View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

L l . 3 !

n if

for Technology
and Manpower
in Printing
and Publishing
Bulletin 1774

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Dayton & Montgomery Ce.
Public Library

am AAHj
ame un
rnt 80wf
rntW Tr
rntW un
ask Rob
ass Fin!
assetf f
ayls Mk
^ayiy Cp
Beacn Ph
Reehv M
Beeline F
3ektn Co
Bently Lb
erk Bio
est Prd
etz Lab
Bev Car,

le v

o if



8 /

Bk Del
Elk Tokyo


7 - "M
28 ’2 m
15 '■> 16

in *


B M toi

f la Glass
f la Mng
i la Roo

s « £ r Ale
•,tpnk Br
Steak $hk
Itrl font




[ Ijw ia m

tJom o a
■Goffil Gr
ijorest 0

' ila w San

Forum R
Fost Grnt
Frnkln El
Franz Br
£rasr Mt
rn re d HeJ


\r Rt?
I Pd
Brks $< a
Bro hd
Bwn * *■*
Brunos u%

risfhs R
roze F«H
undg Sy
unk Sd
urrs Caf


Mtge As
Mtgl Wsn
AAtg W wt
MtaTr wt
*T 14
10 I 6 1/a 17Vi Mostek
Motion In
10 4»'?
Mot Club
251 19i a
37 14^4





m k

C its
:; g *

l® 5


Syr China
22 Va Sys Cap
Szabo Fd
?‘4 TDA Ind


sppfrsih hia
flP W rFfa Bn
" , 4 fstlntl Bk
£ MlstN Cinn
8 J/4 1st Mary!
IstNH Gd
1st OklaB


13 1

B u ck b v

3id g ;>v
k r oo ssvw
k ,i
3 u tn ?.»»»
ki*Ti-> to
H uFet




Sunset rW
Sunsb Sir
SupDIr St
buper El
Fup EquH


Id Sc
n Inc
a inf
h Nw
id In
$ Crf



?Js ch
y ra tv
JHp.' f

▼ r m iq h

M qt


'/a 10V
72 177/



for Technology
and Manpower
in Printing
and Publishing
B u lletin 1774

Peter J. Brennan, Secretary
Ben Burdetsky, Deputy Commissioner


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, G P O Bookstores, or
B LS Regional Offices listed on inside back cover. Price 75 cents domestic postpaid or 50 cents over-the-counter.
Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents.

Microfiche edition available from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22151, at 95 cents a set.

Make checks for microfiche payable to NTIS.


P re fa c e
This bulletin describes changes in technology in the printing and publishing industry, a major
industry employing over 1 million workers. The study focuses on the impact of new technology on
productivity, employment, and occupational requirements, and describes methods of adjustment. It
is one of a series of reports prepared to meet the requirements of the Manpower Development and
Training Act of 1962, which lirects the Secretary of Labor to establish techniques and methods for
detecting in advance the potential manpower effect of automation, technological change, and other
innovations that may result in changes in the structure of production. This type of advance
information could be of great assistance to management and union leaders, educators, government
officials, economists, and others in planning policies to cushion the effects of change.
Information for the study was obtained by members of the BLS staff during field visits to
newspapers and commercial printing establishments where new technology was introduced and from
experts in industry, labor, and government. Information also was obtained from secondary source
materials, particularly trade and technical journals.
The study includes firsthand information on the impact on production and manpower of
electronic computers, phototypesetting equipment, web-offset printing, and other innovations at
the nine printing firms which participated in the study. The report also discusses the outlook for
future diffusion of new printing technology and describes measures undertaken to maintain job
security at survey plants and elsewhere.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics is grateful to the many individuals who provided useful
information and reviewed the draft of the report. We also wish to thank the Harris-Intertype
Corporation for providing us with photographs.
The bulletin was prepared in the Division of Technological Studies, Office of Productivity and
Technology, by Robert V. Critchlow and Arthur S. Herman, under the direct supervision of Richard
W. Riche and the general direction of John J. Macut, Division Chief.



C o n te n ts




H ig hlights..............................................................................................................................................................................


Chapter 1. The printing industry’s importance inthe economy ..................................................................................
Definition of the industry ..........................................................................................................................................
E m p lo y m e n t.................................................................................................................................................................
Production and p ro d u c tiv ity .......................................................................................................................................
Capital spending ..........................................................................................................................................................
Research and dev elopm ent..........................................................................................................................................


Chapter 2. Key technological changes ............................................................................................................................. 7
Composing r o o m .......................................................................................................................................................... 7
Platemaking ....................................................................................................................................................................10
Press operations ............................................................................................................................................................. 12
M ailroom ...........................................................................................................................................................................13
Chapter 3. Introducing new technology at surveyp l a n t s ....................................................................................................15
Planning ....................................................
In stallatio n ....................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Costs and benefits .......................................................................................................................................................... 15
Chapter 4. Employment trends and occupationalc h a n g e s ................................................................................................ 18
Employment trends .......................................................................................................................................................18
Impact on occupations and s k ills ................................................................................................................................... 18
Chapter 5. Training for new technology ................................
Union training ................................................................................................................................................................ 27
Industry trade associations............................................................................................................................................ 27
Manufacturer and user tra in in g ...................................................................................................................................... 27
Entry level tra in in g ..........................................................................................................................................................27
Training at survey p l a n t s ................................................. • . ........................................................................................28
Chapter 6 . Adjustment of workers to technological change ........................................................................................... 30
Contract provisions relating to technologicalc h a n g e ................................................................................................... 30
Manpower planning in survey p l a n t s ............................................................................................................................ 31
Chapter 7. Outlook for technology and m anpow er..............................................................
Outlook for technology ................................................................................................................................................ 3 4
Outlook for m an p ow er................................................................................................................................................... 3 7

Contents— Continued
P age

1. Employment in printing and publishing,
selected subgroups and periods, 1947—71 ................................................................................................... 4
2. Production and employment in printing and publishing, 1954—71 .................................................................. 5
3. Expenditures for new plant and equipment in printing and publishing,
selected subgroups and periods, 1947—71 ................................................................................................... 6
4. Advanced equipment and techniques in use at
newspapers and printing plants visited ......................................................................................................... 8
5. Costs of new equipment at selected survey p l a n t s ................................................................................................16
6 . Technological changes in the composing room at selected survey plants ........................................................ 19
7. Technological changes in platemaking, presswork, and
mailrooms at selected survey plants ................................................................................................................24
8. Training programs for technological change at selected survey p l a n t s ...............................................................29
9. Provisions relating to technological change from
selected collective bargaining agreem ents.........................................................................................................32
10. Employment in printing and publishing, 1960 and 1970, and
projections for 1980 ....................................................................................................................................... 37
11. Employment in craft occupations in printing and publishing,
1960 and 1970, and projections for 1980 ................................................................................................... 37
A. Three major printing methods and the printing process ........................................................................................ 38
B. Selected annotated b ib lio g rap h y ............................................................................................................................... 41


innovations? What changes in occupational requirements
are brought about? What are the training needs for the
various innovations? What industrial relations problems

Although the printing and publishing industry has a
history of slow technological change, the pace of change
has quickened considerably in all the major production
steps during the past several decades. Typesetting, for
example, was performed by hand for several centuries,
until the first commercial typesetting machines became
available in the 1880’s. The next important innovation,
the teletypesetter, was developed 50 years later. Two
decades later, in the 1950’s, photographic typesetting
machines were commercially available. Technological
innovation has been much faster in the last 10 years;
computerized typesetting, cathode ray tube typesetters,
optical character reading equipment, and high speed data
transmission are among the major advances. Consider­
able information describing these recent technologies is
available, but much less is known about their effects on
workers in plants where the innovations are being used.
In an effort to assess the manpower implications of
these emerging technologies, this study undertakes to
provide answers to the following questions: How exten­
sively are the various innovations being used, and what is
the trend of their use for the future? What factors, such
as costs and benefits, govern the future trend of
adoption? How has employment been affected by these

This bulletin presents general information for the
entire printing and publishing industry (SIC 27), but
focuses on two of the most important divisions of this
industry: newspaper publishing and printing (SIC 271)
and commercial printing (SIC 275). These two major
industry groups employ about two-thirds of the total
industry work force of more than 1 million and are
utilizing almost all of the major technological changes
available to the industry.
To better understand the implications of the new
technologies in printing, it is important to realize that all
of the sectors of the printing industry have common
production operations. These include composition,
platemaking, printing press operations, and various
finishing operations. These production operations, in
turn, are common to the three major printing
processes—letterpress, gravure, and lithography (offset).
For a more comprehensive description of major printing
processes and production operations, see appendix A.*


installed, the nature and complexity of the application,
and the type and size of the user firm. Costs of
computers, for example, ranged from $22,000 for a
small special-purpose computer at a local newspaper to
$610,000 for an advanced model, general-purpose com­
puter at a commercial printer.
Some of the more important objectives for introduc­
ing new technologies at the survey plants were to
increase the quality of product, expand output, reduce
labor costs, increase operating capabilities, and reduce
All the plants achieved most of the gains they
anticipated and benefits were substantial in some cases.
Gains were achieved by increasing output per worker,
decreasing typographical errors, reducing paper costs and
makeready time, decreasing labor costs, and increasing

N ew technology is being introduced in nearly all

These innovations
frequently involve the application of electronic tech­
niques in place of mechanical equipment. In the compos­
ing room, typesetting computers, high speed electronic
phototypesetting, new techniques to prepare cameraready copy, and optical character recognition equipment
are among innovations having an impact on productivity
and manpower. The electronic computer can undertake
several key composing room functions traditionally
carried out by composing room craftsmen, including
word hyphenation and margin determination.
Phototypesetting is another major innovation affect­
ing composing room operations and involves typesetting
by photographic processes which are significantly faster
than the conventional “hot metal” method. Phototype­
setting systems will be introduced more widely in
medium- and large-sized newspapers and book and
periodical printers. Other innovations affecting man­
power and productivity in printing firms that are
expected to be diffused more widely include new
platemaking methods and materials, automatic plate
processors, electronic methods to separate color in color
printing, automatic equipment to process films in
making negatives, automatic electronic controls and
higher speeds on printing presses, and automatic mailroom equipment.


the printing industry.






Total em ploym ent at survey printing firm s generally


occupations and

working with new



technology had been

In departments where new technology had been
introduced, however, the employment situation was
mixed: in some units employment was higher; in others,
lower levels were reported. Significant reductions in unit
labor requirements in some instances followed introduc­
tion of technology, with the largest productivity gains
occurring in newspaper mailroom operations. Only six
full-time employees were involuntarily separated (and
later reinstated) and none were down graded at the nine
firms included in the study.
Occupations and skills in all of the major production
steps of composition platemeking, presswork, and
newspaper mailroom operations are undergoing change.
In survey printing firms, linecasting machine operator
positions were being eliminated; computer programer
and related jobs were being added; and composing room
employees were being retrained in photographic
methods, in typing skills to prepare tapes used to
operate computers and phototypesetters, and in mainte­
nance procedures for electronic equipment. The use of
computers has simplified keypunch operations in tape
preparation, reduced errors, and improved productivity
In platemaking and press operations, new equipment and
methods require more technical skill and less of the
traditional craft skills. In the mailroom, manual tasks



require a substantial amount o f technical manpower and

Planning for new
equipment at most survey plants was undertaken by a
small group of high level management employees,
including shop foremen in some instances. Most of the
engineering and installation effort was performed by
staff provided by the supplier of the new technology,
the size and composition of the team depending upon
the type of equipment purchased and the complexity of
the installation. General-purpose computers were among
the most complicated new technologies to implement
since they required a large amount of programing effort
and specialized peripheral equipment.

generally did not take a long time.

A doption o f new printing technologies is encouraged
b y lowered production costs, higher quality, and faster

The cost of new technology varied widely at
survey plants, depending upon the type of equipment


em ployees


positions, determining wage rates for new and modified
positions, and providing training to employees whose job
duties were modified.

associated with counting, handling, and tying news­
papers are being drastically decreased through the
growing use of automatic equipment.
with new printing

The outlook fo r new technology in the printing

technology was essential and. has been the forem ost

By 1980, industry
experts optimistically forecast that nearly all newspapers
in the United States will be using computers for
composing room and various business data processing
operations. The diffusion of computers in commercial
printing is expected to be slower.


workers to function

industry is fo r significant growth.

Training was provided
by major unions, industry associations, vocational
schools, equipment manufacturers, and printing firms. In
the shift from hot metal composition to computers and
phototypesetters, many employees received on-the-job
instruction, lasting from 1 week to 15 months; some
attended classes at the computer manufacturer’s school.
m ethod o f manpower adjustment.

N ew printing technology

to affect

Total employment in printing is expected to
increase over the next decade. In the newspaper seg­
ment, however, employment is projected to be lower by
1980 because of the impact of new technology. As
technology becomes more sophisticated, more profes­
sional managers, engineers, technicians, and computer
personnel will be needed, and composing room
employees increasingly will need to acquire skills in
keypunching, photography, and electronics. Although
limited displacement of compositors, typesetters, elec­
trotypers and stereotypers, and others is expected, the
impact may be eased as demand for printed products
increases and attrition and training facilitate manpower
1 9 7 0 ’s.

N ew printing technology has focu sed attention on

Printing unions
generally favor technological change, provided measures
are undertaken to protect members from displacement
and other adverse effects. Collective bargaining agree­
ments at unionized survey plants and in the industry
generally contain provisions applicable when new tech­
nology is introduced, including those relating to jurisdic­
tion, advance notice, training, selecting employees for
new jobs, layoffs, and severance pay. At the nine firms
surveyed, substantial advance manpower planning was
undertaken, including providing notice up to 3 years
prior to the installation of new printing equipment,
selecting employees to staff new computer and related
techniques to maintain job security.

will continue

em ploym ent and job skills during the decade o f the


Chapter 1.

The Printing Industry's Im portance in th e Economy

The printing and publishing industry is a major U.S.
industry, employing over 1 million workers. It is
characterized by the predominance of small firms and
the presence of strong craft unions. Economic trends in
the industry are towards increasing employment, rising
productivity, growing capital investment, and intensified
research and development. This chapter contains a
definition of the industry, a description of the
importance of the printing industry in the Nation’s
economy, and a discussion of the major economic
trends. It provides the background for subsequent
chapters on changes in technology and their manpower

As shown in table 1, employment in the industry
grew at an annual rate of 1.8 percent from 1947 to
1971. Employment in newspapers grew by a slightly
lower rate—1.5 percent a year. The greatest difference in
growth rates was between the two major sectors of
commercial printing-nonlithographic and lithographic.
Employment in nonlithographic commercial printing
grew at an annual rate of less than 1 percent, while in
lithographic commercial printing, although smaller in
absolute terms, employment maintained a growth rate of
4.4 percent a year.
About 22 percent of all printing employees work in
printing craft occupations; the remaining 78 percent are
employed in positions such as clerks, salesmen, general
office workers, reporters and editors, and managers.

D efin itio n o f the industry

According to the Bureau of the Census, the printing
and publishing industry consists of approximately
38.000 establishments, of which about 4 out of 5
employ fewer than 20 workers.
The U.S. Government’s Standard Industrial Classifica­
tion (SIC) designates nine industry subgroups. These
include establishments engaged in printing newspapers,
books, periodicals, and business forms; lithographic and
nonlithographic commercial printing; and establishments
that perform services for the Aanting trade, such as
bookbinding, typesetting, photoengraving, and electro­
This report focuses on two of the most important of
these industry divisions: newspaper publishing and print­
ing (SIC 271) and commercial printing (SIC 275). Each
of these two divisions employs about one-third of the
total industry’s work force, and both are undergoing
significant technological change.

Table 1. E m p lo ym en t in printing and publishing,
selected subgroups and periods, 1947-71
















1947 .......................
1958 .......................
1971 .......................
1947-71 ...................
1947-58 ...............
1958-71 ...............

Em p lo ym en t

In 1971, there were nearly 1.1 million employees in
the printing and publishing industry—approximately
367.000 more than in 1947. This constituted a 51
percent growth in printing industry employment, in
contrast to a 20 percent growth in employment in
manufacturing as a whole, and a 12 percent gain in
employment in nondurable goods.



1947-58 ...............
1958-71 ...............


Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. P roduction and em ploym ent in printing and
publishing, 1954-71

Prod uction and productivity

An index of productivity for printing and publishing
is not published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
primarily because output data for the industry are
limited. Physical output data are poor or nonexistent
and, although value of shipments data exist, appropriate
deflators are not available.
The Federal Reserve Board (FRB) publishes an index
of production which, while not reliable enough to be
used in the construction of productivity indexes, none­
theless can be useful as an approximation of the
magnitude of change in production. From 1954 to 1971,
production (FRB index) in total printing and publishing
nearly doubled—an increase of 91 percent, or an average
of 4.2 percent per year—as demand for printed materials
rose with expansion of population, business activity,
income levels, and leisure time. In contrast, the increase
in total employment (BLS data) over this period was 34
percent or 1.8 percent per year, substantially below the
rate of growth of production. (See table 2.) Although
definitive measurements of productivity for the industry
are not available, these figures do suggest an improve­
ment in manpower utilization during the 1954—71
period as new and more productive equipment was
introduced into printing establishments.


(all employees)

INDEX, 1967=100
1954 ........................................
1955 ........................................



















1954-71 ....................................
1954-63 ...............................
1963-71 ...............................

Capital spending


Printing firms spent $982 million for new plant and
equipment in 1971.1 Average capital expenditures per
employee—one indicator of the pace of technological
change—have been rising. (See table 3.) Data on value of
capital stock in place—considered a more valid indicator
of technological change than annual capital expenditures-are not available for printing and publishing.
In 1947, the three industry subgroups of newspapers,
nonlithographic commercial printing, and lithographic
commercial printing had greater capital expenditures per
employee than the industry as a whole.
By 1971, this situation had changed considerably.
Expenditures for newspapers and nonlithographic com­
mercial printing fell below the $903 per employee
industry average. Expenditures in lithographic com­
mercial printing, however, rose to a figure in excess of
$1,500 per employee—well above the industry average.
Moreover, total capital expenditures in lithographic
commercial printing in 1971 ($197 million) reversed the
past pattern and exceeded the total for nonlithographic
printing ($154 million).
The relatively large gain in capital expenditures per

1954-71 ....................................
1954-63 ...............................
1963-71 ...............................

SOURCE: Federal Reserve Board and Bureau of Labor Statistics.

employee in commercial lithographic printing between
1947 and 1963 (an increase of 144 percent) probably
reflected the introduction of such new technologies as
phototypesetting and web-offset presses into commercial
lithographic printing during the 1950’sand early 1960’s.
The wave of new technology that caused the large
growth in commercial lithographic printing spread to
newspapers in the early 1960’s. Average expenditures for
new plant and equipment per newspaper employee
increased from $411 in 1963 to $742 in 1971 Total
capital expenditures more than doubled while employ­
ment increased by 12 percent.
Research and developm ent

Research and development (R&D) activities are in­
creasing, although it is estimated that for the total

b u r e a u o f th e C ensu s.



new products, and firms not generally associated with
the printing industry—such as computer manufacturers—
are developing new products for the industry. Possibly
the entry of new firms into the manufacture of printing
equipment prodded the traditional manufacturers to
greater development activity than would have occurred
Other sources of R&D are trade associations, such
as the National Association of Printing Ink Manu­
facturers, the Technical Association of the Pulp and
Paper Industry, the Institute of Paper Chemistry, and
the American Newspaper Publishers Association, which
have sponsored research and, in the case of the ANPA
Research Institute, have performed research.
Research organizations—both industry-supported and
independent—are very important sources ofR&D.
Among the industry-supported organizations are the
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, Gravure Research,
Inc., The Book Manufacturer’s Institute, and the Photo­
engraver’s Research Institute. Independent research
institutes that conduct research on a contract basis
include the Battelle Memorial Institute, involved in
printing industry research since 1934 and the developer
of the process of xerography; the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, which performed some of the basic
research on the Photon phototypesetter; the Stanford
Research Institute, presently conducting research on
electrostatic printing; and the Rochester Institute of
Technology, which has a comprehensive graphic arts
training and research program.

Table 3. Expenditures fo r new plant and equipm ent
in printing and publishing, selected subgroups and
periods, 1947-71
Commercial printing






1947 .................
1963 .................
19711 ...............





$337.47 $ 351.25

1947-71 .............
1947-63 ........
1963-711 ___



1 Preliminary.
SOURCE: Bureau of the Census and Bureau of Labor Statistics.

printing industry only 1 percent or less of each sales
dollar goes into R&D. In commercial printing, the
proportion spent for R&D is reportedly well below the
1 percent industry average.2
Most R&D is carried out by equipment and material
manufacturers, trade associations, industry and
independent research organizations, and a rather small
number of medium to large-sized printing firms with the
capital and willingness to experiment. The number of
printing and publishing firms with in-plant research
departments increased during the 1960’s and this trend
is expected to continue.3
Traditional manufacturers of printing equipment and
printing materials have hastened their development of

2 U .S . In d u stria l O u t l o o k - 1 9 7 0 , p . 7 1 .

3 J. H o m e r W in k le r,

“ H o w R e s e a rch a n d D e v e lo p m e n t S p ark

th e P rin tin g I n d u s tr y ,” In la n d P rin ter I A m e r ic a n L ith o g r a p h er,
N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 8 , p . 2 7 . A ls o see W in k le r, “ R e s e a r c h : T h e K e y to
G r a p h ic A r ts V it a lit y ,” In la n d P rin te r /A m e r ic a n L ith o g r a p h er,
M ay 1 9 6 9 , pp. 4 1 - 4 4 .


C hapter 2.

Key Technological Changes

New technology is being introduced in all major
phases of printing including composing room, plate­
making, pressroom, and mailroom operations. This
chapter describes some key innovations underway in the
industry and provides examples of their use at survey
plants. Table 4 lists the innovations installed at the nine
newspapers and printing plants included in the study.
Com posing room

As indicated in appendix A, the printing process
begins in a composing room where manuscript copy is
set in type and checked for errors. Some of the p $t
dramatic technological changes are occurring in the
composing room where approximately half of all print­
ing craftsmen are employed. Important among the
innovations being introduced are (1) typesetting com­
puters, (2) high speed electronic phototypesetting,
(3) strike-on typesetting, and (4) optical character
Computers fo r typesetting.
Computers can perform
several important composing room operations that
traditionally have been performed by highly skilled
composing room employees. The most common applica­
tions are automatic margin setting (justification) and
word hyphenation.
The diffusion of typesetting computers has been
proceeding at a rapid pace. According to Composition
Information Services, Inc., typesetting computer installa­
tions in the United States increased from 98 in 1964 to
663 in 1968—a gain of nearly 600 percent.4 As demand
for new printing technology grows, major computer
manufacturers increasingly are entering the printing
industry market which previously had been supplied
primarily by two large printing machinery firms.
Newspapers are the largest users of typesetting
computers, accounting for nearly two-thirds of total
Generally, composing room computers are divided
into two classes: special-purpose and general-purpose





C o m p u t e r iz e d

T y p e s e t t i n g , C o m p o s it io n

I n f o r m a t io n S ervices, L o s A n g e le s , O c t o b e r 1 5 , 1 9 6 8 .


machines. Special-purpose computers are small, simple
machines designed to justify copy. Some special-purpose
computers also can hyphenate words, but the inclusion
of this capability adds to the complexity and expense of
the machine. The more expensive general-purpose com­
puters can perform, in addition to justification and
hyphenation, many noncomposition operations, such as
accounting, payroll preparation, and customer billing.
Thus, one general-purpose computer can be used for a
variety of business data processing and production
In composing room operations, computer input is
either magnetic or punched paper tape. Punched paper
tape is more widely used, primarily because it was
commonly used to operate conventional typesetting
machinery. Tape is punched on teletypesetter equipment
or on the newer tape-punching machines that utilize a
typewriter keyboard. The latter are probably somewhat
faster and easier for new employees to operate since
anyone who can use a typewriter can leam to use the
relatively simple extra keys and controls. In contrast, the
teletypesetter keyboard is entirely different, requiring
operators to be specially trained.
In preparing copy for computer justification and
hyphenation, the operator first types instruction codes,
such as line length and spacing, and then types the
manuscript without regard to line length and hyphena­
tion. The result is a reel of “unfinished” tape that is
ready for computer processing. The computer performs
all the necessary typesetting functions and puts out
“ finished” tape that can operate automatic hot metal or
photographic typesetting machines.
A secretary with average typing skills—with only a
small amount of training—can type unfinished tape on
an electric typewriter and feed the tape into a computer
for processing. Consequently, skilled composing room
craftsmen who have traditionally set type can be
bypassed and the work can be completed faster and
reportedly at lower cost.
Computers were being used for composing room
operations at seven of the nine printing firms contacted
for information. The two large metropolitan dailies were
using advanced general-purpose computers to perform
hyphenation and justification as well as general business
tasks. One of these newspapers also was using its

Table 4. Advanced equipm ent and techniques in use at newspapers and printing plants visited

Type of plant

Large metropolitan
daily ......................
Small local daily
Large metropolitan
daily ......................
Small local daily
Small local daily
Commercial printing plant:
Publications printer
(books, magazines,
pam phlets)...............
Typesetting plant for
(mainly textbooks) ■
Typesetting plant for
directories, catalogs,
Publications printer
(mainly magazines)








Commercial printing plant:
Publications printer
(books, magazines,
pam phlets)..................
Typesetting plant for
(mainly textbooks) . . .
Typesetting plant for
directories, catalogs,
Publications printer
(mainly magazines) . . .











Large metropolitan
d a ily ....................
Small local daily . .
Large metropolitan
d a ily ....................
Small local daily . .
Small local daily . .









Experim ental.

SOURCE: Plant visits.

computer system for press control and mailroom opera­
A local newspaper visited was using a small specialpurpose computer for justification only; another local
paper in the survey, an innovator in the industry, was
using a highly sophisticated computer system in connec­

tion with data transmission. The latter newspaper, then
the headquarters of a statewide chain of local news­
papers, installed a large general-purpose computer for
typesetting and set up a data transmission network
linking the computer to a number of its other papers.
The newspapers in the system transmitted “ unfinished”

complexity, CRT typesetters regularly use computers to
“input” data, institute commands, and generate type
In the mid-1960’s, an estimated 1,000 phototype­
setting machines, performing about 2 percent of total
typesetting, were in use; by early 1973, however,
installations had risen substantially, with an estimated
10,000 phototypesetting machines performing about 35
percent of all typesetting.5
Phototypesetting offers several major economic
advantages which make the process highly attractive for
use by newspapers. It operates at a typesetting speed
unattainable by hot metal processes, especially when
phototypesetting equipment is linked to a computer.
The machine error rate for computerized phototype­
setting is generally lower than for hot metal typesetting.
Manpower requirements in the composing room can also
be reduced with computers and phototypesetters. Some
of these economic advantages, however, can be realized
without shifting completely to a computerized photo­
typesetting system by using computers to drive hot
metal typesetting machines or using phototypesetting
without a computer in applications such as setting
Three of the newspaper and two of the commercial
printers in the study were using phototypesetting equip­
ment at the time of visit. Three newspapers were using
second-generation phototypesetters. In addition, one of
the newspapers was experimenting with a third-genera­
tion (cathode ray tube) unit, although it was not fully
operational at the time of visit.
Among the commercial printers, a book typesetter
was using both first- and second-generation units and
found them suitable to its operations. A directory
typesetter had just replaced a second-generation com­
puterized phototypesetter system with an advanced
system incorporating a large computer and a cathode ray
tube phototypesetter. This firm was changing and
updating catalogs, directories, and price lists, jobs which
lend themselves to processing by a high speed thirdgeneration computerized phototypesetting system.

copy directly to the computer, which performed
hyphenation and justification, and sent “ finished” copy
back to the originator’s terminal where tape was
punched for use in automatic typesetting machines.
Two commercial printers contacted were using
special-purpose computers: a book typesetting plant for
hyphenation and justification, and a publications printer
for justification only. A directory typesetter, on the
other hand, had installed a powerful third-generation
general-purpose computer to be used with an advanced
third-generation phototypesetter.
Phototypography .

Another important innovation in the
printing industry is typesetting by photographic
processes (phototypesetting), a much faster technique
than hot metal typesetting which it is displacing. The
most advanced automatic hot metal typesetting
machines can set 7 to 10 type characters a second,
compared with computerized phototypesetters which
operate at speeds up to 1,000 characters a second.
In phototypesetting, type is set on photographic film
or paper rather than in metal. The brass molds used in
hot metal typesetting are replaced, in all but the new
cathode ray tube models, by photographic negatives
called “matrices.” Depending upon the machine used, a
matrice may be small and contain only one character, or
larger, containing one or more complete alphabets. The
desired character is alined between a light source and a
lens, and its image is exposed through the lens, onto film
or paper. By changing the position of the lens, or using
different lenses, the character can be exposed in a
variety of different sizes. When the film or paper is
exposed, it is developed and used to make printing
Three generations of phototypesetters currently are
in use. The earliest are mechanical, keyboard-operated
machines that select and expose one character at a time
at speeds up to 10 characters a second. Second-gene ra­
tion phototypesetters are electro-mechanical machines
that usually are tape-operated, rather than manually
controlled. These machines use matrices that contain
one or more complete alphabets (sometimes referred to
as “ grids” ), rather than single-character matrices, and
expose 10 to 30 characters a second.
The recently developed third-generation machines
operate by more advanced electronic principles. These
machines generate characters from matrices or digital
information stored in a computer and display them on a
cathode ray tube (CRT) similar to a TV picture tube.
The characters, as they appear on the face of the tube,
are picked up by the lens and are exposed onto
photographic film or paper. These machines can turn out
1,000 characters a second, and compose entire pages
instead of a line at a time. Because of their speed and

This composing system utilizes typewriter-like
typesetting equipment which produces justified text
composition in a limited range of styles and sizes. Text
copy is produced by impacting the image through a
carbon ribbon onto proofing paper (in the same way
that a letter is typed on a typewriter). The proofing
paper is then ready for assembly with headliner and
artwork, after which it is photographed and made into a
printing plate.


SK o d a k H igh ligh ts, F e b r u a r y

1 9 7 3 , p . 9 . P u b lis h e d b y th e

E astm an K o d a k C o m p a n y , R o c h e s t e r , N e w Y o r k .


High speed phototypesetting machine

Strike-on, or “cold type” composition, is a popular
means of producing composition where cost is a more
important factor than quality. The system has the
potential for bypassing many of the traditional compos­
ing room operations by allowing a typist, with some
additional training and using fairly simple typesetting
equipment, to prepare text copy. Because of its low
cost, and the ease with which copy can be produced, the
strike-on method has found increased acceptance in
typographic firms, the composing rooms of some com­
mercial printers, and in-house composing departments.

This innovation is an attempt to bypass the worst
bottleneck in composing room operations, the manual
manipulation of a keyboard to prepare punched paper
tape for computer and typesetter input. Eventually,
OCR equipment may be able to read any style of type
set before it, even handwritten copy. At present,
however, scanners are in limited use since they have
many operational limitations and are very expensive.
One local newspaper, the headquarters of a highly
innovative chain, was using two optical scanners in
conjunction with its computerized typesetting system.
This was a pioneer installation of this technology in the
newspaper industry. Originally only one scanner was
installed; however, when it proved unreliable, a backup
unit was added. Because of the high speed operation and
great cost of the scanners, utilizing their full capabilities
economically was difficult. The scanning system could
handle much more copy than the newspaper was able to

Optical character recognition. Optical character recogni­
tion (OCR) equipment is a composing room innovation
that may become more important in the future. This
equipment consists of electro-optical devices using
photoelectric cells to compare characters on the copy to
characters programed into the computer memory of the
scanners. Each character is identified and translated into
an electronic signal that operates the tape-punching
equipment. OCR equipment is designed to “read” copy
at rates of 75 to 3,200 characters a second and translate
it into unjustified tape which can be fed into a computer
for justification.


Platemaking technology is undergoing significant
change. Most of the innovations involve photographic

expensive and time-consuming to make.
The key criteria for letterpress newspaper plates are
that they must be prepared quickly and inexpensively.
However, the quality need not be comparable to
commercial printing plates because, with the possible
exception of some advertisements, they are used for one
edition only.
The recent introduction of two new printing plates
made of thin, flexible plastic may fulfill these criteria
and result in their future application in newspaper
printing. One type of plate is made by photographic
processes, and this capacity is being developed for the
other plate system, allowing phototypesetting, with its
laborsaving potential, to be combined with existing
letterpress printing presses. The cost and the time
required to prepare the newer plastic printing plates are
about the same as for stereotype plates, but printing
quality of the plastic plates is superior, press life is
longer, ink transfer characteristics are better, and handl­
ing and storing are easier due to their light weight.
One of the large metropolitan daily newspapers
visited was experimenting with the newer plastic plate
system. Although the platemaking equipment was opera­
tional at the time of visit, results on the press were not
yet satisfactory. Company officials, however, were
optimistic about the eventual success of this system for
newspaper letterpress printing.

forms of platemaking used by all three major printing
processes—lithography, letterpress, and gravure.
Lithographic platemaking has increased in the past
decade because lithographic printing—especially weboffset—has grown so rapidly. Most of the growth has
been in commercial printing, but some of it is due to the
adaptation of web-offset by small- and medium-sized
To make a conventional offset plate, a thin metal
sheet (usually aluminum) is coated with light-sensitive
chemicals, and the copy negative exposed onto it by use
of a strong arc light. The light-sensitive chemical is
hardened in the image area, becoming insoluble to water,
and the plate is coated with a special ink—receptive
lacquer that adheres to the hardened chemical. The plate
is washed in water to clean the lacquer and nonhardened
water-soluble chemical from all parts of the plate not
carrying the image. Thus, only the image area retains the
lacquer and remains receptive to ink.
Precoated plates are available which reduce plate
preparation work. The most advanced plate comes with
a presensitized, water-receptive coating. This plate can
be unpackaged and exposed to a film negative for about
2 minutes, and is ready for the press—no addition of
chemicals or washing or drying is needed. This method
of platemaking contrasts greatly with the more
complicated and time-consuming techniques needed to
make the heavy lead stereotype plates for conventional
letterpress printing.


introduction of plastic printing plates for letterpress
printing is another development that may prove to be of
major importance in the printing industry. Although a
large amount of letterpress equipment is presently in
use, competition from web-offset printing presses used
in conjunction with phototypesetting has made major
inroads into letterpress printing. With the significant
amount of capital invested in existing letterpress equip­
ment, much research and development effort has been
undertaken to upgrade and modernize the letterpress
process; the plastic plate is the most important result of
that effort.
The first widely used plastic printing plate was
introduced in the early 1950’s. It can be used for black
and white or color printing, electrolytically plated for
long press runs, and used on rotary presses. Plastic
printing plates offer excellent ink transfer characteristics
(using slightly less ink than conventional metal plates),
and reduce makeready time in some applications.
Although the plate has received considerable acceptance
in most of the printing industry, thus far most news­
papers have found them uneconomical because they are

Letterpress printing with plastic printing plates.





Several advances also have been introduced in conven­
tional stereotype platemaking for letterpress printing.
These include more highly automated platemaking
machines which produce original and duplicate plates
quickly and inexpensively, and automatic routing equip­
ment to remove irregularities in non-image areas much
faster than hand methods. This type of equipment was
in use at the two large daily newspapers visited. Despite
these advances, stereotyping is expected to decline in use
because of the growing competition from lithographic
printing and the potential competition from plastic
Gravure printing. Gravure is a specialized form of
photoengraving used mainly for high quality magazines
and books and for packaging. The gravure printing plate
is a hollow cylinder, usually made of steel or cast iron,
and is electrolytically plated with copper. Large gravure
cylinders are over 100 inches long and can weigh almost
a ton. Press life for the cylinder can extend into the
millions of impressions, and operating speed for web-fed
(rotogravure) presses can exceed 2,000 feet a minute.
The main advantage of gravure printing is long run
production with high quality printing. This is especially


true for color printing, because gravure puts a thicker
layer of ink on the paper than any other process that
operates at a comparable speed. Disadvantages include
the relatively high cost and the large amount of time and
handwork needed to prepare cylinders. Due to their size
and weight, the cylinders are difficult to handle, plate
changes cannot be made easily, and cylinder storage can
be a problem.
Gravure may be on the edge of rapid growth. Demand
is strong for the high quality color printing that gravure
can provide. All of the advances in film processing such
as color separation, automatic developing, and electronic
etching apply to gravure. Research on new gravure
techniques is underway with laser etching of gravure
cylinders a major innovation under study.
In color printing, the colors
must be separated from each other photographically and
a printing plate made for each color. Each plate,
therefore, contains a segment of the total image to be
printed. Color separation, until recently, has remained
essentially a hand process-time-consuming, fairly costly
because of high labor input, and requiring highly skilled
craftsmen. Color separation has long been a bottleneck
in color printing and the problem has become par­
ticularly acute in recent years because the demand for
color printing has increased greatly.
A solution to this problem has been the introduction
of electronic color separation (or color scanning) equip­
ment. These machines convert light from color copy into
electronic signals that can be used to expose the
separation films. Color scanners do not eliminate all of
the time-consuming handwork involved in color separa­
tion, and they do not greatly reduce color preparation
costs. But, when used as part of a color separation and
correction system, scanners can reduce substantially the
amount of manual preparation work and skill required.
They are faster than conventional procedures; color
separations that require several hours of work by
conventional camera methods, for example, can be
accomplished in considerably less time with a scanner.
Moreover, their output is more uniform and predictable
than conventional hand processes and at least equal in
Electronic color separation.

processing systems. As with color
separation, conventional film developing to make nega­
tives used for platemaking has involved a considerable
amount of manual work. Automatically controlled film
processing systems, becoming widely used, provide high
quality developing with less manual work and lower
processing costs. Their major advantage, however, is in
the uniformity of output. They standardize and control

Automatic film

quality but require no special skills. Automatic film
processing units are operating satisfactorily at a local
newspaper and a publications printer visited as part of
the survey.
Electronic engraving equipment—
primarily for making gravure cylinders—scans copy in a
fashion similar to electronic color separators, but uses
the electronic signals to operate a sharp stylus that
automatically engraves printing plates at very high
speeds. These systems are being used extensively in
Europe, and their use is growing rapidly in the United
States. Several copy-to-plate camera systems exist that
automatically photograph copy and make plates.
Although copy-to-plate systems are not yet completely
perfected, they do eliminate negatives and developing
and stripping operations.
Other innovations.

Press operations

The two most significant changes in press operations
in the past two decades have been the shift from
web-letterpress and sheet-offset to web-offset presses,
and the application of advanced electronic systems to
make the controls of presses more automatic.
Web-offset presses. Web-fed printing presses have been
used for many years in letterpress and gravure printing,
but web-fed offset presses did not come into use until
the early 1940’s, when they were developed specifically
for printing business forms. In the 1950’s, web-offset
expanded into commercial printing and book and
magazine publishing. Small weekly and daily newspapers
began to convert to web-offset in the early 1960’s. By
1970, 47 percent of the 1,400 daily newspaper printing
plants and 41 percent of the 6,165 weekly newspaper
printing plants were using web-offset presses.6 This
trend is expected to continue until about 90 percent of
all newspapers in the country are printed by lithography.
For newspapers, web-offset offers several advantages
over web-letterpress. Web-offset provides a much higher
quality of newspaper printing than does letterpress—
especially in printing photographs for both editorial and
advertising purposes. Also, makeready time for weboffset is lower and operating speeds are higher than for
letterpress. Manufacturers have developed a number of
web-offset presses to meet the specific needs of small- to
medium-sized newspapers.
Sheet-fed lithography, never an important factor in
newspaper printing, has importance in other sectors of
the industry. In commercial printing, the sheet-fed

6 American Press, March 1970.



Modern web-offset newspaper press

method reached its peak in the early 1960’s, then
declined under the impact of the web-fed method, which
has the advantages of faster press speeds and less paper
The two small local newspapers included in the study
switched from web-letterpress to web-offset presses to
gain printing quality. One of these newspapers changed
over when it moved to a new building and found that a
new web-offset press cost very little more than a
reconditioned web-letterpress. The other newspaper
switched as part of a general shift to a computerized
phototypesetting system which is more compatible with
offset printing than with letterpress printing.
A publications printer contacted for information was
a pioneer in the use of web-offset presses for commercial
color printing. This firm felt that the quality of
web-offset printing was as good as that from the
sheet-fed offset presses that it had been using; therefore,
when it needed additional capacity, it installed weboffset presses.

New ultraviolet inks and ultraviolet ink-curing systems
and hardware are being adopted increasingly, par­
ticularly for web-offset printing. Ink/water balance
controls (for offset presses) are the most automated to
date, and improvements are progressing on web-tension,
register, and color controls, and in peripheral equipment
such as microwave dryers, automatic folders, and flying
pasters. The complete operation of a printing press by
remote control computers is foreseeable, but only at
such a great cost that there would probably be no
economic justification for such an installation. One of
the large newspapers visited, however, uses its computer
system to control press speed. Another large newspaper
surveyed has an automatic system for counting the
number of papers printed and shutting down the presses
at the proper time to reduce overruns.


A number of innovations in newspaper mailrooms are
providing significant laborsavings. One of the more
important advances is the counter-stacker, which counts
finished newspapers, stacks them in piles of a specified

O ther press operations. Improved instrumentation and

highly automatic electronic control and monitoring
equipment for printing presses are being introduced.


correct number of bundles to trucks for distribution.
Mechanized inserting machines have reduced much of
the manual labor required to assemble large newspaper

number, and ties them into bundles automatically. This
equipment is used by three newspapers visited. High
speed conveyor systems, in some cases computercontrolled, are used by many newspapers to send the


C hapter 3.

Introducing N e w Technology at Survey Plants
accomplish the installation. The size and composition of
this team depend upon the type of equipment purchased
and the complexity of the installation. Installing new
web-offset presses in a survey publications printing plant
averaged about 2 months per press and required a
four-man crew supplied by the manufacturer. The
production manager or his assistant spent the 2 months
on a full-time basis supervising the installation and
testing the operation of the new press and was involved,
on a part-time basis, for about 6 months after installa­
tion to assure successful operation. When press opera­
tions began, the manufacturer assigned about five
mechanics and instructors to the plant for several weeks
to answer questions and correct minor problems. If
serious difficulties arose, an engineer was made available
by the equipment supplier to assist the team.
Installing special-purpose computers at survey plants
generally was a simple operation. At one plant, for
example, the computer was delivered, installed, and
made operational in 1 day. At another plant, however,
where an installation of a special-purpose computer was
undertaken, six vendor employees spent about 3 months
trying to de-bug a system. Programing was supplied by
the computer vendor for all three special-purpose com­
puter installations at survey plants. In only one case
were programing modifications undertaken by the user.
General-purpose computer installations were more
complicated since many more data processing functions
were involved and specialized peripheral equipment was
needed. These systems required a large amount of
programing effort. While some of the programing was
supplied by the vendor, a significant amount was
provided by user staff. All four survey firms using
general-purpose computers, for example, had programing
departments for their computer systems. The staffs of
these departments worked with the vendor’s programers
and systems analysts in preparing programs for the
computer. They continued to work on programs for
day-to-day operations and special applications after the
vendor team left.

Introducing new printing technology generally
involves arriving at the decision to undertake the change,
forming a management team to implement the conver­
sion, and undertaking the technical and manpower
planning required to ensure an orderly change. In this
chapter, some techniques used by survey plants to plan
and implement new printing technology are highlighted.
The cost of new printing equipment installed at survey
plants also is presented along with some examples of
operating improvements and cost savings.

Planning for new equipment at most survey plants
was undertaken by a small group of high level managerial
employees. In a large newspaper, for example, the
decision to purchase new equipment is made by a
management team which considers any new technology
that will make possible cheaper or faster output. The
potential equipment is evaluated on a financial basis and
purchased only if sufficient dollar return is anticipated.
Therefore, no experimental equipment is considered. On
the other hand, a small newspaper, the headquarters of a
highly innovative chain, installed some of the most
advanced experimental equipment available to the
industry. While this firm expected the equipment to be
profitable, the key criteria were improved volume and
quality of product. In another small newspaper, when
the publisher decides that new equipment is needed, the
general manager and the foreman of the affected
department visit other newspapers already using the
equipment to evaluate different types of installations.
They report back to the publisher who makes the final
decision. At a book typesetting firm, the director of
research performs evaluation studies on new equipment
based on factors such as capacity, cost, and return on
investment. Management bases the decision to purchase
on these studies.

Costs and benefits

Once a printing firm decides to acquire the equip­
ment, most of the engineering and installation effort is
provided by the supplier, who sends in a team to

Introducing new printing technology at survey plants
generally involved a substantial investment which was

large web-offset press. As another example, a large
metropolitan daily newspaper paid $39,000 per unit for
second-generation phototypesetters, while a commercial
printer paid $370,000 for one of the more advanced
models. (See table 5 for additional information about
the costs of new equipment at survey plants.)
Some of the more important objectives for
introducing new technologies at survey plants were to
increase output, reduce labor costs, and increase product
quality. These objectives were met in varying degrees in
all of the installations. Examples of the benefits at
survey plants are presented below. The nature and
extent of these improvements were influenced by factors
such as level of output, type of innovation, and
efficiency of the preexisting technology. These examples
therefore should be considered as illustrative only, since

undertaken only after careful consideration of costs and
anticipated benefits. Nearly all of the equipment was
purchased rather than rented from the equipment
manufacturers. The exception was a large metropolitan
daily newspaper which chose to rent rather than buy its
general-purpose computers.
The cost of new technology varied widely at survey
plants, with the volume of investment depending upon
the type of equipment installed, the nature and com­
plexity of the application, and the type and size of the
user firm. Costs of computers, for example, ranged from
$22,000 for a small special-purpose computer at a local
newspaper to $610,000 for an advanced model, generalpurpose computer at a commercial printer. A small
web-offset press for a local newspaper cost $191,000,
while a commercial printer paid over $1 million for a

Table 5. Costs of new equipm ent at selected survey plants

Large metropolitan
daily newspaper

Small local daily newspaper

Small local daily newspaper

Publications printer

Book typesetter

Directory and catalog typesetter

Publications printer


2 general-purpose computers

$5,000 rental per month each

2 second-generation phototypesetters

$39,000 each

Web-offset press


Camera and platemaking equipment for the press


Automatic film processing system


Small special-purpose computer


Small special-purpose computer (back-up unit)


Mailroom counter-stacker and conveyor system


Large color web-offset press


Large color web-offset press


Large color web-offset press


Large color web-offset press


Large color web-offset press


Automatic film developing system


Automatic platemaking equipment


Special-purpose computer


2 second-generation phototypesetters with 6 keyboards

$ 56,000-$60,000, depending
upon how equipped

General-purpose computer


Third-generation phototypesetter


Special-purpose computer

$ 59,200 (includes $1.200 for

Plant visits.


Type of equipment



At a small local daily the introduction of a specialpurpose computer and a tape-driven hot metal typesetter
led to a reduction in composition time, allowing the
newspaper to reach the stands Wi hours earlier. Part of
this gain was attributed to a decline of 35 percent in
typographical errors. Savings in the composing room
were estimated to be almost $12,000 per year. In the
mailroom, automatic equipment led to a reduction of 50
percent in employment, down from eight to four men
on the line, with savings estimated at about $30,000 per
A large commercial publications printer shifted to
web-offset from sheet-fed offset and gained increased
speed with equal quality, and a reduction in makeready
time and paper costs.
A book typesetter gained increased speed and
capacity, higher type quality, and a reduction in
keyboarding costs of about 20 percent with the intro­
duction of a special-purpose computer and first- and
second-generation phototypesetters.
At a directory and catalog typesetter the advanced
computerized phototypesetting system was too new to
determine specific gains.
At a publications printer the installation of a specialpurpose computer allowed typists to be used instead of
skilled linotypers and led to a reduction in the cost of
composition of about 12 to 15 percent below that of
manual operations.

they could be significantly different in plants not
surveyed or in survey plants at different times.
At a large metropolitan daily newspaper automatic
stereotype casting and centralized remelt equipment led
to a decline in the number of stereotypers from 44 to
33. Automatic press controls and sensing equipment
reduced press overruns and unaccounted-for-newspapers
from about 3,000—3,500 papers to 200-300 per day.
Automatic inserting, stacking, and handling equipment
reduced mailroom employment from 105 workers to 32.
All of these changes occurred during a period when
output was increasing.
At a small local daily newspaper the shift from hot
metal letterpress printing to phototypesetting and weboffset led to better quality printing, fewer errors, and
greater speed. A typesetting computer led to faster,
more accurate tape-punching. These changes allowed a
decrease of four employees in the composing room
despite growing printing volume.
At a large metropolitan daily automatic mailroom
equipment led to a reduction in part-time employment
equivalent to five to six full-time workers. Computers
and phototypesetting provided an increase of 11 percent
in columns produced per employee over a 9-year period.
A small local daily gained greater speed, higher
product quality, and capabilities for job printing because
of the substitution of a web-offset press for letterpress


Chapter 4 . Em ploym ent Trends and Occupational Changes
Increasing employment in the printing industry has
been accompanied by major changes in occupations and
skills. In this chapter, employment trends in the major
printing industry sectors are examined in the context of
the impact of new technology on occupations and skills
in the major production steps of composition, plate­
making, presswork, and mailroom operations.

of 159.0 percent. Lithography ranks as the fastest
growing part of the printing industry.
Several sectors of the industry do not receive major
attention in this study, including book and periodical
printing and publishing, bookbinding, and packaging
printing. In all of these sectors, employment increased
from 1947 and 1971, although in no case was the
increase as marked as in commercial lithographic
Production workers make up a significantly smaller
proportion of total employment in this industry than in
manufacturing as a whole— 61 percent of total industry
employment in 1971 compared with 72 percent for all
manufacturing. Within the major printing and publishing
industry subgroups, production workers in newspapers
were a relatively low 49 percent of all employees; in
commercial printing, except lithography, 78 percent;
and in lithographic commercial printing, 75 percent. In
1947, production workers constituted a larger share of
the work force in both printing and publishing (68
percent) and all manufacturing (84 percent).
Employment of women in the industry increased
from 250,200 in 1959 to 353,100 in 1971, again of 41
percent (compared with a 25 percent increase in total
employment over this period). Women also increased as
a percentage of all employees—from 28 percent in 1959
to 32 percent in 1971. Part of the increased employment
of women can probably be attributed to the increase of
keyboard operations that are associated with computer
and tape-ope rated photo typesetters.

E m p lo ym e n t trends

As indicated earlier, nearly 1.1 million people were
employed in the printing and publishing industry in
1971. The two most important industry subgroups were
newspapers, with 370,000 employees, and commercial
printers, with 349,000. Within commercial printing, the
two most important groups were “ commercial printing,
except lithography” and “ commercial printing, litho­
graphic.” The nonlithographic sector accounted for
209.000 employees in 1971 and the lithographic sector
for 128,000. (See table 1.)
Printing industry employment has grown steadily
since 1947. Between 1947 and 1971, it increased by
50.9 percent, compared to an increase of 19.7 percent in
manufacturing employment. On an annual basis, as
shown in table 1, printing and publishing employment
increased at an average rate of 2.0 percent per year
during the period 1958—71 compared to an average rate
of 1.9 percent per year during 1947—58.
Employment growth rates varied considerably within
individual sectors of the printing industry. The number
of jobs in newspapers grew from 248,500 in 1947 to
370.000 in 1971—an increase of 48.9 percent. No data
are available for total commercial printing over the
1947—71 period because this sector underwent a change
in SIC definition that left the 1947 figures incompatible
with those for 1958 and 1971. Figures are available,
however, for the lithographic and nonlithographic
groups, which accounted for over 96 percent of com­
mercial printing employment in both 1958 and 1971. In
both groups, employment increased, but at very
different rates. Nonlithographic employment increased
from 179,800 in 1947 to 209,100 in 1971—an increase
of 16.3 percent. During the same period, lithographic
employment rose from 49,500 to 128,200-an increase

Impact on occupations and skills

New technology is changing the duties and skills of
production workers who perform composition and
typesetting operations, prepare printing plates (including
camera and film processing), operate printing presses,
and carry out mailroom tasks. One major development is
the creation of new occupations—systems analysts,
programers, and console operators—to plan, program,
and operate electronic computers and related equip­
ment. Information on the nature of these and other
changes, based on plant visits and secondary sources, is
presented in the following text and in tables 6 and 7.

Table 6. Technological changes in the composing room at selected survey plants



Impact on employment

Impact on skills

Large m etropoli­
tan daily news­

Computers for
justification and
hyphenation, and
p h o to c o m p o s ition
used for setting
advertising copy.

Production worker employment in 1962
(before installation of computers and
presently used photocomposition machines)
was 217. By 1968, it had increased to 268, a
gain of 23.5 percent. Throughout the 6-year
period, production workers accounted for
88-90 percent of total composing room

There was a major skill shift from
linecasting machine operators to keypunch
operators. The keypunching staff consisted
of production typists trained in computer
codes and retrained linecasting machine

Jobs eliminated: By 1968, only four
linecasting machine operators remained —
men who were so close to retirement that
they were not willing to be retrained. No
new linecasting machine operators were to
be hired.

Journeyman typesetters were retrained in
photocomposition skills such as paste
makeup, monitoring tape-driven photocom­
position machines, and photographic film

Jobs created: Computer programer and
console operator positions were filled by
retraining company employees.
Systems analysts were hired from outside
the company, as their skills are based on a
considerable amount of computer experi­
ence. The company did not consider it
practical to train its own people in these
skills until the computers had been opera­
tional for some time.
Small local daily
(central news­
chain of news­

Computers for
justification and
leased telephone
for data
newspapers in the
chain, photocom­
m e n t,

The change to computerized photocom­
position reduced employment by four
people. A t the time of the BLS visit,
composing room employment (excluding
computer personnel but including working
supervisors) was 114.
Jobs created: Computer programer and
console operator positions were filled by
retraining employees from within the
company. The programer staff was headed
by a former linecasting machine operator.
Five systems analysts were hired at
different times from outside the company.
However, their lack of fam iliarity with the
printing industry made them unsatisfactory
for the newspaper's purposes.

Book typesetting

Computer for
F i rst-generation
S e c o n d -

generation (tapedriven)
tap e-pe rfo rating
(keypunch) units.

Most of the teletypesetter (TTS) typists
were retrained to type input copy for the
optical scanner. Probably, little retraining
was required, as the scanner has reduced
skill and training requirements— copy that is
typed for the scanner can be read by the
typist. In contrast, the TTS machines
produce punched paper tape, requiring the
operators to learn TTS code, .then "read”
the holes in the tape.
Typesetters were retrained for photocom­
position machine monitoring, paste makeup,
and film processing operations.

Work force increased from 35 people in
1961 to 166 by 1969.

Required new typing skills to operate
phototypesetting machines.

Jobs created: The computer console
operator had previously been a keypunch
operator. She was trained to handle
computer input and output tape and to
operate the computer controls. As a secon­
dary duty, this employee also did some
keypunch work involving hyphenation of a
sort that cannot be done by the computer.





operate computer

Table 6. Technological changes in the composing room at selected survey plants— Continued


Impact on employment

Impact on skills

Programing was initially provided by an
outside programing service. Later, the firm
switched to a freelance programer and one
of the firm 's own electronics maintenance
employees who had learned programing
techniques on his own. In addition to his
programing work, the employee operated as
an electronic trouble-shooter, which was less
demanding of his time than straight
maintenance work.

Book typesetting
f ir m Contmued

Nine keypunch operators with typing
experience were hired to punch tape for the
computer. It was for one of these positions
that the computer console operator was
originally hired.
One of the first-generation phototype­
setting machine operators with a good
background in typography was trained to
operate the new phototypesetting machines.
This employee, in turn, trained 12 key­
punch operators and four technicians who
were hired to operate the new phototype­
setting machines.


This firm had
gone through a
complete change
of printing tech­
nologies and, at
the time of the
BLS visit, was
second change.
change was from
niques to use of a
computer and a
change consisted
of the installation
of a more ad­
vanced computer
and (at the time
of the BLS visit)
p h o to typesetter.

A t the time of the BLS visit the firm
12 people
manager). All of these were, in a sense, new
jobs resulting from the firm 's conversion
from strike-on typesetting to computerized
phototypesetting. A ll but two employees
had some knowledge of programing, even
though it might not have been their primary
job. Five employees were full-tim e pro­
gramed. Six were in "operations'' work (as
distinguished from programing) consisting
of preparing tape, machine operation and
maintenance, and the necessary peripheral
work. The latter group was composed of
one keyboard operator, one combination
k e yb o a rd
machinist, one paste makeup artist, one
operator/programer trainee, and one person
who handled corrections, small typesetting
jobs, and occasional programing assign­
The hiring of 10 additional employees
following the BLS visit. This group was to
be in the "operations" section: six as
keyboard operators and four as equipment
Jobs created: The CRT machine, when
installed, would create a new job opening—
CRT machine operator— for someone with
an electronics background.
Jobs eliminated: The conversion from
to computerized
phototypesetting had eliminated all of the
strike-on typist positions.

installed, would substantially affect one job:
the operator of the presently used photo­
typesetter was to become supervisor for
both that machine and the CRT machine.
This person had also received training in
programing, and was to assume greater
programing responsibilities.
The programer staff had to
techniques for


Table 6. Technological changes in the composing room at selected survey plants— Continued

Pu b l i c a t i o n s
p rinte r

Large metropoli­
tan daily news­


Impact on employment

Impact on skills

Computer for
justification and

Total composing room employment,
excluding salaried employees, declined from
97 in 1965 to 78 in 1969, but employment
in certain occupations increased. The
number of keyboard operators grew from
two to seven after the computer was
installed and three to four proofreaders
were added.

The change in keyboard operator skills
wrought by computers is illustrated in this
company by the use of manually operated
linecasting machines and automatic linecasters driven by computer-prepared tape.
An operator who must do his own
justification and hyphenation is expected to
set 3,000 "ems" an hour. An operator
punching "ra w ” tape that serves as com­
puter input is expected to set 6,000 "ems”
an hour.

Jobs created: One of the keyboard
operators was trained to operate the
computer console and was promoted to
supervise the other keyboard operators. The
computer was run for 2 or 3 hours a day, so
console operation duties were only part
time. The balance of this employee's duties
included training new keypunch operators
and operating a keypunch machine.

The firm has introduced automatic
(tape-driven) linecasting machines in addi­
tion to the manually operated linecasters
already in use. Several linecasting machine
operators were trained to operate and
monitor the automatic units.

Computers for
justification and
S e c o n d -

generation, tapedriven phototype­
T h ird -g e n e ra ­
tion CRT photo­

In 1958 there were approximately 280
full-tim e composing room employees (334,
including part-time employees). By 1968,
full-tim e employment had increased to 312
(354, including part-time employees).
The number of makeup employees (both
hot metal and photographic) increased for
two reasons: more makeup work was
necessary because of the increased amount
material being printed; and the
newspaper was operating with shorter
deadlines, allowing less time for correcting
machinists increased due to an increase in
the number o f machines used, and to more
intensive use o f those machines.

Jobs created: Seventy people were hired
or trained to punch tape for the computers
(keypunch operators). Some were line­
casting machine operators who were re­
trained in 1963-64, when the linecasting
machines were converted to computer
operation. By 1967 the phototypesetting
machines had also been converted to
computer operation, and about 80 percent
of the phototypesetter operators decided to
retrain for TTS operations, with the balance
being retrained for makeup or paste makeup
operations. Among the 70 keypunch
operators, 40 were retrained printers
(linecasting and phototypesetting machine
operators) who had no previous experience
with keyboards. Most of the remaining
keypunch operators were hired for that
specific ability, and needed no training.

employee received some computer mainten­
Most of the composing room jobs have
been modified by the introduction of the
Some had to be modified to make use of the
new equipment; in addition, the newpaper's
management decided to develop, among the
employees, a large
reservoir of skills in handling various facets
of the new technologies. A half-dozen
training courses were set up and employees
were given the opportunity to take as many
of the courses as they wished. Out of 315
composing room employees, 275 received at
least some training in new or modified job
The phototypesetting machines, used for
setting advertising copy, modified the jobs
o f "makeup" employees, who had pre­
viously set up advertisements and laid out
threedimensional metal type. Makeup employees
(now classified as paste makeup) were re­
trained to use sheets of film and paper to
produce the same result in two-dimensional
form from which photographic negatives are
made. Between 35 and 40 people were
involved in paste makeup work.
Composing room machinists who main­
phototypesetting machines
received training in electronics.

Table 6. Technological changes in the composing room at selected survey plants— Continued


Large metropoli­
tan daily news­

Impact on employment

Impact on skills

The conversion to linecasting and photo­
typesetting machines that are operated
necessitated training a crew of machine
monitors. While not a new occupation for
the industry, it was new to this newspaper.
Approximately 15 people were trained to
monitor linecasting machines and five were
Four programer positions and one
systems analyst position were filled by
retraining journeyman typesetters. The
systems analyst was previously a composing
room supervisor, and was trained first as a

Small local daily

Specialpu rpo se com ­
puter for ju stifi­

Work force increased from 61 men at the
time the computers were installed to 66 at
the time of the BLS visit. Five composing
room employees were added because of the
increased output of the computer: two for
handling corrections, one machine monitor,
one on the collection bank, and one electri­
cian. A retiring machinist was replaced by a
machinist with training in electronics.

Computer justification has simplified
keypunch work and has reduced typo­
graphical errors by 35 percent— the latter
because keypunch operators, no longer
required to do justifying, can pay more
attention to keypunch accuracy.

The laborsaving potential of computers in producing
tape to run automatic machines is illustrated at a survey
firm that uses both computer-prepared tape and
manually prepared tape. In the computerized method,
justification and word hyphenation decisions are carried
out automatically at high speeds to produce “ finished”
tape. Operators preparing computer input tape are
expected to set 6,000 ‘ems” an hour. Operators who
must do their own justification and hyphenation are
expected to prepare tape at a rate of 3,000 ‘ems” an
An increasingly necessary, but perhaps not so
obvious, skill is the ability to use a typewriter keyboard,
in which the keys are arranged in a manner different
from the widely used Linotype and Teletypesetter (TTS)
keyboards. Typewriter keyboard arrangements are
becoming standard on the more recent tape-punching
machines that prepare input tape for computers and
automatic typesetting machines.
Several new skills are necessary in photocomposition.
Cold type and graphic displays must be assembled and

C o m p o s i t i o n a n d t y p e s e t t i n g . Computerized typesetting
and phototypesetting can have a considerable impact on
the occupational structure of the composing room,
where almost one-half of the industry’s craftsmen are
employed. The introduction of computers into the
typesetting process requires several new skills. New job
functions of computer console operator and programer
are being created, and can often be filled by retraining
composing room employees who might otherwise be
displaced. A large newspaper that installed computers,
for example, staffed four programer positions with
journeyman typesetters who were retrained in a 12-week
course of programing classes. A relatively small number
of systems analysts will be needed (only one was
required by the newspaper mentioned above) and
industry practice thus far generally has been to hire from
outside the firm to fill these positions. One firm
surveyed hired systems analysts from outside the
company because it did not consider training its own
staff a practical alternative during the early stages of
computer installation.

With the exception of employees who
set type for advertising, all composing room
employees are trained to punch tape
(including learning to justify copy, although
this skill is not often needed), operate the
computers (which are relatively simple), and
monitor automatic linecasting machines.


pasted onto layout sheets (paste makeup). A knowledge
of photographic processes is necessary for both setting
copy onto film and developing the film for platemaking.
The developed film must then be assembled and
arranged into pages (stripping). Journeyman typesetters
at survey plants are being retained in photocomposition
skills such as paste makeup, monitoring tape-driven
phototypesetting machines, and film processing.
Much of the new equipment is electronic or electro­
mechanical in operation, rather than primarily
mechanical. Thus, machinists who maintain new equip­
ment generally need a good background in electronics.
At a large metropolitan daily included in the survey, for
example, 12 machinists primarily involved in mechanical
maintenance activities passed a qualifying test and were
given electronics maintenance training to provide new
skills needed to service phototypesetting equipment.

Lithography, as the fastest growing printing process,
will be responsible for most of the growth in plate­
making occupations. As all lithographic printing plates
are made from photographs, new technologies such as
automatic film developing systems, electronic color
separation equipment, and automatic plate processors
will modify skill requirements for lithographic
The employment of photoengravers (not including
gravure), most of whom work in commercial printing
shops, will remain fairly constant in spite of an increase
in output. This will result from a combination of
laborsaving technology and increased competition from
lithography. Some photoengravers are retraining for
lithographic occupations—a trend that is expected to
continue. The skill requirements for both occupations
are similar—printing plates made from a photographicchemical process. Certain of the new technologies are
P la te m a k in g . Several changes are occurring in the making
equally applicable to both processes.
of printing plates that are having an impact on employ­
Employment in electrotyping and stereotypingment and job skills. Some are applicable to all printing
duplicate platemaking processes for letterpress
processes, some only to particular processes.
printing—is being adversely affected by technological
Many printing plates are made by a photographic- N change. New, more durable materials have increased the
chemical finish process that has traditionally involved a
printing life of electrotype plates, thereby reducing the
number of duplicate plates needed for a given printing
great deal of handwork. Such platemaking is timeconsuming, and the quality of the final product is
job. Automatic platecasting equipment for stereotype
plates (used primarily in newspapers) has reduced
unpredictable, as it is highly dependent upon a crafts­
manpower requirements for stereotypers, and the
man’s skill—which is not completely consistent from job
potential effects of the plastic plate systems now being
to job.
developed could reduce manpower requirements even
New technologies such as automatic film developing
further. At one newspaper surveyed, for example, the
systems, electronic color separation equipment, and
of an automatic stereotype platecasting
electronic engraving equipment considerably reduce the
employment of stereotypers by 25
handwork involved in platemaking. Employees operating
of approximately 6 years. More­
the equipment utilize less craft skill, but must learn new
lithographic printing has pulled
technical skills. Generally, the new equipment requires
business away from letterpress printing, including those
less time to produce a given amount of work than did
facets of letterpress that use stereotype and electrotype
the hand methods, but the demand for artwork and
plates. As a consequence, the employment of electro­
photographs in printing is increasing so rapidly that
employment should not suffer. Traditionally trained
typers and stereotypers is declining.
The effects of technological change on gravure
craftsmen can be retrained to operate these new tech­
printing employment are, at the moment, unclear. As a
nologies, which can affect all three major printing
form of photoengraving, gravure printing is subject to
processes—letterpress, gravure, and lithography.
most of the changes in skill requirements and to the
The several letterpress plastic printing plates that are
laborsaving effects of new technology, which could limit
being developed—if successful—can cause some skill
employment opportunities. But the gravure process can
changes. These platemaking systems rely more heavily
produce a very high quality of printing and, if methods
on technical skill than the traditional craft-oriented
of engraving gravure cylinders more quickly and less
processes. Traditionally trained craftsmen, however, can
expensively can be developed, the demand for gravure
be retrained to operate this equipment.
printing—and, consequently, for gravure employees—
Employment in most platemaking occupations is
could increase dramatically.
expected to increase over the next 5 years. The new
platemaking technology is more productive than its
P ress w o r k . The increasing automation of printing press
predecessors, and this will set some limit on employment
controls is changing the skill requirements of pressmen.


Table 7. Technological changes in platemaking, presswork, and mailrooms at selected survey plants


Impact on employment

Impact on skills

L a rge
dai l y
m e tro p o lita n

stereotype plate­
casting system.

Manpower requirements for stereotypers
reduced from 44 men in the early 1960's to
33 men in 1968.

Required shift from hot metal typesetting
techniques to phototypesetting skills.

Production workers in the press room
increased from 85 in 1962 to 137 in 1968.

Required new programer and
computer occupations.

i n se r t i n g ,
sta ckin g ,
bundling system
in mailroom.

Mailroom production worker employ­
ment declined considerably, from 98 in
1961, to 27 in 1968.

Required fam iliarity with new mailroom

platemaking and
printing press to
platemaking and
printing press.

Employment increased after the conver­
sion because the lithographic press— at least
in itia lly— required a larger operating crew (2
additional men per shift). The newspaper
was in the midst of retraining over 50
percent of its press operators, and hoped
that when all operators were sufficiently
trained, a reduction in the size of the press
crew might be possible.

letterpress printing to lithographic printing
caused a considerable change in job
structures and skill requirements.

Jobs created: Flying paster operator. The
previously used press had not been equipped
with flying pasters, as was the new
employees were trained to operate the
flying paster units.

A part of the conversion was the creation
of an "offset-engraving” section to perform
all lithographic platemaking and printing
press operations. Each "offset-engraving"
operator is trained in all of the skills
necessary to photograph camera-ready copy,
develop the film , expose it onto printing
plates, etch the plates, mount the plates on
the press, and operate the press.

Small local daily

operators were separated becaused they
refused to be retrained for lithographic


model of develop­
ing room camera.
Automatic printi n g
Tapeoperated photoco m p o s i n g
m a c h i n e .

Web-offset presses
added t o p r e s s r o o m previously
u s i n g sheet-fed
p r e s s e s only.

changed. The same employees who had
operated the older equipment had been
retrained to operate the new equipment.
Jobs created: Due to the substantial
in skill
requirements for
operating sheet-fed presses and web-offset
presses, and to the general unwillingness of
pressmen to
web-offset work (less than 10 percent of the
firm 's sheet-offset pressmen were willing to
retrain), new press crews had been hired to
operate the web-offset presses.


Before conversion, the newspaper main­
tained a small lithographic section, so there
were a few employees trained in lith o­
graphic platemaking and press operations.
The conversion resulted in a substantial
enlargement of the lithographic department
and the virtual disappearance of the letterpress department.

During his training, an "offset-engraving"
employee generally finds that he prefers
either the platemaking operations or the
press operations— a preference that usually
determines his major work assignments.
Most of the journeyman employees in the
"offset-engraving" department had been (or,
at the time of the BLS visit, were being)
Included were former press operators,
stereotypers, engravers, and some type­
The new platemaking equipment had
caused some changes in skill requirements.
Craft skills were not as important as they
had been with the older equipment, but
greater technical skill was required to
operate the new machines. Generally, more
work is performed with less physical effort
by the employees operating the new

Table 7.

Technological changes in platemaking, presswork, and mailrooms at selected survey plants— Continued



from web-letterpress
weboffset printing.

Size of the press and maintenance crews
increased as a result of the conversion. One
man was added to the press crew to set and
maintain the ink/water balance and to
watch tension on the paper roll.

Automatic film

dai l y
L ar ge
m e tro p o lita n

Impact on skills

The greater complexity of web-offset
necessitated an increase in the size of the
press crew. A four-color sheet-offset press
requires a four-man press crew: head
operator, and tender. A four-color weboffset perfecting press requires a five-man
crew: head pressman, assistant pressman,
paster operator (counterpart of feeder
operator on sheet-offset), tender, and
console operator. The console operator
monitors web and color register, and adjusts
the printing cylinders as needed.

P rin te rContinued

Small local daily

Impact on employment

The entire web-letterpress crew was
retrained to operate the web-offset press.
The cameraman was retrained to work
with lithographic equipment. When the firm
installed an automatic film processing
machine, the cameraman was trained to
operate it in replacement of the less
method he had previously used.

c o u n tin g and
stacking equip­
ment installed in

The newspaper originally operated with
an 8-man crew in the mailroom and nine
d e liv e ry truck drivers. Installing the
counter-stacker allowed use of a 3- to
5-man mailroom crew (depending on the
speed at which the presses were being run).
There was a need to increase the number of
delivery truck drivers during this period,
however, because of increased circulation.

A ll
employees (including
drivers) were trained to operate the
counter-stacker equipment and to drive
delivery trucks. They could perform either
of the two types of duties, depending upon
the newspaper's needs.

c o u n tin g
stacking machine.

Total full-tim e mailroom employment
increased slightly from 1959 to 1969, but
this increase was due to the newspaper's
increased circulation. The new equipment
decreased overall manpower requirements
and decreased the day-to-day fluctuations in
crew size that result from printing news­
papers of varying sizes. In 1959, there were
34 full-time mailroom employees. An
average working-shift crew on the conveyor
and tying machines was 18 men, and could
go as high as 24 men. By 1969, 47 men were
employed full-time. An average s h iftworking with the increased output of an
additional printing press— was 15 men, and
never exceeded 18 men.

The counter-stacker brought about con­
siderable change in skill requirements.
Before its introduction, the work procedure
was as follows: Newspapers came o ff the
presses and were carried to the mailroom via
a conveyor. Employees manually counted
out groups of 25 or 50 newspapers and put
them on another conveyor which led to a ty ­
ing machine. One man operated the machine,
which wrapped wire around the bundle of
Now, the counter-stacker automatically
counts the newspapers as they come o ff the
presses. The stacks are then manually
transferred to the second conveyor, where
they activate a switch that turns on the
tying machine which automatically ties the
stack of papers.
Skill requirements changed from work
that was primarily manual to the operation
o f c o m p le x
machinery. Considerable
training and a rudimentary preventive
maintenance program were needed. A t first,
the newspaper's machinist and electrician
did equipment maintenance. Later, as the
mailroom employees became more experi­
enced, they took over some of the equip­
ment maintenance.

Before the use of automatic inserting
equipment, all separately printed sections of
the Sunday newspaper were inserted by
hand— part in the newspaper's mailroom and
part by the delivery boys. The in-plant work
was performed by approximately 100
part-time employees working shifts during
Saturdays and Saturday nights. The
productivity of the inserting machines was
so much greater that, in spite of a large
increase in Sunday inserts, manpower
requirements were reduced to about 35
part-time employees on Saturday nights.

Electronic monitors and controls can perform many
press operations faster and more accurately than the
press crew. This frees the crew from many machine
operations, allowing them to spend more time on quality
control, but in the process traditional craft skills become
less important, and technical knowledge and ability
become more critical.
Web-offset (lithographic) printing presses have
affected manpower in several ways. Printing companies
changing from sheet-fed lithographic presses to web-fed
presses have to retrain their existing press crews or train
entirely new press crews because the skill requirements
for the two types of presses are very different. Weboffset presses, with their faster operating speeds, require
faster decisionmaking, monitoring of more variables, and
greater physical effort. If a problem occurs while
running a sheet-fed press, there is more time to study it
and make a decision on correcting it before paper
wastage becomes excessive. Because of these differences
in skill requirements, only some sheet-fed pressmen are
willing to retrain for web-offset work.
Companies converting from web-letterpress to weboffset (most frequently, this involves newpapers) retrain
their original press crews and often enlarge them. The
skill requirements for web-offset and web-letterpress are,
in some respects, similar. There is, however, at least one
very important difference: the ink/water balance used in
the lithographic process. Letterpress crews generally are
unfamiliar with this complex process and must be
retrained in this stage of press operations. The entire
web-letterpress crew at a small local daily newspaper
included in the study were retrained for web-offset
operations by sending one man at a time to work with
the crew at another newspaper using the same type of
press. Web-offset is a more complex process because of
the ink/water balance that must be maintained in
lithographic printing and this extra complexity generally
means that an additional man must be put on the press
Employment is expected to increase moderately for
press operators and assistants. This is attributable to an
anticipated increase in printing output, and should be
very noticeable in that part of the industry using
web-offset printing presses.

automatic inserting machinery. Prior to the introduction
of these two innovations, mailroom operations involved
semiskilled manual work. Employees manually counted
and stacked newspapers as they came off the presses,
inserted separately printed sections (such as the Sunday
comics), ran machines that tied the paper into bundles,
and distributed the bundles to trucks for delivery. In
addition to being labor intensive, the operation called
for a work crew varying with the size of each day’s
newspaper, the Sunday paper requiring the largest crew.
The automating of many of these operations—
counting, stacking, bundle tying, and, to an extent,
inserting—has substantially reduced labor requirements,
changed skill requirements, and, in some instances,
reduced fluctuations in work-crew size. One survey
newspaper which introduced automatic equipment to
insert sections in the Sunday edition reduced employ­
ment in this operation by 65 percent. Moreover, skill
requirements also were significantly affected, shifting
from primarily manual tasks to duties involving the
operation of fairly sophisticated mechanical equipment.
A training program for operators was initiated.
This evidence indicates a strong impact on manpower
resulting from present and expected technological
change. Employment in most occupations is changingincreasing in some instances, decreasing in others. Skill
requirements for all production jobs studied (with the
possible exception of proofreaders, who are among the
composing room employees) are changing in various
degrees. In some cases, technical skills are being required
in addition to the traditional craft skills. Certain skills
are becoming obsolete, although many smaller printing
plants will continue to use the older methods for some
time to come. Some entirely new skills are being created.
Finally, most of the new technologies require less time
and/or lower skill requirements to perform a given job
than do the older printing methods.
Training programs are necessary to avoid job displace­
ment and to build staffs of people capable of operating
new equipment. Training programs at survey plants are
discussed in detail in the following chapter. However, it
should be clear from the data presented in this chapter
that considerable training has been carried out at the
survey plants-training that has varied from teaching
craftsmen to do the same job in new ways to taking
people who have been displaced from one job and
training them to perform different jobs.

Newspaper mailrooms have been dramatically
affected by the introduction of two technological
developments: automatic counter-stacker equipment and

M a ilro o m .


C h a p te r 5. T ra in in g for N ew T e c h n o lo g y
stripping, camera work, darkroom techniques, paste
makeup, platemaking, and presswork to journeymen and
apprentice union members. The union also has initiated
a Technological Developments and Education Com­
mittee, whose members visit equipment manufacturers
to learn about the latest machines and processes and
study the impact of technology on members.

Training workers to operate new equipment and work
with new processes is one of the most important
techniques used to adjust to technological change in the
printing industry. Training is provided by the major
unions (on both the national and local level), industry
associations, vocational schools, equipment manufac­
turers, and printing firms. In this chapter, examples of
training programs are provided.

Industry trade associations
U n io n training

A number of printing industry trade associations are
involved in training programs affecting both manage­
ment and production workers. The American Newspaper
Publishers Association Research Institute, for example,
provides training in new processes to production
employees of member firms, with special emphasis on
web-offset printing. The Graphic Arts Technical
Foundation has an education service which consists of
publishing books and technical manuals for use in
schools and apprentice programs and providing advanced
training sessions for industry, management, and union
personnel, ranging from formally organized programs to
crash in-plant programs.

The International Typographical Union has set up a
highly advanced training center in Colorado, offering
courses covering all o f the modern graphic arts methods,
including such topics as paste makeup, camera use,
darkroom techniques, keyboard operation, photo­
typesetter operation and maintenance, and computer
programing and operation. Classes are small and instruc­
tion techniques consist mainly o f working directly with
equipment. Most courses last 3 weeks and can be taken
by union members on their vacation. All ITU members
are eligible for this training, which is provided without
cost, although they, or their employers, must pay for
travel and living expenses. Many union members return
to their locals after taking courses at the Center and
instruct other local members in the new techniques.
The International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’
Union of North America has a program consisting of
decentralized on-the-job training. This program replaced
a union printing school when the union found it
impractical to install the many new models of presses
appearing on the market. Members now receive training
on the presses used in the plants at which they are
employed. The union provides textbooks, visual aid
materials, and manufacturer-trained union instructors to
assist workers.
The Graphic Arts International Union also has a
large-scale training program. Union policy is that training
provisions should be a part of local collective bargaining
agreements, and about 95 percent of the local unions
have contracts in which employers contribute to training
programs. A total of 54 regional training centers have
been established by the union, financed by employer
and union member payments. These centers provide
training in lithographic and photoengraving skills such as

Manufacturer and user training

Manufacturers of printing equipment and other
suppliers to the industry generally provide instruction in
the operation of their new equipment and processes.
Some firms set up classroom sessions at their plants or in
special schools for user employees, while other firms
send instructors into user plants to provide training. User
firms also have utilized extensive internal training
programs to introduce new processes, as indicated by the
experience at some of the plants visited for this study.

Entry level training

Apprenticeship training under union contract is the
most common method of entry into the printing
industry for production workers. Approximately 11,000
apprentices were registered in printing trades in 1971.
Training lasts from 4 to 6 years and generally consists of
on-the-job, classroom, and correspondence school in-


struction incorporating modern printing techniques. In
addition, there are about 4,000 vocational schools, high
schools, technical institutions, and colleges that provide
courses in printing for entry level jobs in the industry.

Training at survey plants

All of the newspapers and commercial printers visited
provided training to affected employees when new
equipment and processes were introduced. Examples of
training programs at plants are presented in the follow­
ing sections.
m e t r o p o l i t a n d a ily . The shift from hot metal
composition to computers and phototypesetting
required training for almost all the composing room
employees. Computer programer positions were staffed
by four composing room journeymen who were
provided with about 12 weeks o f training at a computer
manufacturer’s school and at classes held at the news­
paper. About 275 of the remaining composing room
journeymen received training in new skills. A total of
seven categories of instruction were offered. Six were
designed for composing room employees and consisted
of courses in paste makeup, markup, darkroom opera­
tion, automatic linecaster monitoring, proof press opera­
tion, and keypunching. The seventh category was for
machinists and involved maintenance of electronic
equipment. Employees selected for maintenance training
had to pass a test in electronics, which required prior
home study and attendance at night school. Twelve
machinists passed the test and received the training.
Company policy was to train every journeyman in the
composing room in any one or more of the categories
that they were interested in, with the exception o f the
TTS course, for which the employee had to pass a typing
test. Over 60 workers were trained in all six categories,
over 200 received training in more than one category,
and 275 were trained in at least one new skill. A total of
40 journeymen learned how to operate keyboards. The
length and content of the courses were determined
jointly by management and a two-man union committee,
with the exception of the keypunch course which was
already covered by the union contract. Darkroom and
machine monitoring were 1-week courses, proof press
was 2 weeks, paste makeup was 4 weeks, markup was 6
weeks, and keypunch was 15 months.
All instruction was on the job. In most cases, one
man at a time worked with an instructor, and in some
cases, after initial instruction was given, the employee
gained proficiency in the new techniques by working
with equipment by himself Instructors were journey­
men who were already proficient in the new processes;
L arge


some of them had gone to manufacturers’ schools. All
employees were paid at a journeyman’s rate while taking
training. Approximately 25 older employees, mostly
proofreaders whose jobs were relatively unaffected by
the shift, chose not to take training.
There was an unusual training problem at this
newspaper. A total of 45 deaf mutes were working in the
composing room at the time of the changeover. These
employees were graduates of a printing course given by a
local college for the deaf and had received journeyman
union cards under a special union program. A unique
type of training had to be devised for these workers
since they functioned by feel and sight, rather than by
hearing. As Linotype operators, for example, they could
feel the operation of the machine;however, as monitors
they would not have their hands on the keyboard. The
problem was solved by designating two employees who
were mutes but not deaf as the initial trainees for the
group. These two employees then became instructors for
the rest of the group and developed the techniques
required for the deaf mutes to operate the new
A p u b li c a t i o n s p r in t e r
shifted its major printing
capacity from sheet-fed to web-fed offset presses by
adding new web-fed presses, although it still continued
to operate sheet-fed units. The company trained almost
all of its press crews internally. Only about 10 percent of
its 121 pressroom employees were hired as skilled
workers from the outside. Crews for new presses were
staffed by moving skilled workers from existing press
crews and training lower level employees. When a new
web-offset press was planned, for example, a skilled
pressman was designated to be the head operator of the
new press, and other skilled workers were moved from
other presses. Vacancies in existing press crews were
filled by promoting and training lower level workers,
who were provided with 3 to 4 months of on-the-job
training in their new skills. Entry level workers were
hired from the outside. The line of progression in a
web-press crew in this plant is from floorman (general
helper) into a press crew as a fly boy, paster, console
operator, successively, to assistant pressman, to press­
man, which is the highest level job in the crew. This
plant uses a console operator, which is a new job
function, on web-fed presses. Duties of this job involve
adjusting press operations using the press console.
Workers in these functions were provided on-the-job
training by the pressman in their crew. The line of
progression in this plant may not be representative of
the industry.
At a s m a ll lo c a l d a ily n e w s p a p e r the introduction of a
special-purpose computer required a minimal amount of
training. The computer manufacturer instructed some of
the compositors in the operation of the equipment in

compositors to operate teletypesetter machines, and,
when computers were installed, retrained the men to
punch tape for the computer. This newspaper has an
agreement with the typographical union allowing union
members to use any of the equipment in the composing
room on their own time in order to learn new skills or
brush up on previously learned techniques.
Table 8 provides the highlights of training programs
at other survey plants.

one afternoon of on-the-job training. Almost all the rest
of the compositors learned how to operate the computer
later on. Two machinists received 3 weeks o f training in
electronics and computer maintenance at the computer
manufacturer’s school. Training for the other advanced
composing room equipment, such as the automatic
linecasters, was provided by the typographical union, at
a local school and on the job, as covered by the contract.
As part of its apprenticeship program, the union trained

Table 8. Training programs for technological change at selected survey plants



Type of training

daily newspaper

Computer and photo­
typesetting system.

Programers and other computer-related jobs were filled from within by
testing and retraining employees using both on-the-job training and computer
manufacturer courses. Linotype operators were retrained to be keypunch
operators. This plant was almost completely nonunion and had a formal
entry level training program, equivalent to the union apprenticeship program,
which allowed employees to advance faster if they had the ability and included
instruction in the new processes in use in the plant.

Small local daily

typesetting system, and
web-offset press.

Computer programers were trained internally, progressing from tape handlers
to console operators and then to programers. Compositors were retrained from
hot metal operations to computerized phototypesetting techniques. Letterpress
printers and stereotypers were retrained for lithographic platemaking and press
operations using on-the-job training and a buddy system in which a trainee
works alongside an experienced worker. Two janitors were retrained for the new
job of flying paster operator.

Small local daily

Web-offset press.

The press crew was retrained from letterpress to web-offset by sending one
man at a time to work with the crew at another newspaper using the same type
of press. The head pressman and cameraman received a 2-week course at a
lithography school. All wages and training expenses were paid by the firm .

Book typesetter


Twelve keypunchers and three technicians were retrained in phototypesetter
operation. Training for keypunchers was on the job, included the use of books,
and was provided by the foreman. Training for technicians was based on prior
electronics background and consisted of on-the-job instruction in repairing
minor breakdowns. A keypunch operator was provided on-the-job training 1 day
a week for 4 months to become a computer console operator. A
phototypesetter technician with an electronics background received on-the-job
training in computer technology and maintenance.

Directory and catalog

A d v a n c e d
typesetting system.

Five or six employees took a typesetting computer language course and a
5-day phototypesetter orientation course. Four employees took a 2-week
computer assembly language course.

Publications printer


The computer manufacturer trained some employees to operate and
trouble-shoot the computer during the month that they were involved in
installation. A Linotype machinist also was trained to maintain the computer
during the same period.


Chapter 6.

Adjustm ent of W orkers to Technological Change

Collective bargaining contracts in the printing
industry contain provisions to facilitate adjustment of
workers to new technology. In this chapter, the attitude
of major unions toward changing technology and
examples of provisions relating to advance notice,
training, jurisdiction, maintenance of job security, and
related measures are presented. Training programs, the
major method of preparing employees for new work,
were described in detail in the previous chapter.
The influx of new technology has been a source of
considerable concern to unions. All of the unions
generally favor technological change. Underlying this
attitude, however, is a fear for the job security of their
members if they cannot establish some control over the
introduction of new processes, for not only do many of
the new processes decrease the amount of manpower
necessary for a given job, but they also cross traditional
craft jurisdiction lines or perform work in such a way
that no one union has clear jurisdiction over the
operation of the process. This leads to the potential
threat of a loss of jobs and members (sometimes to other
unions), and to jurisdictional problems between unions.
Several unions have stated a philosophy toward
technological change. The International Typographical
Union, for instance, favors technological change as long
as member interests are not disregarded. In keeping with
this philosophy, the ITU demands a voice in determining
the conditions under which new equipment or processes
are introduced, and a share of the benefits resulting from
their use.
Another part of ITU’s philosophy is the long-held
belief that its interests can best be served by supplying
industry with the most skilled workers available. Con­
sequently, ITU places considerable importance on train­
ing and retraining programs for its members, and has
maintained a training school to this end for many years.
ITU is opposed to the concept of attrition as a means
of handling job displacement resulting from new laborsaving machinery. Rather, ITU proposes that industry
increase its output enough to maintain the present work
The Graphic Arts International Union (GAIU)
expressed increasing concern over the threats to job
security resulting from technological change in its 1965
biennial convention. It was predicted that virtually every

worker would have to be retrained at least three times
during his productive career, and an opinion was
expressed that the training facilities then existing were
so limited that the majority of union members were
denied the opportunity to adapt and adjust to the
demands of a rapidly changing industry.
During the convention, a Committee on Techno­
logical Developments was established for the purpose of
studying the employment impact and the cost savings
effects of technological changes. The Committee
formulates plans for the use of locals in their negotia­
tions with employers that can assist them in acquiring a
fair share of the benefits occurring from the techno­
logical changes.
The International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’
Union has long had a reputation for encouraging and
supporting technological change. The union’s answers to
problems caused by change are to establish retraining
programs for members whose skills have become
obsolete and to urge an industry rate of growth that will
produce new jobs to balance those lost. Six specific steps
have been advocated by the union: advance planning,
advance information to employees, use of attrition as a
means of reducing excess work force, simultaneous
planning of new jobs with preparations for the elimina­
tion of old jobs, and, where layoffs are inescapable,
ample warning to minimize the hardships involved.

Contract provisions relating to technological change

The concern of labor unions about the introduction
of new equipment and processes is reflected by the large
number of provisions in labor-management agreements
designed to protect members against potential adverse
effects. The most common union position is to accept
technological change as long as members are not thrown
out of work. In general, when new equipment is
introduced, unions attempt to gain jurisdiction for their
members over the operation of the equipment, and to
have this jurisdiction made part of their labor-manage­
ment agreement. Jurisdictional provisions in printing
industry contracts, therefore, are very specific, with the
type of equipment, in some cases even brand names,
clearly spelled out. Other common contract provisions

relating to technological change include advance notice,
training, employee selection, layoffs and severance pay
clauses. Examples of some of these provisions are
presented in table 9.
Manpower planning in survey plants

Although only six full-time employees were
involuntarily separated (and later reinstated) and no one
was downgraded when new printing technology was
introduced at the nine firms visited by BLS staff,
substantial advance manpower planning and labormanagement adjustments generally were required. Six of
the nine survey plants were unionized and the collective
bargaining agreements provided the mechanism for
providing advance notice of change, undertaking special
negotiations to handle disputes, selecting employees for
new jobs, determining skill levels and wage rates, and
providing training for new skills.
about new equipment and processes was provided in
advance of installation at all of the printing firms visited.
At unionized plants, company officials notified the
chapel chairman or local union officers of the impending
changes. At nonunion plants, the procedure generally
involved informal meetings between foremen and super­
visors and affected employee groups. The timing of
advance notice ranged from 3 months to 3 years prior to
installation of new printing technology. At a small
nonunion plant visited, the policy was to notify
employees immediately upon deciding to acquire new

Advance notice o f technological change.

new jobs. In most of the
unionized plants visited, procedures for selecting produc­
tion workers for new jobs were spelled out by labormanagement agreements. The majority of the new jobs
in survey plants involved operating and programing
computers and were filled by training employees from
the affected units. At a large daily newspaper, for
example, programer positions were staffed by composing
room and mailroom employees who had passed a
programing test and were given training. Even at
nonunion plants most computer and related jobs were
filled by upgrading employees who already had printing
skills. Systems analysts, however, generally were hired
from outside the firm. Most of the other new positions
were filled from within. Two janitors at a small
newspaper were trained to operate the flying pasters on
a new press, while a commercial printer trained existing
employees to be console operators and flying paster
operators on new web-offset presses.
Selecting employees fo r

Unions in the
printing industry usually have a formalized system of
skill levels and wage rates in their labor-management
agreements. Printing craftsmen are generally divided into
two skill levels: journeymen, who are the skilled
workers; and apprentices, who are learning the trade.
Wage systems differ between unions, however. The ITU
has a two-scale system, for example. All composing
room journeymen in any one contract, regardless of job
title, receive the same minimum wage rate, with adjust­
ments for various shifts and holidays. Apprentices
receive a proportion of journeymen’s rates that increases
as their experience increases. Mailroom workers who are
affiliated with the ITU generally are covered under a
separate contract at lower rates. The GAIU, on the other
hand, while still operating under the apprentice-journey­
man skill system, negotiates different minimum wage
rates for different jobs. Journeyman photographers,
platemakers, and pressmen and feeders, for example, all
have different hourly wage rates in the same contract.
In general, the minimum negotiated wage rate at
survey plants tended to become the actual wage rate for
all union workers, including those affected by techno­
logical change. However, at a few survey plants, workers
who were trained in new technologies were paid bonuses
above union scale. The most common explanation was
that the increases were paid so that these workers would
not leave for jobs with other firms. When a large daily
newspaper installed a computer and phototypesetting
equipment, for example, wages for all the composing
room employees were increased from $10 to $15 per
week above scale. A small local daily newspaper paid a
composing room machinist $5 per week over scale for
maintenance work on typesetting computers. Among the
nonunion plants, with the exception of a large daily
newspaper which increased wage rates for some
employees, there were no wage rate changes that could
be directly attributed to the introduction of specific
Determining skill levels and wage rates.

a large metropolitan daily, the contract with the ITU
local was modified because of the introduction of
computers. This newspaper was among the earliest to
install computers for typesetting. Originally, the ITU
local had no jurisdiction over computers. When the
decision to install computers for typesetting was
announced, however, management and the * union
worked out an agreement dealing with jurisdiction over
the computers which was made a formal part of the
contract and is included in table 9.
Union jurisdictional demands shaped a decision about
the type of computer to purchase at a small local daily
Special negotiations and labor-management disputes.


Table 9. Provisions relating to technological change from selected collective bargaining agreements

Subject of provision


Content of provision


Agreement between
a local of the Graphic
Ar t s
In te rn a tio n a l
commercial printers.

The parties recognize that technological developments, if they are to further
the continued growth of the graphic arts industry, place responsibility upon
companies to explore and promote new markets and require the cooperation of
the company and union in the development of new skills. In order to insure the
orderly and most advantageous introduction of new types of equipment and
new processes, the parties agree to meet upon request of either party to consider
and develop programs for the retraining or rehabilitation of employees in new
skills so that there shall be adequate availability of new skills required and no
layoffs as a result of the introduction of new types of equipment or new
processes. It is understood that pending the institution of such programs, there
shall be no layoffs by reason of the introduction of new types of equipment or

Jurisdiction over equip­
ment and processes

Agreement between
a local of the Inter­
national Typographical
Union (ITU) and the

Jurisdiction of the union and the appropriate unit for collective bargaining is
defined as including all composing room work and includes classifications such
as: hand compositors, operators and machinists for all typesetting machines,
tape perforating devices, tape reading devices, . . .and recutter units for use in
composing or producing type; proportional spacing typewriters, . . . and
proofreading and/or scanning devices; and any and all phototypesetter
machines. . . . For performance of work recognized as being within the
jurisdiction of the union in a computer operation, employees covered by this
agreement shall perform all computer operations (except systems analysis . . . )
such as: detailed flow charting, coding or preparing programs from detailed flow
charts in language acceptable to the computer, testing and debugging the
program, operation of the computer and all input and output devices, the
preparation and handling of all material to be processed and the maintenance of
all equipment and devices. . . . This agreement goes on to exempt programing
and maintenance normally provided by the computer manufacturer under
contract and indicates that single purpose composing room computers must be
manned wholly by union members while general purpose computers used
partially for composing room operations must have a proportional number of
union members on the data processing staff.

Advance notice

Agreement between
a local of the GAIU and
commercial printers.

The company agrees that it w ill not change its present methods of
lithographic production before giving thirty (30) days' notice of such proposed
change to the union in order that the parties may meet to consider whatever
other related changes are required. This clause relates only to changes of
methods within the plant.

equipment and pro­

Agreement between
a local of the ITU and
th e
Publishers Association.

For the purpose of providing retraining necessary for new processes, a Joint
Training Committee will plan and prepare training programs for situation
holders who have held their current situations continuously for at least six (6)
months. However, the 6 months requirement may be waived by mutual
agreement. This committee will provide an equitable opportunity to train on the
new processes in each office to the extent that an adequate number of
journeymen will be available to satisfy the needs of the office to operate the
new equipment. . . . This contract goes on to state that the Joint Training
Committee w ill consist of four members, tw o from the union and two from
management, machinists w ill be given preference to train to maintain the new
machines, and equipment and instructors for training will be provided by


Agreement between
a local of the ITU and
commercial printers.

The union agrees that if an employee covered by this agreement, who is
employed in a composing room covered by this agreement, is competent to
operate such new machinery, new equipment and/or new processes, he may be
assigned to such new machinery, new equipment and/or new processes.
However, if a layoff occurs, such layoff must be made in strict priority order.
Employees with higher priority than a person working on aforementioned new
machinery, new equipment and/or new processes, who have established an
aptitude for such retraining as prescribed herein, and who have not previously
been given the opportunity for retraining in that office, shall be given such
opportunity before being laid off.


Table 9. Provisions relating to technological change from selected collective bargaining agreem ent- Continued

Subject of provision

Severance pay


Agreement between
a local of the ITU and
commercial printers.

Content of provision

When an employee covered by this agreement is discharged or laid o ff
otherwise than as a result of his own w illful and persistent breach of duty or
gross misconduct which a joint committee. . . has acknowledged, such
employee shall be paid, in addition to sums otherwise due him, the following at
such individual employee's straight-time rate of pay, not including overtime, for
the past previous week of employment: One year but less than 2 years service
with the employer . . . 1-week's pay; 2 years or more of service with the
employer . . . 2-weeks' pay.

newspaper. This paper had placed an order for a
general-purpose computer to be used for business and
typesetting functions. When the unions were notified,
both the ITU and the Newspaper Guild locals indicated
that they wanted to have a union member assigned to
the computer staff. Management felt that, when the
computer was working on business problems, the two
union members on the computer staff would be non­
productive. Therefore, they cancelled the order for the
general-purpose computer and purchased a specialpurpose computer for the composing room only.
There was a strike related to the introduction of

computers at a small local daily newspaper visited for
the study. The union went on strike when management
discharged six union members and attempted to
reclassify jobs so that union craftsmen would not be
allowed to work on the computer. Wage rates for
remaining printing jobs were deemed unsatisfactory by
the union. Management hired nonunion workers and
continued printing. An NLRB trial examiner ruled in the
union’s favor, ordering that striking employees be
rehired, strikers be awarded back pay, and the union
craftsmen discharged be rehired. Management appealed
the decision to the NLRB, and lost.


C h ap ter 7. O utlook for Technology and M an p o w er
Innovations in printing technology during the decade
of the 1970’s will continue to have significant implica­
tions for printing methods and manpower. In this
chapter, prospects for specific technologies are discussed
along with their potential impact on employment, job
skills, and training.

control. Data collection points can be installed through­
out a newspaper’s production department. Data on
output from the composing room, page makeup, and
printing platemaking can be entered into the informa­
tion system. Printing press operation, including measures
of rolls of newsprint used, web breaks and paster losses,
and the number of newspapers being produced, can be
logged into the computer system. Data collection points
can provide information on quantities of newsprint
received, stored, and issued.
As a result of this information system, the computer
will have data concerning all production operations of
the newspaper. Display terminals can be used to provide
management and supervisors with current information
on the production schedule status. The computer also
will be able to detect problem areas, schedule man­
power, and provide complete production statistics.
Predicting the rate of computer growth for com­
mercial printers is more difficult than for newspapers
due to the much greater diversity of firm size and jobs
performed. Firms concentrating on printing books,
periodicals, directories, and catalogs are finding com­
puterized typesetting advantageous. Those firms
performing large amounts of varied work, however, will
probably find computers to be of limited use.
Newspaper mailrooms provide another potential
application area for computers. Computer printout can
be used to address copies of newspapers going to mail
The printing industry generally uses punched paper
tape for computer input and output. This is due to the
industry’s long use of paper tape for much of its
automated typesetting equipment and the resulting large
investment in tape-punching and tape-reading equip­
ment. Over time, magnetic tape will be used more widely
since it can be run at faster speeds and carry more
information than paper tape.

Outlook for technology

Continued growth in the number of com­
puters and applications is anticipated. Computer-assisted
typesetting (line justification, and, to some extent,
hyphenation) will probably continue to be the most
important application. This is especially true for small
newspapers that cannot afford the expensive generalpurpose computers that can be applied to several
different jobs. These newspapers will probably restrict
themselves to the smaller, much less expensive com­
puters that are designed primarily for typesetting uses.
The rate at which computerized typesetting will grow
is difficult to predict. Two estimates were given by
people in the industry who talked with BLS staff
members. One estimate is that by 1980,90 percent of all
newspapers will be using computers with phototype­
setting equipment. The other is that by 1983 all
newspapers will be using such equipment.
Newspaper classified advertisements offer consider­
able potential for computer application. One large
newspaper plans to install a computer photocomposition
system in the following manner: Computer data entry
terminals which display, visually, information entered
into the system will be located in the classified phone
room and connected directly to the computer. Typists
will enter information on ads into the system at these
terminals and accounting data and text material will be
recorded immediately in the memory unit of the
computer system. Running ads may be stopped, cor­
rected, and extended by classified sales personnel using
the terminals. At the close of the classified business day,
the computer will include new classified ads with any
ads running from the previous day, format these ads into
page layouts, and drive high speed phototypesetting
units to set full pages of classified ad text.
Computers also can be applied to production
scheduling, pressroom control, and newsprint inventory

The use of phototypesetting will
increase in both newspapers and commercial printing.
According to one forecast, about 50,000 phototype­
setting machines may be carrying out about 75 percent
of all typesetting by 1980.7 Over the next few years,


1 K o d a k H ig h lig h ts, F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 3 . p . 9 .


Electro nic editing and proofreading display terminal


two limiting factors: color scanners are expensive,
requiring a high volume of work to justify their
installation; and conventional color separation materials
and procedures are improving enough to make conven­
tional processes competitive with color scanners in some

most of the increase will be in second-generation
equipment. The third-generation (cathode ray tube)
equipment, although very fast, is still limited primarily
to printing directories and catalogs. The third-generation
equipment presently is too expensive to be within the
financial range of many printing establishments.
By 1980, most small- to medium-sized newspapers
will be using phototypesetting. Most of these newspapers
will be using web-offset, with which phototypesetting is
very compatible. The larger newspapers will probably
convert to computerized phototypesetting if the plastic
printing plate works out successfully.
In commercial printing, book and periodical printers
will increase their use of phototypesetting. Small job
shops, however, will probably find phototypesetting of
more limited usefulness.

If the plastic letterpress printing
plate that is now under development becomes successful,
it will probably be used by most of the large newspapers.
As this plate is made from a photocomposition process,
newspapers will be able to take advantage of the benefits
of phototypesetting without having to sacrifice their
substantial investment in letterpress printing presses.
Since a considerable amount of research and
development is being devoted to this plate, it will
probably become commercially successful within the
next few years.

P la stic le t t e r p r e s s p la te .

C R T ter m in a ls. Cathode ray tube (CRT) terminals, a
relatively new innovation presently in limited use, will
be adopted more widely in the printing industry over the
next few years, primarily in editorial and classified
operations in large newspapers and in book and
periodical printers. The terminals consist of a CRT
display panel and a keyboard and/or light pencil. Copy
can be typed into the terminal, or already prepared copy
can be displayed on it. Editing, makeup and formating,
and corrections can be completed on the terminal prior
to typesetting. In newspaper applications, the terminal
can serve as the first step in a very high speed
computerized phototypesetting system that results in
fully made-up pages. Terminals will generally be tied in
with a computer, although some self-contained units
with their own memory banks will be available.

The outlook is for continued techno­
logical improvement in printing presses. In general,
presses will become more sophisticated and efficient and
operate with less waste of materials and more effective
use of manpower.
Lithographic presses will be used more widely,
especially in newspapers. By 1978, an estimated 88
percent of all newspapers—primarily those of medium
and small size—may be using web-offset presses.
Improvements can be expected in ink-drying equipment,
electronic control devices, and, possibly, in the develop­
ment of more durable printing plates. If the plastic
printing plate does not turn out to be successful, even
the large newspapers will eventually convert from
letterpress to lithography. Sheet-fed lithographic presses,
primarily used in commercial printing, also will increase
in number, although press size probably will not
increase. Their operating speeds will increase, however,
and they will be equipped with more sophisticated
instruments and automatic controls.
The outlook for diffusion of letterpress equipment is
less favorable. Installations of flat-bed letterpress equip­
ment are declining and may eventually disappear. The
number of rotary letterpress units (including web-letter­
press used in newspapers) is expected to remain
unchanged. If the plastic printing plate made from
photocomposition is successful, installations of webletterpress equipment could begin to increase. Such
printing presses would be different from those presently
in use (which have been designed to accommodate the
comparatively larger and heavier stereotype and electro­
type plates). However, it is also possible that web-offset
presses could be modified to use the plastic plates with
even greater success than modified web-letterpress units.

P r in tin g p r e s s e s .

O p ti c a l c h a r a c te r r e c o g n i t i o n e q u i p m e n t . OCR equip­
ment is available, but its dispersion will probably remain
limited. One reason is that the equipment is too
expensive, considering operational limitations, for many
firms. The operational restrictions may greatly retard
dispersion since copy must be typed in a format that the
OCR equipment can “ read.” Hence, printing firms that
set their own type—especially newspapers—will probably
not find much use for the scanner since the typed
material they must prepare can serve directly as com­
puter input, thereby bypassing the need for the scanner.
OCR equipment will be most useful to those printing
firms that receive copy already typed by customers.

c o l o r s e p a r a tio n . As the demand for color
separation is growing more rapidly than the supply of
skilled craftsmen, the use of color scanners is expected
to increase. The amount of growth is uncertain due to

E lec tr o n ic


Outlook for manpower

Table 11. Employment in craft occupations in printing
and publishing, 1960 and 1970, and projections for 1980

Total employment in the printing and publishing
industry is expected to increase slightly between 1970
and 1980 as employment increases generated by a rising
demand for printed products more than offset employ­
ment declines resulting from technological change (see
table 10). In the newspaper segment of the industry,
however, employment is projected to decline from
372,000 in 1970, to an estimated 365,000 in 1980. In
commercial printing the level of employment is
projected to be higher—rising from 356,000 in 1970 to
an estimated 390,000 in 1980.
Employment of nonproduction workers is likely to
grow at a faster rate than that of production workers.
This is anticipated because the productivity of produc­
tion workers, using new technology, is expected to
increase more than that of nonproduction workers, to
whom most of the new technology is not applicable. It
has also been predicted that, due to the use of new
technology, there will be a growing need for more
professional managers, engineers, and technically trained
Both management and union officials who met with
the BLS staff stated that much of the new technology
will reduce, as well as change, the skill requirements of
many traditional occupations. There was also general
agreement that composing room employees increasingly
will need to acquire skills in keypunching, photography,
and electronics to operate and maintain new printing

[Numbers in thousands]

Table 10. Employment in printing and publishing,
1960 and 1970, and projections for 1980
[Num bers in thousands]


printin g




Average annual
percent change







Newspapers . . . 325.2
p rin te rs .......... 290.7

371 .9



- 0 .2





SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics. A detailed discussion
of the methodology used to develop 1980 projections may be
found in Tom orrow's Manpower Needs: Volume IV , Revised
1971, BLS Bulletin 1737 (1972).





Average annual
percent change

Total printin g
trade craftsmen . . 254.3
Compositors and
ty p e s e tte rs ..............
Electrotypers and
s te re o ty p e rs ............
Engravers, except
photoengravers . . . .
Photoengravers and
lithographers ..........
Pressmen and
platemakers ............







141 .5 121.2

-0 .8

-1 .6




-6 .0

- 4 .7
















SOURCE: Bureau o f Labor Statistics. A detailed discussion
of the m ethodology used to develop 1980 projections may be
found in Tom orrow 's M anpower Needs: Volume IV , Revised
1971, BLS Bulletin 1737 (1972).
NOTE: Sums of
because o f rounding.


items may not equal totals

It is important to keep in mind that technological
change has raised the threat of job displacement in the
printing industry on several occasions in the past,
although on a more restricted basis. It occurred with the
introduction of linecasting machines in the -late 19th
century and with improvements in printing presses
(especially in the development of automatic press
feeders) in the early 20th century. In both instances,
considerable retraining was necessary, and in the latter
instance, one group—manual press feeders—experienced
considerable displacement.8 But in both cases, demand
increased sufficiently to lessen the impact. In the current
situation, technological change is so widespread that it
affects all facets of the printing process. Displacement
will probably occur in certain occupations such as
compositors, typesetters, electrotypers, and stereotypers,
as indicated in table 11, but the combination of an
increased demand for printing products, a somewhat
slow rate of diffusion of technological change, attrition,
and extensive retraining will ease the impact of new
technology on manpower.

8 E liz a b e th F . B a k er, D is p la c e m e n t o f M e n b y M a c h in es (N e w
Y o r k , C o lu m b ia U n iversity Press, 1 9 3 3 ).


A p p en d ix A . T h re e M a jo r Printing M e th o d s and th e P rin tin g P ro cess
adhere to the chemically treated image areas. The second
difference, to which the word “ offset” applies, is that
the printing process is indirect. The printing plate prints
onto a rubber “ blanket” cylinder, which in turn prints
onto paper. Lithographic printing presses are of the
rotary type, and may be either sheet-fed or web-fed.
Lithography is the fastest growing of the three major
printing methods.
There are four basic production steps involved in the
three major printing processes just described. These
include composition, platemaking, press operations, and

The three major printing methods include letterpress,
gravure, and lithography (offset). Letterpress, the oldest
and most widely used printing method, employs a
printing plate upon which the printing surface is raised
above the nonprinting surface. (See illustration.) Printing
is achieved by covering the printing surface with ink and
pressing it directly against paper, thus transferring the
image onto the paper. Type is set for letterpress by both
“ hot metal” and photographic processes.
Platemaking techniques include photoengraving
(etching plates made from photographic processes),
stereotyping and electrotyping (for making duplicate
metal plates from hot-metal or photoengraved originals),
and flexography (the use of flexible rubber plates and
quick-drying inks). There are three types of letterpress
printing presses: platen, flat-bed cylinder, and rotary
presses, both sheet-fed and web-fed.
Gravure printing is the reverse of letterpress. The
gravure printing plate is a hollow metal cylinder and has
an image area that is etched into—or below—the non­
printing surface of the plate. Printing is achieved by
filling the etched areas with ink, scraping excess ink
from the non-image areas with a “ doctor” blade, and
pressing the plate cylinder directly against paper. The
plate cylinders are made by a form of photoengraving.
Gravure printing presses are of the rotary type, and can
be either sheet-fed or web-fed (rotogravure). The gravure
process can produce very fine quality printing, but
preparing the cylinders is expensive and somewhat slow.
Letterpress and gravure share two printing tech­
niques: both use a three-dimensional printing plate, and
in each method ink is transferred directly from the
printing plate to paper.
The*third major printing method, lithography (off­
set), differs significantly from the two other major
methods. Lithography uses a smooth, flat, twodimensional printing plate, the operation of which is
based on the principle that grease and water will not
mix. The plate is made by a photographic process and
chemically treated in such a way that ink will adhere to
the printing areas but water will not. On the printing
press, the plate is moistened with water over all but the
image areas (which repel water), then inked. The ink will
not adhere to the nonprinting areas because it will not
mix with the water already on the plate, but it will

The first production step takes place in
the composing room where manuscript copy is set in
type. Typesetting, or composition, involves selecting a
style and size of type face, determining format and
margins, and the actual setting of type. Copy can be set
in metal type (hot metal), on photographic film or
light-sensitive paper (phototypesetting), or by direct
impression from special typewriters or similar machines
C o m p o sitio n .

Once type has been set, the next step is to
convert it into printing plates that can be mounted onto
printing presses. At this point, artwork (photographs,
graphic displays, etc.) is merged with the type.
Type that has been set in metal can sometimes be
mounted onto a press without the use of a printing
plate. This, however, is rarely done. Instead, metal type
is generally used to make a mold from which duplicate
printing plates are produced. Film used in photo­
composition—and in artwork—is reproduced onto metal
printing plates, which are etched to give the effect
necessary for printing. These plates can also be used to
make duplicates.
Printing plates are made from metal, various alloys,
plastic, or rubber. They can range from plastic plates
weighing a few ounces to gravure cylinders weighing up
to a ton.

P la te m a k in g .

The step just before starting up the
presses is “ makeready” , during which printing plates
receive a final adjustment to insure uniform and distinct
printing impressions. Makeready can vary from being

P r es s o p e r a t i o n s .


Three Major
Printing Methods

Printing area is raised above
nonprinting area.

Printing area is below nonprinting
area. Depressed area is filled with ink.

Printing area is on same plane as
nonprinting area.


relatively simple to being very difficult and delicate,
depending on the printing process and therefore on the
type of printing plate and press being used.
Printing presses come in a wide variety o f sizes and
are designed to operate by one of several printing
processes. All share a common principle: ink is dispersed
over the printing areas of the plates, from which it is
transferred, directly or indirectly, to paper or other
This study focuses on the rotary press, which uses one
or more curved printing plates that are mounted onto a
cylinder. As the cylinder rotates, it prints onto paper
moving past it. Rotary presses are fast and efficient, and
can be used in every major form of printing except
screen process printing (not included in this study).

Basically, there are two types of rotary presses:
sheet-fed and web-fed. These terms pertain to the
manner in which paper is “ fed” into the press. Sheet-fed
presses print on individual sheets of paper that have been
precut to a particular size. Web-fed presses print onto a
continuous roll, or “ web,” of paper.

The final step of the printing process is
the assembling of printed material into a finished
product. For newspapers, this involves inserting the
separately printed sections; counting, stacking, and tying
together a predetermined amount of newspapers; and
loading the papers into trucks for distribution. Finishing
work for commercial printers varies with the job.

F in is h in g w o r k .


A p p e n d ix B. S e le cte d A nn otated B ib lio g ra p h y

Periodicals, books, and articles

“ Automatic Litho Plate Processing.”

B o o k P r o d u c tio n In d u str y ,

December 1968, pp. 46—49.

Description of automatic wipe-on, presensitized, and bimetal plate systems, with conclusion that these plate
systems allow improved uniformity and continuity between plates.
Bock, Ralph F. “ Novel Methods for Drying Inks.” Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, R e s e a r c h
Number 86, December 1970.

P rog ress R e p o r t,

A review of the literature on prospective ink-drying systems for sheet-fed presses.
Bruno, Michael H. “ Printing Technology 1971.” I n la n d P r i n t e r /A m e r i c a n L it h o g r a p h e r , February 1971,
pp. 42-45.
“ Computer Controls High Speed Mailroom Line.” P r in tin g P r o d u c t i o n , Newspaper Industry Edition, October
1968, pp. 32F —32H.
Pressroom, mailroom, and dispatch area all tied into computer system that regulates speed and number of
newspapers printed, automatically bundles them into standard and odd sizes, and dispatches them for most
efficient delivery.
Cosden, Thomas B. “ CRT Editing Terminals.”

B o o k P r o d u c tio n I n d u s tr y ,

June 1970, pp. 44—50.

Description of operations and applications of CRT editing terminals.
Cosden, Thomas B. “ Facsimile Transmission: Publisher’s Link to the Future.”
November 1969, pp. 65—70.

B ook

P ro d u c tio n

In d u stry,

Rapid growth expected for facsimile transmission due to advantages of rapid communication between central
editing offices and satellite printing plants.
Cosden, Thomas B. “ Publisher Keyboarding: Today’s Input To Tomorrow.”
1971, pp. 36-40.

B o o k P r o d u c tio n I n d u str y ,


Keyboarding expected to change from a production operation to an editorial-production system. Problems
involved include type of equipment and training, alternatives to use of keyboards, and union-management
Eggleston, David. “ Today’s Printing Plates: Tomorrow’s Antiques.”
1970, pp. 38-41.

In la n d P r in te r /A m e r i c a n L i t h o g r a p h e r ,


Faster press speeds, labor shortages, and pollution requirements are factors that will change printing plate
technology in the 1970’s.
“ Electronic Control Arrives for Sheetfed Litho.”

B o o k P r o d u c tio n I n d u s tr y ,

November 1967, pp. 48-51.

Description of recent developments in automatic controls, effects on output, and skill changes necessitated.
Farrell, Guy. “ The Larger Meaning of Comprint 90.”

B o o k P r o d u c tio n In d u str y ,


January 1971, pp. 30-35.

Communications technology will completely change the nature of the printing industry over the next 20
years. Much of the printing done will not be performed by printers as they are known today, but by businesses
that offer a wide range of products and services, including printed materials.
Farrell, Guy. “ Litho Platemaking Automation Grows.”

B o o k P r o d u c tio n I n d u s tr y ,

March 1970, pp. 48—51.

Automated film processors ease labor shortage problems, and sometimes provide an improvement in quality
and speed.
“ Gravure:

How Will It Fit Into
April 1970, pp. 42-45.






B ook

P r o d u c tio n

In d u stry ,

Description of technological improvements in gravure and economic factors affecting the application of
gravure in various areas.
“ Ink Drying: Electronics Promise Basic Changes.”

B o o k P r o d u c tio n I n d u s tr y ,

April 1969, pp. 48—50.

The use of electron beams and radio wave energy with specially formulated ink may allow faster drying,
under safer conditions than is presently possible with heat-drying systems.
Im p a c t o f W eb O ffs e t.

New York, Lithographers and Photoengravers International Union, 1964.

Description of web-offset operation, statistical data on growth of web-offset, and analysis of web-offset’s
impact on manpower.
Johnson, Gordon O. F. “ Revolution in the Darkroom: Automatic Film Processors.”
L it h o g r a p h e r , May 1969, pp. 45—47.

In la n d P r i n t e r /A m e r i c a n

Automatic film processing equipment becoming widely used because of such advantages as greater quality
control and time and cost savings.
Kelber, Harry and Schlesinger, Carl, U n io n

P r in te r s a n d C o n t r o l l e d A u t o m a t i o n .

New York, The Free Press, 1967.

A study of composing room automation, with emphasis on computers, and of the response to automation by
the International Typographical Union.
“ Keyboards: Growing Sophistication in Their Design and Use.”
pp. 60-64.

B o o k P r o d u c tio n In d u str y ,

February 1969,

Description of four basic types of keyboards, and three major problem areas of coding structure, human
factors, and the value of hard copy.
“ Lack of Understanding Slows Computer Typesetting.”

B o o k P r o d u c tio n I n d u s tr y ,

January 1968, pp. 50—52.

Lack of knowledge about each other’s problems prevents computer people and printing people from using
computers to best advantage in printing industry. Several suggestions offered to printers contemplating computer
“ New Plate Upholds Power of Letterpress.”

B u s in e s s W e e k ,

February 8, 1969, pp. 68, 70.

Description of a plastic printing plate made from photocomposition techniques that is applicable to
newspaper production.
Olerich, Richard B. and Anderson, Bruce D., “ Webb Printing — Automatic Control Almost Within Reach.”
B o o k P r o d u c t i o n I n d u s t r y , October 1967, pp. 58—61.
Complete automation for web-offset presses should be available within several years, and should offer such
advantages as higher press speeds and much less waste.


P r in tin g P r o d u c t i o n .

June 1968, pp. 70—121.

Seven articles dealing with technological change and its effect on the printing industry during the 1970’s.
Safran, Hyman. “ Putting Color Scanners in Perspective.”
p. 98.

I n la n d P r in t e r /A m e r i c a n L i t h o g r a p h e r ,

September 1968,

Summary of advantages and limitations of color scanners. Fast, consistent, less need for handwork.
“ Space Age Electronics Fights Traditional Methods in the Pressroom.”
January 1971, pp. 51-53.

I n la n d P r i n t e r /A m e r i c a n L i t h o g r a p h e r ,

Description of new developments in drying techniques, ink-jet printing and xerography.
“ Stereotyping of Plastic Plates Achieved by RI.”

E d i t o r a n d P u b l i s h e r , June

5, 1971, p. 16.

Refinement of plastic plate technology that allows lead stereotype plates to be produced from plastic
“ Union Carbide, Sta-Hi Announce Hylox Plastic Platemaking System.”
p. 78.

B o o k P ro d u c tio n I n d u s tr y ,

May 1969,

Description of a plastic printing plate applicable to newspaper production.
“ Web Press Design —Where Is it Going?”

B o o k P r o d u c tio n I n d u s t r y ,

March 1968, pp. 54—60.

Summary of recent developments in printing presses. Includes variable cutoff folders, split-plate cylinders,
microwave drying, press drives, and web tension control.


Government publications

U.S. Government
U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards. A u t o m a t i c T y p o g r a p h i c -Q u a l i t y T y p e s e t t i n g
T e c h n i q u e s : A S t a t e o f t h e A r t R e v i e w . Monograph 99. By Mary E. Stevens and John L. Little. 1967.
98 pp.
A comprehensive survey of typesetting techniques, including hot metal, cold type, phototypography,
computer usage, key punch operations, and graphic arts.
U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards. E l e c t r o n i c C o m p o s i t i o n in P r in tin g :
P r o c e e d i n g s o f a S y m p o s i u m . Special Publication 295. Edited by Richard W. Lee and Roy W. Worral.
February 1968. 128 pp.
Twenty-three papers describing several advanced composition
nongovernment research in and application of such systems.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
1 9 7 1 . BLS Bulletin 1744. 1972. 62 pp.

U n io n

systems, and government


W a g es a n d H o u r s : P r in tin g I n d u s t r y , J u l y 1 ,

Latest in an annual series providing statistics on union wage rates and hours in 69 cities.
Australia, Department of Labor and National Service. T e c h n o l o g ic a l C h a n g e in
C a se S tu d ie s . Employment and Technology, No. 3. Melbourne, 1969.42 pp.

th e P r in tin g I n d u s t r y - F o u r

Discusses nature of change in the four firms, effects on skills, preparations for changes, training require­
ments, extent of job displacement.


Great Britain, Department of Employment and Productivity.
P u b lis h in g . London, 1970. 115 pp.

M an p ow er

S t u d ie s

N o.


P r in tin g


A study of the effects of technological change on production and manpower in the British printing and
publishing industry.


Other BLS Publications on Technological Change
(Bulletin 1717, 1972), 90 pp., $1.00.
Describes changes in technology in the railroad industry and projects their impact on productivity, employment,
occupational requirements, and methods of adjustment.

R a ilr o a d T e c h n o l o g y a n d M a n p o w e r in th e 1 9 7 0 ’s

(Bulletin 1658, 1970), 70 pp., 70 cents.
Describes the impact of computer process control on employment, occupations, skills, training, production and
productivity, and labor-management relations.
O u tlo o k f o r C o m p u te r P rocess C o n tr o l

(Bulletin 1578, 1968), 79 pp., 60 cents.
Describes changes in technology and their impact on productivity, employment, occupational requirements, and
labor-management relations.
T e c h n o l o g y a n d M a n p o w e r in th e T e x t i l e I n d u s t r y o f th e 1 9 7 0 ’s

M a n p o w e r P la n n in g f o r T e c h n o l o g ic a l C h a n g e : C a se S t u d ie s o f T e l e p h o n e O p e r a t o r s

(Bulletin 1574, 1968), 34 pp.

Out of print.
Policies and experiences of four offices in adjusting to technological change.
(Bulletin 1523, 1966), 63 pp. Out of print.
Examples of redesign of jobs to retain older workers in employment.

J o b R e d e s i g n f o r O l d e r W o r k e r s : T e n C a se S t u d ie s

(Bulletin 1474, 1966), 269 pp., $1.50.
Appraises technological developments in 40 industries and the effects on output, productivity, and employment.

T e c h n o l o g ic a l T r e n d s in M a j o r A m e r i c a n In d u s t r ie s

(Bulletin 1468, 1965), 71 pp. Out of print.
Survey of extent and future directions of electronic data processing (EDP), manpower impact, and implications.

I m p a c t o f O f f i c e A u t o m a t i o n in t h e I n s u r a n c e I n d u s t r y

T e c h n o l o g y a t an E l e c t r i c a n d G a s U t i li t y (Report 293, 1965), 25 pp. Out of
Describes personnel procedures and practices used to minimize hardships on employees.

M a n p o w e r P la n n in g to A d a p t to N e w

(Bulletin 1437, 1965), 63 pp. Out o f print.
Outlook for this key technological innovation in the metalworking industry and implications for productivity,
occupational requirements, training programs, employment, and industrial relations.

O u tlo o k f o r N u m eric a l C o n tr o l o f M a c h in e T o o ls

Publications for sale may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402, or from
regional offices o f the Bureau o f Labor Statistics at the addresses shown on the inside back cover. Out of print publi­
cations are available at many public and school libraries and at Government depository libraries.


M o n th ly L a b o r R e v ie w ,

from the
Bureau o f
For current,
data on the

the authoritative research journal in economics and the social
sciences, publishes analytical articles and current data on
prices, wages, and productivity; employment and
unemployment; and hours and earnings. Each month,
the R e v ie w also reports on important developments in
industrial relations, significant court decisions, union
conventions, labor developments abroad, and includes an
extensive section of book reviews and listings.
Subscription price: $9 per year
(add $2.25 if mailed to a foreign address).
Single copy price: 75 cents.

E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s ,

a n o E A R N IN G S

For sale by regional offices of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics,
U.S. Department of Labor, or by the
Superintendent of Documents,
Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C. 20402. Make all
checks payable to: Superintendent of
Documents. Prices are subject to
change by the Government Printing

a monthly report presenting charts and detailed tables on the
labor force, employment, unemployment, hours, earnings, job
vacancies, and labor turnover. It is compiled from data based
on household interviews, nonagricultural establishment
records, and administrative records of unemployment
insurance systems.
Subscription price: $10 per year
(add $2.50 if mailed to a foreign address).

O c c u p a t io n a l O u t lo o k Q u a rte rly
is today’s guide to tomorrow’s jobs. Illustrated in color and
written in nontechnical language, the Q u a r t e r ly reports on
emerging jobs, educational and training opportunities, salary
trends, and the effects of changing technology on jobs.
Sources of free orkiexpensive career and manpower
publications are also listed.
Subscription price: $1.50 per year
(add 50tf if mailed to a foreign address).

Currant Wag* Oavatopmanta

C u rre n t W a g e D e v e lo p m e n t s
reports in detail on major collective bargaining agreements,
presents statistical tables on compensation changes, and
features special reports on wage and salary trends in both the
private and public sectors. Published monthly.
Subscription price: $4.50
(add $1.25 if mailed to a foreign address)


R e g io n V
8 th F lo o r , 3 0 0 S o u th W a ck e r Drive

R e g ion I
1 6 0 3 J F K Federal B u ild in g
G o v e r n m e n t C en ter
B o s t o n , Mass. 0 2 2 0 3
P h o n e : 2 2 3 -6 7 6 2 (A rea C o d e 6 1 7 )

C h ic a g o , III. 6 0 6 0 6
P h o n e : 3 5 3 - 1 8 8 0 (A rea C o d e 3 1 2 )

R e g io n VI

R e g ion II

1515 Broadway

1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7

N ew Y o r k , N .Y . 1 0 0 3 6
P h o n e : 9 7 1 -5 4 0 5 (A rea C o d e 2 1 2 )

D allas, T e x . 7 5 2 0 2
P h o n e : 7 4 9 - 3 5 1 6 (A re a C o d e 2 1 4 )

R e g ion III
P. O . B o x 1 3 3 0 9
P h ila d elp h ia , Pa. 1 9 1 0 1
P h o n e : 5 9 7 -1 1 5 4 (A re a C o d e 2 1 5 )

R e g io n s V II a n d VI I I *
F ederal O ff ic e B u ild in g
9 1 1 W alnu t S t., 15 th F lo o r
Kansas C ity , M o . 6 4 1 0 6
P h p n e: 3 7 4 -2 4 8 1 (A re a C o d e 8 1 6 )

R e g ion IV

R e g io n s IX and X * *
4 5 0 G o ld e n G ate A v e .

S u ite 5 4 0
1 3 7 1 P ea ch tree S t., N E .
A tla n ta , G a. 3 0 3 0 9
P h o n e : 5 2 6 -5 4 1 8 (A rea C o d e 4 0 4 )

B ox 36017
San F ra n c is c o , C a lif. 9 4 1 0 2
P hone:

5 5 6 -4 6 7 8

R e g io n s V II an d VIII are se rv ice d b y Kansas C ity .

R e g io n s IX an d X are serv ice d b y San F ra n c is c o .

(A re a C o d e 4 1 5 )

W ASHINGTON, D .C . 20212




LA B - 441