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PLANNING ANI) A11A\INIST It ATIVE PERSONNEL IN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS A Pilot Stnilv June U.S. DE P A R T M E N T B u ll e tin No. 1 631 OF L A B O R / BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS P L A N N I N G ANII AIMlINlSTItATIVE PERSONNEL IN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS A Pilot Study For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. .lime 1909 Bulletin No. 1631 U . S . D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R G e o r g e P. S h u l t z , S e c r e t a r y BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 45 cents 'l Preface This bulletin presents the results of a pilot study of local government manpower undertaken by the Bureau of Labor Statistics with the support of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The study was designed to identify occupations related to the planning and administration of urban programs and to provide a basis for further large scale surveys and * studies of employment and future manpower requirements for these occupations. Current manpower problems and future skill requirements related to planning and administrative activities were also investigated. The Bureau is grateful to the many urban officials who participated in the study and provided the information which formed the basis for this report. The study was conducted in the Division of Manpower and Occupational Outlook of the Bureau of Labor Statistics under the general direction of Neal H. Rosenthal. The report was prepared by Gerard C. Smith. Michael Crowley, Joseph J. Rooney, and Janice N. Hedges participated in the interviewing and analysis of information. Guidance and assistance from the Department of Housing and Urban Development was provided by John Huss, Director of the Division of Urban Manpower Development and by Thomas Melone, Director, Urban Planning Research and Demonstration Program. CO NTENTS Page .................................................................................. 6 S u m m a r y ....................................................................................... 7 Introduction Chapter: I. Planning and administrative manpower in local government . Occupations related to planning and administrative activities Illustrative staffing patterns of selected local government agencies............................................... Regional planning A g e n c ie s..................................... II. Current manpower problems and future expectations . . . . Recruiting p r o b le m s ............................................... How jobs are f il l e d .................................................. Alleviating manpower s h o r t a g e s ................................ Future manpower developm ents................................ III. Future research needs ............................................... Occupational employment s u rv e y s .............................. Local government occupational r e c o r d s ....................... Projection of manpower requirements and s u p p l y .......... R e q u ire m e n ts..................................... Supply ............................................. Job opportunities and mobility studies . . . . Education and training requirements .......... 9 9 10 14 15 15 16 16 18 19 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 Appendixes: A. B. C. D. Descriptions of planning and administrative jobs Study p r o c e d u r e ..................................... Available employment statistics ................. Abstract ............................................... 23 35 37 38 Tables: .................... 10 2 . Illustrative staffing pattern of a city planning c o m m is s io n ................. 1. Illustrative staffing pattern of a chief executive's office 11 11 3. Illustrative staffing pattern of a model cities agency ......................... 4. Illustrative staffing pattern of a planning research and development section of a department of public health .................... 5. Illustrative staffing pattern of a community action a g e n c y ................. 6 . Illustrative staffing pattern of a fiscal a g e n c y ................................... 7. Illustrative staffing pattern of a housing and urban renewal agency ...................................................................... 8 . Illustrative staffing pattern of a parks and recreation department . . . . 9. Illustrative staffing pattern of a regional planning agency ................. 10. Planned and actual staffing of a large city planning department .......... 12 12 13 13 14 14 17 IN T R O D U C T IO N Whether the planning and administrative capabilities of local governments are adequate to cope with the continuing need for rapid expansion of local government services is an unanswered question. Comprehensive studies that clearly identify the extent and nature of current and anticipated manpower problems in planning and administration have not yet been undertaken. This pilot study paves the way towards such comprehensive studies by identifying: 1. Occupations that entail planning and administrative functions within local governments as background information to develop large scale employment surveys. 2. Problems urban governments are having in meeting current skill requirements in occupations having planning and administrative functions and to indicate what has been done, what is being done, and what is planned to resolve those problems. 3. Areas where further research is needed in order to develop comprehensive information on the future planning and administration capabilities of local governments for use as background for action to assure that future manpower needs of local governments will be met. Occupational analysis in this study is concentrated on professional, administrative, and technical personnel engaged in planning and administrative duties. Excluded from detailed analysis were occupations found in operational and service functions, such as teacher, policeman, and fireman, which are not engaged primarily in planning and administrative activities. The study is based primarily on information drawn from interviews with local officials who have knowledge of planning and administrative activities and manpower. Interviews were conducted in five United States cities that reflect differences in size, geographic area, government organization, the presence of higher educational facilities, and socio-economic factors. Because only five cities were studied, the information obtained on manpower problems and other subjects may not be representative of the national situation and care must be taken in using all of the data presented. (See appendix B for more information on selection of the cities and study methods.) SUM MARY Within the spectrum of planning and administration in local governments, some occupations are clearly administrative and others entirely planning. However, in many occupations, planning and administration are complementary. For example, the chief of a city's planning agency is engaged in planning, but he also must direct all activities of the agency. Similarly, the chief of a city's fiscal agency is engaged primarily in administration, but he also becomes involved in planning future financial needs and policies of the city. Job titles alone cannot be used to identify planning and a d m in istra tiv e occupations. Different city governments often use the same title to describe different occupations. For example, "administrative assistant" is used by some local governments to describe a high level professional who assists the city's chief executive, whereas others use the title to describe an individual performing clerical duties. Different job titles also may be used to describe similar jobs. For example, urban planner and city planner may be identical jobs. Many workers function as support personnel to persons in professional planning and administrative positions. For example, draftsmen prepare drawings of buildings for use by engineers in planning a major urban renewal project. Similarly, social planning analysts obtain information on the characteristics of inhabitants of an area scheduled to be redeveloped to provide urban planners with background data with which to plan for the physical and social needs of the area. In this pilot study, several hundred professional, administrative, and technical (PAT) job titles were identified as having planning and administrative duties in local governments. These titles were condensed into 40 occupational groups for use in data collection and manpower analyses activities. The groups range from chief executives to technician level planning aids. Manpower Shortages Local governments are faced with problems of occupational shortages, but generally in planning and administration these jobs do not make up a large proportion of the job vacancies because they are a relatively small proportion of all jobs. Moreover, a large proportion of planning and administration jobs are high level positions. Typically, these jobs are filled by promotion from within and, therefore, are staffed with relative ease. Among planning and administrative occupations in the cities studied, the major vacancy problems are at the entry level for city planners, administrative specialists, and planning aids and assistants. Other PA T occupations involved in planning that present vacancy problems are engineer, architect, draftsman, and neighborhood counseling specialist. The officials interviewed attributed vacancy problems to a general shortage in the supply of workers, and to the inability of cities to attract workers because of low salaries, lack of clear promotion opportunities, low prestige, and civil service impediments such as unrealistic examination requirements, residency requirements, and lengthy time lags between application and hiring. Filling the Jobs Recruiting is a key factor in meeting manpower needs in local governments. However, planning and administrative jobs are filled both by promoting city employees from within and by recruiting from the outside. The policy of promoting personnel to successively more responsible positions is prevalent in most city government agencies contacted for this study. Thus, high level administrative positions generally are staffed by individuals having technical rather than a d m in istra tiv e training. Recruiting generally is concentrated at the level for technical personnel, and it is from these entry level positions that the manpower is draw n to fill local government planning and administrative needs. In the cities studied, a number of approaches are used to alleviate manpower shortages. By increasing salaries and instituting tuition rebate and other educational aid programs, local governments attempt to make employment more attractive. In addition, they commonly substitute personnel of a lower grade or related specialty and use technician level aids and assistants to support high level planning and administrative specialists. Also, recruiting campaigns are being expanded and intensified in the cities studied. Future Needs More Research and Data Necessary Long-range manpower planning is not common at the local government level. Program and manpower planning is keyed to the fiscal year budget. Local government officials, however, expect programs that require personnel in planning, administrative, and related occupations to grow over the next several years. They identified a myriad of factors that can be expected to cause future growth in these occupations. The most significant of these factors is the likelihood that greater resources will be devoted to improving the cultural, economic, social, and physical conditions of cities. Consequently, emphasis is and will continue to be placed on city planning, urban redevelopment, and economic action programs. Federally aided activities, such as the Model Cities Program and other economic opportunity and manpower development programs, are expected to stimulate the need for planning, administrative, and related professional and technical specialists. Relatively little of the available manpower information assesses the extent and nature of current and anticipated manpower problems faced by cities in staffing for urban planning and administrative manpower needs. Although this pilot study and other literature provide some information on local government manpower statistics and problems, information is not available to provide sufficiently detailed data to guide policy decisions. Information from this study, however, does point to a number of research needs and provides a basis for designing manpower studies for: (1) The development of wide scale occupational employment surveys, (2) the development of projections of future manpower requirements and supply, (3) occupational mobility, (4) job opportunity, and (5) education and training requirements in planning, administrative, and related occupations. P L A N N IN G A N D A D M IN IS T R A T IV E P E R S O N N E L IN LO C A L G O V E R N M E N T : A P IL O T S T U D Y Chapter I. Planning and Adm inistrative Manpower in Local Governments The primary objective of this study was to identify professional, administrative, and technical (PAT) occupations related to planning and administering the programs and activities of local governments, with emphasis on occupations involved in urban development. Identifying P A T occupations related to planning and administration was not an easy task. Planning and administration could not be narrowly defined, nor could these functions be easily separated from other activities performed in local governments. Thus, a broad spectrum of occupational specialties were included within the scope of the study. T h e following definitions of planning and administration were used for this study. Planning-Planning encompasses activities related to developing new government programs or improving or changing existing ones. Planning includes activities such as those related to planning financial needs, planning physical requirements (space, equipment, etc.), planning for social and human resource oriented programs, and manpower planning. Planning also includes work conducted in coordinating several urban programs; for example, coordinating housing, welfare, health, and job training programs that are part of the redevelopment of a depressed area. It encompasses activities related to the analysis of alternatives, and the making of decisions on the types of programs to undertake, including activities concerned with obtaining information needed to make the decisions. Therefore, professional, technical, and administrative occupations related to planning include both high level professional workers, such as city managers and urban planners, and technician level support personnel, such as planning aids and draftsmen. Administration =City administration is the process of managing and directing a city's operations. It ranges from the overall management of a city and the management of a major agency, department, or bureau, such as a Housing and Urban Renewal Agency, to the management of specific operational activities, such as personnel, budgeting, or data processing. Therefore, professional, technical, and administrative workers in administration include not only the chief of an agency and his assistants, but those workers who are involved in the administration of specific activities that service the total government operation. Occupations Related to Planning and Administrative Activities City size and the extent of a city's social, economic, and cultural programs are the major determinants of the number and variety of PAT occupations within a city government that include planning and administrative duties. Large cities that are pressed hardest by problems of slum neighborhoods and d ete riorating commercial districts, transportation problems, racial strife, and numerous other problems have much more complex organization and staffing needs than smaller, more tranquil communities. The five cities studied, which range in size from approximately 50,000 population to more than 1,500,000, varied greatly both in the number of agencies and in the types of occupational specialties employed. In the larger cities studied, separate agencies carried out functions such as city planning, model neighborhood planning, housing and urban renewal programs, and human resources development. In small cities, these activities are generally performed by staff members of traditional city agencies, such as the engineering or public works department, the finance department, or the mayor's or city manager's office. Some occupations identified in this study entail planning only and some administration only. In other cases, both functions are characteristic of the job. However, administration is usually the primary function and planning duties are secondary. For example, administration and planning in most of the government agencies studied are the responsibility of the agency chief and his assistants, their primary function being administration. In addition, city agencies employ administrative specialists, who do not have planning duties, to assist in handling the detailed work necessary fo r p ro gra m adm inistration. Duties of these administrative specialists include implementing executive decisions and collecting and preparing information for use in determining administrative policies. In agencies such as city planning commissions or model cities' departments, all P A T workers are involved in planning directly, or indirectly as support personnel. Some workers in these agencies, such as the director of the agency, also have administrative duties. Similarly, some city agencies were found to have separate planning sections, and personnel employed in these sections are engaged in planning; only the top staff have administrative duties. Planning sections within these agencies generally are staffed heavily with personnel who are closely related to the agency's function. For example, in an urban renewal agency, a planning section may utilize city planners and engineers. In a police department planning section, personnel generally include police officers who have experience in departmental organization and operations. Job titles alone cannot be used to identify planning and a d m in istra tiv e jobs. Many planning and administrative positions in the local governments studied have titles that are built around the title of the agency; for example, director of finance in the financial department, or director of parks for the parks department. Other titles are related to staff functions, such as assistant to the city manager, or by professional background, e.g., engineers. One can not tell by the job title engineer whether the job entails planning, a d m in is tra tio n , or technical engineering work. F u rth e rm o re , som e occupations are titled as administrative specialties (for example, administrative assistant) when incumbents may be engaged in clerical activities rather than high level administrative activities. Because of the large number of occupational titles identified as related to planning and administration the information from the five cities was condensed in order to present it in a logical and easy to understand manner fo r use in preparing or collecting comparable occupational employment statistics for all the cities. In these summary groupings, administrative occupations were classified separately from planning occupations. Jobs that entail both planning and administrative duties were classified according to their primary function. Administrative occupations were identified (1) by program (e.g., health, housing, and urban renewal) or (2) by function (e.g., planning, personnel). Administrative specialists who cross functional or program lines were cla ssifie d separately. Planning occupations were classified primarily by generic job title. Summary occupational descriptions and detailed lists of titles identified under each description appendix A. are presented in Illustrative Staffing Patterns of Selected Local Govern ment Agencies Staffing patterns in 2 large cities having more than 500,000 population, illustrate the relationship of workers engaged in planning and administrative activities to the total staffing of the particular agencies. Staffing patterns of agencies in the smaller cities were similar but generally did not have the variety of occupational specialties found in larger cities. P A T personnel engaged in planning and administrative activities ranged from workers in a chief executive's (mayor's) office all of whom are engaged primarily in administratives activities to personnel in planning agencies where all are engaged in planning activities. Other agencies, including regional Planning Commissions, employ a variety of PAT personnel involved in varying degrees in planning and administrative activities. The chief executive's office is the primary administrative unit of a city government. Depending upon the form of government organization, the chief executive may be a mayor, elected commissioner, or a city manager. The types of administrative personnel employed in a chief executive's office are illustrated in table 1. T a b le 1. Illu stra tiv e S t a f f in g P a tte rn o f a C h ie f E x e c u tiv e 's V O ff ic e O c c u p a tio n E m p lo y m e n t T o ta l S ta ff A d m in is tr a tiv e Person n el M ayor E x e c u tiv e S e c re ta ry t o M a y o r A d m in is t r a t io n E x e c u tiv e S e c re ta ry to M a y o r D e p a rtm e n ta l L a is o n A s s is ta n t t o M a y o r S p e c ia l A s s is t a n t fo r C o m m u n ic a t io n s a n d In f o r m a tio n C o m m u n it y D e v e lo p m e n t C o o r d in a t o r C le rica l a n d O th e r M a y o r -c o u n c il fo r m o f go v e rn m e n t. 2 / A d m in is tr a tiv e p e rso n n e l m a y have p la n n in g du ties. 2 J N o te : S e e a p p e n d ix A fo r jo b d e sc rip tio n s. 15 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 g T a b le 2. Illu stra tiv e S t a f f in g P a tte rn o f a C it y P la n n in g C o m m is s io n O c c u p a tio n T o t a l S t a f f 1/ A d m in is tr a tiv e an d P la n n in g P erso n n el 2 / D ire c to r 3 / A s s is ta n t D ire c to r 3 / A s s is ta n t D ire c to r fo r P la n n in g -Z o n in g 3 / A s so c ia te D ire c to r T r a n s p o r t a tio n P la n n in g 3 / A d m in is tr a tiv e A s s is ta n t 3 / C h ie f o f P la n n in g S e c t io n s 4 / C h ie f o f T r a n s p o r t a tio n P lan 4 / C it y P lan n e r E c o n o m ic A n a ly s t E n gin e e r P u b lic A d m in is t r a t io n A n a ly s t P la n n in g E d u c a t io n A s s is ta n t (P u b lic R e la tio n s) S ta tis tic ia n P la n n in g A s s is ta n t 5 / D ra fts m a n an d D r a f tin g A i d 5/ C le rical and O th e r E m p lo y m e n t 77 65 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 15 4 3 1 1 2 2 25 12 J / A p p o in t e d c o m m is s io n e r s are n o t in clu d e d . 2 / E n tire p ro fe ssio n a l an d a d m in is tr a tiv e s ta ff is en gaged in p la n n in g activities. .3/ P e rfo rm a d m in istra tiv e du ties. 4 / A lt h o u g h these jo b s in c lu d e the title " c h ie f " , th e y entail su p e rv iso ry an d te ch n ical d u tie s rather th a n a d m in is tr a tio n . .5/ T e c h n ic ia n level s u p p o r t perso n nel. N o te : Se e a p p e n d ix A fo r jo b d e sc rip tio n s. Chief executives are responsible for the overall administration and policies of a city, and planning activities are a major part of their work. Administrative assistants and executive secretaries aid them in both planning and administration. Some assistants may work in a variety of areas such as staffing, policymaking, long-term planning, or city financing; others may specialize in one area such as the coordination of several programs related to urban development. City planning commissions have the primary function of guiding all private development and redevelopment and of planning for all public d evelop m en t. Commissions are concerned with developing comprehensive plans; zoning; planning for the improvement and redevelopment of residential, business, and industrial areas; and the location and design of public buildings, parks, and memorials. They are responsible for submitting recommendations to the city's chief administrators on matters related to city planning. Planning commissions generally are headed by appointive boards. Board members are often architects, engineers, builders, real estate specialists, attorneys, and other citizens having an interest in and some knowledge of the goals and purposes of city planning. They act in an advisory capacity and generally receive little or no compensation. Administration or planning is conducted by the professional director of the planning commission and his assistants who are in charge of divisions or branches of the commission. In addition to city planners, planning commissions employ engineers, architects, economists, draftsmen, illustrators, and other professional and technical specialists. Staffing patterns are illustrated in table 2. Model cities agencies are among the newest and most unique local government organizations. These agencies are responsible for developing plans for presentation to neighborhood groups that lead to a community development program best suited to the needs of the community. Model cities agencies also act as coordinating centers to bring together other city departments and agencies concerned with planning and community development that are related to model city programs. Model cities planning personnel are concerned with all facets of social, economic, and physical conditions needing remedial action in target areas of a city. Staffs are generally small but highly professional and include city planners, government and public administrators, and social scientists. Model cities groups may supplement their staffs by borrowing employees from other departments that are participating in phases of program development in their area of responsibility. For example, when working on a phase of model cities planning that is concerned with health services, personnel from the city's health department may be assigned to the model cities group. Table 3 presents staffing detail for a model cities group. T a b le 3. Illu stra tiv e S t a f f in g P a tte rn o f a M o d e l C it ie s A g e n c y O c c u p a tio n T o tal S ta ff A d m in is tr a tiv e P la n n in g P e rso n n e l J / P ro je ct D i r e c t o r ^ / A s s is ta n t P ro je ct D ire cto r_ 2/ G o v e rn m e n ta l A n a ly s t C it y P lan ne r S o c ia l P la n n in g A n a ly s t C o m m u n it y Se rv ice s A s s is ta n t A cc o u n ta n t C le rica l E m p lo y m e n t 11 9 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 J / E n tir e p ro fe ssio n a l a n d a d m in istra tiv e s ta ff is en gaged in p la n n in g activities. _2/ P e rfo rm a d m in istra tiv e du tie s. N o te : Se e a p p e n d ix A fo r jo b d e sc rip tio n s. T a b le 4. Illu stra tiv e S t a f f in g P a ttern o f a P la n n in g , R e se arch , a n d D e v e lo p m e n t S e c tio n o f a D e p a r tm e n t o f P u b lic H e alth O c c u p a tio n E m p lo y m e n t T o tal S ta ff A d m in is tr a tiv e an d P la n n in g P erso n n el 1_/ D ir e c to r o f P la n n in g, research, an d d e v e lo p m e n t 2 / P u b lic H e a lth E d u c a t o r C o m m u n it y Se rv ice s A s s is ta n t S t a tis tic ia n Illu s tr a to r C le rica l 8 6 1 1 1 2 1 2 E n tir e p ro fe ssio n a l an d a d m in istra tiv e s ta ff is en gage d in p la n n in g activities. 2 / P e r fo rm s p r im a r ily a d m in istra tiv e duties. y j N o te : S e e a p p e n d ix A fo r jo b d e sc rip tio n s. The planning, research, and development section of the city's Department of Public Health has as its primary function the planning of programs, such as air and water pollution or rat control, based on public health requirements. A major part of this planning includes gathering vital statistics and analyzing data for use in making program decisions. The following table illustrates the types of P A T personnel engaged in planning health programs. Administrative, as well as planning duties, are performed by the director of the unit, and planning research is done by the public health education and community services assistant. Statisticians are involved primarily in gathering and analyzing data for program planning. Illustrators design research presentations. Community action agencies are charged with the responsibility of receiving and allocating funds provided to local governments under provisions of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, the Manpower Development and Training Act (M DT A), and other legislation to carry out programs designed to improve community social and economic conditons. In some cities, activities funded through community action agencies are carried out by traditional local government agencies, such as the department of health or education, or by third party contractors. T a b le 5. Illu stra tiv e S t a f f in g P a ttern o f a C o m m u n it y A c t io n A g e n c y O c c u p a tio n T o tal S ta ff A d m in is tr a tiv e an d P la n n in g P erso n n el \ J E x e c u tiv e D ire c to r A s s o c ia t e E x e c u tiv e D ire c to r D ir e c to r o f In f o r m a t io n Se rvice s C h ie f o f P r o g ra m E v a lu a tio n A d m in is tr a tiv e Se rv ice s S u p e rv is o r F iscal O ffic e r P e rso n n e l a n d T r a in in g O ffic e r P ro g ra m A n a ly s t C o o r d in a t o r P r e -S c h o o l P ro g ra m D ire c to r, V o lu n te e r S e rv ic e C o r p s A s s o c ia t e E x e c u tiv e D ire c to r, N e ig h b o r h o o d Se rv ice C h ie f o f N e ig h b o r h o o d O p e r a tio n s N e ig h b o r h o o d D e v e lo p m e n t S u p e rv is o r E d u c a t io n an d T r a in in g A d m in is t r a t o r D ire c to r, C h ild r e n 's Se rvice s E m p lo y m e n t 2 ,0 6 7 43 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 P ro g ra m D ire c to r, C h ild r e n 's Se rvice s P ro je ct C o o r d in a to r , E d u c a t io n Se rvice s P ro je ct A s s is t a n t C o o r d in a to r , E d u c a t io n Se rvice s D ire c to r, F a m ily Se rv ice s D ire c to r, H e a lth Se rv ic e s M a n p o w e r D e v e lo p m e n t C o o r d in a t o r A s s is ta n t M a n p o w e r D e v e lo p m e n t C o o r d in a t o r D ire c to r, N e ig h b o r h o o d Y o u t h C o r p s A s s is ta n t P r o g ra m S u p e rv is o r N e ig h b o r h o o d Y o u t h C o r p s A n a ly s t , P u b lic A d m in is t r a t io n A d m in is tr a tiv e A s s is ta n t (p ro fe ssio n a l) 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 O c c u p a tio n O th e r P ro fe ssio n a l and T e c h n ic a l Pe rso n n e l M e d ic a l C o n s u lt a n t S u p e rv is o r S o c ia l C o n s u lt a n t S u p e rv is o r N u r s in g C o n s u lt a n t S u p e rv is o r T e a m S u p e rv is o rs (M e d ic a l Se rvice ) H e a lth A id L ib ra ria n R e c re a tio n S u p e rv is o r 2 / S tre e t C lu b W o rk e r C a se S u p e rv is o r S o c ia l W o rk e r 2 / C a se W o rk e r Case W o r k e r 's A s s is ta n t 3 / C o n t r a c t E x a m in e r P r o p e r ty and S u p p ly O ffic e r Teacher T e a c h e r's A s s is t a n t 3 / P ro je ct A s s o c ia t e (E d u c a t io n Se rvice s) G r o u p Le a d e r A d v is o r ( E m p lo y m e n t P ro g ra m s) 2 / J o b D e v e lo p e r J o b L o c a to r F ie ld S u p e rv is o r ( N e ig h b o r h o o d Y o u t h C o r p s) N e ig h b o r h o o d D e v e lo p m e n t C o u n s e lo r 2 J N e ig h b o r h o o d D e v e lo p m e n t A s s is ta n t ^ ./ A c c o u n t a n t A u d it o r S ta tis tic a l A s s is t a n t (P ro fe ssio n a l) O th e r 4 / P r im a r ily a d m in istra tiv e b u t a lso e n gaged in so m e p la n n in g activities. M a y h a ve p la n n in g du ties. T e c h n ic ia n level s u p p o r t p erso n nel. In c lu d e s clerical an d service p erso n n el an d en ro llees o f v a rio u s w o rk -t ra in in g p ro gra m s. N o te : S e e a p p e n d ix A f o r jo b d e sc rip tio n s. E m p lo y m e n t 450 1 1 1 4 20 5 2 25 1 6 11 4 1 1 14 15 1 4 1 2 6 40 281 2 1 1,5 74 Community action agencies are engaged in both short-range development programs and long-range program planning. Planning as well as program administration generally is done by the top staff, which includes the director of the agency, assistant directors, and program directors, coordinators, and analysts. (See table 5.) Program analysts and fiscal officers familiar with principles and practices of program planning and budgeting systems are key administrative occupations employed in these agencies. PA T staffs include a large number of social worker oriented specialists such as n e ig h b o rh o o d c o u n s e lo rs and w o rk -tra in in g administrators. Fiscal agencies' primary activities are planning and administering annual budgets and financial planning for long-range capital improvement programs. Finance directors, budget officers, and general management and p u b lic adm inistration personnel are commonly employed in fiscal agencies and have both planning and administrative duties. The following illustrative staffing pattern provides detail on the types of P A T occupations employed to perform the planning and administrative activities of fiscal agencies. (See table 6.) T a b le 6. Illu strativ e S t a f f in g P a tte rn E m p lo y m e n t T o t a l S t a ff A d m in is tr a tiv e an d P la n n in g P erso n n el V C o n tro lle r D e p u t y C o n tro lle r C o n t r o lle r 's A c c o u n t in g D ire c to r A d m in is tr a tiv e A c c o u n t a n t A u d it o r o f D is b u r se m e n ts C o n t r o lle r 's S y s t e m s an d M e t h o d s A c c o u n t a n t C it y B o a r d A c c o u n t a n t B u d g e t D ire c to r A s s is ta n t B u d g e t D ire c to r A d m in is tr a tiv e S u p e rv is o r-R e tire m e n t an d In su ra n c e P lan s M a n a g e r = C o n t r o lle r 's D a ta P ro ce ssin g A s s is ta n t M a n a g e r = C o n t r o lle r 's D a t a P ro ce ssin g A d m in is tr a tiv e A s s is ta n t G o v e rn m e n ta l A n a ly s t O th e r P ro fe ssio n a l an d T e c h n ic a l Person n el A c tu a ria l A s s is ta n t A cc o u n tan t P ro gra m e r In c o m e T a x In v e stig a to r C le rica l an d O th e r 1/ P r im a rily a d m in istra tiv e b u t a lso e n gaged in so m e p la n n in g activities. N o te : Se e a p p e n d ix A fo r jo b d e sc rip tio n s. o f a H o u s in g and U rban Renew al A g e n c y O c c u p a tio n E m p lo y m e n t 580 37 1 1 1 T o tal S ta ff A d m in is tr a tiv e an d P la n n in g Pe rso n n e l D ire c to r-S e c re ta ry 1J A s s is ta n t D ire c to r 1/ S u p e rin t e n d e n t o f H o u s in g O p e r a tio n s 1/ A s s is ta n t S u p e rin t e n d e n t o f H o u s in g O p e r a t io n s 1 / S u p e r v is o r o f T e n a n t S e le c tio n J_/ H o u s in g M a n a g e r _1/ T e c h n ic a l A id - B u sin e ss A d m in is tr a tio n 1/ U r b a n R e n e w a l C o o r d in a t o r P e rso n n e l O f fic e r V A d m in is tr a tiv e E n g in e e r 1/ S o c ia l E c o n o m is t C it y P la n n e r O th e r P ro fe ssio n a l a n d T e c h n ic a l P e rso n n e l A cc o u n ta n t D a ta P ro ce ssin g P ro gra m e r 1 1 11 3 2 1 1 3 11 134 10 1 2 13 22 84 P u b lic R e la tio n s W o rk e r (P u b lic ist) E n g in e e r 2 / P u b lic H o u s in g A i d 2 / U r b a n R e n e w a l A s s is ta n t 2 / C o m m u n it y Se rv ice A s s is ta n t 2 / O th e r 3 / 2 409 V P e rfo rm p rim a rily a d m in is tr a tiv e duties. 2 / S o m e m a y have p la n n in g duties. 3 / In c lu d e s clerical w o rk e rs, c o n s tr u c t io n w o rk e rs, sk ille d cra ftsm e n , b u ild in g m a in te n a n ce , a n d all o th e r m a n u a l an d service pe rso n ne l. o f a F iscal A g e n c y O c c u p a tio n T a b le 7. Illu stra tiv e S t a f f in g P a tte rn 330 57 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 42 105 1 68 10 26 168 N o te : Se e a p p e n d ix A fo r jo b d e sc rip tio n s. 1/ Housing and urban renewal agencies are responsible for the planning and management of public housing and for planning urban renewal projects. A variety of specialists are needed to carry out the work of a housing and urban renewal agency. A t the top are executive and program directors who plan, coordinate, and administer the overall activities of the agency. Other occupations found in these agencies include widely divergent specialties such as city planners and public housing managers. Am ong the occupational specialists that entail planning and administrative duties are urban renewal c o o rd in a to rs , e n gineers, b u sin e ss o r public administration specialists, and economists. The following illustrates the types of P A T occupations employed in a housing and urban renewal agency (table 7). 1/ In some cities, the housing and urban renewal functions may be in separate agencies or independent authorities. Parks and recreation departments are concerned with physical, social, and cultural leisure time activities for citizens of all age groups. Beautification of the city by designing, building, and maintaining parks, squares, and greens is another important function of parks and recreation departments. Some departments plan, acquire, build or administer golf courses, swimming facilities, zoos, and other types of recreational facilities. Planning and administrative activities in those agencies generally are conducted by the top staff. In addition, recreation counselors, program coordinators and analysts, and landscape architects may be engaged in planning for new programs or facilities or improving existing areas. The following table presents occupational detail for a large city parks and recreation department (table 8). Regional Planning Agencies Regional planning agencies are concerned with the development of broad range plans to guide and coordinate the growth and development of an area that may encompass several local governments. In addition to their primary concern--the development of general regional development plans--regional agencies also act as advisors to local governments on the relationship between their planning activities and those of the region, State, or Federal Government, and as reviewing and coordinating agencies for applications for Federal funds initiated by planning units within the region. Regional planning agencies in the areas studied are organized as research and planning arms of Councils of Governments or Inter-Governmental Commissions. Council members generally include local officials such as mayors, city councilmen, county commissioners, and city and county planning directors. Executives from regional transit, port, and housing authorities and similar independent agencies may be members of Councils of Governments and Inter-Governmental Commissions that maintain full-time planning staffs to execute work programs of the parent body and to coordinate the work of consulting groups employed for particular reseamh and planning projects. The regional planning commissions or councils studied had small, highly professional staffs. The following table 9 is ^illustrative of the types of occupations employed by regional planning groups. T a b le 8. Illu stra tiv e S t a f f in g P a tte rn o f a P a rk s a n d R e c re a tio n D e p a r tm e n t O c c u p a tio n E m p lo y m e n t T o tal S t a ff A d m in is tr a tiv e a n d P la n n in g P e rso n n e l 1/ G e ne ral S u p e rin t e n d e n t o f P a rk s a n d R e c re a tio n A s s is ta n t G e n e ra l S u p e rin t e n d e n t o f P a rk s and R e c re a tio n 442 27 1 1 1 E x e c u tiv e A d m in is t r a t o r o f P a r k s a n d R e c re a tio n P e rso n n e l O f fic e r 2 S u p e rin t e n d e n t o f R e c re a tio n 1 A s s is ta n t S u p e rin te n d e n t o f R e c re a tio n 1 C h ie f o f L a n d sc a p e A rc h ite c tu re 1 L a n d sc a p e A r c h ite c t 6 S u p e rin te n d e n t o f F o re s tr y a n d L a n d sc a p in g 1 A s s is ta n t S u p e rin t e n d e n t o f F o re s tr y a n d L a n d s c a p in g 10 P r o g ra m D e v e lo p m e n t A n a ly s t 1 S e n io r C itiz e n P r o g ra m C o o r d in a t o r 1 O th e r P ro fe ssio n a l a n d T e c h n ic a l Pe rso n n e l 200 R e c re a tio n S u p e rv is o r 2 / 12 A s s is ta n t R e c re a tio n S u p e rv is o r 2 / 10 R e c re a tio n In s tr u c to r 139 C o m m u n it y H o u s e S u p e r v is o r 2 / 34 R e c re a tio n F a c ilitie s In v e stig a to r 2 / 1 A cc o u n ta n t 4 O th e r 3 / 215 J J P r im a rily a d m in is tr a tiv e b u t th e y m a y e n ga ge in so m e p la n n in g activities. 2 / M a y have p la n n in g duties. 3 / In c lu d e s clerical, m a in te n a n ce , a n d service pe rso n ne l. N o te : Se e a p p e n d ix A fo r jo b d e sc rip tio n s. T a b le 9. Illu stra tiv e S t a f f in g P a tte rn o f a R e g io n a l P la n n in g A g e n c y O c c u p a tio n T o ta l S t a f f A d m in is tr a tiv e a n d P la n n in g P e rso n n e l J_/ E x e c u tiv e D ire c to r 2 / A s s is ta n t D ire c to r 2 / T r a n s it P ro g ra m M a n a g e r 2 / P la n n e r (U r b a n o r R e g io n a l) T r a n s it S y s t e m s P la n n e r S o c ia l P lan n e r E c o n o m is t ( R e g io n a l) Im p le m e n ta t io n R e se a rch S p e c ia list P r o g ra m A n a ly s t E n gin e e r (S a n ita r y ) P ro g ra m e r (C o m p u t e r) S y s t e m s A n a ly s t P la n n in g A s s is ta n t 3 / D r a fts m a n 3 / Illu s tr a to r 3 / C le rica l an d S e rv ic e Pe rso n n e l E m p lo y m e n t 51 40 1 3 1 15 1 1 2 1 * 3 1 1 1 5 3 1 11 V E n tire p ro fe ssio n a l a n d a d m in istra tiv e s ta ff is e n gage d in p la n n in g activities. 2 / P r im a rily a d m in istra tive . 3 / T e c h n ic ia n level s u p p o r t pe rso n ne l. Chapter II. Current Manpower Problems and Future Expectations Recruiting Problems Several agencies of the local governments studied were h avin g difficulty in meeting their skill requirements. However, the number of vacant positions in planning and administrative jobs were only a small proportion of the total number of vacancies, primarily because planning and administrative positions represent only a small proportion of total employment. Many administrative jobs are high level positions that are filled by technical specialists who are promoted from within and, therefore, pose relatively little problem. Most vacancies in the cities studied were in clerical, skilled, manual, and service jobs, and in professional and technical occupations that are not engaged primarily in planning and administration, such as nurses and other medical specialists, social welfare workers, and engineers. Am ong planning and administrative occupations, the major vacancy problems identified were at the entry level for city planners, administrative specialists, and planning aids and assistants. Other P A T occupations which are related to planning activities and for which cities experienced difficulties in finding qualified workers were architects, draftsmen, engineering aids and technicians, neighborhood counselors, and employment training specialists. The regional planning agencies contacted for this study had fewer problems in attracting and holding qualified personnel than did city planning agencies. Reasons given for their greater ability to recruit and hold personnel were (1) higher salaries than those paid by cities, (2) the fact that many planners consider working for a regional group to be more prestigious and glamourous than working for a city group, and (3) regional agencies employment qualifications and hiring standards were generally not tied to rigid civil service requirements. In addition to the problems concerning the number of available workers, many young workers entering PAT occupations in the cities studied have not developed the needed analytical and communication skills. Training and skill in written and oral communications was mentioned most often as a serious deficiency in the skills young people brought to the job. The lack of sufficiently developed communications skills was considered by some administrators to be particularly acute among accounting and engineering graduates. Occupational shortages were attributed both to the lack of young persons with training in the needed skills and to the inability of local governments to attract their share of trained personnel. From the information obtained from this study, however, which of these two factors was the primary reason for the shortages is not clear. Many officials indicated that they felt the key problem was a general shortage of qualified personnel. However, about the same number of local officials indicated salary and promotion opportunities as the key problem in recruiting adequately prepared P AT personnel. Many of the skills needed by local governments also are in demand by other employers and, therefore, cities must compete for workers with private industry and Federal and State governments. If salaries and promotion opportunities in local government are not competitive, young persons will not be attracted to local government jobs. However, the P A T occupations which have the greatest shortages-nurses and other medical specialists, accountants, and engineers--also are in short supply to other employers.2/ Civil service restrictions that impede efficient recruitment were another important reason underlying vacancy difficulties. Many of the city officials interviewed felt that examinations for PAT occupations do not determine realistically who is the best qualified applicant for a particular job. Civil service commissions administer examinations and establish lists of eligible candidates which may require, for example, that the person scoring highest in the examination be hired or that one of the three highest be selected. Some officials interviewed did not consider these procedures to be the most effective means for producing the most qualified job candidate. They felt that academic achievement and successful employment experience should be weighed much more heavily than written examinations in determining an applicants qualifications. Residency requirements also were cited as impediments to recruiting. In some cities, for example, employees are required to live within the city, thereby 2/ See Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1968-69 edition, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 1550; Health Manpower 1966-75, A Study of Requirements and Supply, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, B L S Report 323, June 1967. 3/ Civil service examinations in some cities are required both for entry positions and for pormotion. excluding from consideration qualified manpower from outside the city limits. A few of the officials interviewed felt that even if residency requirements are waived, the very fact of thefr existence keeps some persons from applying who might otherwise be interested and qualified for city employment. Time lags experienced between application and employment also were cited as reasons that qualified applicants tend to lose interest in and cease to be candidates for city employment. In some cases, weeks and even months passed between the time a person qualified for a job and the time that he actually was hired. A n administrator of one city's housing and urban renewal agency contrasted this with private industry practices. Referring to accountants as an example, he said that although a month or more may pass between the time of examination and employment in the city government, a candidate could be interviewed by a leading manufacturing company located in the city and placed on the payroll the next day. Another problem often mentioned as underlying manpower shortages was the low level of prestige accorded to local governments. According to many of the officials interviewed, this negative image of local government employment is caused, at least in part, by non-competitive salaries with other employers in the area, the inability of recruiters to make definite hiring committments, and residency requirements. How jobs are filled Recruitment programs have a major impact on the success that local agencies have in filling jobs. Planning and administrative jobs in P A T occupations in local governments are filled by promoting from within a city's work force and by recruiting from outside. Most high level planning and administrative jobs, as well as other high level supporting professional and technical positions, are filled by promotion of experienced personnel from within, whereas recruiting from outside usually is used to fill entry level jobs. Promoting personnel to successively more responsible positions is the policy of most city government agencies contacted for this study and is especially prevalent in the more traditional service oriented agencies such as police and fire departments, public works departments, and public utilities departments. Because of the practice of promotion from within, many top administrative jobs are filled by technical personnel rather than individuals trained specifically as administrators. Recruiting usually is centralized in the Civil Service Commission or the personnel agency of a city, and a number of different recruiting methods are used by the cities studied for this report. These methods range from simple posting of job opportunities on bulletin boards to intensive college recruitment campaigns. The following list presents the major methods of recruiting used in the cities studied: 1. Posting of notices in public buildings and waiting for applications 2. Advertisements in local newspapers 3. Advertisements in professional journals 4. College recruitment 5. Obtaining personal leads from professional contacts In the cities studied, various methods of recruiting were used in differing degrees. The larger cities relied more heavily on recruiting at college campuses than did the smaller cities. All cities posted notices in public buildings and advertised in local newspapers. Advertising in professional journals and personal leads from professional contacts generally were used when trying to fill specific jobs. Alleviating manpower shortages Several approaches were used by the local governments studied to alleviate manpower shortages. Although all the approaches discussed here were not used by each city government that was studied or by all agencies in any particular city, they serve to illustrate how cities attempt to solve manpower shortage problems. Raising the level of salaries was one of the principal methods used by local governments in an attempt to make employment more attractive. Two of the 5 cities studied were currently revising their salary structures. In some cities, where recruiting difficulties warranted, hiring above the entrance level of a given salary scale was possible. College recruiting campaigns also were used to find qualified employees to alleviate shortages. Most city officials, although they would like to intensify college recruiting, did not have sufficient funds and manpower to devote to extensive recruitment outside their local areas. However, in the cities studied, an effort is being made to expand and intensify recruiting campaigns, and visits to college campuses, vocational and technical schools, and high schools are becoming more and more frequent. One planning administrator who often is asked to speak to graduate city planning students said that these visits provided him a good opportunity to meet with and recruit top notch new graduates for his agency. Educational and tuition rebate programs have been initiated by the local governments studied to help attract new PA T personnel and to upgrade the skills of current employees. Each of the five cities studied had some type of employee educational program. These programs ranged from informal systems of occasionally sending an employee to a nearby university for coursework to very formal programs of tuition rebate and specialized in-house training. These programs often reflected active cooperation between the city and local colleges and u n iv e rsitie s in se ttin g up specialized public administration and related courses. A number of city officials interviewed held part-time teaching positions in local junior colleges, colleges, and universities, and some of them were active in helping local colleges develop urban studies programs-particularly 2-year programs in planning, urban renewal, recreation, and public administration, which city employees attended. Substituting personnel of a lower grade or related specialty in vacant positions is another method used by the cities studied to alleviate manpower problems. This practice is described most clearly by comparing planned and actual staffing patterns for a city agency. For example, the planned staffing pattern for PAT occupations in the city planning department illustrated in table 10 includes city planners, social economists, and draftsmen. The number and level of these positions is established for each fiscal year budget. However, department officials have the option of filling budgeted positions with lower level personnel or related specialties as long as salary expenditures do not exceed the budgeted allottment for a particular position. In the case presented in table 10, personnel to fill authorized job vacancies in the planning department were not available, and less experienced planners were employed; architectural and civil engineers were substituted for planners, and draftsmen were used in lieu of junior level planners. The practice of substituting lower level and related personnel is used not only to fill shortage positions but also to make positions available to competent personnel who can function effectively in the agency but do not qualify for any of the agency's budgeted positions. The use of technician level aids and assistants as support personnel to higher level professionals and administrators also was practiced by the cities studied. T a b le 10. P la n n e d a n d A c t u a l S t a f f in g P a ttern o f a La rge C it y P la n n in g D e p a r tm e n t O c c u p a tio n N u m b e r e m p lo y e d Pla n n e d A ctu al 57 53 D ire c to r o f C it y P la n n in g A s s is ta n t D ire c to r o f C it y P la n n in g H e a d C it y P la n n e r P rin c ip a l C it y P la n n e r 1 1 3 6 1 S e n io r C it y P la n n e r Im te rm e d ia te C it y P la n n e r J u n io r C it y P la n n e r 9 9 8 1 T o ta l S t a f f P rin c ip a l S o c ia l E c o n o m is t S e n io r S o c ia l E c o n o m is t J u n io r S o c ia l E c o n o m is t A s s is t a n t A rc h ite c tu ra l E n gin e e r J u n io r A rc h ite c tu ra l E n gin e e r J u n io r C iv il E n gin e e r S e n io r D ra fts m a n D r a fts m a n J u n io r D ra fts m a n Se c re tarial S t e n o g ra p h e r S e n io r S te n o g ra p h e r S te n o g ra p h e r J u n io r S te n o g ra p h e r T y p is t S e n io r C le rk C le rk T o ta l V a c a n c ie s 1 3 4 8 5 3 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 5 0 1 0 4 0 2 2 1 - 2 7 1 0 1 3 1 0 2 1 - 4 However, the officials interviewed during the course of the study had mixed feelings about using additional support personnel as a means to alleviate P A T shortages.47 On one hand, many officials felt that many of the more routine and repetitive tasks done by planners, administrators, and other professional employees could be performed by aids and assistants. The advantages of this approach include (1) providing more time for higher level personnel to attend to professional duties, and (2) providing career opportunities and advancement for lower grade city employees having specialized training. On the other hand, some administrators felt that many technician level careers were dead-end jobs, and the limited advancement potential of these occupations would cause more problems than they would solve. On balance, however, most administrators interviewed considered the use of technician level aids and assistants coupled with adequate training and educational 4/ The use of technician level support personnel is not only a practice for alleviating shortages. Some occupational utilization patterns have these workers as an integral part of the staff. assistance programs a positive step toward alleviating shortages and providing career opportunities for persons w h o would otherwise be excluded from local government planning and administrative functions. Future Manpower Developments Manpower planning in the city governments studied generally was done on a year-to-year basis and, for the most part, was tied directly to the financial budget. Long-range manpower planning was at a minimum. All the cities studied were suffering from financial problems caused by shrinking tax bases and increasing needs for city services. These problems accompanied by the possibility of manpower reductions were more on the minds of city officials than were thoughts of long-term manpower plans. Despite the general lack of long-range manpower planning, local officials indicated that the future would bring new and expanded programs that w o u ld require more workers in planning and administrative occupations. Generally, officials appeared optimistic that finances for these new programs would be made available, despite their current financial problems. Most significant among the myriad of factors that local officials expect to cause future occupational growth is the need to improve the physical, economic, and social conditions of cities. Emphasis is being placed on urban redevelopment and economic action programs. Federally aided activities, such as the Model Cities Program and the Economic Opportunity and Manpower Development programs, are expected to stimulate the need fo r planning, administrative, and related professional and technical specialists. The need to attack physical problems, including the rebuilding of slums and building recreation facilities, will increase the need for planners, urban renewal specialists, zoning and housing code administrators, public housing managers, and recreation and parks administrators. Programs designed to attack social problems, such as social tension, juvenile delinquency, and crime, will increase the need for persons trained and experienced in social work, p sy c h o lo g y , guidance and counseling, and the administration of job training and other economic development programs. Economists and social planning analysts will be needed to collect data and do analysis for planning economic and social deveolpment programs. Local government officials also expected increasing needs for management specialists who have skills and ability to use modern program planning and budgeting techniques to plan new programs and to budget financial resources. Local governments pressed by financial problems were making increasing use of these specialists, as well as accountants and auditors and finance administrators. Chapter III. Future Research Needs Employment in local governments is growing at a rate well above that of the Nation. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that employment requirements in local governments will increase by about one-third between 1966 and 1975, nearly twice as fast as the increase projected for total employment in the United States.5/The rapidity of employment growth in local governments raises the question as to whether the manpower requirements of local governments will be met, especially in the areas of planning and administrative manpower, which also are in strong demand in other sectors. Relatively little information is available that assesses the extent and nature of current and anticipated manpower problems faced by cities in staffing for urban planning and administrative manpower needs. Although this pilot study and other literature provide some information on local government manpower statistics and problems, information is not available to provide data with the desired reliability on which to guide policy decisions. Information from this study, however, does point to a number of research needs and provides a basis for designing future manpower studies. Some of the most important studies of urban manpower that were indicated by this pilot study are as follows: (1) Wide scale occupational employment surveys, (2) projections of future manpower requirements and supply, (3) studies of job vacancies and mobility patterns, and (4) studies of education and training requirements in planning, administrative, and related occupations. Occupational Employment Surveys Surveys of employment by occupation provide the basic input to manpower analysis and are one of the key urban government manpower research needs. Data on current levels of employment provide the base for projections of future occupational requirements and for estimates of occupational needs that are created by work force attrition. Also, manpower information, such as statistics on job vacancies and occupational transfers, are most meaningful when measured against the aggregate employment level of the particular occupation being studied. Information on employment is needed on a continuous basis. Statistics collected on a "one time 5/ Tomorrow's Manpower Needs, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 1660, February 1969. o n ly " basis do not provide the information on the dynamics of changing employment. Attesting to the need for and use of a continuous flow of employment data are the annual surveys of scientific and technical employment in private industry conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the annual data on teacher employment collected by the Office of Education, and annual records of employment of several medical occupations compiled by professional associations. Because of these annual data, these occupations probably are the most studied of the Nation's many occupations and, thus, more information is available to planners to develop comprehensive programs of education and training in these fields. This pilot study provides the basic framework for c o lle c tin g occupational data for planning and administrative manpower in local governments. The next step is to use the occupational classifications developed from this pilot study to conduct surveys of occupational employment. Local Government Occupational Records Centralized employment records are kept by the local civil service commission or central personnel office in 4 of the 5 cities studied. Each of these four cities also has a formal occupational classification system containing written job descriptions for each occupation. In the fifth city studied, the smallest one, occupational statistics are available through centralized social security records maintained by the budget office, but written job descriptions are not available. In general, the following basic employment data can be readily provided by central employment records: (1) Total city employment; (2) employment by occupation; and (3) employment by agency. Some types of employment data may be difficult for local officials to provide; for example, cross tabulated information, such as occupation by agency, generally is not readily available at a central source, despite the great importance of this type of data to manpower analysis. In many cases, listing cross tabulated data would require considerable work on the part of local governments before such material could be made available. However, some types of data may be readily available in individual agencies rather than at a central source. Central personnel agencies do not maintain information on occupation by function; for example, occupational records do not contain information on the n u m b e r o f engineers engaged in planning or administrative functions. To develop quantitative data of this type, definitions or specific functions would have to be provided to agency officials who have detailed knowledge of the functions performed by each PA T worker in their individual agencies, and these officials would have to review each job and place it in the proper functional classification. Most of the local officials interviewed said that they could provide this type of information, although they indicated possible difficulties in cases where employees cross functional lines. Data on age, sex, educational attainment, and other characteristics of workers by occupation are not readily available from central employment records. Officials interviewed said that this type of information usually is contained in each employee's personnel folder, but for all practical purposes, it could not be withdrawn for survey purposes. Central records, however, could be used for selecting samples of employees, by occupation, for inclusion in studies of these type of data, as well as for studies of job satisfaction and occupational mobility patterns. Local personnel officials did not forsee major difficulties in providing occupational data for survey purposes, especially data available from central records. How ever, to compile useful data, standardized occupational definitions are essential. Job descriptions used by local government personnel departments or civil service agencies vary from city to city and, therefore, job titles for workers who perform exactly comparable duties may not be the same. In one city studied, the title "planning assistant" was used for the entry level job in professional city planning work; in another city, the same title was used for a technician level assistant engaged in drafting work needed to develop city plans. Projections of Manpower Requirements and Supply Development of manpower plans and programs rely heavily on projections of occupational requirements and supply. Policy makers should have information on occupational requirements and supply to judge if sufficient manpower will be available to conduct efficiently a specific program. Educational planners need occupational supply and demand projections as background data to guide them in developing programs to support education in particular fields of study. Studies of occupational supply and demand may indicate, for example, how the mix of education grant and student loan programs should be distributed, or what new curricula should be added in existing schools. Manpower planners in local governments also must consider their needs in relation to those of other employers, since engineers, accountants, and other professional and technical workers are needed by private industry and Federal and State governments, as well as by local governments. Requirements Projections of occupational requirements in local governments have been developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics as part of its analysis of manpower requirements for the United States. However, the occupational detail provided by these studies is limited, primarily because of insufficient data on occupational em ploym ent. In addition, projections of local government manpower data that are included with studies of the Nation cannot deal fully with the dynamics of manpower requirements that are expected to result from new programs. Furthermore, studies of local government manpower conducted in the past have lacked both occupational detail and detail on primary function such as planning and administration by occupation. P ro je c tio n s o f requirements for different occupations in local governments require different methods of analysis, usually because of differences in the factors underlying the demand for workers in a p a rtic u la r occupation. Occupational employment requirements in local government are affected by a host of factors. Population and related demographic factors and the need for urban development programs are very important among the variables that must be considered. Information on changing population, social, and economic patterns in a city also must be considered to the fullest extent possible. Analyses of urban development needs and an assessment of the potential fiscal capacity, including financing that may be made available through federal programs for various programs, is needed to establish goals and construct models designed to project future occupational needs. Technological change also has a major effect on demand for manpower skills required by local governments. Furthermore, the study of occupational patterns of specific agencies is important because of the relationship between the needs for one occupation and those of another, for example, planners and planning assistants. No one technique or set of variables can be used successfully to project manpower requirements for all occupations in local governments. The number of urban planners required, for example, may be wholly dependent upon the amount of money that will be made available for planning programs. The need for administrative personnel, on the other hand, is related to size of a city, the number of programs or activities undertaken, and the organizational and technical complexity of the various programs. Projections of changes in manpower requirements by occupation provide only part of the information on the number of job openings that will need to be filled in the years ahead. In estimating the total number of openings likely to arise in an occupation, consideration of manpower needs resulting from the replacement of those who leave is essential. In most occupations, more workers are needed yearly to fill positions left vacant by those who leave the occupation to enter other occupations, shift to other employers, or retire or die than are needed to staff new positions created by growth. Supply Information on future requirements only provides one side of the manpower picture. Studies of occupational supply, designed to be comparable to requirements studies, are needed to indicate what expansion in training is necessary to meet manpower needs. A recent Bureau of Labor Statistics report on supply and demand for health occupations indicates that training of physicians for the Nation as a whole must be increased by 80 percent over 1966 levels to meet 1975 requirements.6 Studies that provide information of this type should be undertaken for occupations directly related to local governments' manpower needs. Entrants into a specific occupation in local government may come from any one of several fields of study. High level administrative assistants in an urban 6/ Health Manpower, 1966-75, op. cit. 7/ See Two Years After the College Degree-Work and Further Study Patterns (N SF 63-26, 1963) for an example of a major followup study of college graduates. 8/ Beginning in January 1969, the Bureau of Labor Statistics plans to launch an intregrated Current Job Opportunities-Labor Turnover Statistics Program. The job opportunities information program is designed to provide a large amount of industrial and geographic data and, ultimately, to provide for publication of job openings data for the entire nonagricultural economy (including State and local governments) in all major metropolitan areas. 9/ Excludes separations for death, retirement, and involuntary discharge. renewal agency may be graduates of college or university p ro g ra m s in engineering, social work, public administration, or other courses of study. Also, in fields such as urban planning, where graduates from urban planning curriculums provide the major source of entrants, some graduates of these programs will not become urban planners. Thus, follow-up studies of the employment of a new college graduates by fields of s tu d y directly related to urban planning and administration, such as graduates of urban planning curriculums, would be of great use in an analysis of manpower supply to local governments.7' Studies that cover the various sources of entrants into specific occupations are necessary to assess fully manpower resources for staffing urban development and related local government programs. New college graduates are not the only source of entrants to professions related to the planning and administration of urban programs. Many workers are upgraded from lower level jobs or are hired from other employers. Manpower supply studies should include information on work experience-including the activity of workers in planning and administration jobs just prior to entering their current jobs, and their activities since leaving school. Job Opportunity and Mobility Studies In addition to the basic studies of occupational employment and future requirements and supply, much additional research is needed to fill in the lack of current information concerning the needs and problems in the fields of urban government manpower. Job opportunity studies on a broad scale are needed to provide information on the specific occupations that are persistently difficult to fill and on the magnitude of occupational shortage.8/Studies of workers who leave local government employment are needed to provide information on why local government employees leave their jobs. Information obtained during the interviews indicates resignations9/accounted for about one-half to three-fourths of employees who left local government service in the cities that were studies. According to information obtained by local personnel offices during exit interviews, lack of upward mobility was the primary motive for resignation. Other reasons for leaving jobs, such as health, return to school, poor working conditions, and leaving the city, were cited much less frequently than "to take a better job". Department heads and other officials indicated low salaries and the lack of promotion opportunities as prime causes of \ employee resignation; however, specific studies are needed to provide detail on the extent and nature of turnover problems. Education and Training Requirements Information also is needed on the education and training requirements for occupations related to the planning and administration of urban development programs. Comparative studies of education and training requirements in various cities would provide information on the skill requirements needed by personnel involved in local urban and community development activities. This information would prove valuable for developing basic and remedial education and training programs to provide competent urban development personnel and to upgrade the skills of currently employed local government personnel. Information on education and training requirements also would be useful in assessing the potential for creating new and strengthening current programs for developing and using technician level aids and assistants to support professional workers in key planning and administrative positions. Appendix A . Descriptions of Planning and Adm inistrative Jobs This appendix presents descriptions of professional, administrative, and technical jobs that have planning and ad m in istrative duties and are found in local governments. Because of the great number of job descriptions that were found in the 5 cities studied, the jobs first were grouped and then summary descriptions were prepared. Each description developed for this appendix includes information on planning and administrative duties and general education or experience requirements. To help identify the specific jobs that are encompassed by each description, a list of job titles follows each description. J o b s in w h ich the duties are primarily administrative are presented separately from those that are primarily planning. Administrative occupations were grouped either by program (health, housing and urban renewal, public works) or by activity (personnel and financial). Those grouped by program generally are found in one agency, whereas those grouped by activity u su ally are found in several agencies. Some administrative jobs could not be classified in this manner because they encompass several activities and are found in several agencies; these occupations are presented separately under a single job description. Top officials of a city agency may be identified as director, chief, superintendent, executive director, or by another common title. In the job titles presented here, the term director is used to identify these officials, except in cases where one specific title is very common, for example, Chief of Police. Assistants to directors of agencies are encompassed in the summary job descriptions, although specific job titles are not presented in the lists that follow each description. Assistants include titles such as assistant or associate director, assistant bureau chief, assistant division chief, and assistant superintendent. Assistant director,of planning is not listed, although his duties would fall in the description of planning administrators. Most planning jobs are listed by generic job name, e.g., architect, civil engineer, systems analyst. However, all architects, all engineers, and all systems analysts employed in a city are not necessarily engaged in planning. A n engineer, for example, who prepares plans for a new waste disposal plant is engaged in planning, but an engineer in charge of highway maintenance is not involved in this function. Administrative Occupations C H IE F E X E C U T IV E S are responsible for overall control of a city's agencies and are concerned with matters such as day-to-day administration, long-term planning, financing city operations, and staffing. Assistants work closely with the chief executive and represent him in meetings and conferences with other government officials and representatives of private organizations and citizens groups. Titles identified: City Manager Commissioner Mayor C O M M U N IT Y A C T IO N A N D M ANPO W ER D E V E L O P M E N T A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct and plan programs designed to promote the social and economic welfare of disadvantaged city residents. May be concerned with manpower and career development, social development and home services, community development and neighborhood services, educational programs, medical and dental health programs, or any other activities that contribute to the social and economic needs of people. Requirements generally include graduation from a university or college with specialization in fields such as vocational education, personnel administration, guidance and counseling, social science, business or public administration or a related field, and experience in employee training, vocational guidance, or social work administration. Titles identified: Chief of Program Evaluation Director: Children's Services Family Services Human Resources Development Manpower Development Service Neighborhood Youth Corps Volunteer Service Corps Employment Project Administrator Executive Director - Community Action Agency Executive Director - Neighborhood Services In-Service Training Program Coordinator Manpower Development Coordinator On-The-Job Training Project Administrator Project Director - Human Resources Development Supervisor of Community Action Center Operations Work Training Program Administrator C O M M U N IT Y R E L A T IO N S A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct and plan all or part' of the activities of a city's equal opportunity program. General educational requirements are graduation from a university or college and experience in personnel administration, civil rights programs, intergroup or labor relations, or community organization activities. Titles identified: Administrator-Community Relations Director of Community Relations Division Chief (Community Relations) Secretary-Director-Commission on Community Relations promoting development and expansion of commerce within a city. Generally requires a university or college degree, and experience in a government, business, or civic organization concerned with industrial development. Titles identified: Coordinator of Industrial and Commercial Development Director-Advisory Committee on Small Business Director of Economic Development FINANCIAL A D M IN IS T R A T O R S formulate financial policies and direct and plan programs such as budgeting, financial accounting, assessment, collection of taxes, disbursement of public funds, purchasing and warehousing of supplies and equipment, and related activities of a financial nature. May be employed in the primary fiscal agency of the city or in other agencies such as urban renewal or welfare. In general, the educational requirements for positions in financial administration include a university or college degree with specialization in public administration, accounting, or business administration. Some positions require a CPA. Titles identified: DATA P R O C E S S IN G A D M IN IS T R A T O R is responsible for directing and planning activities and operations of a city's, data processing unit. Generally requires a university or college degree with specialization in business administration, accounting, statistics, or engineering, and experience in analyses and development of systems, methods, and procedures related to electronic data processing. Titles identified: Chief, Bureau of Data Processing Data Processing Operations Supervisor Data Processing Supervisor EDP Systems Manager Manager of Controllers Data Processing E C O N O M I C D E V E L O P M E N T A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct and plan activities of a city's economic development agency primarily concerned with Administrative Accountant Auditor and Budget Officer Budget Director Capital Accounting Supervisor Chief Accountant Chief, Bureau of Accounting Operations Chief Bureau of Budget and Management Research Chief of Fiscal and Administrative Services Chief Purchasing Agent City Auditor City Controller City Treasurer Commissioner of Purchases and Supplies Collector Controllers Accounting Director Controllers Systems and Methods Accountant Director of Assessments Director of Purchases Fiscal Officer General and Capital Accounting Supervisor Principle Auditor H E A L T H A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct all or part of the activities of a city's health department and health care facilities. The many health programs in local governm ents require administrators with diverse backgrounds. Many administrative specialties in the public health field require a license to practice medicine or a doctorate in science or public health. Others require gradu ation from a college or university with specialization in fields such as life sciences, sanitary engineering, or public or business administration. Many positions require specific knowledge of one or more health specializations. Titles identified: Administrative Health Officer Commissioner of Health Coordinator of Alcoholism Programs Directors of Bureaus, Divisions, Programs, and Facilities: Administrative Services A ir Pollution Control Bio-Statistics Communicable Disease Child Health Services Community Sanitation Dairy Farm Inspection Day Care Dental Care Environmental Hygiene Flood Control Food Plant Inspection Food Services Health Administrative Services Health Information Hospitals Hospital and Medical Care Hospitals, General Services Hospitals, Maintenance Services Industrial Hygiene Laboratories Meat Control Medical and Public Health Services Medical Director Mental Health Services Clinic Milk Plant Inspection Nursing Nutrition Public Health Nursing Public Health Unit Rodent Control Sanitarian Training Vital Records District Superintendent of Public Health Nurses Hospital Administrator Hospital Business Manager Hospital Superintendent Medical Research Chief (Project Director) Medical Superintendent Public Health Engineer Sanitary Engineer Health Inspection Supervisor of Hospital Investigation and Collection Supervisor of Public Health Education HOUSING AND URBAN RENEWAL A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct activities performed in a local government housing and urban renewal agency or authority. Work may involve planning and coordinating various activities of the agency. General educational requirements are graduation from a university or college with a specialization in business administration, public administration, public housing, social sciences, city or regional planning, or a related field such as engineering or architecture. Titles identified: Administrative Engineer, Housing Director for Renewal Operations Director of: Community Organization Demolition - Construction Engineering (Urban Renewal) Planning and Construction Program Development-Housing Agency Property Rehabilitation Rehabilitation Financial Assistance Director, Urban Renewal and Housing Agency Executive Director, Redevelopment Agency Housing Manager Project Coordinator Property Manager Property Rehabilitation Supervisor Rehabilitation Advisory Services Supervisor Relocation Site Manager Social Services Coordinator Superintendent of Housing Operation Supervisor of Tenant Selection Supervisory Redevelopment Land Officer Urban Renewal Coordinator L IB R A R Y A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct and plan the activities of a local public library system, individual library, or library department. Generally requires graduation from a professional library program and extensive experience in professional library work including library administration. Titles identified: Chief of Library Department City-County Librarian Coordinator of Major Library Activity Director of Libraries Library Associate Director Library Business Director P E R SO N N E L A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct and plan all or part of a personnel program for a city or a local government agency. May be concerned with specific personnel functions, such as examination programs, investigating, position classification, training, or other aspects of personnel administration. General education requirement is graduation from a college or university with a specialization in public, business, or personnel administration. Titles identified: Administrative Personnel Examiner Classification Supervisor Employee Safety Engineering Coordinator Examination Supervisor Personnel Administrative Supervisor Personnel Director Safety Coordinator Secretary and Chief Examiner, Civil Service Commission Training Coordinator P L A N N IN G A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct all or part of the activities of a city's primary planning agencies, such as city planning commission or model cities agency or the planning unit of another agency. Outline and assign projects and review work in progress and upon completion, act as advisors for difficult planning projects and meet with the major, city council, and other officials to present information on planning projects. Handle public contacts and business for the planning agen cy. General education requirements include gra du a tion from a college or university with specialization related to city planning. For some positions, a specialization in the social sciences, especially economics, engineering, architecture, or public administration may be required. Titles identified: Chief of Current Operations Chief Planner Director, Department of Planning Director of: Master Plan Planning and Construction (Urban Renewal Research and Analysis (Planning) Research and Analysis (Urban Renewal Transportation Planning Executive Director, Regional Planning Council Head City Planner Planning Research and Development Director (Health) Project Director - Model Neighborhood Agency P U B L IC R E L A T IO N S A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct and plan comprehensive public relations programs for a city government or specific operational units within city governments. Requirements generally are graduation from a university or college and specialization in journalism, English, and responsible experience in public relations work. Titles identified: Administrative Assistant - Community Relations Airport Promotions Manager Director of Reports and Information Information Officer Planning Education Assistant (Public Relations) P U B L IC SA F E T Y A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct and plan all or part of the activities of a city's public safety agencies such as the police department, fire department, civil defense department, or traffic department. Police and fire administrators generally are promoted from the ranks after serving in progressively responsible positions and do not require any specific educations. Other public safety administrative positions often require graduation from a college or university with specialization in public administration, law, or engineering. Titles identified: Police Administration Chief of Police Chief Inspector Community Relations Officer District Inspector Headquarters Superintendent Juvenile Bureau Superintendent Police Commissioner Fire Administration Chief of Fire Department Executive Chief Fire Department Executive Secretary Fire Department Secretary Superintendent of Fire Apparatus Civil Defense Administration Civil Defense Coordinator Civil Defense Executive Director of Civil Defense Other Public Safety Administration Commissioner of Traffic and Transit Safety Director Traffic Engineer - Administrative P U B L IC W O RKS A N D P U B L IC U T IL IT IE S A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct and plan all or part of the activities of a local government's public works and/or utilities department. Administrators included in this category are responsible for activities such as the construction and maintenance of streets, alleys, and highways; operation and maintenance of water supply; sewerage and sanitation; municipal waste; public transportation; and the operation and maintenance of municipal buildings. Some administrative positions require graduation from a university or college, often with specialization in civil, mechanical, electrical, chemical, or sanitary engineering. Titles identified: Bureau Engineer Bureau Engineer, Surveys City Engineer Building Code Enforcement Officer Building Superintendent Chief Division of Community Sanitation Chief of Water and Sewerage Treatment Chief, Water Systems Supervisor Commissioner of Buildings and Safety Engineering City Engineer Director, Bureau of: Licenses and Permits Structural Engineering Utilities Director, Municipal Parking Authority Director of Public Works District Superintendent of Highways District Superintendent of Highway Maintenance General Manager, Department of Street Railways General Manager of City-County Joint Building Authority General Superintendent, Department of Public Works General Superintendent, Public Lighting and City Electricians General Superintendent, Sanitation Sanitary Sewer Director Street Superintendent Superintendent, General Manager and Chief Engineer, Water Superintendent of: Building Inspection Building Maintenance Building Maintenance and Construction Electrical Distribution Motor Transportation Overhead Lines and Cables Plant Maintenance and Construction Power Production Public Service Pumping Plant Operations Rolling Stock Sewer Maintenance and Construction Street Maintenance and Construction Streets and Sanitation Transportation Operations Water Distribution System Maintenance Transportation District Superintendent Transportation Marketing and Planning Administration Zoning Enforcement Officer R E C R E A T IO N A N D P A R K S A D M IN IS T R A T O R S direct and plan the activities of a recreation and parks system. Recreation and parks administrators formulate policies, rules and regulations, and devise capital improvement and financial plans. General educational requirement is graduation from a university or college with specialization in recreation, business or public administration, landscape architecture, or related fields such as engineering or city planning. Titles identified: Director of Recreation and Parks Executive Administrator of Parks and Recreation General Superintendent of Parks and Recreation Park Superintendent Recreation General Supervisor Recreation Superintendent Superintendent of Forestry and Landscaping Parks and Recreation Superintendent of Public Services - Parks and Recreation Superintendent of Recreation A D M IN IST R A T IV E ASSIST AN T S A N D A D M IN IS T R A T IV E S P E C IA L IS T S assist department heads or other high level program administrators in planning, policy formulation, program evaluation, public relations, and other executive functions. May exercise control over specific functions such as budget or personnel. Other common duties include collecting and p re p a rin g in fo rm a tio n used fo r determining administrative policies; interpreting and implementing executive decisions; serving as an advisor for establishing new administrative polices; and conducting research and p re p a rin g re p orts. P rim a ry requirem ent for administrative specialist position is a thorough knowledge of the principles and practices of public or business management and administrative experience. Some positions require graduation from a university or colle g e with a degree in public or business administration, or accounting. Titles identified: Administrative Assistant Administrative Service Supervisor Administrative Trainee Analyst (Public Administration) Business Manager Chief of Administrative Services Governmental Analyst Management Analyst Office Manager Technical Aid - Business Administration O T H E R A D M IN IS T R A T O R S . This category includes all program administrators not specifically described in the preceding statements. Convention facilities managers, managers of historical, art, and other cultural centers, and retirement systems managers are examples of the miscellany of administrators placed in this category. Generally require specific subject matter training or experience related to their program activity as well as administrative ability. Titles identified: Airport Manager Business Administrator and Secretary, Institute of Arts Cafeteria Manager Chief of Weights and Measures Inspection City Clerk Commissioner, Recorders Court Jury Commission Convention Facilities Director Convention Facilities Manager Deputy Sealer Of Weights and Measures Director, Civic Center Commission Director, Historical Commission, Assistant Director of Elections Director of Labor Relations Director of Minimum Wage Commission Director Municipal Museum Insurance Manager Manager, Convention Facilities Manager, Municipal Auditorium Market Master Municipal Trailer Park Manager Real Estate Supervisor Retirement Systems Administrator Superintendent of Zoological Park Operations Zoo Supervisor Planning Occupations A R C H IT E C T S plan and design physical structures and organize the services necessary for their construction. Consult with appropriate city officials to determine size and space requirements and provide them with information regarding cost, design, materials, equipment, and estimated building time. Plan the layout of a project and integrate structural, mechanical, and ornamental elements into a unified design. Make technical studies and inspections and arranges work schedules. Direct the preparation of reports and the maintenance of records. Positions require graduation from a university or college with a degree in architecture. Titles identified: Architect ARC H IT EC TU RAL T ECH N IC IAN S assist a rc h ite c ts engaged in planning by examining architectural drawings for accuracy and conformance with specifications. Make cost estimates of structures. Check materials, structural and mechanical designs, site plans, and cost estimates submitted by architects and consultants. Confer with architects, contractors, and city agencies concerning work in progress. Maintain architectural technician positions is high school graduation and experience in examining or drawing architectural plans and specifications, cost estimating of building structures, or project superintendent for a building contractor. Two year university training in architecture or civil engineering often is substituted for experience. Titles identified: Architectural Technician C O M M U N IT Y R E L A T IO N S W O R K E R S aid in planning and implementing equal opportunity programs. In ve stig a te c o m p la in ts and compile data on discrimination practices in employment or public accomodations. Evaluate environmental conditions in c l u d i n g e d u ca tio n , h o u sin g , e m p lo y m e n t opportunities, recreation opportunities, delinquency, health and income, and prepare analyses and reports on how they affect community relations. Plan, schedule, and participate in the counseling of socially maladjusted persons. May secure public assistance support for needy persons and may investiage fradulent assistance claims. Generally requires graduation from a university or college with specialization in social science, education, or psychology. Titles identified: Community Services Assistant Intergroup Relations Representative Public Aid Worker CO M PUTER P R O G R A M E R S prepare computer programs designed to store and process data needed for planning programs of city government agencies. Define problems for conversion to electronic data processing and develop and prepare detailed instructions and necessary test data to determine the accuracy of the program. Prepare detailed operating procedures for operating personnel and make modifications and improvements to programs as required. Generally require high school graduation and experience in computer programing. Some positions require graduation from college or equivalent experience. For trainee positions, ability to achieve a satisfactory score on a programing aptitude test is required. Titles identified: Computer Programer Data Processing Programer D R A F T S M E N prepare clear, complete, and accurate working plans and detail drawings for engineering or planning purposes. Make final sketches of prepared drawings, charts, or topographic maps; check dimensions of parts, materials to be used, and the relations of various parts to the whole structure. Draw plans of subdivisions, streets, highways, subways, water and sewer systems, and other public projects from survey notes, and make any adjustments necessary or desired. Generally requires graduation from high school supplemented by college level courses in engineering and drafting. Titles identified: Draftsman Drafting Aid Engineering Draftsman Planning Draftsman E C O N O M IST S conduct studies to determine the economic feasibility of various urban betterment programs. Perform research related to population trends, land use, urban renewal programs, future employment and unemployment trends, and estimates of income distribution. Prepare comprehensive reports that present an analysis and interpretation of the results of research. May speak before civic and technical groups to explain the results of research programs. May meet with industrial, business, or civic groups to discuss viewpoints re ga rd in g sp e cific research programs. Requires gra du a tion from a college or university with specialization in economics or related social sciences. Some positions require an advanced degree and/or experience in the analysis of data related to city planning, housing and urban renewal, or a related field. Titles identified: Economic Analyst Economic Research Aid Social Economist Urban Researcher E N G IN E E R IN G A ID S perform elementary field or office tasks in support of engineers engaged in planning for construction projects. Execute routine tasks in survey parties and conduct routine inspection of a nonprofessional engineering nature. Perform simple drafting and computing work that does not require previous specialized training or experience. Assist in coordinating the work of city forces, contractors, and utility companies on various phases of projects. May act as rodman or chairman on a survey party. Generally requires graduation from high school, preferably supplemented by experience in an engineering office or with a survey party engaged in construction projects. Titles identified: Engineering Aid E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N S assist in preparing reports, charts, graphs, and tabulations for use in urban development plans or other planning activity. Perform technical engineering work of moderate difficulty including making computations and plotting information from field surveys, preparing maps and plans, and making cost estimates. May perform engineering tests using precision instruments and do other related work as required. May specialize in civil, electrical, mechanical, traffic, or other engineering specialty. General requirement for engineering technician occupations is 2 years of college including basic engineering courses or completion of a vocational course of study in civil, mechanical, electrical, or traffic engineering, or equivalent experience in engineering related work. Titles identified: Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Technician Technician Technician Technician Technician Technician - Civil - Electrical - Mechanical - Traffic - Water E N G IN E E R S (C IV IL ) prepare plans, designs, specifications, and cost estimates for urban development and public works construction projects. May act as a consultant to various city departments concerned with the construction, demolition, or renovation of buildings, roads, sewers, water facilities, or other public works projects. May advise the general public and officials of government agencies on policy, what re so u rce s are available, ordinances, engineering problems, and construction costs. Graduation from a university or college with a degree in civil structural or related fields of engineering generally is required. Titles identified: Airport Engineer Architectural Engineer Civil Engineer Engineer of Inspection Engineer of Surveys Field Engineer Project Engineer Public Works Engineer Structural Engineer Water System Engineer E N G IN E E R S (C H E M IC A L ) prepare plans and establish standards for analyses and investigation of problems such as waste disposal, air and water pollution, radiation hazards, and occupational diseases for urban renewal, health, and related planning projects. Make technical engineering surveys, studies, and inspections, and review and approve plans and specifications submitted by consulting engineering firms. Graduation from a college or university with specialization in chemical, sanitary, or related engineering generally is required. Titles identified: Chemical Engineer Health Engineer Industrial Waste Engineer Public Health Engineer Sanitary Engineer Water Pollution Engineer E N G IN E E R S (E L E C T R IC A L ) prepare plans and specifications for a variety of electrical equipment necessary for streets and traffic planning. Make cost estimates of street lighting, traffic controls and communication systems installations, extensions, and modifications. Collect data pertaining to the operation of electrical equipment and electrical installations. Recommend adoption or rejection of design and specifications standards. May act as a consultant to city officials on electrical engineering problems. Generally requires graduation from a college or university with specialization in electrical engineering. Titles identified: Electrical Engineer E N G IN E E R S (M E C H A N IC A L ) prepare plans for the installation of mechanical equipment in new facilities. Check plans, designs, and specifications for mechanical installations in new construction projects. Investigate and inspect technical mechanical engineering problems. Examine plumbing, heating, ventilating, and refrigeration systems in construction plans for conformity with the building code. Prepare technical engineering reports. Employment generally requires gra du a tion from a college or university with specialization in mechanical or civil engineering. Titles identified: Mechanical Engineer Specifications Engineer E N G IN EER S (TRAFFIC) plan fo r the improvement of street systems to expedite traffic movement. Investigate traffic conditions and problems through field surveys and study of existing statistical data. Determine the layout of traffic signals, and review expressway construction projects. Prepare maps of proposed traffic structures and develop plans for traffic flo w . Determine detour routing, truck routes, channelization of traffic, pavement markings and dividers, off-street parking facilities, and other related traffic planning matters. Review street, highway, and expressway projects under construction to assure contract specifications are fulfilled. Employment generally requires graduation from a college or university with specialization in civil engineering and planning. Titles identified: Engineer of Expressway Engineer of Streets Traffic Design Engineer Traffic Engineer Traffic Planning Engineer Transportation Engineer L A N D S C A P E A R C H IT E C T S plan the landscaping areas to be used as parks or other recreation facilities, highways, hospitals, schools, land subdivisions, and commercial or residential areas. Confer with city officials, engineering personnel, and architects on the overall program. Prepare site plans, working drawings, and cost estimates for landscape development. Inspect construction work in progress to insure compliance with landscape specifications, to approve quality of materials and work, and to advise construction personnel on landscape features. Employment generally requires gra du a tion from a college or university specialization in landscape architecture. with Title identified: Titles identified: City Planning Aid Planning Aid Planning Assistant Landscape Architect N E IG H B O R H O O D DEVELOPMENT C O U N S E L O R S coordinate, organize, and attempt to stim u la te citizen interest and participation in community action programs. Promote community action programs by making house calls and individual, family and group contacts, and urging participation in these programs. Contact various organizations on behalf of persons needing services and assist in coordinating the efforts of various agencies serving an individual or family. Prepare summaries, analyses, and reports on neighborhood needs and problems, as well as individual cases or investigations. Counsel residents in an assigned area or neighborhood to improve their capacity for productive and self-sufficient roles in the community. May speak before groups to acquaint them with fa c ilitie s, services, and information available. Employment generally requires graduation from a college or university with specialization in social science, social work, or vocational counseling. Some positions may require 2-years of college with specialization in social sciences or other fields related to community services. Titles identified: Counselor Aid Counselor, Neighborhood Youth Camps Neighborhood Development Counselor Neighborhood Development Supervisor P L A N N IN G A S S IS T A N T S compile data to be used by urban planners in making planning studies. Summarize information from maps, reports, and field investigations. Trace maps and prepare statistical tabulations, charts, and graphs to illustrate planning stu d ie s, su ch as those concerning population, transportation, traffic, land use, zoning, proposed subdivisions, and public utilities. May conduct field interviews and make surveys of traffic flow; parking, housing, and educational facilities; recreation; zoning; and other conditions which affect planning studies. General requirement for planning assistant jobs are graduation from a 2-year junior or community college with specialization in urban planning or development. R E C R E A T IO N S P E C IA L IS T S plan recreation activities and coordinate programs and activities with other community agencies such as community action, education, or welfare departments. May work with disadvantaged or anti-social groups to develop social, cultural, and recreational activities. These positions generally require post high school training in recreation or a related field. For some positions, graduation from a university or college with specialization in recreation, physical education, or social sciences is required. Titles identified: Group Activities Specialist Recreation Activities Counselor Recreation Activities Specialist Recreation Director Recreation Supervisor (Various Recreation Activities) Street Club Worker Student Recreation Assistant S O C IA L P L A N N IN G A N A L Y S T S perform social analysis and planning, such as studying and evaluating social conditions and the agencies and programs concerned with resolving social problems. Evaluate neighborhood factors by working with social agencies and indigenous persons. Develop detailed proposals by documenting quantitive and qualitative deficiencies in existing approaches, and proposing methods for ameliorating social problems. Evaluate programs initiated under the Federal Economic Opportunity Act and make recommendations for improvement or change. General educational requirements are graduation from a university or college with specialization in social or behavorial sciences. Some positions may require an advanced degree. Titles identified: Social Planning Analyst SY ST E M S A N A L Y S T S analyze data processing problems and develop procedures to process information needed for planning programs. Develop forms, input and output documents, and types of files needed for information systems, and design computer and tabulating machine and manual data processing procedures. Employment generally requires graduation from a college or university and training and/or experience in computer programing and systems analysis. For some positions, specialization in subject matter areas such as engineering, city planning, or other fields may be required. Titles identified: Systems Analyst U R B A N P L A N N E R S develop plans and programs for the utilization of land and physical facilities of cities, metropolitan areas, counties, and regions. Compile and analyze data on economic, social, and physical factors affecting land use, transportation, parking, and other urban planning problems and prepare graphic and narrative reports on data. Confer with local authorities, civic leaders, social scientists, and land planning and development specialists to devise plans and recommend arrangements of land and physical facilities for residential, commercial, industrial, and community uses. Recommend governmental measures affecting land use, public utilities, community facilities, housing, and transportation. The general educational requirement for urban planner positions is graduation from a college or un iversity with specialization in city planning, architecture, landscape architecture, civil engineering, or a related field. Some planning positions may require specialization in public administration, economics or related social sciences. Titles identified: City Planner Land Use Data Analyst Planner Planning Aid Planning Technician Regional Planner Transportation Planner Urban Planner U R B A N R EN EW A L C O O R D IN A T O R S analyze alternatives and make recommendations on methods, procedures, and criteria to be employed for urban redevelopment or neighborhood conservation projects. Review relocation plans, financial schedules, and cost estimates of urban renewal projects for conformity with federal regulations and the availability of funds. Review bids received for items such as site clearance, community improvement, or utilities relocation. Follow up on contract work to see that estimates are not being exceeded, and that schedules are being maintained. Arrange for sales of excess land and physical facilities. Oversee the preparation of periodic progress reports relating to specific urban renewal projects. May present talks on the subject of urban redevelopment or neighborhood conservation. Requires graduation from university or college, preferably with specialization in business or public administration. Titles identified: Urban Renewal Coordinator U R B A N R E N E W A L W O R K E R S contact relocation or rehabilitation site occupants to advise them of their rights and financial assistance available. Implement neighborhood conservation programs by disseminating information and encouraging neighborhood cooperation with the goals of the program. Consult with property owners and residents concerning property rehabilitation problems and methods. Conduct surveys in urban redevelopment areas to obtain the data necessary to plan the proper and orderly relocation of residents. Investigate and process moving expense claims. Prepare and maintain records concerning individual properties. Organize and participate in citizen groups and solicit support for redevelopment programs. Help determine beginning and completion dates for each step of an area redevelopment project. Develop methods and procedures designed to eliminate or overcome problems and expedite work progress. May act as Mason with other government agencies or public service agencies. Employment generally requires graduation from a college or university with specialization in public or business administration, economics, or sociology. For some positions, 2 years of university work with specialization in public or business administration or social sciences is sufficient. Titles identified: Urban Renewal Worker Urban Renewal Assistant Z O N IN G IN V E ST IG A T O R S review development plans for compliance with zoning ordinances. Provide information to public concerning compliance with and interpretation of city plans and zoning codes. Perform related clerical work. Employment generally requires graduation from high school and experience in field or office work related to city planning or zoning. Supervisory level job may require graduation from a university or college, or equivalent training and experience. Titles identified: Zoning Investigator Zoning Examiner Appendix B. Study Procedure The study is based primarily on information obtained during interviews with municipal and other government officials responsible for planning and administrative activities. Valuable information also was provided by written materials such as job descriptions, agency staffing patterns, and special reports on job vacancy and employee turnover, which were provided by local officials. M o re than 7 0 government officials were interviewed in the five cities studied, including representatives of chief executives' offices, personnel administrators and specialists, and functional executives in the departments and divisions that are responsible for a city's programs and activities. Also included in this group were administrators and other representatives of county and regional planning agencies. Five cities were included in the study. In an attempt to obtain manpower information on as many different types of situations as possible, cities were selected from 5 broad regions of the United States: Eastern, Central, Southern, Pacific, and Mountain. The cities selected had differences in population size and growth trends, types of government organization, and economic and social characteristics, including racial composition, income levels, and population density. However, the five cities selected do not reflect a scientific sample, and the data obtained cannot be considered representative of the country as a whole. Three of the cities selected were participants in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Model Cities Program, and three had a regional planning agency located in the city. No specific attempt was made to determine the s ig n ific a n c e of different social, economic, or o rg a n iz a tio n a l characteristics on planning and administrative activities and manpower problems. Nevertheless, the primary factor that determines the size and complexity of planning and administrative manpower needs appears to be the size of the city. As indicated in the body of the report, the large cities in the study were pressed hardest by problems of slum neighborhoods, deteriorating commercial districts, transportation inadequacies, and numerous other problems. They had much more complex organization and staffing needs than the smaller, more tranquil communities. Major Characteristics of the Cities Selected City I is a large city of more than a million population located in the Central portion of the United States. Population has declined slowly in recent years. The city has a mayor-council form of government and is a participant in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Model Cities program. In comparison with other U.S. cities, this city has a high proportion of nonwhite's and high population density. Median annual family income was higher than the average for the United States as a whole ($5,660), but almost one-fifth of families in the city had annual incomes under $3,000 in 1959.10/ City II is a large city of between 500,000 and 1 million population located in the Eastern region of the United States. Population has declined slightly in recent years. The city has a mayor-council form of government and is a participant in the H U D Model Cities Program. This city has a high proportion of nonwhite population and high population desnity in comparison with other U.S. cities. Median annual family income was roughly the same as the average for the Unites States as a whole, and almost one-fifth of the families in the city had incomes under $3,000 in 1959. City III is a medium sized city, having a population of between 250,000 and 500,000, and located in the Southern region of the United States. Population has increased rapidly in recent years. The city has a major-council form of government and is a participant in H U D Model Cities Program. Nonwhite population as a proportion of total is higher than that for the United States as a whole. Population density is relatively low. Median annual family income was much lower than the average for the entire United States. Almost three-tenths of the families in the city had incomes under $3,000 in 1959. City IV is a medium sized city, having a population of between 250,000 and 500,000, and located in the Pacific region of the United States. Population has increased moderately in recent years. The city hasa council-managerform of government. 10/ Data on income is from the U.S. Census of Population 1960. Although more current data are not available for individual cities, a Bureau of Census Report, Americans at Mid Decade, Series P-23, No. 16, published in January 1966 reported, "fam ily income in 1965 showed little evidence of any change in the inequalities of distribution of aggregate income among families at various income levels." Nonwhite population as a proportion of the total is only slightly higher than that for the United States as a whole, and population density is relatively low. Median annual family income was considerably higher than the overall U.S. average, and only about one-tenth of the families in the city had annual income of less than $3,000 in 1959. City V is the smallest city included in this study (population of less than 50,000), and it is located in the Mountain region of the United States. The city has a commission form of government. Nonwhite population is very small and population density is relatively low. Median annual family income is considerably higher than that for the United States as a whole, and only about one-tenth of the families in the city had incomes of less than $3,000 in 1959. Interview Procedure Interviews were conducted with the help of an interview guide that centered around several basic questions on the following topics: (a) background information on the type of occupational information available in central records, (b) the methods by which planning and administration is carried out in the city, (c) methods of identifying planning and administrative occupations, (d) recruiting methods and hiring and retention problems, (e) education and training of workers in planning and administrative positions, (f) and employment growth trends. Under topic (a), for example, the interviewer asked basic questions such as: What type of manpower information is available from central records? How can summary occupational information such as occupational employment by age and sex be obtained from the records? Under topic (b), interviewees were asked to describe their agencies planning and administrative activities as they relate to the city as a whole, the particular agency or operating unit, and State, regional, or Federal planning bodies. Under topic (c), specific questions centered around identifying planning and administrative occupations. The officials interviewed were asked to list all planning and adm inistrative occupations and provide detailed occupational descriptions. Topic (d) centered around recruiting methods and hiring and retention problems. Officials interviewed were asked basic questions such as: How does the city agency recruit workers for planning and administrative jobs? Do you have difficulties in filling planning and administrative jobs? In what occupations are shortages or hiring problems most prevelant? What steps has the city taken to alleviate hiring problems? Under topic (e), questions were asked about the education and training of planning and administrative personnel. Am ong the questions that were asked are: Do the curricula of colleges, universities, and other post high school training institutions give new graduates the necessary skills for planning and administrative jobs? What specific courses can be identified as most valuable? Under topic (f), which centered on future employment growth expectations, local officials were asked, for example, to identify occupations which they expected to grow (or decline) substantially over the next 5 to 10 years. They also were asked to describe factors that would cause change. Despite the use of the interview guide, the interviews were not structured rigidly. It was felt that a loose stru c tu re would allow respondents to present information they felt to be most important. The interview guide was tested in one of the cities studied before it was used in the other four cities. During the "pre-test," several factors were discovered that helped facilitate the subsequent interviews. Am ong these was that the civil service commission or personnel department of the city had written job descriptions for all occupations found in the city government, and that these could be sent to Washington to analyze. Primarily as a result of an analysis of these written job descriptions that the categorization of planning and administrative jobs and job descriptions found in appendix A was developed. Information on the general availability of data for survey purposes also was supplied primarily by the Civil Service Commission or Personnel Department. Operating agency officials, however, were more helpful in providing information on planning and administrative activities and related manpower information. The interview technique used in this study provided very satisfactory results for this type of study. The insights that were gained from the manpower problems of the cities, as well as the problems of collecting occupational data in a large scale survey, could only be obtained satisfactorily through personal interviews. Clearly, studies designed to obtain comprehensive sta tis tic s on local government planning and administrative manpower will require methods that differ from those used in this study. To collect occupational data, for example, a statistically valid sam p le su rve y must be designed and formal questionnaires developed. (See Chapter 3.) Appendix C. Available Em ploym ent Statistics This appendix presents information on the basic sources of statistics on employment in local governments that are collected and published on a national basis. Other data may be collected by professional associations and by local governments, but no attempt has been made to include data that may be available through these sources. Data on total employment in local governments is published monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics as part of its monthly reports on wage and salary employment. Each year, the B L S publishes a historical series of annual average data for both the national total of local government employment and for selected States and standard metropolitan statistical areas.12/ The Bureau of the Census collects data and prepares reports on employment in State and local governments. Data on employment by State and selected local governments and by function (education, highways, police protection, parks and recreation, etc.), as well as total full-time, part-time, and full-time 13 / equivalent data, are included in annual reports issued by the Bureau of the Censes. Similar but more detailed data are available from the 1962 Census of Governments.14/ Little information on occupational employment statistics is available for local governments. The most comprehensive data published covers 279 occupational groups, sub-groups, and individual occupations collected during the 1960 decenial census,5and these data have many limitations. The most severe limitations are (1) the concept of public administration, (2) currentness, and (3) lack of specific detail for key planning and administrative occupations. Decenial census statistics are classified in such a manner that occupations in local public administration cover only part of all local government employment. In the census tabulations, statistics are classified into establishments defined according to major economic activity. For example, school systems and statistics on their personnel are classified into the educational services industry, and medical and health related personnel are classified in the medical services industry; therefore, they are excluded from the data on public administration. Local government employment is increasing at a very rapid rate, yet census occupational detail is availab le o n ly at ten-year intervals. Although information collected during the 1960 decenial census provided some information on the general occupational patterns for local governments, it is of little value in assessing the nature and extent of recent trends in changing occupational structure. Questions relating to current problems must be evaluated with current statistics. Furthermore, the census occupational tabulation does not provide seperate detail for some key occupations related to the planning and administration of urban programs. These occupations are recognized and classified by the Bureau of the Census, but, for technical reasons, are not presented separately. City planners, for example, are classified as one of the administrative occupations, and in the published statistics are a component of a large group of m isc e lla n e o u s occupations titled Officials and Administrators, Not Elsewhere Classified, Public Administration. Detail for many other occupations similarly are lost inthe presentation of published statistics. In addition to the decenial census, data on occupational employment in scientific and technical occupations in local governments was collected for October 1963, as part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics program of occupational employment statistics. These statistics provided measures of employment for engineers, chemists, and several of the science occupations and are the benchmark for employment of these workers in local governments. However, data of this type are needed on a continuing or regular basis, not only for these occupations but others related to administration and planning activities. 11/ Employment and Earnings and Monthly Report of the Labor Force. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 12/ Employment and Earnings Statistics for the U n ite d States 1909-67 (Bulletin 1312-5), and Employment and Earnings Statistics for States and Areas 1939-66 (Bulletin 1370-4). Both are published by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 13/ Em ploym ent in 1967 and City Public Employment in 1967, Census G E Series, Numbers 3 and 4, Annual, U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of the Census. 14/ Census of Governments 1962 - Compendium of Public Employment, Vol. Ill, U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of the Census. 15/ U.S. Census of Population 1960, Occupation by Industry, 1963. Final Report PC(2)7C, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 16/ Occupational Employment Statistics 1960-66, Bulletin 1579, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. A P P E N D IX D. A B S T R A C T The primary objectives of this pilot study were to (1) identify occupations that entail planning and administrative functions within local governments; (2) to identify problems urban governments are having in meeting current skill requirements in such occupations and to indicate actions taken or contemplated to resolve those problems; and (3) to identify areas where further research is needed. The report is based primarily on information drawn from interviews with local officials in five cities of varied size, characteristics, and geographic location. Several hundred professional, administrative, and technical (PAT) job titles were identified. These titles were condensed into 40 occupational groups, ranging from chief executives to technician level planning aids. A large proportion were high level jobs, typically filled by promotion from within. Occupational shortages were identified mainly at entry levels. The most prominent shortage occupations were city planner, administrative specialist, and planning aid and assistant. City approaches to alleviating manpower shortages included increasing salary levels and instituting tuition rebate and other educational aid programs, substituting personnel of a lower grade or related specialty, and using technician level aids and assistants to support high level planning and administrative personnel. Efforts also were being made to expand and intensify recruiting campaigns. Long-range manpower planning is not common in the cities studied, but local officials interviewed expected growth in programs that require PAT personnel. The most important research needs identified in the report are: (1) Development of wide scale occupational employment surveys; (2) development of projections of future manpower requirements; (3) occupational mobility studies; (4) job opportunity studies; and (5) studies of education and training requirements in planning, administrative, and related occupations. * U.S. GOVERNM ENT P R IN T IN G OFFICE : 1969 0 - 3 5 6 - 1 7 4 U.S. D E P A R T M E N T O F LABOR B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S W A S H IN G T O N , D .C . 20212 P O S T A G E AND F E E S P A ID U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R j ^ T H IR D C L A S S M A IL j