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Premium Pay for Night, Weekend,
and Overtime Work
in Major Union Contracts




Bulletin No. 1251
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Premium Pay for Night, Weekend,
and Overtime Work
in Major Union Contracts

Bulletin No. 1251
June 1959

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 30 cents




From the Monthly Labor Review of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, February
1958, March 1959, and April 1959 issu e s, with additional tables.




li

Preface

Three significant types of extra compensation for workers provided under
major collective bargaining agreements are analyzed in this bulletin— shift differ­
entials, premium pay for work on Saturdays, Sundays, or the sixth and seventh day
of the workweek, and daily and weekly premium overtime pay. Another bulletin
recently issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Paid Holiday Provisions in Major
Union Contracts, 1958 (BLS Bull. 1248), included data on premium pay for work
on holidays.
For these studies, virtually all agreements in the United States covering
1,000 or more workers, exclusive of railroad and airline agreements, were analyzed.
The study of overtime provisions covered 1,813 major agreements in effect in 1956
and 1957; the other two studies were based on provisions of 1,736 agreements in
effect in 1958. Worker coverage ranged from 7,753,000 to 8,024,000, or almost half
of estimated total agreement coverage in the United States, outside of the railroad
and airline industries. The difference in coverage between the earlier and later
studies is accounted for by declines in agreement coverage, which dropped some
agreements below the 1,000 worker level, and difficulties in obtaining copies of
current agreements in some c a se s.
All agreements studied were part of the Bureau's file of current agreements
maintained for public and governmental use under the provisions of the Labor
Management Relations Act, 1947* The provisions of agreements covering 1,000 or
more workers, with which these studies deal, do not necessarily reflect policy in
smaller collective bargaining situations or in large or small unorganized firms.
These studies were undertaken in the Bureau's Division of Wages and
Industrial Relations under the supervision of Harry P. Cohany. The report on shift
differentials was prepared by John N. Gentry; on premium pay for weekend work, by
Rose Theodore; and on hours of work and overtime provisions, by Harry P. Cohany
and Dena G. Weiss.




in




Contents
Page
Shift provisions, 1958 ________________________________________________
Scope of study____________________________________________________
Shift operations___________________________________________________
Types and amounts of shift differen tials___________________________
Significant shift differential patterns _____________________________

1
1
2
3
5

Premium pay for weekend work, 1958 __________________________________
Scope of study -------------------------------------------------------------------Saturday and Sunday not regularly scheduled -----------------------------Sixth and seventh day not regularly scheduled _____________________
Saturday and Sunday regularlyscheduled____________________________

7
7
8
14
15

Hours of work and overtime provisions, 1956-57 _______________________
Weekly hours of work ____________________________________________
Daily hours of work_______________________________________________
Number of workdays_______________________________________________
Daily and weekly overtime -----------------------------------------------------

17
17
20
21
21

Appendix:
Shift differentials by industry_____________________________________

27




v




Premium Pay for Night, Weekend, and Overtime Work in Major Union C ontracts

Shift Provisions, 1958
A l a r g e n u m b e r of establishments find it neces­
sary or desirable to maintain nighttime as well as
daytime shifts as a normal feature of operations;
many resort to extra shift operations only under
conditions of exceptional product demand. Oper­
ation on a 24-hour basis may be necessitated by
nature of the business, as in transportation, com­
munications, and utilities, where the public must
be accommodated at all times. Some manufac­
turing processes, as in steel and chemicals, allow
for no interruptions and thus require continuous
operations. In certain industries, such as auto­
mobiles, costly technology may dictate high uti­
lization of production facilities. Many establish­
ments move into and out of nightwork with
fluctuations in production backlogs, and a choice
between scheduling a second shift and working
the day shift overtime is often available. Finally,
establishments which operate on a daytime
schedule may employ custodial or maintenance
workers at night.
Collective bargaining agreements tend to cover
shift operation issues, frequently in anticipation
of the possibility of extra shift work in the future.
An analysis 1 by the U.S. Department of Labor's
Bureau of Labor Statistics of 1,736 major collec­
tive bargaining agreements in effect in 1958 re­
vealed that 80 percent of the contracts, covering
a like percentage of workers,2 made reference to
multishift operations or nightwork. Nine out of
10 of the shift clauses provided for some form of
extra compensation, that is, a shift differential,
for evening or night work. The differential may
be expressed as a uniform cents-per-hour addition
to day shift rates (the most common type), a
uniform, percentage of day shift rates, pay for
more hours than actually worked, or a combina­
tion of money and time differentials.
Shift differentials, like other supplementary
wage practices, have been liberalized in recent
years through collective bargaining. In 1952,
according to a previous Bureau study,3 the
median cents-per-hour differential (in terms of
number of workers covered by agreements pro­




viding such differentials) amounted to 5 cents for
second shift and general nightwork combined,
and 7 % cents for the third shift; in 1958, as the
present study shows, the medians were 8 cents
and 12 cents, respectively. Percentage differ­
entials have tended to increase less markedly;
however, the rise in day shift rates through wage
increases over this period has raised the cents-perhour equivalent of all percentage differentials.
Time and combined time-money differentials
appeared to be more prevalent in 1958 than in
1952, particularly on third shifts.
Scope of Study

This summary is based upon an analysis of
1,736 collective bargaining agreements each cover­
ing 1,000 or more workers. Almost all agreements
of this size in the United States are believed to
have been included, exclusive of railroad and
airline agreements.4 Of the agreements studied,
1,122 applied to 4.9 million workers in manufac­
turing establishments, and 614 applied to 2.8
million workers in nonmanufacturing establish­
ments (table 1). The approximately 7.8 million
workers covered by these major agreements
account for slightly less than half of all workers
estimated to be covered by all collective bargain­
ing agreements in the United States, exclusive of
railroad and airline workers. Almost all of the
agreements were in effect at the beginning of 1958.5
Half were scheduled to terminate by the end of the
year.

1 Detailed industry data are presented in the appendix.
2 References to number of workers in this study relate to those
covered by the agreements, not to those working on late shifts.
3 See Shift Operations and Differentials in Union Contracts,
1952 (in Monthly Labor Review, November 1952, pp. 495-498).
^ The Bureau does not maintain a file of railroad and airline
agreements; hence their omission from this study.
5 Four percent of the agreements expired late in 1957. Current
replacements were not available prior to completion of the
analysis.

2
Shift provisions were less prevalent in nonmanu­
facturing than in manufacturing, appearing in
only about two-thirds of the agreements. How­
ever, in mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas
production, in communications, and in utilities,
over 90 percent of the agreements had such
provisions.
Qf the agreements referring to shift operations,
1,317 called for the payment of a shift differential,
and a number included specifications for shift
schedules, rotation, and so forth. Two-thirds of
the agreements with shift differentials (905),

Shift Operations

Provisions relating to shift operations or nightwork appeared in 1,423 of the agreements studied.
Only 14 expressly prohibited such operations.
Nine of every 10 major manufacturing agreements
contained shift provisions. In 2 manufacturing
industries (apparel and leather), a majority of the
agreements did not include shift provisions and
11 of the 14 agreements which specifically pro­
hibited shift or nightwork were in the apparel
industry.
Table 1.

Shift provisions in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1958
Provision for shift operation or nightwork
Number studied

No provision for
shift or nightwork

Workers
(thou­
sands)

Agree­
ments

Workers
(thou­
sands)

Agree­
ments

No provision for
shift differential

Workers
(thou­
sands)

Agree­
ments

Workers
(thou­
sands)

Agree­
ments

Industry
Agree­
ments

Prohibition of
shift or nightwork

Provision for shift
differential

Workers
(thou­
sands)

All industries....................................................

1,736

7,753.0

1,317

5,895.7

106

326.7

14

73.5

299

1,457.1

Manufacturing........ .......................................
Ordnance____________________________
Food and kindred products......................
Tobacco manufactures_________________
Textile-mill products__________________
Apparel and other finished textile products.
Lumber and wood products (except furni­
ture)
_
______
Furniture and fixtures.
_ ______
Paper and allied products..........................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries.
Chemicals and allied products __ ____
Products of petroleum and coal
__ _
Rubber products_____________________
Leather and leather products
Stone., clay, and glass products

1,122
10
109
12
45
47

4,916.9
24.0
363.9
33.2
116.7
473.7

971
10
87
7
37

4,123.4
24.0
321.6
21.8
91.9

43

128.3

12

70.6

96

594.7

7
2
5
1

14.5
4.8
19.9
1.9

1

1.2

11

69.4

14
3
3
35

26.6
6.6
5.0
402.5

14
17
55
36
58
24
25
22
34
123
64
143
106
144
23
11

39.2
29.0
124.9
71.7
112.7
70.7
131.9
76.9
92.1
723.1
175.6
402.9
461.0
1,314.3
55.4
24.5

8
13
50
34
54
22
21
5
32
118
60
136
102
141
23
11

25.7
19.4
111.4
68.5
106.7
55.7
95.5
9.0
86.7
714.9
166.3
383.7
450.3
1,290.9
55.4
24.5

1

2.6

3
1
4
1
3

7.7
1.2
6.1
4.5
35.4

5
4
2
1

10.9
9.6
5.8
2.0

1
4
3
5
1
1

1.4
7.2
7.8
10.1
1.5
1.8

1
1
17
1
1
1
2
3
2

10.5
1.1
68.0
4.0
1.0
1.5
9.1
9.2
21.6

614

2,836.1

346

1,772.3

63

198.5

2.9

203

862.5

16
109
75
81
14
85
29
54
148

261.1
553.6
591.7
204.7
28.2
219.2
146.0
181.0
645.5

15
30
70
63
8
42
8
23
85

259.8
110.9
579.3
154.8
16.9
116.3
54.1
69.2
407.4

1.5
1.4

1
67
5
5
5
36
14
28
41

1.3
405.7
12.4
28.8
8.5
95.7
69.3
105.3
134.1

3

5.2

2

3.7

1

1.5

Prim ary m etal industries

Fabricated metal products_____________
Machinery (except electrical) _________
Electrical machinery. ___ ____ _____
Transportation equipment_____________
In stru m en ts and related products

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries__

N onmanufacturing__________________ _____
Mining, crude petroleum, and natural-gas
production_________________________
Transportation l
C om m un ication s_________________________

Utilities: Electric and gas______________
Wholesale trade______________________
Retail trade. _ ____ _________ _____
Hotels and restaurants________________
Services................. ..................................
Construction_______________ _____ ___
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing indusdries______________________________
i Excludes railroads and airlines.

covering a like percentage of workers, provided for
fixed second and third shifts.6 Such agreements
stipulated that the second and third shifts would
o For purposes of classification, the regular day shift was considered the
first shift, while the evening (or afternoon) and night shifts were considered
as second and third shifts, respectively.




12

37.1

13
1
7
7
2
21

2

21.1
2.8
7.3
22.6
5.0
102.7

1
1

N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

begin and end at a certain time or defined the
second and third shifts as work performed within
specific time limits. For example:
. . . the second shift will begin at 3:00 p.m. and end at
11:00 p.m. . . . the third shift will begin at 11:00 p.m.
and end at 7:00 a.m.
*

*

*

3
Any employee scheduled to report for work between
12 noon and 7:59 p.m. will be regarded as performing
afternoon [second] shift work. Any employee scheduled
to report for work between 8:00 p.m. and 3:59 a.m. will
be regarded as performing night [third] shift work.

Provisions calling for general nightwork were
found in approximately a sixth of the agreements
with shift differentials (228). Such clauses re­
ferred to “nightwork” or “night shift” operations,
but did not refer specifically to second or third
shifts. An additional 21 agreements provided for
a second or evening shift only.
Shift rotation was stipulated by 119 agreements.
Of these, 22 had clauses indicating that all shift
work would be on a rotating basis. The remaining
97 agreements, however, provided for a combina­
tion of shift rotation among certain groups of
workers and fixed shift for others. Such provi­
sions were common in continuous-process indus­
tries, e.g., chemicals, and electric and gas utilities,
where 7-day operations were required. An ex­
ample follows:
S tr a ig h t d a y w o rk .—The straight day schedule will re­
quire 8 hours . . . from 7:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. and from
12:00 noon to 4:00 p.m. Day workers shall have regularly
scheduled days off.
R o ta tin g sh ift w ork .—The schedule for 3-shift rotation
shall consist of 3 shifts of 8 consecutive hours per day.
Shifts shall be from 7:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., from 3:30 p.m.
to 11:30 p.m., and from 11:30 p.m. to 7:30 a.m. . . .
Employees assigned to shift schedules shall rotate in
accordance with the applicable schedules . . .
F ix e d sh ift w o rk .—The fixed shift schedule will require
8 consecutive hours of work. Such schedules will be
definitely assigned with an established schedule of days

off . . .

A small number of agreements (44) with shift
provisions were not grouped with any of the
foregoing types. Almost all of these were tele­
phone agreements which had no set number of
shifts, but provided varying differentials based
upon the ending time of tours of duty.
Types and Amounts of Shift Differentials

Shift differentials were of three major types:
Money differentials for time worked outside the
first or regular day shift, expressed as a cents-perhour addition to, or as a percentage of, day shift
rates; time differentials that usually provided a
full day’s pay for reduced horns of work (or a
proportional allowance where less than the usual




number of hours were worked); and combined
time and money differentials that provided for
reduced hours of work plus a higher rate of pay.
Money Differentials. Straight money differentials
were the most prevalent type found in the study
(table 2). A uniform cents-per-hour addition to
first shift rates accounted for about 60 percent of
the agreements with second (or general nightwork)
and third shift differentials. Uniform percent
additions to first shift rates appeared in 18 percent
of the second shift or general nightwork provisions
and in 14 percent of the third shift provisions.
A small number of agreements stipulated uniform
cents or percent additions for fixed shifts and
varying differentials for swing or rotating shifts,
or did not state a uniform premium, but provided
Table 2.

Types of shift differentials in major collective
bargaining agreements, 1958

Type of shift differential

Second shift
or general
nightwork

Third shift

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
1,067

4,990.4

777 2,886.3

625

2,171.0

239 1,443.1

149

1,141.6

Total........................................................... 1,293 6,831.0
Money differentials:
Uniform cents addition to first shift rates.
Uniform percent addition to first shift
rates...................................................
Uniform cents addition for fixed shifts
and variations for swing or rotating
sh ifts................................................
Uniform percent addition for fixed
shifts and variations for swing or
rotating shifts....................................
No uniform premium specified but
higher wage scales for nightwork,
with premiums over first shift rates
varying among occupations or by
wage ranges.......................................
Other money differentials 1...................
Time differentials:
Full day’s pay for reduced hours of
work___________________________
Time and money differentials:
Full day’s pay for reduced hours of
work plus uniform cents differential-_
Full day’s pay for reduced hours of
work plus uniform percent differen­
tial.....................................................
Full day’s pay for reduced hours of
work plus money differential (no
uniform premium specified but
higher wage scales for nightwork,
with premiums over first shift rates
varying among occupations or by
wage ranges)......................................
Other time-money differentials *_____

22

44.8

23

45.8

4

144.5

3

142.9

47
63

216.9
294.8

21
25

107.3
194.2

69

365.5

66

323.8

10

30.3

69

390.2

12

36.9

22

61.4

11
39

39.8
328.4

23
41

72.0
340.5

1 Includes agreements which provided for a flat-sum payment for work
after a certain hour or between certain hours; those granting a certain per­
centage payment for work after or between certain hours, not to exceed a
set dollar amount; those providing a shift differential of either a certain per­
centage per hour or cents per hour, whichever sum was greater; and those
providing for varying differentials depending upon starting time of shifts.
* Includes agreements with time and money differentials, in which either
of the differentials, or both, may vary by occupation, ending time of shifts,
length of shifts, location of duty station, or combinations of the above.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

4
5 percent,7 8 cents, 10 percent, 10 cents, and 12
cents. For third shift work, the following order
prevailed: 10 percent, 12 cents, 10 cents, and 6
cents. In general, and in particular situations
(as table 4 shows), third shift differentials were
higher than second shift differentials.

for additions to day rates with the amount varying
among occupations (or departments) or by wage
ranges. Still further variations, each involving a
few agreements, were found which were grouped
under “ other money differentials” in table 2.
The amount of shift premium, typically higher
for the third than for the second shift, varied
considerably among industries. Uniform centsper-hour differentials ranged from 2% cents for the
second shift to 60 cents for the third shift. Per­
centage payments ranged from 2 to 20 percent.
The variety of differentials indicated in table 3
reflects the absence of substantial interindustry
influences or interindustry patterns.
For second shift work, the predominant differ­
entials, ranked in order of worker coverage, were

Table 3.

Time Differentials. Time differentials appeared
in about 5 percent of the agreements with shift
differentials. In these cases, the worker, while
actually working a shorter number of hours,
usually received a wage payment equal to what
he would have received for working a full day
shift. For example:
When or where it may be necessary to work shifts . . .
the second and third shifts shall be paid at the rate of 8
hours’ pay for 7 hours’ work.

Type and amount of shift differentials in major collective bargaining agreements, 1958
Second shift and general nightwork
All industries

Manufacturing

Type and amount of shift differential

Third shift

Nonmanufac­
turing

All industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufac­
turing

Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­
ers
Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
Total............................................................................. 1,293

5,831.0

950

4,068.7

343

1,762.3

Money differentials.................. ................................. 1,152
799
Uniform cents (per hour).......................................
36
Under 5 cents...................... ...........................
121
5 cents...................................................... .......
91
6 cents.................. *......... *...............................
62
7 cents__________________________________
21
7^4 eeBts_..._____________ _______________
131
8 cents.............................................................
37
Over 8 and under 10 cents...............................
167
10 cents.............................................................
8
Over 10 and under 12 cents.............................
81
12 cents---.____*............... -.........-.................
13
Over 12 and under 15 cents..............................
16
15 cents.................. — .....................................
15
Over 15 cents...................................................
243
Uniform percentage............. -................................
1
2 percent_______________________________
61
5 percent..........................................................
34
Over 5 and under 10 percent............................
136
10 percent................. -.........-----....................
11
Over 10 percent—.* ..........................................
No uniform premium specified but higher wage
scales for nightwork, with premiums over first
shift rates varying among occupations or by
47
wage ranges.......................... ............................
63
Other money differentials *...... -............................

5,030.2
2 , 931.1
313.0
326.6
243.3
127.0
48.3
785.5
103.6
444.5
16.9
426.2
29.0
34.3
33.3
1, 587.6
1.2
823.6
122.5
610.7
29.7

916~ 3,993.3
658 2,348.9
26
54.8
97
269.1
188.1
71
52
109.3
36.3
17
125
772.7
82.1
28
136
358.8
7
15.5
66
390.1
10
21.0
31.9
15
19.4
8
212 1,416.8

1,036.9
582.2
258.2
57.5
55.2
17.7
12.0
12.8
21.5
85.7
1,4
36.1
8.0
2.4
13.9
171.3
1.2
13.0
2.7
148.5
5.9

Time differentials......................... -......... ......... ..........
8 hours’ pay for 7 H hours worked_____ -_______
8 hours’ pay for 7 hours worked.............................
8 hours’ pay for 6M hours worked-*-.-..._______
Other time differentials.* . ____ ________ _______
Time and money differentials.................................... 8 hours’ pay for 7 H hours worked plus money dif­
ferential.............................................................
8 hours’ pay for 7 hours worked plus money differ*
en tia l________ __________________________
8 hours’ pay for 0 X hours worked plus money dif­
A
ferential___ _______-______________________
Other combined time-money differentials2...........

835

3,635.9

232

1,354.6

715
557
1
18
18
20
6
27
44
144
8
130
82
52
57
138

3,127.5
1, 772.9
1.0
42.0
38.4
48.5
9.9
67.5
101.6
302,9
18.5
815.0
98.9
84.8
144.0
1,204.8

131
91
1
6
4
2

675.1
443.9
1.6
19.8
233.4
4.2

2
13
24
8
17
2
8
4
14

3.9
42.1
52.7
16.3
41.2
5.7
14.6
8.6
79.7

m o. 2

9.2
232.4
72,8

6
27
91
15

8.0
229.7
915.8
51.3

1
1
5
7

1.2
2.7
54.4
21.5
69.5
82.1

59
38
113
7

810.6
119.8
462.2
23.8

216.9
294.8

25
21

88.4
189.8

22
42

128.5
165.0

21
25

107.8
194,2

10
10

37,8
112.1

U
15

69
21
44
1
3

365. 5
88.0
268. 5
2.0
7.1

5
4
1

9.9
6.9
3.0

64
17

66
3
54

3

21.6
5.9
5.2
10.5

302.3

8

51

287.6

$

323.8
5,9
292.8
10.5
14.7

9
3

1
8

355.6
81.1
265.5
2.0
7.1

57

48

6

14.7

72

435.3

29

65.5

48

369.8

155

864.0

111

486.8

44

377.2

27

79.1

21

54.7

3

10.3

42

346,0

i See footnote 1, table 2.
»Includes agreements which either provided for unusual time differentials
(e.g., 7 hours’ pay for 6 H hours of work), or for a variation in time differentials,
or both time and money, by occupations, ending time of shifts, length of




4,990.4

846~ 3,802.6
648 2,216.8
2
2.6
24
61.8
22
271.8
52.7
22
4
9.9
29
71.4
57
143,7
168
355.6
16
34.8
856.2
147
34
104.6
60
99.3
152.6
61
152 1,284.4

1,067

236
141
10
24
20
10
4
6
9
31
1
15
3
1
7
31
1
2
1
28
4

a
28
96
22

S

8

10.9

6

24.4

16

28.8

14

22.5

2

6.3

3

10.3

28

91.6

22

59.6

6

32.0

34

335,1

46
65

333.6
410,1

42
33

328.3
76.5

32

4

5.4
333.6

shifts, location of duty Btation, or combinations of the above,

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

5

Time differentials on both shifts were confined
largely to agreements in the construction industry.
Most commonly, these provisions called for the
payment of 8 hours’ pay for either 7 or 7K hours of
work.
Time and Money Differentials. Approximately
5 percent of second shift and almost 15 percent of
third shift differentials provided for a combina­
tion of a time allowance and premium payments.
These provisions usually combined the features of
two or more of the types mentioned previously,
i.e., full day’s pay for reduced hours of work plus
a uniform cents or percent differential, or full
day’s pay for reduced hours of work plus a money
7 In the establishments covered by these agreements, a 5-percent differential
would undoubtedly bring 10 cents or more per hour to a majority of workers.

Table 4. Significant shift differential patterns in major
collective bargaining agreements, 1958 1
Shift differential pattern
C en ts

Second shift:
4 cents
5 cents
5 cents
6 cents
6 cents
7 cents
7 cents
7J4 cents
8 cents
8 cents
8 cents
10 cents
10 cents
12 cents

per

Agree­
ments

Workers
(thousands)

H our

Third shift:
6 cents....................
8 cents....................
10 cents_____ _____
9 cents....................
12 cents....................
10 cents....................
12 cents....................
10 cents....................
10 cents....................
12 cen ts..................
16 cents....................
10 cents.........-.........
15 cents....................
12 cents.......... ........

14
12
69
41
19
24
11
11
11
75
27
34
48
24

257.1
36.3
136.3
119.3
30.9
45.6
19.8
18.8
22.8
655.9
m i
82.7
82.9
91.0

Third shift:
7Y i percent...............
10 percent___ ____
10 percent............. .
15 percent________

10
35
49
13

31.5
627.8
314.7
36.6

Total accounted for............................

527

Many agreements that provided a money
differential for second shift operations had a
time-money differential on the third shift. Con­
sequently, the prevalence of combined time-money
differentials was much higher in third shift than
in second shift provisions.
S e c o n d sh ift. Those employees working the shift
starting at 3:30 p.m. and ending at 12:00 p.m. shall receive
a bonus of 10 cents an hour.
T h ir d sh ift. Those employees working the shift starting
at 12:01 a.m. and ending at 7:00 a.m. shall receive 8 hours’
pay plus a 10-cent-an-hour bonus for working 6}£ hours.

Industries with a significant number of agree­
ments containing time and money differentials
included transportation equipment, communica­
tions, and printing. In transportation equip­
ment, a number of agreements in the aircraft
industry provided third shift differentials of 8
hours’ pay for 6K or 7 hours of work plus a money
differential (usually 8 or 10 cents). Over twothirds of the printing agreements provided third
shift time-money differentials. In these, the time
differential usually provided 7}i hours’ pay for
6K hours of work, or 7 hours’ pay for 6 or 6#
hours of work, with a money differential of either
a flat sum per week for all workers, e.g., $5, or a
cents-per-hour differential which varied by occu­
pation.
More than half the communications agreements
contained time-money differentials. In this indus­
try, time and money differentials often appeared in
the same agreement with variations in either the
time or money differential, or both, depending
u p s u c h factors as occupation, length of shifts,
ending time of shifts, or location of duty station.

2,679.7

P er c ent

Second shift:
5 percent
5 percent
10 percent
10 percent

of

R egular R ate

7 Includes shift combinations with cent or percent differentials found in
10 or more agreements.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

differential varying among occupations or by
wage ranges. In addition, about half (39) of the
second shift time-money differentials and a fourth
(41) of those applying to the third shift provided
differentials varying by combinations of such
factors as occupation, ending time of shifts, length
of shifts, or location of duty station.




Significant Shift Differential Patterns

The relationship between second and third shift
differentials in an establishment, or the shift differ­
ential pattern, is often at issue in the negotiation
of shift provisions.
In the present study, more than 100 different
patterns were found among the 750 agreements
(covering 3.2 million workers) which stipulated 2
night shifts and provided a uniform cents or per­
cent differential for both the second and the third
shifts. Identical patterns found in 10 or more
agreements are listed in table 4.

6
The most frequent pattern, appearing in 75
agreements covering about 650,000 workers, pro­
vided 8 cents for the second shift and 12 cents for
the third. A majority of both the agreements and
workers in this group were in the steel industry.
Five cents for the second shift and 10 cents for the
third appeared in 69 agreements, with the paper
and food industries accounting for about a third of
these agreements. The combination of 4 cents
(second shift) and 6 cents (third shift) was stipu­
lated in only 14 agreements, yet covered a large




number of workers (mostly in anthracite and bi­
tuminous coal mining).
A 10-percent differential for both the second and
third shifts was found in 49 agreements covering
more than 300,000 workers. The electrical ma­
chinery industry accounted for a majority of the
agreements in this category. Thirty-five agree­
ments with approximately 625,000 workers called
for shift differentials of 5 percent and 10 percent.
Over half of these were in the auto and machinery
industries.

7

Premium Pay for W
eekend W 1958
ork,
T he payment of premium rates for work per­
formed on Saturday and Sunday, or on the sixth
and seventh days of the workweek, has become
a common feature of collective bargaining agree­
ments. Over 90 percent of 1,736 major collective
bargaining agreements studied in 1958 by the
U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor
Statistics provided time and one-half, or double
time, or a variable premium, for work on one or
both days outside of the normal workweek.
Seventy-five percent of the agreements specified
Sunday as a premium day, and 57 percent specified
Saturday. Premium rates were specified for work
on the sixth day in 35 percent of the contracts,
and for work on the seventh day in a like propor­
tion. A substantial number of contracts identified
both Saturday and the sixth day, and Sunday and
the seventh day, as premium days. Nearly 15
percent of the agreements provided premium pay
to workers for whom Sunday was a regularly
scheduled workday, and a few extended this
practice to regularly scheduled Saturdays.
The payment of premium rates for weekend
work serves as a reward to employees for work
on days normally considered rest days and as
a deterrent to employers in scheduling work on
these days. Weekend premium pay provisions
of agreements tend to liberalize legal overtime
requirements in several ways. The Fair Labor
Standards Act requires the payment to covered
workers of time and one-half for hours in excess
of 40 a week, without reference to the day on
which overtine hours are worked, but premium
rates for Saturday and Sunday work are commonly
required under agreements regardless of the
number of hours previously worked during the
week. When minimum work requirements are
specified, as is frequently the case where the sixth
and seventh days are named as premium days,
holidays and certain excused absences are often
counted as time worked for premium pay eligi­
bility. Rates in excess of time and one-half
prevail for Sunday and seventh day work, and are
sometimes specified for Saturday work. Pyra­
miding of premium rates for weekend work on
top of weekly overtime premiums is generally
prohibited.




Major changes in weekend premium pay prac­
tices since 1952, the date of the Bureau’s previous
study,1 include provision for premium pay for
work on Saturday as such (occurring outside of
the regular workweek) in all of the major auto­
mobile agreements, and for Saturday and Sunday
as such in the major coal mining agreements.
Premium pay for regularly scheduled Sunday
work (part of the regular workweek) was incorpo­
rated into basic steel agreements negotiated in
1956; the rates specified progressed from time and
one-tenth during the first year to time and onefourth for the third year (1958). Since then, a
number of agreements negotiated in related indus­
tries have included provisions for premium pay
for regularly scheduled Sunday work.
In general, the 1958 study reveals a small In­
crease since 1952 in the proportion of major con­
tracts with weekend premium pay provisions, and
a somewhat greater increase in worker coverage
under agreements specifying Saturday premium
pay. This has been accompanied by a slight de­
crease in the proportion of agreements which
made Saturday premium pay dependent upon the
employee working a specified amount of time dur­
ing the week, and a more marked decrease in
agreements containing minimum work require­
ments for sixth and seventh day premium pay.

Scope of Study
This study was based on 1,736 collective bar­
gaining agreements, each covering 1,000 or more
workers, or virtually all agreements of this size in
the United States, exclusive of those relating to
railroads and airlines.2 The total of 7.8 million
workers covered represented almost half of all the
workers estimated to be under agreements in the

1 See Premium Pay for Weekend Work, 1952 (in Monthly Labor Review,
September 1953, pp. 933-939).
* The Bureau does not maintain a file of railroad and airline agreements,
hence their omission from this study.

8

United States, exclusive of railroad and airline
agreements. Of these, 5 million workers, covered
by 1,122 agreements, were in manufacturing, and
614 agreements applied to 2.8 million workers in
nonmanufacturing establishments.
All but 713 of the 1,736 agreements were in
effect during 1958. Approximately 50 percent of
the agreements were scheduled to expire in 1958.
Termination in 1959 was stipulated in about 35
percent. Of the remaining 209 long-term agree­
ments, 12 did not list a specific termination date.
Contracts which provided overtime pay for work
in excess of the regular daily or weekly hours,
without specifying Saturday, Sunday, sixth, or
seventh days, or the employee’s regular day(s)
off, were not counted as providing weekend pre­
mium pay for purposes of this study. Although
overtime pay would normally cover weekend work
if the employee had worked the full basic work­
week or fulfilled other specified minimum work
requirements, such provisions do not grant special
recognition to weekend days as such.4 However,
Table 1. Premium pay for weekend work not part^ of
regular workweek, in major collective bargaining
agreements, 1958
Agreements
Premium days

Workers

Num­
Per­
Num­ Per­ ber
ber cent (thou­ cent
sands)

clauses providing premium pay for all work “ out­
side the regular workweek” were interpreted as
granting extra compensation for weekend work as
such and were included in the study.
Nine out of ten major agreements granted extra
compensation for work on one or more weekend
days. Provisions specifying Saturday and Sun­
day (not part of the regular workweek) as pre­
mium days, without reference to the sixth or
seventh day, were most prevalent, occurring in
over one-third of the contracts analyzed (table 1).
Other significant provisions specified premium
pay on (a) Saturday and Sunday for employees
on regular schedules and on the sixth and seventh
days for those on off schedules; (b) sixth and
seventh days without identifying Saturday and
Sunday; and (c) Sunday only.
Saturday and Sunday Not Regularly Scheduled

Extra compensation for work on Saturday, as
such, was provided for in 987 (over one-half) of
the agreements analyzed, and on Sunday in 1,300
agreements (three-fourths). A fourth of these
clauses, however, exempted employees in contin­
uous-process operations or in certain occupational
groups, such as watchmen, guards, maintenance
men, and engineers, for whom Saturday or Sun­
day work was regularly scheduled. Instead, pre­
mium pay for the sixth and seventh workdays
(or for their regularly scheduled days off) was
provided, as in the following example:

Total studied---- ------- ------------------- 1,736 100.0 7,752. 5

100.0

91.5 7,025.8

90.6

37.0 2,267.6
14.6 1,666.3
12.4 1, 072. 5
12.4
881.4
2.6
347.9
240.0
1.6
3.4
205.7
125.0
2.7
.9
68.9
58.8
1.7
1.0
44.1
30.2
.7
.5
17.7
8.5
726.7

29.3
21.5
13.8
11.4
4.5
3.1
2.7
1.6
.9
.8
.6
.4
.2
9.4

56.9
74.9
35.0
35.8

58.9
72.0
41.1
43.9

Employees, excepting employees in the powerhouse,
shall be paid at the rate of one and one-half (1*4) times
their respective regular straight-time rates for all time
worked by them during the calendar day on a Saturday
and at the rate of twice their respective regular straighttime rates for all time worked by them during the calendar
day on a Sunday. . . .
Powerhouse employees only shall be paid at the rate of
one and one-half (1% ) times their regular straight-time
rate for all time worked by them on their first regularly
scheduled day off in the workweek and at a rate of twice
their regular straight-time rate for all time worked by
them on their second regularly scheduled day off in the
workweek.

3 Includes agreements providing premium pay for work on Saturday, 6th
and/or 7th day; and Saturday afternoon and/or Sunday for some workers
and Sunday only for others. Also includes several beet sugar manufacturing
and other food processing agreements which grant premium pay only during
certain seasons for work on Saturday and/or Sunday.
* Includes agreements which specifically prohibited Saturday and/or
Sunday work.
8 Nonadditive. These days may be specified singly, or in combination,
in one agreement.
N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

3 These agreements expired late in 1957 and subsequent agree­
ments were not available at the time of the study.
4 See section on Hours of Work and Overtime Provisions.

Number with premium pay for weekend work. 1,689
Provisions for premium pay for work on—
642
Saturday and Sunday--------------253
Saturday, Sunday, 6th and 7th days..
215
6th and 7th days-------------------216
Sunday only........................... ..........
45
Saturday, Sunday, and 7th day-----28
Saturday only------ ----------- ---59
Sunday, 6th and 7th days----------47
Sunday and 6th day----------------15
6th day only---- ----- ---- --------29
7th day only----- ---- -------------18
Sunday and 7th day..... ....................13
Saturday, Sunday, and 6th day-----9
Other combinations 1..........................
147
No provision for premium pay 3...... .......... .
Premium days specified:8
987
Saturday............ -.....................................
Sunday..................... ..................... ........... 1,300
608
6th day.............. ....................----- ----622
7th d a y ................ -......... ------ --------




4,564.8
5,584.1
3.186.6
3.405.7

9

Table 2.

Premium pay for weekend work not part of regular workweek, in major collective bargaining agreements,
by industry, 1958
Number
studied
Industry

Premium pay for work on i—
Saturday

Sunday

Sixth day

Seventh day

No provision for
premium pay

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
All industries----- ------- ---------------- ------M anufaeturing--- --------------------------Ordnance________ _____ ______________________
Food and kindred products______________________
Tobacco manufactures____ ____________________
Textile mill products--------- ------------------Apparel and other finished textile products_________
Lumber and wood products (except furniture)______
Furniture and fixtures __________________ ____
Paper and allied products____________________ ___
Printing, publishing, and allied industries__________
Chemicals and allied products____________________
Products of petroleum and coal___________________
Rubber products
____________________________
Leather and leather products__ ____ ______________
Stone, clay, and glass products___________________
Primary metal industries--------------------------Fabricated metal products______ _______________
Machinery (except electrical)_____________________
Electrical machinery______ _____ ____ ___________
Transportation equipment.. _ ____________________
Instruments and related products _ ___ _____ _
Miscellaneous manufacturing__________________ __
N onmanufaeturing___ ___ _____ ___________
Mining, crude-petroleum and natural-gas production.
Transportation 3________________________________
Communications_______________________________
Utilities: Electric and gas________ ______________
Wholesale trade__________ __ __________________
Retail trade____________
________________ ____
Hotels and restaurants.__________________________
Services-------------------------------------------Construction___________________________________
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing________________

1,736

7, 752.5

987

4,564.8

1,300

5,584.1

608

3,186.6

622

3,405. 7

2 147

726.7

1,122

4,916.4

723

3,154.7

859

3,404.0

426

2,374.4

466

2, 597.9

74

386.4

10
109
12
45
47
14
17
55
36
58
24
25
22
34
123
64
143
106
144
23
11

24.0
363.9
33.2
116.7
473.7
39.2
29.0
124.9
71.7
112.7
70.7
131.9
76.9
92.1
723.1
175.6
402.9
460.5
1,314.3
55.4
24.5

5
63
9
24
25
7
17
17
27
22
5
10
14
8
40
55
130
90
124
21
10

10. 7
276.0
25.5
68.1
252.0
20.6
29.0
33.8
55.4
40.4
6.0
16.6
47.7
32.1
84.9
136.4
334.3
402.9
1,209.2
50.2
23.3

7
81
11
26
9
12
16
53
33
30
8
23
11
28
62
57
136
96
129
22
9

18.6
314.9
31.0
70.4
42.9
36.1
27.3
122.2
67.2
57.8
16.5
129. 7
37.7
80.9
146.1
139.1
345.4
431.3
1,216.1
53. 6
19.8

7
44
2
23

12.8
163.5
2.8
61.6

7
6
7
9
32
18
12
6
7
72
20
55
45
48
6

16.3
11.3
10. 7
13.4
69.5
45.5
19.0
10.7
17.9
610.3
64.8
221.9
238.4
772.0
12. 4

8
49
2
24
2
5
6
8
6
44
18
7
6
13
72
21
63
45
56
11

16.2
230.5
2.8
63.5
17.0
12.3
11.3
12.6
8.9
91.2
46.4
11.2
12.0
38.4
611.1
66.3
251.9
248.9
827.4
18.6

12
1
8
22
1

23.2
2.2
20.5
221.7
2.1

2
2
2

3.1
2.7
12.8

5
1
9

23.2
1.0
22.2

2
3
4

12.5
7.5
31.9

614

2,836.1

264

1,410.1

441

2,180.1

182

812.2

156

807.8

73

340.3

16
109
76
80
14
85
29
54
148
3

261.1
553.6
592.7
203.7
28.2
219.2
146.0
181.0
645.5
5.2

4
55
6
37
8
8
3
15
128

233.5
347.2
74.0
89.2
14.6
14.9
5.5
43.9
587.5

6
66
72
54
11
60
3
29
139
1

239.6
379.2
546.4
128.7
22.5
148.2
5.5
92.4
615.3
2. 5

8
38
16
51
3
39
14
12
1

246.0
86.0
99.3
116.5
5. 7
121.8
93.2
32.0
12.0

8
38
12
56
2
18
12
9
1

246.0
192.1
75.3
131.6
4.1
60.2
61.0
25.7
12.0

4
16
4
5

5.6
109.8
46.3
33.2

10
9
14
9
2

17.3
36.7
58.6
30.3
2.7

1 See footnote 3, table 1.

2 See footnote 2, table 1.

Saturday Premium Pay. Saturday premium pay
provisions were more prevalent in manufacturing
(64 percent) than in nonmanufacturing industries
(43 percent) where 6- or 7-day operations are
more frequently required (table 2). Eighty-five
percent or more of the agreements in six manu­
facturing industries granted extra compensation
for Saturday work: furniture and fixtures, fabri­
cated metal products, machinery (except elec­
trical) , electrical machinery, transportation equip­
ment, and instruments and related products. In
nonmanufacturing, Saturday premium pay pro­
visions were common in construction contracts
and for mining workers. In construction, 85 per­
cent of the contracts contained such provisions;
in mining, while only a fourth of the major con­
tracts were involved, 90 percent of the workers,
principally under the anthracite and bituminous
coal agreements, were represented.




3 Excludes railroad and airline industries.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Under all but 11 percent (113 agreements) of
the Saturday premium pay provisions, premium
rates were paid regardless of the amount of time
worked during the week (table 3). Nine out of
every ten restrictive clauses required the employee
to work a full weekly schedule to qualify for
premium pay (table 4). However, over twothirds of the agreements modified these restrictions
by stipulating that time lost during the week for
specific reasons would be counted as time worked
in determining eligibility for Saturday premium
pay.
Excused absences included time lost because of
lack of work, illness, injury on the job, official
union business, voting, and, in most instances,
holidays. For example, one agreement stipulated:
Time and one-half will be paid for all work performed on
Saturday if the employee has worked his scheduled shifts

10
Table 3. Minimum work requirements for premium pay for weekend work not part of regular workweek, in major
collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1958
Minimum work requirements for premium pay for work on—
Industry

Saturday
Agreements

Sunday

Sixth day

Seventh day

Workers Agreements Workers Agreements Workers Agreements Workers
(thousands)
(thousands)
(thousands)
(thousands)

All industries........-..........................................................

113

517.7

87

269.4

235

1,372.6

278

1,997.7

Manufacturing........................ ..............................

96

479.6

69

229.4

190

992.8

240

1,545.7

2.4
40.9

3
19

58
108.3

18

102.4

10

78.6

2
13

8
5

4

19.3

14

35.3

2

4.5

15
2
2
2
3

3.1
2.3
4.7
5.8
1.2
15.4
9.7
16.8
19.8
226.3
7.1
2.0

3.0
1.0
5.9
2.3
3.7
7.2
6.2
21.1
2.5
17.4
33.1
19.6
4.3

10.2
4.3
3.2

2
2
3
4
1
6
4
12
6
14
4
1

1
1
4
2
2
3
3
9
2
10
6
8
2

3
2
2

39.6
17.0

1
3

26.9
22.5
4.5
3.0
6.5

14
9
9
4
5
61
9
19
8
15
1

30.2
17.0
12.6
7.2
14.3
588.8
23.2
48.2
32.0
121.3
1.9

29
12
4
4
12
63
9
27
8
19
7

57.6
33.6
7.3
8.5
34.7
593.3
23.5
72.7
35.6
485.4
10.1

Nonmanufacturing..................................................

17

38.1

18

40.0

45

379.9

38

452.0

Mining, crude-petroleum and natural-gas production--Transportation1 .
___________________________
nrtmmnnirettmns ________________________________
Utilities: Electric and gas...............................................
Wholesale trade. _________________________________
Retail trade......................................................................
TTnt.pls and restaurants
_________________
Services............................................. -............................Construction
_
______________________
Miscellaneous nonmannfaotnring____________________

1
2

1.6
2.0

1

1.6

8

17.1

1
9

4.0
21.9

2

4.0

4

8.9

1
3

1.2
12.2

2
1

2.6
1.0

6
7
6
7
2
10
3
4

242.1
18.1
41.4
16.3
4.1
24.3
25.9
7.8

6
7
3
9
2
6
4
1

242.1
124.2
18.8
25.8
4.1
15.4
20 5
1.2

Ordnance and accessories_________________ _________
Food and kindred products..............................................
Tobacco manufactures_____________________________
Textile mill products........... —........................................
Apparel and other finished textile products__ _________
Lumber and wood products (except furniture)................
Furniture and fixtures_____________________________
Paper and allied products ..............................................
Printing, publishing, and P.Ilied industries____________
Chemicals and allied products.........................................
Products of petroleum and coal.......................................
Rubber products.............................................................
Leather and leather products...........................................
Stone, clay, and glass products. ..................... ................
Primary metal industries.................................................
Fabricated metal products...............................................
Machinery (except electrical)...........................................
Electrical machinery - -.....................................................
Transportation equipment. ...........................................
Instruments and related products....................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing_______________________

2

3 .7

4.3
4.8

* Excludes railroad and airline industries.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

during the workweek except for the following excusable
absences:
Union activities when authorized by the local union
and/or its officers.
Sickness—When employee’s sickness is certified by the
attending physician and/or the first aid department of the
company.
Where scheduling, production, or mechanical difficulties
prevent him from working his regular scheduled workday.
Due to death in the immediate family (father, mother,
wife or husband, son, daughter, brother or sister, motherin-law or father-in-law).
Due to subpena from a court of record.
Jury duty.
Authorized vacation.

A number of agreements did not list the reasons,
but merely stated that “ excused absences” or
“justifiable absences” would be counted as time
worked:
Overtime shall be paid for Saturday work to employees
who have worked the previous Monday through Friday,
and to employees who have been excusably absent from




work during the previous Monday through Friday, but no
overtime shall be paid for Saturday work to employees who
the company and the union committee agree were inex­
cusably absent during the previous Monday through
Friday.

Time and one-half continued to be the prevailing
rate for Saturday work, specified in four-fifths of
the Saturday premium pay provisions (table 5).
More than a tenth of the agreements, largely
concentrated in the construction industry, granted
double time.
Many of the remaining Saturday provisions
provided a combination of double time and time
and one-half. These included provisions for
double time for Saturday afternoon, or if Saturday
was the seventh workday, and time and one-half
in all other instances; or double time for all
employees except specified groups, such as guards,
maintenance men, and engineers, who were paid
time and one-half.

11

In several maritime agreements, the rate of
premium pay, usually a fixed sum, varied accord­
ing to the employee’s wage range or occupation, or
whether Saturday work was required at sea or in
port. Under the Pacific Maritime Association
agreement with the Seafarers’ International union,
extra compensation for Saturday and Sunday work
at sea was incorporated in the base wages; for
such work in port, the applicable overtime rate
was to be paid. A few agreements in other in­
dustries provided different rates, varying accord­
ing to occupation or wage range.
Other arrangements included premium pay in
some instances and straight time in others—time
and one-half, double time, or a fixed amount for
workers on regular schedules or for Saturday
afternoon only, and straight time for continuousprocess or other off-schedule workers, or for
Saturday morning.
Several food-processing agreements granted
premium pay of time and one-half during the
nonprocessing season only, and straight time
during processing periods.
Table 4.

Sunday Premium Pay. The significance of Sun­
day as a holiday, as compared with Saturday, is
reflected in the larger number of contracts pro­
viding premium pay for work on Sunday and the
higher premium rates specified—most frequently
double time. The prevalence of premium pay
provisions for work on Sunday (not part of the
regular workweek) was almost as high in non­
manufacturing (71 percent) as in manufacturing
industries (77 percent). (See table 2.)
Only 7 percent of the agreements with Sunday
provisions stipulated minimum work requirements
(table 4). Of the 87 agreements with such re­
strictions, Sunday premium pay was dependent on
the employee’s having worked a full 6-day schedule
in 58 agreements, and a full 5-day schedule in 13.
Variations in some of the remaining 16 contracts
were similar to those for Saturday pay. Other
variations included provisions requiring 7 days’
work for double time on Sunday and no minimum
work requirements for time and one-half; 7 days’
work for triple time and 6 days’ work for double
time; work on more than two Sundays in four; and

Minimum work requirements for premium pay for weekend work not part of regular workweek, in major
collective bargaining agreements, by type of provision, 1958
Minimum work requirements for premium pay for work on—
Saturday
Provision

Absences not
counted as
time worked

Total

Sixth day
Excused ab­
sences counted
as time worked

Absences not
counted as
time worked

Total

Excused ab­
sences counted
as time worked

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
Num ber with premium pay provisions .

987

4,564.8

608

3,186.6

Number with minimum work requirements...............
Employee must have worked—
Full weekly schedule_____________________
Some time on each of previously scheduled
workdays_____________________________
Specified minimum number of hours during
week (less than full schedule)____________
Other specified time______________________

113

517.7

34

229.1

79

288.6

235

1,372.6

66

645.8

169

726.9

106

494.9

32

226.0

74

268.9

226

1,331.5

65

644.7

161

686.9

2

12.0

2

12.0

4

26.3

4

26.3

2
13

3.1
7.7

7.7

3
i2

5.9
9.0

2
2

4.8
9.0

2

3.1

3

Sunday
Num ber with premium pay provisions

_

Employee must have worked—
Full 6-day schedule______________________
Full 6-day schedule______________________
Some time on each of the 6 scheduled workdays.
Specified minimum number of hours during
_______

Other specified time______________________

Seventh day

5,584.1

622

3,405.7

87

269.4

24

59.2

63

210.3

278

1,997.7

90

1,215.9

188

781.9

58
13
2

189.9
42.3
6.5

14
6

30.4
16.4

44
7
2

159.5
25.9
6.5

223
40
7

1,564.1
388.9
25.1

74
11
2

1,107.5
97.6
5.2

149
29
5

456.6
291.4
19.9

1 14

30.8

4

12.5

10

18.4

3
»5

5.6
14.1

3

5.6

5

14.1

1 Includes agreements which provided minimum work requirements for
certain groups of workers and none for others or which varied the minimum
work requirements for different groups.




1.1

1,300

Num ber with minimum work requirements

week (less than full schedule)

1

N o te : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals,

12
Table 5.

Premium rates for work on Saturday and Sunday not part of regular workweek, in major collective bargaining
agreements, by industry, 1958
Premium rate paid
Number with
premium pay
provision
Industry

Time and onehalf

Time and onehalf in some
instances;
double time
in others 1

Double time

Premium or flat
sum, varying
by wage range,
occupation, etc.

Other*

Agree­ Workers Agree­Workers Agree­Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
Saturday W ork
All industries_____ ____________________ ______ —
M a n u f a c t u r in g ........... ........................................

Ordnance and accessories

_____________________

Tobacco manufactures___________________________
Apparel and other finished textile products. _______
T.iirnhp.r and wood products (except furniture')
Paper and allied products
Products of petroleum and coal___________________
Rubber products_______________________________
"Leather and leather prod nets
Fabricated metal products_______________________
Machinery (except electrical)_____________________
___
Transportation equipment... ,
Instruments and related prodnets
Miscellaneous manufacturing_____________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ___________________ _____
Mining, crude-petroleum and natural-gas production..
Transportation *
Communications
_.
Utilities* Electric and gas
____________
Wholesale trade________________________________
Retail trade _________________________________
"Hotels and restaurants
Services
.
________________________
Construction
________________________________
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing_________________

987

4,564.8

798

3,754.7

31

139.4

109

369.4

18

81.3

31

220.1

7BS

S, 164.7

66S

B, 8 B 0 .7

BB

7 1 .0

B6

6 7 .6

1

S.O

B1

19B.6

9

82.8

2
2

9 0
3.9

1
1

1. 7
2.3

5

90.4

5
63
9
24
25
7
17
17
27
22
5
10
14
8
40
55
130
90
124
21
10

m

4
55
6
37
8
8
3
15
128

Sunday work
All industries................................................................ 1,300
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________

Ordnance and accessories________________________
Food and kindred products.......................................
Tobacco manufactures
Textile mill products____________________________
Apparel and other finished textile products_________
Lumber and wood products (except furniture)______
Furniture and fixtures
_______________
Paper and allied products.._____________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries__________
n hemicals fmd allied products
__ __
Products of petroleum and coal___________ ________
Rubber products
TjAftther and leather products
_______________
Stone, clay, and glass products___________________
Primary metal industries
____________
Fabricated metal products
_____________
Machinery (except electrical)
________________
Electrical machinery....................................................
Transportation equipm ent.__________ -__________
Instruments and related products
. . . ..... ......
Miscellaneous manufacturing. _ __________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ----- ---- ----------------Mining, crude-petroleum and natural-gas production_
Transportation3 ____________ __________________
Communications_______________________________
Utilities: Electric and gas________________________
Wholesale trade .
______________
Retail trade...... —........................................................
Hotels and restaurants._________________________
Services
___________________________________
Construction.................. ..................... ..................... Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing_________________

869
7

81
11
26
9
12
16
53
33
30
8
23
11
28
62
57
136
96
129
22
9

Ul

6
66
72
54
11
60
3

29
139
1

10.7
276.0
25.5
68.1
252.0
20.6
29.0
33.8
55.4
40.4
6.0
16.6
47.7
32.1
84.9
136.4
334.3
402.9
1,209.2
50.2
23.3

1 , 410.1

233.5
347.2
74.0
89.2
14.6
14.9
5.5
43.9
587.5

5
54
4
24
25
6
13
17
15
20
5
10
14
5
38
48
125
81
114
20
10
146

4
35
6
33
8
4
2
13
40

9 8 4 .0

233.5
258.9
74.0
79.6
14.6
5.7
4.0
41.4
222.6

5

18.3

2

4.2

1
2

2.0
5.0

4

4.6

6

18.1

2

2.6

1
1
4
3

6.4
1.0
23.1
10.9

1
6
4

2.0
11.5
5.8

6

23.1

1

3.0

9

68.4

8S

SOI. 9

17

7 8 .4

2

9.0

17

78.4

1

1.0

1

1.3

1

4.4

2

4.0

2

5.7

1

1.0

6

61.4

79

287.6

1
1
2
3

2.5
1.5
2.5
16.0

5,584.1

250

1,039.7

42

228.2

s , 404.0

111

S6 B .0

BO

6S .8

20

98.6

4
5
7

5.3
29.7
16.3

15
2
10

59.1
2.8
18.8
13.0
1.0
1.2
57.3
49.8
1.5
2.3
3.5

18.6
314.9
31.0
70.4
42.9
36.1
27.3
122.2
67.2
57.8
16.5
129.7
37.7
80.9
146.1
139.1
345.4
431.3
1,216.1
53.6
19.8

B, 180.1

239.6
379.2
546.4
128.7
22.5
148.2
5.5
92.4
615.3
2.5 1

5

1
1
16
20
1
1
2
1

2.0

1S9

6 7 7 .7

3
30
50
19
4
10
1
9

11
2

1 Includes agreements which provided IK for Saturday morning and double
time thereafter; IK for the first or first 2 Sundays worked and double time
for subsequent Sundays (telephone industry); and double time, instead
of IK, if Sunday was the 7th consecutive day. Also includes agreements
which granted IK for certain occupations (including repair and maintenance)
and double time for others.
2 Includes agreements which provided IK or double time for Saturday
afternoon only, or double time instead of IK if Saturday was the 7th con­




10.7
193.2
7.3
68.1
252.0
18.6
19.8
33.8
23.7
36.5
6.0
16.6
47.7
27.9
80.6
118.5
327.6
289.5
1,172.3
47.5
23.3

8.1
222.4
279.8
48.3
12.7
31.0
3.0
19.5
50.5
2.5

1
1

1

3.4
1.0

10.0

1

3.0

2

3.3

4
4

9.7
7.7

3
1
2

7.9
2.6
4.8

BB

17 4 .9

13
1
1
1

141.6
1.3
1.0
2.0

3
3

22.0
7.0

m

1

2.7

10

B 7 .6

950

4,039.3

28

103.6

30

173.5

708

B, 8 6 7 .6

4

8 .9

16

IBB. 2

1

1.3

10

29.6

1

1.2

1
1

1.5
2.8

1

3.7

1

2.7

B.4

16
7

14.9

1

3.0

6
49
11
22
4
4
16
36
30
17
3
22
10
8
38
55
132
89
127
20
9

B4B

3
19
4

33

5
39
1
16
122

15.2
184.4
31.0
65.2
13.2
9.8
27.3
58.7
61.6
34.5
3.5
128.7
36.5
13.9
88.6
134.7
335.2
336.0
1,211.4
48.9
19.8

1 ,1 8 1 .7

231.5
77.8
90.4
77.9
7.6
92.2
1.0
49.5
553.8

1

2.9

3

85.5

9 4 .7

14

6 1 .S

76.8

1
5
1
1

2.2
34.7
1.3
1.2
8.1
1.5
1.4
1.0

3

1
1
1

secutive day. Also includes agreements which provided IK, IK, IK, double
time, or a flat sum for some groups or plants and compensatory time off or
straight time for others; IK or double time during certain seasons only (mainly
in food processing); and a few agreements which granted either triple time,
2K, or 1 % time.
3 Excludes railroad and airline industries.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals

13
Table 6.

Premium rates for work on sixth and seventh day not part of regular workweek, in major collective bargaining
agreements, by industry, 1958
Premium rate paid
Number with
premium pay
provision
Industry

Time and onehalf

Time and onehalf in some
instances;
double time
in others

Premium or flat
sum, varying
by wage range,
occupation, etc.

Double time

Other *

Agree­Workers Agree- Workers Agree- Workers Agree- Workers Agree- Workers Agree- Workers
ments (thou- ments (thou- ments (thou- ments (thou- ments (thou- ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
Sixth-Day W ork
All industries.
M a n u fa c t u r in g ........................................... .......

Ordnance and accessories____________ _______ ____
Food and kindred products______________________
Tobacco manufactures________ __________________
Textile mill products____________________________
Apparel and other finished textile products— ................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture)______
Furniture and fixtures---- --------- ------- -------Paper and allied products________________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries__________
Chemicals and allied products________ _____ _____
Products of petroleum and coal___________________
Rubber products................. .................. .....................
Leather and leather products_____________________
Stone, clay, and glass products___________________
Primary metal industries________________________
Fabricated metal products_______________________
Machinery (except electrical).---- -----------------Electrical machinery___________ _________________
Transportation equipment____________ __________
Instruments and related products_________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing______________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _____ ___________________
Mining, crude-petroleum and natural-gas production._
Transportation 2........................ ....... ............ .............
Communications_______________________________
Utilities: Electric and gas________________________
Wholesale trade_________________________ _____
Retail trade........... ............ ...................... ....... ...........
Hotels and restaurants_______________ ______ ____
Services...----------------------------------------Construction...______ __________________________
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing_____________ ____

608

3,186.6

426
7
44

2,S714
12.8

23

2

163.5
2.8
61.6

7
6
7
9
32
18
12
6
7
72
20
55
45
48
6
m

g
38
16
51
3
39
14
12
1

567

2,967.1

2

5

4

7

12

31.4

23

177.9

4H

2,270.8

1

2.2

S

5.2

1

1.4

7

94.9

y

6ie

1
1

5.3
83.0

7
38

12.8

155.5

2

2.8

23

61.6

16.3
11.3
10.7
13.4
69.5
45.5
19.0
10.7
17.9
610.3
64.8
221.9
238.4
772.0
12.4

7
6
7
7
32
18
12
6
7
72
20
53
43
48
6

16.3
11.3
10. 7
9.8
69.5
45.5
19.0
10.7
17.9
610.3
64.8
215.1
153.2
772.0
12.4

812.2

163

696.4

m inmin mini m m iii....... i...........i~i

246.0
86.0
99.3
116.5
5.7
121.8
93.2
32.0
12.0

8
34
13
45
3
26
11
12
1

246.0
78.8
80.7
105.5
5.7
84.7
51.2
32.0
12.0

Seventh-Day W ork
All industries................................. .............................

622

3,405.7

176

1,038.8

M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________

466

2,597.9

89

1

1.3

N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ____ ____________________
Mining, crude-petroleum and natural-gas production..
Transportation 2_____ _____________ ____________
Communications___ _______ _____ ______________
Utilities: Electric and gas-------------------------Wholesale trade___ ____________________________
Retail trade----- ------- -------------------------Hotels and restaurants_______________ _____ _____
Services_______________________________________
Construction__________________________________
M iscell aneous nonm anufacturin g_________________

8
49
2
24
2
5
6
8
6
44
18
7
6
13
72
21
63
45
56
11

156

8
38
12
56
2
18
12
9
1

16.2
230.5
2.8
63.5
17.0
12.3
11.3
12.6
8.9
91.2
46.4
11.2
12.0
38.4
611.1
66.3
251.9
248.9
827.4
18.6

1

1.3

377.2

807.8

246.0
192.1
75.3
131.6
4.1
60.2
61.0
25.7
12.0

1 Includes agreements which provided time and one-half for the 6th day,
or double time for the 7th day, for certain occupations only or during certain
seasons only (food processing); and double time for the 7th consecutive day
or if the 7th day fell on Sunday, and time and one-half otherwise. Also
includes a few agreements which provided time and one-half for the 7th day
for certain occupations only.




6
28
9
21
1
12
5
5

16.0
166.0
55.3
49.6
2.8
43.0
25.9
18.9

1.5

1

1.5

1

1.5

421

2,193.1

368

12.7

30.0

16

83.0

*

3.0

2

1 j

2.4

3
3

4.2
18.6
5.8

19.7
5.0

6
2

17.4
37.0

4

16.1

18

145.1

9

119.5

5

19.2

1

2.0

1
2

5.3
93.0

9

25.6

4
1
2

9.4
9.2
3.0

1
1

1.0
3.0

11

1,816.9

8
30
2
24
2
1
6
4
2
41
9
7
5
12
32
19
60
41
52
11

525.1
9.0
19.4
3.8
27.8

87

3

1.0

40
2
2
2
4

1

7
1

1

6.0
5.2
7.9
17.6

Ordnance and accessories___ ____ _______ ____ _____
Food and kindred products______________________
Tobacco manufactures___________________________
Textile mill products____________________________
Apparel and other finished textile products_________
Lumber and wood products (except furniture)------Furniture and fixtures___________________________
Paper and allied products________________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries__________
Chemicals and allied products____________________
Products of petroleum and coal___________________
Rubber products---- -----------------------------Leather and leather products_____________________
Stone, clay, and glass products___________________
Primary metal industries________________________
Fabricated metal products_______________T
_______
Machinery (except electrical)_____________________
Electrical machinery____________________________
Transportation equipment-------------------------Instruments and related products___ _____________
Miscellaneous manufacturing_____________________

3.7

2

11.3

4
4
3
9

2.2

27.7

4

1

661.6

14

2

3

12.7

1

2.9

1

1.3

1

8.5

53
2
5
2

32
1
2
4
4
1

16.2
183.6
2.8
63.5
17.0
1.0
11.3
6.6
3.7
83.4
28.9
11.2
11.0
36.4
86.0
57.3
227.2
152.1
799.6
18.6
376.3

230.0
13.9
10.8
77.8
1.3
5.1
18.6
6.9
12.0

4

3

1

16.1

11.1
5.0

2 Excludes railroad and airline industries.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

14

a requirement that the employee had not refused
to work on any of five regularly scheduled days.
In a few agreements, the minimum work require­
ments were not clear, or reference was made to
local supplements.
Certain excused absences were counted as time
worked in 63 of the 87 agreements with minimum
work requirements for Sunday premium pay.
Payment of double time for Sunday work was
specified in almost three-fourths (950) of the con­
tracts with Sunday premium pay provisions; time
and one-half was provided in nearly a fifth (250).
(See table 5.) Of the remaining 100 agreements,
42 provided combinations of time and one-half
and double time. These included telephone
Table 7. Premium pay for work on Saturday and Sunday
as part of regular workweek, in major collective bar­
gaining agreements, by industry, 1958
Premium pay for regularly
scheduled work on—
Industry

Saturday

Sunday

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
All industries............. ......... ....................

42

194.8

249

1,530.6

Manufacturing....................... .......

36

152.7

154

943.8

15

91.7

1
17

3.4
103.0

1

14.0

3

16.3

1

2.8

1
14

2.4
24.2

2
5

3.8
9.2

1

1.0

1
10
1
1

2.2
16.3
1.3
1.0

1
2

1.2
3.9

4
2
2

8.1
4.6
12.5

12
56
8
11
3
10
4
1

39.9
574.6
20.5
67.9
5.8
56.7
7.3
1.3

6

42.2

95

586.9

3
1
1

30.4
9.0
1.8

4
4
49
23

12.1
34.4
454.4
55.6

1

1.0

11
1
3

25.5
1.5
3.5

Ordnance and accessories___ ___ _____
Food and kindred products___ _______
Tobacco manufactures__ ..
Textile mill products...............................
Apparel and other finished textile
products_____________ _________ ___
Lumber and wood products (except fur­
niture)...... ...........................................
Furniture and fixtures___________ ____
Paper and allied products_____________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries.-....... ............. ......... ............. _ ..
Chemicals and allied products____ ____
Products of petroleum and coal-.
Rubber products.....................................
Leather and leather products_________
Stone, clay, and glass products...... .........
Primary metal industries.......................
Fabricated metal products................ ......
Machinery (except electrical).......... . ..
Electrical machinery.............. .................
Transportation equipment____________
Instruments and related products......... .
Miscellaneous manufacturing.................
N onmanufactur ing...... ..................
Mining, crude-petroleum and naturalgas production.....................................
Transportation 1_............. ......................
Communications______ _____ ________
Utilities: Electric and gas____ _____ _
Wholesale trade.....................................
Retail trade..... ................ ...............
Hotels and restaurants............................
Services___________ _________ ______
Construction..... .....................................
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing............

1 Excludes railroad and airline industries.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




agreements which granted time and one-half for
the first two Sundays worked and double time for
subsequent Sundays; agreements in other indus­
tries which specified double time for split shifts
and for Sunday if it was the seventh day, and time
and one-half in all other instances; and agreements
providing double time for production workers,
with time and one-half for employees on main­
tenance or emergency work, as in the following
example:
All . . . work performed on Sundays and herein listed
holidays shall be paid for at the rate of double time,
except that such work as may be necessary in order to
facilitate the emergency arrival of material may be done
on Sundays at time and one-half the hourly rate of pay for
the first eight (8) hours of such work performed. This
rate shall not apply to any work other than that above
mentioned.

A few others specified time and one-half except
for maintenance men, who received double time.
Another group of 28 agreements specified fixed
sums or premium rates for Sunday work which
varied according to wage range, occupation, or for
other reasons; or premium rates for some occupa­
tions and a fixed sum for others. For example:
Double time. Effective April 1, 1956, double the
straight-time hourly rate shall be paid to all employees
except box boys for all work performed on Sunday.
Box boys. Effective April 1, 1956, the Sunday rate for
box boys shall be $1.75 per hour for all work performed
and shall be frozen at that figure for the duration of this
agreement.

Sixth and Seventh Day Not Regularly Scheduled
Provisions for premium pay for the sixth day
of the workweek were found in over a third of the
agreements analyzed, covering two-fifths of the
workers. The seventh workday was a premium
day in almost the same proportions of agreements
and workers (table 1).
Almost two-thirds of these contracts also pro­
vided premium pay for Saturday and/or Sunday.
The sixth and seventh day clauses in such in­
stances applied to employees on off-standard
work schedules, in which Saturday or Sunday
might be regular workdays. Under the remaining
one-third or more agreements which specified
only sixth and/or seventh day premium pay,
workers on a regular Monday through Friday

15
Table 8. Premium rates for Saturday and Sunday work
as part of regular workweek, in major collective bar­
gaining agreements, 1958
For regularly scheduled work
on—
Premium rate

Saturday

Sunday

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
Number with provision for premium pay.

42

194.8

249

IMo times regular rate_______________IMo times regular rate................ ............
1H times regular rate_________________
IK times regular rate.......................... ....
IMo times regular rate............... -..........
1M times regular rate....... -.................. .
2 times regular rate..................................
1M times for first or first 2 Sundays
worked; double time for second or third
and subsequent consecutive Sundays _
Cents-per-hour addition____ __________
Premium or flat sum, varying by wage
range, occupation, etc______________
Other..... ..................................................

1
15

9.0
91.7

1

1,530.6
1.7

4
i 74
8 15
92
10

6.5
626.3
91.7
538.8
28.5

1

1.8

11

34.9

8 10

26.9

10
<21

89.2
49.9

2
2

27.4
3.3

8 10
• 12

41.6
56.8

1 59 of these agreements, covering 590,350 workers, provided premium pay
of IMo for the first year of the contract, 1H the second year, and 1 H the third
year (1958).
* All agreements provided premium pay of IMo for the first year of the
contract, 1 H the second year, and IMo the third year (1958).
8 Premium pay ranged from 10 to 50 cents per hour.
8 Premium pay ranged from 5 to 70 cents per hour.
8 Includes agreements which provided double time for some groups and 1M
or a flat sum for others; 1 H for some groups and 1H for others; and specified
amounts varying according to wage range.
• Includes agreements which provided premium pay of IK, 1M , or a flat
sum for some occupational groups only;
fo r some occupations and com­
pensatory time for others; 1Mfor some occupations and double time for second
and subsequent Sundays worked for others; and a few agreements which paid
a premium but did not clearly indicate the amount.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

workweek would, in actual practice, receive
premium pay for Saturday or Sunday work.
As in the case of Saturday and Sunday, pro­
visions for sixth and seventh day pay were more
prevalent in manufacturing than in nonmanu­
facturing agreements (table 2).
Requirements that an employee work a speci­
fied number of days or hours during the work­
week in order to qualify for premium pay were
more frequently established for the sixth and
seventh day than for Saturday and Sunday. Such
restrictions were found in approximately twofifths of the agreements with sixth and seventh
day provisions (table 3).
Nearly all (96 percent) of the agreements con­
taining eligibility rules required the employee to
work a full weekly schedule to qualify for sixth
day premium pay; 80 percent required work for a
full 6-day schedule for seventh day pay (table 4).
8 Some of the clauses applied to Saturdays and Sundays occurring either
outside of or within the regular workweek, and were tabulated in both
categories.




Under these requirements, employees would be
eligible for premium pay only for the sixth or
seventh consecutive days worked, rather than for
the sixth or seventh day of the workweek. Other
minimum work requirements included work for a
full 5-day schedule for seventh day premium rate
(15 percent), and work for a specified number of
hours or for some portion of each previously
scheduled day for sixth or seventh day premium
pay. However, over two-thirds of the agreements
with sixth and seventh day minimum work re­
quirements modified these restrictions by per­
mitting certain absences to be counted as time
worked, for premium pay eligibility.
Time and one-half was specified as the premium
rate in 95 percent of the agreements with sixth day
provisions (table 6). For those agreements with
seventh day provisions, double time was specified
in 68 percent, and time and one-half in 28 percent.
Double time for the seventh day was more preva­
lent in manufacturing industries, accounting for
nearly four-fifths of the manufacturing agreements,
in contrast to one-third of nonmanufacturing.
Saturday and Sunday Regularly Scheduled
Provisions for premium pay for regularly
scheduled work on Sunday were found in 14 per­
cent (249) of the 1,736 contracts analyzed, cover­
ing 20 percent of the workers (table 7). Saturday
premium pay provisions, in contrast, were in­
cluded in only 42 agreements.5
The majority of these contracts were in in­
dustries noted for continuous-process or 7-day
operations; these agreements also included pro­
vision for sixth and seventh day premium pay.
In other industries, the clauses involved only
certain occupational groups, such as maintenance
men, guards, and stationary engineers, for whom
Saturday or Sunday were regular workdays:
Maintenance employees will be paid a bonus of fifteen
(15) cents per hour on Saturday and Sunday when these
days are part of their regularly scheduled forty (40) hour
workweek.

Of the 249 contracts with Sunday provisions,
92 provided time and one-half (table 8). Thirtyfour of these, involving 60 percent of the workers
in this group, were in the telephone industry.
An additional 10 agreements in this industry

16
specified time and one-half for the first, or first two
Sundays worked, and double time for subsequent
Sundays. Double time was also specified in 10
other agreements, principally in the paper in­
dustry. Another group of 21 agreements provided
for payment of additional cents per hour, ranging
from 10 to 50 cents.
Time and one-fourth was specified in 74 con­
tracts, of which 47 were in the basic steel industry
(accounting for almost 90 percent of the workers
receiving time and one-fourth). The basic steel
formula was also used in a number of other agree­




ments, principally in the fabricated metal prod­
ucts, clay refractory, utilities, and iron mining
industries.
Fifteen meatpacking agreements provided
Sunday premium pay of one and one-tenth during
the first year (1956) of the contract, one and
one-fifth the second year, and one and three-tenths
the third year—1958. These 15 agreements also
granted premium pay for work on regularly
scheduled Saturdays, for which the progression
was one and one-twentieth, one and one-tenth,
and for the third year, one and three-twentieths.

17

Hours of W and Overtime Provisions, 1956-57
ork
A is 8 - h o u r w o r k d a y and a 40-hour workweek
were the predominant work schedules established
through collective bargaining, according to the
U. S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor
Statistics analysis of 1,813 major collective
bargaining contracts in effect in the latter part
of 1956 and in 1957. Of the 1,508 agreements
providing for standard weekly schedules, 1,266
established a 40-hour workweek. Only 126
agreements fixed the normal weekly schedule at
less than 40 hours, but plant supplements to
multiplant agreements (as in rubber manufactur­
ing) and the language of multiemployer agreements
(as in men’s clothing) indicated that shorter
workweeks were somewhat more frequent in major
collective bargaining situations than this study
revealed.
Although there were noteworthy exceptions, the
work schedules provided in agreements generally
defined the straight-time workday or workweek.
Premium pay for work in excess of 8 hours (or less
in some cases) in any one day was provided by
the vast majority of agreements. Virtually all
agreements established a 5-day week.
Scheduled hours of work, as the term is used in
this study, define the number of hours which
constitute the normal, standard, or regular
workday or workweek. Such provisions do not
guarantee the stipulated hours of work, nor do
they, as a rule, fix a ceiling on the number of hours
that may be worked. Hours of work provisions in
agreements tend to serve two major purposes:
(1) to safeguard against unilateral decisions
significantly affecting work patterns and (2) to
establish a framework for defining overtime. Paid
time allowances for preparatory activities related
to the job such as checking out tools, paid rest
periods, paid washup time, where these practices
are in effect,1are normally included in the standard
daily or weekly schedule.
Each of the agreements studied covered 1,000
or more workers, and related in total to more than
8 million workers, or almost half of all the workers
estimated to be under agreements in the United
States, exclusive of railroads and airlines.2 The
vast majority of the 1,813 contracts studied con­




tained clauses which, in varying degree of detail,
listed the hours to be worked per day, the number
of days to be worked per week, and the total
number of hours that constitute a week’s work.
Among the contracts which did not list work
schedules were a significant number negotiated
by multiplant companies, particularly in the rub­
ber and transportation-equipment industries. In
these instances, matters pertaining to hours of
work were covered in local plant supplements
(excluded from this study). On the other hand,
relatively few agreements failed to define over­
time.3
Weekly Hours of Work

Nearly 85 percent of the agreements with weekly
work schedules, covering about 80 percent of the
workers, provided for a 40-hour week. (See table
1.) Weekly schedules of less than 40 hours were
found to apply to approximately 588,000 workers,
or about 10 percent of all workers under agree­
ments defining weekly hours. Nearly 290,000
workers in the apparel industries, plus an addi­
tional 126,000 workers divided almost equally
between the printing and the construction indus­
tries, accounted for 2 out of 3 workers in this
group.4

1 See Paid Time for Washup, Cleanup, and Clothes Change, 1952-63, and
Paid Rest-Period Provisions in Union Agreements, 1952-53 (in Monthly
Labor Review, April 1954, pp. 420-423, and May 1954, pp. 531-535, respec­
tively), or Bull. 1196 (1954), pp. 14-22.
* The Bureau does not maintain a file of railroad and airline agreements,
hence their omission from this study. For an analysis of the characteristics
of major agreements as defined in this study, see Characteristics of Major
Union Contracts (in Monthly Labor Review, July 1956, pp. 805-811).
* For purposes of analysis, a contract had to specify the scheduled hours
of work per week. A provision for overtime after 40 hours a week was not
used as a basis for assuming a 40-hour schedule.
4 For trends in the workweek in the printing and building construction
industries, see Union Wages and Hours: Printing Industry, July 1, 1956,
and Trend, 1907-56 (BLS Bull. 1207, 1957), which was summarized in the
Monthly Labor Review, April 1957, pp. 466-471; and Union Wage Scales in
the Building Trades, 1957, on pp. 171-175 of this issue.

18

T able

Number studied
Industry

Number without
provisions for
weekly hours

1.

Scheduled weekly hours of work in major collective
Scheduled weekly hours of work

Less than 35

35

Over 35 and less
than 37J4

37H

Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
All industries_____________________________

1,813

8,024.6

305

2,035.0

4

20.6

77

455.4

19

58.0

26

54.3

1,187

5,074.4

^L95

1,345.6

1

2.5

54

328.4

19

58.0

16

32.1

Ordnance and accessories___________________
Fond and kindred products
Tobacco manufactures_____________________
Textile-mill products____________ _________
Apparel and other finished textile products___
Lumber and wood products (except furniture)—

14
118
12
53
54
17

28.1
384.2
33.3
128.9
488.4
44.2

4
31
1
4

12.5
84.5
2.2
5.2

3

8.0

Furniture and fixtures_____________________
Paper and allied products________ __________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries____
Chemicals and allied products___ ____-......... .
Products of petroleum and coal_____________
Rubber products__________________________
Leather and leather products_______________
Stone, clay, and glass products______________
Primary metal industries___________________
Fabricated metal products_________________
Machinery (except electrical)_______________
Electrical machinery______________ ________
Transportation equipment_________________
Instruments and related products___________
Miso^llanpnns marmfartnring industries _ ....

23
54
36
60
26
23
23
40
119
68
149
114
145
27
12

37.4
124.7
70.2
127.5
78.6
130.4
78.5
120.7
720.8
187.5
410.3
473.8
1,324.1
60.1
23.4

4
16

6.9
27.4

10
7
8

24.9
29.2
104.3

13
24
2
22
9
32
3
2

46.9
71.1
9.0
110.9
17.9
776.5
6.2
2.2

626

2,950.2

110

689.5

18

264.8

7

209.0

114
76
77
14
86
30
58
149
4

587.7
571.5
201.2
26.7
254.0
161.4
187.1
689.5
6.5

41
5
3
3
11
2
18
17
3

195.0
81.6
12.8
8.5
31.1
2.8
66.2
77.4
5.3

Manufacturing______________________

NVvnmarmtorturing

.......

Mining, crude-petroleum, and natural-gas pro­
duction.
Transportation *__________________________
Communications__________________________
Utilities: electric and gas___________________
Wholesale trade___________________________
Retail trade______________________________
Hotels and restaurants_____________________
Services_________________________________
Construction_____________________________
M ifi^llanAo11^ tinnm am itontnrin g
. . _
.

2
2.5

2

10.0

12.8
286.1

1

1.5

2

2.8

8

1

6.7

2
40

20.6

15

31.5

9

10.3

3

9.0

10

22.2

7

14.0

2
1

6.8
1.4

1

2
18.1

1

15.0

2

3.1

127.1
30.0

5

35.0

1
16

1.1
61.0

22.0

2.2

23
1

3

3.0

2

* Contains agreements providing for 50-, 54-, and 60-hour workweeks.
* Includes agreements which establish the scheduled workweek on the basis
of geographical location, and some which vary hours by department. Also
in this group are contracts in which the length of the workweek is optional

with the employer; others in which hours are to be mutually agreed upon;
and some which specify scheduled hours for some employees and make no
reference to hours for others.

The prevalence of shorter workweeks in major
agreements is understated by these figures, as
mentioned earlier. In the rubber products and
men's clothing industries, where workweeks below
40 hours have been in effect for many years in
certain localities, the major agreements did not
explicitly establish weekly hours. The multiplant
agreements negotiated by the Big Four rubber
companies provided that work schedules were to
be negotiated locally. An examination of local
plant agreements for Akron workers revealed that
all specified a 36-hour schedule, spread over 6 days.
The industrywide agreement for the men's cloth­
ing industry contained the following provision:

The regular hours of work for all employees may be
8 hours in any one day, from Monday to Friday inclu­
sive. . . . The 36-hour week for all manufacturing opera­
tions in which it has been heretofore established shall be
maintained.




Scheduled weekly hours in excess ox
applied
to only about 60,000 workers, mainly in trans­
portation, hotel, and service industries. Almost
twice as many workers were under agreements in
which scheduled hours of work were permitted to
vary according to occupation and 105,000 work­
ers, according to seasonal requirements. In
these circumstances, however, a 40-houT week
>

19

b a r g a in in g agreem en ts by in d u s tr y , 1 9 5 6 - 5 7
Scheduled weekly hours of work—Continued
40

Over 40 and less
than 48

48

Over 4 8 1

Vary by occu­ Vary by season
pation

Other3
Industry

Agree­Workers Agree­ Workers Agree Workers Agree­Workers Agree­Workers Agree­Workers Agree­Workers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
1,266 4,755.0

5

7.4

14

38.7

861 2,990.0

2

2.5

4

9.6

10
61
45
9
12

15.6
168.1
31.1
108.2
31.7
32.7

17
30
4
50
19
14
20
24
94
66
127
104
112
24
8

26.8
81.5
7.8
102.6
49.4
23.1
69.5
50.8
647.7
178.5
299.4
450.8
542.4
53.9
19.0

1

1.5

1

3

4.9

118.8

20

105.4

50

360.9

20.8

18

100.9

13

184.2

1.0

405 1,765.0

15.3

21
4

6

10

291.0
316.9
185.3
14.5
200.2
108.3
75.3
546.8
1.2

2.5

2.0

17

98.0

11

5.6

29.2

15.3

6

3 17
1

2

2

1

3

1.1

3.1

1
4
1
1

3.8

4.5
10.3
10.0
1.3

6

15.3

5
1
1
2
4
4

45.7
1.5
1.2
7.9
30.2
11.5

* Most of these agreements are in the food processing and packing industries.
4 The national agreement for the men’s clothing industry defines the regular
workweek as 8 hours per day, 5 days a week; however, it stipulates that opera­
tions already on a 36-hour week shall maintain that schedule.

may be standard for large groups of workers or
for long periods of the year. The following
excerpts from agreements in the hotel and food
processing industries illustrate seasonal and occu­
pational variations.
N o n - tip receivin g em ployees exclu sive o f d in in g room
d ep artm en t em ployees. The hours of work for male and

female employees shall be 40 hours per week.
D in in g room d e p artm en t em ploy ees. M a le —The work­
week shall be 48 hours per week. . . . F e m a le —The
workweek shall be 44 hours per week.
B e llm en a n d doorm en . . . . The hours of work shall
be 48 hours per week.
*

*

*

*

*

*

An “ exempt” week is a workweek of not more than 48
hours at straight time in which work of preparing, or
placing in containers, or cooking or freezing of perishable
products is being conducted. . . . All weeks other than




1
1

Manufacturing.

Ordnance and accessories.
99.9
2
4.7 Food and kindred products.
Tobacco manufactures.
Textile-mill products.
3 <159.2 Apparel and other finished textile products.
Lumber and wood products (except furni­
1.0
ture).
1
1.3 Furniture and fixtures.
5
8.8 Paper and allied products.
Printing, publishing, and allied industries.
Chemicals and allied products.
Products of petroleum and coal.
Rubber products.
Leather and leather products.
Stone, clay, and glass products.
Primary metal industries.
Fabricated metal products.
Machinery (except electrical).
1
5.2 Electrical machinery.
1
5.2 Transportation equipment.
Instruments and related products.
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries.
4.5

37

176.8

25.8

45
43
72
9
67
17
28
113
1

10

10.0

1

2

6.3

1

4.0

1
1

2

All industries.

2.5
2.0

16
11
1

64.7
78.3
1.8

4
1
4

8.4
3.0
20.7

N onmanufacturing.
Mining, crude-petroleum, and natural-gas
production.
Transportation.*
Communications.
Utilities: electric and gas.
Wholesale trade.
Retail trade.
Hotels and restaurants.
Services.
Construction.
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing.

* Excludes railroad and airline agreements.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily
equal totals.

exempt weeks shall be deemed non-exempt and shall be
weeks of not more than 40 hours at straight time.

Additional variations in working hours were
provided for under the terms of 50 agreements
covering over 360,000 workers. Included in this
category is the nationwide agreement for the
men's clothing industry previously mentioned.
Varied weekly schedules were also found in the
transportation industry. Location of work was
a factor in the maritime industry, where the
scheduled workweek was 40 hours in port and
56 hours at sea, and in interstate trucking agree­
ments, where the length of the workweek varied
by State. Geographical location was also the
basis for varied workweeks in some communica­
tion contracts.
A sixth of the contracts studied contained no
provisions on standard weekly hours of work.

20
T able 2.

Scheduled d aily hours o f work in major collective bargaining agreements by industry , 1 9 5 6 - 6 7
Number without provisions
for daily hours

Scheduled work hours per day
Less than 7

7

Split sh ift1 Vary by occu­
pation

8

7H

Industry

Other *

Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
All industries_____________ ___
Manufacturing _ _ __
Ordnance and accessories_
_ _
Food and kindred products_____
Tobacco manufactures...............
Textile-mill products...................
Apparel and other finished tex­
tile products...........................
Lumber and wood products (ex­
cept furniture)..........................
Furniture and fixtures.................
Paper and allied products............
Printing, publishing, and allied
industries............ ........ ............
Chemicals and allied products_
_
Products of petroleum and coal__
Rubber products.........................
Leather and leather products.......
Stone, day, and glass products...
Primary metal industries.............
Fabricated metal products..........
Machinery (except electrical)___
Electrical machinery....................
Transportation equipment..........
Instruments and related products.
Miscellaneous manufacturing in­
dustries.....................................

258 1,271.5

7

31.4

73

26

54.3

1,324 5,408.7

175

888.4

3

7.3

50

296.0

16

32.1

902 3,601.4

2
31
1
4

2.3
85.0
2.2
5.2

2

6.7

2

10.0

2

12.8

2

2.8

36

253.7

2

28.2

3
3
13

8.0
4.6
20.8

9
5
8

18.0
18.8
106.0

18
14
1
19
8
29
3

423.1

2
83

383.1

Mining, crude-petroleum, and
natural-gas production..............
Transportation
.......................
Communications.........................
Utilities: electric and gas _
Wholesale trade............................
Retail trade..................................
Hotels and restaurants.................
Services
_ _r. _
.
Construction _
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing.

2
32
5
3
4
12
1
17
4
3

3.2
165.1
72.4
12.8
9.5
33.8
1.2
64.2
15.8
5.3

48
1

3.0

2
4

24.1

1

15.0

3

9.1

127.1

10.3
9.0

2.2

23

49
3

20.6

1

35.0

1
16

1.1
61.0

22.2

7

14.0

2
1

6.8
1.4

30.0

5

10

78

439.5

12.5

37

236.9

1

6.3

6

10.1

1

7.8
108.4
59.8
21.4
69.5
46.6
679.7
184.5
341.2
453.6
938.1
53.9

303.5

1.7

31.7

4
50
21
14
20
22
104
67
130
105
115
24

20
4

33.7
29.1
96.3

7

1.8

2.2

Nonmanufacturing.............

1

9

2.5

93.0

25.8
266.1
31.1
106.5

13
18
36

74.1
39.1
3.0
69.1
15.1
380.8
6.2

1

12
76
11
44

27

17.0

422 1,807.3
14
45
43
72
8
65
21
28
125
1

31.6
291.4
319.4
184.2
13.5
197.7
93.5
74.8
600.2
1.2

7 •174.8
1

1.3
5.9
31.5
1.1

1
1

1

1
4
15
1

2.5

5.2
5.2

2.0

1
27

93.0

22
2

53.7
16.4

2
1

21.2
1.8

16

291.0

1

200.0

5
1
1
2
2
4

45.7
2.5
1.2
7.9
22.2
11.5

2.0

41

202.7

14
9
1
1
7
2
6
1

62. e
68.7
1.8
2.5
14.7
16.6
32.5
3.5

1 Includes 22 transportation agreements, 19 of which provide that daily
scheduled hours are to be worked within spread-time ranging from 10 to 13
hours, and 3 in which specified percentages of employees are required to
complete their runs within different spread limits.
2 Includes 5 agreements in transportation and services, 4 of which provide
for an 8H- or 9-hour day, and 1 in which the day is to consist of “not more
than 9 hours of straight time”; 15 agreements in the printing industry which
provide for 7 H-hour workdays; agreements in the food processing and pack­
ing industries which detail 8-hour workdays during the nonprocessing season,
but make no reference to hours of work during the processing season; mari­

time agreements in which length of working days depends on whether the
employees are on port or sea duty; agreements which vary hours of work by
city, area, department, and sex; and contracts which designate specific hours
for 1 group and make no reference to hours for others.
2 See footnote 4, table 1.
4 15 agreements providing for a 7H-hour day are classified as “other/
* Excludes railroad and airline agreements.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily
equal totals.

Reference has already been made to the existence
of master agreements which leave the determina­
tion of work schedules to local negotiations.
However, as indicated later in this article (table
5), many agreements without provisions for weekly
hours contained weekly overtime clauses. It is
reasonable to assume that in many instances the
overtime provisions also were intended as defini­
tions of the standard hours of work.

Daily Hours of Work

* As previously explained, this study understates the prevalence of the
short workday in the rubber and men's clothing industries.




An 8-hour day was the standard in 85 percent
of the agreements which specified daily schedules
(table 2). Nearly half of the workers under a
less than 8-hour schedule were employed in the
ladies’ garment industry under a 7-hour day
schedule. A 6-hour day applied to Pacific Coast
longshoremen.5
Included in a retail trade agreement was a
provision in which the hours differed daily, i. e., a
scheduled 45-hour week was divided into 8-, 8%-,

21
and 9%-hour days, varying by the day to be worked.
Daily hours of work based on type of store were
provided for in an areawide retail trade agreement.
In a number of States, a maximum limit on the
hours of work of women and minors is established
by law. Such restrictions were reflected in
agreements which specified shorter daily hours
for women, or specified that daily hours for such
workers were to be in accordance with State law.

No agreement in the survey provided for less than
5 workdays. Seasonal variations were again
encountered in the food processing industry, and
sea or port duty determined schedules for mari­
time personnel. A tour of duty which may
extend over 4 full days and 2 half days was
prescribed in a considerable number of telephone
agreements.
Daily and Weekly Overtime

Number of Workdays

Pay at the rate of time and one-half for work
in excess of 40 hours a week is required by the
Fair Labor Standards Act for employees engaged
in interstate commerce or in the production of
goods for such commerce. Of more limited

Five out of six agreements designated the
number of scheduled workdays within the work­
week (table 3). The 5-day week was the normal
schedule in almost 95 percent of these agreements.
T a b l e 3.

S ch ed u led w o rk d ay s p e r week in m a jo r collective b a r g a in in g agreem en ts by in d u s tr y , 1 9 5 6 — 7
5
Number
studied

Number with­
out provisions
for weekly
workdays

Scheduled number of workdays per week
5

Varies by
occupation

6

Industry

Other»

Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ Workers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
All industries..... .............................................................

1,813

8,024.6

297

1,926.5

1,408

5,547.6

18

39.8

13

51.1

77

459.7

Manufacturing. ......................................................

1,187

5,074.4

196

1,336.4

959

3,614.6

5

13.4

2

3.7

25

106.5

Ordnance and accessories___________________________
Food and kindred products—_____ __________________
Tobacco manufactures____ _______ _________________
Textile-mill products. . . _______ _______ _____ ______
Apparel and other finished textile products___________
Lumber and wood products (except furniture)_________
Furniture and fixtures_____________ _____ ______ ___
Paper and allied products_____ _____________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries____________
Chemicals and allied products_______________ ____ ___
Products of petroleum and coal______________________
Rubber products________ _________________________
Leather and leather products ______________________
Stone, clay, and glass products____________ ________
Primary metal industries___________________________
Fabricated metal products_________________________
Machinerv (except electrical)_______________________
Electrical machinery_
_ __________________________
Transportation equipment__________________________
Instruments and related products____________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries______________

14
118
12
53
54
17
23
54
36
60
26
23
23
40
119
68
149
114
145
27
12

28.1
384.2
33.3
128.9
488.4
44.2
37.4
124.7
70.2
127.5
78.6
130.4
78.5
120. 7
720.8
187.5
410.3
473.8
1,324.1
60.1
23.4

5
30
1
4
1
3
3
18

13.5
88.0
2.2
5.2
2.2
8.0
5.6
31.9

3.0

15

92.5

1

1.7
1
1
7

1.0
1.3
9.8

18.7
29.2
108.6

18
21
2
22
9
30
3
2

74.1
67.1
9.0
94.2
17.9
752.8
6.2
2.2

14.6
200.7
31.1
122.1
486.2
35.2
30.5
75.7
70.2
108.8
49.4
18.8
78.5
46. 6
651.7
178.5
316.1
455.9
571.3
53.9
19.2

1

8
7
9

9
72
11
48
53
13
19
26
36
52
19
13
23
22
97
66
127
105
115
24
9

N onmanufacturing..................................................

626

2,950.2

101

590.1

449

1,933.1

Mining, crude-petroleum, and natural-gas production___
Transportation 2________________________ _________
Communications__________________________________
Utilities: electric and gas___________________________
Wholesale trade_____________________________ _____
Retail trade................... ...................................................
Hotels and restaurants________________________ ____
Services...... ....... .................. ................... ......................
Construction_____________________ ________________
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing....................... .............

18
114
76
77
14
86
30
58
149
4

264.8
587.7
571. 5
201.2
26.7
254.0
161.4
187.1
689.5
6.5

7
35
4
2
4
11
2
16
17
3

209.0
178.3
10.9
10.3
11.0
29.9
2.8
55.5
77.4
5.3

11
61
39
73
9
71
19
34
131
1

55.8
346.1
297.4
187.0
14.7
212.3
115.1
92.9
610.8
1.2

* Includes agreements In the food processing and packing industry in which
the number of weekly workdays varies by season; agreements in the maritime
industry which base number of days on sea or port duty; and other transpor­
tation contracts where the number of days are not specified. Also in this
group are communications agreements which provide for weekly tours of
5 days or the equivalent thereof (4 full days and 2 half days), and agreements
in which the number of weekly workdays are to be mutually agreed upon.




3

7.4

1

3.0
1

2.0

11

47.5

2

4.0

2
4
3

5.8
3a 2
7.5

1
13

26.5

5

7.4

1
1
4
1
1

1.0
4.5
10.3
2.0
1.3

2.0

52

353.2

13
33

56.1
263.3

1
1
4

1.5
3.0
29.3

9 Excludes railroad and airline agreements.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily
equal totals.

22
T a b l e 4.

Number
studied
Industry

Overtim e p re m iu m p a y p ro v isio n s i n m a jo r

Daily overtime only
Number
without over­
time provisions After less than
For work out­
8 hours *
After 8 hours
side daily
schedule 8

Weekly overtime only
After 40 hours

Other *

Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
A greeers
Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou ments (thou ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
All industries...................... ............ 1,813

8,024.6

106

412.1

29

201.9

279

1,467.9

233

956.8

34

93.5

Manufacturing....................... 1,187

5,074.4

35

155.2

25

177.4

187

1,113.6

106

451.0

13

23.9

14
118
12
53

28.1
384.2
33.3
128.9

7

14.0

1

8.0

1

1.5

4
9
6
2

8.4
23.2
14.2
6.3

3
2
i

7.0
10.1
7.0

2
1
2

3.4
2.2
2.7

54

488.4

4

67.5

22

167.1

17
23
54

44.2
37.4
124.7

2

4.5

2

2.5

70.2
127.5
78.6
130.4
78.5
120.7
720.8
187.5
410.3
473.8
1,324.1
60.1

1
1
2

1.0
1.1
11.7

1

2.5

Ordnance and accessories.................
Food and kindred products.............
Tobacco manufactures.....................
Textile-mill products____________
Apparel and other finished textile
products_____________________
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture)..... ............ ...................
Furniture and fixtures....................
Paper and allied products________
Printing, publishing, and allied in­
dustries______________ _______
Chemicals and allied products_____
Products of petroleum and coal____
Rubber products............................
Leather and leather products______
Stone, clay, and glass products____
Primary metal industries............. .
Fabricated metal products________
Machinery (except electrical) ..........
Electrical machinery.......................
Transportation equipment________
Instruments and related products.
Miscellaneous manufacturing in­
dustries____ _________________
N onmanufacturing............ .
Mining, crude-petroleum, and nat­
ural-gas production .....................
Transportation •........ ....... .............
Communications.............................
Utilities: electric and gas...............
Wholesale trade_________________
Retail trade........... ..........................
Hotels and restaurants.....................
Services_____________ ______ ___
Construction................... ...............
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing__

36
60
26
23
23
40
119
68
149
114
145
27

2
1
4
5

2

2.4

6.0
2.5
9.9
28.4

3

8.8

10

181.6

2

12.0
8.0
9.4

4
2

10.1
4.1

1

1.5

1
6
1
1
4
6
15
15
28
39
29
6

1.6
11.1
4.6
4.0
23.5
33.3
31.2
62.1
108.1
200.8
533.1
8.4

27
2
3

56.4
2.8
5.7

3
1
2
8
10
15
11

12.0
1.4
3.2
19.2
55.9
36.1
36.4

5.3

4.4

2
5
4

4

1

1.1

2

2.1

1

3.0

1

12

23.4

2

2.2

626

2,950.2

71

256.9

4

24.5

18
114
76
77
14
86
30
58
149
4

264.8
587.7
571.5
201.2
26.7
254.1
161.4
187.1
689.5
6.5

1
21
1
2

1.3
85.8
18.5
9.5

1
1

15.0
2.4

4
4
16
20
2

7.4
19.3
54.0
57.9
3.3

2

7.1

1.8

2

2.2

1

3.5

92

354.3

127

505.8

21

69.7

4

5.3

1
25
2
7
4
8
5
4
36

1.1
78.0
27.0
11.3
6.5
20.0
23.4
6.4
180.9

18
10
22
1
9
2
4
61

80.3
76.2
46.7
1.2
21.4
5.5
13.6
260.9

3
5
1

3.0
15.8
2.7

2
1

2.2
1.7

7

33.1

4
1

10.6
4.5

1

1.4

1 Agreements provide for premium pay after completion of 6-, 7-, and 7Mhour workdays. Included in this group are 22 agreements in the garment
industry providing for 7-hour workdays. In 12 of these, daily premium pay
starts upon completion of one-half hour overtime at straight pay.
* “ Work outside daily schedule” refers to any time worked before or
after the daily scheduled (clock) hours.
* Agreements provide for premium pay for time worked Id excess of 3 7 H f

45, and 48 hours; also included is a hospital agreement providing for com­
pensatory time after working more than 80 hours within a 2-week period,
or for premium pay, at the employer’s option.
4 Agreements provide for premium pay after 8 or 48, 9 or 45, and after 10
or 40 hours. Also included is an agreement providing for premium pay after
a 48-hour week but basing daily overtime on sex. This group also includes 3
agreements which provide premium pay after 8H and 9 hours daily.

application, the Public Contracts (Walsh-Healey)
Act of 1936, which applies to work performed on
United States Government contracts in excess of
$10,000, also calls for time and one-half rates for
work in excess of 8 hours a day. Relatively few
of the major agreements studied did not liberalize
the overtime pay requirements of the Fair Labor
Standards Act (table 4). The chief methods, as
revealed by this study, provided for daily overtime
rates or premium overtime rates for all work
outside of the normal schedule. In addition,
union agreements frequently* define “ hours
worked” for overtime pay purposes more liberally

than the law requires (for example, by counting
holidays as working time). Another common
practice, but not covered in this study, is the
payment of premium overtime rates for all work
performed on Saturday or Sunday.6
Notwithstanding the Federal requirements, all
but 106 of the 1,813 agreements studied contained
specific provisions covering overtime payments.
With few exceptions, the agreements provided for




«See Premium Pay for Weekend Work, 1952 (in Monthly Labor Review,
September 1953, pp. 933-939).
Another study on premium pay provisions for Saturday and Sunday and
the 6th and 7th day in the workweek is currently in progress.

23

collective b a r g a in in g agreem en ts by in d u s tr y , 1 9 5 6 - 5 7
Daily and weekly overtime
After 7 or 35
hours

After 7 H or
3 7 ^ hours

After 8 or 40
hours

Overtime varies by—
Other»
Other *

Occupation

Season

Industry

Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments ( thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
13

76.0

6

10.4

990

3,969.3

19

02.0

32

342.9

18

102.6

50

324.4

8

33.1

4

5.6

769

2,941.3

5

9.0

7

26.4

17

100.1

11

38.2

10
71
3
45

19.7
205.6
6.8
104.7

2

2.2

2

7.5

1

1.5

1

12.0

2

6.7

1

2.0

1

5.8

1

1.0

3

17.5

3

3.1

1

1.1

1

2

1.5

7.8

12
13
43

26.7
16.8
104.6

1
51
20
22
13
33
99
43
109
56
96
20

1.0
112.5
56.6
126.4
37.9
86.0
682.3
100.3
242.6
227.0
713.7
49.1

6
5
1

42.9

2

4.8

30.0
1

1
3

1.1
11.9

3.0

1

1.8

1,028.0

1.6

1

1

2.5

99.1

1

2

5.6

1.0

5

20.3

1

1.2

2
1

8.4
2.7

39

286.3

3.7

1

2.0

1

1.2

1

1.2

25

316.5

13.7

221

1

16

13
21
43
42
8
43
8
17
25
1

30.7
182.9
261.1
125.0
16.5
128.4
64.3
55.0
162.9
1.2

14

53.1

5

18.9

1
1
7
2

200.0
1.2
76.6
4.3

2
3
4

7.9
4.3
22.0

6
3
4

10.6
10.4
11.5

1

2.0

1

1

2.5

2.5

1
17
5
1

1.7
120.5
89.3
1.8

7
4
3
1

25.2
32.5
11.8
3.5

All industries.
Manufacturing.
Ordnance and accessories.
Food and kindred products.
Tobacco manufactures.
Textile- mill products.
Apparel and other finished textile
products.
Lumber and wood products (ex­
cept furniture).
Furniture and fixtures.
Paper and allied products.
Printing, publishing, and allied in­
dustries.
Chemicals and allied products.
Products of petroleum and coal.
Rubber products.
Leath er and leather products.
Stone, clay, and glass products.
Primary metal industries.
Fabricated metal products.
Machinery (except electrical).
Electrical machinery.
Transportation equipment.
Instruments and related products.
Miscellaneous manufacturing in­
dustries.
Nonmanufacturing.
Mining, crude-petroleum and nat­
ural-gas production.
Transportation.®
Communication.
Utilities: electric and gas.
Wholesale trade.
Retail trade.
Hotels and restaurants.
Services.
Construction.
Miscellaneous nonmanufacturing.

* Includes some agreements In the garment Industry in which overtime pro­
visions for pieceworkers and for hourly workers differ. In other agreements,
premium pay was based on salary, the sex of the employee, or the location of
the work performed. In some instances, premium pay applied to some
groups of employees, and no reference was made to other groups receiving
such payments.

6Excludes railroad and airline agreements.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily
equal totals.

premium rates for work in excess of 8 hours (or less
in some cases) in any one day. On a 5-day week
schedule, daily overtime, perhaps with provisions
for premium pay for Saturday and Sunday,
normally governs weekly overtime as well; thus,
many agreements contained no reference to
weekly overtime (in terms of number of hours).7

Provisions for overtime pay for hours less than 8
per day or 40 per week were relatively uncommon.
One out of 8 agreements, distributed widely
among manufacturing and nonmanufacturing in­
dustries, provided premium rates for all work per­
formed outside of regularly scheduled hours, re­
gardless of the number of hours previously
worked. About 3 out of 4 major agreements in
the printing industry fell in this category, as did
a significant number of agreements in the con­
struction and apparel industries.
Overtime exemptions for seasonal workers, as
permitted under the Fair Labor Standards Act,8

7 Pyramiding of overtime, that is, paying for daily as well as weekly over­
time hours, is generally prohibited.
• The Fair Labor Standards Act provides for both minimum wage and over­
time exemptions. Among the workers exempt are those engaged in specified
handling and processing activities of agricultural commodities within “ the
area of production.” The Administrator of the Wage and Hour and Public
Contracts Divisions may also grant a 14-week overtime exemption for em­
ployees in any seasonal industry.




24

were incorporated in 16 agreements in the food
processing industry, as in the following example:

the run determined the hours after which overtime
was to be paid. In addition, different eligibility
requirements were set forth for local delivery and
over-the-road drivers. Contracts in the maritime
industry specified different overtime provisions
for port or sea duty.
As a rule, scheduled weekly hours are identical
with the hours after which overtime is to be paid.
However, a few agreements scheduling a less
than 40-hour week provided for overtime only
after 40 hours have been worked (table 5).
Several contracts providing a schedule of more
than 40 hours started overtime compensation
after 8 hours daily or 40 hours weekly. In these

The company, being engaged in canning fresh fruits
and vegetables at certain times of the year, is exempted
from the overtime provisions of this agreement as follows:
(a) For a period of 14 weeks in canning perishable fruits
and vegetables.
(b) Exempt from the overtime provisions of this agree­
ment up to 12 hours in any one workday and up to 56
hours in any one workweek for an additional period of 14
T
weeks when such work is directly related to the processing
of perishable fruits and vegetables.

In a number of trucking agreements, the over­
time provisions in effect at the starting point of
T a b l e 5.

,

R elation of overtime prem ium p ay provisions to scheduled weekly hours of work in major collective bargaining
agreements 1 9 5 6 - 5 7

Number studied

Number without overtime
provisions

Scheduled weekly hours of work

Daily overtime only
After less than
8 hours

After 8 hours

Weekly overtime only

For work outside After 40 hours
daily schedule

Other 1

Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
Total.................................................

1,813 8,024.6

106

412.1

29

201.9

Weekly hours not specified________
Less than 35 hmirs
35 hours________________________
Over 35 and less than 3 7\4 hours___
37H hours.......... ............ ......1_____
40 hours________________________
Over 40 and less than 48 hours_____
48 hours________________________
Ovftr 48 hnnrs
Other8_________________________

305 2,035.0
4
20.6
455.4
77
19
58.0
26
54.3
1,266 4,755.0
7.4
5
14
38.7
6
15.3
585.1
91

59
1
6

225.7
2.5
63.9

1
1
23

6.0
15.0
168.2

279 1,467.9
43

545.3

2

2.6

1
32
1
1
3
2

1.6
88.7
1.1
6.0
11.3
12.0

4

12.8

2
222
1
4

7.5
882.5
1.5
8.5

5

20.1

Daily and weekly overtime
After 7 or
35 hours

After 7 \4 o r
3714 hours

After 8 or
40 hours

233

956.8

34

93.5

16
2
21
14
7
161

91.7
3.1
76.1
27.8
10.1
554.0

6

22.6

1

3.0

11

191.2

1

1.4
59.2

1
2
4

1.0
2.0
5.8

Overtime varies by
Other8

Occupation

5.3

1
1
1
1

1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0

1.4

1
19

4

Other overtime
provisions 4

Season

Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
Total.................................................
Weekly hours not specified...............
Less than 35 hours............... ....... .
35 hours________________________
Over 35 and less than 37H hours___
3 7 \4 hours_______________________
40 hours________________________
Over 40 and less than 48 hours_____
48 hours________________________
Over 48 hours___________________
Other 4_ ............................. .............

13

76.0

6

10.4

152

1
3

76.0
6

10.4

1 See table 4, footnote 3.
* Includes 21 agreements in which the weekly hours vary by occupation
and 20, by season. For the remaining 50 agreements, see table 1, footnote 2.




990 3,969.3
775.9

5
35.0
3
25.0
3
4.5
807 3,079.1
1
1.0
1
1.1
18

47.7

19

62.0

32

342.9

18

102.6

50

324.4

6

18.5

9

211.4

1

3.3

12

135.1

1

12.0

5

20.3

1
6

5.0
32.7

2

3.9

12

45.6

15

81.9

15

95.4

1
20

2.0
121.5

2

5.2

4
1
5

8.1
2.6
18.2

1

9.5

8 See table 4, footnote 4.
4 See table 4, footnote 5.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily
equal totals.

25

T a b l e 6.

R e la tio n o f overtim e 'p rem iu m p a y p ro v isio n s to schedu led d a ily h o u rs o f w ork in m a jo r collective b a r g a in in g
agreem en ts , 1 9 5 6 - 5 7

Number studied

Number without overtime
provisions

Scheduled daily hours of work

Daily overtime only
After less than
8 hours

After 8 hours

Weekly overtime only

For work outside After 40 hours
daily schedule

Other i

Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
Total__________________________

1,813 8,024. 6

106

412.1

29

201.9

Daily hours not specified__________
Less than 7 hours____ ________
7 hours_________________________
7 hours_______________________
8 hours_____________ ___________
Split shift
- - ___ - ________
Vary by occupation
_________
Other 2__________ _______ ______

258 1,271. 5
7
31.4
73
423.1
26
54.3
1, 324 5,408. 7
27
93.0
20
303.5
78
439.5

55
1
6
1
37
1

206.1
2.5
63.9
1.0
112.0
9.2

1
2
21
4

26.0
21.0
139.8
12.8

5

17.5

1

2.4

279 1,467.9
24

88.2

2
2.6
2
7.5
241 1,330.4
7
22.9
3

16.5

Daily and weekly overtime
After 7 or
35 hours

After 7 t t or
37 Yi hours

After 8 or
40 hours

233

956.8

34

93.5

4

5.3

8
2
20
7
168
5
1
22

34.6
3.1
73.9
10.1
612.9
5.7
1.2
215.5

13

33.0

1

1.0

1
1
17

1.4
1.4
54.9

1
1

1.7
1.4

2

2.7

1

1.2

Overtime varies by
Occupation

Other3

Other overtime
provisions4

Season

Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
Total.

_______ ________ ________

Daily hours not specified__________
Less than 7 h o u rs..____________ _
7 hours.___ _________ ________
7 H hours.
______________
8 hours ___ ___________________
Split shift.. ____________________
Vary by occupation______ _ ___
Other 4_________________________

13
13

76.0
76.0

6

6

10.4

990 3,969.3

19

62.0

32

342.9

18

102.6

50

324.4

4

6.3

S

12.0

4

11.5

8

130.4

10.4

132
722.5
2
4.8
5
35.0
3
4.5
828 3,127.0
8
35. 7
2
5.7
34.2
10

1
1
5

12.0
5.0
30.2

9

83.7

15
2

274.7
9.1

5

7.4

1 See table 4, footnote 3.
* See table 2, footnote 2.
3 See table 4, footnote 4.

situations, the regular working schedule includes
“ built in” overtime hours. Among the 305 con­
tracts which contained no scheduled weekly
hours, 152 agreements provided overtime premium
pay after 8 hours daily or 40 hours weekly. An
additional 43 agreements based overtime payments
on an 8-hour day.




5
3

9.9
14.7

7

31.1

4

18.5

13
3
2
20

46.5
4.9
21.9
102.3

* See table 4, footnote 5.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily
equal totals.

The practice of establishing overtime provisions
without defining work schedules was again noted
in comparing such provisions with daily schedules
(table 6). Of the 258 agreements which did not
specify the length of the workday, all but 55 con­
tained overtime provisions, chiefly after 8 or
40 hours.




27

Appendix

Shift Differentials by Industry
Appendix tables 1 and 2 present details on second- and third-shift differ­
entials by industry group. For these tables, the 26 agreements that provided different
premiums for fixed and rotating shifts are grouped together, and the amount of differ­
ential for the fixed shifts are not accounted for in the columns dealing with uni­
form cents per hour and percentage differentials. In table 3 (p. 4), however, the
differentials for the fixed shifts in these 26 c a se s were distributed among the
appropriate categories of amounts to reflect general levels. Thus, the totals for the
columns affected in the following tabulations will not correspond precisely with
totals shown in table 3-




28
Table A - l.

Type 3 and amounts of second-shift differentials in m ajor collective bargaining agreem ents by industry, 19581

Industry

All agreem ents
providing secondshift differentials
W orkers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

Uniform cent3
addition to
first-sh ift rates
Workers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

C ents-per-hour differential
L e s s than 4 cents
W orkers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

4 cents
W orkers
(thou­
sands)

A gree­
ments

A ll industries ______________________________

1,293

5, 831.0

777

2,885. 3

10

29.0

24

277.2

M anufacturing________________________
Ordnance --------------------------------------------Food and kindred p ro d u c ts--- -------------------Tobacco m an u factu re s______________________
T extile-m ill p ro d u c ts______________________
Apparel and other finished textile products ___
Lum ber and wood products (except
fu rn itu re )_________________________________
Furniture and fix t u r e s _____________________
P ap er and allied p r o d u c ts __________________
Printing, publishing, and allied in d u str ie s _
_
Chem icals and allied p r o d u c ts _________ _ ___
Products of petroleum and c o a l ----- ,, --- ----Rubber products ---------------- --- ------- ---- --Leather and leather p ro d u c ts_______________
Stone, clay, and g la ss p r o d u c ts ____________
P rim ary m etal industries ----------------------F abricated m etal p r o d u c ts ---- --- ---- -----Machinery (except e le c t r i c a l) _______________
E le c tric a l m a c h in e ry _______________________
Transportation equipment __________________
Instrum ents and related p r o d u c ts ___________
M iscellaneous manufacturing industries __—

950
10
87
7
16

4 ,0 6 8 .7
24.0
321. 6
21. 8
37. 1

645
7

2, 319.0
16. 8
282. 0

6
2
1
-

13. 3
3. 6
1. 5
-

18
1
1

34. 8
_
1. 0
1. S

8
13
50
34
54
22
21
5
32
118
60
136
102
141
23
11

25. 7
19. 4
111.4
68. 5
10 c. 7
55. 7
95.5
9.0
86.7
714.9
166. 3
383. 7
450.3
1 ,290.9
55.4
24. 5

8
10
47
4
47
22
17
5
30
111
36
78
39
78
9
9

_
_
.
5
9
1

_
5 .4
23.4
2. 5
1.0

-

-

1
-

1. 2
2. 5
_
4. 5
-

-

-

Nonm anufacturing--------- -- -------------Mining, crude petroleum , and naturalgas production ____________________________

343

1,7 6 2 .3

132

567.3

4

15.7

6

242. 5

15
29
70
63
8
40
8
23
85
?

259.8
106.9
579.3
154. 8
16.9
110. 3
54. 1
69.2
407.4
3. 7

12
18
1
54
7
21
1
11
6
1

255. 3
70.9
1.7
135.4
12. 7
58. 1
1. 5
16.7
12. 6
2. 5

1
2
_
_
_
_
_
1

1. 6
11. 6
_
_
2. 5

2
3
1
_
-

230.0
11. 1
1.4
_
-

C om m unication s____________________________
U tilities: E lectric and gas __________ ________
W holesale t r a d e ____________________________
R etail t r a d e ________________________________
Hotels and restauran ts -------------------- S e r v i c e s ___________________________________
C o n str u c tio n _ ___ ________________________
_
M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries __

K

3
9

( .8

25. 0
25.7
13. 6
105. 6
4 .9
94. 8
55. 7
66.8
9 .0
77. 5
704. 2
107.0
192. 8
82.9
414. 2
12.9
21.4

1
1
_
_
_
_
-

_
-

C ents-per-hour differential
5 cents

6 cents

7 cents

7V
2

cents

A ll in d u s t r ie s ____________________________

116

317. 3

88

238. 6

61

126.0

21

48. 3

M anufacturing______________________
O rd n a n c e ___ ___ _________ ________ ____
_
Food and kindred p r o d u c ts _______________
Tobacco m anufactures - — ----------------T extile-m ill p ro d u c ts__ , ------- -----------Apparel and other finished textile products'
Lum ber and wood products (except
furniture) --------------------- -- ------ --------Furniture and fixtures ---------------- --------P ap er and allied p r o d u c ts ________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries _
Chem icals and allied products --------------Products of petroleum and c o a l ___________
Rubber p ro d u c ts_________________________
Leather and leather p ro d u c ts_____________
Stone, clay, and g la ss p ro d u c ts___________
P rim a ry m etal industries --------------------F abricated m etal p r o d u c ts _______________
Machinery (except e le c t r i c a l) ____________
E le c tric a l m a c h in e ry ________________ — —
-T
Transportation eq u ip m en t________________
Instrum ents and related p r o d u c ts _________
M iscellaneous manufacturing in d u s t r ie s __

94
1
17
4

262. 9
3 .4
97.2
17. 7

69
4
1
-

184.9
6.3
1.3
-

51
1
4
1

108.3
1. 0
6.7
1. 0

17
_
2
_
-

36.3
10.7
_
-

2
1
23

7. 5
1. 1
50.2

4
1
7

6.2
2 .4
11. 1

1
7

.
2. 3
29. 5

2
5
8

5. 3
5.9
55.4

4

6.4

_

_

-

-

-

-

1. 2

1

_

_

31. 1
29.9
3 .5
20. 6
1.2
4. 8

_
_

-

5
2
2
]
2

8 .4
2. 6
3.1
2.2
5. 5

-

.

-

_

.

15.5

-

-

7.8
5.9
12. 7
19. 6
7. 2
5. 6
1. 6
-

_
_

5

4
4
7
8
4
4
1
-

-

-

Nonm anufacturing__________________
Mining, crude petroleum , and naturalgas production __________________________
Tran sp ortation 2 ------- -- ------- ---------------Communication r ------------------------- ---U tilities: E lectric and g a s __________ ____
W holesale t r a d e ____ :____________________
R etail t r a d e ---- ---------------------------------Hotels and restauran ts --------- ---------------S e r v i c e s _________________________________
C ons true t i o n ___________ - ______________
M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries

22

54.4

19

53.7

10

17.7

4

12.0

2
3

5.9
12.8

12. 1
1. 2
1.7
38.7

_

_

_

_

_

_

2

4. 6

See footnotes at end of table.




3

7. 5

-

-

2
3
4
11
7
3
4
4

3.7
5. 1
6. 1
15.7
13.9
5 .4
4 .9
8.2

-

7
18
2
7
1
2

6

12.7

4
1
1
13

4

10.4

-

6
1

9 .8
3.0
“

_

-

-

-

1

.

1
1

1. 3
1.5

1. 1

-

-

-

-

8

15.3

-

-

-

1

1. 1

2

7 .4

_

_

_

_

_

*

1
■

1. 4
"

"

“

29
Table A -1.

Types and amounts of second-shift differentials in m ajor collective bargaining agreem ents by industry, 19^8 1
—Continued

Industry

8

A greements

C ents-per-hour differentials
More than 8 ,
1 0 cents
le s s than 1 0 cents
W orkers
Workers
A gree­
A gree­
(thou­
(thou­
ments
ments
sands)
sands)

cents
Workers
sands)

11

A gree­
ments

cents
Workers
(thou­
sands)

AH in d u s t r ie s ______________________________

129

780.

8

34

99.3

165

438. 1

8

16.9

M anufacturing_ ______ _ ___ _____ _
_
_
_
O rdnance___________ ________________________
_
Food and kindred p r o d u c ts _________________
Tobacco m an u factu re s______________________
Textile-m ill p ro d u c ts_____ —
_______________
A pparel and other finished textile p r o d u c ts __
Lum ber and wood products (except

1?3
4
_

768.0
11. 1
_

28
5
-

82. 1
14.4
-

134

7
-

15.5
8 .4
_

1

1 .0

352.4
1.4
110.9
4 .0
2. 8

1

1.0

Furniture and fix t u r e s ________________ _____
P ap er and allied products _ _______ ___ ____
_
Printing, publishing, and allied in d u str ie s _
_
Chem icals and allied products ---- -------- ---P roducts of petroleum and c o a l ______— —
— ___
Rubber p ro d u c ts______________ —
---------------Leather and leather p ro d u c ts___ ___-____ . ...
Stone, clay, and g la ss products _ —_ _ _ _ _ _ _
P rim ary m etal in d u s t r ie s -- --- --- ---- ------ —
F abricated m etal p r o d u c ts _ _______________
_
Machinery (except electrical) __________ .___
E le c tric a l machinery . . . .. .. .. . ____ — ____—--Transportation equipment
---- ------ —--Instrum ents and related products ___ _ _ _ _ _ _
M iscellaneous manufacturing industries _____

_
_
_
9
17

_
_
_
15.0
49. 8

_
_
-

_
_
21. 8
-

2

-

3.9
6. 6
611. 2
21. 1
13. 3
1.3
33. 3
1. 2
-

-

4 .5
_
8.3
19.0
9 .6
3. 6
-

6

12. 8

6

17. 3

2

3.9
-

_
-

-

4 .4
4. 5
-

-

17.3
-

-

-

-

-

Nonm anufacturing-- -- ------ --------------Mining, crude petroleum , and naturalgas production -------...r------------------ ______-Transportation 2 .......... — - — -----------------C ommunic a ti o n s _____ _________ _ ________
_ _
U tilities: E lectric and g a s ___ ______________
W holesale trade ___________ ______________ _
R etail t r a d e ______________ _ , ___________ _
_
Hotels and restauran ts _____________ .
S erv ic e s ___________________________________
Construction —_—r_----------- ---------------------M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing in d u str ie s __

4
59
9
7
1
10
1

3
1

cents

A ll industries

77

418. 5

Manufacturing ,
Ordnance
Food and kindred products __
Tobacco m anufactures .
Textile-m ill products .
Apparel and other finished textile products
Lum ber and wood products (except
fu rn itu re )---------------------------- -----------Furniture and fixtures _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P ap er and allied products __________ ______
Printing, publishing, and allied industries _
Chem icals and allied products
Products of petroleum and coal .
Rubber products
Leather and leather products ______
Stone, clay, and g la ss products ___„
P rim ary m etal in d u s t r ie s _______ _
F abricated m etal products _ _ _ _ _ _
Machinery (except electrical)
E le c tric a l machinery ,
Transportation equipment
Instrum ents and related products
M iscellaneous manufacturing industries

65
4

388.

Transportation2 .
C ommunic ations
Utilities: Electric and gas .
Wholesale trade
Retail trade .
Hotels and restaurants
Services
Construction .

M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries _ .




6
11.0
2. 6

-

_

2

6

3
1
2

6

_

_
-

2
6

More than 1 2 ,
le s s than 15 cents
13
29.0
10

-

21 .0

_

_
-

1.3
23.2
-

1
1

1 .2
1. 8

_
-

2

_
1. 5
14. 3
50. 5
47. 5
28.0
30.9
3.9
3.0

31

85. 7

l
6

1.9
24. 7

8
6

20. 1
8. 2

1

13

_
1
8

7

22

14
14
3

-

-

_
1.7
1. 5
-

1

1.4

1
1

_

_

_
_
_
_

-

1
1

24. 7
1. 5
1. 2
3. 5

15 cents
16

34. 3

15
_

31.9
_

-

-

1
1

1.4
1. 0

2

-

_

1

_
_
_
1. 4

-

*

-

1. ?
1. 1
1 .2

12.0
6. 5
11.0

2

_
-

7

1
1
1

’

More than
15 cents
15
33. 3
8

_
3

19.4

_

9 .3

-

-

_
3. 8

_
2

_
5. 5

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

6.

-

-

1

3. 5

4
3

3

9.

1

9. 8
7. 3
1.5

•

_

*

10. 7

-

-

2

2.9

-

-

3

8 .0

1

2 .4

7

13.9

1

5.0

_
_

_
_

:

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
1.3
56.2
9 .6
296. 5
1. 2
-

1?

30. 0

16
6

32
1

_
-

9

_

25. b

-

-

3
-

4 .4
-

’

See footnotes at end of table.

_

1
1

3
12

Nonmanufacturing ________________
Mining, crude petroleum , and naturalgas production ,

8

-

1

31

-

•
-

,

-

3 .0

_

2

_

1
2 .0

_

1
1
_
_
_
1
_

1

2. 4

6

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

■

*

”

2

1

1. 1
2 .0

_
_
_
1. 5
_

_
*.

2

_
4 .7
•

30
Table A - l.

Types and amounts of second-shift differentials in m ajor collective bargaining agreem ents by industry, 19581— Continued
Uniform percent
addition to
first-sh ift rates
Workers
A gree­ (thou­
ments
sands)

Industry

All industries

239

1,443. 1

208

L e s s than
5 percent
A gree­ Workers
(thou­
ments
sands)

1 ,2 7 1 .9
1 .4
16. 5
15. 1

1

3
4

P ercent differential
More than 5,
5 percent
10 percent
le s s than 10 percent
A gree­ Workers A gree­ Workers
Worker s
A gree­
(thou­
(thou­
(thou­
ments
ments
ments
sands)
sands)
sands)
680.

2

33

1 2 1 .5

136

610. 7

667. 2

32

118.8

113
1

1 .2

58
56

1

4

15. 1

3

462. 2
1.4
16.5

1

1.4

1

1.0

6

1 0.6

6

10. 6

3

5.9
3.0

2

4. 5
3.0

A pparel and other finished textile products __
Lum ber and wood products (except
Furniture and fix t u r e s ______________________
P ap er and allied p r o d u c ts ________________ __
Printing, publishing, and allied industries _
_
P roducts of petroleum and c o a l _____________
Rubber p r o d u c ts______________________'_____
Leather and leather products
____
. . .
Stone, clay, and g la ss p r o d u c ts ____________
P rim a ry m etal industries ---- -- --------------F abricated m etal p ro d u c ts_________________
Mac-linery (except e le c t r i c a l) _______________
_
Instrum ents and related p r o d u c ts ______ ___
M iscellaneous manufacturing in d u s t r ie s _____
Mining, crude petroleum , and naturalgas production ------------- ------------------ -T ran sp o rtatio n 2
.„ _ _ __
C om m unication s___________________________
U tilities: E lectric and g a s _________________
W holesale tradft
_
_ _
Hotels and restauran ts
S erv ice s
. ........ .
.......... ..
C. on struct! on
.
M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries —

A ll industries

_ __________

1
1
1

2. 3

1

2. 3

3

7. 5

2

5.

4
14
49
58
47

5. 3
36.8
172.8
296.4
664.7
31.7
1. 3

3
4
13

12

1 .0

31

171. 3

7
b

19.

9
7

4b. 3
19.3
1. 2




20
2
1

559.7
2.7
1. 3

2

13.0

1.9

4
3
5
15

8. 3
9 .2
19.9
64. 5

5
30
52

1

1

1. 2

1

2. 7

23

148. 5

7

87.0

2.7

2
1

12

7

1. 2
1 1.0

99 .2
275. 5
40. 5
14. 6 -

Shift differentials
vary for fixed and
rotating shifts
21

189.3
174. 3
4. 5

23.8
-

17

-

-

-

1

1

3

1

2

4
-

-

1. 6

-

-

2. 8

-

18
-

3
-

4
-

41.3
4 .0
2. 1
33.0
-

15.0

22

3
-

4. 6
10.4

15

-

1 .1

4. 8
"

1

6
-

_
■

-

-

_

139. 8
1.3
10. 3
-

4
-

9

3
-

21
1

8 .0

-

2
2

6.

294.8

1

-

1
1

1
1

-

3
I

1
~

-

3

63

88.4
-

5.9

_
_

-

1 .0

Qther
money
d ifferentials

25
-

-

6 .0

4

-

1
1

No uniform d iffer­
ential-prem ium s
over day rate s vary
by occupation or
wage range
47
216.9

7
9.2
3 .4
5 .2
140.0
-

3 .4
14.4
-

32.2
14. 5

4

7
-

3
3
-

19.8

6

13.0

1.2

P ercent
differential
More than
10 percent
29.7
11

...... ____

1

6

8

M anufacturing__________________________
O rd n a n c e __ __ . . . .
....
Food and kindred products . . — _ —
Tobacco m anufactures .
_ ______
T extile-m ill products __
A pparel and other finished textile products
Lum ber and wood products (except
fu rn itu re )_
_
_
_
—
Furniture and fixtures __
__
...
P ap er and allied products
_
Printin;-, publishing, and allied in d u str ie s____ __ ____________
C hem icals and allied products
__
P roducts of petroleum and c o a l ____ _ ___
_
_
Rubber p ro d u c ts_____________________________ _ r___ _________
Leather and leather p ro d u c ts_________________ _______ _______
Stone, clay, and g la ss products . _ __
P rim ary m etal in d u s t r ie s _______
___ . __
F ab ricated m etal products .
--—
Machinery (except electrical) __
_
___
E le c tric a l m achinery _____ ___________________________________
Transportation equipment __
_
. . . ___
Instrum ents and related products
M iscellaneous manufacturing industries

See footnotes at end of table.

4. 1
11.5
61.0
1 .0

1

32.0
2 .7

1

— - _ —

Nonmanufacturing
Mining, crude petroleum , and naturalgas production —
_____
Tran sp ortation 2 _
_
__ __ _ _
C om m unication s____________________—
________
U tilities: E lectric and g a s ___________________ , ...
W holesale trade _
_ ----— __
R etail trade _ ___ _ _
_ _
_____
Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s _______________________
S erv ic e s _ _
__
____
__
Construction
_ _ _
_
M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries

6

-

10. 5
21. 2
7.0
1.4
4 .4
69.0
10. 8
9 .0
-

128.5

42

155.0

83. 7

9

2 7 .7
65.9
32.4
20.4
4 .0

2 .0

4 .2
32.2

2 .2
1.3

1

-

1
1
2

4
3
1

11

-

13

4
2
3
■

4. 6
”

31
Table A - l.

Types and amounts of 3 econd-shift d ifferentials in m ajor collective bargaining agreem ents by industry, 1958 1—Continued
Total time
differentials

Industry

A greements

Tim e d ifferentials
8 hours 1 pay for
7 hours worked
Workers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

hours' pay for
7 Vs hour s worked
W orkers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)
8

Workers
(thousands)

Other time
differentials 4
Workers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

A ll industries _ _______ _____________ ____ _
_
_

69

365. 5

21

88 .0

44

268. 5

4

9. 1

M anufacturing_________________________
O rdn an ce ___
Food and kindred products _
____ __ _
_
Tobacco m an u factu re s_______________ _______
T extile-m ill products
___
_
A pparel and other finished textile products _
Lum ber and wood products (except
furniture) _____________________ ___________
Furniture and fixtures

5

9.9
3.9
-

4
-

1

-

6.9
3.9
-

_
-

3. 0
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_

_
4.0

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

1
1

1.0
2 .0

-

3.0
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

?
-

Printing, publishing, and allied in d u str ie s ___
_
C hem icals and allied p r o d u c ts ____ ___ _ ___
P roducts of petroleum and coal ______________
Rubber products _
__
__
_ __
Leath er and leather p ro d u c ts________________
Stone, clay, and g la ss p r o d u c ts _____________
P rim a ry m etal industries -------------------------

-

M achinery (except electrical) __
_____
E le c tric a l machinery _________________________________
Transportation equipment __
__ __ ___
Instrum ents and related p r o d u c ts ____________
M iscellaneous manufacturing in d u s t r ie s _____

-

-

o4

355.

2

P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u cts . . . .

F a b r ic a te d m e tal p ro d u cts . r

__

...

___ .

Nonmanufacturing
__ __ __
Mining, crude petroleum , and naturalgas production _
.
_
T ran sp ortation 2 ____________________________
Communications
_ .
__ .
U tilities: E lectric and gas .
_ _____
W holesale trade
__ _
_ __
R etail trade __
_
__
_
Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s ____ _
_
__
S erv ic e s _
_
_
C o n stru c tio n

....

. _.

2
1

1
1
1

_
61

M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries ____

-

2 .0

-

__

72

1

_

6

17

81.

1

43

265. 5

A

9. 1

4. 5
1.4
4. 4
3 45.4
-

17
-

81. 1
-

-

4. 4
_
_
261. 1
-

-

4. 5
1.4
_
_
_
_
3. 2
-

1

_
42
-

Time and money differentials
8 hours' pay for
7 hours worked
plus money differential plus monei differential

Total time
and money
differentials
A ll i n d u s t r i e s ____

-

_

6 hours' pay for
7 V hours worked
2

435. 3

27

79. 1

1
1

_
_
_
_
2

Other combined
time-moneys
d ifferentials 5

3

10. 3

42

346.0

_

_
-

8

-

10.9
-

-

-

-

Manufacturing
__
Ordnance
_ _
_
__ __ ____ _
Food and kindred p r o d u c ts __________________
Tobacco m anufactures -----------------------------T extile-m ill p ro d u cts_______________________
A pparel and other finished textile products ___
Lum ber and wood products (except
fu rn itu re )__r------------ ------------------ ---- Furniture and fix t u r e s ______________________
P ap e r and allied products
_ _
Printing, publishing, and allied industries _____

29
-

65. 5
-

21

-

54.7
-

-

-

-

-

-

Products of petroleum and coal __ _ _
Rubber products _____________________________
Leath er and leather p r o d u c ts________________
Stone, clay, and g la ss products __
P rim a ry m etal i n d u s t r ie s ___________________
F abricated m etal products _________
Machinery (except electrical)
__ _ —
_
E le c tric a l m achinery _
Transportation equipment _
_ _ _
Instrum ents and related p r o d u c ts _________ _
_
M iscellaneous manufacturing industries ________

7

10. 9
2.9
17. 2
2. 7

7

2.9
17. 2
2.7

-

1

28.3
1.9
1. 8

-

-

8

6

24.4

3

10. 3

34

3. 8

-

3. 8
6. 6
-

-

-

-

-

-

C h e m ic a ls and a llie d p ro d u cts

Nonmanufacturing _
___
Mining, crude petroleupn, and naturalgas production _
_ _ _ _ _
___
Tran sp ortation 2 ____________________________
Communications
__ _
_
__
U tilities: E lectric and gas _ _ _ _ _
— _
W holesale t r a d e ____________________________
R etail trade _ ______
_
_
_ __________
_
Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s ______________________
Serv ices _
_
_
Construction _
__ _
_
M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing in d u str ie s_
_

8
2

2

-

8
1

1

43
1

35
7

-

-

28. 3
1.9
1. 8
369.

341. 7
-

2

2
8
1

1
1

-

-

-

24. 3
"

4

-

-

14.0
■

-

-

-

-

-

3

*

-

-

-

10. 3
”

8

-

34
-

"

-

10.9
-

33*. 1
-

335. 1
-

■

Includes agreem ents providing for general nightwork.
Excludes railro ad s and a irlin e s.
See footnote 1, table 2, p. 3.
Includes 1 agreem ent which provided 8 Va hours' pay for l x!z hours of work; 1 with 8 hours' pay for 71 hours of work; 1 with 8 hours pay
/*
for 6 Vs hours of work; and 1 with 7Vs hours' pay for b>llz hours of work.
5 Includes agreem ents in which tim e-money d ifferentials varied by ending tim e of shifts, or among groups of w orkers, or provided for un­
usual tim e-money differen tials, e. g. , 7 hours' pay for 6 V* hours of work plus a money differential.
1
2
3
4

NOTE: Becau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s may not equal totals.




32
Table A-2.

Types and amounts of third-shift differentials in m ajor collective bargaining agreem ents by industry, 1958

Industry

All agreem ents
providing third
shift differentials
Workers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

Uniform cents
addition to
first-sh ift rates
Workers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

C ents-per-hour differential
L e s s than
5 cents
5 cents
Workers
--- Workers
A gree­
A gree­
(thou­
(thou­
ments
ments
sands)
sands)

A ll in d u strie s-----------------------------------------

1,067

4 ,9 9 0 .4

625

2 ,1 7 1 .0

2

2 .6

23

60.2

M anufacturing---------------------- —
------Ordnance --------------------------------------------Food and kindred p ro d u c ts-----------------------Tobacco m a n u fa c tu re s--- —
——
——------- T extile-m ill p r o d u c ts -----------------------------A pparel and other finished textile products —
—
Lum ber and wood products (except
fu rn itu re )------------------- ------- --- --------- —
Furniture and fix t u r e s ----------------------------P aper and allied p r o d u c ts -----------------------Printing, publishing, and allied in d u str ie s --Chem icals and allied products ------------------Products of petroleum and c o a l -----------------Rubber p r o d u c ts ------------------------------------Leather and leather p r o d u c ts -------------------Stone, clay, and g la ss products ----------------P rim ary m etal industries -----------------------F abricated m etal products ----------------------Machinery (except e le c t r i c a l) ---- --- ----------E le c tric a l m ach in ery------------------------------Transportation e q u ip m en t------------------- —
—
Instrum ents and related p ro d u c ts---------------M iscellaneous manufacturing in d u s t r ie s ------

G35
9
59
3
35

3, 635.9
22. 6
148.2
13. 5
87. 6

543
3
53

1, 742.0
£. 1
127. 7
8.9
74. 5

1

1 .0

17
_

40.4
_
3 .6
.
29 .5

6
12

22.3
16.4
84.0
62.4
104. 8
55. 7
52.2
7.8
£3. 6
705.4
156. 1
333. 5
368. 6
1,26 0 .0
27.2
24. 5

44
30
53
22

15

4

30
114
56
1 12

76
132
12
11

N onm anufacturing--- ----------------------Mining, crude petroleum , and naturalgas production ——-------- ------- —
------ —---

232

1,354.

C om m unication s---------- -------- --------- ----- —
U tilities: E le c tric and g a s --- ---- --- ---- ----W holesale t r a d e ------------------------------------R etail t r a d e -----------------------------------------Hotels and restauran ts —— —.------------------S e r v i c e s ---------------------- ----------------------C o n str u c tio n ----------------------------------------M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries —

55

6

2

27
6
10

40
3
46
22
12

4

27
105
35
65

33

36

5

22. 3
13. 6
76. 7
3. 7
92.9
55. 7
18. 6

7. £

73.4
690.0
9 0 .0

170. 5
71. 6
107. 5

7. 8

12

76
1

1

1 .0

-

4
5

3
2

-

2 2 .0

6 .0
6 .1

7.9
-

1 .2

_
-

1. 7
4. 5
-

4

_
17.8
-

1. 6

124. 7
7.1

-

1

19.

1. 6

7

_

-

6

1
1

49

_

12

-

2 1 .4

255.3

2

-

429.0

12

1 .2

-

9

37. 1
354. 8

10

57
3
3

_
-

82

259.8
31. 6
513.9
142. 1
7. 1
7.0

15

-

“

-

1
1

-

-

_
-

2

-

-

8

2 .0

-

_
-

Cents-per-hour differential
6

cents

More than 6 ,
le s s than 9 cents
58
135. 7

54

139.6

157

333.8

97 .5
6.3
1.3
_

139

289.9

25
-

68.

9 cents

All in d u s t r ie s -------- ----- ——--------------------

21

Manufa c tu r in g -------------------—
—
---Ordnance-----......--- --- -------------- ---------------Food and kindred products ----- -----------------Tobacco m a n u fa c tu re s----------------------------T extile-m ill p r o d u c ts ------ ---- ------------ —
---Apparel and other finished textile products --Lum ber and wood products (except
furniture) ------------------------—---—-—------Furniture and f i x t u r e s ----------------------------P aper and allied products -----------------------Printing, publishing, and allied industries --Chem icals and allied p r o d u c ts ------------------Products of petroleum and c o a l -----------------Rubber products -------------------------- ---------Leather and leather products --------------------Stone, clay, and g la ss p r o d u c ts ----------------P rim a ry m etal industries ----- ----- ---- —----F abricated m etal p ro d u cts-----------------------Machinery (except electrical) ---- —— ——
--E le c tric a l m achinery ----- —
——-■■■— ----Transportation e q u ip m en t-----------------------Instrum ents and related products ---------- ---M iscellaneous manufacturing industries —
——

17
.

37.2
_

54
-

127. 7
-

41
-

1

1 .0

4

8.2

3

6
8

1

N on m an ufacturin g---------- ------ ------ —
Mining, crude petroleum , and naturalgas production ------------------------------------Transportation 1 ----------------------------------C om m unication s----- ------------------------------U tilities: E le c tric and g a s ---------------------W holesale t r a d e ------------------------------------R etail trade ------ —-------- --- --- -—-----------Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s ---------------------------S erv ic e s —— -----------------------------—-------Construction — ——■- ... —
—-----------------------M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries —
See footnotes at end of table.




-

270.

6

-

;

:

3

4 .8

-

_

-

9

•

_
6.3

7

20. 7
3. 5

_
-

1

_

3
2
1

1
10

_

1.0

_
•
_
_
-

7.
26.

_

_

6.5

-

10

8

-

2 .4
-

4

7. 1

4

4 .5
3.9
1. 7

1
1
2

1 .4
1.3
4 .6

7

30.9
18. 8
3 .0
19.6
2. 5
* 3 .6

2
1

4
3
7
1
2

.

1

27.

1

_

6.2

8. 7

12. 6
2 .2

-

11
2
6
2

-

2

4
1

4

cents

4 .4

7
17.2
1 .0

4 .4
32. 1

20

4

8 .6

2

2 .3

-

5

22
12

17
7
9

••

-

6.9
30. 6
19.5
35.2
12.4
31. 5

3. 0

3

1 .0

1

2 .0

4

13. 7

-

-

1

1 .6

4

233.4

4

8 .1

13

42.1

18

43.9

2
1

230.0

1

2 .3

9 .8

2

-

-

-

-

5.9

2 .0

3
-

1

1.4

3

5.8

9

30.9

_
_

_

_

•
_
“

_
_
“

*_

.

1

1.4

"

_
“

-

-

8

-

21.9

1

4 .8

2

3 .5
7.9

5

m

33
Table A-2.

Types and amounts of third-shift differentials in m ajor collective bargaining agreem ents by industry, 1958— Continued

Industry

More than 10,
le s s than 12 cents
Workers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)
16

12

A gree­
ments

18.5

A pparel and other finished textile products —
Lum ber and wood products (except

1
1

-

33

100. 1

C
Q

Q* 0
C
7

806.8
1• 7
O t

31

9 4 .4

52

84.

4

9 .8

g

Q ei

-

126
1

1 2.1

-

-

-

4
2

4. 5
2. 7

1.8

1

-

Products of petroleum and c o a l ----------------

-

1.2

2. 3
1219

3

10.6

4
i

4

4. 7
3

6.

3

10

.

1.9

13
7
12

N on m an ufacturin g --------- --------- -----Mining, crude petroleum , and n atural-

16.3

8

15
1

5. 7
618.9
20.9
47.7
26 .0
50. 7

2

1

62

8

1.0

g

Printing, publishing, and allied in d u str ie s ---

1 5 cents
W orkers
(thou­
sands)

A gree­
ments

843.6

34.8

g

C ents-psr-hour differential
More than 12,
cents
le s s than 15 cents
W orkers
Workers
A gree­
(thou­
(thou­
ments
sands)
sands)

6. 5
28! 4
22 .5
7.1
4. 0
2.0
l! 8

36.9

2

5. 7

1
4

g

5

1

6 .1

12

1

1.5
2 .0

2

q
7

7
5

2

*
7
1
1

1. 2

2 1 .8

5.* 1
13.0
13. 1
7. 3
2. 6
l! 7
12.8
1 Q
1 .0

14

3

35. 7
1
1

M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries —

-

-

\.Z

-

-

’

Cents-per-•hour differential
More than
16 cents
16 cents
25
36
85.6
67.0

7. 1
1 .6

1 .2

-

4. 5

*
1

16.3

8

-

Uniform percent
addition to
fir st-sh ift rate s

81.7

6.

1

17

16.0
49.8

2

P rim ary m etal induotrica
4

*

11.0
1. 1

’

3.9

2

Mining, crude petroleum , and n atural-

"
2

M_______ ______

1,06 1 .9
4. 6
1 2.2

1 0.0

.9
3. 0

2
1
1
1

l!o
2. 3

2

5.

3. 5

3

1
2

9. 0
3*. 7
2 .9

1

1 .6
1.2

31
32
37
5

4. 3
28 .0
134. 7
205. 7
640.2
16.4
1.3

2

4. 7

3
7

2

—

135

7

a
20.

7
1

3.9

10

Instrum ents and related products ----------- — —
—

62.3

2

Lum ber and wood products (except

23

1 ,1 4 1 .6

1

34

149

3

11

2

6

3.9
j
1

*

i!o

79. 7

3
3. 7

14

1

4 1 .4
2. 7

M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing in d u str ie s ---See footnotes at end of table.




—

-

“

-

j

1 .0

4
4

24.2
9. 3

1

1.2

34
Table A -2. Types and amounts of third-sh ift d ifferen tials in m ajor collective bargaining agreem ents by industry, 1958— Continued
Percent differential
5 percent
W orkers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

Industry

7 percent
W orkers
A gree­
(thou­
m ents
sands)

7 V2

percent
Workers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

More than 74/2»
le s s than 10 percent
W orkers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

All in d u s t r ie s _______________________________

6

9.2

11

4 3 .5

13

38.0

3

11.0

M anufacturing_________________________

5

8 .0

-

11
-

43.5
-

12
-

35.3
_
-

3
-

11.0
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.1
15.3
3.2

-

-

1
6

-

1.6
1.3

O rdn an acs
F o o d and k in dred prodnrt.fi
T o b ac co m a n u fa c tu re s

_ ._

----

-...
T extile-m ill products
..—-- ------------------Apparel and other finished textile p ro d u cts---Lum ber and wood products (except
----- - ---- _
fu rn itu re)
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s

P ap er and allied products
_ -Printing, publishing, and allied in dustries ___
Chem icals and allied products
__ >
P ro d u c ts of p etro leu m and coal
R ubber p ro d u cts ,, „„
L e a th e r and le a th e r p r o d u c t s ______

Stone, clay, and g la ss products

........

P r im a r y m e ta l in d u str ie s

.

F abricated m etal products _
Machinery (except e lectrical)
F le c t r ic a l m a c h in e r y ___
T ra n sp o rta tio n equipm ent

,_ T .
r .

..

Instrum ents and related products
M iscellaneous manufacturing in dustries ______
Nonmanufacturing
Mining, crude petroleum , and natural-

g a s p rodu ction .
..... ... . ...........
T ra n sp o rta tio n 1
.......
f,n m m n n ication s
_
. - .. U tilitie s* F le c t r ic and g a s ....

W holesale trade

R etail tra d e _ _
H otels and r e s t a u r a n ts

S erv ices
Construction
M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing in dustries ____

-

-

-

1
1
1
2

1 .0

4.1

-

-

1

1.2

-

-

-

-

1

-

1 .2

-

10

1

-

42.5

1

4

-

14.7

1
2

-

3.7
7.3

-

“

-

-

“

-

-

_

_

1

2c 7

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

1 .0

“

More than 10,
le s s than 15 percent

10 percent

-

1

2.7
-

-

“

"

"

-

-

-

“

20 percent

15 percent

All industries

94

967.3

6

24.8

15

38.9

1

9.1

Manufacturing
_
Ordnance
Food and kindred products
Tobacco m anufactures
Textile-m ill p r o d u c ts _______________________
Apparel and other finished textile p ro du cts___
Lum ber and wood products (except
furniture)
Furniture and fixtures

89
1
7
-

913.0
4 .6

4
-

21.3
-

11
-

30.0
-

_
-

-

-

-

1.4

-

1

-

-

-

-

Printing, publishing, and allied in d u str ie s ___
Chem icals and allied products
Products of petroleum and coal
Rubber products
_
Leather and leather products
Stone, clay, and g la ss products
P rim ary m etal in dustries
F abricated m etal products
Machinery (except e lectrical)
E le c tric a l m achinery _
Transportation equipment
Instrum ents and related products
M iscellaneous manufacturing in dustries _____

1.5
3 .0
-

2.3
6 .0
4 .0

1

1.0

3

-

P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u cts

. ..

. .

Nonmanufacturing
Mining, crude petroleum , and naturalg as production
Transportation 1
Communications _
U tilities: E le ctric and gas
W holesale t r a d e _______________________—
----Retail t r a d e -------------------------- --------- ------Hotels and restau ran ts
__
S erv ices
C on struction _______ ____________ —-----------M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries --Sea footnotes at end of table




1
1

1

2

12.2

-

-

4 .0
-

1

2 .2

-

1 21.8

1
1

4

6 .7

26

-

1
1

182.5
571.7
1.7
1.3

5

54.4

25

19

-

-

3
-

41.4
-

-

13.0
-

-

2

“

-

'

-

-

-

4.4

1

9.1

~
-

■
"

-

“

■

2

3.5

4

-

-

■
-

-

2
'

3.5

18.5

-

4. 7

-

-

-

-

1
2

2.1

1

1

-

8.9

-

2

-

-

“
■
“

4
-

9 .0

-

"

-

1

-

1 .0

5 .8

-

■
"
-

9.1

-

35
Table A-2.

Types and amounts of third-sh ift d ifferentials in m ajor collective bargaining agreem ents by industry, 1958— Continued
Shift differentials
vary for fixed and
rotating shifts
W orkers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

Industry

No uniform d ifferentials—
prem ium s over day
rate s vary by occupation
or wage range
W orkers
A gree­
(thou­
ments
sands)

Other money
differen tials 3
A gree­
ments

Total time
differentials

W orkers
(thou­
sands)

A gree­
ments

Workers
(thou­
sands)

All in dustries

26

188.7

21

107.3

25

194.2

66

323.8

Manufacturing ------Ordnance __________________________________
Food and kindred products
Tobacco m anufactures
_
Textile-m ill products
Apparel and other finished textile p ro d u c ts__
Lum ber and wood products (except
furniture) .
_ . ...
_ _ ......... .
. .
Furniture and fixtures
...... _
_
_______
P aper and allied products
Printing, publishing, and allied in d u str ie s _
_
Chem icals and allied products .. .
_.
Products of petroleum and coal
Rubber products
_ --- .....
_
Leather and leather products
Stone, clay, and g la ss p r o d u c ts ____________
P rim ary m etal industries
F abricated m etal products _
_____
Machinery (except e le c t r ic a l) ------------ - ----E lectrical m achinery ,. . r
.................
Transportation e q u ip m en t__________________
Instrum ents and related products
M iscellaneous manufacturing in dustries _____

17

173.7
4 .5

10

_

37.8
.

10

112.1

9
_

2 1.6

1

8 .0

2

Nonmanufacturing — , ----------------- -- Minine, crude petroleum , and naturalg as p ro d u ctio n ____________________________
Transportation 1 ___________________________
Com m unications___________________ ____ ____
U tilities: E le ctric and g as ^
_
W holesale trade
R etail trade
.
Hotels and restauran ts
S erv ice s
__
_
Construction
M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing in dustries __

1
1

.
_
2

4
3

1 .0

_
-

_
-

_

_
5
-

2 .8

6.7
10 .2

3.4
_
5.2
140.0
-

1
1
2

9
3
-

2

.
3
1

-

6

_
_
-

.
-

8 .8

_
4 .6

1

28.0
-

-

-

2 .0

-

1 .2

1
2
1

4 .0

3
-

10.5
-

4

1

-

-

15.0

11

69.5

15

82.1

57

302.3

4 .6
10.4
_
_
“

-

68.3
1.3
“

-

5 .8
70.8
2.5
3 .0
~

-

4 .4
297.9
”

10

1

~

-

1

2
10

-

1
2

~

Time d ifferentials
8 hours * pay for
7 hours worked

1

56

2 .0

Other time
d ifferentials

4

3

Manufacturing
Ordnance ___________________________________
Fnod and kindred products
Tobacco m an u factu res_______________________
Textile-m ill products _ _
-----_. --Apparel and other finished textile products __
Lum ber and wood products (except
furniture)
. _
_
Furniture and fixtures
P ap er and allied products
Printing, publishing, and allied industries
Chem icals and allied products
Products of petroleum and coal
Rubber products
Leather and leather products
Stone, clay, and g la ss products __
P rim ary m etal industries _
---- ,—
F abricated m etal products
Machinery (except e lectrical)
E lectrical m achinery
_.
.
Transportation equipment
-----Instrum ents and related products
M iscellaneous manufacturing in dustries

_______

5.9

54

292.8

9

25.2

3
-

5.9
3.9
-

3
-

5.2
-

3
-

10.5
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1 .2

2

-

-

-

-

1

2 .0

-

"

-

-

4 .0
-

1

1.2

"

-

2

-

“

9.3
-

6

14.7

2

_

51

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

_______________

_

-

Nonmanufacturing
Mining, crude petroleum , and n aturalg as production




1

-

3.9
_
-

2.1

.............. ..............

See footnotes at end of table.

-

_
-

2

14.9
-

hours* pay for
7l/z hours worked

Com muni cations
U tilities: E lectric and g as
_ ----Wholesale trade
Retail trade
Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s ______________________
S erv ices
Construction
_
M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries

_
-

_
7.7

3.0
69.0
2 .4
-

8

All industries

-

-

4 .4
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

"

-

50
“

287.6

-

283.2

6

_

-

14.7

36
Table A-2.

Types and amounts of third-shift differentials in m ajor collective bargaining agieem en ts by industry, 1958—Continued

Industry

Total time
and money
differential
A gree­
ments

h o u rs' pay for
7Va hours worked
plus money
differential
A gree­ W orkers
(thou­
ments
sands)
8

W orkers
(thou­
san d s)

Tim e and money differentials
h o u rs' pay for
8 h o u rs' pay for
7 hours worked
7 hours worked
plus money
plus money
differential
differential
W orkers A gree­ W orkers
A gree­
(thou­
(thou­
m ents
ments
sands)
sands)
8

Other combined
tim e-money
differentials 5
A gree­ Workers
(thou­
ments
sands)

155
M a n u fa c tu rin g ---- ---- ------------- --- —
Ordnance —
—— ----- ----- —------- --- --------—
Food and kindred p r o d u c t s ---------------------Tobacco m a n u fa c t u r e s -------------------------Textile-m ill p r o d u c ts ---------------------------A pparel and other finished textile products —
Lum ber and wood products (except
furniture)------------------------------------------Furniture and f i x t u r e s ------------------------ —
P aper and allied p ro d u cts-----------------------Printing, publishing, and allied industries —
Chem icals and allied p r o d u c ts -------- -------Products of petroleum and c o a l ------- ----- -—
Rubber p r o d u c ts ----------------—
Leather and leather p r o d u c ts ------------------Stone, clay, and g la ss p r o d u c ts ---- —-—---P rim ary m etal in d u strie s----------------——
—
Fabricated m etal p ro d u c ts----------------------E le c tric a l m a c h in e r y ------------- --- ---- --- —
Transportation equipment —
--------------------Instrum ents and related p r o d u c t s ------------M iscellaneous m anufacturing in d u strie s----Nonmanufacturing -------- ---------------Mining, crude petroleum , and n aturalg as p ro d u c tio n ----------------------------------T ransportation 1 ----------------------------------Communications — — —— -- ----------- --- --—
U tilities: E le c tric and g a s --------------- — —
—
W holesale tr a d e -----------------------------------R etail t r a d e --------- --- ---- ----------------------Hotels and restauran ts —
---- ——-------------S erv ices — —
--- ------- —
—— — — —-------—— —
Construction —------ — — — ■ -----------——
—
M iscellaneous nonmanufacturing industries —

864.0

16

2 8 .8

28

9 1 .6

46

333.6

65

410. 1

1 11

486.8

14

22. 5
1.4
-

22

59.6
-

42
3
-

328.3
7.3
-

33
-

1

76. 5
1.3
-

1

1 .0

-

15.9
5 .4
3.1
33.4
-

-

17.0
10. 5
292.3

-

1. 5
49.0
-

5
-

10 .0

-

1

1 .0

-

1.5
4 9.0
2 .9
4. 6
34.2
14.1
2 0 .3
344. 6
3.1

-

-

1

-

1 .8

-

2 .9
4. 6
1.3
6. 5
4 .0
1.9
“

44

377.2

2

6.3

6

-

3 .8
333. 6
4 .4
35. 5
“

-

3 .8
2 .5
“

-

1
21
2

-

2
8
10
6

52
2
1

1

32
-

3
8
“

-

-

2

-

2

l
6

-

1
1

1

-

1

"

6

3
1
11

-

1

6

**

1

3
34

-

-

1
21

-

2 .2
6. 7

1
2
6

1

1 .2

-

-

-

14.9
-

32.0

4

5 .4

32

-333.6

32.0
“

-

-

32
-

333.6
-

1.8

-

3

4 .4

1

1.0

'

“

‘

1 Excludes railro ad s and a irlin e s.
* Includes 1 agreem ent covering 1,100 w orkers providing a 9ya-cent differential.
3 See footnote 1, table 2, p. 3.
4 Includes 1 agreem ent which provided 9 hou rs' pay fo r 7*/a hours of work; 1 with c hou rs' pay for 7 hours of work; 3 with 8 hours'
;
pay for 6*/a hours of work; 3 with 8 h ours' pay for 6 hours of work; an*5 1 with 7l/a hours' pay for 6l/a hours of work.
5 Includes agreem ents in which tim e-money d ifferentials varied by errin g time of shifts or among groups of w o rk ers, or which provider
for unusual tim e-money d ifferen tials, e. g . , 71/* h ou rs' pay for 6*/a hours of work plus a money differential.
NOTE: B ecause of rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.




v U . S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING O F F IC E : 19-9 O - 3 i0 ii9







Recent BLS Industrial Relations Studies

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Collective Bargaining C lauses: D ism issal Pay. August 1957.

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