 1 w k ... “Pnenmonia” (?)
22 .......do.......... No... Sizer, hat 1 wk__ .5 days. . Septicemia___
factory.

1
1

8
9

AGE G tO P 25 TO 29: OPERATIVES.
X -U

27 American... Yes. Carder---- 18 mos. 3 m os.. Tuberculosis ...

9

5

8

28 ___ do.......... Yes. Weaver— 4 m os.. 3 days.. Eclampsia......

9

1

8

28 .......do.......... Yes. ...d o ......... 2 m os.. 1 day... .......do........... .

9

26 English....... No.. Carder---- 2 yrs... 6 m os.. Tuberculosis.-.

9

26 .....d o ...... ... No.. ...d o .........

18 mos- 9 mos.. .......do.............

26 ___ do.......... No. - Spoo le r ,
reeler.
Yes.
27

1 yr —

6 m os.. .......do.............

2

2

0

2

2

6

4

6

9

4

1

1

2

3 days.. 1 day... Eclampsia___

6

1

1

0

27 .......do.......... Yes. Weaver... 21 mos. 2 wks.. Septicemia----

9

2

4

29 Irish...........

Yes. Carder---- 4m os.. 8 mos.. Tuberculosis...

9

1

2

29 .......do.......... No.. Weaver— 3 mos.. 2 w ks.. .......do.............
26 .......do.......... Yes. Carder---- 1 wk... 3 m os.. Pyosalpingitis

7
8

1

1
4

1
7

25 .......do.......... No.. Weaver... 3 mos.. 2 days.. “ Eclampsia” (?)
26 .......do.......... Yes. .. .do......... 1 wk... 8 days.. Pneumonia...

9
5

1

1
3

1
8




GENERAL TABLES.

307

COMPLICATIONS, PROLIFICACY, AND. ECONOMIC CONDITION OF
TIYES WHOSE PREGNANCY HAD ENDED WITHIN 9 MONTHS BEFORE

Number of
children.
Dead
Liv­ un­
ing. der 1
year.

Number of—
In­
come
Hy­
of Rent
gienic
fam­ per
con­
week. Occu­
ily
dition.
per
pants. Rooms.
week.

Remarks.

AGE GROUP 2 TO 24: OPERATIVES—
0
Concluded.

1

$20 $1.50

7

1
1

15 1.50
10 1.00
25 Own.

5
10
5

1

8 1.50

6

1
1

25 1.50
16 2.00

4
6

1

14 2.50
16 2.50

2
2

1

7 2.25

6

1

6 1.00

7

3

15 1.50

5

1

1
1

4 Bad... Cervical adenitis 15 years; infection from ex­
cision; husband had 3 wives in 3 years; his
previous wife died from tuberculosis.
3
5 Bad... Very strong until married.....................
.....
5 Fair+ Husband and daughter died from tuberculosis 1
month before decedent.
3 Bad... Poverty, stress, exposure; not strong after child­
birth.
4 Poor.. Careless midwife...................................................
6 Bad... Midwife during first 2 weeks, then had phy­
sician.
4 Fair— “ Labor induced on tenth day to save life”
. .
4 Fair+ Forceps delivery; back to mill in 2 weeks, then
abed 7 months; nephritis.
5 Fair— Married father of first illegitimate child 10
months before she died.
3 Poor.. Single; a Polish boarder was child's father;
hemorrhage.
4 Fair- Prolificacy; careless midwife................................

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

AGE GROUP 2 TO 24: NONOPERATIVES.
0

2
1

1

$10 $2.10

2
2

5

5 Good.. Vomiting 3 weeks; sweating tried; 21 convul­
sions in last 2 days.
5
4 Fair-f- Single; domestic 7 years; father a loafer and
drinker.

47

15 3.50
15 2.00

1

40 3.00
9 1.75

4
16

5 Fair+ Exposure, while tending husband’s shop...........
4 Bad... 3 beds in each bedroom; she slept in kitchen;
husband a loafer.

50
51

48
49

AGE GROUP25 TO 29: OPERATIVES.

2

$12 $1.50

5

1

3

25 2.50

2

1

25 1.75

4

1

12 2.00

3

2

15 2.50

6

17 2.50

2

18 2.75

3

2

22 3.00

4

1

8 2.50

7

1
1

15 2.00
10 1.75

7
4

1

20 1.25
9 3.00

2

1

2
' “ ' 2’




8

5 Bad... Father Irish name; prolificacy; mother’s sister
died from tuberculosis.
4 Good.. Husband Irish name; physician for 4 months;
found urine albuminous, but did nothing to
remedy it.
3 Fair- Nephritis 1 year; eclampsia also 15 months be­
fore; father had Irish name.
4 Fair+ Brother and 2 sisters died from tuberculosis;
stress, after marriage.
5 Fair+ Father has Irish name; a friend in same house
died from tuberculosis.
4 Fair-f With circus in England; misreported as to (1)
tuberculosis, (2) parturition, and (3) occupation.
5 Fair+ Single; physician called after convulsions began;
no attempt at sweatings; emptied uterus at
once.
5 Good.. Forceps delivery; under ether 3 hours; perineum
repaired.
4 Fair + Hard work outside of mill; husband drunken
loafer.
4 Poor.. 3 sisters died from tuberculosis............................
4 Fair+ Husband drunkard; infected wife with venereal
disease; deserted; baby macerated, stillborn.
3 Bad
5 Fair- Husband would live with decedent only when
she worked; he seldom contributed to family
support.

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64

GENERAL TABLES.

308

T a b l e 2 8 .— P A R T U R IT IO N : AGE, RACE, OCCUPATION, O T H E R DISEASE

EACH O F 230 FEM ALE DECEDENT O P E R A T IV E S AND
D EATH, 1908 TO 1912— Continued.

Case
No.

of Age.

de­
ced­
ent.

Bom

in
U.S.

Race.

Occupa­
tion.

Period
lived
after
quit­
ting
trade.

Period
lived
after
preg­
nancy
ended.

NONOPERA

Total
number of—
Other disease Mos.
complication. preg­ Mis­ Preg­ Years
nant.
car­ nan­ mar­
riages cies. ried.

AGE GROUP 25 TO 29: OPERATIVES—Concluded.
65

27 Irish............ Yes. Weaver... 5 m os.. 1 h r.... Hemorrhage..

H

66
67
68

25 .......do.......... Yes. Cloth room 1 yr— 1 day... Eclampsia___
26 .......do.......... Yes. ...d o ......... 2 yrs... 1 hr_ .......do.............
_
25 French Cana­ No.. Spinner... 8 m os.. 0.......... Tuberculosis..
dian.

9
4
6

69
70
71

25 .......do.......... No.. . . .do......... 2 yrs... 3 m os.. .......do.............
27 .......do.......... No.. W eaver.. . 1 yr — 8 mos.. .......do.............
29 .......do.......... No.. Spinner... l y r . .. . 2 w ks.. Embolism......

9
9
9

72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

28
28
26
29
27
26
27
25
25

Eclampsia (?).
Septicemia (?).
Tuberculosis..
.......do.............
.......do.............
.......do.............
Septicemia...
.......do............
Pneumonia...

81
82
83

No.. ...d o ......... 6 m os.. 2 days.. Eclampsia___
No.. ...d o ......... 8 m os.. 6 w ks.. Scarlet fever..
No.. Spooler.... 2 wks.. 1 d a y .. P o s t-partum
hemorrhage.
26 .......do......... No.. C o t t o n 6 mos.. 10 days. Septicemia___
mill.
27 Other races.. No.. Weaver... 10 mos. 3 days.. Eclampsia___

84
85

.......do..........
.......do..........
Portuguese..
.......do.........
.......do.........
.......do.........
...... do.........
.......do.........
.......do.........

No..
No..
No..
No..
No..
No..
No..
No..
No..

...d o .........
...d o .........
Carder___
_
Spooler_
...d o .........
...d o .........
Carder___
...d o .........
Spinner...

8 m os..
4 m os..
1 m o...
11 mos.
3 mos..
6 mos..
4 mos..
4 m os..
2 wks..

12hrs..
4 days..
9 mos..
3 mos..
4 wks..
4 wks..
11 days.
12 days
5 days..

26 ...... do.........
25 ...... do.........
27 .......do.........

4

5

1
1
2

1
3
3

2
6
3

3
7
5

9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
7

4
4
3
4
3
2
7
4
3

8
6
7
10
6
l
11
10
7

9
9
9

2
2
4

5
2
6

9

1

1

(x)

Si

0)
1

(*)
1

AGE GROUP 25 TO 29: NONOPERATIVES.
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99

26 American... Yes. W asher­ 4 m os..
woman.
27 ...... do......... Yes. Cloth room 5 yrs...
28 ...... do......... Yes
29 English....... Yes. Spooler.... ! 6 yrs...

1 hr___ Tuberculosis..

6

1

1

1

2 wks.. Septicemia . ..
3 hrs... Eclampsia___
3 mos.. Nephritis.......

9
3
9

1
2

3
1
3

10
2
6

Yes. Loom har­
ness re­
pairer.
28 .......do......... No.. Weaver...
26 .......do......... Yes. D r e s s ­
maker.
28 .......do......... Yes. Weaver...

9 yrs... 3 m os.. .......do.............

8

1

5

10

5 yrs... 1 d a y.. Eclampsia___
2 yrs... 1 d a y.. .......do.............

7
6

1
1

5
1

7
2

10 yrs.. 4 wks.. “ Suicide” ......

9

27 Irish............ Yes. Spinner...
28 .......do......... No.. Domestic .
28 .......do......... Yes. Dry goods
clerk.
28 French Ca­ No.. Spinner...
nadian.
25 ...... do......... No.. ...d o .........
25 .......do.......... No.. Spooler....

8 yrs... 6 mos.. Tuberculosis..
6 mos.. 2 wks.. .......do.............
4 mos.. 1 da y.. Eclampsia. . . .

9
9
7

29 .......do.........

10

7
3
1

11
4
1

3 yrs... 6 mos.. Tuberculosis..

9

8

10

5 yrs... 3 mos.. .......do.............
8 yrs... 6 wks.. “ Pneumonia’ ?

9
9

3
7

6
8

No.. Cloth room 11 yrs.. 24 days Septicemia. . .
Yes. Spinner... 6 yrs... 4 wks.. .......do.............

9
9

4
5

11
6

No.. M u s i c
11........ 18 days .......do.............
teacher.
29 .......do......... No.. .................. ............. 0.......... Eclampsia (?).
26 Portuguese.. No.. Hat factory 8 mos.. 6 mos.. Tuberculosis..
i Not reported.

9

5

11

1
2

1
3

100
101

29 .......do.........
25 .......do.........

102

29 .......do.........

103
104

5
1




3
9

2
1
1

GENERAL TABLES.

309

COMPLICATIONS, PRO LIFIC A C Y , AND ECONOMIC CONDITION O F
TIV E S WHOSE PRE G N AN C Y HAD EN DED W ITH IN 9 MONTHS B E FO R E

Number of
children.
Dead
Liv­ un­
ing. der 1
year.

Number of—
In­
come
Hy­
of Rent
gienic
fam­ per
con­
ily week. Occu­
dition.
per
pants. Rooms.
week.

Remarks.

Case
No.
of
de­
ced­
ent.

AGE GROUP 2 TO 29: OPERATIVES—
5
Concluded.

Fair-

65

3
9
6

3 Poor..
5 Poor
5 Poor

Excellent health; husband in hospital—pneumo­
nia; she wished to be sure to avoid mishap, so
she might care for her babies—hence went to
hospital.
Physician engaged 7 months before.....................
Weaver 6 years; physician engaged 1 month.......
Decedent refused operation; removal of child by
Caesarean section after mother’s death; child
lived 42 hours.
3 tuberculous relatives..........................................
6 babies in 6J years.......... ...................................
Caesarean section; other 2 babies delivered by
forceps.
u Succumbed to anesthetic” —delirious.................
Baby born before physician arrived....................
Hard work, 5 a. m. to 10 p. m.; stress........ .........
Twin sister and 2 brothers died from tuberculosis.
Sister died from tuberculosis................................
Father and sister died from tuberculosis..............
Prolificacy; dirt...................................................
Curetted one year before.......................................
Physician tola family case was appendicitis; pain
was abdominal.
Excess work.........................................................

3 Bad... Occupation certified as “ operative/’ but no in­
formant found.
4 Bad_ Dark bedroom....................................................

84

7

1

$15 $1.65

5

1

1

9 1.75
25 2.50
17 3.10

2
7
11

3 Fair+
7 Good..
7 Fair+

1
4
1

1
4
1

19 3.00
20 2.50
15 1.50

3
18
3

3 Poor..
6 Poor..
3 Fair-

2
3
2
2
2
1
1
2
2

2
1
1
2
1
1
6
2
1

1.85
1. 75
1.50
1.75
1.60
1.50
1.50
1.25
1.80

5
5
4
4
4
4
3
7
4

3
3
3
4
3
3
4
3
3

12 1.00
15 2.00 .
Id 2.00
C
1) 1.50
15 1.50

3
1

1
1
1
C)
1
1

1
1
4
0)

17
15
15
12
13
(0
10
15
20

3

Fair+
Bad..
Bad...
Fair—
Bad...
Poor..
Poor..
Bad...
Poor..

66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
85

AGE GROUP 2 TO 29: NONOPERATIVES.
5

$10 $2.00

3

1

3

4 Bad... Negress; windowless bedroom; cellar water-closet.

86

5
2
3

5
6
4

87
88
89

20 2.50

5

4

15 2.00
35 4.00

1

2

15 3.00
10 2.75
18 2.25

3

5
7

4 Fair+ Physician not engaged.........................................
8 Good.. Shopping on stormy day, feet wet, fell on ice;
convulsions.
4 Fair+ Puerperal insanity; cut throat with razor; was
boarding with sister.
3 Poor
4 Good
’
5 Good.. “ Clergyman assented to induction of labor7 ......

4

1

9 2.00

4

4
2
1

1
1

8 1.40
33 Own.
28 3.00

6
4
3

5

1

10 1.85

7

3
6

1

15 1.75
15 Own.

5
8

2
3

1

38 Own.
15 2.00

4
5

2

3

60 Own.

5

i

12 2.50
16 1.60

2
4

. 0....




Fair 4- uSexual brutality of husband killed her” ...........
Fair+ Last 2 babies stillborn; husband says she had
nephritis before marriage.
Good Albuminuria during whole pregnancy................

90
91
92
93
94
95
96

4

Fair+

97

4
5

Fair-f
Fair+

98
99

Prolificacy; father and husband died from tuber­
culosis.
Father died from tuberculosis..............................
“ Pneumonia 35 days” ; probably tuberculous;
prolificacy.
9 Excel. French Canadian physician at first.....................
5 Fair-j- 3 pregnancies terminated within 11 months; first
physician made only 2 visits.
14 Excel. Forceps delivery; baby 8J lbs.............................
5 Poor.. Persistent vomiting.............................................
3
* Not reported.

100
101
102
103
104

GENERAL TABLES.

310

T ab l e 2 8 . —P A R T U R IT IO N : AGE, RACE, OCCUPATION, O T H E R D ISE ASE

EACH O F 230 FEM ALE DECEDENT O P E R A T IV E S AND N O N O PERA
D EATH , 1908 TO 1912—Continued.

Case
No.
of
de­ Age.
ced­
ent.

Born
in
U.S.

Race.

Occupa­
tion.

Period
lived
after
quit­
ting
trade.

Total
number of—
Period
lived
after
Other disease Mos.
preg­ complication. preg­ Mis­ Preg­ Years
nant.
nancy
car­ nan­ mar­
ended.
riages cies. ried.

AGE GROUP 25 TO 29: NON'OPERATIVES—Concluded.
105
106

25 Portuguese . No.
26 ----- d o .. . . . . No.

107

29 ___ do.........

No.

108

27 ----- do----- ,.

No.

Carder_
_

27 mos

109

27 Other races.. No.

110
111

25 ___ do......... No.
25 ....d o ......... No.

Sizer, hat
factory.

7 wks.. “ Enteritis” ...
18 mos. 2 wks.. Goiter........... .

112

28

113

25 ___ do.......... No.

.....do......... No.

Spooler.

3 yrs... 3 wks.. Pneumonia..
6 mos.. Heart endo­
carditis (?).
6 hrs... Exhaustion..

9
9

2 hrs... Eclampsia___

6 yrs... 4 mos.. Tuberculosis..

Sizer, hat
factory.
_
G rocery 1 m o... 5 days.. Septicemia_
store.
Spooler... 6 yrs... 10 min. Hemorrhage
(crim in a l
abortion).

4
5

8
11

2

12

9

2

3

9

3

6

9
9

2
2

C)
1
3

9

1

9

1

3

5

1J

1

4

6

5
5

16
12
12

AGE GROUP 30 TO 34: OPERATIVES.
114
115

_
33 American... Yes. Weaver... 1 m o ... 15 days. Septicemia_
34 English....... No.. Carder. . . . 18 mos. 1 d a y.. Tuberculosis..

9
9

116

33 .......do.........

No.. Weaver... 20 mos. 9 mos.. .......d o ............

9

1

2

117

34 .......do.........

Yes. Cloth room 6 wks... 6 wks... .......d o ............

4

5

5

9

118

33 .......do.........

Yes. Carder. . . . 6 mos.- 5 mos.. Typhoid fever.

3

2

9

16

119

32 .......do.........

Yes. .......do___ 2 yrs... 4 hrs... “ Shock” .......

8

5

8

8

120
121

31 .......do.......... No.. Weaver... 2 yrs... 1 day. . Eclampsia___
_
33 .......do......... No.. .......do___ 8 mos.. 2 wks.. Septicemia_

8J
9

1

122

33 Irish............ Yes. Weaver... l y r . . . . 4 mos.. Tuberculosis..

9

7
2
3

14
9
4

123
124

33 .......do.........
33 .......d o .. . . . .

Yes. Carder___ 2 yrs... 3 m os.. Tuberculosis(?)
Yes. .......do___ ly r . . . . 2 m os.. .......do.............

9
9

7
1

14
16

125
126

33 .......do......... No.. .......do___ 2 yrs... 1 d a y.. Eclampsia___
33 .......d o ......... Yes. Spinner... l y r ... 2 wks.. *e P n e u m o ­
nia” (?).

6
9

5
3

10
6

127

33 .......do.......... No.. Weaver... 1 w k ... 5 hrs... Placenta praevia.

9

7

11

2

128

31 .......do.......... No.. ...d o ......... l y r . . . . 2 wks.. Septicemia___

9

4

9

129

31 .......do.........

9

1

3

130

34 French Ca­
nadian.
32 .......d o ......... No.. Spinner... 1 yr_ 2 wks.. “ Pneumonia”
_

131




Yes. Cloth room 1 yr___ 5 hrs... Placenta praevia.
No.. Carder___ 2 yrs... 2 wks.. Septicemia___

1 Not reported.

9

3

3

9

17

17

m

i m

tables.

311

COMPLICATIONS, PROLIFICACY, AND ECONOMIC CONDITION OF
TIVES WHOSE PREGNANCY HAD ENDED WITHIN 9 MONTHS BEFORE

Number of
children.

Number of—
In- •
come'
Hy:
of |Rent
igiemc.
per
con­
Dead' fam-1» week:i
i ly
dition.
Liv­ un­ per ;
Occu­
pants. Rooms.
ing. der 1 week;
year.

Remarks.

Casa
No.
of
de­
ced­
ent.

AGE GROUP 25 TO 8»: 1TGNOPERATIVES—Concluded.
Bad...
Bad.,. Marriage at 15; prolificacy..................................

105
106

Fair-

107

1.50

Instrumental delivery; in labor 2 days; inertia;
certified ®s “ operative, ” but friend denied she
ever worked in milL
Poor.. Physician firstealled 4 hours before death; forceps
delivery.
Bud... Twins; niece died from tuberculosis...............

1.65
1.50

Bad...
Bad... Goiter last 2 years................................................

110
111

1. 40

Bad... Stress; -decapitation of baby; 2 physicians; hus­
band remarried in 3 months.
Fair+ Decedent perfectly well before abortion; “ since
husbandTconsented to abortion, physician was
not prosecuted” ; husband later killed in run­
away accident.

112

SI. 75
1.50
2.50
1.65

2. 50

108
109

113

AGE GROUP 30 TO 34: OPERATIVES.
5
3

3
1

$15 $2.10
17 2.00

8
5

5 Fair5 Fair +

15 1.50

2

5

15 2.00

2

4 Fair+

22 1.50

7

4 Fair+

18 2.00

5

3

Fair+

3
1

33 1.40
19 1.50

4
2

3
3

Poor..
Fair+

2

1

20 2.00

4

.8 Good..

3

3
1

9 1.65
15 3.00

6
8

3 Fair8 Poor ..

2
2

1

10 Own.
12 2.60

4
3

3
6

3

3

15 1.75

5

3 Fair+

3

’ 1

15 1.15

4

3

Poor..

1

18 2.25

2

4

Fair-f-

20 1.75

5

10 1.50

7

3 Fair- Stress; prolificacy; last 2 children within 11
months.
4 Poor.. Age probably 40; 2 husbands and 17 children in
17 years; first marriage at 15. Last husband
died one month after her death.

5

2

3
1

3
10

7




Fair+

Retained placenta................................................
Twins previous parturition; twin brother died
from tuberculosis .3 years before.
Mother who slept with decedent died from tuber­
culosis; chronic nephritis 3 years before.
Stress; housework after mill; longest pregnancy
7 months.
Out of mill at her childbirths never more than 2
months in all; endometritis; hemorrhages ever
since miscarriage; had no physician at time of
last abortion.
Last 5 pregnancies (about 1 yr. apart—the last 9
months); all miscarried at 5 mos., 6 mos.,8 mos.,
8 mos.; ether and forceps; never regained con­
sciousness.
8J months’ baby 2 weeks dead -when stillborn. . . .
Instruments; baby 2i years old died 4 months
before mother; mother “ died of grief.”
Poor nourishment; hard work; children badly
clothed and fed; $400 insurance, $400 funeraj.
Hemorrhages from lungs.....................................
Typhoid fever 6 yrs. before; hard work; stress; ill
use; frequent hemorrhages; sister died; tuber­
culous.
Stress; prolificacy........................... .....................
Sister, son, and niece died from tuberculosis;
exposure getting up too soon; neuritis one year
before.
Physician allowed her to bleed 2 days; sudden
squirting blood, 2 a.m.; physician arrived 3.30
a. m.; baby born unaided neat day At 4 p. in.;
she died 9 p. m.; she begged physician insist­
ently to take away baby.
No physician till 8th day; he syringed instead of
curretting.
Brother died from tuberculosis same year...........

FairFair—

114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127

128
129
130
131

GENERAL TABLES.

312

T a b l e 2 8 . — P A R T U R IT IO N : AGE, RACE, OCCUPATION, O TH E R D ISEASE

EACH OF 230 FEM ALE D ECEDENT O P E R A T IV E S
DEATH , 1908 TO 1912—Continued.

Case
No.
of
de­ Age.
ced­
ent.

Race.

Born
in
U. S.

Occupa­
tion.

Period
lived
after
quit­
ting
trade.

Period
lived
after
preg­
nancy
ended.

AND

N O N O PERA

Total
number of—
Mos.
Other disease preg­
complication. nant. Mis­ Preg­ Years
car­ nan­ mar­
riages cies. ried.

AGE GROUP 3 TO 3: OPERATIVES
—Concluded.
0
4

34 F r e n c h No.. Spinner... 1 yr___ 6 hrs... Eclampsia___
Canadian.
32 .......d o ......... No.. Spooler. . . 2 y rs... 8 days. Septicemia___

9

133
134

33 . . . . . d o ........

135

32

136
137
138

33 .......d o ......... No.. Spinner... 7 m os.. 19 days. Septicemia___
30
No.. Spooler. . . 18 mos. 2 days. Post-partum
hemorrhage.
30 .......do.......... No.. .. .do......... 4 mos.. 2 wks.. Septicemia___

7

1

3

5

139

33 .......do.......... No.. .. .do......... 8 mos.. 1 w k... .......do.............

9

1

8

18

140
141

34 Other races. No.. Spinner... 1 yr---- 4 wks.. Tuberculosis..
30 .......do.......... No.. Weaver... 7 mos.. 7 mos.. .......do.............

9
3

i

1
4

1
7

142
143

32 .......do.......... No.. Spinner... 2 mos.. 10 days. Septicemia___
30 .......do.......... No.. Weaver... 1 yr---- 2 days. Hemorrhage..

9
9

7
2

16
3

7 yrs... 5 wks.. Tuberculosis..

9

4

10

4

14

132

Yes. .. .do......... 3 mos.. 2 wks.. Internal hem­
orrhage.
Portuguese.. No.. Carder___ 1 y r.... 1 day.. Eclampsia___

3

7
1

14

4

10

9

6

11

9

.1

1

9
9

6
5

8
7

AGE GROUP 3 TO 34: NONOPERATIVES.
0

144

34 American... Yes. Spooler,
warper
tender.

145

33 .......do.......... Yes.

5 days. Post-partum
hemorrhage.

9

146

30 .......do.......... Yes. Bookkeep­ 4 yrs__ 14 hrs.. Extra-uterine
er.
pregnancy.

1

1

1

4

147

31 .......do.......... Yes. Domestic . 2 mos.

1 day.. Malpresentation.
31 English....... No.. Weaver... 7 yrs... 6 mos.. Pneumonia..
34 .......do.......... No.. .. .do......... 10 yrs.. 1 hr___ Eclampsia. ..

9

1

8

8

9
7

7

4
9

9
12

9
9

2

10
6

15
10

152

34 .......do.......... Yes. Spooler... 15 yrs.. 1 w k... Septicemia___
31 .......do.......... No.. Spooler, 10 yrs.. 2 days. Eclampsia___
warper
tender.
_
33 Irish............ Yes. Carder___ 13 yrs.. 3 m os.. Apoplexy_

6

3

153

34 .......do.........

Yes. Weaver... 3 y rs... 5 hrs... Hemorrhage .

7

154
155

34 .......do.........
32 .......do.........

No.. ...d o ......... 6 yrs..
Yes. C l o t h
18 yrs.
room.

9
9

156

34 .......do.........

Yes. Weaver... 12 yrs..

Valvular
heart disease.

157

34 .......do.........

Yes. Domestic.. 9 -yrs... 8 days.. Septicemia___

148
149
150
151




1 hr_ .......do...........
_
1 hr_
_ Eclampsia —

10

13

13

18

1

6
1

11
4

7

1

4

12

9

1

3

9

313

G ENERAL TABLES.

COMPLICATIONS, PROLIFICACY, AND ECONOMIC CONDITION OF
TIVES WHOSE PREGNANCY HAD ENDED WITHIN 9 MONTHS BEFORE

Number of
children.
Dead
Liv­ un­
ing. der 1
year.

Number of—
In­
come
Hy­
of Rent
gienic
fam­ per
con­
ily week. Occu­
dition.
per
pants. Rooms.
week.

Remarks.

Case
No.
of
de­
ced­
ent.

AGE GROUP 30 TO 34: OPERATIVES—Concluded.
5

2

$20 $2.10

7

5 Fair— Physician engaged before labor............................

132

2

1

16 1.75

4

133

3

3

13 1.75

5

15 1.25

9

18 2. 75
11 1.50

10
4

5 Fair— Sister-in-law died from tuberculosis; same tene­
ment.
4 Fair- Hemorrhage about 3 weeks at each birth; this
time it stopped suddenly (internal hemorrhage).
3 Bad... Mitral stenosis; physician engaged but no exami­
nation made.
6 Fair— Prolificacy............................................................
4 Fair— Prolificacy; poverty.............................................
5 Bad... Windowless bedroom; fell downstairs two
months before.
4 Bad... uTuberculosis infection from brother-in-law ’ ’ ;
prolificacy; had saved $55.
3 Bad
4 Poor.. Stress; back to mill 2 days after miscarriage;
cervical glands tuberculous; glands removed
4 months before death; had 4 boarders.
5 Fair- Hat factory first 14 years of work........................
4 Bad... Never strong after first birth; weaving was very
hard for her.

138

1
1
2

5
3

1

1

12 1.25

3

1

7

10 1.00

3

2

1

12 1.50
18 1.50

4
8

5

2
2

18 Own.
12 1.25

8
10

134
135
136
137
139
140
141
142
1*3

AGE GROUP 30 TO 34: NON-OPERATIVES.
4

2

6

5 Fair+

30 Own.

5

8 Fair+

15 2.50

2

S12 S3.50

2

5 Fair+

3

10 2.00.

4

6 Bad...

4
1

1

10 2.50
10 1.65

7
3

5 Fair+
3 Fair+

6
3

2
3

12 1.50
10 1.25

8
5

4 Bad...
4 Poor..

6

1

21

3.00

8

6 Fair-j-

8

5

14 1.75

10

5 Fair-

5
1

19 2.00
35 Own.

8
2

5 Fair—
6 Good

3

30 3.25

5

5

Good

2

20 2.50

4

5

Fair+

4




Sister died from tuberculosis; profuse hemorrhage
of lungs 2 months before baby born; no operaative intervention at 7 months; stress; poverty;
very saving on food; last words to her mother:
“ I wish I had followed your advice and eaten
more.”
Certified as “ heart failure” ; dropsy throughout
pregnancy; fatal hemorrhage 2 days after birth

144

Left tubal pregnancy first diagnosed appendici­
tis; high pulse; operation delayed 9 a. m. to 3
a. m. (for pulse to go down); though after con­
sultation physician knew patient was bleeding
to death at 10p.m., delayed operating; she died
at 3 a. m.
Negress; taken to hospital—baby half born; malpresentation.
“ Typhoid pneumonia” 1 week............................
Csesarean section; eclampsia at about 7 months
each pregnancy after first; three years before,
physician warned that next pregnancy would
probably be fatal.
Forceps delivery; prolificacy................................
Physician examined patient 2 months before, but
not urine; no instruments; no sweating; died in
2 days after birth.
Melancholia; stress; prolificacy. Physician in­
terrupted last 2 pregnancies.
Prolificacy. 13 in 16 years. Husband says her
age was 38-40.
Died before medical aid arrived at midnight......
Appendicitis at 30; version done; exsanguinated
‘‘ air hunger” ; ruptured uterus (?); morphine
given.
Sciatica 8 years before; physician wished to
empty uterus by Csesarean section. Operative
interventions prevented by husband, who
alleged his religion on no account allowed it.
Ethfer 3 hours; destructive operation 2 preceding
children—both maimed by the forceps in ex­
traction.

146

145

147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

GENERAL TABLES.

314

2 8 . — PARTURITION: AGE, RACE, OCCUPATION, OTHER DISEASE
EACH OF 230 FEMALE DECEDENT OPERATIVES AND NONOPERA
DEATH, 1908 TO 1912—Continued.

T a b le

Case
No.
U
X
de­ Age.
ced­
ent.

Race.

in

Occupa­
tion.

U .S .

Period
lived
after
quit­
ting
trade.

Period
lived
after
preglndecf

Total
|
number of— |
Mos.
Other disease
complication. preg­ Mis­ Preg­ Years]
nant.
car­ nan­ mar-a
riages cies. riedJ
1

AGE GROUP 30 TO 34: NON OPERATIVES—Concluded.
Tuberculosis..

Canadian.

6

14

9

14 !

6

3

15:
13;

159

_ do..
_

No.. Carder___ 11 yrs.. 9 mos.. Liver disease..

9

160

___d o ..

No.. ...d o.......

10 y rs.. 3 mos.. Appendicitis..

9

161

___do ..

Yes. ...d o.......

9

1

6

162
163

....d o ..
___do..

9
3

1

5
5

164

....d o ..

3 yrs... 10 days. “ P n e u m o ­
nia” (?;.
No. ...d o........ 5 yrs... 1 d a y .. Eclampsia___
No.. Weaver... 8yrs... 1 w k.. S ep ticem ia
(abortion), i
No.. Spinner.. 8 yrs... 1 day.. Hemorrhage...

1

3

15!
16!
9j

1

4

5

2

3

1

1
8

2
11

2

5

7

165

33 .......do.

166

32

....d o .

167
168

___do.
___do.

169

30 .......do.

No.. Dept .store 5 y rs.... 8 hrs... Eclampsia___
clerk.
Yes. M u s i c
teacher.
Yes. Nurse......
No.

3 yrs... 3 wks.

Septicemia....

2 yrs... 2 wks. Embolism.
1 d a y .. Eclampsia..

Yes. Bottler.... 7 yrs... 3 mos..

‘ R h e um atism.”

No.. Hatband 8yrs... 1 w k ... Septicemia..
maker.
No.. Seamstress 2w ks.. 1 w k ... “ Dropsy” . .

170

.......do.........

171

.......do.........

172 |

.....d o ......... No.. Domestic.. 2 yrs... 12 days. Placenta prsevia.
Portuguese.. No..
1 d a y .. ___ do............

173
174
175
176

34 ........ do........ No.. H a t fac­
tory.
Other races.. No..
....d o ......... No..

177
178
179
180

39
37
38
37

5

1

2

8

11

• 16

3
1

7 yrs... 4 hrs... Post-partum
hemorrhage.
1 w k.. Septicemia_ i
_
2 wks. ........do___

7

4

11

6'

9

3
4

6
10

AGE GROUP 35 TO 39: OPERATIVES.
American...
English.......
Irish ............
.......do..........

Y qs. W eaver...
Yes. .......do.......
No .......do.......
No.. .......do.......

2 m os..
1 w k ...
2 yrs. . .
2 yrs. . .

2 hrs. . .
6 days..
6 wks..
1 day...

9
9
9
4

182

Eclampsia...
...... do..........
Cancer........
Pernicious
vomiting.
38 French Ca­ No.. Spinner... l y r . . . . 9 m os.. Nephritis....
nadian.
38 .......do.......... No.. .......do....... 1 mo. . . 1 day... Typhoid fever.

183

38 ...... do.......... Yes. Spooler_ 7 m os.. 1 w k ... S.epticemia_
_
_

9

184

37 Portuguese.. No.. Carder___ 3 m os.. 2 days.. Tuberculosis..

9

181




1Not reported.

1
1

5‘
23
8 • 16
6
20
7
11

9

7

5

1

0

13

22

7

22 .

3

13

315

GENERAL TABLES.

COMPLICATIONS, PROLIFICACY, AND ECONOMIC CONDITION OP
TIVES WHOSE PREGNANCY HAD ENDED WITHIN 9 MONTHS BEFORE
Number of
children.
Dead
Liv­ un­
ing. der 1
year.

Number ofIn­
come
Hy­
of Rent
gienic
fam­ per
con­
ily week. Gccu- Rooms dition.
per
pants.
week.

Case
No.
Remarks.

t>i

de­
ced­
ent.

AGE GROUP 30 TO 34: NONOPERATIVES—Concluded.
3

2
4

$13 $1.85

6

4 Fair+

158
159

43 Own.

2

6

6

15 2.25

8

7

5

12 : 1.75

7

4

4
1

6
8

4
7

2

12 1.80
8 : I1 i
)
13 3.00 ;

10

7

3

20 2. 25 ;

5

4

5

3

1

1

25 ! 3.25

5

6.

1
1

40 ; 6.00
10 1.50

2
11

2

1

15 Own.

8

Certified as * congestion of liver” ; sister and
brother died from tuberculosis, and she herself
was in the city tuberculosis hospital 7 ifloriths
before she died.
Good Not improbably ulcer of stomach or nervous dys­
pepsia.
Fair+ Rupture of gall bladder; delayed operation 2 to
3 weeks.
Fair— Not improbably septicemia; sister died from
tuberculosis.
Fair+
Good Ectopic gestation about 2 to 3 months; domestic
last 9 months; roomed with the family.
Fair-f- No fever; no cough; no chill. (Not improbably
abortion. Certified as “ pneumonia.” ) Physi­
cian gave medicine and did not see her again
until she was dead. '“ She bled half an hour;
bed full of blood.”
Fair+ $12 clerk, dry goods; Consulted physician 3 or 4
weeks before death for persistent headache; no
examination of urine. He said: “ Oh, you’ll be
all right,” Next physician emptied uterus
when nurse called nim, but was too late.
Fair+ Nurse. Physician applied forceps......................

161
162
163
164

165

166

7 Excel. Not improbably fall due to hospital neglect........
5 Fair— Prolificacy; 7 babies in 7 years; i n t e r v a l s —
months: 10,11,17,12,9,56. First 6 are living;
7th miscarried at 3 months; last premature at
7-8 months.
8 Good Sister says decedent had 3 Children in first 4
years after marriage and became discouraged.
She took all sorts of abortifacients and bathed
while menstruating. She was so strong she
thought she could do anything. 2 abortions in
last three years; husband a bartender.
6 Fair- First miscarriage at 5 months............................. .

167
168

171

1

15 Own.

10

5

6

10 1.40

7

3 Poor

2

1

9 2.00

4

6

Fair-

9 1.50

5

3

Poor

3

160

3

3

7 1.75

5

4 Poor

2
3

1
1

9 1.50
7 1.75

10
5

Boy; hip disease in hospital; “ husband drunk­
ard ’ ’ ; prolificacy; stress; sewed night and day;
insurance lapsed 2 months—buried a pauper.
Uterine hemorrhage 12 days; domestic 10 years..
Forceps delivery; ether; she had a convulsion 2
months before; physician attended; did not
induce labor then.
“ Midwife’s case” —retained placenta................ .

5 Bad
5 Poor

169

170

172
173
174
175
176

AGE GROUP 35 TO 39: OPERATIVES.
4
6i
6
6

2

6

1

$20
20
40
18

$1.95
2. 50
3.00
2.25

5
8
8
8

4 Fair— “ A great drinker” ; cough 2 years; emaciation..
5 Fair+ Stress...............................................................
6 Good Rheumatic fever 8 years before........................
7 Fair+ Prolificacy; stress; pernicious vomiting...........

177
178
179
180

10 1.75

8

4 Fair+

181

7 1.75

6

4

5

5

18 1.75

7

3

4

14 1.75.

5




Prolificacy............................................................

Fair— Single; “ abortifacient given surreptitiously by | 182
man with whom she lived.”
I
3 Poor
Forceps; prolificacy; 12 children in 17 years; 7 183
years between last 2; husband said: “ I didn’t
work her much, though she kept wanting to
go into the mill.” She was always feeble
during pregnancies.
4 Poor
Husband remarried in one week; appears tuber­ 184
culous.

316

GENERAL TABLES.

PARTURITION: AGE, RACE, OCCUPATION, OTHER DISEASE
EACH OP 230 FEMALE DECEDENT OPERATIVES AND NONOPERA
DEATH, 1908 TO 1912—Continued.

T a b le 2 8 . —

Case
No.

of
de­ Age.
ced­
ent.

Race.

Born
in
U. S.

Occupa­
tion.

Period
lived
after
quit­
ting
trade.

AGE GROUP 35 TO :

Total
number of—
Period
lived
after
Other disease Mos.
preg­ complication. preg­ Mis­ Preg­ Years
nant.
nancy
car­ nan­ mar­
ended.
riages cies. ried.
NONOPERATIVES.

187

7 m os.. Cancer............
35 American__ Yes.
2 w ks.. 2 w ks.. Extra-uterine
37 .......do.......... Yes. Washer­
woman.
pregnancy.
35 English....... No.. Weaver... 9 y rs... 1 m o ... Eclampsia......

5

188

_
38 .......do.......... No.. Spooler_ 7 yrs... 2 w ks.. Septicemia___

3

189
190

36 .......do.......... Yes. Carder---- 8 yrs. . . 1 day... Eclampsia......
35 .......do.......... No.. Hotel dish­ 1 yr---- 5 days.. Pneumonia—
washer.
36 Irish............ No.. Cloth room 6 yrs__ 16 days.. Embolism......

9
6

185
186

191
192
193

35 .......do.......... Yes. Cottonmill, 10 yrs-. 2 days.. Eclampsia......
workr’m.
10 days. 1 w k ... Extra-uterine
39 .......do.......... Yes. Jewelry
pregnancy.
shop.

9
2

3
16

16

9
9

14

3

1

_
Domestic.. 13 yrs.. 4 days.. Septicemia_
Cloth room 18 yrs. . 3 m os.. Tuberculosis..

9
9

13
18

196
197

35 .......do.......... No..
37 French Ca­ Yes.
nadian.
39 .......do......... No..
38 .......do.......... No..

Weaver__ 18 yrs.. 6 mos.. .......do............
Spinner... 15 yrs.. 9 m os.. .......do.............

9
9

18
19

198

39 .......do.......... No.. Weaver__ 12 yrs. . . 10 w ks.. Pneumonia__

9

12

199

39 .......do.......... No.. Spinner... 18 yrs. . . 17hrs... Embolism......

9

18

200

37 .......do.......... No.. .......do....... 18 yrs. . . 9 days.. Strangulated
hernia.

9

19

201
202

9
9

11
23

203

35 .......do......... Yes. Weaver... 10 yrs.. 11 days. Septicemia---39 ...... do.......... No.. Spinner... 7 yrs... 1 day... Malpresentation.
_
37 ...... do.......... No.. Domestic. 16 yrs.. 10 days. Septicemia_

1

16

204
205
206
207
208

36
35
.39
37
38

9
6
9
9
9

15
16
20
23
20

209
210

Embolism......
Tuberculosis..
Typhoid fever.
.......do.............
Malpresentation.
1 wk__ Septicemia.. .
...... do.......... No
39
39 ...... do.......... No.. Dressmaker 20 yrs.. 1 hr----- Embolism......

9
8

0)
21

211
212

36 ...... do.......... No
39 ...... do......... No

‘Pneumonia”(?)
7 days.. *
1 hr*.. . . Eclampsia----

9
7

17
12

213

5 hrs__ Post-partum
_ do.......... No
_
hemorrhage.
4 days.. Embolism......
35 ...... do.......... No
39 Other races . No.. Carder___ 4 yrs... 7 mos... Tuberculosis..
7 wks... “ Heart d i s .do......... No
35
ease.”
2 mos...
do......... No
35
3 wks... Septicemia---39 ...... do.......... No

9

14

9
9
9

15
13
11

194
195

214
215
216
217
218

.......do.........
Portuguese..
...... do..........
...... do..........
...... do..........

No
No
No
No.. Carder---- 10 yrs..
No.. Spooler... 7 yrs...

3 days..
1 day...
7 mos...
4 wks...
1 hr___

35




1 Not reported.

9
9

317

GENERAL TABLES.

COMPLICATIONS, PROLIFICACY, AND ECONOMIC CONDITION OF
TIVES WHOSE PREGNANCY HAD ENDED WITHIN 9 MONTHS BEFORE

Number of
children.
Dead
Liv­ un­
ing. der 1
year.

Number of—
In­
come
Hy­
of Rent
gienic
fam­ per
con­
week. Occu­
ily
dition.
per
pants. Rooms.
week.

Remarks.

AGE GROUP 35 TO 39i NONOPERATIVES.
$20 $4.50
10 1.75

Good
Poor

25 2.50

Fair+

18 1.75

Poor

15 2.50
12 1.50

Fair—
Fair-

17 1.75

Fair-f

12 2.35

Fair-

7 4.50

Good

2.50
1.75

Fair+
Fair+

2.50
1.40

Poor
Fair— Since marriage lived in Canada; got cold after
childbirth; overwork, exposure, poverty; used
to work in garden 2 miles from house; came to
Fall River to regain health.
Fair-t- Father, 2 brothers and a sister died from tuber­
culosis; a nephew now has tuberculosis.
Fair- Forceps; sick during last three pregnancies; pro­
lificacy.
Fair+ Hernia from fall 6 months before; no operation
until 5 days after severe abdominal pain and
intestinal obstruction.
Fair— Boil on arm........................................................ .
Poor.. Craniotomy; ether 3 hours; 3 physicians; prolifi­
cacy.
Poor. Physician summoned second day after abortion;
said patient would probably die; medicines;
no curetting; treated her 18 days.
Fair— Prolificacy; insurance, $1,500; funeral, $300.......
Poor.. Last marriage 2 years before death.....................
Bad...
Bad... Married at 14; fly-infested rooms; dark bedroom.
Poor.. Craniotomy; ruptured uterus; hemorrhage....... .

2.50
2.50
Own.
2.00
2.25
10 1.75
1.50
1.25
2.00
2.00
1.75
1.00
Own.

12

Bad..
Bad..

1.00
1.50

Poor.
Poor.

1.50

Bad..

12 Own.
13 1.85
8 2.00




2. 25
1.50

Three relatives died from tuberculosis................
Stress; “ she killed herself working
husband
sick.
Eclampsia in previous pregnancy and nephritis
1 year; recovered; good health next 5 years;
next pregnancy at 5months began to get blind;
consulted physician every week of last preg­
nancy.
Prolificacy; physician, instead of curetting, ga\e
medicine to expel retained placenta, and left
on second day, telling patient she was all
right; never called again.

Three brothers and 2 sisters died from tuber­
culosis.
Stress; prolificacy; poverty; “ dropsy 5 years” ;
children very bright and well-mannered.
Boarding with sister winters, last 7 years; a solderer in jewelry shop; 5 months married; de­
layed operation; wrong diagnosis.
Forceps; no curetting; 2 physicians....................
Last 5 years drank to excess...............................

Abed during whole pregnancy............................
Forceps; stress; worked very hard; used to work
in garden at 4 or 5 a. m; very capable manager;
prolificacy; 14 pregnancies in 21 years; hus­
band remarried in 1 month.
Poverty; bad food; insurance, $310.....................
Forceps and ether; physician summoned after
labor began; second marriage 2 years before.

Poor.
Bad..
Poor.

Tuberculosis hospital.

Poor.
Fair-

Mammary cancer; insurance, $1,000; funeral, $75.
Forceps; French Canadian physician at first for
2 weeks.

318

GENERAL TABLES.

2 9 .— P A R T U R IT IO N : AG E, R A C E , O CCU PATION, O T H E R D ISE A SE
EACH O F 230 FEM ALE D E CE D E N T O P E R A T IV E S AN D NON O PERA
D E A TH , 1908 TO 1912—Concluded.

T able

Case
No.
of
de­ Age.
ced­
ent.

Race.

Born
in
U.S.

Occupa­
tion.

Period
lived
after
quit­
ting
trade.

Total
number of—
Period
lived
after
Other disease Mos.
complication. preg­ Mis­ Preg­ Years
preg­
nant.
nancy
car­ nan­ mar­
ended.
riages cies. ried.

AGE GROUP 40 TO 44: OPERATIVES.
219
220

40 French Ca­ No.. Weaver... 1 yr....' 1 wk__ Tuberculosis..
nadian.
40 .......do.......... No.. ...d o......... 6 mos.. 9 hrs__ Placenta praevia.

9
9

4
1

12

0)
16

AGE GROUP 40 TO 44: NONOPERATIVES.
40

English.

No.. Weaver.

3 yrs..

2 days . “ Exhaustion’

9

13

20

No.. Spooler..
No..

9 yrs..

1 day... Pneumonia...
2 mos... Pleurisy.........

9
9

5
8

10
20

224

Irish...........
French Ca­
nadians,
.......do.........

11

24

.......do.........
.......do.........

No.. Spinner... 24 yrs .. 3 mos... Lung embol­
ism.
4 mos.. Nephritis.......
No,
No.. Weaver.. 19 yrs. 4 days.. Typhoid fever

9

225
226

13
5

25
19

227
228
229

.......do......... No.. Spooler..
.......do......... No..
Portuguese.. No.. Spooler..

20 yrs .

230

Other races.. No.. Carder...

5 yrs. -

221
222
223




7
3

1
1

6 wks.. Cancer...........
3 days.. Eclampsia---10 yrs . 8 m os... Cancer..........

9
9
9

10
10
4

17
24
11

5 hrs. .. Hemorrhage .

9

5

18

1Not reported.

GENERAL, TABLES.
COM PLICATIONS, P R O L IF IC A C Y , AN D
ECONOMIC CO N D ITIO N OF
T IV E S W HOSE P R E G N A N C Y H AD EN D E D W IT H IN 9 MONTHS B E FO R E

Number of
children.

Number ofIn­
come
Hy­
of Kent
gienic
per
con­
Bead fam­ week.
ily
dition.
Liv­ un­ per
Occuing. der 1 week.
pants. Rooms.
year.

Remarks.

Case
No.
of
de­
ced­
ent.

AGE GROUT 40 TO 44: OPERATIVES.
4
7

$12 $1.00

2

4 Bad... Husband died from tuberculosis 5 months later..

219

4

20 2. 75

8

5 Fair+

220

Stress; worked 5 a. m. to 10.30 p. m.; prolificacy.;
12 in 14 years; in mill first 5 months of preg­
nancy; returnedi;omill 2 months after each baby.

AGE GROUP 40 TO 44: BTOKOPERATIVES.
9

$15 $2.10

5

5
7

1

13 1.75
20 3.00

7
9

9

1

3

9
8
4
5

1

40 3.50

11

30 3.50
20 3.50

7
4

8
7

16 Own.
35 3.50
14 Own.

11
10
7

7 1.50

7




4 Fair+ Stress; prolificacy; underdevelopment; 4 feet
5 inches; 1 year a weaver.
3 Fair- Mitral regurgitation....................... .....................
6 Fair + , Cough; night sweats; emaciation; hemorrhages
from lungs.
7 Good... Abdominal pain since birth of baby; died while
laughing.
7 Fair-i6 Fair-f- 2 French physicians advised against interrupting
pregnancy.
5 Fair+ Prolificacy...........................................................
7 Fair-i
3 Fair- Excision of cancer of breast 2 years before. Ar­
thritis at 39.
4 Bad... Ignorance of midwife...........................................

221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228

2 9 .—PAR TU RITION : FEM ALE DECEDENTS DYIN G NOT EXCEEDING 9 MONTHS AND NOT EXCEED IN G 30 DAYS
AFTER PREGNANCY HAD ENDED, B Y OCCUPATION AND B Y DISEASE COMPLICATION, 1908 TO 1912.

320

T able

Women dying after pregnancy had ended, not exceeding—
9 months.

Complications.

30 days.

Operatives.

Operatives.
Total
Carder. Spinner. Spooler. Weaver. Others. oper­
atives.

9

4

1

8
1
2

1

1

' ‘ Eiver disease ” ...............................
Hernia.............................................
Goiter............................................
Apoplexy.........................................
Heart disease...................................
Nephritis.........................................
Total.............................................

1
0
1

1

1
2
8
1
1
1

1

19

4

8

1

1
1
1
1
1
2

4

1

3

1
4

1
2
1
6

18

9

13

1

56

48

4

1
0

5

3
4

1
1

24
i 23
3

121
19
6

3

5

4

2
1
1

Nonoper­
atives.

1

1

3
3

3

15

2

1

3

4

12

1

i 1

39

Total
oper­
atives.

1
3

1
1

2
6

1
1
1

2
1

4

3

5

TABLES,

1
1
1
2
1

Weaver. Others.

GENERAL

IN EN T PREGNAN
CID T O
CY.
Infections:
Tuberculosis....................................
Cancer..............................................
Typhoid fftvp.r and “ fintori tip” _____
Pneumonia......................................
Scarlet fever.....................................
*Pyosalpingitis..................................
Rheumatism....................................
Noninfections:

Nonoper*
atives. Carder. Spinner. Spooler.

16

24

121
19
6

CONSEQUENT UPON PREGNANCY.

Eclampsia..............................................
Septicemia............................................
Embolism..........................................
Hemorrhage, including placenta praevia
Extra-uterine pregnancy.......................
Malpresentation.....................................
“ Exhaustion” and “ shock” ..................
Burns................................................
Suicide..............................................
Unspecified.......................................

3

6

8
1

2

4

1

8
1

1
1

1
1

6

9

3
3

2
1

8
1

3

4

2
1

4

1

1
1

1

1
1

14

1
2

2
0

4

61

65

1
1

14

Grand total..................................

26

32

21

33

5

117

113

15

24

9

3
3

2

1

1

>Including one case complicated also with probable tuberculosis.

123
3
8
1
1

Total............................................




14
2

1
1

1
2

2
0

4

61

65

11
5

24

4

82

81

T a b le

3 0 -—PARTURITION: FEMALE DECEDENT OPERATIVES AND NONOPERATIVES DYING NOT EXCEEDING 9 MONTHS
AND NOT EXCEEDING 30 DAYS AFTER PREGNANCY HAD ENDED, BY RACE AND AGE GROUP, 1908 TO 1912.
Women dying not exceeding 9 months after pregnancy had ended.

Age and occupational groups.

Ameri­
can.

English.

Irish.

French
Canadian.

Portu­
guese.

Other
races.

Women dying not exceeding 30 days after pregnancy liad ended.

All
races.

19—Bull. 251-

15 to 19 years:
Operatives.......
Nonoperatives.

English.

Irish.

French
Canadian.

Portu­
guese.

Other
races.

12

Total..

Ameri­
can.

All

15
12

10

Total..

18
5

10

23

36

25 to 29 years:
Operatives.......
Nonoperatives.

23
18
62
23
27
63

20

Total..
35 to 39 years:.
Operatives......
Nonoperatives.

50

31

117
113
36

10

15

82
81

230

14

43

15

163

321




.6
25

42

13

Total.......... .
15 to 44 years:
Operatives......
Nonoperatives.
Total..............

50

10

34

Total............
40 to 44 years:
Operatives......
Nonoperatives.

TABLES.

16

Total..
30 to 34 years:
Operatives......
Nonoperatives.

GENERAL

20 to 24 years:
Operatives.......
Nonoperatives.

10
1

30 DAYS

AFTER PREGNANCY HAD ENDED, B Y RACE AND B Y DISEASE COMPLICATION, 1908 TO 1912.

322

T able 3 1 .—PARTURITION: FEMALE DECEDENTS DYING NOT EXCEEDING 9 MONTHS AND NOT EX CEED IN G
WOMEN DYING NOT EXCEEDING 9 MONTHS AFTER PREGNANCY fiAD ENDED.

Those having pregnancy or parturition not intimated on death
certificate.

Total.
Complications.
Ameri­
can.
INCIDENT to PREGNANCY.
Infections: .
Tuberculosis..................................
Cancer................. . ...

7
1

6

8
1

1
3

3
1

Pyosalpingitis
Rheumatism
Noninfections:
Appendicitis...........
‘‘ Liver disease” .. .
Hernia...................
Goiter........................
Lung embolism.
Apoplexy..............
Heart; disease...............
Nephritis.....................
>Total.........................................

Irish.

1

2

French
Cana­
dian.

17
1
2
4

Portu­
guese.

15
1
2
5

1

All races.

5
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1

Other
races.

1

1

58
5
6
16
1
1
1

Ameri­ English.
can.

6
1

6
1
2

10

104

7

12

1
8

i 45
l 42
9
17

1
1

1
3

33

26

6
2

110
4

9
4
1
5

13
13
6
4

6
111

2

2

French
Cana­
dian.

16
1
2
2

Portu­
guese.

15
1
2
5
1

Other
races.

All races.

5
1
1
1

1

1
2

1
1

1

14

28

26

10

2
1
2

3
3
2
2

2
1

12

55
5
6
13

1
1
1
1

1
1

1

15

3

1

2
1
1
1
1
1
4
15

1
1

13

7
1
1

1
*2

8

Irish.

15
97

CONSEQUENT UPON PREGNANCY.

Eclampsia...... .....................................
Septicemia.............................................
Embolism..............................................
Hemorrhage....................................
Including placenta prsevia .
Extra-uterine pregnancy. . ..
Malpresentation . .
‘ ‘ Exhaustion ’f and ‘ ‘ shock ” ..........
Burns..........................................
Suicide.....................................
Unspecified.................................

1

1

2

1

1

2

1
1

2

4

3

1

11
2

.4
a

1
1

3
3
1
1
2

1
1
1

1

1

Total........................................

12

18

21

38

25

12

126

3

7

5

10

3

2

30

Grand total................. ................

20

31

36

70

51

22

230

10

19

19

38

29

12

127




GENERAL, TABLES.

Pneumonia.....................

English.

WOMEN DYING NOT EXCEEDING 30 D AYS AF TER PR EGNANCY H AD ENDED.

Those having pregnancy or parturition not intimated on death
certificate.

Total.
Complications.
Ameri­
can.

English.

Irish.

French
Cana­
dian.

Portu­
guese.

Other
races.

All races.

Ameri­
can.

English.

Irish.

17
3
12

1

1

2

French Portu­
Cana­ guese.
dian.

Other
races.

All races.

INCIDENT TO PREGNANCY.

Total............................................

1

3

1

2

3

1

3
2
3

6

i 10

1
1
1
2

3

37

1

2

6

1

111

8

i 45
142
29
17

1
1

3

1

7

10

3

12

2
2
1

7
1
4

1
1

1
1

1

1
1
1
1

3

30

1
6

6

14
3
9

12

CONSEQUENT UPON PREGNANCY.

Eclampsia..............................................
Septicemia.............................................
Embolism 2............................................
Hemorrhage..........................................
Including placenta prasvia..............
Extra-uterine pregnancy.......................
Malpresentations...................................
“ Exhaustion" and “ shock” .................
Burns.....................................................
Suicide...................................................
Unspecified............................................

2

4

9
4

13
13

26

2

1

1

2

4

2

1

1

1

2

1
1

1

2

4

3

1

5

3

1

1
2

1

3
23
2

2
1

10

2

*5
7

TABLES.

3

1
1

1

1
1

2

7
1
4

GENERAL

Infections:
Tuberculosis....................................
Typhoid fever..................................
Pneumonia......................................
Noninfections:
Appendicitis....................................
Hernia.............................................
Goiter..............................................
Heart disease...................................

4
3
3
3

1
1

_______ i_____
1
1

1
1
2

1

1
1
1

1

Total............................................

12

18

21

38

25

12

126

3

7

4

11

3

2

30

Grand total...................................

H

21

28

48

37

15

163

4

9

10

17

15

5

60

323




1Including one case complicated also with probable tuberculosis.
* Including 1 criminal abortion, elsewhere scheduled under “ violence," judicially “ manslaughter.”

G EN ERAL TABLES.

324

32 . —POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH HATES PER 1,000 FROM
DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS, FOR OPERATIVES BY WORKROOMS,

T a b le

[Workroom death rates in the first study were for all ages only. To link that investigation with this
corrected by the certifying physician, the deaths from that study have been transferred to this one, each
workroom age-group death rates for the early study have been estimated herein by assuming that the
1913 special mill census to obtain for this study, obtained also for that of 1905 to 1907.]
PO PULATION, D EATH S, AN D D EATH RATES PER 1,000.

Occupational
and workroom
groups.

Males: Deaths due to—
T a
l'T lo
jviaie
Nephri­
popu­
Nontu­
Cancer
All
lation Accident tis, apo­
Ty­
Tuber­ berculous other
All
or vio­ plexy, or phoid (all ma­ culosis. respira­
in
lignant
causes. causes.
tory
heart
fever. growths).
1908 lence.
disease.
and
diseases.
1913.
No. jRate No. |Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate
AGE GROUP 15 TO J

OPERATIVES.

Picker and card
roc ms:
1905 to 1907...
1908 to 1912....
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907 .
1908 to 1912....
Spooler and slash­
er rooms:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Weave room:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Cloth room and
miscellaneous: 2
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
All operatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....

519
613
1,583
1,868

1 0.64
3 .98
4
3

.84
.32

(x)
2 0.65
3 0.63 0)
5 .54 2

373
440

.21

4 1.30
2 0.21

1 .46
4 .78
2 .20

1
8

.20 0)
.80 3

165
195

1

2
1

4.342
5,124

10
8

.77
.31

6
14

.46 0)
.55 9

.35

5,874
6,616

4
14

.23
.42

17
12

.96 0)
.36 8

.24

10,216
11,740

14
22

.46
.38

23
26

.75 0)
.44 17

.29

2

0)
1

1,702
2,003

14 2.95
17 1.82
.91

10 1.96
15 1.50

.30

3
3
2

.08

27 2.07
41 1.60

1 0.64
4 1.31

2 1.28
15 4.89

3 .64
12 1.29

27 5.69
45 4.82

1 .19
1 .10

8 1.57
7 .69

24 4.70
36 3.59

2

3
1

11
6

2 a. 65
3
4

.63
.43

1

.45

6
8

.46
.31

4 1.82

15 1.15 64 4.91
24 .94 106 4.14

20 1.14 4 .23
33 1.00 10 .30
2

.03

14
20

.79
.61

47 1.53
74 1.26

29
44

.94 123 4.01
.75 203 3.46

10
18

.33
.31

59 3.35
97 2.93

AGE GROUP 25 TO 34.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card
rooms:
1905 to 1907_
_
1908 to 1912_
_
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907_
_
1908 to 1912....
Spooler and slash­
er rooms:
1905 to 1907_
_
1908 to 1912_
_
Weave room:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Cloth room and
miscellaneous:
_
1905 to 1907_
1908 to 1912....
All operatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912.,..




751
79G

3 1.33
1 .25

592
627

1
2

1 .56
4 1.28

1 0.44
6 1.51

.56
.64

1 1.61 0)
2 1.82

207
219
1,605
1,701

1 .32

1
5

.21
.59

112
119

1 0.44
1 .25

8 3.55
13 3.27

2 1.13
5 1.59

2

.64

12 6.76
31 9.89

1 1.61

4 6.44
2 1.82

7 1.45
10 1.17

30 6.23
56 6.58

2 3.22

4 .83 0)
1 .12
10 1.17
2

1 0.45
4 1.01

8 4.51
17 5.42

2 0.89 0)
1 0.25

1 0.21
1 .12

14 2.91
23 2.70
4

C)
1

3
6

.62
.71

1

1

g

.51
.46

10 1.02 0)
16 .92 3

.17

1 .10
1 .06

29 2.96
46 2.66

7 .71
15 .87

10 1.03 62 6.33
13 .75 102 5.89

5,659
6,486

10 .59
35 1.08

17 1.00 0)
24 .74 8

.25

1
2

.06
.06

40 2.36
70 2.16

15
17

.88
.52

25 1.47 108 6.36
32 .99 188 5.80

8,926
9,948

15 .56 27 1.01 0)
43 .87 40 .80 11

.22

2
3

.07 69 2.58 22
.06 116 2.33 32

.82
.64

35 1.31 170 6.35
45 .91 290 5.83

3,267
3,462

5
8

1 Included in “ All other causes.”

G ENERAL TABLES.

325

EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE IN EACH AGE GROUP, AND PERCENTAGE
AND FOR NONOPERATIVES, 1905 TO 1907 AND 1908 TO 1912.
with regard to the more common detailed “ group ” causes of death as officially registered or as subsequently
under the corresponding appropriate tabular designation of the present study. Thus roughly comparable
workroom distribution of all male and of all female operatives within each age group, known through the
POPULATION, D EATH S, AN D D EATH RATES PER 1,000.
Females: Deaths due to—
Fe­
male
Nephri­
popu­
Cancer
tis, apo­
Ty­
lation Parturi­ Accident plexy, or phoid
Tuber­
(all ma­
or vio­
in
tion.
lignant
culosis.
lence.
fever.
heart
1908
growths).
disease.
and
1913,
No. |Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. jRate No. |Rate No. Rate

Nontu­
berculous
respira­
tory
diseases.

All
other
causes.

All
causes.

No. JRate No. Rate No. Rate

AGE GROUP 15 TO 24.
I
|
1,040
1,302

3 0.96
5 .77

3 0.46

2 0.64 0)
1 .15
3 0.46

8 2.57
20 3.07

1 0.32
2 .31

2 0.64
3 .46

16; 5.13
37 5.68

1,599
2,001

3 .62
8 .80

1 .10

2 .42 0)
1 .io
3 .30

10 2.08
34 3.40

6 1.25
4 .40

2 .42
5 .50

23; 4.79
56j 5.60

1,217
1,524

3 .39

1 .27
1 .13

2 . 55 0)
1 .13

11 3.01
22 2.89

2 .54
1 .13

5 1.37
4 .53

21 5.74
32( 4.20

1,715
2,146

3 .58
4 .37

1 .09

5 .97 0)
2 .19
6 .50

8 1.55
25 2.33

1 .20
1 .09

6 1.17
2 .18

23 4.47
41 3.82

1

4
1 .34

13
7

468
586

1

0)

1

1

6
5

6,039
7,559

10 .55
20 .53

1 .05
6 .16

11 .61 0)
11 .29
7 .18

1 0.06

43 2.37
106 2.81

11 .61
8 .21

19 1.05
15 .40

96' 5.30
173 4.58

6,075
5,856

1 .05
4 .14

2 .11
2 .07

10 . 55 0)
12 .41
5 .17

1 .06

19 1.04
35 1.19

6 .33

15 .82
11 .38

5 ^ 2.96
4
69 2.36

12,114
13,415

11 .30
24 .36

3 .08
8 .12

21 .58 0)
12 .18
23 .34

2 .05

62 1.71
141 2.10

17 .47
8 .12

34 .94
26 .39

15014.13
242{ 3.61

12 6.13
23 6.43

2 1.02
2 .56

3 1.53
5 1.40

21 10.72
44 12.31

2 0.64

9 5.24
15 4.79

2 1.17
2 .64

3 1.75
2 .64

16 9.32
35 11.18

2 .54

9 4.43
16 4.32

1 .49
3 .81

4 1.97
3 .81

16 7.88
38 10.26

1 .29
2 .32

15 4.38
13 2.08

2 .59
2 .32

5 1.46
7 1.12

34 9.93
47 7.53

AGE GROUP 25 TO 34.

653
715

2 1.02
6 1.68

572
626

1 .58
9 2.87

677
741

2 .99
7 1.89

1,141
1,249

6 1.75
13 2.09

228
2‘1
9

2 1.02 0)
1 0.28
7 1.96
2 0.64

1 .58 0)
3 .96
6 1.62

0)

1 .27

51.46 0)
10 1.60

4

4

3,271
3,580

11 1.12
39 2.18

2 .11

6,713
7,262

21 1.04
39 1.08

4 .20
5 .14

9,984
10,842

32 .97
78 1. 44

4 .13
7 .13

8 .81
30 1.67 (1)2 .11
16 .80 0)
.37 1.02
24 .80 0)
2 .04
67 1.24

1

1
5

3
14

2

.10
7 .39

46 4.69
72 4.02

9 .92
9 .50

15 1.53
17 .96

90 9.17
178 9.94

5 .25
16 .44

39 1.94
60 1.65

12 .60
11 .30

28 1.38
28 .77

125 6.21
196 5.40

6 .20
23 .42

85 2*84
132 2.43

21 .70
20 .37

43 1.54
45 .83

215 7.18
374 6.90

2 Since deaths under this designation also include those of operatives unknown or not reported as to the
room wherein they worked, death rates are omitted.




326

G EN ERAL TABLES.

T a b l e 3 2 . — PO PU LATION , DEATHS, AND D EATH RA TE S P E R 1,000 FROM

D ISTR IB U TIO N

OF DEATH S,

FO R

O P E R A TIV E S

BY

W ORKROOM S,

POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH BATES PER 1,000—Continued.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------<-----------------------.
-

Males: Deaths due to—
Occupational
and workroom
groups.

Male
Nephri­
Nontu­
Cancer
popu­
All
tis, apo­
Ty­
All
lation Accident plexy, or phoid (all ma­ Tuber­ berculous other
or vio­
respira­
lignant
in
tory
fever. growths). culosis.
lence.
heart
causes. causes.
1908
disease.
diseases.
and
1913.
No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate
AGE GROUP 35 TO 44.

OPERATIVES.

Picker and card
rooms:
605
1905 to 1907__
588
1908 to 1912_
_
Spinning room:
332
1905 to 1907....
323
1908 to 1912....
Spooler and slasher
rooms:
168
1905 to 1907....
163
1908 to 1912....
Weave room:
1905 to 1907.... 1,581
1908 to 1912.... 1,537
Cloth room and
miscellaneous:
93
1905 to 1907__
91
1908 to 1912....
All operatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....

1 0.55
6 2.04

2 1.10 0)
2 .68

3 1.66 2 1.10
14 4.76| 1 .34

2 1.10
2 .68

10 5.51
25 8.50

2 2.01
3 1.85

1 1.00 C)
1
4 2.48

6 6.02' 2 2.01
1 .62
7 4.34
1
1 1.99I
2 2.451

2 2.01
1 .62

13 13.05
16 9.91

1 1.23

2 3.97
5 6.13

1 1.98
2 2.45
3
4

.63
.52

4 .85 0)
19 2.47
1 0.13

2,779
2,702

6 .72
14 1.04

8 .96
27 2.00

0)

4,307
5,541

13 1.01
29 1.05

35 2.71
61 2.20

0)

Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907.... 7,086
1908 to 1912.... 8,243

19 .90
43 1.04

14 2.95
36 4.69

1

0)

1

1 0.13

3

.39

.12
.07

26 3.12
61 4.51

.14

6
4

.46
.15

37 2 . 86 24 1.86
71 2.56 24 .87

.12

7
5

.33 63 2.96
.12 132 3.20

.07

4

43 2.02 0)
88 2.14 5

i

.63
.91

24 5.06
71 9.24

1

2
2

i

1

3
7

4
5

.48
.37

4
3

8
11

.96 53 6.36
.82 120 8.88

26 2.01 141 10.91
40i 1.44 233 8.41

28 1.32 34l 1.60 194 9-13
29 .70 51 1.24 353 8.56
i

AGE GROUP 45 TO 54.
1

OPERATIVES.

Picker and card
rooms:

263
297 1
Spinning room:
225
1905 to 1907....
255 1
1908 to 1912...
Spooler and slashe
rooms:
94
1905 to 1907...
106 1
1908 to 1912....
Weave room:
986
1905 to 1907...
1908 to 1912... 1,116 10
Cloth room and
miscellaneous:
1905 to 1907....
51
58 1
1908 to 1912....
All operatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912...

0.67

6 4.04

1 0.67

6 4.04

.78

2 1.57

1 .78

6 4.71

1.88

2 3.77

1.79

22 3.94
3

1 1.89
1 0.18

6 1.08

1

1

18 12.12
15 11.76

1 1.89
5

.90

1

5 9.43
12 2.15
2

68 12.19
9

.98

7 1.44
25 2.73

.17

20 1.14

28 3.17
35 2.00

.19

29 1.09

35 2.56
213 15.57
60 2.25 ‘ *32 ‘ i.'20 "72 "2.70 353 13.24

1,619
1,832

14 1.53

35 3.82

2

.22

2,940
3,499

24 1.37

82 4.69

3

Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907.... 4,559
1908 to 1912.... 5,331 38 1.42 117 4.39

5




12 2.15

3 2.02
5 3.92

1 0.68

9

i Included in “ All other causes.’!

.87

43 8.85
22 2.40 115 12.55

24 1.37

170 19.27
50 2.86 238 13.60

8

327

GEKERAL TABLES.

EACH SPECIFIE D CAUSE IN EACH AGE G RO U P, AND PERCEN TAG E
A N D F O R N O N O PER ATIVE S, 1905 TO 1907 AND 1908 TO 1912—Continued.
POPULATION, D EATH S, AN D D EATH B ATES PER 1,000—Continued.
Females: Deaths due to—

Fe­
male

Nephri­
Accident tis, apo­
Ty­
or vio­ plexy or
phoid
lation Parturi­
tion.
lence.
fever.
in
heart
1908
and
1913.
No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate

Cancer
(all ma­
lignant
growths).

Tuber­
culosis.

Nontu­
berculous
respira­
tory

All
other
causes.

All
causes.

No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate

AGE GROUP 35 TO 44.

360
427

1 0.93

209
248

1 1.59

325
385
744
882

1

.91

2 .90
2 .45

.45

1
2
5 .96
5 .48

5,839
6,481

9
27

7,585

14 .61
32 .75

8,552

7 3.14 0)
17 3.85
2

.51
.83

6 5.56
13 6.09

1 0.92
1 . 46

2 1.61

3 4.79
7 5.65

2 3.19

3 3.08
5 2.59

1 0.81

2 2.05
5 2.60

108
129
1,746
2,071

2 1.85
1 .47

5 4.63 (0
8 3.75
8 6.45

.52

3 1.34
4

1 0.47

1 1.02
4 2.08

3 3.08
1 .52

3 1.56

9 9.23
19 9.87

1
.45
7 1.59

7 3.1 3
13 2.95

8 3.58
6 1.37

5 2 .2 4
9 2.04

33 1 4 . 78
60 13.61

1

2 1.85
4 1.87

6 9.57
18 14.52

2
5

1

2

17 15.74
28 13.11

2 .38
3 .29

15 2.86 o
40 3.87
3

.29

7 1.34
15 1.45

17 3.24
39 3.76

14 2.67
8 .77

7 1.34
17 1.64

67 12.79
130 12.55

7 .40
5 .15

36 2.05 0)
70 2.16
6 .19

18 1.03
44 1.36

11 .63
48 1.48

7 .40
9 .28

30 1.72
30 .93

118 6.74
239 7 .3 8

25 1.10
59 1.38

28 1.23
87 2.03

21 .92
17 .40

37 1.63 185 8.13
47 1.10 369 8.63

0.87

19.21

9 - 40 51 2.24 0)
8 .19 110 2.57
9

.21

AGE GROUP 45 TO 54.

158

229

1.75

1.75

4 17
."

4.'i7

110
159

1.26

7.55

1.26

2.51

2.51

15.00

353
513

2*34

9.35

4*

i.*i7

2*73

2L44

990

1.41

42 8.49

4,464
4,801
5,146
5,791




"*25 'i05 4.37

.45

5.0

19 3.84

2.93
1.41

.81

3.03

14.6(5
18.99

0.17

57 2.37

1.27
1.46

i.*29

2.25

188 14.04
292 12.16

. 14

76 2.62

1.49
1.45

2.38

14.12
13.33

G EN ERAL TABLES.

328

3 2 .—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM
DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS, FOR OPERATIVES BY WORKROOMS,

T a b le

POPULATION, D E A TH S, AN D D EATH BATES PER 1,000— Concluded.
Males: Deaths due to—

Occupational
and workroom
groups.

Male
popu­
lation Accident
in
or vio­
1908 lence.
and
1913.

Nephri­
tis, apo­
Ty­
plexy, or phoid
fever.
heart
disease.

Nontu­
Cancer
All
(all ma­ Tuber­ berculous other
lignant culosis. respira­ causes.
tory
growths).
diseases.

All
causes.

No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate
AGE GROUP 55 TO 64.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card
rooms:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912_
_
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Spooler and slasher
rooms:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Weave room:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Cloth room and
miscellaneous:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....

99
121

9.92

3 4.96

1 1.65

6

10 18.69

3 5.61

3 5.61

5 9.35

6

1 4.76

1 4.76

.98

6

87
107
34
42

2 9.52

1 4.76

333
408

3 1.47

22 10.79

21
26

2

2

2
1

9.92

3 4.96

19 31.41

11.21

27 50.47

2 9.53

3 14.29

10 47.62

3 1.47

5 2.45

17 8.33

52 25.49

2

1

4

12

All operatives:
574
1905 to 1907__
704
1908 to 1912__
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907_ 2,092
_
1908 to 1912.... 2,416

41 11.65

10 2.84

5 2.90
10 2.84

17 1.41 189 15.65

29 2.40

15 2.39
239 38.08
29 2.40 **35 *2.48 "64 *5.30 358 29. 64

Total, all classes:
19C to 1907_ 2 ,6 6 6
5
_
1908 to 1912.... 3,120

24 1.54 230 14.74

39 2.50

281 35.13
20 2.50
39 2.50 '*49 *3.‘ i4 "97 *6*22 478 30.64




7 1.99

19 5.40

42 24.39
33 9.37 120 34.09

329

GENERAL. TABLES.

EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE IN EACH AGE GROUP, AND PERCENTAGE
AND FOR NONOPERATIVES, 1905 TO 1907 AND 1908 TO 1912—Continued.
POPULATION, DEATH S, AN D D EATH RATES PER 1,000— Concluded.
Females: Deaths due to—
Fe­
male
Nephri­
popu­
tis, apo­
Ty­
lation Parturi­ Accident plexy, or
phoid
or vio­
in
tion.
fever.
lence.
heart
1908
disease.
and
1913.
No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate 'No. Rate

Cancer
(all malignant
growths).

Tuberculosis.

Nontubcrculous
respira­
tory
diseases.

All
other
causes.

All
causes.

No. Rate| No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate

AGE GROUP 55 TO 64.
i

i

3
0

1 71.43J.....
5

42

1
2

9.52

2 19.05

19
0*

1

154;

161
228

4.7 j
6

i

1.30

i

2 9.52

1

9 11.69

3 3.89

2,904
3,212

9

3,065
3,440

10




1

4 7 2 100.00
. 6 1

yoo.oo
1

4 5.19

2200.00

i| 9.53

9.52

5

47.62

27

23.68

.56 198 12.33
.58 225

13.08

7 6.14

5 4.39

3.80

2 0.12

61

2

66 3.84

.11

!

10
22

1.15
1.37

10 1.09
29 1.69

2 2.60

2 2.60 2 27.27
1

1

i

1 .88

2 9.53

1
i

1100.oo1

d
21

6
'
9

1

1
;

5j 4.39

13 26.92
6 5.2o 51 44. 74

2

311 35.70
61j 3.80 111 6.91 464 28.89
66 3.84 117

324 35.24
6.80 515 29.94

GENERAL TABLES.

330

T a b l e 3 2 . — POPULATION, DEATH S, AND D EATH R A TES P E R 1,000 FROM

D ISTR IB U TIO N

O F DEATH S,

FO R O P E R A TIV E S

BY

W O RK RO O M S,

NUM BER OF D E A TH S FR O M EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE.
Males: Number of deaths due to—
Occupational
and workroom
groups.

Male
Nephri­
Non­
popula­
tubercu­
Cancer
tion in Accident tis, apo­
All
plexy, Typhoid (all ma­ Tuber­ lous re- other
1908 and
or
fever. lignant culosis. spiratory causes.
1913. violence.
or
diseases.
growths)
heart
disease.

All
causes.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44:
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card
rooms:
1905 t o 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Spinning room:
1905 t o 1907....
1908 t o 1912....
Spooler and slasher
rooms:
_
1905 t o 1907_
_
1908 t o 1912_
Weave room:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Cloth room and
miscellaneous:
* 1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....

1,875
1,997

5
10

4

2,507
2,818

7

5
13

8

2

2
4

748
822

C)
1
0)

4
24

3
7

4
7

20
53

28
41

7
10

5'
15

52
92

3
4

1

1
1

6
11

1
2

38
74

4
10

18
24

78
163

1

9
5

3

5
1

23
9

13

2
4

82
148

17
28

33
48

179
328

20

7
6

97
174

43
51

65
92

308
518

33

9
10

179
322

60
79

98
140

487
846

3
3

2

0)
W 1

4,888
5,246

8
11

9
37

C)
1

370
405

1
1

4
1

0)

All operatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....

10,388
11,288

21
30

24
57

0)

15,840
18,643

27
78

69
97

0)

Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....

26,228
29,931

48
108

93
154

0)

5
1

AGE GROUP 45 TO 64.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card
rooms:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Spinning rooms:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Spooler and slasher
rooms:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Weave room:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Cloth room and
miscellaneous:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
All operatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907_
_
1908 to 1912....
Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....




362
418

1

3
12

0)

1
4

4
7

1
7

1
6

10
37

312
362

1
1

9
12

0)

2
4

2
9

4
5

2
11

20
42

128
148

3

3

1

2

1
3

1
3

2
15

1,319
1,524

4
13

12
44

C)
1

1

3
8

4
15

4
10

12
29

39
120

72
84

1
3

4
5

0)

1

1
2

2
2

2
2

4
6

14
21

2,193
2,536

6
21

28
76

0)

2

7
19

12
35

12
27

20
55

85
235

5,032
5,915

21
41

174
271

C)
1
31

32
49

43
64

40
54

99
114

409
596

7,225
8,451

27
62

202
347

0)

5

39
68

55
99

52
81

119
169

494
831

0)

1 Included In “ All other causes.”

GENERAL. TABLES.

§31

EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE IN EACH AGE GROUP, AND PERCENTAGE
AND FOR NONOPERATIVES, 1905 TO 1907 AND 1908 TO 1912—Continued.
NUM BER OF D EATH S F R O M EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE.
Females: Number of deaths due to—
Female
popula­
tion in
1908 and

m s.

Nephri­
tis, apo­
Partu- •Accident plexy,
or
rition. violence.
or
heart
disease.

Cancer
(all ma­
lignant
growths).

fever.'

Non­
Tuber­ tubercu­
lous re­
culosis. spiratory
diseases.

All 1 All
other
causes.
causes.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

2,053

6
11

4

9
16

C)
1

2,380
2,875

5
17

3
14

2,650

2,219

2
11

1
1

4
12

C
1
)

3,600 ;
4,277

12
21

2
3

17
33

0)

804
904

1
4

1
6

C
1
)

11,056
13,210

26
64

3
11

34
81

C
1
)

18,627
19,599

31
70

13
12

62
119

C)
1

29,683
32,809

57
134

16
23

96
200

V)

2
1

26
56

4
5

7
12

54
109

4

22
56

10
6

5
7

m

1

3
7

21
42

6
5

9
10

46
89

4

2
9

30
51

11
9

16
18

90
US

1

2
1

7
12

3

4
2

18
26

12

9
22

106
217

34
25

41
49 i

253
481

11

24
60

69
143

25
20

73
69

297
504

23

33
82

175
30
(>

59

45

114
118

550
985

3

2
7

10
43

1
1

2
3

3

5
17

2
5

2
9

26
76

1

1

6

(i)

3

4
2

2,444

45

AGE GROUP 45 TO 64.

188
271

4
26

34
50

1

P)

2
3

0)

2

1
1

4

125
180

1

3
8

C)
1

1
2

3

462
667

1
7

16
33

C)
1

1
15

4
7

34
50

j

843
1,218

1

3

1
8

23
69

C)
1

7,368
8,013

2

12
15

214
303

Q)

8,211
9,231

2

13
23

237
372

C)
1




1

5
24

6
14

3
9

5
21

43
145

6

62
118

27
57

69
92

113
165

499
756

6

67
142

33
71

72
101

118
186

542
901

GEN ERAL TABLES.

332

82.—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM
DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS, FOR OPERATIVES BY WORKROOMS,

T a b le

N UM BER OF D EATH S FRO M EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE— Concluded.
Males: Number of deaths due to—
Occupational
and workroom
groups.

Male
Nephri­
popula­
Non­
tion in Accident tis, apo­
Cancer
tubercu­
All
plexy, Typhoid (all ma­ Tuber­ lous re­
1008 and
or
other
1913.
fever. lignant culosis. spiratory causes.
or
violence. heart
growths)
diseases.
disease.

All
causes.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 64.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card
rooms:
1905 to 1 9 0 7 ....
1908 to 1 9 1 2 ....
Spinning room:
1905 to 1 9 0 7 ....
1908 to 1 9 1 2 ....
Spooler and slasher
rooms:
1905 to 1 9 0 7 ....
1908 to 1 9 1 2 ....
Weave room:
1905 to 1 9 0 7 ....
1908 to 1 9 1 2 ....
Cloth room and
miscellaneous:
1905 to 1 9 0 7 ....
1908 to 1 9 1 2 ....

2 ,2 3 6
2 ,4 1 5

5
11

7
14

(0

2 ,8 2 0
3 ,1 8 0

8
9

14
25

0)

876
970

2
7

0)

3

6 ,2 0 6
6 ,7 7 0

12
24

21
81

0)

443
489

2
4

8

(9

6

All operatives:
1905 to 1 9 0 7 ....
1908 to 1 9 1 2 ....
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1 9 0 7 ....
1908 to 1 9 1 2 ....

12,581
13,824

27
51

52
133

0)

20 ,8 7 2
2 4 ,5 5 8

48
119

243
368

0)

Total, all classes:
1905 to 1 9 0 7 ....
1908 to 1 9 1 2 . . . .

3 3 ,4 5 3
3 8 ,3 8 2

75
170

295
501

0)




3

1
4

8
31

4
14

5
13

30
90

3

2
6

30
50

11
15

7
26

72
134

1

3
1

6

1
4

2
4

26

6

4
10

42
89

20

8

30
53

117
283

2

2
2

11
7

5
2

9
7

37
30

15

9
23

94
183

29
65

53
103

264
563

23

39
55

140
238

83
105

164
206

717
1 ,114

48
78

234
421

112

38

217
309

981
1,677

* Included In “ A other causes."

160

8

333

GENERAL TABLES.

EACH SPECIFIE D CAUSE IN EACH AGE G RO U P, AN D PERCEN TAG E
AN D F O R N O N O P E R A T IV E S, 1905 TO 1907 AN D 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
N UM BER OF D EATH S FRO M EACH SPECIFIED CATTSE--Concluded.
Females: Number of deaths due to—
Female
popula­
tion in
1908 and
1913.

Nephri­
Nontu­
Cancer
Accident tis, apo- Typhoid (all ma­ Tuber­ berculous
plexy,
or
fever.
lignant culosis. respira­
or
tory
violence. heart
growths).
diseases.
disease.

Partu­
rition.

All
other All causes.
causes.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 64.

2,241
2,715

6
11

4

13
42

(l>

2,414
2,925

5
17

3

3
15

C)
1

2,344
2,830

2
11

1
2

7
20

0)

4,061
4,944

12
21

3
10

33
66

0)

839
1,014

1
4

1
7

(’ )

11,899
14,428

26
64

4
19

57
150

0)

25,995
27, G
12

33
70

25
27

276
422

0)

37,894
42,040

59
134

29
46

333
572

(*)




4

4
4

28
60

4
8

9
19

64
152

2

1
5

22
56

10
6

6
8

47
112

1

4
9

21
45

7
5

9
13

51
106

4

3
24

34
58

13
14

18
27

116
224

1

2
4

7
12

3
1

4
3

18
32

12

14
46

112
231

37
34

46
70

296
626

17

86
178

96
200

94
112

186
234

796
1,260

29

100
224

208
431

131
146

232
304

1,092
1,886

334

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b l e 3 2 . —PO PU LATIO N , D E A TH S, AND D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1.000 FROM

D IST R IB U T IO N

O F D E A TH S, F O R O P E R A T IV E S B Y W O RK RO OM S,

PEE CENT OF D E A TH S FR O M EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE.
Males: Per cent of deaths due to—

Occupational and workroom
groups.

1
Non­
Ne­
tuber­
Cancer
Acci­ phritis, Ty­
All
culous
All
dent or apo­ phoid (all ma­ Tuber­ respira­ other
vio­ plexy, fever. lignant culosis. tory causes. causes.
growths).
lence. or heart
dis­
disease.
eases.
AGE GROUP 15 TO 24.

OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907 ..........................
1908 to 1912...............................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907 .............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Cloth room and miscellaneous:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
All operatives:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................

50
20

27

13

13

50
27

100
100

52
38

11
9

11
27

100
100

15
7

11
11

25

50

25

17
6

4
22

8

42
42

4
3

33
19

100
100

9

18
16

17

27
50

18

28
17

100
100

16
7

9
13

8

42
39

9
8

24
23

100
100

7
15

29
12

8

34
34

7
10

23
21

100
100

11
11

19
13

8

38
36

8
9

24
22

100
100

8

12
46

13
30

13
8

100
100

3

67
55

17
16

7

100
100

25

100
100

4

4

2

1

100

AGE GROUP 25 TO 34.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907..
...................
1908 to 1912...............................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907...............................
.............
1908 to 1912 .
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907.
..................
1908 to 1912...............................
Weave room:
..................
1905 to 1907..
1908 to 1912..
................
Cloth room and miscellaneous:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................

37
8

25

8
6

8
13

50

25
100
3
9

13
18

3
2

25

47
41

10
10

24
18

100
100

50

2

12

13

100

All operatives:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912..... .........................

8
8

16
16

3

2
1

47
45

11
14

16
13

100
100

9
19

16
13

4

1
1

37
37

14
9

23
17

100
100

Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................

9
15

16
14

4

1
1

41
40

13
11

20
15

100
100




335

GENERAL TABLES.

EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE IN EACH AGE GROUP, AND PERCENTAGE
AND FOR NONOPERATIVES, 1905 TO 1907 AND 1908 TO 1912—Continued.
PER CEN T O F D E A TH S FRO M EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE.
Females: Per cent of deaths due to—

Parturi­
tion.

Nephritis,
Cancer
Accident apoplexy, Typhoid (all ma­
or vio­
or aeart
lever.
lignant
lence.
growths).
■disease.

Tuber­
culosis.

Nontuberculous
respiratory
diseases.

All other All causes.
causes.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 24,

i9
14

8

12
3

8

50
54

6
5

13
8

100
100

13
14

2

9
5

2

43
61

26
7

9
9

100
100

9

5
3

9
3

52
69

10
3

24
13

100
100

13
10

2

22
15

35
61

4
2

26
5

100
100

8

46
72

8 ;

3i
14

100
100

1

45
61

12
5

20
9

100
100

2

35
51

11

28
16

100
100

42
58

11
3

23
11

100
100

57
52

9
5

14
11

100
100

0

56
43

13
6

19
6

100
100

5

56
42

6
8

25
8

100
100

15
15

100
100

7

5
14

10
12

1
3

11
6

4

2
6

4
3

18
17

7

7
10

2
3

14
10

5

1
l

AGE GROUP 55 TO 34.

10
16

10
14
6
25

6

2

6
8

13
IS

16

17
28

15
21

3
4

44
28

6
4

29

29

7

33
35

67

1
4

51
40

10
5

4
8

31
31

3
6

39
35

12
22

1

9
17

17
20

3
2

13
19

15
21

2
2

11
18

3




1

1

100
100
100
100

10
€

17
10
22
14

10
5

20
12

100
100

100
100

GENERAL TABLES.

336

T able 3 2 .— PO PU LA TIO N , D EATH S, AND D E A T H R A TE S P E R 1,000 FROM
D IST R IB U T IO N OF D EATH S, F O R O P E R A T IV E S B Y W ORK RO OM S,
P E E CENT OP D E A T H S FR O M EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE— Continued.
Males: Per cent of deaths due to—

Occupational and workroom
groups.

Non­
Ne­
tuber­
Cancer
Acci­ phritis, Ty­
All
culous
dent or apo­ phoid (all ma­ Tuber­ respira­ other
AIL
vio­ plexy, fever. lignant culosis. tory causes. causes.
growths).
lence. or heart
dis­
disease.
eases.
AGE GROUP 35 TO 44.

OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
10
20
1905 to 1907...............................
24
1908 to 1912...............................
8
Spinning room:
15
8
1905 to 1907...............................
19
1908 to 1912...............................
25
Spooler and slasher rooms:
50
1905 to 1907...............................
40
1908 to 1912...............................
Weave room:
12
1905 to 1907............. ................
17
6
1
1908 to 1912...............................
27
Cloth room and miscellaneous:
1905 to 1907...............................
33
1908 to 1912...............................
All operatives:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Total, all classes;
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912........ , ....................

11
12

15
22

1

9
12

25
26

2

10
12

22
25

1

30
56

20
4

20
8

100
100

46
44

15

16
6

100
100

20

100
100

13
10

100
100

25

100
100

6

50
40
1

58
51

25

50
67

2
1

49
51

8
4

15
9

100
100

4
2

26
31

17
10

19
17

100
100

4
1

32
38

14
8

18
15

100
100

6

17

100

33

100

4

AGE GROUP 45 TO 54.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Cloth room and miscellaneous:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
All operatives:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907
1908 to 1912...............................
Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................




5

33

6

33

7

13

7

40

20

40

15

32

1

9

11

34

11

11

12

30

2

8

20

20

18

7

18

100

11

22

100

16
22

7

19

100

io

21

100

9

20

100

10

35

1

8

16
15

11

33

2

8

16
17

100

337

GENERAL TABLES.

EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE IN EACH AGE GROUP, AND PERCENTAGE
AND FOR NONOPERATIYES, 1905 TO 1907 AND 1908 TO 1912—Continued.
PER CENT OF D EATH S FRO M EACH SPECIFIED CATTSE— Continued.
Females: Per cent of deaths due to—

Parturi­
tion.

Accident Nephritis, Typhoid
or vio­ apoplexy,
fever.
or heart
lence.
disease.

Cancer
(all ma­
lignant
growths).

Nontuber­
culous
respiratory
diseases.

Tuber­
culosis.

All other
causes.

Allcauses.

12
14

100
100

AGE GROUP 35 TO 44.

6

4

17

44

6
3

21
28

3

50
40

35
46

6
4

11

50
39

33

33
26

6

22
26

5
9
7

12
4

29
28

11
21

34
6

16

100
100

3
12

21
22

24
10

16
15

100
100

20

100
100

50

40

100
100

7
4

3
2

22
31

2

11
12

25
30

21
6

11
13

100
100

8
11

6
2

31
29

3

15
18

9
20

6
4

25
13

100
100

8
9

5
2

28
30

2

13
16

15
23

11
5

20
13

100
100

9

5

27

100

AGE GROUP 45 TO 54.

50

9
100

100

8

50

8

17

11

44

22

5

25

75

7

45

20

20
8

4

16

100

2

36

1

20

9
12

11

18

100

3

38

1

20

11
11

9

18

100

88204°— 19— B u ll. 251-------22




17
5

100

13

100
100

338

GENERAL TABLES.

T able 3 2 . —PO PU LA TIO N , D E A TH S, AN D D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 FRO M
D IS T R IB U T IO N O F D EATH S, F O R O P E R A T IV E S B Y W O RK RO O M S,
PEB CENT OF D EATH S FRO M EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE— Continued.
Males: Per cent of deaths due to—

Occupational and workroom
groups.

Non­
Ne­
tuber­
Cancer
Acci­ phritis, Ty­
All
culous
dent or apo­ phoid (all ma­ Tuber­ respira­ other
All
vio­ plexy, fever. lignant culosis. tory causes. causes.
growths).
lence. or heart
dis­
disease.
eases.
AGE GROUP 55 TO M.

OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907..............................
• 1908 to 1912...............................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907.
................
1908 to 1912...............................
Cloth room and miscellaneous:
1905 to 1907.
..................
1908 to 1912...............................

31

16

5

32

16

100

|
37 i...........
i

11

11

19

22

100

20

10 ...........

10

10

20

30

100

6

42 ............

4

6

9 !

33

100

17

17 i...........

8

17

8

33

100

6

34 ...........

8

12
8

16

28

100

18

100

All operatives:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912...........................

5

53 ...........

8

6
8

Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912...............................

5

48 '...........

8

7
8

10

21

100

20
45

15
13

20
13

100
100

54
45

13
11

10
16

100
100

50
37

9

17
9

100
100

1
1

49
45

5
6

23
15

100
100

4

39
56

13

22
11

100
100

46
45

10
9

18
15

100
100

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907 .............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907 .............................
1908 to 1912 .............................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907 . .
................
1908 to 1912...............................
Cloth room and miscellaneous:
1905 to 1907 .............................
1908 to 1912 ........................

25
19

20
4

6

13
9

10
14

3

33
36

9

10
7

12
23

3

4
11

18
11

11

»
2

All operatives:
1905 to 1907 .............................
1908 to 1912...............................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................

12
9

13
17

4

1
1

9
15

22
18

4

2
1

32
34

14
10

21
18

100
10Q

Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912...............................

10
13

19
18

4

2
1

37
38

12
9

20
17

100
100




1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

!

339

GENERAL TABLES.

EACH SPECIFIE D CAUSE IN EA CH AGE G RO U P, AN D PER C E N TA G E
AN D F O R N O N O PE R A TIV E S, 1905 TO 1907 A N D 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
PER CENT OF D EATH S FRO M EACH SPECIFIED CAU SE —Continued.
Females: Per cent of deaths due to—
1
Accident Nephritis, Typhoid
or vio­ apoplexy,
or heart
fever.
lence.
disease.

Parturi­
tion.

Cancer
(all ma­
lignant
growths).

Tuber­
culosis.

Nontuber­
culous
respiratory
diseases.

All other
causes.

All causes.

5

100

50

100

20

100

9

10

100

50

50

100

14

10

11

100

3
5

13

24

100

13 j
1

23

100

AGE GROUP 55 TO €4.
i

71
i

9

5

10

£0

i
40

20

20

43

14

19

|

i
................1
.................
|
2

53

10

2
1
!
!
1

43

(1
)

13

2

44

0)

1

13

3
5

i

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.

11
10

4

17
15

4

4
1

48
51

4

13
11

100
100

11
16

3

7
13

^2

4

49
51

22
5

11
6

100
100

4
12

2
1

9
14

1

6
8

46
47

13
6

20
11

100
100

13
14

2
2

19
22

3

2
6

34
35

12
6

18
12

100
100

6
23

4

11
4

39
46

17

22
8

100
100

5
15
10
13

1
2

13
17

3

4
5

42
45

14
5

16
10

100
100

11
14

4
2

21
24

2

8
12

23
28

8
4

25
14

100
100

10
14

3
2

17
20

•
2

6
8

32
37

11
5

21
12

100
100




GENERAL TABLES.

340

82.—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM
DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS, FOR OPERATIVES BY WORKROOMS,

T a b le

PER CENT OF D EATH S FROM EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE— Concluded.
Males: Per cent of deaths due to—

Occupational and workroom
groups. '

Non­
Ne­
tuber­
Cancer
Acci­ phritis, Ty­
All
culous
dent or apo­ phoid (all ma­ Tuber­ respira­ other
All
vio­ plexy, fever. lignant culosis. tory causes. causes.
growths).
lence. or heart
dis­
disease.
eases.
AGE GROUP 45 TO 64.

OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Cloth room and miscellaneous:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
All operatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912...............................

3

30
32

10
11

40
19

10
19

10
16

100
100

5
2

45
29

10
10

10
21

20
12

10
26

100
100

20

20

7

13

50
20

50
20

100
100

10
11

31
37

8

1

7

10
12

10
8

31
24

100
100

7
14

29
23

5

7
10

14
10

14
10

29
28

100
100

7
9

33
32

1

8
8

14
15

14
12

24
23

100
100

5
7

43
45

1

8
8

10
11

10
9

24
19

100
100

5
7

41
42

1

8
8

11
12

11
10

24
20

100
100

3

3
4

27
34

13
16

17
15

100
100

AGE GROUP 15 TO 64.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card room s:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
Cloth room and miscellaneous:
1905 to 1907...............................
1908 to 1912..............................
All operatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912..............................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912...............................
Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907..............................
1908 to 1912...............................




17
12

23
16

11
7

19
19

2

3
5

42
37

15
11

10
19

100
100

12

25
27

4

4

37
23

13
15

25
15

100
100

10
8

18
29

2

3
4

36
31

7
7

26
19

100
100

5
13

22
20

7

5
7

30
23

14
7

24
23

100
100

10
9

20
24

3

3
4

36
32

11
10

20
18

100
100

7
11

34
33

2

5
5

19
21

12
9

23
19

100
100

8
10

30
30

2

5
5

24
25

11
10

22
18

100
100

C)
1

■

1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

341

G ENERAL TABLES.

EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE IN EACH AGE GROUP, AND PERCENTAGE
AND FOR NONOPERATIVES, 1905 TO 1907 AND 1908 TO 1912—Continued.
PER CENT OF D EATH S FRO M EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE— Concluded.
Females: Per cent of deaths due to—

Nephritis,
Accident apoplexy, Typhoid
or vio­
fever.
or heart
lence.
disease.

ParturitiOD.

Cancer
(all ma­
lignant
growths).

Nontuber­
culous
All other
respiratory causes.
diseases.

Tuber­
culosis.

All causes.

AGE GROUP 45 TO 64.

40
61

20
7

33

50
33

6

60
47

20
11

18

4
9

61
43

4
20

15
9

16

50

2
5

53
48 1..............

12
17

0)

2
2

43
40

1

0)

3
.............2.
1

44
41

1

20
9

20
16

100
100

50
34

100
100

18

100
100

8
7

8
12

100
100

17

17

100

14
10

6

12
14

100
100

13
16

5

7

14
12

23
22

100
100

12
16

6
8

13
11

22
21

100
100

7

20

AGE GROUP 15 TO 64.

10
7

3

20
28

3

6
3

44
39

6
5

14
12

100
100

11
15

3

6
13

2

2
5

47
50

21
5

13
7

100
100

4
10

2
2

14
19

1

8
9

41
42

14
5

17
12

100
100

10
9

3
4

28
30

2

3
11

29
26

11
6

16
12

100
100

6
22

3

11
13

39
37

17
3

22
9

100
100

5
13
9
10

1
3

19
24

2

5
7

38
37

12
6

16
11

100
100

4
6

3
2

34
33

1

11
14

12
16

12
9

24
19

100
100

5
7

3
2

30
30

2

9
12

19
23

12
8

22
16

100
100




GENERAL TABLES.

342

$ 2 .—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH BATES PER 1,000 FROM
DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS, FOR OPERATIVES BY WORKROOMS,

T a b le

PEB CENT EACH ITEM IS OF CORBESPONDINGr
Males: Deaths due to—
Male
popula­
Occupational and work­ tion in Acci­
1908 dent or
room groups.
and
vio­
1913. lence.

Non­
Nephri­
tuber­
tis, apo­ Ty­
Cancer
plexy, phoid (all ma­ Tuber­ culous
respi­
lignant culosis. ratory
or
heart. iever. growths).
dis­
disease.
eases.

All
All
other
causes. causes.

AGE GROUP 1ft TO 24.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907...............
1908 to 1912................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907................
1908 to 1912................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907................
1908 to 1912................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907................
1908 to 1912................
Cloth room and miscella­
neous:
1905 to 1907................
1908 to 1912................

67
20

'*67"

*ioo
34 i

33
33

25

*’ 50*

50

40

50

All operatives:
1905 to 1907...
1908 to 1912...
All nonoperatives
1905 to 1907...
1908 to 1912...

28

Total, all classes.
1905 to 1907...
1908 to 1912...
AGE GROUP 25 TO 34.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907................
1908 to 1912................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907................
1908 to 1912................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907................
1908 to 1912................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907................
1908 to 1912................
Cloth room and miscella­
neous:
1905 to 1907................
1908 to 1912................

33
12
50

25

37

All operatives:
1905 to 1907......
1908 to 1912......
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907......
1908 to 1912......
Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....




29

29

20

343

GENERAL TABLES.

EACH SPE C IFIE D CAUSE JN EACH AG E G R O U P, A N D PER CEN TAG E
AN D F O R N ON O P E R A T IV E S , 1905 TO 1907 AN D 190$ TO 1912—Continued.
IT E M IN AG E GROUP 15 TO 64 (100 PER CENT).
Females: Deaths due to—
Female
popula­
tion in
1908 and
1913.

Partu­
rition.

Nephri­
Cancer
Accident tis, apo­ Typhoid (all ma­ Tubercu­
plexy,
or
losis.
or
lignant
fever.
violence.
heart
growths).
disease.

Non­
tuber­
culous
respi­
ratory
dis­
eases.

All
other
causes.

All
causes.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 24.

47
48

50
45

75

15
2

75

29
33

25
25

22
16

25
24

66
68

60
47

33

67
20

50

45
61

60
67

33
63

49
50

52
54
42
44

27
25
19

50

52
49
23
43

29
20
8
*7

56
31
33
8

41
30
29
13

100
50
10

28
5
15
9

i
100

1

50

86
42

33

100
33

72
22

1
58 !

7

39
46

30
24

41
22

32
28

i

20
18

6

8
4

7
5

2

30
33

5

15
9

14
13

43
38

50
25

34
26

33
29

40

41
27

20
33

50
25

34
31

22

43
35

14
60

44
23

31
36

28
26

29
21

100

51
53

39
31

25
32

19
7

23
21

3
6

8
7

3
3

30

32
32

19
18

10
17

6
4

41

AGE GROUP 25 TO 34.

29
26

33
55

15
17

24
21

20
53

30
26

100
64

30

28
25

50
62

15
15

33
8

44
22

15
14

100

57

25

14
42

67

7
15

41
31

24
26

33
24

30
28

6
9

41
30

13
10

15
12

15
16

6
10

41
31

16
14

18
15

19
20

67

25

33
20

27
25

42
61

10

14
20

26
26

64
56

16
18

6
9

26
26

54
58

14
15

7
12

100




17

7

17
44

344

G EN ERAL TABLES.

3 2 .— POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH BATES PER 1,000 FROM
DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS, FOR OPERATIVES BY WORKROOMS,

T a b le

PER CENT EACH ITEM IS OF CO RRESPON DING ITE M
Males: Deaths due to—

Occupational and work­
room groups.

Male
popula­
tion in Acci­
1908
and dent or
vio­
1913. lence.

Non­
Nephri­
tuber­
tis, apo­ Ty­
Cancer
culous
All
plexy phoid (all ma­ Tuber­ respi­ other
All
or
lignant
fever. growths). culosis. ratory causes. causes.
heart
dis­
disease.
eases.

AGE GROUP 35 TO 44.
j

OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
27
1905 to 1907.................
24
1908 to 1912.................
Spinning room:
12
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
10
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907.................
19
1908 to 1912.................
17 ;
Weave room:
1905 to 1907.................
26
1908 to 1912.................
23
Cloth room and miscella­
neous:
1905 to 1907_________
1908 to 1912_______________________
All operatives:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................

20
55

29
14

25
34

7
16

37
45

40
15

33
28

18
7

28
4

18
12

25

25
19

10
13

21
25

11

11
10

33
34

50 i
29
25
17

50
7

20
14

i
1

17

25

10

33
40

50

19
24

18
28

15

22

20

27

15
20

7

11
4

27
33

14
9

15
11

20
21

21
23

27
24

14
17

17

15
7

26
30

29
23

16
19

20
21

21
21

25
26

I
15 !
18 ;

13

15
6

27
31

25
18

16
16

20
21

50
77

75
50

22

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Cloth room and miscella­
neous:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
All operatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907....
1908 to 1912....
Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907...
1908 to 1912....




100
91

57
14

100

87

36
52

‘ ioo"

100
57

’ ioo*

43
40

” 83'
50

83

87
56

78

67
59

64
67

71
58

72

100
67

25

50
25

75
42

90
83

50
50

33

25
20
50
22
17

62
30

87
81

11

76
76

60

56
14

59
51

62
47

58

52
49

71

18

19
13

67
58

40
45

43
47

54
49

45
45

50
50

345

GENERAL TABLES.

EACH SPECIFIE D CAUSE IN EACH AG E G RO U P, AN D PER CEN TAG E
AN D F O R N O N O PE R A TIV E S, 1905 TO 1907 AN D 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
IN AGE G fiO U P 15 TO 64 (100 PER CENT)— Continued.
Females: Deaths due to—
Female
popula­
tion in
1908 and
1913.

Partu­
rition.

Nephri­
Cancer
Accident tis, apo­ Typhoid (all ma­ Tubercu­
plexy,
or
or
lever.
lignant
losis.
violence.
heart
growths).
disease.

Non­
tuber­
culous
respi­
ratory
dis­
eases.

All
other
causes.

All
causes.

AGE GROUP 35 TO 44.

16
16

17

9
9

20

13
14

9

19
18

25
19

25

50
25

53

50

29
25
67
20

22
26

50

i

25
13

40

14
12

20

5
9

43
20

23

18
18

34
29

21
23

62
43

28
33

29
27

34

11
15

50

100
29

1

21
22

75
56

39
19

16

22
21

26
19
13
16

25

50
33

15
17

38
24

15
24

23
21

28
19

27
27 :
i
13
16

35

21
25

11
24

8
8

16
13

15
19

31
18

16
19

31

25
27

13
20

16
12

16
15

17
19

15
14

19
8

50
16

23
24

27
38

20
20

24
24

AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
I
92
90

100
100

100

69
38

100

50
25

93
93

100
63

78
63

84
72

99
98

100
100

100

100
93

100

80

100
100

100
100

83
88

96
97

95
94

100
100

100
50

57
60

100

75
78

100
93

86
100

100
77

90
84

89
87

100
100

67
30

52
50

100

67
37

88
88

85
64

89
67

78
66

100
86

100

100
25

100
100

100

100
67

100
81

100
100
93
92

100
100

75
58

60
54

100

64
48

95
94

92
74

89
70

85
77

72
71

94
100

52
44

22
28

65

28
34

72
72

27
18

39
29

37
40

78
78

97
100

55
50

29
35

79

33
37

84
84

45
31

49
39

50
52




346

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b l e 3 2 . — PO PU LA TIO N , D EATH S, AND D E A T H R A T E S P E R 1,000 FROM

D IST R IB U T IO N OF D E A TH S,

FOR

O P E R A T IV E S B Y W ORKROOM S,

PER CENT EACH ITEM IS OP CORRESPON DING
Males: Deaths due to—
Male
popula­
Non­
Nephri­
tuber­
Occupational and work­ tion in Acci­ tis, apo­
Cancer
Ty­
All
1908 dent or plexy
room group.
(all ma­ Tuber­ culous other
All
phoid lignant
respi­
and
vio­
or
1913. lence. heart fever. growths). culosis. ratory causes. causes.
dis­
disease.
eases.
!
AGE GROUP 45 TO 54.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Cloth room and miscella­
neous:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
All operatives:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907 ...............
1908 to 1912.................
Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912..................

12
12

9

43

25

20

8
8

11

8

17

12

11
11

33

29

16
17

42

27

17

60

25

50

50 j

50

13
13

27

26

13

39

14
14

20

22

13 |

14
14

22

23

j
13 j
j

!

'7

23

20

19

11

16

25

14

25

23

24

50

29

30

8
14

15

21

16
21

36

20
15

23

24

24
21

37

15
14

20

23

22
21

I

19

AGE GROUP 55 TO 64.
i

OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................
Cloth room and miscella­
neous:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912.................

!

4
5

43

75

3

43

23

21

3
3

40

50

6

33

23

20

4
4

67

14

100

17

50

75

39

5
6

12

27

20

3

25

32

18

50

33

50

29

50

57

40

All operatives:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912..................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912..................

4
5

14

31

44

5
5

34

32

16
21

10
10

14

52

53

11
12

28

31

33
32

Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912..................

8
8

ii

46

50

9
10

31

32

28
29




1 Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

GENERAL TABLES.

347

EACH SPECIFIE D CAUSE IN EACH AGE G R O U P, AND PERCEN TAG E
AND F O R N O N O PE R A TIV E S, 1905 TO 1907 AN D 1908 TO 1912— Continued.
ITEM IK AGE GROUP 15 TO 64 (100 PER CENT)— Continued.
Females: Deaths due to—
Female
popula­
tion in
1908 and
1913.

Partu­
rition.

i
Nephri­
tis, apo­
Cancer
Accident plexy, Typhoid (all ma­ Tubercu­
or
fever.
lignant
losis.
or
violence.
heart
growths).
disease.
j

Non­
tuber­
culous
respi­
ratory
dis­
eases.

Ail
other
causes.

All
causes.

AGE GROUP 45 TO 54.

7
8
1
2
5
6 ______ !
1
91
1 ............
0
i
. . . . . . . . . .t______ I

2
6

1

5
0

1
4
1

5
0

3
0

ii

5

6
0

3
6

5
0

5

1
4

7
5
4
1

2
2

2
5

2
3

2
8

1 '............
4
1 !............
4
1

32

2
0

I

i
______ 1
_______
3
7
2
8

6 i............
71
............
1 i............
7
1 1
7 ............

1
2

3

2
6

1
4

15 !
26

2
2

1
1
25
1
3

1
2

2
1

3
2

5
3
1
8
1
7

2
8

2
3

10
1
5
2
4
2
3

3 i
4

1
1
1
0

2
4

2
3

20
2
1

4

25

5

1
4

12

2

AGE GROUP 55 TO 64.

1
2

3
6

0)

25

7

(1
)
0)

j

io

(x
)
2

3

10

11

14

13

8

7

!

1
1

5

18

12

3
4

4
7

22

39

8

11
12




9

j
!

3
3

6

71

3i
i

1
4

9

1

5
4

4
8

5
8
39
3
7

4
5

38

30
2
7

3
4

10
11

2
9

5
6

!

8

7

100

....... t .
........... I
!
11

5

i
14 !

2

348

GENERAL TABLES.

T able 3 2 .—POPULATION, DEATHS, AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM
DISTRIBUTION OF DEATHS, FOR OPERATIVES BY WORKROOMS,
FEB CENT EACH ITE M IS OF CO RRESPON DING ITEM
Males: Deaths due to—

Occupational and work­
room groups.

Male
popula­
tion in Acci­
1908 dent or
and
vio­
1913. lence.

Non­
Nephri­
tuber­
tis, apo­ Ty­
Cancer
culous 'A ll
plexy phoid (all ma­ Tuber­ respi­ other
All
or
lignant culosis. ratory causes. causes.
heart fever. growths).
dis­
disease.
eases.

AGE GROUP 45 TO 64.
OPERATIVES.

Picker and card rooms:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912..................
Spinning room:
1905 to 1907..................
1908 to 1912..................
Spooler and slasher rooms:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912..................
Weave room:
1905 to 1907..................
1908 to 1912..................
Cloth room and miscella­
neous:
1905 to 1907..................
1908 to 1912..................

16
17

9

43
86

100
100

50
23

25
50

20
46

33
41

11
11

13
11

64
48

100
67

7
18

36
33

29
42

28
31

15
15

100

43

100

33

100
75

50
75

25
58

21
23

33
54

57
54

17

75
80

10
17

50
50

40
55

33
42

50
75

50
83

50

50
100

18
29

40
100

44
86

38
70

All operatives:
1905 to 1907..................
1908 to 1912.................
All nonoperatives:
1905 to 1907..................
1908 to 1912..................

17
18

22
41

54
57

13

78
83

13
19

41
49

38
53

32
42

24
24

44
34

72
74

13

82
89

31
27

48
51

60
55

57
53

Total, all classes:
1905 to 1907.................
1908 to 1912..................

22
22

36
36

68
69

13

81
87

24
24

46
51

55
55

50
50




GENERAL TABLES.

349

EACH SPECIFIED CAUSE IN EACH AGE GROUP, AN D PER CEN TAG E
AN D F O R N O N O PER ATIVE S, 1905 TO 1907 AN D 1908 TO 1912—Concluded.
IN AGE GROUP 15 TO 64 100 (PER CENT)— Concluded.
Females: Deaths due to—
Female
popula­
tion in
1908 and
1913.

Partu­
rition.

Nephri­
Cancer
Accident tis, apo­ Typhoid (all ma­ Tubercu­
plexy,
or
or
fever.
losis.
lignant
violence.
heart
growths).
disease.

Non­
tuber­
culous
respi­
ratory
dis­
eases.

All
other
causes.

All
causes.

AGE GROUP 15 TO 64.

8
10

31
62

50
75

1
2

100
7

7
7

22
37

16
28

100
20

17
12

4
3

23

10
16

15
36

11
33

22
34

100

33

19

37

14

5
6

50

43
40

25
22

7

11
13

33
70

48
50

33
63

12
12

14

75

25
42

40
46

36
52

5
6

8
26

11
30

15
23

7
8
28
29

6

48
56

78
72

35

72
66

28
28

73
82

61
71

63
60

22
22

3

45
50

71
65

21

67
63

16
16

55
69

51
61

50
48




350

GENERAL TABLES.

T able 3 3 . — POPULATION O F EACH SPE C IFIE D CLASS O F M ALES, A N ©
BERCULOUS (IN C LU D IN G ALCOHOLISM ), AND A LL CAUSES. ACCORD
ABSEN T AS A CIRCUMSTANCE A T LE A ST C O N T R IB U T O R Y TO D E A T H ,
ROOM GROUPS, 1908 TO 1912.
AGE GROUP 25 TO 44.
Population.
Occupational group,workroom
group, and complicating
death circumstance.

Deaths.
Tuberculous.

Nontuberculous.

Married.

Single.

Single.

Married.

Married.

Single.

ALL RACES.
4,413
All males................................
Alcoholic..........................
Other...............................
Nonoperatives........................ |
2,979
A l c o h o l i c ______________________ i
Othftr___________________________
Operatives.............................. |
1,434
Alcoholic______________
Other____ ____________1
__________

13,778

51
50

J

Card room and spinning room.
Alcoholic.........................
Other...............................

485
233

2,454

165

41
67

43
129

20
19

26
42

18
24

20
53

3
8

15
18

7
8

20

1

7
12

2
2

13

3
7

8
6

5
6

5
7

17
11

8
23

11
12

14
31

4

2

16
12

19
16

12
8

12
14

3
5

11
5

4
3

6
3

13
7

6
11

8
2

6
10

4
7

7
26

6
16

8
39

3

4
13

3
5

17

4
4

2
12

3
10

8
21

1
1

1

1

698

784

33
46

j
I
1,151 |

252

63
182

1,849

Card room only......................
Alcoholic..........................
Other...............................
Spinning room only...............
Alcoholic..........................
Other...............................
Weave room...........................
Alcoholic..........................
Other...............................
Miscellaneous.........................
Alcoholic..........................
Other...............................

59
91

1

4,730

59
88

31
31

9,048

427

3

6
1

IRISH AND FRENCH CANADIAN.
Operatives.............................
Alcoholic..........................
Other...............................
Card room and spinning room.
Alcoholic..........................
Other...............................
Weave room...........................
Alcoholic..........................
Other...............................

631

1,636

201

498

346

1,001
|
i

ALL OTHER RACES.
Operatives.............................
803
Alcoholic..........................
Other...............................
284
Card room and spinning room.
Alcoholic..........................
Other...............................
Weave room..........................
438
Alcoholic______ ________
Other_________________!__________
Miscellaneous......................... i
81
Alcoholic______________
Other___________________________
1
!




3,094
1,351
1,453
290

351

GENERAL TABLES.

DEATHS AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUING AS ALCOHOLIC ADDICTION WAS REPORTED AS PRESENT OR
B Y AGE, RACE, CONJUGAL CONDITION, AND OCCUPATIONAL AND WORKAG E GROUP 25 TO 44.
Death rates per 1,000 population (age-adjusted).
Tuberculous.
Single.

All causes.

Nontuberculous.

classes.

Single.

Married.

Both
classes.

Single.

JMarried.

Both
classes.

ALL RACES.

2. 71
2.26

0.81
1. 26

1.17
1.51

3.18
4.38

0.84
2. 56

1.29
2. 96

5.89
6.64

1. 65
3.82

2. 43
4.47

2. 47
1.96

.69
1. 02

1.03
1.29

3. 42
4. 90

.85
2. 75

1.32
3.21

5. 89
6. 86

1. 54
3. 77

2.35
4.50

3.19
2.80

1.04
1. 72

1.45
1.96

2. 75
3. 40

.82
2. 18

1.21
2. 48

5.94
6.20

1.86
3.90

4. 44

1.33
3. 63

1. 61
1. 92

1. 55
2. 24

3.31
3. 65

.63
2.16

1.13
2. 40

4. 64
7.28

2.24
4.08

2.68
4.64

1.17

1.12
2.04

.97
1.85

1. 45
2. 35

.16
2.18

.44
2.12

1. 45
3. 52

1.28
4.22

1. 41
3.97

2. 75
6.08

2. 57
2.41

2. 29
2.69

5.85
4. 54

.86
1.59

2. 26
2.66

8.60
10. 62

3.43
4.00

4. 55
5.35

4.63
2.87

. 55
1. 83

1. 45
2. 05

2. 93
2.99

1. 08
2.49

1. 51
2. 64

7. 56
5.86

1.63
4.32

2.96
4.69

1.11
.37

. 95
.32

.38

.74

1.98

6. 38

1.11
1.11

2.39

2.M

.95

IRISH AND FRENCH CANADIAN.

5.16
3.88

2. 34
1 80
.

2. 93
2. 42

3.87
2. 61

1.38
1.82

1. 97
1.97

9.03
6. 49

3. 72
3.62

4.99
4.39

3. 02
5.18

4. 59
1.93

4. 04
2.84

4. 77
* 3.01

2.24
1. 33

2. 70
1. 77

7.79
8.19

6.83
3.26

6.74
4. 61

7. 04
4. 06

1.14
1. 98

2.50
2. 60

4. 46
1.15

1.14
2.20

1.98
1.87

11. 50
5.21

2.28
4.18

4.48
4. 47

ALL OTHER RACES.

1.00
2.05

0. 44
1.67

0.58
1. 71

1. 40
4. 01

0.51
2. 49

0. 72
2.84

2. 40
6.06

0. 95
4.16

1.30
4,55

2. 43

. 60
1.94

. 53
1. 98

1 59
4.33

2. 54

. 34
2. 77

1. 59
6. 76

.60
4.48

.87
4. 75

1.80
2.10

.25
1.63

.63
1 70
.

1. 42
4. 35

1.09
2.81

1.17
3. 26

3. 22
6. 45

1.34
4.44

1.8#
4.9d

.60
. 59

.53
.54

1.81

. 59

1.0S

1.S1

.60
1.18

. 53
1.62




352

G EN ERAL TABLES.

T a b i e 3 3 . - POPULATION OF EACH SPECIFIE D CLASS OF MALES, AND

BERCULOUS (INCLUDING ALCOHOLISM), AND ALL CAUSES, ACCORD
A B SEN T AS A CIRCUMSTANCE A T LEA ST C O N T R IB U T O R Y TO D E A TH ,
ROOM GROUPS, 1908 TO 1912-C on clu d ed .
AGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
Population.
Occupational group, work­
room group, and complicat­
ing death circumstance!

Deaths.
Tuberculous.

Single.

Nontuberculous.

Married.
Single.

Married.

Single.

Married.

ALL RACES.
All males................................
Alcoholic..........................
Other................................
Nonoperatives......................
Alcoholic..........................
Other................................
Operatives..............................
Alcoholic..........................
Other................................

14,626

15,305

8,674

9,969

5,952

5,336

Card room and spinning room.
Alcoholic..........................
Other................................

2,657

2,158

Card room only......................
Alcoholic..........................
Other................................
Spinning room only...............
Alcoholic..........................
Other................................
Weave room...........................
Alcoholic..........................
Other................................
Miscellaneous..........................
\lcoholic..........................
Other................................

737

1,920

1,920

898

2,541

2,705

754

473

54
109

60
99

60
208

65
191

32
57

33
52

41
123

44
136

22
52

27
47

19
85

21
55

5
25

15
20

8
45

7
20

1
4

7
12

3
12

1
13

4
21

8
8

5
33

6
7

17
23

9■
25

11
31

14
33

4

3
2

9

2

18
21

20
17

12
18

12
14

5
10

11
6

4
15

6
3

13
9

7
11

8
8

6
10

4
31

7
30

7
57

9
41

15

4
14

4
30

1
17

4
14

2
14

3
23

8
23

2

1
2

4

1

IRISH AND FRENCH CANADIAN.
Operatives..............................
Alcoholic..........................
Other................................
Card room and spinning room\lcoholic..........................
Other..............................
Weave room...........................
\lcoholie..........................
Other..............................

2,024

1,752

801

534

905

1,061

ALL OTHER RACES.
Operatives..............................
Alcoholic..........................
Other
........................
Card room and spinning room.
Alcoholic. . ...................
Other ...........................
Weave room...........................
Alcoholic..........................
Other................................
Miscellaneous..........................
Alcoholic..........................
Other................................




3,928

3,584

1,856

1,624

1,636

1,644

436

316

353

GENERAL TABLES.

DEATHS AND DEATH RATES PER 1,000 FROM TUBERCULOUS, NONTUING AS ALCOHOLIC ADDICTION WAS REPORTED AS PRESENT OR
BY AGE, RACE, CONJUGAL CONDITION, AND OCCUPATIONAL AND WORKAGE GROUP 15 TO 44.
Death rates per 1,000 population (age-adjusted).
Tuberculous.
Single.

Married.

Nontuberculous.
Both
classes.

Single.

Married.

All causes.

Both
classes.

Single.

Married.

Both
classes.

ALL RACES.

1.34
1.69

0.46
1.35

0.60
1.34

1.54
3.27

0.54
2.05

0.65
2.54

2.88
4.96

1.00
3.40

1.25
3.88

1.21
1.42

.34
1.16

.51
1.13

1.65
3.33

.52
2.45

.66
2.42

2.86
4.75

.86
3.61

1.17
3.65

1.58
2.12

.67
1.69

.76
1.71

1.35
3.03

.57
1.39

.63
2.47

2.93
5.15

1.24
3.08

1.39
4.18

.74
2.56

.78
1.59

.83
1.87

1.64
3.53

.64
1.04

.63
2.71

2.38
6.09

1.42
2.63

1.46
4.58

.21
1.18

.54
.98

.64
1.40

.90
3.19

.08
1.05

.38
2.71

1.11
4.37

.62
2.03

1.02
4.11

1.39
3.80

1.24
1.71

1.16
2.19

2.82
3.87

.93
1.25

1.14
2.78

4.21
7.67

2.17
2.96

2.30
4.97

2.23
2.10

.68
1.71

.75
1.72

1.41
2.56

.52
2.02

.73
2.35

3.64
4.66

1.20
4.73

1.48
4.07

.70

.54
2.43

.46
.97

3. 96

.35

1.77

4.66

.54
2.78

.46
2.74

IRISH AND FRENCH CANADIAN.

2.64
2.54

2.01
1.78

1.62
1.85

1.87
2.74

0.67
.87

0.95
2.32

4.51
5.28

2.68
2.65

2.57
4.17

1.80
3.38

2.21
3.81

2.28
2.34

2.30
3.52

1.08
.64

1.30
2.81

4.10
6.88

3.29
4.46

3.58
5.15

3.40
2.32

. 2.28
.95

1.37
1.59

2.15
1.67

.55
1.06

.96
1.90

5.55
3.99

2.83
2.01

2.33
3.49

ALL OTHER RACES.

0.49
1.77

0.21
1.65

0.28
1.62

0.70
3.30

0.46
1.62

0.40
2.61

1.19
5.07

0.67
3.27

0.68
4.23

1.96

.29
1.32

.25
1.69

.83
3.74

.38
1.22

.28
2.74

.83
5.70

.67
2.54

.53
4.43

.87
1.87

.12
1.88

.31
1.71

.68
3.23

.52
2.44

.56
2.70

1.55
5.10

.64
4.32

.87
4.41

.58

.29
4.26

.26
1.08

1.75

.29

1.33

2.33

.29
4.55

.26
2.41

88204°— 19— B u ll. 251-------23




354

G ENERAL TABLES.

3 4 .—NUMBER AND PER CENT OF TUBERCULOUS AND OF NONTU
FIED AGE, SEX, AND RACE GROUP WHO WITHIN 5 YEARS BEFORE
MATES, AND AVERAGE NUMBER OF SUCH RELATIVES OR INTI

T a b le

Age group 15 to 44.
Males.
Unspeci­
fied race.

Item.

French
Canadian.

Irish.

All races.

Tu- Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Nontutututuber- ber- ber- ber- ber- ber- • ber- bercu- €U cu- €Ucu- cucu- eulous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous.
OPERATIVES.
Number of decedents:
As tabulated elsewhere.......................................
Correction for 21 probably tuberculous...............

72
+2

114
-2

31

21

45
+1

45
-1

148
+3

180
-3

74

112

31

21

46

44

151

177

30
32

6
14

13
19

1
2

23
26

3
5

66
77

10
21

41
43

5
13

42
€1

5
10

50
57

7
11

44
51

6
12

24
27

6
9

16
12

3

11
32

3
1

51
71

12
10

Total..

51

15

28

3

43

4 ' 122

22

At any timeMales_
_
Females.

26
35

15
13

25
17

8
3

16
44

4
2

67
96

27
18

61

28

42

11

€0

6

163

45

0.8
.9

1.0
L5

1.3
.9

3.0

0.5
1.4

1.0
.3

0.7
1.1

1.2
1.0

Total..

1.7

2.5

2.2

3.0

1.9

1.3

1.8

2.2

At any timeMales_
_
Females.

.8
1.1

1.1
.9

1.3
.9

4.0
1.5

.6
1.7

.8
.4

.9
1.2

1.3
.8

1.9

2.0

2.2

5.5

2.3

1.2

2.1

2.1

Corrected basic total.......................................
Decedents who had tuberculous relatives or inti­
mates:
Within 5 years before death...............................
At any time........................................................
Per cent of decedents of each class who had tubercu­
lous relatives or intimates:
Within 5 years before death................................
At any time........................................................
Total tuberculous relatives or intimates:
Within 5 years before death—
Males...........................................
Females.......................................

Total.
Average tuberculous relatives or intimates per de­
cedent having such:
Within 5 years before death—
Males..............................................................
Females........................................................ .

Total.

NONOPERATIVES.
Number of decedents:
As tabulated elsewhere.......................- ...............
Correction for 37 probably tuberculous................

70
+1

176
-1

57
+1

97
-1

47
+4

71
-4

174
+6

344
-6

Corrected basic total........................................

71

175

58

96

51

67

180

338

Decedents who had tuberculous relatives or inti­
mates:
Within 5 years before -death.................................
At any time..........................................................
Per cent of decedents of each class who had tubercu­
lous relatives or intimates:
Within 5 years before death.................................
At anytime..........................................................

25
32

14
29

24
31

13
15

22
29

8
11

92

71

35
55

35 :
45

8
17

41
53

14
16

43
57

12
16

39
51

10
16

Total tuberculous relatives or intimates:
Within 5 years before death—
Males..............................................................
Females..........................................................

22
31

10
6

30
19

15
3

17
27

5
9

69
77

30
18

Total...........................................................

53

16

49

18

44

14

146

48




355

G EN ERAL TABLES.

BERCULOUS O P E R A T IV E AND N O N O PER ATIVE DECEDENTS OF SPEC!-*
D E A TH O R A T A N Y T IM E H AD TUBERCULOUS R E L A T IV E S O R IN T I­
M ATES P E R D ECEDEN T H A V IN G SUCH, 1908 TO 1912.
Age group 15 to 44.

Age group 45 to 64, both sexes.

Females.
Unspeci­
fied race.

French
Canadian.

Irish.

Tu­ Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Nontututuber ber- ber- ber- ber- ber€U- cu- eu- cu- cuClllous. lous. lous. ious. lous. lous.

All races.

Unspeci­
fied raoe.

French
Canadian. All races.

Irish.

Tu- Non- Tu­ Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Nontutututuber- ber- fter- ber- ber- ber- ber- bereu- cu- cu- cu- cu- cu- cu- culous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous.

Tuberculous.

Nontuberculous.

Ages
15 to 64,
both
sexes,
all
races.
Tuberculous.

Nontuberculous.

OPERATIVES.
98
+6

118
-6

46
+4

71
-4

73
+3

75 217 264
- 3 +13 -13

17
+2

104

112

50

67

76

72 230 251

19

49
58

10
16

25
32

12
15

41
47

9 115
13 137

31
44

6
9

8
20

4
5

47
56

9
14

50
64

18
22

54
*62

13
18

50
60

12
18

32
47

5
12

40
58

3
7

21
23

3
12

44
53

8 105
7 134

14
26

4
2

98

10

44

15

97

15 239

40

54
70

8
10

34
41

5
15

57
70

17 145
15 181

124

18

75

20

127

0.8
1.2

0.3
.7

0.9
.9

0.3
1.0

2.0

1.0

1.8

.9
1.2

.5
.6

2.1

1.1

15
+3

51
-3

49 331 414
+5 - 5 +21

775
-21

18

48

54 326 435

754

11
25

4
9

4
8

14
23

23 195
53 237

64
118

24
29

9
22

22
50

8
17

26
43

7
16

45
54

8
16

5
5

2
3

5
9

4
3

3
3

10
8

13 166
17 213

39
53

6

10

5

14

7

6

18

30 379

92

30
40

7
4

8
23

4
3

14
19

6
8

5
8

17
15

27 229
50 292

84
108

32 326

70

11

31

7

33

14

13

32

77 521

192

1.1
1.3

0.9 0.9
.8 1.2

0.5
.8

0.7
.3

0.6
.7

0.5
.8

0.5
.8

1.0
.8

0.7
.8

0.7
.6

0.6
.7

0.8
1.1

0.6
.8

1.3

2.4

1.7

2.1

1.3

1.0

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.8

1.5

1.3

1.3

1.9

1.4

1.0
1.3

.3
1.0

1.2
1.5

1.3
1.2

1.1
1.3

.7
.9

.8
.4

.4
1.2

.8
.6

.5
.8

.7
.9

.6
1.0

.7
.7

.5 1.0
1.0 1.2

.7
.9

2.3

1.3

2.7

2.5

2.4

1.6

1.2

1.6

1.4

1.3

1.6

1.6

1.4

559 39 467
-6 + 6 -6

33
+7

205 121 1,231 438 1,936
- 7 +19 -19 + 37 -37

45 461

40

198 140 1,212 475 1,899

l

164 17 116
—2 .......
162 17 116

1.5

2.2

1.6

NONOPERATIVES.
59
+4

190 41 88
- 4 +3 - 3

43
+5

83 143 361
- 5 + 12 -12

49
+6

63

186

44

85

48

78 155 349

55

553

19
27

11
23

23
26

17
23

23
25

10
15

65
78

38
61

18
27

36
95

16
26

54
99

21
22

27
46

55 117 191
75 240 245

30
43

6
12

52
59

20
27

48
52

13
19

42
50

11
17

33
49

7
17

36
58

12
21

53
55

17
23

39
54

10
20

40
52

10
19

7 16
5 , 22

13
11

22
24

11
8

50
65

31
24

19
14

18
26

15
19

32
32

22
27

15
20

56
60

65 175
78 202

126
120

24

46

19 115

55

33

44

34

64

49

35 116 143 377

246

12
19
31

12

38




190
356

GENERAL TABLES.

356

34 —NUMBER AND PER CENT OF TUBERCULOUS AND OF NONTU
FTED AGE, SEX. AND RACE GROUP WHO WITHIN 5 YEARS BEFORE
MATES, AND AVERAGE NUMBER OF SUCH RELATIVES OR INTI

T a b le

Age group 15 to 44.
Males.
Unspeci­
fied race.

Item.

French
Canadian.

Irish.

All races.

Tu- Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Nontutututuber- ber- ber- ber- ber- ber- ber- bercucu- cu- cucueu- lous. cu- lous. culous. lous. lous. lous.
lous.
lous.
NONOPERATIVES—Concluded.
Total tuberculous relatives or intimates—Continued.
At any time—
Males..............................................................
Females..........................................................

39
42

21
16

41
30

17
6

29
46

8
10

109
118

46
32

Total...........................................................

81

37

71

23

75

18

227

78

Average tuberculous relatives or intimates per de­
cedent having such:
Within 5 years before death—
Males..............................................................
Females..........................................................

0.9
1.2

0.7
.4

1.3
.8

1.2
.2

0.8
1.2

0.6
1.2

1.0
1.1

0.9
.5

2.1

1.1

2.0

1.4

2.0

1.8

2.1

1.4

At any time—
Males..............................................................
Females..........................................................

1.2
1.3

.7
.6

1.3

1.0

1.1
.4

1.0
1.6

.7
.9

1.2
1.2

.8
.6

Total...........................................................

2.5

1.3

2.3

*1.5

2.6

1.6

2.4

1.4

OPERATIVES AND NONOPERATIVES.
Number of decedents:
As tabulated elsewhere........................................
Correction for 58 probably tuberculous................

142
+3

290
-3

88
+1

118
-1

92
+5

116
-5

322
+9

524
—9

145

287

89

117

97

111

331

515

55
64

20
43

37
50

14
17

45
55

11
16

137
169

45
76

38
44

7
15

42
56

12
15

46
57

10
14

41
51

9
15

Total tuberculous relatives or intimates:
Within 5 years before death—
Males ...........................................................
Females..........................................................

46
58

16
15

46
31

18
3

28
59

8
10

120
148

42
28

Corrected basic total..........................................
Decedents who had tuberculous relatives or inti­
mates:
Within 5 years before death.................................
At any time..........................................................
Per cent of decedents of each class who had tubercu­
lous relatives or intimates:
Within 5 years before death.................................
At any time..........................................................

Total...........................................................

104

31

77

21

87

18

268

70

At any time—
Males..............................................................
Females..........................................................

65
77

36
29

66
47

25
9

45
90

12
12

176
214

73
50

Total...........................................................

142

65

113

34

135

24

390

123

Average tuberculous relatives or intimates per de­
cedent having such:
Within 5 years before death—
Males..............................................................
Females..........................................................

0. 8
1.1

0.8
.8

1.3
.8

1.3
.2

0.6
1.3

0. 7
.9

0.9
1.1

1. 0
.6

Total...........................................................

1.9

1.6

2.1

1.5

1.9

1.6

2.0

1.6

At any time—
Males..............................................................
Females..........................................................

1.0
1.2

.8
.7

1,3
1.0

1.5
.5

.8
1.7

.8
.7

1.0
1.3

1. 0
.6

Total...........................................................

2.2

1.5

2.3

2.0

2.5

1.5

2.3

1.6




357

GENERAL TABLES.

BERCULOUS O P E R A T IV E AND N O N O PE R A TIV E DECEDENTS OF SPECID EATH O R A T A N Y TIM E H AD TUBERCULOUS R E L A T IV E S O R IN T I­
MATES P E R D ECEDEN T H A V IN G SUCH, 1908 TO 1912— Concluded.
Age group 45 to 64, both sexes.

Age group 15 to 44.
Females.
Unspeci­
fied race.

French
Canadian.

Irish.

All races.

Tu­ Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Nontututuber ber- ber- ber- ber- bercu- cu- cu- cu- cu- culous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous.

Tuberculous.

Nontuberculous.

Unspeci­
fied race.

French
Canadian. All races.

Irish.

Tu- Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Nontututuber- ber- ber- ber- bei* bercuCllcucu- lous. cu- lous. Clllous. lous.
lous.
lous.

Tuberculous.

Nontuberculous.

Ages
15 to 64,
both
sexes,
all
races.
Tu­
berculous.

Nontuberculous.

NONOPERATIVES—Concluded.

16
29

22
12

25
31

25
20

31
41

17 72
13 101

64
45

30
27

54
97

45

34

56

45

72

30 173 109

57

151

0.6
1.0

0.6
.5

0.7
1.0

0.8
.6

1.0
1.0

1.1
.8

0.8 0.8
1.0 .6

1.0
.8

0.5
.7

0.9
1.2

0.6
.6

1.0
1.3

0.6
.7

1.0
1.1

0.5
.7

0.9
1.1

0.7
.6

1.6

1.1

1.7

1.4

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.4

1.8

1.2

2.1

1.2

2.3

1.3

2.1

1.2

2.0

1.3

.6
1.1

1.0
.5

1.0
1.2

1.1
.9

1.2
1.7

1.1
.9

.9
1.3

1.1
.7

1.1
1.0

.6
1.0

.8
1.4

.8
.8

1.5
1.4

.8
.9

1.2
1.2

.7
.9

1.1
1.3

.8
.8

1.7

1.5

2.2

2.0

2.9

2.2

2.2

1.8

2.1

1.6

2.2

1.6

2.9

1.7

2.4

1.6

2.4

1.6

22
35

80
80

33
30

39
39

85 173 266
92 216 311

283
293

57 160

63

78 177 389 577

576

OPERATIVES AND NONOPERATIVES.
157
+10

308
-10

87 159
+7 - 7

116
+8

158 360 625
- 8 +25 -25

66
+8

723
-8

.167

298

94 152

124

150 385 600

74

715

62 577

58

68
85

21
39

48
58

29
38

64
72

19 180 69
28 215 105

24
36

44
115

20 65
31 124

25
31

31
54

69 140 386
98 293 482

41
51

7
13

51
62

19
25

52
58

13
19

47
53

12
18

32
49

6
16

32
50

11
21

43
53

13
22

36
51

9
19

42
53

10
18

52
77

10
12

37
45

16
23

66
77

19 155
15 199

45
50

23
16

23
31

17
22

37
41

26
30

18
23

66
68

78 341
95 415

165
173

129

22

82

39

143

34 354

95

39

54

39

78

56

41

756

338

70
99

30 i 59
22 72

30
35

88
111

34 217
28 282

94
85

37
31

62
120

26
38

94
99

39
38

44 102 200 495
47 107 266 603

367
401

169

52 131

65

199

62 499 179

68

182

64 193

77

91 209 466 1,098

768

56 583 48
+6 - 6 +10

256 170 1,562 852 2,711
—10 +24 -24 +58 -58
246 194 1,538 910 2,653

134 173

254
474

0.8
1-1

0.5
.5

0.8
.9

0.5
.8

1.0
1.2

1.0
.8

0.9
1.1

0.7
.7

0.9
.7

0.5
.7

0.9
1.1

0.6
.6

1.0
1.2

0.6
.7

0.9
1.0

0.5
.7

0.9
1.1

0.6
.7

1.9

1.0

1.7

1.3

2.2

1.8

2.0

1.4

1.6

1.2

2.0

1.2 2.2

1.3

1.9

1.2

2.0

1.3

.8
1.2

.8
.5

1.0
1.3

.8
.9

1.2
1.6

1.2
1.0

1.0
1.3

.9
.8

1.0
.9

.6
1.0

.9
1.2

.8
.8

1.3
1.2

.8
.9

1.0
1.1

.7
.9

1.0
1.3

.8
.8

2.0

1.3

2.3

1.7

2.8

2.2

2.3

1.7

1.9

1.6

2.1

1.6

2.5

1.7

2.1

1.6

2.3

1.6




358

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b le 3 5 .— N U M BE R AN D P E R CENT OP TU B ERC U LO U S AN D OF NON
W O R K R O O M GROUP, W HO W ITH IN 5 Y E A R S B E FO R E D E A TH H A D
O F SUCH R E L A T IV E S O R IN TIM ATE S P E R D ECE D E N T H AV IN G SUCH,
Males.
Ameri­
can.

Workroom group of
decedents.

Tuberculous.

Total decedents:'
Card room.....................

English.

Non- Tu- Nontutuber- ber- bercucu- lous. culous.
lous.

French
Canadian.

Irish.
Tu- Nontuber- bereu- culous. lous.

Portu­
guese.

Tu- Non- Tutuber- ber- bercu- cu- culous. lous. lous.

Other
races.

Non- Tutuber- bercuCll- lous.
lous.

All races.

Non- Tutuber- bercucu- lous.
lous.

Nontuberculous.

3

?
7

7

3
7

6
4

2
5

3
20

2
18

11
8

11
13

5

8

25
42

28
50

1
6

2
9

16

3
36

3
18

1
13

1
22

5
19

3
4

3

1
9

8

9
75

11
88

Total operatives........
Total nonoperatives___

10
25

20
60

?.3
28

49
60

31
58

21
96

46
51

44
67

26
9

27
27

15
9

16 151 177
28 180 338

Both classes..............

35

80

51

109

89

117

97

111

35

54

24

44 331 515

1

9
24

11 2

4
29

4

Spooler room
and
rooms not specified. - -

Decedents who had tuber­
culous relatives and in­
timates within 5 years
before death:
Number—

|
1

2

2

4
4

7

1

2
14

1

2

1
1

I
1

2
4

Spinning room.......
Spooler room and
rooms not speci­
fied......................
W eave room...........

2

4

2

7

2

2
9

Total operatives..
Total nonoperatives.

4
12

4

11
9

3
9

13
2
.4

1
13

23
22

3
8

12
3

3
1

3
1

66
71

10
35

....

16

4

20

12

37

14

45

11

15

4

4

137

45

Per cent of total decedents
of specified class:
Card room.....................
Spinning r o o m ...................
Spooler room and rooms
not specified.............
Weave room.................

67

2 57

20

67
70

11

36
50

9
8

20

36
57

7
8

33

44

67
6 *50

32

5

2 67
50

33

22

44
39

5

Total operatives........
Total nonoperatives___

40
48

7

48
32

6 2 42
15 2 41

5
14

50
43

7
12

46
33

11
4

20
11

44
39

6
10

Both classes............
Total tuberculous relatives
and intimates within 5
years before death:
Card room.....................
Spinning room..............
Spooler room and
rooms not specified
Weave room.................

46

5

39

11 2 42

12

46

10

43

7

17

41

9

3

3
23

3

12
4

1
3

1

19
40

0
9

17

1

2
3

4

2

4
59

7

43
44

4
14

21
7

8
1

3
1

122
146

22
48

87

18

28

9

4

268

3.0

1.0

1.0

2.1
1.7
1.0
2.0

1.8

1.0 ....... 1.8
2.1
1.0

2.2
1.4

Both classes

33 233

5

3

8

2

2
23

17
15

7
11

28
49

3
18

4 | 32
Both classes.............. 40
Average tuberculous rela­
tives and intimates per
|
decedent having such:
Card room.....................
Spinning room.............. 2.0 ___ 22. 3
Spooler room and
rooms not specified
Weave room.................. 3.0 .......i 1.1

18

77

21

Total operatives........
Total nonoperatives___

4

9

a .. .J
10
30

Total operatives........ 2.5
Total nonoperatives___ 2.5
Both classes............... 2.5

4

i ’o"
1.0

1.5
1.7

5.0 U.5

1.5
3*0* 1.6

2

'i.Y 1.0 3.0
21.0

1.0
1.0 22.6

2*4*

i.‘o' 1.5 T o ’ i.o’

2.3 22.2 3.0
1.2 22.0 1.4

1.9
2.0

1.3
1.8

1.8
2.3

2.7
1.0

70

3.0
2.3

j 1.6 1.5 22.1 1.5 j 1.9 1.6 1.9 2.3 j 1.0 ....... 2.0 1.6

i 34 "probably tuberculous” decedents elsewhere regularly scheduled as nontuberculous are scheduled
as tuberculous” herein and in all tables involving tuberculous kindred. For distribution of these 34
cases see Table 55.




GENERAL TAB LES.

359

TUBERCULOUS
DECEDENTS
OF
SPECIFIED
SEX,
RACE,
AND
TUBERCULOUS R E L A T IV E S OR IN TIM ATES, AND A V E R A G E N U M BE R
AGE GROUP 15 TO 44, 1908 TO 1912.
Females.
American.

English.

French
Canadian.

Irish.

Portuguese.

Other races.

All races.

TuTu­
TuTnTuTuTuber- Nontu­ faer- Nontu­ ber- Nontu­ ber- Nontu­ ber- Nontu-, ber- Nontu­ ber- Nontubercu­ cu- bereucu- bercu­ cu- bercu­ cu- bercu­ cu- : bercu­ eu- bercu- culous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous.
2
1

14

13

1

1

4

1
1
6

3
9

10

7

9
25

7
17

23
24

15
54

32
16

48
56

47

G
9

48

3

1

6

16

3
3

58
58

51
51

1

61
53

54
95

41

12

230
155

251
349

53

385

000

1

32
37

9
5

4

37

26

14

9
18

38

11

18
15

24
14

13
3

4

5

5

50
44

67
85

76
48

72
78

38

37
35

11
11

104

94

152

124

150

50

72

22

9
1-

1

11

4

1

4
25

2
1

5

1
2

4

6

2

2

1
6

7
5

5

5

1

1

9

22

3
3
8

6

8

8

12

8

6

2
2
2

1
1

1
2

3

13
7

4

14
7

3
3

25
23

12

17

41
23

19
3

5

10

20

5

21

6

48

29

64

19

22

7

50

50

64

8

2 50
2 75

25
50

67

25
4

63
57

11
11

1

100
2 55

68

2

24

10

2

1
2

115
65

31
38

5

3

180

69

33

55
04

10

57

67

7

22

8

247

43

9
13

39
33

21

7

38
33

17
25

50
40

18

36
45

13
11

57
29

7
7

44
44

6

5

2 50
2 52

18

13
13

50
25

14

6

27
18

8.

20

54
48 .

5

50
42

12
11

43

7

44

6

*51

19

52

13

44

10

23

6

47

12

7

1

24

1

15
4

5
3

61

12

2

7
18

1
2

1

65
85

.10
10

2

8

17

1
6

18

7

6

1
1

1
2

47
42

8
12

32
8

3
3

44
38

15
24

2

13
9

4

6

6

3

2

97
46 :

15
19

34
3

5

3

2

1
2

239 .
115

40
55

7

5

3

354

95

2.0

2.3

1.1
2.0

2.1
1.8

1.1
1.2

1.0
1.0

2.1
1.8

1.3
1.4

1.0

2.0

1.4

29
18

'5

47

6

40

6

82

39

143

34

37

2.3

1.0

2.7

1.0

2.0

2 1.4
21.3

1.3
3.0

3.0
2.4

1.0

1.4 i
2.3 ;

1.0
1.0

1.5

1.0 * 2.1

2.7

1.0
1.0

2.6
1.2

3.0

2.0 |

1.4

1.0
1.0

1.0
1.0

2.3

21.8

1

a2.2
2.3

4.0

1.2

2

1.0

2.2
2.6

1.3

1.1

1.0
1.0

*1.7

1.3
1.4

2.4

1-7
1.9

1.8 :
1.0 |

1.0
1.0

1.0

2.0

2.4

1.2

1.9

1.0

2 1.7

i. 3

2.2

1.8

1.7 .

1.0

1.0

1.0

1,0

8This race has the highest tuberculous death rate of all races within the specified workroom or industry.




360

.

GENERAL TABLES.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF TUBERCULOUS AND OF NON
WORKROOM GROUP, WHO WITHIN 5 YEARS BEFORE DEATH HAD
' OF SUCH RELATIVES OR INTIMATES PER DECEDENT HAYING

T a b le 3 6 .—

Males.

’Workroom group of
decedents.

15 to 19
years.
Tuberculous.

Total decedents:1
Card room.....................
Spinning room..............
Spooler room # and
rooms not specified...

5

Nontuberculous.

20 to 24
years.
Tuberculous.

Nontuberculous.

25 to 29
years.
Tu­
faerculous.

Nontuberculous.

8

4

3

3

10

12

12

9

4
8

1

30 to 34
years.
Tu­
faerculous.

Nontuberculous.

35 to 39
years.
Tuberculous.

4
9

2
5

3

Nontuberculous.

5

6
5

40 to 44
years.
Tuberculous.

Nontuberculous.

Total,
15 to 44
years.
Tuberculous.

Nontuberculous.

9

5

4

25
42

28
50

9
75

11
88

4

4

3

2
11

13

15

10

18

24

3
14

2

10

9

2

6

13

1
20

34
42

28
71

.28
30

30
90

76

99

58

120

331

515

3

1

9
24

2

2

Total operatives........
Total nonoperatives----

12

15

37
23

26
23

28
39

25
34

29
57

23
39

25
58

Both classes...............

27

60

49

67

59

86

62

83

Decedents who had tuber­
culous relatives and inti­
mates within 5 years be­
fore death:
Number—
Card room..............
Spinning room........
Spooler room and
rooms not specified
Weave room...........

1

3

1

4

1

8

3

1
6

1

4

1

1

4

9

1

15
14

1
8

11

14

1
11

66

71

35

29

9

25

12

137

45

233

20

36

7
8

15

Both classes........

8

3

27

7

27

Per cent of total decedents,
of specified class:
Card room.....................
Spinning room..............
Spooler room and
rooms not specified...
Weave room.................

G
O

13
6

100

67 *‘ 25‘

33
67

33

10

22

38

Total operatives........
Total nonoperatives----

33
25

8

54
57

11
10

48
44

Both classes...............
Total tuberculous relatives
and intimates within 5
years before death:
Card room.....................
Spinning room..............
Spooler room # and
rooms not specified ,
Weave room..................

30

5

55

10

46

8

2
12

Total operatives........
Total nonoperatives----

6

3

1

10

7
4

7

31
29

4
10

4

1

3
4

15

4

4
29

1

14
13

1

2

5

2

3

5

2

12

1

5
3

4

1
2
12

2

Total operatives..
Totalnonoperatives.

151 177
180 338

5
g

12
21

7
g

25

2 44

33

7

40

6 250

3

9

39
31

4
44
12 233

4 239
11
47

7

34

10

38

1

100

2

5

50

44
39

5

3
12

44
39

6
10

9 243

10

41

9

9
3

1

19
40

9

7

2

9
8

5

4

6

1

27

1

23
36

4

1

7

13
25

10

30
30

1
9

11

38

11

60

10

7 60 13 59
Both classes............... 11
Average tuberculous rela­
tives and intimates per
decedent having such:
5.0 1.5
2.0
Card room.....................
Spinning room.............. 1.3 1.0 1.9 *2.7* 2.0
Spooler room and
rooms not specified
Weave room.................. 1.5 1.0 5.0
1.8

2100

31

4
59

7

18

22

1 122
17 146

22

40

18 268

70

2.1
81.7

3.0
2.3

23.0
1.5

1.0

21.0

4.0

1.5

1.0

48

1.0
2.0

1.0 22.3 *i.*6‘ 1.0

1.8

1.8

2.2
1.6

Total operatives........ 1.4
Total nonoperatives---- 1.3

2.3

2.2
2.2

2.7
1.3

1.9
2.4

4.0
1.4

1.4
2.1

1.0

2.0
1.4 22.1

1.0 21.6
1.1 1.6

1.0

1.5

2.1

Both classes............... 1.4

2.3

2.2

1.9

2.2

1.8

1.8

1.4

1.1 21.6

1.5

2.0

2.1

6

2
4

T o’

2.0

21.3

3 57

1.4

* 34 “ nrobably tuberculous” decedents elsewhere regularly scheduled as nontuberculous are scheduled
as “ tuberculous” herein and in all tables involving tuberculous kindred. For distribution of these 34
cases see Table 55.




361

GENERAL TABLES.

TUBERCULOUS DECEDENTS OF SPECIFIED SE X, AGE GROUP, AND
TUBERCULOUS R E L A T IV E S OR INTIM ATES, AND AV ER A G E N U M BE R
SUCH, 1908 TO 1912.
Females.
15 to 19
years.

20 to 24
years.

30 to 34
years.

25 to 29
years.

35 to 39
years.

Total,
15 to 44
years.

40 to 44
years.

TuTuTuTuTuber- Nontu­ ber- Nontu­ ber- Nontu­ ber- Nontu­ ber- N ontu­
cu- bercu­ cu- bercu­ cu- bercu­ cu- bercu­ cu- bercu­
lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous. lous.
lous.

Tu­
Tuber- Nontu­ ber- Nontu­
cu- bercu­
cu- bercu­
lous. lous. lous.
lous.

6
13

7
13

14
22

10
8

14
8

8
13

11
7

11
7

8
6

6
6

5
2

9
4

58
58

51
51

17
7

6
5

11
18

5
11

12
7

16
15

14
6

10
19

3
6

7
19

4
9

10
26

61
53

54
95

43
17

31
12

65
19

34
21

41
35

52
54

38
31

47
76

23
29

38
82

20
24

49
104

230
155

251
349

60

43

84

55

76

106

69

123

52

120

44

153

385

600

4
10

1

9
12

1
1

7
3

1
2

5

5

1
1

4
6

2
1

3
1

3

32
37

9
5

4
4

2

6
8

1
1

6
1

1

5
5

3
3

1
4

2

1
5

22
24

7
10

22
6

3
1

35
6

4

17
17

4
4

20
16

8
6

15
11

3
16

6
9

9
11

115
65

31
38

28

4

41

4

34

8

36

14

26

19

15

20

180

69

67
77

14

64
55

10
13

50
38

13
15

45
2 71

9
14

2 50

33
17

60
50

33

3 55
64

18
10

24
57

33

55
44

20
9

50
14

7

2 36
83

30
16

33
67

222

10
19

33
45

13
11

51
35

10
8

54
32

12

41
49

8
7

2 53
52

17
8

65
238

8
20

30
38

18
11

50
42

12
11

47

9

49

7

45

8

a 52

11

50

16

34

13

47

12

10
24

1

20
35

1
1

16
6

2
2

5
7

1
3

6
12

2
4

8
1

3

65
85

10
10

11
6

2

17
13

2
1

9
2

1

7
14

3
3

3
4

3

1
7

47
42

8
12

51
17

3
1

85
16

5

33
28

5
7

33
28

10
11

25
11

6
20

12
15

11
16

239
115

40
55

68

4

101

5

61

12

61

21

36

26

27

27

354

io

2.5
2.4

1.0

2.2
2.9

1.0
1.0

2.3
2.0

2.0 1.0
1.0 2 1.4

1.0 2 1.5
3.0 2.0

1.0
4.0

2.7
1.0

3.0 82.0
2.3

1.1
2.0

2.8
1.5

1.0

2.8
1.6

2.0
1.0

1.5
2.0

1.0

2 1.5

1.0
1.4

2.1
1.8

1.1
1.2

2.3
2.8

1.0
1.0

2.4
2.7

1.3

1.9
1.6

i.8 2 1. 7
1.8 1.8

1.7
1.3
1.8 21.0

2.0
1.3

2.0
1.7

1.2
1.5

2. 1
1.8

1.3
1.4

2.4

1.0

2.5

1.3

1.8

1.5 2 1,7

1.5

1.4 | 1.8

14

2.0

1.4

2 1.4
2.8

1.0
1.0

100

3.0
1.0

1.4

2 Highest age group death rate of class specified occurs here.
* Highest workroom death rate in age group 15 to 44 occurs here .




362

GENERAL TABLES.

Table 3 7 .—NUMBER AN D R E LA TIO N SH IP O F R E L A T IV E S AND IN TI
DECEDENT W ERE
AND RACE.

TUBERCULOUS,

FO R

O PE R A TIV E S

AND

NON

[This table presents in detail the data shown in summary form in Tables 35 and 36. The
OPERATIVES.
Age group 15 to 44.
Males.

Relationship to decedent.

Unspecified
raee.

;

French
Canadian.

Irish.

All races.

Tu- Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Non- Tu- . Non- ;
tutututuber- ber- ber- ber- ber- ber- ber-; ber- ;
cucucucucu- lous. cu- lous. cu- lous.. cu- ;
lous. lous.
lous.
lous.
lous.
Tuberculous within 5 years before death of decedent:
Grandfathers........................................................
Grandmothers......................................................
Fathers.................................................................
Mothers................................................................
Husbands..................................................... .......
Wives...................................................................
Sons......................................................................
Daughters.............................................................
Brothers................................................................
Sisters...................................................................
Uncles..................................................................
Aunts...................................................................
Nephews...............................................................
Nieces...................................................................
Cousins, male.......................................................
Cousins, female.....................................................
Males in same house.............................................
Females in same house.........................................
Other male intimates...........................................
Other female intimates........................................

2
1

1
3

5
2
2
1

2

1

2

2
2
2
2

1

2
1

Total, males.......................................................
Total, females....................................................

24
27

6
9

16
12

3

11
32

Grand total........................................................

51

15

28

3

1
4
8

6
2

3
1

2

1

1
4
5
4
1

14
8

Tuberculous at any time before death of decedent:
Grandfathers.........................................................
Grandmothers......................................................
Fathers.................................................................
Mothers................................................................
Husbands.............................................................
Wives...................................................................
Sons......................................................................
Daughters.............................................................
Brothers................................................................
Sisters...................................................................
Uncles................................. ......... .......... ............
Aunts........................................................ - .........
Nephews..............................................................
Nieces................................ ...................................
Cousins, male........................................................
Cousins, female.....................................................
Males in same house.............................................
Females in same house. .....................................
Other male intimates...........................................
Other female intimates........................................

1
3
2
8
5
3
7
6
1
2

8
5
3
8
7
1
3

2
1

1
1

2
3

2

1

1
4
3

8
5

5
1
2
5
21

1

1

2

Total, males.......................................................
Total, females....................................................

26
35

15
13

Grand total........................................................

61 • 28

2
1
5
3

2

3
1

51
71

12
10

43

4

122

22

1

4
7

2
1

1
11
16

9
3

1

5
1
2
7
24
1
5

2
1

14
6
5
29
39
2
9

1
4;
1

1
2

1

3
1
6
7
8
2

3
5
1
8
4
6
4

4

5
2
2
1

14
6
5
20
32
1
2

4
2

8
4
6
4

1

2
1

1
61
6

3
4

1

1
2
2
2
2




2
1

2

2

1

1

2
1

25
17

8
3

16
44

4
2

67
96

27
18

42

11

60

6

163

45

1
2

GENERAL TABLES.

363

MATES WHO WITHIN 5 YEARS OR AT ANY TIME BEFORE DEATH OF
OPERATIVES OF SPECIFIED AGE GROUPS, BY CAUSE OF DEATH, SEX,
number of decedents to whom these relatives or intimates belonged is shown in Table 34.]
OPERATIVES.

Ag© group 15 to 44.

Age group 45 to 64, both sexes.
Age group
15 to 64,
both
French All races. sexes, all
Canadian.
races.

Females.

\ Juiopcuxiicu.
J
Unspecified
race.

French
Canadian. All races.

Irish.

Tu- : Non- I Tutuber- ber- bercucu- eul
lous. lous. Io ls.

Nontuberculous.

Tu- Non- Tu­ Mon- Tu- Nontututuber- ber- : ber- ber- ber- bercucucu- eu- cu- culous. lous. lous. lous. lous. ious.

1

7
7
5
3
1
17
25
3
9
1
2

race.

Irish.

Tuberculous.

Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Nontutututuber- ber- ber- ber- ber- ber- bercucucucu- lous. cu- lous. cu- lous. culous.
lous.
ious.
lous.

1
1

1
1

2

1

3

i*
i

4
1

3
4
1

8
8

1

2
1

2
22
36
1

2

24

2

3

4
6

1

9
5
10
2
2
5
10
3
12

4

2

2
6'
15

1

3

3

1
1
3

1

2

1
1

3
2

7

16
17
15
15
68
102

3
8
8
16
22

21

2

1
4
1

"'2

3

4
6
47
70

1

1
1
5

18
15
16

1
1

1

3

3
1
1

2
2
1

1

1

1
3

3
5
4
1

1

1

6
5
5
4
2
4

1

2
1

1

1

5

11
5
13
6
2
16 i
15
10
16

4
3

2

7

•
•
2
2
1
4

5

1

2
2
1
5

O^
O
O

2
3
7

1

3
8
9

2
1

9

3
7

21
23

3
12

44
53

8 105
7 134

14
26

4
2

5
5

2
3

5
9

4
3

3
3

10
8

13 166
17 213

39
53

98

10

44

15

97

15 239

40

6

10

5

14

7

6

18

30 379

92

4

3
5
4

3
1

14
19
9

1
1
1
1
2 43
1
2 54
1
4 20
3
5 17
6
8' 16
7 11 18
4 11 96
1 ! 14 124
1
....... 12
1 5
27
2
6
2
6 15
7
5
4
4
18
1 "2
15
1
10
16

2
1
19
11
9
8
10
14
27
41
12
11
2
9

27 229
50 292

84
108

13 j 32 1 77 521

192

1
2
2

1

1
14
13
6
3
1
21
26

A

14
2
2
2
3
7

2
1
2
6
1
1

1
1
8
1
3
13
18
7
5
4
3
4 "*2
1
2
3
2
1
5

2
29
40
1
1
4
1
2
1
2
2

5

1

54
70

8
10

34
41

5
15

57
70

124

18

75

20

127




1

1

4
3
2

31
37
19

8
6
5

1

4

2
2
10
20
4
4

<
5
5 63
7 ■4
8
4 10
>
4
18
6
10
2
4
6
' 10
3
1 12

1
1
1
4
1

1

1
1
2
1
1
3
6
2
5

2

1
1
2
2

3
2
5
4

5
8

3

5
1
1

1
2

3

2

1

2
1

1
1

2

2

1
1
2

2

2
1

4

2

3

4

1

145
181

30
40

7
4

8
23

4
3

14
19

6
8

32 326

70

11

31

7

33

14

17
15

3
1
1

1
1

1

5
8

17
15

2

2
2
1
4

364

GENERAL TABLES.

T a b le 3 7 .— NUM BER AN D R E L A T IO N S H IP OF R E L A T IV E S AN D

D ECEDEN T W E R E TU BERCULOUS,
AND RACE— Continued.

FO R

O P E R A T IV E S

AN D

IN T I
NON

NONOPERATIVES.
Age group 15 to 44.
Males.

Relationship to decedent.

Unspecified
race.

French
Canadian.

Irish.

All races.

Tu- Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Non- Tu- Nontutututu­
ber- ber- ber- ber- ber- ber- ber- bercucucucucu- lous. cu- lous. cu- ious. culous. lous.
lous.
lous.
lous.
Tuberculous within 5 years before death of decedent .
*
Fathers.................................................................
Mothers................................................................
Husbands........................ ....................................
Snns..

...... ...............