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Occupational Wage Survey

CHARLESTON, WEST VIRGINIA
APRIL 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-48




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commissionar




Occupational Wage Survey
CHARLESTON, WEST VIRGINIA




APRIL 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-48
July 1960
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For sal« by iht Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Pric# 2 5 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Com m unity Wage Survey P rogram
The B ureau of Labor S ta tistics regu larly conducts
areaw ide wage su rveys in a num ber of im portant industrial
ce n te rs. The stu d ies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplem entary
b en efits. A p relim inary report is available on com pletion
of the study in each area, usually in the month follow ing
the payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional
data not included in the ea r lie r report. A consolidated
an alytical bulletin sum m arizing the resu lts of all of the
year's su rveys is issu ed after com pletion of the final area
bulletin for the curren t round of su rveys.
This report was prepared in the B ureau's regional
office in C hicago, 111. , by W oodrow C. Linn, under the
d irection of G eorge E. Votava, R egional Wage and Industrial
R elations A n alyst.




In trod u ctio n ________________________________________________________________
Tables:
1. E stab lish m en ts and w orkers w ithin scope of s u r v e y _____________
A: O ccupational earnings: *
A - 1. O ffice occupations __________________________________________
A - 2. P ro fessio n a l and tech n ical occupations ____________________
A - 3. M aintenance and pow erplant occupations __________________
A -4. C ustodial and m aterial m ovem ent _________________________

1
2
4
6
7
8

B: E stablishm en t p ra ctices and supplem entary wage
p rovision s: *
B - 1. Shift d ifferen tials ___________________________________________
9
B -2 . M inimum entrance sa la rie s for w om en
office w orkers ______________________________________________ 10
B - 3. Scheduled w eekly hours _______________________________________
10
B -4 . P aid holidays __________________________________________________
11
B- 5. P aid vacations ________________________________________________
12
B - 6. H ealth, insuran ce, and pension plans -------------------------------14
A pp en d ix:

O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r ip tio n s ________________________________________

* NOTE: S im ilar tabulations for th ese and other item s
are available in the reports for su rveys in other m ajor
a rea s. A d irectory indicating date of study and the p rice
of the reports is available upon req u est.
Union s c a le s , indicative of prevailin g pay le v e ls,
are also available for seven selec te d building trades in
the C h arleston area.

15




Occupational Wage Survey—Charleston, W. Va.
Introduction

T his area is one of sev er a l im portant industrial cen ters in
which the U .S . D epartm ent of L a b o r's B ureau of Labor S ta tistics has
conducted su rveys of occupational earnings and related wage ben efits
on an areaw ide b a s is . In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits of B ureau field econ om ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
within six broad industry d ivision s: M anufacturing; tran sp orta tio n ,1
com m unication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; reta il
trade; fin an ce, in su ran ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded from th ese stu dies are governm ent operations
and the con struction and extractive in d u stries. E stab lish m en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w orkers are om itted also because
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d iv isio n s.
T hese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b a sis because of the
u n n ecessary co st involved in surveying all esta b lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accu racy at m inim um c o st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm a ll estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, all estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim a tes
b ased on the estab lish m en ts studied are presented, th erefore, as r e ­
lating to a ll estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cept for those below the m inim um siz e studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations selec te d for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sification is based on a uniform se t of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties w ithin the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of th ese d escrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice c le rica l; (b) p ro fession a l and technical; (c) m ain te­
nance and power plant; and (d) cu stod ial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w ork ers, i. e . , those h ired to work a regular w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational c la ssifica tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and

late sh ifts. Nonproduction bonu ses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. W here w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occu p ation s, referen ce is
to the work sched ules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
straigh t-tim e sa la rie s are paid; average w eekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d ollar.
A verage earnings of m en and wom en are presented sep arately
for selected occupations in which both sex es are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and wom en in th ese occupations are
la rg ely due to (l) d ifferen ces in the distribution of the sex es among
in d u stries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
form ed, although the occupations are appropriately c la ssifie d within
the sam e survey job description; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la rie s are adjusted on this basis.
L onger average serv ic e of m en would re su lt in higher average pay
when both sex es are em ployed within the sam e rate range. Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in these su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore gen eralized than those u sed in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces among estab lish m en ts in sp ecific duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts within the scope of the study and not the num ber actu­
ally surveyed. B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational structure among
estab lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T hese d ifferen ces in o ccu ­
pational structure do not m ateria lly affect the accu racy of the ea rn ings data.

E stablishm en t P r a c tic es and Supplem entary Wage P ro v isio n s
Inform ation is p resen ted also (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary ben efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w o rk ers. The term "office w ork ers, " as used
in this bulletin, includes working su p erv iso rs and non su p ervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related fun ction s, and exclu d es adm in­
istr a tiv e, ex ecu tive, and p ro fession a l p erson n el. "Plant w orkers" in ­
clude working forem en and all n on su p ervisory w orkers (including lead 1
R ailroads, form erly excluded from the sco p ^ p f th ese stu d ies, en and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice functions. A d m in istrative,
m
have been added in n early a ll of the areas to be studied during the
execu tive, and p ro fession a l em p lo y ees, and force-acco u n t construction
w inter of 1959-60; railroad s w ill be added in the rem aining areas next
em p loyees who are u tilized as a sep arate work force are excluded .
year. F or scope of survey in this area, see footnote to "transporta­
C afeteria w orkers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing in d u s­
tion, com m unication, and other public u tilities" in table 1.
tries, but are included as plant w orkers in nonm anufacturing industries.




2




T a b le 1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s u r v e y and nu m ber stu d ied in C h a r le s t o n , W . V a . , 1 by m a jo r in d u stry d iv is io n , 2 A p r il I960

Industry d iv isio n

A ll d iv isio n s ____________________________________________
M an u factu rin g__________________________________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ______________________________________
T ran sp ortation , com m u n ication , and oth er
public u tilitie s 5 __________________________________
W h olesale trad e ____________________________________
R etail trade _________________________________________
F in an ce, in su ra n ce, and r e a l esta te _____________
S e r v ic e s 7 ___________________________________________

M inim um
em p loym en t
in e sta b lish ­
m en ts in sco p e
of study

51

N um ber of e sta b lish m en ts
W ithin
sco p e of
Studied
study 3

117

,/o r k e r s in estab lish : -ents
--------------------------------------------W ithin ccope of study
O ffice
P lan t

1

T o ta l4

66

3 6 ,3 0 0

Studied
T o ta l4

6, 0 00

2 3 ,7 0 0

3 1 ,4 0 0

51

34

2o

21, 600

3, 000

1 4 ,8 0 0

2 0 ,9 4 0

51

83

40

1 4 ,7 0 0

3, 000

8 ,9 0 0

1 0 ,4 6 0

51

14

13

6, 500

1 ,6 0 0

3, 000

6, 30 0

51

16

5

1 ,3 0 0

51

34

12

5 ,3 0 0

51

9
10

4

700

6

900

51

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6 )

(6)
(6)
(4)
(6)

500
2, 650
430
580

1 The C h a r le s to n M e tro p o lita n A r e a (Kanawha C ou n ty). The " w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f study" e s tim a te s show n in this table p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a te d e s c r ip tio n o f the
s iz e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d e d in the s u r v e y . The e s tim a te s a r e not in ten ded, h o w e v e r , to s e r v e as a b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n w ith oth er a r e a em p loy m en t in d ex es
to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t tren d s o r le v e ls s in c e ( l) planning o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the use o f e s ta b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in ad va n ce o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied ,
and (2) s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e e x clu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f the study.
2 The 1957 r e v is e d e d itio n o f the Standard In d u stria l C la s s ific a t io n M anual w as u sed in c la s s ify in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts by in d u s try d iv is io n .
M a jo r ch a n ges f r o m the e a r l ie r
e d itio n (u s e d in the B u re a u 's la b o r m a rk e t w age s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r io r to the w in te r o f 1958—
59) a r e the tr a n s fe r o f m ilk p a s te u r iz a tio n plants and r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c r e te
e s ta b lis h m e n ts f r o m trade (w h o le s a le o r re ta il) to m a n u fa ctu rin g, and the tr a n s fe r o f r a d io and t e le v is io n b r o a d c a s tin g f r o m s e r v ic e s to the tr a n s p o r ta tio n ,
co m m u n ic a tio n ,
and o th er p u b lic u tilitie s d iv is io n .
3 In clu d es a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith total e m p lo y m e n t at o r a b ove the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n . A ll ou tlets (w ithin the a rea ) o f co m p a n ie s in su c h in d u s tr ie s as tr a d e ,
fin a n c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v ic e , and m o t io n -p ic t u r e th e a te rs a r e c o n s id e r e d as 1 e s ta b lis h m e n t.
4 In clu d es e x e c u t iv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and o th e r w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d fr o m the se p a ra te o f fic e and plant c a t e g o r ie s .
5 R a ilr o a d s w e re in clu d e d ; ta x ica b s and s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w a ter tra n s p o r ta tio n w e r e e x clu d e d .
6 T h is in d u s try d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s tim a te s fo r " a l l in d u s tr ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g " in the S e r ie s A and B ta b le s , although c o v e r a g e w as in s u ffic ie n t to ju s tify
se p a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n o f data.
7 P lotels; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir s h o p s ; m o tio n p ic tu r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a tio n s ; and en g in e e r in g and a r c h ite c t u r a l s e r v ic e s .

3

The sum m ary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
m en ts, excluding inform al plans w hereby tim e off with pay is granted
at the d iscretio n of the em p lo yer. Separate estim a tes are provided
according to em ployer p ractice in com puting vacation paym ents, such
as tim e paym ents, percent of annual earn in gs, or fla t-su m am ounts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations of vacation allow an ces, paym ents not on
a tim e b a sis w ere converted; for exam p le, a paym ent of 2 p ercen t of
annual earnings w as con sid ered as the equivalent of 1 w eek 1s pay.

Data are p resen ted for all health, in su ran ce, and pension
plans for which at le a st a part of the c o st is borne by the em p lo yer,
excepting only leg al req u irem en ts such as workmen* s com p ensation
and so cia l secu rity . Such plans include those underw ritten by a co m ­
m er cia l insuran ce com pany and those provided through a union fund or
paid d irectly by the em ployer out of cu rren t operating funds or from
a fund s e t asid e for this purpose. Death b en efits are included as a
form of life in su ran ce.
S ick n ess and accident insuran ce is limited* to that type of in ­
surance under which predeterm ined ca sh paym ents are m ade d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or m onthly b a sis during illn e s s or accident
d isab ility. Inform ation is p resen ted for all such plans to which the
em ployer con trib u tes. H ow ever, in New York and New J e r se y , which
have enacted tem porary d isab ility insuran ce law s which require e m ­
ployer co n trib u tio n s,4 plans are included only if the em p loyer (1) con ­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly required, or (2) provides the em ployee
with b en efits which ex ceed the req u irem en ts of the law . Tabulations
of paid sick -lea v e plans are lim ited to form al p la n s5 w hich provide
full pay or a proportion of the w ork er's pay during absence from work
becau se of illn e s s . Separate tabulations are provided accord ing to
(1) plans which provide fu ll pay and no w aiting period, and (2) plans
providing eith er partial pay or a w aiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions o f w ork ers who are provided sick n ess
and accident insurance or paid sick lea v e, an unduplicated total is
shown of w orkers who re ceiv e eith er or both types of b en efits.
C atastrophe in su ran ce, so m etim es referred to as t extended
m ed ical in su ran ce, inclu des those plans which are design ed to p rotect
em p loyees in ca se of sick n e ss and injury involving ex p en ses beyond
the norm al coverage of h osp italization , m ed ica l, and su rgical plan s.
M edical insuran ce re fe rs to plans providing for com p lete or partial
paym ent of d octors' fe e s . Such plans m ay be underw ritten by co m m er­
cia l insuran ce com panies or nonprofit organ ization s or they m ay be
se lf-in su r e d . T abulations of retirem en t pen sion plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide m onthly paym ents for the rem ainder of the
w o rk er 's life .

2 An estab lish m en t was co n sid ered as having a policy if it m et
eith er of the follow ing conditions: (1) O perated late sh ifts at the tim e
of the su rvey, or (2) had form al p rovision s coverin g late sh ifts.
3 Scheduled w eekly hours for office w orkers (first sectio n of
table B -3 ) in su rveys m ade prior to late 1957 and ea rly 1958 w ere
p resen ted in term s of the proportion of w om en office w orkers e m ­
ployed in o ffices with the indicated w eek ly hours for w om en w o rk ers.

4 The tem porary d isab ility law s in C aliforn ia and Rhode Island
do not require em ployer con trib u tion s.
5 An estab lish m en t w as co n sid ered as having a form al plan if
it estab lish ed at le a st the m inim um num ber of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each em p lo yee. Such a plan need not be w ritten ,
but inform al sic k -le a v e allow an ces, d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is ,
w ere excluded.

Shift d ifferen tial data (table B - l) are lim ited to m anufacturing
in d u stries. This inform ation is p resented both in term s of (a) esta b ­
lish m en t p olicy, 2 presented in term s of total plant w orker em p loy­
m ent, and (b) effective p ra ctice, presented on the b a sis of w orkers
actually em ployed on the sp ecified sh ift at the tim e of the su rvey.
In estab lish m en ts having varied d ifferen tia ls, the amount applying to
a m ajority w as u sed o r, if no am ount applied to a m ajority, the c la s ­
sifica tio n "other" was u sed . In estab lish m en ts in which som e la te sh ift hours are paid at norm al ra te s, a d ifferential was record ed only
if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.
M inim um entrance rates (table B -2 ) relate only to the esta b ­
lish m en ts v isited . They are p resen ted on an estab lish m en t, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a sis. P aid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, in su ran ce, and pension plans are treated sta tistica lly on the
b a sis that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m a­
jority of such w orkers are elig ib le or m ay eventually qualify for the
p ra ctices liste d . Scheduled hours are treated sta tistica lly on the b a sis
that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m ajority
are c o v e r e d .3 B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s in these
tabulations m ay not equal to ta ls.
The fir s t part of the paid holidays table p resen ts the num ­
b er of whole and half holidays actually provided. The secon d part
com b ines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e .




4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations

(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, C harleston, W. Va. , April I960)
Averaoe
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

NU M B ER OF W O RK ER S R E CE IVIN G ST R A IG H T-TIM E W E E KLY EARN![NGS OF-

$

$

S
$
$
$
$
$
35. 00 40. 00 4 5 .0 0 50. 00 55. 00 l o . 00 *65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00
and
and
under
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65.00 70.00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 over

W eekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

Weekly ,
earnings 4
(Standard)

103
74
29

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

$113.00
123.00
87.50

-

"

"

i

Men
C lerk s, accounting, c la s s A ____ — —
M anufacturing ______ _
_ ____
__ --------Nonmanufacturing ---------

-

-

5
5

-

-

4
4

2
2

'

2
2
-

10
6
4

13
5
8

7
5
2

8
4
4

2
2
-

1
1
-

11
11
-

3
3
-

1

_

8

-

_
-

2 16
16
-

_

_

_

2
2

-

19
19
-

___________

19

4 0 .0

99.50

-

-

-

1

_

-

2

-

2

2

-

2

1

-

-

__ __ _ ______
------------ - ------

18
16

40. 0
4 0 .0

111.00
112.50

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

"

1
1

.

-

1
1

-

2
2

1
1

1
-

1
1

2
1

-

1

1
1

-

6
6

O ffice boys --------------------------------- ------M anufacturing __ ___ — — — __ ___
Nonmanufacturing __ ____ __ -------

66
36
30

39. 5
39. 5
39. 0

68.00
77.00
56.50

_
-

4
1
3

3
2
1

14
1
13

6
6

4
1
3

6
6
-

7
6
1

3
3
-

5
3
2

9
8
1

1
1
"

2
2
-

1
1

_
-

_
-

1
1
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
“

_
-

T abulating-m achine op e ra to rs,
c la s s A _____________________ ________

20

40. 0

116.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

2

-

1

-

1

1

2

-

5

2

2

B ille r s , m achine (billin g m achine) ------Nonmanufacturing -------- — ------- —
Pu blic u t ilit ie s
------ ------------ _

31
30
27

38. 5
38. 5
38. 5

59.50
59.00
60.00

_
-

_
-

1
1
1

19
19
16

3
3
3

_
"

_
-

1
-

4
4
4

.
-

3
3
3

_
-

.
-

_
"

_
-

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping
------m achine) --------------------Nonm anufacturing ----------------------------

26
23

39. 0
38. 5

43.50
42.00

10
10

7
7

2
2

6
3

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

B ook keeping-m ach ine op e ra to rs,
c la s s A __ _____________
— — __ __

16

40. 0

79.50

-

-

-

-

3

-

2

1

1

3

3

2

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bookkeeping-m ach ine op e ra to rs,
c la s s B _____ ________ ___________ ___
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------

83
69

41. 0
41. 0

57.50
57.50

-

2
2

5
4

28
20

21
20

11
11

12
10

1
1

2
-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

C lerks, accounting, cla s s A
___
M anufacturing ---------------------- —
Nonmanufacturing ___________________

51
24
27

39. 0
40. 0
38. 5

94.00
102.00
87.50

_
-

-

1
1

2
2

_
-

5
5

2
1
1

2
2
"

3
2
1

3
2
1

1
1

4
3

2
1
1

6
2
4

10
3
7

4
2
2

_
-

3
3
-

_
-

1
1
-

_
-

2
2
-

C lerk s, accounting, c la s s B --------- —
M anufacturing ------------------- —
Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------

72
20
52

39. 0 !
39. 5
39. 0

62.00
80.00
55.00

5
5

6
6

3
3

24
1
23

5
2
3

2
2

6
2
4

5
4

1
1
-

3
3
“

3
1
2

2
2

4
2
2

1
1

-

2
2
-

_
-

*

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

C lerk s, file, c la s s A

17

39. 5

82.00

-

-

-

-

2

3

-

-

5

-

2

-

3

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

38. 5
38. 0

55.00
53.50

2
2

2
2

9
9

35
33

6
5

2
2

5
5

5

4
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

.

_

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

.

6

_

3

1

1

1

_

_

.

1

6

_

_

2

2

1

_

_

.

_

3

.
-

3

_
-

9

.
-

4

!
1

5
5

9

1
1

.
-

1
1

.
-

3
3

.
-

5
5

.
-

_
-

C lerk s, accounting, c la s s B
C lerk s, p ayroll _____
M anufacturing ----

W omen

3

C lerk s, file, cla ss B
Nonm anufacturing
C lerk s, o rd er

.

__________________
______________ ___
____ ___________

---------------- ------- __

C lerks, p a yroll __________________ _____
M anufacturing ----------------- ------------N onm anufacturing -------------------------------

1

70
61
24

39. 0

80.50

45
21
24

39. 5
40. 0
38. 5

86.50
104.00
71.50

-

-

-

3

1

See footnotes at end of table.




-

3

|

1

1
8

1

1

2
2

1

8
1

1

i
1

1

1

1

5
Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued

(Average straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, C harleston, W. Va. , A pril I960)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry d ivision

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS O
F-

$

$
$
S
$
$
$
$
S
S
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
S
$
$
S
1
$
W
eekly,
W
eekly 35.00 4 0.00 4 5.00 50.00 55. 00 60. 00 65.00 70.00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 9 0 . 00 95.00 1 0 0 .0 0 105.00 110 .00 115.00 1 2 0 .00 125.00 130.00)135.00 140.00
hours 1 earnings1
(Standard) (Standard) and
!
” i and
40. 00 4 5.00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 1 00 .00 105.00 1 10 .00 115.00 1 20 .00 125.00 130.00 135.00;140.00! over

W omen— Continued

j

C om ptom eter o p e r a t o r s ___________ ____
N onm anufacturing------- ------------------Public u tilities 3 _________________

92
84
39

38.0 $ 59.00
37. 5
57.50
73.00
39. 0

Keypunch op era tors ____________________
M anufacturin g_______________________

65
34

39 .5
4 0 .0

15
15
■

12
11

5
4
4

~

-

_
~

_
■

■

_
■

_
■

.
"

.

.

7

11

2

5

4
3

4
4

5
5

1
1

3
3

1
1

•

3
3

_

“

7
7

_

■

5

_

_

1

_

_

_

_

_

.

.

30
14

22

8
6
2
2

18
16

3

17
5
4

8
8

1
1

•

-

1
1

.
-

14
-

5
"

-

-

.

_

7

3

1

_

1

3

19
19

15
4

27

4

1

2

11
6

15

~

8
2

22
10
12

22
8

11

"

37
37
4

12

2
1

5

1

4
4

16

-

12

9

10

2

6
1

7
7
3

6

24

3
3

18
5
13

1

12
12
6

8

35
5
30
30

1
1

3

6

1

7

1
2

6

-

1

-

1

"

1

6
5

8
8

61.50

S ecreta ries ------------------ ----------------------M anufacturin g___ __ ______________
N onm anufacturing____ __ __________
Pu blic u tilities 3 _________________

316
138
178

89.50
102.50
79.50
91.50

-

86

39.0
40. 0
38. 5
3 9.5

Stenographers, general ________________
M an ufacturin g_______________________
N onm anufacturing______ ___ __ ___
Public u tilities 3 ------- -----------------

234
119
115
81

40. 0
40. 0
3 9.5
3 9.5

83.00
93.00
73.00
78.50

Sw itchboard o p e r a t o r s _________________
M anufacturin g_______________________
N onm anufacturing----------------------------Public u tilities 3 _________________

91
32
59
19

4 0 .0
39. 5
40. 5
40. 0

6 6 .0 0

4 28

85.00
55.50
82.00

28

32

4 1 .0
4 1 .0

65.50

22

6 2 .0 0

T ra n scribin g-m ach in e op e ra to rs,
general ________________________________

15

40. 0

T ypists, c la s s A _______________________
M anufacturin g-----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------- _ __

84
66
18

T ypists, c la s s B _______________________

125
40
85
31

.

1

_

39. 0

N onm anufacturing----------------------------Public utilities 3 _________________

2
2

■

17

______

14
14
14

4

6

10
10
8

78.00

O ffice g irls _____________________________

______

9
7

2

3
3
2

9 2 .0 0

_

Sw itchboard o p era to rrecep tion ists _________

4
3

5
5
1

10
10

2

2

4
4
■

2

“

5
“

3

12

14

33

10

21
12
11

3
7
6

11

16

-

-

-

-

_

.

5
5
-

|
1

2
1
1

3
3
■

| 1
! 1
“
.
-

.
-

.
-

.
“

37
15

19
13

21

9

13

6

5

8
1
1

3
3
_

9
9
-

19

8
8

27
27
_

.
“

8

9
3
6
5

_
■

3
3
"

1
1

1
1

“

13
13
■

-

-

.
-

"

-

’

1
1

6

"

1

2
1
1

-

*

-

-

-

10
9

3

5
4

2
1

7
7

1

2
1

-

1

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

64.50

-

-

5

-

2

-

1

5

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

40. 0
40. 0
39.0

87.00
91.50
69.50

"

_

~

3
3

4
4

3
3

8

"

9
6
3

14
13

11
11

4
3

1
1

1
1

7
7

-

-

"

17
17
■

2
2

1

■

“

39.0
40. 0
38. 5
39.0

58.50
57750
54.50
57.50

_

7

29

18

-

6
1

18
13
5
5

1

5

“

1

20
2

8

1

28

17
12

18
6

3

5
1

5
3
15
12
3

1

7
4

3

3
3

1
1

2

1

3

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straigh t-tim e sa la ries and the earnings correspond to th ese w eekly hours.
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 10 at $140 to $145; 6 at $150 and over.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
Includes 10 w orkers at $30 to $35.




.
-

2
2

22

i_______

1
2
3
4

.
-

~

■

6
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Charleston, W. V a ,, A pril I960)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

of
workers

Number
Weekly
(Standard)

Weekly .
earnings1
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
70. 00 75. 00 80.00 85. 00 90.00 95. 00 100. 00 105.00 n o . oo 115.00 120. 00 125.00 130. 00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00
~
■
~
■
“
■
■
■
under
75.00 80. 00 _85.00 90,00 .9 5 .0 0 100.00 105, 0 0 lio , 00 115,00 .120. 00 125.00 130.. 00 135. 00 140.. 00 145, 00 150.00 155t 00

$
155.00
and
over

Men
D raftsm en, junior --------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------

96
79

45
41

4 0 .0
40. 0

2
1

4 0 .0 $ 108.50
40. 0 112.50

7
3

7

3

16
11

7
6

3
3

9
8

1

2
2

2
2

13
12

4
4

6
6

5
5

5
4

20
20

4
4

4
3

7
7

Women
N urses, industrial (registered) --------------------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------

101.50
102.50

|
1

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straigh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to th ese w eekly hours.




5
5

2
2

3
3

3

3

“

3
3

7
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, C harleston, W. Va. , A pril I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

$
Average
hourly
earnings , Under 1. 80
and
$
under
1. 80
1. 90

1. 90
2. 00

$2. 00
2. 10

C arpenters, m aintenance ------------------------------M anufacturing -------------- __ __ ----------------

222
218

$3. 16
3. 17

E lectrician s, m aintenance ___ __ — -----------M anufacturing — ___ _ __ ------- ------------

338
334

3. 16
3. 17

_
"

_
"

_
“

_
-

E ngineers, stationary __
__ __ ---- _ -----M anufacturing ---- __ ________ __ — - —

173
166

3. 00
3. 02

_
"

!
1

1
1

H elpers, trad es, m aintenance

420

2. 56

1

_

M achinists, m aintenance __ — -----------M anufacturing -------------------------------------------

192
177

3. 16
3. 18

"

-

M echanics, autom otive (m aintenance) — ----M anufacturing —_ ___ __ ------- _ - - —
Nonmanufacturing ___ __ __ __ — -----------Public u tilities 2 ________________________

185
68
117
80

2. 53
2. 64
2.47
2. 50

10
10
“

M echanics, m aintenance ____________________
M anufacturing ---------------------------------------------

552
520

3. 18
3. 22

M illwrights --------- ---- ------- ------- -----------Manufacturing _ ______ ______— — _ —

246
246

3. 15
3. 15

"

— ---------

$2. 10
2. 20

$2. 20

$ 2. 30 | $

2.40

$2. 50

2. 30

_2."40 1 2. 50

2. 60

$2. 70

$

2. 80

$

2. 90

$

3. 00

$
3. 10

$
3. 20

$
3. 30

3. 20

3. 30

3.40

155
155

29
29

$
3.40
and
over

2. 70 _2._80__ 2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

16
16

4
4

14
14

-

1

26
26

9
9

34
34

3
“

.

176
176

89
89

.

_

20
20

.
-

.
-

99
98

4
4

35
35

.
‘

1
-

61

.

.

.

_

_

"

1
“

_

_
"

_
“

.
~

_
“

~

1
1

3
2

.
"

8
4

.

.
-

■

_

5

7

13

46

28

247

12

1
1

"

■

”

-

"

1
“

2
1

10
10

23
23

13
-

-

99
99

42
42

1
1

10
10
-

2
2
2

9
3
6
6

2
2
-

23
13
10
10

6
4
2
2

4
4

18
18
18

38
38
34

21
2
19
4

5
1
4
4

16
16
“

5
1
4
■

_
"

4
4
-

12
12
"

_
“

4

2

5
5

~

_

.
*

_
~

_
■

6
4

1
"

3
■

30
21

11
11

5
3

9
-

.

239
239

237
237

.
■

.

.

_

.
"

•

.
-

.

-

.
-

33
33

13
13

-

-

-

145
145

55
55

-

-

-

-

-

"

2
2

6
6

11
11

1
1

"

4
4

-

“

-

1
1
_

10
10

1
1

20
20

.
-

.
-

90
90

.

57
57

.

.

19
19

3
3

29
29

-

.
“

377
377

164
164

_
"

_

_

3
3

_

.

_

62
62

35
35

_

"

■

~

3
-

O ilers --------------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ___ ________ __ — -------

24
24

2. 64
2. 64

.
■

P ainters, m aintenance ----------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------

183
181

3. 08
3. 10

2
~

_
"

_
■

_
'

.

_

_

2
2

P ip efitters, m aintenance ______________ ___
Manufacturing ____________________________

601
601

3. 20
3. 20

_
-

.

.
“

.
“

.

.

6
6

3
3

Sheet-m etal w orkers, m aintenance --------------Manufacturing ------ ------------------------------------

100
100

3. 24
3. 24

_

.

_

_

.

_

_

.

1 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.




$ 2. 60

-

-

-

8
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, C harleston, W. Va. , A pril I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccupation1 and industry division
E levator operators, passenger
(women) ---------------------------------------------------------N onm anufacturing__________________________
Guards ________________________ _____________
M anufacturing_____ ____________ ________
Janitors, porters, and clean ers (men) _______
M anufacturing______________________________
N onm anufacturing__________________________
Public u tilitie s 5 ______________ ________
Janitors, porters, and clean ers
(women) ---------------------------------------------------------N onm anufacturing__________________________
Public u tilities 5 ________________________
L aborers, m aterial handling _________________
M anufacturing______________________________
N onm anufacturing__________________________
Public u tilitie s 5 ______________________
R eceiving clerks ______________________________
M anufacturing______________________________
Shipping and receiving clerk s ________________
T ruckdrivers 9 _________________
___ _____
M anufacturing_______ _____________________
N onm anufacturing__________________________
Public u tilitie s 5 _________ _____________
T ruckdrivers, m edium ( l x/j to and
including 4 tons) __________________________
M anufacturing___________________________
N onm anufacturing_______________________
T ruckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) ---------------------------------------------M anufacturing___________ _____________
T ruckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than trailer type) ----------------------------T ruckers, power (forklift) ____________________
M anufacturing______________________________
Watchmen ------------ ------------------------------------M anufacturing-------- ----------------------------------N onm anufacturing---------------------------------------1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Number • Average
of
hourly
workers earnings2 Under
$
1. 00
50
50
135
135
564
344
220
89

$0. 80 3 27
. 80 27
_
2. 77
2. 77
1.88 21
2. 20
1. 37 21
1.67
-

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
1. 00 1. 10 1.20 1. 30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80
and
under
1. 10 1. 20 1.30 1. 40 1. 50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90
2
2
.

20
20
_
36
2
34
"

1
1
_
12
3
9
1

41
7
34
10

4
3
16
16
_
_

3
1
1
16
16
_
_

4
4
4
7
7
_
_

_
37
4
33
9

_
10
1
9
8

"
_
21
10
11
7

.
8
8
1

_
11
11
10

6
6
6
3
3
1

1
1
1
1
1
_
_

1
1
“
36
36
.
_

-

6
1
5

31
31
-

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
1.90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 2.60 2. 70 2.80 $2. 90 $3. 00
and
2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 over

-

-

_
27
27
26

_
28
14
14
12

15
6
6
9
5
4
_
_
17
1
16
-

"
6
6
_
2
5
4
1
-

67
64
3

1
12
12

1
16
6
10
“
3
1
_
3
3

1
1
2
2
_

-

-

_
_
-

_
_
-

7
7
_
-

1
1
1
1
1
40
40
-

92
92
92
3
3
_
86
10
76
70

_
.
2
9
1
8
-

_
18
18
_
126
125
1
-

_
50
46
1
47
47
-

85
85

_
_
-

4 23
23
_
-

1
1

-

25
6
19

9
1
8

28
28
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8
8

2
2

-

-

-

7
6

-

3
3

-

1
1
4
4
'

11
11
_
-

10
5
5
9
9
'

2
1
1
_
"

3
2
2
_
"

40
20
3
_
‘

20
.

.
.
'

2
11
11
_
'

7
6
6
_
'

-

-

_
'

_
-

-

-

91
48
43

2. 43
2. 56
2. 29

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

2
2

12
1
11

1
1

25
19

2. 38
2. 51

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
-

84
66
49
40
22
18

2.45
2. 36
2. 31
1. 55
1.72
1.35

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

6
5
1

_
-

4

_
“

10
10

3
-

.
_
!
"

2
2
1
1

7
7
1
1

.
"
2
18
17
1
1

Data lim ited to m en w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
E xcludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 12 at under $0.60 ; 9 at $ 0 .6 0 to $0.80 ; 6 at $ 0 .8 0 to $1.
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 19 at $3 to $3. 20; 4 at $3. 20 to $ 3 .4 0 .
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
A ll w orkers w ere at $ 0 .9 0 .
A ll w orkers w ere at $ 3. 40 to $ 3. 50.
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 6 at $ 3 to $ 3. 20; 2 at $ 3. 20 to $ 3. 40; 2 at $ 3. 40 to $ 3. 60; 6 at $ 3. 60 to $ 3. 80; 2 at $ 3. 80 and over.
Includes all drivers regard less of size and type of truck operated.




-

12
12
*

-

3

-

-

-

1

9
9
_
-

-

2
2
-

3

206
206
-

30
23
7
1

66
5
_
_
_

1

7
7
29
25
4
4

_
68
67
1
1

149
132
17
2
1
1
7
8
6
2
2

1. 44
1. 33
1.48
2. 23
2.45
1.96
2.49
2. 70
2. 78
2. 90
2.41
2. 58
2. 12
2.49

_

-

3
1
2
1
6
1
1
11
11
-

41
27
18
514
287
227
95
89
77
35
454
289
165
74

29
11
18
.

4
4
9
5
4
-

_
-

_
_ 7 62
- — m~
~
_
4
4
_ *18
3
3
-




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials

(P ercen t of manufacturing plant w orkers in establishm ents having form al provisions for shift work, and in establishm ents
actually operating late shifts by type and amount of differential, Charleston, W. V a ., A pril I960)
Shift differential

In establishm ents having form al
provisions 1 for—
Third or other
Second shift
shift work
work

In establishm ents actually
operating—
Third or other
Second shift
shift

Total ______________________________________________

94. 1

9 0 .4

14. 3

12.2

With shift pay differential ------------------------------------

93. 2

9 0 .4

14.2

12. 2

Uniform cents (per hour) _____________________

89. 0

87. 9

13. 3

12.2

1. 1
15. 2
.6
5. 3
46. 7

.2
.2
3. 9
2. 7
1. 1
.1
5. 1
-

.1
3. 0
.2
2. 7
.1
1. 1
5. 1.
-

4 cents
5 cents
6 cents
9 cents
10 cents
11 cents
12 cents
15 cents
16 cents
17 cents
25 cents

--------------------------------------------------------_____________________________________
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.................-......................................................
---------------- ------------------------------------.........-.................................-.........................
------------------------------------------------------____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________

1. 0
1. 1
19. 2
15. 2
5. 3
.6
_
46. 7

Uniform percentage -----------------------------------------

2.5

2.5

-

8 percent -------------------------------------------------12 percent ----------------------------------------------------

2.5

_
2.5

_
“

Other form al pay differential —...............................

1. 7

-

1.0

-

No shift pay differential __________________________

.9

-

.1

-

_
1.0
18. 1
-

-

1
Includes establishm ents currently operating late shifts, and establishm ents with form al provisions covering late shifts even
though they w ere not currently operating late shifts.

10

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W omen O ffice W orkers
(D is t r ib u t io n o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s stu d ied in a ll in d u s t r ie s and in in d u s tr y d i v is i o n s b y m in im u m e n t r a n c e s a la r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f in e x p e r ie n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , C h a r le s t o n , W . V a . , A p r i l I96 0 )
In e x p e r ien c e d ty p is ts
M a n u fa c t u r in g
M in im u m w e e k ly s a la r y 1

A ll
in d u str ie s

O th er in e x p e rie n c e d c le r ic a l w o r k e r s 2

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

M a n u fa c t u r in g
A ll
in d u s tr ie s

B a se d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—
A ll

40

s c h e d u le s

A ll
sc h e d u le s

B a s e d on s ta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—
A ll

40

3 7 * /2

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

A ll

40

sc h e d u le s

s c h e d u le s

40

37V 2

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

66

26

XXX

40

XXX

XXX

66

26

XXX

40

XXX

XXX

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m
___________________
U n d e r $ 3 5 . 0 0 _______________________________________ _____________________

25
_
_

10
_
_

10
_
_

15
_
_

4
_

10
_
_

41

13
-

11
-

28

18

1
_

3
2
_

5
1

1
-

1
-

4
1

1
1
1
1
-

1
-

8
3
4
-

5
_
_
_
_

_

2
_
_

1
_
_

1

-

-

1
1
2
_

1
1
2
-

2

-

2
2

E s t a b lis h m e n t s

stu d ie d

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

35. 00
37. 50
4 0 .0 0
4 2 . 50
4 5 . 00
4 7 .5 0
5 0 . 00
5 2 .5 0

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

37. 50
4 0 . 00
4 2 .5 0
4 5 . 00
4 7 . 50
5 0 .0 0
52. 50
5 5 . 00

__________________________________________
----------------------------------------------------------------__________________________________________
__________________________________________
------------------------------------------------------------ _
_________________________________________ _
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

$
$
$
$

5 5 .0 0
57. 50
6 0 .0 0
6 2 . 50

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$

5 7 .5 0
60. 00
6 2 .5 0
6 5 .0 0

----------------------------------------------------------------__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

3
2
-

3
2

3

$ 6 5 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 7 . 5 0 __________________________________________
$ 6 7 . 5 0 a n d o v e r ________________________________________________________
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g n o s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in t h is

1

5
8
33

________________

category __________________________________________

.

-

3
1

3
-

2
-

1
-

9
4
4
-

2
-

1
-

1
-

2
-

2

3
4
3

2
1
1
1
-

-

5
3

XXX

5

1
XXX

13

XXX

20

XXX

5

3
3
1

1
1
-

-

5

XXX

10

XXX

15

-

-

1
1
2
-

5
4
9

1
1
2
-

3

_
_

-

6
6

XXX

2
_

1
_
_

-

XXX

6
2

1
2
_

1
_

5

1
1
_

1

_
_

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

1 L o w e s t s a la r y ra te f o r m a l ly e s t a b lis h e d f o r h ir in g in e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s f o r ty p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
2 R a te s a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m il a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e not c o n s id e r e d .
3 H o u r s r e f le c t the w o rk w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s .
D ata a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll w o r k w e e k s co m b in e d , and f o r the m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k s r e p o r t e d .

Table B-3. Scheduled W e ekly Hours
(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e and p la n t w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s t r ie s and in in d u s t r y d i v is i o n s b y s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , C h a r le s t o n , W . V a . , A p r i l I96 0 )
OFFICE WO RK ERS

Weekly hours
All industries

A ll w orkers ----------------------------------------------

35 hours __________________________________
Over 35 and under 37l/2 hours -----------------37V2 hours -----------------------------------------------Over 37V2 and under 40 hours ------------------40 hours —--------- ---------------------- -------------—
Over 40 and under 44 hours -----------------------44 hours __________________________________
Over 44 and under 48 hours ________________
48 hours __________________________________
Over 48 hours _____________________________

100
3
2
12
1
78
1
2
(4)
(4)

1

Manufacturing

100
_
3

-

96

1
-

PLAN T W O RK ER S

Public utilities 2

100
_
31
-

69

“

All industries 3

Manufacturing

100
5
2
2
83
1
1
3
2
1

1 I n clu d e s da ta f o r w h o le s a le t r a d e ; r e t a il t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v is i o n s sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
3 I n clu d e s da ta f o r w h o le s a le t r a d e , r e t a il t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n to th o s e in d u s tr y d i v is i o n s sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .

4




100
.
2
-

95

2
2
'

Public utilities 2

100
_
_
96
_
_
_
_
4

11

Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s t r ie s and in in d u s tr y d iv is io n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s
p r o v id e d a n n u a lly , C h a r le s t o n , W . V a . , A p r i l I96 0 )

Item

OFFICE WORKERS

All industries1

Manufacturing

PL AN T WO RK ERS

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All workers ______________________________

100

100

100

100

100

100

W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holidays --------------------------------------------------W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid holidays ________________________

96
4

100

100

"

“

92
8

99
1

96
4

9
(4 )
6
(4 )
85

14
16
70

2
1
25
1
15
48

1
15
1
16
66

20
28
48

-

“

Number of days

Less than 3 holidays ---------------------------------------3 holidays ----------------------------------------------- -----------5 holidays ________________________________
6 holidays --------------------------------------------------- -------6 holidays plus 1 half day ............ - ......................
7 holidays -----------------------------------------------------------7 holidays plus 2 half days ...................... - .........
8 holidays -----------------------------------------------------------11 holidays ----------------------------------------------------------

(f )
(4)

15
(4)
10
(4)
62
8

(4 )

“

-

(4)

(4 )

-

"

Total holiday time5

11 days ---------------------------------------------------or m ore days __________________________
or m ore days ---------------------------------------bl Jz or more days ------------------------------------6 or more days ---------------------------------------5 or more days
-------------------------------------3 or m ore days __________________________
l or more days ----------------------------------------

8
7

8

80
81
95
96
96
96
70

85
91
91
99
99

100
100

70

86
86
100
100
100
100

48

63
64

89
90
92
92

66

48

83

75
75

82
98
98
99
99

96
96
96
96

1 In clu d e s da ta f o r w h o le s a le t r a d e ; r e t a il t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; an d s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n to th o s e in d u s tr y d iv is io n s sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
3 I n clu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le t r a d e , r e t a il t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n to th o s e in d u s t r y d iv is io n s sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .
4 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
5 A l l c o m b in a t io n s o f fu ll and h a lf d a y s that add to the s a m e a m ou n t a r e c o m b in e d ; f o r e x a m p le , the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g a to ta l o f 7 d a y s in c lu d e s th o s e w ith 7 fu ll d a y s and
no h a lf d a y s , 6 fu ll d a y s and 2 h a lf d a y s , 5 fu ll d a y s a n d 4 h a lf d a y s , and s o on . P r o p o r t io n s w e r e then cu m u la te d .




12

Table B-5. Paid Vacations

(Percent distribution of office and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Charleston, W. Va. , April I960)
Vacation policy

All workers _______________________________

OFFICE WORKERS
All industries

1

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

-

-

■

-

-

100
92
7
(4)
-

100
89
10
1
-

100
94
6
-

2
52
2
5

.
78
2
10

7
5
-

2
6
1

.
2
-

14
3
-

.
37
(4)
63

_
5
95

_
95
5

1
45
5
49

_
29
7
64

_
92
8

_

5
2
92

3
97

.

8
3
89

1
6
69

23
7
70

19
81

3
1
96

(4)
99

1
16
8
76

16
10
74

_

13
87

Method of payment
Workers in establishments providing
paid vacations ____________________________
Length-of-time payment ________________
Percentage payment ____________________
Flat-sum payment __ -----------------------------Other ---------------------------------------------------Workers in establishments providing
no paid vacations -------------------------------------

“

Amount of vacation p a y 5
After 6 months of service
Under 1 week -------------------------------------------1 week ___________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks --------------------------2 weeks ___________________________________
After 1 year of service
Under 1 week ------------------------------------------1 week -----------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks -------------------------2 weeks __________________________________
After 2 years of service
Under 1 week ----------------- ------------------------1 week ----------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------2 weeks ------------------------- -------------------------

_

24

_

_

After 3 years of service
Under 1 week ----------------- — -------------------1 week _____________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ---------------------------

See footnotes at end of table.




.

.

6
94

_

13
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued

Vacation policy

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Charleston, W. Va. , April I960)
OFFICE WORKERS
All industries *

Manufacturing

After 5 years of service
Under 1 week _____ __________ __________
1 week --------------------------- ------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks __________________
2 weeks --------------------- ------ -------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks __________________
3 weeks ---------------------------------------------- -----

1
1
97
1

(4)
100
■

After 10 years of service
Under 1 week ---------------------------------------------1 week -------------------------------------------------------2 weeks ___________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks --------------------------3 weeks ------------------------- -------------------------

_
1
43
(4)
56

After 15 years of service
Under 1 week ------------------------------------------1 week ___________________________________
2 weeks ----------------------------- -------------------3 weeks ----------------------------------------------------

Public utilities 2

PLANT WORKERS

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100
-

1
4
2
88
4
1

1
92
7
-

_
100
-

_
(4)
7
1
91

95
5

1
4
39
6
50

_
1
24
10
65

_
94
6

_
1
16
84

_
(4)
2
97

7
93

1
4
13
82

_
1
2
96

4
96

After 20 years of service
Under 1 week _____________________________
1 week ----------------------------------------------------2 weeks __________________________________
3 weeks ---------------------------------------------------4 weeks __________________________________

_
1
15
37
48

_
(4)
2
12
86

_
4
96
(4)

1
4
12
36
47

_
1
1
30
67

.
94
6

After 25 years of service
Under 1 week -------------------------------------------1 week ____________________________________
2 weeks ---------------------------------------------------3 weeks ---------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks --------------------------4 weeks __________________________________

1
15
19
(4)
65

(4)
2
10
1
87

4
45
51

1
4
12
26
2
56

1
1
27
2
68

45
55

Amount of v acatio n p a y 5— C ontinued

1
2
3
4
5
s e r v ic e

In clu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le t r a d e ; r e t a il t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n to t h o se in d u s tr y d iv is io n s sh ow n se p a r a te ly .* •
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
In clu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le t r a d e , r e t a il t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n to t h o se in d u s tr y d iv is io n s sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b it r a r i ly c h o s e n and d o not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the in d iv id u a l p r o v is i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n s .
F o r e x a m p le , the ch a n g e s in p r o p o r t io n s in d ic a t e d at 10 y e a r s '
in clu d e ch a n g e s in p r o v is i o n s o c c u r r in g b e tw e e n 5 and 10 y e a r s .

N O T E : In the ta b u la tio n s o f v a c a t io n a llo w a n c e s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , p a y m e n ts o th e r than " le n g t h o f t i m e , "
t o an e q u iv a le n t tim e b a s is ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d a s 1 w e e k 's p a y .




su c h a s p e r c e n t a g e o f a n nual e a r n in g s o r f l a t - s u m p a y m e n t s ,

w e re co n v e r te d

Table B-6. Health, Insurpnce, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e and pla n t w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s t r ie s and in in d u s t r y d iv is io n s e m p lo y e d in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
h ea lth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e fit s , C h a r le s t o n , W . V a . , A p r i l I960)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE W O RK ERS

T y p e o f b e n e fit
All industries 1

A l l w o r k e r s ___________________________ ______ ______

Manufacturing

100

100

92

99

29

16

87

93

55
43

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Piftdio utilities2

100

100

100

100

91

91

43

35

100
32

87
40

98

90

97

90

91

3

79

97

16

19

92

12

1

51

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g ;
L ife in s u r a n c e ------------- ---------------------------------A c c id e n t a l d ea th and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e _____________________________________
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s i c k le a v e o r b o t h 4 __________________________
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t i n s u r a n c e ________
S ic k le a v e (fu ll p a y and no
w a itin g p e r io d ) ___________________________
S ic k le a v e (p a r t ia l p a y o r
w a itin g p e r io d ) _________________ ________
H o s p ita liz a t io n i n s u r a n c e ____________________
S u r g ic a l i n s u r a n c e ------------------------------------------M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e
__________________________
C a t a s t r o p h e i n s u r a n c e ________________________
R e t ir e m e n t p e n s i o n ___ ______________________
N o h ea lth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n _____

37

69

5

43

61

25

89
85
74
31
87
1

98
98
90
10
95
1

66
66
60
55
86

92
86
73
20
81

99
99
87
10
92

77
77
62
59
82

1

'
1 I n clu d e s da ta f o r w h o le s a le t r a d e ; r e t a il t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v is i o n s sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
3 In c lu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le t r a d e , r e t a il t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n to th o s e in d u s t r y d i v is i o n s sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .
4 U n d u p lic a te d t o ta l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s i c k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly b e lo w .
S ic k -l e a v e p la n s a r e li m it e d t o t h o s e w h ic h d e f in it e ly e s t a b l is h at le a s t
the m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s ' p a y that c a n b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p l o y e e .
I n fo r m a l s i c k - l e a v e a llo w a n c e s d e t e r m in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is a r e e x c lu d e d .




15

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller, machine (billing machine

)— Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done oh a fanfold machine.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine

)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




Class A

— Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.

Class B

— Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping* Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A

— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

16

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal entries; may direct class B accounting
clerks.
Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker*s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the files. May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been classified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or assists in locating Material in files. May perform incidental
clerical duties.

CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

17

SECRETARY

TABUL ATIN G-MACHINE OPERATOR

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and making
phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc.
(see transcribing-machine operator).

Does not include transcribing-machine

work

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc.

Does not include transcribing-machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office calls.
May record toll calls and take messages. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
w h^also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's time while at
switchboard.




Class A

— Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.

Does not include
Class B

— Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.

Class C

— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

18

TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST
U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out b ills after calcu latio n s have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s te n c ils , m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in d uplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reportsj or sorting
and distributing incoming m ail.

Class A— Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , punc-

tuation, e tc ., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to m aintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.

Class B— Perform s one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; settin g up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tab les already se t up and spaced properly.

PR O FE S SIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and q u an tities;
w riting sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

P lans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assig n in g
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or as a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

A registered nurse who gives nursing serv ice to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accid en t on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combina­
tion of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accid en t reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting p hysical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail drawings from n o tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
p o ses. D uties involve a combination of the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail draw ings, m aps, cro ss-sectio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




TRACER
Copies plans and draw ings prepared by o thers, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

19

M A INTENANCE

D PO W E R PL A N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Perform s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carp en ter's handtools, portable
power tools, and standard m easuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eed s fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Perform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipm ent; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other specifications;.locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician 's handtools and m easuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: O perating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded.




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; assistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working area s; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform sp ecialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, sp eed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting w ritten instructions and
sp ecificatio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
c h in ist's handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

20

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m ach in ist's work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b uses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves most of the following: Examining m achines and m echan­
ical equipm ent to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is ­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a rep lace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten sp ecificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making all n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in stalls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to stre s se s , strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L ubricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and m easuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten sp ecificatio n s; cutting various siz es of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
whether finished pipes meet sp ecificatio n s. In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

21

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
K eeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding in stallatio n of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; in stallin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plum ber's snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F ab ricates, in sta lls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetm etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, m etal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, m odels,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sh eetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(D iem aker; jig maker; toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and w ritten sp ecificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; settin g up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die m aker's
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CU STO D IA L AND M A TER IA L M OVEM ENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
T ransports oassengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

GUARD

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued
or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

Performs routine police d u ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehousem an or w arehouse helper)

A worker employed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or more of the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

2 2

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting dev ices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; tran s­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specifications on sa le s slip s, custom ers’
orders, or other instru ctio n s. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders, req u isi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selectio n of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container; applying labels^>r
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P repares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receiv es and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available m eans of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting w eight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. Receiving work involves: V eri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follow s:

Receiving clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
Shipping clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various types of e sta b ­
lishm ents such as: M anufacturing p lants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or betw een retail establishm ents
and custom ers' houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are c lassified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (com bination o f s iz e s liste d separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)

Truckdriver, medium (IV2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled gaso lin e- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)

Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ain st fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : I960 O - 558153







O ccu p atio n al Wage S urveys
O ccupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960. T hese bulletins, when available,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, W ashington 25, D .C., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown on the inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor m arkets, combined with additional an aly sis, w ill be issu ed early in 1961.
B ulletins for the areas listed below are now available.

Allentown—Bethlehem —E aston, P a .—N .J., March I960—
BLS Bull. 1265-33, price 25 cents
Baltimore, Md., September 1959—BLS BuIL 1265-7, price 15 cents
Birmingham, A la., March I960—BLS Bull. 1265-37, price 25 cents
Boston, M ass., October 1959—BLS BuIL 1265-8, price 25 cents
Buffalo, N.Y., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-4, price 20 cents
Canton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-10, price 25 cents

M em p h is, T e n n ., J a n u a ry I960—B L S B u ll. 1265-19, p r ic e 25 c e n t s
M iam i, F la ., D e c e m b e r 1959—B L S B u ll. 1265-6, p r ic e 20 c e n t s
M in n e a p o lis —S t. P a u l, M in n ., J a n u a r y I960—B L S B u ll. 1265-21,
p r ic e 25 c e n t s
N ew a rk an d J e r s e y C ity , N .J ., F eb ru a ry I960—B L S B u ll. 1265-28,
p r ic e 25 c e n t s
N e w O r le a n s , L a ., F eb ru a ry I960—B L S B u ll. 1265*32,
p r ic e 25 c e n t s

C incinnati, Ohio—Ky., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265-31,
price 25 cents
Cleveland, Ohio, September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
D allas, T ex., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-3, price 20 cents
Dayton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-9, price 25 cents
Denver, Colo., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-11, price 25 cents
Des Moines, Iowa, February I960—BLS Bull. 1265*30, price 25 cents

P h ila d e lp h ia , P a ., N o v e m b e r 1959—B L S B u ll. 1265*16,
p r ic e 25 c e n t s
P itts b u r g h , P a ., D e c e m b e r 1959—B L S B u ll. 1265-20, p r ic e 25 c e n t s
P o r tla n d , M a in e, N o v e m b e r 1959—B L S B u ll. 1265*12, p r ic e 20 c e n t s
R ic h m o n d , V a ., F eb ru a ry I960—B L S B u ll. 1265-24, p r ic e 25 c e n t s
S t. L o u is , M o., O c to b e r 1959—B L S B u ll. 1265-5, p r ic e 25 c e n t s
S an B e r n a r d in o —R iv e r s id e —O n ta rio , C a lif ., N o v e m b e r 1959—
B L S B u ll. 1265-15, p r ic e 25 c e n t s

D etroit, Mich., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-25, price 20 cents
Fort Worth, T ex., November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-13, price 25 cents
Indianapolis, Ind., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265*22, price 25 cents
Jackson, M iss., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265^26, price 25 cents
Jacksonville, F la., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-14, price 25 cents
K ansas City, Mo.—K ans., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-23,
price 25 cents
Los A ngeles—Long Beach, C alif., April I960—BLS Bull. 1265-35,
price 25 cents

San F ran cisco —Oakland, C alif., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-17,
price 25 cents
Seattle, Wash., August 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-2, price 25 cents
Sioux F a lls, S. Dak., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265-29, price 20 cents
South Bend, Ind., April 1960-B LS Bull. 1265*38, price 25 cen ts
W ashington, D .C .—Md.—V a., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-18,
price 25 cents
Waterbury, Conn., March I960—BLS Bull. 1265*36, price 25 cents
York, P a., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265-27, price 25 cents








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102