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Occupational Wage Survey

DETROIT, MICHIGAN
JANUARY 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-25




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey




DETROIT, MICHIGAN
JANUARY 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-25
April I960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, li.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price

cents




Preface

Contents
Page

T h e C o m m u n ity W a ge S u rv e y P r o g r a m
T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s r e g u la r ly con du cts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b er o f im p o r ta n t in d u s tr ia l
c e n te r s . T h e s tu d ie s , m a d e f r o m la te f a l l to e a r ly s p rin g ,
r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d s u p p le m e n ta ry
b e n e fits . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f the study in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m onth fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s a d d itio n a l
d ata not in c lu d e d in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly t ic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u lts o f a ll o f the
y e a r * s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a ft e r c o m p le tio n o f the fin a l a r e a
b u lle tin f o r the c u r r e n t round o f s u r v e y s .

In tro d u c tio n ______________________________________________________________________
W a ge tre n d s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s _____________________________

T a b le s :

1.
2.

A:

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y _____________
P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in sta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la r ie s and
s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l
g ro u p s , f o r s e le c t e d p e r io d s _______________________________________

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s :*
A - 1. O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s ___________________________
A - 2 . P r o f e s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s
A - 3 . M a in ten a n c e and p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a tio n s
A -4 .
C u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip tio n s

___________

2

10

______________________________________ = 13
,

* N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tion s a r e a v a ila b le in the D e t r o it
a r e a r e p o r t s f o r D e c e m b e r 1951, O c to b e r 1953, O c to b e r
1955, and J a n u a ry 1959.
T h e r e p o r ts a ls o in clu d e data
on e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w a g e p r o ­
v is io n s .
A d i r e c t o r y in d ic a tin g d ates o f study and the
p r ic e o f the r e p o r t s , as w e ll as r e p o r ts f o r o th e r m a jo r
a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t.
A c u r r e n t r e p o r t on o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s is a ls o
a v a ila b le f o r g r a y ir o n fo u n d rie s in the D e t r o it a r e a (M a y
1959).
U n ion s c a le s , in d ic a tiv e o f p r e v a ilin g p a y le v e l s ,
a r e a v a ila b le f o r the fo llo w in g tr a d e s o r in d u s tr ie s : B u ild ­
in g c o n s tru c tio n , p r in tin g , l o c a l - t r a n s i t o p e r a tin g e m p lo y ­
e e s , and m o to r tr u c k d r i v e r s and h e lp e r s .

111

2

00 O

T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u re a u 1s r e g io n a l
o f f ic e in C h ic a g o , 111. , b y W o o d r o w C. Lin n , u n d er the
d ir e c t io n o f G e o r g e E . V o ta v a , R e g io n a l W a g e and In d u s ­
t r i a l R e la tio n s A n a ly s t.




1
3




Occupational Wage Survey—Detroit, Mich.
Introduction

This area is one of sev er a l im portant industrial cen ters in
which the U .S . D epartm ent of Labor'd Bureau of Labor S tatistics
conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an area b a sis.
The bulletin p resen ts current occupational em ploym ent and
earnings inform ation obtained la rg ely by m ail from the estab lish m en ts
visited by Bureau field econ om ists in the la st previous survey for occu ­
pations reported in that ea rlier study. P erson a l v isits Were m ade
to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes
sin ce the previous survey.
In each area, data are obtained from R epresentative esta b lish ­
m ents w ithin six broad industry divisions: M anufacturing; tran sp or­
tation, 1 com m unication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; r e ­
tail trade; finance, insuran ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor
industry groups excluded from th ese studies are governm ent operations
and the construction and extractive in d u stries. E stablishm en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w ork ers are om itted a lso because
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d ivision s.
T hese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b a sis b ecau se of the
u n n ecessary co st involved in surveying a ll estab lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accu racy at m inim um co st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm a ll establishm ents is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ev er, a ll estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim ates
based on the estab lish m en ts studied are p resen ted , th erefore, as r e ­
lating to a ll estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and a rea , ex ­
cept for those below the m inim um siz e studied.
O ccupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s1 R ailroads, form erly excluded from the scope of th ese stu d ies,
have been added in n ea rly a ll of the areas to be studied during the
w inter of 1959-60; railroads w ill be added in the rem aining areas next
year. For scope of survey in this area, see footnote to "transporta­
tion, com m unication, and other public u tilities" in table 1.




sifica tio n is based on a uniform se t of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties w ithin the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of th ese d escrip tio n s.) Earnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice clerica l; (b) p ro fessio n a l and technical; (c) m ain te­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w o rk ers, i. e. , those hired to w ork a regular w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational cla ssifica tio n . Earnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for w ork on w eek en d s, h olid ays, and
late sh ifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. W here w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occupations, referen ce is
to the w ork sched ules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
S traight-tim e sa la rie s are paid; average w eek ly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half dollar.
A verage earnings of m en and w om en are presen ted sep arately
for selected occupations in w hich both sex es are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and w om en in th ese occupations are
la rg ely due to (l) d ifferen ces in the distribution of the sex es am ong
in d u stries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p e r ­
form ed, although the occupations are ap propriately c la ssified within
the sam e su rvey job description; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la rie s are adjusted on this basis.
Longer average se r v ic e of m en would resu lt in higher average pay
when both sex es are em ployed w ithin the sam e rate range. Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in th ese su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore gen eralized than those u sed in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces am ong estab lish m en ts in sp ecific duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim ates rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts within the scop e of the study and hot-the num ber actu ­
ally surveyed. B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational stru ctu re am ong
estab lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T hese d ifferen ces in occu ­
pational structure do not m a teria lly affect the accu racy of the ea rn ­
ings data.

2




Table 1.

E stablishm ents and w o rk e rs within scope of survey and number studied in D etroit, M ich. , 1 by m ajor industry d ivision , 2 January I960
Number o f establishm ents

Industry division

W orkers in establishm ents

Within scope
of study 3

Within scope
of study

Studied

A ll d ivision s ____________________________________

1, 254

272

634,400

461, 550

M an u factu rin g___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________
T ransportation, com m unication, and
other public u tilitie s 4
_
_
W holesale trade _____________________________
R etail trade 5 ________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te ________
S e rv ice s 6 ____________________________________

498
756

12
0
170

447 ,500
186,900

352,910
108, 640

76
191
124
151
214

29
34
30
37
40

4 7 ,200
23,500
58, 900
28, 800
28, 500

35,550
, 060
39, 160
17, 580

Studied

8

8,290

1

The D etroit M etropolitan A rea (Wayne, Oakland, and M acom b Counties). The "w o rk e rs within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a
reasonably accurate de scrip tio n of the size and com position of the labor fo rc e included in the survey. The estim ates are not intended, how ever, to serve as a
b a s is o f com parison with other area em ploym ent indexes to m easure em ploym ent trends or le v e ls since ( l) planning of wage surveys requ ires the use of estab­
lishm ent data com piled con siderably in advance o f the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.
The 1957 revised edition o f the Standard Industrial C la ssifica tio n Manual was used in cla ssifyin g establishm ents by industry division. M ajor changes from
the e a r lie r edition (used in the B u rea u 's labor m arket wage survey program p rio r to the w inter of 1958-59) are the tran sfer of m ilk pasteurization plants and
rea d y -m ix e d con crete establishm ents from trade (w holesale o r retail) to m anufacturing, and the tra n sfe r of radio and telev ision broadcasting fro m s e r v ic e s to
the transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities division.
Includes all establishm ents with total em ploym ent at or above the m in im u m -size lim itation (101 in m anufacturing, public utilities, and retail trade; 51 in
w holesale trade, finance, and s e r v ic e s ). A ll outlets (within the a re a ) of com panies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair s e r v ic e , and m otion -pictu re
theaters are con sid ered as 1 establishm ent.

2

3

4
e x c lu d e d

R a i lr o a d s w e r e in c lu d e d ; t a x ic a b s an d s e r v i c e s in c id e n ta l
b y d e f i n i t i o n f r o m th e s c o p e o f t h e
stu d ie s.

5 Excludes

6
te c tu r a l

H o te ls;

to

w a te r tr a n sp o r ta tio n

w ere

e x c lu d e d .

D e t r o i t 's

tr a n sit

sy ste m

is

m u n ic ip a lly o p e r a te d

and

is

data fo r 2 large departm ent sto re s.

person al

s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s

s e r v i c e s ; a u to m o b ile

r e p a ir

s h o p s ; m o tio n

p ic t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit

m e m b e rsh ip

o r g a n iz a tio n s;

and

e n g in e e r in g

and

a rc h i­

se r v ic e s.

Table 2.

P ercen ts of in cre a se in standard w eekly sala rie s and straigh t-tim e hourly earnings
fo r selected occupational groups in D etroit, M ich. , fo r selected periods
P ercen t in cre a s e s fro m —

Industry and occupational group

January 1959
to
January I960

A ll industries;
O ffice c le r ic a l (wom en) _____________________
Industrial nurses (wom en) --------------------------Skilled maintenance (men) _________________
U nskilled plant (men) ------------------------------------

3. 1
4. 1
3. 0
3 .4

M anufacturing:
O ffice c le r ic a l (women) _____________________
Industrial nurses (wom en) _________________
Skilled m aintenance (men) ______ _________
U nskilled plant (men) _______________________

3. 9
4. 0
3. 1
3.2

O ctober 1955
to
January 1959

19. 8

20. 2

17. 0
15. 8
23. 3
20. 7
17.2
17. 6

O ctober 1953
to
O ctober 1955

D ecem ber 1951
to
O ctober 1953

7. 5
7. 9
.3

8
6.2

1.8
1
1.2
0
1.0
1
1.0
0

7. 1
7. 9
. 1
.4

12. 0
1. 1
0
1. 1
1
8. 0

8
6

3
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P r e s e n te d in ta ble 2 a r e p e r ce n ts o f change in s a la r ie s o f
w om en o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , and in a v e r a g e
ea rn in g s o f s e le c t e d plant w o r k e r g r o u p s .
F o r o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u str ia l n u r s e s , the p e r ­
cen ts o f change r e la te to a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s fo r n o rm a l h ou rs
o f w o rk , that i s , the stan dard w o rk sch ed u le fo r w h ich stra ig h t-tim e
s a la r ie s a r e paid.
F o r plant w o r k e r g r o u p s , they m e a s u r e ch a n ges
in str a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a r n in g s , ex clu d in g p re m iu m pay fo r o v e r ­
tim e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts . The p e r ­
ce n ta g e s a r e b a se d on data fo r s e le c t e d key occu p a tio n s and in clu d e
m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p orta n t jo b s w ithin each g ro u p .
The o f ­
fic e c l e r i c a l data a r e b a se d on w om en in the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B i lle r s ,
m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ); b o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A
and B; C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , f ile , c la s s A and B; c le r k s ,
o r d e r ; c l e r k s , p a y r o ll; keypunch o p e r a t o r s ; o ffic e g ir l s ; s e c r e t a r ie s ;
ste n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l; s w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r s ; sw itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ; t r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p ­
e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A and B .
The in d u stria l n u rse
data a r e b a s e d on w o m e n in d u str ia l n u r s e s .
M en in the follow in g
10 sk ille d m a in ten an ce jo b s and 3 u n sk illed jo b s w e r e in clu d ed in the
plant w o rk e r data:
S k illed — c a r p e n t e r s ; e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a ch in is ts ; m e ­
c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , a u tom otiv e; m illw r ig h ts ; p a in te rs ; p ip e fitte r s ;
s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and to o l and die m a k e r s ; u n sk illed — ja n ito r s ,
p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; l a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling; and w atch m en .
A v e ra g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s or a v e r a g e h ou rly e a rn in g s w e r e
com p u ted fo r ea ch o f the s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s .
The a v e r a g e s a la r ie s
or h ou rly e a rn in g s w e r e then m u ltip lie d by the a v e r a g e o f O cto b e r 1953
and O cto b e r 1955 em p loy m en t in the iob .
T h ese w eigh ted e a rn in g s fo r
in d iv id u al o c cu p a tio n s w e r e then to ta le d to obtain an a g g re g a te fo r each
o ccu p a tio n a l g ro u p .
F in a lly , the r a tio o f th ese g rou p a g g r e g a te s fo r a
g iven y ea r to the a g g re g a te fo r oth er y e a r s w as com p u ted and the d if­




fe r e n c e betw een the r e s u lt and 100 is the p ercen t o f change fr o m one
p e r io d to a n oth er.
A d ju stm en ts have b een m ade w h ere n e c e s s a r y to m ain tain
c o m p a r a b ility .
F o r e x a m p le , in m o s t o f the a r e a s s u r v e y e d , r a i l ­
r o a d s w e r e in clu d ed in the c o v e r a g e o f the s u r v e y s fo r the fir s t tim e
this y e a r .
In com pu tin g the in d e x e s , data re la tin g to the r a ilr o a d
in d u stry w e re e x clu d e d .
The p e r ce n t of change m e a s u r e s , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s of
( l ) g e n e r a l s a la ry and w age ch a n g es; (2 ) m e r it or oth er in c r e a s e s
in pay r e c e iv e d by in d iv id u al w o r k e r s w h ile in the sam e jo b ; and
(3 ) ch a n g es in the la b o r f o r c e su ch a s la b o r tu r n o v e r, f o r c e ex p an ­
s io n s , fo r c e r e d u c tio n s , and ch a n g es in the p r o p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s
e m p lo y e d by e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t pay le v e ls .
C h an ges in the
la b o r f o r c e can ca u se in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s
in the occu p a tio n a l
a v e r a g e s w ithout a ctu a l w age ch a n g e s. F o r e x a m p le , a fo r c e ex p a n sion
m ight in c r e a s e the p r o p o rtio n o f lo w e r paid w o r k e r s in a s p e c ific
o c cu p a tio n and r e s u lt in a d rop in the a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s a r e d u ctio n
in the p r o p o r tio n o f lo w e r paid w o r k e r s w ou ld have the o p p o s ite e ffe c t .
The m o v e m e n t o f a h ig h -p a y in g esta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a c o u ld
ca u se the a v e r a g e e a rn in g s to d r o p , even though no change in r a te s
o c c u r r e d in oth er a r e a e sta b lis h m e n ts .
The use o f con stan t em p loy m en t w eigh ts e lim in a te s the e ffe c t s
o f ch a n g es in the p r o p o r tio n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in ea ch jo b in ­
clu d ed in the data.
N or a re the p e r ce n ts o f change in flu e n ce d by
ch a n g es in stan dard w o rk sch e d u le s or in p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e ,
sin ce they a r e b a se d on pay fo r str a ig h t-tim e h o u r s .

In dexes fo r the p e r io d 1953 to 1959 fo r w o r k e r s in 17 m a jo r
la b o r m a rk e ts a p p e a re d in BJLS B u ll. 1 2 4 0 -2 2 , W a ges and R ela ted
B e n e fit s , 20 L a b or M a r k e ts, W inter 1 9 5 8 -5 9 .

4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations

(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, Mich. , January I960)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

N um ber
workers

of

Men
Clerks, accounting, class A ---------------- 1, 581
Manufacturing -------------------------------- 1, 187
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------394
Public u tilities3 ------------------------87
Wholesale trade ------------------------196
Services -----------------------------------74
Clerks, accounting, class B ---------------395
Manufacturing ----- -----------------------129
Nonmanufacturing __________________
266
Public u tilities3 ________________
47
Wholesale trade —..............................
132
Clerks, order ------------------------------------ 700
Manufacturing -------------------------------217
Nonmanufacturing __________________ 483
Wholesale trade ------------------------- 451
Clerks, payroll ---------------------------------249
Manufacturing ------------------------------196
53
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------Office boys ___________________________
627
Manufacturing -------------------------------250
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------377
Public utilities 3 ------------------------103
Finance 5 -----------------------------------97
Services -----------------------------------104
Tabulating-machine operators -------------- 798
Manufacturing -------------------------------503
295
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------75
Public utilities 3 ------------------------65
Wholesale trade ------------------------Finance5 _______________________
91
Women
Billers, machine (billing machine) ------400
196
Manufacturing -------------------------------204
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------Billers, machine (bookkeeping
machine) ----------------------------------------188
52
Manufacturing -------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------136
Retail trad e 6 ----------------------------53

W eekly j
hours
(Standard)

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF-

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
S
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
W eekly i Under 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00
earnings
and
and
(Standard)
under
Jo. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90.00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 over

_
40. 0 $118.00
40. 0 119.50 ___=__ 39.5 112.50 39. 5 111.50 _
39. 5 120.00 39. 0 105.50
_
_
40. 0 87.00 _
40. 0 101.00 40. 0 80.50 39. 5 91.00 .
38. 5 84.00 40. 0 112.50 _ ---------1 _
40. 0 119.50 ■
_
40. 0 1 0 9 . 0 0 40.0 109.00 _
40. 0 110.50 40. 0 116.50 40. 0 89.50 - / 22 52
39. 0 62.50 _
2 10
39. 5 68.50 20 42
38. 5 58.50 6
38. 0 64.50 12 23
39. 0 53.50 18
38. 0 56.00 _
_
40. 0 98.50 _
40. 0 102.50
40. 0 91.50 101.00 39. 5
- 1
40. 0 91.00 40. 0 82.00 39. 0 ! 74.50
40. 0 ; 77.00
38. 5 71.50

_

40. 0
39. 5
40. 0
40. 0

-

65.50
78.00
61.00
63.00

-

2
1
- —
2 !1 :i
I

5

9
5
9
5 1 4

_
16
16
5
_
"
98
20
78
4
18
34
_
-

.
10
10
5
5
5
5
118
48
70
10
19
23
2
2
"

28
22
6

10
5

15
15

37
37
11

5

1
1
24
24
12
1
1
1
1
1
117
30
87
52
20
10
6
6
2
3

22
1
21
2
8
1
1
1
60
48
12
2
5
17
1
16
1
13

14
42
i ! 19
13
23
2
7
11
5
50
39
14
1
25
49
5
33
19
33
9
2
33
7
33
7
5
17
4
2
15
1
22
36
32
17
4
5
1
4
44
70
15
29
41
29
2
1
23
24
8

35
71
1
49
22
34
13
_
14
14
3
40
31
6
25
34
6
13
4
14
2
26 ■ 62
6
9
17
56
16
56
5
18
4
3
1
15
13
22
13
11
2
9
2
9
46
98
54
19
27
44
5
7
5
6
6
19

73 44
24 12
49 32

41
13
28

84
49
35

42
12
30

16
9

20 41
- 16
20 25

16

21
3
18
14

11
11
-

2
2
-

5

5
5
5
21
21
9
7
7
7
3
1
2
66
18
48
13
5
14
11
1
10
1
7

7

-

9

7
7

7

54
30
24
6
16
"
46
18
28
_
22
44
24
20
16
6
5
1
1
1
125
97
28
12
8
6

25
24
1

18
11
10 ! 11
8
|

9
9

-

127 138 188
84 111 163
43 27 25
1 13 22
6
3
9
28
3
25 15 22
19 15 12
- 10
6
8
5
2
I ll 15 71
24
3
5
87 12 66
84 11 45
22 32 32
22 25 32
7
~
_
_
_
- - 143 104 j 5.1
103 77 44
40 27
7
22 17
7
7
8
4
1
"

2 1
2
- |

_
-

5
5
-

-

195 130
179 116
16 14
5
3
10 11
24
5
10
3
14
2
_
5
2
9
41 70
7 31
34 39
34 39
29 12
27
9 |
2
3
_
_
33 25
30 16
3
9
3
1
_
-

i

1
I
i
I

219
173
46
_
46
_
_
_
_
38
16
22
22
27
27

_

_

_
-

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.
NOTE: Estim ates for all industries, nonmanufacturing, and public utilities include data for railroads (SIC 40), omitted from the scope
of all labor m arket wage surveys made before the winter of 1959-60. Where significant, the effect of the inclusion of ra il­
roads is greatest on the data shown separately for the public utilities division. The trend of earnings in selected occupational
groups in all industries, excluding railroads, appears in table 2.

-

82
45
2 37
2
21
14
.
.
_
_
77
4 43
34
34
10
10

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3
6
3 ------ <T
•_
-

-

i ______
_




_
-

143 137
106 110
37 27
14
6
21 21
2
"
4
1
4
1
_
_
_
_
65 24
36
6
29 18
29 16
15 10
15
9
1
_
_
_
5
9
7
1
2
4
2
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

5
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations-Continued

Sex, occupation, and industry division
Women— Continued

(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, Mich, , January I960)
Average
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF
Number Weekly Weekly Under 40. 00 $45.00 *50.00 S55.00 *60.00 *65.00 $70.00 $75.00 *80.00 $85.00 *90.00 $ 9 5 . 0 0 $
of
105.00 $
100.00 $
110.00 115.00 *2 0 . 0 0 125.00 *130.00*135.00*140.00
workers (Standard) (Standard)*
hours 1 earnings
and
- 1 - [ - | and
under 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00!
*0.00 45. 00
80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00|135.001140.00! over
i
j

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
511 39. 5 $85.50
class A ------------------------------------------M anufacturing------------------------------239 39. 5 90.50
272 39. 5 81.00
Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Wholesale tra d e ------------------------51 38. 5 95.50
147 40. 0 75.00
Finance 5 ---------------------------------Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B ------------------------------------------- 1,722 39. 5 70.00
2
463 40. 0 81.50
M anufacturing------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------- 1,259 39. 5 66.00
2
42 39. 5 81.00
Public utilities 3 ----------------------_
Wholesale tra d e ------------------ ---76 40. 0 83.00
_
Retail trade 6 --------------------- ---150 40. 5 66.00
Finance 5 ______________________
872 39. 5 ! 62.50 1
2
S ervices----------------------------------39. 0 74.00
119
- !
Clerks, accounting, class A --------------- 1,001 39. 5 93.50
- i
M anufacturing____________________
336 40. 0 108.00
Nonmanufacturing-------------------------665 39. 0 86.00
Public u tilities3 ----------------------103 39. 5 95.50
Wholesale tra d e -----------------------123 39. 5 86.50
Retail trade 6 ---------------------------133 40. 5 83.00
Finance 5 ____________ ________
161 39. 0 81.50
145 38. 0 88.50
S ervices_______________________
_
Clerks, accounting, class B -------------- 2, 380 39. 5 72.00
18
610 39. 5 85.50
M anufacturing____________________
Nonm anufacturing------------------------1,770 39. 5 67.50
18
410 39. 0 76.00
Public utilities 3 ----------------------224 39. 5 70.50
Wholesale trade _ ______________
Retail trade 6 ---------------------------18
538 41. 0 59.50
Finance 5 ---------------------------------394 38. 5 6 6 . 0 0
204 38. 0 ! 6 9 . 0 0
S ervices_______________________
_
_
Clerks, file, class A _________________
658 39. 5 i 84.00
252 39. 0 | 70.50
Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Finance 5 _______________________
143 39. 0 67.00
73
Clerks, file, class B ________________
1,691 39. 5 59.00 2 0
365 40. 0 67.50
M anufacturing____________________
Nonm anufacturing-------------------------- 1, 326 39. 0 56.50 20
73
14
130 38. 5 61.50
Public utilities 3 ----------------------167 39. 5 61.50
Wholesale trad e ------------------------245 40. 0 55.00 20
23
Retail trade 6 ___________ _____
Finance 5 ---------------------------------504 39. 0 55.50
280 38. 0 55.00
36
S ervices------------------------- -------~
_
3 :
444 40. 0 76.00
C lerks, order -----------------------------------M anufacturing - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 134 - - 39.- 5- - - 84.50- - - - - - - - - - - - - Nonmanufacturing - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -310 - - 40. -0 - - 72.00 - - - - - - - - - 3 - j - - - Wholesale tra d e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -188 - - -39. 5 - - 80.00 - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - Retail trade 6 - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -57- - - - - 40. - 0- - -56.50- - - - - - - 3 I
- i_

See footnotes at end of table.




_

_

_

_

_

1_

_

_

-

-

-

22
in
22
17
5
_
87
6
81
54
27
-

125
7
118
15
97
6
_
146
6
140
8
7
104

263
23
240 i
13
227
3
3
3
241
10
231
5
no
89
27
31
31
18

12
9

19

"

11
11

303
25
278
13
20
19
108
118
22
- - - 22 - - 7■
_

_

292

13
279
23
27
34
150
45
57
- - 9
-

292

-

48

24
_

1

-

54 !
8!
46;
3i
40 1

48 ! 81
6
n 1---- YT ! 5 '
33 | 76
6
1
4
17 62
338
29
309
2
21
279
7
5
5
4
1
332
22
310
61
43
76
88
42
57
55
37
378
134
244
27
18
68
128
3
32

59
233
12
41
56
90
34
7
3
- -7 I 29
22
6l 5
!

-

-

307 159
89 79
32 73
36 48
275 86 j 53 31
- li
10
4
2
4 15
16
27 19 1 17
176 39
10 15
10
68
2
37 58 100 155
- 19
1
37 57 100 136
- 15
6
- 14
14 48
9 10
29 23
23 27
37 16
5
20 34
276 385 173 224
55 93
25 64
251 321 118 131
55 60
45 81
27 15
41 8 3
7
23
79 66
13 22
50 53
10
6
26 59
44 43
39 17
38 43 ! 23 11
24 26
14
4
22
20
97 68
26 14
11
16
11
71 54
4
1
8 12
8
1
28 27
11
14
24
1
3
2
27 53
53 47
15 11
10
6
17 47
38 36
11 41
34 ! 31 1
5

!

3

J_

_

_

3

1 j

1

|
_

_

_

24
15
9
4
5

81
87
46 1 58
35
29
4 ! 22
13
3

_

_

_

1
119 '
50
69
2
15
17
21
14
110
10
100
2
20
24
19
35
185
82
103
46
4
1
34
18
36
13

32
27
5
2
3

91
67
24
11
12
1
91
22
69
23
1
3
13
29
133
81
52
46
-

75
57
18
2
12
4
-

38 j 41 ! 3
3
38 j 21
3
3
20 j 2
!
42 11
36 ; 5^
6
6
- '
6
6 i
[ 55
105 85
74
62 48
48 62
12 ! 7
57 23
- !
10
6
3
10
1
4
3
-j
19
9
11
7
7
5 4
'
60 31
4
4
2
58 31
4
2
2
2 1
2
-

66
15
51
34
7
7
3
81
71
10
1
2
7
249

6
-

103
3

-

4
4
-

93 21
43 16
50
5
4
4
1
4
42
35 37
17. - 32
5
18
1
14 ! _
i

-

42
27
15
9i
1

6
2
4
4
-

15
“
14

-

-

-

-

6
6
_
-

_
-

6
3
3
3
_
-

31 14
28 12
2
3
2
2
1|
"
_
_
“

-

-

-

-

_

j

1
- !
- 1
-

2
2

_
-

-

"

5

1

4
4

-

-

-

4
3

-

-

-

-

4

-

21

9

-

12

13
13
13

1

4
4
4

1

4

1
1

-

-

_
-

.-

-

-

"

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
2
!

i

-

■

.
--

4

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

!

-

1
_

-

;
_

_ 1 _

_

_

_

_

_

_

6
Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued

on

(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , D e t r o it, M ic h . , J a n u a ry I960)

an a r e a b a s is

NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF
Average
Number Weeklyj Weekly
$
s
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
of
Under $40.00 $45.00 $50.00 $55.00 $60.00 $65.00 $70.00 $75.00 80.00 85.00 $90.00 $95.00 $
100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 $
125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00
Sex, occupation, and industry division workers
- and
(Standard) (Standard) $
und^r 50.00 55.00 60.00 65. 00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 over
45.00
Women—Continued
Clerks, p ay ro ll______________________
M anufacturing------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Public utilities 3 _______________
Retail trade 6 ______ __________
Services ___________ __________
Comptometer o p e ra to rs_____________
M anufacturing---------------- -------Nonmanufacturing_________________
Public utilities 3 _________ _____
Wholesale t r a d e ______________
Retail trade 6 _______ ______
Finance 5 ______________________
Duplicating-machine operators
(Mimeograph or Ditto) --------------------M anufacturing____________________
Nonmanufacturing_________________
Keypunch operators --------------------------M anufacturing____________________
Nonmanufacturing_________________
Public utilities 3 -----------------------Wholesale trade _______________
Retail trade 6 --------------------- ---Finance5 -------------------------------Services _ ____________________
Office g ir ls __________ _____________
M anufacturing____________________
Nonmanufacturing________________
Finance 5 -------------------------------S ec re ta ries------------------------------------M anufacturing_______________ ___
N onm anufacturing_________________
Public utilities 3 _______________
Wholesale trad e ________________
Retail trade 6 __________________
Finance 5 ____ _________________
____________
S erv ices____
Stenographers, g en e ral_____________
M anufacturing____________________
____
Nonm anufacturing---------Public utilities 3 _______________
Wholesale trade ---------------------Retail trade 6 ---------------------------Finance 5 ______________________
S erv ices____________________ ...
Stenographers, tech n ical_____________

1, 118
669
449
129
103
143
1, 707
1, 052
655
76
196
143
83

39. 5 $84.50
40. 0 91.00
39. 0 75.50
39.0 74.50
40. 0 65.50
37. 5 77.50
40. 0 81.00
40. 0 87.50
39. 5 71.00
39. 0 82.00
40. 0 77.00
39. 5 66.00
39. 5 63.50

_
_
-

148
67
81
1,957
944
1, 013
299
170
92
324
128
302
131
171
78
4, 785
2, 557
2, 228
343
376
236
751
522
5, 891
4, 012
1, 879
390
491
96
455
447
206

38. 5 70.00
40. 0 | 74.50
37.0 | 66.00
39. 5 80.50
40. 0 89.50
39. 5 72.00
39.0 80.50
40. 0 79.00
40. 0 62.50
39. 5 65.50
39. 0 67.00
39. 5 63.50
39. 5 74.50
39. 5 55.00
39. 5 54.00
39. 5 • 98.00
40. 0 106.00
38. 5 88.50
39. 0 94.50
39. 5 90.50
40. 0 | 87.00
38. 5 85.00
37. 0 88.50
39. 5 87.00
40. 0 92.50
39. 0 76.50
39. 5 87.50
39. 5 79.50
40. 0 67.00
39. 5 70.00
37. 0 71.50
39.0 99.00

_
-

_
See fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le .




_! _

-

.

__

14
14
14
-

26
6
20
15
5
21
6
15
10
-

- !
- 1
!
11 1
- 1
i
11 !
6
5
!
:
!
5
- L1
5 j
1 I

ii

12
3
9
5
4
34
34
2
12
15

37
4
33
11
18
3
42
6
36
4
17
10

i __

; __

.

__

78 121 115
13 35 58
65 86 57
23 26 15
10 24 14
26 25 17
301 130 116
99 76 47
202 54 69
3 12 i 8
25 28 26
20
9 24
7
3
19

j

__

i

__

!

140 115
96 61
44 54
20
5
4
7 47
197 119
130 98
67 21
9
47 14
4
11
3
-

24
17
7
280
51
229
64
36
18
47
64
12
7
5
158
38
120
8
7
19
54
32
387
118
269
22
18
28
55
146
4

17
20
1
9
8
19
101 111
5
9
96 102
13
3
14
12
19
70
50
11
6
38
55
18
6
20
49
16
9
37
81
2
37
79
8
6
3
6
21
43
5
24
166 277
50
82
116 195
8
12
14
43
20 j 15
60
87
14
38
_
_

13
13
11
16 59
16 59
6
4
1
~
2 11
8 27
- 16
,-1-2- 93
13
12 80
2 51
6
1
1
|
!
6
i
2
1
3
- I
_ 1 24 55
- 13
24 42
2
2
2
4 17
i 18 21
i__ : __ 1 __ " __ _

j

47
29
18
6
9
2
114
38
76
4
35
10
26

5
.4
1
166
102
64
22
13
25
4
9
9
335
63
272
37
89
38
75
33
691
477
214
31
98
9
41
- 35
19

_

14
9
13
7
1
2
176 192
43 77
133 115
25 28
16 43
17
8
62 33
13
3
21 16
21 16
154 271
23 42
131 229
10 j 11
19 18
25 28
49 99
28 73
387 420
138 162
249 258
37 23
80 94
5
9
75 73
52 59
2
2
i

i

.i

92
67
25
8
4
8
223
184
39
24
3
12
-

117 73
97 65
20
8
5
2
1
3
“
237 123
221 111
16 12
10
6 12
-

10
19
5
5
14
5
160 217
127 163
33
54
13
51
1
9
2
2
9
11
30
30
11
503 47 6
136 168
367 308
31
86
87
54
28
18
148
89
73
61
626 756
484 f 555
142 201
40 l 109
70 i 1 9
4
2!
16
21 !
50 !
12
12
31 :
i

.

6
6
"
280
212
68
63
5
"
539
296
243
25 ;
41
19
61 !
97 j
1141 i
1033
108 1
68 j
32
6i
j
21
i

i

71
70
1
_
_
30
30
_
_
_
-

2
2
_
_
1
1
_
_
_
-

5
3
2
_
_
“
_
_
_
_
_
-

5
5
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

.
- 1 - i _
_
_
2
14
2
14
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
_
_
_
'
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
570 337 311 165 106
482 291 ITT 155 74
88
46
35 10 32
26
21
6
2 16
13
13
6
5
3
_
i 17. ! 2 1 4
8
_
24
10
5
3
8
16
3
_
180 150 104 45
163 144 104 45
17
6 J
_
_
14
6 i
3 i
1
- 1
j
_
j
i
!
i
- !
_
57 19
14
24
1

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
57
55
2
_
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

19
16
3
1
_
5
5
_
_
-

39
35
4
2
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

172
139
33
4
29
_
_
598
388
210
46
17
18
66
63
482
444
38
18
20

1

:

1

:

'

:

2
'

_

4
4
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
. j
_
_
45
39
6
2
2
1
1
-

_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
_
_
_
_
_
-

_

_
36
29
7
_
_
1
6
.
_
_
_
_
_
-

7
Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a rn in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , D e t r o it , M ic h . , J a n u a ry I960)

Number
of
workers

Average
NUMBER
$
$
$
$
$
Weekly Weekly U n d e r 4 0 . 0 0 4 5 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 5 5 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 6 5 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0
hours 1 earnings 1
and
(Standard) (Standard)
er
4 0 . 00 u n d 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 5 5 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 6 5 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 7 5 . 0 0
45.

OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
7 5 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 0 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0
and
8 0 . 0 0 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 U 3 5 . 0 0 1 140.0 0 o v e r

o
o
o

cc u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

j

W o m e n — C on tin u ed
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s -----------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g --------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 _______________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ------------------------R e t a il t r a d e 6 ___________________
F in a n ce 5 ------------------------------------S e r v i c e s ---------------------------------------

1 ,0 67
403
66 4
82
125
100
148
209

40.
40.
40.
39.
40.
40.
40.
40.

0 $ 7 7 . 00
0 9 0 . 00
0 6 9 . 00
5 8 7 . 50
0 7 7 . 00
5 6 4 . 50
5 6 6 . 00
0 6 1 . 00

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s M a n u fa c t u r in g --------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 -----------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e ________________
R e t a il t r a d e 6 ___________________
F in a n ce 5 ________________________
S e r v i c e s _________________________

832
414
418
56
119
61
102
80

39.
40.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
38.

5
0
0
0
5
5
0
0

73.
75.
70.
70.
78.
65.
68.
63.

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ---------M a n u fa c t u r in g --------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------P u b lic u t il it i e s 3 ----------------------F in a n c e 5 ________________________

300
141
159
44
58

39.
40.
39.
38.
40.

5
0
5
5
0

T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
g e n e r a l ________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g --------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------F in a n ce 5 -------------------------------------

533
148
385
183

39.
40.
39.
39.

T y p is t s , c l a s s A ---------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g --------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g -------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 ----------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e ------------------------F in a n c e 5 ________________________

3, 0 7 0
2,4 0 2
668
179
129
279

T y p is t s , c l a s s B ---------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g --------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 ----------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e ________________
R e t a il t r a d e 6 ___________________
F in a n e e 5 ________________________
S e r v i c e s _________________________

4 , 105
1 ,7 71
2 , 334
197
312
241
1 ,0 43
54 1

1
2
3
4
5
6

5
2
82

72
72
22
22
28

53
53
12
18
7
16

74
15
59
2
16
29
12

121
11
no
1
32
27
36
14

46
46
6
11
15
14

31
16
15
4
9
2
-

14 0
78
62
9
12
24
17

97
42
55
16
8
13
18

145
14 3
65
94
51
78
10
10
31
25
7 i
8
26
8
4
-

1
1
-

7
7
-

5
5
3

25
25
4
11

36
1
35
10
14

17
17
8

77
77
48

61
1
60
31

68
6
62
24

5
5
4

54
54
54

82
6
76
10
49

477
52
425
19
9
37
275
85

57 5
54
521
17
50
60
198
196

772
185
587
27
36
57
300
167

7
7
7
-

7
7
7
-

33
33
1
4
9
19

89
89
-

00
50
00
50
50
00
00
00

6
6
6

88.
98.
80.
89.
76.

50
50
00
00
50

_
-

2
13
2
2
U
- 1
7
6
_
2
2
-

5
0
5
0

73.
86.
68.
65.

50
00
50
00

40.
40.
39.
38 .
39.
39.

0
0
0
5
5
5 1

8 7 . 50
9 1 . 00
7 5 . 00
8 0 . 00
8 2 . 00
69.50

39.
40.
39.
39.
39.
40.
38.
39.

5 j 6 8 . 00
0 1 77.00
0 61.00
0 | 68.00
5 6 9 . 50
0 5 8 . 00
5 5 8 . 50
0 6 0 . 00

:
_
5
5
5

32
32
4

-

28

-

-

_

"
.
-

-

17
17
14
80
80
5
-

7
62
6

129
33
96
1
56
4
17
18

52
160
35 | 90
17 i 70
44
8
2
8
2
5
1
17
-

113
70
43
23
11
6
3

126
120
6
2
2
2
-

23
23
-

3
3
-

5
3
2
2
-

3
3
- i
- !
-

1
1

67
18
49
8
19
9
8
5

49
30
19
1
2
6
10

53
46
7
5
2
-

9
7
2
2
-

14
14
-

18
4
14
3
7

27
7
20
3
13

•31
16
15
5
8

14
11
3
1
1

37
29
8
1

51
44
7
6
"

35
18
17
12
-

61
17
44
21

59
26
33
17

44
23
21
6

46
8
38
14

52
51
1

186
70
116
9
54
36

136
49
87
5
13
62

366
298
68
35
1
26

540
501
39
11
8
15

15
1
14
93
91
2
2
-

1
1
-

143
27
116
54
5
33
520
209
311
17
52
37
174
31

425
260
16 5
30
79
5
16
35

311
213
98
41
24
7
15
11

34 5
264
81
22
43
3
3
10

381
357
24
10
14

15
15
543
484
59
49
8
116
113
3

-

-

3

-

884
8 38
46
4
40
40 1
38 !
2 [
-

13
13

2

-

-

28
28
4
4

-

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Workers were distributed as follows: 22 at $ 140 to $ 150; 8 at $ 150 to $ 160; 7 at $ 160 and over.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Workers were distributed as follows: 14 at $ 140 to $ 145; 23 at $ 145 to $ 150; 6 at $ 150 and over.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Excludes data for 2 large department stores.




-

-

_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

13
13
13
_
_
i _
_
- 1 -

10
10
_
-

!

i
li

1
1
-

„
10
10
-

.
.
.

.
_
_

.
-

-

-

-

9
9
-

-

_

_
_

_

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
-

.
_
-

.
-

_
-

.
-

_

_

_

-

_
-

-

8
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations

(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, M ich., January I960)
Average

Sex, occupation, and industry division
Men
Draftsmen, leader ......... .............................
Manufacturing -----------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------Services ---------------------------------Draftsmen, senior ---------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 — ......................................... —
Services ----------------------------------------------------------Draftsmen, junior ----------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------Public utilities 3 ----------------------Services --------------------------------------------------T racers —............................... ...................................................
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------Women
Nurses, industrial (registered) --------------Manufacturing ------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------

N um ber
of
workers

1

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F

*
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
9
$
170.00 $175.00
75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 $90. 00 $95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 $155.00 160.00 $165.00 S
and
and
under
75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90.00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 170.00 175.00 over
$

W eekly
W eekly j
earnings
(Standard) (Standard) $

719
498
221
211
2, 839
2, 022
817
142
669
1, 338
926
412
49
354
241
199

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
39. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
39. 5
39. 0
39. 5
40. 0
40. 0

497
445
52

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

$
i

163.50
163.50
163.00
164.00
141.50
141.50
143.00
129.50
146.00
98.50
100.50
94.50
104.00
93.50
91.00
90.00
102.00
103.00
93.00

_
- !
- !
i
-

$

_
-

_

i

'
-

1

.
-

2
2

_

-

~
-

176 42 1 59
4100 1 28 ' 18
*76 | 14 ! 41
75 j 14 40
6 29 15 25
25 i 9 | 22
t
5
5

12
6
6
!_________

14
13
1

-

J

6
5
1

_
18
18

-

-

100 163
64 104
36 59
7
6
29 52
40 51
38 51

133
117
16
3
13
41
32

26
19
7

48
38
10

98
85
13

_
-

_:
1
i i
1
45
26 94
33
17 38
12
9 56
8 6
12
50
217 124 79
147 115 69
70
9 10
20
5 44
4 10
7
15 10
7
3 6
71
70
1

129 54
12k> 53
3 1

1

|

4
11
11 1
4
~
186 205
139 138
47
67
14
37
52
9
71
57
37
69
2
20
2
2
18
2
6
6
30
28
2

4
3
1

|

|

5
5
20 3 283
177 190
26 93
19 17
5 76
34 24
22 10
12 14
2
4
10 10

46
46
281
243
38
11
27
17
17
-

54 52
40 50
14
2
14
"
337 184
212 147
125 37
5
1
124 32
23
4
4
5
18
18

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

-

"

-

"

2
2

4
4

_

_

_

_

_

-

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Workers were distributed as follows: 34 at $175 to $180; 34 at $180 to $190; 36 at $190 to $ 200; 38 at $200 to $210; 3 at $210 and over.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
4 All w orkers were at $ 70 to $ 75.
5 W orkers were distributed as follows: 33 at $50 to $60; 36 at $60 to $70; 7 at $70 to $75.
6 W orkers were distributed as follows: 3 at under $70; 26 at $70 to $75.
NOTE: See note on p. 4, relative to the inclusion of railroads.




87 73
46 53
41 20
39 18
268 140
176 117
92 23
7 13
85 10
_
15
15
15
-

-

-

-

-

103 40
41 25
62 15
62 15
170 181
97 169
73 12
73 12

_

_

65 179
36 'zl45
29 34
29 34
109 101
66” 38
43 63
4
39 63

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

.

-

_

-

_

‘

9
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations

(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, Mich. , January I960)
Occupation and industry division

C arpenters, maintenance -----------------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing________________________
Public utilities 2 ---------------------------------Finance 3 ______________________________
Electricians, m aintenance___________________
M anufacturing-----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------------------------Engineers, stationary_______________________
M anufacturing-----------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing------------------------------------S ervices----------------------------------------------Firem en, stationary b o iler---------------------------M anufacturing____________________________
Nonm anufacturing------------------------------------S ervices----------------------------------------------H elpers, trades, m aintenance----------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing------------------------------------Public u tilities2 ---------------------------------Machine-tool operators, toolroom ___________
M anufacturing-----------------------------------------M achinists, m aintenance____________________
Manufacturing ______________________ ____
Mechanics, automotive (maintenance)________
M anufacturing-----------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing________________________
Public utilities 2 ---------------------------------Wholesale tra d e _______________________
Mechanics, maintenance ------------------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing------------------------------------M illw rights--------------------------------------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------O ilers----------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------Painters, m aintenance---------------------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing------------------------------------Finanee 3 ______________________________
Pipefitters, m aintenance------------------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------See footnotes at end of table.




Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

$2. 00 $2. 10 $2. 20 $2. 30 $2.40 $2. 50 $2. 60 $2. 70 $2. 80 ; $2. 90 ! $3. 00 $3. 10 $3. 20 $3. 30 $3.40 $3. 50 $3. 60 $3. 70 $3. 80 $3. 90 $4. 00
and
and
under
2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 2. 60 2.70 2^80 2. 90 | 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30_ 3.40 3. 50 3. 60 3. 70 3. 80 3. 90 4. 00 over
1
j
15
1
3 4
5
43 30 ! 12 30
21
21
26 307 123 283
5
7
3
6 10 !
1 22
16 247 118 1 282
4
4
9
1
4
15
5
20 i 11
5
1
1
- 17
12
8
10 60
7
37 ;
14
1
10 46
5
8
5 ! 2ll 10
2
1
12
13
6
"1 "
_
_
1
1
33
1 30
4 51
33 19
21
19
9 109 404 551 810 1448 203
- 10
62
- 51
14
6
97 397 545 799 1438
25 19
1 30
1
1
12
11 10 141
4
6
8
3
19
19
- I 11
“
'
~
7
_
11 27
20
6
25
35 33
45 81 ! 53 142 59
13
6
26 38 10 11
13
29
9
15 30 10 10
5 27
20
6
4
31 30
17 72 I 53 128 48
13
25
6
4
14 11
11
1
6
3
28
8
9
29
9
9
24
6
13 i
12
8
3
16
1i ~
6
9
"
'
_
.
_ 12
.
_
.
_
_
66 17 83 - 48
75
20 26
62 48
92
7
79 78
- 12
75
15 | 26
48
76 77
92
7
9 12 61
59 27
5 22
57
5
3 21
'
3I 1
!
4 50
5 22
-;
"
"
_ _
_
_
_ 4
_
_
_
_
_
22
25 291 141 152
25
48 40
9 ---- 20
9
14 279 121 1 95 | 45 24
522
- ! 4 j1 ii
12
- i
20 j 57 ! 3 16
5
l
5
9
- ’ l
“
“
18 j 48
.
_
_ i1
_i
_
1
3
57 47 286 663 1248 196 58
9 136
1
3
8 136
57 47 286 663 1248 196 58
- 1
_
_
_
_ ! . 8i 7
_
_
4
3
15 71 315 117 451
28 19 39 42
4
11 70 307 117 451
28 19 39 42
7
3
"
"
- i
! 8
.
_
_
.
_
41
30 ! 26 47
45 61 450 414
93 161 12
1
9
12 41 136 135
10 1 10 10
40 144
1
3
41
20 i 16 37
33 20 314 279
53
17
9
9
2
2 16 j 32 18 242 231
2
1
13
53
42 40
4
7
39
- 1 "
'
i
14
_
_1 5
_
15
6
24
1 42 15
8
18 76 314 299 289 342 1337 234
i
8
15
6
1
97
1 42 15
24
i
5: 8 i 6 76 2 34 288 287 339 1334
2
12
80 11
3
3 137
4
*
3|
_ ! 6 ! 15 ! 34 i 53 405 382 1864 425
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5
5
"
"
"
"
-I 6 ] n
34 r 53 405 382 1860 425
_ j 7
_
.
_
2
3
2 12
20 12
4
59 377! 364 155 33
2
20 12
4
3
"
- 1 7 ! 57 377 364 155 33
_ 27 ■ 18
52 13
2
4
3
1
11
16 23 I 6 160 103 60 187 138
5 1 6 ; 4 100 102 60 185 138
-!
- 13
3 1
: 3
52
2
4
2
1'
24 1 18 ! 8
60 |
3
1 17 j
2
11 : 14
_ 2j 1 '
52
1i
8
"
"
"
18 : 5
1
11 i
_:
_
_
_
_ 13 1 12
_ _
_ 7
_ .
73 496 215 ! 1166 10 157
5
3
1------ ~ ; 9
10
5
7
3
66 496 ! 215 ! 1164
8
97

Average ,
hourly
earnings1 Under
$
2. 00

936 $2. 96
722 3. 01
214 2. 80
84 2. 81
70 2. 60
3, 747 3. 16
3,494 3. 16
253 3. 11
692 3. 05
506 3. 17
186 2. 71
98 2. 67
713 2. 57
596 2. 65
117 2. 12
77 1.92
757 2.45
607 2.46
150 2.40
82 2. 54
2, 704 3. 17
2,703 3. 17
1,119 3. 17
1, 106 3. 17
1, 390 2. 87
542 2. 93
848 2. 83
612 2. 89
160 2. 61
3, 033 3. 12
2, 778 3. 13
255 3. 09
3, 189 3. 10
3, 185 3. 10
1,050 2. 54
1,0.34 2. 55
824 2. 90
619 2. 95
205 2. 75
112 2. 79
2,157 3. 08
2, 080 3. 08

i

i

1

10
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , D e t r o it, M ic h . , J a n u a ry I960)
N U M BER OF W O RK ERS RECE IVIN G ST R A IG H T-TIM E H OURLY E A RN ING S OF—

Occupation and industry division
Plum bers, maintenance -------------------------------M anufacturing____________________________
Sheet-m etal w orkers, m aintenance__________
M anufacturing____________________________
Tool and die m ak ers_________________________
M anufacturing____________________________

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings1

Under
<
$t
2. 00

97 $2. 87
54 3. 09
446 3. 07
435 3. 08
5, 222 3. 28
5, 221 3. 28

"
_

$2. 00 $2. 10 $2. 20 $2. 30 S 40 $ 50 j $„ 60 iS2.70 ji $2.80 || $2.90 i $3.00 $3. 10 $3. 20 $3. 30 $3. 40 $3. 50 $3. 60 $3. 70 $
2.
2.
2. ,
3. 80 $3. 90 $4. 00
and
and
“
”
~
"
“
"
■
“
under
1 '
2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 | 2. 60 2. 70 2.80 2.90 3. 00 3.10 3. 20 I 3. 30 3. 40 3. 50 3. 60 3. 70 _3. 80 3. 90 4. 00 over
r
2
-

_

"

_
1

9
-

-

.

8
-

_

!
1

10 i___ I _
•| _

i
i

-

-

1
"
2
87
! 87

20
12
24
23
44
44

9
7
60
52
17
17

7
18
8
6
18
8
107 241
3
9
107 241
3
9
244 | 408 1019 3258
244 408 1019 3257

-

_

n o
n o

_
5
5

_
25
25

-

_
5
5

5
3
_
_

-

_

-

_
-

______ 1

_
1_____
1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
3 F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e .
4 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 4 at u n d e r $ 1 . 7 0 ; 14 at $ 1 . 7 0 to $ 1 . 8 0 ; 17 at $ 1 . 8 0 to $ 1 . 90; 15 at $ 1 . 9 0 to $ 2 .
5 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s : 2 at $ 1 .5 0 to $ 1. 60; 10 at $ 1 . 6 0 t o $ 1 . 7 0 ; 9 at $ 1 . 7 0 to $ 1 . 8 0 ; 1 at $ 1 . 8 0 t o $ 1 . 9 0 .
NOTE:

S ee n ote on p . 4, r e la t iv e to the in c lu s io n o f r a il r o a d s .

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , D e t r o it, M ic h . , J a n u a ry I960)

Occupation1 and industry division

Elevator operators, passenger (men) ------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------Elevator operators, passenger (women)_____
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------traHp ^
Finanrp 5
.. . ..... . .....
fiprvirps
Guards _________________________ ___________
M anufacturing____________________________
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------Finance 5 ---------------------------------------------

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings 2 Under
$
1.00

169
65
625
613“
107
392
94
3, 310
3, 046
264
148

$1.85
1. 35
1. 26
1.26
1.01
1. 29
1. 27
2. 56
2. 59
2. 20
1.93

48
48
4 48
_
-

-

NUM B ER OF W O RK ERS R E CE IVIN G S T R A IG H T-TIM E HOURLY E A RN ING S OF—

$1.00 $1. 10 $1. 20 $1. 30 $1.40 $1. 50 $1.60 $1.. 70 $1.80 j| $1.90 $2. 00 $2. 10 $2. 20 $2. 30 $2.40 $ 50 $2. 60 $2. 70 $2. 80 $2. 90 $3. 00
2.
_
_
and
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
and
under 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 J . 60 F 70 1.80
90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2.90 3. 00 over
1. 10
51
51
37
14
i______

See fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le,




21
21
59
59
6
46
7
-

15
15
353
353
3
280
70

2
2
71
71
9
62
2
2
2

_

28
16
16
7
5
1
26 i 5
24
i 1
1
4
_
_
3
1
_
_
3
!
1
5 12 |i 20
2
- 20
2 1 5 12
2 j

i
1

i
1

5

12

1
1
-

_
_
39
13
26
26

18

-

1 2
-|
_
_
_
_
68 45
56
12 45
12

! 2
2
9
9
_

_

34
24
10

73
51
22

10

18

1
1
-

_

43

81

2
-

_
_
216
216-

_

1

1
i

i

i

-

_

_
_

753
751
2

_

_

1

1

_

143 1101
113 1046
30
55

-

!

-

-

_

_
792
771
21

“
_

-

_

_
_

_
_
_

5
5
-

-

-

-

11
Table A-4. Custodial and Material, Movement Occupations-Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, D etroit, M ic h ., January I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

of

N um ber
workers

Average
hourly 2
earnings

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (men) --------- 8, 815
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------- 6, 179
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------- 2, 636
396
Public utilities 6 ...........................................
183
Wholesale trade -------------------------------Retail trade 3 ------------------------------------895
Finance5 ____________________________
605
Services ____________________________
557
Janitors, porters, and cleaners (women) ___ 2, 759
766
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------- 1, 993
47
Public utilities 6 -----------------------------— -------------------Retail trade 3 __________________________________________
269
Finance 5 _________________________________________________ 1, 096
Services ____________________________
561
Laborers, m aterial handling ---------------------- 10, 908
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------- 7, 822
Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------- 3, 086
Public utilities 6 ---------------------------- 1, 001
Wholesale trade -------------------------------- 1, 128
930
Retail trade 3 ________________________

$ 2. 07
2. 27
1.60
2. 05
1.97
1. 37
1.56
1.56
1.52
2. 03
1. 32
1.72
1. 19
1. 33
1. 33
2. 32
2. 37
2. 18
2.59
2. 15
1.79

Order fillers ______________________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------Wholesale trade -------------------------------Retail trade 3 ------------------------------------Packers, shipping (men) ----------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------Wholesale trade -------------------------------Packers, shipping (women) -------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------

2, 121
722
1, 399
938
322
1, 350
1, 157
193
155
462
435

2. 33
2. 48
2. 25
2. 22
2. 30
2. 30
2. 33
2. 14
2. 28
2. 21
2. 26

Receiving clerks ---------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing _______________________________________
Wholesale trade ------------------------------------------------------Retail trade 3 ----------------------------------------------------------------Shipping clerks ------------------------------- ------------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------Wholesale trade -------------------------------Shipping and receiving clerks ---------------------Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing ................... -........................
Wholesale trade ...........................................

411
27 3
138
59
64
5 38
368
170
74
1, 362
984
378
228

2. 27
2. 48
2. 15
2. 61
1.89
2. 53
2. 61
2. 36
2. 61
2.48
2. 50
2.42
2. 38'

See footnotes at end o f table.




Under
00
37
37
37
_
_
-

$1.00 $1. 10 $1. 20 $1. 30 $1.40 $1. 50 $1.60
,
and
under 1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1.50 . 1.60 _ 1.70
105 218
105 218
70 94
_
2
35 122
172 87
172 87
4
3
105 19
2 13
55 51
102 28
102 28
_
.
84 28
|
16 10
.
_
16 10
11
_
6
6
2
10
_
.

448 313 264
42
4
70
378 271 260
8 12
16 | 18 12
114 j 106 30
134 128 203
114
11
3
300 132 13
13 11
10
2
290 119
5
1
2
18
93
1
3
263 1 24
~
82
53 109
- 72
82
53 37
8
9
45 ! 27
104 82
5
26 1 15
1
_
_
5
26 1 15
23 ! 12
1
4
3
3
2
6
50 , 17
38
2
6 j 12 1 17
1
1 15
_
_
5 18
-1
- 18
14
4
8
7
4
8
14
7
2
4
8
5
_
_
_
5
5
"
"

_
_

_
-

239
239 '
201
4
34
521
38
48 3
2
68
306
107
60
60
- j
60 !
1
2
_
2
2
1
1
4
7
7
! 7
_
_
'
- j
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_
•_
_
_
_
_
.
-

-

-

_

-

_
-

_

- !

239
19
220
5
7
144
52
12
885
91
794
8
56
675
55
104
104

|
- i
-

1

$ 10 $2. 20 $2. 30 $2. 40 $2.50 $2. 60 $2. 70 $2. 80 $2. 90
! $1.7° 1.80 $1. 90 $
2.
i j
1
1.80 1.90 2. 00 2. 10_! 2. 20 . 2. _30_ 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 ^ 7 0 _ 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00
o
o

Occupation1 and industry division

189
15
174
11
14
47
41
61
2
1
1
1
57
1
56
46
9

120
45
75
19
7
7
33
9
67
56
11
1
3
6
736
229
507
441
65

306 249
33 185
27 3 64
152 15
9 16
9 11
4
1
99 21
23 42
12 42
11
-

-

266 161
252 89
14 72
1
6 55
8 16

44
46 200 !-------j -1
_
3 '
1
44 ;
46 197
42 '
45 179
21
1 18
32
2
3
2
32
3
28
_
_
7
7
"
2
10
6
2
10
6
1
7
3
6
1
4
3 14
3
3 14
1
7
_
_ 13
28
“
28
13
12
28
1

85
~
78
77
1
21
19
2
6
6
6
6
31
31
14
18
9
9
7

655 1988 2684 498 124 67
614 1859 2577 481 104 59
41 129 107 17
20
8
11 118
20 15
10
61
1
2
2
7
11
8
1
2
14
3
18
6
6
6
_
124 279
74 22
16
74 22
16
101 279
23
23
"
296 930 3700 1611 1243 1144
77 796 3257 1348 1130 448
219 134 443 263 113 696
48 112 100
81 645
7
32 51
71
60 166 87
141
26 165 70
"
76 139
45 106 205 1006
40 62
45 170 334
36 77
61
35 672
45
34 345
41
5 77
23
22
31
20
- 204
58 57
8 431 446 128
58 34
8 431 387 128
- 23
59
23
59
4
6 276 16
4
104
4
4
104
6 276 16
23
14
9
.9
41
8
33
46
9
37
28

64
64
-

22
13
9
62
40
22
-

3
3
1
2
5
3
2
49
21
28
20

24
24
-

19
18
1
"
789
683“
106
90

138
122
16
8
8
228
223
5
"
173
82
91
14

63
42
21
20
1
66
44
22
14
51
42
9
5

40
40
-

-

_
-

74
74
2
72
36
11
25
25
33
9
24
24
_
~
19
3
16
13
2
29
5
24
20
40
29
11
1

2 30
2 30
- - - _ _
- -

-

- 118 24
113 5 24
5 - 24
"
. 10
- 1
9
- 9
"
45 4
45 - 4
" 4
_ _
- 1 4
1 3
1
1
" 21 23
9 22
12 1
12 30 16
30 8
8
- 8

$3. 00
and
ove r
_
-

-

10
10
49
49
_
_
8
8
8
27
20
7
7
47
31
16
15

12
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision , D etroit, M ich. , January I960)

Occupation1 and, industry division
Truckdrivers 7 _____________________________
M anufacturing___________________________
Nonmanufacturing_______________________
Public utilities 6 ______________________
Wholesale tra d e ---------------------------------Retail trade 3 _________________________
T ruckdrivers, light (under l 1/2 tons)_____
M anufacturing________________________
Nonm anufacturing____________________
Truckdrivers, medium (lV 2 to and
including 4 to n s)__ •____________________
M anufacturing________________________
Nonm anufacturing____________________
Public utilities 6 ___________________
Retail trade 3 --------------------------------T ruckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type)-----------------------------------------M anufacturing------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing____________________
Public utilities 6 ----------------------------Wholesale trad e ____________________
T ruckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than trailer type) -------------------------M anufacturing------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing____________________
Public utilities 6 ----------------------------T ruckers, power (forklift)__________________
M anufacturing----------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing_______________________
Public utilities 6 --------------------------------Wholesale trade ------------------- -----------Retail trade 3 _________________________
T ruckers, power (other than forklift)^---------W atchmen__________________________________
M anufacturing----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing-----------------------------------Public utilities 6 --------------------------------Retail trade 3 _________________________
S ervices---------------------------------------------

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
$
$
$
Average $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
hourly
earnings c Under 1. 00 1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1. 60 1. 70 1. 80 1. 90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00
and
and
under
1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1. 60 1. 70 1. 80 1. 90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 over

6,432 $2. 64
2, 609 2. 60
3,823 2. 67
1,785 2. 76
1,243 2. 57
666 2. 66
456 2. 39
297 2. 50
159 2. 17

_
-

-

-

-

2
2
2
2

28
28
1
22
25
25

12
12
-

2
2

2, 201
1, 339
862
310
184

2. 56
2. 62
2.46
2. 62
2. 63

-

-

-

-

-

-

3, 175
803
2, 372
1,248
688

2. 72
2. 60
2. 76
2. 80
2. 70

-

-

"

“

-

276
58
218
144
3,878
3, 446
432
108
195
129
1,052
733
278
455
34
80
277

2. 72
2. 51
2. 77
2. 78
2.45
2.45
2.46
2. 58
2.45
2. 37
2. 53
1. 67
2. 05
1.44
2. 12
1. 39
1. 30

_
_

.
_
64
64
4
60

_
_
79
79
8
71

_
_
62
40
22
6
16

"
_
_
118
118
2
10
106

-

2
2
-

i

1 Data lim ited to m en w ork ers except where otherw ise indicated.
2 E xcludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holid ays, and late
3 E xcludes data fo r 2 la rge departm ent s to r e s.
4 W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 25 at $ 0 .8 0 to $ 0 .9 0 ; 23 at $ 0 .9 0 to $1.
5 F inan ce, insurance, and real estate.
6 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o th e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
7 Includes all d riv e rs re g a rd le ss o f s ize and type of truck operated.
8 A ll w ork ers w ere at $ 3. 20 to $ 3. 30.
NOTE:

See note on p. 4, rela tive to the inclusion of ra ilro a d s.




shifts.

12
12

9
9
1
2
7
7

2
2
1
2
2

13
13
12
1
1

235
30
205
3
197
5
38
30
8

82
18
64
42
18
22
22

190
182
8
8
6
6

3
3
3

-

-

-

12
12
-

132
132
-

60
18
42
-

139 349
137 179
2 170
2
6
3
-

-

-

-

2
2
"

-

-

65
65
65

-

“
_
35
35
26

"
2
2
2
_
31
31
5
3

_
2
45
18
27
6
16

4
4
3
1
_
32
21
11
2
4

3
3
3

.
-

_
59
44
15
2

6
12
12

46 176
18 156
28 20
28
- 20
_
_
1
7
3
1 4
1

7

-

4

655 601
4 32 519
223 82
200 25
7 17
16 40
85 57
76 53
4
9

908 1450 1583
621 338 ---- 461
287 1112 1537
13
36 1476
25 687 43
159 383 18
_
112
66
108
26
4
40
-

463
280
183
167
16

155
147
8
5
-

281
134
147
145

232 159
200 28
32 131
- 130
17

76
45
31
31
"

267
203
64
16
8

401
378
23
13

989 1269
105 18
884 1251
10 1191
508 42

52
52
52

-

4
12
4
12
50 201 2257
50 181 2131
- 20 126
1
14
31
81
- 19
6 57 761
58 19
76
38 16
74
20
2
3
1
1
6
13

44
41
3
947
769
178
60
112
6
110
3
3
-

28
1
27
13
50
29
21
21
7
2
1
1
1

83 105
83 105
26 105
24 95
12 77
12 18
12
- 18
7 20
17
17
-

-

9
9
76

45
45
-

392
207
185
21
161
3
19
4
15

9
9
-

-

-

-

-

61
9
52
_
52
-

207
207
_
_
_
-

-

-

_

_

9 207
9 6207
-

14
14
_
13
3
10
10
-

-

-

13

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to a s s is t its
field staff in classify in g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
title s and different work arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. T his is
e sse n tia l in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage rates representing com parable job content.
B ecause of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea com parability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes | applying th e se job d escriptions, the Bureau’s field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, train ees, handicapped w orkers,
part-tim e, temporary, and probationary w orkers.
q

O F F IC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

P repares statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records a s
to billings or shipping charges or perform other c lerical work inciden­
tal to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b illers, m achine,
are c lassified by type of m achine, a s follow s:
Biller , machine (billing machine }— U ses a sp ecial billing ma­
chine (Moon H opkins, E llio tt F ish er, Burroughs, e tc ., w hich are
com bination typing and adding m achines) to prepare b ills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandum, etc. U sually involves application of prede­
term ined discounts and shipping charges and entry of n ecessary
extensions, which may or may not be com puted on the billing ma­
chine, and to tals which are autom atically accum ulated by m achine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carlxm copies
of the b ill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold m achine.

O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, N ational C ash R egister, with or w ith­
out a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record of b u sin ess tran sactio n s.

Biller , machine (bookkeeping machine)— U se s a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E llio tt F ish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., w hich
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
b ills as part of the accounts receivable operation. G enerally in­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger
record. The m achine autom atically accum ulates figures on a num­
ber of v ertical colum ns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit b alan ces. D oes not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slip s.




Class A — K eeps a se t of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. D eter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to
be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated re­
ports, balance sh e e ts, and other records by hand.
Class B — K eeps a record of one or more p h ases or sectio n s
of a se t of records usually requiring little know ledge of b asic
bookkeeping. P h ases or sections include accounts payable, pay­
roll, custom ers’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing
described under biller, machine), co st distribution, expense d is­
tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a s s is t in prep­
aration of trial balances and prepare control sh eets for the a c ­
counting departm ent.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or ac­

countant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sectio n s of a
com plete s e t of books or records relating to one phase of an e s ­
tablishm ent’s b usiness transactions. Work involves posting and

14

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv ­
able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch­
ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex­
perience in making proper assig n ation s and allocatio n s. May
a s s is t in preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may
direct c la ss B accounting clerks.

Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting sim ple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher reg isters;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional b asis among several workers.
CLERK, FILE
Class A — R esponsible for m aintaining an estab lish ed filing

system . C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other m aterial;
may also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
m aterial in the files. May perform incidental clerical d u ties.

Class B — Performs routine filing, usually of m aterial that
has already been classified , or locates or a s s is ts in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
CLERK, ORDER
R eceives custom ers’ orders for m aterial or m erchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. D uties involve any combination o f the
following: Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sh eet
listing the item s to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of item s on order sheet; distributing order sh eets to resp ective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit departm ent to d eter­
mine credit rating of custom er, acknowledge receipt of orders from
custom ers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.




CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes w ages of company em ployees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh eets. D uties involve: C alculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calcu lated data
on payroll sh eet, showing information such as worker’s name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and to tal w ages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s is t paym aster in making up and d istrib ­
uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Prim ary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform m athe­
m atical com putations. T his job is not to be confused with that of
sta tistic a l or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sib ilitie s, reproduces m ultiple copies of typew ritten or handwritten
m atter, using a Mimeograph or D itto m achine. Makes necessary ad just­
ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is
not required to prepare sten cil or Ditto m aster. May keep file of used
sten cils or D itto m asters. May sort, co llate, and stap le com pleted
m aterial.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilities, records accounting and sta tistic a l data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a num erical keypunch m achine, following
w ritten information on records. May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to m achine. May keep files of punch
cards. May verify own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office m achines such as sealers or m ailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

15

SECRETARY

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
adm inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and
making phone ca lls; handling personal and im portant or confidental
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiativ e; taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, and transcribing dictation or th e recorded information reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May pre­
pare sp ecial reports or memorandums for information of superior.

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular d u ties. T his
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this w orker's time
while at sw itchboard.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
w riter. May also type from w ritten copy. May also s e t up and keep
files in order, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing
machine work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a
varied technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typew riter. May also type from w ritten copy. May also s e t up and keep
files in order, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing

machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take m essag es. May give information to
persons who c a ll in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
O perates machine that autom atically analyzes and tran slates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints tran s­
lated data on forms or accounting records; se ts or ad justs m achine;
does sim ple wiring of plugboards according to estab lish ed practice
or diagram s; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and sta rts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary m achines.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type
from w ritten copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing
dictation involving a varied technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such
as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A
worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar
machine is classified as a stenographer, general.

TYPIST
U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training, such a s keeping
sim ple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing
incoming mail.

16
TYPIST— Continued

Class A— Perform s one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying
from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied
use of tech n ical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy;
combining m aterial from sev eral sources, or planning layout of
com plicated s ta tis tic a l tables to m aintain uniformity and balance

TYPIST— Continued
in spacing; typing tab les from rough draft in final form. May type
routine form letters, varying d etails to su it circum stances.
Class B— Performs one or more of the following: Typing from
relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance
p o licies, etc ., setting up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already s e t up and spaced properly.

PROFESSIO NAL AND TECHNICAL

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

w riting specifications; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of complete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

P lans and directs activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or as a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail drawings from n o tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
po ses. D uties involve a combination of the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, d etail draw ings, m aps, c ro ss-se c tio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those
involved in strength of m aterials, beams and tru sses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and q u an tities;




A registered nurse who gives nur&ing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combinar
tion of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending vO
subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of all personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. U ses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting too ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

17
MAINTENANCE

D POW ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties n ecessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
in stallatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and m easuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: O perating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded.




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; assistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, sp eed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and
sp ecificatio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

18
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b uses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves most of the following: Examining m achines and mechan­
ical equipm ent to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten specificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making all n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipment and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout



MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to s tre sse s, strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installing and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L ubricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs water, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten specifications; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard te sts to determ ine
whether finished pipes meet specifications- .In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

19

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installatio n of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F ab ricates, in stalls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetm etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chu tes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(D iem aker; jig maker; toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jig s, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and w ritten sp ecificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of m etal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
T ransports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartm ent house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

GUARD

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued
or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fix tu res;p o lish ­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

Performs routine police du ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
m aintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial



(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

A worker employed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or more of the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

20
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting dev ices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; tran s­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, c a r,'o r wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded,
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specifications on sa le s slip s, custom ers *
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders, req u isi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selectio n of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded,

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P repares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receives and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting w eight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. Receiving work involves: V eri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follow s:

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or ind u strial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various tvpes of e sta b ­
lishm ents such a s: M anufacturing plants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or betw een retail establishm ents
and customers* houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s iz e s lis te d separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1 % to and including 4 tons)

Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled gaso lin e- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, power (forklift)

Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ainst fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1960 0 — 547708

Occupational Wage Surveys

O ccupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor m arkets during late 1959 and early I960. T hese bulletins, when av ailable,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D .C., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown below.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor m arkets, combined with additional an aly sis, w ill be issu ed early in 1961.
B ulletins for the areas listed below are now available.
C leveland, Ohio, Septem ber 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
Seattle, Wash., A ugust 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-2, price 25 cents
D allas, T ex., October 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-3, price 20 cents
Buffalo, N.Y., October 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-4, price 20 cents
St. L ouis, Mo., October 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-5, price 25 cents
Miami, F la., December 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-6, price 20 cents
Baltimore, Md., September 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-7, price 15 cents
Boston, M ass., October 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-8, price 25 cents
Dayton, Ohio, December 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-9, price 25 cents




Canton, Ohio, December 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-10, price 25 cents
Denver, Colo., Decem ber 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-11, price 25 cents
Portland, Maine, November 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-12, price 20 cents
Fort Worth, T ex., November 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-13, price 25 cents
Jacksonville, F la ., December 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-14, price 25 cents
San Bernardino-R iverside-O ntario, C alif., November 1959—
BLS Bull. 1265-15, price 25 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102