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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FRANCES PERKINS, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS ISADOR LUBIN, Commissioner BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \ BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S / COOPERATION T H * 1X0. DUO SERIES ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF COOPERATIVE HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS (W ITH MODEL BYLAWS) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1934 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C« Price 5 cents Letter of Transmittal U n ited S tates D e p a r t m e n t of L abor , B u r ea u of L abor S t a tis tic s , ’W a s h i n g t o n J u l y 1 6 , 1 9 3 4 . Hon. F rances P e r k in s , S ecreta ry o f L a b o r . M ad am S e c r e t a r y : I have the honor to transmit herewith a re port intended for the use of groups wishing to organize cooperative housing associations. This bulletin has been prepared at the request of the Consumers’ Advisory Board o f the National Recovery Administration. It is thought that this pamphlet will be particularly timely in view of the renewed interest in the provision of low-cost housing which is now evident and in view o f the Administration’s new housing program which will offer opportunity for associations of this type. The contents of the present report are based upon study of suc cessful cooperative housing enterprises both in this country and abroad. The Bureau takes this opportunity to acknowledge its indebtedness to the Cooperative League of the U.S.A., and especially to Agnes Dyer Warbasse, for the material furnished. Respectfully submitted, I sador L u b in , C o m m is s io n e r . iii Contents Page Initial steps in a cooperative housing enterprise___________________ Bylaws of the association___________________________________ Cooperative principles______________________________________ Deviations from standard cooperative practice____________________ Initial expenses___________________________________________ Mortgages______________________________________________ Initial financing_____ Member’s ownership of shares, not of individual dwelling___________ Member’s lease___________________________________________ Rental charges, or monthly payments__________________________ Price policies____________________________________________ Voting power____________________________________________ Administration of association________________________________ Administration of property__________________________________ Committees_____________________________________________ Subletting or leasing to nonmembers_________________ Use of surplus savings______________________________________ Interest on share capital____________________________________ Effect of increase in property values___________________________ Dissolution of the association________________________________ Desirability of creation of a central housing fund__________________ Federations of cooperative housing associations___________________ Appendix A— Model bylaws for a cooperative housing association_____ Appendix B— Sample member’s subscription agreement_____________ Appendix C— Model lease for a cooperative housing association______ Appendix D— Balance sheet, and income and expense statement______ v 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 13 14 14 16 21 23 34 BULLETIN OF THE U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS WASHINGTON No. 608 Oc t o b e r 1934 ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF COOPERATIVE HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS W h ile cooperation in the field o f h ou sin g has been but little devel oped in the U n ited States, in several countries o f E u rop e coopera tiv e hou sin g societies fo r m an im p o rta n t phase o f the cooperative m ovem ent. I n the U n ite d States cooperative housing has been best developed in N ew Y o r k C ity . I n m ost cases in this country the p roperty o f the h ou sin g association consists o f a single apartm ent b u ild in g w h ich th e association has either erected or has bou ght already constructed and w hich it is m a n a g in g in the interests o f the m em bers. I n one or tw o instances the association owns a group o f bu ildin gs. N o t all o f the housing associations in the U n ite d States are fo llo w in g standard cooperative practice in every respect. I n order to be tru ly cooperative there should be genuine dem ocracy. M em bership should be volu n tary and should consist o f a group o f persons w ith com m on interests. E a ch m em ber should have one vote and no m ore, regardless o f how m uch stock he owns in the association. I f interest is paid on share capital, such capital should draw no m ore th an the current leg a l rate. I n the genu in ely cooperative h ou sin g association the m em ber does n ot receive title to any in d ividu al apartm ent or d w elling. H e m erely ow ns shares in the association to the value o f th e d w ellin g he occu pies. H is on ly evidence o f ow nership consists o f a stock certificate and a perm anent lease on his apartm ent. L e g a l ownership o f the property is vested in the association as a w hole. A m em ber w ish in g to w ithdraw receives only the am ount paid in on shares, m inus any dam ages to the property. I n th is w ay speculation and profit m ak in g are prevented and hou sin g is developed fo r residence purposes. F ix ed charges (such as interest on capital, bonds and m ortgages, depreciation, taxes, am ortization, etc.) and o peratin g expenses are m et b y a m o n th ly charge, p aid b y the tenant-m em bers. 1 2 C O O P E R A T IV E H O U S IN G A S S O C IA T IO N S These policies are fo llow ed in cooperative housing associations because the purpose o f such associations is not to m ake m oney, b u t to obtain fo r the m em bers attractive, w ell-b u ilt hom es— h om es b u ilt and run fo r service, n ot to rent, sell, or speculate in fo r profit. Such policies differ fro m those o f profit business, where the earnin gs on stock are lim ited only by the earnin g pow er o f the business, and in w hich m oney is invested in bu ild in gs fo r the purpose o f m a k in g as m uch profit as possible fo r the in d ividu al owners by m eans o f sales and rentals. T h e advan tages o f cooperative hou sin g are th a t the m em bers live in permanence and security in homes which they obtain fo r a sm aller investm ent and at a fairer cost than sim ilar hom es b ou g h t or rented fo r profit. L a rg e salaries paid to prom oters, lan dlords, and agents are elim inated. I t has been fou n d in large-scale enterprises in N ew Y o r k , in w hich the fu ll benefit o f low cost in purchase, construction, and m aintenance is obtained, at least 12 percent can be saved in annual costs. In stead o f rents steadily increasing, it is the general experience th at m o n th ly charges fo r cooperative h ou sin g decrease each year. T h u s, a cooperative association, on whose hom es the ca rry in g charge at first is $50 a m onth, m a y estim ate th at at the end o f 20 years, when all loans are p aid , the ca rry in g charge w ill be $22.50 per m onth. C ooperators are u sually perm anent residents. T h is elim inates the h ig h turnover in tenancy. Vacancies are a great waste and a cause o f added costs in noncooperative h ousing. Co operative hom e m akers as a group take an interest in their hom es, so th a t the p roperty does not deteriorate as it does under transient tenants or lan dlords. C ooperators unite in the care and upkeep o f th eir p roperty, and order and cleanliness result. T h e present report is concerned w ith m ethods o f organ ization fo r cooperative h ou sin g associations. M o d el bylaw s, togeth er w ith explanations where necessary o f the reasons w h y p articu lar p r o visions are desirable or im portant, are given. A m odel lease and a m em ber’s share-subscription agreem ent are included. A s is pointed out, the provision s o f the State law — general cooperative law or hou sin g law — under w hich it is proposed to incorporate should be studied before the b ylaw s are fin ally adopted, as the various law s set certain requirements w hich m ust be m et b y associations in corpo ra tin g under them . Initial Steps in a Cooperative Housing Enterprise I t is desirable th at the prospective m em bers o f the cooperative h ou sin g association have some com m on interest, trade, or profession, and th a t th ey be persons o f fa ir ly equal economic resources. BYLAW S OF THE 3 A S S O C IA T IO N T h e first step is to h old a m eeting and fo rm a tem porary hou sin g association. A com m ittee should be appointed to investigate and report on lan d sites, i f new bu ild in gs are to be erected, or to look up desirable bu ild in gs, i f old bu ild in gs are to be purchased and rem odeled. S u ch investigation should be as secret as possible. S'election of site o f property .— E x p e rts on real estate values and regional p la n n in g , sym path etic to the cooperative m ovem ent, should be consulted. I t is im p o rta n t th at care should be taken to buy p ro p erty whose value has n ot been inflated and whose fu tu re ch ar acter, fr o m a residential and social standpoint, is reasonably secure. A f t e r a satisfactory site or b u ild in g has been secured b y option, th e title should be searched and the character and exten t o f any existin g m ortgages or claim s should be exam ined. Incorporation.— A s soon as the property has been agreed upon and the title searched, th e m em bers should incorporate u nder the S tate h ou sin g la w , i f an y.1 I f th eir S tate has no such law , they should incorporate under the law m ost favorab le to the carryin g out o f the cooperative p rin ciples.2 In corp o ra tio n should precede the purchase o f the p ro p erty , as it prevents in d iv idu a l lia b ility o f the m em bers. I n an incorporated association each m em ber is liable only to the am ount o f his shares in the association whereas, in the absence o f incorporation, he is liable fo r the fu ll am ount o f the association’s indebtedness. Subscription agreement.— A subscription a g r eem en t3 is signed b y each tenant-m em ber, b in d in g h im to the purchase o f a sufficient num ber o f shares to cover the cost o f the d w ellin g to be occupied b y h im . Bylaws of the Association T h e articles o f incorporation establish the leg a l status o f the association. T h e bylaw s,4 on the other h an d, are the com m on rules g overn in g the relations o f the m em bers, their officers, and their em ployees. The T h e y bin d the m em bers together in to an association. b ylaw s should contain all cooperative provisions n ot in cluded in the articles o f incorporation, also any cooperative feature om itted fr o m the law under w hich incorporation takes place. x The following States have housing la w s: Arkansas (acts of 1933, A ct No. 8 9 ) ; California (statutes, 1933, ch. 538) ; Delaware (acts of 1933, ch. 61 ) ; Illinois (acts of 1933, p. 396) ; Kansas (acts of 1933, ch. 225) ; Massachusetts (acts of 1933, ch. 364) ; New Jersey (acts of 1933, ch. 78) ; New York (Cahill’s Consolidated Laws, 1930, p. 2781) ; North Carolina (acts of 1933, ch. 384) ; Ohio (acts of special session, 1932, p. 78) ; South Carolina (acts of 1933, no. 143) ; and Virginia (acts o f extra session, 1933, ch. 55, p. 9 7 ). 2 The general cooperative laws of Minnesota, New York (stock), and Pennsylvania specifically authorize building construction, while that of Vermont authorizes “ any business or object not repugnant to the laws of the State.” 3 See sample, appendix B, p. 21. 4 For model bylaws, see p. 16. 7 8 4 9 8 °— 34-------2 4 C O O P E R A T IV E H O U S IN G A S S O C IA T IO N S T h e ch ief poin ts to be covered in the bylaw s are the fo llo w in g : Name. Furpose. Membership.— Limitations, duties, and responsibilities. Capital.— Total amount authorized, interest to be paid, value of the share, how subscribed and paid, how transferred, etc. Meetings.— Date, how called and conducted, quorum, special meetings, etc. Directors and officers.— Number, how elected, duties, disqualifications of, vacancies, meetings, etc. Voting. Surplus savings.— How distributed. Management. Committees.— Designation of and duties. Bookkeeping and auditing. Miscellaneous provisions, such as bonding of officers and employees handling money, amendments to bylaws, etc. Cooperative Principles T h e fo llo w in g are the cooperative principles to w hich the associa tion should c o n fo r m : 1. D em ocratic c o n tr o l; one vote on ly fo r each m em ber regardless o f the am ount o f stock owned. R esp on sibility fo r adm inistration to rest w ith the board o f directors elected b y the owners. T h is m eans decentralized control fo r purposes o f dem ocracy and cen tralized adm inistration fo r purposes o f efficiency. 2. In vested capital to receive fixed interest n ot to exceed the cur rent leg a l rate. 3. L eg a l ow nership o f the property to rem ain vested in the asso ciation. 4. Shares in the association’s capital stock to be n ontransferable except w ith the consent o f th ree-fou rth s o f the m em bers o f the asso ciation, and n ot to be tran sferred fo r profit. 5. Su rp lu s savings accruing fr o m the association’s operations, w hich are n ot used fo r expansion or collective purposes, to be re turned to the tenant-m em bers as savings returns in proportion to the am ount o f th eir patronage or rental p aid. Deviations From Standard Cooperative Practice M a n y organ izations in different parts o f the w orld w hich are called “ cooperative ” , bu t w hich are n ot entirely cooperative, deviate fr o m these policies in one or m ore respects. 1. Som e societies, as in E n g la n d fo r instance, build cooperatively bu t sell hom es or apartm ents ou trigh t, g iv in g title to the p roperty owner. Such a p olicy perpetuates p rivate ow nership and allow s in d iv idu a l sale o f the hom e at a profit. O b v io u sly it encourages IN IT IA L 5 EXPENSES speculation, prom otes in stability o f residence, and destroys the co operative aspects o f the enterprise. 2. S om e societies do n ot g ive title to the property but nevertheless allow m em bers to sell their shares to the public at th eir own v alu a tion. T h is also m akes speculation n ot only possible but inevitable. U ltim a te ly the cooperative plan is destroyed. 3. Som e societies own the lan d cooperatively but g ive the in d i vid u als a 99-year lease on w hich th ey m a y build their own hom es, and sell them at their own price. 4. Som e allow v otin g b y shares instead o f lim itin g the vote to one per m em ber. I n such case ow nership o f p roperty determ ines control. 5. Som e associations observe a ll other rules o f cooperation except th at they perm it m em bers to sublet at a profit w hich th ey are per m itted to keep. H ou ses have been com pletely em ptied o f owner m em bers because o f th is p olicy. 6. Som e societies rent as m a n y as h a lf o f their d w ellings to n on m em bers at a profit w hich th ey a pp ly to the reduction o f the m em bers’ rent. 7. Som e accept p h ilanth ropic grants or fu n d s fr o m civic bodies and p erm it the grantors to control and adm inister the property. Initial Expenses T h e expenses connected w ith the purchase o f the p roperty are gen erally five in num ber, as f o llo w s : (1 ) In corporation charge. N e w Y o r k S tate it is $ 4 0 ). T h is varies in the different States (in L a w y ers’ fees, i f th ey are large, should be avoided b y a p p ly in g to th e office o f the nearest regional coopera tive league fo r assistance.5 (2 ) P a y m en t to close the contract o f sale. U su a lly an am ount ra n g in g fr o m one-tw entieth to one-fifth o f the purchase price m u st be paid. (3 ) F ee fo r exam ination and insurance o f the title. T h is also varies in am ount b u t is usually n ot large. (4 ) P a y m en t to close the title. T h e rem aining am ount o f the contract price m u st be paid in fu ll or such other paym ents m ade as are arranged fo r directly w ith th e owner. (5 ) C om m ission on the sale o f property. T h is m a y be a bonus on the securing o f the loan or m o rtg ag e or a com m ission to an agent to handle the whole enterprise i f the m em bers cannot do it them selves. 5 These leagues are as fo llo w s: The Cooperative League of the U .S.A ., 167 W est Twelfth Street, New York, N.Y. Eastern States Cooperative League, 112 East Nineteenth Street, New York, N .Y. Central States Cooperative League, 1410 North Main Street, Bloomington, 111. Northern States Cooperative League, 458 Sexton Building, Minneapolis, Minn. 6 COOPERATIVE HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS Mortgages I t is custom ary to place a first and second m o rtg ag e on the p r o p erty. T h e first m o rtg ag e generally covers about 50 percent o f the valuation . T h e value covered b y the second m o rtg ag e varies. W h ile th e com bined coverage o f the tw o also varies in practice fr o m 50 percent to 75 percent o f th e valu ation , an extended stu dy m ade b y cooperators in N ew Y o r k C ity show s th at in order to obtain th e m ost fa v orab le conditions and rates, the tw o m ortgages together should n ot exceed tw o -th ird s o f the entire cost o f the project. A lth o u g h interest rates vary in different parts o f the country^ th e first m o rtg ag e u su ally draw s interest at 5 percent, and th e sec ond at 6 percent. T h e first m o rtg ag e should run fo r n ot less than 10 years, w ith privilege o f renew al. S om e associations do n o t p ro v id e fo r am ortization o f the first m ortgage. it indefinitely. T h e y p refer to carry A m o rtiza tio n o f the second m o rtg ag e should be p ro vided fo r , i f possible, at the rate o f 20 percent a year, so th a t w ithin 5 years it is paid. Initial Financing Members ’ subscriptions for shares.— T h e cash required fo r first p ay m en t on lan d and b u ild in g s is secured b y th e purchase o f shares in the h ou sin g association b y the prospective ten an t-m em bers. Each tenant-m em ber should p a y in cash an am ount equal to th e cost o f the house or apartm ents to be occupied, less the proportion ate am ount already secured b y m o rtg ag e loan. F o r exam ple, i f the dw ellin g is w orth $ 2 ,500, th e m em ber w ill u lti m a tely ow n $2,500 w orth o f shares. B u t at first he need o n ly p a y in cash th e am oun t n o t su pplied b y the m o rtg ag e or other loans. I f the m o rtg a g e loan is 50 percent o f th e cost o f the p ro p e rty , he p ays in cash 50 percent o f $ 2,500, or $1,250. I f the m o rtg ag e loan is tw o -th ird s o f the cost o f th e p ro perty he p ay s o n e-th ird , or $833.33.6 Bond issues.— I f the m em bers are unable to raise enough cash to m eet th eir subscriptions fo r shares, bonds m a y be issued. T hese bonds m a y be offered fo r sale to the public, to those interested in cooperation, to th e contractors, and to persons w ho su p p ly m aterials fo r the construction o f the bu ild in gs, etc. I n some cases contractors and su p p ly firm s have been required under the term s o f th eir contract 6 In the beginning the member should have at least 40 percent of the amount required, in cash. The other 60 percent of his subscription he may be able to borrow from a co operative bank, credit union, or cooperative housing loan fund, if such exist. It is strongly urged that cooperators obtain such loans from cooperative credit organizations if possible, in order to promote cooperative self-help in financing as well as in building their enterprises. These personal loans should be for short terms and should be amortized a t 20 percent per year, if possible. M E M B E R ’S O W N E R S H IP OF 7 SHARES to subscribe fo r such a large am ount o f bonds th at the m em bers them selves have h ad to contribute less th an 5 percent o f the fu n d s. T h ese should be 10- to 20-y ear bonds, and should bear th e current m a rk et rate o f interest. T hese bonds should be callable b y the association at any tim e a fter the first year. A n o th e r m ethod o f securing m oney is by a bond issue covering the entire valuation and issued to m em bers and to people frien d ly to the enterprise. I t should bear a stated rate o f interest and should ru n f o r n o t less th an 10 years. Government funds .— G overn m en t fu n d s have in som e countries been appropriated fo r cooperative housing. C ooperative housing requires less m oney th an m u nicipal ow nership o f houses, makes ten ants the responsible owners, prom otes self-h elp and cooperation am o n g the tenants, and keeps the housing free fro m the vacillations o f politics. T hese fa cts have been dem onstrated by the experience in E u rop ean countries, where both m ethods are in operation and where it has been fo u n d th a t cooperative h ousing costs less and is m ore efficient than m u nicipal housing. Personal loams obtained by members.— A n o th er m ethod is fo r the m em bers to secure personal loans fo r the entire am ount needed, at a fa ir rate o f interest— u sually 5 percent— fo r the short period u n til the enterprise is com pleted. m ortgages. T h en these loans m a y be exchanged fo r B an ks and len d in g institutions m ake m o rtg ag e loans m ore readily and on m ore favorable term s on com pleted b uildings th an on projected enterprises. Preferred stock.— S till another w ay o f financing cooperative hous in g is th rough the issue o f preferred stock, in addition to the m em bers’ stock, to frien d ly cooperative associations, m u nicipalities, and authorities interested in p ro m otin g the enterprise. T h is preferred stock receives th e current rate o f interest and has no vote. Member’s Ownership of Shares, not o f Individual Dwelling T h e m em ber o f a cooperative h ou sin g association does n ot own his house or a p a rtm en t; he owns shares in the cooperative association. T h e ow nership o f these shares entitles h im to a perm anent lease o f the hom e w hich he occupies. T h is gives h im all the advantages o f hom e ow nership, the sense o f security, o f perm anency, and also an interest in im p ro v in g and keeping up the p ro p erty , ju st as though he were a private owner. H e is a private ow ner o f the stock o f the hou sin g association. T h e legal ownership o f the p ro p erty , h ow ever, is vested in the association as a w hole. T h e m em ber does n o t have in d iv id u a l title 8 C O O P E R A T IV E H O U S IN G to the p roperty he occupies. a m on g the tenant-m em bers. A S S O C IA T IO N S T h e p roperty is never d iv id ed u p T h e y all ow n it together. E xp erien ce show s th a t this is th e o n ly w ay to keep cooperative h ou sin g coopera tive. I t is fo u n d th a t when m em bers have in d iv idu a l title to the p ro p erty , th ey often sell or rent th eir hom es fo r personal profit. T h is introduces speculation, one o f the evils cooperation seeks to rem ove. I f cooperators secure hom es on a cooperative, nonprofit basis and then dispose o f them fo r profit outside o f th eir gro u p , the cooperative p rin cip le is destroyed. N o t on ly do cooperators desire the advantages o f securing hom es cooperatively, but th ey w an t to keep th at advan tage b y perm anent ow nership and adm inistration o f th eir hom e in a cooperative m anner. Withdrcmals.— I f a m em ber o f a cooperative h ou sin g association w ishes or is forced to w ithdraw fr o m the association he m a y do so, b u t his shares m u st be offered to the association only and at the price he paid fo r them . par value, T h e shares are bou ght back by the association at less any am ount o w in g charges or dam age to the p roperty. fo r n on paym en t o f m on th ly I f the m em ber has allow ed his savings returns or the interest on his share ca p ita l to rem ain in the association’s treasury, this am ount is also due h im . T h e association should purchase the shares o f a m em ber w ith in as short a period as possible, p ro vid in g the finances o f the association are n ot jeopardized. T h e shares o f a retirin g m em ber should be sold whenever possible to a prospective m em ber on the w a itin g list. U su a lly the bylaw s provide fo r the repurchase o f m em bers’ shares in such cases, and a reserve fu n d is set aside fo r this purpose. If the reserve fu n d at any tim e should n ot be sufficient fo r th e p u r chase o f the shares o f members and i f a m em ber is forced to vacate his hom e quickly, the board o f directors m a y be em pow ered to rent his d w ellin g fo r h im at the current rate o f the n eigh borhood u ntil the shares can be bou ght or tran sferred to a new m em ber. I f at the expiration o f a year the board o f directors h as n o t b ou g h t back the m em ber’s shares n or tran sferred the shares to a new m em ber, the m em ber h im se lf m a y have the rig h t o f sale. T h is rig h t o f sale should be lim ited , how ever, to a new ten an t-m em ber, acceptable to the association, who signifies his intention o f occupyin g the p ro p erty. A l l tran sfers o f shares should be m ade on the books o f the cooperative association. Member’s Lease A s already stated, a m em ber w h o subscribes fo r stock receives a certificate o f stock equivalent to the am ount subscribed, and a lease.7 7 For a model lease, see appendix C, p. 23. RENTAL CH ARG ES, OR M ONTHLY T h is lease is in fo rm like an ordinary lease. 9 PAYM ENTS I n it the ten an t-m em ber agrees to p ay a definite rental per m onth to meet expenses. lease m a y be fo r 99 years or fo r life lo n g occupancy. T he I t m ay be transferred to the m em ber’s heirs or fa m ily upon his death, provided the heirs continue to occupy the house, and provided the usual conditions and obligations o f a tenant-m em ber are fu lfilled. Rental Charges, or Monthly Payments B esides the am ount invested by the m em ber in shares o f the asso ciation, he m ust p a y a m on th ly “ rent ” large enough to cover cer tain fixed charges and the operatin g expenses o f the property. As the members control the association they fix the am ount o f the m o n th ly charge 8 and the am ount can be changed on ly b y vote o f the m em bers. Fixed charges,— T h e fixed charges include interest on share ca p i ta l ( i f any is p a id ) ; interest on bonds ( i f a n y ) ; interest on m o r t g a g e s ; depreciation (fr o m 1 to 3 percent o f in c o m e ); ta x e s; reserve and contingency fu n d (fr o m 3 to 5 percent o f in c o m e ); am ortization p a y m e n t; and insurance. L ife and disability insurance are n ot included, under the insurance item above, but the provision o f group disability and group life in surance is n ot a heavy charge and enables an injured or sick tenantm em ber to m eet his paym en ts regularly or his w idow or heirs to continue and com plete the paym ents. T h u s the security and p er m anency o f the group are assured. A reserve and contingency fu n d is set aside fo r special purposes such as fo r the purchase o f m em bers’ shares, fo r em ergencies, or fo r the developm ent and expansion o f the enterprise. Operating expenses,— T h e operating expenses include wages o f ja n ito r, helpers, and office and adm inistration expense; cost o f fu e l; cost o f electricity and p o w e r; cost o f w a te r; repairs, ren ovatin g, p ain tin g e tc .; elevator expen se; cost o f g a r d e n ; insect-exterm ination expen se; fees, legal and accou n tin g; m iscellaneous operating ex penses, and cost o f equipm ent and supplies. T h e u repair ” item includes general structural repairs pertaining to the origin al b u ild in g and installation, such as repairs to roofs, p ain tin g o f exteriors and h alls, general plu m bin g , heating, w irin g, elevators, etc. T h e interior decoration o f room s, floors, w alls, paint, etc., is usually m et b y the tenants them selves. 8 Subject, however (if incorporated under a State housing law) to the maximum set by the law in some States (as in Illinois, New Jersey, and New Y ork), which must not be exceeded. 10 C O O P E R A T IV E H O U S IN G A S S O C IA T IO N S Price Policies T o allow fo r safety and fo r contingencies the cooperative associa tion should set its budget a little above the estim ated costs. I t is uncertain and hazardous to budget in advance the exact cost o f ru n n in g an enterprise. A d ju stm e n t in am ounts can be m ade at the end o f a quarter or a fixed period o f tim e, when operatin g expenses, heat, lig h t, taxes, interest, service, etc., are all know n and p a id fo r . I n case o f a deficit an assessment based on the m o n th ly charges m a y be levied on the m em bers by consent o f the m a jo rity . H o w ev er, as stated, sufficient provision fo r contingencies should be m ade in the origin al budget to m eet all operatin g expenses. Voting Power E a ch m em ber o f the genuinely cooperative housing association has one vote and no m ore, regardless o f the num ber o f shares owned. T h is is in contrast w ith profit business in w hich each share o f stock carries w ith it one vote, so th at a person ow n in g 100 shares h as 100 votes, and i f one person owns a m a jo rity o f shares he casts a m a jo r ity o f votes and controls the organization. D em ocratic control is characteristic o f the cooperative association. Administration of Association T h e affairs o f the association are adm inistered b y a board o f direc tors, elected b y the m em bership in annual or sem iannual m eeting. T h e directors serve w ithou t p ay , and decide and act on all general and fiscal policies. F r o m their num ber they in turn elect the officers o f the society, generally president, vice president, secretary, and treasurer. Administration of Property T h e directors em p lo y a bonded m anager, whose duties are to col lect the m o n th ly rents, keep the property in order, and direct any other cooperative activities connected w ith the enterprise. The success o f a cooperative housing association is la rg ely dependent upon the ability and the efficiency o f the m anager and upon his u nderstanding o f cooperative aim s and principles. I f the adm inistration o f the board o f directors and o f the m a n ager is not sa tisfactory to the m em bers, because o f lack o f executive efficiency and cooperative u nderstanding, the m em bership m a y tran s fe r the adm inistration o f the association’s p roperty, activities, and finances to some central cooperative housing auth ority such as the S U B L E T T IN G OR L E A S IN G TO 11 NONM EMBERS adm inistrative bureau o f a local federation o f cooperative h ousing societies, to a cooperative league, to a S tate or m u nicipal b o d y , or to som e p ro p erly bonded real estate m anagem ent com pan y. Committees T h e m em bers m a y fo r m com m ittees fo r adm inistering social ac tivities, such as garden s, p laygrou n d s, nursery, stores, bakeries, cen tra l kitchen, la u n d ry , libra ry , garage, etc. A sm all h ospital and dispensary m a y also be adm inistered b y com m ittees o f m em bers. J o in t arrangem ent m a y be m ade fo r p art-tim e service o f m aids, cleaners, seamstresses, and ch ildren ’s nurses, o f teachers, and kin dergartners, as the m em bers desire. T h e financial adm inistration o f these activities o f the m em bers m a y be assigned to the m anager. A n education com m ittee is also desirable. I n all live cooperative undertakings an education com m ittee o f the m em bers p erform s th e fu n ction o f keepin g up the interest in the whole cooperative m ove m en t— w h at it is d oin g and aim s to do— b y h o ld in g m eetings, fo ru m s, and classes, b y g iv in g plays and pageants, and b y carryin g on activities to keep the m em bers interested in the larger p ossibil ities and achievem ents o f cooperation. A n educational director som e tim es is em ployed. Subletting or Leasing to Nonmembers I f a ten an t-m em ber finds it necessary to sublet his d w ellin g, he m a y do so, p rovided the new tenant is approved b y the board o f directors. T h e m em ber rem ains responsible to the association fo r the p aym en t o f the fixed m o n th ly charges u ntil he shall have tran sferred his shareholdings to a new tenant-m em ber. T h e charges to th e rent in g ten an t should be the current rental price o f the n eigh borhood.9 T here should be a definite tim e lim it to the duration o f subletting to nonm em bers, how ever. V a c a n t houses or apartm en ts, w hich have n ot been subscribed fo r and rented b y m em bers, m a y be let tem p o rarily b y the association to nonm em ber tenants at the current n eighborhood rental price. A n y profits accruing fr o m subletting or renting o f unoccupied homes to nonm em bers should g o into the treasury o f the association fo r the benefit o f all the m em bers. T h is practice is n ot desirable i f it is fo u n d th at it prom otes an interest am ong the m em bers in profitin g fr o m leasin g to nonm em bers. Such subletting and rentals 0 Several of the housing laws provide that rents shall be subject to the approval of the State housing hoard. 78408°— 34-------3 12 C O O P E R A T IV E H O U S IN G A S S O C IA T IO N S to nonm em bers sh ou ld n o t be a regular p olicy, b u t sh ou ld be re sorted to on ly to m eet em ergencies. A n o th e r m ethod o f u tilizin g profit fr o m nonm em bers is to devote it to a cooperative h ou sin g fu n d fo r the fu rth er developm ent o f cooperative h ousing, or fo r loans to nonm em bers to finance their purchase o f shares in the association. Use o f Surplus Savings T here are m a n y uses to w hich the surplus savin gs w h ich accrue fr o m collecting fr o m tenants m ore than the net costs m a y be pu t. T h u s— (1 ) T h e y m a y be returned to m em bers d irectly in cash as savings returns in p roportion to th eir m o n th ly rental charges. (2 ) T h e y m ay be le ft in the association’s treasury to be used fo r the fu rth er im p rovem en t o f the p ro p erty , such as th e beautification o f th e prem ises, garden s, flow er boxes, etc. T h e y m a y be used to provide recreation such as m usic, a recreation h a ll, theater, lib ra ry , readin g room , or a vacation resort in the coun try fo r the m em bers an d th eir children. Such fu n d s m a y be used also to provid e a fa r m fo r the produ ction o f fo o d s fo r m em bers, in clu din g m ilk su p p ly . A k in dergarten, a la u n d ry , a barber shop, shoe rep airin g, a m edical clin ic, and a dispensary m a y also be provid ed fr o m the su rplus savings in the treasury. I t is stro n gly recom m ended th a t m em bers be encouraged to set aside reg u larly a portion o f the to ta l su rplu s savin gs, before th ey are distributed in d iv id u a lly to the m em bers as cash savin gs returns, in order to guarantee the d evelopm en t and im provem en t o f the social features o f the enterprise. (3 ) S a v in g s returns m a y be len t to the association as loan capital or m a y be used b y m em bers fo r the purchase o f addition al shares o f stock. ( 4 ) S u rp lu s savin gs m a y be used to m a in tain a b u ild in g depart m en t w ith its ow n architects, carpenters, painters, p lu m bers, and m asons, or used fo r the m an u factu re o f b u ild in g m a teria l, such as brick, tile and cement, fo r door and fra m e shops, stonew orks, and lu m ber m ills. Such activities are possible on ly in la rg e societies w h ich h ave developed a large su rplus or in federation s o f coopera tiv e h ou sin g associations. I n E u ro p e the organ ization o f such b u ild in g departm ents, b elon gin g to cooperatives, has m ade it possible to carry on new construction and repairs at low cost. E x p a n sio n and developm ent o f cooperative h ou sin g and coopera tiv e social life are thus m ade possible b y the accum ulation in the treasury o f the surplus savings. T hese are created w h ile the m em bers are p a y in g rents no higher than those th ey w ou ld p ay to the private lan dlord. D IS S O L U T IO N OF THE 13 A S S O C IA T IO N Interest on Share Capital In terest m a y or m a y n ot be p aid on the share capital. I f p aid it should n ot exceed the current m arket rate,10 nor should it v a ry w ith the value of the p ro p erty nor w ith th e earnings o f the association. I f interest is p a id , the m o n th ly charges to ten an t-m em bers in crease a cco rd in g ly ; th u s th e m em bers m u st p a y in m o n th ly rentals an interest item w hich th e m em bers get back at th e end o f the year in p roportion to th eir stock ow nership. Effect of Increase in Property Values T h ere is no financial particip ation b y the m em bers in the increase in the value o f the p ro p erty , no stock dividends, n o extra bonuses n or stock raised above p a r, as is custom ary in o rd in a ry stock cor porations. A n increase in the m arket valuation o f the p ro p erty as a w hole does n o t result in stock revaluation. I t on ly increases taxes. W h e n the m arket value o f properties declines, the m em bers are equally n o t affected, except as th ey en joy low er taxes. T h is is true because the cooperators are m em bers o f an association w hich col lectively ow ns hom es fo r residence purposes and n ot fo r sale nor speculation. Dissolution o f the Association I f th ree-fo u rth s o f th e m em bership s ig n ify their desire to dissolve, and this question is ratified either at a general m eetin g or b y re fer endum , dissolution should become effective. T h e dissolution and sale o f p ro p erty fo r th e personal g ain o f th e m em bers should be discouraged. P ro v isio n m a y be m ade in the bylaw s, at th e b egin n in g , th a t shares rem ain at p ar, and th a t any increase in th e value o f the p ro p erty should be used as a fu n d fo r the fu rth er developm ent o f cooperation. T h u s, i f fo r som e reason it seems necessary to dis band the association, the p ro p erty is sold as a unit. receives fo r his shares ju st w h at he has invested. E a c h m em ber I f the property in w hich $100,000 was invested is sold fo r $110,000, the $100,000 is divided am ong the m em bers in proportion to th eir investm ent. The $10,000 rem ain in g m a y also be divided am on g the m em b ers; it is recom m ended, how ever, th at it be contributed to the cooperative m ovem ent (a s, fo r instance, to a central cooperative h ou sin g fu n d ) o r be used fo r a lib ra ry or p la y gro u n d or park— som ething th a t b rin gs benefit to all the com m unity. I f at the tim e o f dissolution the value o f th e p ro p erty h as de creased, the m em bers receive such percentage o f their shares as has 10 A ll but one of the State housing acts limit the rate of interest on stock to 6 percent; Illinois allbws 6 % percent. COOPERATIVE HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 14 been realized from the sale of the property. For instance, if the property in which $100,000 was invested is sold for $90,000, the members receive 90 percent of the par value o f their shares. Desirability of Creation of a Central Housing Fund For the purpose of making loans to individual cooperators who have not sufficient funds to subscribe the full amount in the begin ning for their purchase o f shares and o f making loans to cooperative housing associations to finance their original development or to meet their temporary financial needs, the creation of a central housing fund would be desirable. Such a fund could be raised by subscription for bonds or shares. Possible subscribers to such bonds would include cooperative socie ties; foundations and philanthropic organizations; insurance com panies ; banks and other business institutions; contractors and other companies which supply cooperative societies; individuals; and municipal, State, and Federal Governments. This fund would be administered by a board of directors elected by the shareholders, or it might be administered by a cooperative housing federation when such exists. Federations o f Cooperative Housing Associations Cooperation between associations is useful in the same way that cooperation between individuals is useful. Two or more housing associations may unite for their mutual advantage, forming what is comparable to the cooperative wholesale among the store societies. The members of this federation would be associations, not indi viduals, with votes in proportion to the membership o f each constit uent organization. The federation would be financed by the subscription of shares by the member associations. It would engage in large-scale enterprises, which are more effec tively performed thus than by a single association, such as-a central architects’ bureau; facilities for building and contracting; manufac turing or wholesale dealing in cement, bricks, lumber, sash, frames, doors, paint, plumbing supplies, and other housing needs. Certain surplus funds of the member societies might be invested in a federation to be used for the financing of other societies, and for loan funds to help individuals become tenant-members. The federation might also take over the administration of indi vidual cooperative housing associations, if the members of such hous ing associations voted for the transfer o f the administration to such FEDERATIONS OF COOPERATIVE HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS 15 federation. Or a federation might become part owner of the prop erties o f the member associations, in order to prevent the dissolution o f associations in the event of great increase in the value of the real estate and its possible sale by the members for their own profit. In the case of loans from the funds to individual cooperators, the applicant for a loan should have funds o f his own amounting to at least 40 percent of the amount he requires to subscribe for his home. He should try to amortize his loan at the rate of 20 percent a year, so that within 5 years the fund would be restored to its original amount. A p p e n d ix A .— M o d e l B y la w s fo r a C o o p erative H o u sin g A sso cia tio n A rticle 1 .— Name and location of association Section 1. The name o f this association is----------------------------------------------------Its principal office is located in____________________________________________________ N ote.— ( a ) Either “ Inc.” or “ Incorporated ” should appear in the name of the association as an indication that the liability of the members is limited. (b ) I f the association is not incorporated it functions as a company in which each member is liable fo r the entire obligations of the organization. A rticle 2.— Purpose The purpose of this association is to organize the people fo r cooperative home ownership and to buy, lease, and sell, and administer such real estate as shall be necessary to carry out the purposes of this corporation. This association aims to bring about a better kind of home ownership. A rticle 3.— Finance Section 1. Capital stock.— The capital stock in this association shall be --------- dollars, divided in t o __________ shares at a par value o f ---------------------------dollars each. N .— (a) ote Cooperative shares never go above par value. This provision is inserted here mainly to comply with the technicalities of legal procedure. (b ) Some States set the value of the individual shares of stock fo r societies which incorporate under the general cooperative law, and the State law under which incorporation takes place should be consulted before the value of the share is fixed. Sec. 2. Shares and savings.— The directors may, subject to revision by the stockholders at any general or special meeting, apportion the surplus savings at a rate not exceeding_________ percent per annum. Sec. 3. Surplus savings.— The surplus savings of this association may be used collectively or may be distributed once every year among the members on a pro-rata basis according to their monthly charges. S eo. 4. Redemption of stock.— It shall be the policy of this association to redeem the capital stock owned by its members. A member wishing to withdraw shall be required to give 60 days’ notice of such intention. The association may redeem shares at an earlier date i f the board of directors decides that they may be withdrawn without injury to the association. Every effort shall be made to accommodate members leaving the community or in distress. S eo. 5. Lien on capital.— The association shall have an absolute lien on the shares, loans, or deposits of any member for any debt due the association by him, and any sum credited to such member may be applied on or toward the payment of such debt. Seo. 6. Transfer of shares.— Shares may be transferred at p ar value, subject to the approval of the board of directors. The issue and transfer of all shares must be registered on the books of the association. N o shares shall be trans- 16 A P P E N D IX A .-----M O D E L B Y L A W S 17 ferred u n til a ll claim s of the association against the ow ner of such shares shall have been paid. T he board of directors m ay purchase any share or shares from the reserve fund of the association. N o te .— T he purpose of these tw o sections is to protect th e association from the buying up of shares by outsiders not acceptable to the group and to insure the paym ent of any debts w hich the w ithdraw ing m ember m ay ow e the organization. S ec . 7. Death .— Upon the death of any shareholder, th e association shall redeem a t par valu e w ithin 1 year such shares as are held in h is name. A rticle 4.— Membership Section 1. T he association sh all consist of the present m em bership and all other persons who herein after m ay be adm itted to m em bership. S ec . 2. Any person approved by the association m ay becom e a m em ber o f th is association by purchasing a t lea st_________shares of its capital stock and subscribing to th e bylaw s of the association. S ec . 3. E very member m ust be an applicant for a hom e in the association’s building or buildings. N ote:— T his provision insures th at the m embers and tenant-ow ners shall be an iden tical group. S ec. 4. A member m ay sublet his hom e a t the regular rate plus a nom inal charge for furnishings. Subletting shall be perm itted for a period to be de cided upon by the directors. M embers subletting sh all be responsible to the association for paym ent o f rent. Persons renting m ust m eet w ith the approval of the directors. N o te .—T h is practice is to be allow ed only in cases of necessity, and there should be a definite tim e lim it to the period for w hich subletting is to be perm itted. S ec . 5. A t any tim e the board o f directors m ay prefer charges again st a member if the board is of the opinion th at such member h a s violated an y o f the provisions o f these bylaw s, or that he h as been guilty of conduct detri m ental to th e association. A fter service upon him of a copy o f charges and a hearing given by the board, h is lea se m ay be canceled by notice to th at effect. Upon tender to such offending member of the par valu e of h is stock, h is lease sh all come to an end and term inate by lim itation, anything therein contained to the contrary notw ithstanding. A rticle 5.— Duties and rights of members S ection 1. Every member is entitled to one vote upon all questions com ing before a general or special m eeting of the association, irrespective of his hold ings of capital stock. S ec . 2. Members of the association shall be responsible for repairs and alter ations m ade w ithin the apartm ent except such repairs as are contingent upon the original in stallation s of plum bing, heating, w iring, etc. S ec . 3. E very m em ber shall use his best efforts in the in terest of the association A rticle 6.— Officers and directors S ection 1. The business of the association shall be conducted by a board of directors consisting of_________ members elected by the association. N ote.— T he board of directors should alw ays be composed o f an odd num ber of members. 18 COOPERATIVE H O U S IN G ASSOCIATIONS S ec . 2. V acancies occurring in the board of directors before the expiration of the term shall be filled at the m eetings of the association. A special m eet in g of th e association m ay be called for th a t purpose. S ec . 3. T he officers o f th e association shall be president, vice president, secretary, and treasurer, who shall be elected annually by the board of directors, and each o f whom m ust be a director. V acancies sh all be filled for the un expired term s by the board of directors. T he board of directors sh all m eet w ith in 5 days after the annual election and sh all elect the officers o f the association. Sec. 4 . _________ members of the board" of directors shall constitute a quorum a t any m eeting o f th e board for th e transaction o f business, except th a t w hen th e credit o f th e association is involved a m ajority vote of a ll th e m em bers of the board is required. S ec . 5. A m ajority of the stockholders m ay at any regular or special m eet in g duly called rem ove any director or officer for cause and fill the vacancy. T en d ays’ notice in w ritin g o f the tim e, place, and object o f such m eeting sh all be given to the m em bers and to the director or officer again st whom th e charges are preferred. Such director or officer shall a t the sam e tim e be inform ed in w ritin g o f such charges and be given an opportunity to be heard in person or by counsel and produce w itn esses in regard thereto. A r t i c l e 7 .— Board of directors S 1. T he board of directors sh all m anage the business o f th e associa tion and m ake necessary rules and regulations not inconsistent w ith the law or these bylaw s for th e m anagem ent of th e business and the guidance of th e officers, em ployees and agents of the association. S . 2. A m anager m ay be appointed by th e board w h o sh all h ave charge of the business of the association under the direction of the board o f directors. T he board of directors m ay d ism iss th e m anager and sh all fix his com pensation. Sec . 3. T he board o f directors shall require the treasurer and m anager to give bonds w ith sufficient surety for th e fa ith fu l perform ance o f their respective duties. S . 4. T he board of directors shall m eet a t lea st once each month. Special m eetings o f the board sh all be held upon th e call of the president or upon w ritten request of th e m ajority o f the board o f directors. S . 5. T he board of directors sh all m ake a report at the annual m eeting of th e association and sh all subm it a budget or an approxim ate estim ate o f the incom e and proposed expenses for the com ing year. A copy o f th e propbsed budget sh all be m ailed to every m em ber together w ith a notice o f th e annual m eeting. S . 6. T he board of directors shall have no authority to borrow m oney or to m ake loans in th e nam e of the association, or to go in to any other business except as herein proposed w ith ou t first being authorized to do so by a resolution adopted at a m eeting of th e association. e c t io n ec ec ec ec A r t ic l e 8 .— Duties of officers 1. T he president shall— (a ) P reside over a ll m eetings of the association and o f the board o f directors. (b) Sign a s president, w ith th e treasurer, all prom issory notes, deeds, and other instrum ents on behalf of the association. (c) Call special m eetings of the association and board of directors. (d ) Perform all acts and duties u su ally required of an execu tive and pre sid in g officer. S e c t io n A P P E N D IX A .-----M O D E L B Y L A W S 19 Sec . 2. The vice president shall act in place of th e president w henever the la tter is absent or unable to perform his duties. S ec . 3. T he secretary shall— (a ) A ttend all m eetings of th e association and of the board of directors. (b ) Countersign all contracts sanctioned and entered into by the board of directors. (c) R eceive all proposals for adm ission into the association and dem ands for paym ent of every description. (d ) A ttend to all correspondence. (e) Prepare th e quarterly report of the association’s business. (f) H ave the custody of the corporate seal of the association and cause the sam e to be affixed to such instrum ents on behalf of the association as are required. (g) On all occasions in the execution of h is duties act under the superin tendence, control, and direction of the board o f directors. Sec. 4. The treasurer shall— (a ) Sign as treasurer all checks and, w ith the president, sign all notes and obligations of th e association. (b ) R eceive and disburse all funds and be custodian of all the securities o f th e association. (c ) K eep a fu ll and accurate account of all the financial transactions of the association in books belonging to the association, and deliver such books to his successor w hen qualifying. H e shall m ake a fu ll report of a ll m atters and business pertaining to h is office to the m em bers at th e annual m eeting and to th e board of directors w henever required, and m ake all reports by law . (d ) D eposit a ll m oneys of the association in th e nam e and to the credit o f the association, in such depositories as m ay be designated from tim e to tim e by the board of directors. (e) Perform such other duties as m ay be required of him by the association and the board of directors. (f) Indem nify the association again st loss due to h is failure faith fu lly to perform h is duties. (g ) H ave custody of a ll contracts, leases, or other valuable docum ents per tain in g to the business o f the association w hich he shall keep safely deposited in a safe or fireproof vault. 9.— Reports Section 1. T he officers of the association shall be required to give such reports as m ay be called for from tim e to tim e by the m em bers in regular or special session s or by the board of directors. A r t ic l e A rticle 10— Auditors Section 1. A board of three auditors shall be chosen by the board o f direc tors for the first year and thereafter shall be elected at th e regular annual m eeting. V acancies in such board shall be filled by the board of directors but such board of auditors sh all be chosen from the m em bers w ho are not directors o f the association. It sh all be the duty of th e auditors to m ake an audit of th e books o f the association quarterly givin g a w ritten report thereof to th e members. T he board o f directors sh all be em powered to em ploy a certified public accountant to au d it the books of the association before each annual m eeting. T his audit sh all precede the annual m eeting by about 3 w eeks. 20 C O O P E R A T IV E H O U S IN G A SS O C IA T IO N S 11.— Meetings of members S e c t i o n 1. R egular m eetings o f the members sh all be held quarterly. T he January m eeting shall be the annual m eeting o f the association a t w hich tim e the general business of the association shall be transacted, directors elected, etc. M embers sh all be given 10 days’ notice of such m eetings. S ec . 2. A special m eeting of the m em bers m ay be called by th e president whenever he sh all deem it necessary or as directed by the resolu tions of the board o f directors or upon a petition signed by 10 percent o f the m em bers. Such m eeting shall be called by a notice published 0 days before the m eeting. Such notice shall specify the tim e and place and object of such m eeting and no business other than th at specified sh all be transacted thereat. N o t e .— T he right to in itia te a call for a special m eeting should be recognized in every cooperative society. S eo. 3. Two-thirds o f the m em bers sh all constitute a quorum for th e tran s action of business. S eo. 4. A t all m eetings o f th e m em bers and the board of directors th e order of business and parliam entary practices sh all be governed by R oberts’ R ules o f Order. A 12 .— Amendments Am endm ents to the bylaw s m ay be m ade at any annual or quarterly m eeting by a tw o-thirds vote o f the m em bers present (a quorum being p resen t), pro viding notice shall h ave been given to the m em bers in w riting, w ith ex act copy of such proposed am endm ent w ith the regular notice of such m eeting. A r t ic l e r t ic l e A p p e n d ix B .— S a m p le M e m b er’ s S ubscrip tion A g re e m e n t S u bscrip tio n A greem ent T he undersigned, haying read and approved the plan o f purchase and organization of ___________________________ C ooperative A partm ents, for one dollar ($1) in la w fu l m oney of the U n ited States to him in hand paid, and for other valuable consideration received, and in consideration o f th e m utual agreem ent herein contained, each for h im self agrees to and w ith the m em bers o f t h e ----------------------------------------- Cooperative A partm ents and w ith t h e ________ -------------------------------C ooperative H ousing A ssociation, Inc., to p u r c h a s e -----------shares of capital stock a t $5 per share of th is cooperative corporation, an d to pay for sam e at th e fu ll valu e thereof in cash, am ounting t o ----------------------------------------dollars ($ __________ ), said paym ent to be m ade by cash, m oney orders, or check, delivered a s fo llo w s: F irst paym ent: T o th e order o f t h e ___________________________ C ooperative H ousing A sso c ia tio n ,____________________________ dollars ($ _________), of the sub scription upon subscribing to th is agreem ent. Second p a y m en t: T o the order o f t h e ___________________________ Cooperative H ousing A sso cia tio n ,_____________________________dollars ($ _________), of the said subscription on or b e fo r e ___________________________ 193— T hird paym ent: To the order o f t h e ___________________________ C ooperative H ousing A sso c ia tio n ,____________________________ dollars ($ _________), of th e said subscription on or b e fo r e ___________________________ 193____ Fourth p a y m en t: To th e order of t h e ___________________________ C ooperative H ousing A sso c ia tio n ,____________________________ dollars ($_________), of th e said subscription on or b e fo r e ___________________________ 193___ _ It is further understood and agreed by and betw een th e undersigned, the m em bers of the ___________________________ Cooperative Apartm ents, and the ______________________________ Cooperative H ousing A ssociation, Inc., th at the undersigned is to pay th e addition al sum o f ________ .__________________ dollars ($ _________), payable sim ultaneously w ith the first, second, or third paym ents as aforesaid, said additional sum to cover fees, carrying charges, m anagem ent and organization charges, and m inor repairs incident to acquiring title to prem ises ___________________________ Cooperative A partm ents, for w hich said additional paym ent it is understood and agreed no capital stock is to be issued to the undersigned. _________________________ p a y m en t: To the order of t h e _________________________ C ooperative H ousing A sso c ia tio n ----------------------------------------- dollars ($__________) o f th e said subscription on or b e f o r e ----------------------------------------- , 193__, to be paid in ____________________________ m onthly installm ents, the paym ent to be applied to th e retirem ent of the ----------------------------------------- m ortgages on prem ises. T h e ___________________________ paym ent is a charge included in the rental as set forth in th e lea se executed betw een the undersigned and the association. In consideration of said first, second, third, and fourth paym ents m ade as aforem entioned by this member, the said subscriber shall receive a certificate from said corporation o f ----------------------------------------- shares of its capital stock 21 22 C O O PE R A T IV E H O U S IN G A S S O C IA T IO N S o f the par valu e of $5 each, and shall receive a lea se for the term of 99 years on prem ises N o .___________________________ a t th e annual m onthly charges set forth in said lease. In consideration of s a i d ___________________________ paym ent m ade as afore m entioned by th is member, the said subscriber shall receive a second certificate from said corporation o f ___________________________ shares of its cap ital stock o f the par valu e of $5 each. B u t if said subscriber shall d efau lt in any of the paym ents called for in th is subscription, and such d efau lt sh all continue for 10 days after notice to pay sen t by registered m ail by t h e ___________________________ Cooperative H ousing A ssociation to said m em ber a t address a s given below, then, forth w ith a t the option o f t h e ___________________________ C ooperative H ousing A ssociation, said m em ber shall lose any and all rights to said certificate and to said stock, and to receive th e sam e, and sh all fo rfeit any and a ll right to a lea se on or to contin ue occupancy of th e p r e m is e s -------------------------------------------- Cooperative A partm ents, and the deposit shall, at the option of t h e __________________________ C ooperative H ousing A ssociation, be returned, less the subscriber’s proportionate share o f th e expenses incurred in th e negotiation for the purchase o f th e property, in search, insurance and p assin g title ; in the m aintenance of such property after it is purchased, and any other expense reasonable in these prem ises. T h e ___________________________ Cooperative H ousing A ssociation m ay, a t its option, w a ive th e foregoing obligation of th e subscriber in th e event th at h e sh all secure an assign ee o f said subscription satisfactory to th e association, w h o w ill assum e each and every obligation herein contained. N am e -------------------------------------------------------------- [u s .] H om e a d d r e s s _________________________________________ D a t e d ____________ In the presence of A p p e n d ix C.— M odel L ea se fo r a C o op erative H o u sin g A ssociation T his lease m ade th e_________day o f___________________________ 19 , betw een th e___________________________ Cooperative H ousing A ssociation, Inc., a dom estic corporation h ereinafter called the “ cooperative ”, and__________________________ residin g a t___________________________ , hereinafter called the “ tenant.” W hereas, the cooperative has been incorporated for the purpose o f ow ning and operating a certain apartm ent house in the____________________________ , city of-------------------------------------------and State of_______________________________ know n a s nos_________________________ S tr e e t,_____________________________, hereinafter called th e “ apartm ent h o u se ”, upon a cooperative basis, w ith the intent that th e stockholders of the cooperative shall have the right to lease and occupy apart m ents therein under the term s and conditions hereinafter set forth, so long a s they, respectively, are stockhold ers; and W hereas, the tenant is the owner and holder of___________ shares of common capital stock of the cooperative of the face valu e o f $_________, and is en titled by reason thereof to a lease of the apartm ent hereinafter described, subject to th e bylaw s o f the coop erative; Now, therefore, in consideration of the prem ises, and th e covenants, con ditions, and agreem ents herein contained, the cooperative hereby lets to th e tenant and the tenant hereby hires from the cooperative the apartm ent now known as----------------------------------------- , hereinafter called “ the apartm ent ” in the apartm ent house, consisting o f_____ rooms and_____ baths to be occupied strictly as a private dw elling apartm ent by the tenant and the fam ily o f the tenant, except as hereinafter provided, for the term of____ years a n d ____ m onths, beginning on th e------------- day o f-----------------------------------------19— , and ending on the 30th day of September, 20__. T he parties hereto m utually covenant and agree as fo llo w s: 1. T he tenan t sh all pay a m onthly rent of $_________in advance on th e first day of each m onth of the said term , subject to increase and decrease a s here in after provided. Such m onthly rent m ay from tim e to tim e be increased to such am ount as th e board of directors of the cooperative, by the unanim ous vote of all th e directors, m ay determ ine, provided th e rents o f a ll th e other cooperative tenants are increased proportionately according to the basic per centages of th e present rentals o f all the apartm ents as the sam e appear on th e rent schedule hereto attached. I f said board o f directors shall not be unan i m ously in favor of an increase in the m onthly rent, an increase m ay neverthe less be approved by vote of two-thirds of the stockholders of record of th e cooperative, expressed either in w ritin g or at a m eeting duly called for th e purpose o f considering the sam e, in w hich event such increase, pro rated as above prescribed, sh all become fu lly operative from such tim e as m ay be, determined, by such vote. Such m onthly rent m ay from tim e to tim e be reduced if in th e judgm ent o f a m ajority of th e board of directors of th e cooperative such reduction is justified, provided the rents of all the other cooperative tenants are also reduced proportionately as above prescribed. 23 24 C O O PE R A T IV E H O U S IN G A SS O C IA T IO N S 2. In consideration and on condition th at the ten an t w ill pay and perform th e rents, conditions, covenants, and agreem ents in th is lease contained, the cooperative covenants th at the tenant m ay, a t all tim es during the said term , peaceably h ave and enjoy the apartm ent. 3. The cooperative shall m aintain and m anage the apartm ent house as a high-class apartm ent house, w ith a suitable superintendent or janitor, supply proper and sufficient am ounts o f cold and hot w ater and furnish steam or other h eat to warm the prem ises during th e h eatin g season. T he cooperative reserves th e right to stop th e above supplies and services a t such tim es as m ay be neces sary by reason of shortage of labor, accidents, or alterations or repairs deem ed desirable by th e cooperative. The cooperative shall not be held responsible for interrupted supplies or services caused by any reason w hatsoever, nor sh all there be any dim inution or abatem ent of rent on account of such interruption. 4. T he cooperative sh all keep in good repair the foundations, sidew alks, roofs, gutters, cellars, chim neys, cornices, fire escapes, entrances, m ain h a lls and stairw ays, boilers, pumps, tanks, heatin g system , and all plum bing intended fo r general service in the building, it being agreed th at th e tenant sh all give th e cooperative prom pt notice o f an y accident or defect requiring such repairs to be made, and sh all at all reasonable tim es allow the agents of the cooperative to enter and inspect th e apartm ent in order to ascertain w h at such repairs are needed and to m ake such repairs and upon reasonable notice to rem ove such portions of the w alls, floors, and ceilings of the apartm ent as m ay be required fo r the purpose of m aking such repairs, w hich portions, so rem oved, the cooper ative shall, as soon as such repairs can reasonably be finished, replace in as good condition as before such rem oval, all such repairs to be at the expense of th e cooperative unless the sam e sh all have been rendered necessary by the act, negligence or carelessness o f the tenant, or of any m ember of th e fam ily, guests, or em ployees o f the tenant, in w hich case th e expense is to be borne by the tenant. 5. T he tenan t shall during th e term o f th is lea se keep the interior o f th e apartm ent and a ll fixtures and plum bing and other appurtenances belonging thereto in good order and repair, and m ake all decorations therein, and the cooperative shall not be held answ erable for any repairs or decorations in and to th e apartm ent, except as hereinbefore specifically provided, and in case o f the refu sal or neglect of the tenan t during 10 days after n otice in w ritin g from the cooperative to m ake such repairs, or to restore th e apartm ent to good con dition, such repairs or restoration m ay be m ade by the cooperative, and an y expense incurred thereby by th e cooperative sh all be im m ediately due and payable from th e tenan t to th e cooperative, and sh all be deem ed to be additional rent for the apartm ent. T he tenan t sh all not w ithou t the w ritten consent of the cooperative m ake any alterations, additions or im provem ents. A ny alterations, addition s or im provem ents w hich m ay be m ade by the tenant in, to, or upon the prem ises sh all be the property of the cooperative and shall rem ain upon and be surrendered w ith the prem ises a t th e term ination o f th is lease, w ithou t disturbance, m olestation, or in ju ry; provided th at m ovable furniture and fix tures put in a t th e expense of the tenant m ay be rem oved by said tenan t but th a t any injury caused by m oving said furniture and fixtures in or out shall be repaired by th e tenant. 6. T he tenan t sh a ll prom ptly com ply w ith and execute a ll law s, ordinances, rules, orders, and regulations of the F ederal, State, county, and city govern m ents, and o f the board o f fire underw riters, and o f all other authorities, and o f their departm ents and bureaus, applicable to the apartm ent, or concerning any m atter in, upon or connected w ith the apartm ent, except such a s require A P P E N D IX C .-----M O D E L L E A S E 25 structural changes or repairs. I f the ten an t sh all fa il prom ptly to comply w ith and execute any of the foregoing requirem ents the cooperative m ay, upon 5 days’ w ritten notice to th e tenant, enter in and upon the apartm ent and comply w ith and execu te th e sam e for th e account of the tenan t and any expense th u s incurred by the cooperative shall be im m ediately due and payable from the ten an t to the cooperative, and sh all be deem ed to be additional rent for the apartm ent. T he tenant sh all not do anything or suffer anything to be done in or about th e apartm ent w h ich w ill increase th e ra te o f fire Insurance upon th e apartm ent house, or w hich m ay be deem ed extra or specially hazardous by th e usage o f fire insurance com panies. 7. T he tenan t shall n otify the cooperative in! w ritin g of any leakage o f the roof com ing to h is notice, and sh all hold the cooperative gu iltless therefrom u n less the cooperative sh all fa il, w ith in a reasonable tim e after such w ritten n otice is delivered to it, to repair the roof. T he tenan t sh all hold the cooper ative free from liab ility for any dam age to person or property in the apartm ent or in the apartm ent house, caused by gas, steam , electricity, rain, snow, w ater from the tanks, pipes, plum bing work, vau lt light or any other sources or by sew erage, fa llin g p laster or any other cause w h a tso ev er; the tenant shall hold h is property in the apartm ent or anyw here else in th e apartm ent house at his ow n risk, and sh all hold the cooperative free from any liab ility for any dam age thereto from any cause arising. 8. In case o f dam age by fire or th e elem ents, th e tenan t shall give im m ediate notice thereof in w ritin g to the cooperative. T he cooperative sh all repair sam e w ith all reasonable dispatch a t its own cost and expense. I f th e dam age shall be so extensive as to render the apartm ent w h olly untenantable, th e rent shall cease from the tim e the cooperative is notified of such dam age u n til th e apart m ent is restored to tenantable condition, and thereafter sh all begin to run and to be payable as before. In case the apartm ent house generally (though the apartm ent m ay not be affected) be substan tially destroyed by fire or th e ele m ents, or be so injured or destroyed th a t th e cooperative sh all w ithin a reason able tim e decide to rebuild or reconstruct the apartm ent house, th e rent sh all be apportioned pro rata and paid up to the tim e o f such destruction or injury, and upon such paym ent being duly m ade by the tenant, th is lea se and the term herein granted shall cease and come to an end. N o claim for com pensation shall be m ade by the tenan t by reason of incon venience, dam age or annoyance arising from th e n ecessity of repairing any portion of th e apartm ent or apartm ent house, how ever the necessity m ay occur. 9. I f the apartm ent house or the plot of land on w hich it stands, or any part thereof, be condem ned or taken for public u se or quasi-public use, the cooperative sh all be en titled to and shall receive any aw ard that m ay be m ade to or for the account of the tenant for th e value o f the unexpired term o f th is lease. The tenant hereby expressly assigns to the cooperative any aw ard th at m ay be so m ade to or for account o f th e tenan t for any dam ages to the term hereby dem ised. B ut in no event shall there be any abatem ent or apportionm ent o f the rent because of such condem nation or taking. T he tenant hereby further agrees th at for the purpose of obtaining such aw ard or aw ards, and for all other purposes, all the alterations, additions, and im provem ents now on or w hich m ay hereafter be m ade in and to the prem ises herein dem ised are the sole and absolute property of the cooperative. 10. T he tenant sh all a t the option of the cooperative purchase from th e cooperative, or from any person or corporation designated by the cooperative, such electric current as m ay be required by the tenant for use in the apartm ent upon condition that the rates charged therefor by the person or corporation 26 C O O PE R A T IV E H O U S IN G A SS O C IA T IO N S furnishing said electric current shall not, at any tim e, exceed the rate fixed for the district by the Public Service Com m ission for a like am ount o f current m easured in the sam e m anner as current w ould be m easured by th e Public Service Com m ission. The tenan t agrees to pay for such electric current upon presentation by th e cooperative o f a bill for such current, and upon th e failu re of the tenan t to pay for such current, the am ount so due sh all be added to th e in stallm en t of rent n ex t becom ing due hereunder, and such am ount sh all becom e a p art o f th e said ren t and sh all be collectible in lik e m anner. 11. T he basic percentages of the present ren tals of a ll th e apartm ents in the apartm ent house m ay be changed to be effective in any year follow in g the year in w hich a new building shall have been com pleted or an ex istin g building converted to nonresidential purposes on any lot adjoining the apartm ent house or across th e street therefrom , but only subject to th e follow in g provisions: A petition for such change signed by at lea st th ree ten an ts sh all be filed w ith the president and w ith the secretary of the cooperative at lea st 3 m onths before th e proposed effective date o f the change. A m eeting of th e stockholders o f the cooperative shall at once be called for a general discussion of th e proposed change. T he board of directors sh all then in their discretion either reject the proposed change or propose a new schedule of basic percentages. In eith er event th eir determ ination or failu re to act shall be reported, at lea st 2 m onths before the proposed effective date of the change, to a m eeting o f th e stockholders. T he stockholders m ay then take such action a s they see fit, provided, how ever, that any change in the basic percentages to be effective m ust receive the affirm ative vote of a t lea st 75 percent of th e stockholders o f record o f the cooperative, a t a stockholders’ m eeting duly called for th at purpose. Such action of the stockholders shall be final u n less w ith in 20 days thereafter there be filed w ith th e president and secretary of the cooperative a w ritten request signed by a t lea st three stockholders, asking for arbitration. In that case arbitrators sh all be appointed as in paragraph 29 hereof provided. T heir determ ination shall be final. Such final determ ination by th e stockholders or by the arbitrators shall fix the basic percentages of rentals o f a ll the apartm ents for the period beginning the follow in g January 1 and continuing u n til such percentages sh all again be changed as provided in th is section. 12. The cooperative reserves the right to m ake such rules and regulations as in its judgm ent from tim e to tim e m ay be needed for th e safety, care, and cleanliness of the apartm ent house, and for th e preservation of good order and com fort therein, and th e tenant agrees faith fu lly and punctually to observe and comply w ith such regulations and further agrees th at all persons d w ellin g in or visitin g in the apartm ent w ill also punctually observe and com ply therew ith. 13. T h is lea se is and a t a ll tim es h ereafter shall be subject and subordinate to the lien of any m ortgage or m ortgages now affecting the prem ises o f w hich the apartm ent form s a part, or w hich m ay a t any tim e h ereafter be placed thereon, and further the tenant agrees to execute, a t the cooperative’s expense, any instrum ent which the cooperative or any lender m ay deem necessary or desirable to effect the subordination of th is lea se to any such m ortgage, and th e ten an t hereby appoints the cooperative the tenant’s attorney in fact, irrev ocable, during th e term hereof, to execu te any such instrum ent on b eh alf o f the tenant. 14. For d efau lt by the ten an t in th e paym ent of any sum payable hereunder, the cooperative shall h ave the sam e rem edies as for d efau lt in th e paym ent o f APPENDIX 0 ,----MODEL LEASE 27 rent. The various rights, powers, rem edies, options, and elections to the cooperative reserved, expressed, or contained in this lease are cum ulative and no one of them shall be deemed exclusive of the others, or of such other rights, powers, rem edies, options, or elections as are now or m ay hereafter be con ferred upon the cooperative by law. For any breach or threatened breach of this lease, the cooperative shall be entitled to restrain the tenant by injunction. 15. No surrender of this lease or the term hereby dem ised, w hether by parole or act, shall be valid or binding upon either party, unless such surrender shall be in w riting duly signed by both the parties hereto. 16. A ll notices may be delivered to either party personally or by registered m ail, addressed to the cooperative or to the tenant respectively at the apartm ent house, i n ____________________________ 17. The failure of the cooperative in any one or more instances to in sist upon the strict perform ance of any of the covenants of th is lease, or to exercise any option herein conferred, shall not be constru'ed as a w aiver or relinquishm ent for the future of any such covenants, conditions, or option, but the sam e shall continue and rem ain in fu ll force and effect. 18. The tenant shall not, w ithout first obtaining the w ritten consent of the cooperative in each and every case, under penalty of forfeiture and dam ages: (a) Either assign, m ortgage, or otherw ise encum ber this lease, in w hole or in part, or any interest therein; (b) Or sublet the apartm ent or any part thereof; (c) Or occupy or perm it the apartm ent or any part thereof to be occupied except for dw elling purposes; (d ) Or perm it anyone other than the tenant or a m ember of his fam ily to occupy the apartm ent or any part thereof. Upon the tenant’s default w ith respect to any of the foregoing, the coopera tive shall have the option to give the tenant 15 days’ w ritten notice of the cooperative’s election to and the term of this lease and, upon the expiration of such 15-day period, the term of this lease shall term inate and come to an end and all right of occupation hereunder on the part of the tenant shall cease, w ith the same force and effect as though the term originally reserved herein had term inated, and the tenant shall quit and surrender the prem ises to the cooperative. The cooperative hereby consents to the tenant’s subletting the apartm ent upon the follow ing conditions s o le ly : A. The tenant m ay sublet the apartm ent for a term of not more than 1 year, subject to the prior approval in w riting of the proposed subtenant by the coop erative, which approval shall not be unreasonably w ithheld, provided further, that the rent shall not exceed a sum equivalent to the rent payable by the tenant to the cooperative, plus 25 percent of such rent (to com pensate for cost of repairs) plus, if the apartm ent is sublet substan tially furnished w ith the furniture of the tenant, an additional 25 percent of such rent, plus an am ount equal to 6 percent per annum on the am ount of stock of the cooperative stated on page (1) hereof as being owned and held by the tenant. Such sublease m ay be renewed by the tenant for a further term of not more than 1 year, subject to the sam e conditions as at the m aking of the first lease. Such sub lease shall not be further renewed except w ith the express prior approval in w riting of the cooperative, which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld. B. Application for leave to sublet under subdivision A of this paragraph shall be m ade on a form to be provided by the cooperative and shall contain the name, address, and occupation of the proposed subtenant. It shall also con- 28 COOPERATIVE HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS tain a statem ent th at th e tenant has not received nor been prom ised any con sideration or thing of value, directly or indirectly, from the proposed subtenant or any other person for the m aking of the proposed sublease or as subrental therefor except w hat is m entioned in said application. Such application shall also contain such further inform ation pertinent thereto as the cooperative m ay require. G. Any sublease m ade hereunder shall be in a form to be provided by the cooperative and shall contain a suitable provision th at such sublease shall ter m inate in case at any tim e the cooperative shall determ ine that because of objectionable conduct on the part of such subtenant or of persons dw elling in or visiting the apartm ent the tenancy of such subtenant is undesirable, and upon 5 days’ w ritten notice of such determ ination. D. It is understood by the tenant that it is one of the cooperative principles and purposes which the cooperative w as incorporated to accom plish th at no ten ant sh all derive a profit directly or indirectly from the m aking of a sublease and the tenant agrees that he w ill not at any tim e take any profit. A breach of this covenant shall entitle the cooperative to term inate th is lease as pro vided in paragraph 19 hereof. 19. T he granting of th is lease and the term herein dem ised are conditioned that at the cooperative’s option, upon the happening of any of the events m en tioned in subdivisions A to G, both inclusive, of this paragraph, the cooperative m ay give the tenant at least 15 days’ w ritten notice of the cooperative’s election to end the term of this lease, and upon the date specified in such notice the term of this lease shall term inate and come to an end, and all right of occupa tion hereunder on the part of the tenant shall cease, w ith the sam e force and effect as though th at were the date originally set in this lease for the term ina tion thereof, and the tenant shall quit and surrender the apartm ent to the cooperative, unless before the expiration of such period the condition which w as the basis for such notice shall have ceased to exist. In the event of such term ination the cooperative shall have the right to reenter the apartm ent, either by force or otherw ise, and dispossess and rem ove therefrom the tenant or other occupant thereof and their effects. T he tenant shall, however, rem ain liable to the cooperative for any expense th at the cooperative m ay be put to in reentering or reletting the apartm ent and for any deficiency betw een the equiva lent o f the rent hereunder and the sum or sum s received by the cooperative on a reletting of said prem ises for a period of 3 years after such term ination. The tenant shall pay to the cooperative, on account of such deficiency, on the first day of each and every m onth during such period the then current m onthly rental for the apartm ent less any sum s then actually received by the coopera tive on account of such reletting, if any. Separate actions m ay be m aintained from tim e to tim e to recover such respective am ounts, w ithout w aiving the right to m aintain further actions to recover such respective am ounts subse quently accruing. The tenant hereby expressly w aives all right to redeem the prem ises under sections 1437 and 1438 of the Civil Practice A ct,1 or otherw ise, after a w arrant to dispossess shall have been issued, or to a second and further trial after an action in ejectm ent. The conditions herein referred to are the fo llo w in g : A. In case at any tim e during the term of this lease the tenant shall cease to be the owner of the shares of stock issued to him and standing in his nam e on the books of the cooperative, to w hich stock th is lease is appurtenant, or 1 R e la te s to N e w Y o r k ; in a n y o th e r S ta te th e a p p r o p r ia te c ita tio n o f th e S t a t e la w sh o u ld b e m a d e. APPENDIX C.---- MODEL LEASE 29 this lease shall pass by operation of law , or otherw ise, or be assigned to any one who is not then the owner of the said stock, except that, if upon the death of the tenant, th is lease, together w ith the tenan t’s stock, pass by w ill or in testate distribution to any person or persons not exceeding three in number (or if to m ore than three in number such lease and stock pass by assignm ent am ong them selves to colegatees or codistributees not exceeding three in num ber) such legatees or distributees m ay, by assum ing the term s of th is lease in w ritin g w ithin 15 m onths after the tenant’s death, become the tenant hereunder, w ithout, however, releasing the estate of the deceased tenant from any liab ility under this lease, provided, how ever, that such estate shall not be liable for any liab ility accruing after 3 years from such date of death. In any event, th is condition shall be suspended for a period of 15 months from such date of death; B. In case the tenant becom es or is adjudicated insolvent or a bankrupt, or m akes a general assignm ent for the benefit of creditors, or takes the benefit of any insolvency or bankruptcy act, or in case a receiver, trustee, or assignee is appointed for the tenan t’s property, or in case an execution or attachm ent issues against the tenan t’s property whereby the apartm ent or any of the tenant’s rights under th is lease or said share o f stock shall be levied upon, advertised for sale, or sold by operation of law or otherw ise, or in case said share of stock is sold pursuant to the term s of an agreem ent whereby said stock shall have been pledged as collateral secu r ity ; C. In case of any assignm ent of th is lease, or o f any subletting hereunder, w ithout the consent hereinbefore required, except as herein expressly a llo w ed ; or in case of any m isrepresentation in any application for leave to su b let; D. In case at any tim e the cooperative shall determ ine, upon the affirm ative vote of at least 75 percent of the stockholders of record, at a stockholders’ m eeting duly called for that purpose, that the tenant has violated any of the provisions of its bylaw s or has been guilty of conduct detrim ental to the cooperative, or th at because of objectionable conduct on the part of the tenant or of persons dw elling in or visitin g the apartm ent, the tenancy of the tenant is u n d esirab le; E. In case the tenant shall default, for a period of 90 days, in the paym ent of the rent or of any other proper charges against him, or in the paym ent, either before or after the comm encement of the term hereof, of any in stall m ent of h is subscription to the stock of the cooperative appurtenant to th is le a se ; F. In case the tenant, either before or after the com m encem ent of the term hereof shall be in default in the perform ance of any other covenant, condition, or agreem ent hereof, for 30 days after w ritten notice of such default shall have been given to the tenant by the cooperative; G. In case this lease is m ade to a janitor or superintendent, upon the d is charge of such janitor or superintendent by the board of directors, w ith or w ithout cause, or upon the term ination of his em ploym ent in any other m anner. 20. In case at any tim e th e cooperative sh all determ ine, upon the affirma tive vote of at least 75 percent of the stockholders of record, at a stockholders’ m eeting duly called for that purpose, to sell the apartm ent house, the coopera tive m ay term inate th is lease by w ritten notice of such intention on its part, w hich notice shall be given at least 60 days before the date at w hich such term ination is specified to take effect in such notice, and upon the date speci fied in such notice of term ination the term of th is lease shall term inate and come to an end and all right of occupation hereunder on the part of the tenant shall cease w ith the sam e force and effect as though th at w ere the date 30 COOPERATIVE HOUSING ASSOCIATIONS originally set in this lease for the termination thereof, and the tenant shall quit and surrender the apartment to the cooperative on such date. 21. Should this lease be terminated as provided in sections 18, 19, and 20 of this lease, then the tenant shall deliver this lease and a duly executed and acknowledged surrender thereof to the cooperative, and deposit with and sur render to the cooperative, duly endorsed, the tenant’s shares of stock appur tenant to this lease, receiving a receipt therefor. In that event said stock shall be taken up and paid for by the cooperative at the face value thereof, less any arrears of rent and any other proper counterclaim, at any time or times after such deposit when the cooperative may in its discretion decide that its financial position is such that it is wise to do so. Should the tenant fail to make the deposit provided for in the above para graph, then the cooperative shall have the option at any time upon 10 days’ written notice to the tenant to cancel said stock and the same shall there after be void and of no effect. The cooperative, however, shall remain liable to the tenant for a sum equivalent to the face value of said stock, less any arrears of rent and any other counterclaim, which sum shall be payable only at the time it would have been payable had the tenant made the deposit above provided for, and in no event before 8 years after such termination of this lease. 22. A t any time the tenant may make to the cooperative a written offer to surrender the lease and to resell all the tenant’s stock appurtenant thereto. Such offer shall be filed by the cooperative and a list of the name of the tenant and of all other tenants who have made like offers shall be compiled by it in the order of receipt of such offers, which list shall be known as the tenants’ priority list. All repurchases of such appurtenant stock by the co operative shall be made from such list in the order of priority of the names appearing thereon. The cooperative shall set aside out of its surplus the sum of $_________ , to be known as its revolving fund for the repurchase of tenants’ stock, that part of its surplus which o n ____________________________ , was invested in stock of the cooperative appurtenant to apartments_____________________________________________ having a par value of $_________ , being the part so to be set aside for the purpose. The cooperative agrees that, as and when the stock appurtenant to each such apartment is sold, the moneys realized from such sale or sales shall constitute the aforesaid revolving fund and, immediately upon receipt of each installment of such moneys, shall be applied to the repurchase of the stock of tenants whose names appear on the aforesaid tenants’ priority list, all such repurchases to be made in the order in which such tenants’ names appear on said list (the stock of the tenant whose name appears first on the list to be paid for in full, less any arrears of rent and any other proper counterclaim, before any payments whatever are made for the stock of any other tenant on said list). Each repurchase of such stock is to be accompanied by acceptance by the cooperative of the tenant’s offer to surrender back the lease appur tenant to such stock, such acceptance to take effect and the tenant to be released from all further liability on said lease when and only when such repurchase is completed by payment in full as aforesaid for said stock. The revolving fund as thus reinvested in stock of the cooperative shall still be deemed the revolving fund for the repurchase of tenant’s stock as aforesaid, and, as and when such stock is resold to new cooperative tenants, the moneys therefrom shall once again be applied to the repurchase of stock of tenants whose names appear at such time on said priority list in the order of their A P P E N D IX 0 . ----- M O D E L LEASE 31 priority; it being the intent of the parties that this fund shall be and remain a. permanent revolving fund and that as each investment of it in stock of the cooperative is released it shall immediately become available for reinvestment so that there shall be at all times $_________ , either in cash or in stock of the cooperative, available for the purpose; provided, however, that if at any time and to the extent that the total surplus of the cooperative falls below $-------------said revolving fund shall likewise fall to the same extent below $_________ At any time after the tenant shall have made written offer of surrender of this lease and of resale of the stock appurtenant thereto the tenant shall allow the cooperative’s agents to show the apartment to persons wishing to hire the same. 23. Simultaneously with or prior to the execution hereof the tenant has executed a subscription for________________ shares of stock of the face value of _________________________________in the cooperative, the terms of which are more particularly described in said subscription agreement. I f the said stock is not fully paid for at the time of the execution of this lease, then the tenant shall pay all of the installments called for in said subscription agreement according to the terms hereof. 24. It is expressly understood and agreed that this lease is appurtenant to the shares of stock of the cooperative purchased by the tenant and that the sale or transfer of said stock by the tenant shall terminate any and all of the tenant’s rights in and under this lease except as herein otherwise expressly provided. 25. I f this lease is made to more than one tenant, then such persons shall be deemed liable hereunder jointly and severally. One of such persons may assign his interest in the lease and in the stock appurtenant thereto to the other co-owners of this lease or to one of them, but not otherwise, except as hereinbefore otherwise provided. Under no circumstances shall this lease, or the tenant’s stock appurtenant thereto, be held or owned by more than three persons. 26. It is understood that one or more apartments. may be let for a doctor’s or dentist’s office or to a cooperative operated on Rochdale principles, upon a cooperative lease similar to this lease, except that the uses therein named may be such uses as the cooperative may agree upon with such tenant. Such tenant shall be a stockholder of the cooperative, and shall in all other respects be upon the same basis and hold upon the same terms as though it were an individual tenant holding such apartment or apartments under a cooperative lease. 27. The tenant shall always, in good faith, endeavor to preserve and promote the cooperative principles and purposes which the cooperative was incorporated to accomplish. For the purposes of this lease a cooperative operated on Rochdale principles shall be deemed to be a cooperative— (1) That conducts its business primarily for the mutual help and benefit of its consumer stockholders or members without profit; (2) That limits the annual dividends upon its stock, if a stock company, to 6 percent or less ; (3) That either sells its goods or services substantially at cost, and/or retains and uses its net earnings (exclusive of dividends) and its savings in whole or in part for the needs of its business and/or in furtherance of the general economic movement known as the Rochdale cooperative movement, and/or distributes such net earnings in whole or in part among its consumer stockholders or members upon the basis of the amount of business done by it with each such consumer stockholder or member. 32 C O O P E R A T IV E H O U S IN G A S S O C IA T IO N S (4) That permits no profit to be taken by its stockholders or members, whether by sale of its stock and/or, if a housing corporation, by assignment or subletting of leaseholds, or otherwise; (5) That limits the voting power of its stockholders or members (regardless of the amount of capital stock held by each) to one vote per individual, if such stockholder or member is an individual, or in its discretion, if such stockholders or members are corporations, ratably in proportion to the membership of each such corporation. 28. The tenant shall quit and surrender the apartment at the termination of this lease in as good order as it was at the beginning thereof, reasonable wear and damage by the elements excepted. If the apartment be not surrendered at the termination of this lease, the tenant shall reimburse the cooperative for all damages which the cooperative may suffer by reason thereof, and shall indemnify the cooperative against any and all claims made by any succeeding tenant against the cooperative as a result of the tenant’s delay in delivering possession of the apartment. 29. All disputes and differences arising out of this lease shall be settled by arbitration as follow s: Either party may, by written notice to the other, appoint an arbitrator. Thereupon, within 10 days after the giving of such notice the other shall by written notice to the former appoint another arbitrator, and, in default of such second appointment, the arbitrator first appointed shall be sole arbitrator. When any two arbitrators shall have been appointed as afore said, they shall if possible agree upon a third arbitrator and shall appoint him by notice in writing, signed by both of them in triplicate, one of which tripli cate notices shall be given to each party hereto; but if 10 days shall elapse after the appointment of the second arbitrator, without notice of the appoint ment of a third arbitrator being given as aforesaid, then either party hereto or both may apply to the_____________________court, county of_____________________ , to appoint a third arbitrator. Upon the appointment of the third arbitrator (whichever way appointed as aforesaid) the three arbitrators shall meet and shall give opportunity to each party hereto to present his case and witnesses, if any, in the presence of the other, and shall then make their award. The award of the majority of the arbitrators shall be binding upon the parties hereto, and judgment may be entered thereon in any court having jurisdiction. Such award shall include the fixing of the expense of the arbitration and assessment of the same against either or both parties. In witness whereof, the parties hereto have set their respective hands and seals the day and year first above written. In presence o f: --------- [L .S .] --------- [L .S .] T en a n t. T en a n t. C o o per a tiv e H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , I n o ., ----------------------------------------------------------- Secretary. State B y ------------------------------------------------------------------ P resident. o f ______________________________ , C o u n t y o f ______________, s s : On this_________ day of------------------------------------------- 193__, before me personally came---------------------------------------------------------------- to me known and known to me to be the individual described in and who executed the foregoing instrument and he duly acknowledged to me that he executed the same. APPENDIX 0 .---- MODEL LEASE State of_______________________ 33 , County of _____________________, ss: On this_________ day of____________________________ 193— , before me personally appeared__________________________________________ to me known, who, being by me duly sworn, did depose and s a y : That he resides in____________________________ ________________ ; that he is the________________________ of_______________________ Co operative Housing Association, Inc., the corporation described in and which executed the foregoing instrument; that he knows the seal of said corpora tion ; that the seal affixed thereto is such corporate sea l; that it was so affixed by order of the board of directors of said corporation and that he signed his name thereto by like order. A ppendix D.— Balance Sheet, and Incom e and Expense Statement Below is reproduced the latest balance sheet and statement of income and expenditures of a cooperative housing association, Our Cooperative House, New York City. This will serve as an example of what these reports should contain. Yearly report of a cooperative housing association, as of September 30, 1933 and 1932 BALANCE SHEET Item Sept. 30, 1933 Sept. 30, 1932 A s s e ts Current assets: Cash in bank: Checking account________________________ __________ _ ___________ Special interest_____________________________ ________________ ____ $2,711.70 1,897.18 $47.29 599. 43 Total cash____________________________________ _________ - ________ 4,608.88 646. 72 Due from tenants: 961.00 Rents receivable____________________________ __________________ Sundry service charges___________________________________ ________ 326.10 Total____ _________________________________________________________ 1, 287.10 1,620.39 Total current assets _____________________________ ____________ 5,895. 98 2,267.11 Investments at cost: New York City “ B a b y ” bonds ______________________________________ Rochdale Housing Corporation second-mortgage bonds__ ___________ 5,700. 00 3,000.00 3,000.00 Total investments____________________________ ______________________ 8,700.00 3,000.00 Interest receivable_____________________________________________________ 201. 27 Deferred charges: Coal inventory (estimated) __ . _________ ________________________ Prepaid insurance _____- ____________________________________ Prepaid water __ _ _________ ________________________ Prepaid real-estate taxes __________ ____________ __________ 308.00 672. 27 111. 75 1,149.44 118.98 3,417.00 Total deferred charges_______________________________________________ 1,092.02 4,685. 42 Total assets___________________________________________________________ 15,889.2 '*> 7 9,952. 53 L ia b ilities and capital Current liabilities: Accounts payable _____________________________________________________ Reserve for Federal income tax ____________________ _______________ Accrued real-estate taxes _________ - _______________________ Consumers’ Cooperative Services ____________________________________ Exchange items _ __ ________________________________________________ _ 401. 59 208. 51 2,976. 75 339. 50 28.26 341. 49 501.15 Total current liabilities___ __________________________________________ 3,954.61 842.64 Deferred credits: Rents paid in advance - - - _ __________________________________ _ Deposits on leased apartments ____________________________________ Reserves for elevator and general repairs______________________________ Capital stock paid in. ______________________________ _______________ 2,028.98 412.00 1,385.00 205.00 787.50 1,600.00 255.00 Reserve fund* Balance at beginning of year______________________________________ Add net profit for year ___________________________________ 6,467.39 1,436. 29 1,604.43 3,862.96 __________________________________________ 7,903. 68 6,467.39 Total liabilities and capital__ _______________________________________ 15,889. 27 9, 952. 53 Balance at end of year. 34 A P P E N D IX D .----- B A L A N C E 35 SHEET YEARLY INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNTS Sept. 30, 1933 Item Sept. 30, 1932 I n co m e __ ________________________________________ $64, 536. 55 Less: Rent rebates ____ . ____ ______ ________________ Rent reductions (leased apartments). ____ ______________________ 2,505. 00 315. 00 Gross r e n ta ls.___ ________ Total deductions.. ._ ________________________________________ $70,042. 75 2, 820. 00 61, 716. 55 Income from tenants’ services ; nd fines: M i l k . .............................. ._ ................ .................................. Vacuum cleaner_________ _________ _________ __ . __ ____________ W ood__________ _______ _________________________________________________ _ _____ _ ______ ____________ ______ ______________ F in e s_____ Service__________ ________________________________ ____________ ______ Total____________________________________________________ _____ _______ Gross income___ ___________ __________________________ _____________ 70, 042. 75 457. 01 579. 20 15.73 38.10 34.10 49. 55 75. 58 i 41.18 57. 75 7.61 21. 21 171. 88 86. 57 62,345.44 70, 708.52 E x p en d itu r e s Leasehold rental____________ Interest Interest Interest Interest on on on on ________ _______ 9,100. 00 11,600.00 first mortgage ___________ ____________________ _____________ second mortgage _____________________________________________ fourth mortgage. ___________ __________ __ _ ___________ leased ap artm ents____ __ _ _______________________________ ______________________ 15,922. 50 7, 800. 00 844. 50 16, 252. 50 7,800. 00 1,107. 00 64.75 24, 567. 00 25, 224. 25 Real-estate taxes_________ ______________ ________________________________ ________ ________ __ . . . . . . ______ Water tax_____ State franchise tax _____ __ __ . . ______________ _ _____ ____________ Federal income tax____ _____ __ _ _ ___________ ___________________________ Capital-stock tax__________ . ________ _________ _ ________________________ Total interest____ __________ __________________________ ________________ 12,347. 25 460. 33 170. 05 218. 39 29. 00 13, 719.00 476.83 322. 58 577. 61 Total taxes___________________________________ ______ _____ ________________ 13, 225. 02 15,096. 02 Pay roll: Elevator men and assistant superintendent____________ __ __________ ______ Superintendent_____________ ________ Manager ._ ___________ _______ Renting agent_________________ ___________________ _________________ Total pay roll.______ . . . ___________ __________ __ Maintenance: Electricity_______ _____ _______ ____________________ ___________ C o a l ... ____________________________ ______ ____________________________ Paint__________________________ . . . . . . Repairs_________ _____________________________ _________ _ ________ Insurance______________ _______________________________ _______ _______ Elevator maintenance____________ ________ _______ ____________ ___ Decorating. . _ . _____________________ _______ __________ _ __ Supplies_____ __ ________________________ ________ _____________ „ __ Stationery and printing__________ ______ _________ __________ ______ Electric bulbs________________________________________ . . . Telephone_____ __ ____________ _______________________ _______ ______ Miscellaneous expense_____________ _______________ Gas_________________________ __________ _________________________________ 3,240. 1,800. 660. 330. 00 00 00 45 3,371.00 1,900. 00 600. 00 6, 030. 45 5,871. 00 1,766. 77 2, 056. 92 2, 200. 60 685. 23 632. 70 477. 70 1, 398. 20 102. 78 87. 02 38. 02 36. 00 692. 48 12. 86 1,786. 84 185. 87 806. 29 687. 13 437.32 550. 55 85. 85 65. 91 207. 32 42. 30 1,287. 48 42. 63 Total maintenance_____________ ____________ _____ _________ ________ 7, 986. 68 8,386. 09 Total expenses____________________________ ________ ______ ___________ 60, 909. 15 66,177. 36 Net operating income,______________ _________________ ............. ..................... .. Other income (discount on prepayment of real-estate taxes)_____________ 1, 436. 29 4, 531.16 131. 80 Net income___________ _________________________ ________ ____ Appropriations for elevator maintenance and repairs............. ................ ....... 1,436. 29 4, 662. 96 800.00 Balance of net income.............. .................................................. ..................... 1, 436. 29 3,862.96 1Loss. LIST OF BULLETINS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS The following is a list o f all bulletins o f the Bureau o f Labor July 1912, except that in the case o f bulletins giving the results Bureau only the latest bulletin on any one subject is here listed, A com plete list o f the reports and bulletins issued prior to July tins published since that date, will be furnished on application. are out o f print. Statistics published since o f periodic surveys o f the 1912, as well as the bulle Bulletins marked thus (*) Collective agreements ♦No. ♦No. N o. •No. N o. 191. 198. 341. 402. 468. Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry. [1916.] Collective agreements in the men’s clothing industry. [1916.] Trade agreement in the silk-ribbon industry of New York City. Collective bargaining by actors. [1926.] Trade agreements, 1927. [1923. Conciliation and arbitration (including strikes and lockouts) ♦No. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York. [1913.] ♦No. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade on its inquiry into industrial agreements. [1913.] ♦No. 139. Michigan copper district strike. [1914.] ♦No. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City. [1914.] ♦No. 146. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of New York City. [1914.] N o. 233. Operation of the industrial disputes investigation act of Canada. [1918.] N o. 255. Joint industrial councils in Great Britain. [1919.] N o. 283. History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917-19. N o. 287. National W ar Labor Board: History of its formation, activities, etc. [1921.] ♦No. 303. Use of Federal power in settlement of railway labor disputes. [1922.] N o. 481. Joint industrial control in the book and job printing industry. [1928.] Cooperation N o. ♦No. N o. N o. N o. 313. 314. 437. 531. 598. Consumers’ cooperative societies in the United States in 1920. Cooperative credit societies (credit unions) in America and in foreign countries. [1922.] Cooperative movement in the United States in 1925 (other than agricultural). Consumers’ , credit, and productive cooperative societies, 1929. Organization and management of consumers’ cooperative associations and clubs (with model bylaws). . Employment and unemployment •No. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. •No. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. N o. N o. ♦No. N o. 109. 172. 183. 195. 196. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices [in the United States]. [1913.] Unemployment in New York City, N .Y . [1915.] Regularity of employment in the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries. [1915.] Unemployment in the United States. [1916.] Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, held at Minneapolis, M inn., January 19 and 20, 1916. 202. Proceedings of the conference of Employment Managers’ Association of Boston, Mass., held M ay 10, 1916. 206. The British system of labor exchanges. [1916.] 227. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., April 2 and 3, 1917. 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers’ Association. [1918.] 241. Public employment offices in the United States. [1918.] 247. Proceedings of Employment Managers' Conference, Rochester, N .Y ., M a y 9-11, 1918. 310. Industrial unemployment: A statistical study of its extent and causes. [1922.] 409. Unemployment in Columbus, Ohio, 1921-25. 542. Report of the Advisory Committee on Employment Statistics. [1931.] 544. Unemployment-benefit plans in the United States and unemployment insurance in foreign countries. [1931.] 553. Fluctuation in employment in Ohio, 1914-29. 555. Social and economic character of unemployment in Philadelphia, April 1930. Housing ♦No. N o. N o. N o. 158. 263. 295. 545. Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign countries. Housing by employers in the United States. [1920.] Building operations in representative cities in 1920. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in [1921 to] 1930. [1914.] Industrial accidents and hygiene (including occupational diseases and poisons) ♦No. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain-enameled sanitary ware factories. [1912.] N o. 120. Hygiene of the painters’ trade. [1913.] ♦No. 127. Dangers to workers from dusts and fumes, and methods of protection. [1913.] ♦No. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead. [1914.] ♦No. 157. Industrial accident statistics. [1915.] ♦No. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries. [1914.] ♦No. 179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry. [1915.] ♦No. 188. Report of British departmental committee on the danger in the use of lead in the painting of buildings. [1916.] •No. 201. Report of the committee on statistics and compensation insurance costs of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. [1916.] No. 209. Hygiene of the printing trades. [1917.] •No. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives. [1917.] •No. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories. [1917.] (I) Industrial accidents and hygiene—Continued. *No. *No. *No. N o. *No 230. 231. 234. 236. 249. ♦No. N o. No. N o. ♦No. ♦No. N o. N o. N o. N o. 251. 256. 267. 276. 280. 291. 293. 298. 392. 405. N o. 427. N o. 428. N o. N o. N o. N o. N o. N o. 460. 466. 488. 490. 507. 582. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories. [1917.] Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades (inorganic dusts). [1918.] The safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917. Effects of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters. [1918.] Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Munition Workers* Committee. [1919.] Preventable death in the cotton-manufacturing industry. [1919.] Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. [1919.] Anthrax as an occupational disease. [1920.] Standardization of industrial accident statistics. [1920.] Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates. [1921.] Carbon monoxide poisoning. [1921.] The problem of dust phthisis in the granite-stone industry. [1922.] Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steel industry, 1910-1919. Survey of hygienic conditions in the printing trades. [1925.] Phosphorus necrosis in the manufacture of fireworks and in the preparation of phosphorus. [1926.] Health survey of the printing trades, 1922 to 1925. Proceedings of the Industrial Accident Prevention Conference, held at Washington, D .C .. July 14-16, 1926. A new test for industrial lead poisoning. [1928.] Settlement for accidents to American seamen. [1928.] Deaths from lead poisoning, 1925-1927. Statistics of industrial accidents in the United States to the end of 1927. Causes of death, by occupation. [1930.] Occupation hazards and diagnostic signs: A guide to impairments to be looked for in hazard ous occupations. (Revision of Bui. N o. 306.) [1933.] Industrial relations and labor conditions ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. N o. N o. No. No. N o. N o. 237. 340. 349. 361. 380. 383. 384. 399. 483. 534. Industrial unrest in Great Britain. [1917.] Chinese migrations, with special reference to labor conditions. [1923.] Industrial relations in the W est Coast lumber industry. [1923.] Labor relations in the Fairmont (W .V a .) bituminous-coal field. [1924.] Post-war labor conditions in Germany. [1925.1 Works council movement in Germany. [1925.] Labor conditions in the shoe industry in Massachusetts, 1920-1924. Labor relations in the lace and lace-curtain industries in the United States. Conditions in the shoe industry in Haverhill, M ass., 1928. Labor conditions in the Territory of Hawaii, 1929-1930. [1925.] Labor laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor) ♦No. ♦No. N o. N o. N o. N o. N o. N o. N o. N o. 211. 229. 285. 321. 322. 343. 370. 408. 581. 583. N o. N o. N o. N o. 590. 592. 596. 603. Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States. [1917.] Wage-payment legislation in the United States. [1917.] Minimum-wage laws of the United States: Construction and operation. [1921.] Labor laws that have been declared unconstitutional. [1922.] Kansas Court of Industrial Relations. [1923.] Laws providing for bureaus of labor statistics, etc. [1923.] Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto. [1925.] Laws relating to payment of wages. [1926.] Laws relating to employment agencies in the United States, as of January 1, 1933. Proceedings of National Conference for Labor Legislation, held at Washington, D .C ., Feb ruary 14-15, 1934. Labor legislation, 1931 and 1932. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1931 and 1932. Laws relating to prison labor in the United States, as of July 1, 1933. Comparative digest of labor legislation for the States of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, Tennessee. [1933.] Labor laws of foreign countries ♦No. N o. N o. N o. No. N o. N o. N o. 142. 494. 510. 529. 549. 554. 559. 569. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European countries. Labor legislation of Uruguay. [1929.] Labor legislation of Argentina. [1930.] Workmen’s compensation legislation of the Latin American countries. [1930.] Labor legislation of Venezuela. [1931.] Labor legislation of Paraguay. [1931.] Labor legislation of Ecuador. [1931.] Labor legislation of Mexico. [1932.] [1914.] Labor organizations N o. N o. ♦No. N o. 342. 461. 465. 506. International Seamen’s Union of America: A study of its history and problems. Labor organizations in Chile. [1928.] Beneficial activities of American trade unions. [1928.] Handbook of American trade unions: 1929 edition. [1923.] Minimum wage ♦No. ♦No. No. No. 167. 176. 285. 467. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries. [1915.] Effect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon. [1915.] Minimum-wage laws of the United States: Construction and operation. [1921.] Minimum-wage legislation in various countries. [1928.] Old-age care, pensions, and insurance ♦No. ♦No. N o. ♦No. N o. N o. 386. 465. 477. 489. 505. 561. Cost of American almshouses. [1925.] Beneficial activities of American trade unions. [1928.] Public-service retirement systems, United States, Canada, and Europe. [1929.] Care of aged persons in United States. [1929.] Directory of homes for the aged in the United States. [1929.] Public old-age pensions and insurance in the United States and in foreign countries. [1932.] Prison labor No. 372. Convict labor in 1923. No. 595. Prison labor in the United States, 1932. N o. 596. Laws relating to prison labor in the United States, as of July 1,1933. Proceedings of annual conventions of the Association of Governmental Officials in Industry of the United States and Canada. (Name changed in 1928 from Association of Governmental Labor Officials of the United States and Canada.) ♦No. N o. *No. *No. *No. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. N o. N o. ♦No. N o. 266. 307. 323. 352. 389. 411. 429. 455. 480. 508. 530. 563. 609. Seventh, Seattle, W ash., July 12-15,1920. Eighth, New Orleans, La., M ay 2-6,1921. Ninth, Harrisburg, Pa., M a y 22-26,1922. Tenth, Richmond, V a., M ay 1-4,1923 Eleventh, Chicago, 111., M a y 19-23, 1924. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 13-15, 1925. Thirteenth, Columbus, Ohio, June 7-10, 1926. Fourteenth, Paterson, N .J., M ay 31 to June 3, 1927. Fifteenth, New Orleans, La., M a y 21-24,1928. Sixteenth, Toronto, Canada, June 4-7, 1929. Seventeenth, Louisville, K y ., M ay 20-23, 1930. Eighteenth, Boston, M ass., M a y 18-22, 1931. Nineteenth, Chicago, 111., September 14-15,1933. [In press.] Proceedings of annual meetings of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions N o. N o. N o. ♦No. N o. N o. N o. ♦No. N o. N o. N o. N o. ♦No. N o. N o. N o. N o. N o. N o. 210. 248. 264. 273. 281. 304. 333. 359. 385. 395. 406. 432. 456. 485. 511. 536. 564. 577. 602. Third, Columbus, Ohio, April 25-28,1916. Fourth, Boston, M ass., August 21-25,1917. Fifth, Madison, W is., September 24-27,1918. Sixth, Toronto, Canada, September 23-26,1919. Seventh, San Francisco, Calif., September 20-24,1920. Eighth, Chicago, 111., September 19-23, 1921. Ninth, Baltimore, M d ., October 9-13, 1922. Tenth, St. Paul, M inn., September 24-26,1923. Eleventh, Halifax, N ova Scotia, August 26-28,1924. Index to proceedings, 191A-1924. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 17-20,1925. Thirteenth, Hartford, Conn., September 14-17,1926. Fourteenth, Atlanta, Ga., September 27-29,1927. Fifteenth, Paterson, N .J., September 11-14,1928. Sixteenth, Buffalo, N .Y ., October 8-11,1929. Seventeenth, Wilmington, Del., September 22-26,1930. Eighteenth, Richmond, V a., October 5-8,1931. Nineteenth, Columbus, Ohio, September 26-29,1932. Twentieth, Chicago, 111., September 11-14,1933. Proceedings of annual meetings of the International Association of Public Employment Services ♦No. 192. First, Chicago, December 19 and 20, 1913; second, Indianapolis, September 24 and 25, 1914: third, Detroit, July 1 and 2,1915. ♦No. 220. Fourth, Buffalo, N .Y ., July 20 and 21,1916. N o. 311. Ninth, Buffalo, N .Y ., September 7-9,1921. N o. 337. Tenth, Washington, D .C ., September 11-13,1922. N o. 355. Eleventh, Toronto, Canada, September 4-7, 1923. N o. 400. Twelfth, Chicago, 111., M a y 19-23, 1924. N o. 414. Thirteenth, Rochester, N .Y ., September 15-17, 1925. N o. 478. Fifteenth, Detroit, M ich., October 25-28,1927. ♦No. 501. Sixteenth, Cleveland, Ohio, September 18-21, 1928. N o. 538. Seventeenth, Philadelphia, Pa., September 24-27, 1929; eighteenth, Toronto, Canada, Sep tember 9-12, 1930 Productivity of labor, and technological unemployment N o. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.] N o. 360. Tim e and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes. [1923.] N o. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry. [1926.] ♦No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry. [1925.] N o. 441. Productivity of labor in the glass industry. [1927.] N o. 474. Productivity of labor in merchant blast furnaces. [1928.] N o. 475. Productivity of labor in newspaper printing. [1929.] N o. 550. Cargo handling and longshore labor conditions. [1932.] N o. 574. Technological changes and employment in the United States Postal Service. [1932.] N o. 585. Labor productivity in the tire industry. [1933.] N o. 593. Technological changes and employment in the electric-lamp industry. [1933.] Retail prices and cost of living ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. N o. N o. N o. 121. 130. 164. 170. 357. 369. 495. Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer. [1913.] Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer. [1913.] Butter prices, from producer to consumer. [1914.1 Foreign food prices as affected by the war. [1915.] Cost of living in the United States. [1924.] The use of cost-of-living figures in wage adjustments. [1925.] Retail prices, 1890 to 1928. Safety codes ♦No. N o. ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. N o. ♦No 336. 350. 351. 375. 382. 410. 430. Safety code for the protection of industrial workers in foundries. Rules governing the approval of headlighting devices for motor vehicles. Safety code for the construction, care, and use of ladders. Safety code for laundry machinery and operations. Code of lighting school buildings. Safety code for paper and pulp mills. Safety code for power presses and foot and hand presses. (Ill) Safety codes— Continued. N o. 447. Safety code for rubber mills and calenders. No. 451. Safety code for forging and hot-metal stamping. N o. 463. Safety code for mechanical power-transmission apparatus— first revision. No. 509. Textile safety code. No. 512. Code for identification of gas-mask canisters. N o. 519. Safety code for woodworking plants, as revised 1930. N o. 527. Safety code for the use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels, as revised 1930. N o. 556. Code of lighting: Factories, mills, and other work places. (Revision of 1930.) N o. 562. Safety codes for the prevention of dust explosions. Vocational and workers' education ♦No. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment. [1915. *No. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va. [1915.] *No. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, M inn. [1917.] N o. 271. Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States. [1920.] N o. 459. Apprenticeship in building construction. [1928.] Wages and hours of labor ♦No. 146. Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in the dress and waist industry of New York City. [1914.] ♦No. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry.[1914.] N o. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913. ♦No. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1907 to 1913. ♦No. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to1914. ♦No. 204. Street-railway employment in the United States. [1917.] ♦No. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1915. N o. 265. Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919. N o. 297. Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry, 1920. N o. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.] N o. 358. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile-tire industry, 1923. N o. 360. Tim e and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, 1923. N o. 365. Wages and hours of labor in the paper and pulp industry, 1923. N o. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry. [1926. ♦No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925. N o. 416. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous-coal mining, 1922 and 1924. N o. 484. Wages and hours of labor of common street laborers, 1928. N o. 502. Wages and hours of labor in the motor-vehicle industry, 1928. N o. 514. Pennsylvania Railroad wage data. From Report of Joint Fact Finding Committee in wage negotiations in 1927. N o. 523. Wages and hours in the manufacture of airplanes and aircraft engines, 1929. N o. 525. Wages and hours of labor in the Portland cement industry, 1929. N o. 532. Wages and hours of labor in the cigarette-manufacturing industry, 1930. N o. 534. Labor conditions in the Territory of Hawaii, 1929-1930. N o. 539. Wages and hours of labor in cotton-goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1930. N o. 547. Wages and hours of labor in the cane-sugar refining industry, 1930. N o. 566. Union scales of wages and hours of labor, M a y 15, 1931. N o. 567. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1931. N o. 568. Wages and hours of labor in the manufacture of silk and rayon goods, 1931. N o. 570. Wages and hours of labor in foundries and machine shops, 1931. No. 571. Wages and hours of labor in the furniture industry, 1910 to 1931. No. 573. Wages and hours of labor in metalliferous mining, 1924 to 1931. N o. 575. Wages and hours of labor in air transportation, 1931. No. 576. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 1931. N o. 578. Wages and hours of labor in gasoline-filling stations and motor-vehicle repair garages, 1931. N o. 579. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1910 to 1932. N o. 580. Wages and hours of labor in the baking industry— bread and cake departments, 1931. N o. 584. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1932. N o. 586. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber industry, 1932. N o. 587. Wages and hours of labor in the rayon and other synthetic yarn manufacturing, 1932. N o. 588. Wages and hours of labor in the dyeing and finishing of textiles, 1932. N o. 589. Wages and hours of labor in the leather industry, 1932. N o. 591. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industry, 1932. N o. 594. Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1932. N o. 600. Union scales of wages and hours of labor, M a y 15, 1933. N o. 601. Wages and hours of labor in bituminous-coal mining, 1933. [In press.] N o. 604. History of wages in the United States from colonial times to 1933. [In press. Welfare work ♦No. ♦No. ♦No. N o. N o. 123. 222. 250. 458. 565. Employers’ welfare work. [1913.] Welfare work in British munition factories. [1917.] Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United States. Health and recreation activities in industrial establishments, 1926. Park recreation area, in the United States, 1930. [1919.] Wholesale prices ♦No. 284. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign countries. ♦No. 453. Revised index numbers of wholesale prices, 1923 to July 1927. N o. 572. Wholesale prices, 1931. [1921.] Women and children in industry ♦No. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries in the District of Columbia. [1913.J ♦No. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons. [1913.[ ♦No. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons. [1913.] ♦No. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin. [1913.] ♦No. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee, [1913.] (IV) Wom en and children in industry— Continued. ♦No. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments and garment factories. [1914.] ♦No. 175. Summary of the report on condition of woman and child wage earners in the United States. [1915.] ♦No. 176. Effect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon. [1915.] *No. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women. [1915.] ♦No. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass. [1916.] ♦No. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts. [1916.] ♦No. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts. [1917.] ♦No. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of industrial employ ment of women and children. [1917.] ♦No. 223. Em ploym ent‘of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war. [1917.] N o. 253. W omen in the lead industries. [1919.] No. 467. Minimum-wage legislation in various countries. [1928.] No. 558. Labor conditions of women and children in Japan. [1931.] Work o f Federal and State departments o f labor No. 319. The Bureau of Labor Statistics: Its history, activities, and organization. [1922.] No. 326. Methods of procuring and computing statistical information of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. [1923.] No. 479. Activities and functions of a State department of labor. [1928.] No. 599. W hat are labor statistics for? [1933.] Workmen’s insurance and compensation (including laws relating thereto) ♦No. 101. Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany. [1912.] ♦No. 102. British national insurance act, 1911. N o. 103. Sickness and accident insurance law in Switzerland. [1912.] No. 107. Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany. [1913.] ♦No. 155. Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States. [1914.] ♦No. 212. Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions, Washington, D .C ., December 5-9, 1916. ♦No. 243. Workmen’s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign countries, 1917 and 1918. N o. 301. Comparison of workmen’s compensation insurance and administration. [1922.] N o. 312. National health insurance in Great Britain, 1911 to 1921. ♦No. 379. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States as of January 1, 1925. N o. 496. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada as of January 1, 1929. (W ith text of legislation enacted in 1927 and 1928.) N o. 529. W orkmen’s compensation legislation of the Latin-American countries. [1930.] Miscellaneous series ♦No. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics up to M ay 1, 1915. No. 208. Profit sharing in the United States. [1916.] ♦No. 242. Food situation in central Europe, 1917. N o. 254. International labor legislation and the Society of Nations. [1919.] ♦No. 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor. [1920.] No. 282. Mutual relief associations among Government employees in Washington, D .O . [1921. ♦No. 346. Humanity in government. [1923.] No. 398. Growth of legal-aid work in the United States. [1926.] No. 401. Family allowances in foreign countries. [1926.] No. 518. Personnel research agencies: 1930 edition. ♦No. 541. Handbook of labor statistics: 1931 edition. N o. 599. W'hat are labor statistics for? [1933.] N o. 605. Labor through the century, 1833-1933. (Revised.) O (V )