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Perspectives on Working Women:
A Databook
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
October 1980

•AUTHWEar Missouri STATE
W

v^VERSITY LIBRARY

Bulletin 2080




g£C 1 21960

Perspectives on Working Women:
A Databook
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
October 1980
Bulletin 2080




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402




Foreword




Today, more than at any time in this
century, women are firmly established
members of our Nation’s work force.
Many of their concerns are the same
as those faced by working men, such
as equitable wages, occupational
choice, adequate retirement benefits,
and the maintenance of a safe and
healthy workplace. Nevertheless, the
world of work remains inhospitable for
large groups of women, including those
who have children that they must raise
and support on their own, and others
who are held back by bias against
women.
During the 1970’s, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics continued to be a
primary source of information on the
phenomenal upsurge in women’s labor
market participation. The Bureau
published many new reports and intro­
duced several new data series that
improved the country’s ability to under­
stand and measure the dramatic
changes. The new information is

included in this databook, along with
other subjects ranging from historical
labor force and earnings trends to job
safety. As the 1980’s progress, we shall
continue to concentrate our efforts on
monitoring trends and developments
and producing statistics on women
which are timely and informative.

Janet L. Norwood
Commissioner of Labor Statistics




Preface




This databook presents a wide array
of information on the characteristics of
working women in the United States
and their changing socioeconomic
status, especially during the 1970’s. An
earlier version entitled U.S. Working
Women: A Databook was published by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1977.
The present databook is a major
expansion of the earlier publication and
contains new and more detailed
statistics on women’s labor force
participation. The great majority of the
data are from the Current Population
Survey, a household sample survey
conducted monthly for the Bureau of
Labor Statistics by the Bureau of the
Census. Most of this information is
published by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics in a series of Special Labor
Force Reports and in the monthly
periodicals Employment and Earnings
and the Monthly Labor Review.
Part I provides information on the
extraordinary increase in the labor
force participation of women between
1950 and 1979, with special emphasis
on trends during the 1970’s and some
data from the first half of 1980. Part II
looks at the strength of women’s
attachment to the labor force by
showing the number of weeks they
worked or looked for work during an
entire year. Part III focuses on working
women’s marital, family, and child
status, and Part IV reviews changes in
women’s school enrollment and
education. Part V examines the
earnings and incomes of women and
families. Part VI looks at data by race
and Hispanic origin, and Part VII has
additional information including data on
such subjects as job tenure and
moonlighting. Part VIII concludes with a
glimpse of labor force and employment
patterns at the outset of the 1980’s.
Unless otherwise indicated, all data
refer to the civilian noninstitutional

v

population 16 years and over. Because
of rounding, sums of individual items in
the tables may not equal totals.
Sampling variability may be relatively
large in cases where numbers are
small. Small differences between
estimates or percentages should be
interpreted with caution.
This databook was prepared in the
Division of Labor Force Studies, Office
of Current Employment Analysis. It was
prepared by Howard Hayghe and
Beverly L. Johnson under the general
direction of Elizabeth Waldman. Loretta
Profater, Barbara Nussear and Annie
Wilder provided valuable support.
Unless specifically identified as
copyright, material in this publication is
in the public domain and may, with
appropriate credit, be reproduced
without permission.




Contents
Part 1.
Labor Force,
Employment,and
Unemployment

Charts:

Page

1. Labor force participation rates of women and men,
annual averages, 1950-80 .................................................................

2

2. Unemployment rates of women and men, annual averages,
1950-80 ...............................................................................................

2

Tables:
1. Women in the labor force, annual averages, selected years,
1950-79, and January-June 1980 .......................................................
2. Labor force participation rates of women and men, annual
averages, 1950-79,and January-June 1980 ........................................

4

4. Labor force participation rates of women by age, annual
averages, selected years, 1950-79,and January-June 1980 ...............

4

5. Labor force participation rates of women 20 years and over by
year of birth and age, annual averages, selected years, 1955-79 . . .

5

6. Employed and unemployed women, annual averages,
1950-79,and January-June 1980 .........................................................

6

7. Unemployment rates of women and men, annual averages,
1950-79,and January-June 1980 .........................................................

7

8. Unemployment rates of women and men by age, annual
averages, 1970 and 1979 ....................................................................

8

9. Unemployed women and men by reason for unemployment,
annual averages, 1970 and 1979 .......................................................

8

10. Occupational distribution of employed women, annual
averages, selected years, 1950-79 .....................................................

9

11. Employment of women in selected occupations, 1950,. 1960,
1970, and 1979 ..................................................................................

10

12. Women employees on nonagricultural payrolls, selected
industries, October, 1970 and 1979 .....................................................

12

13. Self-employed women in nonagricultural industries by age,
annual averages, 1970 and 1979 .......................................................

13

14. Women and men not in the labor force by desire for job and
reason for nonparticipation, annual averages, 1970 and 1979 ..........

13

15. Women not in the labor force by age, annual averages,
selected years, 1950-79 ......................................................................




3

3. Women in the labor force by age, annual averages, selected
years, 1950-79,and January-June 1980..............................................

Part il.
Extent of
Work Experience

3

14

Tables:
16. Work experience of women and men, 1960,1970, and 1978 ............

16

17. Work experience of women and men by age, 1970 and 1978 ..........

17

VII

18.

Women with unemployment in 1978 by number
of weeks unemployed........................................

Page
19

19. Percent of women employed year round full time in each
occupation, 1960, 1970, and 1978...........................................................
20. Women by work experience and reason for less than fullyear work, 1960,1970, and 1978 .............................................................

Part III.
Marital and
Family Status

19

20

Tables:

22. Labor force participation rates of women by age and
marital status, March 1979 ........................................................................

23

24

24. Work experience of married women, husband present, and
never-married women, 1960,1970, and 1978 ..........................................

25

25. Birth rates and fertility rates by race, selected years, 1920-79 .................

26

26. Labor force participation rates of married women, husband
present, by presence and age of own children, 1950-79 .........................

27

27. Women by marital and labor force status and presence and
age of own children, March 1979 .............................................................

28

28. Employed women by full- or part-time status, marital status,
and presence and age of own children, March 1979 ................................

29

29. Families by type, selected years, 1940-79 .................................................

30

30. Number of own children by age of children, type of family, and
labor force status of mother, March, 1970,1975, and 1979 .....................

31

31. Number of own children by age of children, type of family,
and employment status of parents, March 1979 ......................................

32

32. Women maintaining families by age and marital status,
March, 1960,1970, and 1979 ....................................................................

33

33. Labor force participation rates and unemployment rates of
women maintaining families by age, March, 1970 and 1979 ...................

34

34. Labor force status of women and men maintaining families by
presence and age of children under 18, March, 1970, and 1979...............

34

35. Labor force status of women maintaining families by marital
status and presence of children, March 1979 ..........................................

35

36. Occupations of employed women maintaining families by
marital status, March 1979 ........................................................................




22

23. Occupations of employed women by marital status, March,
1970 and 1979 ...........................................................................................

Part IV.
School Enrollment
and Education

21. Women by labor force and marital status, selected years, 1950-79 ........

36

Tables:
37. School enrollment status of women and men 16 to 24 years old
in the labor force, selected years, October, 1960-79 ................................

38

38. School enrollment status of women and men 16 to 34 years old
in the labor force by age, October, 1970 and 1979....................................

39

39. Percent of recent high school graduates enrolled in college by
sex, selected years, October, 1960-79 .....................................................

39

viii

40. Employment status of women and men 16 to 34 years old
Page
enrolled in school by age and type of school, October 1979 .....................
40
41. Employment status of women and men 16 to 24 years old, not
enrolled in college, who were high school graduates or school
dropouts in 1979, October 1979 ...............................................................
42. Employment status of women and men 16 to 24 years old, not
enrolled in school, by years of school completed, October 1979 ............

43

44. Labor force and marital status of women by years of school
completed, March 1979 ............................................................................

44

45. Occupational distribution of employed women by years of
school completed, March 1979 ...............................................................

45

46. Women and men 25 years and over in the labor force by
age and years of school completed, March 1979 ....................................

46

47. Percent of workers 25 years old and over with 12 years of education
or more by sex and occupation group, March, 1970 and 1979 .................




42

43. Educational attainment of women and men in the labor
force, March, 1965-79 ..............................................................................

Part V.
Earnings and Income

41

47

Tables:
48. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers by sex, May, 1967-78 and second quarter, 1979-80 ...................
49. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers by sex and occupation, annual averages, 1979 .........................

49

50. Distribution of full-time wage and salary workers by usual weekly
earnings and selected characteristics, annual averages, 1979 ..............

50

51. Distribution of families by usual weekly wage and salary earnings,
type of family, and number of earners, annual averages, 1979.................

51

52. Median annual earnings of year-round full-time workers 14
years and over by sex, 1955-78.................................................................

52

53. Median annual earnings of women 14 years and over by
weeks worked, 1978 ................................................................................

52

54. Sources of income of women 14 years and over, 1978 ...........................

53

55. Married-couple families by number of earners and size of family,
March 1979, and median family income in 1978 ......................................

53

56. Married-couple families by number of earners in previous year
and presence and number of own children under 18,
March 1979 ...............................................................................................

54

57. Families maintained by women and men by number of earners
and size of family, March 1979, and median family income
in 1978........................................................................................................

55

58. Families maintained by women and men by number of earners
in previous year and presence and number of own children
under 18, March 1979 ..............................................................................

56

59. Earnings of married women, husband present, as percent of
family income in 1978, by selected characteristics of marriedcouple families, March 1979......................................................................
ix

49

57

60. Earnings of women maintaining families as percent of family
income in 1978 by selected characteristics, March 1979 .......................
61. Women who work full time year round by median earnings in
1978, marital status, and educational attainment, March 1979 ..............

59

63. Women 16 years old and over by poverty status, 1966-78 .......................

59

64. Poverty status in 1978 of women and men by age and years
of school completed, March 1979.............................................................




58

62. Median annual earnings of year-round full-time workers in 1978
by occupation of longest job, March 1979 .................................................

Part VI.
Race and
Hispanic Origin

57

60

Tables:
65. Labor force status of women and men by race, annual
averages, 1955-79 .....................................................................................
66. Labor force status of persons of Hispanic origin by sex,
annual averages, 1973-79 ........................................................................

64

67. Women and men in the population and labor force by age,
race, and Hispanic origin, annual averages, 1979 ....................................

65

68. Employment status of white, black, and Hispanic persons by
sex and marital status, March 1979 .........................................................

66

69. Labor force status of women by race, Hispanic origin, marital
status, and presence and age of children under 18, March 1979 ............

68

70. Employment status of women and men of Hispanic origin,
March, 1975 and 1979 ..............................................................................

70

71. Labor force status of women and men by educational attainment,
race, and Hispanic origin, March 1979 .....................................................

71

72. Labor force participation rates and unemployment rates of women
and men by educational attainment, race, and Hispanic
origin, March 1979 .....................................................................................

72

73. Work experience of women and men by race and Hispanic origin, 1978

73

74. Occupational distribution of employed white, black, and Hispanic
women and men, March, 1970 and 1979 ................................................

74

75. Median annual earnings of women and men who worked year round,
full time, by race and Hispanic origin, 1978 ..............................................

75

76. Median annual earnings of year-round full-time workers 14 years
and over by sex, race, and Hispanic origin, 1975-78 ...............................

75

77. Earnings of married women, husband present, as percent of
family income in 1978 by selected characteristics of married-couple
familes, race,and Hispanic origin, March 1979 ........................................

76

78. Number of women and men 16 years and over below poverty level
and poverty rate by age, race, and Hispanic origin, 1975-78 ...................

77

79. White, black, and Hispanic families by type, March, 1975-79 ...................

78

80. Labor force status of women and men maintaining families by
race and Hispanic origin, and presence and age of children under 18,
March, 1975 and 1979 ............................................................................
x

62

79

81. Labor force status of women maintaining families by race and
Hispanic origin, marital status, and presence and age of children
under 18, March 1979
82. Families by type and race, March 1979, and median family
income in 1978 .........................................................................................

82

83. Number of own children by age of children, race and Hispanic
origin, type of family, and labor force status of mother, March 1979,
and median family income in 1978

Part VII.
Additional
Characteristics

80

83

Tables:

87

86. Shift worked by nonfarm wage and salary workers who usually work
full time by sex and marital status, May 1979

88

87. Absence rates for full-time nonfarm wage and salary workers by sex
and age, May 1978....................................................................................

89

88. Overtime workers by usual hours, premium pay, sex, and marital
status, May 1979 .......................................................................................

90

89. Number and percent of full-time wage and salary workers who
worked long weeks and received premium pay by selected
characteristics, May 1979 ........................................................................

91

90. Length of time on current job by sex, January 1978 ..................................

92

91. Occupational mobility of employed persons between January 1977
and January 1978 by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, January 1978

93

92. Multiple jobholding rates of employed women and men and main
reason for working at more than one job, May 1979 ...............................

94

93. Membership of women in national unions and employee associations,
selected years, 1960-78 ............................................................................

94

94. Employment status of women by State, annual averages, 1978 ...............

95

95. Occupational distribution of employed women by State, annual
averages, 1978 .........................................................................................

96

96. Percent of employment and occupational injuries and illnesses
among women workers by selected occupations, 1977 ...........................

98

97. Percent of employment and occupational injuries and illnesses
among women workers, selected States, 1977




87

85. Days usually worked by nonfarm wage and salary workers by sex
and full- or part-time status, May 1979.......................................................

Part VIII.
The 1980’s

84. Average hours worked by nonfarm wage and salary workers by sex
and occupation, May 1979 ........................................................................

99

Tables:
98. Summary indicators on working women by selected characteristics,
January-June 1980.....................................................................................

101

99. Family status of women by selected characteristics, January-June 1980

102

100.

XI

Employed women by occupation, race, and Hispanic origin,
6-month average, January-June 1980 .......................................................

102







Labor Force, Employment, and Unemployment
The extraordinary increase in
women’s labor force activity that
characterized the 1970’s continued
unabated through practically all of
1979. Nearly 12 million more women
were in the labor force in 1979 than in
1970; these women accounted for
about 60 percent of the gain in the
labor force. Areas of considerable
change in the 1970’s which are bound
to affect women’s labor force
participation in the 1980’s include:
• Age. Women 25 to 34 years old
accounted for nearly half the increase
in the number of female workers during
the 1970’s. A remarkable 64 percent of
all women 25 to 34 were working or
looking for work in 1979, and the first
half of 1980, including 54 percent of
the mothers in this age group who had
to juggle the responsibilities of home
and child care with those of a job. The
pattern of a more continuous work
history for women in these ages may
widen their career and advancement
opportunities in the 1980’s.
• Changing job mix. Although the
majority (55 percent) of employed
women began the 1980’s in traditional
clerical and service occupations, a
substantial number had made inroads
into professional-technical jobs with
higher status and earnings, e.g.,
doctors, lawyers and accountants. In
1970, 60 percent of all female profes­
sional-technical workers were in the
more traditional areas of nursing and
pre-college teaching; by 1979, this
proportion had dropped to about 52
percent.
• Unemployment. About 2.9 million
women were unemployed in 1979, an
increase of around a million since
1970. The unemployment rate for
women, which had climbed from 5.9
percent in 1970 to a record high 9.3
percent at mid-decade, had dropped to
6.8 percent in 1979. As in past
decades, unemployment rates generally

remained higher for women than men,
with the gap widening when business
was buoyant and declining during
sluggish periods, such as the first half
of 1980.
• Women not in the labor force.
Women constitute about 7 of 10
persons outside the work force. For the
most part, these women state that they
do not want a job, reporting household
responsibilities as the main reason they
neither work nor look for work. How­
ever, as greater proportions of younger
women enter the labor market, the
women who do not work for pay
outside their homes are increasingly
older; in 1979, the median age of
women not in the labor force was
about 51 years, compared with a little
more than 45 years at the beginning of
the 1970’s.

100 -

Chart 1.
Labor force
participation rates of
women and men,
annual averages,
1950-80

60-

Percent of

20-

0I__________I__________I__________I__________I__________I__________I
1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1
January-June 1980

10-

Chart 2.
Unemployment rates of
women and men,
annual averages,
1950-80




2 -

0l _________ I_________ I_________ I_________ I_________ I_________ I
1950

1955

'January-June 1980

2

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

Table 1.
Women in the labor
force, annual averages,
selected years,
1950-79, and JanuaryJune 1980

(Numbers in thousands)
Labor force
Women

Year
Total, both sexes
Number

Percent of total

1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1979




18,389
20,548
23,240
26,200
31,520
36,998
43,391

29.6
31.6
33.4
35.2
38.1
39.9
42.1

January-June 1980

Table 2.
Labor force
participation rates of
women and men,
annual averages,
1950-79, and JanuaryJune 1980

62,208
65,023
69,628
74,455
82,715
92,613
102,908
103,884

44,126

42.5

Year

Participation rate
(Percent of population in labor force)
Women

Men

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

33.9
34.6
34.7
34.4
34.6
35.7
36.9
36.9
37.1
37.1

86.4
86.5
86.3
86.0
85.5
85.3
85.5
84.8
84.2
83.7

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

37.7
38.1
37.9
38.3
38.7
39.3
40.3
41.1
41.6
42.7

83.3
82.9
82.0
81.4
81.0
80.7
80.4
80.4
80.1
79.8

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

43.3
43.3
43.9
44.7
45.6
46.3
47.3
48.4
50.0
51.0

79.7
79.1
79.0
78.8
78.7
77.9
77.5
77.7
77.9
77.9

January-June 1980

51.2

77.2

3

Table 3.
Women in the labor
force by age, annual
averages, selected
years,
1950-79, and JanuaryJune 1980

1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1979

JanuaryJune
1980

18,389
100.0

20,548
100.0

23,240
100.0

26,200
100.0

31,520
100.0

36,998
100.0

43,391
100.0

44,126
100.0

and 17
and 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
and over

3.3
6.0
14.5
-22.3
22.6
18.1
10.0
3.2

3.1
5.3
11.9
20.7
23.4
20.2
11.6
3.8

3.5
5.4
11.1
17.8
22.8
22.7
12.8
3.9

3.6
6.0
12.8
16.5
21.8
21.8
13.7
3.7

4.2
6.1
15.5
18.1
18.9
20.7
13.2
3.4

4.5
6.5
16.4
22.9
17.5
18.0
11.5
2.8

4.3
6.1
16.2
25.7
18.7
15.8
10.6
2.6

3.8
5.7
15.7
26.6
19.4
15.8
10.4
2.6

Median age

36.7

38.9

40.4

40.1

37.8

34.9

34.1

34.3

Age

Total: Number (in thousands)
Percent
16
18
20
25
35
45
55
65

Table 4.
Labor force
participation rates of
women by age, annual
averages, selected
years,
1950-79, and JanuaryJune 1980




Participation rate
(Percent of population in labor force)
Age
1950

1960

1970

1979

JanuaryJune
1980

Total, 16 years and over

33.9

37.7

43.3

51.0

51.2

16
18
20
25
35
45
55
65

30.1
51.3
46.0
34.0
39.1
37.9
27.0
9.0

29.1
50.9
46.1
36.0
43.4
49.8
37.2
10.8

34.9
53.6
57.7
45.0
51.1
54.4
43.0
9.7

45.8
62.9
69.1
63.8
63.6
58.4
41.9
8.3

41.6
60.5
67.7
65.4
65.5
59.6
41.7
8.3

4

and 17
and 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
and over

Table 5.
Labor force
participation rates of
women 20 years and
over by year of birth
and age, annual
averages, selected
years,
1955-79
1965

1960

1955
Year of birth
Age
1956-60
1951-55
1946-50
1941-45
1936-40
1931-35
1926-30
1921-25
1916-20
1911-15
1906-10
1901-05
1896-1901
1895 or before

Rate

20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and over

46.0
35.3
34.7
39.2
44.1
45.9
41.5
35.6
29.0
17.8
6.4

Age

Rate

20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and over

46.2
35.7
36.3
40.8
46.8
50.7
48.8
42.2
31.4
17.6
6.8

Age

Rate

20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and over

50.0
38.9
38.2
43.6
48.5
51.7
50.1
47.1
34.0
17.4
6.1

1979

1975

1970
Year of birth
Age
1956-60
1951-55
1946-50
1941-45
1936-40
1931-35
1926-30
1921-25
1916-20
1911-15
1906-10
1901-05
1896-1901
1895 or before




20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and over

5

Rate

57.8
45.2
44.7
49.2
52.9
55.0
53.8
49.0
36.1
17.3
5.7

Age

Rate

20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and over

64.1
57.0
51.7
54.9
56.8
55.9
53.3
47.9
33.3
14.5
4.8

Age

Rate

20-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and over

69.1
65.7
61.8
63.4
63.9
60.4
56.5
48.7
33.9
15.3
4.7

Table 6.
Employed and
unemployed women,
annual averages,
1950-79, and JanuaryJune 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
Employed

Unemployed

Women
Year

<

Total,
both
sexes

Number

Percent
of total
employed

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

58,918
59,961
60,250
61,179
60,109
62,170
63,799
64,071
63,036
64,630

17,340
18,181
18,568
18,749
18,490
19,551
20,419
20,714
20,613
21,164

29.4
30.3
30.8
30.6
30.8
31.4
32.0
32.3
32.7
32.7

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

65,778
65,746
66,702
67,762
69,305
71,088
72,895
74,372
75,920
77,902

21,874
22,090
22,525
23,105
23,831
24,748
25,976
26,892
27,807
29,084

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

78,627
79,120
81,702
84,409
85,936
84,783
87,485
90,546
94,373
96,945

January-June 1980

96,668




Total,
both
sexes

—

Women
' —1
—
—
Percent
of total
unemployed

3,288
2,055
1,883
1,834
3,532
2,852
2,750
2,859
4,602
3,740

1,049
834
698
632
1,188
998
1,039
1,018
1,504
1,320

31.9
40.6
37.1
34.5
33.6
35.0
37.8
35.6
32.7
35.3

33.3
33.6
33.8
34.1
34.4
34.8
35.6
36.2
36.6
37.3

3,852
4,714
3,911
4,070
3,786
3,366
2,875
2,975
2,817
2,831

1,366
1,717
1,488
1,598
1,581
1,452
1,324
1,468
1,397
1,428

35.5
36.4
38.0
39.3
41.8
43.1
46.1
49.3
49.6
50.4

29,667
29,875
31,072
32,446
33,417
33,553
35,095
36,685
38,882
40,446

37.7
37.8
38.0
38.4
38.9
39.6
40.1
40.5
41.2
41.7

4,088
4,993
4,840
4,304
5,076
7,830
7,288
6,855
6,047
5,963

1,853
2,217
2,205
2,064
2,408
3,445
3,320
3,267
2,996
2,945

45.3
44.4
45.6
48.0
47.4
44.0
45.6
47.7
49.5
49.4

40,990

6

Number

42.4

7,216

3,136

43.5

Table 7.
Unemployment rates of
women and men,
annual averages,
1950-79, and JanuaryJune 1980




Year

Unemployment rate
(Percent of labor force
unemployed)

Ratio of women’s
unemployment
rates to men’s

Both sexes

Women

Men

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

5.3
3.3
3.0
2.9
5.5
4.4
4.1
4.3
6.8
5.5

5.7
4.4
3.6
3.3
6.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
6.8
5.9

5.1
2.8
2.8
2.8
5.3
4.2
3.8
4.1
6.8
5.3

1.1
1.6
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.1
1.0
1.1

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

5.5
6.7
5.5
5.7
5.2
4.5
3.8
3.8
3.6
3.5

5.9
7.2
6.2
6.5
6.2
5.5
4.8
5.2
4.8
4.7

5.4
6.4
5.2
5.2
4.6
4.0
3.2
3.1
2.9
2.8

1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.7
1.7

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

4.9
5.9
5.6
4.9
5.6
8.5
7.7
7.0
6.0
5.8

5.9
6.9
6.6
6.0
6.7
9.3
8.6
8.2
7.2
6.8

4.4
5.3
4.9
4.1
4.8
7.9
7.0
6.2
5.2
5.1

1.3
1.3
1.3
1.5
1.4
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.3

January-June 1980

6.9

7.1

6.8

1.0

7

Table 8.
Unemployment rates of
women and men by
age, annual averages,
1970 and 1979

Table 9.
Unemployed women
and men by reason for
unemployment,
annual averages,
1970 and 1979




Women

Men

Age
1970
16
18
20
25
35
45
55
65

1970

1979

17.4
14.4
7.9
5.7
4.4
3.5
2.7
3.1

and 17
and 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
and over

1979
18.3
15.0
9.6
6.4
4.6
3.9
3.2
3.3

16.9
13.4
8.4
3.4
2.4
2.4
2.8
3.3

17.9
14.2
8.6
4.2
2.9
2.7
2.7
2.8

Women

Men

Reason
1970
Total: Number (in thousands)
Percent
Lost last job
Left last job
Reentered labor force
Looking for first job

8

1979

1970

1979

1,853
100.0

2,945
100.0

2,235
100.0

3,018
100.0

33.0
14.4
37.5
15.0

32.0
15.0
37.6
15.4

53.0
12.6
23.8
10.0

53.4
13.7
21.6
11.4

Table 10.
Occupational
distribution of
employed women,
annual averages,
selected years,
1950-79




Occupation

Total: Number (in thousands)
Percent
Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative,
except farm
Sales
Clerical
Craft
Operatives, including
transport
Nonfarm laborers
Service, except private
household
Private household
Farm
'Data include 14- and 15-year olds.

9

19501

1960

1970

1979

17,340 21,874 29,667 40,446
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Women as
percent of all
workers in
occupation,
1979
41.7
—

12.5

12.4

14.5

16.1

43.3

4.4
8.7
27.8
1.5

5.0
7.7
30.3
1.0

4.5
7.0
34.5
1.1

6.4
6.9
35.0
1.8

24.6
45.1
80.3
5.7

19.6
0.8

15.2
0.4

14.5
0.5

11.5
1.3

32.0
11.3

12.4
8.7
3.6

14.8
8.9
4.4

16.5
5.1
1.8

17.2
2.6
1.2

59.1
97.6
18.0

Table 11.
Employment of women
in selected
occupations,
1950,1960,1970, and
1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Number

Women as percent of all

_________________________________

Occupation

workers inoccupation

1950

1960

1970

1979

1950

1960

1970

1979

1,946
56
6
7
12
394

2,746
77
8
7
16
567

4,576
180
20
13
25
814

6,519
344
40
62
46
1,184

40.1
14.9
1.2
4.1
6.5
97.8

38.0
16.4
0.9
3.3
6.8
97.6

40.0
25.3
1.6
4.7
8.9
97.4

43.3
32.9
2.9
12.4
10.7
96.8

837
28
21
50

1,196
36
44
82

1,937
139
49
229

2,207
172
199
470

74.5
22.8
20.6
40.3

71.6
21.3
12.8
34.2

70.4
28.3
14.5
30.1

70.8
31.6
16.1
37.8

672
13
6
93

780
28
61
141

1,061
55
75
109

2,586
196
136
224

13.8
11.7
9.4
27.1

14.4
12.2
17.7
24.0

16.6
17.6
20.8
33.7

24.6
31.6
30.2
35.4

35

68

51

135

24.6

28.2

24.1

39.8

Sales
Sales representatives (including
wholesale)
Sales clerks, retail

1,314

1,646

2,143

2,779

34.5

36.6

39.4

45.1

37
1,175

70
1,384

76
1,465

162
1,671

5.2
48.9

7.3
53.7

7.2
64.8

12.4
70.7

Clerical
Bank tellers
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Office machine operators
Secretaries-typists
Shipping-receiving clerks

4,273
28
556
187
116
1,494
19

6,263
88
764
367
225
1,917
24

10,150
216
1,274
692
414
3,686
59

14,152
458
1,740
1,298
677
4,681
103

62.3
45.2
77.7
81.7
81.1
94.6
14.3

67.5
69.3
83.4
78.4
73.8
96.7
8.6

73.6
86.1
82.1
84.0
73.5
96.6
14.3

80.3
92.9
91.1
87.9
74.9
98.6
21.3

236
4
21
35
14
14
16
5

252
3
25
35
17
24
8
6

518
11
49
58
32
42
22
10

737
16
49
101
61
94
12
12

3.1
0.4
1.2
11.8
12.2
32.6
19.8
8.3

2.9
0.4
1.1
11.0
15.9
46.2
20.0
10.0

4.9
1.3
2.0
14.8
29.4
58.3
31.4
16.4

5.7
1.3
1.4
22.2
43.6
72.9
34.3
21.4

Professional-technical
Accountants
Engineers
Lawyers-judges
Physicians-osteopaths
Registered nurses
Teachers, except college and
university
Teachers, college and university1
Technicians, excluding medical-dental
Writers-artists-entertainers
Managerial-administrative, except farm
Bank officials-financial managers
Buyers-purchasing agents
Food service workers
Sales managers-department heads;
retail trade

Craft
Carpenters
Mechanics, including automotive
Printing
Bakers
Decorators and window dressers
Tailors
Upholsterers
See footnote at end of table.




10

Table 11. Continued
(Numbers in thousands)

Women as percent of all
Number
workers In occupation
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

^
Occupation

1950

’ Includes college and university presidents
in 1950.




1950

1960

1970

1979

3,252
267
N.A.
N.A.
116
273
532

4,036
459
16
137
92
105
816

4,353
688
17
89
104
122
772

33.5
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
97.1
67.7
N.A.

34.3
43.7
N.A.
N.A.
96.7
71.3
94.0

38.4
48.7
34.0
74.9
94.8
62.9
93.8

39.9
53.4
37.8
76.7
95.4
65.9
95.3

41
18

134
68

294
163

1.0
2.6

1.7
9.8

4.5
28.5

8.1
45.5

3,228
1,321
839
249
221
11

Service
Private household
Food service
Health service
Personal service
Protective service

1979

22
4

Transport equipment operatives
Bus drivers

1970

2,995
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
135
288
N.A.

Operatives, except transport
Assemblers
Bottling and canning operatives
Clothing ironers and pressers
Dressmakers
Laundry and dry cleaning operatives
Sewers and stitchers

1960

4,418
1,586
1,379
488
326
28

5,944
1,132
1,913
1,047
778
59

8,011
1,062
2,943
1,643
1,369
124

57.3
94.9
61.6
74.6
49.7
2.0

62.8
96.6
70.0
81.5
57.9
4.1

60.5
96.9
68.8
88.0
66.5
6.2

62.4
97.6
68.4
90.4
77.3
8.8

N.A. = not available,

11

Table 12.
Women employees on
nonagricultural payrolls,
selected industries,
October, 1970 and 1979
Number of women
(thousands)

Industry

Women as percent
of total employed

1970

1979

1970

1979

Total nonagricultural industries

26,370

37,629

37.2

41.5

Private
Mining
Construction
Manufacturing
Durable goods
Nondurable goods
Food and kindred products
Apparel and other textile products
Transportation and public utilities
Communications
Telephone communications
Radio and television broadcasting
Trucking and warehousing
School buses
Wholesale and retail trade
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
Food stores
Eating and drinking places

20,866
37
189
5,392
2,209
3,183
496
1,095
962
560
514
32
98
N.A.
6,062
937
5,125
618
1,462

30,143
94
388
6,576
3,137
3,439
536
1,068
1,260
619
540
61
160
38
8,798
1,339
7,459
970
2,932

35.9
5.9
5.0
28.7
20.7
39.0
26.9
80.9
21.2
49.2
54.2
22.7
8.9
N.A.
40.1
23.3
46.1
35.4
55.8

40.2
9.6
7.8
31.2
24.6
41.2
30.3
81.1
24.0
46.9
51.2
31.1
11.4
46.3
43.3
25.6
49.5
42.0
56.8

1,921
666
551
234
6,303
643
615
458
357
2,521
1,709
5,504
700
1,149
N.A.
471
678
3,656
N.A.
2,586
1,070

2,932
1,058
739
343
10,094
608
1,267
576
551
4,163
2,929
7,486
871
1,610
335
703
572
5,005
425
3,383
1,197

52.5
63.5
53.1
35.0
54.2
65.7
36.2
46.9
50.3
81.0
41.1
43.2
26.3
41.8
N.A.
39.8
43.3
49.9
N.A.
61.9
34.0

58.5
70.7
60.5
36.0
58.4
67.9
43.2
51.1
55.0
81.5
47.1
47.5
31.6
45.5
60.2
47.6
38.0
52.9
79.7
64.2
32.6

Finance insurance and real estate
Banking
Insurance carriers
Real estate
Services
Personal services
Business services
Educational services
Flotels, motels, and tourist courts
Health services
Other services
Government
Federal
State
State hospitals
State education
Other State government
Local
Local government hospitals
Local education
Other local government
N.A. = not available.




12

Table 13.
Self-employed women
in nonagricultural
industries by age,
annual averages,
1970 and 1979

(Numbers in thousands)

1970
Number
of
women

Item

Total employed women

29,067

Self-employed as percent
of total employed

4.4

Total self-employed
16
20
25
35
45
55
65

to 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
years and over

Median age (years)

Table 14.
Women and men not in
the labor force by
desire for job and
reason for
nonparticipation, annual
averages,
1970 and 1979




1979
Number
of
women

Percent
distri­
bution

39,793

Percent
distri­
bution

—

—

4.9

—

—

1,288

100.0

1,939

100.0

22
69
215
248
322
273
138

1.7
5.4
16.7
19.3
25.0
21.2
10.7

34
103
484
452
415
299
152

1.8
5.3
25.0
23.3
21.4
15.4
7.8

47.8

—

42.7

—

1979

1970
Item
Women

Men

Women

Men

Total not in labor force (thousands)

41,210

13,065

41,692

16,931

Do not want a job now (thousands)
Percent

38,535
100.0

11,863
100.0

38,079
100.0

15,248
100.0

4.7
82.9
7.8
1.8
2.7

17.2
1.7
25.8
44.0
11.3

5.5
75.4
7.8
6.4
4.9

16.1
1.9
19.5
49.0
13.5

2,675
100.0

1,200
100.0

3,613
100.0

1,682
100.0

10.5
33.9
19.1
15.6
20.9

17.3

11.4
34.3
19.7
13.1
21.6

19.7

III or disabled
Home responsibilities
Going to school
Retired
Other reasons
Want a job now (thousands)
Percent
III or disabled
Home responsibilities
Going to school
Think cannot find job
Other reasons

13

—

46.9
18.4
17.3

—

42.6
16.6
21.0

Table 15.
Women not in the labor
force by age, annual
averages, selected
years,
1950-79




(Numbers in thousands)

Year
Age
1950
Total, 16 years and over:
Number (in thousands)
Percent
16 to 24
16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 and over
Median age (years)

14

1960

1970

1979

35,881
100.0

38,343
100.0

41,214
100.0

41,692
100.0

15.6
6.9
8.7
22.2
18.1
15.2
13.8
15.1

16.2
8.3
7.9
19.2
18.0
13.9
13.2
19.6

18.7
10.0
8.7
16.9
13.9
13.3
13.3
23.9

16.5
9.0
7.5
15.2
11.2
11.7
15.2
30.2

41.7

43.1

45.4

51.1

Part II




Extent of Work Experience
Today’s working women are not
casual labor market participants.
Considering the fact that the majority
have household and child care
responsibilities, their job continuity
during a year — or work experience —
is impressive. About 2 out of 3 working
women were employed at least 40
weeks in 1978, and the majority of
these women worked full time, or 35
hours or more per week.
Of the nearly 8.2 million women who
experienced unemployment during
1978, about 27 percent found jobs after
a month or less. Only 6 percent
remained jobless the entire year.

15

Table 16.
Work experience of
women and men,
1960, 1970, and 1978
Men

Women
Work experience
I9601

1970

1978

I9601

1970

1978

65,176
100.0

73,657
100.0

84,686
100.0

59,208
100.0

65,296
100.0

76,070
100.0

46.9
53.1

52.5
47.5

57.1
42.9

84.5
15.5

84.1
15.9

81.4
18.6

30,585
100.0

38,704
100.0

48,373
100.0

50,033
100.0

54,919
100.0

61,917
100.0

Worked at full-time jobs2
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

67.6
44.6
36.9
6.9
16.0

67.8
47.3
40.7
6.2
14.3

67.8
50.2
43.7
5.7
12.0

86.9
73.5
63.9
5.6
7.7

87.6
74.0
66.1
5.2
8.4

87.9
74.0
66.3
5.0
9.0

Worked at part-time jobs3
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

32.4
13.2
10.0
3.4
15.8

32.1
13.5
10.0
4.0
14.6

32.2
14.9
10.9
4.5
12.7

13.1
5.7
4.5
1.3
6.1

12.4
5.6
4.4
1.4
5.3

12.1
5.5
4.0
1.5
5.1

Total: Number (in thousands)
Percent
Worked during the year
Did not work during the year
Worked during the year: Number
Percent

'Data include 14- and 15-year olds.
2Usually worked 35 hours or more a week
in a majority of weeks worked.




3Usually worked less than 35 hours a week
in a majority of weeks worked,

16

Table 17.
Work experience of
women and men by
age,
1970 and 1978
1970
Sex and work experience

Total, 16
years and
over

16 to
24
years

25 to
34
years

35 to
44
years

45 to
54
years

55 years
and over

73,657
100.0

16,242
100.0

12,894
100.0

11,583
100.0

12,080
100.0

20,858
100.00

52.5
47.5

66.0
34.0

56.5
43.5

58.5
41.5

60.4
39.6

31.7
68.3

38,704
100.0

10,723
100.0

7,289
100.0

6,772
100.0

7,302
100.0

6,619
100.0

Worked at full-time jobs1
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

67.8
47.3
40.7
6.2
14.3

61.3
29.4
23.8
7.5
24.4

71.4
48.0
40.1
7.7
15.8

69.4
53.3
46.0
5.7
10.4

74.2
61.3
54.4
4.9
8.3

66.0
53.7
47.9
4.5
7.8

Worked at part-time jobs2
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

32.1
13.5
10.0
4.0
14.6

38.6
11.2
7.5
4.8
22.6

28.6
10.2
7.6
4.0
14.4

30.6
15.4
11.6
4.2
11.2

25.8
13.7
11.0
3.3
8.7

34.1
18.6
13.9
3.4
12.1

WOMEN
Total: Number (in thousands)
Percent
Worked during the year
Did not work during the year
Worked during the year: Number
Percent

1978

84,686
100.0

18,377
100.0

17,334
100.0

12,671
100.0

11,790
100.0

24,514
100.0

57.1
42.9

71.8
28.2

70.5
29.5

68.5
31.5

62.9
37.1

27.9
72.1

48,373
100.0

13,210
100.0

12,220
100.0

8,684
100.0

7,420
100.0

6,839
100.0

Worked at full-time jobs1
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

67.8
50.2
43.7
5.7
12.0

59.6
33.5
27.1
7.0
19.1

74.5
55.9
47.9
6.5
12.1

70.4
56.4
49.4
5.0
9.0

72.5
61.2
55.7
4.4
6.8

63.4
52.0
47.7
4.1
7.3

Worked at part-time jobs2
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

32.2
14.9
10.9
4.5
12.7

40.3
13.5
9.4
6.0
20.8

25.5
10.8
7.4
3.7
11.1

29.6
16.0
12.0
4.5
9.2

27.5
16.5
13.1
3.5
7.5

36.6
21.7
16.3
4.6
10.3

Total: Number (in thousands)
Percent
Worked during the year
Did not work during the year
Worked during the year: Number
Percent

See footnotes at end of table.




17

Table 17. Continued
1970
Sex and work experience

Total, 16
years and
over

16 to
24
years

25 to
34
years

35 to
44
years

45 to
54
years

55 years
and over

65,296
100.0

14,662
100.0

11,982
100.0

10,713
100.0

11,113
100.0

16,827
100.00

84.1
15.9

79.9
20.1

97.0
3.0

97.5
2.5

95.6
4.4

62.6
37.4

54,919
100.0

11,702
100.0

11,624
100.0

10,441
100.0

10,621
100.0

10,532
100.0

Worked at full-time jobs1
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

87.6
74.0
66.1
5.2
8.4

63.8
33.7
27.1
6.7
23.4

96.8
86.4
76.1
5.5
5.0

98.1
90.5
83.0
4.4
3.1

97.6
90.1
82.5
4.2
3.1

83.0
72.0
65.1
4.8
6.2

Worked at part-time jobs2
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

12.4
5.6
4.4
1.4
5.3

36.1
14.6
11.3
4.0
17.5

3.2
1.7
1.3
0.5
1.0

1.9
1.0
0.9
0.2
0.6

2.4
1.2
1.0
0.3
0.8

17.0
9.1
7.2
1.8
6.1

MEN
Total: Number (in thousands)
Percent
Worked during the year
Did not work during the year
Worked during the year: Number
Percent

1978

Total: Number (in thousands)
Percent

76,070
100.0

'Usually worked 35 hours or more in a
majority of weeks worked.
2Usually worked less than 35 hours in a
majority of weeks worked.




18

11,017
100.0

19,292
100.0

82.2
17.8

96.2
3.8

96.1
3.9

92.7
7.3

52.7
47.3

14,501
100.0

15,767
100.0

11,274
100.0

10,215
100.0

10,159
100.0

87.9
74.0
66.3
5.0
9.0
12.1
5.5
4.0
1.5
5.1

Worked at full-time jobs1
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks
Worked at part-time jobs2
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

11,734
100.0

61,917
100.0

Worked during the year: Number
Percent

16,391
100.0

81.4
18.6

Worked during the year
Did not work during the year

17,636
100.0

69.6
41.0
32.7
7.1
21.5
30.5
11.7
8.5
3.7
15.1

95.3
84.4
74.9
5.1
5.7
4.7
2.7
1.9
0.7
1.3

97.1
90.2
82.5
3.8
3.1
2.9
1.7
1.1
0.6
0.6

97.1
89.3
83.1
3.9
3.9
2.9
1.6
1.2
0.3
1.0

83.3
71.6
66.0
4.2
7.5
16.7
9.4
6.9
1.8
5.5

Table 18.
Women with
unemployment in 1978
by number of weeks
unemployed

Number
(thousands)

Percent
distribution

Total working or looking for work

49,683

100.0

With no unemployment during year
With unemployment during year

41,517
8,166

83.6
16.4

8,166

100.0

233

2.9

2,219
2,269
1,285
851

27.2
27.8
15.7
10.4

515
352
188
254

6.3
4.3
2.3
3.1

Duration of unemployment

Total unemployed
Year-round workers unemployed
1 or 2 weeks
Part-year workers unemployed:
1 to 4 weeks
5 to 14 weeks
15 to 26 weeks
27 weeks or longer
Did not work but looked for work:
1 to 4 weeks
5 to 14 weeks
15 to 26 weeks
27 weeks or longer

Table 19.
Percent of women
employed year round
full time in each
occupation,
1960, 1970, and 1978




Occupation group

Percent who worked
year round full time
I9601

1970

1978

All occupations

36.9

40.7

43.7

Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative, except farm
Sales
Clerical
Craft
Operatives, including transport
Nonfarm laborers
Service, except private household
Private household
Farm

42.1
62.5
26.3
50.7
57.2
37.6
32.0
30.1
18.6
9.4

54.1
64.8
24.4
48.4
44.5
41.2
33.2
29.5
14.8
13.6

53.6
65.6
25.9
51.1
49.1
44.4
31.1
28.4
11.6
22.4

’ Data include 14- and 15-year olds.

19

Table 20.
Women by work
experience and reason
for less than full-year
work,
1960, 1970, and 1978




Item

I9601

1970

1978

65,186

73,657

84,686

14,344
16,241
34,591
933
33,658

19,611
19,093
34,953
1,049
33,904

26,387
21,986
36,313
1,310
35,003

Worked part year (percent)
III or disabled
Home responsibilities
Going to school
Unemployed2
Other reasons
Retired

100.0
12.5
55.2
17.9
22.3
8.9
N.A.

100.0
8.1
48.6
21.1
15.2
6.9
1.3

100.0
6.2
44.7
21.3
17.7
10.0
1.1

Did not work:
Looked for work (percent)
III or disabled
Home responsibilities
Going to school
Unable to find work
Other reasons

100.0
3.0
19.7
11.5
62.1
3.8

100.0
5.8
33.6
21.1
34.7
4.8

100.0
4.3
36.0
14.7
42.2
2.8

100.0
5.2
80.1
12.0
.1
2.7
N.A.

100.0
10.3
73.8
8.5
.1
7.3
6.2

100.0
11.8
64.3
9.0
.3
14.6
4.8

Total: Number (thousands)
Worked all year (50 to 52 weeks)
Worked part year (1 to 49 weeks)
Did not work at all
Looked for work during year
Did not look for work during year

Did not look for work (percent)
III or disabled
Home responsibilities
Going to school
Think cannot find a job
Other reasons
Retired
'Data include 14- and 15-year olds.
2 total of 6,623,000 women working part
A
year experienced some unemployment
during 1978, of whom 3,899,000 reported

20

unemployment as the major reason for
part-year work.
N.A. = not available.

Part III




Marital and Family Status
Responding to both the economy’s
demand for additional workers and the
sweeping social and demographic
changes over the past several
decades, the number of wives in the
labor force has more than tripled. By
March 1979, practically 50 percent of
all wives were working or looking for
work compared with 41 percent in
1970 and just 22 percent in 1950.
Contributing strongly to this trend
during the 1970’s was the growth in
labor force participation of mothers
with preschool children. The
participation rate for wives with children
under 6 increased from 30 percent in
1970 to 43 percent in 1979. As a result,
the proportion of children with working
mothers also rose, from 39 percent to
more than 50 percent.
The great majority of employed
women— 75 percent— usually work full
time (35 hours or more a week).
Though the proportion working full time
in 1979 varied by marital and family
status, 63 percent of employed married
women with children under age 3
worked full time.
In recent years more and more
women have been postponing
marriage, and marital break-up has
become more widespread. Conse­
quently, the number of never-married
and divorced women in the labor force
has risen rapidly. In 1979, about 1 of
every 9 women in the work force— 5
million in all— was either a divorced,
separated, widowed, or never-married
woman maintaining her own family.

21

Table 21.
Women by labor force
and marital status,
selected years,
1950-79




April
1950

March
1960

March
1970

March
1979

Total, 16 years and over

54,988

61,911

73,261

84,686

Never married
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent
Divorced
Widowed

9,305
35,574
2,001
1,373
6,735

9,603
40,176
2,362
1,707
8,063

13,141
45,055
2,730
2,695
9,640

17,564
48,239
3,075
5,359
10,450

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

16.9
64.7
3.6
2.5
12.2

15.5
64.9
3.8
2.8
13.0

17.9
61.5
3.7
3.7
13.2

20.7
57.0
3.6
6.3
12.3

15,560

21,329

31,233

42,971

4,304
7,682
933

4,233
12,244
1,224
1,222
2,406

6,965
18,377
1,422
1,927
2,542

11,006
23,832
1,808
3,967
2,358

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

27.7
49.4
6.0

19.8
57.4
5.7
5.7
11.3

22.3
58.8
4.6
6.2
8.1

25.6
55.5
4.2
9.2
5.5

Item
POPULATION
Number (thousands)

Percent distribution
Total
Never married
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent
Divorced
Widowed
LABOR FORCE
Number (thousands)
Total
Never married
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent
Divorced
Widowed

*2,641

Percent distribution
Total
Never married
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent
Divorced
Widowed

*17.0

LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE
Total

28.3

34.5

42.6

50.7

Never married
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent
Divorced
Widowed

46.3
21.6
46.6

44.1
30.5
51.8
71.6
29.8

53.0
40.8
52.1
71.5
26.4

62.7
49.4
58.8
74.0
22.6

*Data for divorced and widowed not
available separately.

22

*32.6

Table 22.
Labor force
participation rates of
women by age and
marital status,
March 1979
Participation rate
(Percent of population in labor force)
Age
All
women

Never
married

Married,
husband
present

Married,
husband
absent

Divorced

Widowed

Total, 16 years and over

50.7

62.7

49.4

58.8

74.0

22.6

16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 and over

50.9
68.7
63.5
63.6
58.6
42.7
8.7

50.7
74.6
83.2
77.1
74.0
61.1
14.9

51.2
61.2
57.0
60.3
54.5
37.4
7.9

54.1
64.3
65.5
63.2
62.1
48.3
16.0

(D
85.8
81.7
82.7
78.8
64.9
17.1

(D
(D
54.4
52.9
66.0
49.0
7.8

’ Rate not shown where base is less than

75,000.




23

Table 23.
Occupations of
employed women by
marital status,
March, 1970 and 1979

Never married
Occupation

Married, husband
present

Married, husband
absent

1970

1979

1970

1979

9,940
100.0

17,665
100.0

22,620
100.0

1,339
100.0

1,631
100.0

17.6
2.5
6.6
41.2
0.6
8.5
0.5
21.8
7.3
14.7
0.4

Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative, except farm
Sales
Clerical
Craft
Operatives, including transport
Nonfarm laborers
Service
Private household
All other service
Farm

1970

6,490
100.0

Total, all occupations:
Number (in thousands)
Percent

1979

16.5
4.3
7.8
36.3
1.5
8.3
1.4
23.0
3.3
19.7
0.8

15.5
4.6
7.1
33.6
1.3
16.4
0.3
19.4
3.5
15.9
1.8

17.7
6.7
6.5
35.8
1.8
11.8
1.1
17.5
2.0
15.5
1.2

8.6
2.0
3.9
26.7
1.0
20.1
0.7
36.2
10.1
26.1
0.7

13.6
4.4
4.8
30.9
2.2
14.2
1.3
28.4
5.3
23.1
0.2

Divorced

Widowed

1970




24

1979

3,723
100.0

2,475
100.0

2,235
100.0

12.7
5.5
4.5
34.7
0.9
15.8
0.5
25.2
5.5
19.7
0.2

Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative, except farm
Sales
Clerical
Craft
Operatives, including transport
Nonfarm laborers
Service
Private household
All other service
Farm

1970

1,825
100.0

Total, all occupations:
Number (in thousands)
Percent

1979

14.9
8.4
5.0
36.5
1.9
12.6
1.2
19.2
1.9
17.3
0.3

9.9
7.4
7.7
23.2
1.1
15.4
0.6
32.8
12.7
20.1
1.9

9.2
8.3
7.5
27.7
1.9
14.1
0.4
29.8
7.0
22.8
1.2

Table 24.
Work experience of
married women,
husband present, and
never-married women,
1960, 1970, and 1978




(Numbers in thousands)
Marital status and work experience

I9601

1970

1978

Married women, husband present, total

40,652

45,560

48,239

Worked during year: Number
Percent

17,625
43.4

23,052
50.6

27,242
56.5

100.0
65.7
N.A.
33.0
N.A.
16.9
34.3
N.A.
N.A.

100.0
68.4
47.3
40.3
6.9
14.2
31.6
14.5
17.1

100.0
67.5
50.5
43.4
6.0
11.0
32.5
16.1
16.4

Never-married women, total

12,522

13,350

17,564

Worked during year: Number
Percent

7,225
57.7

8,910
66.7

12,429
70.8

Worked during year
Full time2
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks
Part time3
40 to 52 weeks
1 to 39 weeks

100.0
65.5
N.A.
38.6
N.A.
16.7
34.5
N.A.
N.A.

100.0
60.3
38.4
33.6
4.5
17.5
39.7
12.6
27.0

100.0
61.6
41.1
36.2
5.4
15.2
38.4
14.1
24.2

Worked during year
Full time2
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks
Part time3
40 to 52 weeks
1 to 39 weeks

'Data include 14- and 15-year olds.
2
Usually worked 35 hours or more in a
majority of weeks worked.
3Usually worked less than 35 hours in a
majority of weeks worked.
N.A. = not available.

25

Table 25.
Birth rates and fertility
rates by race, selected
years,
1920-79




Birth rate1
Year

Fertility rate2

Total

White

Black and
other races

Total

White

Black and
other races

1920
1925
1930
1935
1940
1945
1950
1955
1957
1960
1965

27.7
25.1
21.3
18.7
19.4
20.4
24.1
25.0
25.3
23.7
19.4

26.9
24.1
20.6
17.9
18.6
19.7
23.0
23.8
24.0
22.7
18.3

35.0
34.2
27.5
25.8
26.7
26.5
33.3
34.7
35.3
32.1
27.6

117.9
106.6
89.2
77.2
72.9
85.9
106.2
118.5
122.9
118.0
96.6

115.4
103.3
87.1
74.5
77.1
83.4
102.3
113.8
117.7
113.2
91.4

137.5
134.0
105.9
98.4
102.4
106.0
137.3
155.3
163.0
153.6
133.9

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978p
19793

18.4
17.2
15.6
14.9
14.9
14.8
14.8
15.4
15.3
15.8

17.4
16.2
14.6
13.9
14.0
13.8
13.8
14.4
N.A.
N.A.

25.1
24.7
22.9
21.9
21.4
21.2
21.1
21.9
N.A.
N.A.

87.9
81.8
73.4
69.2
68.4
66.7
65.8
67.8
66.4
66.4

84.1
77.5
69.2
65.3
64.7
63.0
62.2
64.0
N.A.
N.A.

113.0
109.5
100.3
94.3
91.0
89.3
87.6
89.9
N.A.
N.A.

p = provisional
’ Births per 1,000 population.
2Births per 1,000 women aged 15 to 44
years.
3
Twelve months ending with December
1979.

26

N.A. = not available.

Table 26.
Labor force
participation rates of
married women,
husband present, by
presence and age of
own children,
1950-79




Participation rate
(Percent of population in labor force)

Total

With no
children
under 18
years

1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

23.8
25.2
25.3
26.3
26.6
27.7
29.0
29.6
30.2
30.9

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

Year1

„
,
Total

6 to 17 years,
„„„
none younger

Under
6 years

30.3
31.0
30.9
31.2
31.6
32.7
35.3
35.6
35.4
35.2

18.4
20.5
20.7
22.4
22.7
24.0
24.5
25.3
26.5
27.9

28.3
30.3
31.1
32.2
33.2
34.7
36.4
36.6
37.6
39.8

11.9
14.0
13.9
15.5
14.9
16.2
15.9
17.0
18.2
18.7

30.5
32.7
32.7
33.7
34.4
34.7
35.4
36.8
38.3
39.6

34.7
37.3
36.1
37.4
37.8
38.3
38.4
38.9
40.1
41.0

27.6
29.6
30.3
31.2
32.0
32.2
33.2
35.3
36.9
38.6

39.0
41.7
41.8
41.5
43.0
42.7
43.7
45.0
46.9
48.6

18.6
20.0
21.3
22.5
22.7
23.3
24.2
26.5
27.6
28.5

40.8
40.8
41.5
42.2
43.0
44.4
45.0
46.6
47.6
49.4

42.2
42.1
42.7
42.8
43.0
43.9
43.8
44.9
44.7
46.7

39.7
39.7
40.5
41.7
43.1
44.9
46.1
48.2
50.2
51.9

49.2
49.4
50.2
50.1
51.2
52.3
53.7
55.6
57.2
59.1

30.3
29.6
30.1
32.7
34.4
36.6
37.4
39.3
41.6
43.2

'Data were collected in April of 1951-55
and March of all other years.
NOTE: Children are defined as "own"
children of the women and include nevermarried sons and daughters, stepchildren,
and adopted children. Excluded are other

27

With children under 18 years

related children such as grandchildren,
nieces, nephews, and cousins, and
unrelated children.

Table 27.
Women by marital and
labor force status and
presence and age of
own children,
March 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
With children under 18 years

Marital and labor force status

Total

With no
children
under 18
years

Total

14 to 17
years, none
younger

6 to 13
years

3 to 5
years, none
younger

Under
3 years

6 to 17 years only

Under 6 years

Worqen, total
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

84,686
42,971
50.7
6.6

54,204
26,355
48.6
6.1

30,482
16,616
54.5
7.3

5,392
3,288
61.0
4.7

11,772
7,281
61.9
6.1

5,312
2,775
52.2
8.2

8,006
3,272
40.9
11.6

Never married
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

17,564
11,006
62.7
9.7

16,651
10,513
63.1
9.2

913
493
54.0
20.7

21
10
0)
—

279
180
64.5
20.0

228
121
53.0
17.2

385
182
47.2
25.0

Married, husband present
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

48,239
23,832
49.4
5.1

23,474
10,974
46.7
3.7

24,765
12,858
51.9
6.2

4,333
2,534
58.5
3.9

9,323
5,529
59.3
5.3

4,227
2,089
49.4
7.2

6,883
2,706
39.3
9.5

Married, husband absent
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

3,075
1,808
58.8
9.8

1,396
807
57.8
6.3

1,679
1,001
59.6
12.6

235
145
61.7
5.7

674
447
66.3
9.8

355
212
59.5
12.1

414
197
47.5
24.7

Widowed
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

10,450
2,358
22.6
5.2

9,756
2,015
20.7
4.6

694
344
49.5
9.0

305
164
53.6
10.9

300
148
49.3
5.2

66
27
0)
(D

23
6
0)
(D

Divorced
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

5,359
3,967
74.0
6.1

2,928
2,047
69.9
4.8

2,431
1,920
79.0
7.6

498
435
87.4
6.4

1,196
977
81.7
6.6

436
327
74.9
8.4

300
181
60.3
14.0

’ Rate not shown where base is less than
75,000.
See note on table 26.




28

Table 28.
Employed women by
full- or part-time status,
marital status, and
presence and age of
own children,
March 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
With children under 18 years

Item

Total, employed women
Worked full time
Worked part time

Total

With no
children
under 18
years

6 to 17 years only

Under 6 years

Total

14 to 17
years, none
younger

6 to 13
years

3 to 5
years, none
younger

Under
3 years

40,150
28,805
11,346

24,741
17,994
6,746

15,409
10,810
4,599

3,135
2,339
796

6,834
4,793
2,041

2,548
1,786
762

2,892
1,891
1,001

9,940
6,562
3,379

9,549
6,252
3,297

391
309
82

10
9
1

144
120
24

100
87
13

136
94
43

Married, husband present, total
Worked full time
Worked part time

22,620
16,066
6,555

10,564
8,070
2,494

12,056
7,995
4,061

2,435
1,743
692

5,234
3,441
1,793

1,939
1,275
664

2,448
1,536
913

Married, husband absent, total
Worked full time
Worked part time

1,631
1,361
270

757
638
119

875
723
151

137
114
22

404
330
73

186
153
33

148
125
23

Divorced, total
Worked full time
Worked part time

3,723
3,292
432

1,949
1,734
214

1,775
1,557
217

407
367
40

913
801
112

299
256
43

156
133
23

Widowed, total
Worked full time
Worked part time

2,235
1,525
710

1,922
1,299
623

313
225
88

146
106
40

140
101
39

24
15
9

3
3
—

Never married, total
Worked full time
Worked part time

NOTE: Full-time workers are those who
usually work 35 or more hours per week;
part-time workers are those who usually
work 1 to 34 hours per week.
See note on table 26.




29

Table 29.
Families by type,
selected years,
1940-79




(Numbers in thousands)
Other families3
Year1

All
families

Marriedcouple
families2

Maintained by women
Maintained
by men2

Total

As percent
of all families

1940
1947

32,166
35,794

26,971
31,211

1,579
1,186

3,616
3,397

11.2
9.5

1950
1955
1960
1965

39,303
41,951
45,062
47,836

34,440
36,378
39,293
41,649

1,184
1,339
1,275
1,181

3,679
4,234
4,494
5,006

9.4
10.1
10.0
10.5

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

51,227
51,947
53,280
54,361
55,041

44,415
44,735
45,743
46,308
46,810

1,239
1,262
1,353
1,453
1,433

5,573
5,950
6,184
6,600
6,798

10.9
11.5
11.6
12.1
12.4

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

55,699
56,244
56,709
57,215
57,804

47,069
47,318
47,497
47,385
47,692

1,400
1,444
1,499
1,594
1,654

7,230
7,482
7,713
8,236
8,458

13.0
13.3
13.6
14.4
14.6

'Data were collected in April of 1940, 1947,
and 1955 and March of all other years.
includes men in Armed Forces living off
post or with their families on post.

30

3Never-married, widowed, divorced or
separated persons,

Table 30.
Number of own children
by age of children, type
of family, and labor
force status of mother,
March, 1970, 1975, and
1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Children under 18 years

Children 6 to 17 years

Children under 6 years

Item
1970

1975

1979

1970

1975

1979

1970

1975

1979

Total children
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

65,755
25,554
39,550

62,770
27,650
34,332

58,537
30,105
27,503

46,149
19,954
25,627

44,636
21,138
22,800

41,556
22,940
17,849

19,606
5,590
13,923

18,134
6,512
11,532

16,981
7,166
9,654

Children in married-couple families
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

58,399
21,982
36,417

52,813
22,637
30,176

47,786
24,063
23,724

40,479
17,035
23,444

37,081
17,206
19,875

33,347
18,161
15,186

17,920
4,947
12,973

15,732
5,431
10,302

14,439
5,902
8,538

Children in families maintained
by women1
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

6,695
3,562
3,133

9,168
5,013
4,155

9,822
6,043
3,779

5,102
2,919
2,183

6,856
3,931
2,925

7,442
4,779
2,663

1,593
643
950

2,312
1,081
1,230

2,380
1,264
1,116

Children in families maintained
by men1

661

788

929

568

699

768

93

90

161

’Widowed; divorced; married, spouse
absent; and never-married persons.




NOTE: Children are defined as “ own”
children of the family and include nevermarried sons and daughters, stepchildren,
and adopted children. Excluded are other

31

related children such as grandchildren,
nieces, nephews, and cousins, and
unrelated children.

Table 31.
Number of own
children by age of
children, type of family,
and employment status
of parents, March 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Children under 18 years
Children 6 to 17 years

Item
Total

Under
6 years

Total

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

58,537
30,105
27,875
2,230
27,503

41,556
22,940
21,457
1,483
17,849

15,188
8,738
8,246
492
6,083

26,368
14,201
13,210
991
11,766

16,981
7,166
6,419
747
9,654

Total
Mother in labor force
Employed
Unemployed
Mother not in labor force

47,786
24,063
22,533
1,530
23,724

33,347
18,161
17,166
995
15,186

12,009
6,892
6,569
323
5,117

21,338
11,269
10,597
672
10,069

14,439
5,902
5,367
535
8,538

Father in civilian labor force
Mother in labor force
Employed
Unemployed
Mother not in labor force

44,926
22,851
21,445
1,406
22,075

31,256
17,238
16,313
925
14,018

11,106
6,499
6,201
298
4,607

20,150
10,739
10,112
626
9,411

13,670
5,614
5,132
482
8,057

Father employed
Mother in labor force
Employed
Unemployed
Mother not in labor force

43,389
22,083
20,809
1,274
21,306

30,275
16,691
15,841
850
13,584

10,776
6,286
6,016
269
4,490

19,500
10,405
9,825
581
9,094

13,114
5,392
4,968
424
7,722

Father unemployed
Mother in labor force
Employed
Unemployed
Mother not in labor force

1,537
768
636
132
769

981
547
472
75
434

330
213
184
29
117

651
333
287
46
317

556
222
164
57
335

Father not in labor force
Mother in labor force
Employed
Unemployed
Mother not in labor force

1,944
769
698
71
1,175

1,563
633
586
47
930

771
314
299
15
457

791
319
287
32
472

381
136
112
24
245

Father in Armed Forces
Mother in labor force
Employed
Unemployed
Mother not in labor force

916
442
390
52
474

528
290
267
23
238

131
79
69
10
53

396
211
198
13
185

388
152
123
29
236

ALL CHILDREN
Total
Mother in labor force
Employed
Unemployed
Mother not in labor force
CHILDREN IN MARRIEDCOUPLE FAMILIES

See footnote at end of table.




32

Table 31. Continued.
(Numbers in thousands)
Children under 18 years
Children 6 to 17 years

Item
Total

Under
6 years

Total

14 to 17
years

6 to 13
years

9,822
6,043
5,343
700
3,779

7,442
4,779
4,291
488
2,663

2,812
1,846
1,677
169
966

4,629
2,932
2,613
319
1,697

2,380
1,264
1,052
212
1,116

929

768

366

401

161

CHILDREN IN OTHER FAMILIES
In families maintained by women1
Mother in labor force
Employed
Unemployed
Mother not in labor force
In families maintained by men1
'Widowed; divorced; married, spouse
absent; and never-married persons.
See note on table 30.

Table 32.
Women maintaining
families by age and
marital status, March,
1960, 1970, and 1979
Percent distribution

Number (thousands)
Age and marital status
I9601

1970

1979

I9601

1970

1979

4,494
180
620
921
948
782
1,043

5,573
437
919
1,075
1,115
917
1,115

8,458
795
2,131
1,852
1,522
964
1,193

100.0
4.0
13.8
20.5
21.1
17.4
23.2

100.0
7.8
16.5
19.3
20.0
16.4
20.0

100.0
9.4
25.2
21.9
18.0
11.4
14.1

50.5

48.2

42.0

—

—

—

4,494
521
980
750
2,243

5,573
610
1,324
1,258
2,389

8,458
1,412
1,768
2,808
2,470

100.0
11.6
21.8
16.7
49.9

100.0
10.9
23.7
22.5
42.8

100.0
16.7
20.9
33.2
29.2

AGE
Total, 16 years and over
Under 25
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 and over
Median age
MARITAL STATUS
Total, women maintaining families
Never married
Married, husband absent
Divorced
Widowed
'Data include 14- and 15-year olds.




33

Table 33.
Labor force
participation rates and
unemployment rates of
women maintaining
families by age,
March, 1970 and 1979
1970

1979

Age

Labor force
participation
rate

Unemployment
rate

Labor force
participation
rate

Unemployment
rate

Total, 16 years and over

52.9

5.6

59.5

8.4

16
25
35
45
55
65

51.6
60.9
67.1
70.4
58.5
11.1

10.8
6.6
6.7
4.6
3.2
2.4

60.4
70.0
71.8
70.9
54.1
11.5

21.6
9.5
7.5
4.2
5.4
4.3

to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
and over

Table 34.
Labor force status of
women and men
maintaining families, by
presence and age of
children under 18,
March, 1970 and 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
March 1979

March 1970

Population

Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

Population

Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

Women maintaining families
With children under 18 years
With children 6-17 years only
With children under 6 years
With no children under 18

5,573
2,924
1,813
1,111
2,649

2,950
1,736
1,215
521
1,214

52.9
59.4
67.0
46.9
45.8

8,456
5,288
3,362
1,926
3,168

5,033
3,486
2,406
1,080
1,547

59.5
65.9
71.6
56.1
48.8

Men1 maintaining families
With children under 18 years
With children 6-17 years only
With children 6 years
With no children under 18

1,239
333
262
71
906

893
304
237
67
589

72.1
91.3
90.5
(2)
65.0

1,654
569
435
134
1,085

1,218
496
375
121
722

74.2
87.1
86.2
90.3
66.5

Presence and age of children

'Population includes a few male members
of the Armed Forces living off post or with
their families on post.




2Rate not shown where base is less than
75,000.
See note on table 30.

34

Table 35.
Labor force status of
women maintaining
families by marital
status and presence of
children,
March 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Women
maintaining
families,
total

Labor force status

Never
married

Married,
husband
absent

Divorced

Widowed

Total
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

8,458
5,033
59.5
8.4

1,412
827
58.6
13.8

1,768
1,071
60.6
10.6

2,808
2,202
78.4
6.7

2,470
934
37.8
5.5

3,170
1,547
48.8
3.7

514
342
66.5
3.5

296
182
61.5
4.4

573
428
74.7
3.5

1,786
595
33.3
3.9

5,288
3,486
65.9
10.5

902
485
53.8
21.0

1,473
889
60.4
11.9

2,234
1,773
79.4
7.4

679
338
49.8
8.0

With no children under 18
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate
With children under 18
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate
See note on table 30.




35

Table 36.
Occupations of
employed women
maintaining families by
marital status,
March 1979

Occupation

Total

Never
married

Married,
husband
absent

Total employed: Number (in thousands)
Percent

4,608
100.0

713
100.0

958
100.0

2,055
100.0

883
100.0

13.1
6.6
4.6
34.1
2.1
14.3
0.4
1.2
23.3
2.9
20.4
0.3

11.8
5.8
2.6
35.4
2.4
15.5
0.3
1.4
24.1
3.5
20.6
0.7

13.3
4.3
5.3
29.4
2.2
14.0
0.3
1.3
29.6
5.0
24.6
0.3

14.6
7.6
5.0
37.2
2.2
13.0
0.6
1.6
18.1
0.8
17.3
0.1

10.3
7.3
4.7
30.7
1.3
16.7
0.2
0.1
28.0
5.2
22.8
0.6

Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative, except farm
Sales
Clerical
Craft
Operatives, except transport
Transport equipment operatives
Nonfarm laborers
Service, total
Private household
All other service
Farm




36

Divorced

Widowed

Part IV




School Enrollment and Education
School enrollment status and years
of school completed by women are
directly related to labor force activity.
That is , on average, the more years of
school completed, the higher the labor
force participation rate. In 1979, for
example, labor force rates were higher
for young women who recently
completed high school than for those
who had dropped out of school — 79
percent and 55 percent, respectively.
Also, the unemployment rate of school
dropouts, at 31 percent, was about
double the rate for high school
graduates.
In 1979, about 40 percent of the
women and 45 percent of the men 16
to 24 years old were enrolled in school.
Moreover, of women and men who had
graduated from high school in the
previous year, similar proportions were
enrolled in college. Also, on average,
working women had completed about
the same number of years of school as
men — 12.6 years in 1979.
The proportion of working women 25
years old and over with a college
education was 17 percent in 1979
compared with 23 percent for the men.
This difference is partly due to the fact
that women were somewhat less likely
to continue on to college; the education
of 45 percent of working women in this
age group stopped with high school
graduation compared with 35 percent
for the men.

37

Table 37.
School enrollment
status of women and
men 16 to 24 years old
in the labor force,
selected years,
October, 1960-79
(Numbers in thousands)
Women
Enrolled in school

Men

Not enrolled in school

Enrolled in school

Not enrolled in school

Year
Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

883
1,452
2,354
3,130
3,538

26.0
28.9
38.0
43.5
47.8

3,765
4,602
5,881
6,956
7,889

50.2
54.1
60.0
65.9
71.6

1,591
2,515
3,181
3,598
3,803

36.4
39.8
42.9
44.5
48.4

5,097
5,504
6,288
8,149
9,110

95.0
94.1
91.9
92.2
92.5

October of:
1960
1965
1970
1975
1979




38

Table 38.
School enrollment
status of women and
men 16 to 34 years old
in the labor force by
age, October, 1970 and
1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Not enrolled in school

Enrolled in school

1979

1970

1979

1970
Sex and age
Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

Women, 16 to 34 years

2,630

39.4

4,509

51.3

11,430

51.7

18,467

67.6

16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34

1,700
654
276

34.8
50.5
57.5

2,367
1,172
971

44.3
56.9
70.1

1,521
4,360
5,549

59.8
60.0
45.2

2,019
5,869
10,578

70.3
72.0
64.9

Men, 16 to 34 years

3,993

47.5

4,947

53.5

16,875

95.4

23,987

95.3

16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34

2,125
1,056
812

39.7
51.2
81.6

2,516
1,286
1,144

44.7
57.7
82.4

1,580
4,708
10,587

84.7
94.6
97.6

2,201
6,910
14,877

87.1
94.4
97.1

Table 39.
Percent of recent high
school graduates
enrolled in college by
sex, selected years,
October, 1960-79




Percent high school graduates
Year
Women

Men

38
45
49
49
49
48

54
57
55
53
51
50

October of:
1960
1965
1970
1975
1978
1979

39

Table 40.
Employment status of
women and men 16 to
34 years old enrolled in
school by age and type
of school,
October 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Labor force
Sex and type of school

Population

Unemployed
Total

Employed
Total

Percent of
labor force

WOMEN
Total enrolled in school 16 to 34 years old

8,788

4,510

4,018

492

10.9

Elementary or high school
16 and 17 years
18 and 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 34 years

3,804
3,340
316
82
66

1,672
1,464
141
38
29

1,378
1,211
109
33
25

294
253
32
5
4

17.6
17.3
22.7
(D
0)

College, full-time2
16 to 19 years
20 to 24 years
20 and 21 years
22 to 24 years
25 to 34 years

3,368
1,544
1,460
980
480
364

1,466
643
669
438
231
154

1,323
574
612
396
216
137

143
70
55
41
14
18

9.8
10.9
8.2
9.4
6.1
11.7

College, part-time
16 to 19 years
20 to 24 years
20 and 21 years
22 to 24 years
25 to 34 years

1,616
140
519
181
338
957

1,372
118
465
156
309
789

1,317
112
441
141
300
764

55
7
24
15
9
24

4.0
5.9
5.2
9.6
2.9
3.0

Total enrolled in school 16 to 34 years old

9,249

4,946

4,413

535

10.8

Elementary or high school
16 and 17 years
18 and 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 34 years

4,265
3,638
533
62
32

2,014
1,672
268
45
29

1,692
1,410
218
40
24

322
262
50
5
5

16.0
15.7
18.7
0)
(D

College, full-time2
16 to 19 years
20 to 24 years
20 and 21 years
22 to 24 years
25 to 34 years

3,633
1,337
1,738
1,046
692
558

1,632
468
827
457
370
337

1,451
405
723
407
316
323

183
63
106
51
55
14

11.2
13.5
12.8
11.2
14.9
4.2

College, part-time
16 to 19 years
20 to 24 years
20 and 21 years
22 to 24 years
25 to 34 years

1,351
123
430
146
284
798

1,300
107
414
137
277
779

1,270
103
398
131
267
769

30
4
16
6
10
10

2.3
3.7
3.9
4.4
3.6
1.3

MEN

'Rate not shown where base is less than
75,000.




2
Students attending 12 hours or more of
college classes during the average school

40

week were classified as full-time students.

Table 41.
Employment status of
women and men 16 to
24 years old, not
enrolled in college, who
were high school
graduates or school
dropouts in 1979,
October 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Labor force
Sex and school status

Unemployed

Population
Total

Percent of
population

Employed
T . .
Tota

Not in
labor force

Percent of
labor force

1,096

841

76.7

658

183

21.8

255

High school graduates
School dropouts

870
226

716
125

82.3
55.3

580
78

136
47

19.0
37.6

154
101

Men, total

967

856

88.5

729

127

14.8

111

High school graduates
School dropouts

731
236

672
184

91.9
78.0

579
150

93
34

13.8
18.5

59
52

Women, total




41

Table 42.
Employment status of
women and men 16 to
24 years old, not
enrolled in school, by
years of school
completed,
October 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Labor force
Sex and last year of school completed

Unemployed

Population
Total

Employed
Total

Percent of
labor force

WOMEN
11,022

7,889

6,914

975

12.4

School dropouts, total
Completed 8 years of school or less
Completed 1 to 3 years of high school

2,614
514
2,073

1,264
213
1,051

952
166
786

312
47
265

24.7
22.1
25.2

High school graduates:
Graduated from high school
Completed 4 years of high school only
Completed 1 or more years of college
Completed 1 to 3 years of college
Completed 4 years or more college

8,407
5,935
2,472
1,652
820

6,625
4,472
2,153
1,387
766

5,962
3,944
2,018
1,288
730

663
528
135
99
36

10.0
11.8
6.3
7.1
4.7

Total not enrolled in school

9,848

9,112

8,250

862

9.5

School dropouts, total
Completed 8 years of school or less
Completed 1 to 3 years of high school

2,650
650
2,000

2,248
500
1,748

1,892
419
1,473

356
81
275

15.8
16.2
15.7

High school graduates:
Graduated from high school
Completed 4 years of high school only
Completed 1 or more years of college
Completed 1 to 3 years of college
Completed 4 years or more college

7,197
5,159
2,038
1,365
673

6,863
4,910
1,953
1,296
657

6,359
4,516
1,843
1,221
622

504
394
110
75
35

7.3
8.0
5.6
5.8
5.3

Total not enrolled in school

MEN




42

Table 43.
Educational attainment
of women and men in
the labor force,
March, 1965-79
Total

4 years of
high school
only

1 to 3
years of
college

4 years or
more of
college

Median years
of school
completed

Number
(thousands)

Percent

Less than
4 years of
high school1

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

24,871
25,662
26,647
27,846
28,891

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

37.7
36.2
35.4
33.6
32.2

41.9
43.0
42.9
43.7
45.0

10.4
11.0
11.8
12.3
12.4

10.0
9.9
9.9
10.5
10.4

12.3
12.3
12.3
12.4
12.4

1970
1971
19722
1973
1974

30,064
30,478
32,933
33,905
35,321

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

30.6
29.3
30.8
29.2
27.8

45.5
45.4
44.7
45.2
44.2

13.2
13.9
13.2
13.8
15.2

10.7
11.4
11.4
12.0
12.8

12.4
12.5
12.4
12.5
12.5

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

36,496
37,817
39,374
40,971
42,971

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

26.6
25.5
24.8
23.3
22.7

44.8
44.6
44.6
44.6
44.6

15.3
15.9
16.3
17.1
17.8

13.2
14.0
14.4
14.3
14.9

12.5
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

46,258
46,356
46,571
47,255
47,862

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

45.1
43.8
42.2
40.6
38.9

32.0
32.6
32.9
33.8
34.4

10.5
10.7
11.7
12.2
12.6

12.4
12.8
13.2
13.6
13.9

12.2
12.2
12.2
12.3
12.3

1970
1971
19722
1973
1974

48,891
49,439
52,477
53,420
54,312

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

37.3
35.4
36.2
34.1
32.7

35.1
35.7
35.0
35.8
36.0

13.5
14.0
13.8
14.5
14.9

14.2
14.9
15.0
15.6
16.4

12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.5

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

54,577
55,246
56,392
57,466
58,608

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

30.9
29.3
29.0
28.2
26.4

36.3
36.5
36.0
36.0
36.7

15.5
16.0
16.4
17.0
17.3

17.3
18.2
18.7
18.8
19.6

12.5
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6

Year

WOMEN

MEN

’ Includes persons reporting no school year
completed.
beginning in 1972 data relate to persons
16 and over; in prior years, data relate to
persons 18 and over.




43

Table 44.
Labor force and marital
status of women by
years of school
completed,
March 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
8 years
or less
(including
none)

1 to 3
years

4 years

1 to 3
years

12,597
2,922
23.2
9.2

16,163
6,826
42.2
12.7

33,565
19,157
57.1
6.1

12,805
7,653
59.8
4.3

9,555
6,413
67.1
3.0

Never married, total
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

1,139
361
31.7
N.A.

5,529
2,563
46.4
N.A.

5,424
4,083
75.3
N.A.

3,375
2,249
66.6
N.A.

2,097
1,750
83.4
N.A.

Married, husband present, total
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

5,965
1,617
27.1
N.A.

7,072
2,882
40.7
N.A.

21,996
11,512
52.3
5.0

7,155
4,001
55.9
3.3

6,051
3,821
63.1
2.7

Married, husband absent, total
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

600
201
33.6
N.A.

764
361
47.2
N.A.

1,158
819
70.8
N.A.

357
262
73.3
N.A.

197
165
83.9
N.A.

Divorced, total
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

591
248
41.9
N.A.

952
574
60.2
N.A.

2,209
1,786
80.9
N.A.

1,009
847
83.9
N.A.

598
512
85.7
N.A.

Widowed, total
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

4,302
495
11.5
N.A.

1,847
447
24.2
N.A.

2,779
956
34.4
N.A.

909
295
32.4
N.A.

613
165
27.0
N.A.

Item

Women, total
In labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

N.A. = not available.




44

High school

College
4 years
or more

Table 45.
Occupational
distribution of
employed women by
years of school
completed,
March 1979

Occupation

Less than
4 years of
high school

4 years of
high school
only

1 to 3
years of
college

4 years or
more of
college

Total employed: Number (in thousands)
Percent

8,609
100.0

17,992
100.0

7,326
100.0

6,223
100.0

1.8
2.9
6.9
17.2
2.6
24.3
0.8
2.1
31.4
8.1
1.8

Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative, except farm
Sales
Clerical
Craft
Operatives, except transport
Transport equipment operatives
Nonfarm laborers
Service, except private household
Private household
Farm




45

5.9
6.1
7.1
46.8
1.8
10.5 \
0.7
1.3
17.2
1.7
0.9

18.7
7.8
7.8
45.3
1.4
2.8
0.6
0.5
13.5
1.1
0.6

64.8
9.5
4.1
15.6/
0.8
0.9
0.1
0.3
3.3
0.2
0.4

Table 46.
Women and men 25
years and over in the
labor force by age and
years of school
completed,
March 1979
Total, 25
years and
over

25 to 34
years

35 to 44
years

45 to 54
years

55 years
and over

31,810
100.0

11,007
100.0

8,061
100.0

6,907
100.0

5,835
100.0

8.4

3.1

5.8

11.0

18.7

High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years

12.5
44.8

9.0
42.1

13.2
48.0

14.8
47.0

15.4
42.9

College:
1 to 3 years
4 years or more

16.9
17.4

21.7
24.1

15.5
17.3

14.1
13.1

12.8
10.2

45,934
100.0

15,581
100.0

11,256
100.0

10,095
100.0

9,002
100.0

Elementary school:
8 years or less

12.1

4.9

9.2

15.8

23.7

High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years

12.1
35.3

8.6
35.3

11.9
37.6

15.8
35.0

14.4
32.9

College:
1 to 3 years
4 years or more

17.1
23.4

23.1
28.1

16.4
24.8

12.5
20.9

12.7
16.3

Sex and years
of school completed
WOMEN
Total in labor force:
Number (thousands)
Percent
Elementary school:
8 years or less

MEN
Total in labor force:
Number (thousands)
Percent




46

Table 47.
Percent of workers 25
years old and over with
12 years of education
or more by sex and
occupation group,
March, 1970 and 1979

Item

Total employed, 25
years and over
(in thousands)

Percent with 4 years
of high school only

Percent with 1 year
of college or more

1970

1979

1970

1979

1970

1979

13,748
4,493
4,798
208

19,858
4,485
5,630
310

45.7
29.9
30.4
26.0

45.6
43.4
43.6
44.2

35.1
3.7
6.2
8.7

46.7
8.4
14.9
21.3

16,863
19,167
2,994
1,869

20,434
18,829
3,210
1,681

28.4
33.2
30.1
26.1

24.8
45.8
39.5
35.8

53.6
7.9
11.1
8.9

67.5
17.4
24.5
17.3

WOMEN
White-collar workers
Blue-collar workers
Service workers
Farmers and farm workers
MEN
White-collar workers
Blue-collar workers
Service workers
Farmers and farm workers




47

Part V




Earnings and Income
At the beginning of the 1980’s,
working women were in the same
relative earnings position compared
with men as at the outset of the
1970’s. Women working full time
averaged about $6 for every $10
earned by men. Although earnings
parity with men was nearly achieved in
some newer fields such as computer
science, most women were still at the
lower end of the pay scale.
In March 1979, both husband and
wife were earners in 51 percent of
married-couple families. Median
income of these families was about
$23,000 in 1978 compared with a little
more than $17,000 for families where
only the husband worked.
Even though their earnings were
relatively low, working wives
contributed about a quarter of the
family income in 1978. This proportion
varied depending on the extent of their
work experience. The proportion was
38 percent for wives working all year,
full time, but only 11 percent for those
working just part time or 26 weeks or
less full time.
The income of about 10.1 million
women for all of 1978 was not
sufficient to lift them above the poverty
level. These women were typically
school dropouts (61 percent) and a
large proportion (35 percent) were at
least 55 years of age.

48

Table 48.
Median usual weekly
earnings of full-time
wage and salary
workers by sex,
May, 1967-78 and
second quarter,
1979-80

Usual weekly earnings
Year

In current dollars

In 1967 dollars

Women’s
earnings as
percent of
men’s

Women

Men

Women

Men

$ 78
86
94
100
106
116
124
137
145
156
166

$125
142
151
162
168
188
204
221
234
253
272

$78
79
81
83
85
88
85
86
86
86
85

$125
130
131
134
135
143
140
138
138
139
140

62
61
62
62
63
62
61
62
62
62
61

19791
2nd quarter

183

295

85

137

62

1980:
2nd quarter

200

317

81

129

63

May of:
1967
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978

'Data for 2nd quarter 1979 and later are
not strictly comparable with previous
years.

Table 49.
Median usual weekly
earnings of full-time
wage and salary
workers by sex and
occupation, annual
averages, 1979




Usual weekly earnings
Occupation

Women’s
earnings as
percent of
men’s

Women

Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative,
except farm
Sales
Clerical
Craft
Operatives, except transport
Transport equipment operatives
Nonfarm laborers
Service
Farm

49

Men

$263

$372

71

235
159
183
188
159
186
159
139
130

399
311
287
310
253
277
213
208
163

59
51
64
61
63
67
75
67
80

Table 50.
Distribution of full-time
wage and salary
workers by usual
weekly earnings and
selected
characteristics, annual
averages,
1979
distribution of weekly earnings
Percent i
Item

Total
(thousands)

Under
$149

$150
to
199

$200
to
249

$250
to
299

$300
to
349

$350
to
399

$400
or
more

Median
earnings

AGE
Women, 16 years and over
16 to 24
25 and over

27,138
6,284
20,854

30.9
47.5
25.9

26.0
29.4
24.9

18.7
13.8
20.2

10.7
5.5
12.2

6.4
2.1
7.7

3.0
1.0
3.6

4.4
.8
5.4

$186
153
197

Men, 16 years and over
16 to 24
25 and over

43,790
8,304
35,487

9.4
25.3
5.6

11.9
23.8
9.1

15.7
21.2
14.5

13.2
11.9
13.5

14.3
8.3
15.7

9.8
4.1
11.2

25.7
5.4
30.5

298
201
322

14,357
3,591
30,799
988

28.8
29.0
4.7
9.5

26.5
25.5
8.9
13.2

19.7
19.9
14.7
16.1

11.2
10.9
13.7
12.5

6.6
7.0
15.7
15.5

3.0
3.6
11.4
9.5

4.2
4.1
30.8
23.7

189
190
324
294

5,125
6,157

24.4
11.5

23.5
14.3

20.3
17.0

12.9
14.6

8.0
13.8

4.0
8.5

6.8
20.2

204
274

Women:
White
Black
Hispanic origin

23,230
3,312
1,324

30.1
37.5
46.2

26.2
24.9
25.7

19.0
17.0
13.5

10.9
8.7
7.1

6.5
5.6
4.1

3.0
2.9
1.6

4.4
3.5
1.9

187
174
156

Men:
White
Black
Hispanic origin

38,970
4,107
2,411

8.3
19.2
18.3

11.2
17.8
20.8

15.4
19.5
20.2

13.3
13.3
11.9

14.6
11.4
11.5

10.2
6.8
5.8

27.2
12.2
11.5

306
233
226

FAMILY STATUS
Wives
Women who maintain families
Husbands
Men who maintain families
Women not in families
Men not in families
RACE AND HISPANIC ORIGIN




50

Table 51.
Distribution of families
by usual weekly wage
and salary earnings,
type of family, and
number of earners,
annual averages,
1979
Percent distribution of family earnings
Number of
families
(thousands)

Type of family and number
of wage and salary earners

Under
$100

$100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $600
to
to
to
to
to
to
299
399 499 599 799
199

$800
or
more

usual
weekly
earnings

40,267

4.2

13.1

17.3

19.6

16.2

11.7

11.6

6.6

$377

33,656

3.0

9.3

15.9

20.4

17.8

13.1

13.1

7.5

407

1 earner
Husband
Wife
Other family member

14,695
12,369
1,743
583

6.5
3.5
22.9
20.3

18.9
13.8
46.3
44.8

25.1
25.9
21.1
20.8

22.6
25.4
7.1
9.1

12.9
15.0
1.5
3.3

6.8
8.0
.6
1.0

4.5
5.2
.4
.6

2.8
3.2
.1
.1

297
322
151
161

2 or more earners
Husband and wife
Husband and other family member(s)
Wife and other family member(s)
Other family members only

18,962
15,867
2,593
361
141

.3
.2
.3
2.3
3.0

1.9
1.4
2.2
15.6
10.9

8.7
8.3
7.9
25.3
30.9

18.6
18.8
16.4
24.9
23.5

21.6
22.0
19.9
18.6
11.8

17.9
18.2
18.4
6.6
9.0

19.8
19.9
21.3
5.5
7.6

11.3
11.2
13.6
1.3
3.2

494
496
517
324
320

5,375

11.2

35.8

25.7

13.9

6.6

3.2

2.5

1.1

209

1 earner
Householder1
Other family member

3,753
2,853
899

15.4
13.6
21.1

46.6
47.6
43.5

25.1
26.5
20.6

8.7
9.0
7.9

2.4
2.0
3.6

1.0
.7
1.8

.4
.3
.8

.4
.2
.7

171
174
159

2 or more earners

1,622

1.4

10.9

27.3

25.9

16.3

8.4

7.3

2.6

336

1,236

5.0

17.3

19.8

22.5

13.7

9.9

7.5

4.4

329

1 earner

789

7.7

25.4

24.7

21.8

10.2

5.3

2.8

2.0

265

2 or more earners

448

.2

2.9

11.0

23.7

19.8

18.0

15.8

8.5

459

Total families with earners
Married-couple families

Families maintained by women

Families maintained by men

0

'Householder refers to the woman
maintaining the family.




51

Table 52.
Median annual earnings
of year-round full-time
workers 14 years and
over by sex,
1955-78

Annual earnings
Year
Women

Men

Women’s earnings
as percent of
men’s

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

$2,719
2,827
3,008
3,102
3,193

$4,252
4,466
4,713
4,927
5,209

63.9
63.3
63.8
63.0
61.3

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

3,293
3,351
3,446
3,561
3,690

5,417
5,644
5,794
5,978
6,195

60.8
59.4
59.5
59.6
59.6

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

3,823
3,973
4,150
4,457
4,977

6,375
6,848
7,182
7,664
8,227

60.0
58.0
57.8
58.2
60.5

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

5,323
5,593
5,903
6,335
6,970

8,966
9,399
10,202
11,186
11,889

59.4
59.5
57.9
56.6
58.6

1975
1976
1977
1978

7,504
8,099
8,618
9,350

12,758
13,455
14,626
15,730

58.8
60.2
58.9
59.4

Annual
earnings

Women’s earnings
as percent of
men’s

$5,249

43.3

Worked at full-time jobs
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 49 weeks
26 weeks or less

7,464
9,350
5,534
1,622

55.0
59.4
61.2
71.4

Worked at part-time jobs
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 49 weeks
26 weeks or less

1,635
3,423
2,338
714

100.0
103.9
87.3
99.0

NOTE: Data for 1955 to 1966 are for wage
and salary workers only and exclude selfemployed persons.

Table 53.
Median annual earnings
of women 14 years and
over by weeks worked,
1978




Work experience

Total who worked at any
time in 1978

52

Table 54.
Sources of income of
women 14 years and
over,
1978

Number of women
(thousands)

Type of income
Total

71,864

Wage or salary income
Nonfarm self-employment income
Farm self-employment income
Property income
Social security and railroad
retirement income
Other retirement income
Supplemental security income
Public assistance or welfare income
Veterans’ and unemployment benefits
and workers’ compensation
Other income

46,574
2,573
452
31,909
16,994
3,457
2,262
3,516
3,514
4,556

NOTE: Because some women receive
income from more than one source, the
sum of the individual components is greater
than the total.

Table 55.
Married-couple families
by number of earners
and size of family,
March 1979, and
median family income
in 1978
(Number of families in thousands)
Size of family
2
persons

3
persons

4
persons

5
persons

6
persons

7 or
more

Median
family
income
19781

47,689

17,554

10,313

10,694

5,431

2,245

1,453

$19,400

No earners
One earner
Husband only
Wife only
Other relative only

5,102
14,179
12,201
1,476
502

4,441
5,405
4,309
1,096
—

371
2,908
2,367
196
346

147
3,333
3,163
91
80

70
1,618
1,525
56
37

37
601
553
29
20

37
313
284
10
20

7,900
16,400
17,200
11,200
13,200

Two earners
Husband and wife only
Husband and other relative,
only
Husband is nonearner

21,528
18,669

7,709
7,709

5,528
4,274

5,079
4,272

2,113
1,667

744
539

354
207

21,200
20,900

2,414
445

—

1,046
208

663
143

395
51

183
22

126
21

23,900
17,700

Three earners or more
Husband and wife earners
Husband an earner, wife
nonearner
Husband is nonearner

6,881
5,573

—

1,505
1,505

2,135
1,722

1,629
1,255

863
614

749
477

30,000
29,900

376
37

326
48

223
26

248
23

30,600
27,400

Number of earners

Total

Total married-couple families

1,172
135

’ Income rounded to nearest $100.




53

—

—

—

—

—

—

Table 56.
Married-couple families
by number of earners in
previous year and
presence and number
of own children under
18,
March 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Presence and number of own children under age 18
Number of earners

Total
None

1

2

3

4

5

6 or
more

Total married-couple families

47,689

23,178

9,202

9,136

4,067

1,437

448

222

No earners
One earner
Husband only
Wife only
Other relative only

5,102
14,179
12,201
1,476
502

4,708
6,344
4,770
1,183
391

163
2,369
2,171
141
57

119
3,178
3,075
79
24

54
1,513
1,452
48
14

35
515
486
19
10

12
189
181
6
1

12
71
67

Two earners
Husband and wife only
Husband and other relative, only
Husband is nonearner

21,528
18,669
2,414
445

9,551
8,122
1,128
301

4,831
4,165
579
87

4,565
4,186
348
31

1,796
1,571
207
18

585
472
109
4

138
112
23
3

61
41
20
1

6,881
5,573
1,172
135

2,575
2,136
363
76

1,839
1,460
352
28

1,274
1,038
217
19

705
576
125
4

302
219
75
7

109
86
21
2

77
58
19
—

Three earners or more
Husband and wife earners
Husband an earner, wife nonearner
Husband is nonearner
NOTE: Children are defined as "o w n”
children of the family and include nevermarried sons and daughters, stepchildren,
and adopted children. Excluded are other




related children such as grandchildren,
nieces, nephews, and cousins, and
unrelated children

54

—

5

Table 57.
Families maintained by
women and men by
number of earners and
size of family,
March 1979, and
median family income
in 1978
(Numbers in thousands)

2
persons

3
persons

4
persons

5
persons

6 or
more

Median
family
income
19781

8,453

3,901

2,287

1,209

596

460

$ 8,500

No earners
One earner
Householder3 only
Other relative only

1,961
4,112
3,187
925

904
2,140
1,624
516

490
1,160
988
172

318
455
362
94

153
222
145
77

96
135
68
67

4,100
8,300
8,100
9,400

Two earners or more
Householder3 and other relative
Householder3 is nonearner

2,380
2,116
264

857
857
—

637
529
108

435
370
65

222
182
40

229
177
51

15,600
15,600
15,800

1,653
188
746
594
152

1,024
145
488
381
106

376
24
173
148
25

132
8
56
46
10

61
7
18
15
3

60
3
10
3
7

$16,000
6,200
13,900
14,100
13,000

719
677
43

391
391
—

179
160
19

68
58
11

35
31
5

46
37
9

22,200
22,400
(4)

Size of family
Type of family and number of earners

Total

Maintained by women, total1

Maintained by men, total1
No earners
One earner
Householder3 only
Other relative only
Two earners or more
Householder3 and other relative
Householder3 is nonearner
’ Income rounded to nearest $100.
includes only divorced, separated,
widowed or never-married persons.




householder refers to the woman or man
maintaining the family.
'Median not shown where number of
families is less than 75,000.

55

Table 58.
Families maintained by
women and men by
number of earners in
previous year and
presence and number of
own children under 18,
March 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Presence and number of own children under age 18
Type of family and number of earners

Total
None

1

2

3

4

5 or
more

Maintained by women, total1

8,453

3,167

2,358

1,701

782

293

152

No earners
One earner
Householder2 only
Other relative only

1,961
4,112
3,187
925

641
1,159
459
700

473
1,406
1,337
69

448
972
909
62

234
393
341
51

111
124
97
27

53
59
43
16

Two earners or more
Householder2 and other relative
Householder2 is nonearner

2,380
2,116
264

1,366
1,199
168

479
437
42

282
262
19

155
143
12

58
48
9

41
27
14

Maintained by men, total1
No earners
One earner
Householder2 only
Other relative only

1,653
188
746
594
152

1,085
134
382
239
143

316
37
195
191
4

168
12
119
115
5

64
1
37
37
—

15
3
10
10
—

719
677
43

569
530
39

85
82
2

37
37
—

25
25
—

2
2
—

Two earners or more
Householder2 and other relative
Householder2 is nonearner
includes only divorced, separated,
widowed, or never-married persons,
householder refers to the woman or man
maintaining the family.
See note on table 56.




56

4
—

3
2
1
2
1
1

Table 59.
Earnings of married
women, husband
present, as percent of
family income in 1978,
by selected
characteristics of
married-couple families,
March 1979

Characteristic

Number of
wives
(thousands)

Median percent
of family income
accounted for by
earnings of wife

Total, wives with earnings

26,074

26.1

Age of husband:
Under 25 years
25 to 44 years
45 years and over

2,240
13,373
10,461

30.0
26.0
25.5

Wife worked 50 to 52 weeks full time

11,455

37.6

Family income:
Under $10,000
$10,000 to $14,999
$15,000 to $19,999
$20,000 to $24,999
$25,000 and over

463
1,067
1,873
2,203
5,849

63.6
49.8
42.3
38.6
33.4

Median family income

$25,346

Wife worked 27 to 49 weeks full time
Median family income
Wife worked 1 to 26 weeks full time
or 1 to 52 weeks part time
Median family income

Table 60.
Earnings of women
maintaining families as
percent of family
income in 1978 by
selected
characteristics,
March 1979




Characteristic

3,472
$20,181
11,147
$19,184

Number of
women
(thousands)

—
29.6
—
11.1
—

Median percent
of family income
accounted for by
earnings of woman

Total, women with earnings
maintaining families

5,273

67.8

Age of householder1
:
Under 25 years
25 to 44 years
45 years and over

507
2,924
1,842

71.4
76.9
52.3

Householder1 worked 50 to 52 weeks
full time

2,943

77.0

Family income:
Under $5,000
$5,000 to $9,999
$10,000 to $14,999
$15,000 and over

75
806
864
1,199

85.1
84.1
79.5
61.6

Median family income

$13,219

Householder1 worked 27 to 49 weeks
full time
Median family income
Householder1 worked 1 to 26 weeks full
time or 1 to 52 weeks part time
Median family income
'Householder refers to the woman
maintaining the family.

57

712
$ 8,848
1,618
$ 5,746

—
74.5
—
35.4
—

Table 61.
Women who work full
time year round by
median earnings in
1978, marital status,
and educational
attainment,
March 1979

Education

Total

Never
married

Married,
husband
present

Separated

Widowed

Divorced

Number of women (thousands)
Total who worked 50 to 52
weeks full time

21,125

4,495

11,823

3,339
10,227

391
2,072

1,880
5,894

3,815
2,259
1,485

934
664
433

1,965
1,282
803

Less than 12 years of high school
12 years of high school only
College:
1-3 years
4 years
5 years or more

948

2,595

213
484

389
573

465
1,205

144
64
44

-

1,264

197
59
46

575
189
160

Median earnings
Total

$ 9,294

$ 9,201

$ 9,219

$ 9,023

$ 8,981

$10,119

7,142
8,805

6,507
8,268

7,045
8,797

6,805
8,987

7,516
9,252

7,757
9,708

9,796
11,560
14,697

9,537
11,107
14,663

9,519
11,595
14,408

10,182
(D
(1)

10,553
(D
(D

11,099
13,029
16,318

Less than 12 years of high school
12 years of high school only
College:
1-3 years
4 years
5 years or more
'Median not shown where base is less than
75,000.




58

Table 62.
Median annual earnings
of year-round full-time
workers in 1978 by
occupation of longest
job,
March 1979

Number employed
year round, full time
(thousands)

Occupation

Annual earnings,
1978

Women’s earnings
as percent of
men’s

Women

Table 63.
Women 16 years old
and over by poverty
status,
1966-78




Men

41,036

$ 9,350

$15,730

59

3,977
1,836
880
8,311
390
2,479
52
199
2,699
91

Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative, except farm
Sales
Clerical
Craft
Operatives, except transport
Transport equipment operatives
Nonfarm laborers
Service
Farm

Women

20,914

Total with earnings

Men

7,121
7,128
2,456
2,561
8,768
4,483
2,344
1,873
2,821
1,480

12,647
10,689
7,644
9,158
9,584
7,995
8,364
7,452
6,832
2,360

19,729
19,633
16,839
15,289
15,776
13,470
14,071
12,031
11,057
7,948

64
54
45
60
61
59
59
62
62
30

(Numbers in thousands)
Below poverty level
Year

Population
Number

1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978

59

68,597
69,833
71,041
72,367
73,666
75,503
76,812
78,110
79,452
80,834
82,059
83,374
84,686

Percent of
population

10,585
10,714
9,645
9,550
9,947
10,172
9,724
9,096
9,371
10,060
10,034
9,897
10,053

15.4
15.3
13.6
13.2
13.5
13.5
12.7
11.6
11.8
12.4
12.2
11.9
11.9

Table 64.
Poverty status in 1978
of women and men by
age and years of school
completed,
March 1979
Total,
16 years
and over

16 and 17
years

18 to 21
years

22 to 34
years

35 to 44
years

45 to 54
years

55 to 64
years

65 years
and over

Total (thousands)

84,686

4,057

8,365

23,289

12,671

11,790

10,887

13,627

Total in poverty:
Number (thousands)
Percent

10,053
100.0

586
100.0

1,233
100.0

2,561
100.0

1,204
100.0

993
100.0

1,194
100.0

2,282
100.0

32.1
28.7
26.8
12.4

15.4
80.5
4.1
—

6.6
39.2
36.6
17.7

13.8
28.9
35.1
22.1

24.8
29.9
31.6
13.4

39.4
24.0
30.0
6.6

46.9
18.0
26.8
8.3

63.6
16.3
14.2
5.8

76,894

4,178

8,010

22,438

11,940

11,036

9,744

9,548

5,631
100.0

531
100.0

803
100.0

1,374
100.0

656
100.0

646
100.0

671
100.0

951
100.0

34.5
26.6
21.6
17.2

25.2
73.4
1.1
—

10.1
37.9
32.3
19.7

15.5
21.7
29.2
33.6

30.3
23.6
24.7
21.3

42.1
19.5
25.9
12.5

53.9
17.3
18.0
10.9

71.9
11.7
10.6
5.7

Sex and years of
school completed

WOMEN

Elementary school: 8 years or
less (includes none
completed)
High school: 1 to 3 years
4 years
College: 1 year or more
MEN
Total (thousands)
Total in poverty:
Number (thousands)
Percent
Elementary school: 8 years or
less (includes none
completed)
High school: 1 to 3 years
4 years
College: 1 year or more




60

Part VI




Race and Hispanic Origin
The social and cultural diversity
among the various racial and ethnic
groups is reflected in the labor market
experience of women. Historically,
black women have been more likely to
work than whites. However, during the
1970's the labor force participation rate
for white women grew much more
rapidly than for black women so that by
the close of the decade there was little
difference between their overall
participation rates (about 51 and 54
percent, respectively, for white and
black women). Although the
participation rate for Hispanic women
was somewhat lower than for either
blacks or whites, it has also advanced,
reaching 47 percent in 1979.
The proportion of black women in
white-collar work increased sharply
over the decade, as many of the
younger, better educated women found
jobs in clerical occupations. Over the
same period, the proportion of blacks in
private household occupations — an
area where many black women have
historically found employment —
declined dramatically.
Black and Hispanic mothers who
were maintaining families (no husband
present) were considerably less likely
than white mothers to be in the labor
force. Thus, not surprisingly, the
incidence of poverty was far greater
among such black and Hispanic
families than among white families. In
1978, about 60 percent of the black
and Hispanic families maintained by
women with children were living below
the poverty level com pared with only
34 percent of white families.

61

Table 65.
Labor force status of
women and men by
race, annual averages,
1955-79
(Numbers in thousands)
Women
Labor force
participation rate

Population

Year

Unemployment rate

White

Black
and other

White

Black
and other

White

Black
and other

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

51,803
52,372
52,997
53,645
54,393

5,772
5,857
5,952
6,047
6,144

34.5
35.7
35.7
35.8
36.0

46.1
47.3
47.2
48.0
47.7

4.3
4.2
4.3
6.2
5.3

8.4
8.9
7.3
10.8
9.4

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

55,215
55,994
56,660
57,672
58,665

6,369
6,489
6,663
6,823
6,972

36.5
36.9
36.7
37.2
37.5

48.2
48.3
48.0
48.1
48.5

5.3
6.5
5.5
5.8
5.5

9.4
11.8
11.0
11.2
10.6

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

59,601
60,503
61,492
62,513
63,564

7,130
7,292
7,477
7,666
7,873

38.1
39.2
40.1
40.7
41.8

48.6
49.3
49.5
49.3
49.8

5.0
4.3
4.6
4.3
4.2

9.2
8.6
9.1
8.3
7.8

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

64,624
65,697
67,138
68,090
69,064

8,110
8,345
8,730
9,102
9,445

42.6
42.6
43.2
44.1
45.2

49.5
49.2
48.7
49.1
49.1

5.4
6.3
5.9
5.3
6.1

9.3
10.8
11.3
10.5
10.7

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

70,115
71,147
72,117
73,118
74,120

9,750
10,056
10,345
10,646
10,963

45.9
46.9
48.1
49.5
50.6

49.2
50.2
50.9
53.3
53.5

8.6
7.9
7.3
6.2
5.9

14.0
13.6
14.0
13.1
12.3




62

Table 65. Continued

(Num bers in thousands)

Men
Population

Year

Labor force
participation rate

Unemployment rate

White

Black
and other

White

Black
and other

White

Black
and other

1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

47,077
47,604
48,122
48,747
49,410

5,034
5,120
5,194
5,287
5,384

85.4
85.6
84.8
84.3
83.8

85.0
85.1
84.3
84.0
83.4

3.7
3.4
3.6
6.1
4.6

8.8
7.9
8.3
13.8
11.5

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

50,067
50,610
51,055
52,033
52,869

5,595
5,677
5,777
5,888
5,978

83.4
83.0
82.1
81.5
81.1

83.0
82.2
80.8
80.2
80.0

4.8
5.7
4.6
4.7
4.1

10.7
12.8
10.9
10.5
8.9

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

53,683
54,063
54,608
55,435
56,349

6,101
6,200
6,298
6,413
6,549

80.8
80.6
80.7
80.4
80.2

79.6
79.0
78.5
77.6
76.9

3.6
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5

7.4
6.3
6.0
5.6
5.3

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

57,488
58,762
60,221
61,213
62,311

6,773
6,973
7,237
7,532
7,779

80.0
79.6
79.6
79.5
79.4

76.5
74.9
73.7
73.8
73.3

4.0
4.9
4.5
3.7
4.3

7.3
9.1
8.9
7.6
9.1

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

63,386
64,422
65,478
66,462
67,494

8,017
8,279
8,486
8,714
8,955

78.7
78.4
78.5
78.6
78.6

71.5
70.7
71.0
72.0
71.9

7.2
6.4
5.5
4.5
4.4

13.7
12.7
12.4
10.9
10.3




63

Table 66.
Labor force status of
persons of Hispanic
origin by sex, annual
averages,
1973-79




Sex and
year

Population
(thousands)

Labor force
participation rate

Unemployment
rate

3,159
3,364
3,557
3,650
3,783
4,023
4,138

40.9
42.3
43.1
44.0
44.1
46.5
47.4

9.0
9.4
13.6
12.9
11.8
11.3
10.4

2,838
3,060
3,132
3,193
3,373
3,616
3,764

81.5
81.7
80.7
79.6
80.7
81.0
81.3

6.7
7.3
11.4
10.7
8.9
7.6
6.9

WOMEN
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
MEN
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

64

Table 67.
Women and men in the
population and labor
force by age, race, and
Hispanic origin, annual
averages,
1979
Black

White

Hispanic origin

Age
Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

POPULATION
74,120
100.0

9,392
100.0

7,634
100.0

4,138
100.0

3,764
100.0

22.5
10.3
12.2
21.6
15.5
14.4
13.1
12.8

26.6
12.2
14.4
22.0
15.6
13.1
10.5
12.3

28.1
14.0
14.1
21.4
15.1
13.8
10.8
10.7

28.3
12.7
15.6
25.8
18.2
12.3
8.2
7.2

30.0
14.3
15.7
25.1
17.8
12.9
7.7
6.4

37,528
100.0

53,074
100.0

4,984
100.0

5,446
100.0

1,960
100.0

3,059
100.0

26.8
10.6
16.2
25.1
18.6
15.9
10.9
2.7

16 to 24
16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 and over

67,494
100.0

20.9
9.3
11.6
20.2
14.9
13.9
13.2
16.8

Total: Number (thousands)
Percent

22.1
8.5
13.6
26.4
19.1
16.9
12.3
3.3

24.1
8.5
16.6
29.1
19.9
14.7
8.7
2.5

24.5
8.5
16.0
27.3
19.1
16.4
9.8
2.9

31.0
11.7
19.3
28.6
20.7
12.9
6.0
0.8

27.5
10.0
17.5
29.1
20.6
14.3
6.8
1.8

LABOR FORCE
Total: Number (thousands)
Percent
16 to 24
16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 and over




65

Table 68.
Employment status of
white, black and
Hispanic persons, by
sex and marital status,
March 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Women
Race, Hispanic origin,
and employment status

Total

Never
married

Married,
husband
present

Married,
husband
absent

Widowed

Divorced

WHITE
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Employed
Unemployed
Unemployment rate

73,812
37,210
50.4
35,025
2,185
5.9

14,261
9,296
65.2
8,554
742
8.0

44,087
21,391
48.5
20,353
1,038
4.9

1,928
1,136
58.9
1,031
105
9.2

9,021
1,988
22.0
1,889
99
5.0

4,515
3,400
75.3
3,198
202
5.9

9,319
4,899
52.6
4,321
578
11.8

2,962
1,502
50.7
1,195
307
20.4

3,213
1,920
59.7
1,778
142
7.4

1,074
632
58.9
564
69
10.9

1,288
322
25.0
301
21
6.5

782
523
66.8
483
40
7.7

3,926
1,859
47.4
1,677
183
9.8

897
502
56.0
436
66
13.1

2,220
1,028
46.3
946
82
8.0

291
117
40.4
103
15
12.5

261
58
22.2
51
7
(D

256
154
60.2
140
14
9.0

BLACK
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Employed
Unemployed
Unemployment rate
HISPANIC
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Employed
Unemployed
Unemployment rate
See footnote at end of table.




66

Table 68. Continued

(Numbers in thousands)
Men
Race, Hispanic origin,
and employment status

Total

Never
married

Married,
wife
present

Married,
wife
absent

Widowed

Divorced

67,188
52,297
77.8
49,674
2,622
5.0

17,708
12,874
72.7
11,535
1,339
10.4

43,549
35,474
81.5
34,419
1,055
3.0

1,434
1,134
79.1
1,073
62
5.4

1,595
439
27.5
427
12
2.7

2,900
2,375
81.9
2,2.21
154
6.5

7,475
5,246
70.2
4,549
696
13.3

2,848
1,760
61.8
1,337
423
24.0

3,230
2,585
80.0
2,422
163
6.3

586
405
69.0
341
64
15.7

310
116
37.6
105
11
9.4

501
379
75.8
344
35
9.3

3,617
2,936
81.1
2,704
232
7.9

1,120
786
70.1
673
113
14.3

2,120
1,852
87.4
1,751
101
5.4

187
162
86.7
149
13
8.1

56
22
0)
22
—
—

134
114
84.9
109
5
4.8

WHITE
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Employed
Unemployed
Unemployment rate
BLACK
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Employed
Unemployed
Unemployment rate
HISPANIC
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Employed
Unemployed
Unemployment rate
'Rate not shown where base is less than
75,000.




\

67

Table 69.
Labor force status of
women by race,
Hispanic origin, marital
status, and presence
and age of children
under 18,
March 1979
White
Civilian
labor force
(thousands)

Labor force
participation
rate

Unemploy­
ment rate

37,210

50.4

5.9

Never married
With no own children
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6

9,296
9,122
174
52
121

65.2
65.4
57.3
(D
55.3

8.0
7.9
12.6
(D
14.9

Married, husband present
With no own children
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6

21,391
10,097
11,294
7,178
4,116

48.5
46.3
50.7
58.1
41.5

4.9
3.7
5.9
4.7
8.1

Married, husband absent
With no own children
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6

1,136
532
603
353
250

58.9
57.9
59.8
66.3
52.5

9.2
5.6
12.4
8.1
18.5

Widowed
With no own children
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6

1,988
1,725
263
241
22

22.0
20.2
53.1
55.2
0)

5.0
4.2
9.8
9.0
18.7

Divorced
With no own children
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6

3,400
1,781
1,619
1,192
427

75.3
70.4
81.6
85.3
72.9

5.9
5.0
6.9
6.0
9.5

Marital and family status

Women, total

See footnote at end of table.




68

Table 69. Continued

Black

Hispanic origin

Civilian
labor force
(thousands)

Labor force
participation
rate

Unemploy­
ment rate

Civilian
labor force
(thousands)

Labor force
participation
rate

Unemploy­
ment rate

Women, total

4,899

52.6

11.8

1,859

47.4

9.8

Never married
With no own children
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6

1,502
1,191
311
135
176

50.7
50.3
52.4
63.3
46.3

20.4
19.1
25.7
24.0
27.0

502
469
33
10
23

56.0
58.6
34.0
(D
d)

13.1
13.0
(D
(D
(D

Married, husband present
With no own children
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6

1,920
695
1,225
715
510

59.7
51.6
65.6
70.3
60.1

7.4
4.2
9.2
7.2
11.9

1,028
358
669
344
326

46.3
49.2
44.9
52.8
38.7

8.0
7.6
8.1
6.4
10.0

Married, husband absent
With no own children
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6

632
258
374
229
146

58.9
58.5
59.1
62.9
53.9

10.9
7.2
13.4
10.2
18.3

117
49
69
34
34

40.4
d)
(D
(D
(D

12.5
0)
(D
d)
(D

Widowed
With no own children
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6

322
252
70
60
10

25.0
22.8
38.8
39.7
(D

6.5
6.7
(D
(D
(D

58
43
15
9
6

22.2
19.0
(D
0)
(D

(D
(D
(D
0)
—

Divorced
With no own children
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6

523
243
279
207
72

66.8
65.9
67.7
74.4
53.8

7.7
3.4
11.4
9.7
d)

154
71
83
59
24

60.2
55.3
65.2
71.2
(D

9.0
d)
9.4
(D
(D

Marital and family status

1
Rate not shown where base is less than
75,000.
See note on table 26.




69

Table 70.
Employment status of
women and men of
Hispanic origin,
March,1975 and 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
1975
Sex and employment
status

1979

_ . .
To,al

MexicanAmerican

Puerto
Rican

0,her

_ .
To,al

MexicanAmerican

Puerto
Rican

0,her

1,478
42.3
1,298
180
12.2
2,015

835
42.1
735
99
11.9
1,146

184
33.5
157
27
14.6
365

460
47.7
406
54
11.7
504

1,859
47.4
1,677
183
9.8
2,066

1,077
48.1
962
115
10.7
1,163

196
33.4
173
23
11.9
390

586
53.3
542
44
7.5
514

2,542
79.6
2,209
333
13.1
651

1,547
81.0
1,358
189
12.2
363

310
74.0
250
60
19.3
109

685
79.3
601
84
12.3
178

2,936
81.1
2,704
232
7.9
682

1,853
83.1
1,724
130
7.0
378

318
73.1
272
46
14.3
117

765
80.3
708
57
7.4
187

WOMEN
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Employed
Unemployed
Unemployment rate
Not in labor force
MEN
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Employed
Unemployed
Unemployment rate
Not in labor force




70

Table 71Labor force status of
women and men by
educational attainment,
race, and Hispanic
origin,
March 1979
Black

White
Sex and years of
school completed

Hispanic origin

Population

^ rc r
b°

Population

Labor

Population

£bor

73,812
100.0

37,210
100.0

9,319
100.0

4,899
100.0

3,926
100.0

1,859
100.0

Elementary: Less than 8 years1
8 years
High school: 1 to 3 years
4 years
College: 1 to 3 years
4 years or more

6.8
7.2
18.1
40.8
15.4
11.7

2.8
3.3
15.1
45.6
17.8
15.4

14.1
7.4
27.7
31.4
13.0
6.4

7.0
5.0
22.2
38.6
17.4
9.8

28.9
7.5
20.6
29.1
9.4
4.5

19.7
5.5
17.9
37.4
12.9
6.6

Median school years completed

12.4

12.6

12.0

12.4

11.0

12.2

67,187
100.0

52,297
100.0

7,475
100.0

5,246
100.0

3,618
100.0

2,936
100.0

Elementary: Less than 8 years1
8 years
High school: 1 to 3 years
4 years
College: 1 to 3 years
4 years or more

7.0
7.5
17.5
33.4
16.8
17.8

4.4
5.2
15.3
36.8
17.7
20.6

18.9
6.7
26.7
29.4
11.8
6.5

12.4
5.5
23.6
36.5
13.8
8.1

27.6
8.0
22.4
24.2
11.8
6.0

26.3
7.3
19.6
27.1
12.9
6.8

Median school years completed

12.5

12.7

11.7

12.2

10.9

11.5

WOMEN
Total: Number (in thousands)
Percent

MEN
Total: Number (in thousands)
Percent

'Includes persons reporting no school years
completed.




71

Table 72.
Labor force
participation rates and
unemployment rates of
women and men by
educational attainment,
race,and Hispanic
origin,
March 1979
Black

White
Sex and years of
school completed

Hispanic origin

Labor force
participation
rate

Unemploy­
ment rate

Labor force
participation
rate

Unemploy­
ment rate

Labor force
participation
rate

Unemploy­
ment rate

Total

50.4

5.9

52.6

11.8

47.4

9.8

Elementary: Less than 8 years1
8 years
High school: 1 to 3 years
4 years
College: 1 to 3 years
4 years or more

20.8
22.9
42.2
56.3
58.4
66.0

8.8
9.3
11.7
5.4
3.7
2.9

25.9
36.0
42.2
64.5
70.3
81.2

5.7
10.4
18.0
12.0
8.5
4.1

32.2
35.0
41.0
60.9
64.8
70.2

4.7
8.4
14.7
10.0
5.6
5.3

Total

77.8

5.0

70.2

13.3

81.1

7.9

Elementary: Less than 8 years1
8 years
High school: 1 to 3 years
4 years
College: 1 to 3 years
4 years or more

48.9
53.9
67.7
86.0
81.8
90.3

6.5
6.8
10.4
4.7
4.0
1.7

46.1
57.2
62.1
87.2
82.0
88.2

10.3
8.3
21.0
13.6
9.1
4.2

77.3
74.8
70.8
91.1
88.6
91.3

6.0
8.3
14.5
6.7
7.0
2.5

WOMEN

MEN

'Includes persons reporting no school years
completed.




72

Table 73.
Work experience of
women and men by
race and Hispanic
origin,
1978
Men

Women
Work experience
White

Black

Hispanic
origin

White

Black

Hispanic
origin

73,812
100.0

9,319
100.0

3,926
100.0

67,187
100.0

7,475
100.0

3,618
100.0

57.2
42.8

56.1
43.9

53.1
46.9

82.4
17.6

72.6
27.4

83.1
16.9

42,226
100.0

5,229
100.0

2,083
100.0

55,378
100.0

5,426
100.0

3,008
100.0

Worked at full-time jobs1
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

66.8
49.6
43.0
5.6
11.6

74.9
54.0
47.8
6.6
14.3

74.5
49.4
41.4
6.9
18.3

88.1
74.9
67.2
4.7
8.5

86.2
65.0
57.1
8.0
13.1

89.2
71.2
62.4
6.4
11.4

Worked at part time jobs2
40 to 52 weeks
50 to 52 weeks
27 to 39 weeks
1 to 26 weeks

33.2
15.4
11.2
4.8
13.1

25.1
11.7
9.0
2.8
10.6

25.5
10.0
8.1
3.9
11.5

11.9
5.6
4.1
1.5
4.7

13.8
4.9
3.4
1.2
7.7

10.8
4.5
3.5
1.5
4.9

Total: Number (thousands)
Percent
Worked during year
Did not work during year
Worked during year:
Number (thousands)
Percent

'Usually worked
in a majority of
2Usually worked
in a majority of

35 hours or more a week
weeks worked.
less than 35 hours a week
weeks worked.




73

Table 74.
Occupational
distribution of
employed white, black,
and Hispanic women
and men,
March, 1970 and 1979
Women

Men

Occupation
1970

1979

1970

1979

25,967
100.0

35,025
100.0

43,798
100.0

49,674
100.0

15.6
4.8
7.3
36.1
1.1
14.5
0.4
18.8
3.7
15.1
1.5

16.9
6.7
7.2
36.3
1.8
10.7
1.1
18.3
2.1
16.2
1.0

14.8
15.5
6.1
7.4
20.6
18.8
5.6
6.0
0.1
6.0
5.1

16.2
15.2
6.5
5.9
21.5
17.1
6.1
7.9
0.1
7.8
3.8

3,407
100.0

4,321
100.0

4,273
100.0

4,549
100.0

10.0
1.4
2.5
18.9
0.7
16.7
0.9
48.4
19.4
29.0
0.5

12.7
3.0
2.8
28.8
1.3
14.4
1.7
34.8
8.0
26.8
0.5

5.7
4.1
1.5
8.3
14.4
30.2
19.2
11.9
0.2
11.6
4.6

8.7
5.6
2.0
7.1
17.5
25.6
13.5
16.7
0.1
16.6
3.3

1,019
100.0

1,677
100.0

1,874
100.0

2,704
100.0

8.1
2.1
5.4
28.5
2.3
27.5
1.4
22.9
4.6
18.3
2.1

7.5
3.7
5.3
31.7
2.1
25.2
1.1
21.8
2.6
19.2
1.5

7.5
5.4
4.0
7.5
20.4
26.9
10.4
11.9
0.1
11.8
6.0

7.7
5.5
3.3
6.3
20.9
25.6
11.6
13.5
0.1
13.4
4.7

WHITE
Total: Number (thousands)
Percent
Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative, except farm
Sales
Clerical
Craft
Operatives, including transport
Nonfarm laborers
Service
Private household workers
All other service
Farm
BLACK
Total: Number (thousands)
Percent
Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative, except farm
Sales
Clerical
Craft
Operatives, including transport
Nonfarm laborers
Service
Private household workers
All other service
Farm
HISPANIC ORIGIN
Total: Number (thousands)
Percent
Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative, except farm
Sales
Clerical
Craft
Operatives, including transport
Nonfarm laborers
Service
Private household workers
All other service
Farm




74

Table 75.
Median annual earnings
of women and men
who worked year round,
full time, by race and
Hispanic origin,
1978

White

Sex and earnings

Black

Hispanic
origin

WOMEN
Worked year round full time in 19781:
Number (thousands)
Percent

17,257
100.0

2,466
100.0

837
100.0

1.0
5.6
47.7
32.3
12.1
1.4

0.6
9.7
50.8
26.7
11.7
0.5

1.2
9.7
57.1
24.3
6.9
0.5

$ 9,540

$ 8,837

$8,115

33,127
100.0

3,019
100.0

1,757
100.0

0.5
1.7
14.6
24.9
41.4
16.8

0.9
4.2
30.4
28.0
31.5
4.9

0.6
3.5
33.5
29.8
27.8
4.9

$16,184

$12,498

$11,841

Under $2,0002
$2,000 to $4,999
$5,000 to $9,999
$10,000 to $14,999
$15,000 to $24,999
$25,000 or more
Median annual earnings, 1978
MEN
Worked year round full time in 19781:
Number (thousands)
Percent
Under $2,0002
$2,000 to $4,999
$5,000 to $9,999
$10,000 to $14,999
$15,000 to $24,999
$25,000 or more
Median annual earnings, 1978
'The survey was conducted in March 1979
and counted persons 16 years and over as
of the survey date who worked 50 to 52
weeks in 1978, usually full time (35 hours
or more per week).

Table 76.
Median annual earnings
of year-round full-time
workers 14 years and
over by sex, race, and
Hispanic origin,
1975-78




includes workers with no earnings or a
loss.

Annual earnings
Women

Men

Women’s earnings
as percent of
men’s

$7,737
8,376
8,870
9,732

$13,233
14,272
15,378
16,360

58.5
58.7
57.7
59.5

$7,392
7,831
8,290
9,020

$ 9,848
10,222
10,602
12,530

75.1
76.6
78.2
72.0

$6,577
7,129
7,599
8,331

$ 9,588
10,422
10,935
11,943

68.6
68.4
69.5
69.8

year

WHITE
1975
1976
1977
1978
BLACK
1975
1976
1977
1978
HISPANIC
1975
1976
1977
1978

75

Table 77.
Earnings of married
women, husband
present, as percent of
family income in 1978
by selected
characteristics of
married-couple families,
race,and Hispanic
origin,
March 1979




Characteristic

Number
of wives
(thousands)

Median percent
of family income
accounted for by
earnings of wife

WHITE
Total, wives with earnings

25,508

25.3

Wife worked 50 to 52 weeks full time

10,107

37.2

Family income:
Under $10,000
$10,000 to $14,999
$15,000 to $19,999
$20,000 to $24,999
$25,000 and over

390
899
1,626
1,954
5,238

62.3
50.4
42.0
38.6
33.0

Median family income

$25,593

Wife worked 27 to 49 weeks full time
Median family income
Wife worked 1 to 26 weeks full time
or 1 to 52 weeks part time
Median family income

3,085
$20,427

—
29.0
—

10,316

10.7

$19,630

—

BLACK
Total, wives with earnings

2,078

33.2

Wife worked 50 to 52 weeks full time

1,085

41.3

Family income:
Under $10,000
$10,000 to $14,999
$15,000 to $19,999
$20,000 to $24,999
$25,000 and over

57
147
209
216
455

Median family income

$22,977

Wife worked 27 to 49 weeks full time
Median family income
Wife worked 1 to 26 weeks full time
or 1 to 52 weeks part time
Median family income

324
$18,180
670
$13,470

1
48.4
43.9
38.8
37.7
—
34.2
—
15.9
—

HISPANIC ORIGIN
1,103

28.1

443

39.9

Family income:
Under $10,000
$10,000 to $14,999
$15,000 to $19,999
$20,000 to $24,999
$25,000 and over

26
70
103
87
157

1
1

Median family income

$21,285

Total, wives with earnings
Wife worked 50 to 52 weeks full time

Wife worked 27 to 49 weeks full time
Median family income
Wife worked 1 to 26 weeks full time
or 1 to 52 weeks part time
Median family income
'Median not shown where base is less than
75,000.

76

183
$17,300
477
$14,524

41.7
40.4
33.7
—
31.8
—
14.0
—

Table 78.
Number of women and
men 16 years and over
below poverty level and
poverty rate by age,
race, and Hispanic
origin,
1975-78




(Numbers in thousands)

Black

White
Sex and
year

Hispanic

Number

Percent
of total

Number

Percent
of total

Number

Percent
of total

7,201
7,026
6,864
6,990

10.2
9.8
9.4
9.5

2,667
2,781
2,850
2,859

31.4
31.3
31.3
30.7

N.A.
872
870
822

N.A.
23.7
21.9
20.9

4,378
4,118
4,147
4,079

7.0
6.2
6.2
6.0

1,417
1,440
1,429
1,387

21.1
19.6
19.1
18.3

N.A.
588
553
542

N.A.
18.0
15.5
14.9

WOMEN
1975
1976
1977
1978
MEN
1975
1976
1977
1978

N.A. = not available.

77

Table 79.
White, black,and
Hispanic families by
type,
March ,1975-79




(Numbers in thousands)

Other families2
Race, Hispanic
origin,and year

All
families

Marriedcouple
Maintained
families1
by men1

Maintained by women

Total

As percent
of all
families

WHITE
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

49,440
49,873
50,083
50,529
50,911

43,050
43,311
43,397
43,423
43,637

1,182
1,182
1,219
1,278
1,356

5,208
5,380
5,467
5,828
5,918

10.5
10.8
10.9
11.5
11.6

5,491
5,585
5,804
5,806
5,907

3,357
3,352
3,407
3,260
3,244

200
229
246
269
273

1,934
2,004
2,151
2,277
2,390

35.2
35.9
37.1
39.2
40.5

2,475
2,499
2,583
2,764
2,741

1,926
1,896
1,978
2,104
2,089

87
81
88
99
110

462
522
517
561
542

18.7
20.9
20.0
20.3
19.8

BLACK
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
HISPANIC
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

1includes men in Armed Forces living off
post or with their families on post.
Maintained by never-married, widowed,
divorced, or separated persons.

78

Table 80.
Labor force status of
women and men
maintaining families by
race and Hispanic
origin, and presence
and age of own
children under 18,
March ,1975 and 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
1979

1975
Race, Hispanic origin, and
presence and age of children

Population

Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

Population

Labor
force

Labor force
participation
rate

Women maintaining families
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6
With no children under 18

5,208
2,972
1,851
1,122
2,236

2,896
1,866
1,265
601
1,030

55.6
62.8
68.3
53.6
46.1

5,918
3,511
2,357
1,154
2,408

3,661
2,481
1,773
709
1,180

61.9
70.7
75.2
61.4
49.0

Men1 maintaining families
With children under 18
With no children under 18

1,182
348
835

879
305
574

74.9
87.6
68.7

1,355
444
911

1,007
393
614

75.0
88.5
67.4

Women maintaining families
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6
With no children under 18

1,934
1,378
761
618
555

988
740
464
276
248

51.1
53.7
61.0
44.7
44.7

2,390
1,684
954
730
706

1,283
951
598
353
332

53.7
56.5
62.7
48.4
47.0

Men1 maintaining families
With children under 18
With no children under 18

200
69
131

142
54
88

71.3
(2)
67.2

272
116
156

193
96
97

71.3
82.8
62.2

Women maintaining families
With children under 18
With children 6-17 only
With children under 6
With no children under 18

462
352
182
170
110

201
147
85
62
54

43.5
41.8
46.7
36.5
49.1

542
410
210
200
132

251
181
108
73
70

46.3
44.1
51.4
36.5
53.0

Men1 maintaining families
With children under 18
With no children under 18

87
26
61

63
18
45

73.4
(2)
(2)

110
36
73

88
31
57

80.0
(2)
(2)

WHITE

BLACK

HISPANIC

’ Population includes a few male members
of the Armed Forces living off post or with
their families on post.
2Rate not shown where base is less than
75,000.




NOTE: Children are defined as “ own”
children of the family. Included are nevermarried sons, daughters, step children and
adopted children. Excluded are other
related children, such as grandchildren,

79

nieces, nephews, cousins, and unrelated
children.

Table 81.
Labor force status of
women maintaining
families by race and
Hispanic origin, marital
status, and presence
and age of children
under 18,
March 1979
(Numbers in thousands)
Women
maintaining
families,
total

Never
married

Married,
husband
absent

Divorced

Widowed

5,918
3,661
61.9
7.0

681
418
61.4
7.2

1,049
635
60.5
11.2

2,297
1,865
81.2
5.9

1,891
743
39.3
5.8

2,408
1,180
49.0
3.6

383
247
64.5
3.2

145
85
58.6
4.7

474
363
76.6
2.8

1,406
485
34.5
4.1

3,511
2,481
70.7
8.5

298
171
57.4
12.9

904
550
60.8
12.4

1,823
1,502
82.4
6.7

485
258
53.2
8.5

2,390
1,283
53.7
12.9

705
390
55.3
21.3

687
417
60.7
9.6

474
313
66.0
11.2

523
163
31.2
4.3

706
333
47.2
4.5

118
84
71.2
3.6

147
95
64.6
4.2

93
61
65.6
(1)

348
93
26.7
3.2

1,684
951
56.5
15.8

Race, Hispanic origin, and
labor force status

588
307
52.2
26.1

540
322
59.6
11.5

381
252
66.1
11.9

174
70
40.2
(1)

WHITE
Population, total
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate
With no children under 18
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate
With children under 18
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate
BLACK
Population, total
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate
With no children under 18
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate
With children under 18
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate
See footnote at end of table.




80

Table 81. Continued
(Numbers in thousands)
Women
maintaining
families,
total

Race, Hispanic origin , and
labor force status

Never
married

Married,
husband
absent

Divorced

Widowed

HISPANIC
542
251
46.3
12.4

126
60
47.6
(D

194
74
38.1
(1)

137
87
63.5
9.2

86
30
34.9
(1)

132
70
53.0
(D

29
27
0)
(D

24
14
(D
d)

28
15
d)
(D

52
15
0)
d)

410
181
44.1
13.8

Population, total
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

97
33
34.0
(D

170
61
35.9
(D

109
72
66.1
0)

34
15
(1)
(D

With no children under 18
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate
With children under 18
Population
Labor force
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate
'Rate not shown where base is less than
75,000.
See note on table 80.




81

Table 82.
Families by type and
race, March 1979, and
median family income
in 1978
Number of families
(thousands)

Type of family

Median family income, 1978

Total

White

Black

Total

White

Black

All families

57,804

50,910

5,906

$17,640

$18,368

$10,879

Married-couple families
Wife in paid labor force1
Wife not in paid labor force

47,692
23,005
24,686

43,636
20,624
23,012

3,244
1,934
1,310

19,340
22,109
16,156

19,638
22,372
16,533

15,913
19,073
11,180

8,468
1,655

5,918
1,355

2,390
272

8,537
15,966

9,911
16,914

5,888
12,080

Other families:
Maintained by women
Maintained by men
'Persons 14 years and over are classified
in the paid labor force if they were
employed as wage and salary workers or
self-employed workers during the survey




week (in March 1979) or were looking for
work at the time and had last worked as
wage and salary or self-employed workers.

82

Table 83.
Number of own
children by age of
children, race and
Hispanic origin, type of
family, and labor force
status of mother, March
1979, and median
family income in 1978
Children under 18 years
Item
White

Black

Hispanic

Number of children (thousands)
Total children
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

49,557
25,122
23,712

7,764
4,360
3,219

4,194
1,743
2,378

Children in married-couple families
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

42,809
21,095
21,714

3,947
2,425
1,522

3,261
1,414
1,847

6,025
4,027
1,999

3,632
1,935
1,697

860
329
531

723

185

72

Children in families maintained by women
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force
Children in families maintained by men

Median family income, 1978
Total children
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

$19,213
20,542
17,991

See footnote at end of table.




83

14,390
17,152
12,240

5,082
6,932
4,055

7,330
7,965
4,427

16,344

Children in families maintained by men

16,726
19,575
11,854

7,606
9,705
4,722

Children in families maintained by women
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

$12,171
15,395
10,174

20,680
22,438
18,950

Children in married-couple families
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

$ 9,793
12,983
6,613

11,318

(1)

Table 83. Continued
Children 6 to 17 years
nem
White

Black

Hispanic

Number of children (thousands)
Total children
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

35,114
19,192
15,312

5,619
3,297
2,183

2,725
1,204
1,461

Children in married-couple families
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

29,860
15,979
13,881

2,797
1,790
1,007

2,076
968
1,108

4,645
3,213
1,432

2,684
1,508
1,177

589
235
353

610

138

60

Children in families maintained by women
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force
Children in families maintained by men

Median family income, 1978
Total children
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

$20,389
21,606
19,003

$10,229
13,367
7,026

$12,871
16,106
10,508

Children in married-couple families
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

22,102
23,632
20,129

17,472
20,650
11,799

15,351
17,945
12,785

Children in families maintained by women
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

8,718
10,607
5,155

5,620
7,286
4,500

5,423
7,838
4,699

Children in families maintained by men

17,671

11,586

See footnote at end of table.




84

(D

Table 83. Continued
Children under 6 years
Item
White

Black

Hispanic

Number of children (thousands)
Total children
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

14,443
5,929
8,400

2,145
1,063
1,035

1,469
540
917

Children in married-couple families
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

12,949
5,116
7,833

1,151
636
515

1,186
446
740

1,381
813
567

948
427
520

272
94
178

114

47

12

Children in families maintained by women
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force
Children in families maintained by men

Median family income, 1978
$16,854
17,632
16,380

Children in married-couple families
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force
Children in families maintained by women
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

$11,137
13,747
9,523

15,274
17,114
11,971

12,741
15,550
11,508

4,951
7,039
3,839

3,806
5,399
3,253

4,205
5,364
4,037

0)

(1)

11,823

Children in families maintained by men
2Median not shown where base is less than
75,000.
See note on table 80.




$ 8,472
11,881
5,995

17,910
19,088
17,116

Total children
Mother in labor force
Mother not in labor force

85

Part VII




Additional Characteristics
Data in this section go beyond the
overview provided by measures of
labor force participation and
unemployment to give a better insight
on working women. For example,
women work fewer hours than men,
but when they work overtime, they are
more likely to receive premium pay.
And although women are still less likely
than men to hold second jobs, the
proportion of “ moonlighters” among
women nearly doubled during the
1970’s.

86

Table 84.
Average hours worked
by nonfarm wage and
salary workers by sex
and occupation,
May 1979

All schedules
Sex and occupation

Full-time schedules

Number of
workers
(thousands)

Average
weekly
hours

Number of
workers
(thousands)

Average
weekly
hours

23,232
6,017
2,045
2,105
13,065
5,296
636
4,184
476
6,925

35.5
36.9
40.6
29.7
34.9
36.7
38.5
37.0
32.6
29.3

16,446
4,482
1,727
1,003
9,235
3,952
508
3,171
274
3,184

40.3
41.3
42.9
40.0
39.3
39.7
41.3
39.5
39.0
39.8

19,748
7,511
6,294
2,746
3,197
23,000
10,248
8,903
3,850
4,417

43.7
43.4
47.1
42.5
38.8
40.7
41.8
41.8
35.1
36.7

17,666
6,771
5,976
2,328
2,591
19,274
9,045
7,649
2,579
3,030

45.4
44.7
47.7
45.6
41.9
43.0
43.1
43.7
41.1
43.8

WOMEN
White collar, total
Professional-technical
Managerial
Sales
Clerical
Blue collar, total
Craft
Operatives
Nonfarm laborers
Service
MEN
White collar, total
Professional-technical
Managerial
Sales
Clerical
Blue collar, total
Craft
Operatives
Nonfarm laborers
Service

Table 85.
Days usually worked by
nonfarm wage and
salary workers by sex
and full- or part-time
status,
May 1979
Usually worked
full time

Days usually
worked

Days worked

Usually worked
part time

Total

Women

Men

Women

Men

Women

Men

82,109
100.0

35,207
100.0

46,902
100.0

25,245
100.0

42,467
100.0

9,962
100.0

4,435
100.0

Less than five days
Three days or less
Four days
Four and a half days
Five days or more
Five days
Five and a half days
Six days
Seven days

11.9
7.2
4.1
.5
88.1
75.3
3.0
8.1
1.7

18.2
11.5
5.9
.8
81.8
75.3
1.3
4.3
.9

7.1
4.0
2.8
.3
92.9
75.3
4.2
11.0
2.4

2.2
.2
1.2
.8
97.8
90.4
1.7
4.7
1.0

2.2
.4
1.4
.3
97.8
79.4
4.6
11.4
2.4

58.7
40.3
17.7
.7
41.3
37.2
.3
3.2
.5

54.2
38.2
15.4
.5
45.8
36.1
.7
7.1
2.1

Average (mean) days

4.90

4.70

5.04

5.06

5.16

3.80

3.93

Total reporting days (in thousands)
Percent




87

Table 86.
Shift worked by
nonfarm wage and
salary workers who
usually work full time
by sex and marital
status,
May 1979
Total
reporting
(thousands)

Total

Day

Evening

Night

Other

Women, total
Married, husband present
Never married
Other marital status

22,277
12,199
5,234
4,844

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

87.4
89.2
85.5
85.0

7.0
5.7
8.7
8.5

2.5
2.5
2.3
3.1

3.0
2.6
3.6
3.4

Men, total
Married, wife present
Never married
Other marital status

38,273
28,320
7,082
2,871

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

81.7
82.5
79.4
78.9

8.8
7.8
11.8
10.2

4.0
3.9
3.8
5.1

5.6
5.7
4.9
5.9

Sex and marital status




88

Percent distribution

Table 87.
Absence rates for full­
time nonfarm wage and
salary workers by sex
and age,
May 1978

Sex and age

Incidence rate
(percent of workers absent)

Number of
woiKers
(thousands)

Inactivity rate
(percent of aggregate time lost)

_ . .
To,al

Illness
and injury

Miscellaneous
reasons

_ . .
Total

Illness
and injury

Miscellaneous
reasons

22,689
1,114
4,009
6,482
4,341
3,899
2,531
314

8.6
12.3
8.7
8.9
8.0
7.5
8.9
7.5

6.1
6.7
5.0
5.3
4.8
4.9
5.6
4.5

3.5
6.2
3.8
3.1
3.2
2.6
3.2
3.0

4.3
5.4
4.0
4.5
4.2
3.8
5.0
5.9

2.8
2.7
2.2
2.7
2.9
2.8
3.6
3.5

1.6
2.7
1.7
1.8
1.3
1.0
1.4
2.4

37,464
1,415
5,262
11,117
7,638
6,999
4,554
478

5.8
7.3
6.9
4.9
4.5
5.0
5.8
7.3

3.4
3.9
4.7
2.8
2.9
3.7
4.1
4.7

1.9
3.4
2.8
2.1
1.6
1.3
1.7
2.6

3.1
3.5
3.6
2.6
2.8
3.0
4.0
4.3

2.1
2.0
2.0
1.5
1.9
2.5
3.0
3.5

1.0
1.4
1.5
1.1
.9
.5
.9
.8

WOMEN
Total, 16 years and over
16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 and over
MEN
Total, 16 years and over
16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 and over




89

Table 88.
Overtime workers by
usual hours, premium
pay, sex, and marital
status,
May 1979
Usually worked 41 hours

Total
Percent
Sex and marital status

Number
(thousands)

Percent

Received
premium
pay

Did not
receive
premium
pay

Number
(thousands)

Received
premium
pay

Did not
receive
premium
pay

Women, total

3,986

45.3

54.6

2,182

29.9

70.1

Married husband present
Never married
Separated
Widowed and divorced

2,059
944
197
789

45.9
43.2
45.7
46.1

54.0
56.8
54.3
53.9

1,135
514
104
430

30.0
29.4
29.8
30.5

70.0
70.6
70.2
69.5

Men, total

14,778

41.9

58.1

10,713

32.7

67.3

Married wife present
Never married
Separated
Widowed and divorced

11,300
2,283
365
830

40.6
46.6
47.7
44.5

59.4
53.4
52.3
55.5

8,249
1,595
260
609

31.1
38.6
40.0
35.3

68.9
61.4
60.0
64.7

Usually worked less than 41 hours
Percent
Number
(thousands)

Received
premium
pay

Did not
receive
premium
pay

1,805

64.0

36.0

924
429
93
359

65.7
59.7
63.4
64.9

34.3
40.3
36.6
35.1

Men, total

4,066

66.2

33.8

Married wife present
Never married
Separated
Widowed and divorced

3,052
688
105
221

56.2
65.0
66.7
69.7

33.8
35.0
33.3
30.3

Women, total
Married husband present
Never married
Separated
Widowed and divorced




90

Table 89.
Number and percent of
full-time wage and
salary workers who
worked long weeks and
received premium pay
by selected
characteristics,
May 1979
Worked 41 hours or more
Characteristic

Number
(thousands)

Percent of
full-time
workers

Received premium pay
Number
(thousands)

Percent of those
who worked 41
hours or more

WOMEN

3,986

15.0

1,807

45.3

Age:
16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 54
55 and over

134
701
2,708
443

11.0
15.1
15.6
13.6

78
408
1,163
159

58.2
58.2
42.9
35.9

Race:
White
Black and other

3,616
371

15.9
9.6

1,621
186

44.8
50.1

Marital status:
Never married
Married, spouse present
Other1

944
2,059
985

15.1
14.2
17.1

408
947
453

43.2
46.0
46.0

Union status:
Union2
Other

711
3,276

11.3
16.2

354
1,453

49.8
44.4

MEN

14,778

32.7

6,191

41.9

Age:
16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 54
55 and over

420
1,994
10,666
1,696

24.5
31.6
34.4
27.6

244
1,127
4,254
565

58.1
56.5
39.9
33.3

Race:
White
Black and other

13,761
1,017

34.2
20.7

5,642
549

41.0
54.0

Marital status:
Never married
Married, spouse present
Other1

2,283
11,300
1,195

25.8
34.5
33.2

1,063
4,585
543

46.6
40.6
45.4

Union status:
Union2
Other

3,674
11,105

23.5
37.6

2,674
3,518

72.8
31.7

'Includes separated, divorced and widowed
persons.
2Data include workers who either are
members of a labor union or an employee




association similar to a union, or whose
job is covered by a union or employee
association contract,

91

Table 90.
Length of time on
current job by sex,
January 1978




(Percent distribution)
Length of time on job
Total
1 year or less
Over 1 to 2 years
Over 2 to 5 years
Over 5 to 10 years
Over 10 to 20 years
Over 20 years
Median number of years on current job

92

Women

Men

10
0 .0

10
0.0

32.5
13.6
21.8
16.4
10.9
4.7

25.2
10.4
19.0
16.9
15.7
12.9

2.6 years

4.5 years

Table 91.
Occupational mobility
of employed persons
between January 1977
and January 1978 by
age, sex, race, and
Hispanic origin,
January 1978

Characteristic

Status in January 1977

Total employed
in January 1978

Occupational
mobility
rate1

Number

Percent

Sarna
occupation

uinerem
occupation

Unemployed

Not in
labor
force

35,447

100.0

74.1

9.8

4.4

11.8

11.7

1,613
5,535
9,438
7,021
6,457
4,285
1,098

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

33.4
58.4
70.4
77.7
85.9
90.1
89.5

23.0
17.1
11.8
8.0
4.6
3.4
2.3

8.5
7.2
4.8
3.5
3.5
1.7
.9

35.1
17.4
13.0
10.8
5.9
4.8
7.4

40.8
22.6
14.4
9.3
5.1
3.6
2.5

30,897
3,886
1.445

100.0
100.0
100.0

73.6
78.4
69.2

10.3
6.3
9.1

4.0
6.4
6.5

12.1
8.8
15.2

12.2
7.5
11.6

Total, 18 years old and
over, not in school

51,117

100.0

80.9

10.5

4.5

4.1

11.5

18
20
25
35
45
55
65

and 19
to 24
to 34
to 44
to 54
to 64
and over

1,782
6,415
14,140
10,473
9,838
6,702
1,767

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

33.5
57.5
78.1
87.7
91.5
92.5
90.8

26.4
21.9
14.3
7.7
4.3
3.3
1.8

11.1
9.9
4.8
3.2
2.9
2.2
1.9

29.0
10.7
2.8
1.4
1.3
2.1
5.5

44.1
27.8
15.5
8.1
4.5
3.4
2.0

White
Black
Hispanic origin

45,944
4,371
2,384

100.0
100.0
100.0

81.2
77.8
77.8

10.7
9.2
10.9

4.1
8.7
6.2

4.0
4.4
5.1

11.6
10.6
12.2

WOMEN
Total, 18 years old and
over, not in school
18 and 19
20 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 and over
White
Black
Hispanic origin
MEN

’ Percent of persons employed in both
January 1977 and January 1978 who had
a different occupation in January 1978
than in January 1977.




93

Table 92.
Multiple jobholding
rates of employed
women and men and
main reason for
working at more than
one job,
May 1979

Item

Women

Men

Number of persons with more
than one job (thousands)

1,407

3,317

Multiple jobholders as percent
of total employed

3.5

5.9

100.0

100.0

34.3
7.7
5.9
7.1
6.4
9.6
16.0
13.0

28.8
6.3
11.0
8.8
5.6
7.8
19.1
12.6

MAIN REASON FOR WORKING
AT MORE THAN ONE JOB
All reasons: Percent
Meet regular expenses
Pay off debts
Save for the future
Get experience
Help friend or relative
Buy something special
Enjoy the work
Other reasons

Table 93.
Membership of women
in national unions and
employee associations,
selected years,
1960-78




Year

Number of
women members
(thousands)

Percent of total
membership

5,398
5,736
6,038
6,438
6,696

23.9
24.9
25.0
26.7
27.5

3,304
3,272
3,413
3,689
3,940
4,282
4,524
4,600
4,648
5,106

18.3
18.6
19.0
19.3
19.5
20.7
21.7
21.3
22.0
23.5

Unions and associations:
1970
1972
1974
1976
1978
Unions:
1960
1962
1964
1966
1968
1970
1972
1974
1976
1978

94

Table 94.
Employment status of
women, by State,
annual averages, 1978
(Numbers in thousands)

State

Civilian
noninstitutional
population

Civilian labor force
Number

Unemployed

Participation
rate

unpiuyeu

"
Number

Rate

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
Cal fornia
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

1,408
125
874
852
8,549
994
1,215
224
273
3,471
1,935
312
314
4,318
2,036
1,105
909
1,323
1,459
410

630
78
408
396
4,464
535
647
112
164
1,581
1,008
179
163
2,203
1,067
583
499
628
629
193

44.7
62.4
46.7
46.5
52.2
53.8
53.3
50.0
60.1
45.5
52.1
57.4
51.9
51.0
52.4
52.8
54.9
47.5
43.1
47.1

576
70
383
363
4,108
499
604
102
152
1,455
934
165
152
2,047
988
559
480
584
572
179

54
7
25
33
357
35
43
11
12
127
74
14
10
156
79
25
19
43
57
13

8.5
9.0
6.1
8.3
8.0
6.6
6.7
9.5
7.5
8.0
7.3
7.6
6.4
7.1
7.4
4.2
3.7
6.9
9.1
6.8

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

1,601
2,296
3,461
1,490
896
1,911
282
607
235
327

856
1,219
1,699
829
422
968
145
342
134
181

53.5
53.1
49.1
55.6
47.1
50.7
51.4
56.3
57.0
55.4

797
1,141
1,553
790
377
907
134
330
126
172

60
79
146
40
45
61
10
11
7
8

7.0
6.5
8.6
4.8
10.7
6.3
7.3
3.3
5.6
4.6

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota

2,902
440
7,132
2,132
234
4,152
1,111
920
4,713
373
1,089
256

1,435
215
3,283
1,184
112
2,030
524
483
2,122
184
575
135

49.4
48.9
46.0
55.5
47.9
48.9
47.2
52.5
45.0
49.3
52.8
52.7

1,312
200
3,014
1,116
106
1,905
500
450
1,952
173
532
130

123
15
268
68
6
126
24
32
170
11
44
5

8.6
6.8
8.2
5.8
5.1
6.2
4.6
6.7
8.0
5.9
7.6
4.0

Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

1,699
4,776
446
183
1,940
1,420
712
1,781
149

818
2,441
212
102
1,047
722
252
967
82

48.1
51.1
47.5
55.7
54.0
50.8
35.4
54.3
55.0

758
2,284
203
94
976
665
232
906
78

59
156
9
7
71
57
20
61
3

7.3
6.4
4.2
7.1
6.7
7.9
7.9
6.3
4.2




95

Table 95.
Occupational
distribution of
employed women by
State, annual averages,
1978




(Percent distribution)

White-collar workers
State
Total

Professional
and
technical

Managers
and admin­
istrators
except farm

Sales
workers

Clerical
workers

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia

59.6
71.7
68.4
52.8
69.2
66.6
68.1
67.5
74.3
64.3
61.3

14.8
19.0
16.6
12.1
15.7
14.0
19.4
16.6
21.6
12.4
15.2

6.5
7.8
6.2
6.2
8.2
8.2
5.2
6.8
5.7
7.2
5.5

6.2
6.7
9.1
6.3
7.6
8.2
8.4
6.7
3.6
8.3
5.3

32.1
38.1
36.5
28.3
37.7
36.3
35.1
37.4
43.4
36.5
35.2

Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland

64.0
62.5
65.8
54.3
55.5
60.0
57.1
67.2
56.0
72.6

14.1
14.8
16.3
13.8
15.0
14.2
15.3
17.0
16.8
19.3

6.6
5.4
6.1
4.4
4.3
5.8
3.9
7.0
6.1
5.7

8.2
8.8
6.6
6.1
6.5
6.7
6.6
7.5
5.6
6.7

35.1
33.4
36.8
30.0
29.7
33.3
31.2
35.7
27.4
40.9

Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey

64.6
60.5
61.8
50.7
60.7
62.2
59.9
60.3
60.4
66.9

18.7
14.3
15.9
12.7
16.1
14.2
15.1
12.8
13.9
18.0

4.7
5.1
6.6
5.5
5.7
7.8
6.1
7.4
5.4
5.8

6.0
6.7
7.8
5.7
7.1
8.7
7.6
7.0
6.9
6.8

35.1
34.4
31.6
26.7
31.8
31.5
31.1
33.1
34.2
36.3

New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina

67.3
68.3
50.7
58.4
62.3
65.4
62.7
60.7
53.5
54.4

17.6
17.9
13.5
15.0
15.6
14.9
13.2
15.1
14.5
12.5

6.9
6.1
5.1
6.1
5.4
6.5
7.0
5.3
4.0
4.2

8.1
6.2
4.1
6.2
7.8
8.2
7.9
6.7
5.6
5.7

34.8
38.1
28.0
31.0
33.5
35.9
34.5
33.6
29.3
31.9

South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

55.2
51.5
65.3
63.2
61.9
64.8
66.1
61.9
59.4
61.6

15.1
13.5
15.2
15.9
18.5
17.1
16.6
15.4
14.5
12.9

5.0
4.5
6.2
6.0
6.1
6.7
7.4
6.3
5.9
6.9

7.7
5.7
7.1
5.9
8.0
6.0
7.1
4.9
7.4
8.2

27.4
27.7
36.7
35.3
29.3
35.0
35.1
35.2
31.6
33.7

See footnote at end of table.

96

Table 95.
Continued.




(Percent distribution)

Blue-collar workers
State
Total

Craft
Operatives,
and
except
kindred
transport
workers

Service Farm
Nonfarm workers workers
laborers

1.5
3.0
1.0
2.1
1.2
1.4
1.3
1.1
(1)
1.1
1.6

22.8
20.6
20.8
21.6
17.9
21.6
17.0
19.7
21.7
22.0
19.3

(D
(1)
(1)
2.7
(1)
1.5
(1)
1.1
(1)
1.7
1.0

(D

1.0
1.4
1.1

23.0
22.4
19.3
21.7
27.3
23.8
22.7
23.8
23.3
18.2

3.3
2.5
(1)
2.1
4.3
3.3
3.2
(1)
1.1
(1)

14.1
10.9
8.1
22.2
10.7
2.7
9.0
3.0
17.2
12.5

1.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.4
1.7
1.0
1.0
1.3
(1)

17.8
23.9
24.7
21.8
23.0
26.3
23.2
31.9
17.2
17.9

(1)
1.0
2.3
1.4
2.2
5.3
4.1
1.5
1.1
(1)

1.8
1.5
2.1
1.7
1.8
2.7
1.6
1.8
2.0
1.7

5.0
10.1
26.5
3.8
11.1
6.2
6.2
13.5
24.6
21.4

1.5
(1)
1.4
1.0
1.3
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.0
1.5

21.2
18.2
16.9
29.3
22.0
22.0
24.9
21.3
18.2
19.7

1.7
(1)
1.8
5.6
0)
1.9
2.0
0)
(1)
(1)

2.5
2.7
2.0
1.3
2.0
1.4
1.8
1.4
2.2
2.1

6.3
22.3
7.9
11.9
9.5
10.5
6.2
10.5
10.8
4.8

1.0
1.2
1.6
1.1
1.2
1.6
2.5
1.0
1.0
1.3

26.6
21.1
21.5
21.0
22.4
19.5
20.5
23.7
22.1
25.0

7.8
(1)

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia

16.8
7.6
10.5
22.9
12.0
10.3
14.4
11.8
4.0
12.0
18.4

1.8
1.2
1.8
2.6
1.8
2.0
1.3
2.2
(D
1.7
2.3

12.8
2.7
7.1
17.9
8.5
6.2
11.7
6.8
2.6
8.2
14.1

Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland

9.7
12.6
14.3
21.8
13.0
12.9
16.9
8.4
19.5
8.4

1.5
3.3
1.7
2.4
2.1
1.9
2.1
1.5
1.3
1.4

6.6
7.1
10.5
17.0
8.8
8.4
13.4
4.9
16.7
5.0

Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey

17.5
14.7
11.2
26.1
14.1
6.2
12.8
6.2
21.3
15.1

1.6
1.5
1.5
2.0
1.6
1.6
2.3
1.4
2.4
1.2

New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina

9.7
13.0
30.6
6.8
14.9
10.7
10.5
17.2
28.2
25.1

South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

10.5
26.6
12.0
14.7
12.9
14.5
11.5
13.5
14.7
8.6

1.6
1.5
1.5
1.2
1.6
(D

'Less than 500 persons employed or less than 1.0 percent of total employed.

97

1.2
1.1
2.8
1.2
1.9
(1)
3.9
4.8

Table 96.
Percent of employment
and occupational
injuries and illnesses
among women workers
by selected
occupations,
1977

Female employment
as percent of
total employment

Occupation

Total

40.5

Professional, technical and kindred workers
Registered nurses
Teachers, except college and university
Elementary school teachers
Secondary school teachers
Managers and administrators, except farm
Restaurant, bar managers
Sales managers and department heads,
retail trade

Occupational injuries
and illnesses
Total
number

Percent accounted
for by women

1,250,284

21.1

42.6
96.7
70.9
84.2
51.2

43,738
6,564
10,216
3,804
3,558

49.3
94.8
62.3
76.3
45.7

22.3
34.7

33,915
3,416

22.3
41.8

36.2

5,242

26.2

Salesworkers
Sales clerks, retail trade

43.3
70.4

22,430
2,516

42.3
60.0

Clerical and kindred workers
Bookkeepers
Cashiers
Teachers aides
Typists

78.9
90.0
87.0
93.4
96.3

56,474
2,133
5,393
2,257
1,964

55.3
85.9
77.7
87.0
94.1

5.0

230,306

3.0

Operatives, except transport
Assemblers
Meat cutters, butchers, manufacturing
Packers, wrappers, except retail
Sewers and stitchers

39.6
50.3
35.2
63.6
95.2

255,123
31,312
9,007
10,322
4,412

22.5
37.9
15.5
54.9
90.6

Transport equipment operatives
Bus drivers

6.8
42.2

87,328
5,366

4.7
34.6

9.4

237,161

9.6

Service workers, except private household
Cleaners and charwomen
Janitors and sextons
Cooks
Food counter and fountain workers
Waiters/waitresses
Housekeepers

58.3
96.1
15.4
56.3
85.7
90.4
64.6

175,556
7,412
26,064
17,815
3,449
10,704
2,517

46.0
41.5
15.5
44.3
78.3
90.3
73.4

Private household workers

97.0

469

86.6

6.4

517

2.5

29.4
17.0

20,838
19,800

11.9
12.4

Craft and kindred workers

Laborers, except farm

Farmers and farm managers
Farm laborers and foremen
Farm laborers, wage workers




98

Table 97.
Percent of employment
and occupational
injuries and illnesses
among women workers,
selected States,
1977




State

..
.
.
.
Female emDlovment
as percent of
total employment

Injuries and illnesses
1
Tota, number
Percent
thousands)
female workers

Total

40.6

1,250,284

21.1

Alaska
California
Colorado
Connecticut1
Hawaii
Idaho
Indiana
Iowa
Kentucky
Maine
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
New Jersey
New Mexico
Oregon
South Dakota
Tennessee
Utah
Vermont
Virgin Islands
Wisconsin
Wyoming

41.8
41.1
40.4
42.2
44.5
39.0
40.2
40.0
39.8
40.5
40.8
38.6
39.9
42.4
36.8
41.4
40.7
40.9
39.9
39.4
41.6
38.6
40.3
N.A.
40.5
37.6

8,841
327,868
33,954
11,441
36,603
38,290
38,398
18,510
51,015
43,828
30,551
70,537
50,802
128,590
32,281
35,249
84,753
4,046
43,777
17,397
25,649
20,491
17,952
1,531
60,626
17,304

14.9
22.5
19.9
17.4
22.5
17.9
21.8
19.8
18.9
21.0
20.7
23.0
25.0
20.4
18.0
20.6
21.8
15.4
21.0
21.4
19.9
16.6
21.6
18.0
21.5
10.3

1 1977, Connecticut provided injury and
ln
illness information only for manufacturing
industries, excluding boat building and
repair.
N.A. = not available.

99

Part VIII




The 1980’s
The United States has begun the
1980’s facing several severe economic
problems including inflation, recession,
and uncertainty concerning the supply
and price of energy.The economic
climate which supported the strong
labor force growth of women in the
1970’s is changing and already there
are indications that the growth in
women’s labor force participation may
be slowing, perhaps temporarily.
Between March 1979 and March 1980,
the number of women in the labor
force grew by about a million, but their
labor force participation rate rose by
only three-tenths of a percentage point.
Over the same period, the proportion of
black women in the labor force actually
fell slightly as did the proportion of
youth 16 to 24 years old. The labor
market experience of women in the
1980’s bears close watching for it may
differ considerably from their
experience in the past.

100

Table 98.
Summary indicators on
working women by
selected
characteristics,
January-June 1980
(Numbers in thousands; data are seasonally adjusted unless otherwise indicated)
Janaury
1980

February
1980

March
1980

April
1980

May
1980

June
1980

85,847
44,352

85,952
44,246

86,054
44,052

86,154
44,381

86,258
44,663

86,373
44,416

51.7
54.6
69.1
63.6
23.1

51.5
53.6
68.4
63.8
23.0

51.2
52.6
67.5
63.7
22.6

51.5
51.9
68.8
64.1
22.9

51.8
54.1
69.0
64.0
22.9

51.4
52.6
68.4
64.0
22.8

51.4
53.3

51.2
52.8

51.0
52.2

51.3
52.3

51.4
53.7

51.1
52.5

41,318
3,743
6,375
25,632
5,568

41,221
3,617
6,368
25,677
5,559

41,054
3,551
6,301
25,704
5,488

41,156
3,553
6,330
25,746
5,532

41,165
3,598
6,281
25,732
5,554

41,079
3,547
6,266
25,720
5,546

3,034
731
695
1,410
198

3,025
765
636
1,454
169

2,997
737
616
1,481
164

3,225
689
719
1,626
191

3,498
819
810
1,664
205

3,337
739
759
1,678
161

6.8
16.3
9.8
5.2
3.4

6.8
17.6
9.1
5.4
3.0

6.8
17.3
9.0
5.5
2.9

7.3
16.3
10.2
6.0
3.4

7.8
18.7
11.6
6.1
3.6

7.5
17.3
10.8
6.1
2.8

White, 16 years and over
Black, 16 years and over

6.0
12.6

6.1
12.4

5.9
13.5

6.4
13.8

6.9
14.7

6.7
13.9

White, 16 to 19 years
Black, 16 to 19 years

13.8
39.1

14.5
43.0

14.8
39.5

14.5
35.4

16.7
42.0

14.6
39.2

70.8
71.4

71.0
71.5

71.2
70.8

71.0
73.7

70.4
78.6

72.3
80.6

9.7

9.8

10.2

10.9

10.0

8.8

Characteristic

Population and labor force
Civilian noninstitutional population
Civilian labor force
Labor force participation rates
Women 16 and over
16 to 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 54 years
55 years and over
White
Black
Employment status
Employed women, 16 years and over
16 to 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 54 years
55 years and over
Unemployed women, 16 years and over
16 to 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 54 years
55 years and over
Unemployment rates
Women 16 years and over
16 to 19 years
20 to 24 years
25 to 54 years
55 years and over

Full-time workers

(not seasonally adjusted)

Percent of employed women working full time
Percent of unemployed women looking for full-time work
Duration of unemployment (not seasonally adjusted)
Average (mean) number of weeks unemployed women
have been looking for work




101

Table 99.
Family status of
women by selected
characteristics,
January-June 1980
(Numbers in thousands)
January
1980

February
1980

March
1980

April
1980

May
1980

June
1980

71,956

71,939

71,943

71,950

71,890

71,910

8,701
59.6
9.0

8,696
58.6
8.9

8,551
59.2
8.7

8,686
58.9
8.6

8,696
58.6
7.7

8,744
58.0
8.3

Married women, husband present:
Population
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

48,301
50.1
5.3

48,347
50.4
5.4

48,377
50.3
4.9

48,210
50.2
5.0

48,151
49.9
5.1

48,103
48.9
5.7

All other women in families:
Population
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

14,954
51.7
12.4

14,896
51.2
12.3

15,015
50.9
12.0

15,054
50.9
11.3

15,043
52.6
14.1

15,063
58.8
16.1

Characteristic

Total women 16 years and over in families
Women maintaining families, no husband present:
Population
Labor force participation rate
Unemployment rate

Table 100.
Employed women by
occupation, race, and
Hispanic origin,
6-month average,
January-June 1980




Total

White

Black
and
other

Hispanic

40,990
100.0

35,833
100.0

5,158
100.0

1,834
100.0

White-collar workers
Professional-technical
Managerial-administrative,
except farm
Sales
Clerical

65.6
16.9

67.7
17.3

50.6
14.8

49.7
8.9

6.8
6.6
35.2

7.3
7.1
36.0

3.5
2.9
29.4

4.8
4.9
31.1

Blue-collar workers
Craft
Operatives, except transport
Transport equipment operatives
Nonfarm laborers

13.8
1.8
10.1
.7
1.3

13.3
1.8
' 9.5
.7
'1.2

17.4
1.3
14.1
.6
1.4

28.4
2.2
24.0
.3
1.7

Service workers
Private household
Other service

19.5
2.5
17.1

17.8
1.8
16.0

31.4
6.7
24.7

20.2
4.4
15.8

1.1

1.1

.6

1.7

Occupation

Total: Number (in thousands)
Percent

Farm

102

Sources of Data

Part 1
.

Tables:
1-9

BLS, Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1978,
January 1980.

10

Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, 1950 and I960, and BLS,
Employment and Earnings, January 1971 and January 1980.

11

Bureau of the Census, Census of Population “ Characteristics of the
Population” , Part I, 1950 and 1960, and BLS, Employment and Earnings,
January 1971 and January 1980.

12

BLS, Employment and Earnings, United States, 1909-78, and BLS, Employment
and Earnings, January 1980.

13

BLS, Employment and Earnings, January 1971 and January 1980.

14, 15

BLS, unpublished CPS data and Employment and Earnings, January 1980.

Part II.

16-20

BLS, unpublished data (1960), Special Labor Force Report 141, Work
Experience of the Population in 1970, and unpublished CPS data on Work
Experience in 1978.

Part III.

21

Bureau of the Census, Census of Population 1950; P-E No. 1A, “ Employment
and Personal Characteristics,” and P-E No. 20, “ Marital Status” (labor force
adjusted for ages 16 and over). BLS, Special Labor Force Report 13
(population and labor force adjusted for ages 16 and over); Special Labor
Force Report 130 and U.S. Department of Labor, news release 79-747,
October 31, 1979.




and Employment and Earnings,

22 - 24 BLS, unpublished March 1979 Marital and Family data.
25

Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States. Colonial Times
to 1970, Bicentennial Edition. For 1970 and later see, U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, National Center for Health Statistics (HRA)
77-1120, Advance Report, Final Natality Statistics 1975, and U.S. Department
of Health,Education and Welfare, National Center for Health Statistics, PHS
79-1120, Vol. 27, No. 13, Births, Marriages, Divorces and Deaths for 1978.

26

Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 282,
“ Households and Families by Type: March 1975, Advance Report” and BLS,
Special Labor Force Reports 13, 64, 130, 144, 153, 164, 173, 183, 206, 216,
and 219 and unpublished March 1979 Marital and Family data.

27

BLS, U.S. Department of Labor news release 79-747, October 31, 1979.

28

BLS, unpublished March 1979 Marital and Family CPS data.

29

Special Labor Force Report No. 192, Women Who Head Families and BLS,
unpublished 1978 and 1979 Marital and Family CPS data.

30 - 33 BLS, unpublished CPS Marital and Family data.
34

BLS, U.S. Department of Labor news release 79-747, October 31, 1979.

35, 36

BLS, unpublished CPS Marital and Family data.

103

Part IV.

T les:
ab
37 - 42 BLS, unpublished CPS School-Age Youth data.
43 - 46 BLS, unpublished CPS Educational Attainment data.
47

48 4
9

BLS, U.S. Department of Labor news release, 80-188, March 27, 1980 and
BLS, unpublished CPS Earnings data.

50, 51

Part V.

BLS, U.S. Department of Labor news release, 80-87, February 14, 1980.

BLS, unpublished CPS Earnings data.

52 - 54 Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60, “ Consumer
Income".
55- 61

BLS, unpublished Marital and Family CPS data.

62 - 64 Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60, “ Consumer
Income” .

Part VI.




6
5

BLS, Handbook of Labor Statistics, 1978 - and Employment and Earnings,
January 1980.

66, 67

BLS, unpublished CPS annual average data.

68 - 70 BLS, unpublished CPS Marital and Family data.
71, 72

BLS, unpublished CPS Educational Attainment data.

73

BLS, unpublished CPS Work Experience data.

74

BLS, unpublished CPS Marital and Family data. (1970 data for Hispanics —
Bureau of the Census, Census of the Population, 1970, PC(2)-1C, “ Persons of
Spanish Origin” .

75

BLS, unpublished CPS Marital andFamily data.

76

Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60, “ Consumer
Income” .

77

BLS, unpublished CPS Marital and Family data.

78

Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60, “ Consumer
Income” .

79 - 81

BLS, unpublished Marital and Family CPS data.

82

Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-60, “ Consumer
Income” .

83

BLS, unpublished CPS Marital and Family data.

104

Part VII

Tables:
84

BLS,

Monthly Labor Review, March 1980, “ Recent Trends in Worktime.”

85

BLS,

unpublished CPS Days Worked data.

86

BLS,

unpublished CPS Shift Worked data.

87

BLS,

unpublished CPS Absence from Work data.

88, 89

BLS, unpublished CPS Long Hours and Premium Pay data.

90
91

BLS,

unpublished CPS Multiple Jobholding data.

93

BLS,

Directory of National Unions & Employee Associations, 1979

94, 95

BLS, Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment: States, 1978,
Metropolitan Areas, 1977-78, Report 571.

96, 97




BLS, U.S. Department of Labor news release 79-91, February 5, 1979.

92

Part VIII.

BLS,

unpublished CPS Job Tenure data.

BLS, Office of Occupational Safety & Health, Division of Record Requirements
and Information.

98, 99

BLS, Employment in Perspective: Working Women, 1st and 2nd Q 1980.

100

BLS, Employment and Earnings, January-June 1980.

105

* U. S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 19 0 3 1 7 /4 5
.
8 4 -2 0 0 8




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Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region III
3535 M arket Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154




9th Floor
Federal O ffice B uilding
230 S. D earborn Street
C hicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Region VI
Second Floor
'555 G riffin Square B uilding
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

Regions VII and VIII
911 W alnut Street
Kansas C ity, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Regions IX and X
450 G olden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678