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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
(WHOLE O H
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S / * ‘ # | NUMBER
CONCILIATION

AND

ARBITRATION

SERIES:

NO.

O P E R A T IO N O F T H E IN D U S T R IA L
D IS P U T E S IN V E S T IG A T IO N A C T




OF CANADA
BY

BENJAMIN M. SQUIRES

/ y

\

JULY, 1918

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1918

8




C O N T E N T S .
Page.

Introduction........................................................................................................................
5-7
Plan and scope of the study............................................................................................ 8-11
Strikes and lockouts in industries within the scope of the act................... .......... 11-25
Method of interpreting the scope........................................................................... 11-14
Enumeration of strikes and lockouts..................................................................... 14-23
Statistical summary by years and by industries................................................ 24, 25
Proceedings under the act............................................................................................... 26-41
Method of reference..................................................................................................
26
Enumeration of applications for reference........................................................... 27-37
Statistical summary by years and by industries................................................ 38-41
Strikes and lockouts.......................................................................................... 38, 39
Disputes not resulting in strikes or lockouts............................................... 39-41
Applications under section 63.........................................................................
41
Comparison of disputes in industries within scope of, and in proceedings under,
the act.............................................................................................................................. 41-94*
Classification of disputes.......................................................................................... 41-43
Yearly summaries...................................................................................................... 43-53
Period March 22, 1907, to December 31, 1916..................................................... 54-80
All disputes......................... - ............................................................................ 54-56
Mining..................................................................................................................
56
Railways..............................................................................................................
57
Periods 1907-1911, 1912-1916, and 1907-1916...................................................... 80-94
Strikes and lockouts in all industries, 1901 to 1916................................................. 95-118
Summary analysis.....................................................................................................
95
Comparison of strikerswith workers, and time lost with potential working time 95-101
Detailed tables....................................................................................................... 101-131
Strikes and lockouts, employees affected, and days lost...................... 101-103
Employees affected and days lost per 1,000 workers............................. 104,105
Ratio of mining and transport strikes and lockouts to strikes and lock­
outs in all industries............................................................ .................... 105-114
Employees affected per strike or lockout and days lost per strike or
lockout and per employee affected........................................................ 114-118
Violations of the act...................................................................................................... 118-131
Prosecutions under the act....................................... ............................................... 132-135
Conclusion................................................ #.................................................................... 135-139
Appendix A .— Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act...................... 140-148
Appendix B.— Bibliography..................................................................................... 149,150
LIST OF CHARTS.

A.— Disputes in industries within the scope of, and proceedings under,
the Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act, by years, March 22,
1907, to December 31, 1916—number of disputes................................................
C h a r t B.— Disputes in industries within the scope of, and proceedings
under, the Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act, by years, March
22, 1907, to December 31, 1916—-employees affected............................................
C h a r t C . — Strikes and lockouts in Canadian industries for the period 1901 to
1916— employees affected...........................................................................................
C h a r t D.— Strikes and lockouts in Canadian industries for the period 1901 to
1916— working-days lost...............................................................................................
C h a r t E.—Per cent of illegal strikes and lockouts in industries within the
scope of the Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act, by years,
March 22, 1907, to December 31, 1916.................................................................
C h a r t F.— Per cent of employees affected in ijlegal strikes and lockouts in
industries within the scope of the Canadian Industrial Disputes Investiga­
tion Act, by years, March 22, 1907, to December 31, 1916..............................
C h art




3

43

43
101
101

123

124

4

CONTENTS.
Page.

C h a r t G . — Per

cent of working days lost in illegal strikes and lockouts in
industries within the scope of the Canadian Industrial Disputes Investiga­
tion Act, by years, March 22, 1907, to December 31, 1916..............................

125

LIST O F D IA G R A M S.

1.— Per cent of disputes within the scope of the Canadian Industrial
Disputes Investigation Act in which boards were constituted, and per cent
not referred to boards, 1907 to 1911 and 1912 to 1916........................................
D i a g r a m 2.— Per cent of employees affected in disputes within the scope
of the Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act in which boards were
constituted, and per cent in disputes not referred to boards, 1907 to 1911 and
1912 to 1916.....................................................................................................................
D i a g r a m 3.— Per cent of strikes and lockouts within the scope of the Canadian
Industrial Disputes Investigation Act in which boards were constituted,
and per cent not referred to boards, 1907 to 1911 and 1912 to 1916..................
T D ia g r a m 4.— Per cent of employees affected in strikes and lockouts within
the scope of’ the Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act in which
boards were constituted, and per cent in strikes and lockouts not referred to
boards, 1907 to 1911 and 1912 to 1916....................................................................
D i a g r a m 5 . — Per cent of working days lost in strikes and lockouts within the
scope of the Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act in which
boards were constituted, and per cent in strikes and lockouts not referred
to boards, 1907 to 1911 and 1912 to 1916...............................................................
D i a g r a m 6.— Per cent of strikes and lockouts in specified Canadian industries,
March 22, 1901, to March 21, 1907, and March 22, 1907, to March 21, 1 9 1 3 ....
D i a g r a m 7.— Per cent of employees affected in strikes and lockouts in specified
Canadian industries, March 22, 1901, to March 21, 1907, and March 22, 1907,
to March 21, 1913.........................................................................................................
D i a g r a m 8 . — Per cent of working days lost in strikes and lockouts in specified
Canadian industries, March 22, 1901, to March 21, 1907, and March 22, 1907,
to March 21, 1913.........................................................................................................
D i a g r a m 9.— Per cent of legal and illegal strikes and lockouts in industries
within the scope of the Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act,
March 22, 1907, to December 31, 1916..................................................................
D i a g r a m 10.— Per cent of employees affected in legal and in illegal strikes and
lockouts in industries within the scope of the Canadian Industrial Disputes
Investigation Act, March 22, 1907, to December 31, 1916..................................
D i a g r a m 11.— Per cent of working days lost in legal and in illegal strikes and
lockouts in industries within the scope of the Canadian Indusrial Disputes
Investigation Act, March 22, 1907, to December 31,1916....................................
D i a g r a m 12.— Per cent of legal and illegal strikes and lockouts in industries
within the scope of the Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act,
1907 to 1911 and 1912 to 1916...................................................................................
D i a g r a m 13.— Per cent of employees affected in legal and in illegal strikes and
lockouts in industries within the scope of the Canadian Industrial Disputes
Investigation Act, 1907 to 1911 and 1912 to 1916..................................................
D i a g r a m 14.—Per cent of working days lost in legal and in illegal strikes and
lockouts in industries* within the scope of the Canadian Industrial Disputes
Investigation Act, 1907 to 1911 and 1912 to 1916...............................................
D ia g r a m

15.— Per cent of legal and illegal strikes and lockouts in Canadian
mines and of employees affected and working days lost therein, 1907 to 1911
and 1912 to 1916................................ ‘...........................................................................
D i a g r a m 16.— Per cent of legal and illegal railway strikes and lockouts in
Canada and of employees affected and working days lost therein, 1907 to
1911 and 1912 to 1916.................................................... *...........................................

90

91

92

93

94
107

108

109

126

126

126

127

128

129

D ia g r a m




130

131

B U L L E T IN O F T H E
U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
W HOLE NO. 233.

W A S H IN G T O N .

JULY, 1918.

O E A IO O T EIN UT IA D P T S IN ET A IO A T O
P R T N F H D S R L IS UE V S IG T N C F
C ND.
AAA
INTRODUCTION.
Omitting administrative details, the essential features of the
Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act may be expressed
in a statement of purpose and scope. The purpose of the act as
expressed in the complete title is “ to aid in the prevention and settle­
ment of strikes and lockouts in mines and industries connected with
public utilities.” 1 Although the title thus disclaims restriction of
the right to strike or lock put and limits the scope to disputes in
industries affecting directly the public welfare, the act provides that
a strike or lockout in these industries is illegal until the dispute
has been reported on by a board of conciliation and investigation
and, further, that industries other than those specified may be
brought within the scope of the act by agreement of both parties
to the dispute, the right to strike or lock out being suspended during
an investigation. This restriction upon the right to strike or lock
out pending an investigation has caused the act to be known generally
as the “ Compulsory Investigation Act.”
It should be noted that the act applies only to disputes involving
10 or more employees in which the controversy has reached such a
stage that, “ failing an adjustment of the dispute or a reference thereof
by the minister to a board, * * * a lockout or strike will be
declared * * * and that the necessary authority to declare
such lockout or strike has been obtained.” It is provided further
that the violation of privileges, rights, and duties of employers or
employees does not constitute a dispute in the meaning of the act
if such violation is in itself an indictable offense. Subject to these
limitations, and to the provision that for disputes in industries not
specified in the act both parties must concur in the application, it
is possible for disputes in all industries to be referred for adjustment.
The Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act has been in
operation since March 22, 1907.2 The numerous reports appearing
as a result of official and personal inquiries in addition to the monthly
1 Scope extended Mar. 23, 1916, b y order of the Governor General in council to include munitions of war
industries.
2 Amended May 4,1910. See A ppen dix A , p . 140.




5

6

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

and annual publications of the Canadian Department of Labor are
evidences of the widespread interest in the results of the administra­
tion of the act. It need hardly be observed that the people of the
United States share in this interest. Several State legislatures have
considered measures embodying similar provisions, and in one State,
Colorado, a law patterned closely after the Canadian act has been in
operation since 1915. Moreover, the principle of compulsory in­
vestigation has been proposed as a means of adjusting disputes on
railways engaged in interstate commerce. With the industries of
the country taxed to the utmost during the continuance of the present
war emergency, it seems inevitable that there will be industrial
unrest and that State and national legislative measures seeking to
avoid interruption to industry will be enacted. It is timely, there­
fore, to inquire frankly as to the effectiveness of those provisions
which serve to characterize the Canadian act.
Upon this point several observers have expressed opinions. Sir
George Askwith, chief industrial commissioner of Great Britain,
visited Canada during the latter part of 1912 for the purpose of in­
quiring into the working of the Industrial Disputes Investigation
Act. Speaking of the suitability of the Canadian act to Great
Britain and concluding his observations, Mr. Askwith says:
Where it (the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act) was frankly accepted as a
means of preventing disputes it has worked extremely well, but where * * * its
introduction has been resented, it has not succeeded to the same extent. In such
latter cases where, by the imposition of penalties, efforts have been made to enforce
the act the results have not been satisfactory.
The question then arises, What is the real value of the act, and can any points in
the act be suitably adapted to this country? Is the restriction upon the right of
proclaiming a lockout or strike so much of the essence of the act as to make the act
of no effect if such restrictions were not compulsory? And do the penalties which
are proposed to be enforced for breach of the restrictions of the act add to its value?
In my opinion the real value of the act does not lie in either of these propositions,
and certainly not in the second. The pith of the act lies in permitting the parties
and the public to obtain full knowledge of the real cause of the dispute and in causing
suggestions to be made as impartially as possible on the basis of such knowledge for
dealing with existing difficulties, whether a strike or lockout has commenced or not.
This action on behalf of the public allows an element of calm judgment to be introduced
into the dispute which at the time the parties themselves may be unable to exercise.
It is claimed, and the claim is backed up by statistics, that the restrictions upon a
strike or lockout prior to such a judgment have been of great assistance in causing a
calm discussion or investigation at an early date. If the power of giving such judgment
had existed without the restrictions, and if the various trades affected had been
gradually educated to see the advantage of discussion prior to a dispute and had had
the means by and through which such discussion could take place, it may be that
practically similar results would have been obtained, without the difficulty of having
a law, the complete enforcement of which is almost impracticable, and which, while
it has been accepted in cases where education has existed, has been found very
difficult in cases where the law is resented and joint consent has not been in being.1
1 R eport to the Board of Trade (Great Britain) on the Industrial Disputes Investigation A ct of Canada,
1907, b y Sir George Askwith, K . C. B ., K . C., chief industrial commissioner, p. 15.




INTRODUCTION.

7

Writing in 1910 for the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics
and under the heading “ Suggested Amendments,” Dr. Victor S.
Clark observes:
If men can strike with impunity in disregard of the law, what is the value of the
latter in preventing or postponing strikes? Will the act not fall into abeyance except
in those minor and less acute disputes where there is least call for Government inter­
vention? Has a law any force at all that operates only by the tolerance of the law­
breakers? It should be recognized that expediency must constantly be consulted
in administering such an act; but it would seem that the latter, though it may retain
some residuary value as providing convenient machinery for public mediation, must
lose its distinctive character and its interest as experimental legislation unless some
way is discovered to secure the observance of the clauses deferring strikes and lockouts
until after an investigation has been held. Unless these clauses are enforced, the
law becomes an ordinary conciliation act, burdened by the discredit of its unenforced
provisions.1

The same investigator in a paper before the Academy of Political
Science in the city of New York, November 22, 1916, speaking of
illegal strikes in Canadian industries, observes that:
No effort has been made in the past to punish a large body of men for striking.
This raises the question of the value of the penal provisions of the law. It is argued
that if the act does not put strikers in jail and subject offending employers to heavy
fines, these provisions are useless. But even though violations are seldom prosecuted,
neither strikers nor employers dare defy the law of the land in disputes prominently
before the public and affecting the prosperity and comfort of a large body of citizens.
By doing so they would put a powerful weapon in the hands of their opponents, and
they would fatally prejudice their case in the high court of public opinion.2

Hon. F. A. Acland, deputy minister of labor for Canada and
registrar of boards of conciliation and investigation, writes:
Reference has been made to the strikes occurring in disputes which had been
before boards and had not been adjusted. There has been also, in industries coming
under the act, a considerable number of strikes in disputes which have not gone before
a board for investigation. Work ceased in these cases without regard to the act.
Many of the serious coal-mining strikes in western Canada during recent years have
occurred in this way.
What, it may be asked, becomes of the penalties prescribed for these apparent
infringements of the statute? The reply must be that such cases have seldom gone
to the courts. It has not been the policy of the successive ministers under whose
authority the statute has been administered to undertake the enforcement of these
provisions. The parties concerned, or the local authorities, have laid information
occasionally, and there have been in all eight or ten judicial decisions. The mining
industry has been the chief delinquent in the matter of infringements, and there
have been occasional derelictions on the part of the lower grades of transport or shipping
labor; in the higher grades of railway labor the act has been well observed.3
1 Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation A ct of 1907, b y V ictor S. Clark, Ph. I). Bulletin No. 86,
U . S. Bureau of Labor, Department of Commerce and Labor, p p. 19, 20.
2 Proceedings of the A cadem y of Political Science in the city of New York, V ol. V II, No. 1, pp. 15, 16.
3 Labor Gazette, April, 1916, p. 1118. (R eprint from Canadian Law Times of March, 1916.)




8

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

PLAN AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
Except for a general expression of opinion indicated in the previous
quotations, reports on the act have dealt chiefly with the disputes
referred to the boards for adjustment or in which application was
made for such reference and, while directing attention to occasional
violations and to disputes in which strikes or lockouts were not
averted by reference to boards, have not been concerned in large
measure with the question of illegal strikes and lockouts or the
enforcement of the penal provisions. In this report it is proposed
to consider primarily the effectiveness of the compulsory investiga­
tion provisions of the act. To this end an analysis has been made
of the following:
1. Strikes and lockouts in industries within the scope of the act.
2. Disputes in which application was made for reference under the
act.
a. Strikes and lockouts.
b. Disputes not resulting in strikes or lockouts.
c. Disputes in industries not within the scope of the act
referred for adjustment by the concurrence of both
parties to the dispute under section 63, or in which
application was made for reference.
3. Strikes and lockouts in all industries during the period 19011916.
4. Prosecutions for violations of the restrictive provisions of the act.
In the preparation of the report, access has been had to the files
of the Canadian Department of Labor containing correspondence
incident to the application for and establishment of boards of con­
ciliation and investigation, and the operation of the act has been
discussed with the minister and deputy minister of labor and with
other officials concerned with its administration. The following
publications of the Department of Labor of Canada have been used
as sources in the compilation of disputes:
1. Annual Reports of the Minister of Labor.
2. Annual Reports of the Registrar of Boards of Conciliation and
Investigation.
3. The Labor Gazette (monthly bulletin of the department of
labor).
4. Report on Strikes and Lockouts in Canada, 1901-1912.
Before proceeding to an analysis of trade disputes occurring in
industries within the scope of the act or brought within its scope by
the agreement of both parties to the dispute, it seems proper to
point out that statistics do not furnish incontrovertible evidence of
the success or failure of legislative measures to prevent or settle
strikes or lockouts, and to state that the inquiry upon which this




PLAN AND SCOPE OF THE STTJDY.

9

report is based was not made with the expectation of pronouncing
upon the value of the Canadian act in toto as an instrument for the
adjudication of labor disputes. To arrive at such a conclusion it
would be necessary to resort to laboratory methods: to assume a
static society upon which successive experiments might be tried under
identical conditions, and to devise a means of recording concretely
human reactions to such experiments. It is axiomatic that social
and economic conditions make for industrial peace or unrest irrespec­
tive of antistrike or lockout legislation. Any attempt, therefore,
to compare, without correlation with other factors, the number of
trade disputes resulting in strikes or lockouts during a period prior
to the passage of measures for their adjustment with strikes and
lockouts during a subsequent period is open to serious objection.
Moreover, it is impossible to estimate the salutary effect of anti­
strike or lockout legislation in making for .voluntary negotiations
and in preventing precipitate action whether or not the aid of such
legislation is directly invoked. It is idle to speculate as to how
many strikes or lockouts might have occurred in Canadian industries
since the inception of the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act had
that act not been passed. It is incorrect to assume that every
dispute referred under the act would have resulted in a strike or
lockout but for such reference even though a statutory declaration
of intent to strike or lockout is required before a board can be created.
Any analysis, therefore, must be made with a frank recognition that
it is impossible to measure absolutely and concretely the results of
social legislation.
•Apart from the interpretation of strike and lockout statistics
is the question of reliability of such information. It is safe to assume
that, in point of number, fewer strikes and lockouts escape public
attention subsequent to the inception of laws designed to prevent
or settle such disputes than far a previous period. The benefits
from such legislation may thus appear less than they really are
because of a more complete record of labor disturbances.
Moreover, if the importance of disputes is to be measured, it is
necessary to consider as well the number of employees affected, and,
if the dispute results in a strike or lockout, the time lost. Each of
these considerations offers new difficulties. However honest in intent
either side may be, it is natural for each to minimize the strength
of the other and to magnify its own position. The questions of
when a strike or lockout ends, how the time loss is to be measured,
how to determine the number of employees directly affected for the
purpose of computing such time loss, what consideration is to be
given to employees indirectly affected (especially in sympathetic
action and in declarations of intent to strike or lock out not resulting




10

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

in such action) are pertinent to any statistical analysis of trade
disputes and permit of wide latitude in interpretation.
So far as the employer is concerned, a strike is in being only if the
operation of his establishment is seriously interrupted, and terminates
when the operation is resumed, public recognition is most keen when
the strike reflects itself in inconvenience to the public, whereas em­
ployees affected regard the strike as unsettled so long /is their organi­
zation remains intact and they are not returned to their former
positions. Conflicting reports as to the duration of a strike and the
number of employees affected are therefore not unusual.
Undoubtedly the best index of the importance of a strike or lockout,
apart from its immediate effect upon the public welfare, is the time
loss. Remedial legislation, however, is most effective before a
dispute reaches the acute stage of a strike or lockout and obviously
the importance of such legislation can not be estimated by time loss
averted in disputes settled without cessation of work. Furthermore,
the time loss is at best but an approximate figure. It is usually
determined by multiplying the number representing employees
affected by the number of workdays’ duration, but this may lead to
grave inaccuracy in cases where the plant is operated with a reduced
force and the number of employees on strike varies from day to day.
Even greater inaccuracy arises in the use of figures representing
employees indirectly affected. A threatened coal strike might
conceivably affect indirectly every other industry in the country
and, by the same analysis, every strike must affect indirectly em­
ployees in other industries. If such employees are to be considered
in an aggregate with employees directly affected, a definite rule must
be followed, which should exclude, as too problematical for considera­
tion, those employees reported to be indirectly affected in con­
templated strikes or lockouts and should include only those thrown
out of work as a direct result of strike or lockout.
An additional difficulty is encountered when an attempt is made to
harmonize a classification of disputes adopted prior to the enactment
of antistrike or lockout legislation with the classification adopted or
suggested by such legislation. Strikes and lockouts have been
reported by the Canadian Department-of Labor since 1901. In these
reports the basis of classification is the industry, but no industrial
group as thus reported comes wholly within the scope of the Industrial
Disputes Investigation Act as interpreted by those administering it.
Thus, mining and quarrying constitute one group in the monthly and
annual summaries of trade disputes, but, in the application of the
act, quarrying has been excluded from its restrictive provisions.
Metal and shipbuilding trades constitute a group which would be
entirely without the scope of the act but for the inclusion of electrical
workers, linemen, and ship repairmen. Under the group “ Gen­




PLAN AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY.

11

eral Transport” are included street-railway employees, shipping em­
ployees, steam-railway employees, and teamsters. Teamsters have
been considered as within the scope of the act, however, only when
their work is connected with the handling of freight at terminals.
The group “ Unskilled Labor,” while mainly outside the restrictive
provisions of the act, may contain laborers who, by virtue of the work
performed in connection with certain public utilities, belong properly
within the scope of the act. Moreover, the Industrial Disputes
Investigation Act is not applicable to disputes involving fewer than
10 employees, whereas strikes and lockouts are reported in all cases
where 6 or more employees are involved. On the other hand, the
applicability of the act is not determined by the duration of the strike
or lockout, whereas it is a rule of the Canadian Department of Labor
not to report strikes or lockouts of less duration than 24 hours.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE
SCOPE OF THE ACT.
METHOD OF INTERPRETING THE SCOPE.

Because this report is concerned somewhat in detail with strikes
and lockouts occurring in industries within the scope of the Industrial
Disputes Investigation Act, the determination of such scope depend­
ing in large measure upon the interpretation of the act, it is necessary
to consider the methods of interpretation before enumerating such
strikes and lockouts. In the absence, however, of any interpretation
having the force of a legal opinion, it is impossible to establish an
inflexible rule of action.
To the extent that the act is administered as a conciliatory and
not as a coercive measure, it would obviously be unwise for officials
to pronounce upon the legality of strikes and lockouts not .coming
before a board lest the circumstances surrounding subsequent similar
disputes necessitate a reversal of opinion.
It is recognized, too, that if doubt exists as to the enforceability of
provisions, the measure containing them is often more useful if pur­
posely indefinite and if discretion is permitted in its application.
Conversely, if discretion is permitted, the question of expediency
plays so important a role that anticipation of action might serve to
defeat its purpose.
If, on the other hand, an effort is being made to administer the
act strictly as a compulsory measure, an admission of illegality must
necessarily reflect upon the enforceability of the provisions of the
act or upon its administration. In either case, subsequent applica­
tion of the provisions would be more difficult.
The act applies to “ disputes in mining property, agency of trans­
portation or communication or public service utility including,




12

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

* * * railways, whether operated by steam, electricity, or other
motive power, steamships, telegraph and telephone lines, gas, electric
light, water and power works” involving 10 or more employees in
skilled or unskilled manual or clerical work. From the circum­
stances surrounding the inception of the act— a prolonged coal
strike— it might be inferred that the term “ mining” had reference
to coal mines. Boards have been created, however, for metal miners,
and asbestos miners have been considered within the scope of the act.
“ Transportation” permits of greater latitude in interpretation, but
it is not clear whether the phrase “ agency of transportation” is
intended to be defined as “ railways * * * operated by steam,
electricity, or other motive power” or whether the inclusion of
specific means excludes other means. Thus far, it seems to have
been the policy of the department to include without question the
operation and maintenance of steam, electric, and water transporta­
tion agencies serving as public carriers. Teamsters have been con­
sidered as a transportation agency, as previously stated, when their
work is intimately connected with the handling of freight at the ends
of transportation lines. The same reasoning, however, would leacl
to .the inclusion of transfer companies carrying passengers and bag­
gage and might conceivably embrace the employees of any concern
doing general transfer work for the public whether by team, motor
truck, or taxicab. The maintenance of such transfer agencies would
undoubtedly bring within the scope of the act industries not con­
templated by those who framed it, yet the relation of a blacksmith
shop, a harness shop, a public garage, a paving crew or a road gang
to certain forms of public transportation is somewhat similar to the
relation which a roundhouse, a railway machine shop, or a section
gang— in which latter industries the act has been held to be applica­
ble— bears to steam railways. The construction of transportation
facilities has been excluded in the application of the act, but it is
sometimes difficult to determine where maintenance leaves off and
construction begins.
Somewhat more indefinite is the expression u industries connected
with public utilities.” The term public utility has not received legal
interpretation in Canada and admits of a large measure of discretion
in its use. In Australasian States public utilities include the supply
and distribution of electricity for light or power; gas for lighting,
cooking, or industrial purposes; water for domestic purposes; the
supply of milk and the slaughtering or supply of meat for domestic
consumption; the production or distribution of any article of food the
deprivation of which might tend to endanger human life or cause seri­
ous bodily injury; the working of any ferry, tramway, or railway used
for the public carriage of goods or passengers; and the production




STRIKES, ETC., IN INDUSTRIES W ITH IN SCOPE OF ACT.

13

and distribution of coal. In the application of the Canadian act,
Occupations connected with the supply and distribution of gas, elec­
tricity, and water for domestic consumption are admittedly within
the scope of the act though the guiding principle of the relation to
the public welfare might conceivably bring other industries within
the list of public utilities.
For the purpose of this study it will be considered that the act of
the minister of labor in creating*.a board upon the application of one
party to a dispute amounts to a decision that the act applies to
that class of disputes. Such action by the minister, however, does
not constitute a legal precedent which either he or subsequent
ministers are bound to follow nor does it in any way limit the right of
either party to apply for an injunction restraining a board from
proceeding on the ground that the act does not apply to a particular
dispute.
During the period March 22, 1907, .to December 31, 1916, boards
were granted on the request of one party in disputes involving the
following occupations, and these will serve to indicate the interpre­
tation placed on the act by the successive ministers of labor:
I. Mining:
Coal miners.
Metal miners.
II. Transportation and communication:
1. Railways—
Machinists, boiler makers, plumbers, gas and steam
fitters, blacksmiths, molders, brass workers, me­
chanics, carmen, locomotive engineers, firemen,
hostlers, conductors, brakemen, yardmen, round­
house employees, freight handlers, station agents
and station employees, baggagemen, freight clerks,
telephone operators, towermen, coal handlers,
teamsters, telegraphers, train dispatchers, main­
tenance of way, section men, pump men.
2. Shipping—
Longshoremen*, deck hands, ship liners, marine ware­
house freight checkers, tug captain, firemen,
dredge workers.
3. Commercial telegraphs—
Telegraphers.
4. Street railways—
Linemen, motormen, conductors.
5. Telephones—
Employees.
III. Light and power:
Electrical workers.




14

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

IV. Municipal work:
Scavengers, waterworks employees, maintenance and con­
struction men, employees in telephone, street-railway,
and electric-light departments of municipalities.
ENUMERATION OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.

The disputes listed below have been compiled from official sources.
It is possible that a few minor disputes of teamsters and municipal
laborers have not been included. It is probable, too, that certain
disputes of electrical workers and linemen within the scope of the
act have been omitted. But from the information available as to
the work performed, it is believed that the list represents very accu­
rately those disputes resulting in strikes or lockouts in industries
within the scope of the act. For each strike or lockout in the adju­
dication of which the act was invoked there is shown the date on
which the application for a board was received, the date such board
was constituted, and the date the report of the board was received»




Table 1.—STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT, MAR.
22, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1916.
[Source unless otherwise specified: Report on strikes and lockouts in Canada, 1901-1912; annual reports of the Department of Labor, Canada, 1913-1915; Dominion of Canada*
Labor Gazette, February, 1917. Legal strikes and lockouts are shown in italics.]

Industrial Disputes Investigation
Num­
Act invoked.
ber of Number
Date of
em­
Date of ter­
of days commence­ mination.
ployees
ment.
lost.
Date appli­ Date board Date board
affect­
report
cation
constituted. received.
ed.
received.

Locality.

Not specified......................................
Cumberland R y. & Coke Co.............
Canada West Coal & Coke C o..........
Not specified......................................
Western Coal Operators’ Associa­
tion.
Joggin Mines......................................
Cumberland Ry. & Coal Co...........
Alberta R y . & Irrigation Co...........
Acadia Colliery.................................
Western Fuel Co...............................
Hillcrest Coal & Coke C o................
N ot specified......................................
Canadian Consolidated Mining &
Smelting Co.
Not specified......................................
Canadian Pacific R y . C o.................
Canadian Northern R y. Co............
D o .................................................
Intercolonial R y . C o........................
D o .................................................
Shipping Federation of Canada___
Furness W ithy Co. et al..................
Canadian Pacific R y . Co et a l ........
Messrs. Pickford & B lack...............

Bridgeport, N. S ................
Springhill, N. S ................ .
Taber, A lta ....................... .
Morinville, Alta.................
Alberta and British Co­
lumbia.
Joggin Mines, N. S ............
Springhill, N. S .................
Lethbridge, A lta................
Westville, N. S ..................
Nanaimo, B. C...................
Hillcrest, A lta ....................
Cobalt, O n t.........................
Moyie, B . C........................

Coal mining.
....... d o ..........
....... d o ..........
....... d o ..........
....... d o ..........

900
1,700
150
64
*3,450

3,600 Mar. 22...
10,200 Apr. 1—
2,550 . . . d o ____
384 Apr. 13...
62,100 A pr. 16...

Mar. 2 6 ....
Apr. 8....... Apr. 8..
A pr. 18___ Apr. 9..
Apr. 20___
May 7........ Apr. 9..

....... d o ..............
Coal mining...
Coal mining...
____d o ..............
.......d o ..............
____d o ..............
Metal...............
Metal mining.

300
2 1,250
100
325
1,342
70
3.000

400

900
98,750
200
1,300
4,026
140
12,000
1,200

June 27...
Aug. 1
Aug. 12..
Sept. 21..
Oct. 1 ....
Oct. 11...
July 8___
(5)

July 1.......
Oct. 31.......
I 17 s .. July IS.s
Aug. 1 4 ...
Sept. 2 6 ...
Oct. 4.......
Oct. 1 3 .... Sept. 1 1 ... Sept. 24... Nov. 4.
(4)
Sept. 1 2 ... Sept. 2 3 ... Dec. 28.
(5)

Marble B a y ............
Fort William, O n t.
Port Arthur, O n t..
Fort William, Ont.
Halifax, N. S ..........
------d o .......................
Montreal, Q ue........
Halifax, N. S ..........
St. Johns, N. B ___
Halifax, N. S ..........

Metal m ining.....................
Railway elevator m en___
Railway freight handlers.
___ d o .................................
___ d o ___ ...........................
------d o .................................
Longshoremen..................
___d o .................................
— d o .................................
___ d o ..................................

50
(4)
250
600
40
6 205
1,600
500
1.000
60

2,900
(4)
1,750
4,200
40
385
11,200
4,500
10,000
60

Mar. 25...
May 4___
June8 . . .
June 8 . . .
June 12...
June 29...
May 13...
May 26...
Nov. 22..
Aug. 26...

May 30..
May 6 ...
June 15.
....d o ___
June 13..
July 8 ...
May 31..
June 4 ...
Dec. 4 ...
Aug. 27.

I
K

Establishment.

ETC.,

Industry or occupation.

N um ­
ber of
firms
affect­
ed.

STRIKES,

1907.

ACT.




O
F

13,595 reported in application for board.
2 1,700 reported in application for board.
3 Three boards constituted. The second application was received July 12, the board completed July 27, and the report received Sept. 21, 1907. The third application was
received Nov. 21, 1907, the board completed Dec. 24, 1907, and the report received Jan. 21, 1908.
4 Not reported.
6 Date not reported. A three days7 strike occurred after the report of the board—not included in yearly summary of the department. See Bulletin 76, U. S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics, note, p. 658.
6 250 reported in application for board.

SCOPE

July 2 2 .... Aug. 12.
June7....... June 17.

WITHIK

July 10___
May 25___
May 31___

IKDUSTRIES

30

Apr. 2 2 .... May 29.

Table 1.—STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT, MAR.
22, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1916—Continued.

M

Oi

1907.
Industrial Disputes Investigation
Num­
A ct invoked.
ber of
Date of
Number
em­
Date of ter­
of days commence­ mination.
ployees
ment.
lost.
Date appli­ Date board Date board
affect­
cation
report
ed.
received. constituted. received.

Inverness R y. & Coal Co. and Nova
Scotia Steel & Coal Co.
N ot specified......................................
D o .................................................
D o .................................................
Halifax Graving Dock C o ...............
Richelieu & Ontario Navigation Co
Great Northwestern Telegraph Co.

Montreal, Q ue....................

Longshoremen...................

2

140

140

Vancouver, B. C ................ ....... d o ...................................
Stevedores..........................
St. Johns, N. B .................. Scowmen.............................
Halifax, N. S ...................... Ship repair men..................
Sorel, Q u e...........................
Quebec, Que., and else­ Telegraphers.......................
where.
Quebec, Q ue....................... Laborers..............................
....... d o ................................:: Garters.................................
Hamilton, Ont...............: : . Laborers............................ .
Peterborough, O nt............. Teamsters...........................

1
2
1
1
1

250
85
80
189
110
75

250
1,870
240
14,000
4 '000
750

1
1
1
1

55
30
75
30

1
Laborers..............................
Cab drivers.........................
0)
Teamsters........................
Shedden Forwarding C o1
1
..d o ....................
1
....... d o ...................................
1
....... d o .................................
1
Gas stokers........................

16
250
256
325
50
21
75

48
4,250
1,792
325
250
210
375

July 1 1 ....
Apr. 20___
May 15----June 2 0 ....
June 6 . . . . .
May 9 .......
A pr. 20___

1,125
300
920
2 920
75
0)
441
25
22
36
250

3,375
1,200
4,600
3,680
375
0)
5,733
150
176
612
1,000'

Jan. 29___

Quebec Civic Corporation...............
D o .................................................
Municipality of H am ilton...............
Municipal Corporation of Peter­
borough.
Fairville Municipal Council...........
N ot specified......................................
...............
Dominion Transport Co.
Hendrie Cartage C o..........................
Dominion Transport Co..................
Not specified..................................

Fairville, N. S ....................
Toronto, O n t......................
Montreal, Q u e....................
.. .d o ...................
Hamilton, Ont....................
Ottawa, O n t.......................
Montreal, Q ue....................

0)

Aug. 6.......

Aug. 7.......

May 27 —
May 28
Oct. 1
Oct. 23
May 24----- Mav 28___
Sept. 2 5 ...
* (1)
Mar. 2 7 .... A pr. 8.......
Aug. 13___
0)

May 1 .......
110 Apr. 29—
60 . . . d o .......... . . . d o ..........
*
150 May 7 ........ May 9 .......
210 .. . d o .......... May 15___
July 15
May 23
June 21..
June 1 1 ....
May 21
®
C)
1

O
F

1908.




Coal Creek, B . C . . .
Port H ood, N. S .. ,
Michel, B .C .......... .
....... d o .......................
Taber, A lta ........... .
Middlesboro, B. C..
Coleman? A lta -----Not specified..........
Goldbrook, N. S . . .
W ilbur, O n t.
Owen Sound, O n t..

Coal mining.......................
....... d o .................................
....... d o .................................
.......d o .................................
.......d o .................................
.......d o .................................
....... d o .................................
.......d o .................................
Metal mining....................
.......d o .................................
Railway freight handlers.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

May 18----May 25----Dec. 11___
Dec. 15
A pr. 30___
Sept. 4 ----Feb. 2 1 ....
Apr. 11___

1
Feb. 1
May 5 ........ May 1 8...
July 2.
May 23
May 29
Dec. 1 7 ....
( 3)
....................
.. .d o ..........
(4
)
!
June 13
i
Sept. 10
Mar. 2....... .................... I.....................
A pr. 14
May 11

CANADA,

Crow’s Nest Pass Coal Co. (L t d .)...
Port Hood & Richm ond Coal C o. .
Crow;s Nest Pass Coal Co. (L td .)..
D o ................................................
Domestic Coal C o.............................
Nicola Valley Coal & Coke C o.......
International Coal & Coke C o........
Alberta Coal Mining Co.5................
Great Bras^l’ Or Gold Mining C o ..
Not specified......................................
Canadian Pacific R y . C o.................

ACT

Industry or occupation.

INVESTIGATION

Locality.

DISPUTES

Establishment.

INDUSTRIAL

Num­
ber of
firms
affect­
ed.

Grand Trunk R y . C o. . .
Canadian PadficR y. Co.

100
8,000

___ d o .......................
Railway machinists.
Railway freight handlers.
Longshoremen..................
Snow haulers.....................
Laborers............................
___ d o .................................
. . . . d o .................................

400
4U,000

40
50
85
25
200
140

80
50
170
25
800
280

July 13----- J ulvl7
Sept. 1 ___
Apr. 21___
Feb. 4........
June 5____
June 30___
Oct. 2 7 ....

A'pr. 28___

May 13___ July 16.

Sept. 3.
Apr. 22.
Feb. 6

STRIKES,

8372'

Canadian Pacific R y . C o.................
Not specified.....................................
Ottawa Street R y. Co.....................
Municipality of New Westminster.
Municipality of Prince A lbert.......
Municipality of Guelph..................

Depot Harbor, O n t.........
Montreal, Que., and else­
where.
Windsor, O nt....................
.......d o .................................
Ottawa, Ont......................
New Westminster, B. C ..
Prince A lbert....................
Guelph, O nt......................

Oct. 29.

1909.
Mar. 23___

June 30___

A pr. 12___
M a y 8 ...

May 15.

June 21.7

___ d o ..............
------d o ..............
___ d o ..............

150
300
712

6,450
25,800
9,412

Apr. 13..
June 15..

May 7 ..
July 3 ..

June3.s
July 19.

Glace Bay, N. S ................

Coal mining. ..

9 2,500

283,700

Apr. 28___ June 15___
Apr. 2 3 .... Aug. 2.......
June 4.......
28,
July 6........

Mar. 2 2 ..

A pr. 16.

Inverness Coal & R y . C o................

Inverness, N. S ..........

Coal mining...

8,450

Cumberland Ry. & Coal Co...........
Standard Coal C o.............................
Thetford Mines............................... .
British Columbia Copper Co...........
Canadian Pacific R y . C o............. .
D o....................*.........................
Not specified.................................... .
Mutual Steamship C o ................... .
Municipality of Regina.................. .
City of B rantford........................... .
City Corporation of Ottawa...........
Hamilton Street R y . Co................ .

Springhill, N. S .........
Edmonton, A lta........
Thetford Mines, Que.
Greenwood, B. C........
Fort Williams, O n t. .
Owen Sound, O n t___
Vancouver, B. C ........
Hamilton, Ont...........
Regina, Sask..............
Brantford, Ont..........
Ottawa, O nt..............
Hamilton, Ont...........

Coal mining.......................

418
10 1,700

209,100

June 5..

July 23.

Coal mining.......................
Asbestos mining...............
Metal mining.....................
Railway freight handlers.
.......d o .................................
Longshoremen..................
.......d o .................................
Laborers............................
___ d o .................................
Teamsters..........................
Street railway....................

75
140
225
700
250
225
40
162
30
40
250

375
1,120
5,625
4,200
500
2,700
80
486
30
120
500

Dec. 2..

Dec. 27.

Aug. 1*----Aug. 10___ f May 27,
\ 1911.

N ov. 2 5 ...
Apr. 26___
June 28 u .
Aug. 9.......
Mar. 29___
July 6 .......
May 22___
Aug. 4...
May 31___

N ov. 3 0 ... Nov. 1 8 ...
May 5 .......
July 2k ii.. A pr. 5 ...
Aug. 16___ Aug. 18.
May 10___ May 17..
A pr. 10___

Apr. 20___ May 29.™
Aug. 2 0 ... Aug. 30.
June2....... June 17.

May 26___
Aug, 5.......
0)
June 4__

ACT.




O
F

1 Not reported.
2 Not included in yearly summary of department. See Labor Gazette, June, 1908, p. 1472.
3 Application received for board under the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act Dec. 21, 1908, but the dispute was settled before official action was taken contemplating the
establishment of a board and the case is not reported in the proceedings under the act.
4 Application received for board under the Industrial Disputes Investigation A ct Dec. 18, 1908, but the dispute was settled before official action was taken contemplating the
establishment of a board and the case is not reported in the proceedings under the act.
6 Lockout followed b y prosecution under the Industrial Disputes Investigation A ct. Not cited in yearly summary of strikes and lockouts.
6 2,100 reported in application for board.
7 Minority report June 23, 1908.
8 Three reports—June 3,11, and 16.
» 3,000 reported in application for board.
i° 1,500 reported in application for board.
1 Source: Report of registrar.
1
12 Minority report June 11., 1909.

SCOPE

5,100
161,700

WITHIN

300
6 2,500

INDUSTRIES

Coal mining..
___ d o ............

I
N

Port Hood, N. S ...............
Coleman, Alta., and else­
where.
Middlesboro, B. C............
Taber, A lta.......................
Westville, N. S .................

ETC.,

Port Hood & Richm ond R y . &
Coal Co.
Western Coal Operators* Associa­
tion.
Nicola Valley Coal & Coke C o-----Canada West Coal C o.....................
Drummond Colliery.......................
Dominion Coal Co............................

-a

T able 1.— STRIK E S A N D LOCKO U TS IN IN D U STR IE S W IT H IN TH E SCOPE OF T H E C A N A D IA N IN D U S T R IA L D ISPU TES IN V E S T IG A T IO N ACT, MAR.

22, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1916—Continued.

00

1910.

Establishment.

Locality.

Industry or occupation.

Industrial Disputes Investigation
A ct invoked.
Number
Date of
Date of ter­
of days commence­ mination.
lost.
Date appli­
ment.
Date board Date board
cation
report
constituted.
received.
received.

Coal mining..

1234

7,956

....... do...................................
Smelting..............................
Railway freight handlers..

60
*380
20

(a)

9,120

O. T. R. lines.

37,500

Not specified.........................
Brantford, Ont...................
Winnipeg-Edmonton, Man,
Toronto, Ont.......................
Port Edward, O n t.............
Lunenburg, N. S................
Winnipeg, M an..................
Toronto, Ont.......................
Hamilton, Ont....................

Railway conductors and
brakemen.
Railway carmen.................
Railway freight handlers..
Railway steam fitters.......
Railway telegraphers9___
Longshoremen...................
Ship repairing.....................
Street railway......................
Laborers.............................
------do...................................

>2,500

Canadian Northern Ry. Co...........
Grand Trunk R y. Co...................
Not specified..................................
Canadian Pacifio B y. Co..............
Northern Navigation Co..............
Messrs. Smith and Rhuland.......
Winnipeg Street Ry. Co................
Corporation of North Toronto. . .
City of Hamilton...........................

7 JfiO
25
200
60
125
27
10 550
(3)
18

30,000
100
6,000
60
125
135
7,150
(3)
18

40

Apr. 2..

Apr. 1 8 ....

Apr. 29___

June 4.

(3)
May 11,,
Apr. 13..

Jan. 5 ..
Jan. 8..

Jan. 17___
Jan. 10___

Apr. 2.
Mar. 29.

July 1 8..

Aug. 4 6- ..

Mar. 17... Apr. 6 . . . .

July is ...
July 2____
July 1-----Sept. 26..,
Apr. 2 8 ....
N ov. 2 1..
Dec. 16...,
July 28....
Apr. 18___

Sept. 27..
July 7 ... .
Aug. 4 . , .
Sept. 27..
Apr. 2 9...
N ov. 2 5..
Dec. 31...
(3)
Apr. 19...

May 2 ___

May 2 3 ... June l

Oct. 22___

Nov. 1 1....

Dcc. 13.n

Apr. 21___

July IO.12

J (s)
Apr. 13. . .
Apr. 11___

r 1 2 ....

Junei

ACT

Frank, Alta..
Cardiff, A lta ........
Greenwood, B . C.
Hamilton, O n t...

O
F

1911.




Coal m ining..
....... do............
____do............
....... d o .. ........

1
1
1
10

. . . . d o ..............
____do..............
Metal mining..
Metal mining..

1
1
1
1

3,230
154
6,650
950
550
2,200
7,000 1,390,000
570
80
35
S
O

Jan. 2 .......
Feb. 2 1 ....
Mar. 20___
Apr. 1........

.. ..d o
(3)
720 Nov. 9___
Jan. 15___
(3)
(3)
(8)

Jan. 25
Mar. 1.......
Mar. 24
N ov. 2 0 ... Apr. 13___
(3)
Nov. 2 0 ...
(3)
(«)

Oct. 2 3 ....

Nov. 2 7 ... Dec. 21.

May 2 5 . .. June 9 ___

July 10.

CANADA,

[In addition to the days lost as shown below, 190,000 days were lost in 1911 on account of a coal strike which began prior to 1911.]
North Atlantic Collieries (L td .)___ Port Morien, N. S.............
Not specified..................................... Michel, B. C ......................
D o ................................................ Coleman, A lta...................
Western Coal Operators’ Associa­ Alberta and British Co­
tion.
lumbia.
Bankhead Mines.............................. Bankhead, Alta................
Alberta Coal Mining C o.................. Cardiff, A lta ......................
Keeley Mine (L t d .)......................... Silver Centre, Ont............
Hudson Bay Mining Co.*................ Oowganda, Ont..................

INVESTIGATION

Canadian-American Coal & Coke
Co.
Alberta Coal Mining Co 2 ................
British Columbia Copper Mining Co
Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Rail­
way Co.
Grand Trunk Ry. Co.........................

DISPUTES

Num­ Num­
ber of ber of
ernfirms
affect­
affected.
ed.

INDUSTRIAL

[In addition to the days lost as shown below, 360,000 days were lost in 1910 on account of a coal strike which began prior to 1910.]

GrandTrunk R y. Co.......................
Dominion Transportation Co.........
Grand Trunk R y. C o.. . . . . . . .........
Michigan Central R y. Co................
Canadian Pacilie R y. C o.................
Not specified......................................
Grand Trunk R y. Co.......................
Merchants Mutual L ine..................
London Street R y. Co.....................
City of Hamilton".............................
Municipality of Prince Rupert.......
Provincial Government of A lberta.
City of St. Thomas...........................
Consumers’ Gas Co...........................
Not specified......................................
D o ................................................
D o ................................................

Hamilton, Ont.................... Railway yardmen.............. 1
Montreal, Que,
Railway freight handlers. Westport, O n t......... . . . . . Railway machinists.
Niagara Falls, Ont............. Railway section men.........
Hamilton, Ont.................... Railway freight handlers..
Montreal, Que..................... Longshoremen....................
Prince Rupert, B. C..........
Toronto, Ont...................... ....... do....................................
London, Ont....................... Street railway laborers___
Hamilton, Ont.................... Municipal laborers.............
Prince Rupert, B. C.......... ....... do....................................
Edmonton, A lta..............., Linemen..............................
St. Thom as......................... Municipal laborers.............
Toronto, Ont...................... Laborers..............................
Victoria, B. C..................... Teamsters............................
Edmonton, A lta ................ ....... d o .,................................
Victoria, B. C ..................... ....... do....................................

68
200
300
is 1,400
29
2,100
30
40
30
20
250
100
10
60
300
275
225

408
900

Sept. 20
Sept. 28

21,000

Oct, 10.

28,000
1,145
6,300
160
40
30
40
6,000
100
30
120
27,000
275
225

May 3..
May 1..
Nov. 17,
Nov. 1 '.,
May 10.
June 6..
June 7..
Mar. 6..,
(8)
Oct. 10.
July 12.
June 1..
Aug. 8 ..
May 10.

(3)
(?)
/D ec. 13,
jju l y 31___
\ 1912,
May 26___ May 11___
May 5.......
Nov. 2 0 ...
Nov. 6 . . . .
May 11___
June 7.......
June 9.......
Apr. 8.......

Oct. 1 2 ....

Oct. 28.

H

s
w
w
Tl
S

^ <)3 ....
Oct. 3
1
July 1 7 ....
June 1214..
Aug. 9 ___
May 11___

W
H
O

1912.

§

[In addition to the days lost as shown below, 44,000 days were lost in 1912 on account of a railway strike which began prior to 1912.]
International Coal & Coke C o.
Canadian Collieries Co..............
Temiskaming Mining C o.........
Townsite Mines.........................

Coleman, Alta..
Cumberland.. .
Cobalt, O nt___
____do................

McEnaney Mines (Ltd.).................. Porcupine, Ont..
Asbestos, Q ue...
Hamilton, Ont..

Asbestos & Asbestic C o...................
Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo R y.
Co.
Grand Trunk R y. C o .,....................
D o................................................
New Brunswick & Prince Edward
Ry.
Ottawa & New York R y. Co.........
Canadian Pacific R y. C o.................
Dominion Transport Co..................




560

2,240

2500

35,500

Sept. 1 7 ...

189
175

378
2,450

Apr. 28___
Oct. 1 8 ....

450
14

1,800
14

May 1........
Feb. 1 0....

30
19
25

120
228
50

Apr. 1 7 .... Apr. 22..
Apr. 15----, (3)
May 1....... May 3..,

900
4,800

May 21___ May 23..
June 19___ June 22..
July 1 2 .... A ug.16. .

Coal mining..
.. ... d o ............
Metal mining..
____d o.........
Metal mining....................

10
,2 0

Asbestos mining...............
Railway freight handlers.

Brantford, Ont..
Merritton, Ont..
Sackville, N. B..

-do..
Railway section men.
Railway laborers....... .

Ottawa, O n t...
Port M cN icol..
Montreal, Que..

Railway machinists.........
Ray way freight handlers.

..

1 1,500 reported in application for board.
2 Strike cited in report of registrar of boards,
a Not reported.
* 350 reported in application for board.
5 3,017 reported in application for board.
8 Report of registrar of boards gives Aug. 2.
7 432 reported in application for board,
s Report of registrar of boards gives July 7.

......................

39
300
160

July 24___

Nov. 15. . . .

July 28___
/A ug. 19,
\ 1914,
Apr. 30___
Nov. 4 ___
(June 21, J
July I
\ 1913.
May 6.......
Feb. 10___

9 Strike of telegraph messenger boys,
w 603 reported in application for board.
1 Minority report, Dec. 15.
1
1 Minority report, July 11-.
2
1 1,200-1,400 reported in application for board.
3
Apparent error either in date of termination or in time lost,
is Minority report, Nov. 7.
w Exact date not reported.

Tl
S

H
W
w
ft
Tl
S

Aug. 23___

Oct. 21.is

H
M

o

o

hj

O

a

CD

T a b l e 1 .—

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT, MAR.
22, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1916—Continued.

fcO

O

1912.

Railway freight handlers___j
Railway laborers...........

Port Arthur, O n t. .
Fort William, Ont.

Railway freight handlers.
____do.................................

1,500

July 29___

Aug. 5 ___

36

36

July 29___

July 30___

(2)
1,600
*1,000

(2)
4,800
24,500

Street railway linemen.
Dock laborers................
Longshoremen..............

75
250
100

375
1.250
300

Scow men.......................
Telephone employees..
Electrical workers.......
Employees...................
Street railway..............
Teamsters.....................
Laborers.......................
Teamsters.....................
....... do............................
Laborers.......................
Ship boiler makers___

200
150
45
165
60
60
1,000
40
200
250
10

200

.do..

600
90
1,650
60
120
3,000
80
400
1.250
60

May 8 -----

May 22___ July 19.i

Aug. 1 9 ... Aug. 2 4 ...
Aug. 20_ . . . . d o ........
_
b.
N ov. 4 4. . . /F e1913.4 1, |Nov. 2 1 ... Nov. 2 8 ...
\
June 27___ July 3.......
Aug. 7 ----- Aug. 1 3 ...
Oct. 1 4 .... Oct. 1 7 ....
Dec. 30___ /Jan. 8,
\ 1913.
N ov. 1 ___ N ov. 5 ___
. . .d o ......... N ov. 3 ___
June 18___ June 29___
(5)
Feb. 2 6 .... Feb. 2 7 ....
May 1....... May 3.......
July 10___ July 13___
Aug. 1 6 ... Aug. 1 8 ...
Sept. 2 4 ... Sept. 2 6 ...
Sept. 2 7 ... Oct. 3.......
July 6....... July 1 3 ....

Dec. 11.

O
F

Not specified...........
Winnipeg, M an___
Fort William, O n t.
Vancouver, B. C ...
St. Johns, N. B ___
Regina, Sask...........
Saskatoon, Sask___
Toronto, Ont..........
Hull, Que................
Hamilton, Ont........
Ottawa, O n t...........
.do..
Edmonton, A lta.
___ d o ...................
Halifax, N. S ...*.

250

ACT

Saskatchewan G overnm ent...
D o....................................... .
Consumers’ Gas Co................. .
Hull Electric Co........................
City Corporation of Ham ilton..
Corporation of Ottawa........... .
D o....................................... .
City of Edmonton.....................
D o.........................................
Not specified................ .............

Port Arthur, O n t..
Hamilton, Ont___




Taber, A h a .......
Brittania Beach..

Coal m in in g -.
Metal mining. .

37
e 500

1,036
81,000

Oct. 1 5 .... N ov. 1 5 . . . .................... ................
Feb. 1 9 .... A u t . t r . . . j{ ™ V s’ \a Z i 2.

Sept.
16,
1912.

CANADA.

1913.
Iln addition to the days lost as shown below, 627,500 days were lost in 1913 on account of 4 strikes which began prior to 1913, as follows: In a coal strike, 588,000 days; in a gold strike,
24,800 days; in a railway strike, 13,500 days; in a shipping strike, 1,200 days:]
Not specified. . .
Brittania Mines.

INVESTIGATION

Winnipeg Electric R y. C o...
Fort William Stevedore Co..
Not specified...........................
D o.....................................

Industry or occupation.

DISPUTES

Canadian Northern Coal & Ore
Dock Co. (Ltd.).
Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo R y.
Co.
Canadian Northern R y. Co............
Canadian Pacific R y. Co.................
D o................................................

Locality.

Industrial Disputes Investigation
Num­
Act invoked.
ber of Number
Date of
em­
Date of ter­
of days commence­ mination.
ployees
ment.
Date appli­
lost.
affect­
Date board Date board
cation
report
ed.
received. constituted. received.

INDUSTRIAL

Establishment.

N um ­
ber of
firms
affect­
ed.

7 Dec.

.do..
Metal m in in g ...................
Asbestos mining................
Railway section men.-.-:-..
Steamship firemen...........
Telephone workers...........
Street-railway employees.
......d o ................................

744

5,990

100
400
400
18
9 200
200
85

900
1,000
4,000
36
1,400
800
2,110

Feb. 2 2 ....
Mar. 2 2 ....
Anr. 1 6....
July 3. .
Jan. 3 .......
Mar. 1 5 ....
May 16___
May 10___

Street-railway linem en.. .
Municipal linemen...........
Power-house em ployees..
Electrical workers.............
.......do..................................

35
20
10
250
1 300
0

175
180
160
3,750
600

Conduit workers...........
Street-railway laborers.
Ship repair men.............

250
600
20

500
1,200
140

300
14
400

1,500
42
2,000

Dec. SI,
1912

Sept. 1 8 ... Sept. 22.
Oct. 2 1 .... Oct. 23..
Apr. 16___ A pr. 26..

Teamsters..
. . ... d o ........
. . . . . do........

5,

May 26----- May 30..
A pr. 10..
Apr. 20___ May 5 ...
May 23..
May 29___ May 31..

A pr. 19___ A pr. 24..
A pr. 10___ A pr. 14..
A pr. 1 6 .... A p r. 21..

( 2)
\ 1912.
Apr. 3.......
Apr. 18—
July 1 5 ....
Jan. 5 .......
Mar. 2 2 .... Mar. 17.
May 20----June 10___

STRIKES,
ETC.,
I
N
INDUSTRIES

Sheep Creek and Salmo.
Queen M ines....................................
Beaver Consolidated Mines............ Cobalt, O n t...................
Amalgamated Asbestos C o........... . Black Lake, Que...........
Michigan Central R y . Co............... St. Thomas, O nt...........
Not specified.................................... Charlottetown, P . E . I ___
British Columbia Telephone C o ... Vancouver, B. C ................
Halifax Electric Tramway C o------ Halifax, N .S .......................
Fort William Street R y . C o........... Fort William and Port
Arthur, Ont.
City of Regina & Street R y . Co___ Regina, Sask.......................
Hamilton, Ont....................
City of Hamilton..............................
D o ................................................ ....... do...................................
Toronto Electric Light Co.............. Toronto, Ont......................
Toronto H ydro-Electric Commis­ ....... do...................................
sion.
City of Hamilton.............................. Hamilton, Ont..
Montreal Tramway C o.................... Montreal, Q ue...
Montreal D ry Dock & Ship Repair ------do..................
Co.
Dominion Transport Co.................. ____d o................
City of Belleville.............................. Belleville, Ont.
Transfer Companies......................... Toronto, O n t...

1914.
[In addition to the days lost as shown below, 153,750 days were lost in 1914 on account of a coal strike which began prior to 1914.5
Coal mining......................
Metal mining....................
Street-railway employees.
Linemen...........................
.......do................................

900
75
150
30
52

15,300
150
300
180
2,132

Victoria, B. C ...

Ship repairers.

175

1,925

June 10___
Jan. 27___
July 22___
Mar. 9.......
June 27___

July 1 ...
Jan. 29..
July 24..
Mar. 16..
Aug. 15.

Feb. 6

Feb. 20..

June 6 ___

June i

July 8.

ACT.




O
F

1 Minority report, July 22.
2 Not reported.
a 1,300 directly and 15,000 indirectly affected were reported in application for board.
4 Nov. 1 as date of commencement and Feb. 3,1913, as date of termination appear in report of registrar of boards.
6 Application received for board under the Industrial Disputes Investigation A ct June 28, 1912, but the dispute was settled before official action was taken contemplating the
establishment of a board and the case is not reported in the proceedings under the act.
6 30 reported in application for board.
7 1,^20 directly affected and 340 indirectly affected were reported in application for board.
8 Minority report, Feb. 4,1913.
s 320 reported in application for board.
w 200 directly affected and 55 indirectly affected were reported in application for board.
90 directly affected and 60 indirectly affected were reported in application for board.

SCOPE

Nordegg, A lta ...
Cobalt, O n t.......
St. Johns, N. B .
Quebec, Que___
Hamilton, Ont..

WITHIN

Brazean Collieries (L td .)................
Coniagas Mine...................................
St. Johns By. Co...............................
Dorchester Electric Co.....................
Hamilton Hydro-Electric Commis­
sion.
Messrs. Yarrows (L td .)...................

to

Table 1.—STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION* ACT, MAR.
22, 1907, TO DEC. 31. 1916—Concluded.

Westville, N. S...................

do___
Halifax, N. S.......................
Lovetteville, A lta ...............
Drumheller, Alta................
Springhill, N. S ..................
Tnetford, Que.....................
Vancouver, B. C ................
Victoria, B. C......................
Point Edward and Sarnia,
Ont.
Toronto Hydro-Electric Commission . Toronto, Ont........................

i

Coal mining.........................

....... do...................................
Coal handlers......................
Coal mining.........................
....... do...................................
....... d o...................................
Asbestos mining................
Longshoremen....................
....... do...................................
Railway freight handlers..
Electrical workers................

i 43

129

1*
350
5
200
1
114
2
200
1
1,125
5
2,500
1
600
1
140
1
200

1,400
1,800
1 140
1,000
5,625
7,500
15,000
1,960
600

Aug. 2 4 ...
Sept. 1 ___
Oct. 4 ........
N ov. 3 . . . .
Aug. 1 6 ...
Oct. 18___
Mar. 2.......
Mar. 1 5 ....
Sept. 1 5 ...

Aug. 28
Sept. 12
Oct. 15
N ov. 9
Aug. 21
Oct. 21
Mar. 31
.
do
Sept. 18

2,894

Nov. 0 .,. ..

Nov. 23___

1

1

June 24___ June 28___ Aug. 1 9 ... Sept. 1 ___

Sept. 17.

May 26___ July 2.......

Aug. 13. 3

May 1 0 ....

July 5.




Coal mining.........................
....... d o...................................
....... do...................................
....... d o...................................

1
400
1 * 1,188
1
200
1
3,630

7,200
20,196
2,800
21,620

Mar. 7.......
Apr. 1 8 ....
June 26___
July 2 4 ....

Mar. 25..
May 8 ...
July 12..
Aug. 8..

Bienfait, Sask.....................
Coleman, A lta.....................
Taylorton, Sask..................
Crow’ s Nest Pass, B. C___
South W ellington..............
Fort William and Port
Arthur, Ont.
Port Arthur, O n t...............

....... do...................................
Coke o v e n ...,.....................
Coal mining.........................
....... do...................................
....... do...................................
Railway freight handlers..

1
1
1
1
1
5

68
14
89
5,000
325
200

136
140
267
20,000
975
720

Oct. 2 6 ....
July 1 1 ....
N ov. 2 ___
N ov. 2 7 ...
Dec. 2........
Apr. 2 8 ....

Oct. 28.
July 20.
N ov. 6 ..
Dec. 1...
Dec. 6 . . .
May 5 ...

1

100

300

May 2........

...d o .

May 15___

CANADA,

Canadian Northern R y . C o ,..

Bellevue, A lta.....................
Stellarton, N * S ..................
Minto, N. B .........................
Crow’ s Nest Pass, B .C .

O
F

Western Canadian Collieries.........
Acadia Coal Co. (L t d .) ..................
Minto Coal Co....... . . . . . ...................
Western Coal Operators’ Associa­
tion.
N ot specified....................................
D o ...............................................
Western Dominion Collieries.......
Crow’ s Nest Pass & Alberta.........
Pacifi"
Coal Mines............
Canadian Pacific R y. C o ...............

ACT

1916.

INVESTIGATION

Intercolonial Coal Mining Co.
(L td.).
D o ......................
Dominion Coal Co. ( L t d . ) .............
Canadian Coal & Coke Co................
Not specified.....................................
Cumberland R y. & Coke Co...........
Thetford Mines...............
....
N ot sD e c ifie d ..................................................
D o ................................................
N ortliern N avigation Co.................

Industry or occupation.

Locality.

DISPUTES

Establishment.

Industrial Disputes Investigation
Num­
A ct invoked.
Num­
ber of Number
ber of em­
Date of
Date of ter­
firms ployees of days commence­ mination.
lost.
ment.
Date appli­ Date board Date board
affect­ affect­
report
cation
ed.
constituted. received.
ed.
received.

INDUSTRIAL

1915.

bQ

Stratford, Ont........
Niagara Falls, Ont.
Hamilton, Ont.........

20
22
125

120
440
S, 874

27
15
197
41

216
60
788
205

July iOct. 2.

July 8...
Oct. 25..
(6) .........

Feb. 2 8 ....

M a yl.

Nov. 1 ___
Nov. 4 ___
Nov. 1 6 ...
Aug. 29___

Nov. 10.
Nov. 9 ..
N ov. 21.
Sept. 2 ..

Aug. 15___ Aug. 23----

Sept. 14.

Shipbuilders' mechanics..

260

780

Aug. 1 4 .... Aug. 18..

Quebec, Q ue..............
Hamilton, Ont...........
Transcona, Man.........
Thetford Mines, Que.
Vancouver, B. C .......
Quebec, Que..............

20
800
171
900
55
260

(8)
13,766
855
15,300
1,155
260

Winnipeg, Man.
Montreal, Q ue...

Carpenters...........................
Machinists...........................
Railway machinists...........
Asbestos mining.................
Street-railway linemen —
Street railway motormen
and conductors.
Gas workers.........................
Teamsters............................

100
500

700
5,500

May 22----- May 30..
May 1 ....... May 12..

Hamilton, Ont___
Winnipeg, Man. . .
Toronto, Ont........
Saskatoon, Sask...
Toronto, Ont........
Esquimault, B .C .

.......do.............
.......do............
.......do............
.......do............
------do............
Shipbuilders.

14
200
50
40
353
325

56
7,400
150
200
4,589
2,400

May 8.......
May 1 0 ....
N ov. 1 3 ...
N ov. 2 8 ...
Feb. 1 1 ....
Aug. 1-----

30

May 12----June 12—
J u n e l.......
Aug. 3.......
Aug. 2 4 ...
Aug. 30—

(8) ...........
(6) ...........
June8___
Aug. 4 (9)
Sept. 19..
Aug. 30...

...d o ...
June 24..
N ov. 16.
Dec. 2 ...
Feb. 25..
Aug. 23.

(1 )
0

.

Sept. 4.

Sept. 8 -----

INDUSTRIES

1,200

Esquimault, B. C.......

WITHIN

C1
1 )-

SCOPE
O
F
ACT.

1 366 reported in application for board.
2 175 directly affected and 25 indirectly affected were reported in application for board.
3 Minority report, Aug. 20,1915.
* 1,000 reported in Application for board.
^ 117 reported m application for board.
6 Unsettled Dec. 31,1916.
’ B y order of the Governor General in council the Industrial Disputes Investigation A ct was extended on Mar. 23,1916, to cover any threatened strike or lockout in the “ con­
struction, production, repair, manufacture, transportation, or delivery of ships, vessels, works, buildings, munitions, ordnance, guns, explosives, and materials and supplies, etc.
* *
It is probable that a n\imber of strikes of machinists, molders, and mechanics occurring since Mar. 23,1916, were illegal oa account of the above order, but the nature of
the work performed and the locality is not published in order to avoid giving information as to the location of munitions plants.
8 N ot reported.
9 Labor Gazette, Sept., 1917, p. 1561, gives Aug. 24 as the date of termination.
1 Application received for board under the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act July 21,1916. A commission was appointed to investigate conditions affecting the disputo
0
and the case is not reported in the proceedings under the act.
n Application received for board under the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act June 28,1916. A commission was appointed to investigate conditions affecting the dispute and
the case is not reported in the proceedings under the act.




I
N

240

Aug. 1 7 ... Aug. 23..

London, Ont—
....... d o..................
Toronto, Ont—
Sault Ste. Marie.

ETC.,

Levis, Q u e.................

.do..
.do..
Railivay 'machinists and
blacl: smiths, , M ...
i
Railway freight handlers..
.......do...................................
.......do...................................
Railway conductors and
brakemen.
Shipbuilders........................

STRIKES,

Grand Trunk K y. Co.......................
D o ................................................
Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Ry.
Co.
Grand Trunk K y. C o .,....................
Canadian Pacific R y. C o.................
D o ................................................
Algoma Central & Hudson Bay
R y. Co.
Davie Ship Building & Repairing
Co.^
Dominion Government Navy
Yard.7
Ross Rifle Factory7
.........................
Not specified7 ..................................
National Transcontinental R y ___
Asbestos Corporation et al..............
British Columbia Electric R y. Co.
Quebec Railway, Light, Heat &
Power Co.
Winnipeg Electric R y. Co..............
Dominion Transport & Shedden
Forwarding Co.
Grant Cartage Co..............................
Manitoba Cartage Co........................
Canadian Express Co.......................
Western Distributors.......................
Dominion Transport Co..................
Yarrows (L td .)7................................

to

C
O

24

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.
STATISTICAL SUMMARY BY YEARS AND BY INDUSTRIES.

The following table summarizes by years and by industries the
strikes and lockouts, establishments and employees affected, and days
lost in industries within the scope of the act:
2 .—S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN IN D U S T R IE S W IT H IN T H E SCO PE O F T H E
C A N A D IA N IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S IN V E S T IG A T IO N A C T , B Y Y E A R S , M A R . 22, 1907,
TO DE C . 31, 1916.1

T a b le

[E xcept as noted, data for each year are only for strikes and lockouts which began in that year.]

Year.

Num ber
of strikes
and lock­
outs.

Number
of estab­ Number of
lishments employees
affected.
affected.

Number of
days lost.

A ll industries.
19072.................
1908...................
1909...................
1910...................
1911...................
1912...................
1913..................
1914..................
1915...................
1916...................

41
19
19
14
25
32
21
6
11
34

3 105
19
29
17
135
59
27
6
20
78

19,468
12,754
10,717
5 4,599
14,806
11,152
4,183
1,382
5,598
15,949

4 261,415
* 446,706
725,448
6 458,204
7 1,684,573
8179,629
9 736,019
io 173,737
38,548
134,368

T o t a l....

222

495

100,608

4,838,647

Mining, n
19072.................
1908...................
1909...................
1910...................
1911...................
1912...................
1913...................
1914...................
1915...................
1916...................

14
10
11
3
8
6
5
2
6
10

49
10
21
5
23
30
6
2
11
14

13,101
3,864
9,020
674
9,369
5,074
1,081
975
4,332
11,814

200,250
4 19,901
716, 832
12 377,076
7 1,592, 800
89,168
1 702,726
3
io 169,200
16,794
88,634

T otal----

75

171

59,304

3,973,381

1 Does not include strikes and lockouts in industries brought within the scope of the act b y concurrence
of both parties under section 63, which terminated prior to reference under the act.
2 Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
3 Number of establishments not reported for tw o strikes.
* N ot including one strike, days lost not reported.
6 Not including one strike, employees not reported.
e Including 360,000 days lost in 19X0 on account of a strike which began prior to 1910. Not including two
strikes, days lost not reported.
7 Including 190,000 days lost in 1911 on account of a coal strike which began prior to 1911. Not in­
cluding three strikes, days lost not reported.
a Including 44,000 days lost in 1912 on account of a strike which began prior to 1912. Not including one
strike, days lost not reported.
s Including 627,500 days lost in 1913 on account of four strikes which began prior to 1913.
10 Including 153,750 days lost in 1914 on account of a coal strike which began prior to 1914.
1 Does not include quarrying.
1
12 Including 360,000 days lost in 1910 on account of a coal strike which began prior to 1910. Not including
one strike, days lost not reported.
is Including 588,000 days lost in 1918 on account of a coal strike which began prior to 1913 and 24,800 days
lost on account of a gold strike which began prior to 1913.




STRIKES, ETC., IN INDUSTRIES W IT H IN SCOPE OF ACT.

25

T a b l e 2 . —S T R IK E S

A N D L O C K O U T S IN IN D U S T R IE S W IT H IN T H E SCO PE OF T H E
C A N A D IA N IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S IN V E S T IG A T IO N A C T , B Y Y E A R S , M A R 22, 1907,
TO D EC. 31, 1916—Concluded.

Year.

N um ber
of strikes
and lock­
outs.

N um ber
of estab­ N um ber of
lishments em ployees
affected.
affected.

N um ber of
days lost.

R ailways.1
19072.................
1908...................
1909...................
1910...................
1911...................
1912...................
1913...................
1915...................
1916...................

10
4
2
6
8
12
3
1
16

3 10
4
2
6
• 81
14
6
1
27

1,997
8,390
950
3,205
2,797
3,473
1,100
200
2,075

413,202
425,480
4,700
73,700
78,953
5 81,026
6 21,000
600
25,473

T ota l___

62

151

24,187

724,134

Shipping.
1907 2................
1908...................
1909...................
1910...................
1911..................
1912..................
1913...................
1914..................
1915...................

10
1
2
2
3
4
2
1
3

3 39
1
2
3
23
4
2
1
7

4,014
50
265
152
2,170
560
38
175
940

46,260
50
2,780
260
6,500
1,810
7 1,376
1,925
18,760

T otal___

28

82

8,364

79,721

Street railways.
1908...................
1909..................
1910..................
1911..................
1912..................
1913..................
1914..................
1916..................
Total—

1
1
1
2
2
4
1
3

1
1
1
2
2
5
1
3

85
250
550
130
135
920
150
415

170
500
7,150
130
435
4,285
300
2,115

15

16

2,635

15,085

A ll others.
1907 2................
1908...................
1909...................
1910...................
1911...................
1912..................
1913..................
1914...................
1915...................
1916..................

7
3
3
2
4
8
7
2
1
5

7
3
3
2
6
9
8
2
1
34

356
365
232
8 18
340
1,910
1,044
82
126
1,645

1,703
1,105
636
4 18
6,190
7,190
6,632
2,312
2,394
18,146

T ota l. . .

42

75

6,118

46,326

1Includes teamsters engaged in the handling of railway freight at terminals.
2 Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
8 Number of establishments not reported for one strike.
* Not including one strike, days lost not reported.
» Including 44,000 days lost in 1912 on account of a strike which began prior to 1912. N ot including one
Strike, days lost not reported.
6 Including 13,500 days lost in 1913 on account of a strike which began prior to 1913.
7 Including 1,200 days lost in 1913 on account of a strike which began prior to 1913.
8 N ot including one strike, em ployees not reported.




26

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ACT.
METHOD OF REFERENCE.

As stated previously, the act denies the right to strike or lock out
in certain industries until the matters in dispute have been investi­
gated and reported on by a board of conciliation and investigation
appointed by the minister of labor. It is provided, however, that
the initiative in such an investigation must be taken by one of the
parties to the dispute. That is, before a board can be appointed,
either employer or employees must make formal request for an inves­
tigation. If the dispute occurs in* an industry not within the scope
of the restrictive provisions of the act, employer and employees must
concur in the request before a board can be appointed. After the
application has been made in accordance with the provisions of the
act, it rests with the minister of labor whether a board shall be
appointed.
The act provides that the board shall consist of three members,
one 1 appointed on the recommendation of the employer, and one on
1
the recommendation of the employees (the parties to the dispute), and
the third on the recommendation of the members so chosen.” In
case of failure by either party to recommend within prescribed time
limits, the minister appoints without such recommendation. If the
two members first appointed fail to agree upon a recommendation
for the third member within prescribed time limits, the minister
selects the third member. The appointment of the third member
completes the board.
There are thus three distinct steps involved before a dispute is
referred under the act: (1) An application for reference; (2) a decision
by the minister to constitute a board of conciliation and investigation;
and (3) the appointment of such a board. It is important to keep
these distinctions in mind because some applications for reference
do not receive favorable consideration and some boards are not con­
stituted even after the minister of labor has decided in favor of such
action.
In its publications of proceedings under the act, the Canadian
Department of Labor does not report applications for reference in
which: (1) A board was refused; (2) a settlement was effected be­
fore action was taken by the department of labor looking to the
establishment of a board; or (3) the department was unable to act
owing to the refusal of one party to concur in the application.




PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ACT.

27

ENUMERATION OF APPLICATIONS FOR REFERENCE.

The disputes enumerated in Table 3 have been referred for adjust­
ment under the act, or application has been made for reference and
action taken by the department contemplating the establishment of
a board of conciliation and investigation. It will be observed that
strikes and lockouts referred under the act have been shown pre­
viously in Table 1. They are repeated here in order to present an
aggregate of disputes referred under the act.




Table 3.—DISPUTES REFERRED FOR ADJUSTMENT UNDER THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OR IN WHICH APPLICATION WAS MADE i FOR REFERENCE, MAR. 22, 1907, TO DEC. 31,1916.

K>
00

[Legal strikes and lockouts are shown in italics.]

9
Establishments affected b y dispute.

Coal mining......................... Employees..
Coal mining......................... Em ployees..
....... d o ...................................
....... d o ................................... ....... d o ..........
....... d o ................................... ....... d o ..........
....... d o ...................................
....... d o ................................... ........d o ..........
....... d o ...................................
....... d o ................................... ....... d o ...........
Metal mining...................... ....... d o ...........

Montreal, Que., and else­
where.

400




Dec. 9 ....

May 17___ July 13___ Aug. 1 ----July 2 7 .... Sept. 21
Dec. 24___ Jan.21,1908
Sept. 2 4 ...
Sept. 3 0 ...
N ov. 20__
. . . d o ..........
. . . d o ..........
Dec. 2 ...
Sept. 2 3 ...

Nov. 4 ___
Oct. 21
Dec. 20
Dec. 28
.d o ..........
..d o
. ..d o ..........

Oct. 1 1 ....

(3)

Oct. 31.

Oct. 13.

(5)

Dec. 2 1 .... Jan.22,1908

Apr. 20___ May 4........ May 21..

........d o ...........

1,300

June 2 7 .... July 18___

....... d o ...........
........5 o ..........
E m ployer...
........d o ..........
E m ployees..

4 250
1,656
300
1,215
359

July 10___
Sept. 5 ___
N ov. 19__
N ov. 2 2 ...
Dec. 1 9 ,...

1,500
1,600
500
2,200

May 15___ jju n e 7 ...
May 25___
May 31
Aug. 2 6 .... Sept. 4 ___

Both parties. /
Shipping Federation of Canada___ Montreal, Q ue.................
Longshoremen. .
\
Furness W ithy Co. et a l.................. Halifax, N. S ...................... ....... d o . . . . ’........................... E m p loy er...
Montreal Cotton Co........................... Valley field, Que.................. Cotton-mill employees
E m ployees5.

Date of
termina­
tion.

July 2 2 ....
Sept. 1 6 ...
N ov. 30__
Nov. 26__
Jan. 8,1908

Aug. 16
Aug. 1 2 ... June 29___ July 8.
Oct. 12
Jan. 23,1908
Dec.23
Jan. 25,1908
June 17___ May 1 3 .... May 21.
May 26___ June 4.
Sept. 24

CANADAo

Railway locomotive engi­
neers.
Railway freight handlers..
Railway telegraphers........
....... d o ...................................
Railway carmen................
Railway firemen et a l.. .

Date of
commence­
ment.

Apr. 8
Apr. 1 ...
Apr. 8.
Apr. 9.......
...d o .
Apr. 18.
Apr. 9....... Apr. 22___ May 29___ Apr. 16___ May 7.

1.700 May 8.......
1.700 July 1 2 ....
1,700 N ov. 21__
400 May 27
70 Sept. 1 1 ...
100 Sept. 1 6 ...
150 N ov. 5 ___
50 .. .d o ..........
40 .. .d o ..........
40 N ov. 1 2 ...
400 Sept. 1 2 ...
120

Disputes resulting in
strike or lockout.

O
F

Halifax, N. S .......................
A ll lines in Canada.............
Montreal, Q ue.....................
Western lines......................
Winnipeg, Man., and ter­
ritory.

Railway machinists...........

1,700
150
s 3,595

Date of
receipt of
report of
board.

ACT

Cobalt, O nt......................... ....... d o ................................... ....... d o ...........

D o .................................................
Intercolonial R y. Co.........................
Canadian Pacific R y. Co..................
Grand Trunk R y. Co........................
Canadian Pacific R y. Co..................
Canadian Northern R y. C o.............

Coal m in in g .
.. E m ployees..
....... d o ................................... ....... d o ..........
....... d o ................................... Both parties

Date on
which
board
was con­
stituted.

INVESTIGATION

Springhill, N. S ..................
Taber, A lta .........................
British Columbia and A l­
berta.
Springhill, N. S ..................
Springhill, N. S ..................
. . . . d o ...................................
Lethbridge, A lta ..
Hillcrest, A lta .....................
Hosmer. B. C ......................
Taber, A lta ..........................
........d o ...................................
........d o ....................................
Edmonton, A lta .................
Moyie, B . C.........................

Industry or occupation.

Number
Date of
of em­
receipt of
ployees application.
affected.

DISPUTES

Cumberland R y. & Coal Co.............
Canada West Coal & Coke C o..
Western Coal Operators’ Associa­
tion.
Cumberland Ry. & Coal C o... .
Cumberland R y. & Coal Co............
D o .......... ..
Alberta R y. & Irrigation Coal C o ..
Hillcrest Coal & Coke Co. (L t d .)...
Hosmer Mines....................................
Canada Wrest Coal & Coke Co........
Domestic Coal C o..........................
Duggan, Huntrods & Co..................
Strathcona Coal C o.......................
Canadian Consolidated Mining &
Smelting Co.
McKinley Darragh Mining Co.
(L td.).
Grand Trunk R y . Co........................

Locality or system, etc.

Party
making
application.

INDUSTRIAL

1907.

1908.

____d o .................
.......d o .................
Metal mining__
____d o ............................
Railway carmen..........
Railway mechanics____
Railway freight clerks.,

____d o .........
____d o .........
Employees .
Employees.

105
800
8.000
(6)

July 20..
Jan. 8 ..,
Apr. 28.
May 14..

Aug. 22___ Aug. 29..
Jan. 28___ Feb. 28..
May 13___ July 16..
Sept. 8 ___ Oct. 6 ...

Canadian Pacific R y . Co___
Canadian Northern R y. Co.
D o ....................................
Canadian Pacific R y. Co___

-d o.
Grand Trunk system ___
Canadian Pacific system..
Halifax, N. S., and else­
where.
C. P. sj^stem.....................
C. N. sy stem ........ ............
Lake st. Johli division . . .
C. P. system .....................

____d o ..........
____d o ..........
____d o ..........
____d o ..........

1,605
341
49
7,000

May 29..,
Aug. 22..
Aug. 21...
Aug. 22..

June 17___
Sept. 1 4 ...
Sept. 3 0 ...
Jan. 5,1909

Sept. 2 6 ...
N ov. 1 6 ...
N ov. 1 9 .. .
Jan.25,1909

Kingston & Pembroke R y. Co.......
Great Northwestern Telegraph C o..
Dominion Marine Association.........
Hamilton & Dundas R y. Co. et a l ..
Ottawa Electric R y. C o ........ .........
Quebec Light, Heat & Power C o ...
John Ritchie C o.................................

K . & P. system ................
Michigan Central R y .......
Kingston, O n t..................
Hamilton, Ont..................
Ottawa, Can......................
Quebec, Que.....................
. . . . . d o .................................

Railway telegraphers.......
Railway engineers............
Railway carmen...... ........
Railway firemen and engi­
neers.
Railway telegraphers.......
____d o .................................
Longshoremen...................
Street railways..................
.do.
.d o.
Shoe lasters.

____d o ..........
____d o ..........
____d o ..........
____d o . . . . . .
____d o ..........
___ d o ..........
Both parties5

U9
75
450
120
256
116
9 300

Dec. 26..
Dec. 29..
Mar. 6 ...
J an .31..
May 8___
Sept. 3 ..
Dec. 17..

Jan.15,1909
Feb. 8,1909
Apr. 1.......
Feb. 1 7 ....
May 22___
Sept. 8 8 ...
Dec. 31___

Apr .22,1909
Mar.22,1909
Apr. 14.
A pr. 8..
June 15.
Oct. 6 ..
Feb.17,1909

....d o .
....d o .
___ d o .

7.000 Jan. 4 ..
100 Feb. 1 0 ....
90 Mar. 16___
50 . . . d o . . .
1,600 Mar. 25___
20 May 2........
1,750 May 1 2 ....
800 May 14___
800 May 15___
300 May 18___
200
30
50

Feb. 18..
Feb. 25..
Apr. 10..
Apr. 22..
Apr. 29..
June 19..
...d o ....

Mar. 23..
Apr. 6 . . .
May 5 ...
Dec. 8 ...
May 26..
July 22..
A u g .l...

June £

July 2 ...

May 5.

July 2 ..
July 6........ July 27..
Oct. 1 9 .... Nov. 2 5 ... Dec. 14..
Feb. 13..
Jan. 31 —
Jan. 9 ..

Oct. 5.

1909.
Apr.
28,
Mar. 4 ___ Mar. 2 2 ... Apr. 16—
1910.
A pr. 13___ May 7........ June 3 11. . . Apr. 28___ June 13*.
A pr. 26___ June 23___

Coal mining.........................

Employees. . .

io 8,000

Nicola Valley Coal & Coke Co......... Middleboro, B. C................ Coal mining.........................
Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co. (L td.) Sydney Mines, N. S .........

E m ployees..

150
340

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken b y the department of
labor, contemplating the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
a 3,450 employees in strike report.
* Date not reported. Three days’ strike followed award—not reported officially.
4 205 employees in strike report,
s Concurrence of both parties under section 63.

6 Not reported.
7 1,600 employees indirectly affected.
s Third member of board not appointed.
9 340 employees in strike report.
10 2,500 employees in strike report,
u Minority report June 16, 1909.

Dominion Coal Co.............................




Glace Bay, N .S ..................

ACT.

Chignecto, N. S ................
Lundbrecnt, A lta ............
Cobalt, O n t.......................

Employees.
E m ployer..
Employees.
........
....... d o . . . . .
....... d o .........
....... d o .........
....... d o .........
___ .d o .........
....... d o .........

THE

Coal mining........
....... d o ........
___.d o ..................
....... d o .................
___-d o ..................
____d o .................
....... d o .................
____d o .................
. . . . . d o .................
____d o .................

UNDER

Dominion, B. C.............
Woodpecker, A lta ........
Taylorton, Sask.............
Bienfait, Sask.....................
Springhill, N. S ..................
Edmonton, A lta ...........
North Sydney, N. S___
Westville, N. S..............
Stellar ton, N. S .............
Port Hood, N .S ...........

PROCEEDINGS

Dominion Coal Co. ( L t d .)..........
John Marsh et al...........................
Western Dominion Coal Co. (L t d .).
Manitoba & Saskatchewan Coal Co.
Cumberland R y. & Coal Co. (L td .)
Standard Coal Co...............................
Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co...........
Intercolonial Coal & Coke C o..........
Acadia Coal C o..................................
Port Hood & Richm ond R y. &
Coal Co.
Maritime Coal, R y., & Power Co ..
Galbraith Coal Co. (L td .)................
Temiskaming & Hudson Bay Min­
ing Co. (L td.).
Cobalt Central Mining Co. (L td.) -.
Grand Trunk R y. C6........................
Canadian Pacific Ry. Co..................
Intercolonial R y. Co.........................

to
CD

T able 3.—DISPUTES REFERRED FOR ADJUSTMENT UNDER THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OR IN WHICH APPLICATION WAS MADE i FOR REFERENCE, MAR. 22,1907, TO DEC. 31,1916—Continued.

CO
©

1909.

Locality or system, etc.

Industry or occupation.

Number
Date of
of em­
receipt of
ployees application,
affected.

Date on
winch
board
was con­
stituted.

Date of
reccipt of
report of
board.

Disputes resulting in
strike or lockout.
Date of
commence­
ment.

Date of
termina­
tion.

May 1 0 .... June 5 __ _ July 28—

E m ployer...
........d o ..........
....... d o ..........
E m ployer...
E m ployees..
....... d o ..........
....... d o ..........

300
75
5 60
225
1,600
300
7 1,100

Juno 15....
N ov. 1 8 ...
Dec. 2.......
A pr. 6 ___
May 7
June 3.......
June 8 __ _

........d o ..........
....... d o ..........
....... d o ..........

8 20
9 363
760

Aug. 11___
Oct. 2
Dec. 3.......

Sept. 2 5 ... Nov. 17
Oct. 19___ Dec. 8 ...
Dec. 21___ Feb.24,1910

....... d o ..........
.. .d o ..........
....... d o ..........
....... d o ..........
....... d o ..........
do 13___

io 250
700
u 40
600
12 150
1 70
4

May 1 7 ....
Aug. 1 8 ....
Feb. 1 0 ....
Apr. 20___
July 8
Apr. 27___

June 2.......
Aug. 20___
Mar. 2
May 30___
A u?. 4
May 7

June 17___ May 7.
May 10.
Aug. 16.
Aug. 30___ Aug. 9 ...
Apr. 1.......
June 1____
Sept. 9 . . . . ; ....................
May 25___ j.....................

Cardiff, A lta ........................ Coal mining......................... E m p loyer...
Frank, A lta..............
.d o ...
.................. ____ d o ...........

1 35
6
1 262
7

Jan. 5 .......
Apr. 18—

Jan. 17___
Apr. 29.....

(16)
Apr. 2
June 4....... A pr. 2

Fernie, B. C........................ ....... d o .;......... ......................

Employees..

3,000

Oct. 2 0 ....

Nov. 1 8 ... Feb.18,1911

British Columbia Copper Co..........
Greenwich, B. C.................. Metal minintf : .....................
Canadian Pacific R y. Co.................. C. P. R . li n e s ..................... Railway conductors, bag­
gagemen, ftfral&emien,
and yardmen.

Employees...
Employees..

850
4,360

Jan. 8....... Jan. 10___ Mar. 29__
Mar. 17.... Mar. 18 w . June 22

Canada West Coal Co.......................
Edmonton Standard Coal Co. (L td )
Contractor, Cardiff Coal Co. (L td .).
British Columbia Copper Co............
Canadian Pacific R v. C o..................
Grand Trunk Pacific R y. Co.......
Canadian Northern R y. C o..

Taber, A lta .........................
Edmonton, A lta .................
Cardiff, A lta . . . .
Greenwood, B. C.... ............
C. P. R . lines......................
G. T. lines___
C. N. lines...........................

Halifax, N. S.......................
Intercolonial R y .
D o ................................................. I. R. svstem ....................
Grand Trunk R y. C o ...................... G. T. lines...........................
Canadian Pacific R y. C o...
D o.
........
Manitoba Cartage Co. (L t d .)...
Winnipeg Electric R y. Co.
Corporation of Saskatoon..
Dominion Textile Co.......................

Owen Sound, Ont___
Fort William, O n t. .
Winnipeg, M an..................
. .. d o ............
Saskatoon, Sask...
Montreal, Q ue....................

Coal mining.........................
....... d o ...................................
....... d o ...............................
Metal mining......................
Railway telegraphers........
Engineers, firemen, et a l...
Railway maintenance of
way.
Railway roundhouse.........
Railway machinists...........
Railway telegraphers &
station agents.
Railway freight handlers..
. .. d o ...............................
Teamsters............................
Street-railway employees
Municipal laborers.............
Mule spinners.....................

July 3

June 2 1 3 .. Apr. 1____ June 30.
A u g. 10. . . May
27,
1911.
July 1 9 .... Apr. 2 3 .... Julv 30.
Nov. 2 5 ... Nov."so.

A p r. 20___ May 29 6 .. June 2 8 ... July 24.
May 29___ June 11
June 24___ Aug. 14
. . . d o .......... July 21

O
F

1910.




A m . 19___

. ( 16).
Apr. 29.

May 11.

CANADA,

Alberta Coal Mining Co..................
Canadian-American Coal & Coke
Co.
Crow’s Nest Pass Coal Co. (L t d .)..

ACT

May 8........ May 15___

* 1,600

INVESTIGATION

2 2,100

MSPUTES

Em ployees..
Employees...

Western Coal Operators’ Associa­ Lethbridge, Alta., and Coa] mining, r
„ ,,
tion.
elsewhere
Cumberland R y. & Coal Co..
. . Springhill, N. 8 ................. Coal mining........................

INDUSTRIAL

Establishments affected b y dispute.

Party
making
application.

Grand Trunk Ry. Co.......................

G. T. lines.

Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo R y.

T., H. & B. lines..

Grand Trunk Pacific R y . Co........
Dominion Atlantic R y . C o..
Canadian Northern R y . Co.
D o ............................
D o.
D o.

Railway conductors, bag­
gagemen, br ak e m e h ,
and yammery.
Railway co n d u cte d bag­
gagemen, T ralee m e n ,
and yardmen.
Railway telegraphers and
station agents.
•Railway employees...........
Railway blacksmiths........
Railway
blacksmiths’
helpers.
Railway machinists......... .
Railway machinists’ help­
ers.
Railway molders...............
Railway shopmen................
Railway shopmen,.............
Railway telegraphers and
station agents.
Railway brass workers—
Railway maintenance of
way.
.......d o...................................

G. T. P. lin e s ...
Kentville, N. S..
Winnipeg, Man.
....... d o..................
.d o.,
.d o .

D o.
.......d o .....................
Canadian Northern Ry. Co.............. Winnipeg, M an...
Canadian Northern R y . C o........... . Winnipeg, M an...
Intercolonial & Prince Edward I. & P. I. system .
Island R ys.
Grand Trunk R y . Co....................... Montreal, Q ue...
Canadian Pacific R y . Co.................. C. P. R . system .
Grand Trunk Pacific R y . Co..

G. T . P. R . system .

Canadian Northern R y . C o ...

C, N. system ............

,.do..

Steamship Lines o f Montreal..
Montreal, Que..........
D o.
.do..
Canadian Pacific Steamship C o___ Vancouver-Victoria, B .C .
Canadian Pacific R y . Co................ . C. P. R . lines....................
Toronto R y. Co.......... . .......... ......... Toronto, Ont.....................
British Columbia Electric R y . Co.. Vancouver, B. C ...............
Winnipeg Electric Ry. Co................ Winnipeg, Man................

1 See footnote 1, p.

29.
22,500 employees in strike report.
3 Minority report June 23, 1909.
4 1,700 employees in strike report.
5 15 employees reported indirectly affected.
6 Three separate reports. May 29, June 3 and 11, 1909.
7 700 employees reported indirectly affected.
8 1,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
9 43 employees indirectly affected.
10 300 employees in strike report.
i* 260 employees reported indirectly affected.
12150 employees reported indirectly affected.




Longshoremen....................
Ship liners...........................
Deck hands.........................
Commercial telegraphers..
Street-railway employees.
Street-railway linemen___
Street-railway
motormen
and conductors.

Employees..

is 3,017

Employees.

101

Mar. 1 7 . ..\ Mar. IS 2
Mar. 17___ Mar.

June I

Aug. 4.

18 20

Mar. 19...

Mar. 30 21.. July 7 ...

2 4
3
30
30-40

Mar, 22..
May 2 -..
May 2 ...

Apr. 2 9 .... May 12..

.do..
.do..

325
57

May 2 ...
May 2 ...

------do.
Employees
Employees
____d o —

13
170
490

May 2 ...
May 2 ...
May 2 ...
June 21..

.......d o .........
____d o —
____d o ___
____d o -----

------d o ..
------d o ..
..do..
..do..
....d o ....
____d o ___
....d o ....
____d o —
.. . . d o . . . .
—
do—
Employees,

is Concurrence o f both parties under section 63.

14 3,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
15 25 employees reported indirectly affected; 60 e
in strike report.
10 Not reported.
1 234 employees in strike report.
7
18 Mar. 31 reported in 1911.
19 2,500 in strike report.
20 Apr. 6 reported in 1911.
si Apr. 22 reported in 1911.
2 25 employees reported indirectly affected.
2
23 400 employees in strike report.

75

June 2 8 ...

S ep . 27.

Jan .4,1911 Feb. 20,
1911.
July 1 3 .... July 30 25..
24 June 28.
Sept. 2 1 ... Mar. 1 20
4.000 Sept, 3 ..
1911.
1.000 . . .d o .......... .. .d o .......... Jan. 7,1911
1,800 .. .d o ........... Sept. 2 2 ... Mar. 2,27
1911.
1,800 Mar. 4....... Mar. 24 28.. Apr. 20—
200 Aug. 8 ___ Aug. 2 2 ... Sept. 16 29.
3 86 Sept. 1 0 ... Oct. 2 7 .... Nov. 2 8 ...
0
600 June 23— July 7....... July 25—
Aug. 2 0 ...
1,300 July 5....... July 16—
Sept. 1 2 ...
50 Aug. 2 2 ... (31).
Oct. 22___ Nov. 1 1.... Dec. 13 33..

2 July 1reported in annual report.
4
25 M
inorityreport A 2
ug. .
yees 2 M
6 inorityreport M 4.
ar.
2M
7 inorityreport M 1 .
ar. 0
2 Apr. 7 reportedin 1911.
8
2M
9 inorityreport Sept. 17.
8 50 em
0
ployees reportedindirectly affected.
3 Board not completed.
1
32 550 em
ployees instrike report.
3 Minority report Dec. 15.
3

Dec. 31.

T a b le

3 .—D ISPU TE S R E F E R R E D F O R ADJU STM EN T U N D E R TH E CAN ADIAN IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S IN V G A T IO N ACT O R IN W H ICH APPLICA^
TION W A S M ADE i F O R R E F E R E N C E , M A R . 22, 1907, TO DEC. 31,1916—Continued.

CO

tO

1911.

Locality or system, etc.

Industry or occupation.

Date of
receipt of
report of
board.

Disputes resulting in
strike or lockout.
Date of
commence­
ment.

2 110
6,000

Jan. 1 6 ...
Apr. 13...

Mar. 9 ....
A pr. 21...

Mar. 23.
July 10 3.. Mar. 31..

2 35
30
s 11

Oct. 2 3 ...
Jan. 7 ----May 25...
Feb. 10...

N ov. 27..
Feb. 20..
June 9 ..

Nov. 9 ..
Dec. 21.
Feb. 28.
July 10___
(4)

May 17...

June 2..

June 19..

9 2,000
1 300
0

...d o .........
July 18...
July 31...

Oct. 11..
Oct. 12..

Oct. 23.
Oct.
2
1912.

ii 6,500

Sept. 11..

Date of
termina­
tion.

6 1,2001,400
7 150

May 11...

Nov. 20.
Nov. 20.
(*)

May 3..

Jan.
17,
1912.

140

Dec. 29...

1 200
3
h 30
220
1 32
6

Mar. 3 ....
June 19...
Sept. 6 ...
May 27...

Jan.
20, Feb. 19,
1912.
1912.
Mar. 30.... July 17,1912
(1 5 )
Aug. 1 1 ...
Oct. 6....... Nov. 28.
June 8...... July 3..

35
is 68

May 29...
A pr. 3 ....

June 9___
A pr. 24...

Mar. 12,
1912.

July 5 ...
June 26..

1912.

13,

CANADA,

Dec. 12...

Dec.

O
F

N ov. 14...

Oct. 1 0 ....

ACT

70
12 115

May 26.

INVESTIGATION




Date on
which
board
was con­
stituted.

DISPUTES

North Atlantic Collieries Co.(Ltd.). Port Morien, N. S............. Coal mining.
Employees.
Western Coal Operators’ Associa­ British Columbia and Al­ .......do...........
------d o.........
tion.
berta.
Alberta Coal Mining Co. (L t d .)___ Cardiff, A lta...................... . .......d o................................... Employer..
Wettlaufer Silver Mining Co.(Ltd.) South Lorrain, O n t........... Metal mining.................... . Employees.
Hudson Bay Mining Co. (L td .)___ Gowganda, Ont.................. . Metal mining...................... Employees.,
Employees.
Kingston & Pembroke R y .............. Kingston, O nt.................... Railway firemen and
hostlers.
Michigan Central R y . C o.
St. Thomas, O n t..
Railway maintenance of
.d o..
way.
Railway freight handlers..
Canadian Northern Coal & Ore Port Arthur, O nt.
..d o..
Dock Co. (L td .).
Quebec & Lake St. John R y. C o ... Quebec, Que.......
Railway carmen................
..d o..
Railway machinists..........
Grand Trunk R y . Co..................
G. T. R . system .
..d o..
D o ............................................
Railway machinists and
___ d o ....................
..d o..
boiler makers.
Calgary, Alberta, and Railway employees...........
Canadian Pacific R y . C o..
..d o..
elsewhere.
Q. C. R . lines...................... Railway telegraphers and
Quebec Central R y . C o ...
..do..
station agents.
M. C. R . lines...................... Station agents, telegra­
,.do..
Michigan Central R y . Co.
phers, telephone, and
tower men.
.do..
Railway maintenance of
Pere Marquette R y . Co.................... Buffalo division..
way and pump men.
Great Northwestern Telegraph Co. A ll offices..................
Commercial telegraphers.. . . . . d o ....... :
Montreal Street R y . C o.................... Montreal, Que..........
Street-railway employees.. ___ d o .........
British Columbia Telephone Co— B . C. lin e s ...............
Telephone........................... ___ d o ___ _
Cities of Port Arthur and Fort Port Arthur and Fort Electrical workers.............. — d o .- i ...
William.
William.
City of Edmonton
Edmonton, A lta ----do.............................................d o ....
Boot and shoe #Drkers...............do.17..
John Ritchie Co. (L td .) et a l ......... Quebec, Que.

Number
Date of
of em­
receipt of
ployees application.
affected.

INDUSTRIAL

Establishments affected b y dispute.

Party
making
application.

1912.
8372°—-18-

Inverness R y . & Coal Co................. Inverness, N. S .
Brittania Mining & Smelting. Co... Brittania mines..
McEnaney Mines (Ltd.) & McIn­
tyre Porcupine.
Fort Steele Mining & Smelting Co.,
et al.
Canadian Northern R y. C o.............

Porcupine, Ont..

Coal mining...
Metal mining.
___ do.............

Kimberley, B .C ., and else­
..do.
where.
C. N. R . lines...................... Railway train-service em­
ployees.
Port Arthur, Ont..
_
Railway freight handlers_

Ottawa division ..
I. C. R . lines....... .

Ottawa Electric R y . Co...................
Halifax Electric Tramway Co........
Quebec R y., Light, Heat & Power
Co.
Hull Electric R y. C o........................
Cities of Port Arthur and Fort
William.
Steamship Companies......................
Canadian Pacific R y . Co.................

Ottawa, O n t..
Halifax, N. S.,
Quebec, Q ue..

Aug. 2 1 ... Oct. 9.......
Aug. 6___ Sept. 1 6 ...

____do.........

is 265

July 20 20.

Aug. 2 3 ...

____do.........

& 1,020

Nov. 30 22.

Dec. 21___

Feb.
19,
1913.
Oct. 21 2i . . Nov. 15,
1913.
Jan. 27.23 Feb. 22,
1913.
1913.

Aug.
27,
1913.
June
21,
1913.
(<)

July 19 25.. July 29—

Aug. 5.

Employees.

2,000

Apr. 29---

Employees..

2 90
4

May 8—

Railway telegraphers and Employees.
station agents.
Railway freight handlers ____d o.........
and clerks.
Railway locomotive en­ ____d o .........
gineers.
..do..
Street railway.....................
..do..
.......d o...................................
..do..
....... do...................................

26 1,800

June 28...

July 22----- Sept.

2 3 1,300

Nov. 21..

Nov. 2 8 ...

Hull, Que............................
..d o ................................
Port Arthur and Fort
...do..............................
William.
Halifax, N S................... . Longshoremen....................
Winnipeg, Man.................. Railway freight handlers
and clerks.

29 8

4 27..

Dec. 1 1 .... Nov. 4.

Feb. 1,1913.

P ec. 9—

425
so 125
2 231

May 9—
July 18...
Aug. 2 9 ..

May 18—
June 13..
Aug. 1 . . . . Aug. 22.
Sept. 2 5 ... Dec. 12..

..do..
..do..

si 68
72

Sept. 18..
Sept. 25..

Oct. 1.
Oct. 7.

..do..
..do..

500
3 220
2

Sept. 11..
Mar. 11...

Sept. 2 1 ... Oct. 15..
Apr. 3....... May 3 ...

Nov. 2 ..
Dec. 1G..

directly
affected; Standard Silver Le&d Mining Co. applied for.board Dec. 3, reporting 325 directly
and 50 indirectly affected; Queen Mines applied for board Dec. 3, reporting 45 directly
and 200 indirectly affected; Lucky Jim Zinc Mine applied for board Dec. 9, reporting
210 directly arid 90 indirectly affected; Blue Bell Mine applied for board Dec. 10, report
ing 300 directly affected. A strike occurred in the Queen Mines at Sheep Creek, involving
44 men.
23 Minority report Feb. 4.
2 250 employees in strike report.
4
25 Minority report July 22,1912.
26 8,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
27 Minority report Sept. 6.
2815,000 employees reported indirectly affected; 500 employees in strike report.
29 350 employees reported indirctlv affected.
so 50 employees reported indirectly affected.
31 74 employees reported indirectly affected.
32 230 employees reported indirectly affected.

ACT,

20 Application from McIntyre Porcupine employees received July 26,1912.
21 Minority report Nov. 7.
22 Fort Steele Mining Co. applied for board Nov. 30, reporting 1<0 em ploye^

THE

1 See footnote 1, p. 29.
2 30 employees reported indirectly affected,
s Minority report July 11.
4 Date not reported. Strike occurred after board reported.
6 20 employees reported indirectly affected.
« 1,400 employees in strike report.
? 200 employees reported indirectly affected,
s 15 employees reported indirectly affected,
s 6,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
1 150 machinists applied for board July 31; 150 boiler makers applied for board Aug. 8.
0
1 6,500 employees reported indirectly affected.
1
12 3,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
13 1,100 employees reported indirectly affected.
14 1,970 employees reported indirectly affected.
15 Board restrained from proceeding b y order of court.
16 66 employees reported indirectly affected.
17 B y concurrence of both parties under section 63.
1 875 employees reported indirectly affected.
8
19 McEnaney reported 40 directly and 1,000 indirectly affected; McIntyre reported 225
directly and 1,000 indirectly affected.




June 4—
July 3___

UNDER

B o .................................................
Intercolonial R y . Co.........................

500
300

PROCEEDINGS

Jo Canadian Northern Coal and Ore
Dock Co. (Ltd.).
Canadian Pacific R y . Co.................. C. P. R . system ...

Employees.

CO
CO

Table 3.—DISPUTES REFERRED FOR ADJUSTMENT UNDER THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OR IN WHICH APPLICATION WAS MADE i FOR REFERENCE, MAR. 22, 1907, TO BSC. #1,1916~€ontinued.

09

^

1913.

Locality or system, etc.

Industry or occupation.

May 20---- June 20...
Jan. 31-----

____d o —
____d o—

3 450
< 2,650

Mar. 11___ Mar. 29...
Mar. 3 1.... Apr. 15...

5 320
6 34
3.000

Mar. 17....
July 7....... Aug. 12..
Aug. 27..
July 30—

Sept. 8..
Sept* 20.,

.. .d o —
.. .d o —

7149
1,300

Aug. 7 ----Aug. 2 5 ... Sept. 11..

........d o —

5.000

Oct. 2 5 ....

Dec. 5—

.do..

8 700

N ov. 2 0 ...

Dec. 6___

..do..

9 2,000

June 25—

July 4—

Munioipal labours............ ....... d o-----^..
Machinists and black­ ....... do.1
smiths.
Boot and shoe workers___ ....... do.ie..




....... do.
Employer
Employees

ii 150
1,049
is 225
141,200
69
1 25
8

June 24___
June 6..
Oct. 14.
Oct. 2 2 ....
Dec. 12___ Jan.
8,
1914.
Mar. 14... Apr. 5.......
Jan. 9 ___
Jan. 11___
Apr. 5..

Nov. 25.
Jan.
25,
1914.
Apr. 14,
1914.
Aug. 21io.,
Oct. 2 7 ....
Nov. 14i2.
Feb.7,1914
May 14.,
Jan. 17.,

Apr. 28___ June 2i7..

CANADA,

Corporation of City of V ancouver.. Vancouver, B. C.
Ottawa Car (L td .)............................ Ottawa, O nt........
Montreal, Que—

Mar. 24.

O
F

Street railway..

Boot & Shoe Manufacturers.,

Mar. 15—

Apr. 25..
Oct. 21..

Employer.
Employees
____d o —

Date of
termina­
tion.

July 14..

1,500

Date of
commence­
ment.

ACT

2 1.125

Disputes resulting in
strike or lockout.

INVESTIGATION

Employees
____d o ..

British Columbia Electric-Ry. Co.. Vancouver, B. C., and
elsewhere.
Maritime Dredging C o ..
St. Johns, N. B ..................
Steamship Companies..
.do..
..do..

Dredgers..............
Longshoremen. . .
Freight checkers.

Date of
receipt of
report of
board.

DISPUTES

Coal mining—
Acadia Coal Co. (L t d .) ................... Stellarton, N. S ___
Railway shops.
Intercolonial & Prince Edward I. C. & P. E. lines.
Island Rys.
C. N. R . lines...................... Railway conductors..........
Canadian Northern R y. Co.
Canadian Pacific R y. Co.................. C. P. R ., Alberta division. Railway firemen and enginemen.
Telephone...........................
British Columbia Telephone Co— B. C. lines...............
Railway employees...........
Halifax & Southwestern R y. C o ... Bridgewater, N. S..
Railway maintenance of
Grand Trunk R y. Co....................... G. T. R . lines.........
way.
Railway shopmen..............
Sherbrooke, Que.
Quebec Central R y. Co.
Grand Trunk R y. C o ...
G. T. R . lines —
Railway station telegra­
phers.
C. P. R . lines...........
Railway maintenance of
Caaaadian Pacific R y . Oo.............
way.
Railway machinists..........
Grand Trunk Pacific R y. C o .. .
G. T. P. R . system .

Party
making
application.

Date on
which
board
was con­
stituted.

INDUSTRIAL

Establishments affected b y dispute.

Number
Date of
of em­
receipt of
ployees
affected. application.

1914.
Temiskaming Mining Co.................
Miller Lake O’ Brien M in e .............
Canadian Northern R y . C o.............
Grand Tfun kP acificR y.C o...........
Canadian Pacific R y . Co.................
Michigan Central R y . C o...............
British Columbia Electric R y . C o..

Ottawa, Ont___ _
Montreal, Q u e ...
Edmonton, Alta.

2 1,800 — d o ..
3
2^3,000 Mar. 31—

Jan. 30..
Apr. 20...

____d o . . .

2 115
6

A pr. 22___ May 12..

------d o . . .

2 137
7

Mar. 9.......

Mar. 27...

Feb. 23 24.
Aug. 5 . . .
June 19.
June 5 ..

2 90
8
450
200

June 6 ___ June 22..
July 8. . .
July 2.......
May 2........ May 1 2 .... July 28..

.d o .
.d o .

2 55
9
3 16
0

June 1 8 ... July 1 4 .... Aug. 15.
July 1 5 .... Aug. 1 0 ... Aug. 28.

Municipal light and power
Electric light and p ow er..

.d o .
.d o .

3 200
1

Telephone, light, and
street railway.
Machine and boiler makers

...d o .

1255

(38)

75

Carpenters...........................
Railway shops (construc­
tion).

(S3)
(S3)

3 500
4
127

.d o ,.
.d o ..

E m ployees,
Employees.
. . ..d o .

May 9..
June 4.

May 2 7 .... June 19.

Oct. 1 3 ....

Mar. 11,
1915.
May 9-----

July 24.

May 7___

Mar. 23,
1915.
May 29—

June 15___ June 23----- Jul. 21,1915
Dec. 8....... Jan. 4,1915 May 20,1915

8 Minority report Sept. 11.
9 100 employees reported indirectly affected.
® Minority report Nov. 30.
1 3.000 to 4,000 employees reported iiidirectly affected1
'2 Minority report June 13.
1 2.500 employees reported indirectly affected.
3
1 Minority report Feb. 26.
4
8 2,700 employees reported indirectly affected.
!63,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
1 1,563 employees reported indirectly affected.
7
* 60 employees reported indirectly affected; 12 employees directly affected, 138 indi­
rectly affected in strike.
9 2,000 to 3,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
1014 employees reported indirectly affected.
1 55 employees reported indirectly affected.
:2l l employees reported indirectly affected.
8 Concurrence of bpth parties under section 63.
141.000 employees reported indirectly affected.

AC'T.

1 See footnote 1, p. 29.
8260 employees reported indirectly affected.
8 350 employees reported directly affected in 1913-14 report; 2,200 employees reported
indirectly affected.
4 7,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
6 200 employees in strike report.
6 5 employees reported indirectly affected.
7 40 employees reported indirectly affected.
»1,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
9 300 employees reported indirectly affected.
10 Minority report Sept. 3.
1 1 205 employees reported indirectly affected.
12 Minority report Nov. 21,1913.
13 1,600 employees reported indirectly affected.
14 1,200 employees reported indirectly affected.
15 B y concurrence of both parties under section 63.
is 500 employees reported indirectly affected.
17 Minority report June 2$.




____d o ...
____d o . . .

Sept. 318.
N ov. 27 20.
June 11 22.

TH
E

Ottawa Car Manufacturing Co
(L td.).
Montreal contractors........................
3. D . McArthur & Co. (L td.), con­
tractors.

125
i9 60
211,800

UNDER

St. John Ry. Co..............................
Ottawa Eleetric R y . C o.................
Toronto Electric Light Co. < To­
fc
ronto R y. Co.
Dominion Iron & Steel C o.............. Sydney, N . S . . .
Dominion Power & Transmission Hamilton, O n t.,
Co. (Ltd .).
Toronto Hydro-Electric System ___ Toronto, O n t..,
London Hydro-Electric Commis­ London, O n t. . .
sion.
City of Edm onton........................... . Edmonton, A lta,

July 1 6 .... Aug. 1 ..,
N ov. 5 ..
Oct. 8 ..
Mar. 5 . . .
Jan. 8 ..

Employees.
____d o ...
------d o . . .

PROCEEDINGS

Metal m in ing.....................
.......d o ..............................*...
Railway maintenance of
way.
G. T. P. R . lin e s ............... .......d o ...................................
C. P. R . lines.................
Railway conductors, yard­
men, trainmen.
M. C. R . lines..................... Railway dispatchers and
station agents.
Vancouver, B. C., and else­ Street-railway employees..
where.
St.John, N .B .................... Street-railway em ployees...
Ottawa, Ont....................... Street-railway employees..
Toronto, O n t...................... Electrie light and pow er..
Cobalt, Ont........
Gowganda, O nt..
C. N, R . lin es...

^

T a b le 3 . — DISPU TES

R E F E R R E D F O R A DJU STM EN T U N D E R TH E CAN ADIAN IN D U S T R IA L D ISP U T ES IN V E S T IG A T IO N A C T OR IN W H ICH A P P L IC A ­
TIO N W A S M ADE i FOR. R E F E R E N C E , M A R . 22, 1907, TO DEC. 31,1916—Concluded.

oo
05

1915.

Locality or system, etc.

Party
making
application.

Industry or occupation.

D o.,

British Columbia Electric R y . C o ..

, N . S.

2 366
430
s 300

Aug. 19.
Nov. 20.
Apr. 16..

Sept. 1 ..
N ov. 30.

Sept. 17.
Dec. 13..

June 2 1 . ..

Sept. 7 ..
Sept. 15.

June 24----- June 2

....... d o .........

4 407

May 17..

....... d o .........

5 1,800

June 28.

E m ployer..
Employees.
. . . . . d o ........
. / . . . d o ........
Employees.
Employees.
....... d o .........
(10)

6 1,058
150
250
76
8 175
1,135
30

June 29..
July 19..
Aug. 30.
N ov. 11.
May 26..
Dec. 20..
Mar. 9...
Jan. 14..

Dec. 20___ Mar. 11,1916
July 2....... Aug. 13 9 .. Nov. 2..
Jan. 1,1916 Jan. 24,1916
A pr. 2....... May 5..
Mar. 1 6 .... Apr. 19.

(10)

100

May 28..

May 29___

2,000

Aug. 19.

Sept. 1___

Nov. 23.

June 17..

(!0)

Munitions.

Date of
termina­
tion.

Oct. 22.

July 8.......
Aug. 1 4 ...

Date of
commence­
ment.

Sept. 27.

AT
C

City of Edm onton.............................
D o .................................................
Toronto Hydro-Electric Commission.
Steamship companies.......................
City of Calgary..................................
J. D. McArthur Co. (Ltd.), con­
tractors.
Ottawa Car Manufacturing Co.
(L td.).
Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co. (L td.). New

Employees.
------d o .........
- - .. d o ........

Disputes resulting in
strike or lockout.

May 10----- May 15___ June o . . . .
May 29___ June 9 .. .

Employees..
....... d o ..........

1 1,000
1
1 1,200
2

....... d o ..........
Employees. .

800
13105

June 12
Feb. 2 8 ....

Em ployees..
....... d o ..........

1 200
5
1 300
6

A pr. 13
June 2 . . . .

Mar. 2 8 ...

May 1.......

Apr. 18___ May 7.

May 20___

(14)

CANADA,




O
F

1916.
Acadia Coal Co. (L t d .).................... Stellarton, N. S .................. Coal Mining.........................
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Trail, B. C ........................... Metal mining......................
Co. of Canada.
D o ........ 4?..................................... Rossland, B. C................ . ....... d o ...................................
Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Ry. Hamilton, Ont..................... Railway shops.....................
Co.
W innipeg, Man.................. Railway freight handlers..
Canadian Pacific R y . Co.
(14)
Edmonton, Dunvegan & B. C. R y.
Railway maintenance of
Co. et al.
way.

INVESTIGATION

Grand Trunk Pacific R y . Co.........

Coal mining.........................
....... d o ...................................
Railway conductors, train­
men, and telegraphers.
Railway engineers and
____d o ...................
firemen.
G. T. P. R . lines.
Railway maintenance of
way.
Vancouver, B . C ___
Street railway.....................
....... d o .........................
....... d o ...................................
Edmonton, A lta . . . .
....... d o ...................................
....... d o.........................
....... d o ...................................
Toronto, Ont.............
Municipal light and power..
St. J o h n ,N .B .........
Longshoremen....................
Calgary, A lta ............
Municipal light and power.
Edmonton, Alta., and Railway operatives (con­
elsewhere.
struction).
Ottawa, Ont.............
Machinists...........................

Date of
receipt of
report of
board.

DISPUTES

Intercolonial Coal Mining Co.(Ltd.) Westville, N. S.
Acadia Coal Co. (L t d .)...............
Stellarton, N . S.
Canadian Northern R y . Co.........
C. N. R .lin e s ...

Date on
which
board
was con­
stituted.

INDUSTRIAL

Establishments affected b y dispute.

Number
Date of
of em­
receipt of
ployees application.
affected.

Halifax & Southwestern R y . Co'...
Canadian Northern R y . C o........... .

JI. & S. W . lines.......
East of Port A rthur..

Algoma Central & Hudson Bay
R y . Co.

A . C. & H . B. lines.

Canadiali Government R ys........... .
Grand Trunk R y . System ..........

(1 )
4
G. T. R . lines..

C. P. R . lines.

Canadian Northern R y . S ystem ...
Canadian Pacific R y . C o.................

C. N. R . lines..
C. P. R . lines.

(“ )

Ottawa O nt........
Edmonton, Alta.
Quebec, Que........
(“ )
(1 )
4
Montreal, Que.
(1 )
4
Ottawa, O nt. . .

— d o ..........

2i 6,000

Sept. 9.

.d o .
E m ployer..

2 3,000
2
2 7,000
3

Oct. 7 . . . .
Oct. 23 24.

Employees.

2 120
5

N ov. 27.

------d o .........
------d o .........
____d o .........

300
1^50
2 27
7

Dec. 11..
N ov. 18.
May 11..

Jan. 9,1917

..do.
.d o.
.d o .

500
250

June 27.
Sept. 2 ..
Sept. 4 ..

June 3 0 ... July 12..

____do.
.. ... d o .

36
150

Sept. 5 ..
Sept. 27.

S e p t.1 4 ... Oct. 17.
Oct. 1 1 .... N ov. 9 2!

.d o .
.d o.
.d o .

1 250
5
so 325
45

June 6 ..
June 19..
N ov. 30.,

Aug. 8 ___ Aug. 23.
Dec. 1 1 .... Dec. 22..

.d o.
.d o.
.d o.
....... d o ..........
..d o ..........
Electric light and power.
Commercial telegraphers.
Waterworks em ployees...




. . . . d o ........

3,000
3,200
20

Oct. 21 is..

Aug. 23.

Sept. 1 4... Aug. 29---

Aug. 15...
Aug. 17...

Aug. 21.

Oct. 21 20.

Aug. 3 1 ... N ov. 2 ..

N ov. 25..

(14)

Oct. 2 5 .... Dec. l U

May 17—

Oct. 1 3 ....

17 3,000 employees reported indirectly affected,
is Minority report Nov. 2.
1 9 150 employees reported indirectly affected.

(26)
June 6 ..

Dec. 8..

Aug. 3 0 ... Aug. 30

20 Minority report Oct. 25,1916.
2 17,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
1
22 2,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
23 50,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
2 No board constituted; dispute a revival of 1913 dispute in which employees did not
4
accept findings of board.
25 500 employees reported indirectly affected.
26 Procedure withheld at the request of both parties.
27 5 employees reported indirectly affected.
28 305 employees reported indirectly affected.
29 Minority report N ov. 10.
so 1,800 employees reported indirectly affected.

ACT,

1 See footnote 1, p. 29.
2 43 employees in strike report.
3 4,000 employees reported indirectly affected.
4 1,120 employees reported indirectly affected.
6 1,400 employees reported indirectly affected,
s 156 employees reported indirectly affected.
7 229 employees reported indirectly affected.
8 25 employees reported indirectly affected; 126 employees reported on strike.
9 Minority report Aug. 20.
10 Concurrence of both parties under section 63.
n 1,188 employees reported on strike.
12 50 employees reported indirectly affected.
13 12 employees reported indirectly affected; 100 employees reported on strike.
14Not reported.
15 1,000 employees reported indirectly affected,
is 600 employees reported indirectly affected.

....d o .
....d o .

July 22..

Aug. 15—

. . . . d o ..........

June 8.
July 3 ..

TH
E

P. M. R .lin e s...
C. N . R .lin e s ...
St. John, N. B ..
Brantford, Ont.

Railway maintenance of
way.
.d o.
Railway conductors and
trainmen.
Railway maintenance of
way.
Railway employees............
Coal handlers......................
Street railways....................

175
71,000

UNDER

Pere Marquette R . R .......................
Canadian Northern Express Co___
Dominion Coal Co. (L t d .)...............
Brantford Municipal R y . Commis­
sion.
Ottawa Electric R y . C o...................
Edmonton Radial R y ......................
Quebec R y., Light, Heat & Power
Co.
Moose Jaw Electric R y Co..............
Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg R y. Co.
Montreal Light, Heat.& Power Co.
Great Northwest Telegraph C o___
Corporation of Ottawa......................

. . ..d o .
— do.

PROCEEDINGS

Eredrickton & Grand Lake Coal &
R y . Co. and New Brunswick
Coal & R y. Co.
Canadian Pacific R y . C o.................

Railway employees...........
Railway maintenance of
way.
Railway conductors, bag­
gagemen, y a r d m e n ,
brakemen.
Railway shops. ..................
Railway maintenance of
way.
Railway enginemen and
trainmen.

CO

38

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.
STATISTICAL SUMMARY BY YEARS AND BY INDUSTRIES.

The disputes enumerated in the preceding table are summarized
by years and by industries in the following tables:
T able 4 .—S T R IK E S A N D LO C K O U T S IN IN D U S T R IE S W IT H IN T H E SCOPE O F T H E CA­
N A D IA N IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S IN V E S T IG A T IO N A C T , IN W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N W AS
M ADE F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T, B Y Y E A R S , M A R . 22, 1907, TO DE C . 31, 1916.1
[Except as noted, data for each year are only for strikes and lockouts which began in that year.]

Year.

Number
N umber N um ber of
of
strikes
of estab­ employees
and
lishments affected.
lockouts. affected.

Num ber of
days lost.

A ll industries.
1907...................
1908...
1909...................
1910..
1911...................
1912..................
19155.................
1914...................
1935.................
1916...................

9
2
9
6
5
3
3
1
2
4

37
2
19
8
20
27
4
1
2
4

T otal___

44

124

9,325
8,300
8,400
4,124
8,810
2,450
744'
150
169
1,614
44,086

191,025
425,200
697,450
2 451,726
3 1,629,720
4 116,800
&126,690
300
2,523
24;535
3,665,969

Mining.

1907
1908
1909
1910...
1911...
1912...................
1913...................
1915.................
1916...................
T otal___

6
1
7
3
3
1
2
1
1

12
1
17
5
18
25
3
I
1

7,020
300
7,450
674
7,110
1,200
544
43
1,188

174.940
1,200
692,750
?377,076
s 1,580,720
46,800
7111.790
129
20,196

25

83

25,529

3,005,601

Railways.

1907............. .
1908...................
1909.................
1910...............
1911...................
1912...................
jcus
191f>..................

2

2

166

385
424,000
4,, 700
67,500
49,000
4 70.000
*13,500
4,079

T otal___

12

12

15,171

633,164

1
1
2
2
2
2

1
1
2
2
2
2

205
8,000
950
2,900
1,700
1,250

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken b y the department of labor contemplat­
ing the establishment of a boaard of conciliation and investigation. Does n ot include strikes and lockouts
in industries brought w ithin the scope of the act b y the concurrence of both parties under section 63, which
terminated prior to reference under the act.
2 Including360,000 days lost in 1910 on account of a coal strike which began prior to 1910.
3 Including 190,000 days lost in 1911 on account of a coal strike which began prior to 1911.
4 Including 44,000 days lost in 1912 on account of a strike which began prior to 1912.
6 T w o disputes resulting in strikes in 1913 were referred to boards in 1912; three establishments and
544 employees were involved and 86,990 days lost.
6 Including 38,300 days lost in 1913 on account o f strikes which began prior to 1913.
7 Including 24,800 days lost in 1913 on account of a gold strike which began prior to 1913. %,
s Including 13,500 d ayalost in 1913 on account of a jstrike which began prior to 1913.
';




39

PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ACT.

4 .—S T R IK E S A N D LO C K O U T S IN I N D U S T R IE S W IT H IN T H E SCO PE O F T H E
C A N A D IA N IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S I N V E S T IG A T IO N A C T , IN W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N
W A S M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T , B Y Y E A R S , M A R . 22, 1907, TO D E C .
31,1916 1—Concluded.

T a b le

Year.

Number
Number
of
N umber of
of estab­ employees
strikes
lishments affected.
and
affected.
lockouts.

N um ber of
days lost.

Shipping.
1907...................

2

21

2,100

2 15,700

T otal___

2

24

2,100

15,700

Street railways.
1910...................
1914...................
1916...................

1
1
1

1
1
1

550
150
260

7,150
300
260

T o t a l....

3

3

96C

7,710

200
126

1,400
2,394

326

3,794

A ll others.
1913...................
1915...................
T o t a l ___

1
1
2 !

1
1
2

1 See footnote l , p . 38.
2 In one strike affecting 7 establishments and 500 employees whose time loss was 4,500 days, a board was
not com pleted.
T ab le 5 .—D IS P U T E S N O T R E S U L T IN G IN S T R IK E S OR L O C K O U T S , IN W H IC H A P P L I ­
C A TIO N W A S M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T , B Y Y E A R S , M A R . 22, 1907,
TO DE C . 31, 1916.1
Board constituted.
Year.

Num ber
of dis­
putes.

Board not constituted.

Number
of em­
Number of
ployees
disputes.
affected.2

N um ber of
employees
affected.2

All industries.
190?...................
1908...................
1909...................
1910...................
1911...................
1912...................
1913...................
1914...................
1915...................
1916...................

3 15
* 23
5 11
15
6 12
9
7 15
8 15
9 10
12

11.330
22,010
5,343
18,840
3,135
3,941
18,977
8,455
5,316
9,803

1
3
1
7
4
2
2
2
3
11

400
1,716
60
680
6,661
2,008
1,649
476
2,350
18,145

T o ta l___

137

107,150

36

34,145

1 Including only those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock out was m ade
and in connection with which action was taken b y the department of labor contemplating the estab­
lishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
2 Including only those employees reported directly affected.
3 Including one dispute referred under section 63 of the act. T w o thousand tw o hundred employees
were affected. A strike occurred prior to application for reference b ut terminated before the application
was received.
4 Including one dispute referred under section 63 of the act. Three hundred em ployees were affected.
A strike occurred prior to application for reference but terminated before the application was received.
6 Including one dispute referred under section 63 of the act. Seventy employees were affected.
6 Including one dispute referred under section 63 of the act. Sixty-eight employees were affected.
7 Including tw o disputes referred under section 63 of the act. N inety-four employees were affected.
8 Including three disputes referred under section 63 of the act. Seven hundred and tw o employees were
affected. One of the three disputes resulted in strike prior to application for reference but terminated
before the application was received; 500 employees were affected in this dispute.
9 Including three disputes referred under section 63 of the act. T w o thousand one hundred employees
were affected. One of the three disputes resulted in strike prior to application for reference but terminated
before the application was received; 2,000 employees were affected in this dispute.




40

IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S IN V E ST IG A T IO N A C T OF CA NAD A.

5 . — D IS P U T E S N O T R E S U L T I N G IN S T R I K E S O R L O C K O U T S IN W H IC H A P P L I ­
C A T IO N W A S M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T , B Y Y E A R S , M A R . 22, 1907,
T O D E C . 31, 19161— Continued.

T able

Board constituted.

Year.

Number
of dis­
putes.

Board not constituted.

Number
Number of
of em ­
ployees •disputes.
affected.2

Number of
employees
affected.2

Mining.

1907.....................
1908___ •
.............
1909.....................
1910.....................
1911.....................
1912.....................
1913.....................
1914.....................
1915.....................
1916.....................
Total

1
2
1

1
1

3,900
10,995
340
3,000
145
500
1,125
175
430
1,200

1

800

29

21,810

5

2,860

8
11
1
1
1
1

400
1,600
60

Railways.
1907 ...................
1908.....................
1909 .
1910.....................
1911.....................
1912.....................
1913.....................
1914 .................
1915.....................
1916 .................

6
8
7
9
4
2
7
4
1
5

5,230
9,889
4,183
11,854
2,405
2,020
13,134
6,715
407
7,520

6
4
2
2

630
6,661
2,008
1,649

2
7

2,100
16, 795

T otal____

53

63,357

23

29,843

1

50

1

50

Shipping.

1908.....................
1910.....................
1912....................
1913.....................
1915.....................
1916.....................

1
3
1
3
1

450
2,086
500
1,424
1,135

T o ta l____

9

5,595

Street raihvays.

1908.....................
1909 ...................
1 9 1 0 ...................
1911 ...............
1 9 1 2 ...................
1913 ...................
1914.....................
1915.....................
1916.....................

2
1
1
1
5
1
1
3
4

376
600
1,300
30
921
2,000
137
1,214
713

T o ta l------

19

7,291

1

116

1

50

1
1
1

450
250
250

5

1,116

1 Including onl# .those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lockout was made
and in connection w ith which action was taken b y the department of labor contemplating the estab­
lishment of a-board of conciliation and investigation.

2 Including only those employees reported directly affected.




P R O C E E D IN G S U N D E R T H E AC T.

41

T able 5.—DISPUTES NOT RESULTING IN STRIKES OR LOCKOUTS, IN WHICH APPLL
CATION WAS MADE FOR REFERENCE UNDER THE ACT, BY YEARS, MAE. 22, 1907,
TO DEC. 31, 1916 i—Concluded.
Board constituted.

Year.

Number
of dis­
putes.

Board not constituted.

Number
of em­
Number of
ployees
disputes.
affected.2

Number of
employees
affected.2
•

A ll others.

1907.....................
1908....................
1909.....................
1910.....................
1911.....................
1912....................
1913....................
1914....................
1915....................
1916....................

1
1
2
1
5

2,200
300
160
600
555

3
8
4
2

1,294
1,428
2,130
370

T o ta l-----

27

9,037

1

26

1

70

2

96

1 See footnote 1, p. 40.
2 Including only those employees reported directly affected.
6 ^ D I S P U T E S R E F E R R E D U N D E R T H E ACT B Y T H E CON CU R RENCE OF B O T H
P A R T I E S TO T H E D IS P U T E U N D E R S E C T IO N 63, O R IN W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N W A S
M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E , B Y Y E A R S , M A R . 22, 1907, TO D E C . 31, 1916.

Table

Board constituted.1
Year.
Disputes.

1907.....................
1908.....................
1909....................
1910....................
1911....................
1912....................
1913....................
1914....................
1915....................
1916....................
Total —

1
1
1

Em­
ployees
affected.

2,200
300
70

Board not constituted.2

Disputes.

Employees
affected.

5
1
1
1

1,155
150
75
40

1

68

2
3
3

94
702
2,100

1
2
2
1

6,000
596
162
69

12

5,534

14

8,247

1 Included previously in Table 5.
2 Department unable to act owing to lack of ^concurrence of both parties to the dispute.
in official proceedings; not included in summary tables found in this report.

N ot

reported

COMPARISON OF DISPUTES IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN SCOPE
OF, AND IN PROCEEDINGS UNDER, THE ACT.
C L A S S IF IC A T IO N

OF

D IS P U T E S .

Disputes occurring in industries within the scope of the act may be
divided broadly into two groups: Strikes and lockouts, enumerated
previously in Table 1, and disputes not resulting in strikes or lock­
outs but in which statutory declaration of intent to take such action
was made. It is apparent that the disputes in the second group are
identical with disputes not resulting in strikes or lockouts referred
under the act or, as explained in a previous section, in which appli­




42

IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S IN V E ST IG A T IO N A C T OF CA NAD A.

cation was made for reference and action taken by* the department
of labof contemplating the establishment of boards of conciliation
and investigation.
Obviously there have been disputes in industries within the scope
of the act adjusted without the occurrence of a strike or a lockout and
without application for reference but which may not be included in
this group because technically they are not within the scope of the
act until an application for reference has been legally made.
The second group, then, of disputes within the scope of the act, is
made up of disputes not resulting in strike or lockout which are
within the scope of the act by virtue of an application for reference
made in compliance with the provisions of the act and in which it was
the intent of the department to create a board.
In the proceedings under the act, disputes may also be divided
into strikes and lockouts and disputes not resulting in strikes or lock*
outs. Both groups are restricted to disputes in which (1) boards were
constituted within the meaning of the act or (2) application was made
for reference and action taken by the department of labor contem­
plating the establishment of a board. Each group may thus include
disputes in which boards were not constituted. However, b y ruling
of the Canadian Department of Labor, all applications for reference in
which steps have been taken by the department toward the establish­
ment of a board are reported in the official proceedings under the act.
In both groups also a statutory declaration of intent to strike or
lock out was made, but in some disputes the strike or lockout occurred
before application was made for reference under the act and the
declaration of intent was thus only a perfunctory procedure.
Considering only the intent of the act, which is to avoid interruption
to industry, any strike or lockout occurring in industries within its
scope indicates a failure of the act. Whether this failure occurs in
spite of a strict observance of the restrictive provisions of the act or
is marked by an attitude of indifference toward, or open defiance
of, such provisions, or by a lack of confidence in boards of con­
ciliation and investigation, is best shown by the time of occurrence
of strikes and lockouts. Thus strikes and lockouts occurring after
boards of conciliation and investigation have been given opportunity
to adjust the points in controversy indicate the greater failure
although the parties involved in such strikes and lockouts are strictly
law abiding in the sense that they observe the restrictive pro­
visions of the act. Strikes and lockouts commencing prior to an
application for reference, but terminating before a board has
been legally constituted, may indicate ignorance of the act or its
applicability to particular disputes. Although such strikes or lock­
outs are illegal the offense is palliated somewhat, since after the act
was recognized in a formal application for reference, the disputants




CHART A — D IS P U T E S IN IN D U ST R IE S W ITH IN T H E S C O P E O F AND P R O C E E D IN G S U N D E R T H E C A N A D IA N IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S IN V E ST IG
F O R T H E P E R IO D M A R C H 2 2 , 1 9 0 7 , TO D E C E M B E R 3 1 , 1 9 1 6 .
N U M B E R O F D IS P U T E S .
65

65

N ot

r e s u lt i n g

in

s tr ik e

or

lo c k o u t;

re fe r re d

u n d er th e A ct a n d

B oard

in

s tr ik e

or

lo c k o u t;

a p p lic a t io n w a s m a d e for r e f e r e n c e

c o n s t it u t e d .
N o t r e s u lt i n g

u n d e r t h e A c t b u t B o a r d n o t c o n s t it u t e d .

60

S tr ik e s

and

lo c k o u t s

i n w h i c h a p p lic a t io n w a s

60

n o t m a d e fo r r e f e r e n c e

u n d e r th e A c t.

S tr ik e s

and

lo c k o u t s

c o m m e n c in g

p r io r t o a p p lic a tio n fo r a B o a r d

but

t e r m i n a t i n g b e f o r e B o a r d w a s c o n s t it u t e d .

S tr ik e s

55

and

lo c k o u t s c o m m e n c i n g

p rio r t o a p p lic a tio n fo r a B o a r d

and

55

c o n t in u in g a f t e r B o a r d w a s c o n s t it u t e d .

S tr ik e s a n d

lo c k o u t s c o m m e n c i n g

a fte r

a n a p p lic a tio n fo r a B o a r d

but

b e fo r e its rep o rt.

S trik e s an d

lo c k o u t s i n w h ic h a p p lic a t io n w a s m a d e fo r r e fe r e n c e u n d e r

t h e A c t b u t B o a r d n o t c o n s t it u t e d .

S t r i k e s a n d lo c k o u t s c o m m e n c i n g a f t e r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d re p o rt o f a
B oard.

50

50

45

45

40

40

35

35

30

30

25

25

20

20

15

15

10

10

5

5

0




0

0
______________________ Q

1908

1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1 9 1 4

1 9 1 5

1 9 1 6

C h a r t B .— D IS P U T E S IN IN D U ST R IE S W IT H IN T H E S C O P E O F A N D P R O C E E D IN G S U N D E R T H E C A N A D IA N IN D U ST R IA L D IS P U T E S IN V E ST IG
F O R T H E P E R IO D M A R C H 2 2 , 1 9 0 7 TO D E C E M B E R 3 1 , 1 9 1 6 .
EM PLO YEES A FFECTED .

40.000

43897

40.000

39.000

39.000
N ot

38.000

r e s u lt i n g

in

s t r ik e

or

lo c k o u t;

re fe rre d

under

th e

Act

38.000

a n d B o a r d c o n s t it u t e d .

N ot

37.000

r e s u lt i n g

in s t r ik e o r

l o c k o u t ; a p p lic a tio n w a s m a d e f o r

37.000

r e fe r e n c e u n d e r th e A c t b u t B o a rd not c o n s titu te d .

S tr ik e s

and

lo c k o u t s in w h ic h ap p lication w a s

not

m a d e fo r

36.000

r e fe r e n c e u n d e r th e A c t.

36.000

S tr ik e s

and

lo c k o u t s

c o m m e n c i n g prior to

a p p lic a t io n

fo r a

35.000

B o a r d b u t t e r m in a t in g b e f o r e B o a r d w as c o n s t i t u t e d .

35.000

34.000

S tr ik e s

1

and

lo c k o u t s

c o m m e n c in g

prior t o

a p p lic a t io n f o r

a

34.000

B o a r d a n d c o n tin u in g a f t e r B o a r d w a s c o n s t i t u t e d .

33.000

S tr ik e s

a p p l ic a t io n f o r a

33.000

32.000

S t r i k e s a n d lo c k o u t s in w h ic h a p p lic a tio n w a s m a d e f o r r e f e r -

32.000

and

lo c k o u t s

c o m m e n c in g

a ft e r a n

B o a r d b u t b e f o r e it s r e p o rt.

e n c e u n d e r t h e A c t b u t B o a r d n o t c o n s t it u t e d .

S tr ik e s a n d

z \ ,m

lo c k o u t s c o m m e n c i n g a f t e r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d

31.000

rep ort o f a B o a rd .

30.000

30.000

29.000

29.000

28.000

28,000

27.000

27.000

26.000

26.000

25.000

25.000

24.000

24.000

23.000

23.000

22.000

22.000

21,000

21,000

20,000

20,000

19,0(H
)

19.000

18,000

18.000

17.000

17.000

16.000

16.000

15.000

15.000

14.000

14.000

13.000

13.000

12.000

12.000

11,000

11,000

10,000

10,000

9.000

9.000

8 .0 0 0

8 .0 0 0

7.000

7.000

6.000

6 .0 0 0

1

5.000

■

5.000

4.000

4.000

tfgfl
3.000

'

£' d

iW M

3.000

s i
2.000

2 .0 0 0

ill

1,000

0




1907

1908

1909

IMII
1910

1 ,0 0 0

0

1912

1913

1914

1915

1916

C O M PA R ISO N OF D IS P U T E S .

43

became law abiding, the matters in dispute being held in abeyance
pending an investigation. Strikes and lockouts commencing prior
to an application for a board .and continuing after the board is
constituted indicate either that the dispute was referred contrary to
the wishes of one of the disputants or that, while willing to accept the
services ol a board, they were unwilling to yield the right to strike or
lock out and did not regard the penal provisions seriously. Strikes
and lockouts commencing after the application for a board but
before the investigation .is completed may be protests against delay
in constituting the board or in completing the investigation, or may
indicate a lack of confidence in the board. In either case a disregard
for the penal provisions is shown.
It has seemed desirable to make a distinct group of strikes and
lockouts occurring in industries within the scope of the act without
any attempt being made to invoke its aid. It is the practice of thQ
Canadian Department of Labor when an illegal strike or lockout
occurs or is imminent to bring such illegality to the attention of the
disputants and explain the purpose of the act. This group indicates
an open defiance of the penal provisions in that neither party
was willing to make application for a board of conciliation and
investigation.1
YEARLY

S U M M A R IE S .

Charts appended to this report show graphically for each year since
the inception of the act the total disputes and employees affected in
industries within its scope, classified in accordance with the foregoing
analysis. Chart A shows the number of disputes; Chart B shows the
number of employees affected.
The following tables show by years the disputes within the scope
of the act and in proceedings under the act:
Table 7 is a summary for all industries of disputes, employees
affected, and days lost.
Tables 8 to 11 are percentage analyses based on Table 7. In Table
8 the total for each year of disputes, and of employees affected, in in­
dustries within the scope of the act is made the base for an analysis
of proceedings under the act during that year. In Table 9 applica­
tions for reference and employees affected by such applications are
considered, the total of applications and of employees affected thereby
for each year being used as the base for that year. In Table 10 only
strikes and lockouts in industries within the scope of the act are
considered, the total for eaeh year of strikes and lockouts, employees
affected, and days lost constituting the base. In Table 11a similar
analysis is made of strikes and lockouts in which application was made
for reference.
1 In a few instances application was made for reference but no steps were taken by the department looking
to the establishment of a board and the cases are not officially reported as applications for reference.




T able 7.—DISPUTES IN WHICH APPLICATION WAS MADE FOR REFERENCE UNDER THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION
ACT, AND TOTAL DISPUTES IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE ACT, BY YEARS, MAR. 22, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1916.1

Year.

Disputes not resulting in
strikes or lockouts.2

Strikes and lockouts.

Commenc­
ing prior to
application
for, but ter­
minating
before con­
stitution
of, board.

Commenc­
ing prior to
application
for board
and con­
tinuing
after it was
constituted.

Commenc­ Commenc­
ing after
ing after
application investigatlbn and
for board,
but before
report of
board.
its report.

Board not
con­
stituted.

Total.

Board
con­
stituted.

Board
not
con­
stituted.

Total.

Strikes
and
lockouts.

Total.

Disputes
not re­
sulting in
strike or
lockout.2

•Total.

D ISP U T E S

Strikes
and
lockouts
in which
applica­
tion was
not made
for ref­
erence.

Disputes within the scope of the act.

for reference under the act.1

2
1
2
1

5
4
1

2
2

1
7
6
1

2
1
3
4
1
2
2
1
1
1
18
11
7

3

1
1

5
4
1

9
2
9
6
5
3
3
1
2
4
44
31
13

16
26
12
22
16
11
17
17
13
23
173
92
81

25
28
21
28
21
14
20
18
15
27
217
123
94

41
19
19
14
25
32
21
6
11
34
222
118
104

16
26
12
22
16
11
17
17
13
23
173
92
81

57
45
31
36
41
43
38
23
24
57
395
210
185

400
1,716
60
680
6,661
2,008
1,649

11,730
23,726
5,403
19,520
9,796
5,949
20,626

21.025
32.026
13,803
23,644
18,606
8,399
21,370

19,468
12,754
10,717
4,599
14,806
11,152
4,183

11,730
23,726
5,403
19,520
9,796
5,949
20,626

31,198
36,480
16,120
24,119
24,602
17,101
24,809

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.3

1907<
1908.,
1909.
1910.,
1911.,
1912.,
1913.,

10,143
4,454
2,317
475
5,996
8,702
3,439




1,805
300
950
60

9
2,800
234
7.000
1.000

3,520
225
380

1,650
8,000
4,425
3,830
30
1,450
544

2,350

1,400
200

9,325
8,300
8,400
4,124
8,810
2,450
744

11,330
22,010
5 ,3 $
18,840
3,135
3,941
18,977

CANADA,

1
3
1
7
4
2
2
2
3
11
36
16
20

15
23
11
15
12
9
15
15
10
12
137
76
61

O
F

1
2
9
6
3

2
2
1
1
1

ACT

32
17
10
8
20
29
18
5
9
30
178
87
91

IN V ESTIGATIO N

NUMBER OF DISPUTES.3

1907 ......
1908 . . . .
1909 ......
1910..........
1911 ......
1912..........
1913 ____
1914..........
1915,........
1916..........
1907-1916.
1907-1911.
1912-1916.

IN D U ST R IA L

Disputes in which application was

^

191 4
191 5
191 6
1907-1916.
1907-1911.
1912-1916.

1,232
5,429
14,335
56,522
23,385
33,137

4
3
1,448
4,606
3,115
1,491

11.034
10.034
1,000

4
1
4,166
4,125
4
1

10
5
16
2
15
2
20,330
17,935
2,395

3,950
3,750
200

1 0 8,455
5
1 9 5,316
6
1,614 9,803
44,086 107,150
38,959 60 ,m
5,127 46,432

4 6 8,931
7
2,350 7,666
18.145 27,948
34.145 141,295
9,517 70,175
24,628 71,120

9,081
7,835
29,562
185,381
109,134
76,247

1,382
5,598
15,949
100,608
62,344
38,264

191,025
425,200
697,450
451,726
1,629,720
116,800
126,690
30
0
2,523
24,535
3,665,969
63,439,121
226,848

261,415
446,706
725,448
458,204
1,684,573
179,629
736,019
173,737
38,548
134,368
4,838,647
63,620,346
1,218,301

8,931
7,666
27,948
141,295
70,175
71,120

10,313
13,264
43,897
2 1 )0
4 ,4 3
132,519
109,384

NUMBER OF WOR KIN G DAYS LOST.5

11,585
1,200
4,700

187,500
7,956
1,390,000
24.500
13.500

19
2
20,456
38,070 1.623.456
17,485 1.585.456
38,000
20,585

62,240
6,825
21,720
44,000

99,950
424.000
498,425
443,770
1
90.000
48,300
111,790
30
0
2,394
25
0
3,874
134,990 1,822,803
6134,785 1,656,145
25
0

17,250
28,000

46,650
45,250
1,400

191,025
425,200
697,450
451,726
1,629,720
116,800
126,690
30
0
2,523
24,535
3,665,969
5
3,439,121
226,848

261,415
446,706
725,448
458,204
684,573
179,629
736,019
173,737
38,548
134,368
838,647
620,346
218,301

D ISP U T E S .




O
F

1Including onlythose applications inw actionw takenbythe departm of labor, contem
hich
as
ent
plating the establishm of a board ofconciliationandinvestigation.
ent
2Including onlythose disputes in w statutory declarationofintent to strike or lock out w m
hich
as ade.
3Disputes and em
ployees counted onlyinyear inw disputecom enced.
hich
m
,
4M 22to D ber 3
arch
ecem 1.
6Includes all tim lost duringeachyear, regardless ofw the dispute began. .
e
hen
6Including 44,000days lost in 1 1 onaccount of a strike w beganprior to 1911.
92
hich

COMPARISON

19074
..
7,
0
1908...
21,
1909...
2
7,
1910...
6,
1911...
5,
4
1912...
6,
2
1913...
69
0,
1914...
13
7,
1915...
3,
6
1916...
19
0,
1907-1916. 1,172,
8,
1907-1911. 1 1
1912-1916. 9 1
9,

Ol

46

IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S IN V E ST IG A T IO N ACT OF C A NAD A.

T able 8.—PER CENT WITHIN EACH YEAR OF DISPUTES IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE
SCOPE OF THE ACT IN WHICH APPLICATION WAS MADE FOR REFERENCE, BY
CLASSES OF DISPUTES, MAR. 22, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1916.1
[Total disputes within the scope of the act during each year equaf 100 per cent.]
Disputes in which application was made for reference under
the act.i

Strikes and lockouts.

Year.

Strikes
and
lock­
outs
in
which
appli­
cation
was
not
made
for
refer­
ence.

Com­ Com­
menc­ menc­
Com­
ing
ing
prior prior menc­
ing
to ap­ to ap­
after
plica­ plica­
an
tion tion
ap­
for,
for
plica­
but board
tion
terand
for
micon­ board,
nat- tinu­
but
ing
ing
before after before
its
con­ it was
re­
stitu­ conport.
tion
stiof,
tutboard. ed.

Disputes within the
scope of the act.

Disputes not re­
sulting in strikes
or lockouts.2

Dis­
putes
Strikes not
result­
and
ing in Total.
lock­
strike
outs.
or
lock­
out.2

Com­
menc­
ing
after
Board
Board
inves­ Board
To­
To­
not
not
consti­
tiga­
consti­ tal.
consti­ tal.
tion
tuted.
tuted.
tuted.
and
report
of
board.

PERCENTAGE OF DISPUTES.

• 1907...........
1908.
1909.
1910
1911.
1912.
1913..........
1914.
1915.
1916.
1907-1911.
1912-1916.
1907-1916.

3.5
56.1
3.5
2.2 ...........
37.8
5
32.3
6.5 '* 6 .5
22.2
2.8 ...........
2.8
2.4
4.9
48.8
67.4 ...........
2.3 ...........
47. 4
21. 7
37. 5
4. 2
52. 6
3. 5
1.8
41.4
2.9
1.9
2.9
.5
49.2
1.6
.5
45.1
1.8
2.3
1.3

5.3 15.8
3.5
2.2
4.4
29.0
9.7
11.1 ............. 16.7
2.4
2.4 12.2
4 7 ............. 7.0
2. § 7.9
5 .3
4.3
4.3
4.2
8L 3
7.0
1. 8
5 .2
1.9 14.8
3 .8
.5
7. 0
4 .6
1.3 11.1

26.3
51.1
35.5
4L 7
29.3
20.9
39.5
65.2
41.7
21.1
36.2
33.0
34.7

1.8
6 .7
3 .2
19.4
9.8
4 .7
5.3
8.7
12. 5
19. 3
7.6
10.8
9.1

28.1
57.8
38.7
61.1
39.0
25.6
44. 7
73. 9
54. 2
40. 4
43.8
43.8
43.8

43.9
62.2
67.7
77.8
51.2
32.6
52.6
78.3
62. 5
47.4
58.6
50.8
54.8

71.9
42.2
61.3
38.9
61.0
74.4
55,3
2. 6
45.8
59. 6
56.2
56. 2
56.2

28.1
§7.8
38.7
61.1
39.0
25.6
44.7
73. 9 ’
54. 2
40. 4
43. 8
43.8
43.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
ioo.o
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0

67.4
87.8
85.6
98.0
75.6
49.1
86.1
88.1
59.1
67.3
82.4
69.7
76.6

62.4
35.0
66.5
19.1
60.2
65.2
16.9
13. 4
42. 2
36.3
47.0
35.0
41.6

37.6
65.0
33.5
80. 9
39. 8
34.8
83.1
86.6
57.8
63. 7
53.0
65.0
sa 4

100.0
103.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100*0

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.

190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
191 6
1907-1911.
1912-1916.
1907-1916.

32.5
12. 2
14.4
2. 0
24.4
50.9
13. 9
11. 9
40.9
32. 7
17. 6
30.3
23.4

5.8
.8
5.9
.2

.3
3.3
2.4
1.4
1.9

11.3
17.4
1.4
1.0
1.5
28.5
5 .8 ...........

”
7.6
.9
4.6

.*i*
3.1
(3)
1.7

5.3
21.9
27.5
15.9
.1
8 .5
2 .2
1.5
.9
.3
13.5
2.2
8^4

7.5 29.9
22. 8
52.1
17.1
5.7 35.8
14.3
3 .0
.8
1.5
1.3
3. 7
2.8 29.4
4.7
.2
1.6 18.2

36,3
69.3
33.1
78.1
12.7
23.0
76.5
82.0
40.1
22.3
45.8
42.5
44.3

1.3
4.7
.4
2.8
27.1
11.7
6 .6
4.6
17.7
41.3
7.2
22.5
14.1

37.6
65.0
33.5
80. 9
39. 8
34.8
83.1
86. 6
57. 8
63. 7
53.0
65.0
58.4

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department cf labor, contemplating
the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
2 Including only those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock cut was made.
3 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.




C O M PA R ISO N

or

D IS P U T E S .

47

T able 9.—PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS WITHIN EACH YEAR OF DISPUTES IN WHICH
APPLICATION WAS MADE FOR REFERENCE UNDER THE ACT, MAR. 22, 1907, TO
DEC. 31, 1916.1
[Total applications for reference each year equal 100 per cent.]

Disputes in which application was made for reference under the act.i

Disputes not resulting in
strikes or lockouts.

Strikes and lockouts.

Year.

Com­
Com­
menc­
menc­
Com­
ing
ing
menc­
prior to prior to
ing
applica­ applica­
after
tion for, tion for
applica­
but
board
tion for
termi­
and
board,
nating
contin­
but
before
uing
before
consti­
after it
its
was
tution
report.
of,
consti­
board.
tuted. '

Com- mencing
after
Board
not
investi­
consti­
gation
and
tuted.
report
of
board.

Total.

Board
consti­
tuted.

Board
not
consti­
tuted.

Total.
Total.

PERCENTAGE OF DISPUTES.

1907
1908
1999
1910
1911..........
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1007-1911.
1912-1916.
1907-1916.

&0
3,6
9.5
3.6

6.7
7.4
4.9
3.2
4.1

8.0
9.5
3.6
4.8
7.1

3.3
1.1
2.3

9.5
.........9.*5*

3.7
4.9
1.1
3.2

8.0
3. 6
14.3
14.3
4.8
14.3
10.0
5.6
6.7
3.7
8.9
7.4
8.3

12.0

4.8
5.0

3.3
1.1
2.3

36.0
7.1
42.9
21.4
23.8
21.4
15.0
5.6
13.3
14.8
25.2
13.8
20.3

60.0
82.1
52.4
53.6
57.1
64.3
75.0
83.3
66. 7
44.4
61.8
64.9
63.1

4.0
10.7
4.8
25.0
19.0
14.3
10.0
11.1
20.0
40. 7
13.0
21.3
16.6

64.0
92.9
57.1
78.6
76.2
78.6
85.0
94.4
86. 7
85. 2
74.8
89.2
79.7

100.0
100.0
m o
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.9
5.4
.4
2.9
35.8
23.9
7.7
5.2
30.0
61.4
8.7
32.3
18.4

55.8
74.1
39.1
82. 6
52.6
70.8
96.5
98.3
97.8
94.5
64.3
93.3
76.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.

1907
1908
1909........
1910
1911...........
1912
1913........
1914...........
1915..........
1916..........
1907-1911.
1912-1916.
1907-1916.

8.6
.9
6.9
.3

.5
4. 9
2.9
2.0
2.5

16.7
20.3
1.0
37.6
11.9

9.2
1.3
6.0

1.6
.........i*o*

.i
3.8
.1
2.2

7.8
25.0
32.1
16. 2
.2
17.3
2.5
1.7
1.6
.4
16.4
3.1
11.0

11.2

7.5
.9

3.4
.3
2.1

44.4
25.9
60.9
17.4
47.4
29.2
3.5
1.7
2.2
5.5
35.7
6.7
23.8

53.9
68.7
38.7
79.7
16.8
46.9
78.8
93.1
67.9
33.2
55.6
61.0
57.8

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contemplating
the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.




48

IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S IN V E ST IG A T IO N AC T OF C A NAD A.

T a b l e 1 0 .— P E R C E N T , W I T H I N E A C H Y E A R , O F S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN W H IC H
A P P L IC A T IO N W A S M A D E A N D W A S N O T M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T ,
B Y C L A S S E S , M A R . 22, 1907, TO D E C . 31, 1916.1

[Total strikes and lockouts in all industries within the scope of the act each year equal 100 per cent.l
Strikes and lockouts within the scope of the act.

Strikes and lockouts in which application was made for reference
under the act.
Year.

Strikes and
lockouts in
which ap­
plication
was not
made for
reference.

Commenc­
ing prior to
application
for, but ter­
minating
before con­
stitution of,
board.

Commenc­
ing prior to
application
for board
and contin­
uing after it
* was con­
stituted.

Commenc­
ing after an
application
for board
but before
its report.

Commenc­
ing after
Board not
investiga­
consti­
tion and
tuted.
report of
board.

Total.
Total.

PERCENTAGE OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.

190 7
.
190 8
.
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
191 6
1907-1911
1912-1916
1907-1916.

78.0
89.5
52.6
57.1
80.0
90.6
85.7
83.3
81.8
88.2
73.7
87.5
80.2

4.9
5.3
10.5
7.1

9.1
5.9
5.1
2.9
4.1

4.9
10.5
7.1
4.0
3.1

'io .'5
*8.0

2.9
5.1
1.0
3.2

3.4
1.0
2.3

4.9
5.3
15.8
28.6
4.0
6.3
9.5
16.7
9.1
2.9
9.3
6.7
8.1

7.3

4.0
4." 8

3.4
1.0
2.3

22.0
10.5
47.4
42.9
20.0
9.4
14.3
16.7
18.2
11.8
26.3
12.5
19.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

47.9
65.1
78.4
89.7
59.5
22.0
17.8
10.9
3.0
10.1
62.5
13.4
43.!

10010
100.0
IQBlO
lOfr.O
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

73.1
95.6
96.1
98.6
96.7
65.0
17.2
.2
6.5
18.3
95.0
18.6
75.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

loe.o

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.

190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
191 6
1907-1911
1912-1916.
1907-1916

52.1
34.9
21.6
10.3
40.5
78.0
82.2
89.1
97.0
89.9
37.5
86.6
56.2

9.3
2.4
8.9
1.3

9.1
5.0
3.9
4.1

18.1
26.1
5.1
47.3
9.0

"2.Y

.3
6.6
.1
4.1

16.1
2.6
11.0

8.5
62.7
41.3
83.3
.2
13.0
13.0
10.9
2.3
.8
28.8
6.3
20.2

9.5
*4.’ 8

6.0
.5
3.9

PERCENTAGE OF WORKING DAYS LOST.

190 7
190 8
190 9
191 0
191 1
.
191 2
191 3
191 4
191 5
191 6
1907-1911
1912-1916
1907-1916.

4.8
3.9
1.4
3.3
35.0
82.!
99.!
93.5
81.7
5.0
81.4
24.2

4.4
.3

23.8
25.8
1.7
82.5
13.6
1.

.3
15.2
.5
1.7

43.8
3.1
33.6

1.3
24.5

.2
3.7
(2)

38.2
95.3
68.7
96.8
11.3
26.9
15.2
.2
6.2
*2.9
45.7
13.7
37.7

1.7
'" .2

1.2
.1
1.0

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contemplating
the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

49

1 1 — P E R C E N T A G E A N A L Y S IS W IT H IN E A C H Y E A R OF S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S
IN W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N F O R R E F E R E N C E W A S M A D E U N D E R T H E A C T , B Y C L A S S E S ,
M A R 22, 1907, TO D E C . 31, 1916.

Table

[Total strikes and lockouts in applications for reference each year equal 100 per cent.]

Commencing
prior to appli­
cation for, but
terminating
before consti­
tution of,
board.

Year.

Commencing
prior to appli­
cation for
board and con­
tinuing after
it was consti­
tuted.

Commencing
after applica­
tion for board
but before its
report.

Commencing
after investi­
gation and re­
port of board.

Board not
constituted.

Total.

PERCENTAGE OF STRIKES AN D LOCKOUTS.

1907..........
1908..........
1909..........
1910..........
1911..........
1912..........
1913..........
1914..........
1915..........
1916..........
1907-1911.
1912-1916.
1907-1916.

22.2
50.0
22 2
16. 7

50.0
50.0
19.4
26.1
20.5

22.2
22 2
16. 7
20 0
33.3

12.9
7.7
11.4

22.2
40.0

25.0
19.4
7.7
15.9

22.2
50.0
33.3
66. 7
20.0
66. 7
66.7
100.0
50.0
25.0
35.5
53.8
40.9

33.3

20.0
33.3

12.9
7.7
11.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

PERCENTAGE OF EM PLO YEES AFFECTED.

1907..........
1908..........
1909..........
1910..........
1911..........
1912..........
1913..........
1914........
1915..........
1916..........
1907-1911.
1912-1916.
1907-1916.

19.4
3.6
11.3
1.5

25.4
89. 7
8.0
29.1
10.4

37.7
33.3
5. 7
79.5
40.8

25.8
19.5
25.0

2.7
4.3

2.5
10.6
.8
9.4

17. 7
96.4
52.7
92.9
.3
59.2
73.1
100.0
74.6
7.7
46.0
46.7
46.1

25.2

15.9
26.9

9.6
3.9
9.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

PERCENTAGE OF W O R K IN G DAYS LOST.

1907..........
190S..........
1909..........
1910. . .
1911. . .
1912..........
1913..........
1914..........
1915..........
1916..........
1907-1911.
1912-1916.
1907-1916.

6. 1
.3
.7

5.1
83.4
.5
9.1
1.0

32.6
26.9
1. 7
85.3
21.0
10. 7

46.1
16.8
44.3

1.0
1 3
37.7

.8
3.9
.1
3.7

52.3
99. 7
71.5
98.2
11. 7
41.4
88.2
100.0
94.9
15.8
48.2
73.5
49.7

9.0

1.7
1.1

1.3
.6
1.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Strikes, and lockouts in mining and in railways in which applica­
tion was made for reference, as compared with applications for
reference in all industries, are shown by years and by time of occur­
rence in relation to application for reference in Tables 12 to 17.
8372°— 18------ 4




50

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

T a b UL 1 2 . — S T R IK E S . A N D L O C K O U T S IN I N D U S T R I E S W I T H I N T H E SC O PE O F T H E
C A N A D I A N I N D U S T R I A L D IS P U T E S I N V E S T I G A T I O N A C T* C O M M E N C IN G P R IO R T O
A P P L I C A T I O N F O R , B U T T E R M I N A T I N G B E F O R E C O N S T IT U T IO N O F , B O A R D , M A R .
22,1907, TO D E C . 31, 1916.1

Year.

Number
Number Number
of strikes of estab­
of
and
lishments employees
lockouts. affected.
affected.

Num ber of
days lost.*

A 1 industries.
1
1907 3..................
1908.....................
1909....................
1910....................
1915...................
1916.....................

2
1
2
1
1
2.

18
1
2
1
I
2

1,805
300
950
60
43
1,44&

11,585
1.200
4, 700
(4)
129
20,45ft

TotaJ..........

9

25

4,606

38,070

Mining^
1908.....................
1910....................
1915....................
1916.......... ..

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

300
60
43
1,188

1,200
(4)
129
20,196

Total..........

4

4

1,5M

21,525

Railways*
19073..................
190$.....................

1
2

1
2

205
950

385
4,700

Total.

3

3

1,155

5,085

1 N ot including strikes and lockouts in industries brought 'within the scope of the act by concurrence
of both parties to the dispute under section 63, which terminated prior to reference under the act.
2 Includes all tim # lost during each year, regardless of when the disputes began,
a J£ar. 22 to D ec. 31.
4 Not reported.
T aikle 1 3 ___S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S I N I N D U S T R I E S W I T H I N T H E SC O PE O F T H E
C A N A D I A N I N D U S T R I A L D IS P U T E S I N V E S T I G A T IO N A C T IN W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N
W A S M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T , B U T B O A R D N O T C O N S T IT U T E D ,
M A R . 22, 1907 T O D E C . 31, 1916.*

Year.

. Number Number
Number
of
of strikes of estab­
and
lishments employees
lockouts. affected.
affected.

Number of
days lost.2

A 1 industries:.
1
1907 3..................
19.11.....................
1 9 1 3 ,.................

3
1
1

9
1
1

2,350
1,400
200

17,250
28,000
1,400

Total..........

5

11

3,950

46,650

Mining.
1907 *..................

2

2

1,850

12,750

Total

2

2

1,850

12,750

Railways.
1911.....................

1

1

1,400

28,000

Total..........

1

1

1,400

28,000

1 Including only those applications in which formal action was taken by the minister of labor, contem­
plating the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
2 Including all time lost during each year, regardless of when the dispute began.
*
s Mar. 22 to D ec. 31.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

51

T a bl e 1 4 . — S T R IK E S A N P L O C K O U T S IN I N D U S T R IE S W I T H I N T H E SC O P E O F T H E
C A N A D I A N I N D U S T R I A L D IS P U T E S IN V E S T I G A T IO N A C T , C O M M E N C IN G P R IO R T O
A P P L IC A T IO N F O E B O A R D A N D C O N T IN U IN G A F T E R I T W A S C O N S T IT U T E D , M A R .
22, 1907, T O D E C . 31, 1916.1

Year.

Number
Number Number
of
of strikes of estab­
and
lishments employees
affected.
lockouts. affected.

Number of
days lost.2

A ll industries.
1909.

imo.................
m i .................
1912..................
1012_________
T o t a l..

12
1

2
1
1
1

16

2,800
234
7,000

187,500
7,956
1, 390,000
24,500
* 13,500

30

11,034

1, 623,456

1

5

1,000

Minting.
1909
1910....................
1911___________

2
1
1

12
1
16

2,800
234
7,000

187,500
7,956
1, 390,000

T o ta l. .

4

29

10,034

1, 585,456

Railways.
1912
1913___________
T o t a l..

1

|

1

1,000

1

1

1

1

1,000

24,500

3 13,500
38,000

1 N ot including strikes and lockouts in industries brought within the scope of the act by the concurrence
of both parties to the dispute under section 63 which terminated prior to reference undetr the act.
2 Includes all time lost during each year, regardless of when the dispute began.
3 Time lost in 1913 on account of a strike which began prior to 1913.
1 5 . - S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN I N D U S T R IE S W I T H I N T H E SC O PE O F T H E
C A N A D I A N I N D U S T R I A L D IS P U T E S I N V E S T I G A T IO N A C T , C O M M E N C IN G A F T E R
A P P L IC A T IO N F O R B O A R D B U T B E F O R E ITS R E P O R T , M A R . 22,1907, T O D E C . 31,1916.

T able

Year.

N umber Number
Number
of strikes of estab­
of
and
lishments employees
lockouts. affected.
affected.

Number of
days lost.i

A 1 industries.
1
1907 2..................
1909.............
1911.....................
1912....................
1916.....................

2
2
2

8
2
2

1

1

41

62,240
6,825
21, 720
3 44,000
205

T o t a l..

7

13

4,166

134,990

3,520
225
380

Mining.
1907 2..................
1909....................
1911....................

2
2
1

8
2
1

3,520
225
80

62,240
6,825
720

T o t a l..

5

11

3,825

69,785

1911.....................
1912.....................
1916.....................

1

1

300

1

1

41

21,000
3 44,000
205

Total. .

2

2

341

65,205

Railways.

1 Including all time lost during each year, regardless of when the dispute began.
2 Mar. Q to Dec. 31.
2
3 Time lost in 1912 on account of a strike which began prior to 1912.




52

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

T able 1 6 . —S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN I N D U S T R IE S W I T H I N T H E SC O PE 01? T H E
C A N A D I A N I N D U S T R I A L D IS P U T E S I N V E S T I G A T IO N A C T C O M M E N C IN G A F T E R IN V E S ­
T IG A T IO N A N D R E P O R T O F B O A R D , M A R . 22, 1907, TO D E C . 31, 1910.

Year.

Number Num ber
of strikes of estab­
and
lishments
lockouts. affected.

Number
of
employees
affected.

Number of
days lost, i

A ll industries.
1907 2..................
1908....................
1909....................
1910....................
1911....................
1912....................
1913....................
1914....................
1915....................
1916....................
Total—

2
1
3
4
1
2
2
1
1
1

2
1
3
5
1
26
3
1
1
1

1,650
8,000
4,425
3.830
' 30
1,4,50
544
150
126
125

99,950
424,000
498,425
3 443,770
4 190,000
48,300
6 111, 790
300
2,394
3,874

18

45

20,330

1,822,803

Mining.
1907 2..................
1909
....................
1910....................
1911....................
1912....................
1913....................

2
3
1
1
1
2

2
3
3
1
O
K
3

1,650
4,425
Q
Q
O fi
oU
Q
A
oil
1,200
544

99,950
y
ftiS A K
O
UO
a ooy, ion
° ocn
4 jy'j, uuu
1ftr A A
t A
*
40, 800
5 111,790

T o ta l....

10

37

8,229

1,316,08j

Railways.
1908....................
1910....................
1P12....................
1916....................
Total___

1
o
&
l
l

1
2
I
1

8,000
2,900
250
125

424,000
67,500
1,500
3,874

5

5

11,275

406,871

i Including all time lost during each year regardless of when the dispute began.
a Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
3 Including 360,000 days lost in 1910 on account of a coal strike which began prior to 1910.
4 Days lost in 1911 on account of a coal strike which began prior to 1911. Time loss of strike commencing
in 1911 not reported.
6 Including 24,800 days lost in 1913 on account of a gold strike which began prior to 1913.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.
T able

53

17.—STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE -SCOPE OF THE
ACT, IN WHICH APPLICATION WAS NOT MADE FOR REFERENCE.
Year.

Number Number
Number
of strikes of estab­
of
and
lishments employees
lockouts. affected.
affected.

Number of
days lost, i

A ll industries.

1907 2..................
1908....................
1909....................
1910....................
1911....................
1912....................
1913....................
1914....................
1915....................
1916....................

32
17
10
8
20
29
18
5
9
30

67
17
10
8
‘ 115
32
23
5
18
74

10,143
4,454
?, 317
475
5,990
8,702
3,439
1,232
5,429
14,335

T o ta l....

178

369

. 56,522

‘

70,390
21,506 *
27.998
6,478
54,853
62,829
609,329
173,437
36,025
109,833

1,172, 678

Mining.

1907 2..................
1908....................
1909....................
1911....................
1912....................
1913....................
1911....................
1915....................
1916
....................
Total—

8
9
4
5
5
3
2
5
9

37
9
4
7
5
3
2
10
13

6,081
3 ,5o4
1,570
2,259
3,874
537
975
4,289
10,626

25,310
18,701
24,082
12,0S0
42,308
590,936
169,200
16,665
68.438

50

90

33,775

967,780

Railways.

1907 2..................
1908....................
1910....................
1911....................
1912....................
1913....................
1915....................
1916....................

9
3
.
4
6
30
3
1
14

9
3
4
79
12
6
1
25

1,792
390
305
1,097
2,223
1,100
200
1,909

12,817
1,480,
6,200
29,953
11,026
7,500
600
21,39-1

T o ta l....

50

139

9,016

90,970

1 Including all time lost during each year regardless of when the disputo began,
a Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.*




54

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.
P E R IO D

M ARCH

2 2 , 1907* T O

DECEM BER

31,

1916.

ALL DISPUTES.

From the summaries presented in the preceding tables it will be
observed that during the period March 22, 1907, to December 31,
1916, there have occurred in industries within the scope of the act
222 disputes resulting in strikes and lockouts, affecting 100,608
employees whose time loss was 4,838,647 working days. In 44 of
these, involving 44,086 employees and a time loss of 3,665,969 days,
application was made for reference under the act. Of this number,
18 disputes, affecting 20,330 employees and occasioning a time loss
of 1,822,803 days, did not result in strikes or lockouts until after*the
investigation and report of a board and consequently were legal.
Thus there have been 204 .illegal strikes and lockouts, affecting
80,278 employees whose time loss was 3,015,844 days. Of this num­
ber, 178 disputes, involving 56,522 employees and a time loss of
1,172,678 days, occurred without either party to the dispute seek­
ing to invoke the aid of the act.
A further analysis of the strikes and lockouts in which applica­
tion was made for reference under the aict shows that nine strikes, in­
volving 4,606 employees and a time loss of 38,070 days, began prior
to the application for a board, but were called off prior to the com­
pletion of the board, the matter in dispute being held in abeyance
pending an investigation; five strikes, affecting 3,950 employees whose
time loss was 46,650 days, began prior to the application for a board
and were adjusted before a board was constituted; five strikes, affect­
ing 11,034 employees whose time loss was 1,623,456 days, began
prior to the application for a board and continued after the board
was constituted; seven strikes, affecting 4,166 employees and result­
ing in a time loss of 134,990 days, began after the application for a
board, but before its report.
In addition to the 44 strikes and lockouts, in the adjudication of
which the act was invoked, 173 disputes affecting 141,295 employees,
not resulting in strike or lockout but in which statutory declaration
of intent to take such action was made, were referred to boards of
conciliation and investigation under the act, or application was made
for such reference and action taken by the department of labor con­
templating the establishment of such a board. In 36 of these dis­
putes, affecting 34,145 employees, a settlement was reported before
a board was constituted; in 137 disputes, affecting 107,150 employ­
ees, boards were constituted. How many of these 137 disputes
w6uld have resulted in strikes or lockouts but for reference under
the act is problematical. It will be interesting, however, to examine
those disputes in which application was made for reference, such
application being accompanied by the statutory declaration that,




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

55

failing an adjustment or a reference, a strike or lockout would result,
but for which boards were not constituted.
Of applications in which boards are not constituted only those are
reported in the official proceedings in which action is taken by the
department of labor looking to the establishment of a board. Of
the disputes thus reported, reference has been made to five strikes
affecting 3,950 employees, and to 36 disputes not resulting in strike
or lockout, affecting 34,145 employees, in which boards were not
constituted. Of the five strikes, all began prior to the application for
boards and could not have been precipitated by a failure of reference.
Of applications in disputes not reported in the proceedings under the
act, 14 disputes, affecting 8,247 employees, were in industries not
within the scope of the act and for which thq department was unable
to grant boards owing to the lack of concurrence of both parties to
the disputes. Of these 14 disputes, 6 disputes, affecting 6,465
employees, resulted in strikes prior to the applications for boards,
and the inability of the department to apply the act could not be
advanced as a reason for the strikes; one strike, affecting 96 employees,
commenced the same day the application was received, but presuma­
bly not until the other party to the dispute had refused to concur in
the request for a board.
Summarizing the figures of the preceding paragraph it will be
observed that there were 55 disputes, affecting 46,342 employees, in
which application was made for reference but in which boards were not
constituted.1 In 11 of these disputes, affecting 10,415 employees, a
strike occurred prior to the application for reference. In 44 dis­
putes, affecting 35,927 employees, a strike or lockout did not occur
prior to the application for reference, and of these, 43, or 97.7 per
cent of the disputes, affecting 35,833, or 99.7 per cent of the employ­
ees, were adjusted without the occurrence of a strike or lockout.
It is recognized, however, that the formal action of applying for a
board may in itself make for a resumption of negotiations between
the parties to a dispute and, too, that after the application is received
the department is in a favorable position to serve as a conciliatory
or mediatory agency and may aid in securing a settlement before
a board is completed. It is recognized, too, that disputes settled
without the occurrence of a strike or lockout and without reference
to boards may not have presented the degree of difficulty in adjust­
ment as disputes referred to boards. To the extent, however, that
the statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock out indicates the
seriousness of the controversy, all disputes are on a parity. Meas­
ured thus, it is apparent that of the 137 disputes referred to boards
i Other applications for reference, not reported officially, bi which boards were refused for technical or
other reasons, or in which settlements were effected before action was taken by the department, are not
considered in this analysis.




56

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

and not resulting in strike or lockout a considerable number would
have been adjusted without the occurrence of strikes or lockouts
even though not referred to boards.
Viewed strictly as a conciliatory measure, the usefulness of the act
should be reflected in the applications for reference under section 63,
whereby the concurrence of both disputants is necessary in disputes
outside specified industries before a board can be created. Table 6
shows a total of 26 applications under section 63, in disputes affect­
ing 13,781 employees. In 12 disputes, affecting 5,534 employees,
boards were constituted;’ in 14 disputes, affecting 8,247 employees,
the department was unable to act owing, as previously stated, to the
absence of joint consent of the disputants. During the same period
there occurred a total of 691 strikes and lockouts, affecting 149,812
employees whose time loss was 3,254,332 working days, in industries
not within the scope of the act, but which might have been brought
within its scope by agreement of both parties to the disputes.
M IN IN G .

An analysis of mining disputes for the period under consideration
shows that 75 strikes or lockouts occurred, affecting 59,304 em­
ployees and occasioning a time loss of 3,973,381 days. Of this
number 50 strikes, affecting 33,775 employees whose time loss was
967,780 days, occurred without reference to the act and 25 strikes,
affecting 25,529 employees whose time loss was 3,005,601 days,
were referred under the act or application was made for reference.
Of the strikes referred under the act, 4, affecting 1,591 employees
whose time loss was 21,525 days, occurred prior to application for
reference but terminated prior to the completion of a board and
pending its investigation and report; 4 strikes, affecting 10,034 em­
ployees whose time loss was 1,585,456 days, commenced prior to an
application for a board and continued after the board was consti­
tuted; 5 strikes, affecting 3,825 employees and occasioning a time
loss of 69,785 days, commenced after the application for a board
but before its report; 10 strikes, affecting 8,229 employees whose time
loss was 1,316,085 days, commenced after the investigation and
report of a board; in 2 strikes, affecting 1,850 employees whose time
loss was 12,750 days, a board was applied for but not completed.
Of the disputes not resulting in strike or lockout, referred under the
act or in which application was made for reference and action taken
by the department of labor contemplating the establishment of a
board, 34 disputes, affecting 24,670 employees, were mining disputes.
In 5 of these disputes, affecting 2,860 employees, a settlement was
effected before boards were completed.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

57

R A IL W A Y S .

A similar analysis of disputes connected with the operation and
maintenance of steam railways shows that 62 strikes or lockouts
occurred, affecting 24,187 employees and occasioning a time loss of
724,134 days. Of this number 50 strikes, affecting 9,016 employees
whose time loss was 90,970 days, were not referred under the act,
whereas 12 strikes, affecting 15,171 employees whose time loss was
633,164 days, were referred under the act. Of the strikes referred
under the act, or in which application was made for reference, 3,
affecting 1,155 employees whose time loss was 5,085 days, com­
menced prior to application for reference but terminated prior to
the completion of a board and pending its investigation and report;
1 strike, affecting 1,000 employees whose time loss was 38,000 days,
commenced prior to application for a board and continued after the
board was constituted; 2 strikes, affecting 341 employees whose time
loss was 65,205 days, commenced after the application for a board
but before its report; 5 sjbrikes, affecting 11,275 employees whose
time loss was 496,874 days, commenced after the investigation and
report of a board; in 1 strike, affecting 1,400 employees whose time
loss was 28,000 days, a board was applied for but not constituted.
Of the disputes not resulting in strike or lockout in which applica­
tion was made for reference, 76 affecting 93,200 employees were
railway disputes. Of this number 23 disputes affecting 29,843
employees were adjusted before a board was constituted.
Disputes in each industry within the scope of the act are analyzed
similarly in Table 18. A percentage analysis is presented in Tables
19 to 27.
In Table 19, total disputes in all industries within the scope of the
act is used as the base for an analysis of the disputes in which appli­
cation was made and was not made for reference.
It will be observed that 56.2 per cent of the disputes, affecting 41.6
per cent of the employees, were strikes and lockouts.
Strikes and lockouts in which application was not made for refer­
ence under the act constituted 45.1 per cent of all disputes and affected
23.4 per cent of all employees.
Application was made for reference under the a c t 1 in 54.8 per cent
of all disputes affecting 76.6 per cent of all employees. Strikes and
lockouts in which application was made for reference constituted
11.1 per cent of all disputes and affected 18.2 per cent of all employees.
Legal strikes and lockouts constituted 4.6 per cejit of all disputes
and affected 8.4 per cent of all employees.
i “ Application for reference” is used in this analysis to denote only those applications in which it was
the intent of the department of labor to establish boards of conciliation and investigation.




58

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

Railways contributed the greatest percentage of disputes not re­
sulting in strike or lockout; mining contributed the greatest per­
centage of strikes and lockouts.
Employees affected in mining disputes in which application was
made for reference were approximately one-fifth of employees
affected in all disputes within the scope of the act, whereas railway
employees in applications for reference were 44.8 per cent of em­
ployees in all disputes within the scope of the act.
Employees affected in legal strikes and lockouts in railways were
4.7 per cent, in mining 3.4 per cent, of employees in disputes in all
industries within the scope of the act.
In Table 20, total disputes in each industry is made the base for a
comparison of disputes within the scope of and in proceedings und«r
the act for that industry.
It will be observed that 68.8 per cent of all mining disputes, as
against 44.9 per cent of all railway disputes, were strikes and lock­
outs. However, only 20.6 per cent of employees in railway disputes
were affected in strikes and lockouts, as ag&inst 70.6 per cent in mining
disputes.
In 63.8 per cent of railway disputes, affecting 92.3 per cent of all
employees in railway disputes, application was made for reference
under the act; in mining, 54.1 per cent of the disputes, affecting 59.8
per cent of the employees, resulted in application for reference.
In 9.2 per cent of mining disputes, as against 3.6 per cent of railway
disputes, legal strikes or lockouts occurred. The percentages of em­
ployees affected in legal strikes and lockouts were nearly on a parity
for the two industries—9.8 per cent for mining and 9.6 per cent for
railways.
Applications for reference in which the disputes were settled before
boards were constituted aggregated 6.4 per cent in mining and 17.4
per cent in railways.
Table 21 shows a comparison between industries on the basis of
each item in the classification of disputes within the scope of and in
proceedings under the act.
Of all strikes and lockouts in industries within the scope of the act
mining contributed 33.8 per cent and railways 27.9 per cent. Of all
employees affected in such strikes and lockouts mining contributed
58.9 per cent and railways 23.9 per cent. The relative importance
of mining strikes and lockouts is best shown in the time lost, mining
contributing 82.1 per cent of the total time lost and railways 15 per
cent, or less than one-fifth as much.
Of disputes not resulting in strike or lockout within the scope of
the act railways contributed more than twice as many as mining—
43.9 per cent, as against 19.7 per cent. Of all employees affected in




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

59

such disputes railway employees were 66 per cent and mining em­
ployees 17.5 per cent.
A comparison of strikes and lockouts in which application was not
made for reference under the act shows that whereas mining and rail­
ways each contributed 28.1 per cent of such strikes and lockouts, of
all employees in this classification, mining^ contributed 59.8 per cent
and railways 16 per cent. In percentage of time lost in strikes and
lockouts in which application was not made for reference, mining and
railways show an even wider difference, time lost in mining strikes
and lockouts being 82.5 per cent, and in railways 7.8 per cent, of the
total time lost.
Mining contributed 55.6 per cent of all legal strikes and lockouts;
railways exactly one-half as much. Of all employees affected in
legal strikes and lockouts, mining employees were 40.5 per cent and
railway employees 55.5 per cent. Of days lost in legal strikes and
lockouts, 72.2 per cent were in mining and 27.3 per cent in railways.
Of disputes not resulting in strikes and lockouts in which boards
were not constituted, railways contributed 63.9 per cent and mining
but 13.9 per cent. Of strikes and lockouts in which boards were not
constituted, railway strikes and lockouts were 20 per cent and mining
strikes and lockouts 40 per cent. However, in point of time lost in
such strikes and lockouts, railways contributed 60 per cent and
mining but 27.3 per cent.




T able 18.—DISPUTES IN WHICH APPLICATION WAS MADE FOR REFERENCE UNDER THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION
ACT, AND TOTAL DISPUTES IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE ACT, BY INDUSTRIES, MAR. 22, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1916.1

Industries affected.

Disputes not resulting in
strikes or lockouts. 2

Board
con­
sti­
tuted.

Total.

Total.

Board
not
consti­
tuted.

Total.

Disputes
not re‘ Strikes
' suiting
and
in strike
lockouts.
or lock­
out.2

D IS P U T E S

Total.

NU M BE R OF. DISPUTES.

Mines and public utilities:
Mines__
Coal.......................................
M etal................................................
Total.........................................

4

50

4

4

50

3

1

12
26

4

Total.............................................

90

178




4
1

26

26

8

44
15

54

7

21

8

80
29

2

25

29

5

34

59

75

34

109

1

12

53
19
9
3

23
5

76
24

88
12

62
15
28

76
24

10
3

3

1

2

1
2

138
39
38

5

10

2

5

1
1

2

3

1

27

1

1

2

7

1

1

3

18

85

29

114

132

3

5

2

1

5
5
28

Grand total................................

22

2

1
1

Light and power..................................
Munitions.......................................
Municipal w ork....................................
Other than mines and public utilities

18
7

3
7

5

ACT

Transportation and communica­
tion—
Railways.........................................
Street railways.............................
Shipping.........................................
Telegraphs......................................
Telephones.....................................

36
14

1

4

4

1

8
12

1

9

44

137

36

1
9

* 5

7

18

I N V E S T I G A T IO N

Strikes and lockouts.
Strikes
and
lockouts
in which
Com­
Com­
applica­ mencing mencing
tion was prior to
prior to
Com­
Com­
not made applica­ applica­ mencing mencing
for ref­
tion for, tion for after ap­ after in­
Board
erence.
plication vestiga­ not con­
board
but ter­
minating and con­ for board tion and stituted.
tinuing but before report of
before
constitu­ after it its report. board.
tion of, was con­
board.
stituted.

IN D U S T R I A L

Disputes within the scope
of the act.

Disputes in which application was made for reference under the act.1

o*
O

5

10
1

4
3

108

114

222

5
5

4

9
5

29

9
12

38

12

10
12

173

217

222

173

395

3

12

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.
Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal.............................
M etal..........................

25,703
8,072

1,591

10,034

3,825

5,450
2,779

1,850

22,750
2,779

20,125
1,685

Total..

33,775

1,591

10,034

3,825

8,229

1,850

25,529

21,810

9,016
1,675
6,264
75
150

1,155
260
1,600

1,000

341

11,275
700

1,400

15,171
' 960
2,100

29,843
1,116
50

200

63,357
7,291
5,595
1,125
220

17,180

3,015

1,000

18,431

77,588

Transportation and communica­
tion—
Railways.......................................
Street railways............................
Shipping........................................
Telegraphs....................................
Telephones...................................

Light apd power................................
Munitions................................... *—
Municipal work..................................
Other than mines and public utilities.

56,522

11,975

2,100

271

580
1,645
3,342

Grand total..............................

*200'
341

1,947
5,534

126
4,606

11,034

4,166

20,330

3,950

44,086 107,150

44,935
5,264

48,453
10,851

22,185
2,485

70,638
13,336

24,670

50,199

59,304

24,670

13,974

93,200
8,407
5,645
1,125
220

08,371
9,367
7,745
1,125
420

24,187
2,635
8,364
75
350

93,200
8,407
5,645
1,125
220

117,387
11,042
14,009
1,200
570

31,009 108,597

127,028

35,611

108,597

144,208

521

521

521

1,973
5,534

2,099
5,534

580
1,645
3,468

1,973
5,534

1,101
1,645
5,441
5,534

34,145 141,295

185,381

141,295

241,903

250

"26

100,

c o m p a r is o n

Total..

500

22,185
2,485

2,060
800

NU M BE R OF W O R KIN G DAYS LOST.
of

921,494
46,286

21,525 1,585,456

1,785 1,141,550
174,535

12,750 2,831,066
174,535

2,831,066 3,752,560
220,821
174,535

3,752,560
220,821

Total...........................................

967,780

21,525 1,585,456

69,785 1,316,085

12, 750 3,005,601

3,005,601 3,973,381

3,973,381

Transportation and communica­
tion—
Railways.......................................
Street railways............................
Shipping.......................................
Telegraphs....................................
Telephones...................................

90,970
7,375
64,021
750
600

5,085
260
11,200

38,000

724,134
15,085
79,721
750
2,000

163,716

16,545

38,000

Light and power................................
Munitions.............................................
Municipal work.................................
Other than mines and public utilities.
Grand total.

"i,406

1,400

1,400

724,134
15,085
79,721
750
2,000

33,900

657,974

657,974

821,690

821,690

2,394

6,075
18,146
19,355

6,075
18,146
19,355

3,665,969 4,838,647

4,838,647

28,000
4,500

6,075
18,146
16,961
1,172,678

496,874
7,450

65,205

504,324

2,394
38,070 1,623,456

134,990 1,822,

633,164
7,710
15,700

2,394
46,650 3,665,969

633,164
7,710
15,700

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contemplating the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation,
a Including only those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock out was made.




;

Total..

65,205

d is p u t e s

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal.............................
Metal..........................

05

Table 19,-P E R CENT OF DISPUTES IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE ACT IN WHICH APPLICATION WAS MADE FOR REFERENCE,
BY INDUSTRIES AND CLASSES OF DISPUTES, MAR. 22, 1907, TO DEC. 31,1916.1

to

[Total disputes in industries within the scope of the act equal 100 per cent.]

Disputes not resulting in
strikes or lockouts.2

Total.

Board
not
consti­
tuted.

Total.

Disputes
not re­
sulting
in strike
or lock­
outs

Total.

Total.

I N V E S T I G A T IO N

Board
con­
sti­
tuted.

Strikes
and
lockouts.

PERCENTAGE OF DISPUTES,

1.3

0.8
1.8

0.5

4.6
1.8

5.6
1.8

1.0
.3

6.6
2.0

11.1
3.8

13.7
5.3

6.6
2.0

20.3
7.3

1.0

1.3

2.5

.5

6.3

7.3

1.3

8.6

14.9

19.0

8.6

27.6

.8
.3
.3

.3

.5

1.3
.5

3.0
.8
.5

5.8
1.3
.3

19.2
6.1
2.5
.8
.3

22.3
6.8
3.0
.8
.5

15.7
3.8
7.1
.3
.5

19.2
6.1
2.5
.8
.3

34.9
9.9
9.6
1.0
.8

1.3

.3

9.1
3.5

1.0

Total............................................

12.7

1.0

Transportation and communica­
tion—
Railways.................
Street railways.............................
Shipping.........................................
Telegraphs......................
Telephones...........

12.7
3.0
6.6
.3
.3
22.8




1.3
1.3
7.1

.3

.3

13.4
4.8
2.3
.8
.3

.8

4.6

21.5

7.3

28.9

33.4

. 27.3

28.9

56.2

.8

.3

1.0

1.0

1.0

2.0

.3

2.3

2.5

1.3
1.3
7.3

2.3
1.3
9.6

.3
.3

.5

1.8

.3 .................. I

*

.3

2.3

CANADA

Light and power.........
Munitions................
Municipal work................

1

O
F

Total...................

1.0

ACT

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal.....................
Metal......................................

D IS P U T E S

Industries affected.

Strikes and lockouts.
Strikes
and
lookouts
in which
Com­
Com­
applica­ mencing mencing
tion was prior to
prior to
Com­
Com­
not made applica­ applica­ mencing mencing
for ref­
tion for, tion for after ap­ after in­
Board
erence.
plication vestiga­ not con­
board
but ter­
minating and con­ for board tion and stituted.
tinuing but before report of
before
constitu­ after it its report. board.
tion of, was con­
stituted.
board.

IN D U S T R I A L

Disputes within the scope
of the act.

Disputes in which application was made for reference under the act.i

O th e r tlia n m in e s a n d p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

Grand total................ ............

.................. !................... 1
45.1

2.3

1.3

1.8

,
Mines and publio utilities:
Mines—
Coal.............................
Metal..........................
Total,

Total.

11.1

3.0 |1

1
...............1
34.7 J

9.1

3.0

43.8

54.8

56.2

43.8

100.0

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.

10,6
3.3

0.7

4.1

1.6

2.3
1,1

0.8

9.4
1.1

8.3
,7

0.9
.3

9,2
1.0

18.6
2.2

20.0
4.5

9.2
1.0

29.2
5.5

14.0

.7

4.1

1.6

3.4

.8

10.6

9.0

1.2

10.2

20.8

24.5

10.2

34.7

3.7
.7
2.6
(3)
.1

.5
,1
.7

.4

.1

4.7
.3

.6

6.3
.4
.9

12.3
.5
(3)

38,5
3.5
2.3
.5
.1

44.8
8.9
3.2
.5
.2

10.0
1.1
3.5
(3)
.1

38.5
8.5
2.3
.5
.1

48/5
4.6
5.8
.5
.2

7.1

1.2

.4

.1
.9

7.6

32,1

12.8

44.9

52.5

.1

.1

.2
.7
1.4
23.4

.1

26.2
3.0
2.3
.5
.1

.1

.2

.2

.8
2.3

.9
2.3

58.4

76.6

.2

5.0

.1

.8
2.3

18.2

44.3

.1
1.9

4.6

1.7

8.4

1.6

(3)
14.1

14.7*
.2
.7
1.4
41.6

44.9

%

59.6

.2
.8
2.3

.5
.7
2.2
2.3

58.4

100.0

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contemplating the establishment of a board Qf conciliation and investigation.,

2 Including only those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock out was made.
3 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.




.D I S P U T E S .

Grand total.

1.3 |

O
F

Light and power................................
Munitions.............................................
Municipal work..................................
Other than mines and public utilities.

4.6

C O M P A R IS O N

Transportation and communica­
tion—
Railways........................................
Street railways.............................
Shipping.........................................
Telegraphs........ .............................
Telephones.....................................

.

O
CO

Table 20.—PER CENT WITHIN EACH INDUSTRY OF DISPUTES IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE ACT IN WHICH APPLICATION
WAS MADE FOR REFERENCE, BY CLASSES OF DISPUTES, MAR. 22, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1916.1

&

^

[Total disputes in each industry within the scope of the act equal 100 per cent.]

Industries affected.

Disputes not resulting in
strikes or lockouts.2

Strikes and lockouts.

Com­
mencing
after ap­
plication
for board
but before
its report.

Com­
mencing
after in­
Board
vestiga­ not con­
tion and stituted.
report oi
board.

Total.

Board
con­
sti­
tuted.

Board
not
consti­
tuted.

Total.
Total.

Disputes
not re­
Strikes
sulting
and
in strike
lockouts.
or lock­
out.2

Total.

I N V E S T I G A T IO N

Com­
mencing
prior to
applica­
tion for
board
and con­
tinuing
after it
was con­
stituted.

-

PERCENTAGE OP DISPUTES.

5.0

5.0

6.3

3.8
24.1

2.5

22.5
24.1

27.5
24.1

5.0
3.4

32. 5
27.6

55.0
51.7

67.5
72.4

32.5
27.6

100.0
100.0

45.9

3.7

3.7

4.6

9.2

1.8

22.9

26.6

4.6

31.2

54.1

68.8

31.2

100.0

36.2
30.8
68.4
25.0
33.* 3

2.2
2.6
2.6

.7

1.4

3.6
5.1

.7

8.7
7.7
5.3

33.3

33.3

38.4
48.7
23.7
75.0
33.3

16.7

2.6

55.1
61.5
26.3
75.0
33.3

63.8
69.2
31.6
75.0
66.7

44.9
38.5
73.7
25.0
66.7

55.1
61.5
26.3
75.0
33.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

..........

40.5

2.3

.5

1.4

8.1

Light and power..................................
Munitions..........................
..........
Municipal work....................................

55.6

Total.................

..........

Total...................




.9

12.8
2.6

38.3

13.1

51.4

59.5

48.6

51.4

100.0

33.3

3.2

11.1

44.4

44.4

55.6

44.4

2 i .i

2 .6

23.7

26.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
75.7

2 .6

2 .6

76.3

23.7

CANADA.

Transportation and communica­
tion—
Railways........
Street railw ays...-.....................
Shipping.................. ......................
Telegraphs.....................................
Telephones..................... ^.............

O
F

45.0
48.3

ACT

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal.................................................
Metal...............................................

D IS P U T E S

Strikes
and
lockouts
in which
Com­
applica­ mencing
tion was prior to
not made applica­
for ref­
tion for,
erence.
but ter­
minating
before
constitu­
tion of,
board.

IN D U S T R I A L

Disputes within the scope
of the act.

Disputes in which application was made for reference under the act .1

1 100.0
--------

Other than mines and public utilities.
Grand total..............................

45.1

2.3

1.3

1.8

4.6

1.3

11.1

34.7

100.0

100.0

43.8

54.9

56.2

43.8

100.0

1 100.0 f
9.1

100.0

8372°— 18-

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.

36.4
60.5

2.3

14.2

5.4

7.7
20.8

2.6

32.2
20.8

28.5
12.6

2.9
6.0

31.4
18.6

63.6
39.5

68.6
81.4

31.4
18.6

100.0
100.0

Total..

40.2

1.9

11.9

4.6

9.8

2.2

30.4

26.0

3.4

29.4

59.8

70.6

29.4

100.0

7.7
15.2
44.7
6.2
26.3

1.0
2.4
11.4

.9

.3

9.6
6.3

1.2
3.6

12.9
8.7
15.0

25.4
10.1
.4

35.1

35.1

54.0
66.0
39.9
93.7
38.6

79.4
76.1
40.3
93.7
38.6

92.3
84.8
55.3
93.7
73.7

20.6
23.9
59.7
6.2
61.4

79.4
76.1
40.3
93.7
38.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

11.8

2.1

.7

1.5

12.9

Transportation and communica­
tion—
Railways.......................................
Street railways............................
Shipping.......................................
Telegraphs...................................
Telephones...................................
Total..

23.4

1.9

4.6

1.7

8.3

1.6

75.3

88.1

24.7

75.3

100.0

22.7

47.3

47.3

47.3

35.8
100.0

.5

36.3
100.0

38.6
100.0

52.7
100.0
63.7

36.3
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

18.2

44.3

14.1

58.4

76.6

58,4

•100.0

41.6

i Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contemplating the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation,
a Including only those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock out was made.




D IS P U T E S .

Grand total.

21.5

2.3

2.3

53.8
24.6

52.7
100.0
61.4

8.3

O
F

Light and power................................
Munitions.............................................
Municipal work..................................
Other than mines and public utilities.

.2

C O M P A R IS O N

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal.............................
M etal..........................

Oi
Oi

Table 21.—PER CENT OF DISPUTES CONTRIBUTED BY EACH INDUSTRY, ACCORDING TO CLASSES OF DISPUTES, MAR. 22, 1907, TO DEC, 31,1916.1

Qi

[Total disputes in each class equal 100 per cent.]

Disputes not resulting in
strikes or lockouts.

Strikes and lockouts.

Industries affected.

Com­
mencing
after ap­
plication
for board
but before
its report.

Com­
mencing
after in­
Board
vestiga­ not con­
tion and stituted.
report of
board.

Total.

Board
con­
sti­
tuted.

Board
not
consti­
tuted.

Total.
Total.

Disputes
not re­
Strikes
sulting
and
in strike
lockouts.
or lock­
out.2

Total.

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal....................
Metal....................
Total..................

80.0

72.4

16.7
38.9

40.0

40.9
15.9

16.1
5.1

11.1
2.8

15.0
4.6

20.3
6,0

24.3
9.5

15.0
4.6

20.3
7.3

28.1

44.4

80.0

72.4

55.6

40.0

66.8

21.2

13.9

19.7

27,2

33.8

19.7

27.6

28.1
6.7
14.6
.6
.6

33.3
U .l
11,1

20.0

28.6

27.8
11.1

20.0

27.3
6.8
4.6

63.9
13.9
2.8

43.9
13.9
5.8
1,7
.6

40.6
12.4
5.5
1.4
.9

27.9
6.8
12.6
,5
.6

43.9
13.9
5.8
1.7
,6

34.9
9.9
9.6
1.0
.8

50.6

55.6

100.0




40.9

62.0

80.6

65.9

60.8

48.6

65.9

56.2

2.2

20.0

28.6

2,8
2.8
15.7

Grand total............................

2.3

60.0

2.8

2.3

1.8

2.3

2.3

6.8
8.8

2.8

5.2
6.9

4.6
5.5

2.3
2.3
13.1

.......... 5.2*
6.9

2.3
1.3
9.6
3.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

20.0

38.9

5.6
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

CANADA.

Light and power___
Munitions.. .
Municipal work..
Other than mines and public utilities

20.0

38.7
13.9
6.6
2.2
.7

O
F

Total..................

44.4

ACT

Transportation and communica­
tion—
Bailw avs.........................
Street railways..........................
Shipping..........................
Telegraphs..................................
Telephones.................................

20.2
7.9

I N V E S T I G A T IO N

percentage op disputes .

D IS P U T E S

Strikes
and
lockouts
Com­
Com­
in which mencing mencing
applica­
prior to
prior to
tion was applica­ applica­
not made tion for,
tion for
for ref­
board
but ter­
erence. minating and con­
before
tinuing
constitu­ after it
tion of, was con­
board.
stituted.

IN D U S T R IA L

Disputes within the scope
of the act.

D isputes in which application was made for reference under the act.1

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.
Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal.............................
Metal..........................

45.5
14.3
34.5

Total...........................................

16.0
3.0
11.1
.1
.3

25.1
5.6
34.7

30.4

65. 5

46.8

40.5

46.8 I

55.5
3.4

35.4

9.1

Total...........................................

26.8
13.7

9.1

Light and power................................
Munitions.............................................
Municipal work..................................
Other than mines and public utilities.

100.0

18.8
1.6

6.0
2.3

15.7
1.8

34.4
2.2
4.8

24.2
2.8

48.2
10.8

27.1

20.4

58.5
5.1
4.2
.6

87.4
3.3
.1

5.1
58.9

66.0
5.9
4.0
.8
.2

_____._2_

23.9
2.6
8.3
.1
___ .3_

53.2

72.4

90.8

76.9

65.5

100.0 I

100.0

34.7

66.0
5.9
4.0
.8

100.0 I

100.0

.4

1.8
5.2
100.0

29.2
5.5
48.5
4.6
5.8
.5
.2

35.4

.3

m o

15.7
1.8

58.9

59.1
6.8
5.2
1.1
.2

12. 7

1.0
2.9
5.9

Grand total..............................

51.6
6.3

1.4
3.9

100.0

100.0

1.6
3.4

100.0

1.4
3.9

.5
.7
2.2
2.3

100.0

1.1
3.0

100.0

C O M P A R IS O N

Transportation and communica­
tion—
Railways.......................................
Street railways............................
Shipping........................................
Telegraphs....................................
Telephones...................................

91.8
91.8

90.9

PERCENTAGE OF WORKIN G DAYS LOST.

O
F

78.6
3.9

Total..

82.5

56.5

7.8
.6
5.5
.1
.1

13.4
.7
29.4

Transportation and communica­
tion—
Railways.......................................
Street railways............................
Shipping........................................
Telegraphs....................................
Telephones...................................

2.3

51.7

62.6
9.6

27.3

77.2
4.8

77.2
4.8

77.6
4.6

77.6
4.6

51.7

97.7

72.2

27.3

82.0

82.0

82.1

82.1

48.3

27.3
.4

60.0

17.3
.2
.4

17.3
.2
.4

15.0
.3
1.6
(3)
(3)
17.0

15.0
.3
1.6
(3)
(8)

.1
.4
.4

.1
.4
.4

” 9.’ 6
3.0
48.3

Total...........................................
Light and power................................
Munitions.............................................
Municipal work.................................
Other than mines and public utilities.

.5
1.5
1.4

Grand total..............................

100.0

27.7

(3)

(3)

72.7

-1
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

17.0

100.0

1 Including only those applications in which action was ttiken by the department of labor, contemplating the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
2 Including only those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock out was made.
3 Less than one-tentli of 1 per cent.




D IS P U T E S .

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal.............................
M etal..........................

100.0

C5

68

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

From Table 22 it will be seen that of all strikes and lockouts in
industries within the scope of the act, 80.2 per cent, affecting 56.2
per cent of the employees and occasioning 24.2 per cent of the time
loss, occurred without application being made for reference. Mining
strikes and lockouts and railway strikes and lockouts in which appli­
cation was not made for reference were each 22.5 per cent of all
strikes and lockouts within the scope of the act. Mining employees
affected in strikes and lockouts in which application was not made
for reference were 33.6 per cent of total employees affected as
against 9 per cent in railways; and the time lost in such mining
strikes 20 per cent of total time lost in all strikes and lockouts
within the scope of the act as against 1.9 per cent in railways.
Of all strikes and lockouts, 8.1 per cent, affecting 20.2 per cent of
all employees and occasioning 37.7 per cent of the total time loss,
were legal.
2 2 . — P E R C E N T O F S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N W A S
M AD E A N D W A S N O T M A D E FO R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T , B Y IN D U S T R IE S
A N D C L A S S E S , M A R . 22, 1907, T O D E C . 31, 1916.

T able

[Total strikes and lockouts in industries within the scope of the act equal 100 per cent.]
Strikes and lockouts within the scope of the act.
Strikes and lockouts in which application was made
for reference under the act.1

Industries affected.
Total.

Strikes
and
lockouts
in which
applica­
tion was
not
made for
refer­
ence.

Com­
mencing
prior
to appli­
cation
for, but
termi­
nating
before
consti­
tution
of, board.

Com­
mencing
prior to
applicar
tion for
board
and con­
tinuing
after it
was con­
stituted.

Com­
Com­
mencing mencing
after
after
Board
ap p lies investi­
tion for
gation not con­ Total.
board
and re­ stituted.
but be« port of
fore its
board.
report.

PERCENTAGE OP STRIKES AN D LOCKOUTS*

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal....................................
.................................

24.3
9.5

16.2
M etal
6.3

1.8

1.8

2.3

1.4
3 .2

0 .9

8.1
3.2

.9

11.3

.5

5.4
1.4
.9

Total..............................

33.8

22.5

1. 8

1.8

2.3

4.5

Transportation and com­
munication—
Railw ays..........................
Street railways............
Shipping.......................
Telegraphs....................
Telephones......................

27.9
6. 8
12.6
.5
.9

22.5
5.4
11.7
.5
.5

1.4
.5
.5

.5

.9

2.3
.9

Total..............................

48.6

40.5

2.3

.5

Light and power...................
Munitions................................
Municipal w ork....................
Other than mines and public
utilities...............*........................

2.3
2.3
13.1

2.3
2.3
12.6

100.0

80.2

Grand total...............

.5
.5
.9

3.2

.5

1.4

8.1

.5

4.1

2.3

3.2

8.1 •

.5

2.3

19.8

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contemplating
of a board of conciliation and investigation.

the establishment




COMPARISON OF. DISPUTES.

69

T able 2 2.—PER CENT OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS JIN WHICH APPLICATION WAS
MADE AND WAS NOT MADE FOR REFERENCE UNDER THE ACT, BY INDUSTRIES
AND CLASSES, MAR. 22, 1907, TO DEC. 31, 1916—Concluded.
Strikes and lockouts within the scope of the act.
Strikes and lockouts in which application was made
for reference under the act.1

Industries affected.
Total.

Strikes
Com­
and
Com­
lockouts mencing
mencing Com­
in which prior
prior to mencing Com­
applica­ to appli­
mencing
after
applica­
after
tion was cation tion for applica­
Board
for, but
not
tion for investi­ not con­
board
made for termi­
gation
and con­ board
stituted.
nating
refer­
and re­
tinuing but be­
before
ence.
port of
after it fore its
board.
consti­
was con­ report.
tution
stituted.
of, board.

Total.

PERCENTAGE OF EM PLOYEES AFFECTED.

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—■
Coal....................................
.................................

48.2
10.8

25.5
M etal
8.0

1.6

10.0

3.8

5.4
2.8

1.8

22.6
2.8

Total................ ’.............

58.9

33.6

1.6

10.0

3.8

8.2

1.8

25.4

Transportation and com­
munication—
Railways..........................
Street railways..............
Shipping..........................
Telegraphs......................
Telephones......................

23.9
2 .6
8.3
.1
.3

9 .0
1.7
6.2
.1
.1

1.1
.3
1.6

1.0

.3

11.2
.7

1.4

15.1
1.0
2.1

Total..............................

35. 4.

17.1

3.0

1.0

Light and power..................
Munitions................................
Municipal work....................
Other than mines and public
utilities........................................

.6
1.6
3. 4

.6
1.6
3.3

Grand total.................

100.0

56.2

.5
.2
.3

11.9

.2

2.1

18.3

.1

4.6

11.0

4.1

20.2

.1

3.9

43.8

PERCENTAGE OF W O R K IN G -D AYS LOST.

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal....................................
M etal.................................

77.6
4.6

19.0
1.0

0.4

32.8

1.4

23.6
3 .6

0.3

58.5
3.6

.4

32.8

1.4

27.2

.3

62.1

.1

.8

1.3

10.3
.2

.6

13.1
.2
.3

Total..............................

82.1

20.0

Transportation and com­
munication—
Railways..........................
Street railways..............
Shipping..........................
Telegraphs......................
Telephones......................

15.0
.3
1.6
(2)
(2)

1.9
.2
1.3

Total..............................

17.0

3.4

Light and power...................
Munitions................................
Municipal w ork....................
Other than mines and public
utilities.........................................

.1
.4
.4

.1
.4
.4

Grand total.................

100.0

24.2

i See footnote 1, p. 68.




(2)

.2

.1
(2)

.3

.8

1.3

10.4

(2)
.7

(2)

.8
2

33.6

2.8

37.7

Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

13.6

(2)

1.0

75.8

70

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

In Table 23, total strikes and lockouts in each industry is made the
base for comparison within the industry. Thus, in 66.7 per cent of all
mining strikes and lockouts application was not made for reference.
Employees affected in these strikes were 57 per cent of employees in
all mining strikes and lockouts, and the days lost were 24.4 per cent
of all time lost in mining.
In 80.6 per cent of all railway strikes and lockouts, affecting 37.3
per cent of railway employees in strikes and lockouts, and occasioning
12.7 per cent of the time lost in railways, application was not made
for reference.
A comparison of legal strikes and lockouts shows that 13.3 per
cent of all mining strikes and lockouts, 13.9 per cent of the employees
affected therein, and 33.1 per cent of the time lost in mining was in
legal strikes.
In railways, 8.1 per cent of the strikes and lockouts, 46.6 per cent
of the employees affected therein, and 68.6 pel* cent of the time loss
was in legal strikes.
T a bl e 2 3 . — P E R C E N T , W I T H I N E A C H I N D U S T R Y , O F S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN
W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N W A S M A D E A N D W A S N O T M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R
T H E A C T , B Y C L A S S E S , M A R . 22, 1907, TO D E C . 31,1916.
[Total strikes and lockouts in each industry within the scope of the act equal 100 per cent.]
Strikes and lockouts within the scope of the act.
Strikes and lockouts in which application was made
for reference under the act.1

Industries affected.
Total.

Strikes
and
lockouts
in which
applica­
tion was
not
made for
refer­
ence.

Com­
mencing
prior
to appli­
cation
for, but
termi­
nating
before
consti­
tution
of, board.

Com­
mencing
prior to
applica­
tion for
board
and con­
tinuing
after it
was con­
stituted

Com­
Com­
mencing
mencing
after
after
applica­
Board
tion for investi­ not con­ Total.
gation
board
stituted.
and re­
but be­
port of
fore its
board.
report.

PERCENTAGE OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.
Mines and public utilities:
Mines—

Coal.................
M etal.........................
T otal.

Transportation and com­
munication—
Railw ays.........................
Street railways............ .
Shipping..........................
Telegraphs......................
Telephones.....................
T otal.
Light and power..................
Munitions...................... .........
Municipal w o rk ....................
Other than mines and public
utilities.........................................
Grand total.

100.0
100.0

66.7
66.7

7.4

7.4

9.3

5. 6
33.3

3.7

33.3
33.3

100.0

66.7

5.3

5.3

6.7

13.3

2.7

33.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

80.6
80.0
92.9
100.0
50.0

4.8
6.7
3.6

1.6

3.2

8.1
13.3

1.6
3 .6

19.4
20.0
7.1

50.0

50.0

100.0

83.3

4.6

.9

2.8

16.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
96.6

* 100.0

80.2

1.9

6.5

3.4

4.1

2.3

3.2

8.1

3.4

2.3

19.8

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contemplating
the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

71

T a b l e 2 3 v - P E R C E N T , W I T H I N E A C H I N D U S T R Y , O F S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN
W H IC H A P P L I C A T I O N W A S M A D E A N D W A S N O T M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R
T H E A C T B Y C L A S S E S , M A R . 22, 1907, TO D E C . 31, 1916— Concluded.

Strikes and lockouts within the scope of the act.

Strikes and lockouts in which application was made
for reference under the act.1

Industries affected.
Total.

Strikes
Com­
and
lockouts mencing
in which prior
applica­ to appli­
tion was cation
for, but
not
made for termi­
refer­
nating
before
ence.
consti­
tution
of,board.

Com­
mencing
prior
to appli­
cation
for, but
termi­
nating
after it
was con­
stituted.

Com­
mencing
after
applica­
tion for
board
but be­
fore its
report.

Com­
mencing
after
Board
investi­
not con­
gation
stituted.
and re­
report of
board.

Total.

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.
Minos ar.d public utilities:
Minos—
Coal....................................
M etal.................................

100.0
100.0

53.0
74.4

3.3

20.7

7.9

11.2
25.6

3.8

47.0
25. 6

3.1

43.0

5.8

62.7
36. 4
25.1

16.9

6.4

13.9

100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

37.3
63.6
71.9
100.0
42. 9

4.8
9.9
19.1

4.1

1.4

46.6
26.6

T otal________________

100.0

48.2

8 .5

2.8

100.0
100.0
100.0

100 0
100.0
96.4

s

2.7

p
j

57.0

I

100.0

1
*1
—

T o ta l.............................
Transportation and com­
munication—
R ailw ays..........................
Street railways..............
Shipping...........................
Telegraphs......................
Telephones......................

Munitions................................
Municipal w ork.....................
Other than mines and public
utilities.........................................
Grand total.................

’

57.1

...........

1.0

1 ...............
|

100.0

6'

4.6

66.2

11.0 j

33.6

57.1

5.9

51.8

3.6

3.G

4.1

20.2

3.9

43.8

PERCENTAGE OF WORKING-DAYS LOST.
Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal................................
Mental.................................

100.0
100.0

24.6
21.0

Total.............................

100.0

24.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

0.6 j

42.2

1.9

30.4
79.0

0.3

75.4
79.0

.5

39. 9

1.8

33.1

.3

75.6

12.7
48.9
80.3
100.0
30.0

.7
1.7
14.0

5.2

9.0

68.6
49.4

3.9

87.4
51.1
19.7

m o

19.9

2.0

4.6

Light and pow^r...................
Munitions........*....................
Municipal work.....................
Othor than mines and public
utilities...................

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
87. -i

Grand total.............. ..

100.0

Transportation and com­
munication—
Railways.........................
Street railways..............
Shipping.......................... ,
Telegraphs.. ; .................
Telephones......................
Total..............................




24. 2 |

5.6
70.0
7.9

61.4

70.0

4.1

80.1

12.4

.8

1 See footnote 1, p. 70.

33. k

2.8

37. 7 |

Uf.4

1.0

75.8

72

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

Table 24 is an analysis of proceedings under the act on the basis
of disputes referred or in which application was made for reference.
Gf all such applications, 27.2 per cent, affecting 27.1 per cent of
the employees, were mining disputes; 40.6 per cent, affecting 58.5
per cent of the employees, were railway disputes.
In 20.3 per cent of the applications, affecting 23.8 per cent of the
employees, a strike or lockout occurred.
In 18.9 per cent of the applications (including strikes and lockouts
and disputes not resulting in strike or lockout), affecting 20.5 per cent
of the employees in all applications, an adjustment was reported
before boards were constituted.
In 8.3 per cent of the applications, affecting 11 per cent of the
employees in all applications, a strike or lockout occurred after the
investigation and report of a board.
T a bl e 2 4 . — P E R C E N T A G E A N A L Y S I S O F D IS P U T E S I N W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N W A S M A D E
F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T , B Y C L A S S E S O F D IS P U T E S , M A R . 22, 1907, TO D E C .
31, 1916.1
[Total applications for reference equal 100 per cent.]
Disputes in which application was made for reference under the a c t.1
Disputes not result­
ing in strikes or
lockouts.

Strikes and lockouts.

Industries affected.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion
for,
but
•ter­
minat­
ing
before
con­
stitu­
tion
of,
board.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion
for
board
and
con­
tinu­
ing
after
it was
consti­
tuted.

Com­
m enc­
ing
after
appli­
cation
for
board
but
before
its re­
port.

Com­
menc­
ing
after
Total.
inves- Board
Board Board
not
l tiga.
Total. consti­ not
consti­
consti­ Total.
tion
tuted.
tuted.
tuted.
and
report
of
board.

PERCENTAGE OF DISPUTES.
Mines and public utilities:
Mines^Coal....................................
M etal.................................

1.8

1.8

2.3

1.4
3 .2

0.9

8.3
3.2

10.1
3 .2

1.8
.5

12.0
3.7

20.3
6.9

.9

11.5

13.4

2.3

15.7

27.2

.5

5.5
1.4
.9

10.6
2.3
.5

35.0
11.1
4.6
1.4
.5

40.6
12.4
5.5
1.4
.9

Total..............................

1.8

1.8

2.3

4.6

Transportation and com­
munication—
Railways..........................
Street railways...............
Shipping...........................
Telegraphs.......................
Telephones......................

1.4
.5
.5

.5

.9

2.3
.9

Total..............................

2.3

.5

.5
1.4

8.3

39.2

13.4

52.5

60.8

1.4

Light and power...................
Munitions................................
Municipal w ork.....................
Other than mines and public
utilities.........................................
Grand total...............

.5

24.4
8.8
4.1
1.4
.5

.5

1.8

1.8

3.7

.5

4.1

4.6

5.5

5.5

79.7

100.0

.5

.9

.

3 .2

.5

.5

5.5
4.1

2.3

3.2

8.3

2.3

20.3

C3.1

16.6

i Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contemplating
the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

73

T able 24.—PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS OF DISPUTES IN WHICH APPLICATION WAS MADE
. FOR REFERENCE UNDER THE ACT, BY CLASSES OF DISPUTES, MAR. 22, 1907, TO DEC.
31, 1916—Concluded.
Disputes in which application was made for reference under the act.1

Disputes not result­
ing in strikes or
lockouts.

Strikes and lockouts.

Industries affected.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion
for,
but
ter­
m inat­
ing
before
con­
stitu­
tion
of,
board.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion
for
board
and
con­
tinu­
ing
after
it was
consti­
tuted.

Com­
menc­
ing
after
appli­
cation
for
board
but
before
its re­
port.

Com­
menc­
ing
TotaL
after
Board
Board Board
inves­
not
not
tiga­ consti­ Total. consti­ consti­ Total.
tuted.
tion
tuted.
and tuted.
report
of
board.

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.
Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal....................................
M etal.................................

0.9

5.4

2.2

2.9
1.5

1.0

12.3
1.5

10.9
.9

1.1
.4

12.0
1.3

24.2
2.8

Total..............................

.9

5.4

2.2

4.4

1.0

13.8

11.8

1.5

13.3

27.1

Transportation and com­
munication—
Railways..........................
Street railways...............
Shipping...........................
Telegraphs......................
Telephones......................

.6
.1
.9

.5

.2

6.1
.4

.8

8.2
.5
1.1

16.1
.6
(2)

50.3
4.5
3.0
.6
.1

58.5
5.1
4.2
.6
.2

Total..............................

1.6

.5

68.6

.1
1.1

9.9

41.9

16.7

58.6

.1

.2

Light and power...................
Munitions................................
Municipal w ork.....................
Other than mines and public
utilities.........................................
Grand total.................

.1

34.2
3.9
3.0
.6
.1

.1

.3

.3

(2)

1.1

1.1

3.0

3.0

18.4

76.2

100.0

.3

6.5

1.1

(2)

3.0
2.5

6.0

2.2

11.0

2.1

23.8

57.8

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contem­
plating the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

In Table 25 total applications for reference under the act in each
industry is made the base for an analysis of that industry.
It will be observed that of all mining disputes in which applica­
tion was made for reference 42.4 per cent, affecting 50.8 per cent of
the employees, resulted in strikes and lockouts; in railways 13.6 per
cent of the disputes, affecting 14 per cent of the employees, resulted
in strikes and lockouts.
Boards were not constituted in 11.9 per cent of mining applications
as against 27.2 per cent of railway applications, and 18.9 per cent




INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OP CANADA.

74

of applications in all industries. Employees affected in disputes for
which boards were not constituted were as follows: In all industries,
20.5 per cent; in mining, 9.4 per cent; in railways, 28.8 per cent.
Of all mining applications, 16.9 per cent, affecting 16.4 per cent of
the employees in such applications, and of all railway applications, 5.7
per cent, affecting 10.4 per cent of the employees in such applications,
resulted in strike or lockout after the investigation and report of a
board and w
rere therefore legal.
2 5 . — P E R C E N T A G E A N A L Y S IS , W IT H IN E A C H
I N D U S T R Y , O F D IS P U T E S IN
W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N W A S M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T , M A R . 22, 1907,

T able

TO D E C . 31, 1916.1
[Total applications for reference in each industry equal 100 per cent.]

Disputes in which application was made for reference under the act.i

Disputes not result­
ing in strikes or
lockouts.

Strikes and lockouts.

Industries affected.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion
for,
but
ter­
minat­
ing
before
con­
stitu­
tion
of,
board.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion
for
board
and
con­
tinu­
ing
after
it was
consti­
tuted.

Com­
menc­
ing
after
appli­
cation
for
board
but
before
its re­
port.

Com­
menc­
ing
Total.
after
Board
Board
inves­
Board
not
not
Total. consti­
tiga­
Total.
consti­
tion
tuted. consti­
tuted.
and tuted.
report
of
board.

PERCENTAGE OF DISPUTES.

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal....................................
M etal.............................

9.1

9.1

11.4

6.8
46.7

4.5

40.9
46.7

50.0
46.7

9.1
6.7

59.1
53.3

1C0.0
100.0

Total..............................

6.8

6.8

8.5

16.9

3.4

42.4

49.2

8.5

57.6

100.0

Transportation and com­
munication—
Railways..........................
Street railways . .
Shipping...........................
Telegraphs.......................
Telephones....................

3.4
3.7
8 .3

1.1

2.3

5.7
7.4

1.1
8.3

13.6
11.1
16.7

26.1
18.5
8 .3

50.0

50.0

60.2
70.4
75.0
100.0
50.0

86.4
88.9
83.3
100.0
50.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

3.8

.8

2.3

13.6

64.4

22.0

86.4

100.0

75.0
10.0 • 80.0

25.0
10.0

100.0
90.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0

79.7

100.0

Total..........................

1.5

Light and power...................
Municipal work.....................
Otber than mines and public
utilities.......................................
Grand total.................

5.3
10.0

100.0
4.1

2.3

3.2

8.3

2.3

20.3

63.2

16.6

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contemplating
the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

75

T able 25.—PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS, WITHIN EACH INDUSTRY, OF DISPUTES IN
WHICH APPLICATION WAS MADE FOR REFERENCE UNDER THE ACT, MAR. 22, 1907,
TO DEC. 31, 1916—Concluded.
Disputes in which application was made for reference under the act.1
Disputes not result­
ing in strikes or
lockouts.

Strikes and lockouts.

Industries affected.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion
for,
but
ter­
minat­
ing
before
con­
stitu­
tion
of,
board.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion
for
board
and
con­
tinu­
ing
after
it was
consti­
tuted,

Com­
menc­
ing
after
appli­
cation
for
board
but
before
its re­
port.

Com­
menc­
ing
after
Board
inves­
not
tiga­ consti­
tion
tuted.
and
report
of
board.

Board Board
not
consti­
Total.
consti­
tuted,
tuted.

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal..............................
M etal...........................
Total..
Transportation and com­
munication—
Railways........................ .
Street railways..............
Shipping..........................
Telegraphs.................... .
Telephones.................... .

22.3

8.5

12.1
52.8

4.1

50.6
52.8

44.8
32.0

4.6
15.2

3.2

20.0

7.6

16.4

3.7

50. 1

43.4

5.7

1.1
2.8
20.7

.9

1.3

14.0
10.2
27.1

27.5
11.9
.6

*47." 6

58.5
77.8
72.2
100.0
52.4

86.0
89.8
72.9
100.0
52.4

1.7

61.1
48.0
1.2

100.0
94.0

10.4
7.5

"6 * 5

T o ta l..

.3

Light and power..................
Municipal w ork....................
Other than mines and public
utilities.................................
Grand total.

6.0

52.0
92.8

49.4
47.2

100.0

100.0

100.0
6 .0

2.2

100.0
100.0

100.0

57. J

100.0
100.0

76.2

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contem­
plating the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.

In Table 26 two analyses are presented: Strikes and lockouts in
each industry on the basis of total strikes and lockouts in which
application was made for reference; disputes not resulting in strike
or lockout ki each industry on the basis of total applications for
reference in such disputes.
Of all strikes and lockouts in which application was made for refer­
ence mining contributed 56.8 per cent and railways 27.3 per cent;
40.9 per cent were legal.
Of all employees affected in such applications mining contributed
57.9 per cent and railways 34.4 per cent; 46.1 per cent were in legal
strikes and lockouts.




76

• INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

Of all time lost in such applications mining contributed 82 per cent
and railways 17.3 per cent; 49.7 per cent was in legal strikes and
lockouts.
Of disputes not resulting in strikes and lockouts, boards were con­
stituted for 79.2 per cent, affecting 75.8 per cent of the employees.
Mining contributed 19.7 per cent and railways 43.9 per cent of all
disputes not resulting in strike and lockout in which application was
made for reference under the act.
2 6 . — P E R C E N T A G E A N A L Y S I S O F S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S A N D O F D IS P U T E S
N O T R E S U L T IN G IN S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N W A S M A D E
F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T , B Y IN D U S T R IE S A N D C L A S SE S, M A R . 22, 1907,
TO D E C . 31, 1916.

T able

[ Two separate bases are used in this table: (1) total applications for reference in strikes and lockouts
equal 100 per cent, and (2) total applications in disputes not resulting in strike or lockout equal
100 per cent.]

Disputes in which application was made for reference under the act.1

Disputes not resulting
in strike or lockout.

Strikes and lockouts.

Industries affected.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion for
board
and
contin­
uing
after
it was
consti­
tuted.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion for,
but
termi­
nating
before
consti­
tution
of,
board.

Com­
Com­
menc­
menc­
ing
ing
after
after
Board
appli­ investi­
not
cation gation consti­
for
tuted.
and
board, report
but be­
of a
fore its
board.
report,

Tctal.

Board
consti­
tuted.

Board
not
consti­
tuted.

Total.

PERCENTAGE OF DISPUTES.

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal...................................
Metal................................

9.1

9.1

11.4

6.8
15.9

4.5

40.9
15.9

12.7
4.0

2.3
.6

15.0
4.6

11.4

22.7

4.5

56.8

16.8

2.9

19.7

2.3

27.3
6.8
4.5

13.3
2.9
.6

43.9
13.9
5.8
1.7
.6

T otal............................

9.1

9.1

Transportation and com­
munication—
R ailways.........................
Street railways.............
Shipping.........................
Telegraphs.....................
Telephones.....................

6.8
2.3
2.3

2.3

Total.............................

11.4

2.3

11.4
4.5

________1 . . . .........

Light and power..................
Municipal work........
Other than mines and public
utilities.........................................
Grand total................

4 .5 #

2.3

2.3

30.6
11.0
5.2
1.7
.6

15.9

6.8

40.9

49.1

16.8

65.9

2.3

1.7
4.6

.6
.6

2.3
5.2

100.0

79.2

20.8

100.0

2.3

4.5

2.3
i
20.5

6.9

|
11.4

15.9

40.9

11.4

6.9

i Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contem­
plating the establishment o f a board of conciliation and investigation.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

77

P E R C E N T A G E A N A L Y S I S O F S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S A N D O F D IS P U T E S
N O T R E S U L T I N G IN S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN W H IC H A P P L I C A T I O N W A S M A D E
F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T , B Y I N D U S T R I E S A N D C L A S S E S , M A R . 22, 1907,

T a b l e 2 6 .—

T O D E C . 31, 1916— Concluded.

Disputes in which application was made for reference under the act.i
Disputes not resulting
in strike or lockout.

Strikes and lockouts.

Industries affected.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion for,
but
termi­
nating
before
consti­
tution
of,
board.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion for
board
and
contin­
uing
after
it was
consti­
tuted.

Com­
menc­
ing
after
appli­
cation
for
board,
but be­
fore its
report.

Com­
menc­
ing
Board
after
investi­
not
gation consti­
tuted.
and
report
of a
board.

Total.

Board
Board
not
consti­
Total
consti­
tuted.
tuted.

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal..................................
Metal................................

3.6

22.8

8.7

12.4
6.3

4.2

51.6
6.3

14.2
1.2

1.5
.6

15.7
1.8
17.5

Total............................

3.6

22.8

8.7

18.7

4.2

57.9

15.4

2.0

Transportation and com­
munication—
Railways........................
Street railways.............
Shipping.........................
Telegraphs.....................
Telephones....................

2.6
.6
3.6

2.3

.8

25.6
1.6

3.2

34.4
2.2
4.8

21.1
.8
(2)

66.0
6 .0
4. or
.8
.2

N Total............................

6.8

2.3

.5
.8

Light and power................
Municipal work.................. ..
Other than mines and public
utilities........................................
Grancl^otal................

.5

44.8
5.2
4.0
.8
.2

4 .8

41.8

54.9

21.9

76.9

.3

.2
1.4

.2
(2)

.4
1.4

100.0

-75.8

24.2

100.0

1.1

27.2
.3

3.9
10.4

25.0

9.4

46.1

9.0

3.9

PERCENTAGE OF WORKING-DAYS LOST.
Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal..................................
Metal................................
Total............................
Transportation and com­
munication—
R ailw ays........................
Street railways.............
Shipping.........................
Telephones....................
Total............................

.6

43.2

1.9

31.1
4.8

.3

77.2
4.8

.6

43.2

1.9

35.9

.3

82.0

.1
(2)
.3

1.0

1.8

13.6
.2

.8
.1
(2)

17.3
.2
.4
(2)

.5

1.0

.9

17.9

1.3

100.0

1.8

Municipal work....................
Grand total................

13.8
.1

1.0

44.3

3.7

49.7

.1

J Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contem­
plating the establishment of a "board of conciliation and investigation.
2 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.




78

IN D U ST R IA L D ISPU TES INVESTIG ATIO N ACT OF CANADA.

Table 27 shows an analysis of proceedings under the act in
strikes and lockouts and in disputes not resulting in strike or lock­
out, using each industry as a base for that industry.
Of all mining strikes and lockouts in proceedings under the act
40 per cent began after the investigation and report of a board and
were therefore legal; of all railway strikes or lockouts 41.7 per cent
were legal. Employees affected in legal mining strikes were 32.2 per
cent of all mining employees affected in proceedings under the act;
employees affected in legal railway strikes and lockouts were 74.3 per
cent of all railway employees affected in proceedings under the act.
Time lost in legal strikes and lockouts was 43.8 per cent in mining
and 78.5 per cent in railways.
Legal mining strikes compare favorably with other mining strikes
in employees affected and in duration, but legal railway strikes in­
volve a greater number of employees on the average than other rail­
way strikes. It may be stated in this connection that the most severe
railway strike since the inception of the act, involving 8,000 employees
and occasioning a time loss of 424,000 days, was legal.
Exclusive of applications in which boards were not constituted,
32 per cent of mining strikes and 33.3 per cent of railway strikes and
lockouts in proceedings under the act began prior to application for
reference. Employees affected in such strikes and lockouts, however,
were 45.5 per cent for mining and 14.2 per cent for railways. Time
lost in such strikes and lockouts shows a wider difference, 53.5 per
cent for mining and 6.8 per cent for railways.
Boards were constituted for 85.3 per cent of mining disputes not
resulting in strike or lockout, as against 69.7 per cent of railway dis­
putes, and for 88.4 per cent of mining employees affected in such
disputes, as against 68 per cent of railway employees.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

79

T ab l e 2 7 .— P E R C E N T A G E A N A L Y S IS W IT H IN E A C H IN D U S T R Y OF S T R IK E S A N D LO C K ­

O U T S , A N D O F D IS P U T E S N O T R E S U L T I N G IN S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S , I N W H IC H
A P P L IC A T IO N W A S M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T , B Y C L A S SE S, M A R . 22,
1907, TO D E C . 31, 1916.
ITwo separate bases are used in this table: (1) Total applications for reference in strides and lockouts in
each industry equals 100 per cent, and (2) total applications in disputes not resulting in stakes or
lack outs in each industry equal 100 per cent.}
------------------ —
--------------------------------------------—
—----------------------------------------------------- %
Disputes m which application was made for reference under the act.1
Disputes not resulting
in strikes or lockouts.

Strikes and lockouts.

Industries affected.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion for,
but
termi­
nating
before
consti­
tution
of,
board.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
ta ap­
plica­
tion for
board
and
contin­
uing
after
it was
consti­
tuted.

Com­
Com­
mence mence
: ing
inff
' after
after
Board
, appli- investi­
not
! catioa
gation consti­
foe
and
tuted.
board,,
report
but be­
#
fore its
board.
report.

Total.

Board
consti­
tuted.

Board
not
consti­
tuted.

Total.

0

PERCENTAGE OF DISPUTES.
Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
22.2

22.2

27.8

16.7
100.0

11.1

100.0
100.0

84.6
8-7.5-

15v4
12.5

100.0
100.0

8.0

100.0

85-. 3

14.7

100.0

8.3
50.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

30.3
20.8
10.0

100.0

100.0

69.7
79.2
90.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

16.7

100.0

Metal.................................
Total.............................

16.0

16.0

2a o

40.fr

Transportation and com­
munication—
Railways..................... ..
Street railways. . .
Shipping ...................
Telegraphs.................
Telephones.....................

25.0
33.3
50.0

8. a

16.7

41.7
66.7

Total.............................

27.8

5 .6

38.9

100.0

100.0

79.2

20.8

100.0

75.0

i

Light and power.............
Munitions...............................
Municipal w ork...................
Other than mines and public
utilities...................... ..................
Grand total................

11.1

25.0

100.0

88.9

1 .1
1

100.0
20.5

11.4

15.9

40.9

1 1 .4 )

100.0

79.2

100.0
100.0

20.8

100.0

PERCENTAGE OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.
Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal...................................
Metal............................

8*1

10a 0

10
0 .0

90.7
67.8

9.3
32.2

15.0

32.2

7.2

10a 0

88.4

11.6

100.0

2.2

74.3
72.9

9.2

m

68.0
86.7
99.1
100.0
100.0

32.0
13.3
.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

44.1

16.8 -

Total.............................

6 2
k

39.3

Transportation and commtmicatkra—
Railw ays.........................
Street railways.............
Shipping................. .......
Telegraphs.....................
Telephones.....................

7.6
27.1
76.2

6.6

Total.............................

16.4

5.4

O

10a 0
23.8

100.0

100.0

100.0

11.4

100.0

100.0

65.0

100.0

100.0

71.4

28.6

100.0

52.0

1.9

Li^ht and power.................
M unitions...............................
Municipal w ork...................
Other than mines and public
utilities.................. .....................
Grand total................

10
0 .0

24.0
100.0

7.0

48.0

100.0

98.7

1.3

100.0
10.4

25.0

9 ,4

46.1

9.0

100.0 j

75.8

100.0
100.0

24.2

100.0

1 Ineludiug only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contemplating
the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.




80

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

T a b l e 2 7 .— P E R C E N T A G E A N A L Y S I S W I T H I N E A C H I N D U S T R Y O F S T R I K E S A N D L O C K ­

O U T S , A N D O F D IS P U T E S N O T R E S U L T I N G IN S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S , IN W H IC H
A P P L IC A T IO N W A S M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T , B Y C L A S S E S , M A R . 22,
1907, TO D EC . 31, 1916— Concluded.

Disputes in which application was made for reference under the act.1

Disputes not resulting
in strikes or lockouts.

Strikes and lockouts.

Industries affected.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion for,
but
termi­
nating
before
consti­
tution
of,
board.

Com­
menc­
ing
prior
to ap­
plica­
tion for
board
and
contin­
uing
after
it was
consti­
tuted.

Com­
Com­
menc­
menc­
ing
ing
after
after
Board
appli­
investi­
not
cation
gation consti­
for
and
tuted.
board,
report
but be­
of
fore its
board.
report.

Total.

Board
consti­
tuted.

Board
not
consti­
tuted.

Total,

PERCENTAGE OF WORKING-DAYS LOST.

Mines and public utilities:
Mines—
Coal...................................
M etal..

0.8

56.0

2.5

40.3
100.0

0.5

100.0
100.0

Total.............................

.7

52.8

2.3

43.8

.4

100.0

Transportation and com­
munication—
R ailw ays.........................
Street railways.............
Shipping.........................
Telegraphs.....................
Telephones__

.8
3.4
71.3

6.0

10.3

78.5
96.6

4.4

100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

................

28.7
100.0

1
2.5

5.8

9.9

100.0

5.2

100.0
|

Light and power.................
Munitions
Municipal w ork...................
Other than mines and public
utilities...............................: ____
Grand total................

76.6

i

100.0

100.0

1
1

1.0

44.3

3.7

49.7

1.3

100.0

1
.......... 1
.............

1 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor, contem­
plating the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
P E R IO D S

1 9 0 7 -1 9 1 1 ,

1 9 1 2 -1 9 1 6 , A N D

1 9 0 7 -1 9 1 6 .

A marked characteristic of statistics representing industrial unrest
over a period of years is the irregularity shown in yearly summaries.
Whether measured by strikes or lockouts or by statutory declara­
tions of intent to strike or lock out, by employees affected or by days
lost, a yearly comparison can not be depended upon to establish a
trend.
It is beyond the scope of this report to discuss the causes of indus­
trial unrest in Canadian industries or to explain why that unrest is
disproportionally high in certain years. To the extent, then, that
yearly summaries are presented, it is for the purpose of comparison
with an average over a period of years or as a basis for such average.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

81

The period March 22, 1907, to December 31, 1916, may be con­
veniently divided into two periods of approximately five years each.
Whether there were fewer or more disputes resulting in strike or lock­
out or in which the intent to take such action was declared, in one
period than in the other, is not in itself conclusive. It might be
expected, however, that greater familiarity with the purpose, scope,
and operation of the act would lead to its application in a greater
percentage of disputes arising in industries within its scope. It might
also be expected that, with the greater undesirability of interruption
to industry arising out of participation in the European conflict, the
relative importance of a governmental agency for the adjudication
of labor disputes would be augmented. It should be fruitful, there­
fore, to compare the periods 1907-1911 and 1912-1916 as to the ratio
of disputes referred and disputes within the scope of the Industrial
Disputes Investigation Act. Tables 28 to 32 and diagrams 1 to 4
show such a comparison.
By reference to Table 28 it will be observed that during the period
March 22, 1907, to December 31, 1911, there were 118 strikes and
lockouts, affecting 62,344 employees, whose time loss was 3,620,346
working-days, in industries within the scope of the act. For the
same period there were 92 statutory declarations of intent to strike
or lock out, involving 70,175 employees, but in which such strike or
lockout did not occur. During the period J.anuary 1,1912, to Decem­
ber 31, 1916, there were 104 strikes and lockouts, affecting 38,264
employees and occasioning a time loss of 1,218,301 working-days,
and 81 statutory declarations of intent to strike or lock out, not result­
ing in such action, affecting 71,120 employees, in industries within
the scope of the act.
8372°— 18-------6




82

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

T a b l e 3 8 .— C O M P A R IS O N O F D IS P U T E S W I T H I N T H E SCO PE O F , A N D D IS P U T E S IN
P R O C E E D IN G S U N D E R , T H E A C T , F O R T H E P E R IO D S 1907-1916, 1907-1911, A N D 1912-1916.

A L L IN D U S T R IE S .

Disputes in which application was made for
reference under the act.2

Disputes w ithin scope

Board constituted.

Board not constituted.

Period.1
Strikes
and
lockouts.

Disputes
not
resulting
in strikes
or
lockouts.8

Strikes
and
lockouts.

Disputes
not
resulting
in strikes
or
lockouts.3

Strikes
and
lockouts.

Disputes
not
resulting
in strikes
or
lockouts.3

Number of disputes.

1907-1916...........................................
1907-1911...........................................
1912-1916...........................................

222
118
104

39
27
12

173
92
81

137
76
61

5
4
1

36
16
20

3,950
3,750
200

34,145
9,517
24,628

Number of employees affected.

1907-1916...........................................
1907-1911...........................................
1912-1916...........................................

100,608
62,344
38,264

141,295
70,175
71,120

40,136
35,209
4,927

107,150
60,658
46,492

Number of u orkiny-lans lost.

3,619,319
4 3,393,871
225,448

4,838,647
1907 1916 .........................................
1907-1911
................................... <3,620,346
1,218; 301
1912-1916
...................................

46,650
45,250
1,400

M IN IN G .
Number of disputes.

1907 1916...........................................
1907 1911...........................................
1912 1916...........................................

75
46
29

34
27
7

23
18
5

29
23
6

2
2

5
4
1

1.850
1.850

2,860
2,060
800

Number of employees affected.

1907-1916...........................................
1907-1911...........................................
1912-1916...........................................

59,304
36,028
23,276

24,670
20,440
4,230

23,679
20,704
2,975

21,810
18,380
3,430

Number of working-days lost.

1907-1916.......................................
1907-1911...................................
1912-1916...........................................

3,973,381
2,906,859
1,066,522

2,992,851
2,813,936
178,915

12.750
12.750

1 The year 1907 includes only Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
* Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor contemplating
the establishment of a board of conciliation or investigation.
3Including only those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock out was made,
aIncludes 44,000 days lost in 1912 on account of a strike which began prior to 1912.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

83

T a b le 28 .—COMPARISON OF DISPUTES W IT H IN THE SCOPE OF, AN D DISPUTES IN

PROCEEDINGS U N D ER , THE ACT, FOR THE PERIODS 1907-1916,1907-1911, AND 1912-1916—
Concluded.
R A IL W A Y S .

Disputes within scope
of act.

Disputes in which application was made for
reference under the a ct.2

Board constituted.

Board not constituted.

Period.1
Strikes
and
lockouts.

Disputes
not
resulting
in strikes
or
lockouts.8

Strikes
and
lockouts.

Disputes
not
• Strikes
resulting
and
in strikes
lockouts.
or
lockouts.8

Disputes
t not
resulting
in strikes
or
lockouts.8

Number of disputes.

1907-1916..........................................
1907-1911..........................................
1912-1916.......................... ............

62
30
32

76
44
32

11
7
4

53
34
19

1
1

23
10
13

1,400
1,400

29,843
7,291
22,552

Number/of employees affected.

1907-1916..........................................
1907-1911..........................................
1912-1916........................................

24,1S7
17,339
6,848

93,200
40,852
52,348

13,771
12; 355
1,416

63,357
33,561
29,796

Number of workiwj-days lost.

1907-1916 . .
.
1907-1911..........................................
1912-1916 . .

724,134
4 640,035
84,099

605,164
* 501,585
43,579

28,000
28.000

1 The year 1907 includes only Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
2 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor contemplat­
ing the establishment of a board of conciliation or investigation.
3 Including only those disputes in wnich statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock out was made.
4 Including 44,000 days lost in 1912 on account of a strike which began prior to 1912. Dispute referred
in 1911.

As shown in Table 29, boards were constituted for 49.1 per cent
of the disputes during the first period as against 39.5 per cent during
the second period. On the basis of employees affected, boards were
constituted for 72.4 per cent during the first period as against 47
per cent during the second period.




84

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

T a b le 29^—D IS P U T E S IN W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N W A S M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E UNDER
T H E A C T , E X P R E S S E D A S P E R C E N T A G E S O F D IS P U T E S W I T H I N T H E SC O PE O F
T H E A C T , F O R T H E P E R IO D S 1907-1916, 1907-1911, A N D 1912-1916.

ALL INDUSTRIES.

Disputes in which application was made for
reference under the a ct.2
Disputes within scope
of act.
Board constituted.

Board not constituted.

Period.1
Strikes
and
lockouts.

Disputes
not
resulting
in strikes
or
lockouts.8

Strikes
and
lockouts.

Disputes
not
resulting
in strikes
or
lockouts.3

Strikes
and
lockouts.

Disputes
not
resulting
in strikes
or
lockouts, a

Percentage of disputes.

1907-1916..........................................
1907-1911..........................................
1912-1916..........................................

56.2
56.2
56.2

43.8
43.8
43.8

9.8
12.9
6.5

34.7
36.2
33.0

1.3
1.9
.5

9.1
7.6
10.8

1.6
2 .8
.2

14.1
7.2
22.5

1.8
2.7

4.6
5.5
2.8

2.2
3.3

3.4
3.6
2.9

0 .7
1.4

16.7
14.5
20.3

1.2
2.4

25.4
12.5
38.1

Percentage of employees affected.

1907-1916..........................................
1907-1911..........................................
1912-1916..........................................

41.6
47.0
35.0

58.4
53.0
65.0

16.6
26.6
4.5

44.3
45.8
42.5

MINING.
Percentage of disputes.
1907-1916..........................................
1907-1911..........................................
1912-1916..........................................

68.8
63.0
80.6

31.2
37.0
19.4

21.1
24.7
13.9

26.6
31.5
16.6

Percentage of employees affected.
1907-1916..........................................
1907-1911..........................................
1912-1916..........................................

70.6
63.8
84.6

29.4
36.2
15.4

28.2
36.6
10.8

26.0
32.6
12.5

RAILW AYS.
Percentage of disputes.
1907-1916..........................................
1907-1911..........................................
1912-1916..........................................

44.9
40.5
50.0

55.1
59.5
50.0

8.0
9.4
6.3

38.4
45.9
29.7

Percentage of employees affected.
1907-1916..........................................
1907-1911..........................................
1912-1916..........................................

20.6
29.8
11.6

79.4
70.2
88.4

11.7
21.2
2 4

54.0
57.7
50.3

1 The year 1907 includes only Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
2 Including only those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor contemplating
the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
s Including only those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lode out was made.




COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

85

Of strikes and lockouts within the scope of the act, Table 30 shows
that boards were constituted for 22.9 per cent of such strikes and
lockouts, for 56.5 per cent of the employees affected, and for 93.7
per cent of the working-days lost during the first period as against
11.5 per cent of the strikes and lockouts, 12.9 per cent of the employees
affected, and 18.5 per cent of the working days lost during the second
period.

Relatively, then, a much smaller percentage of disputes within
the scope of the act have been referred to boards during the period
1912-1916 than during the period 1907-1911.
A similar analysis of disputes in the mining industry shows that of
all mining disputes boards were constituted for 56.2 per cent during
the first period as against 30.5 per cent during the second period,
and for 69.2 per cent of the employees affected as against 23.3 per
cent. If only strikes and lockouts are considered, the per cent is
39.1 as against 17.2 for such strikes and lockouts; 57.5 as against
8.3 for employees affected; and 96.8 as against 16.8 for working-days
lost.
The act is conceded to have been most successful in its application
to railway disputes, yet boards were constituted for 55.3 per cent
of the railway disputes during the first period as against 36 per cent
during the second period, and for 78.9 per cent of the employees
affected as against 52.7 per cent. Of all railway strikes and lock­
outs, boards were constituted for 23.4 per cent during the period
1907-1911 as against 12.5 per cent during the period 1912-1916;
for 71.2 per cent of the employees affected as against 20.7 per cent;
and for 87.7 per cent of the working-days lost as against 51.8 per
cent.




86

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

T able 3 0 .— S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N W A S M A D E F O R R E F E K E N C E E X P R E S S E D A S P E R C E N T A G E S O F S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN I N D U S T R I E S
W I T H I N T H E SC O PE O F T H E A Q T F O R T H E P E R IO D S 1907-1916, 1907-1911, A N D 1912-1910
A L L IN D U S T R IE S .

Period.*

Strikes
and
lockouts
within
scope of
act.

Strikes and lockouts
in which application
was made for refer­
ence under the act.*

Board
consti­
tuted.

Board
not con­
stituted.

Percentage of disputes.

1907-1916................
1907-1911................
1912-1916................

100.0
100.0
100.0

17.5
22.9
11.5

2.3
3.4
1.0

Percentage of employees affected.
1907-1916................
1907-1911................
1912-1916................

100.0
100.0
100.0

39.9
56.5
12.9

3 .9
6.0
.5

Percentage of working-days lost.
1907-1916................
1907-1911................
1912-1916................

100.0
100.0
100.0

74.8
93.7
18.5

1.0
1.3
.1

M IN IN G .
Percentage of disputes.
1907-1916...............
1907-1911...............
1912-1916................

100.0
100.0
100.0

30.6
39.1
17.2

2 .7
4.3

Percentage of employees affected.
1907-1916................
1907-1911...............
1912-1916...............

100.0
100.0
100.0

39.9
57.5
8.3

3.1
5.1

Percentage of working-days lost.
1907-1916...............
1907-1911...............
1912-1916...............

100.0
100.0
100.0

75.3
96.8
16.8

0.3
.4

R A IL W A Y S .
Percentage of disputes.
1907-1916...............
1907-1911...............
1912-1916...............

100.0
100.0
100.0

17.8
23.4
12.5

1.6
3 .3

Percentage of employees affected.
1907-1916...............
1907-1911...............
1912-1916...............

100.0
100.0
100.0

56.9
71.2
20.7

5.8
8.1

Percentage of working-days lost.
1907-1916...............
1907-1911...............
1912-1916...............

100.0
100.0
100.0

83.4
87.7
51.8

3 .9
4.4

1 The year 1907 includes only Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
2 Including only those applications in which action was taken b y the department of labor contempl ating
the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.




87

COMPARISON OF DISPUTES.

In tables 31 and 32 a comparison is shown between mining and
railway disputes, and all disputes within the scope of the act for the
periods 1907-1911 and 1912-1916.
A more striking comparison between the two periods is shown in
diagrams 1 to 5, pages 90 to 94.
3 1 .— D IS P U T E S IN M IN IN G A N D IN R A I L W A Y S S H O W N A S P E R C E N T A G E S O F
T O T A L D IS P U T E S IN A L L I N D U S T R I E S W I T H I N T H E SC O PE O F T H E A C T F O R T H E
P E R IO D S 1907-1916, 1907-1911, A N D 1912-1916.

T able

Disputes in which application was made for
reference under the act.2

Period.1

Strikes
and
lockouts.

Total dis­
putes in all
industries
within
scope of
act.

Disputes
not result­
ing in
strike or
lockout.3

Board constituted.

Strikes
and
lockouts.

Board not constituted.

Disputes
not result­
ing in
strike or
lockout.3

Strikes
and
lockouts.

Disputes
not result­
ing in
strike or
lockout.3

Min­ Rail­ Min­ Rail­ M in­ Rail­ Min­ Rail­ Min­ Rail­ Min­ Rail­
ing. ways. ing. ways. ing. ways. ing. ways. ing. ways. ing. ways.
Percentage of disputes.
100.0
100.0
100.0

1907-1916...........
1907-1911...........
1912-1916...........

19.0
21.9
15.7

15.7
14.3
17.3

8.6
12.9
3.8

5.8
8.5
2.7

19.3
21.0
17.3

2.7
3.3
2.2

7.3
11.0
3.3

13.5
16.2
10.3

0.5
1.0

0.3
.5

1.3
1.9
.5

5.8
4.8
7.0

0.8
1.4

0 .6
1.1

1.2
1.6
.7

12.3
5.5
20.6

Percentage of employees affected.
1907-1916...........
1907-1911...........
1912-1916...........

100.0
100.0
100.0

24.5
27.2
21.3

10.0
13.1
6.3

10.2
15.4
3.9

38.6
30.8
47.9

9.8
15.6
2.7

5.7
9 .3
1.3

9.0
13.8
3.1

26.3
25.3
27.3

1 The year 1907 includes only Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
2 Including only those applications in which action was taken b y the department of labor contemplat­
ing the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
3 Including only those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lockout was made.
T a b l e 3 2 , —S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN M IN IN G A N D IN R A I L W A Y S S H O W N A S P E R ­
C E N T A G E S O F S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN A L L I N D U S T R I E S W I T H I N T H E SCO PE
O F T H E A C T , F O R T H E P E R IO D S 1907-1916, 1907-1911, A N D 1912-1916=

Period.1

A ll strikes
and
lockouts
within
scope of
act.

Strikes and lockouts in which application was
made for reference under the act.2
A ll mining A ll railway
strikes.
strikes.

Board constituted.
Mining.

Railways.

Board-Hot constituted.
Mining.

Railways.

Percentage of disputes.
1907-1916................
1907-1911.................
1912-1916.................

100.0
100.0
100.0

33.8
39.0
27.9

27.9
25.4
30.8

10.4
15.3
4.8

4.9
5.9
3.8

0.9
1.7

0.5
.9

1.8
3.0

1.4
2.2

0.3
.4

0.6
.8

Percentage of employees affected.
1907-1916.................
1907-19L1.................
1912-1916.............

100.0
100.0
100.0

58.9
57.8
60.8

24.0
27.8
17.9

23.6
33.2
7.8

13.7
19.9
3.7

Percentage of working-days lost.
1907-1916................
1907-1911.................
1912-1916................

100.0
100.0
100.0

82.1
80.3
87.5

15.0
17.7
6.9

61.8
77.7
14.7

12.5
15.5
3.6

1 The year 1907 includes only Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
2 Including only those applications in which action was taken b y the department of labor contem­
plating the estab Jshment of a board of conciliation and investigation.




88

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

Table 33 shows the importance of disputes in which application was
made for reference under the act in comparison with disputes in which
the act was not invoked. The measure of importance is the number
of employees affected per dispute and the number of days lost per
strike or lockout and per employee affected.
It will be observed that, whether measured by employees affected
or by days lost, strikes and lockouts in which application was not made
for reference under the act were not as important as those referred
under the act. It is apparent, however, that the act has failed to
avert strikes in disputes of considerable importance. Thus, for the
period 1907-1916, the number of employees affected per dispute in
all industries in which a strike or lockout did not occur was 817; the
number of employees per strike or lockout was 453. But the number
of employees per strike or lockout occurring after the investigation
and award of a board was 1,129 and in those strikes and lockouts
continuing after boards were constituted was 2,207,
Similarly, measured by the days lost per strike or lockout or per
employee affected, the most serious were those strikes and lockouts
declared in opposition to the awards of legally constituted boards or,
occurring prior to reference to such boards, continued after the boards
were constituted. The least serious, measured by days lost, were
those strikes and lockouts in which the disputants were induced to
resume operations prior to submitting their differences to a board.
Comparing the periods 1907-1911 and 1912-1916, it will be observed
that for the first period the number of employees affected per stike or
lockout in all industries within the scope of the act was 528; for the
second period 368. The number of employees affected per strike or
lockout not referred under the act was 269 for the first period and 364
for the second period. In days lost per employee affected, the first
period shows 58.7; the second, 31.9 for all strikes and lockouts in
industries within the scope of the act. But for strikes and lockouts
occurring without reference to the act, the first period shows 7.8 days
per employee and the second 29.9„ Of employees affected per strike
and lockout referred under the act, the first period shows 1,257; the
second 394. Of days lost per employee in strikes and lockouts re­
ferred under the act, the first period shows 88.3; the second 44.2.
Thus while there has been a noticeable decrease in the importance of
strikes and lockouts occurring in industries within the scope of the
act, the strikes and lockouts not referred under the act have increased
in importance.




T able 3 3 . — R E L A T I V E IM P O R T A N C E O F D IS P U T E S IN W H IC H A P P L IC A T IO N W A S M A D E A N D W A S N O T M A D E F O R R E F E R E N C E U N D E R T H E A C T
A S M E A S U R E D B Y E M P L O Y E E S A F F E C T E D P E R D ISP U TE A N D D A Y S L O S T P E R S T R IK E OR L O C K O U T A N D P E R E M P L O Y E E A F F E C T E D
D U R IN G T S E P E R IO D S 1907-191G, 1907-1911, A N D 1912-1916.

Disputes in which application was made for reference under the act.8

Period.1

Disputes not resulting in
strikes or lockouts.2

Strikes and lockouts.

Commenc­
ing prior to
application
for, but ter­
minating
before con­
stitution
of, board.

Commenc­
ing prior to
application
for board
and con­
tinuing
after it was
constituted.

Commenc­ Commenc­
ing after
ing after
application investiga­
for board,
tion and
but before report of
board.
its report.

Board not
con­
stituted.

Total.

Board
con­
stituted.

Board
not
con­
stituted.

Total.

Strikes
and
lockouts.

Total.

Disputes
not re­
sulting in
strike or
lockout.2

Total.

C O M P A R IS O N

Strikes
and
lockouts
in which
applica­
tion was
not made
for ref­
erence.

Disputes within the scope of the act.

Employees affected per dispute.
O
F

512
519
497

2,207
2,509
1,000

595
688
41

1,129
1,630
342

790
938
200

1,002
1,257
394

782
930
762

948
595
1,232

817
763
878

854
887
811

453
528
368

83,317.7
110,939.4
17,449.9

21,795.6
30,680.9
11,714.4

21,795.6
30,680.9
11,714.4

83.1
88.3
44.2

48.9
58.7
31.9

48.9
58.7
31.9

817
763
878

612
631
591

Days lost per strike or lockout.

1907-1916..
1907-1911..
1912-1916..

6,588.1
2,083.0
10,895.1

4,230.0
2,914.2
6,861.7

324,691.2
396,364.0
38,000.0

19,284.3
22,464.2
205.0

101,266.8
150,558.6
23,807.7

9.330.0
11,312.5
1.400.0

83,317.7
110,939.4
17,449.9

D IS P U T E S .

318
269
364

1907-1916...
1907-1911...
1912-1916...

Days lost per employee affected.

1907-1916..
1907-1911.
1912-1916.

20.9
7.8
29.9

8.3
5.6
4.4

147.1
158.0
38.0

32.4
32.7
5.0

89.7
92.4

11.8
12.1
7.0

83.1
88.3
44.2

1 The year 1907 includes only March 22 to December 31.
2 Including only#those applications in which action was taken by the department of labor contemplating the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.




00

C
O

DIAGRAM 1.—PER CENT OF DISPUTES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION
ACT, IN WHICH BOARDS WERE CONSTITUTED, AND PER CENT NOT REFERRED TO BOARDS, 1907 TO 1911 AND 1912
TO 1916.

IN D U S T R IA L
D IS P U T E S
I N V E S T I G A T IO N
ACT
O
F
CANADA,




°

MARCH 22, 1907, TO DECEMBER 31, 1911.

JANUARY 1, 1912, TO DECEMBER 31, 1916.

DIAGRAM 2.—PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED IN DISPUTES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL
DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT IN WHICH BOARDS WERE CONSTITUTED, AND PER C?N T IN DISPUTES NOT
REFERRED TO BOARDS, 1907 TO 1911 AND 1912 TO 1916.

C O M P A R IS O N
O
F
D IS P U T E S .




MARCH 22, 1907, TO DECEMBER 31, 1911.

JANUARY 1, 1912, TO DECEMBER 31,1916.

1:0
IN D U S T R I A L

DIAGRAM 3.—PER CENT OP STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES
INVESTIGATION ACT IN WHICH BOARDS WERE CONSTITUTED, AND PER CENT NOT REFERRED TO BOARDS, 1907 TO
1911 AND 1912 TO 1916.

D IS P U T E S
IN V E S T IG A T IO N
ACT
O
F
CANADA.

MARCH




22, 1907,

TO DECEMBER 31, 1911.

JANUARY 1, 1912, TO DECEMBER 31, 1916.

DIAGRAM 4.—PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED IN STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE CANA­
DIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT IN WHICH BOARDS WERE CONSTITUTED, AND PER CENT OF
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS NOT REFERRED TO BOARDS, 1907 TO 1911 AND 1912 TO 1916.

C O M P A R IS O N
O
F
D IS P U T E S ,

MARCH 22, 1907, TO DECEMBER 31, 1911.




JANUARY 1, 1912, TO DECEMBER 31, 1916.

CO

Co

DIAGRAM 5.—PER CENT OF WORKING BAYS LOST IN STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS WITHIN THE SCOPE OP THE CANADIAN
INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT IN WHICH BOARDS WERE CONSTITUTED, AND PER CENT IN STRIKES
AND LOCKOUTS NOT REFERRED TO BOARDS, 1907 TO 1911 AND 1912 TO 1916.

^
IN D U S T R I A L
D IS P U T E S
I N V E S T I G A T IO N
ACT
O
F
CANADA.

MARCH 22, 1907, TO DECEMBER 31, 1911,




JANUARY 1, 1912, T O DECEMBER

31,

191$,

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES.

95

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES, 1901 TO 1916,
SUM M ARY

A N A L Y S IS .

In the preceding sections of this report an analysis has been made
of strikes and lockouts occurring in industries within the scope of the
Industrial Disputes Investigation Act. In this section consideration
is given to strikes and lockouts in all industries, and specifically in
those industries with which, by *and large, the act is concerned,
during the period 1901-1916.
Such a consideration leads naturally to a comparison as between
periods of time prior to and subsequent to the inception of the act.
It can not be overemphasized, however, that strike and lockout
figures uncorrelated with other factors are inconclusive and may be
misleading in estimating the effect of legislative measures designed
to avoid strikes and lockouts. The wave of industrial unrest is by
no means regular in its ebb and flow, and in order to establish a trend
observation over a much greater period of time than that under con­
sideration would be necessary. It is apparent that accelerating
influences in some industries have served to discredit the value of
the Canadian act, whereas in other industries retarding influences
have tended measurably to decrease the number of strikes and lock­
outs and give undue credit to its restrictive provisions. Thus the
growth of unionism in the coal mining industry has led to concerted
strike action for the establishment of union principles, approxi-*
mately 50 per cent of the time lost in mining strikes during the period
1907-1916 occurring in strikes for union recognition, for the prin­
ciple of the closed shop, or for the reinstatement of discharged union
employees. In industries connected with the operation and main­
tenance of steam railways, on the other hand, unionism is more gen­
erally recognized and the principle of the working agreement more
generally accepted. Measured solely by the number of strikes and
lockouts, the number of employees affected, or the time lost, it is
probable that any legislation would have evidenced merit in the
prevention of railway strikes and failure in the prevention of mining
strikes. As previously stated, no degree of refinement of strike and
lockout figures would show concretely the number of strikes and
lockouts that might have occurred had the act not been passed, or
the number of voluntary negotiations that have been entered into
as ,a result of its passage.
C O M P A R IS O N

OF

S T R IK E R S

W IT H

P O T E N T IA L

W O RKERS,

W O R K IN G

AND

T IM E

LOST

W IT H

T IM E .

In the following analysis the ratio of strikers to workers and of
working time lost to potential working time is shown for the years
1901 and 1911 and for periods of years prior and subsequent to the




96

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

inception of the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act. The number
of workers is based on the Canadian censuses of 1901 and 1911.
In 1901 there were reported to be 1,782,834 workers in all industries,
of which number 28,650, or 1.6 per cent, were classed under mining,
and 80,756, or 4.5 per cent, under transportation. Of the 28,650
mining workers, 1,468 were engaged in quarrying and in connection
with oil and salt well operations. Deducting the number thus
employed from total mining workers, there remain 27,182, or 1.5
per cent of total workers, who may be classed as coal and metal
mine workers. In 1911 there were 2,723,634 workers in all indus­
tries, of which number 62,767, or 2.3 per cent, were classed as mine
workers and 217,544, or 8 per cent, as transport workers. Deduct­
ing 8,631 employees connected with quarrying and with the operations
of oil and salt wells from those classed under mining, there remain
54,136 coal and metal mine workers, which number was 2 per cent
of all workers.
During the year 1901, 28,086 employees were affected in strikes
and lockouts in all industries. Of these, 3,625, or 12.9 per cent,
were miners and 5,466, or 19.5 per cent, were engaged in transport
work. In 1911 30,094 employees in all industries were affected in
strikes and lockouts. Of these 9,769, or 32.5 per cent, were miners
and 4,987, or 16.5 per cent, were transport workers. From the above
it will be observed that in 1901, 1.62 per cent of workers in all indus•tries were on strike. Mining employees on strike constituted 0.21
per cent of all workers, 13.3 per cent of mining workers, and 12.9
per cent of total strikers. Transport employees on strike con­
stituted 0.32 per cent of total workers, 6.8 per cent of transport
workers, and 19.5 per cent of all strikers. In 1911, 1.10 per cent of
all workers were on strike. Mining employees on strike constituted
0.36 per cent of all workers, 18 per cent of mine workers, and 32.5
per cent of all strikers. Transport employees on strike constituted
0.18 per cent of all workers, 2.3 per cent of transport workers, and 16.5
per cent of all employees affected in strikes and lockouts.
Of greater significance is the time loss resulting from strikes and
lockouts. The time loss in 1901 due to strikes and lockouts in all
industries was 632,311 days. Of this number, 55,950, or 8.8 per cent,
were in mining and 315,804, or 49.9 per cent, were in transport.
Considering the number of working days per year for each worker to
be 300, it may be estimated that for the year 1901 there were poten­
tially 534,850,200 working days for all workers, of which number
8,154,600, or 1.5 per cent, may be credited to mining and 24,226,800,
or 4.5 per cent, to transport. Of the potential working days in 1901,
0.12 per cent were lost in strike and lockout. The time lost in mining
constituted 0.01 per cent of the potential working time in all industries
and 0.7 per cent of the potential working time in the mining industry.




STRIKES AND LOOKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES.

97

The time lost in transport constituted 0.59 per cent of the potential
working time in all industries and 1.3 per cent of the potential working
time in transport. Thus, 1.62 per cent of all workers were responsi­
ble for the total time loss, which aggregated, however, but 0.12 per
cent of the potential working time in all industries. Mining employ­
ees, constituting 13.2 per cent of mining workers and 0.21 per cent of
all workers, were responsible for a time loss aggregating 8.8 per cent
of the total time loss in all industries. The time loss in mining,
however, constituted but 0.01 per cent of the potential working time
in all industries, and but 0.7 per cent of the potential time of mine
workers. Transport employees, constituting 6.8 per cent of transport
workers and 0.32 per cent of all workers, were responsible for a time
loss aggregating 49.9 per cent of the total time loss in all industries.
However, the time loss due to strikes and lockouts in industries con­
nected with transport amounted to but 0.59 per cent of the potential
working time of all workers and but 1.3 per cent of the potential
time of transport workers.
In 1911, following the same analysis, there were 817,090,200
potential working days in all industries, of which number 16,240,800,
or 2 per cent, should be credited to mining and 65,263,200, or 8 per
cent, to transport. The total time loss due to strikes and lockouts
was 2,018,740 days, of which number 1,592,800, or 78.9 per cent,
were in mining and 85,493, or 4.2 per cent, were in transport. Of
the potential working days, 0.25 per cent were lost in strikes and
lockouts. The time lost in mining constituted 0.19 per cent of the
potential working time in all industries and 9.8 per cent of the potential
working time in the mining industry. The time lost in transport
constituted 0.01 per cent of the potential working time in all industries
and 0.1 per cent of the potential working time in transport industries.
Thus, in 1911, 1.10 per cent of all workers were responsible for the
total time loss which, however, aggregated but 0.25 per cent of tne
potential Working time in all industries. Mining employees aggre­
gating 18 per cent of mining workers and 0.36 per cent of all workers
were responsible for a time loss amounting to 78.9 per cent of the
total time loss in all industries, to 9.8 per cent of the potential working
time of mine workers, and to 0.19 per cent of the potential working
time in all industries. Transport employees constituting 2.3 per
cent of all transport Workers and 0.18 per cent of workers in all
industries were responsible for a time loss aggregating 4.2 per cent
of the total time loss in all industries, to 0.1 per cent of the potential
working time of transport workers, and to 0.01 per cent of the poten­
tial working time in all industries.
The years 1901 and 1911 were selected for the preceding analysis
because census returns showing the number of workers are based on




98

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

actual enumerations for those years. It will be observed, however,
that the time loss in industries connected with transport was unusually
large in 1901, whereas the time lost in mining was unusually large
in 1911. A more equitable comparison may therefore be expected
if based on averages over a period of years.
The periods 1901-1906 and 1907-1912 were selected as repre­
senting approximately six years before and six years after the incep­
tion of the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act. In order to arrive
at a number representing approximately the number of workers for
each period, it has been assumed that the annual increment for years
subsequent to 1901 was one-tenth of the increase of 1911 over 1901.
The aggregate of yearly workers thus estimated for the period under
consideration has been used to represent the number of workers for
that period.

Measured thus, there were 12,108,204 workers during the period
1901-1906. Of this number, 203,520 were miners and 689,715 were
transport workers. For the same period, employees affected by
strikes and lockouts aggregated 149,146, of which 33,503 were miners
and 21,148 were transport workers.
The potential working time for the period 1901-1906 may be
estimated at 3,632,410,200 working-days. Of this nuniber, 61,056,000
may be credited to mining and 206,914,500 to transport. The time
loss during the six-year period due to strikes and lockouts in all
industries was 2,821,796 working-days. Of this number, 818,262
were in mining and 428,475 were in industries connected with general
transport.
A similar analysis for the period 1907-1912 shows an aggregate
of 15,495,084 workers, of which number 300,546 were miners and
1,182,154 were transport workers. During this period there were
171,134 employees on strike, of which number 42,052 were miners
and 28,250 were transport workers.
The potential working time for the period 1907-1912 may be esti­
mated at 4,648,525,200 Working-days for all industries. Of this
number, 90,163,800 were in mining and 354,646,200 were in transport.
The time loss during the period due to strikes and lockouts in all
industries was 6,038,675 working-days. Of this number, 2,989,582
were in mining and 725,192 were in transport.
In the following table the figures shown above for the periods

1901-1906 and 1907-1912 are reduced to percentages and presented
in comparison with the years 1901 and 1911 and with the periods
March 22, 1901, to March 21, 1907, and March 22, 1907, to March 21,
1913.1
1 The number of workers Tor the periods Mar. 22, 1901, to Mar. 21, 1907, and Mar. 22,1907, to Mar. 21,1913,
are taken to be the same as for the periods 1901-1906 and 1907-1912. The time loss in 1901,1907, and 1913 for
the period Jan. 1 to Mar. 21 has been computed on the basis of working days and employees affected.




99

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES.

T a bl e 3 4 .— P E R C E N T E M P L O Y E E S A F F E C T E D I N S T R I K E S A N D L O C K O U T S A R E
O F T O T A L W O R K E R S , A N D W O R K I N G T IM E L O S T IS O F P O T E N T I A L W O R K I N G
T IM E .

Item.

Mining.

...

. , , .. , . , ______________ ______________

1901

1911

1901
to
1906.

1907
to
1912.

100.0
1.5
4.5

100.0
2.0
8.0

100.0
1.7
5.7

100.0
1.9
7.6

Mar. 22, Mar. 22,
1901 to 1907 to
Mar. 21, Mar. 21,
1913.
1907.

100.0
1.7
5.7

100..0
1.9
7.6

Workers affected in strikes and lockouts:
Mining.......................................................................................
Transport.................................................................................
Per cent of mine workers affected in strikes and lock-

1.62
.21
.32

1.10
.36
.18

1.23
.28
.17

1.10
.27
.18

1.24
.29
.18

1.16
.29
.18

13.3

18.0

16.5

14.0

16.7

15.2

6.8

2.3

3.1

2.4

3.1

2.4

Mining.......................................................................................
Transport .............................................................................

100.0
12.9
19.5

100.0
32.5
16.5

100.0
22.5
14.2

100.0
24.6
16.5

100.0
22.5
14.3

100.0
25.4
15.9

Days lost in strikes and lockouts in all industries..........
Mining.......................................................................................
Transport.................................................................................

100.0
8.8
49.9

100.0
78.9
4.2

100.0
29.0
15.2

100.0
49.5
12.0

100.0
29.2
15.2

100.0
51.4
11.6

Potential working time in all industries.............................
Time lost in strikes and lockouts:
Ail industries.........................................................................
Mining.......................................................................................
Transport.................................................................................
Per cent of potential working time in mining lost in
mining strikes and lockouts.................................................
Per cent of potential working time in transport lost in
transport strikes and lockouts............................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Per cent ol' transport workers affected in strikes and
lockouts........................................................................................
E mployees affected in strikes and lockouts in all mdus-

.12
.01
.06

.25
.19
.01

.7

9.8

1.3

.1

.08
.02
.01
1.3
.21

.13
.06
.02
3.3
.20

.08
.02
.01
1.4
.21

.14
.07
.02
3.6
.21

It will be observed that mining workers were 1.9 per cent of all
workers during the period 1907-1912 as against 1.7 per cent during
the period 1901-1906, and that transport workers were 7.6 per cent
of aU workers during the second period as against 5.7 per cent during
the first period. In both mining and transport, however, the per­
centage of employees affected by strikes and lockouts was less during
the period 1907-1912 than during the period 1901-1906. Thus,
while mining and transport have grown in importance in comparison
with other industries, a small proportion of mining and transport
workers have been affected in strikes and lockouts. In point of time
lost, however, both mining and transport show an increase during
the second period in the ratio of such time to the potential working
time in all industries. But of the potential working time in transport,
only 0.20 per cent was lost in 1907-1912 as against 0.21 per cent in
1901-1906.
The relative importance of mining and transport strikes is apparent
from the fact that in the second period the time lost in mining strikes
was 49.5 per cent of the time lost in all industries, whereas the time
lost in transport was but 12 per cent of the time lost in all industries.
The relative increase or decrease, by periods, in employees in
strikes and lockouts and days lost in comparison with the increase




100

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

in workers for all industries and for mining and transport appears
as follows:
T able 3 5 .—R E L A T I V E IN C R E A S E O R D E C R E A S E O F E M P L O Y E E S IN S T R IK E S A N D
L O C K O U T S A N D O F D A Y S L O S T C O M P A R E D W IT H IN C R E A S E O F W O R K E R S IN A L L
IN D U S T R IE S A N D IN M IN IN G A N D T R A N S P O R T .

1901

All workers:
A ll industries.............................................
Mining.........................................................
Transport...................................................
Employees affected in strikes and lockouts:
All industries.............................................
Mining.........................................................
Transport...................................................
Days lost in strikes and lockouts:
All industries.............................................
Mining.........................................................
Transport....................................................

1911

1901 to
1906.

1907 to
1912.

Mar. 22,
1901 to
Mar. 21,
1907.

Mar. 22,
1907 to
Mar. 21,
1913.

100.0
100.0
100.0

152.8
199.2
274.6

100.0
100.0
100.0

128.0
147.6
171.4

100.0
100.0
100.0

128.0
147.6
171.4

100.0
100.0
100.0

107.1
269.4
91.2

100.0
100.0
100.0

114.7
125.5
133.6

100.0
100.0
100.0

119.2
132.6
110.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

319.3
2,846.8
27.1

100.0
100.0
100.0

214.0
365.4
169.2

100.0
100.0
100.0

221.8
286.8
150.4

Using the period 1901-1906 as a base, it will be observed that the
number of workers in all industries was 28.0 per cent greater for the
period 1907-1912 than for the period 1901-1906. In mining, the
increase was 47.6 per cent; in transport 71.4 per cent. The employ­
ees affected in strikes and lockouts in all industries was 14.7 per cent
greater during 1907-1912 than during 1901-1906. In mining the
increase in employees affected was 25.5 per cent; in transport, 33.6
per cent. In working-days lost in strikes and lockouts in all indus­
tries, the period 1907-1912 shows an increase of 114 per cent over
the period 1901-1906. The increase in mining was 265.4 per cent;
the increase in transport was 69.2 per cent. In a similar manner
a comparison is shown between the years 1901 and 1911 and between
the periods March 22, 1901 to March 21, 1907, and March 22, 1907,
to March 21, 1913.
The futility of attempting a comparison as between years is
apparent from the percentages for the years 1901 and 1911. It will
be observed that the working-days lost in mining were 2,746.8 per
cent greater in 1911 than in 1901, whereas the time lost in transport
was 72.9 per cent less in 1911 than in 1901. As stated previously,
strikes and lockouts in industries connected with transport were
unusually severe in 1901, while mining strikes were unusually severe
in 1911.
Comparing the periods 1901-1906 and 1907-1912, or, for greater
exactness with respect to the inception of the act, the periods March
22, 1901, to March 21, 1907, and March 22, 1907, to March 21, 1913,
it will be observed that the increase in employees affected in strikes
and lockouts has not kept pace with the increase in the number of
workers. The increase in working-days lost, however, exceeds the




C h a r t C — S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN C A N A D IA N IN D U ST R IE S F O R T H E P E R IO D 1 9 0 1 TO 1 916
EM PLO Y EES A FFECTED ,
60,000

6 0 ,0 0 0

57,000

574)00

54,000

54,000

51,000

51,000

48,000

48,000

45,000

45,000

42,000

42,000

39,000

39,000

36,000

36,000

33,000

33,000

30,000

30,000

27,000

,27,000

24,000

24,000

21,000

2 1 ,0 0 0

18,000

18,000

15,000

15,000

1 2 ,0 0 0

9,000

6 ,0 0 0

3,000




1 2 ,0 0 0

9,000

6 ,0 0 0

3,000

C h a r t D — S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN C A N A D IA N IN D U S T R IE S F O R T H E P E R IO D 1 9 0 1 TO 1 9 1 6 .
W O R K IN G D A Y S L O S T .

2 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

2 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

1395,000

1,995,000
Steam railways.
Transport other than steam railways.

1,890,000

1,890,000

Mining.
1

1.785.000

All other industries

1,785,000

1,680,000

1,680,000

1,575,000

1,575,000

1,470,000

1,470,000

1,365,000

1,365,000

1,260,000

1,260,000

1,155,000

1,155,000

1,050,000

1,050,000

945,000

945,000

840,000

840,000

735,000

735,000

630,000

630,000

525,000

525,000

420,000

420,000

315,000

315,000

210,000

2 1 0 ,0 0 0

S

105,000




i i

105,000

>;-rV:VV
• M '-

S lI
§

1901

1902

1903

1904

1905

m
1914

1915

1916

STRIKES AND LOOKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES.

101

increase in the number of workers except in industries connected
with transport.
DETAILED TABLES.

A further analysis of disputes in Canadian industries during the
period 1901-1916 is presented in the following tables and charts.
As in previous sections, disputes in mining and in industries connecte d
with general transport are selected for a more detailed analysis
because such industries contribute a large percentage of the em­
ployees affected and time lost in all strikes and lockouts and par­
ticularly in disputes within the scope of the Industrial Disputes
Investigation Act.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, EMPLOYEES AFFECTED, AND DAYS LOST.

Table 36 presents yearly summaries of strikes and lockouts,
employees affected, and days lost in all industries, in mining, and in
industries connected with general transport.
Table 37 summarizes the strikes and lockouts enumerated in
Table 36 for periods of years prior and subsequent to the inception
of the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act.
Charts C and D show graphically the number of employees affected
and days lost in strikes and lockouts in mining, steam railways,
other transport, and all other industries for the years 1901-1916.
Chart C shows employees affected; Chart D shows days lost.
3 6 . — N U M B E R OF S T R IK E S A N D LO C K O U TS, OF E S T A B L IS H M E N T S A N D EM ­
P L O Y E E S A F F E C T E D , A N D OF D A Y S L O S T , IN S P E C IF IE D IN D U S T R IE S , 1901 TO 1916.

T a b le

[Source: Labor Gazette, February, 1917, p. 111. Disputes in existence during.any year are included in
that year. Disputes not term inated in the year of com m encem ent are thus counted more than once.]

Year.

Number Number
of es­
of strikes tablish­
and
ments
lockouts. affected.

Number
of em­
ployees
affected.

N umber
of days
lost.

A ll industries.
1901..........................
1902..........................
1903......................
1904......................
1905........................
1906........................
1907..........................
1908......................
1909........................
1910..........................
1911........................
1912..........................
1913..........................
1914..........................
1915.
1916........................

104
121
146
99
89
141
149
68
69
98
150
113
44
43
75

273
420
927
575
437
1,015
825
175
397
1,335
475
989
1,015
205
96
271

28,086
12,264
50,041
16,482
16,223
26,050
36,624
25,293
17,332
21,280
30,094
40,511
39,536
8,678
9,140
21,157

632,311
120,940
1,226,500
265,004
217,244
359,797
i 621,962
708,285
871,845
718,635
22,018,740
1,099,208
1,287,678
430,054
106,149
208,277

1 Report on “ Strikes and Lockouts in Canada,” p. 6, gives 36,624 employees affected. A nnual report
of department of labor, 1907-8, gives 146 disputes, 35,034 employees affected, and 613,986 days lost.
2 Report on “ Strikes and Lockouts in Canada,” p. 6, gives 2,046,650 days lost; ib id ., p. 11, gives 2,021,440
days lost. A nnual report ol department of labor, 1911, giyes 97 disputes: 521 establishments affected in
disputes beginning in 1911; 27,555 employees affected in disputes beginning in 1911 and 28,898 employees
affected in disputes occurring in 1911, including those beginning prior to 1911 and not terminated in 1910.




102

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

T a b l e 3 6 . —N U M B E R

O F S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S , O F E S T A B L IS H M E N T S A N D EM ­
P L O Y E E S A F F E C T E D , A N D OF D A Y S L O S T , IN S P E C IF IE D IN D U S T R IE S , 1901 TO 1916—
Continued.

Year.

N um ber N um ber N um ber
of es­
of strikes
of em­
tablish­ ployees
and
ments
lockouts.
affected.
affected.

Num ber
of days
lost.

Mining.i
1901..........................
1902..........................
1903..........................
1904..........................
1905..........................
1906..........................
1907..........................
1908..........................
1909..........................
1910..........................
1911..........................
1912..........................
1913..........................
1914..........................
1915..........................
1916..........................

4
3
8
6
10
14
11
8
10
3
7
6
7
3
6
10

6
3
9
6
11
14
46
8
20
5
22
30
35
5
11
14

3,625
510
11,827
2,671
8,375
6,495
13,181
2,919
8,795
2,314
9,769
5,074
5,081
1,975
4,332
11,814

55,950
9,720
440,455
10,166
114,191
187,780
203,260
16,071
711,207
377,076
1,592,800
89,168
702,726
169,200
16,794
88,634

RailwaysJ
1901..........................
1902..........................
1903..........................
1904..........................
1906..........................
1907..........................
1908..........................
1909..........................
1910..........................
1911..........................
1912..........................
1913..........................
1915..........................
1916..........................

2
3
4
1
3
5
4
2
6
5
13
2
1
10

2
3
4
1
4
5
4
2
6
7
15
2
1
14

5,000
360
663
8
829
1,095
8,390
950
3,205
1,997
3,773
900
200
918

315,000
3 240
47,271
40
4,750
6,375
425,480
4,700
73,700
51,453
81,026
17,500
600
7,578

Transport other than steam railways J
1901..........................
1902..........................
1903..........................
1904..........................
1905..........................
1906............. ............
1907..........................
1908..........................
1909..........................
1910..........................
1911..........................
1912..........................
1913..........................
1914..........................
1915..........................
1916..........................

7
7
11
1
5
13
10
3
5
1
7
1
6
1
3
9

7
14
42
1
9
13
49
12
15
2
98
5
9
1
7
19

466
2,775
8,188
95
1,415
1,349
4,542
92
555
75
2,990
586
1,017
150
940
1,422

804
9,880
22,070
9,500
6,973
11,947
33,837
92
5,300
7,215
34,040
1,972
6,488
300
18,760
19,710

1 Quarrying not i ncluded.
2 Exclusive of construction laborers ana teamsters engaged in the handling of freight at terminals,
3 Time loss not reported for tw o strikes.
4 Exclusive of construction laborers.




103

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES.
T a b l e 3 6 . —N U M B E R

O F S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S , O F E S T A B L IS H M E N T S A N D EM­
P L O Y E E S A F F E C T E D , A N D O F D A Y S L O S T , IN S P E C IF IE D IN D U S T R IE S , 1901 TO 1916—
C oncluded.

Year.

N um ber N um ber
of es­
of strikes tablish­
and
ments
lockouts.
affected.

N um ber
of em­
ployees
affected.

N um ber
of days
lost.

General transport.
1

1901..........................
1902..........................
1903..........................
1904..........................
1905..........................
1906 ........................
1907..........................
1908..........................
1909..........................
1910..........................
1911..........................
1912..........................
1913..........................
1914..........................
191 5
!
191 6
!

9
10
15 !
2 1
5
16
15
7
7
7
12
14
8
1
4

9
17
46
2
9
17
54
16
(7

8
105
20
11
1
8
33

19

5,466
3,135
8,851
103
1,415
2,178
5,637
8,482
1,505
3,2,80
4,987
4,359
1 ,9i7
150
1,140
2,340

315,804
10,120
69,341
9,540
6,973
16,697
40.212
425/ 574
10,000
80,915
85,493
82.998
23,988
300
19,360
27,288

3 7 .—S U M M A R Y OF S T R IK E S A N D LO C K O U TS IN C A N A D IA N IN D U ST R IE S F O R
P E R IO D S OF Y E A R S P R IO R A N D S U B S E Q U E N T TO T H E IN C E P T IO N OF T H E
IN D U S T R IA L D IS P U T E S IN V E S T IG A T IO N ACT.

T a b le

[Disputes in existence during any year are included in that year. Disputes not terminated in the year
of com mencement are thus counted more than once.]

Period.

A ll indus­
tries.

Mining.1

Steam
railways.2

Other
transport.

A ll other
industries.

Number of strikes and lockouts.

1901-1916.............................................................
1901-1906.............................................................
1907-1912.............................................................
1913-1916.............................................................
M ar.22,1901, to Mar. 21,1907........................
Mar. 2 2 ,19Q7,to Mar. 21,1913........................
Mar. 22,1907, to D ec. 31,1916........................
Jan. 1,1901, to Mar. 21,1907...........................

1,593
700
618
2/75
701
632
913
722

116
45
45
26
46
48
71
47

61
13
35
13
14
35
47
14

90
44
27
19
44
29
46
44

1,326
598
511
217
597
520
749
617

Number of employees affected.

398,791
28,288
1901-1916.............................................................
98,757
149,146
6,860
1901-1906.............................................................
33,503
171,134
1907-1912.............................................................
42,052
19,410
23,202
1913-1916.............................................................
150,566
Mar. 22,1901, to Mar. 21,1907.......................
7,260
33,903
Mar. 22,1907, to Mar. 21,1913...................
179,465
45,596
19,510
250,420
66,354
Mar. 22,1907, to D ec. 31,1916........................
21,028
152,751
Jan. 1,1901, to Mar. 21,1907...........................
7,260
35,403

26,657
14,288
8, 840
78,511
3.529
14,288
9,058
12,369
14,288

245, 089
94, 495
100, 832
49,762
95,115
105,301
150,669
95,800

Number of working-days lost.

1901-1916............................................................. 10,892, ?,29
1901-1906...........................................................
2,821,796
1907-1912.............................................................
6,038,675
1913-1916.............................................................
2,032,158
Mar. 22,1901, to Mar. 21, 1907........................
2, 828,572
Mar. 22,1907, to Mar. 21,1913........................
6,386,089
Mar. 22, 1907, to D ec. 31,1916........................
8,092,979
2,857,494
Jan. 1,1901, to Mar. 21,1907
...........................
1 Quarrying not included.




4,785,198
818,262
2,989,582
977,354
825,462
3,279,872
3,961,236
826,962

1,035,713
367,301
642, 734
25, 678
368,101
655,434
667, 612
368,101

188, 890
61,174
82,458
45,258
61,174
83,694
127, 716
61,174

2 Construction laborers not included.

4,882,828
1,575,059
2,323,901
983,868
1,573, 835
2,367,089
3,336,415
1,572,335

2,018

104

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

EMPLOYEES AFFECTED AND DAYS LOST PER 1,000 WORKERS.

By reference to the following table it will be observed that the
number of employees affected in strikes or lockouts per 1,000 workers
in all industries is nearly the same for the period 1901-1906 as for the
period 1907-1912. Thus, for the first period, 12 of every 1,000
workers in all industries were affected in strikes and lockouts. Of
these, 3 were miners and 2 were engaged in general transport. For
the second period, 11 of every 1,000 workers were affected in strikes
and lockouts. Of these, 3 were miners and 2 were engaged in general
transport.
The days lost per 1,000 workers during the period 1907-1912 show
a marked increase over the period 1901-1906. Thus for the period
1901-1906, 233.0 days were lost per 1,000 workers. Of these, 67.6
days were in mining and 35.4 were in general transport. For the
period 1907-1912, 389.7 days were lost per 1,000 workers, 192.9 being
lost in mining and 46.8 in general transport.
3 8 .—E M P L O Y E E S A F F E C T E D IN S T R IK E S A N D LO C K O U T S A N D D A Y S L O S T P E R
1,000 W O R K E R S IN A L L IN D U S T R IE S , IN M IN IN G , A N D IN G E N E R A L T R A N S P O R T ,
1901 TO 1916.

ta b le

Employees affected per 1,000
workers.1

Days lost per 1,000 workers.1

Year.
A ll indus­
tries.
1901................................................
1902................................................
1903................................................
1904................................................
1905................................................
1906................................................
1907................................................
1908................................................
1909................................................
1910................................................
1911................................................
1912................................................
1913................................................
1914................................................
1915................................................
1916................................................
1901-1906.......................................
1907-1912.......................................

16
7
25
8
8
12
16
10
7
8
11
11
14
3
3
7
12
11

Mining.2

General
A ll indus­
tries.
transport.3

Mining.2

General
transport.3

354.7
64.4
622.3
128.3
100.6
159.7
265.0
290.1
343.9
273.3
741.2
390.1
442.2
113.1
34.2
65.2
233.0
389.7

31.4
5.2
223.4
4.9
52.9
83.3
86.6
6.6
280.5
143.4
584. S
31.6
241.3
56.3
5.4
27.7
67. 6
192.9

177.1
5.4
35.2
4.6
3.2
7.4
17.1
174.3
3.9
30.8
31.4
29.5
8.2
.1
6.2
8.5
35.4
46.8

2
(<)

6
1
4
3
6
1
3
1
4
2
2
1
1
4
3
3

3
2
4
(4)

0)
(4)

1
1
2
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2

1 Based on censuses of 1901 and 1911. Increase of 1911 over 1901 averaged equally over intervening years.
Ten per cent of workers in 1911 added to each subsequent year.
2 Quarrying not included.
3 Construction laborers not included.
4 Less than 1.

A better measure, however, of industrial unrest within each indus­
try is found in the number of workers affected in strikes and lock­
outs or the amount of time lost per 1,000 workers in that industry.
In Table 39 it will be observed that of every 1,000 mine workers 165
were affected in strikes and lockouts during the period 1901-1906,
and 140 during the period 1907-1912. In general transport, 31 of
every 1,000 were affected in strikes and lockouts during the first




STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES.

105

period as against 24 during the second period. The time lost per
1,000 mine workers was 4,020.5 days during the first period and
9,947.1 days during the second period. In general transport the
time lost during the first period was 621.2 days; during the second
period it was 613.4 days. It will be observed, however, that the
time lost per 1,000 transport workers in 1908 exceeded the time lost
in any previous year except 1901 and that the time lost in 1910,
1911, or 1912 exceeded the time lost in any year previous to 1907,
except 1901 and 1903.
T a b le

3 9 .—E M P L O Y E E S A F F E C T E D A N D D A Y S LO ST IN S T R IK E S A N D LO C K O U TS, P E R
1,000 W O R K E R S IN S P E C IF IE D IN D U S T R IE S .

[Based on censuses of 1901 and 1911. Increase of 1911 over 1901 averaged equally over intervening years.
Ten per cent of workers in 1911 added to each subsequent year.]

Employees affected.

Days lost.

Per 1,000
Per 1,000 general
Per 1,000 Per 1,000
general
mine
mine
transport
workers.1 workers.2 workers.1 transport
workers.2

Year.

1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................
1910.............................
1911.............................
1912.............................
1913.............................
1914.............................
1915.............................
1916..............................
1901-1906....................
1907-1912....................

133
18
363
76
221
160
304
63
180
45
180
89
85
32
67
175
165
140

68
33
82
(3)

00

10
15
35
48
8
16
23
19
8
4
8
31
21

2,058.3
325.3
13,522.5
288.2
3,007.9
4,618. 5
4,688.3
348.9
14,590.3
7,331.7
29,422. 2
1,569. 0
11,805. 2
2,719.3
258. 7
1,310.9
4,020. 5
9,947.1

3,910.6
107.2
641.4
78.3
51. 5
111.9
247.0
2,411.1
52.6
396.9
393.0
359.0
97.9
1.2
71.1
95.4
621.2
613. 4

1 Quarrying not included.
* Construction laborers not included.
* Less than 1.

RATIO OF MINING AND TRANSPORT STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS TO
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES.

The following tables and diagrams show strikes and lockouts,
employees affected, and days lost in mining, in railways, and in other
transport as percentages of total strikes and lockouts, employees
affected, and days lost in all industries.
Table 40 shows yearly percentages. Table 41 and diagrams 6 to 8
show percentages for periods of years prior and subsequent to the
inception of the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act.
By reference to Table 41 it will be seen that for the period 19011906 mining strikes and lockouts were 6.4 per cent of all strikes and
lockouts, railways 1.8 per cent, and other transport 6.3 per cent.
For the period 1907-1912, mining was 7.3 per cent, railways 5.7 per




106

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

cent, and other transport 4.4 per cent of all strikes and lockouts.
The percentage of employees affected show about the same ratio as
between periods as do the percentages of strikes and lockouts. Thus
mining employees affected in strike or lockout during the period
1901-1906 were 22.5 per cent of all employees affected in strike and
lockout as against 24.6 per cent during the period 1907-1912. Steam
railway employees were 4.6 per cent as against 11.3 per cent; other
transport employees 9.6 per cent as against 5.2 per cent.
In point of time lost, however, mining shows a marked increase
and steam railways a marked decrease. Thus the time lost in min­
ing during the period 1901-1906 was 29 per cent of all time lost.
During the period 1907-1912 it was 49.5 per cent In steam rail­
ways the time lost was 13 per cent during the first period and but
10.6 per cent during the second period.




D IAGRAM 6 — PE R CENT OF STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN SPECIFIED CANADIAN IND USTRIES, MARCH 22, 1901, TO
MARCH 21, 1907, AND MARCH 22, 1907, TO MARCH 21, 1913.

STRIKES
AD
N
LOCKOUTS
I
N
AL
L
INDUSTRIES.




o

INDUSTRIAL
DISPUTES
INVESTIGATION
ACT
O
P
CANADA,




108

DIAGRAM 7.—PE R CENT OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED IN STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN SPECIFIED CANADIAN INDUSTRIES,
MARCH 22, 1901, TO MARCH 21, 1907, AND MARCH 22, 1907, TO MARCH 21, 1913.

M ARCH 22, 1901, T O M ARCH 21, 1907.

M AR CH 22, 1907, T O M AR CH 21, 1913.

DIAGRAM 8.—PE R CENT OF W ORKING DAYS LOST IN ST R IK E S AND LOCKOUTS IN SPECIFIED CANADIAN IN DUSTRIES,
MARCH 22, 1901, TO MARCH 21, 1907, AND MARCH 22, 1907, TO MARCH 21, 1913.

STRIKES
AND
LOCKOUTS
I
N
ALL
INDUSTRIES.

109




110

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

T a b le 4 0 .— P E R

CEN T OF S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S, OF E M P L O Y E E S A F F E C T E D , A N D
OF D A Y S L O S T IN S P E C IF IE D IN D U S T R IE S , 1901 TO 1916.

Year.

A ll in ­
dustries.

Mines, i

Steam
railways.2

Other
trans­
port.2

Other in­
dustries.

Percentage o f strikes and lockouts.
1901..........
1902..........
1903..........
1904..........
1905..........
1906..........
1907..........
1908..........
1909..........
1910...........
1911..........
1912..........
1913..........
1914..........
1915..........
1916..........

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

3.8
2.5
5.5
6.1
11.2
9.9
7.4
11.8
14.5
3.6
7.1
4.0
6.2
6.8
14.0
13.3

1.9
2.5
2.7
1.0
3.4
5.9
2.9
7.1
5.1
8.7
1.8
........2 .Y *
13.3

6.7
5.8
8.5
1.0
5.6
9.2
6.7
4.4
7.2
1.1
7.1
.7
5.3
2.3
7.0
12.0

87.6
89.2
83.3
91.9
83.2
78.8
82.5
77.9
75.4
88.2
80.7
86.6
86.7
90.9
76.7
61.4

Percentage of employees affected.
1901..........
1902..........
1903..........
1904..........
1905
1906..........
1907..........
1908..........
1909..........
1910 . ,
1911..........
1912..........
1913..........
1914..........
1915..........
1916..........

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

12.9
4.2
23.6
16.2
51.6
24.9
36.0
11.5
50.7
10.9
32.5
12.5
12.9
22.8
47.4
55.8

17.8
2.9
1.3
( 3)
3.2
3.0
33.2
5.5
15.1
6.6
9.3
2.3
.............
2.2
4.3

1.7
22.6
16.4
.6
8.7
5.2
12.4
.4
3.2
.4
9.9
1.4
2.6
1.7
10.3
6.7

67.6
70.3
58.7
83.2
39.7
66.7
48.6
54.9
40.6
73.6
51.0
76.8
82.2
75.5
40.1
33.2

Percentage of time lost.
1901..........
1902..........
1903..........
1904..........
1905 . .
1906..........
1907..........
1908..........
1909..........
1910..........
1911..........
1912..........
1913..........
1914..........
1915..........
1916..........
1Quarrying not included.




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

8.8
8.0
35.9
3.8
52.6
52.2
32.7
2.3
81.6
52.5
78.9
8.1
54.6
39.3
15.8
42.6

49.8
(3)
3.9
(3)
1.3
1.0
60.1
.5
10.3
2.5
7.4
1.4
.6
3.6

* Construction not Included.

0.1
8.2
1.8
3.6
3.2
3.3
5.4
(3
)
.6
1.0
1.7
.2
.5
(3)
17.7
9.5

41.3
83.8
58.4
92.6
44.2
43.2
60.9
37.6
17.3
36.2
17.9
84.3
43.5
60.7
65.9
44.3

* Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

I ll

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES.
T a b le 4 1 .—P E R C E N T A G E

OF S T R IK E S A N D LO C K O U TS IN IN D U S T R IE S W IT H IN T H E
SCOPE O F T H E IN D U S T R IA L D IS PU TE S IN V E S T IG A T IO N A CT F O R P E R IO D S OF
Y E A R S P R IO R A N D SU B S E Q U E N T TO ITS IN CE PTIO N .

Period.

A ll in­
dustries.

Mining.1

A ll other
Other
Steam
railways.2 transport. indus­
tries.

Percentage o f strikes and lockouts.
100.0
1901-1916................................................................................
7.3
3.8
5.6
100.0
1901-1906................................................................................
' 6.4
1.8
6.3
1907-1912................................................................................
100.0
7.3
5.7
4.4
1913-1916
........................................................................
100.0
9.5
4.7
6.9
Mar. 22, 1901, to Mar. 21, 1907...........................................
6.6
2.0
6.3
100.0
Mar. 22, 1907, to Mar. 21,1913...........................................
7.6
5.5
4.6
100.0
Mar. 22, 1907, to Dec. 31,1916...........................................
7.8
5.1
5.0
100.0
6.5
1.9
6.1
Jan. 1,1901, to Mar. 21,1907.............................................

83.3
85.5
82.6
78.9
100.0
85.2
82.3
82.0
85.5

Percentage of employees affected.
1?01-1916................................................................................
1901-1906................................................................................
1907-1912................................................................................
1913-1916...............................................................................
Mar. 22, 1901, to Mar. 21, 1907...........................................
Mar. 22,1907, to Mar. 21,1913...........................................
Mar. 22, 1907, to Dec. 31,1916...........................................
Jan. 1,1901, io Mar. 2 1 , 1 9 0 7 . . . . . . . . ..............................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

24.8
22.5
24.6
30.0
22.5
25.4
26.5
23.2

7.1
4.6
11.3
2.6
4.8
10.9
8.4
4.8

6.7
9.6
5.2
4.5
9.5
5.0
4.9
9.4

61.4
63.3
58.9
62.9
63.2
58.7
60.2
62.7

Percentage of working-days lost.
1901-1916................................................................................
1901-1906................................................................................
1907-1912................................................................................
1913-1916................................................................................
Mar. 22,1901, to Mar. 22,1907...........................................
Mar. 22, 1907, to Mar. 21,1913...........................................
Mar. 22, 1907, to Dec. 31,1916...........................................
Jan. 1,1901, to Mar. 21, 1907.............................................
1 Quarrying not included.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2

43.9
29.0
49.5
48.1
29.2
51.4
48.9
28.9

9.5
13.0
10.6
1.3
13.0
10.3
8.2
12.9

1.7
2.2
1.4
2.2
2.2
1.3
1.6
2.1

44.9
55.8
38.5
48.4
55.6
37.1
41.2
56.1

Construction laborers not included.

In tables 42 to 45 a comparison is shown between disputes in
industries within the scope of the act and disputes in all industries
for the periods 1907-1911 and 1912-1916. Tables 41 and 42 show
total disputes, including strikes and lockouts and statutory declara­
tions o i intent to strike or lock out. Table 43 shows only strikes
and lockouts.
It will be seen from Table 42 that disputes within the scope of
the act were 39.5 per cent of disputes in all industries for the period
1907-1911 and 38 per cent for the period 1912-1916. Employees
affected in disputes within the scope of the act were 67.8 per cent of
employees affected in disputes in all industries for the period 19071911 and 60.9 per cent for the period 1912-1916.
Disputes in which boards were constituted under the act were
19.3 per cent of disputes in all industries for the period 1907-1911 and
15 per cent for the period 1912-1916. Employees affected in dis­
putes for which boards were constituted were 49.1 per cent of the
employees affected in disputes in all industries for the period 19071911 and 28.7 per cent for the period 1912-1916.




1 12

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

A similar analysis for mining and railway disputes is presented
in Table 43.
From Table 44 it will be seen that for the period 1907-1911, 26.9
per cent, and for the period 1912-1916, 25.6 per cent, of all strikes
and lockouts were in industries within the scope of the act. Of
employees affected in all strikes and lockouts, 49.9 per cent in the
first period and 35.2 per cent in the second period were in industries
within the scope of the act. Of days lost in all strikes and lockouts,
73.6 per cent in the first period and 39.5 per cent in the second
period were within the scope of the act.
In a similar way mining and railway strikes are shown as percent­
ages of strikes and lockouts in all industries.
Boards were constituted for 6.2 per cent of all strikes and lockouts
during the period 1907-1911 and for 3 per cent during the period
1912-1916. Employees affected in strikes and lockouts for which
boards were constituted were 28.2 per cent of employees affected in
all strikes and lockouts in 1907-1911 and 4.5 per cent in 1912-1916.
Days lost in strikes and lockouts for which boards were constituted
were 69 per cent of the days lost in strikes and lockouts in all indus­
tries in 1907-1911 and 7.4 per cent in 1912-1916. Mining and
railway strikes for which boards were constituted are shown similarly.
T a b l e 4 2 . — P E R C E N T A G E O F D IS P U T E S W IT H IN T H E SCOPE OF T H E A C T IN A L L IN D U S ­
T R IE S AS C O M P A R E D W I T H T O T A L D IS P U T E S IN A L L IN D U S T R IE S , B Y CLASS OF
D IS P U T E S A N D B Y P E R IO D S , 1907-1916, 1907-1911, A N D 1912-1916.
[Total disputes in all industries in each period equal 100 per cent.]
Disputes in whic!h application was
made for referem )e under the act.2
Total disputes in
all industries.

A ll disputes within
scope of act.
Board constituted.

Board not
constituted.

Period.*
Disputes
Disputes
Disputes
Disputes
not
not
not
not
Strikes resulting Strikes resulting Strikes resulting Strikes
resulting
and
and
and
and
lockouts. in strike lockouts. in strike lockouts. in strike lockouts. i n strike
or lock­
or lock­
or lock­
or lock­
out.3
out.3
out.3
out.3
Percentage of disputes.
1907-1916......................

83.0

17.0

21.8

17.0

3.8

13.5

0.5

3.5

1907-1911......................
1912-1916......................

82.7
83.4

17.3
16.6

22.2
21.4

17.3
16.6

5.0
2.5

44.3
12.5

.8
.2

3.0
4.1

Percentage of employees affected.
1907-1916......................

62.3

37.7

26.8

37.7

10.7

28.6

1.1

9.1

1907-1911......................
J912-1916......................

64.1
60.4

35.9
39.6

31.9
21.3

35.9
39.6

18.1
2.8

31.0
25.9

1.9
.1

4.9
13.7

i The year 1907 includes only Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
onl? t 5os® applications in which action was taken b y the department of labor contemnlatinp
the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
contemplating
Including only those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock out was made.




113

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES.
TABLE 4 3 * — P E R C E N T A G E

O F M IN IN G A N D O F R A I L W A Y D IS P U T E S AS C O M P A R E D W IT H
T O T A L D IS P U T E S IN A L L IN D U S T R IE S , B Y CLASS O F D IS P U T E S A N D B Y P E R IO D S ,
1907-1916, 1907-1911, A N D 1912-1916.
[Total disputes in all industries in each period equal 100 per cent.]
Mining.

Total
disputes
in all
industries.

A ll mining
disputes.

Railways.

Disputes in which ap­
plication was made for
reference under lift
act. 2
Board
constituted.

A ll railway
disputes.

Board not
constituted.

Disputes in which ap­
plication was made for
reference under the
act.2
Board
Board not
constituted. constituted.

Period.1
Dis­
Dis­
Dis­
Dis­
Dis­
Dis­
putes
putes
putes
putes
putes
putes
not
not
not
not
not
not
re­
re­
Strikes sult­ Strikes stat­ Strikes re­ Strikes re­ Strikes re­ St’k ’ s re­
sult­ and
sult­ and sult­
sult­ and
and
and
and
lock­ ing
lock­ ing
lock­ ing lock­ ing
lock­ ing
lock­ ing
in
in
in
in
in
in
outs. strike outs.
outs.
outs.
outs.
strike
strike
strike outs. strike
strike
or
or
or
or
or
or
lock­
lock­
lock­
lock­
lock­
lock­
ou ts
out.8
out.3
outs
out.8
out.3

Dis­
putes
not
re­
St’k ’ s sult­
and
lock­ ing
in
outs. strike
or
lock
out.3

Percentage of disputes.
1907-1916

83.0

17.0

7.4

3.3

2.3

2.8

0.2

0.5

6.1

7.5

1.1

5.2

0.1

2.3

1907-1911
1912-1916

82.7
83.4

17.3
16.6

8.7
6.0

5.1
1.4

3.4
1.0

4.4
.4
1.2 ...........

.7
.2

5.7
6.6

8.3
6.6

1.3
.8

6.4
3.9

.2

1.9
2.7

0.4

8.0

Percentage of employees affected.
1907-1916

62.3

37.7

15.8

6.6

6.3

1907-1911
1912-1916

64.1
60.4

35.9
39.6

18.5
13.0

10.5
2.4

10.7
1.7

0.5

0.8

6.5

24.9

3.6

16.9

9.4
.9
2.0 ...........

1.1
.4

8.9
3.8

20.9
29.1

6.3
.8

17.2
.7
16.5 ..........

5.8

3.7
12.6

1 The year 1907 includes only Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
2 Including only those applications in which action was taken b y the department of labor contemplating
the establishment of a board of conciliation and investigation.
3 Including only those disputes in which statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock out was made.

8372°— 18-------8




1 14

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

4 4 .—P E R C E N T A G E OF S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S W IT H IN T H E SCO PE O F T H E
A CT IN A L L IN D U S T R IE S A N D IN M IN IN G A N D IN R A I L W A Y S AS C O M P A R E D W IT H
T O T A L S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN A L L IN D U S T R IE S , B Y P E R IO D S , 1907-1916,19071911, A N D 1912-1916.

T a b le

[Total strikes and lockouts in all industries in each period equal 100 per cent.]

Period.1

Total
strikes
and
lock­
outs
in all
indus­
tries.

Strikes and lockouts in which application was
made for reference under the act.2

Strikes and lockouts

X

W LJJJ.

Board constituted.
AU
indus­ Mining.
tries.

Rail­
ways.

All
indus­ Mining.
tries.

R ail­
ways.

Board not constituted.
AU
indus­ Mining.
tries.

R ail­
ways.

Percentage o f disputes.
1907-1916.....................

100.0

26.3

8.9

7.3

4.6

2.8

1.3

0.6

0.2

1907-1911.....................
1912-1916.....................

100.0
100.0

26.9
25.6

10.5
7.1

6.8
7.9

6.2
3.0

4.1
1.2

1.6
1.0

.9
.2

.5

0.1

.2

Percentage o f employees affected.
1907-1916.....................

100.0*

43.1

25.4

10.4

17.2

10.1

5.9

1.7

0.8

0.6

1907-1911.....................
1912-1916....................

100.0
100.0

49.9
35.2

28.8
21.4

13.9
6.3

28.2
4.5

16.5
2.7

9.9
1.3

3.0
.2

1.5

1.1

Percentage o f working-days lost.
1907-1916.....................

100.0

60.4

49.6

9.0

45.2

37.3

7.6

0.6

0.2

0.3

1907-1911.....................
1912-1916....................

100.0
100.0

73.6
39.5

59.1
34.6

13.0
2.7

69.0
7.4

57.1
5.8

11.4
1.4

.9
(3
)

.3

.6

1 The year 1907 includes only Mar. 22 to Dec. 31.
2 Including only those applications in which action was taken b y the department of labor contem­
plating the establishment of a board of conciliation or investigation.
3 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

EMPLOYEES AFFECTED PER STRIKE OR LOCKOUT AND DAYS LOST
PER STRIKE OR LOCKOUT AND PER EMPLOYEE AFFECTED.

In the tables of this section, relating to strikes and lockouts in
Canadian industries during the period 1901 to 1916, disputes in
existence during any year enter into the summary for that year.
Disputes not terminated in the year of commencement are thus
counted more than once. Although this method properly reflects
the industrial unrest in each calendar year, it is open to objection if
it is desired to reflect the importance of each dispute as shown by
the time loss or the number of employees affected. Moreover, the
development of concerted action is best shown by charging to each
dispute the employees affected and the time lost in that dispute.
Table 45 shows for each year those disputes commencing during
the year. Employees are counted for the year in which the dispute
commenced and time less appears as an aggregate for the dispute
in which such time loss occurred.




STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES.

115

By reference to Table 46 it will be seen that for the period 1901
to 1906 the average of employees affected per strike or lockout in
all industries was 213. In mining the average was 745; in steam
railways, 528"; in transport other than steam railways, 325. For the
period 1907 to 1912, the average for all industries was 279; for min­
ing, 915; steam railways, 562; transport other than steam railways,

327.
Table 46 also shows the days lost per strike or lockout, and the
days lost per employee affected. For the period 1901 to 1906 the
time lost in all industries per employee affected in strike or lockout
was 19.1 working days. In mining the time lost was 24.5 days; in
steam railways, 53.5 days; in transport other than steam railways,
4.3 days. For the period 1907 to 1912, the time lost in all industries
per employee affected in strike or lockout was 40.9 days; in mining,
95.4 days; in steam railways, 34.3 days; in transport other than steam
railways, 9.3 days.
Measured by employees affected per strike or lockout in all indus­
tries, in mining, in steam railways, or in transport other than steam
railways, the importance of each strike or lockout was greater for
the period 1907 to 1912 than for the period 1901 to 1906. Meas­
ured by time lost per strike or lockout or per employee affected,
strikes and lockouts in steam railways were of less importance during
the period 1907 to 1912 than during the period 1901 to 1906. In
mining the time lost per employee affected in strikes and lockouts
was nearly four times as great during the second period as during
the first period. It will be observed, however, that the time loss per
employee affected in steam-railway strikes and lockouts was greater
for the years 1908, 1910, 1911, 1912, or 1913 than for any year
previous to 1908 except 1901 and 1903.




116

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

T abus 4 5 —N U M B E R O F S T R IK E S A N D LO C K O U T S, O F E S T A B L IS H M E N T S A N D
E M P L O Y E E S A F F E C T E D , A N D O F D A Y S L O S T , IN S P E C IF IE D IN D U S T R IE S , 1901 TO
1916.
[Strikes and lockouts, establishments, and employees are counted only in the year in which the dispute
com m enced.]

Year.

N um ber N um ber N um ber
of es­
o f em ­
of strikes tablish­
and
ployees
ments
lockouts. affected. affected.

N um ber of
days lost.

A ll industries.
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................
1907......................
1908......................
1909......................
1910......................
1911......................
1912......................
1913......................
1914......................
1915......................
1916......................

104
121
146
99
88
141
144
65
68
80
95
148
106
40
38
74

273
420
927
575
436
1,015
816
168
396
1,326
472
987
959
185
91
270

28,086
12,264
50,041
16,482
16,204
26,050
36,236
25,208
17,302
19,454
29,056
40,159
34,056
4,293
9,011
21,057

632,311
120,940
1,226,500
1265,654
216,594
2 387,427
3 599,632
* 703,135
6 1,431,979
6 348,427
7 1,874,164
8 1,882,658
»763,443
io 148,334
H83,854
i2 207,577

*
r
Mining.1?
1901............... .
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................
1907......................
1908......................
1909......................
1910......................
1911......................
1912......................
1913......................
1914......................
1915......................
1916*....................

4
3
8
6
10
14
11
8
10
2
6
6
5
2
6
10

6
3
9
6
11
14
46
8
20
4
21
30
6
2
11
14

3,625
510
11,827
2,671
8,375
6,495
13,181
2,919
8,795
614
8,769
5,074
1,081
975
4,332
11,814

h

55,950
9,720
440,455
10,166
114,191
187,780
203,260
16,071
1,261,207
17,076
1,402,800
1 855,718
5
89,926
15,450
16,794
88,634

1 Includes 650 days lost in 1905 on account of a strike beginning in 1904.
2 Includes 27,630 days lost in 1907 on account of a strike beginning in 1906.
8 Includes 5,300 days lost in 1908 on account of a strike beginning in 1907.
* Includes 150 days lost in 1909 on account of a strike beginning m 1908.
6 Includes 370,284 days lost m 1910, and 190,000 days lost in 1911 on account of a strike beginning in
e Includes 76 days lost in 1911 on account of a strike beginning in 1910.
7 Includes 45,500 days lost in 1912 on account of a strike beginning in 1911.
s Includes 675,200 days lost in 1913, and 153,750 days lost in 1914 on account of a strike beginning in
s Includes 150,965 days lost in 1914 on account of a strike beginning in 1913.
10 Includes 22,995 days lost in 1915 on account of a strike beginning in 1914.
1 Includes 700 days lost in 1916 on account of a strike beginning in 1915.
1
1 Seven strikes, involving 1,689 employees, were unsettled Dec. 31,1916.
2
1 Quarrying not included..
3
n Includes 360,000 days lost in 1910 and 190,000 days lost in 1911 on account of a strike com m encing in
is Includes 612,800’days lost in 1913 and 153,750 dayslost in 1914 on account of a strike com m encing in




1909.
1912.

1909.
1912„

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES.

117

4 5 .—N U M B E R O F S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S , O F E S T A B L IS H M E N T S A N D
E M P L O Y E E S A F F E C T E D , A N D O F D A Y S L O S T , IN S P E C IF IE D IN D U S T R IE S 1901 TO
1916—Concluded.

T a b le

Year.

N um ber Num ber N um ber
of es­
of strikes
of em­
tablish­
and
ployees
ments
lockouts. affected. affected.

Numtfer of
dayslcJSt.

General transport.
1901......................
1902......................
1903,....................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................
1907......................
1908......................
1909......................
1910......................
1911......................
1312......................
1913......................
1914......................
1915......................
1916......................

9
10
15
2
5
16
15
7
7
7
12
13
7
1
4
19

9
V
46
2
9
17
54
16
17
8
105
19
10
1
8
33

5,466
3,135
8,851
103
1,415
2,178
5,637
8,482
1,505
3,280
4,987
4,059
1,417
150
1,140
2,340

315,804
10,120
69,341
9.540
6; 973
16,697
40,212
425,574
10,000
80,915
1 129,493
2 52,498
10,488
300
19,360
27,288

Railways.3
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1906......................
1907......................
1908......................
1909......................
1910......................
1911......................
1912......................
1913......................
1915......................
1916......................

2
3
4
1
3
5
4
2
6
5
12
1
1
10

2
3
4
1
4
5
4
2
6
7
14
1
1
14

5,000
360
663
8
829
1,095
8,390
950
3,205
1,997
3,473
400
200
918

315,000
* 240
47,271
40
4,750
6,375
425,480
4,700
73,700
1 95,453
2 50,526
4,000
600
5 7,578

Transport other than steam railways
1901......................
1902............. « ___
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................
1907......................
1908......................
1909......................
1910.....................
1911......................
1912......................
1913......................
1914.................... .
1915......................
1916........... ..........

7
7
11
1
5
13
10
3
5
1
7
1
6
1
3
9

7
14
42
1
9
13
49
12
15
2
98
5
9
1
7
19

466
2,775
8,188
95
1,415
1,349
4,542
92
555
75
2,990
586
1,017
150
940
1,422

804
9,880
22,070
9,500
6,973
11,947
33,837
92
5,300
7,215
34,040
1,972
6,488
300
18,760
19,710

1 Includes 44,000 days lost in 1912 on account of a strike commencing in 1911.
2 Includes 13,500 days lost in 1913 on account of a strike commencing in 1912.
3 Exclusive of construction laborers and teamsters engaged in the handling of freight at terminals,,
4 Time loss not reported for two strikes.
&One strike, involving 125 employees, unsettled Dec. 31,1916.
e Exclusive of construction laborers.




118

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

T a b le 4 6 .— A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F E M P L O Y E E S A F F E C T E D A N D OF D A Y S L O S T P E R

S T R IK E O R LO C K O U T , A N D D A Y S L O S T P E R E M P L O Y E E A F F E C T E D , IN S P E C IF IE D
IN D U S T R IE S , 1901 TO 1916.

Employees affected per
strike or lockout.1

Year.

1901.........
1902.........
1903.........
1904.........
1905.........
1906.........
1907.........
1908.........
1909.........
1910.........
1911.........
1912.........
191 3
191 4
1915.........
1916..........
1901-1906.
1907-1912.
1913-1916.
1901-1916.

Days lost per strike or lockout.2

Trans­
port
A ll
A ll
in­
Min­ S tea m other
indus­
railthan
dus­ ing.4 ways.5
tries.
steam
tries.
rail­
w a y s.5
270
101
343
166
184
185
252
388
254'
243
306
271
321
107
237
284
213
279
265
247

906 2,500
120
170
1,478
166
445
8
838
464
*276'
1,198
219
365 2', 098
475
880
307
534
399
1,461
289
846
400
216
488
200
722
92
1,181
528
745
562
915
127
791>
820
466

67
396
744
95
283
104
454
31
111
75
427
586
170
150
3ia
158
325
327
186
296

Mining.4

Steam
rail­
ways.**

Days lost per employee
affected.3

Trans­
Trans­
port
port
A ll
other
in­
Min­ S tea m other
than
rail­
than
dus­
steam tries. ing.4 w a y s .5 steam
rail­
railways .5
ways.e

6,079.8 13,987.5 157,500.0
114.9
3,240.0
80.0 1,411.4
999.5
8,400.7 55,056.9 11,817.8 2,006.3
1,694.3
2,673.3
40.0 9,500.0
2,461.3 11,419.1 ................. 1,394.6
919.0
1,583.3
2,747. 7 13,412.9
4,164.1 18,478.2
1,275.0 3,383.7
£, 008.9 106,370.0
31.3
10,817.5
21,058.5 126,120. 7
2,350.0 1,060.0
8,538.0 12,283.3 7,215.0
4,355.3
19,728.0 233,800.0 19,090.6 4,862.9
12,720.7 142,619.7
4,210.5 1,972.0
7.202.3 17,985.2
4,000.0 1,081.3
•7,725.0
3.708.3
300.0
2,797.3
600.0 6,253.3
2,206.6
8,863.4
2,805.1
757.8 2,190.0
4,076.4 18,183.6 28,253.9 4,390.3
11,400.0 87,351.9 19,271.6 3,054.0
9,165.4
1,014.8 4,382.0
4,663.6
6,996.0 43,110.0 17,547.7 4,098.8

22.5 15.4
63.0
9.9 19.1
1.0
24.5 37.3
71.3
3.8
16.1
5.0
13.4 13.6
14.9 28.9 " *5. 7
16.5 15.4
5.8
5.5
27.9
50.7
82.8 143.4
5.0
17.9* 27.8
23.0
64.5 160.0
47.8
46.9 168.6
14.6
22.4 83.2
10.0
34.5 15.8
9.3
3.9 " T . o
7.5
9.9
8.3
19.1 24.5
53.5
40.9 95.4
34.3
17.6 11.6
8.0
23.1 52.5
37.7

1.7
3.6
2.7
100.0
4.9
8.8
7.5
1.0
9.5
96.2
11.4
3.3
6.4
2.0
20.0
13.9
4.3
9.3
12.8
7.1

1 Employees are counted only in year of commencement of strike or lockout.
2 Total time lost in each strike or lockout is shown in the year of commencement.
3 See footnotes 1 and 2.
4 Q u arrying n ot in clu d ed .

5 Construction not included.

VIOLATIONS OF THE ACT.

The act provides that in designated industries “ It shall be unlawful
for any employer to declare or cause a lockout, or for any employee
to go on strike on account of any dispute prior to or during a reference
of such dispute to a board of conciliation and investigation1 * * *” ;
that “ Any employer declaring or causing a lockout contrary to the
provisions of this act shall be liable to a fine of not less than $100 nor
more than $1,000 for each day or part of a day that such lockout
exists” 2; that “ Any employee who goes on strike contrary to the
provisions of this act shall be liable to a fine of not less than $10 nor
more than $50 for each day or part of a day that such employee is
on strike” 3; and that “ Any person who incites, encourages, or aids
in any manner any employer to declare or continue a lockout or any
employee to go or continue on strike contrary to the provisions of
this act shall be guilty of an offense and liable to a fine of not less
than $50 nor more than $1,000.” 4
1 Canadian Industrial Disputes A ct, section 56.
8 Ib id ., section 59.




2 Ibid., section 58.
4Ibid., section 60.

VIOLATIONS OF THE ACT.

119

It is impossible to measure the influence of the penal provisions
in restraining employers and employees from illegally interrupting
industry, or others from inciting such action. A comparison, how­
ever, of violations with prosecutions will indicate the attempt made
to enforce these provisions and the importance attached to them.

Tables 47 and 48, which follow, show the number and percentages
of legal and illegal strikes and lockouts, employees affected, and
working-days lost, by years, during the period March 22, 1907, to
December 31, 1916, and comparatively for the periods March 22,
1907, to December 31, 1911, and January 1, 1912, to December
31, 1916.
During the period March 22, 1907, to December 31, 1916, as stated
previously, there were 204 illegal strikes and lockouts, affecting
80,278 employees whose time loss was 3,015,844 working-days. Of
these 204 strikes or lockouts, 65, affecting 51,075 employees and
occasioning a time loss of 2,657,296 working-days, were in mining and
57, affecting 12,912 employees whose time loss was 227,260 days, were
in railways.
Expressed as percentages, it will be observed that of all strikes and
lockouts in industries within the scope of the act, 91.9 per cent of
such strikes and lockouts, affecting 79.8 per cent of the employees
and occasioning 62.3 per cent of the time loss, were illegal. Mining
contributed 31.9 per cent of the illegal strikes and lockouts, 63.6 per
cent of the employees affected, and 88.1 per cent of the working-days
lost in illegal strikes and lockouts. Railways contributed 25.6 per
cent of the illegal strikes and lockouts, 12.8 per cent of the employees
affected and 4.7 per cent of the working time lost in illegal strikes
and lockouts. Of all mining strikes, 86.7 per cent, affecting 86.1 per
cent of striking miners and occasioning 66.9 per cent of the time lost
in mining, were illegal. Of all railway strikes, 91.9 per cent, affecting
53.4 per cent of striking railway employees and occasioning 31.4 per
cent of the time lost in railways, were illegal.
Of the total number of illegal strikes and lockouts, 2 disputes,
affecting 95 employees whose time loss was 390 days, may be consid­
ered lockouts. Assuming the minimum penalty, it will be observed
that the aggregate of penalties which might have been imposed
exceeds $30,000,000. If the maximum penalty is assumed, the
amount exceeds $150,000,000. This does not take account of the
violations of section 60 in inciting to illegal strikes, although it is
probable that in every illegal strike there are violations of this section.
A comparison of illegal strikes and lockouts for the periods
March 22, 1907, to December 31, 1911, and January 1, 1912, to
December 31, 1916, shows that for the first period 90.7 per cent of the
strikes and lockouts occurring in industries within the scope of the




120

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACTOF CANADA.

act were illegal, as against 93.3 per cent during the second period.
The employees affected in illegal strikes and lockouts constituted
71 o2 per cent of employees affected in all strikes and lockouts in
industries within the scope of the act during the first period, as
against 93.7 per cent during the second period. The working-days
lost in illegal strikes and lockouts during the first period was 53.7
per cent of the time lost in strikes and lockouts in all industries
within the scope of the act, as against 865 per cent in the second
8
period. A similar analysis for mining shows that of all mining strikes
and lockouts during the first period, 84.8 per cent of such strikes and
lockouts, affecting 82 per cent of the employees and occasioning
60.2 per cent of the time loss, were illegal, as against 89.7 per cent
of mining strikes and lockouts, affecting 92.5 per cent of the employees
and occasioning 85.1 per cent of the time loss, during the second
period. In railways, 90 per cent of the strikes and lockouts, affecting
37.2 per cent of the employees and occasioning 17.5 per cent of the
time loss, were illegal during the first period, as against 93.7 per cent
of the strikes and lockouts, affecting 94.5 per cent of the employees
and occasioning 95.8 per cent of the time loss during the second period.




121

VIOLATIONS OF THE ACT.

TABLE 4 7 o—NUMBER OF LEGAL AND OF ILLEGAL STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN ALL
INDUSTRIES W ITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE ACT, IN MINING AND IN RAILWAYS, 1907
TO 1916.
[Strikes and lockouts and em ployees affected are counted only in year of com m encem ent; working days
lost are counted in year of occurrence of lost tim e.]
Strikes and lockouts in all
industries within scope of act.

Strikes and lockouts in
mining.

Strikes and lockouts in
railways.

Year.
Total*

Legal.

Illegal.

Total.

Legal.

Illegal.

Total.

’Legal.

Illegal.

Number of strikes and lockouts.
1907 ..........
1908
1909............
1910............
1911............
1912............
1913............
1914............
1915 ..........
1916 ___ _
1907-1916..
1907-1911..
1912-1916..

41
19
19
14
25
32
21
6
11
34
222
118
104

2
1
3
4
1
2
2
1
1
1
IS
11
7

39
18
16
10
24
30
19
5
10
33
201
107
97

14
10
11
3
8
6
5
2
6
10
75
46
29

2
3
1
1
1
2

10
7
3

12
10
8
2
7
5
3
2
6
10
65
39
26

10
4
2
6
8
12
3

2

1
16
62
30
32

1
5
3
2

1

1

10
3
2
4
8
11
3
1
15
57
27
30

Number of employees affected.
1907............
1908............
1909............
1910............
1911............
1912............
1913............
1914............
1915............
1916 ..........
1907-1916..
1907-1911..
1912-1916..

19,468*
12,754.
10,717
4,59914,806'
11,15^
4,183
1,382
5,598
15,94 §
100,608
62,344v
38,264

1,650
8,000
4,425
3,830
30
1,450
544
150
126
125
20,330
17,935
2,395

17,818
4,754
6.292
'769
14,776
9,702
3,639
1,232
5,472
15,824
80,278
44,409
35,S69

13,101
3,864
9.020
'674
9,369
5,074
1,081
975
4,332
11,814
59,304
36,028'
23,276

1,650
4.425
'380
30
1,200
544

8,229
6,485
1,744

11,451
3,864
4,595
‘ 294
9,339
3,874
537
975
4,332
11,814
51,075
29,543
21,532

1,997
8,390
950
3,205
2,797
3,473
1,100
200
2,075
24,187
17,339
6,848

8,000
2,900
250

125
11,275
10,900
375

1,997
390
950
305
2,797
3,223
1,100
200
1,950
12,912
6,439
6,598

Number of working-days lost.
1907............
1908............
1909............
1910............
1911............
1912............
1913............
1914............
1915............
1916.*.........
1907-1916..
1907-1911..
1912-1916..

100,300
261,415
99,950
200.250
99,950
161.465
446,706
19,901
424.000
22,706
19,901
716,832 *498,425* 218,407
725,448
498,425
227,023
443,770
377,076
7,956
14,434
369,120
458,204
1,684,573
190.000 1,494,573 1,592,800
190,000 1,402,800
179,629
48,300
131,329
89,168
46,800
42,368
736,019
111,790
624,229
702,726
590,936
111, 790
300
173,737
169,200
169,200
173,437
2,394
38,548
36,154
16,794
16,794
134,368
3,874
130,494
88,634
88,634
4,838,647 1,822,803 3,015,844 3,973,381 i,*3i6,*085* 2,657,296
3,576,346 1,656,145 1,920,201 2,906,859 1,157,495 1,749,364
1,262,301
166,658 1,095,643 1,066,522
158,590
907,932




13,202
425,480
424,000
4,700
73,700 ""*67,"500*
78,953
81,026
1,500
21,000
600
25,473
724,134
596; 035
128,099

3,874
496,874
491,500
5,374

13,202
1,480
4,700
6,200
78,953
79,526
21,000
600
21,599
227,260
304,535
122,725

1 22

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

4 8 .—P E R C E N T A G E O F L E G A L A N D I L L E G A L S T R IK E S A N D L O C K O U T S IN A L L
IN D U S T R IE S W IT H IN T H E SCO PE OF T H E A C T, IN M IN IN G , A N D IN R A I L W A Y S , 1907
TO 1916.

T a b le

[Strikes and lockouts and em ployees affected are counted only in year of com m encem ent; working-days
lost are counted in year of occurrence of lost tim e.]

Strikes and lockouts in all
industries within scope of act.

Strikes and lockouts in
mining.

Strikes and lockouts in
railways.

Year.
Total.

Legal.

Illegal.

Total.

Legal.

Illegal.

Total.

Legal.

Illegal.

Percentage of strikes and lockouts.
1907............
1908............
1909............
1910............
1911............
1912............
1913 .........
1914............
1915 ..........
1916............
1907-1916..
1907-1911..
1912-1916..

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

4.9
5.3
15.8
28.6
4.0
6.3
9.5
16.7
9.1
2.9
8.1
9.3
6.7

95.1
94.7
84.2
71.4
96.0
93.7
90.5
83.3
90.9
97.1
91.9
90.7
93.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

14.3
27.3
33.3
12.5
16.7
40.0

13.3
15.2
10.3

85.7
100.0
72.7
66.7
87.5
83.3
60.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
86.7
84.8
89.7

100.0
100.0
25.0
100.0
100.0 ........33.3
100.0
100.0 ..........8.5*
100.0

100.0
75.0
100.0
66.7
100.0
91.5
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

6.3
8.1
10.0
6.3

100.0
93.7
91.9
90.0
93.7

100.0
100.0
95.4
100.0 .................
100.0
90.5
100.0
100.0
7.2
100.0

100.0
4.6
100.0
9.5
100.0
92.8
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
94.0
53.4
37.2
94.5

Percentage of employees affected.
1907
1908............
1909............
1910............
1911
1912............
1913
1914
1915
1916
1907-1916..
1907-1911..
1912-1916..

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

8.5
62.7
41.3
83.3
.2
13.0
13.0
10.9
2.3
.8
20.2
28.8
6.3

91.5
37.3
58.7
16.7
99.8
87.0
87.0
80.1
97.7
99.2
79.8
71.2
93.7

100.0
12.6
100.0
100.0 ........49.’ i ’
56.4
100.0
100.0
.3
100.0
23.6
50.3
100.0
100.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
13.9
18.0
100.0
100.0
7.5

87.4
100.0
50.9
43.6
99.7
76.4
49.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
86.1
82.0
92.5

6.0
46.6
62.8
5.5

Percentage of working-days lost.
1907
1908............
1909
1910............
1911
1912............
1913
1914
1915
1916
1907-1916..
1907-1911..
1912-1916..

100.0
100.0
100 0
ioo'.o
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

38.2
95.3
68.7
96.8
11.3
26.9
15.2
.2
6.2
2.9
37.7
46.7
13.2

61.8
4.7
31.3
3.2
88.7
73.1
84.8
99.8
93.8
97.1
62.3
53.7
86.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

49.9
*6 9.5
97.9
11.9
52.5
15.9

33.1
39.8
14.9

50.1
100.0
30.5
2.1
88.1
47.5
84.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
66.9
60.2
85.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

*

91.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

15.2
68.6
82.5
4.2

99.7

1.5

100.0
.3
100 0
8.4
100.0
98.4
100.0
100.0
84.8
31.4
17.5
95.8

Charts E, F, and G show illegal strikes and lockouts for each year
as a percentage of total strikes and lockouts in industries within the
scope of the act during the year.
Diagrams 9 to 11 show the percentage of legal and illegal strikes
and lockouts during the entire period March 22, 1907, to December 31,1916.
Diagrams 12 to 16 compare the periods 1907-1911 and 1912-1916
in percentages of legal and illegal strikes.




VIOLATIONS OF THE ACT.

123

CHART E.— PER CENT OF ILLEGAL STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN IN­
DUSTRIES W ITH IN THE SCOPE OF THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DIS­
PUTES INVESTIGATION ACT, B Y YEARS, MARCH 22, 1907, TO DECEMBER
31, 1916.
[Total strikes and lockouts within the scope of the act in each year equal 100 per cent.]

1907

1908




1909

1910

19*1

1912

1918

19U

1916

1916

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA,
RT F .— PER CENT OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED IN ILLEGAL STRIK
W LOCKOUTS IN INDUSTRIES W ITH IN THE SCOPE OF THE CA1
LNAAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT, B Y Y E A RS,
OICH 22, 1907, TO DECEMBER 31, 1916.
I employees affected in all strikes and lockouts w ithin the scope of the act in each year equal1 100
p e rce n t.]
100

100

90

90

60

60

70

70

€0

H
O

60

50

40

40

20

30

20

10

0




20

10

0

125

VIOLATIONS OF THE ACT.

CHART G.— PER CENT OF WORKING DAYS LOST IN ILLEGAL STRIKES
AND LOCKOUTS IN INDUSTRIES W ITH IN THE SCOPE OF THE CANA­
DIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT, B Y YEARS,
MARCH 22, 1907, TO DECEMBER 31, 1916.
[Total working-days lost in all strikes and lockouts w ithin the scope of the act in each year equal 100 per
cent.]

1907

1908




1909

1910

1911

1912

1913

1914

1916

1916

126

DIAGRAM 11.—PER CENT OF WORK­
ING DAYS LOST IN LEGAL AND
ILLEGAL STRIKES AND LOCK­
OUTS IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN
THE SCOPE OF THE CANADIAN
INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTI­
GATION ACT, MARCH 22, 1907, TO
DECEMBER 31, 1916.

DISPUTES
INVESTIGATION
ACT
O
F
CANADA.




DIAGRAM 10.—PER CENT OF EM­
PLOYEES AFFECTED IN LEGAL
AND ILLEGAL STRIKES AND LOCK­
OUTS IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE
SCOPE OF THE CANADIAN INDUS­
TRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION
ACT, MARCH 22, 1907, TO DECEM­
BER 31, 1916.

INDUSTRIAL

DIAGRAM 9.— PER CENT OF LEGAL
AND ILLEGAL STRIKES AND LOCK­
OUTS IN INDUSTRIES WITHIN THE
SCOPE OF THE CANADIAN INDUS­
TRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION
ACT, MARCH 22, 1907, TO DECEM­
BER 31, 1916.

D IAG RAM 1 2 — P E R CENT OP LEG AL AND ILLEGAL STRIK ES AN D LOCKOUTS IN IN D U STRIE S W ITH IN TH E SCOPE OP
THE CANADIAN IN D U STRIA L DISPUTES IN V ESTIG A TIO N ACT, 1907 TO 1911 AND 1912 TO 1916.

VIOLATIONS
O
F
TH
E
ACT.
127




INDUSTRIAL
DISPUTES
INVESTIGATION
AT
C
O
F
CANADA.




128

DIAGRAM 13.—PE R CENT OF EM PLOYEES AFFECTED IN LEGAL AND ILLE G A L ST R IK E S AN D LOCKOUTS IN IN D U STRIES
WITHIN THE SCOPE OF TH E CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES IN V ESTIG A TIO N ACT, 1907 T O '1911 AND 1912 TO 1916.

1907-1911.

1912-1916.

8372°— 18— 9

DIAGRAM 14.—P E R CENT OF W ORKING DAYS LOST IN LEGAL AND ILLE G A L STRIK ES AND LOCKOUTS IN IND USTRIES
W ITH IN TH E SCOPE OF TH E CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT, 1907 TO 1911 AND 1912 TO 1916.

VIOLATIONS
O
P
TH
E
ACT.

129




130

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

DIAGRAM 15.— PER CENT OF LEGAL AND ILLEGAL STRIKES AND
LOCKOUTS IN CANADIAN MINES AND OF EMPLOYEES AFFECTED
AND WORKING DAYS LOST THEREIN, 1907 TO 1911 AND 1912 TO 1916.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.

EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.

WORKING-DAYS LOST.

1907-1911.




1912-1916.

VIOLATIONS OF THE ACT.

131

D IA G R A M 16.— P E R CENT OF LEG AL AN D IL L E G A L R A IL W A Y ST R IK E S
AN D LOCKOUTS IN CAN AD A A N D OF EM PLO YE E S A FFE C TE D AN D
W O R K IN G D A Y S LO ST T H E R E IN , 1907 TO 1911 AN D 1912 TO 1916.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS.

EMPLOYEES AFFECTED.

WORKING-DAYS LOST.

1907-1911.




1912-1916.

132

INDUSTRIAL. DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

PROSECUTIONS UNDER THE ACT.

The following cases have been before the Canadian courts during
the period March 22, 1907, to December 31, 1916. It will be observed
that in all there have been 11 prosecutions. Of these, 1 was to test
the constitutionality of the act and to restrain a board of conciliation
and investigation from proceeding; 1 was to enforce an agreement
entered into as a consequence of the recommendations of a board; 7
were prosecutions for illegal strikes or for inciting such action; 2 were
for illegal lockouts. In all, charges have been laid against 9 employees
for violating the provisions of section 60 by the encouragement of
strikes and against 11 employees for violating the provisions of section
56 by going on strike illegally. Charges have been laid against 3
employers for violating the provisions of section 56 by illegal lockouts.
In the case of 11 employees the charge was either dismissed or with­
drawn ; in the case of 9 employees the charge was sustained. Charges
against 2 employers were sustained; charges against 1 employer
were dismissed. The aggregate of fines imposed, exclusive of costs,
was $1,660.
P r o s e c u t io n s

for

I l l e g a l St r ik e s

or

L

ockouts

or

I n c it in g

su ch

A

c t io n .

1. Soon after the enactment of the act, four employees of the Tacoma Steel Co.
at Marble Bay, Texada Island, British Columbia, were charged with having infringed
the act by declaring a strike contrary to its provisions. A test case was made of the
charge against one employee. After two adjournments the case came on for hearing
before Police Magistrate Hy O. Alexander on May 30,1907. In the course of examina­
tion and cross-examination of witnesses for the plaintiff, it appeared that there had
been considerable misunderstanding between the manager of the company and the
miners. The miners contended that the act was intended to apply to public utilities
only, within which class copper mining would not come. Both sides admitted that
the coming into force of the act was unknown to either disputant at the time of the
strike which occurred March 25, 1907. It was suggested by the magistrate that
inasmuch as a misunderstanding had been demonstrated, he would adjourn the court
and allow the parties to get together. As a consequence a settlement was effected
and the charges against the four defendants were withdrawn.1
2. On September 6 and 7, 1907, James McGuire, president of the Cobalt Miners’
Union was brought before the police magistrate at Cobalt, Ontario, on a charge of
inciting the employees of the Nipissing Mining Co. to go on strike contrary to section
60 of the act. There was also a charge against McGuire for inciting the employees of
the Cobalt Lake Mining Co. to go on strike; 11 charges against Robert Roadhouse for
inciting employees of the different mines to go on strike; and 2 charges against William
Hewitt for going on strike. The first charge against McGuire was heard before Mr.
R. II. C. Browne, police magistrate at Cobalt, who found him guilty and imposed
a fine of $500 or in default thereof, 6 months’ imprisonment. Decision in the other
cases was reserved pending the appeal of McGuire to the high court. On appeal, Mr.
Justice McGee of the divisional court at Osgoode Hall, Toronto, rendered a judgment
on February 13, 1908, declaring the conviction of McGuire defective both as to state­
ment of offense and term of imprisonment which should be reduced to 3 months.2
1 Annual report Canadian Department of Labor, 1908, p p. 399-401.
2 Ibid, pp . 401-408.




PRO SECUTIO NS U N D ER T H E ACT.

133

3. In October, 1907, a prosecution was brought against the Hillcrest Coal and
Coke Co. of Hillcrest, Alberta, charging that while a board of conciliation and
investigation was sitting at Hillcrest on a case involving the said company and its
employees, notices were posted by the company causing the miners to stop work and
that the mine was closed illegally for two days. The information was laid by the
miners’ union and the case was heard before Inspector P. Belcher, R. N. V/. M. P.,
police magistrate at Pincher Creek, Alberta, who convicted the company and fined
them $100 for each day and costs of $6.25, or altogether $206.25. The case was
appealed to the Supreme Court of Alberta and the conviction sustained by his honor
Judge Carpenter.1
4. As a result of industrial disturbances in the collieries of the Crow’s Nest Pass
Coal Co. of Michel, British Columbia, information was laid by the company against
three employees thereof charging them with violation of section 60 of the act by
inciting and encouraging to strike. The cases were tried before Mr. J. H. McMullen,
stipendiary magistrate in and for the county of Kootenay, British Columbia, on May
21,1908, and on May 23 a decision was rendered by Mr. McMullen to the effect that his
court had no jurisdiction in the case.2
5. On September 14, 1908, information was laid against the manager of the Alberta
Coal Mining Co. of Edmonton, Alberta, charging that he had caused a lockout in the
company’s mines at Morinville, Alberta, in violation of section 56 of the act. Judg­
ment was given on October 1, 1908, by Inspector Worsley, R. N. W. M. P., declaring
the defendant not,guilty of the charge. The case was appealed to the supreme court
of Alberta and the judgment of the lower court reversed by Mr. Justice Taylor who
held, in a decision handed down March 1, 1909, that the mine was closed in violation
of the act for three days, and imposed accordingly a fine of $300 and costs both of the
appeal and in the courts below.3
6. On July 9, 1909, certain employees of the Inverness Railway and Coal Co. of
Inverness, Nova Scotia, went on strike. During the month of October, 1909, the
company laid information against David Neilson, an agent of the United Mine Workers
of America, charging him with having unlawfully aided an employee of the company
to continue on strike by gratuitously providing him with means to procure groceries
and other goods contrary to the provisions of the act. Neilson-was convicted by
Stipendiary Magistrate F. A. MacEchen who imposed a penalty of $500 or three
months’ imprisonment. The case was appealed to the Supreme Court of the Province
of Nova Scotia and the conviction was upheld with costs.4
7. November 10, 1911, five employees of the Alberta: Coal Mining Co. were charged
with violating the provisions of section 56 of the act by striking illegally. One of the
defendants was acquitted on the ground that he gave a reasonable explanation for
quitting work. The other four defendants were fined $40 each and costs or 30 days
in jail by Inspector Worsley of the Mounted Police.5
8. During the month of January, 1913, two employees of the Hollinger Gold Mines
(Ltd.), of Porcupine, Ontario, were charged with violating the provisions of section
60 of the act and were fined $500 each or three months’ imprisonment by Mr. Thomas
Torrance, magistrate in Porcupine. Another employee was charged before the same
magistrate with violating the provisions of sections 56 and 57 and received the same
sentence. On appeal to the divisional court of the district of Sudbury, the convic­
tions against the first two defendants were quashed with costs of $50 in each case,
to be paid to the defendants by the prosecutor. The conviction of the other defendant
1 Annual report Canadian Department of Labor, 1908, p. 408.
2 Ibid , 1909, p p. 327-329.
3 Ibid, pp . 337-339.
* Annual report Canadian Department of Labor, 1910, pp. 61 and 62. R eport of registrar of boards of
conciliation and investigation, proceedings of 1913, pp. 187 and 188.
^
* Labor Gazette (Canadian Department of L abor), Dec. 1911, p. 595.




1 34

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

was confirmed and costs of $50 was ordered paid to the prosecutor by the defendant.
The decision on appeal was rendered March 31, 1913, by District Judge Kehoe who
held that the strike was not on account of any dispute because the action was pre­
cipitated without warning and without demands having been made upon the com­
pany. In the case of the third defendant it was held that the inciting was done
after the strike had started.1
9.
Information was laid July 29, 1915, by the local secretary of the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers of America alleging infringement by the British
Columbia Electric Railway Co. (Ltd.) of the provisions of the act by declaring or
causing a lockout while a dispute between the company and its electrical workers
was before a board of conciliation and investigation. The case came before Police
Magistrate H. C. Shaw of Vancouver, British Columbia, on August 10, 1915, and
was dismissed August 24, with the opinion that a lockout had not been declared
in the meaning of the act. The case was appealed and after several adjournments
it came on for a hearing January 7, 1916, but was dismissed for lack of jurisdiction.2
P r o s e c u t io n

fo r

B

reach

of

A

greem ent

A

ffected

under

the

A

ct.

1.
On November 13, 1907, a board of conciliation and investigation was established
to adjust differences between the Strathcona Coal Co. (Ltd.), of Strathcona, Alberta,
and certain of its employees. An agreement was effected and subsequently action
was brought on behalf of the employees charging the company with a breach of the
agreement. The case was argued June 24 and 25 before the Hon. Mr. Justice Stuart,
in the Supreme Court of Alberta, who held that there was nothing in the act giving
any higher efficacy or authority to the agreement than it would have had had it been
entered into quite apart from a meeting of any conciliation board, or irrespective
of the act altogether; that individual action would have to be brought for alleged
violation of agreement and that, overlooking the objection of joined action as plain­
tiffs, it had not been proven that the terms of the agreement had been violated. The
case was accordingly dismissed with costs.3
P

r o s e c u t io n

P

to

R

e s t r a in

r o c e e d in g

and

a
to

B
T

oard

est

of

the

C o n c il ia t io n

and

C o n s t it u t io n a l it y

I n v e s t ig a t io n
of the

A

from

ct.

♦

1.
In August, 1911, the employees of the Montreal Street Railway Co. of Montreal
applied for a board of conciliation and investigation. On August 15, as the board
was about to commence its inquiry, the chairman was served with a petition for a
writ of injunction asking on behalf of the company that proceedings before the board
should be forbidden by the courts as being ultra vires. The board refrained from
proceeding with the inquiry and the department of justice was requested by the min­
ister of labor to guard the interests of the department in the matter. On October
27, the chairman of the board was served with a copy of a judgment of the Hon. Mr.
Justice Charbonneau, of the superior court, Montreal, authorizing the granting of
a writ of prohibition against further procedure by the board until final judgment
had been rendered on the points raised in the petition by the company, which
among other things questioned the constitutionality of the act.
On November 11, 1912, judgment was given by Mr. Justice La Fontaine, of the
superior court, dismissing the request for the issuance and maintaining of the prohi­
bition order and quashing and annulling the prohibition order with costs.
The decision of Mr. Justice La Fontaine was appealed from and the case came
before the superior court of the Montreal district in review. Judgment was delivered
1 Report of registrar of boards of conciliation and investigation, proceedings of 1914, pp. 226-228.

2Labor Gazette (Canadian Department of Labor), March, 1916, p. 1056.
s Annual report Canadian Department of Labor, 1909, pp. 329-336.




PROSECUTIONS UNDER THE ACT.

135

June 13, 1913, in which it was held that at *the time of the application for a board,
no dispute existed between the company and its employees within the meaning of
the act. The board was accordingly ordered to abstain from any procedure. The
judgment upheld the constitutionality of the act.1

CONCLUSION.
It may be repeated that the chief interest in the Canadian Industrial
Disputes Investigation Act is not in its administration as a concilia­
tory measure but in those restrictive provisions which have served
to characterize it as the “ Compulsory Investigation Act.” In view
of the numerous violations of the restrictive provisions and the
comparatively few prosecutions, the question naturally arises whether
these provisions add materially to the value of the act. The answer
to this must be sought in the spirit of the act, its administration and
its violation.
Obviously the restrictive provisions of the act were intended to
avoid interruption to industries intimately related to the public
well being. True, the ultimate right to strike or lock out was not
denied and in this respect the act may be said to recognize such
right subject to limitations and thus to differ from legislation that
prohibits absolutely the right to strike or lock out. In underlying
principle, however, there is little difference. Both are predicated on
the principle that private rights cease when they become public
wrongs. Although the wrong is undoubtedly greater when it results
from ill advised or precipitate interruption to industries whose con­
tinuous operation is vital to public welfare, it is not clear that the
wrong would be wholly lacking even though a strike or lockout did
not occur in these industries until such action was legally permissible.
The act was written after a prolonged coal strike had seriously
interfered with public well being and had focussed attention upon
the dangers of a prolonged industrial warfare in this and other
industries in which the public is largely concerned. It was written
by a Parliament in which the conservative element predominated.
The previous experience in Canada with the Conciliation and Labor
Act and with the Railway Labor Disputes Act and the experience in
other countries, particularly Australia, undoubtedly exercised no
little influence in determining the character of the act of 1907.
Experience in Australia had shown that absolute prohibition of
strikes and lockouts was difficult to enforce. It is probable that the
framers of the Canadian act recognized this and sought to avoid the
difficulty by limiting the act to industries in which the public had
an immediate interest and by imposing in these industries only tem­
porary restriction, that the full force of public opinion might be
brought to bear upon precipitate action.
3 r.eport of the registrar of boards of conciliation and investigation, proceedings of 1914, pp. 222-226.




136

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

Certain other provisions indicate that the Australian experience
was in mind. Thus the Canadian act provides that only those
disputes may come before a board in which “ failing an adjustment of
the dispute or a reference thereof by the minister to a board,
* * * a lockout or strike will be declared * * * and that the
necessary authority to declare such lockout or strike has been
obtained.” The purpose of these provisions was to prevent on the
one hand a multiplicity of trivial cases clogging the administrative
machinery and perhaps giving a serious aspect to disputes capable
of self adjustment and, on the other hand— recalling that the act
was written by a conservative Parliament in which the working
classes had little representation— to limit the encouragement to
organization arising inevitably from Government arbitration.
On the first of these points— restricting the application of the act
to the more serious disputes— it may be remarked that the required
statutory declaration of intent to strike or lock out may come to be
merely perfunctory. If authority to declare a strike or lockout is
necessary before a dispute may be referred under the act, it is appar­
ent that the granting.of such authority may be looked upon simply
as a formality. It has been shown elsewhere in this report that a
considerable number of such declarations did not result in strike or
lockout even though boards were not created.
On the second point—limiting Government encouragement of or­
ganization—little can be said in its support without attacking the
principle of Government intervention and denying the value of labor
organization. Certainly a board of investigation or arbitration must
deal with representatives of employees and this in itself implies
collective action through, organization. During the proceedings
before such a board it is often necessary that employers meet and
discuss differences with representatives of labor. But while com­
pulsory investigation or arbitration makes organization of employees
necessary and leads indirectly to the recognition of officials of these
organizations by employers, it tends, in some cases at least, toward
the establishment of more cordial relations between employers and
union officials and the forming of the habit of negotiation which may
conceivably increase the number of self adjustments. To limit the
scope of Government intervention on the ground that it encourages
the growth of unions is, after all, but to deny the right of men to
organize and to deal collectively.
One other feature of the act should be mentioned because of its
effect upon the administration of the act. No permanent board of
conciliation and investigation is provided. For each dispute a new
board is created. Upon filing its report with the minister of labor,
the board ceases to exist. This lack of a permanent board undoubt­
edly has advantages and disadvantages. It avoids the lasting dis­




CONCLUSION-.

137

credit of an unsatisfactory decision. If, in the opinion of either side,
one board fails, there is always the chance of a better deal next time
with a different board. Moreover, there is a feeling of direct rep­
resentation of interests when each side to a dispute has the oppor­
tunity of naming a member of the board. On the other hand, how­
ever, there is always more or less delay in creating and assembling
a board and for the board to get acquainted with the routine of
procedure. Many disputes are of such a nature that only quick
action will avert a strike or lockout. This is possible only with a
permanent body ready for action. Then, too, conciliation calls for
a large degree of skill in dealing with industrial disputes. A tem­
porary board can not be expected to handle disputants as tactfully
as a permanent and more experienced board.
The absence of a permanent board gives rise to another disadvan­
tage in attempting to carry out a decision. It is seldom that a wage
award or a set of working conditions can be put into effect without
numerous questions coming up respecting interpretation. Charges
of deliberate violation of the terms of the agreement are often made
and delays in securing official interpretation may aggravate the sit­
uation to a point where a strike or lockout occurs even though the
parties have previously signified a willingness to accept the decision.
In this it must be borne in mind that the decisions of Canadian boards
of investigation are not binding upon the parties to the disputes,
and it is therefore necessary to secure compliance through the pres­
sure of public opinion or by leading the parties themselves to believe
in the fairness of the decision.
Labor’s attitude toward any limitation of the right to strike is
well known. Strikes are opportunistic and are looked upon as bofti
of necessity. If the right to strike or to strike at an opportune time
is taken away, then labor must be assured that its just demands will
be met in some other way. Labor is not ready, however, to leave
wages and working conditions entirely in the hands of Government
boards of arbitration. Although not opposed to compulsory in­
vestigation, labor objects to the provisions in the Canadian act that
restrict the right to strike. There is some justification for this atti­
tude. The absence of any well defined and acceptable standards
to be used in wage determination has forced arbitrators to resort
in many cases to the expediency of “ splitting the difference” or of
giving the parties what they are most likely to accept without a
strike or a lockout. As a consequence the workers feel that they are
confronted with the same proposition in arbitration as in direct
negotiations with their employers and must not only “ ask enough
to make it worth while to arbitrate” but perhaps in the end rely
upon their own strength. The dissatisfaction with arbitration is
always aggravated by delays in securing decisions or compliance




138

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

therewith, during which time the employer can prepare for a strike
and much of the effectiveness of precipitate action is lost. Thus
while some of the illegal strikes in Canadian industries have un­
doubtedly been due to ignorance or carelessness, the greater number
have occurred because the workers felt that an opportune strike was
the most effective way of securing their demands. *
A restriction upon the right to strike or lock out pending an in­
vestigation by a Government board as provided in the Canadian act
is generally favored by employers because it enables them to con­
tinue operation and to prepare for the possible contingency of a strike
and does not force them to accept the findings of such a board. If
the form of such legislation is changed to a compulsory acceptance of
findings, employers are as apt as employees to take exception to
adverse decisions. Employers are seldom violators of the Canadian
act in the sense of declaring an illegal lockout. For that matter a
lockout at any time is exceedingly rare. But it should be borne in
mind that the distinction between a strike and a lockout is not clear
cut. B y a refusal to meet demands or to accept the findings of a
legally constituted Government board, the employer may impose
conditions which though resulting in a strike nevertheless consti­
tute a lockout as effectually as though the doors of his establishment
were closed against his employees.
In any antistrike or lockout legislation it is necessary with both
employers and employees to meet the objection to what is regarded as
a curtailment of rights and privileges. Employers have the advan­
tage in that they have been subject to a greater amount of govern­
mental regulation than have workers. But if either employers or
employees are to be brought to the point of voluntarily accepting
arbitration as a substitute for direct action, there must be some
assurance that the underlying principle of arbitration is not merely a
restatement of the law of supply and demand which in the final analysis
concedes the demands of the stronger party.
Much has been written of the emphasis placed upon public opinion
in averting strikes and lockouts and in bringing about compliance
with decisions. Because of the provision in the Canadian act that
the proceedings and findings of boards of conciliation and investiga­
tion shall be made public, the act has been jestingly called the
“ parade law.” There is much to be said, however, in favor of an
enlightened public opinion in dealing with industrial disputes. The
contending parties are much more apt to be temperate in their
attitude if they know that the public is to be kept informed about
the dispute. This in itself will tend to avoid precipitate action
and unreasonable demands and, irrespective of their relative strength,
will incline the parties toward t^ie acceptance of a compromise that
approaches a fair settlement, /f n the absence of practical means of
Government enforcement, public opinion will go a long way toward




CONCLUSION.

139

making restrictive legislation effective That the public has viewed
repeated violations of the restrictive provisions of the Canadian act
with little concern, however, discredits the conclusion that those
who observe the provisions do so because they fear the public will
condemn infringements per se. Public interest is most keen when
inconvenience is threatened or occasioned and it is unlikely that a
public would view complacently a strike or lockout, whether legal or
illegal, that proved to be an actual menace to any large number of
people.
In the administration of the Canadian act emphasis has been
placed upon conciliation and mediation rather than upon compulsion.
The department of labor endeavor’s to keep in touch with industrial
controversies, to warn disputants of the penalties provided for illegal
strikes and lockouts and to encourage a continuance or a resump­
tion of negotiations or an application for reference under the act.
/No one, it may be observed, is specifically charged with enforcing
\the restrictive provisions and it rests with the parties themselves
\>r with the public to prefer charges.
With reference to violations of the restrictive provisions, the
deputy minister of labor has previously been quoted as saying that
“ It has not been the policy of the successive ministers under whose
authority the statute has been administered to undertake the enforce­
ment of these provisions.” 1 In his opinion uThe usefulness of the
act is better determined, in any event, less by the negative results
in situations where the parties have, regardless of consequences,
stayed deliberately aloof from its influences and operation than by
the positive results obtained in situations where the parties con­
cerned have, whether cordially or reluctantly, brought their differ­
ences within the scope of the act.” 2
It may be expected that either party to a dispute will be quick
to avail itself of the act if it does not feel strong enough to make
certain the success of direct action. It may be repeated, too, that
the act is most apt to be invoked in disputes in those industries
where collective bargaining has become ^n established fact. A
mutual agreement either to arbitrate or to negotiate implies that
each party to the dispute has a respect for the strength of the other.
But if either side feels itself in a more strategic position than the
other, or if the issues involved are not those with which the public
is generally sympathetic, the restrictive provisions will be of little
value unless some attempt is made to impose the penalties provided
for violation. Moreover, repeated violations of these provisions
must inevitably reflect upon their enforceability and foster such a
disregard for the act as to lessen its usefulness even as a conciliatory
measure.
i P. 7.
2 Labor Gazette, Canadian Departm ent of Labor ,April ,1916, p. 1118.




APPENDIX A.—CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT.
An Act to aid in the prevention and settlement of strikes and lockouts in mines
and industries connected with public utilities. (As amended by Act assented to
May 4, 1910.)
His Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of
Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:
1. This act may be cited as the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act, 1907.
P R E L IM IN A R Y .

Interpretation.
2. In this act, unless the context otherwise requires—
(а) “ Minister” means the minister of labor.
(б) “ Department” means the department of labor.
(c) “ Employer” means any person, company or corporation employing 10 or more
persons and owning or operating any mining property, agency of transportation or
communication, or public service utility, including, except as hereinafter provided,
railways, whether operated by steam, electricity or other motive power, steamships,
telegraphs and telephone lines, gas, electric light, water and power works.
(d) “ Employee” means any person employed by an employer to do any skilled
or unskilled manual or clerical work for hire or reward in any industry to wnich this
act applies.
(e) “ Dispute” or “ industrial dispute” means any dispute or difference between an
employer and one or more of his employees, as to matters or things affecting or relating
to work done or to be done by him or them, or as to the privileges, rights and duties
of employers or employees (not involving any such violation thereof as constitutes
an indictable offense); and, without limiting the general nature of the above defini­
tion, includes all matters relating to—
(1) The wages allowance or other remuneration of employees, or the price paid or
to be paid in respect of employment.
(2) The hours of employment, sex, age, qualification or status of employees, and
the mode, terms, and conditions of employment.
(3) The employment of children or anv person or persons or class of persons, or the
dismissal of or refusal to employ any particular person or persons or class of persons.
(4) Claims on the part of an employer or any employee as to whether and, if so, under
what circumstances, preference of employment should or should not be given to one
class over another of persons being or not being members of labor or other organizations,
British subjects or aliens.
(5) Materials supplied and alleged to be bad, unfit or unsuitable, or damage alleged
to have been done to work.
(6) Any established custom or usage, either generally or in the particular district
affected.
(7) The interpretation of an agreement or a clause thereof.
( / ) “ Lockout” (without limiting the nature of its meaning) means a closing of a
place of employment, or a suspension of work, or a refusal by an employer to continue
to employ any number of his employees in consequence of a dispute, done with a
view to compelling his employees, or to aid another employer in compelling his
employees, to accept terms of employment.
(g) “ Strike” or “ to go on strike” (without limiting the nature of its meaning)
means the cessation of work by a body of employees acting in combination, or a con­
certed refusal or a refusal under a common understanding of any number of employees
to continue to work for an employer, in consequence of a dispute, done as a means of
compelling their employer, or to aid other employees in compelling their employer,
to accept terms of employment.
(A) “ Board” means a board of conciliation and investigation established under the
provisions of this act.
(i)' “ Application” means an application for the appointment of a board under the
provisions of this act.
140




IN D U ST R IA L D ISPU TES IN V E ST IG A TIO N A C T OF CANADA.

141

(j) “ Registrar” means the registrar of boards of conciliation and investigation under
this act.
(k) 4 Prescribed” means prescribed by this act, or by any rules or regulations made
‘
thereunder.
(Z) “ Trade union” or “ union” means any organization of employees formed for the
purpose of regulating relations between employers and employees.
Administration.
3. The minister of labor shall have the general administration of this act.
4. The governor in council shall appoint a registrar of boards of conciliation and
investigation, who shall have the powers and perform the duties prescribed.
2. The office of registrar may be held either separately or in conjunction -with any
other office in the public service, and in the latter case the registrar may, if the
governor in council thinks fit, be appointed, not by name, but by reference to such
other office, whereupon the person who for the time being holds such office, or per­
forms its duties, shall by virtue thereof be the registrar.
BOARDS OF CONCILIATION AND INVESTIG ATIO N .

Constitution o f boards.
5. Whenever any dispute exists between an employer and any of his employees,
and the parties thereto are unable to adjust it, either of the parties to the dispute
may make application to the minister for the appointment of a board of conciliation
and investigation, to which board the dispute may be referred under the provisions
of this act: Provided, however, That, in the case of a dispute between a railway company
and its employees, such dispute may be referred, for the purpose of conciliation and
investigation, under the provisions concerning railway disputes in the conciliation
and labor act.
6. Whenever, under this act, an application is made in due form for the appoint­
ment of a board of conciliation and investigation, and such application does not relate
to a dispute which is a subject of a reference under the provision concerning railway
disputes in the conciliation and labor act, the minister, whose decision for such
purpose shall be final, shall within 15 days from the date at which the application
is received, establish such board under his hand and seal of office, if satisfied that
the provisions of this act apply.
7. Every board shall consist of three members who shall be appointed by the
minister.
2. Of the three members of the board one shall be appointed on the recommenda­
tion of the employer and one on the recommendation of the employees (the parties
to the dispute), and the third on the recommendation of the members so chosen.
8. For the purposes of appointment of the members of the board, the following
provisions shall apply:
1. Each party to the dispute may, at the time of making application or within
five days after being requested so to do by the minister, recommend the name of one
person who is willing and ready to act as a member of the board, and the minister
shall appoint such person a member of the board.
2. If either of the parties fails or neglects to duly make any recommendation within
the said period, or such extension thereof as the minister, on cause shown, grants, the
minister shall, as soon thereafter as possible, appoint a fit person to be a member of
the board; and such member shall be deemed to be appointed on the recommendation
of the said party.
3. The members chosen on the recommendation of the parties may, within five
days after their appointment, recommend the name of one person who is willing and
ready to act as a third member of the boar<J, and the minister shall appoint such
person a member of the board.
4. If the members chosen on the recommendation of the parties fail or neglect
to duly make any recommendation within the said period, or such extension thereof
as the minister, on cause shown, grants, the minister shall, as soon thereafter as possible,
appoint a fit person to be a third member of the board, and such member shall be
deemed to be appointed on the recommendation of the two other members of the
board.
5. The third member shall be the chairman of the board.
9. As soon as possible after the full board has been appointed by the minister the
registrar shall notify the parties of the names of the members of the board and the
chairman thereof, and such notification shall be final and conclusive for all purposes.




142

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

10. Every member of a board shall hold office from the time of his appointment
until the report of the board is signed and transmitted to the minister.
11. No person shall act as a member of a board who has any direct pecuniary interest
in the issue of a dispute referred to such board.
12. Every vacancy in the membership of a board shall be supplied in the same man­
ner as in the case of the original appointment of every person appointed.
13. Before entering upon the exercise of the functions of their office the members
of a board, including the chairman, shall make oath or affirmation before a justice
of the peace or other person authorized to administer an oath oi* affirmation, that they
will faithfully and impartially perform the duties of their office, and also that, except
in the discharge of their duties, they will not disclose to any person any of the evidence
or other matter brought before the board.
14. The department may provide the board with a secretary, stenographer, or such
other clerical assistance as to the minister appears necessary for the efficient carrying
out of the provisions of this act.
Procedure fo r reference o f disputes to boards.
15. For the purpose of determining the manner in which, and the persons by whom,
an application for the appointment of a board is to be made, the following provisions
shall apply:
1. The application shall be made in writing in the prescribed form, and shall be in
substance a request to the minister to appoint a board to which the existing dispute
may be referred under the provisions of this act.
2. The application shall be accompanied by—
(а) A statement setting forth—
(1) The parties to the dispute;
(2) The nature and cause of the dispute, including any claims or demands made
by either party upon the other, to which exception is taken;
(3) An approximate estimate of the number of persons affected or likely to be
affected by the dispute;
(4) The efforts made by the parties themselves to adjust the dispute;
and—
(б) A statutory declaration setting forth that, failing an adjustment of the dispute
or a reference thereof by the minister to a board, to the best of the knowledge and
belief of the declarant a lockout or strike will be declared, and (except where the
application is made by an employer in consequence of an intended change in wages
or hours proposed by the said employer) that the necessary authority to declare such
lockout or strike has been obtained; or, where a dispute directly affects employees
in more than one Province and such employees are members of a trade-union having
a general committee authorized to carry on negotiations in disputes between employers
and employees and so recognized by the employer, a statutory declaration by the
chairman or president and by the secretary of such committee setting forth that,
failing an adjustment of the dispute or a reference thereof by the minister to a board,
to the best of the knowledge and belief of the declarants a strike will be declared, that
the dispute has been the subject of negotiations between the committee and the
employer, that all efforts to obtain a satisfactory settlement have failed, and that
there is no reasonable hope of securing a settlement by further negotiations.
3. The application may mention the name of a person who is willing and ready
and desires to act as a member of the board representing the party or parties making
the application.
16. The application and the declaration accompanying it—
(1) If made by an employer, an incorporated company, or corporation, shall be
signed by some one of its duly authorized managers or other principal executive
officers.
(2) If made by an employer other tkan an incorporated company or corporation,
shall be signed by the employer himself in case he is an individual, or a majority of
the partners or members in case of a partnership firm or association.
(3) If made by employees members of a trade-union, shall be signed by two of its
officers duly authorized by a majority vote of the members of the union, or by a vote
taken by ballot of the members of the union present at a meeting called on not less
than three days* notice for the purpose of discussing the question; or, where a dispute
directly affects employees in more than one Province and such employees are mem­
bers of a trade-union having a general committee authorized to carry on negotiations
in disputes between employers and employees and so recognized by the employer, may
be signed by the chairman or president and by the secretary of the said committee.




INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

143

(4)
If made by employees some or all of whom are not members of a trade-union,
shall be signed by two of their number duly authorized by a majority vote taken by
ballot of the employees present at a meeting called on not less than three days’ notice
tor thepurpose of discussing the question.
17* Every application for the appointment of a board shall be transmitted by post
by registered letter addressed to the Registrar of Boards of Conciliation and Investiga­
tion, Department of Labor, Ottawa, and the date of the receipt of such registered
letter at the department shall be regarded as the date of the receipt of such application.
18. In every case where an application is made for the appointment of a board the
party making application shall, at the time of transmitting it to the registrar, also
transmit by registered letter to the other party to the dispute, or by personal delivery,
a copy of the application and of the accompanying statement and declaration.
19. Upon receipt by either party to a dispute of a copy of the application for the
appointment of a board such party shall, without delay, prepare a statement in reply
to the application and transmit it by registered letter, or by personal delivery, to the
registrar and to the party making the application.
20. Copies of applications or statements in reply thereto, to be transmitted to the
other party under any of the preceding section where the other party is—
(1) An employer, an incorporated company or corporation, shall be sent to the mana­
ger or other principal executive officer of the company or corporation.
' (2) An employer other than an incorporated company or corporation, shall be sent
to the employer himself or to the employer in the name of the business or firm as
commonly known.
(3) Composed of employees, members of a trade-union, shall be sent to. the presi­
dent and secretary of such union.
(4) Composed of employees some or all of whom are not members of a trade-union—
(а) Where some of the employees are members of a trade-union, shall be sent to
the president and secretary of the union as representing the employees belonging to
the union; also
(б) Where some of the employees are not members of a trade-union and there are
no persons authorized to represent such employees, shall be sent to ten of their
number;
(c)
Where, under paragraph (4) of section 16, two persons have been authorized to
make an application, shall be sent to such two persons.
21. Any dispute may be referred to a board by application in that behalf made in
due form by any party thereto: Provided, That no dispute shall be the subject of ref­
erence to a board under this act in any case in which the employees affected by the
dispute are fewer than 10.
22. Upon the appointment of the board the registrar shall forward to the chairman,
a copy of the application for the appointment of such board, and of its accompanying
statement and declaration, and of the statement in reply, and the board shall forth­
with proceed to deal with the matters referred to in these documents.
Functions, powers, and procedure of boards.
23. In every case where a dispute is duly referred to a board it shall be the duty
of the board to endeavor to bring about a settlement of the dispute, and to this end
the board shall, in such manner as it thinks fit, expeditiously and carefully inquire
into the dispute and all matters affecting the merits thereof and the right settlement
thereof. In the course of such inquiry the board may make all such suggestions and
do all such things as it deems right and proper for inducing the parties to come to a
fair and amicable settlement of the dispute, and may adjourn the proceedings for any
period the board thinks reasonable to allow the parties to agree upon terms of settle­
ment.
24. If a settlement of the dispute is arrived at by the parties during the course of
its reference to the board, a memorandum of the settlement shall be drawn up by the
board and signed by the parties, and shall, if the parties so agree, be binding as if
made a recommendation by the board under section 62 of this act, and a copy thereof
with a report upon the proceedings shall be forwarded to the minister.
25. If a settlement of the dispute is not arrived at during the course of its reference
to the board, the board shall make a full report thereon to the minister, which report
shall set forth the various proceedings and steps taken by the board for the purpose of
fully and carefully ascertaining all the facts and circumstances, and shall also set
forth such facts and circumstances, and its findings therefrom, including the cause
of the dispute and the board’s recommendation for the settlement of the dispute
according to the merits and substantial justice of the case.




14 4

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

26.
The board’s recommendation shall deal with each item of the dispute and shall
state in plain terms, and avoiding as far as possible all technicalities, what in the
board’s opinion ought or ought not to be done by the respective parties concerned.
Wherever it appears to the board expedient so to do, its recommendation shall also
state the period during which the proposed settlement should continue in force, and
the date from which it should commence. ^
21.
The board’s report and recommendation shall be made to the minister in writing
and shall be signed by such of the members as concur therein, and shall be trans­
mitted by the chairman by registered letter to the registrar as soon as practicable
after the reference of the dispute to the board; and in the same manner a minority
report may be made by any dissenting member of the board.
28. Upon receipt of the board’s report the minister shall forthwith cause the report
to be filed in the office of the registrar and a copy thereof to be sent free of charge to
the parties to the dispute, and to the representative of any newspaper published in
Canada who applies therefor, and the minister may distribute copies of the report,
and of any minority report, in such manner as to him seems most desirable as a means
of securing a compliance with the board’s recommendation. The registrar shall,
upon application, supply certified copies for a prescribed fee, to persons other than
those mentioned in this section.^
29. For the information of Parliament and the public, the report and recommenda­
tion of the board, and any minority report, shall, without delay, be published in the
Labour Gazette, and be included in the annual report of the department of labor
to the governor general.
30. For the purpose of its inquiry the board shall have all the powers of summoning
before it, and enforcing the attendance of witnesses, of administering oaths, and of
requiring witnesses to give evidence on oath or on solemn affirmation (if they are
persons entitled to affirm in civil matters) and to produce such books, papers, or other
documents or things as the board deems requisite to the full investigation of the
matters into which it is inquiring, as is vested in any ctourt of record in civil cases.
2.
Any member of the board may administer an oath, and the board may accept,
admit, and call for such evidence as in equity and good conscience it thinks fit,
whether strictly legal evidence or not.
31. The summons shall be in the prescribed form, and may require any person to
produce before the board any books, papers, or other documents or things in his
possession or under his control in any way relating to the proceedings.
32* All books, papers, alnd other documents or things produced before the board,
whether voluntarily or in pursuance to summons, may be inspected by the board,
and also by such parties as the board allows; but the information obtained therefrom
shall not, except m so far as the board deems it expedient, be made public, and such
parts of the books* papers, or other documents as in the opinion of the board do not
relate to the matter at issue may be sealed up.
33. Any party to the proceedings shall be competent and may be compelled to
give evidence as a witness.
34. Every person who is summoned and duly attends as a witness shall be entitled
to an allowance for expenses according to the scale for the time being in force with
respect to witnesses in civil suits in the superior courts in the province where the
inquiry is being conducted.
35. Where a reference has been made to the board of a dispute between a railway
company and its employees, any witness summoned by the board in connection
with the dispute shall be entitled to free transportation over any railway en route
when proceeding to the place of meeting of the board and thereafter returning to his
home, and the board shall furnish to such witness a proper certificate evidencing his
right to such free transportation.
36. If any person who has been duly served with such summons and to whom at
the same time payment or tender has been made of his reasonable traveling expenses
according to the aforesaid seal, fails to duly attend or to duly produce any book, paper,
or other document or thing as required by his summons, he shall be guilty of an
offense and liable to a penalty not exceeding $100, unless he shows that there was
good and sufficient cause for such failure.
37. If, in any proceedings before the board, any person willfully insults any member
of the board or willfully interrupts the proceedings, or without good cause refuses to
give evidence, or is guilty in any other manner of any willful contempt in the face
of the board, any officer of the board or any constable may take the person offending
into custody and remove him from the precincts of . the board, to be detained in
custody until the rising of the board, and the person so offending shall be liable to a
penalty not exceeding $100.




INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

145

38o The board, or any member thereof, and, on being authorized in writing by the
board, any other person, may, without any other warrant than this act, at any time,
enter any building, mine, mine workings, ship, vessel, factory, workshop, place, or
premises of any kind, wherein, or in respect of which, any industry is carried on or
any work is being or has been done or commenced, or any matter or thing is taking
place or has taken place, which has been made the subject of a reference to the board,
and inspect and view any work, material, machinery, appliance, or article therein,
and interrogate any persons in or upon any such building, mine, mine workings, ship,
vessel, factory, workshop, place, or premises as aforesaid, in respect of or in relation to
any matter or thing hereinbefore mentioned; and any person who hinders or obstructs
the board or any such person authorized as aforesaid, in the exercise of any power
conferred by this section, shall be guilty of an offense and be liable to a penalty not
exceeding $100.
39. Any party to a reference may be represented before the board by three or less
than three persons designated for the purpose, or by counsel or solicitor where allowed
as hereinafter provided.
40. Every party appearing by a representative shall be bound by the acts of such
representative.
41. No counsel or solicitor shall be entitled to appear or be heard before the board,
except with the consent of the parties to the dispute, and notwithstanding such
consent the board may decline to allow counsel or solicitors to appear.
42. Persons other than British subjects shall not be allowed to act as members of a
board.
43. If without good cause shown, any party to proceedings before the board fails
to attend or to be represented, the board may proceed as if he had duly attended or
had been represented.
44. The sittings of the board shall be held at such time and place as are from time to
time fixed by the chairman, after consultation with the other members of the board,
and the parties shall be notified by the chairman as to the time and place at which
sittings are to be held: Provided that, So far as practicable the board shall sit in the
locality within which the subject matter of the proceeding before it arose.
45. The proceedings of the board shall be conducted in public: Provided, That any
such proceedings before it, the board, on its own motion, or on the application of any
of the parties, may direct that the proceedings shall be conducted in private and that
all persons other than the parties, their representatives, the officers of the board, and
the witnesses under examination shall withdraw.
46. The decision of a majority of the members present at a sitting of the board shall
be the decision of the board, and the findings and recommendations of the majority
of its members shall be those of the board.
47. The presence of the chairman and at least one other member of the board shall
be necessary to constitute a sitting of the board.
48. In case of the absence of any one member from a meeting of the board the other
two members shall not proceed, unless it is shown that the third member has been
notified of the meeting m ample time to admit of his attendance.
2.
If any member of a board dies, or becomes incapacitated, or refuses or neglects
to act, his successor shall be appointed in the manner provided with respect to the
original member of the board.
49. The board may at any time dismiss any matter referred to it which it thinks
frivolous or trivial.
50. The board may, with the consent of the minister, employ competent experts
or assessors to examine the books or official reports of either party, and to advise it
upon any technical or other matter material to the investigation; but shall not disclose
such reports or the result of such inspection or examination under this section without
the consent of both the parties to the dispute.
Remuneration and expenses o f board.
51. The members of a board shall be remunerated for their services as follows:
(a) To members other than the chairman, an allowance of $5 a day for a time not
exceeding three days during which the members may be actually engaged in selecting
a third member of the board.
(b) To each member of the board, including the chairman, an allowance at the rate
of $20 for each day’s sitting of the board and for each day necessarily engaged in
traveling from or to his place of residence to attend or after attending a meeting of
the board.
8372°— 18------ 10




146

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA,

52. No member of the board shall accept in addition to his salary as a member of the
board any j^rquisite or gratuity of any kind, from any corporation, association, part­
nership, or individual in. any way interested in any matter or thing before or about to
be brought before the board in accordance with the provisions of this act. The accept­
ing of such perquisite or gratuity by any member of the board shall be an offense and
shall render such member liable to a fine not exceeding $1,000.
53. Each member of the board will be entitled to his actual necessary traveling
expenses for each day that he is engaged in traveling from or to his place of residence
for the purpose of attending or after having attended a meeting of the board.
54. All expenses of the board, including expenses for transportation incurred by
the members thereof or by persons under its order in making investigations under
this act, salaries of employees and agents, and fees and mileage to witnesses shall be
allowed^ and paid upon the presentation of itemized vouchers therefor, approved by
the chairman of the board, which vouchers shall be forwarded by the chairman to the
minister. The chairman shall also forward to the minister a certified and detailed
statement of the sittings of the board, and of the members present at such sittings.
DUTIES O THE REGISTRAR.
F
£5. It shall be the duty of the registrar—
(a) To receive and register, and, subject to the provisions of this act, to deal with
all applications by employers or employees for a reference of any dispute to a board,
and to at once bring to the minister’s attention every such application.
($> To conduct m ch correspondence with the parties and members of boards as
)
may be necessary to constitute any board as speedily as possible in accordance with,
the provisions of this act.
(e) To i^eeeive and file all reports and recommendations of boards, and conduct
such correspondence and do such things as may assist in rendering effective the
recommendations of the boards, in accordance with the provisions of this act.
(d) To beep a register in which shall be entered the particulars of all applications,
references, reports, and recommendations relating to the appointment of a board
and its proceedings; and to safely keep all applications, statements, reports, recom­
mendations, and other documents relating to proceedings before the board, and,
when so required, transmit all or any of such to the minister.
(e) To supply to any parties, on request, information as to this act, or any regula­
tions or proceedings thereunder, and also to furnish parties to a dispute and members
of the board with necessary blank forms, forms of summons, of other papers or docu­
ments required in connection with the effective carrying out of the provisions of this
act.
(/) Generally, to do all such things and take all such proceedings as may be required
in the performance of his duties prescribed under this act or any regulations there­
under.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS PRIOR TO AND PENDING A REFERENCE TO A BOARD ILLEGAL.
56. It shall be unlawful for any employer to declare or cause a lockout, or for any
employee to go on strike, on account of any dispute prior to or during a reference of
such dispute to a board of conciliation and investigation under the provisions of this
act, or prior to or during a reference under the provisions concerning railway disputes
in the Conciliation and Labor Act: Provided, That nothing in this act shall prohibit
the suspension or discontinuance of any industry or of the working of any person
therein for any cause not constituting a lockout or strike: Provided, also, That, except
where the parties have entered into an agreement under section 62 of this act, nothing
in this act shall be held to restrain any employer from declaring a lockout, or any
employee from going on strike in respect of any dispute which has been duly referred
to a board and which has been dealt with under section 24 or 25 of this act, or in
respect of any dispute which has been the subject of a reference under the provisions
concerning Tailway disputes in the Conciliation and Labor Act.
57. Employers and employees shall give at least 30 days’ notice of an intended
change affecting conditions of employment with respect to wages or hours, and in
the event of such intended change resulting in a dispute, until the dispute has been
finally dealt with by a board, neither of the parties affected shall alter the conditions
of employment with respect to wages or hours, or on account of the dispute do or be
concerned in doing, directly or indirectly, anything in the nature of a lockout or
strike, or a suspension or discontinuance of employment or work, but the relation­
ship of employer and employee shall continue uninterrupted by the dispute, or




INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

147

anything arising out of the dispute; but if, in the opinion of the board, either party
uses t.hia or any other provision of this act for the purpose of unjustly maintaining a
given condition of affairs through delay, and the board so reports to the minister,
such party shall be guilty of an offense, and liable to the same penalties as are imposed
for a violation of the next preceding section.,
58. Any employer declaring or causing a lockout contrary to the provisions of this
act shall be liable to a fine of not less than $100, nor more than $1,000 for each day or
part of a day that such lockout exists.
59. Any employee who goes on strike contrary to the provisions of this act shall be
liable to a fine of not less than $10 nor more than $50, for each day or part of a day
that such employee is on strike.
60* Any person who incites, encourages, or aids in any manner any employer to
declare or continue a lockout, or any employee to go or continue on strike contrary to
the provisions of this act, shall be guilty of an offense and liable to a fine of not less
than $50 nor more than $1,000.
61. The procedure for enforcing penalties imposed or authorized to be imposed by
this act shall be that prescribed by Part X V of The Criminal Code relating to summary
convictions.
SPECIAL PROVISIONS.

62. Either party to a dispute which may be referred under this act to a board may
agree in writing, at any time before or after the board has made its report and recom­
mendation, to be bound by the recommendation of the board in the same manner
as parties are bound upon an award made pursuant to a reference to arbitration on
the order of a court of record; every agreement so to be bound made by one party
shall be forwarded to the registrar who shall communicate it to the other party, and
if the other party agrees in like manner to be bound by the recommendation of the
board, then the recommendation shall be made a rule of the said court on the appli­
cation of either party and shall be enforceable in like manner,
63. In the event of a dispute arising in any industry or trade other than such as
may be included under the provisions of this act, and such dispute threatens to result
in a lockout or strike, or has actually resulted in a lockout or strike, either of the parties
may agree in writing to allow such dispute to be referred to a board of conciliation
and investigation, to be constituted under the provisions of this act.
2. Every agreement to allow such reference shall be forwarded to the registrar,
who shall communicate it to the other party, and if such other party agrees in like
manner to allow the dispute to be referred to a board, the dispute may be so referred
as if the industry or trade and the parties were included within the provisions of this
act.
3. From the time that the parties have been notified in writing by the registrar
that in consequence of their mutual agreement to refer the dispute to a board under
the provisions of this act, the minister has decided to refer such dispute, the lockout
or strike, if in existence, shall forthwith cease, and the provisions of this act shall
bind the parties.
M ISCELLANEOUS.

64. No court of the Dominion of Canada, or of any province or territory thereof,
shall have power or jurisdiction to recognize or enforce, or to receive in evidence any
report of a board, or any testimony or proceedings before a board, as against any
person or for any purpose, except in the case of a prosecution of such person for
perjury.
65. No proceeding under this act shall be deemed invalid by reason of any defect
of form or any technical irregularity.
66. The minister shall determine the allowance or amounts to be paid to all persons,
other than the members of a board, employed by the Government or any board, in­
cluding the registrar, secretaries, clerks, experts, stenographers, or other persons per­
forming any services under the provisions of this act.
67. In case of prosecution under this act, whether a conviction is or is not obtained,
it shall be the duty of the clerk of the court before which any such prosecution takes
place to briefly report the particulars of such prosecution to the registrar within 30
days after it has been determined, and such clerk shall be entitled to a prescribed fee
in payment of his services.
68. The governor in council may make regulations as to the time within which
anything hereby authorized shall be done, and also as to any other matter or thing
which^ appears to him necessary or advisable to the effectual working of the several
provisions of this act. All such regulations shall go into force on the day of the pub­




148

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

lication thereof in The Canada Gazette, and they shall be laid before Parliament
within 15 days after such publication; or, if Parliament is not then in session, within
15 days after the opening of the next session thereof.
69. All charges and expenses incurred by the Government in connection with the
administration of this act shall be defrayed out of such appropriations as are made
by Parliament for that purpose.
70. An annual report with respect to the matters transacted by him under this act
shall be made by the minister to the governor general, and shall be laid before Par­
liament within the first 15 days of each session thereof„




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■
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149




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INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES INVESTIGATION ACT OF CANADA.

Evans, E. G. One way to settle labor troubles. Survey 22: 844-6. S. 25, ’09.
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