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Occupational Outlook Handbook  2010-11 Library Edition  U.S. Department of Labor Hilda L. Solis, Secretary U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Keith Hall, Commissioner January 2010 Bulletin 2800  Suggested citation: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Library Edition, Bulletin 2800. Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.  U.S. GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL EDITION NOTICE U.S. GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL EDITION NOTICE Legal Status and Use of Trademarks, Logos and Seals The seal of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Legal Status this andpublication Use of Trademarks, Logos Seals authenticates as the Official U.S.and Government The seal of of Labor Statistics authenticates edition of the theU.S. BLSBureau Occupational Outlook (BLS) Handbook, a nationally this publication as the Official U.S. Government edition of the BLSduties, recognized source of career information describing the job Occupational Outlook Handbook, a nationally recognized working conditions, training requirements, earnings,source and job ofprospects career information describing the job duties, working in a wide variety of occupations. conditions, training requirements, earnings, and job prospects in a wide variety of occupations. Under the provisions of 15 U.S.C § 1125 and 18 U.S.C. § 709, the unauthorized use of this seal is prohibited and subject to civil Under the provisions of 15including U.S.C § 1125 18imprisonment. U.S.C. § 709, the and criminal penalties finesand and unauthorized use of this seal is prohibited and subject to civil and criminal penalties including fines and imprisonment. Use of ISBN This is the Official U.S. Government edition of this publication and is herein identified to certify its authenticity. Use of the 978-0-16-084318-1 Use of ISBN PrefixISBN is for U.S. Government Printing Office Official only.Government The Superintendent ofpublication Documents of This is theEditions Official U.S. edition of this and U.S.identified Government Printing Office requests any ISBN reprinted isthe herein to certify its authenticity. Use of that the 0-16 edition be labeled clearly as a copy of the authentic work prefix is for U.S. Government Printing Office Official Editions with a new The ISBN. only. Superintendent of Documents of the U.S. Government Printing Office requests that any reprinted edition be labeled clearly as a copy of the authentic work with a new ISBN.  Suggested citation: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07 Library Edition, Bulletin 2600. Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 2006.  78588-7  For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800 Fax: (202) 512-2104 Mail: Stop IDCC, Washington, DC 20402-0001 I S B N 978-0-16-084318-1  5887  Guide to the Handbook •	The job outlook between 2008 and 2018 is discussed in Overview of the 2008-2018 Projections, page 1.  •	 Additional sources of information on careers and State occupational employment projections are described in Sources of Career Informa­tion, page 12.  •	 Additional sources of information are described in Sources of Education, Training, and Financial Aid, page 17.  •	 Job search methods and tips on applying for a job and evaluating a job offer are discussed in Finding and Applying for Jobs and Evaluating Offers, page 20.  •	 Highlights and an explanation of information presented in the Handbook, how the information was acquired, and hints on how to interpret this information, appear in Occu­pational Information Included in the Hand­book, page 25.  •	 Brief descriptions of the nature of the work, the number of jobs in 2008,  the projected employment change over the 2008-18 period, and the most significant source of postsecondary education or training, are presented in Data for Occupations Not Covered in Detail, page 823.  •	 The assumptions and methods underlying BLS projections are described in Assumptions and Methods Used in Preparing Employment Projections, page 834.  •	 O*NET titles and codes that are related to Handbook occupations are listed in Occupational Information Network (O*NET  ) Coverage, page 836.  •	 An alphabetical list of of occupations found in the Handbook is presented in the Index, page 847.  •	 A description of BLS employ­ment outlook information on the Internet appears at the end of the Handbook.  •	Information  about a publication closely related to the Handbook— Occupational Outlook Quarterly —appears on the inside back cover.  Acknowledgments The Bureau of Labor Statistics produced the Handbook under the general guidance and direction of Dixie Sommers, Associate Commissioner for Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, and Kristina J. Bartsch, Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections. Chester C. Levine and Roger J. Moncarz, Managers of Occupational Outlook Studies, provided planning and day-to-day direction. Supervisors overseeing the research and preparation of material were Douglas Braddock, Arlene Dohm, Teresa L. Morisi, Henry T. Kasper, Sheryl Konigsberg, Terry Schau, and Michael Wolf. Occupational analysts who contributed material were Phillip C. Bastian, Adam Bibler, Diana Gehlhaus Carew, Lauren Csorny, Tamara Dillon, Tom DiVincenzo, Jonathan Kelinson, Bradley Kunz, William Lawhorn, Kevin M. McCarron, Colleen D. Teixeira Moffat, Alice Ramey, Mike Rieley, Brian Roberts, Patricia Tate, Dalton B. Terrell, Benjamin Wright, and Ian Wyatt. Editorial work was provided by Kathleen Green, Drew Liming, John Mullins, and Elka Maria Torpey, Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections. Editorial work also was provided by Brian Baker, Edith Baker, Monica Gabor, Casey Homan, Lawrence H. Leith, and Maureen Soyars, Office of Publications and Special Studies, and Eugene Becker and Richard M. Devens, formerly with BLS, all under the supervision of William Parks II, Division Chief, BLS Publishing, and Leslie Brown Joyner, Branch Chief, Editorial Services. Technical and computer programming support was provided by T. Alan Lacey, C. Brett Lockard, Erik A. Savisaar, and D. Terkanian, under the supervision of Eric Figueroa. Ryan Buffkin and Megan Sweitzer also provided technical support. The cover and other art were designed by Keith Tapscott. Drew Liming also contributed art. Photographs were provided by the Department of Labor Photographic Services. The Bureau of Labor Statistics also wishes to express its appreciation for the cooperation and assistance of the many organizations and individuals who either contributed photographs or made their facilities available to photographers working for or under contract to the Department of Labor. Situations portrayed in the photographs may not be free of every possible safety or health hazard. Depiction of company or trade name in no way constitutes endorsement by the Department of Labor.  Dedication This edition of the Occupational Outlook Handbook is dedicated to the memory of Michael J. Pilot, who retired in 2005 after 42 years of Federal Government service. Mike’s leadership significantly contributed to the quality of many editions of the Handbook.  iii  Note Many trade associations, professional societies, unions, industrial organizations, and government agencies provide career information that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience of Handbook users, some of these organizations and, in some cases, their Internet addresses are listed at the end of each occupational statement. Although these references were carefully compiled, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has neither authority nor facilities for investigating the organizations or the information or publications that may be sent in response to a request and cannot guarantee the accuracy of such information. The listing of an organization, therefore, does not constitute in any way an endorsement or recommendation by the Bureau either of the organization and its activities or of the information it may supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue. The Handbook describes the job outlook over a projected 10-year period for occupations across the Nation; consequently, short-term labor market fluctuations and regional differences in job outlook generally are not discussed. Similarly, the Handbook provides a general, composite description of jobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should never be used for any legal purpose. For example, the Handbook should not be used as a guide for determining wages, hours of work, the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. Nor should earnings data in the Handbook be used to compute future loss of earnings in adjudication proceedings involving work injuries or accidental deaths. Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Comments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are welcome. Please ­address them to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE., Room 2135, Washington, DC 20212. Phone: (202) 691-5700. FAX: (202) 691-5745. E-mail: oohinfo@bls.gov. Additional information is available on the Internet: http:// www.bls.gov/oco. Information in the Handbook is available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice telephone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.  iv  Contents Insurance underwriters.......................................................... 106 Loan officers......................................................................... 109 Management analysts............................................................ 111 Meeting and convention planners......................................... 115 Personal financial advisors.................................................... 118 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents..................... 121  Special Features Overview of the 2008-2018 Projections........................ 1 Sources of Career Information .................................. 12 Sources of Education, Training, and Financial Aid . ................................................... 17 Finding and Applying for Jobs and Evaluating Offers ............................................. 20 Occupational Information Included in the Handbook ....................................................... 25 Data for Occupations Not Covered in Detail . ................................................................. 823 Assumptions and Methods Used in Preparing Employment Projections ................ 834 Occupational Information Network Coverage ......... 836 Index . ......................................................................... 847  Professional and related occupations Computer and mathematical occupations Actuaries............................................................................... 125 Computer network, systems, and database administrators.................................................................... 128 Computer scientists............................................................... 132 Computer software engineers and computer programmers..................................................... 134 Computer support specialists................................................ 138 Computer systems analysts................................................... 140 Mathematicians..................................................................... 143 Operations research analysts................................................. 145 Statisticians........................................................................... 148  Occupational Coverage  Architects, surveyors, and cartographers Architects, except landscape and naval................................. 151 Landscape architects............................................................. 154 Surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying and mapping technicians............................ 157  Management, business, and financial occupations Management occupations Administrative services managers.......................................... 29 Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers.............................................. 32 Computer and information systems managers........................ 35 Construction managers............................................................ 38 Education administrators........................................................ 41 Engineering and natural sciences managers........................... 46 Farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers........................ 48 Financial managers................................................................. 52 Food service managers............................................................ 55 Funeral directors..................................................................... 58 Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists..................................................... 61 Industrial production managers............................................... 67 Lodging managers................................................................... 70 Medical and health services managers.................................... 73 Property, real estate, and community association managers........................................................... 76 Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents................................................................ 79 Top executives......................................................................... 83  Engineers ............................................................................161 Drafters and engineering technicians Drafters................................................................................. 170 Engineering technicians........................................................ 173 Life scientists Agricultural and food scientists............................................ 177 Biological scientists.............................................................. 181 Conservation scientists and foresters.................................... 185 Medical scientists.................................................................. 189 Physical scientists Atmospheric scientists.......................................................... 192 Chemists and materials scientists.......................................... 195 Environmental scientists and specialists............................... 199 Geoscientists and hydrologists.............................................. 202 Physicists and astronomers................................................... 206 Social scientists and related occupations Economists . ......................................................................... 209 Market and survey researchers.............................................. 212 Psychologists........................................................................ 215 Urban and regional planners................................................. 220 Sociologists and political scientists...................................... 223 Social scientists, other........................................................... 226  Business and financial operations occupations Accountants and auditors........................................................ 86 Appraisers and assessors of real estate................................... 90 Budget analysts....................................................................... 93 Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators................................................................. 96 Cost estimators...................................................................... 100 Financial analysts.................................................................. 103  Science technicians . ...........................................................230 Community and social services occupations Counselors............................................................................. 234 Health educators .................................................................. 238  v  Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists.......................................................... 241 Social and human service assistants..................................... 244 Social workers....................................................................... 246  Pharmacists........................................................................... 374 Physical therapists................................................................. 377 Physician assistants............................................................... 379 Physicians and surgeons....................................................... 381 Podiatrists.............................................................................. 385 Radiation therapists............................................................... 387 Recreational therapists.......................................................... 389 Registered nurses.................................................................. 392 Respiratory therapists............................................................ 397 Speech-language pathologists............................................... 399 Veterinarians......................................................................... 402  Legal occupations Court reporters...................................................................... 250 Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers.................... 253 Lawyers................................................................................. 257 Paralegals and legal assistants............................................... 261 Education, training, library, and museum occupations Archivists, curators, and museum technicians...................... 265 Instructional coordinators..................................................... 268 Librarians.............................................................................. 270 Library technicians and library assistants............................. 273 Teacher assistants.................................................................. 276 Teachers—adult literacy and remedial education................. 279 Teachers—postsecondary..................................................... 282 Teachers—preschool, except special education.................... 286 Teachers—kindergarten, elementary, middle, and secondary....................................................... 288 Teachers—self-enrichment education................................... 292 Teachers—special education................................................. 294 Teachers—vocational............................................................ 298  Health technologists and technicians Athletic trainers..................................................................... 405 Cardiovascular technologists and technicians....................... 408 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians................. 411 Dental hygienists................................................................... 414 Diagnostic medical sonographers......................................... 416 Emergency medical technicians and paramedics.................. 419 Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses................ 421 Medical records and health information technicians............ 423 Nuclear medicine technologists............................................ 426 Occupational health and safety specialists............................ 428 Occupational health and safety technicians.......................... 431 Opticians, dispensing............................................................ 434 Pharmacy technicians and aides............................................ 436 Radiologic technologists and technicians............................. 438 Surgical technologists........................................................... 441 Veterinary technologists and technicians.............................. 443  Art and design occupations Artists and related workers................................................... 301 Commercial and industrial designers.................................... 304 Fashion designers.................................................................. 307 Floral designers..................................................................... 310 Graphic designers.................................................................. 312 Interior designers.................................................................. 314  Other professional and related occupations Epidemiologists.................................................................... 446 Respiratory therapy technicians............................................ 446  Service occupations  Entertainers and performers, sports and related ­occupations Actors, producers, and directors........................................... 318 Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers.................. 321 Dancers and choreographers................................................. 325 Musicians, singers, and related workers............................... 328  Healthcare support occupations Dental assistants.................................................................... 447 Home health aides and personal and home care aides.......... 449 Massage therapists................................................................ 452 Medical assistants................................................................. 455 Medical transcriptionists....................................................... 457 Nursing and psychiatric aides............................................... 460 Occupational therapist assistants and aides.......................... 462 Physical therapist assistants and aides.................................. 465  Media and communication-related occupations Announcers........................................................................... 331 Authors, writers, and editors................................................. 333 Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators............................................................ 337 Interpreters and translators.................................................... 340 News analysts, reporters, and correspondents...................... 344 Photographers....................................................................... 347 Public relations specialists.................................................... 350 Technical writers................................................................... 353 Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors......................................................... 356  Protective service occupations Correctional officers.............................................................. 467 Fire fighters........................................................................... 470 Police and detectives............................................................. 473 Private detectives and investigators....................................... 477 Security guards and gaming surveillance officers................ 481 Food preparation and serving related occupations Chefs, head cooks, and food preparation and serving supervisors............................................................ 484 Cooks and food preparation workers.................................... 487 Food and beverage serving and related workers................... 491  Health diagnosing and treating practitioners Audiologists.......................................................................... 358 Chiropractors......................................................................... 360 Dentists................................................................................. 363 Dietitians and nutritionists.................................................... 366 Occupational therapists......................................................... 369 Optometrists.......................................................................... 371  Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations Building cleaning workers.................................................... 495  vi  Grounds maintenance workers.............................................. 498 Pest control workers.............................................................. 501  Communications equipment operators................................. 588 Computer operators............................................................... 589 Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks............................... 589 Data entry and information processing workers................... 590 Dispatchers, except police, fire, and ambulance................... 590 Eligibility interviewers, government programs..................... 591 File clerks.............................................................................. 591 Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks...................................... 592 Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping................................................................ 592 Interviewers, except eligibility and loan............................... 593 Loan interviewers and clerks................................................ 593 Meter readers, utilities.......................................................... 594 Office and administrative support worker supervisors and managers.................................................. 594 Order clerks........................................................................... 595 Payroll and timekeeping clerks............................................. 595 Police, fire, and ambulance dispatchers................................ 595 Postal Service clerks............................................................. 596 Postal Service mail sorters, processers, and processing ­machine operators........................................... 596 Procurement clerks................................................................ 597 Production, planning, and expediting clerks......................... 597 Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks................................................................. 598 Stock clerks and order fillers................................................. 598 Tellers.................................................................................... 599 Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping............................................. 599  Personal care and service occupations Animal care and service workers.......................................... 504 Barbers, cosmetologists, and other personal appearance workers........................................................... 507 Child care workers................................................................ 510 Fitness workers..................................................................... 513 Flight attendants.................................................................... 517 Gaming services occupations................................................ 520 Recreation workers............................................................... 522 Other service occupations Fire inspectors and investigators........................................... 525 Makeup artists, theatrical and performance.......................... 526  Sales and related occupations Advertising sales agents........................................................ 527 Cashiers................................................................................. 530 Demonstrators and product promoters.................................. 532 Insurance sales agents........................................................... 534 Models................................................................................... 537 Real estate brokers and sales agents..................................... 540 Retail salespersons................................................................ 543 Sales engineers...................................................................... 545 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing............ 547 Sales worker supervisors....................................................... 551 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents.......................................................... 553 Travel agents......................................................................... 557  Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations  Other sales and related occupations Counter and rental clerks...................................................... 560  Fishers and fishing vessel operators...................................... 601 Forest and conservation workers........................................... 604 Logging workers................................................................... 606 Agricultural workers, other................................................... 609  Office and administrative support occupations Financial clerks Bill and account collectors.................................................... 561 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks..................... 563 Gaming cage workers........................................................... 565  Other farming, fishing, and forestry occupations Agricultural inspectors.......................................................... 612 Graders and sorters, agricultural products............................ 612  Information and record clerks Customer service representatives.......................................... 567 Receptionists and information clerks.................................... 570  Construction trades and related workers Boilermakers......................................................................... 613 Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons...................... 615 Carpenters............................................................................. 618 Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers........................ 621 Cement masons, concrete finishers, segmental pavers, and ­terrazzo workers............................................. 625 Construction and building inspectors.................................... 628 Construction equipment operators........................................ 632 Construction laborers............................................................ 635 Drywall and ceiling tile installers, tapers, plasterers, and ­stucco masons............................................ 638 Electricians............................................................................ 641 Elevator installers and repairers............................................ 644 Glaziers................................................................................. 647 Hazardous materials removal workers.................................. 650 Insulation workers................................................................. 653 Painters and paperhangers..................................................... 656 Plumbers, pipelayers, pipefitters, and steamfitters................ 659  Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and ­distributing occupations Cargo and freight agents....................................................... 572 Couriers and messengers....................................................... 573 Postal Service mail carriers................................................... 575 Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks.................................. 577 Miscellaneous office and administrative support ­occupations Desktop publishers................................................................ 579 Office clerks, general............................................................ 581 Secretaries and administrative assistants.............................. 583 Other office and administrative support occupations Billing and posting clerks and machine operators................ 587 Brokerage clerks................................................................... 588  vii  Roofers.................................................................................. 662 Sheet metal workers.............................................................. 665 Structural and reinforcing iron and metal workers............... 668  Computer control programmers and operators..................... 731 Machine setters, operators, and tenders— metal and plastic................................................................ 734 Machinists............................................................................. 737 Tool and die makers.............................................................. 740 Welding, soldering, and brazing workers.............................. 743  Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations Electrical and electronic equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers.............................................................. 672 Electrical and electronics installers and repairers................. 675 Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and ­repairers....................................................... 678 Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and ­repairers....................................................... 680  Printing occupations Bookbinders and bindery workers........................................ 746 Prepress technicians and workers......................................... 748 Printing machine operators................................................... 750 Textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations ................. 753 Woodworkers . .................................................................... 757 Plant and system operators Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers............. 760 Stationary engineers and boiler operators............................. 763 Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators................................................................ 765  Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers Aircraft and avionics equipment mechanics and service ­technicians...................................................... 684 Automotive body and related repairers................................. 687 Automotive service technicians and mechanics.................... 690 Diesel service technicians and mechanics............................ 694 Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics................................................ 697 Small engine mechanics........................................................ 700  Miscellaneous production occupations Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers.............. 768 Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers.................... 770 Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians....................................................... 774 Painting and coating workers, except construction and maintenance................................................................ 778 Semiconductor processors.................................................... 780  Miscellaneous installation, maintenance, and repair occupations Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers.................................................... 703 Home appliance repairers..................................................... 707 Industrial machinery mechanics and millwrights................. 709 Line installers and repairers.................................................. 713 Maintenance and repair workers, general............................. 716 Medical equipment repairers................................................. 718  Other production occupations Photographic process workers and processing machine operators............................................................. 782  Transportation and material moving occupations Air transportation occupations Air traffic controllers............................................................. 784 Aircraft pilots and flight engineers....................................... 787  Other installation, maintenance, and repair occupations Camera and photographic equipment repairers.................... 720 Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers...................................................................... 720 Musical instrument repairers and tuners............................... 721 Watch repairers..................................................................... 721  Motor vehicle operators Bus drivers............................................................................ 791 Taxi drivers and chauffeurs................................................... 794 Truck drivers and driver/sales workers................................. 797  Production occupations  Rail transportation occupations........................................ 801  Assemblers and fabricators .............................................. 723  Water transportation occupations . .................................. 805  Food processing occupations . ........................................... 726  Material moving occupations . .......................................... 809  Metal workers and plastic workers  Job Opportunities in the Armed Forces . ................813  viii  Additional Information About the 2008–18 Projections Readers interested in more information about the projections; about the methods and assumptions that underlie them; or about details on economic growth, the labor force, or industry and occupational employment, should consult the November 2009 Monthly Labor Review, or the Winter 2009–10 Occupational Outlook Quarterly. More information about employment change, job openings, earnings, and training requirements by occupation is available on the Bureau’s Employment Projections homepage at http://www.bls.gov/emp. The Career Guide to Industries, which presents occupational information from an industry perspective, is also accessible.  x  Overview of the 2008–2018 Projections Job openings result from the relationship between the population, labor force, and demand for goods and services. The population restricts the size of the labor force, which consists of working individuals and those looking for work. The size and productivity of the labor force limits the quantity of goods and services that can be produced. In addition, changes in the demand for goods and services influence which industries expand or contract. Industries respond by hiring the workers necessary to produce goods and provide services. However, improvements to technology and productivity, changes in which occupations perform certain tasks, and changes to the supply of workers all affect which occupations will be employed by those industries. Examining past and present changes to these relationships in order to project future shifts is the foundation of the Employment Projections Program. This chapter presents highlights of population, labor force, and occupational and industry employment projections for 2008−2018. Sources of additional information about the projections appear on the preceding page.  Population  Chart 1. Numeric change in the population and labor force Labor force Increase (millions)  30  Civilian noninstitutional population  28.6  25.1  25 20.6  20 16.0  16.6  15  12.6  10  5  Shifts in the size and composition of the population can create a number of changes to the U.S. economy. Most importantly, population trends produce corresponding changes in the size and composition of the labor force. The U.S. civilian noninstitutional population, including individuals aged 16 and older, is expected to increase by 25.1 million from 2008 to 2018 (chart 1). The projected 2008–18 growth rate of 10.7 percent is less than the 11.2-percent growth rate for the 1988–98 period and the 13.9-percent rate for the 1998–2008 period. As in the past few decades, population growth will vary by age group, race, and ethnicity. As the baby boomers continue to age, the 55 and older age group is projected to increase by 29.7 percent, more than any other age group. Meanwhile, the 45 to 54 age group is expected to decrease by 4.4 percent, reflecting the slower birth rate following the baby-boom generation. The 35 to 44 age group is anticipated to experience little change, with a growth rate of 0.2 percent, while the population aged 16 to 24 will grow 3.4 percent over the projection period. Minorities and immigrants are expected to constitute a larger share of the U.S. population in 2018. The numbers of Asians and people of Hispanic origin are projected to continue to grow much faster than other racial and ethnic groups.  all other groups will increase their share (chart 2). Among ethnic groups, persons of Hispanic origin are projected to increase their share of the labor force from 14.3 percent to 17.6 percent, reflecting 33.1 percent growth. The number of women in the labor force will grow at a slightly faster rate than the number of men. The male labor force is projected to grow by 7.5 percent from 2008 to 2018, compared with 9.0 percent for the female labor force. The share of the youth labor force, workers aged 16 to 24, is expected to decrease from 14.3 percent in 2008 to 12.7 percent by 2018. The primary working-age group, those between 25 and 54 years old, is projected to decline from 67.7 percent of the labor force in 2008 to 63.5 percent by 2018. Workers aged 55 years and older, by contrast, are anticipated to leap from 18.1 percent to 23.9 percent of the labor force during the same period (chart 3).  Labor force  Employment  Population is the single most important factor in determining the size and composition of the labor force. The civilian labor force is projected to reach 166.9 million by 2018, which is an increase of 8.2 percent. The U.S. workforce is expected to become more diverse by 2018. Among racial groups, Whites are expected to make up a decreasing share of the labor force, while Blacks, Asians, and  Total employment is expected to increase by 10 percent from 2008 to 2018. However, the 15.3 million jobs expected to be added by 2018 will not be evenly distributed across major industry and occupational groups. Changes in consumer demand, improvements in technology, and many other factors will contribute to the continually changing employment structure of the U.S. economy.  0  1988–98  1998–2008  2008–18 (projected)  Period  1  2 Occupational Outlook Handbook Chart 2. Percent of labor force, by race and ethnic origin  Percent of labor force 100  2008 2018 (projected)  85.7 81.4  80  82.4  79.4  Employment change by industry  60  40  17.6  20  14.3  11.5 12.1 4.7 5.6  0  White  The next two sections examine projected employment change within industries and occupations. The industry perspective is discussed in terms of wage and salary employment. The exception is employment in agriculture, which includes the selfemployed and unpaid family workers in addition to wage and salary workers. The occupational profile is viewed in terms of total employment—including wage and salary, self-employed, and unpaid family workers.  Black  Asian  2.4 2.9  All other Other than Hispanic race Hispanic origin groups origin  Race and ethnic origin NOTE: The four race groups add to the total labor force. The two ethnic origin groups also add to the total labor force. Hispanics may be of any race.  Chart 3. Percent of labor force, by age group  Goods-producing industries. Employment in goods-producing industries has declined since the 1990s. Although overall employment is expected to change little, projected growth among goods-producing industries varies considerably (chart 4). Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction. Employment in mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction is expected to decrease by 14 percent by 2018. Employment in support activities for mining will be responsible for most of the job loss in this industry with a decline of 23 percent. Other mining industries, such as nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying and coal mining, are expected to see little or no change or a small increase in employment. Employment stagnation in these industries is attributable mainly to strict environmental regulations and technology gains that boost worker productivity. Construction. Employment in construction is expected to rise 19 percent. Demand for commercial construction and an increase in road, bridge, and tunnel construction will account for the bulk of job growth. Manufacturing. Overall employment in this sector will decline by 9 percent as productivity gains, automation, and international competition adversely affect employment in most manufacturing industries. Employment in household appliance manufacturing is expected to decline by 24 percent over the decade. Similarly, employment in machinery manufacturing, apparel manufacturing, and computer and electronic product  2008  Percent of labor force  2018 (Projected)  25 21.6  22.1  23.9  23.3  22.7 20.8  Chart 4. Numeric change in wage and salary employment in goods-producing industries, 2008–18 (projected)  20.6  20  Construction  18.1  15  1,337  14.3  Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting  -17  12.7  10 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction  -104  5 Manufacturing  -1,206  0  16 to 24  25 to 34  35 to 44 Age group  45 to 54  55 years and older  -1,200  -600  0 Thousands of jobs  600  1,200  Overview of the 2008–2018 Projections 3  manufacturing will decline as well. However, employment in a few manufacturing industries will increase. For example, employment in pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing is expected to grow by 6 percent by 2018; however, this increase is expected to add only 17,600 new jobs. Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting. Overall employment in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting is expected to decrease by 1 percent. Employment is projected to continue to decline because of rising costs of production, increasing consolidation, and more imports of food and lumber. Within this sector, the only industry that is expected to add jobs is support activities for agriculture and forestry, which includes farm labor contractors and farm management services. This industry is anticipated to grow by 13 percent, but this corresponds to an increase of only 13,800 new jobs. Service-providing industries. The shift in the U.S. economy away from goods-producing in favor of service-providing is expected to continue. Service-providing industries are anticipated to generate approximately 14.5 million new wage and salary jobs. As with goods-producing industries, growth among service-providing industries will vary (chart 5). Utilities. Employment in utilities is projected to decrease by 11 percent through 2018. Despite increased output, employment in electric power generation, transmission, and distribution and in natural gas distribution is expected to decline because of improved technology that will increase worker productivity. However, employment in the water, sewage, and other systems industry is anticipated to increase 13 percent by 2018. As the population continues to grow, more water treatment facilities are being built. Further, changing Federal and State Government water quality regulations may require more workers to ensure that water is safe to drink and to release into the environment. Chart 5. Numeric change in wage and salary employment in service-providing industries, 2008–18 (projected)  Healthcare and social assistance  4,017  Professional, scientific, and technical services  2,657  Educational services  1,683  Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services  1,431  Accommodation and food services  838  Government  788  Other services (except government)  704  Retail trade  654  Transportation and warehousing  446  Finance and insurance  322  Arts, entertainment, and recreation  304  Wholesale trade  256  Real estate and rental and leasing  236  Information  118  Management of companies and enterprises  102  Utilities  -59  -1000 ,  0  1,000  Thousands of jobs  2,000  3,000  4,000  5,000  Wholesale trade. The number of workers in wholesale trade is expected to increase by 4 percent, adding about 255,900 jobs. The consolidation of wholesale trade firms into fewer and larger companies will contribute to slower-than-average employment growth in the industry. Retail trade. Employment in retail trade is expected to increase by 4 percent. Despite slower-than-average growth, this industry is projected to add about 654,000 new jobs over the 2008–18 period. Slower job growth reflects both continued consolidation and slower growth in personal consumption than in the previous decade. Transportation and warehousing. Employment in transportation and warehousing is expected to increase by 10 percent, adding about 445,500 jobs to the industry total. Truck transportation is anticipated to grow by 10 percent, and the warehousing and storage sector is projected to grow by 12 percent. Demand for truck transportation and warehousing services will expand as many manufacturers concentrate on their core competencies and contract out their product transportation and storage ­functions. Information. Employment in the information sector is expected to increase by 4 percent, adding 118,100 jobs by 2018. The sector contains fast-growing computer-related industries. The data-processing, hosting, and related services industry, which is expected to grow by 53 percent, includes establishments that provide Web and application hosting and streaming services. Internet publishing and broadcasting is expected to grow rapidly as it gains market share from newspapers and other more traditional media. Software publishing is projected to grow by 30 percent as organizations of all types continue to adopt the newest software products. The information sector also includes the telecommunications industry, whose employment is projected to decline 9 percent. Despite an increase in demand for telecommunications services, more reliable networks along with consolidation among organizations will lead to productivity gains, reducing the need for workers. In addition, employment in the publishing industry is expected to decline by 5 percent, which is the result of increased efficiency in production, declining newspaper revenues, and a trend towards using more freelance workers. Finance and insurance. The finance and insurance industry is expected to increase by 5 percent from 2008 to 2018. Employment in the securities, commodity contracts, and other financial investments and related activities industry is projected to expand 12 percent by 2018, which reflects the number of baby boomers in their peak savings years, the growth of taxfavorable retirement plans, and the globalization of securities markets. Employment in the credit intermediation and related activities industry, which includes banks, will grow by about 5 percent, adding 42 percent of all new jobs within the finance and insurance sector. Employment in the insurance carriers and related activities industry is expected to grow by 3 percent, translating into 67,600 new jobs by 2018. The number of jobs in the agencies, brokerages, and other insurance-related activities industry is expected to grow by 14 percent. Growth will stem from both the needs of an increasing population and new insurance products on the market.  4 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Real estate and rental and leasing. The real estate and rental and leasing industry is expected to grow by 11 percent through 2018. Growth will be due, in part, to increased demand for housing as the population expands. The fastest growing industry in the real estate and rental and leasing services sector will be lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets (except copyrighted works), increasing by 34 percent over the projection period. Professional, scientific, and techncal services. Employment in professional, scientific, and technical services is projected to grow by 34 percent, adding about 2.7 million new jobs by 2018. Employment in computer systems design and related services is expected to increase by 45 percent, accounting for nearly one-fourth of all new jobs in this industry sector. Employment growth will be driven by growing demand for the design and integration of sophisticated networks and Internet and intranet sites. Employment in management, scientific, and technical consulting services is anticipated to expand at a staggering 83 percent, making up about 31 percent of job growth in this sector. Demand for these services will be spurred by businesses’ continued need for advice on planning and logistics, the implementation of new technologies, and compliance with workplace safety, environmental, and employment regulations. Management of companies and enterprises. Management of companies and enterprises is projected to grow relatively slowly, by 5 percent, as companies focus on reorganization to increase efficiency. Administrative and support and waste management and ­remediation services. Employment in this sector is expected to grow by 18 percent by 2018. The largest growth will occur in employment services, an industry that is anticipated to account for 42 percent of all new jobs in the administrative and support and waste management and remediation services sector. The employment services industry ranks fifth among industries with the most new employment opportunities in the Nation over the 2008–18 period and is expected to grow faster than the average for all industries. Projected growth stems from the strong need for seasonal and temporary workers and for specialized human resources services. Educational services. Employment in public and private educational services is anticipated to grow by 12 percent, adding about 1.7 million new jobs through 2018. Rising student enrollments at all levels of education will create demand for educational services. Healthcare and social assistance. About 26 percent of all new jobs created in the U.S. economy will be in the healthcare and social assistance industry. This industry—which includes public and private hospitals, nursing and residential care facilities, and individual and family services—is ­expected to grow by 24 percent, or 4 million new jobs. Employment growth will be driven by an aging population and longer life expectancies. Arts, entertainment, and recreation. The arts, entertainment, and recreation industry is expected to grow by 15 percent by 2018. Most of the growth will be in the amusement, gambling, and recreation sector. Job growth will stem from public participation in arts, entertainment, and recreation activities—reflecting increasing incomes, leisure time, and awareness of the health benefits of physical fitness.  Accommodation and food services. Employment in accommodation and food services is expected to grow by 7 percent, adding about 838,200 new jobs through 2018. Job growth will be concentrated in food services and drinking places, reflecting an increase in the population and the convenience of many new food establishments. Other services (except government and private households). Employment is expected to grow by 13 percent in other services. Personal care services comprise the fastest growing industry in this sector, at 32 percent. This industry includes barbers, salons, and spas, which have experienced growing demand as individuals increasingly are seeking to improve their personal appearance. Government. Between 2008 and 2018, government employment, excluding employment in public education and hospitals, is expected to increase by 7 percent. Growth in government employment will be fueled by expanding demand for public safety services and assistance provided to the elderly, but dampened by budgetary constraints and the outsourcing of government jobs to the private sector. State and local governments, excluding education and hospitals, are anticipated to grow by 8 percent as a result of the continued shift of responsibilities from the Federal Government to State and local governments. Federal Government employment, including the Postal Service, is expected to increase by 3 percent.  Employment change by occupation Industry growth or decline will affect demand for occupations. However, job growth is projected to vary among major occupational groups (chart 6). Management, business, and financial occupations. ­Workers in management, business, and financial occupations plan and direct the activities of business, government, and other organizations. Their employment is expected to increase by 11 percent by 2018. These workers will be needed to help organizations navigate the increasingly complex and competitive business Chart 6. Percent change in total employment, by major occupational group, 2008–18 (projected)  Professional and related  17  Service  14  Construction and extraction  13  Management, business, and financial  11  Office and administrative support  8  Installation, maintenance, and repair  8  Sales and related  6  Transportation and material moving  4  Farming, fishing, and forestry  -1  Production  -3 -5  0  5 Percent  10  15  20  Overview of the 2008–2018 Projections 5  environment. A large portion of these jobs will arise in the management, scientific, and technical consulting ­industry sector. A substantial number, in addition, are expected in several other large or rapidly growing industries, including ­government, healthcare and social assistance, finance and insurance, and construction. Employment in management occupations is projected to grow slowly over the projection period, increasing by 5 percent, an addition of 454,300 new jobs. Growth is being affected by declines in several occupations, including farmers and ranchers. Employment of farmers and ranchers is projected to decline as the agricultural industry produces more output with fewer workers. Employment in business and financial operations occupations is projected to grow by 18 percent, resulting in 1.2 million new jobs. Increasing financial regulations and the need for greater accountability will drive demand for accountants and auditors, adding roughly 279,400 jobs to this occupation from 2008 to 2018. Further, an increasingly competitive business environment will grow demand for management analysts, an occupation that is expected to add 178,300 jobs. Together, these two occupations are anticipated to account for 38 percent of new business and financial operations jobs. Professional and related occupations. This occupational group, which includes a wide variety of skilled professions, is expected to be the fastest growing major occupational group, at 17 percent, and is projected to add the most new jobs—about 5.2 million. Employment among healthcare practitioners and technical occupations, a subgroup of the professional and related category, is expected to increase by 21 percent. This growth, resulting in a projected 1.6 million new jobs, will be driven by increasing demand for healthcare services. As the number of older people continues to grow, and as new developments allow for the treatment of more medical conditions, more healthcare professionals will be needed. Education, training, and library occupations are anticipated to add more than 1.3 million jobs, representing a growth rate of more than 14 percent. As the U.S. population increases, and as a larger share of adults seeks educational services, demand for these workers will increase. Computer and mathematical science occupations are projected to add almost 785,700 new jobs from 2008 to 2018. As a group, these occupations are expected to grow more than twice as fast as the average for all occupations in the economy. Demand for workers in computer and mathematical occupations will be driven by the continuing need for businesses, government agencies, and other organizations to adopt and utilize the latest technologies. Employment in community and social services occupations is projected to increase by 16 percent, growing by roughly 448,400 jobs. As health insurance providers increasingly cover mental and behavioral health treatment, and as a growing number of elderly individuals seek social services, demand for these workers will increase. Employment in arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations is expected to grow by 12 percent from 2008 to 2018, resulting in almost 332,600 new jobs. Growth will be  spread broadly across different occupations within the group. Media and communications occupations will add a substantial number of jobs, led by rapid growth among public relations specialists, who will be needed in greater numbers as firms place a greater emphasis on managing their public image. ­Employment among entertainers and performers and those in sports and related occupations also will increase, partly as a result of increasing demand for coaches and scouts. Furthermore, art and design occupations will see substantial growth, with demand increasing for graphic and interior designers. As more advertising is conducted over the Internet, a medium that generally includes many graphics, and as businesses and households increasingly seek professional design services, a greater number of these workers will be needed. Employment in life, physical, and social science occupations is projected to increase by nearly 277,200 jobs over the 2008–18 projection period. This increase represents a growth rate of 19 percent, almost twice the average for all occupations across the economy. About 116,700 of these jobs are expected to be created among social science and related occupations, led by strong growth among market and survey researchers, as businesses increase their marketing efforts in order to remain competitive and as public policy firms and government agencies utilize more public opinion research. Employment in life science occupations, in addition, will increase rapidly as developments from biotechnology research continue to be used to create new medical technologies, treatments, and pharmaceuticals. Architecture and engineering occupations are projected to add roughly 270,600 jobs, representing a growth rate of 10 percent. Much of this growth will occur among engineering occupations, especially civil engineers. As greater emphasis is placed on improving the Nation’s infrastructure, these specialists will be needed to design, implement, or upgrade municipal transportation, water supply, and pollution control systems. Legal occupations will add the fewest new jobs among all professional and related subgroups, increasing by about 188,400. However, with a growth rate of 15 percent, this group will grow faster than the average for all occupations in the economy. Of the new jobs created, lawyers will account for 98,500 while paralegals and legal assistants will account for 74,100. Paralegals and legal assistants are expected to grow by 28 percent as legal establishments begin to expand the role of these workers and assign them more tasks once performed by lawyers. Service occupations. The duties of service workers range from fighting fires to cooking meals. Employment in service occupations is projected to increase by 4.1 million, or 14 percent, which is both the second-largest numerical gain and the secondlargest growth rate among the major occupational groups. Among service occupation subgroups, the largest number of new jobs will occur in healthcare support occupations. With more than 1.1 million new jobs, employment in this subgroup is expected to increase by 29 percent. Much of the growth will be the result of increased demand for healthcare services as the expanding elderly population requires more care. Employment in personal care and service occupations is anticipated to grow by 20 percent over the projection period, adding more than 1 million jobs. As consumers become more concerned with health, beauty, and fitness, the number of cos-  6 Occupational Outlook Handbook  metic and health spas will increase, causing an increase in demand for workers in this group. However, the personal care and ­service group contains a wide variety of occupations, and two of them—personal and home care aides, and child care workers—will account for most of this group’s new jobs. Personal and home care aides will experience increased demand as a growing number of elderly individuals require assistance with daily tasks. Child care workers, in addition, will add jobs as formal preschool programs, which employ child care workers alongside preschool teachers, become more prevalent. Employment in food preparation and serving and related occupations is projected to increase by roughly 1 million jobs from 2008 to 2018, representing a growth rate of 9 percent. Growth will stem from time-conscious consumers patronizing fast-food establishments and full-service restaurants. Employment in building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations is expected to grow by almost 483,900 jobs over the projection period, representing a growth rate of 8 percent. As businesses place a larger emphasis on grounds aesthetics, and as households increasingly rely on contract workers to maintain their yards, grounds maintenance workers will see rapid growth. In addition, more building cleaning workers will be needed to maintain an increasing number of residential and commercial structures. Protective service occupations are expected to gain the fewest new jobs among all service subgroups: about 400,100, or 12-percent growth. These workers protect businesses and other organizations from crime and vandalism. In addition, there will be increased demand for law enforcement officers to support the growing U.S. population. Sales and related occupations. Sales and related workers solicit goods and services for businesses and consumers. Sales and related occupations are expected to add 980,400 new jobs by 2018, growing by 6 percent. As organizations offer a wider array of products and devote an increasing share of their resources to customer service, many new retail salesworkers will be needed. Job growth in this group will be spread across a wide variety of industries, but almost half will occur in retail sales establishments. Office and administrative support occupations. Office and administrative support workers perform the day-to-day activities of the office, such as preparing and filing documents, dealing with the public, and distributing information. Employment in these occupations is expected to grow by 8 percent, adding 1.8 million new jobs by 2018. Customer service representatives are anticipated to add the most new jobs, 399,500, as businesses put an increased emphasis on building customer relationships. Other office and administrative support occupations will experience declines as advanced technology ­improves productivity, decreasing the number of workers necessary to perform some duties. Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations. Farming, fishing, and forestry workers cultivate plants, breed and raise livestock, and catch animals. These occupations are projected to decline by about 1 percent, losing 9,100 jobs, by 2018. Productivity increases in agriculture will lead to declining employment among agricultural workers, offsetting small gains among forest, conservation, and logging workers.  Construction and extraction occupations. Construction and extraction workers build new residential and commercial buildings and also work in mines, quarries, and oil and gas fields. Employment of these workers is expected to grow 13 percent, adding about 1 million new jobs. Construction trades and related workers will account for about 808,400 of these jobs. Growth will result from increased construction of homes, office buildings, and infrastructure projects. Declines in extraction occupations will reflect overall employment stagnation in the mining and oil and gas extraction industries. Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations. Workers in installation, maintenance, and repair occupations install new equipment and maintain and repair older equipment. These occupations are projected to add 440,200 jobs by 2018, growing by 8 percent. More than 1 in 3 new jobs in this group will occur in the construction industry, because these workers are integral to the development of buildings, communication structures, transportation systems, and other types of infrastructure. As construction on these types of projects increases over the projection period, installation, maintenance and repair workers will be needed in greater numbers. Production occupations. Production workers are employed mainly in manufacturing, where they assemble goods and operate plants. Production occupations are expected to decline by 3 percent, losing 349,200 jobs by 2018. As productivity improvements reduce the need for workers, and as a growing number of these jobs are offshored, demand for production workers will decline. Some jobs will be created in production occupations, mostly in food processing and woodworking. Transportation and material moving occupations. Transportation and material moving workers transport people and materials by land, sea, or air. Employment of these workers is anticipated to increase by 4 percent, accounting for 391,100 new jobs. As the economy grows over the projection period, and the demand for goods increases, truck drivers will be needed to transport those goods to businesses, consumers, and other entities. In addition, a substantial number of jobs will arise among bus drivers, as well as taxi drivers and chauffeurs, as a growing number of people utilize public transportation.  Employment change by detailed occupation Occupational growth can be considered in two ways: by the rate of growth and by the number of new jobs created by growth. Some occupations both have a fast growth rate and create a large number of new jobs. However, an occupation that employs few workers may experience rapid growth, although the resulting number of new jobs may be small. For example, a small occupation that employs just 1,000 workers and is projected to grow 50 percent over a 10-year period will add only 500 jobs. By contrast, a large occupation that employs 1.5 million workers may experience only 10 percent growth, but will add 150,000 jobs. As a result, in order to get a complete picture of employment growth, both measures must be considered. Occupations with the fastest growth. Of the 20 fastest growing occupations in the economy (table 1), half are related to healthcare. Healthcare is experiencing rapid growth, due in large part to the aging of the baby-boom generation, which will require more medical care. In addition, some healthcare occupations will be in greater demand for other reasons. As health-  Overview of the 2008–2018 Projections 7  Table 1. Occupations with the fastest growth Occupations  Percent change  Number of new jobs (in thousands) 11.6 155.8 460.9  Wages (May 2008 median) $77,400 71,100 20,460  Biomedical engineers...................................................................................... Network systems and data communications analysts..................................... Home health aides...........................................................................................  72 53 50  Personal and home care aides.........................................................................  46  375.8  19,180  Financial examiners........................................................................................ Medical scientists, except epidemiologists..................................................... Physician assistants......................................................................................... Skin care specialists........................................................................................  41 40 39 38  11.1 44.2 29.2 14.7  70,930 72,590 81,230 28,730  Biochemists and biophysicists........................................................................ Athletic trainers............................................................................................... Physical therapist aides...................................................................................  37 37 36  8.7 6.0 16.7  82,840 39,640 23,760  Dental hygienists............................................................................................. Veterinary technologists and technicians........................................................ Dental assistants..............................................................................................  36 36 36  62.9 28.5 105.6  66,570 28,900 32,380  Computer software engineers, applications.................................................... Medical assistants...........................................................................................  34 34  175.1 163.9  85,430 28,300  Physical therapist assistants............................................................................ Veterinarians...................................................................................................  33 33  21.2 19.7  46,140 79,050  Self-enrichment education teachers................................................................  32  81.3  35,720  Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation...........................................................  31  80.8  48,890  care costs continue to rise, work is increasingly being delegated to lower paid workers in order to cut costs. For example, tasks that were previously performed by doctors, nurses, dentists, or other healthcare professionals increasingly are being performed by physician assistants, medical assistants, dental hygienists, and physical therapist aides. In addition, patients increasingly are seeking home care as an alternative to costly stays in hospitals or residential care facilities, causing a significant increase in demand for home health aides. Although not classified as healthcare workers, personal and home care aides are being affected by this demand for home care as well. Two of the fastest growing detailed occupations are in the computer specialist occupational group. Network systems and data communications analysts are projected to be the secondfastest-growing occupation in the economy. Demand for these workers will increase as organizations continue to upgrade their information technology capacity and incorporate the newest technologies. The growing reliance on wireless networks will result in a need for more network systems and data communications analysts as well. Computer applications software engineers also are expected to grow rapidly from 2008 to 2018. Expanding Internet technologies have spurred demand for these workers, who can develop Internet, intranet, and Web applications. Developments from biotechnology research will continue to be used to create new medical technologies, treatments, and pharmaceuticals. As a result, demand for medical scientists and for biochemists and biophysicists will increase. However,  Education/training category Bachelor’s degree Bachelor’s degree Short-term on-thejob training Short-term on-thejob training Bachelor’s degree Doctoral degree Master’s degree Postsecondary vocational award Doctoral degree Bachelor’s degree Short-term on-thejob training Associate degree Associate degree Moderate-term onthe-job training Bachelor’s degree Moderate-term onthe-job training Associate degree First professional degree Work experience in a related occupation Long-term on-thejob training  although employment of biochemists and biophysicists is projected to grow rapidly, this corresponds to only 8,700 new jobs over the projection period. Increased medical research and demand for new medical technologies also will affect biomedical engineers. The aging of the population and a growing focus on health issues will drive demand for better medical devices and equipment designed by these workers. In fact, biomedical engineers are projected to be the fastest growing occupation in the economy. However, because of its small size, the occupation is projected to add only about 11,600 jobs. Increasing financial regulations will spur employment growth both of financial examiners and of compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health and safety, and transportation. Self-enrichment teachers and skin care specialists will experience growth as consumers become more concerned with selfimprovement. Self-enrichment teachers are growing rapidly as more individuals seek additional training to make themselves more appealing to prospective employers. Skin care specialists will experience growth as consumers increasingly care about their personal appearance. Of the 20 fastest growing occupations, 12 are in the associate degree or higher category. Of the remaining 8, 6 are in an on-the-job training category, 1 is in the work experience in a related occupation category, and 1 is in the postsecondary vocational degree category. Eleven of these occupations earn at least $10,000 more than the National annual median wage,  8 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Table 2. Occupations with the largest numerical growth Occupations Registered nurses....................................................................................  Number of new jobs (in thousands) 581.5  Wages Percent (May 2008 change median) 22 $62,450  Home health aides...................................................................................  460.9  50  20,460  Customer service representatives............................................................  399.5  18  29,860  Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food.............................................................................. Personal and home care aides.................................................................  394.3  15  16,430  375.8  46  19,180  Retail salespersons..................................................................................  374.7  8  20,510  Office clerks, general..............................................................................  358.7  12  25,320  Accountants and auditors........................................................................ Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants.................................................  279.4 276.0  22 19  59,430 23,850  Postsecondary teachers........................................................................... Construction laborers..............................................................................  256.9 255.9  15 20  58,830 28,520  Elementary school teachers, except special education........................... Truck drivers, heavy and tractor-trailer...................................................  244.2 232.9  16 13  49,330 37,270  Landscaping and groundskeeping workers.............................................  217.1  18  23,150  Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.......................................  212.4  10  32,510  Executive secretaries and administrative assistants................................  204.4  13  40,030  Management analysts..............................................................................  178.3  24  73,570  Computer software engineers, applications............................................ Receptionists and information clerks......................................................  175.1 172.9  34 15  85,430 24,550  Carpenters...............................................................................................  165.4  13  38,940  which was $32,390 as of May 2008. In fact, 9 of the occupations earned at least twice the National median in May 2008. Occupations with the largest numerical growth. The 20 occupations listed in table 2 are projected to account for more than one-third of all new jobs—5.8 million combined—over the 2008–18 period. The occupations with the largest numerical increases cover a wider range of occupational categories than do those occupations with the fastest growth rates. Health occupations will account for some of these increases in employment, as will occupations in education, sales, and food service. Office and administrative support services occupations are expected to grow by 1.3 million jobs, accounting for about one-fifth of the job growth among the 20 occupations with the largest growth. Many of the occupations listed in the table are very large and will create more new jobs than occupations with high growth rates. Only 3 out of the 20 fastest growing occupations—home health aides, personal and home care aides, and computer software application engineers—also are projected to be among the 20 occupations with the largest numerical increases in ­employment. The education or training categories and wages of the occupations with the largest numbers of new jobs are significantly  Education/training category Associate degree Short-term on-the-job training Moderate-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Bachelor’s degree Postsecondary vocational award Doctoral degree Moderate-term on-the-job training Bachelor’s degree Short-term on-the-job training Short-term on-the-job training Moderate-term on-the-job training Work experience in a related occupation Bachelor’s or higher degree, plus work experience Bachelor’s degree Short-term on-the-job training Long-term on-the-job training  different than those of the fastest growing occupations. Twelve of these occupations are in an on-the-job training category, and just 7 are in a category that indicates any postsecondary education. Ten of the 20 occupations with the largest numbers of new jobs earned less than the National median wage in May 2008. Occupations with the fastest decline. Declining ­occupational employment stems from falling industry employment, technological advances, changes in business practices, and other factors. For example, technological developments and the continued movement of textile production abroad are expected to contribute to a decline of 71,500 sewing machine operators over the projection period (table 3). Fifteen of the 20 occupations with the largest numerical decreases are either production occupations or office and administrative support occupations, both of which are adversely affected by increasing plant and factory automation or the implementation of office technology, reducing the need for workers in those occupations. The difference between the office and administrative support occupations that are expected to experience the largest declines and those which are expected to see the largest increases is the extent to which job functions can be easily automated or performed by  Overview of the 2008–2018 Projections 9  Table 3. Occupations with the fastest decline Percent change  Occupation  Number of jobs lost (in thousands) -7.2  Wages (May 2008 median) $23,680  Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders...............................  -45  Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine setters, operators, and tenders....................................................................................... Textile knitting and weaving machine setters, operators, and tenders..................  -41  -14.2  23,970  -39  -11.5  25,400  Shoe machine operators and tenders.....................................................................  -35  -1.7  25,090  Extruding and forming machine setters, operators, and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers.................................................................................. Sewing machine operators....................................................................................  -34  -4.8  31,160  -34  -71.5  19,870  Semiconductor processors....................................................................................  -32  -10.0  32,230  Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders........................................  -31  -6.0  22,620  Postal Service mail sorters, processors, and processing machine operators.........  -30  -54.5  50,020  Fabric menders, except garment...........................................................................  -30  -0.3  28,470  Wellhead pumpers.................................................................................................  -28  -5.3  37,860  Fabric and apparel patternmakers.........................................................................  -27  -2.2  37,760  Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic............................................................................................... Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic............................................................................................... Order clerks...........................................................................................................  -27  -8.9  30,850  -27  -14.9  32,940  -26  -64.2  27,990  Coil winders, tapers, and finishers........................................................................  -25  -5.6  27,730  Photographic processing machine operators.........................................................  -24  -12.5  20,360  File clerks..............................................................................................................  -23  -49.6  23,800  Derrick operators, oil and gas...............................................................................  -23  -5.8  41,920  Desktop publishers................................................................................................  -23  -5.9  36,600  other workers. For instance, the duties of executive secretaries and administrative assistants involve a great deal of personal interaction that cannot be automated, whereas the duties of file clerks—adding, locating, and removing business records—can be automated or performed by other workers. Only 2 of the occupations with the fastest percent decline are in a category that indicates workers have any postsecondary education, while the rest are in an on-the-job training category. Eleven of these occupations earned less than $30,000 in May 2008, below the National median wage of $32,390.  Employment change by education and training category In general, occupations in a category with some postsecondary education are expected to experience higher rates of growth than those in an on-the-job training category. Occupations in the associate degree category are projected to grow  Education/training category Moderate-term on-the-job training Moderate-term on-the-job training Long-term on-thejob training Moderate-term on-the-job training Moderate-term on-the-job training Moderate-term on-the-job training Postsecondary vocational award Moderate-term on-the-job training Short-term on-thejob training Moderate-term on-the-job training Moderate-term on-the-job training Long-term on-thejob training Moderate-term on-the-job training Moderate-term on-the-job training Short-term on-thejob training Short-term on-thejob training Short-term on-thejob training Short-term on-thejob training Moderate-term on-the-job training Postsecondary vocational award  the fastest, at about 19 percent. In addition, occupations in the master’s and first professional degree categories are anticipated to grow by about 18 percent each, and occupations in the bachelor’s and doctoral degree categories are expected to grow by about 17 percent each. However, occupations in the on-the-job training categories are expected to grow by 8 percent each (chart 7).  Total job openings Job openings stem from both employment growth and replacement needs (chart 8). Replacement needs arise as workers leave occupations. Some transfer to other occupations, while others retire, return to school, or quit to assume household responsibilities. Replacement needs are projected to account for 67 percent of the approximately 50.9 million job openings between 2008 and 2018. Thus, even occupations that are projected to experi-  10 Occupational Outlook Handbook Chart 8. Number of jobs due to growth and replacement needs, by major occupational group, 2008–18 (projected)  Chart 7. Percent change in employment, by education or training category, 2008–18 (projected) 19  Associate degree Master's degree  18  First professional degree  18  Bachelor's degree  17  Doctoral degree  17  Professional and related  11,923  Service  11,718  7,255  Office and administrative support 5,713  Sales and related  5,035  Management, business, and financial  13  Postsecondary vocational award  Transportation and material moving  Bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience  8  Moderate-term on-the-job training  8  Work experience in a related occupation  8  Short-term on-the-job training  8  Long-term on-the-job training  8  2,857  5  10  1,586  Installation, maintenance, and repair Farming, fishing, and forestry  15  20  Percent  ence slower-than-average growth or to decline in employment still may offer many job openings. Professional and related occupations are projected to have the largest number of total job openings, 11.9 million, and 56 percent of those will be due to replacement needs. Replacement needs generally are greatest in the largest occupations and in those with relatively low pay or limited training requirements. As a result, service occupations are projected to have the greatest number of job openings due to replacements, about 7.6 ­million. Office automation will significantly affect many individual office and administrative support occupations. Although these occupations are projected to grow about as fast as average, some are projected to decline rapidly. Office and administrative support occupations are expected to create 7.3 million total job openings from 2008 to 2018, ranking third behind professional and related occupations and service ­occupations. Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations and production occupations should offer job opportunities despite overall ­declines  Replacement needs  2,156  Production  0  Numeric growth  2,396  Construction and extraction  291 0  2,000  4,000  6,000  8,000  10,000  12,000  Thousands of jobs  in employment. These occupations will lose 9,100 and 349,200 jobs, respectively, but are expected to provide more than 2.4 million total job openings. Job openings will be due solely to the replacement needs of a workforce characterized by high levels of retirement and job turnover.  The analysis underlying BLS employment projections uses currently available information to focus on long-term structural changes in the economy. The 2008–18 projections assume a full-employment economy in 2018. The impact of the recent recession, which began in December of 2007, on long-term structural changes in the economy will not be fully known until some point during or after the recovery. Because the 2008 starting point is a recession year, the projected growth to an assumed full-employment economy in 2018 will generally be stronger than if the starting point were not a recession year.  Overview of the 2008–2018 Projections 11  Classification of occupations by most significant source of education or training Postsecondary awards First professional degree. Completion of the degree usually requires at least 3 years of full-time academic study beyond a bachelor’s degree. Examples are lawyers; and physicians and surgeons. Doctoral degree. Completion of a Ph.D. or other doctoral degree usually requires at least 3 years of full-time academic study beyond a bachelor’s degree. Examples are postsecondary teachers; and medical scientists, except epidemiologists. Master’s degree. Completion of the degree usually requires 1 or 2 years of full-time academic study beyond a bachelor’s degree. Examples are educational, vocational, and school counselors; and clergy. Bachelor’s or higher degree, plus work experience. Most occupations in this category are management occupations. All require experience in a related nonmanagement position for which a bachelor’s or higher degree is usually required. Examples are general and operations man­agers; and judges, magistrate judges, and magistrates. Bachelor’s degree. Completion of the degree generally requires at least 4 years, but not more than 5 years, of full-time academic study. Examples are accountants and auditors; and elementary school teachers, except special education. Associate degree. Completion of the degree usually requires at least 2 years of full-time academic study. Examples are paralegals and legal assistants; and medical records and health information technicians. Postsecondary vocational award. Some programs last only a few weeks, others more than a year. Programs lead to a cer­tificate or other award, but not a degree. Examples are nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants; and ­hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists. Work-related training Work experience in a related occupation. Most of the occupations in this category are first-line supervisors or  ­ anagers of service, sales and related, production, or other m occupations; or are management occupations. Long-term on-the-job training. Occupations in this category generally require more than 12 months of on-the-job training or combined work experience and formal classroom instruction for workers to de­velop the skills necessary to be fully qualified in the occupation. These occupations include formal and informal apprenticeships that may last up to 5 years. Long-term on-the-job training also includes inten­sive occupation-specific, employer-sponsored programs that workers must complete. Among such programs are those conducted by fire and police academies and by schools for air traffic controllers and flight attendants. In other occupations—insurance sales and securities sales, for example— trainees take formal courses, often provided on the jobsite, to prepare for the required licensing exams. Individuals undergoing training generally are considered to be employed in the occupation. Also included in this category is the development of a natural ability—such as that possessed by musicians, athletes, actors, and other entertainers—that must be cultivated over several years, frequently in a nonwork setting. Moderate-term on-the-job training. In this category of occupations, the skills needed to be fully qualified in the occupation can be ac­quired during 1 to 12 months of combined on-the-job experience and informal training. Examples are truckdrivers, heavy and tractor-trailer; and secretaries, except legal, medical, and executive. Short-term on-the-job training. In occupations in this category, the skills needed to be fully qualified in the occupation can be acquired during a short demonstration of job duties or during 1 month or less of on-the-job experience or instruction. Examples of these occupa­tions are retail salespersons; and waiters and waitresses.  Sources of Career Information This section identifies some major sources of information on careers. These sources are meant to be used in addition to those listed at the end of each Handbook statement, and they may provide additional information. How to best use this information. The sources mentioned in this section offer different types of information. For example, people you know may provide very specific information because they have knowledge of you, your abilities and interests, and your qualifications. Other sources, such as those found in the State Sources below, provide information on occupations in each State. Gathering information from a wide range of sources is the best way to determine what occupations may be appropriate for you, and in what geographic regions these occupations are found. The sources of information discussed in this section are not exhaustive, and other sources could prove equally valuable in your career search.  Career information Like any major decision, selecting a career involves a lot of fact finding. Fortunately, some of the best informational resources are easily accessible. You should assess career guidance materials carefully. Information that seems out of date or glamorizes an occupation—overstates its earnings or exaggerates the demand for workers, for example—should be evaluated with skepticism. Gathering as much information as possible will help you make a more informed decision. People you know. One of the best resources can be your friends and family. They may answer some questions about a particular occupation or put you in touch with someone who has some experience in the field. This personal networking can be invaluable in evaluating an occupation or an employer. These people will be able to tell you about their specific duties and training, as well as what they did or did not like about a job. People who have worked in an occupation locally also may be able to give you a recommendation and get you in touch with specific employers. Employers. This is the primary source of information on specific jobs. Employers may post lists of job openings and ­application requirements, including the exact training and experience required, starting wages and benefits, and advancement opportunities and career paths. Informational interviews. People already working in a particular field often are willing to speak with people interested in joining their field. An informational interview will allow you to get good information from experts in a specific career without the pressure of a job interview. These interviews allow you to determine how a certain career may appeal to you while helping you build a network of personal contacts. Professional societies, trade groups, and labor unions. These groups have information on an occupation or various related ­occupations with which they are associated or which they ac12  tively represent. This information may cover training requirements, earnings, and listings of local employers. These groups may train members or potential members themselves, or they may be able to put you in contact with organizations or individuals who perform such training. Each occupational statement in the Handbook concludes with a “Sources of Additional Information” section, which lists organizations that may be contacted for more information. Another valuable source for finding organizations associated with occupations is the Encyclopedia of Associations, an annual publication that lists trade associations, professional societies, labor unions, and other organizations. Guidance and career counselors. Counselors can help you make choices about which careers might suit you best. They can help you establish what occupations suit your skills by testing your aptitude for various types of work and determining your strengths and interests. Counselors can help you evaluate your options and search for a job in your field or help you select a new field altogether. They can also help you determine which educational or training institutions best fit your goals, and then assist you in finding ways to finance them. Some counselors offer other services such as interview coaching, résumé building, and help in filling out various forms. Counselors in secondary schools and postsecondary institutions may arrange guest speakers, field trips, or job fairs. You can find guidance and career counselors at many common institutions, including: •• •• •• •• •• •• ••  High school guidance offices College career planning and placement offices Placement offices in private vocational or technical schools and institutions Vocational rehabilitation agencies Counseling services offered by community organizations Private counseling agencies and private practices State employment service offices  When using a private counselor, check to see that the counselor is experienced. One way to do so is to ask people who have used their services in the past. The National Board of Certified Counselors and Affiliates is an institution which accredits career counselors. To verify the credentials of a career counselor and to find a career counselor in your area, contact:  hh  National Board for Certified Counselor and Affiliates, 3 Terrace Way, Suite D, Greensboro, NC 27403-3660. Internet: http://www.nbcc.org/directory/FindCounselors.aspx  Postsecondary institutions. Colleges, universities, and other postsecondary institutions typically put a lot of effort into helping place their graduates in good jobs, because the success of their graduates may indicate the quality of their institution and may affect the institution’s ability to attract new students. Postsecondary institutions commonly have career centers with libraries of information on different careers, listings of related jobs, and alumni contacts in various professions. Career cen-  Sources of Career Information 13  ters frequently employ career counselors who generally provide their services only to their students and alumni. Career centers can help you build your résumé, find internships and co-ops—which can lead to full-time positions—and tailor your course selection or program to make you a more attractive job ­applicant. Local libraries. Libraries can be an invaluable source of information. Since most areas have libraries, they can be a convenient place to look for information. Also, many libraries provide access to the Internet and email. Libraries may have information on job openings, locally and nationally; potential contacts within occupations or industries; colleges and financial aid; vocational training; individual businesses or careers; and writing résumés. Libraries frequently have subscriptions to various trade magazines that can provide information on occupations and industries. Your local library also may have video materials. These sources often have references to organizations that can provide additional information about training and employment opportunities. If you need help getting started or finding a resource, ask your librarian for assistance. Internet resources. A wide variety of career information is ­easily accessible on the Internet. Many online resources include job listings, résumé posting services, and information on job fairs, training, and local wages. Many of the resources listed elsewhere in this section have Internet sites that include valuable information on potential careers. No single source contains all information on an occupation, field, or employer; therefore you will likely need to use a variety of sources. When using Internet resources, be sure that the organization is a credible, established source of information on the particular occupation. Individual companies may include job listings on their Web sites, and may include information about required credentials, wages and benefits, and the job’s location. Contact information, such as whom to call or where to send a résumé, is usually included. Some sources exist primarily as a Web service. These ­services often have information on specific jobs, and can greatly aid in the job hunting process. Some commercial sites offer these services, as do Federal, State, and some local governments. ­Career OneStop, a joint program by the Department of Labor and the States as well as local agencies, provides these services free of charge. Online Sources from the Department of Labor. A major portion of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Labor Market Information System is the Career OneStop site. This site includes links to the following: •• ••  ••  State job banks allow you to search over a million job openings listed with State employment agencies. America’s Career InfoNet provides data on employment growth and wages by occupation; the knowledge, skills, and abilities required by an occupation; and links to employers. America’s Service Locator is a comprehensive database of career centers and information on unemployment benefits, job training, youth programs, seminars, educational opportunities, and disabled or older worker programs.  Career OneStop, along with the National Toll-Free Jobs Helpline (877-USA-JOBS) and the local One-Stop Career Centers in each State, combine to provide a wide range of workforce assistance and resources:  hh  Career OneStop. Internet: http://www.careeronestop.org  Use the O*NET numbers at the start of each Handbook statement to find more information on specific occupations:  hh  O*NET Online. Internet: http://www.onetcenter.org  Provided in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Education, Career Voyages has information on certain high-demand occupations:  hh  Career Voyages. Internet: http://www.careervoyages.gov  The Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes a wide range of labor market information, from regional wages for specific occupations to statistics on National, State, and area employment.  hh  Bureau of Labor Statistics. Internet: http://www.bls.gov  While the Handbook discusses careers from an occupational perspective, a companion publication—Career Guide to Industries— discusses careers from an industry perspective. The Career Guide is also available at your local career center and library:  hh  Career Guide to Industries. Internet: http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg  For information on occupational wages:  hh  Wage Data. Internet: http://www.bls.gov/bls/blswage.htm  For information on training, workers’ rights, and job listings:  hh  Employment and Training Administration. Internet: http://www.doleta.gov/jobseekers  Organizations for specific groups. Some organizations provide information designed to help specific groups of people. Consult directories in your library’s reference center or a career guidance office for information on additional organizations associated with specific groups.  Disabled workers: Information on employment opportunities, transportation, and other considerations for people with a wide variety of disabilities is available from:  hh  National Organization on Disability, 888 Sixteenth St. NW., Suite 800, Washington, DC 20006. Telephone: (202) 293-5960. TTY: (202) 293-5968. Internet: http://www.nod.org/economic  For information on making accommodations in the work place for people with disabilities:  hh  Job Accommodation Network (JAN), P.O. Box 6080, Morgantown, WV 26506. Internet: http://www.jan.wvu.edu  A comprehensive Federal Web site of disability-related resources is accessible at:  hh  http://www.disability.gov  14 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Blind workers:  State Sources. Most States have career information delivery  Information on the free national reference and referral service for the blind can be obtained by contacting:  systems (CIDS), which may be found in secondary and post-  hh  National Federation of the Blind, Job Opportunities for the Blind (JOB), 1800 Johnson St., Baltimore, MD 21230. Telephone: (410) 659-9314. Internet: http://www.nfb.org  Older workers:  hh hh  National Council on the Aging, 1901 L St. NW., 4th Floor., Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 479-1200. Internet: http://www.ncoa.org National Caucus and Center on Black Aged, Inc., Senior Employment Programs, 1220 L St. NW., Suite 800, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: (202) 637-8400. Fax: (202) 347-0895. Internet: http://www.ncba-aged.org  Veterans: Contact the nearest regional office of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Veterans Employment and Training Service or:  hh  Credentialing Opportunities Online (COOL), which explains how military personnel can meet civilian certification and license requirements related to their Military Occupational Specialty (MOS). Internet: http://www.cool.army.mil  Women:  hh  Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Telephone: (800) 827-5335. Internet: http://www.dol.gov/wb  Federal laws, executive orders, and selected Federal grant programs bar discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, and handicap. Information on how to file a charge of discrimination is available from U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission offices around the country. Their addresses and telephone numbers are listed in telephone directories under U.S. Government, EEOC. Telephone: (800) 669-4000. TTY: (800) 669-6820. Internet: http://www.eeoc.gov Office of Personnel Management. Information on obtaining civilian positions within the Federal Government is available from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management through USAJobs, the Federal Government’s official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job ­opportunities can be accessed through the Internet or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724‑1850 or TDD (978) 461-8404.  hh  USA Jobs: http://www.usajobs.opm.gov  Military. The military employs and has information on hundreds of occupations. Information is available on tuition ­assistance programs, which provide money for school and educational debt repayments. Information on military ­service can be provided by your local recruiting office. Also see the ­Handbook statement on Job Opportunities in the Armed Forces. You can find more information on careers in the military at:  hh  Today’s Military. Internet: http://www.todaysmilitary.com  secondary institutions, as well as libraries, job training sites, vocational-technical schools, and employment offices. A wide range of information is provided, from employment opportunities to unemployment insurance claims. Whereas the Handbook provides information for occupations on a national level, each State has detailed information on occupations and labor markets within their respective jurisdictions. State occupational projections are available at:  hh http://www.projectionscentral.com Alabama Labor Market Information Division, Alabama Department of Industrial Relations, 649 Monroe St., Room 422, Montgomery, AL 36131. Telephone: (334) 242-8859. Internet: http://dir.alabama.gov Alaska Research and Analysis Section, Department of Labor and Workforce Development, P.O. Box 25501, Juneau, AK 99802-5501. Telephone: (907) 465-4500. Internet: http://almis.labor.state.ak.us Arizona Arizona Department of Economic Security, P.O. Box 6123 SC 733A, Phoenix, AZ 85005-6123. Telephone: (602) 542-5984. Internet: https://www.azdes.gov Arkansas Labor Market Information, Department of Workforce Services, #2 Capital Mall, Little Rock, AR 72201. Telephone: (501) 682-3198. Internet: http://www.discoverarkansas.net California State of California Employment Development Department, Labor Market Information Division, P.O. Box 826880, Sacramento, CA 94280-0001. Telephone: (916) 262-2162. Internet: http://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov Colorado Labor Market Information, Colorado Department of Labor and Employment, 633 17th St., Suite 600, Denver, CO 80202-3660. Telephone: (303) 318-8850. Internet: http://lmigateway.coworkforce.com Connecticut Office of Research, Connecticut Department of Labor, 200 Folly Brook Blvd., Wethersfield, CT 06109-1114. Telephone: (860) 263-6275. Internet: http://www.ctdol.state.ct.us/lmi Delaware Office of Occupational and Labor Market Information, Department of Labor, 19 West Lea Blvd., Wilmington, DE 19802. Telephone: (302) 761-8069. Internet: http://www.delawareworks.com/oolmi/  Sources of Career Information 15 District of Columbia DC Department of Employment Services, 64 New York Ave. NE., Suite 3000, Washington, D.C. 20002. Telephone: (202) 724-7000. Internet: http://www.does.dc.gov/does Florida Labor Market Statistics, Agency for Workforce Innovation, 107 E. Madison St., MSC 110 - Caldwell Building, Tallahassee, FL 32399-4111. Telephone: (850) 245-7105. Internet: http://www.labormarketinfo.com  Michigan Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives, Department of Labor and Economic Growth, 3032 West Grand Blvd., Suite 9-100, Detroit, MI 48202. Telephone: (313) 456-3100. Internet: http://www.milmi.org Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development, Labor Market Information Office, 1st National Bank Building, 332 Minnesota St., Suite E200, St. Paul, MN 55101-1351. Telephone: (888) 234-1114. Internet: http://www.deed.state.mn.us/lmi  Georgia Workforce Information and Analysis, Room 300, Department of Labor, 223 Courtland St., CWC Building, Atlanta, GA 30303. Telephone: (404) 232-3875. Internet: http://www.dol.state.ga.us/em/get_labor_market_information.htm  Mississippi Labor Market Information Division, Mississippi Department of Employment Security, 1235 Echelon Pkwy., P.O. Box 1699, Jackson, MS 39215. Telephone: (601) 321-6000. Internet: http://mdes.ms.gov  Guam Guam Department of Labor, 504 D St., Tiyan, Guam 96910. Telephone: (671) 475-0101. Internet: http://guamdol.net  Missouri Missouri Economic Research and Information Center, P.O. Box 3150, Jefferson City, MO 65102-3150. Telephone: (866) 225-8113. Internet: http://www.missourieconomy.org  Hawaii Research and Statistics Office, Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, 830 Punchbowl St., Room 304, Honolulu, HI 96813. Telephone: (808) 586-9013. Internet: http://www.hiwi.org  Montana Research and Analysis Bureau, P.O. Box 1728, Helena, MT 59624. Telephone: (800) 541-3904. Internet: http://www.ourfactsyourfuture.org  Idaho Research and Analysis Bureau, Department of Commerce and Labor, 317 West Main St., Boise, ID 83735-0670. Telephone: (208) 332-3570. Internet: http://lmi.idaho.gov  Nebraska Nebraska Workforce Development—Labor Market Information, Nebraska Department of Labor, 550 South 16th St., P.O. Box 94600, Lincoln, NE 68509. Telephone: (402) 471-2600. Internet: www.dol.nebraska.gov/nwd/center.cfm?PRICAT=3&SUBCAT=4Z0  Illinois Illinois Department of Employment Security, Economic Information and Analysis Division, 33 S. State St., 9th Floor, Chicago, IL 60603. Telephone: (312) 793-6521. Internet: http://lmi.ides.state.il.us  Nevada Research and Analysis, Department of Employment Training and Rehabilitation, 500 East Third St., Carson City, NV 89713. Telephone: (775) 684-0450. Internet: http://www.nevadaworkforce.com  Indiana Research and Analysis—Indiana Workforce Development, Indiana Government Center South, 10 North Senate Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46204. Telephone: (800) 891-6499. Internet: http://www.in.gov/dwd  New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau, New Hampshire Employment Security, 32 South Main St., Concord, NH 03301-4857. Telephone: (603) 228-4124. Internet: http://www.nh.gov/nhes/elmi  Iowa Policy and Information Division, Iowa Workforce Development, 1000 East Grand Ave., Des Moines, IA 50319-0209. Telephone: (515) 2815387. Internet: http://www.iowaworkforce.org/lmi  New Jersey Division of Labor Market and Demographic Research, Department of Labor and Workforce Development, P.O. Box 388, Trenton, NJ 086250388. Telephone: (609) 984-2593. Internet: http://www.wnjpin.net  Kansas Kansas Department of Labor, Labor Market Information Services, 401 SW Topeka Blvd., Topeka, KS 66603-3182. Telephone: (785) 2965000. Internet: http://laborstats.dol.ks.gov  New Mexico New Mexico Department of Labor , Economic Research and Analysis, 401 Broadway NE., Albuquerque, NM 87102. Telephone: (505) 2224683. Internet: http://www.dws.state.nm.us/dws-lmi.html  Kentucky Research and Statistics Branch, Office of Employment and Training, 275 East Main St., Frankfort, KY 40621. Telephone: (502) 564-7976. Internet: http://www.workforcekentucky.ky.gov  New York Research and Statistics, New York State Department of Labor, W. Averell Harriman State Office Campus, Building 12, Albany, NY 12240. Telephone: (518) 457-9000. Internet: http://www.labor.state.ny.us  Louisiana Research and Statistics Division, Department of Labor, 1001 North 23rd St., Baton Rouge, LA 70802-3338. Telephone: (225) 342-3111. Internet: http://www.laworks.net  North Carolina Labor Market Information Division, Employment Security Commission, 700 Wade Ave., Raleigh, NC 27605. Telephone: (919) 733-2936. Internet: http://www.ncesc.com  Maine Labor Market Information Services Division, Maine Department of Labor, 45 Commerce Dr., State House Station 118, Augusta, ME 04330. Telephone: (207) 623-7900. Internet: http://maine.gov/labor/lmis  North Dakota Labor Market Information Manager, Job Service North Dakota, 1000 East Divide Ave., Bismarck, ND 58506. Telephone: (800) 7329787. Internet: http://www.ndworkforceintelligence.com  Maryland Maryland Department of Labor Licensing and Regulation, Office of Labor Market Analysis and Information, 1100 N. Eutaw, Baltimore, MD 21201. Telephone: (410) 767-2250. Internet: http://www.dllr.state.md.us/lmi/index.shtml Massachusetts Executive Office of Labor and Workforce Development, Division of Career Services, 19 Staniford St., Boston, MA 02114. Telephone: (617) 626-5300. Internet: http://www.detma.org/LMIdataprog.htm  Ohio Bureau of Labor Market Information, Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, 420 East 5th Ave., Columbus, OH 43219. Telephone: (614) 752-9494. Internet: http://ohiolmi.com Oklahoma Labor Market Information, Oklahoma Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 52003., Oklahoma City, OK 73152. Telephone: (405) 557-7172. Internet: http://www.ok.gov/oesc_web/Services/Find_Labor_Market_ Statistics/index.html  16 Occupational Outlook Handbook Oregon Oregon Employment Department, Research Division, 875 Union St. NE., Salem, OR 97311. Telephone: (503) 947-1200. Internet: http://www.qualityinfo.org/olmisj/OlmisZine  Utah Director of Workforce Information, Utah Department of Workforce Services, P.O. Box 45249, Salt Lake City, UT 84145-0249. Telephone: (801) 526-9675. Internet: http://jobs.utah.gov/opencms/wi  Pennsylvania Center for Workforce Information & Analysis, Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, 220 Labor and Industry Building, Seventh and Forster Sts., Harrisburg, PA 17121. Telephone: (877) 4933282. Internet: http://www.paworkstats.state.pa.us  Vermont Economic and Labor Market Information, Vermont Department of Labor, P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, VT 05601-0488. Telephone: (802) 828-4000. Internet: http://www.vtlmi.info  Puerto Rico Department of Work and Human Resources, Ave. Muñoz Rivera 505, Hato Rey, PR 00918. Telephone: (787) 754-5353. Internet: http://www.dtrh.gobierno.pr  Virgin Islands Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor, 53A & 54AB Kronprindsens Gade, St Thomas, VI 00803-2608. Telephone: (340) 776-3700. Internet: http://www.vidol.gov  Rhode Island Labor Market Information, Rhode Island Department of Labor and Training, 1511 Pontiac Ave., Cranston, RI 02920. Telephone: (401) 462-8740. Internet: http://www.dlt.ri.gov/lmi  Virginia Virginia Employment Commission, P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, VA 23218-1358. Telephone: (800) 828-1140. Internet: http://www.vec.virginia.gov/vecportal/index.cfm  South Carolina Labor Market Information Department, South Carolina Employment Security Commission, 631 Hampton St., Columbia, SC 29202. Telephone: (803) 737-2660. Internet: http://www.sces.org/lmi/index.asp  Washington Labor Market and Economic Analysis, Washington Employment Security Department, P.O. Box 9046, Olympia, WA 98507-9046. Telephone: (360) 438-4833. Internet: http://www.workforceexplorer.com  South Dakota Labor Market Information Center, Department of Labor, P.O. Box 4730, Aberdeen, SD 57402-4730. Telephone: (605) 626-2314. Internet: http://dol.sd.gov/lmic  West Virginia Workforce West Virginia, Research, Information and Analysis Division, 112 California Ave., Charleston, WV 25303-0112. Telephone: (304) 558-2660. Internet: http://workforcewv.org/lmi  Tennessee Research and Statistics Division, Department of Labor and Workforce Development, 220 French Landing Dr., Nashville, TN 37245. Telephone: (615) 741-1729. Internet: http://www.state.tn.us/labor-wfd/lmi.htm  Wisconsin Bureau of Workforce Information, Department of Workforce Development, P.O. Box 7944, Madison, WI 53707-7944. Telephone: (608) 266-7034. Internet: http://worknet.wisconsin.gov/worknet  Texas Labor Market Information, Texas Workforce Commission, 9001 North IH-35, Suite 103A, Austin, TX 75753. Telephone: (866) 938-4444. Internet: http://www.tracer2.com  Wyoming Research and Planning, Wyoming Department of Employment, 246 S. Center St., Casper, WY 82602. Telephone: (307) 473-3807. Internet: http://doe.state.wy.us/lmi  Sources of Education, Training, and Financial Aid Education can present opportunities for those looking to start a new career or change specialty within their current occupation. This section outlines some major sources of education and training required to enter many occupations, as well as some ways to finance that education or training. For information on the specific training and educational requirements for a particular occupation, and what training is typically provided by an employer, consult the “Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement” section of the appropriate Handbook statement.  Sources of Education and Training Four-year colleges and universities. These institutions provide detailed information on theory and practice for a wide variety of subjects. Colleges and universities can provide students with the knowledge and background necessary to be successful in many fields. They also can help to place students in cooperative education programs (often called “co-ops”) or internships. Coops and internships are short-term jobs with firms related to a student’s field of study that lead to college credit. In co-ops and internships, students learn the specifics of a job while making valuable contacts that can lead to a permanent position. For more information on colleges and universities, go to your local library, consult your high school guidance counselor, or contact individual colleges. Also check with your State’s higher education agency. A list of these agencies is available on the Internet: http://www.ed.gov/erod. Junior and community colleges. Junior and community colleges offer a variety of programs that lead to associate degrees and training certificates. Community colleges tend to be less expensive than 4-year colleges and universities. They usually are more willing to accommodate part-time students than colleges and universities, and their programs are more tailored to the needs of local employers. Many community colleges have an open admissions policy, and they often offer weekend and night classes. Community colleges often form partnerships with local businesses that allow students to gain job-specific training. Many students may not be able to enroll in a college or university because of their academic record, limited finances, or distance from such an institution, so they attend junior or community colleges to earn credits that can be applied toward a degree at a 4-year college. Junior and community colleges also are noted for their extensive role in continuing and adult education. For more information on junior and community colleges, go to your local library, consult your high school guidance ­counselor, or contact individual schools. Also check with your State’s higher education agency. A list of these agencies is available on the Internet: http://www.ed.gov/erod. Online colleges and universities. Online colleges and universities cover most of the same material as their traditional  c­ lassroom counterparts, but they offer classes over the Internet. Offering classes on the Internet provides a great deal of flexibility to students, allowing many who work, travel frequently, or lack the ability or means to attend a traditional university to earn a degree from an accredited institution. A prospective student should talk to a guidance counselor or advisor before deciding to enroll in an online college or university. Additionally, the prospective student should check the college or university’s accreditation with the U.S. Department of Education. This can be done online at: http://ope.ed.gov/ accreditation. Vocational and trade schools. These institutions train people in specific trades. They offer courses designed to provide handson experience. Vocational and trade schools tend to concentrate on trades, services, and other types of skilled work. Vocational and trade schools frequently engage students in real-world projects, allowing them to apply field methods while learning theory in classrooms. Graduates of vocational and trade schools have an advantage over informally trained or selftrained jobseekers because graduates have an independent organization certifying that they have the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to perform the duties of a particular occupation. These schools also help students to acquire any license or other credentials needed to enter the job market. For more information on vocational and trade schools, go to your local library, consult your high school guidance counselor, or contact individual schools. Also check with your State’s director of vocational-technical education. A list of State directors of vocational-technical education is available on the Internet: http://www.ed.gov/erod. Apprenticeships. An apprenticeship provides work experience as well as education and training for people entering certain occupations. Apprenticeships are offered by sponsors, who employ and train the apprentice. The apprentice follows a training course under close supervision and receives some formal education to learn the theory related to the job. Apprenticeships, which generally last between 1 and 4 years, are a way for inexperienced people to become skilled workers. Some apprenticeships allow the apprentice to earn an associate degree. An Apprenticeship Completion Certificate is granted to those completing programs. This certificate is administered by federally approved State agencies. For more information on apprenticeships and for assistance finding a program, go to the Office of Apprenticeship Training, Employer, and Labor Services on the Internet: http://www. doleta.gov/atels_bat. Professional societies, trade associations, and labor unions. These groups are made up of people with common interests, usually in related occupations or industries. The groups ­frequently 17  18 Occupational Outlook Handbook  are able to provide training, access to training through their affiliates, or information on acceptable sources of training for their field. If licensing or certification is required, they also may be able to assist you in meeting those requirements. For a listing of professional societies, trade associations, and labor unions related to an occupation, check the “Sources of Additional Information” section at the end of that occupational statement in the Handbook. Employers. Many employers provide on-the-job training, which can range from spending a few minutes watching another employee demonstrate a task to participating in formal training programs that may last for several months. In some jobs, employees may continually undergo training to stay up to date with new developments and technologies or to add new skills. Military. The United States Armed Forces trains and employs people in more than 4,100 different occupations. For more information, see the Handbook statement on “Job Opportunities in The Armed Forces.” For detailed answers to specific questions, contact your local recruiting office. Valuable resources also are available on the Internet: http://www.todaysmilitary.com.  Sources of Financial Aid Many people fund their education or training through financial aid or tuition assistance programs. Federal student aid comes in three forms: grants, work-study programs, and loans. All Federal student aid applicants must first fill out a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), which provides a Student Aid Report (SAR) and eligibility rating. Forms must be submitted to desired institutions of study, which determine the amount of aid you will receive. For information on applying for Federal financial aid, visit the FAFSA Internet site: http://www.fafsa.ed.gov. A U.S. Department of Education publication describing Federal financial aid programs, called Funding Education Beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, is available at http:// www.studentaid.ed.gov/students/publications/student_ guide/index.html. Information on Federal programs is available from http://www. studentaid.ed.gov and www.students.gov. Information on State programs is available from your State’s higher education agency. A list of these agencies is available at http://www.ed.gov/erod. Grants. A grant is money that is given to students or the institution they are attending to pay for the student’s education or training and any associated expenses. Grants are usually given on the basis of financial need. Grants are considered gifts and are not paid back. Federal grants are almost exclusively for undergraduate students. They include Pell Grants, which can be worth up to $5,350 annually. The maximum amount given out can change each year, however. Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants (FSEOG) can be worth up to $4,000 annually. Priority for FSEOG awards is given to those who have also received the Pell Grant and have exceptional financial need.  Additional information on grants is available on the Internet: http://www.studentaid.ed.gov. Information also is available from your State Higher Education agency. A list of these agencies is available at http://www.ed.gov/erod. Federal Work-Study program. The Federal Work-Study program is offered at most institutions and consists of Federal sponsorship of a student who works part time at the institution he or she is attending. The money a student earns through this program goes directly toward the cost of attending the institution. There are no set minimum or maximum amounts for this type of aid, although, on average, a student can expect to earn about $2,000 per school year. For additional information on work-study opportunities offered, check with individual institutions. General information on the Federal Work-Study program is available at http://studentaid.ed.gov/PORTALSWebApp/students/english/campusaid.jsp.  Scholarships. A scholarship is a sum of money donated to a student to help pay for his or her education or training and any associated costs. Scholarships can range from small amounts up to the full cost of schooling. They are based on financial need, academic merit, athletic ability, or a wide variety of other criteria set by the organizations that provide the scholarships. Frequently, students must meet minimum academic requirements to be considered for a scholarship. Other qualifying ­requirements—such as intended major field of study, heritage, or group membership—may be added by the organization providing the scholarship. Scholarships are provided by a wide variety of institutions, including educational institutions, State and local governments, private associations, social groups, and individuals. There are no federally awarded scholarships based on academic merit. Most large scholarships are awarded to students by the institution they plan to attend. Students who have received State scholarships and plan to attend a school in another State should check with their State to see if the scholarship can be ­transferred. Information on scholarships is typically available from high school guidance counselors and local libraries. Additional scholarship information is available from State higher education agencies. A list of these agencies is available at http:// www.ed.gov/erod. The College Board has information on available scholarships at http://www.collegeboard.com/pay. Student loans. Many institutions, both public and private, provide low-interest loans to students and their parents or guardians. The Federal Government also provides several types of student loans based on the applicant’s level of financial need. The amount of money a student can receive in loans varies by the distributing institution and depends on whether the student is claimed by a parent or guardian as a dependent. Since the process of applying for a loan may take several months, it is a good idea to start applying for Federal student loans well in advance. The available Federal loan programs can accommodate prospective undergraduate, graduate, vocational, and disabled students. Federal loans can be distributed through the school that the student is attending, from the Federal Government  Sources of Education, Training, and Financial Aid 19  directly, or from a third-party private lender or bank. Perkins loans are distributed through the school the student is attending. Loans coming from the Federal Government directly from the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program are dispersed by the Department of Education. Third-party loans through a private lender or bank are from the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) program. For all federally funded loans, payments are made to the institution that originally dispersed the funds. For those with financial need, Federal Perkins loans and both Direct and FFEL-subsidized Stafford loans are available. Perkins loans have no minimum amount; they are capped at $5,500 per year for undergraduates. Students should visit the Department of Education’s Web site (http://www.studentaid.ed.gov/ PORTALSWebApp/students/english/fafsa.jsp) to learn about the current level of aid available because it will vary by year and a student’s status (married, single, dependent, or independent). Subsidized Stafford loans vary in size and can increase as a student completes more years of undergraduate, graduate, or professional education. Interest rates for both loans will be gradually decreasing until 2012. Information on specific interest rates is available through the school’s financial aid officer or the Department of Education’s Web site. Individuals who receive Perkins loans are not responsible for starting to repay the loan until they have been out of school for 9 months. Those with subsidized Stafford loans must begin payments within 6 to 9 months of leaving school but are not charged monthly interest while in school. For those who do not demonstrate financial need, Direct and FFEL-unsubsidized Stafford Loans and Federal Parent Loans for Students (PLUS) are available. Unsubsidized Stafford loans vary in value and are capped at the cost of attendance. With Federal unsubsidized Stafford Loans, interest payments start  almost immediately and can be paid monthly or accrued until the completion of studies. The latter option results in a larger total loan cost but may be more convenient for some students. With PLUS loans, the parent must pay interest and principal payments while the student is enrolled in school and must continue payments after completion. Check with your lender for available repayment schedules. Students usually have 10 years to repay Perkins loans and from 10 to 30 years for unsubsidized Stafford loans. Subsidized and unsubsidized Stafford loans are only available to students who are enrolled in an academic program at least half time. As with any loan, be sure to investigate different lenders, and understand what your loan contract requires of you before agreeing to any loan. Check with established financial institutions to compare the terms of available private student loans. Comparisons of the various types of loans are available on the Internet: http://www.studentaid.ed.gov/students/publications/ student_guide/index.html. The College Board has information on available loans at http://www.collegeboard.com/pay. Employer tuition support programs. Some employers offer tuition assistance programs as part of their employee benefits package. The terms of these programs depend on the firm and can vary by the type and amount of training subsidized, as well as by eligibility requirements. Consult your human resources department for information on tuition support programs offered by your employer. Military tuition support programs. The United States Armed Forces offer various tuition assistance and loan repayment programs for military personnel. See the Handbook statement on “Job Opportunities in the Armed Forces” for more information, or go to http://www.todaysmilitary.com/benefits/tuition-support.  Finding and Applying for Jobs and Evaluating Offers Finding—and getting—the job you want can be a challenging process, but knowing more about job search methods and application techniques can increase your chances of success. And knowing how to judge the job offers you receive makes it more likely that you will end up with the best possible job.  Where to learn about job openings Personal contacts School career planning and placement offices Employers Classified ads 	 —National and local newspapers 	 —Professional journals 	 —Trade magazines Internet resources Professional associations Labor unions State employment service offices Federal Government Community agencies Private employment agencies and career consultants Internships  Job search methods Finding a job can take months of time and effort. But you can speed the process by using many methods to find job openings. Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggest that people who use many job search methods find jobs faster than people who use only one or two. In the box above, some sources of job openings are listed. Those sources are described more fully below. Personal contacts. Many jobs are never advertised. People get them by talking to friends, family, neighbors, acquaintances, teachers, former coworkers, and others who know of an opening. Be sure to tell people that you are looking for a job because the people you know may be some of the most effective resources for your search. To develop new contacts, join student, community, or professional organizations. School career planning and placement offices. High school and college placement services help their students and alumni find jobs. Some invite recruiters to use their facilities for interviews or career fairs. They also may have lists of open jobs. Most also offer career counseling, career testing, and job search advice. Some have career resource libraries; host workshops on job search strategy, resume writing, letter writing, and effective interviewing; critique drafts of resumes; conduct mock interviews; and sponsor job fairs. 20  Employers. Directly contacting employers is one of the most successful means of job hunting. Through library and Internet research, develop a list of potential employers in your desired career field. Then call these employers and check their Web sites for job openings. Web sites and business directories can tell you how to apply for a position or whom to contact. Even if no open positions are posted, do not hesitate to contact the employer: You never know when a job might become available. Consider asking for an informational interview with people working in the career you want to learn more about. Ask them how they got started, what they like and dislike about the work, what type of qualifications are necessary for the job, and what type of personality succeeds in that position. In addition to giving you career information, they may be able to put you in contact with other employers who may be hiring, and they can keep you in mind if a position opens up. Classified ads. The “Help Wanted” ads in newspapers and the Internet list numerous jobs, and many people find work by responding to these ads. But when using classified ads, keep the following in mind:  • • • •  Follow all leads to find a job; do not rely solely on the classifieds. Answer ads promptly, because openings may be filled quickly, even before the ad stops appearing in the paper. Read the ads every day, particularly the Sunday edition, which usually includes the most listings. Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded, including the specific skills, educational background, and personal qualifications required for the position. You may want to follow up on your initial inquiry.  Internet resources. The Internet includes many job hunting Web sites with job listings. Some job boards provide National listings of all kinds; others are local. Some relate to a specific type of work; others are general. To find good prospects, begin with an Internet search using keywords related to the job you want. Also look for the Web sites of related professional associations. Also consider checking Internet forums, also called message boards. These are online discussion groups where anyone may post and read messages. Use forums specific to your profession or to career-related topics to post questions or messages and to read about the job searches or career experiences of other people. Although these message boards may seem helpful, carefully evaluate all advice before acting; it can be difficult to determine the reliability of information posted on message boards. In online job databases, remember that job listings may be posted by field or discipline, so begin your search using keywords. Many Web sites allow job seekers to post their resumes online for free.  Finding and Applying for Jobs and Evaluating Offers 21  Professional associations. Many professions have associations that offer employment information, including career planning, educational programs, job listings, and job placement. Information can be obtained directly from most professional associations through the Internet, by telephone, or by mail. Associations usually require that you be a member to use these services. Labor unions. Labor unions provide various employment services to members and potential members, including apprenticeship programs that teach a specific trade or skill. Contact the appropriate labor union or State apprenticeship council for more information. State employment service offices. The State employment service, sometimes called the Job Service, operates in coordination with the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration. Local offices, found nationwide, help job seekers to find jobs and help employers to find qualified workers at no cost to either. To find the office nearest you, look in the State government telephone listings under “Job Service” or “Employment.” Job matching and referral. At the State employment service office, an interviewer will determine if you are “job ready” or if you need help from counseling and testing services to assess your occupational aptitudes and interests and to help you choose and prepare for a career. After you are job ready, you may examine available job listings and select openings that interest you. A staff member can then describe the job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers. Services for special groups. By law, veterans are entitled to priority job placement at State employment service centers. If you are a veteran, a veterans’ employment representative can inform you of available assistance and help you to deal with problems. State employment service offices also refer people to opportunities available under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998. Educational and career services and referrals are provided to employers and job seekers, including adults, dislocated workers, and youth. These programs help to prepare people to participate in the State’s workforce, increase their employment and earnings potential, improve their educational and occupational skills, and reduce their dependency on welfare. Federal Government. Information on obtaining a position with the Federal Government is available from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) through USAJOBS, the Federal Government’s official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724-1850, (866) 204-2858, or TDD (978) 461-8404. These numbers are not all toll free, and telephone charges may result. Community agencies. Many nonprofit organizations, including religious institutions and vocational rehabilitation agencies, offer counseling, career development, and job placement services, generally targeted to a particular group, such as women, youths, minorities, ex-offenders, or older workers. Private employment agencies and career consultants. Private agencies can save you time and they will contact employers who otherwise might be difficult to locate. Such agencies may be called  recruiters, head hunters, or employment placement agencies. These agencies may charge for their services. Most operate on a commission basis, charging a percentage of the first-year salary paid to a successful applicant. You or the hiring company will pay the fee. Find out the exact cost and who is responsible for paying associated fees before using the service. When determining if the service is worth the cost, consider any guarantees that the agency offers. Internships. Many people find jobs with business and organizations with whom they have interned or volunteered. Look for internships and volunteer opportunities on job boards, school career centers, and company and association Web sites, but also check community service organizations and volunteer opportunity databases. Some internships and long-term volunteer positions come with stipends and all provide experience and the chance to meet employers and other good networking contacts.  Applying for a job After you have found some jobs that interest you, the next step is to apply for them. Many potential employers require complete resumes or application forms and cover letters. Later, you will probably need to go on interviews to meet with employers face to face. Resumes and application forms. Resumes and application forms give employers written evidence of your qualifications and skills. The goal of these documents is to prove—as clearly and directly as possible—how your qualifications match the job’s requirements. Do this by highlighting the experience, accomplishments, education, and skills that most closely fit the job you want. Gathering information. Resumes and application forms both include the same information. As a first step, gather the following facts:  • • •  •  • •  Contact information, including your name, mailing address, e-mail address (if you have one you check often), and telephone number. Type of work or specific job you are seeking or a qualifications summary, which describes your best skills and experience in just a few lines. Education, including school name and its city and State, months and years of attendance, highest grade completed or diploma or degree awarded, and major subject or subjects studied. Also consider listing courses and awards that might be relevant to the position. Include a grade point average if you think it would help in getting the job. Experience, paid and volunteer. For each job, include the job title, name and location of employer, and dates of employment. Briefly describe your job duties and major accomplishments. In a resume, use phrases instead of sentences to describe your work; write, for example, “Supervised 10 children” instead of writing “I supervised 10 children.” Special skills. You might list computer skills, proficiency in foreign languages, achievements, or membership in organizations in a separate section. References. Be ready to provide references if requested. Good references could be former employers, coworkers, or teachers or anyone else who can describe your abilities and job-related traits. You will be asked to provide contact information for the people you choose.  22 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Throughout the application or resume, focus on accomplishments that relate most closely to the job you want. You can even use the job announcement as a guide, using some of the same words and phrases to describe your work and education. Look for concrete examples that show your skills. When describing your work experience, for instance, you might say that you increased sales by 10 percent, finished a task in half the usual time, or received three letters of appreciation from customers. Choosing a format. After gathering the information you want to present, the next step is to put it in the proper format. In an application form, the format is set. Just fill in the blanks. But make sure you fill it out completely and follow all instructions. Do not omit any requested information. Consider making a copy of the form before filling it out, in case you make a mistake and have to start over. If possible, have someone else look over the form before submitting it. In a resume, there are several acceptable ways of organizing the information you want to include. It is common to place the most important information first. One format is to list the applicant’s past jobs in reverse chronological order, describing the most recent employment first and working backward. But some applicants use a functional format, organizing their work experience under headings that describe their major skills. They then include a brief work history section that lists only job titles, employers, and dates of employment. Still other applicants choose a format that combines these two approaches in some way. Choose the style that best showcases your skills and experience. Examples of resume formats can be found on the Web sites of career centers, job boards, and State employment services. Whatever format you choose, keep your resume short. Many experts recommend that new workers use a one-page resume. Avoid long blocks of text and italicized material. Consider using bullets to highlight duties or key accomplishments. Before submitting your resume, make sure that it is easy to read. Are the headings clear and consistently formatted with bold or some other style of type? Is the type face large enough? Much like application forms, it is useful to ask someone to proofread your resume for spelling and other errors. In addition, use your computer’s spell checker. Keep in mind that some employers scan resumes into databases, which they then search for specific keywords or phrases. The keywords are usually nouns referring to experience, education, personal characteristics, or industry buzz words. Identify keywords by reading the job description and qualifications in the job ad; use these same words in your resume. For example, if the job description includes customer service tasks, use the words “customer service” on your resume. Scanners sometimes misread paper resumes, which could mean some of your keywords don’t get into the database. So, if you know that your resume will be scanned, and you have the option, e-mail an electronic version. If you must submit a paper resume, make it scannable by using a simple font and avoiding underlines, italics, and graphics. It is also a good idea to send a traditionally formatted resume along with your scannable resume, with a note on each marking its purpose. Cover letters. When sending a resume, most people include a cover letter to introduce themselves to the prospective ­employer.  Most cover letters are no more than three short paragraphs. Your cover letter should capture the employer’s attention, follow a business letter format, and usually should include the following information:  • • • • •  Name and address of the specific person to whom the letter is addressed. Reason for your interest in the company or position. Your main qualifications for the position. Request for an interview. Your home and work telephone numbers.  If you send a scannable resume, you should also include a scannable cover letter, which avoids graphics, fancy fonts, italics, and underlines. As with your resume, it may be helpful to look for examples and common formats of cover letters on the Internet or in books at your local library or bookstore, but do not copy letters directly from other sources. Interviewing. An interview gives you the opportunity to showcase your qualifications to an employer, so it pays to be well prepared. The accompanying box provides some helpful hints.  Job interview tips Preparation: Learn about the organization. Have a specific job or jobs in mind. Review your qualifications for the job. Be ready to briefly describe your experience, showing how it relates it the job. Be ready to answer broad questions, such as “Why should I hire you?” “Why do you want this job?” “What are your strengths and weaknesses?” Practice an interview with a friend or relative. Personal appearance: Be well groomed. Dress appropriately. Do not chew gum or smoke. The interview: Be early. Learn the name of your interviewer and greet him or her with a firm handshake. Use good manners with everyone you meet. Relax and answer each question concisely. Use proper English—avoid slang. Be cooperative and enthusiastic. Use body language to show interest—use eye contact and don’t slouch. Ask questions about the position and the organization, but avoid questions whose answers can easily be found on the company Web site. Also avoid asking questions about salary and benefits unless a job offer is made. Thank the interviewer when you leave and shake hands. Send a short thank you note following the interview.  Finding and Applying for Jobs and Evaluating Offers 23  Information to bring to an interview: Social Security card. Government-issued identification (driver’s license). Resume or application. Although not all employers require a resume, you should be able to furnish the interviewer information about your education, training, and previous employment. References. Employers typically require three references. Get permission before using anyone as a reference. Make sure that they will give you a good reference. Try to avoid using relatives as references. Transcripts. Employers may require an official copy of transcripts to verify grades, coursework, dates of attendance, and highest grade completed or degree awarded.  Evaluating a job offer Once you receive a job offer, you must decide if you want the job. Fortunately, most organizations will give you a few days to accept or reject an offer. There are many issues to consider when assessing a job offer. Will the organization be a good place to work? Will the job be interesting? Are there opportunities for advancement? Is the salary fair? Does the employer offer good benefits? Now is the time to ask the potential employer about these issues—and to do some checking on your own. The organization. Background information on an organization can help you to decide whether it is a good place for you to work. Factors to consider include the organization’s business or activity, financial condition, age, size, and location. You generally can get background information on an organization, particularly a large organization, on its Web site or by telephoning its public relations office. A public company’s annual report to the stockholders tells about its corporate philosophy, history, products or services, goals, and financial status. Most government agencies can furnish reports that describe their programs and missions. Press releases, company newsletters or magazines, and recruitment brochures also can be useful. Ask the organization for any other items that might interest a prospective employee. If possible, speak to current or former employees of the organization. Background information on the organization may be available at your public or school library. If you cannot get an annual report, check the library for reference directories that may provide basic facts about the company, such as earnings, products and services, and number of employees. Some directories widely available in libraries either in print or as online databases include:  • • • • •  Dun & Bradstreet’s Million Dollar Directory Standard and Poor’s Register of Corporations Mergent’s Industry Review (formerly Moody’s Industrial Manual) Thomas Register of American Manufacturers Ward’s Business Directory  Stories about an organization in magazines and newspapers can tell a great deal about its successes, failures, and plans for  the future. You can identify articles on a company by looking under its name in periodical or computerized indexes in libraries, or by using one of the Internet’s search engines. However, it probably will not be useful to look back more than 2 or 3 years. The library also may have government publications that present projections of growth for the industry in which the organization is classified. Long-term projections of employment and output for detailed industries, covering the entire U.S. economy, are developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and revised every 2 years. (See the Career Guide to Industries, online at http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg.) Trade magazines also may include articles on the trends for specific industries. Career centers at colleges and universities often have information on employers that is not available in libraries. Ask a career center representative how to find out about a particular organization. During your research consider the following questions:  Does the organization’s business or activity match your own interests and beliefs? It is easier to apply yourself to the work if you are enthusiastic about what the organization does.  How will the size of the organization affect you? Large firms generally offer a greater variety of training programs and career paths, more managerial levels for advancement, and better employee benefits than do small firms. Large employers also may have more advanced technologies. However, many jobs in large firms tend to be highly specialized. Jobs in small firms may offer broader authority and responsibility, a closer working relationship with top management, and a chance to clearly see your contribution to the success of the organization.  Should you work for a relatively new organization or one that is well established? New businesses have a high failure rate, but for many people, the excitement of helping to create a company and the potential for sharing in its success more than offset the risk of job loss. However, it may be just as exciting and rewarding to work for a young firm that already has a foothold on success. The job. Even if everything else about the job is attractive, you will be unhappy if you dislike the day-to-day work. Determining in advance whether you will like the work may be difficult. However, the more you find out about the job before accepting or rejecting the offer, the more likely you are to make the right choice. Consider the following questions:  Where is the job located? If the job is in another section of the country, you need to consider the cost of living, the availability of housing and transportation, and the quality of educational and recreational facilities in that section of the country. Even if the job location is in your area, you should consider the time and expense of commuting.  Does the work match your interests and make good use of your skills? The duties and responsibilities of the job should be explained in enough detail to answer this question.  24 Occupational Outlook Handbook  How important is the job to the company or organization?  Data from the Bureau’s National Compensation Survey are available from:  An explanation of where you fit in the organization and how you are supposed to contribute to its overall goals should give you an idea of the job’s importance.  of Labor Statistics, Office of Compensation Levels and Trends, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE., Room 4175, Washington, DC 202120001. Telephone: (202) 691-6199. Internet: http://www.bls.gov/eci.  What will the hours be? Most jobs involve regular hours—for example, 40 hours a week, during the day, Monday through Friday. Other jobs require night, weekend, or holiday work. In addition, some jobs routinely require overtime to meet deadlines or sales or production goals, or to better serve customers. Consider the effect that the work hours will have on your personal life.  How long do most people who enter this job stay with the company? High turnover can mean dissatisfaction with the nature of the work or something else about the job. Opportunities offered by employers. A good job offers you opportunities to learn new skills, increase your earnings, and rise to positions of greater authority, responsibility, and prestige. A lack of opportunities can dampen interest in the work and result in frustration and boredom. Some companies develop training plans for their employees. What valuable new skills does the company plan to teach you? The employer should give you some idea of promotion possibilities within the organization. What is the next step on the career ladder? If you have to wait for a job to become vacant before you can be promoted, how long does this usually take? When opportunities for advancement do arise, will you compete with applicants from outside the company? Can you apply for jobs for which you qualify elsewhere within the organization, or is mobility within the firm limited? Salaries and benefits. When an employer makes a job offer, information about earnings and benefits are usually included. You will want to research to determine if the offer is fair. If you choose to negotiate for higher pay and better benefits, objective research will help you strengthen your case. You may have to go to several sources for information. One of the best places to start is the information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data on earnings by detailed occupation from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) Survey are available from:  hhBureau  You should also look for additional information, specifically tailored to your job offer and circumstances. Try to find family, friends, or acquaintances who recently were hired in similar jobs. Ask your teachers and the staff in placement offices about starting pay for graduates with your qualifications. Helpwanted ads in newspapers sometimes give salary ranges for similar positions. Check the library or your school’s career center for salary surveys such as those conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers or various professional associations. If you are considering the salary and benefits for a job in another geographic area, make allowances for differences in the cost of living, which may be significantly higher in a large metropolitan area than in a smaller city, town, or rural area. You also should learn the organization’s policy regarding overtime. Depending on the job, you may or may not be exempt from laws requiring the employer to compensate you for overtime. Find out how many hours you will be expected to work each week and whether you receive overtime pay or compensatory time off for working more than the specified number of hours in a week. Also take into account that the starting salary is just that—the start. Your salary should be reviewed on a regular basis; many organizations do it every year. How much can you expect to earn after 1, 2, or 3 or more years? An employer may be unable to be specific about the amount of pay if it includes commissions and bonuses. Benefits also can add a lot to your base pay, but they vary widely. Find out exactly what the benefit package includes and how much of the cost you must bear.  For more information To learn more about finding and applying for jobs, visit your local library and career center. You can find career centers that are part of the U.S. Department of Labor One-Stop Career system by calling toll free (877) 348-0502 or visiting their Web site at http://www.careeronestop.org. The Occupational Outlook Quarterly, a career magazine published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, is one of the resources available at many libraries and career centers. The magazine includes many articles about finding, applying for, and choosing jobs. See, for example:  hh“Career myths and how to debunk them,” online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2005/fall/art01.pdf.  hh“Getting back to work: Returning to the labor force after an absence,” online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2004/winter/art03.pdf.  hh“Job search in the age of the Internet: Six job seekers in search of employers,” online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2003/summer/art01.pdf.  hhBureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Occupational Statistics and  hh“Internships: Previewing a profession,” online at  Employment Projections, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE., Room 2135,  http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2006/summer/art02.pdf.  Washington, DC 20212-0001. Telephone: (202) 691-6569. Internet:  hh“Resumes, applications, and cover letters,” online at  http://www.bls.gov/OES.  http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2009/summer/art03.pdf.  Occupational Information Included in the Handbook The Occupational Outlook Handbook is a career guidance resource that provides information on hundreds of occupations that provide the overwhelming majority of jobs in the United States. Each occupation is presented in its own chapter, or “statement,” that discusses the type of work performed, the work environment, the education and training requirements, the possibilities for advancement, job outlook, and the typical earnings. Each statement is presented in a standard format, making it easy to compare occupations. Because the Handbook covers so many occupations, it is best used as a reference, and is not meant to be read from cover to cover. Readers can navigate the Handbook by browsing the table of contents, in which similar occupations are grouped in clusters, or the reader can look at the index to find specific ­occupations.  About the Occupational Information Network The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) is a system used by State employment service offices to classify applicants and job openings, and by some career information centers and libraries to file occupational information. At the end of each detailed occupational statement, the Handbook provides the Internet address of the online version of the statement. This online version provides links to O*NET information related to the particular occupation. You can use O*NET to search for occupations that match your skills, or you may search by keyword or O*NET code. For each occupation, O*NET reports information about different aspects of the job, including tasks performed, knowledge, skills, abilities, and work activities. It also lists interests, work styles, such as independence, and work values, such as achievement, that are well suited to the occupation. O*NET ranks and scores the descriptors in each category by their importance to the occupation. The Handbook chapter on “Occupational Information Network Coverage” cross-references O*NET codes to occupations covered in the Handbook. You can access O*NET on the Internet at http://www.online.onetcenter.org.  Sections of Occupational Statements Significant Points This section highlights key occupational characteristics discussed in the statement.  Nature of the Work This section describes the typical tasks and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment  they use and how closely they are supervised. The statement on fire fighting occupations, for example, gives a detailed account of the responsibilities of a fire fighter, which include operating the fire hose, providing emergency medical care, and cleaning and maintaining equipment. Some statements mention common alternative job titles or occupational specialties. The statement on accountants and auditors, for example, discusses several specialties, including public accountants, management accountants, and internal auditors. The Handbook is revised every 2 years. This section may be revised for several reasons. One is the emergence of occupational specialties. For instance, webmasters—who are responsible for the technical aspects of operating a Web site—constitute a specialty within computer scientists and database administrators. Another reason for revision is a change in technology that affects the way in which a job is performed. The Internet, for example, allows purchasers to acquire supplies with a click of the mouse, saving time and money. Furthermore, job duties may be affected by modifications to business practices, such as organizational restructuring or changes in response to new government regulations. An example is paralegals and legal assistants, who increasingly are being used by law firms in order to lower costs and increase the efficiency of legal services. Work environment. This subsection describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours of workers in the occupation. It may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the extent of travel required, any special equipment that is used, and the risk of injury that workers may face. In some occupations, people work regular business hours—40 hours a week, Monday through Friday. However, many establishments like restaurants, stores, and hospitals are open evenings, weekends, and in some cases 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The work settings can range from indoors at a comfortable desk to outdoors in every kind of weather. For example, radiologic technologists and technicians may use protective clothing or equipment, some construction laborers do physically demanding work, truck drivers might be susceptible to injury on the road, and paramedics have high job-related stress. Information on various worker characteristics, such as the average number of hours worked per week, is obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS)—a survey of households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Economists in BLS consult many sources before making changes to the nature of the work section, or any other section, of a Handbook statement. Usual sources include articles from newspapers, magazines, and professional journals, as well as the Web sites of professional associations, unions, and trade groups. Information found on the Internet or in periodicals is 25  26 Occupational Outlook Handbook  verified through interviews with individuals employed in the occupation, professional associations, unions, and others with occupational knowledge, such as university professors and ­career counselors.  Training, Other qualifications, and Advancement After gathering your initial impressions of what a job is all about, it is important to understand how to prepare for it. The training, other qualifications, and advancement section explains typical paths to entry and advancement in each occupation. Education and training. This subsection describes the most significant sources of education and training, the type education or training preferred by employers, and the typical length of training. Some common forms of education and training include a high school diploma, informal on-the-job training, previous work experience, formal training (including internships), and various postsecondary awards and degrees. The type of education or training required for each occupation in the Handbook varies, and two seemingly similar occupations can have very different requirements. For example, respiratory therapists typically need an associate degree for entry-level employment while occupational therapists typically need a master’s degree or higher for entry-level employment. Licensure. Some States regulate the practice of certain occupations, typically through licensure. This subsection discusses the number of States that regulate a given occupation and some of the typical requirements for such licenses. The requirements for licensure vary according to State law. Some common requirements for licensure are some minimum level of education, passage of an occupation-specific examination that demonstrates competency, and continuing education credits to maintain valid licensure. Examples of occupations that may require State licensure include child care workers, cosmetologists, electricians, occupational therapists, architects, and lawyers. Credentialing is discussed in this subsection when it is a mandatory requirement for an occupation, much like licensure. For example, accountants who file reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission are required by law to be a Certified Public Accountant (CPA). A number of occupations have voluntary credentialing, often offered by professional organizations. If credentialing is voluntary, it may be addressed in this subsection or under the other qualifications or advancement subsections. When voluntary credentialing is relevant, the statement typically includes information on the type of credential, the credentialing organization, and some typical requirements for credentialing. Other qualifications. Any additional qualifications that are not included in the previous subsections, such as the desirable skills, aptitudes, and personal characteristics that employers look for would be discussed in this section. For example, meeting and convention planners must have excellent interpersonal and organizational skills, the ability to work under pressure, and must pay attention to detail. For some entry-level jobs, personal characteristics are more important than formal training. Employers generally seek people who read, write, and speak well; compute accurately; think logically; learn quickly; get along with others; and demonstrate dependability. This subsec-  tion may also include information about voluntary, entry-level credentialing. Advancement. This subsection details possible advancement opportunities after gaining experience in an occupation. Advancement can come in several forms, including advancement within the occupation, such as promotion to a management ­position; advancement into other occupations, such as leaving a job as a lawyer to become a judge; and advancement to selfemployment, such as an automotive technician opening his or her own repair shop. Certain types of certification can also serve as a form of advancement. Voluntary certification often demonstrates a level of competency to employers, and can result in more responsibility, higher pay, or a new job. Radiologic technologists may, for example, become specialists in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voluntary certification. Information in the training, other qualifications, and advancement section comes from personal interviews with individuals employed in the occupation, Web sites, published training materials, and interviews with the organizations that grant degrees, certifications, or licenses, or are otherwise associated with the occupation.  Employment This section reports the number of jobs that the occupation provided in 2008, the key industries in which those jobs were found, and, if significant, the number or proportion of self-employed workers in the occupation. The source of estimated employment in a particular occupation in the Handbook is the Bureau’s National Employment Matrix, which presents current and projected employment for 276 industries and 750 occupations over the 2008–2018 period. Data in the matrix come primarily from the establishment-based Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) Survey, which ­reports employment of wage and salary workers for each occupation in every industry except agriculture and private households. The household-based Current Population Survey (CPS) provides input for matrix data on the number of self-employed and ­unpaid family workers in each occupation. The matrix also incorporates CPS data on total employment—wage and salary, selfemployed, and unpaid family workers—in the agriculture and private household industries. The estimate of total employment in each Handbook occupation thus combines data from several different sources. Furthermore, some Handbook occupations combine several matrix occupations. For these reasons, employment numbers cited in the Handbook may differ from employment data provided by OES, CPS, and other employment surveys. When significant, the geographic distribution of jobs is mentioned, reflecting CPS data. On the basis of OES survey data, some Handbook statements, such as textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations, list States that employ substantial numbers of workers in the occupation.  Job Outlook In planning for the future, it is important to consider potential job growth and job opportunities. This section describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline, and in some  Occupational Information Included in the Handbook 27  instances, describes the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings. Employment change. This subsection reflects the occupational projections in the National Employment Matrix. Each occupation is assigned a descriptive phrase based on its projected percent change in employment over the 2008–2018 period. This phrase describes the occupation’s projected employment change relative to the projected average employment change for all occupations combined. (These phrases are listed at the end of this chapter.) Many factors are examined in projecting the employment change for each occupation. One such factor is changes in technology. New technology can either create new job opportunities or eliminate jobs by making an occupation obsolete. The Internet has increased the demand for workers in the computer and information technology fields, such as computer support specialists and systems administrators. However, the Internet also has adversely affected travel agents, because many people now book tickets, hotels, and rental cars online. Another factor that influences employment trends is demographic change. By affecting the services demanded, demographic change can influence occupational growth or decline. For example, an aging population will demand more healthcare services, leading to occupational growth in healthcare occupations. Another factor affecting job growth or decline is changes in business practices, such as restructuring businesses or outsourcing (contracting out) work. Corporate restructuring has made many organizations “flatter,” resulting in fewer middle management positions. Also, in the past few years, insurance carriers have been outsourcing sales and claims adjuster jobs to large, 24-hour call centers in order to reduce costs. Jobs in some occupations, such as computer programmers and customer service representatives, have been “offshored”—moved to lowerwage foreign countries. The substitution of one product or service for another can also affect employment projections. For example, consumption of plastic products has grown as they have been substituted for metal goods in consumer and manufactured products in recent years. The process is likely to continue and should result in stronger demand for machine operators in plastics than in metal. Competition from foreign trade usually has a negative affect on employment. Often, foreign manufacturers can produce goods more cheaply than they can be produced in the United States, and the cost savings can be passed on in the form of lower prices with which U.S. manufacturers cannot compete. Increased international competition is a major reason for the decline in employment among textile, apparel, and furnishings workers. Another factor is job growth or decline in key industries. If an occupation is concentrated in an industry that is growing rapidly, it is likely that that occupation will grow rapidly as well. For example, the growing need for business expertise is fueling demand for consulting services. This is expected to cause rapid growth in the management, scientific, and technical consulting services industry, which, in turn, will lead to rapid growth in the employment of management analysts. Job prospects. In some cases, the Handbook mentions that an occupation is likely to provide numerous job openings or,  in others, that an occupation likely will have relatively few openings. This information reflects the projected change in employment, as well as replacement needs. Large occupations in which workers frequently enter and leave, such as food and beverage serving occupations, generally provide the most job openings—reflecting the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or who stop working. Some Handbook statements discuss the relationship between the number of job seekers and the number of job openings. Job ­opportunities are affected by several factors, including the creation of new jobs, the number of people who apply for jobs, and the number of people who leave the occupation. In some occupations, there is a rough balance between job seekers and job openings, resulting in good opportunities. In other occupations, employers may report difficulty finding qualified applicants, resulting in excellent job opportunities. Still other occupations are characterized by a surplus of applicants, leading to keen competition for jobs. (These phrases used to describe the relationship between job seekers and job opportunities appear at the end of this section.) Variation in job opportunities by industry, educational attainment, size of firm, or geographic location also may be discussed. Even in crowded occupations, job openings do exist. Good students or highly qualified individuals should not be deterred from undertaking training for, or seeking entry into, those occupations. Employment projections table. The employment projections table lists employment statistics from the National Employment Matrix. It includes 2008 employment, projected 2018 employment, and the 2008–2018 change in employment in both numerical and percent forms. Current and projected employment and the numerical change in employment are rounded to the nearest hundred, and the percent change in employment is rounded to the nearest whole number. Numerical and percent changes are calculated using non-rounded 2008 and 2018 employment figures, and then are rounded for presentation in the employment projections table.  Earnings This section discusses typical earnings and how workers are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, piece rates, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area. Almost every statement in the Handbook contains 2008 OES-survey wage estimates for wage and salary workers. Information on earnings in the major industries in which the occupation is employed, also supplied by the OES survey, may be given as well. In addition to presenting earnings data from the OES survey, some statements contain additional earnings data from non-BLS sources. Starting and average salaries of Federal workers are based on 2009 data from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management. The National Association of Colleges and Employers supplies information on average salary offers in 2009 for students graduating with a bachelor’s, master’s, or Ph.D. degree in certain fields. A few statements contain additional earnings information from other sources, such as unions, professional associations, and private companies. These data sources are cited in the text. Benefits account for a significant portion of total compensation costs to employers. Benefits such as paid vacation, health  28 Occupational Outlook Handbook  insurance, and sick leave might not be mentioned, because they are widespread. In some occupational statements, the absence of these traditional benefits is pointed out. Although not as common as traditional benefits, flexible hours and profit-sharing plans may be offered to attract and retain highly qualified workers. Less common benefits also include child care, tuition for dependents, housing assistance, summers off, and free or discounted merchandise or services. For certain occupations, the percentage of workers affiliated with a union is listed. These data come from the CPS survey. Unless otherwise noted, the source of employment and earnings data presented in the Handbook is the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Nearly all Handbook statements cite employment and wage estimates from the OES survey, and some include data from outside sources. OES data may be used to compare wages among occupations; outside data, however, may not be used in this manner, because characteristics of these data vary widely.  Related occupations Occupations involving similar duties, skills, interests, education, and training are listed.  Sources of additional information No single publication can describe all aspects of an occupation. Thus, the Handbook lists the mailing addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide occupational information. In some cases, toll free telephone numbers and Internet addresses also are listed. Free or relatively inexpensive publications offering more information may be mentioned; some of these publications also may be available in libraries, in school career centers, in guidance offices, or on the Internet. Most of the organizations listed in this section were sources of information on the nature of the work, training, and job outlook discussed in the Handbook. For additional sources of information, also read the earlier chapters, “Sources of Career Information” and “Sources of ­Education, Training, and Financial Aid.”  Abbreviated occupational statements At the end of some major occupational groups—office and administrative support occupations, for example—the Handbook includes selected occupational statements under headings such as “other office and administrative support occupations” or “other professional and related occupations.” These statements provide the same career guidance information as the more-detailed occupational statements, but in an abbreviated format.  Key phrases in the Handbook This box explains how to interpret key phrases used to describe projected changes in employment. Also explained are the terms used to describe the relationship between the number of job openings and the number of job seekers. The description of this relationship in a particular occupation reflects the knowledge and judgment of economists in the BLS Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment ­Projections.  Changing employment between 2008 and 2018  If the statement reads: Grow much faster than average Grow faster than average Grow about as fast as average Grow more slowly than average Little or no change  Decline slowly or moderately Decline rapidly   Employment is projected to: Increase 20 percent or more Increase 14 to 19 percent Increase 7 to 13 percent Increase 3 to 6 percent Decrease 2 percent to increase 2 percent Decrease 3 to 9 percent Decrease 10 percent or more  Opportunities and competition for jobs  If the statement reads: Very good to excellent   opportunities Good or favorable   opportunities May face, or can expect,   keen competition  Job openings compared with job seekers may be: More numerous In rough balance Fewer  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations Management Occupations  Nature of the Work  n­ egotiation, and review of contracts related to the purchase or sale of equipment, materials, supplies, products, or services. Other administrative services managers handle the acquisition, distribution, and storage of equipment and supplies, while others oversee the disposal of surplus or unclaimed property. Administrative services managers who work as facility managers plan, design, and manage buildings, grounds, equipment, and supplies. Increasingly, they develop and implement plans that incorporate energy efficiency into a facility’s operations and structures. These tasks require integrating the principles of business administration, information technology, architecture, and engineering. Although the specific tasks assigned to facility managers vary substantially depending on the organization, the duties fall into several categories, relating to operations and maintenance, real estate, project planning and management, communication, finance, facility function, technology integration, and environmental factors. Tasks within these broad categories may include space and workplace planning, budgeting, purchase and sale of real estate, lease management, renovations, or architectural planning and design. Facility managers  Administrative services managers plan, coordinate, and direct a broad range of services that allow organizations to operate efficiently. They might, for example, coordinate space allocation, facilities maintenance and operations, and major property and equipment procurement. They also may oversee centralized operations that meet the needs of multiple departments, such as information and data processing, mail, materials scheduling and distribution, printing and reproduction, records management, telecommunications management, security, recycling, wellness, and transportation services. Administrative services managers also ensure that contracts, insurance requirements, and government regulations and safety standards are followed and up to date. They may examine energy consumption patterns, technology usage, and personal property needs to plan for their long-term maintenance, modernization, and replacement. Specific duties for these managers vary by size of company or office and degree of responsibility and authority. In small organizations, a single administrative services manager, sometimes called an office manager, may oversee all support services. (See the statement on office and administrative support worker supervisors and managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) In larger ones, however, there may be several layers of administrative services managers that may specialize in different areas and report to directors of administration, or vice presidents of administration who oversee all administrative services. The nature of these managerial jobs varies as significantly as the range of administrative services required by organizations. For example, administrative services managers who work as contract administrators oversee the preparation, analysis,  Administrative services managers review plans and contracts to ensure smooth implementation.  Administrative Services Managers Significant Points  •	 Applicants  for the limited number of higher-level management jobs will face keen competition; less severe competition is expected for lower-level management jobs.  •	 Administrative services managers work throughout  private industry and government and have a wide range of responsibilities, experience, earnings, and education.  •	 Like other managers, administrative services managers should be analytical, detail-oriented, flexible, decisive, and have good leadership and communication skills.  29  30 Occupational Outlook Handbook  may oversee renovation projects to improve efficiency or ensure that facilities meet government regulations and environmental, health, and security standards. For example, they may influence building renovation projects by recommending energy-saving alternatives or production efficiencies that reduce waste. Additionally, facility managers continually monitor the facility to ensure that it remains safe, secure, and well-maintained. Often, facility managers are responsible for directing staff, including maintenance, grounds, and custodial workers. Work environment. Administrative services managers spend much of their day in an office, but site visits around the building, outdoors to supervise groundskeeping activities, or to other facilities under their management are common. If overseeing a construction project, travel to the construction site is typical. Technology allows many facility managers to monitor equipment remotely and teleconferencing has reduced the need to travel as frequently to meet with off-site staff and vendors. About half of administrative services managers work a standard 40-hour week; most of the remaining workforce work longer hours. However, uncompensated overtime frequently is required to resolve problems and meet deadlines. Facility managers often are “on call” to address a variety of problems that can arise in a facility during nonworking hours.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Education and experience requirements for these managers vary widely, depending on the size and complexity of the organization. In small organizations, experience may be the only requirement. In large organizations, however, administrative services managers may need a bachelor’s degree and appropriate experience. Education and training. Specific education and training requirements vary by job responsibility. Office mangers in smaller operations or lower-level administrative services managers with fewer responsibilities may only need a high school diploma combined with appropriate experience, but an associate degree is increasingly preferred. In larger companies with multiple locations, equipment, and technologies to coordinate, higher-level administrative services managers need at least a bachelor’s degree. Managers of highly complex services, such as contract, insurance, and regulatory compliance, generally need at least a bachelor’s degree in business administration, human resources, accounting, or finance. Lower-level managers may also need a bachelor’s degree, but related postsecondary technical training may also be substituted for managers of printing, security, communications, or information technology. Those involved in building management should take a drafting class. Regardless of major, courses in office technology, accounting, computer applications, human resources, and business law are highly recommended. Most facility managers have an undergraduate or graduate degree in engineering, architecture, construction management, business administration, or facility management. Many also have backgrounds in real estate, construction, or interior design, in addition to managerial experience. Whatever the educational background, it must be accompanied by related work experience reflecting managerial and leadership abilities. Many administrative services managers obtained their experience by specializing in one area at first, then augmenting their  qualifications by acquiring work experience in other specialties before assuming managerial duties. Managers of property acquisition and disposal need experience in purchasing and sales, and knowledge of the variety of supplies, machinery, and equipment used by the organization. Managers concerned with supply, inventory, and distribution should be experienced in receiving, warehousing, packaging, shipping, transportation, and related operations. Contract administrators may have worked as contract specialists, cost analysts, or procurement specialists. Other qualifications. Persons interested in becoming administrative services managers should have good leadership and communication skills and be able to establish effective working relationships with many different people, ranging from managers, supervisors, and professionals, to clerks and blue-collar workers. They should be analytical, detail-oriented, flexible, and decisive. They must be able to coordinate several activities at once, quickly analyze and resolve specific problems, and cope with deadlines. Certification and advancement. Most administrative services managers in small organizations advance by moving to other management positions or to larger organizations. The ­Association of Professional Office Managers offers online training geared towards small businesses that indicate a level of professionalism and commitment to office management. Advancement is easier in large firms that employ ­several levels and types of administrative services managers. A ­master’s degree in business administration or a related field can enhance a manager’s opportunities to advance to higherlevel positions, such as director of administrative services. Some experienced managers may join or establish a management consulting firm to provide administrative management services to other companies on a contract basis. Advancement of facility managers is based on the practices and size of individual companies. Some facility managers transfer among departments within an organization or work their way up from technical positions. Others advance through a progression of facility management positions that offer additional responsibilities. Completion of the competency-based professional certification program offered by the International Facility Management Association can give prospective candidates an advantage. In order to qualify for the Certified Facility Manager (CFM) designation, applicants must meet certain educational and experience requirements. People entering the profession also may obtain the Facility Management Professional (FMP) credential, a stepping stone to the CFM.  Employment Administrative services managers held about 259,400 jobs in 2008. They are found in all industries, but several industries have a greater share of these managers than others. They are the education services industry with 15 percent, the health care industry with 12 percent, State and local government with 12 percent, and finance and insurance with 9 percent.  Job Outlook The number of jobs is projected to grow about as fast as average. Applicants for the limited number of higher-level management jobs will face keen competition; less severe competition is  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 31  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Administrative services managers.....................................................  SOC Code 11-3011  Employment, 2008 259,400  Projected Employment, 2018 291,700  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 32,300 12  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  expected for lower-level management jobs. Demand should be strong for facility managers. Employment change. Employment of administrative services managers is projected to grow by 12 percent over the 2008-18 decade, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Continued downsizing by companies and increasing use of office technology may result in a more streamlined organizational structure with fewer levels of management, reducing the need for some positions. Demand should be strong for facility managers because businesses increasingly realize the importance of maintaining, securing, and efficiently operating their facilities. Cost-cutting measures to improve profitability, streamline operations, and compete globally will continue to be addressed by many organizations, resulting in more firms outsourcing facility management services or hiring qualified facility managers who are capable of achieving these goals in-house. Administrative services managers employed in management services and management consulting should grow as companies increasingly look to outside specialists to handle a myriad of administrative tasks that have become increasingly complex and expensive. Administrative services managers specializing in contract administration will also be in demand as outsourcing of administrative tasks becomes increasingly prevalent for activities such as food and janitorial services, space planning and design, energy, telecommunications, and grounds and equipment maintenance and repair. Other areas that administrative services managers will increasingly plan and coordinate include information technology, data and personal security, records management, wellness, and energy conservation. Job prospects. Applicants will face keen competition for the limited number of higher-level administrative services management jobs; competition should be less severe for lower-level management jobs. Job prospects will also be better for those who can manage a wide range of responsibilities, than for those who specialize in particular functions. In addition to the new administrative services management jobs due to growth in the occupation, many job openings will stem from the need to replace workers who transfer to other jobs, retire, or leave the occupation for other reasons. Job opportunities may vary from year to year because the strength of the economy affects demand for administrative services managers. Industries least likely to be affected by economic fluctuations tend to be the most stable places for employment.  cent earned between $52,240 and $98,980. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $37,430, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $129,770. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of these managers were:  Earnings  The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos002.htm  Wages of administrative services managers vary greatly depending on the employer, the specialty, and the geographic area. In general, however, median annual wages of salaried administrative services managers in May 2008 were $73,520. The middle 50 per-  Management of companies and enterprises................$85,980 General medical and surgical hospitals.........................77,870 Local government..........................................................74,860 Colleges, universities, and professional schools...........72,460 State government...........................................................65,690  In the Federal Government, industrial specialists averaged $82,169 a year in March 2009. Corresponding averages were $78,995 for facility operations services managers, $79,457 for industrial property managers, $70,386 for property disposal specialists, $78,562 for administrative officers, and $71,049 for support services administrators.  Related Occupations Administrative services managers direct and coordinate support services and oversee the purchase, use, and disposal of  personal property. Occupations with similar functions ­include:  Page Cost estimators......................................................................... 100 Office and administrative support worker supervisors and managers........................................................................ 594 Property, real estate, and community association managers.............................................................. 76 Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents............... 79 Top executives............................................................................ 83  Sources of Additional Information For information about careers and education and degree programs in facility management, as well as the Certified Facility Manager designation, contact: hhInternational Facility Management Association, 1 East Greenway Plaza, Suite 1100, Houston, TX 77046-0194. Internet: http://www.ifma.org For information on training and classes for professional office management personnel, contact: hhAssociation of Professional Office Managers, P. O. Box 1926, Rockville, MD 20849. Internet: http://www.apomonline.org  32 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Advertising, Marketing, Promotions, Public Relations, and Sales Managers Significant Points  •	 Keen competition is expected for these highly coveted jobs.  •	 College graduates with related experience, a high level of creativity, and strong communication and computer skills should have the best job opportunities.  •	 High earnings, substantial travel, and long hours, in­ cluding evenings and weekends, are common.  •	 Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, these managers often are prime candidates for advancement to the highest ranks.  Nature of the Work Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers coordinate their companies’ market research, marketing strategy, sales, advertising, promotion, pricing, product development, and public relations activities. In small firms the owner or chief executive officer might assume all advertising, promotions, marketing, sales, and public relations responsibilities. In large firms, which may offer numerous products and services nationally or even worldwide, an executive vice president directs overall advertising, marketing, promotions, sales, and public relations policies. (Executive vice presidents are included in the Handbook statement on top executives.) Advertising managers. Advertising managers direct a firm’s or group’s advertising and promotional campaign. They can be found in advertising agencies that put together advertising campaigns for clients, in media firms that sell advertising space or time, and in companies that advertise heavily. They work with sales staff and others to generate ideas for the campaign, oversee a creative staff that develops the advertising, and work with the finance department to prepare a budget and cost estimates for the campaign. Often, these managers serve as liaisons between the firm requiring the advertising and an advertising or promotion agency that actually develops and places the ads. In larger firms with an extensive advertising department, different advertising managers may oversee in-house accounts and creative and media services departments. The account executive manages account services departments in companies and assesses the need for advertising. In advertising agencies, ­account executives maintain the accounts of clients whereas the creative services department develops the subject matter and presentation of advertising. The creative director oversees the copy chief, art director, and associated staff. The media director oversees planning groups that select the communication medium—for example, radio, television, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, or outdoor signs— that will disseminate the advertising. Marketing managers. Marketing managers work with advertising and promotion managers to promote the firm’s or organization’s products and services. With the help of lower level managers, including product development managers and market research managers, marketing managers estimate the  Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers often serve as liaisons between the firm requiring the advertising and an advertising or promotion agency that ­develops and places the ads. demand for products and services offered by the firm and its ­competitors and identify potential markets for the firm’s products. Marketing managers also develop pricing strategies to help firms maximize profits and market share while ensuring that the firms’ customers are satisfied. In collaboration with sales, product development, and other managers, they monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services and they oversee product development. Promotions managers. Promotions managers direct promotions programs that combine advertising with purchasing incentives to increase sales. Often, the programs are executed through the use of direct mail, inserts in newspapers, Internet advertisements, in-store displays, product endorsements, or other special events. Purchasing incentives may include discounts, samples, gifts, rebates, coupons, sweepstakes, and contests. Public relations managers. Public relations managers plan and direct public relations programs designed to create and maintain a favorable public image for the employer or client. For example, they might write press releases or sponsor corporate events to help maintain and improve the image and identity of the company or client. They also help to clarify the organization’s point of view to their main constituency. They observe social, economic, and political trends that might ultimately affect the firm, and they make recommendations to enhance the firm’s image on the basis of those trends. Public relations ­managers  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 33  often specialize in a specific area, such as crisis management, or in a specific industry, such as healthcare. In large organizations, public relations managers may supervise a staff of public relations specialists. (See the Handbook statement on public relations specialists.) They also work with advertising and marketing staffs to make sure that the advertising campaigns are compatible with the image the company or client is trying to portray. In addition, public relations managers may handle internal company communications, such as company newsletters, and may help financial managers produce company reports. They may assist company executives in drafting speeches, arranging interviews, and maintaining other forms of public contact; oversee company archives; and respond to requests for information. Some of these managers handle special events as well, such as the sponsorship of races, parties introducing new products, or other activities that the firm supports in order to gain public attention through the press without advertising directly. Sales managers. Sales managers direct the distribution of the product or service to the customer. They assign sales territories, set sales goals, and establish training programs for the organization’s sales representatives. (See the Handbook statement on sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing). Sales managers advise the sales representatives on ways to improve their sales performance. In large multiproduct firms, they oversee regional and local sales managers and their staffs. Sales managers maintain contact with dealers and distributors, and analyze sales statistics gathered by their staffs to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and to monitor customers’ preferences. Such information is vital in the development of products and the maximization of profits. Work environment. Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers work in offices close to those of top managers. Working under pressure is unavoidable when schedules change and problems arise, but deadlines and goals still must be met. Substantial travel may be required in order to meet with customers and consult with others in the industry. Sales managers travel to national, regional, and local offices and to the offices of various dealers and distributors. Advertising and promotions managers may travel to meet with clients or representatives of communications media. At times, public relations managers travel to meet with special-interest groups or government officials. Job transfers between headquarters and regional offices are common, particularly among sales managers. Long hours, including evenings and weekends are common. In 2008, over 80 percent of advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers worked 40 hours or more a week.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A wide range of educational backgrounds is suitable for entry into advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales manager jobs, but many employers prefer college graduates with experience in related occupations. Education and training. For marketing, sales, and promotions management positions, employers often prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in business administration with an emphasis on marketing. Courses in business law, management,  economics, accounting, finance, mathematics, and statistics are advantageous. In addition, the completion of an internship while the candidate is in school is highly recommended. In highly technical industries, such as computer and electronics manufacturing, a bachelor’s degree in engineering or science, combined with a master’s degree in business administration, is preferred. For advertising management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s degree in advertising or journalism. A relevant course of study might include classes in marketing, consumer behavior, market research, sales, communication methods and technology, visual arts, art history, and photography. For public relations management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in public relations or journalism. The applicant’s curriculum should include courses in advertising, business administration, public affairs, public speaking, political science, and creative and technical writing. Most advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales management positions are filled through promotions of experienced staff or related professional personnel. For example, many managers are former sales representatives; ­purchasing agents; buyers; or product, advertising, promotions, or public relations specialists. In small firms, in which the number of positions is limited, advancement to a management position usually comes slowly. In large firms, promotion may occur more quickly. Other qualifications. Computer skills are necessary for recordkeeping and data management, and the ability to work in an Internet environment is becoming increasingly vital as more marketing, product promotion, and advertising is done through the Internet. Also, the ability to communicate in a foreign language may open up employment opportunities in many rapidly growing areas around the country, especially cities with large Spanish-speaking populations. Persons interested in becoming advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers should be mature, creative, highly motivated, resistant to stress, flexible, and decisive. The ability to communicate persuasively, both orally and in writing, with other managers, staff, and the public is vital. These managers also need tact, good judgment, and exceptional ability to establish and maintain effective personal relationships with supervisory and professional staff members and client firms. Certification and advancement. Some associations offer certification programs for these managers. Certification—an indication of competence and achievement—is particularly important in a competitive job market. Although relatively few advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers currently are certified, the number of managers who seek certification is expected to grow. Today, there are numerous management certification programs based on education and job performance. In addition, the Public Relations Society of America offers a certification program for public relations practitioners that is based on years of experience and performance on an examination. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement can be accelerated by participation in management training programs conducted by larger firms. Many firms also provide their employees with ­continuing  34 Occupational Outlook Handbook  e­ ducation opportunities—either in-house or at local colleges and universities—and encourage employee participation in seminars and conferences, often held by professional societies. In collaboration with colleges and universities, numerous marketing and related associations sponsor national or local management training programs. Course subjects include brand and product management; international marketing; sales management evaluation; telemarketing and direct sales; interactive marketing; product promotion; marketing communication; market research; organizational communication; and data-­ processing systems, procedures, and management. Many firms pay all or part of the cost for employees who complete courses. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers often are prime candidates for advancement to the highest ranks. Well-trained, experienced, and successful managers may be promoted to higher positions in their own or another firm; some become top executives. Managers with extensive experience and sufficient capital may open their own businesses.  Employment Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers held about 623,800 jobs in 2008. The following tabulation shows the distribution of jobs by occupational specialty: Sales managers............................................................346,900 Marketing managers....................................................175,600 Public relations managers.............................................56,700 Advertising and promotions managers..........................44,600  These managers were found in virtually every industry. Sales managers held about 56 percent of the jobs; about 62 percent of sales managers were employed in wholesale trade, retail trade, manufacturing, and the finance and insurance industries. Marketing managers held approximately 28 percent of the jobs; the professional, scientific, and technical services, and the ­finance and insurance industries employed around 32  percent of marketing managers. About 27 percent of advertising and promotions managers worked in the professional, scientific, and technical services industries and wholesale trade. Around 48  percent of public relations managers were employed in service-­providing industries, such as professional, scientific, and technical ­servi­ces; public and private educational services; finance and insurance; and healthcare and social assistance.  Job Outlook Employment is projected to grow about as fast as average. As with most managerial jobs, keen competition is expected for these highly coveted positions. Employment change. Overall employment of advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers is expected to increase by 13 percent through 2018. Job growth will be spurred by competition for a growing number of goods and services, both foreign and domestic, and the need to make one’s product or service stand out in the crowd. In addition, as the influence of traditional advertising in newspapers, radio, and network television wanes, marketing professionals are being asked to develop new and different ways to advertise and promote products and services to better reach potential customers. Sales and marketing managers and their departments constitute some of the most important personnel in an organization and are less subject to downsizing or outsourcing than are other types of managers, except in the case of companies that are consolidating. Employment of these managers, therefore, will vary primarily on the basis of the growth or contraction in the industries that employ them. For example, if, as is expected, the number of automobile dealers declines over the next decade, these major employers of sales managers will need fewer of them. Employment of marketing managers will grow 12 percent between 2008 and 2018, and that of sales managers will grow 15 percent over the same period. Advertising and promotions managers are expected to experience little or no change in employment from 2008 to 2018. Despite large declines in the number of advertising managers in recent years, due mainly to the sharp reduction in the number of advertising agencies and newspaper and periodical publishers, which employ the greatest numbers of these managers, advertising and promotions managers are not expected to experience similar declines in the future. Because advertising is the primary source of revenue for most media, advertising departments are less affected in a downturn. An expected increase in the number of television and radio stations and a sharp increase in the amount of advertising in digital media, such as the Internet and wireless devices will generate a need for advertising managers to oversee new and innovative advertising programs. A number of these advertising managers will be self-employed. Public relations managers are expected to see an increase in employment of 13 percent between 2008 and 2018, as organizations increasingly emphasize community outreach and  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers........................................................................................ Advertising and promotions managers.......................................... Marketing and sales managers....................................................... Marketing managers................................................................... Sales managers........................................................................... Public relations managers..............................................................  SOC Code 11-2000 11-2011 11-2020 11-2021 11-2022 11-2031  Employment, 2008 623,800 44,600 522,400 175,600 346,900 56,700  Projected Employment, 2018 704,100 43,900 596,200 197,500 398,700 64,100  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 80,300 -800 73,700 21,900 51,800 7,300  13 -2 14 12 15 13  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 35  customer relations as a way to enhance their reputation and visibility. Especially among the growing number of nonprofit organizations, such as education services, business and professional associations, and hospitals, where many of these workers are employed, public relations managers will be charged with promoting the mission of the organization and encouraging membership or use of the organization’s services. Job prospects. Most job openings for this occupation will be due to the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or retire. However, advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales manager jobs are highly coveted and are often sought by other managers or highly experienced professionals, resulting in keen competition. College graduates with related experience, a high level of creativity, and strong communication and computer skills should have the best job opportunities. In particular, employers will seek those who have the skills to conduct new types of advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales campaigns involving new media, particularly the Internet.  Earnings Median annual wages in May 2008 were $80,220 for advertising and promotions managers, $108,580 for marketing managers, $97,260 for sales managers, and $89,430 for public relations managers. Median annual wages of advertising and promotions managers in May 2008 in the advertising, public relations, and related services industry were $105,960. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of marketing managers were as follows: Computer systems design and related services.........$127,870 Management of companies and enterprises................115,650 Management, scientific, and technical consulting services..................................................111,130 Insurance carriers........................................................103,210 Depository credit intermediation..................................98,510  Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of sales managers were as follows: Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers.......................$125,130 Wholesale, electronic markets, and agents and brokers............................................114,670 Automobile dealers.....................................................107,500 Management of companies and enterprises................106,980 Department stores.........................................................54,560  Wages vary substantially, depending upon the employee’s level of managerial responsibility, length of service, and education; the size and location of the firm; and the industry in which the firm operates. For example, manufacturing firms usually pay these managers higher salaries than nonmanufacturing firms. For sales managers, the size of their sales territory is another important determinant of salary. Many managers earn bonuses equal to 10 percent or more of their salaries. According to a survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, starting salaries for marketing majors graduating in 2009 averaged $43,325.  Related Occupations Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers direct the sale of products and services offered by their firms and communicate information about their firm’s activities. Other workers involved with advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales include the following:  Page Actors, producers, and directors.............................................. 318 Advertising sales agents........................................................... 527 Artists and related workers...................................................... 301 Authors, writers and editors..................................................... 333 Demonstrators and product promoters..................................... 532 Market and survey researchers................................................. 212 Models...................................................................................... 537 Public relations specialists....................................................... 350 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing............... 547  Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in advertising management, contact: hhAmerican Association of Advertising Agencies, 405 Lexington Ave., 18th Floor, New York, NY 10174-1801. Internet: http://www.aaaa.org Information about careers and professional certification in public relations management is available from: hhPublic Relations Society of America, 33 Maiden Lane, 11th Floor, New York, NY 10038-5150. Internet: http://www.prsa.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos020.htm  Computer and Information Systems Managers Significant Points  •	 Employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations.  •	 A bachelor’s degree in a computer-related field usu-  ally is required for management positions, although employers often prefer a graduate degree, especially an MBA with technology as a core component.  •	 Many managers possess advanced technical knowledge gained from working in a computer occupation.  •	 Job prospects should be excellent. Nature of the Work  In the modern workplace, it is imperative that Information Technology (IT) works both effectively and reliably. ­Compu­ter and information systems managers play a vital role in the implementation and administration of technology within their organizations. They plan, coordinate, and direct research on the computer-related activities of firms. In consultation with other  36 Occupational Outlook Handbook  managers, they help determine the goals of an organization and then implement technology to meet those goals. They oversee all technical aspect of an organization, such as software development, network security, and Internet operations. Computer and information systems managers direct the work of other IT professionals, such as computer software engineers and computer programmers, computer systems analysts, and computer support specialists (information on these occupations can be found elsewhere in the Handbook). They plan and coordinate activities such as installing and upgrading hardware and software, programming and systems design, the implementation of computer networks, and the development of Internet and intranet sites. They are increasingly involved with the upkeep, maintenance, and security of networks. They analyze the computer and information needs of their organizations from an operational and strategic perspective and determine immediate and long-range personnel and equipment requirements. They assign and review the work of their subordinates and stay abreast of the latest technology to ensure that the organization remains competitive. Computer and information systems managers can have additional duties, depending on their role within an organization. Chief technology officers (CTOs), for example, evaluate the newest and most innovative technologies and determine how these can help their organizations. They develop technical standards, deploy technology, and supervise workers who deal with the daily information technology issues of the firm. When a useful new tool has been identified, the CTO determines one or more possible implementation strategies, including cost-benefit and return on investment analyses, and presents those strategies to top management, such as the chief information officer (CIO). (Chief information officers are covered in a separate Handbook section on top executives.) Management information systems (MIS) directors or information technology (IT) directors manage computing resources for their organizations. They often work under the chief information officer and plan and direct the work of subordinate information technology employees. These managers ensure the availability, continuity, and security of data and information technology services in their organizations. In this capacity, they oversee a variety of technical departments, develop and monitor performance standards, and implement new projects. IT project managers develop requirements, budgets, and schedules for their firm’s information technology projects. They coordinate such projects from development through implementation, working with their organization’s IT workers, as well as clients, vendors, and consultants. These managers are increasingly involved in projects that upgrade the information security of an organization. Work environment. Computer and information systems managers generally work in clean, comfortable offices. Long hours are common, and some may have to work evenings and weekends to meet deadlines or solve unexpected problems; in 2008, about 25 percent worked more than 50 hours per week. Some computer and information systems managers may experience considerable pressure in meeting technical goals with short deadlines or tight budgets. As networks continue to expand and more work is done remotely, computer and information systems managers have to communicate with and oversee offsite employees using laptops, e-mail, and the Internet.  Computer and information systems managers oversee a variety of workers, including systems analysts, support specialists, and software engineers. Injuries in this occupation are uncommon, but like other workers who spend considerable time using computers, computer and information systems managers are susceptible to eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Computer and information systems managers generally have technical expertise from working in a computer occupation, as well as an understanding of business and management principles. A strong educational background and experience in a variety of technical fields is needed. Education and training. A bachelor’s degree in a computerrelated field usually is required for management positions, although employers often prefer a graduate degree, especially an MBA with technology as a core component. Common majors for undergraduate degrees are computer science, information science, or management information systems (MIS). A bachelor’s degree in a computer-related field generally takes 4 years to complete, and includes courses in ­comp­uter science, computer programming, computer engineering, mathematics, and statistics. Most also include general education courses such as English and communications. MIS programs usually are part of the business school or college, and contain courses such as finance, marketing, accounting, and management, as well as systems design, networking, database management, and systems security. MBA programs usually require 2 years of study beyond the undergraduate degree, and, like undergraduate business programs, include courses on finance, marketing, accounting, and management, as well as database management, electronic business, and systems management and design. A few computer and information systems managers attain their positions with only an associate or trade school degree, but they must have sufficient experience and must have acquired additional skills on the job. To aid their professional advancement, many managers with an associate degree eventually earn a bachelor’s or master’s degree while working.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 37  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Computer and information systems managers...................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  11-3021  293,000  Projected Employment, 2018 342,500  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 49,500 17  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Certification and other qualifications. Computer and information systems managers need a broad range of skills. Employers look for individuals who can demonstrate an understanding of the specific software or technology used on the job. Generally, this knowledge is gained through years of experience working with that particular product. Another way to demonstrate this trait is with professional certification. Although not required for most computer and information system management positions, certification demonstrates an area of expertise, and can increase an applicant’s chances of employment. These high-level certifications are often product-specific, and are generally administered by software or hardware companies rather than independent organizations. Computer and information systems managers also need a thorough understanding of business practices. Because information technology is a central component of many organizations, these workers often must make important business decisions. Consequently, many firms seek managers with a background in business management, consulting, or sales. These workers also must possess good leadership and communication skills, as one of their main duties is to assign work and monitor employee performance. They also must be able to explain technical subjects to people without technical expertise, such as clients or managers of other departments. Advancement. Computer and information systems managers may advance to progressively higher leadership positions in an information technology department. A project manager, for instance, might be promoted to the chief technology officer position and then to chief information officer. On occasion, some may become managers in non-technical areas such as marketing, human resources, or sales because in high technology firms an understanding of technical issues is helpful in those areas.  Employment Computer and information systems managers held about 293,000 jobs in 2008. About 16 percent worked in the computer systems design and related services industry. This industry provides IT services on a contract basis, including custom computer programming services; computer systems design and integration services; and computer facilities management services. Other large employers include insurance and financial firms, government agencies, business management organizations, and manufacturers.  Job Outlook Faster than average employment growth is expected, and job prospects should be excellent. Employment change. Employment of computer and information systems managers is expected to grow 17 percent over the 2008-18 decade, which is faster than the average for all occupations. New applications of technology in the workplace will continue to drive demand for workers, fueling the need for more managers. To remain competitive, firms will continue to  install sophisticated computer networks and set up more complex intranets and websites. They will need to adopt the most efficient software and systems and troubleshoot problems when they occur. Computer and information systems managers will be needed to oversee these functions. Because so much business is carried out over computer networks, security will continue to be an important issue for businesses and other organizations, and will lead to strong growth for computer managers. Firms will increasingly hire security experts to fill key leadership roles in their information technology departments because the integrity of their computing environments is of utmost importance. The growth of computer and information systems managers should be closely related to the growth of the occupations they supervise. For information on these occupations, see the Handbook sections on computer software engineers and computer programmers; computer systems analysts; computer network, systems, and database administrators; computer scientists; and computer support specialists. Among computer and information systems managers, job growth is expected to be the fastest in computer systems design establishments; software publishing firms; data processing and hosting companies; management, scientific, and technical consulting services; and healthcare organizations. Increased consolidation of IT services may reduce growth to some extent in other industries. Job prospects. Prospects for qualified computer and information systems managers should be excellent. Workers with specialized technical knowledge and strong communications and business skills, as well as those with an MBA with a concentration in information systems, will have the best prospects. Job openings will be the result of employment growth and the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.  Earnings Wages of computer and information systems managers vary by specialty and level of responsibility. Median annual wages of these managers in May 2008 were $112,210. The middle 50 percent earned between $88,240 and $141,890. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of computer and information systems managers in May 2008 were as follows: Software publishers...................................................$126,840 Computer systems design and related services...........118,120 Management of companies and enterprises................115,150 Depository credit intermediation................................113,380 Insurance carriers........................................................109,810  In addition to salaries, computer and information systems managers, especially those at higher levels, often receive ­employment-related benefits, such as expense accounts, stockoption plans, and bonuses.  38 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Related Occupations  Nature of the Work  Other occupations that manage workers, deal with information technology, or make business or technical decisions include:  Construction managers plan, direct, coordinate, and budget a wide variety of construction projects, including the building of all types of residential, commercial, and industrial structures, roads, bridges, wastewater treatment plants, and schools and hospitals. Construction managers may supervise an entire project or just part of one. They schedule and coordinate all design and construction processes, including the selection, hiring, and oversight of specialty trade contractors, such as carpentry, plumbing, or electrical, but they usually do not do any actual construction of the structure. Construction managers are salaried or self-employed managers who oversee construction supervisors and personnel. They are often called project managers, constructors, construction superintendents, project engineers, construction supervisors, or general contractors. Construction managers may be owners or salaried employees of a construction management or contracting firm, or they may work under contract or as a salaried employee of the property owner, developer, or contracting firm managing the construction project. These managers coordinate and supervise the construction process from the conceptual development stage through final construction, making sure that the project gets completed on time and within budget. They often work with owners, engineers, architects, and others who are involved in the process. Given the designs for buildings, roads, bridges, or other projects, construction managers supervise the planning, scheduling, and implementation of those designs. Large construction projects, such as an office building or an industrial complex, are often too complicated for one person to manage. Accordingly, these projects are divided into various segments: site preparation, including clearing and excavation of the land, installing sewage systems, and landscaping and road construction; building construction, including laying foundations and erecting the structural framework, floors, walls, and roofs; and building systems, including protecting against fire and installing electrical, plumbing, air-conditioning, and heating systems. Construction managers may be in charge of one or several of these activities. Construction managers determine the best way to get materials to the building site and the most cost-effective plan and schedule for completing the project. They divide all required construction site activities into logical steps, estimating and budgeting the time required to meet established deadlines. Doing this may require sophisticated scheduling and cost-estimating techniques using computers with specialized software. (See the section on cost estimators elsewhere in the Handbook.) Construction managers also manage the selection of general contractors and trade contractors to complete specific phases of the project—which could include everything from structural metalworking and plumbing, to painting, to installing electricity and carpeting. Construction managers determine the labor requirements of the project and, in some cases, supervise or monitor the hiring and dismissal of workers. They oversee the performance of all trade contractors and are responsible for ensuring that all work is completed on schedule. Construction managers direct and monitor the progress of construction activities, occasionally through construction su-   Page Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers...................................... 32 Computer network, systems, and database administrators......... 128 Computer scientists.................................................................. 132 Computer software engineers and computer programmers........ 134 Computer support specialists................................................... 138 Computer systems analysts...................................................... 140 Engineering and natural sciences managers............................... 46 Financial managers.................................................................... 52 Marketing managers................................................................... 32 Top executives............................................................................ 83  Sources of Additional Information Additional information on a career in information technology is available from the following organizations: hhAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2 Penn Plaza, Suite 701, New York, NY 10121-0701. Internet: http://www.computingcareers.acm.org  hhInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Headquarters Office, 2001 L St. NW., Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036-4910. Internet: http://www.computer.org  hhNational Workforce Center for Emerging Technologies, 3000 Landerholm Circle SE., Bellevue, WA 98007. Internet: http://www.nwcet.org  hhUniversity of Washington Computer Science and Engineering Department, AC101 Paul G. Allen Center, Box 352350, 185 Stevens Way, Seattle, WA 98195-2350. Internet: http://www.cs.washington.edu/WhyCSE  hhNational Center for Women and Information Technology, University of Colorado, Campus Box 322 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0322. Internet: http://www.ncwit.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos258.htm  Construction Managers Significant Points  •	 About 61 percent of construction managers are selfemployed.  •	 Jobseekers  who combine construction work experience with a bachelor’s degree in a construction-­ related field should enjoy the best prospects.  •	 Certification, although not required, is increasingly important for construction managers.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 39  schedule for days or weeks to meet special project deadlines, especially if there are delays. Although the work usually is not inherently dangerous, injuries can occur and construction managers must be careful while performing onsite services.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Construction managers direct and monitor the progress of construction activities, occasionally through construction supervisors or other construction managers. pervisors or other construction managers. They are responsible for obtaining all necessary permits and licenses and, depending upon the contractual arrangements, for directing or monitoring compliance with building and safety codes, other regulations, and requirements set by the project’s insurers. They also oversee the delivery and use of materials, tools, and equipment; worker safety and productivity; and the quality of the construction. Work environment. Working out of a main office or out of a field office at the construction site, construction managers monitor the overall construction project. Decisions regarding daily construction activities generally are made at the jobsite. Managers might travel considerably when the construction site is not close to their main office or when they are responsible for activities at two or more sites. Management of overseas construction projects usually entails temporary residence in the country in which the project is being carried out. Often on call 24 hours a day, construction managers deal with delays, such as the effects of bad weather, or emergencies at the jobsite. More than one-third worked a standard 40-hour week in 2008, and some construction projects continue around the clock. Construction managers may need to work this type of  Employers increasingly are hiring construction managers with a bachelor’s degree in a construction-related field, although it is also possible for construction workers to become construction managers after many years of experience. Construction managers must understand contracts, plans, specifications, and regulations. Certification, although not required, is increasingly important. Education and training. For construction manager jobs, a bachelor’s degree in construction science, construction management, building science, or civil engineering, plus work experience, is becoming the norm. However, years of experience, in addition to taking classes in the field or getting an associate’s degree, can substitute for a bachelor’s degree. Practical construction experience is very important for entering this occupation, whether earned through an internship, a cooperative education program, a job in the construction trades, or another job in the industry. Some people advance to construction management ­positions after having substantial experience as construction craftworkers—carpenters, masons, plumbers, or electricians, for example—or after having worked as construction supervisors or as owners of independent specialty contracting firms. However, as construction processes become increasingly complex, employers are placing more importance on specialized education after high school. More than 100 colleges and universities offer bachelor’s degree programs in construction science, building science, and construction engineering. These programs include courses in project control and development, site planning, design, construction methods, construction materials, value analysis, cost estimating, scheduling, contract administration, accounting, business and financial management, safety, building codes and standards, inspection procedures, engineering and architectural sciences, mathematics, statistics, and information technology. Graduates from 4-year degree programs usually are hired as assistants to project managers, field engineers, schedulers, or cost estimators. An increasing number of graduates in related fields—engineering or architecture, for example—also enter construction management, often after acquiring substantial experience on construction projects. Several colleges and universities offer a master’s degree program in construction management or construction science. Master’s degree recipients, especially those with work experience in construction, typically become construction managers in very large construction or construction management companies. Often, individuals who hold a bachelor’s degree in an unrelated field seek a master’s degree in construction management or construction science to work in the construction industry. Some construction managers obtain a master’s degree in business administration or finance to further their career prospects. A number of 2-year colleges throughout the country offer construction management or construction technology programs.  40 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Many individuals also attend training and educational programs sponsored by industry associations, often in collaboration with postsecondary institutions. Other qualifications. Construction managers should be flexible and work effectively in a fast-paced environment. They should be decisive and work well under pressure, particularly when faced with unexpected events or delays. The ability to manage several major activities at once, while analyzing and resolving specific problems, is essential, as is an understanding of engineering, architectural, and other construction drawings. Familiarity with computers and software programs for job costing, online collaboration, scheduling, and estimating also is important. Good oral and written communication skills are important as well, as are leadership skills. Managers must be able to establish a good working relationship with many different people, including owners, other managers, designers, supervisors, and craftworkers. The ability to converse fluently in Spanish is increasingly becoming an asset, because Spanish is the first language of many workers in the construction ­industry. Certification and advancement. There is a growing movement toward certification of construction managers. Although certification is not required to work in the construction industry, it can be valuable because it provides evidence of competence and experience. Both the American Institute of Constructors and the Construction Management Association of America have established voluntary certification programs for construction managers. Requirements combine written examinations with verification of education and professional experience. The American Institute of Constructors awards the Associate Constructor (AC) and Certified Professional Constructor (CPC) designations to candidates who meet its requirements and pass the appropriate construction examinations. The Construction Management Association of America awards the Certified Construction Manager (CCM) designation to workers who have the required experience and who pass a technical examination. Applicants for this designation also must complete a self-study course that covers the professional role of a construction manager, legal issues, the allocation of risk, and other topics related to construction management. Advancement opportunities for construction managers vary with the individual’s performance and the size and type of company for which the person works. Within large firms, managers may eventually become top-level managers or executives. Highly experienced individuals may become independent consultants; some serve as expert witnesses in court or as arbitrators in disputes. Those with the required capital may establish their own construction management services, specialty contracting, or general contracting firms.  Employment Construction managers held 551,000 jobs in 2008. About 61 percent were self-employed, many as owners of general or specialty trade construction firms. Most salaried construction managers were employed in the construction industry—11 percent by specialty trade contractor businesses (for example, plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical contractors), 10 percent in nonresidential building construction, and 7 percent in residential building construction. Others were employed by architectural, ­engineering, and related services firms.  Job Outlook Faster than average employment growth is expected. Jobseekers who combine construction work experience with a bachelor’s degree in a construction-related field should enjoy the best prospects. Employment change. Employment of construction managers is projected to increase by 17 percent during the 2008–18 decade, faster than average for all occupations. Construction managers will be needed as the level and variety of construction activity expands, but at a slower rate than in the past. Modest population and business growth will result in new and renovated construction of residential dwellings, office buildings, retail outlets, hospitals, schools, restaurants, and other structures that require construction managers. A growing emphasis on making buildings more energy efficient should create additional jobs for construction managers involved in retrofitting buildings. In addition, the need to replace portions of the Nation’s infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, and water and sewer pipes, along with the need to increase energy supply lines, will further increase demand for construction managers. The increasing complexity of construction projects requires specialized management-level personnel within the construction industry. Sophisticated technology; the proliferation of laws setting standards for buildings and construction materials, worker safety, energy efficiency, and environmental protection; and the potential for adverse litigation have complicated the construction process. In addition, advances in building materials, technology, and construction methods requires continual learning and expertise. Job prospects. Prospects should be best for people who have a bachelor’s or higher degree in construction science, construction management, or civil engineering, plus practical work ­experience in construction. A strong background in building technology is beneficial as well. Construction managers also will have many opportunities to start their own firms. In addition to job openings arising from employment growth, many openings should result annually from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force for other reasons. A number of seasoned managers are  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Construction managers.......................................................................  SOC Code 11-9021  Employment, 2008 551,000  Projected Employment, 2018 645,800  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 94,800 17  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 41  expected to retire over the next decade, resulting in a number of job openings. Employment of construction managers, like that of many other construction workers, is sensitive to the fluctuations of the economy. On the one hand, workers in these trades may experience periods of unemployment when the overall level of construction falls. On the other hand, shortages of these workers may occur in some areas during peak periods of building activity.  Information on accredited construction science and management educational programs is available from: hhAmerican Council for Construction Education, 1717 North Loop 1604 E, Suite 320, San Antonio, TX 78232. Internet: http://www.acce-hq.org  Earnings  The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos005.htm  Wages of salaried construction managers and self-employed independent construction contractors vary with the size and nature of the construction project, its geographic location, and economic conditions. In addition to receiving typical benefits, many salaried construction managers earn bonuses and are ­allowed the use of company motor vehicles. Median annual wages of salaried construction managers in May 2008 were $79,860. The middle 50 percent earned between $60,650 and $107,140. The lowest paid 10 percent earned less than $47,000, and the highest paid 10 percent earned more than $145,920. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of construction managers were as follows: Building equipment contractors..................................$81,590 Nonresidential building construction............................79,950 Other specialty trade contractors...................................78,410 Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors......................................76,880 Residential building construction..................................74,770  The earnings of self-employed workers are not included in these numbers. According to a July 2009 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, people with a bachelor’s degree in construction science or construction management ­received job offers averaging $53,199 a year.  Related Occupations Construction managers participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and oversee its organization, scheduling, and implementation. Other workers who perform similar functions include the following:  Page Architects, except landscape and naval.................................... 151 Civil engineers......................................................................... 161 Cost estimators......................................................................... 100 Engineering and natural sciences managers............................... 46 Landscape architects................................................................ 154  Sources of Additional Information For information about constructor certification, contact: hhAmerican Institute of Constructors, P.O. Box 26334, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.aicnet.org For information about construction management and construction manager certification, contact: hhConstruction Management Association of America, 7926 Jones Branch Dr., Suite 800, McLean, VA 22102. Internet: http://www.cmaanet.org  hhNational Center for Construction Education and Research, 3600 NW. 43rd St., Building G, Gainesville, FL 32606. Internet: http://www.nccer.org  Education Administrators Significant Points  •	 Many jobs require a master’s or doctoral degree and  experience in a related occupation, such as teaching or admissions counseling.  •	 Strong interpersonal and communication skills are e­ ssential because much of an administrator’s job ­involves working and collaborating with others.  •	 Excellent opportunities are expected for most jobs. Nature of the Work  Successful operation of an educational institution requires competent administrators. Education administrators provide instructional leadership and manage the day-to-day activities in schools, preschools, day care centers, and colleges and universities. They also direct the educational programs of businesses, correctional institutions, museums, and job training and community service organizations. (College presidents and school superintendents are covered in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) Education administrators set educational standards and goals and establish the policies and procedures required to achieve them. They also supervise managers, support staff, teachers, counselors, librarians, coaches, and other employees. They develop academic programs, monitor students’ educational progress, train and motivate teachers and other staff, manage career counseling and other student services, administer recordkeeping, prepare budgets, and perform many other duties. They also handle relations with parents, prospective and current students, employers, and the community. In a smaller organization such as a small day care center, one administrator may handle all these functions. In universities or large school systems, responsibilities are divided among many administrators, each with a specific function. Educational administrators who manage elementary, middle, and secondary schools are called principals. They set the academic tone and work actively with teachers to develop and maintain high curriculum standards, formulate mission statements, and establish performance goals and objectives. Principals confer with staff to advise, explain, or answer procedural questions. They hire and evaluate teachers and other staff. They  42 Occupational Outlook Handbook  visit classrooms, observe teaching methods, review instructional objectives, and examine learning materials. Principals must use clear, objective guidelines for teacher appraisals, because principals’ pay often is based on performance ratings. Principals also meet with other administrators and students, parents, and representatives of community organizations. Decisionmaking authority increasingly has shifted from school district central offices to individual schools. School principals have greater flexibility in setting school policies and goals, but when making administrative decisions, they must pay attention to the concerns of parents, teachers, and other members of the community. Principals also are responsible for preparing budgets and reports on various subjects, such as finances, attendance and student performance. As school budgets become tighter, many principals have become more involved in public relations and fundraising to secure financial support for their schools from local businesses and the community. Principals ensure that students meet national, State, and local academic standards. Many principals develop partnerships with local businesses and school-to-work transition programs for students. Principals must be sensitive to the needs of a rising number of non-English-speaking students and a culturally diverse student body. In some areas, growing enrollments are a cause for concern, because they lead to overcrowding at many schools. When addressing problems of inadequate resources, administrators serve as advocates for the building of new schools or the repair of existing ones. During the summer months, principals are responsible for planning for the upcoming year, overseeing summer school, participating in workshops for teachers and administrators, supervising building repairs and improvements, and working to make sure that the school has adequate staff for the upcoming school year. Schools continue to be involved with students’ emotional welfare as well as their academic achievement. As a result, principals face responsibilities outside of academics. For example, many schools have a large number of students from single-parent families, families in which both parents work outside the home or students who are teenage parents. To support these students and their families, some schools have established before- and after-school child care programs or family resource centers, which also may offer parenting classes and social service referrals. With the help of community organizations, some principals have established programs to combat increases in crime, drug and alcohol abuse, and sexually transmitted diseases among students. Assistant principals aid the principal in the overall administration of the school. Some assistant principals hold the position for only a few years, during which time they prepare for advancement to principal; others are assistant principals throughout their careers. They are primarily responsible for scheduling student classes and ordering textbooks and supplies. They also coordinate transportation, custodial, cafeteria, and other support services. They usually handle student discipline and attendance problems, social and recreational programs, and matters of health and safety. In addition, they may counsel students on personal, educational, or vocational matters. With the advent of site-based management, assistant principals play a greater  role in academic planning by helping to develop new curricula, evaluating teachers, and dealing with school-community relations—responsibilities previously assumed solely by the principal. The number of assistant principals that a school employs may vary with the number of students. Administrators in school district central offices oversee public schools under their jurisdiction. This group of administrators includes those who direct subject-area programs such as English, music, vocational education, special education, and mathematics. They supervise instructional coordinators and curriculum specialists and work with them to evaluate curricula and teaching techniques and to develop programs and strategies to improve them. (Instructional coordinators are covered elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some administrators may oversee career counseling programs. Others may administer testing that measures students’ abilities and helps to place them in appropriate classes. Some may direct programs such as school psychology, athletics, curriculum and instruction, and professional development. With site-based management, administrators have transferred the primary responsibility for many of these programs to the principals, assistant principals, teachers, instructional coordinators, and other staff in the schools. In preschools and child care centers, which are usually much smaller than other educational institutions, the director or supervisor of the school or center often serves as the sole administrator. The director’s or supervisor’s job is similar to that of other school administrators in that he or she oversees the school’s daily activities and operation, hires and develops staff, and ensures that the school meets required regulations and educational standards. In colleges and universities, provosts, also known as chief academic officers, assist presidents, make faculty appointments and tenure decisions, develop budgets, and establish academic  Education administrators manage the day-to-day activities in schools, preschools, day care centers, and colleges and universities.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 43  policies and programs. With the assistance of academic deans and deans of faculty, provosts also direct and coordinate the activities of deans of individual colleges and chairpersons of academic departments. Fundraising is the chief responsibility of the director of development and also is becoming an essential part of the job for all administrators. College or university department heads or chairpersons are in charge of departments that specialize in particular fields of study, such as English, biological science, or mathematics. In addition to teaching, they coordinate schedules of classes and teaching assignments; propose budgets; recruit, interview, and hire applicants for teaching positions; evaluate faculty members; encourage faculty development; serve on committees; and perform other administrative duties. In overseeing their departments, chairpersons must consider and balance the concerns of faculty, administrators, and students. Higher education administrators also direct and coordinate the provision of student services. Vice presidents of student affairs or student life, deans of students, and directors of student services may direct and coordinate admissions, foreign student services, health and counseling services, career services, financial aid, and housing and residential life, as well as social, recreational, and related programs. In small colleges, they may counsel students. In larger colleges and universities, separate administrators may handle each of these services. Registrars are custodians of students’ records. They register students, record grades, prepare student transcripts, evaluate academic records, assess and collect tuition and fees, plan and implement commencement exercises, oversee the preparation of college catalogs and schedules of classes, and analyze enrollment and demographic statistics. Directors of admissions manage the process of recruiting, evaluating, and admitting students, and work closely with financial aid directors, who oversee scholarship, fellowship, and loan programs. Registrars and admissions officers at most institutions need computer skills because they use electronic student information systems. For example, for those whose institutions present college catalogs, schedules, and other information on the Internet, knowledge of online resources, imaging, and other computer skills is important. Athletic directors plan and direct intramural and intercollegiate athletic activities, overseeing the publicity for athletic events, preparing budgets, and supervising coaches. Other increasingly important administrators direct public relations, distance learning, and technology. Work environment. Education administrators hold leadership positions with significant responsibility. Most find working with students extremely rewarding, but as the responsibilities of administrators have increased in recent years, so has the stress. Coordinating and interacting with faculty, parents, students, community members, business leaders, and State and local policymakers can be fast paced and stimulating, but also stressful and demanding. Principals and assistant principals, whose duties include disciplining students, may find working with difficult students challenging. They also are increasingly being held accountable for their schools meeting State and Federal guidelines for student performance and teacher qualifications. About 35 percent of education administrators worked more than 40 hours a week in 2008; they often supervise school ac-  tivities at night and on weekends. Most administrators work year round, although some work only during the academic year.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most education administrators begin their careers as teachers and prepare for advancement into education administration by completing a master’s or doctoral degree. Because of the diversity of duties and levels of responsibility, educational backgrounds and experience vary considerably among these workers. Education and training. Principals, assistant principals, central office administrators, academic deans, and preschool directors usually have held teaching positions before moving into administration. Some teachers move directly into principal positions; others first become assistant principals or gain experience in other administrative jobs at either the school or district level in positions such as department head, curriculum specialist, or subject matter advisor. In most public schools, principals, assistant principals, and school district administrators need a master’s degree in education administration or educational leadership. Some principals and central office administrators have a doctorate or specialized degree in education administration. In private schools, some principals and assistant principals hold only a bachelor’s degree, but the majority of principals have a master’s or doctoral degree. Educational requirements for administrators of preschools and child care centers vary with the setting of the program and the State of employment. Administrators who oversee preschool programs in public schools often are required to have at least a bachelor’s degree. Child care directors who supervise private programs typically are not required to have a degree; however, most States require a preschool education credential, which often includes some postsecondary coursework. College and university academic deans and chairpersons usually advance from professorships in their departments, for which they need a master’s or doctoral degree; further education is not typically necessary. Admissions, student affairs, and financial aid directors and registrars sometimes start in related staff jobs with bachelor’s degrees—any field usually is acceptable—and obtain advanced degrees in college student affairs, counseling, or higher education administration. A Ph.D. or Ed.D. usually is necessary for top student affairs positions. Computer literacy and a background in accounting or statistics may be assets in admissions, records, and financial work. Advanced degrees in higher education administration, educational leadership, and college student affairs are offered in many colleges and universities. Education administration degree programs include courses in school leadership, school law, school finance and budgeting, curriculum development and evaluation, research design and data analysis, community relations, politics in education, and counseling. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and the Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) accredit programs designed for elementary and secondary school administrators. Although completion of an accredited program is not required, it may assist in fulfilling licensure requirements.  44 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Licensure and certification. Most States require principals to be licensed as school administrators. License requirements vary by State, but nearly all States require either a master’s degree or some other graduate-level training. Some States also require candidates for licensure to pass a test. On-the-job training, often with a mentor, is increasingly required or recommended for new school leaders. Some States require administrators to take continuing education courses to keep their license, thus ensuring that administrators have the most up-to-date skills. The number and types of courses required to maintain licensure vary by State. Principals in private schools are not subject to State licensure requirements. Nearly all States require child care and preschool center directors to be licensed. Licensing usually requires a number of years of experience or hours of coursework or both. Sometimes, it requires a college degree. Often, directors also are required to earn a general preschool education credential, such as the Child Development Associate credential (CDA) sponsored by the Council for Professional Recognition, or some other credential designed specifically for directors. One credential designed specifically for directors is the National Administration Credential, offered by the National Child Care Association. The credential requires experience and training in child care center management. There usually are no licensing requirements for administrators at postsecondary institutions. Other qualifications. To be considered for education administrator positions, workers must first prove themselves in their current jobs. In evaluating candidates, supervisors look for leadership, determination, confidence, innovativeness, and motivation. The ability to make sound decisions and to organize and coordinate work efficiently is essential. Because much of an administrator’s job involves interacting with others, a person in such a position must have strong interpersonal skills and be an effective communicator and motivator. Knowledge of leadership principles and practices, gained through work experience and formal education, is important. A familiarity with computer technology is a necessity for many of these workers as computers are used to perform their basic job duties and they may be responsible for coordinating technical resources for students, teachers, and classrooms. Advancement. Education administrators advance through promotion to higher level administrative positions or by transferring to comparable positions at larger schools or systems.  They also may become superintendents of school systems or presidents of educational institutions.  Employment Education administrators held about 445,400 jobs in 2008. Of these, about 58,900 were held by preschool or child care administrators, about 230,600 by elementary or secondary school administrators, and 124,600 by postsecondary administrators. The great majority—more than 81 percent—worked in public or private educational institutions. Most of the remainder worked in child day care centers.  Job Outlook Employment is projected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations. Job opportunities should be excellent due to a large number of expected retirements and fewer applicants for some positions. Employment change. Employment of education administrators is expected to grow by about 8 percent between 2008 and 2018, which is about as fast as the average for all occupations. Expected growth is primarily the result of growth in enrollments of school-aged children. Enrollment of students in elementary and secondary schools is expected to grow relatively slowly over the next decade, limiting the growth of principals and other administrators in these schools. However, the number of administrative positions will continue to increase as more administrative responsibilities are placed on individual schools, particularly with regard to monitoring student achievement. Preschool and child care center administrators are expected to experience substantial growth because of increasing enrollments in formal child care programs as fewer young children are cared for in private homes. In addition, as more States implement or expand public preschool programs, more preschool directors will be needed. The number of students at the postsecondary level is projected to grow more rapidly than other student populations. Many of these schools cater to working adults who might not ordinarily participate in postsecondary education. Such schools allow students to earn a degree, receive job-specific training, or update their skills in a convenient manner, such as through part-time programs or distance learning. As the number of these schools continues to grow, more administrators will be needed to oversee them. Job prospects. Job opportunities should be excellent due to a large number of expected retirements and fewer applicants for some positions. Principals and assistant principals should have  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Education administrators................................................................... Education administrators, preschool and child care center/ program...................................................................................... Education administrators, elementary and secondary school........ Education administrators, postsecondary....................................... Education administrators, all other................................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  11-9030  445,400  11-9031 11-9032 11-9033 11-9039  58,900 230,600 124,600 31,400  Projected Employment, 2018 482,500 65,800 250,400 127,400 38,900  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 37,000 8 6,900 19,800 2,800 7,500  12 9 2 24  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 45  excellent job prospects because a sharp increase in responsibilities in recent years has made the job more stressful and has discouraged some teachers from taking positions in administration. Principals are now being held more accountable for the performance of students and teachers, while at the same time they are required to adhere to a growing number of government regulations. In addition, overcrowded classrooms, safety issues, budgetary concerns, and teacher shortages in some areas are creating additional stress for administrators. Many teachers feel that the increase in pay for becoming an administrator is not high enough to compensate for the greater responsibilities. Opportunities may vary by region of the country. Enrollments are expected to increase the fastest in the West and South, where the population is growing faster, and to decline or remain stable in the Northeast and the Midwest. School administrators also are in greater demand in rural and urban areas, where pay is generally lower than in the suburbs. Fewer applicants are expected for nonacademic administrative jobs, such as director of admissions or director of student affairs. Furthermore, many people are discouraged from seeking administrator jobs by the requirement that they have a master’s or doctoral degree in education administration—as well as by the opportunity to earn higher salaries in other ­occupations.  Earnings In May 2008, preschool and child care program administrators had median annual wages of $39,940. The middle 50 percent earned between $31,290 and $54,680. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $25,910 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $77,150. In May 2008, elementary and secondary school admin­ istrators had median annual wages of $83,880. The middle 50 percent earned between $68,360 and $102,830. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $55,580 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $124,250. In May 2008, postsecondary school administrators had median annual wages of $80,670. The middle 50 percent earned between $58,940 and $113,860. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $45,050 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $160,500. Salaries of education administrators depend on several factors, including the location and enrollment level of the school or school district. According to a survey of public schools conducted by ­Educational Research Service, average salaries for principals and assistant principals in the 2007-2008 school year were as follows: Principals:    Senior high school....................................................$97,486    Jr. high/middle school................................................91,334    Elementary school......................................................85,907  Assistant principals:    Senior high school......................................................79,391    Jr. high/middle school................................................76,053    Elementary school......................................................71,192  According to the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources, median annual salaries for selected administrators in higher education during the 2008–2009 school year were as follows: Chief academic officer..............................................$158,000  Academic deans:    Business...................................................................150,000    Arts and sciences......................................................134,632    Graduate programs...................................................130,000    Education.................................................................128,550    Nursing.....................................................................125,400    Health-related professions........................................120,980    Continuing education...............................................109,925    Occupational studies/vocational education................92,622  Other administrators:    Chief development officer........................................141,712    Dean of students.........................................................88,280    Director, student financial aid....................................74,261    Registrar.....................................................................71,764    Director, student activities..........................................54,931  Benefits for education administrators are generally very good. Many get 4 or 5 weeks of vacation every year and have generous health and pension packages. Many colleges and universities offer free tuition to employees and their families.  Related Occupations Education administrators apply organizational and leadership skills to provide services to individuals. Workers in related ­occupations include:  Page Administrative services managers.............................................. 29 Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists................................ 61 Office and administrative support worker supervisors and managers.................................................... 594  Education administrators also work with students and have backgrounds similar to those of : Counselors................................................................................ 234 Instructional coordinators........................................................ 268 Librarians................................................................................. 270 Teachers—kindergarten, elementary, middle, and secondary.......................................................... 288 Teachers—preschool, except special education....................... 286 Teachers—postsecondary......................................................... 282 Teachers—vocational............................................................... 298  Sources of Additional Information For information on principals, contact: hhThe National Association of Elementary School Principals, 1615 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314-3483. Internet: http://www.naesp.org  hhThe National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1904 Association Dr., Reston, VA 20191-1537. Internet: http://www.nassp.org  46 Occupational Outlook Handbook  For a list of nationally recognized programs in elementary and secondary educational administration, contact: hhThe Educational Leadership Constituent Council, 1904 Association Dr., Reston, VA 20191. Internet: http://www.npbea.org/ncate.php For information on collegiate registrars and admissions officers, contact: hhAmerican Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, One Dupont Circle NW., Suite 520, Washington, DC 20036-1171. Internet: http://www.aacrao.org For information on professional development and graduate programs for college student affairs administrators, contact: hhNASPA, Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education, 1875 Connecticut Ave. NW., Suite 418, Washington, DC 20009. Internet: http://www.naspa.org For information on the National Administrator Credential for child care directors, contact: hhNational Child Care Association, 1325 G St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Internet: http://www.nccanet.org For information on the Child Development Associate Credential, contact: hhCouncil for Professional Recognition, 2460 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009. Internet: http://www.cdacouncil.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos007.htm  Engineering and Natural Sciences Managers Significant Points  •	 Most engineering and natural sciences managers have  in the Handbook. These goals may include improving manufacturing processes, advancing scientific research, or developing new products. Managers make detailed plans to accomplish these goals. For example, they may develop the overall concepts of a new product or identify technical problems preventing the completion of a project. To perform effectively, these managers also must apply knowledge of administrative procedures, such as budgeting, hiring, and supervision. They propose budgets for projects and programs and determine staff, training, and equipment needs. They hire and assign scientists, engineers, and support personnel to carry out specific parts of each project. They also supervise the work of these employees, check the technical accuracy of their work and the soundness of their methods, review their output, and establish administrative procedures, policies or standards—such as environmental standards, for example. In addition, engineering and natural science managers use communication skills extensively. They spend a great deal of time coordinating the activities of their unit with those of other units or organizations. They confer with higher levels of management; with financial, production, marketing, and other managers; and with contractors and equipment and materials suppliers. Engineering managers may supervise people who design and develop machinery, products, systems, and processes. They might also direct and coordinate production, operations, quality assurance, testing, or maintenance in industrial plants. Many manage research and development teams that produce new products and processes or improve existing ones. Others are plant engineers, who direct and coordinate the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of equipment and machinery in industrial plants. Natural sciences managers oversee the work of life and physical scientists, including agricultural scientists, chemists, biologists, geologists, medical scientists, and physicists. These managers direct research and development projects and coordinate activities such as testing, quality control, and production. They may work on basic research projects or on com-  formal education and work experience as engineers, scientists, or mathematicians.  •	 Opportunities will be best for scientists and engineers with strong communication and business management skills.  •	 Thirty-six percent of jobs are in manufacturing industries, and 33 percent are in professional, scientific, and technical services.  Nature of the Work Engineering and natural sciences managers plan, coordinate, and direct research, design, and production activities. They may supervise engineers, scientists, and technicians, along with support personnel. These managers use their knowledge of engineering and natural sciences to oversee a variety of activities. They determine scientific and technical goals within broad outlines provided by top executives, who are discussed elsewhere  In addition to technical knowledge, engineering and natural sciences managers need administrative and communication skills.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 47  mercial activities. Science managers sometimes conduct their own research in addition to managing the work of others. Work environment. Engineering and natural sciences managers spend most of their time in an office. Some managers, however, also may work in laboratories, where they may be exposed to the same conditions as research scientists, or in industrial plants, where they may be exposed to the same conditions as production workers. Managers tend to work long hours in order to meet project deadlines; in 2008, almost half worked over 40 hours per week. They may also experience considerable pressure to meet technical or scientific goals on a short deadline or within a tight budget.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Strong technical knowledge is essential for engineering and natural sciences managers, who must understand and guide the work of their subordinates and explain the work in nontechnical terms to senior management and potential customers. Therefore, most managers have formal education and work experience as an engineer, scientist, or mathematician. Education and training. Engineering and natural sciences managers usually advance to management positions after years of employment as engineers or scientists. Nearly all engineering managers therefore have at least a bachelor’s degree in some specialty of engineering. Many also gain business management skills by completing a master’s degree in engineering management (MEM) or business administration (MBA), either before or after advancing to management positions. Employers often pay for such training. In large firms, some courses required in these degree programs may be offered onsite. Typically, engineers who prefer to manage in technical areas pursue an MEM, and those interested in less technical management earn an MBA. Similarly, since most science managers begin their careers as scientists, they may have a bachelor’s, master’s or Ph.D. degree in a scientific discipline. Graduate programs allow scientists to augment their undergraduate training with instruction in other fields, such as management or computer technology. Future natural science managers interested in more technical management may earn traditional master’s or Ph.D. degrees in natural sciences or master’s degrees in science that incorporate business management skills. Those interested in more general management may pursue an MBA. Given the rapid pace of scientific developments, science managers must continuously upgrade their knowledge. Other qualifications. Engineering and natural sciences managers must be specialists in the work they supervise. To advance to these positions, engineers and scientists generally must gain experience and assume management responsibil-  ity. To fill management positions, employers seek engineers and scientists who possess administrative and communication skills in addition to technical knowledge in their specialty, since they must effectively lead groups and coordinate projects. Advancement. Engineering and natural sciences managers may advance to progressively higher leadership positions within their disciplines. Some may become managers in nontechnical areas such as marketing, human resources, or sales. In high-technology firms, managers in nontechnical areas often must possess the same specialized knowledge as do managers in technical areas. For example, employers in an engineering firm may prefer to hire experienced engineers as sales workers because the complex services offered by the firm can be marketed only by someone with specialized engineering knowledge. Such sales workers can eventually advance to jobs as sales managers.  Employment Engineering and natural sciences managers held about 228,700 jobs in 2008. Manufacturing industries employed 36 percent of engineering and natural sciences managers. Another 33 percent worked in professional, scientific, and technical services industries, primarily for firms providing architectural, engineering, and related services, and scientific research and development services. Other large employers include Federal, State, and local government agencies.  Job Outlook Employment of engineering and natural sciences managers is projected to grow as fast as the average for all occupations. Opportunities will be best for engineers and scientists with strong communication and business management skills. Employment change. Employment of engineering and natural sciences managers is expected to grow 8 percent over the 2008–18 decade, as fast as the average for all occupations. Employment growth should be affected by many of the same factors that affect the growth of the engineers and scientists that these managers supervise. However, job growth for managers will be somewhat slower than for engineers and scientists because the increasing tendency to outsource research and development to specialized engineering and scientific research services firms will lead to some consolidation of management. Job prospects. Opportunities for engineering managers should be better in rapidly growing areas of engineering, such as environmental and biomedical engineering, than in more slowly growing areas, such as electrical and mechanical engineering. Opportunities for natural sciences managers should be best in the rapidly growing medical and environmental sci-  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Engineering and natural sciences managers...................................... Engineering managers.................................................................... Natural sciences managers.............................................................  SOC Code – 11-9041 11-9121  Employment, 2008 228,700 184,000 44,600  Projected Employment, 2018 246,900 195,400 51,500  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 18,200 8 11,300 6 6,900 15  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  48 Occupational Outlook Handbook  ences. (See the statements on engineers and life and physical scientists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Engineers and scientists with advanced technical knowledge and strong communication skills will be in the best position to become managers. Because engineering and natural sciences managers are involved in the financial, production, and marketing activities of their firm, business management skills are also advantageous for those seeking management positions. In addition to those openings resulting from employment growth, job openings will result from the need to replace managers who retire or move into other occupations.  Sources of Additional Information  Earnings  To learn more about managing scientists and engineers in research and development, see the Occupational Outlook Quarterly article, “Careers for scientists—and ­others—in scientific research and development,” online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2005/summer/art04.htm and in print at many libraries and career centers. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos009.htm  Earnings for engineering and natural sciences managers vary by specialty and by level of responsibility. Median annual wages of engineering managers were $115,270 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $91,870 and $141,730. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of engineering managers were: Scientific research and development services...........$141,030 Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing...................128,630 Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing.......................................127,790 Aerospace product and parts manufacturing...............118,430 Architectural, engineering, and related services.........114,110  Median annual wages of natural sciences managers were $112,800 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $85,910 and $151,400. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of natural sciences managers were: Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing...........$144,640 Scientific research and development services.............136,310 Federal Executive Branch...........................................102,410 Architectural, engineering, and related services...........98,980 State government...........................................................69,220  In addition, engineering and natural sciences managers, especially those at higher levels, often receive more benefits—such as expense accounts, stock-option plans, and bonuses—than do nonmanagerial workers in their organizations.  Related Occupations The work of engineering and natural sciences managers is closely related to that of:  Page Agricultural and food scientists............................................... 177 Atmospheric scientists............................................................. 192 Biological scientists................................................................. 181 Chemists and materials scientists............................................. 195 Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Environmental scientists and specialists.................................. 199 Geoscientists and hydrologists................................................. 202 Mathematicians........................................................................ 143 Medical scientists..................................................................... 189 Physicists and astronomers...................................................... 206 Top executives............................................................................ 83  For information about a career as an engineering and natural sciences manager, contact the sources of additional information for engineers, life scientists, and physical scientists that are listed at the end of the statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook. Information on engineering management programs accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology is available from: hhABET, Inc., 111 Market Place, Suite 1050, Baltimore, MD 21202. Internet: http://www.abet.org  Farmers, Ranchers, and Agricultural Managers Significant Points  •	 Modern farming requires knowledge of new developments in agriculture, often gained through growing up on a farm or through postsecondary education.  •	 Overall employment is projected to decline because of increasing productivity and consolidation of farms.  •	 Small-scale, local farming, particularly horticulture  and organic farming, offer the best opportunities for entering the occupation.  Nature of the Work American farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers direct the activities of one of the world’s largest and most productive agricultural sectors. They produce enough food and fiber to meet the needs of the United States and for export. Farmers and ranchers own and operate mainly family-owned farms. They also may lease land from a landowner and operate it as a working farm. Agricultural managers manage the day-to-day activities of one or more farms, ranches, nurseries, timber tracts, greenhouses, or other agricultural establishments for farmers, absentee landowners, or corporations. While their duties and responsibilities vary widely, all farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers focus on the business aspects of running a farm. On small farms, they may oversee the entire operation; on ­lar­ger farms, they may oversee a single activity, such as marketing. Farm output and income are strongly influenced by the weather, disease, fluctuations in prices of domestic farm products, and Federal farm programs. In crop-production opera-  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 49  tions, farmers and managers usually determine the best time to plant seed, apply fertilizer and chemicals, and harvest and market the crops. Many carefully plan the combination of crops they grow, so that if the price of one crop drops, they will have sufficient income from another crop to make up the loss. Farmers, ranchers, and managers monitor the constantly changing prices for their products. They use different strategies to protect themselves from unpredictable changes in the markets for agricultural products. If they plan ahead, they may be able to store their crops or keep their livestock to take advantage of higher prices later in the year. Those who participate in the futures market enter contracts on future delivery of agricultural goods. These contracts can minimize the risk of sudden price changes by guaranteeing a certain price for farmers’ and ranchers’ agricultural goods when they are ready to sell. While most farm output is sold to food-processing companies, some farmers—particularly operators of smaller farms—may choose to sell their goods directly to consumers through farmers’ markets. Some use cooperatives to reduce their financial risk and to gain a larger share of the prices consumers pay. For example, in community-supported agriculture, cooperatives sell shares of a harvest to consumers prior to the planting season. This frees the farmer from having to bear all the financial risks and ensures a market for the produce of the coming season. Farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers also negotiate with banks and other credit lenders to get the best financing deals for their equipment, livestock, and seed. Like other businesses, farming operations have become more complex in recent years, so many farmers use computers to keep financial and inventory records. They also use compu­ ter databases and spreadsheets to manage breeding, dairy, and ­other farm operations. The type of farm managers operate determines their specific tasks. On crop farms—farms growing grain, cotton, other fibers, fruit, and vegetables—farmers are responsible for preparing, tilling, planting, fertilizing, cultivating, spraying, and harvesting. After the harvest, they make sure that the crops are properly packaged, stored, and marketed. Livestock, dairy, and poultry farmers and ranchers feed and care for animals and keep barns, pens, coops, and other farm buildings clean and in good condition. They also plan and oversee breeding and marketing activities. Both farmers and ranchers operate machinery and maintain equipment and facilities, and both track technological improvements in animal breeding and seeds, and choose new or existing products. The size of the farm or ranch often determines which of these tasks farmers and ranchers handle themselves. Operators of small farms usually perform all tasks, physical and administrative. They keep records for management and tax purposes, service machinery, maintain buildings, and grow vegetables and raise animals. Operators of large farms, by contrast, have employees who help with the physical work. Although employment on most farms is limited to the farmer and one or two family workers or hired employees, some large farms have 100 or more full-time and seasonal workers. Some of these employees are in nonfarm occupations, working as  truck drivers, sales representatives, bookkeepers, and computer specialists. Agricultural managers usually do not plant, harvest, or perform other production activities; instead, they hire and supervise farm and livestock workers, who perform most daily production tasks. Managers may establish output goals; determine financial constraints; monitor production and marketing; hire, assign, and supervise workers; determine crop transportation and storage requirements; and oversee maintenance of the property and equipment. Horticultural specialty farmers oversee the production of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants used in landscaping, including turf. They also grow nuts, berries, and grapes for wine. Aquaculture farmers raise fish and shellfish in marine, brackish, or fresh water, usually in ponds, floating net pens, raceways, or recirculating systems. They stock, feed, protect, and otherwise manage aquatic life sold for consumption or used for recreational fishing. Work environment. Farmers and farm managers on crop farms usually work from sunrise to sunset during the planting and harvesting seasons. The rest of the year, they plan next season’s crops, market their output, and repair machinery. On livestock-producing farms and ranches, work goes on throughout the year. Animals, unless they are grazing, must be fed and watered every day, and dairy cows must be milked two or three times a day. Many livestock and dairy farmers monitor and attend to the health of their herds, which may include ­assisting in the birthing of animals. Such farmers and farm managers rarely get the chance to get away, unless they hire an assistant or arrange for a temporary substitute. Farmers and farm managers who grow produce and perishables have different demands on their time depending on the crop grown and the season. They may work very long hours during planting and harvesting season, but shorter hours at other times. Some farmers maintain cover crops during the cold months, which keep them busy beyond the typical growing season. On very large farms, farmers and farm managers spend substantial time meeting farm supervisors in charge of various activities. Professional farm managers overseeing several farms may divide their time between traveling to meet farmers or  A farmer bails hay for feeding cows during the winter.  50 Occupational Outlook Handbook  landowners and planning the farm operations in their offices. As farming practices and agricultural technology become more sophisticated, farmers and farm managers are spending more time in offices and on computers, where they electronically manage many aspects of their businesses. Some farmers also attend conferences exchanging information, particularly during the winter months. Farm work can be hazardous. Tractors and other farm ­machinery can cause serious injury, and workers must be constantly alert on the job. The proper operation of equipment and handling of chemicals are necessary to avoid accidents, safeguard health, and protect the environment.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Experience gained from growing up on or working on a family farm is the most common way farmers learn their trade. However, modern farming requires making increasingly complex scientific, business, and financial decisions, so postsecondary education in agriculture is important, even for people who were raised on farms. Education and training. Most farmers receive their training on the job, often by being raised on a farm. However, the completion of a 2-year associate degree or a 4-year bachelor’s degree at a college of agriculture is becoming increasingly important for farm managers and for farmers and ranchers who expect to make a living at farming. Students should select the college most appropriate to their interests and location. All State university systems have at least one land-grant college or university with a school of agriculture. Common programs of study include business with a concentration in agriculture, farm management, agronomy, dairy science, agricultural economics and business, horticulture, crop and fruit science, and animal science. For students interested in aquaculture, formal programs are available and include coursework in fisheries biology, fish culture, hatchery management and maintenance, and hydrology. Agricultural colleges teach technical knowledge of crops, growing conditions, and plant diseases. They also teach prospective ranchers and dairy farmers the basics of veterinary science and animal husbandry. Students also study how the environment is affected by farm operations, such as the impact of various pesticides on local animals. New farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers often spend time working under an experienced farmer to learn how to apply the skills learned through academic training. Those without academic training often take many years to learn how weather, fertilizers, seed, feeding or breeding affect the growth of crops or the raising of animals in addition to other aspects of farming. A small number of farms offer formal apprenticeships to help young people learn the practical skills of farming and ranching. Other qualifications. Farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers need managerial skills to organize and operate a ­business. A basic knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping is essential in keeping financial records, and knowledge of credit sources is vital for buying seed, fertilizer, and other needed inputs. Workers must also be familiar with safety regulations and requirements of governmental agricultural support programs. Computer skills are becoming increasingly important,  e­ specially on large farms, where they are widely used for recordkeeping and business analysis. In addition, skills in personnel management, communication, and conflict resolution are important in the operation of a farm or ranch business. Mechanical aptitude and the ability to work with tools of all kinds also are valuable skills for a small-farm operator, who often maintains and repairs machinery or farm structures. Certification and advancement. Because of rapid changes in the industry, farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers need to stay informed about continuing advances in agricultural methods, both in the United States and abroad. They need to monitor changes in governmental regulations that may affect production methods or markets for particular crops. Agricultural managers can enhance their professional status through voluntary certification as an Accredited Farm Manager (AFM) by the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers. Accreditation requires several years of farm management experience, the appropriate academic background—a bachelor’s degree or, preferably, a master’s degree in a field of agricultural science—and passing courses and examinations related to the business, financial, and legal aspects of farm and ranch management.  Employment Farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers held more than 1.2 million jobs in 2008. Nearly 80 percent were self-employed farmers and ranchers, and the remainder were wage and salary agricultural managers. Most farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers oversee crop production activities, while others manage livestock and dairy production. The soil, topography of the land, and climate often determine the type of farming and ranching done in a particular area. California, Texas, Iowa, Nebraska, and Minnesota are the leading agricultural States in terms of agricultural output measured in dollars. Texas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, and Kentucky are the leading agricultural States in terms of numbers of farms.  Job Outlook Overall employment is projected to decline, reflecting the decline of self-employed farmers because of the consolidation of farms and increasing productivity; however, employment of salaried agricultural managers is expected to increase. Employment change. Employment of self-employed farmers is expected to decline moderately by 8 percent over the 2008–18 decade. The continuing ability of the agriculture sector to produce more with fewer workers will cause some farmers to go out of business as market pressures leave little room for the marginally successful farmer. As land, machinery, seed, and chemicals become more expensive, only well-capitalized farmers and corporations will be able to buy many of the farms that become available. These larger, more productive farms are better able to withstand the adverse effects of climate and price fluctuations on farm output and income. Larger farms also have advantages in obtaining government subsidies and payments because these payments are usually based on acreage owned and per-unit production. In contrast, agricultural managers are projected to gain jobs, growing by about 6 percent, slower than the average for all occupations. Owners of large tracts of land, who often do not live  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 51  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Agricultural managers........................................................................ Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers............................... Farmers and ranchers.....................................................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  11-9010 11-9011 11-9012  1,234,000 248,100 985,900  Projected Employment, 2018 1,169,400 262,700 906,700  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent -64,600 -5 14,600 6 -79,200 -8  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  on the property they own, increasingly will seek the expertise of agricultural managers to run their farms and ranches in a business-like manner. Despite the expected continued consolidation of farmland and the projected decline in overall employment of this occupation, an increasing number of small-scale farmers have developed successful market niches that involve personalized, direct contact with their customers. Many are finding opportunities in horticulture and organic food production, which are among the fastest growing segments of agriculture. Others use farmers’ markets that cater directly to urban and suburban consumers, allowing the farmers to capture a greater share of consumers’ food dollars. Some small-scale farmers belong to collectively owned marketing cooperatives that process and sell their product. Other farmers participate in community-supported agriculture cooperatives that allow consumers to buy a share of the farmer’s harvest directly. Job prospects. Fewer jobs are expected for farmers and ranchers than in the past; better prospects are expected for wage and salary agricultural managers. Small-scale, local farming, particularly horticulture and organic farming, offer the best opportunities for entering the occupation. With fewer people wanting to become farmers and a large number of farmers expected to retire or give up their farms in the next decade, there will be some opportunities to own or lease a farm. Additionally, the market for agricultural products is projected to be good for most products over the next decade, so many farmers who retire will need to be replaced. Farmers who grow crops used in landscaping, such as trees, shrubs, turf, and other ornamentals, also will have better job prospects, as people put more money into landscaping their homes and businesses. Some private organizations are helping to make farmland available and affordable for new farmers through a variety of institutional innovations. Land Link programs, coordinated by the International Farm Transition Network, operate in 20 States. They help match up young farmers with farmers approaching retirement so that arrangements can be made to pass along their land to young farmers wishing to keep the land under cultivation. Often beginning farmers lease some or all of their farmland. Sometimes, a new farmer will work on a farm for a few years, while the farm owner gradually transfers ownership to the new farmer.  Earnings Incomes of farmers and ranchers vary greatly from year to year, because prices of farm products fluctuate with weather conditions and other factors that influence the quantity and quality of farm output and the demand for those products. In addition to farm business income, farmers often receive government subsidies or other payments that supplement their incomes and  reduce some of the risk of farming. Many farmers—primarily operators of small farms—have recently been relying more and more on off-farm sources of income. Full-time, salaried agricultural managers had median weekly earnings of $775 in 2008. The middle half earned between $570 and $1,269 per week. The lowest paid 10 percent earned less than $358, and the highest paid 10 percent earned more than $1,735 per week. Self-employed farmers must procure their own health and life insurance. As members of farm organizations, they may receive group discounts on health and life insurance premiums.  Related Occupations Farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers strive to improve the quality of agricultural products and the efficiency of farms. Others whose work relates to agriculture include:  Page Agricultural and food scientists............................................... 177 Agricultural inspectors............................................................. 612 Agricultural workers, other...................................................... 609 Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Farm and home management advisors..................................... 824 Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents............... 79  Sources of Additional Information For general information about farming and agricultural occupations, contact: hhNational FFA Organization, Attention: Career Information Requests, P.O. Box 68690, Indianapolis, IN 46268-0960. Internet: http://www.ffa.org For information about certification as an accredited farm manager, contact: hhAmerican Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers, 950 Cherry St., Suite 508, Denver, CO 80246- 2664. Internet: http://www.asfmra.org For information on the USDA’s program to help small farmers get started, contact: hhSmall Farm Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 1400 Independence Avenue SW, Stop 2201, Washington, DC 20250-2201. Internet: http://www.csrees.usda.gov/smallfarms.cfm For information on Land Link Programs, contact: hhThe Beginning Farm Center, 10861 Douglas Avenue, Suite B, Urbandale, IA 50322-2042. Internet: http://www.farmtransition.org/netwpart.html  52 Occupational Outlook Handbook  hhCenter for Rural Affairs, 145 Main Street PO Box 136, Lyons, NE 68038-2677. Internet: http://www.cfra.org/resources/beginning_farmer For information on organic farming, horticulture, and internships, contact: hhAlternative Farming System Information Center, NAL, 10301 Baltimore Ave., Room 132, Beltsville, MD 207052326. Internet: http://www.nal.usda.gov  hhATTRA, National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702-3657. Internet: http://www.attra.ncat.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos176.htm  Financial Managers Significant Points  •	 Jobseekers are likely to face competition. •	 About 3 out of 10 work in finance and insurance industries.  •	 Most financial managers need a bachelor’s degree,  and many have a master’s degree or professional certification.  •	 Experience may be more important than formal edu-  cation for some financial manager positions—most notably, branch managers in banks.  Nature of the Work Almost every firm, government agency, and other type of organization employs one or more financial managers. Financial managers oversee the preparation of financial reports, direct investment activities, and implement cash management strategies. Managers also develop strategies and implement the longterm goals of their organization. The duties of financial managers vary with their specific titles, which include controller, treasurer or finance officer, credit manager, cash manager, risk and insurance manager, and manager of international banking. Controllers direct the preparation of financial reports, such as income statements, balance sheets, and analyses of future earnings or expenses, that summarize and forecast the organization’s financial position. Controllers also are in charge of preparing special reports required by regulatory authorities. Often, controllers oversee the accounting, audit, and budget departments. Treasurers and finance officers direct their organization’s budgets to meet its financial goals. They oversee the investment of funds, manage associated risks, supervise cash management activities, execute capital-raising strategies to support the firm’s expansion, and deal with mergers and acquisitions. Credit managers oversee the firm’s issuance of credit, ­establishing credit-rating criteria, determining credit ceilings, and monitoring the collections of past-due accounts.  Cash managers monitor and control the flow of cash receipts and disbursements to meet the business and investment needs of their firm. For example, cash flow projections are needed to determine whether loans must be obtained to meet cash requirements or whether surplus cash can be invested. Risk and insurance managers oversee programs to minimize risks and losses that might arise from financial transactions and business operations. Insurance managers decide how best to limit a company’s losses by obtaining insurance against risks such as the need to make disability payments for an employee who gets hurt on the job or costs imposed by a lawsuit against the company. Risk managers control financial risk by using hedging and other techniques to limit a company’s exposure to currency or commodity price changes. Managers specializing in international finance develop financial and accounting systems for the banking transactions of multinational organizations. Risk managers are also responsible for calculating and limiting potential operations risk. Operations risk includes a wide range of risks, such as a rogue employee damaging the company’s finances or a hurricane damaging an important factory. (Chief financial officers and other executives are included with top executives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Financial institutions—such as commercial banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, and mortgage and finance companies—employ additional financial managers who oversee various functions, such as lending, trusts, mortgages, and investments, or programs, including sales, operations, or electronic financial services. These managers may solicit business, authorize loans, and direct the investment of funds, always adhering to Federal and State laws and regulations. Branch managers of financial institutions administer and manage all of the functions of a branch office. Job duties may include hiring personnel, approving loans and lines of credit, establishing a rapport with the community to attract business, and assisting customers with account problems. Branch mangers also are becoming more oriented toward sales and marketing. As a result, it is important that they have substantial knowledge about the types of products that the bank sells. Financial managers who work for financial institutions must keep abreast of the rapidly growing array of financial services and products. In addition to the preceding duties, financial managers perform tasks unique to their organization or industry. For example, government financial managers must be experts on the government appropriations and budgeting processes, whereas healthcare financial managers must be knowledgeable about issues surrounding health care financing. Moreover, financial managers must be aware of special tax laws and regulations that affect their industry. Financial managers play an important role in mergers and consolidations and in global expansion and related financing. These areas require extensive, specialized knowledge to reduce risks and maximize profit. Financial managers increasingly are hired on a temporary basis to advise senior managers on these and other matters. In fact, some small firms contract out all their accounting and financial functions to companies that provide such services. The role of the financial manager, particularly in business, is changing in response to technological advances that have sig-  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 53  Financial managers oversee the preparation of financial ­reports and investment activities. nificantly reduced the amount of time it takes to produce financial reports. Technological improvements have made it easier to produce financial reports, and, as a consequence, financial managers now perform more data analysis that allows them to offer senior managers profit-maximizing ideas. They often work on teams, acting as business advisors to top management. Work environment. Working in comfortable offices, often close to top managers and with departments that develop the financial data those managers need, financial managers typically have direct access to state-of-the-art computer systems and information services. They commonly work long hours, often up to 50 or 60 per week. Financial managers generally are required to attend meetings of financial and economic associations and may travel to visit subsidiary firms or to meet customers.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most financial managers need a bachelor’s degree, and many have a master’s degree or professional certification. Bank managers often have experience as loan officers or in other sales positions. Financial managers also need strong interpersonal, math, and business skills. Education and training. A bachelor’s degree in finance, accounting, economics, or business administration is the minimum academic preparation for financial managers. However,  many employers now seek graduates with a master’s degree, preferably in business administration, finance, or economics. These academic programs develop analytical skills and teach financial analysis methods and technology. Experience may be more important than formal education for some financial manager positions—most notably, branch managers in banks. Banks typically fill branch manager positions by promoting experienced loan officers and other professionals who excel at their jobs. Other financial managers may enter the profession through formal management training programs offered by the company. Licensure. Many financial managers work in accounting departments. Accounting positions normally require workers to be certified public accountants (CPAs). (See the statement on accountants and auditors elsewhere in the Handbook.) Other qualifications. Candidates for financial management positions need many different skills. Interpersonal skills are important because these jobs involve managing people and working as part of a team to solve problems. Financial managers must have excellent communication skills to explain complex financial data. Because financial managers work extensively with various departments in their firm, a broad understanding of business is essential. Financial managers should be creative thinkers and problemsolvers, applying their analytical skills to business. Financial managers must have knowledge of international finance because financial operations are increasingly being affected by the global economy. In addition, a good knowledge of regulatory compliance procedures is essential. Certification and advancement. Financial managers may broaden their skills and exhibit their competency by attaining professional certification. Many associations offer professional certification programs. For example, the CFA Institute confers the Chartered Financial Analyst designation on investment professionals who have at least a bachelor’s degree, work experience, and pass three difficult exams. The Association for Financial Professionals confers the Certified Treasury Professional credentials to those who pass a computer-based exam and have a minimum of 2 years of relevant experience. Continuing education is required to maintain these credentials. Also, financial managers who specialize in accounting or budgeting sometimes earn the Certified Management Accountant (CMA) ­designation. The CMA is offered by the Institute of Management Accountants to its members who have a bachelor’s degree, at least 2 years of work experience, pass the institute’s four-part examination, and fulfill continuing education requirements. (See accountants and auditors elsewhere in the Handbook for additional information on the CMA designation.) Continuing education is vital to financial managers, who must cope with the growing complexity of global trade, ­changes in Federal and State laws and regulations, and the proliferation of new and complex financial instruments. Firms often provide opportunities for workers to broaden their knowledge and skills by encouraging them to take graduate courses and attend conferences related to their specialty. Financial management, banking, and credit union associations, often in cooperation with colleges and universities, sponsor numerous national and local training programs. Subjects covered by training programs  54 Occupational Outlook Handbook  include accounting management, budget management, corporate cash management, financial analysis, international banking, and information systems. Many firms pay all or part of the costs for employees who successfully complete the courses. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by this type of special study. Because financial management is so important to efficient business operations, well-trained, experienced financial managers who display a strong grasp of the operations of various departments within their organization are prime candidates for promotion to top management positions. Some financial managers transfer to closely related positions in other industries. Those with extensive experience and access to sufficient capital may start their own consulting firms.  Employment Financial managers held about 539,300 jobs in 2008. Although they can be found in every industry, approximately 31 percent were employed by finance and insurance establishments, such as banks, savings institutions, finance companies, credit unions, insurance carriers, and securities dealers. About 7 percent worked for Federal, State, or local government.  Job Outlook Employment growth for financial managers is expected is to be as fast as the average for all occupations. However, applicants will likely face keen competition for jobs. Those with a master’s degree and certification will have the best opportunities. Employment change. Employment of financial managers over the 2008–18 decade is expected to grow by 8 percent, which is as fast as the average for all occupations. Regulatory changes and the expansion and globalization of finance and companies will increase the need for financial expertise and drive job growth. As the economy expands, both the growth of established companies and the creation of new businesses will spur demand for financial managers. Employment of bank branch managers is expected to increase because banks are creating new branches. However, mergers, acquisitions, and corporate downsizing are likely to restrict the employment growth of financial managers to some extent. Long-run demand for financial managers in the securities and commodities industry will continue to be driven by the need to handle increasingly complex financial transactions and manage a growing amount of investments. Financial managers also will be needed to handle mergers and acquisitions, raise capital, and assess global financial transactions. Employment of risk managers, who assess risks for insurance and investment purposes, also will grow.  Some companies may hire financial managers on a temporary basis, to see the organization through a short-term crisis or to offer suggestions for boosting profits. Other companies may contract out all accounting and financial operations. Even in these cases, however, financial managers may be needed to oversee the contracts. Job prospects. As with other managerial occupations, jobseekers are likely to face competition because the number of job openings is expected to be less than the number of applicants. Candidates with expertise in accounting and finance—particularly those with a master’s degree or certification—should enjoy the best job prospects. An understanding of international finance, derivatives, and complex financial instruments is important. Excellent communication skills are essential because financial managers must explain and justify complex financial transactions. As banks expand the range of products and services they offer to include wealth management, insurance, and investment products, branch managers with knowledge in these areas will be needed. As a result, candidates who are licensed to sell insurance or securities will have more favorable prospects. (See the Handbook statements on insurance sales agents; personal financial advisors; and securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents.)  Earnings Median annual wages, excluding annual bonuses and stock options, of wage and salary financial managers were $99,330 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $72,030 and $135,070. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of financial managers were: Securities and commodity contracts intermediation and brokerage................................$134,940 Management of companies and enterprises................115,520 Insurance carriers........................................................110,750 Local government..........................................................78,650 Depository credit intermediation..................................77,280  Large organizations often pay more than small ones, and salary levels also can depend on the type of industry and location. Many financial managers in both public and private industry receive additional compensation in the form of bonuses which, like salaries, vary substantially by size of firm. Deferred compensation in the form of stock options is common, especially for senior-level executives.  Related Occupations Financial managers combine formal education with experience in one or more areas of finance, such as asset management, lending, credit operations, securities investment, or insurance  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Financial managers............................................................................  SOC Code 11-3031  Employment, 2008 539,300  Projected Employment, 2018 580,500  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 41,200 8  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 55  risk and loss control. Workers in other occupations requiring similar training and skills include:  Page Accountants and auditors........................................................... 86 Budget analysts.......................................................................... 93 Financial analysts..................................................................... 103 Insurance sales agents.............................................................. 534 Insurance underwriters............................................................. 106 Loan officers............................................................................ 109 Personal financial advisors....................................................... 118 Real estate brokers and sales agents........................................ 540 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents.......553  Sources of Additional Information  For information about careers and certification in financial management, contact: hhFinancial Management Association International, College of Business Administration, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., BSN 3331, Tampa, FL 33620. Internet: http://www.fma.org For information about careers in financial and treasury management and the Certified Treasury Professional program, contact: hhAssociation for Financial Professionals, 4520 East-West Hwy., Suite 750, Bethesda, MD 20814. Internet: http://www.afponline.org For information about the Chartered Financial Analyst program, contact: hhCFA Institute, 560 Ray Hunt Dr., Charlottesville, VA 22903. Internet: http://www.cfainstitute.org For information on The American Institute of Banking and its programs, contact: hhAmerican Bankers Association, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20036. Internet: http://www.aba.com For information about the Certified in Management Accounting designation, contact: hhInstitute of Management Accountants, 10 Paragon Dr., Montvale, NJ 07645. Internet: http://www.imanet.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.  Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos010.htm  Food Service Managers Significant Points  •	 Although • •  most food service managers qualify for their position based on their restaurant-related experience, an increasing number of employers prefer managers with a 2- or 4-year degree in a related field. Food service managers coordinate a wide range of activities, but their most difficult tasks may be dealing with irate customers and motivating employees. Job opportunities for food service managers should be good, as the number of managers who change jobs or leave this occupation is typically high and, in the long run, as more are hired to meet the growing demand for convenient food service.  Nature of the Work Food service managers are responsible for the daily operations of restaurants and other establishments that prepare and serve meals and beverages to customers. Besides coordinating activities among various departments, such as kitchen, dining room, and banquet operations, food service managers ensure that customers are satisfied with their dining experience. In addition, they oversee the inventory and ordering of food, equipment, and supplies and arrange for the routine maintenance and upkeep of the restaurant’s equipment and facilities. Managers are generally responsible for all administrative and human-resource functions of the business, including recruiting new employees and monitoring employee performance and training. Managers interview, hire, train, and when necessary, fire employees. Retaining good employees is a major challenge facing food service managers. Managers recruit employees at career fairs and at schools that offer academic programs in hospitality management or culinary arts, and arrange for newspaper advertising to attract additional applicants. Managers oversee the training of new employees and explain the establishment’s policies and practices. They schedule work hours, making sure that enough workers are present to cover each shift. If employees are unable to work, managers may have to call in alternates to cover for them or fill in themselves. Some managers may help with cooking, clearing tables, or other tasks when the restaurant becomes extremely busy. Food service managers ensure that diners are served properly and in a timely manner. They investigate and resolve customers’ complaints about food quality and service. They monitor orders in the kitchen to determine where backups may occur, and they work with the chef to remedy any delays in service. Managers direct the cleaning of the dining areas and the washing of tableware, kitchen utensils, and equipment to comply with company and government sanitation standards. Managers also monitor the actions of their employees and patrons on a continual basis to ensure the personal safety of everyone. They make sure that health and safety standards and local liquor regulations are obeyed. In addition to their regular duties, food service managers perform a variety of administrative assignments, such as keeping employee work records, preparing the payroll, and completing paperwork to comply with licensing, tax, wage and hour, unemployment compensation, and Social Security laws. Some of this work may be delegated to an assistant manager or bookkeeper, or it may be contracted out, but most general managers retain responsibility for the accuracy of business records. Managers also maintain records of supply and equipment purchases and ensure that accounts with suppliers are paid. Managers tally the cash and charge receipts received and balance them against the record of sales, securing them in a safe place. Finally, managers are responsible for locking up the establishment, checking that ovens, grills, and lights are off, and switching on alarm systems. Technology influences the jobs of food service managers in many ways, enhancing efficiency and productivity. Many restaurants use computers and business software to place orders and track inventory and sales. They also allow food service  56 Occupational Outlook Handbook  managers to monitor expenses, employee schedules, and payroll matters more efficiently. In most full-service restaurants and institutional food service facilities, the management team consists of a general manager, one or more assistant managers, and an executive chef. The executive chef is responsible for all food preparation activities, including running kitchen operations, planning menus, and maintaining quality standards for food service. In some cases, the executive chef is also the general manager or owner of the restaurant. General managers may employ several assistant managers that oversee certain areas, such as the dining or banquet rooms, or supervise different shifts of workers. In limitedservice eating places, such as sandwich and coffee shops or fast-food restaurants, managers or food preparation or serving supervisors, not executive chefs, are responsible for supervising routine food preparation operations. (For additional information on these other workers, see material on top executives or on chefs, head cooks, and food preparation and serving supervisors elsewhere in the Handbook.) In restaurants, mainly full-service independent ones where there are both food service managers and executive chefs, the managers often help the chefs select menu items. Managers or executive chefs at independent restaurants select menu items, taking into account the past popularity of dishes, the ability to  reuse any food not served the previous day, the need for variety, and the seasonal availability of foods. Managers or executive chefs analyze the recipes of the dishes to determine food, labor, and overhead costs, work out the portion size and nutritional content of each plate, and assign prices to various menu items. Menus must be developed far enough in advance that supplies can be ordered and received in time. Managers or executive chefs estimate food needs, place orders with distributors, and schedule the delivery of fresh food and supplies. They plan for routine services or deliveries, such as linen services or the heavy cleaning of dining rooms or kitchen equipment, to occur during slow times or when the dining room is closed. Managers also arrange for equipment maintenance and repairs, and coordinate a variety of services such as waste removal and pest control. Managers or executive chefs receive deliveries and check the contents against order records. They inspect the quality of fresh meats, poultry, fish, fruits, vegetables, and baked goods to ensure that expectations are met. They meet with representatives from restaurant supply companies and place orders to replenish stocks of tableware, linens, paper products, cleaning supplies, cooking utensils, and furniture and fixtures. Work environment. Many food service managers work long hours—12 to 15 per day, 50 or more per week, and sometimes 7  days a week. Such schedules are common for fine dining restaurants and those, such as fast-food restaurants, that operate extended hours. Managers of institutional food service facilities, such as school, factory, or office cafeterias, work more regular hours because the operating hours of these establishments usually conform to the operating hours of the business or facility they serve. However, many managers oversee multiple locations of a chain or franchise or may be called in on short notice, making hours unpredictable. Managers should be calm, flexible, and able to work through emergencies, such as a fire or flood, to ensure everyone’s safety. They also should be able to fill in for absent workers on short notice. Managers often experience the pressures of simultaneously coordinating a wide range of activities. When problems occur, it is the manager’s responsibility to resolve them with minimal disruption to customers. The job can be hectic, and dealing with irate customers or uncooperative employees can be stressful. Managers also may experience the typical minor injuries of other restaurant workers, such as muscle aches, cuts, or burns. Although injuries generally do not require prolonged absen­ces from work, the incidence of injuries requiring at least one day’s absence from work exceeds that of about 60 percent of all ­occupations.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Food service managers ensure that food is in adequate supply and stored at the appropriate temperature.  Experience in the food services industry, whether as a cook, waiter or waitress, or counter attendant, is the most common training for food service managers. Many restaurant and food service manager positions, particularly self-service and fastfood, are filled by promoting experienced food and beverage preparation and service workers. Education and training. Most food service managers have less than a bachelor’s degree; however, some postsecondary education, including a college degree, is increasingly preferred for many food service manager positions. Many food service man-  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 57  agement companies and national or regional restaurant chains recruit management trainees from 2- and 4-year college hospitality or food service management programs, which require internships and real-life experience to graduate. While these specialized degrees are often preferred, graduates with degrees in other fields who have demonstrated experience, interest, and aptitude are also recruited. Most restaurant chains and food service management companies have rigorous training programs for management positions. Through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training, trainees receive instruction and gain work experience in all aspects of the operation of a restaurant or institutional food service facility. Areas include food preparation, nutrition, sanitation, security, company policies and procedures, personnel management, recordkeeping, and preparation of reports. Training on the use of the restaurant’s computer system is ­increasingly important as well. Usually, after several months of training, trainees receive their first permanent assignment as an assistant manager. Almost 1,000 colleges and universities offer 4-year programs in restaurant and hospitality management or institutional food service management; a growing number of university programs offer graduate degrees in hospitality management or similar fields. For those not interested in pursuing a 4-year degree, community and junior colleges, technical institutes, and other institutions offer programs in the field leading to an associate degree or other formal certification. Both 2- and 4-year programs provide instruction in subjects such as nutrition, sanitation, and food planning and preparation, as well as accounting, business law and management, and computer science. Some programs combine classroom and laboratory study with internships providing on-the-job experience. In addition, many educational institutions offer culinary programs in food preparation. Such training can lead to careers as cooks or chefs and provide a foundation for advancement to executive chef positions. Many larger food service operations will provide or offer to pay for technical training, such as computer or business courses, so that employees can acquire the business skills necessary to read spreadsheets or understand the concepts and practices of running a business. Generally, this requires a long-term commitment on the employee’s part to both the employer and to the profession. Other qualifications. Most employers emphasize personal qualities when hiring managers. Workers who are reliable, show initiative, and have leadership qualities are highly sought after for promotion. Other qualities that managers look for are good problem-solving skills and the ability to concentrate on details. A neat and clean appearance is important, because food service managers must convey self-confidence and show respect in deal-  ing with the public. Because food service management can be physically demanding, good health and stamina are important. Managers must be good communicators as they deal with customers, employees, and suppliers for most of the day. They must be able to motivate employees to work as a team, to ensure that food and service meet appropriate standards. Additionally, the ability to speak multiple languages is helpful to communicate with staff and patrons. Certification and advancement. The certified Foodservice Management Professional (FMP) designation is a measure of professional achievement for food service managers. Although not a requirement for employment or necessary for advancement, voluntary certification can provide recognition of professional competence, particularly for managers who acquired their skills largely on the job. The National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation awards the FMP designation to managers who achieve a qualifying score on a written examination, complete a series of courses that cover a range of food service management topics, and meet standards of work experience in the field. Willingness to relocate is often essential for advancement to positions with greater responsibility. Managers typically advance to larger or more prominent establishments or regional management positions within restaurant chains. Some may open their own food service establishments or franchise operation.  Employment Food service managers held about 338,700 jobs in 2008. The majority of managers are salaried, but 42 percent are selfemployed as owners of independent restaurants or other small food service establishments. Forty-one percent of all salaried jobs for food service managers are in full-service restaurants or limited-service eating places, such as fast-food restaurants and cafeterias. Other salaried jobs are in special food services— an industry that includes food service contractors who supply food services at institutional, governmental, commercial, or industrial locations, and educational services, which primarily supply elementary and secondary schools. A smaller number of salaried jobs are in hotels; amusement, gambling, and recreation industries; nursing care facilities; and hospitals. Jobs are located throughout the country, with large cities and resort areas providing more opportunities for full-service dining positions.  Job Outlook Food service manager jobs are expected to grow 5 percent, or more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2018. However, job opportunities should be good because many openings will arise from the need to replace managers who leave the occupation.  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Food service managers.......................................................................  SOC Code 11-9051  Employment, 2008 338,700  Projected Employment, 2018 356,700  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 18,000 5  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  58 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment change. Employment of food service managers is expected to grow 5 percent, or more slowly than the average for all occupations, during the 2008-18 decade, as the ­number of eating and drinking establishments opening is expected to decline from the previous decade. Despite these reductions in the number of new eating and drinking places, new employment opportunities for food service managers will emerge in grocery and convenience stores and other retail and recreation industries to meet the growing demand for quick food in a variety of settings. Employment growth is projected to vary by industry. Most new jobs will be in full-service restaurants and limited service eating places. Manager jobs will also increase in healthcare and elder care facilities. Self-employment of these workers will generate nearly 40 percent of new jobs. Job prospects. In addition to job openings from employment growth, the need to replace managers who transfer to other occupations or stop working will create good job opportunities. Although practical experience is an integral part of finding a food service management position, applicants with a degree in restaurant, hospitality, or institutional food service management will have an edge when competing for jobs at upscale restaurants and for advancement in a restaurant chain or into corporate management.  ment, and certification as a Foodservice Management Professional is available from: hhNational Restaurant Association Educational Foundation, 175 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1500, Chicago, IL 60604-2702. Internet: http://www.nraef.org Career information about food service managers, as well as a directory of 2- and 4-year colleges that offer courses or programs that prepare persons for food service careers is available from: hhNational Restaurant Association, 1200 17th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036-3097. Internet: http://www.restaurant.org General information on hospitality careers may be obtained from:  hhThe International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and  Institutional Education, 2810 North Parham Rd., Suite 230, Richmond, VA 23294. Internet: http://www.chrie.org Additional information about job opportunities in food service management may be obtained from local employers and from local offices of State employment services agencies. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos024.htm  Earnings Median annual wages of salaried food service managers were $46,320 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $36,670 and $59,580. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $29,450, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $76,940. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of food service managers were as follows: Traveler accommodation.............................................$54,710 Special food services.....................................................52,680 Full-service restaurants.................................................49,420 Limited-service eating places........................................41,320  In addition to receiving typical benefits, most salaried food service managers are provided free meals and the opportunity for additional training, depending on their length of service. Some food service managers, especially those in full-service restaurants, may earn bonuses depending on sales volume or revenue.  Related Occupations Other managers and supervisors in hospitality-related businesses include:  Page First-line supervisors or managers of food preparation and serving workers.......................................... 484 Gaming services occupations................................................... 520 Lodging managers...................................................................... 70 Sales worker supervisors.......................................................... 551  Sources of Additional Information Information about a career as a food service manager, 2- and 4-year college programs in restaurant and food service manage-  Funeral Directors Significant Points  •	 Job  opportunities should be good, particularly for those who also embalm.  •	 Some mortuary science graduates relocate to get a job. •	 Funeral directors are licensed by the State in which they practice.  •	 Funeral directors need the ability to communicate easily and compassionately and to comfort people in a time of sorrow.  Nature of the Work Funeral practices and rites vary greatly among cultures and religions. However, funeral practices usually share some common elements—removing the deceased to a mortuary, preparing the remains, performing a ceremony that honors the deceased and addresses the spiritual needs of the family, and carrying out final disposition of the deceased. Funeral directors arrange and direct these tasks for grieving families, taking great pride in their ability to provide comfort to family and friends of the deceased and in providing appropriate services. Funeral directors, also called morticians and undertakers, arrange the details and handle the logistics of funerals, taking into account the wishes of the deceased and family members. ­Together with the family, funeral directors establish the location, dates, and times of wakes, memorial services, and burials. They arrange for a hearse to carry the body to the funeral home or mortuary.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 59  Funeral directors prepare obituary notices and have them placed in newspapers, arrange for pallbearers and clergy, schedule the opening and closing of a grave with a representative of the cemetery, decorate and prepare the sites of all services, and provide transportation for the deceased, mourners, and flowers between sites. They also direct preparation and shipment of bodies for out-of-State burial. Most funeral directors also are trained, licensed, and practicing embalmers. Embalming is a sanitary, cosmetic, and preservative process through which the body is prepared for interment. If more than 24 hours elapse between death and interment, State laws usually require that the remains be refrigerated or embalmed. When embalming a body, funeral directors wash the body with germicidal soap and replace the blood with embalming fluid to preserve the tissues. They may reshape and reconstruct bodies using materials such as clay, cotton, plaster of Paris, and wax. They also may apply cosmetics to provide a natural appearance, dress the body, and place it in a casket. Funeral directors maintain records such as embalming reports and itemized lists of clothing or valuables delivered with the body. In large funeral homes, an embalming staff of two or more, plus several apprentices may be employed. Funeral services may take place in a home, house of worship, funeral home, or at the gravesite or crematory. Some services are not religious, but many are. Funeral directors must be familiar with the funeral and burial customs of many faiths, ethnic groups, and fraternal organizations. For example, members of some religions seldom have the deceased embalmed or cremated. Burial in a casket is the most common method of disposing of remains in the United States, although entombment also occurs. Cremation, which is the burning of the body in a special furnace, is increasingly selected because it can be less expensive and allows for the memorial service to be held at a more convenient time in the future when relatives and friends can come together. A funeral service followed by cremation need not be any different from a funeral service followed by a burial. Usually, cremated remains are placed in some type of permanent receptacle, or urn, before being committed to a final resting place. The urn may be buried, placed in an indoor or outdoor mausoleum or columbarium, or interred in a special urn garden that many cemeteries provide for cremated remains. Funeral directors handle the paperwork involved with the person’s death, including submitting papers to State authorities so that a formal death certificate may be issued and copies distributed to the heirs. They may help family members apply for veterans’ burial benefits or notify the Social Security Administration of the death. Also, funeral directors may apply for the transfer of any pensions, insurance policies, or annuities on behalf of survivors. Funeral directors also work with those who want to plan their own funerals in advance. This ensures that the client’s wishes will be taken care of to their satisfaction. Most funeral homes are small, family-run businesses, and many funeral directors are owner-operators or employees with managerial responsibilities. Funeral directors, therefore, are responsible for the success and the profitability of their businesses. Directors must keep records of expenses, purchases, and servic-  es rendered; prepare and send invoices for services; and file all required State and Federal employment reports and tax forms. Funeral directors increasingly use computers for billing, bookkeeping, and marketing. Some are beginning to use the Internet to communicate with clients who are planning their funerals in advance or to assist them by developing electronic obituaries and guest books. Directors strive to foster a cooperative spirit and friendly attitude among employees and a compassionate demeanor toward the families. Increasingly, funeral directors also help individuals adapt to changes in their lives following a death through aftercare services and support groups. Work environment. Most funeral directors work in funeral homes that have one or more viewing rooms, a casket-selection room, a preparation room, and sometimes a chapel. Some may also have a crematory on the premises. In general, the occupation is safe, but funeral directors occasionally come into contact with bodies that had contagious diseases, but when the appropriate safety and health regulations are followed the possibility of infection is remote. Funeral directors often work long, irregular hours, and the occupation can be highly stressful. Many are on call at all hours because they may be needed to remove remains in the middle of the night. Shift work sometimes is necessary because funeral home hours include evenings and weekends. In smaller funeral homes, working hours vary, but in larger establishments, employees usually work 8 hours a day, 5 or 6 days a week.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Funeral directors are licensed in all States. State licensing laws vary, but most require applicants to be 21 years old, have 2 years of formal education, serve a 1-year apprenticeship, and pass an examination. Education and training. College programs in mortuary science usually last from 2 to 4 years. The American Board of Funeral Service Education accredits about 60 mortuary science programs. The majority are two-year associate degree programs offered at community colleges. About 6 colleges and universities offer programs that culminate in a bachelor’s degree. In ad-  Funeral directors, also called morticians and undertakers, arrange the details of funerals, taking into account the wishes of the deceased and family members.  60 Occupational Outlook Handbook  dition, many specialized, stand alone funeral service institutions offer two-year programs, although some are 4 years in length. Mortuary science programs include courses in anatomy, physiology, pathology, embalming techniques, restorative art, business management, accounting and use of computers in funeral home management, and client services. They also include courses in the social sciences and in legal, ethical, and regulatory subjects such as psychology, grief counseling, oral and written communication, funeral service law, business law, and ethics. Many State and national associations offer continuing education programs designed for licensed funeral directors. These programs address issues in communications, counseling, and management. More than 30 States have requirements that funeral directors receive continuing education credits to maintain their licenses. Apprenticeships must be completed under the direction of an experienced and licensed funeral director. Some States require apprenticeships. Depending on State regulations, apprenticeships last from 1 to 3 years and may be served before, during, or after mortuary school. Apprenticeships provide practical experience in all facets of the funeral service, from embalming to transporting remains. High school students can start preparing for a career as a funeral director by taking courses in biology and chemistry and ­participating in public speaking or debate clubs. Part-time or summer jobs in funeral homes also provide good experience. These jobs consist mostly of maintenance and cleanup tasks, such as washing and polishing limousines and hearses, but they can help students become familiar with the operation of funeral homes. Licensure. All States require funeral directors to be licensed. Licensing laws vary by State, but most require applicants to be 21 years old, have 2 years of formal education that includes studies in mortuary science, serve a 1-year apprenticeship, and pass a qualifying examination. After becoming licensed, new funeral directors may join the staff of a funeral home. Some States require all funeral directors to be licensed in embalming. Others have separate licenses for directors and embalmers, but in those States funeral directors who embalm need to be licensed in embalming, and most of these professionals obtain both licenses. State board licensing examinations vary, but they usually consist of written and oral parts and include a demonstration of practical skills. People who want to work in another State may have to pass the examination for that State; however, some States have reciprocity arrangements and will grant licenses to funeral directors from another State without further examination. People interested in a career as a funeral director should contact their State licensing board for specific requirements.  Other qualifications. Funeral directors need composure, tact, and the ability to communicate easily and compassionately with the public. Funeral directors also should have the desire and ability to comfort people in a time of sorrow. To show proper respect and consideration for the families and the dead, funeral directors must dress appropriately. The professions usually require short, neat haircuts and trim beards, if any, for men. Suits and ties for men and comparable business attire, for women are customary. Advancement. Advancement opportunities generally are best in companies with multiple funeral homes. Funeral directors working for these companies may earn promotions to higher paying positions such as branch manager or general manager. Some directors eventually acquire enough money and experience to establish their own funeral home businesses.  Employment Funeral directors held about 30,000 jobs in 2008. About 13 percent were self-employed. Nearly all worked in the death care services industry.  Job Outlook Employment growth is expected to be as fast as average for all occupations. Job opportunities are expected to be good, particularly for funeral directors who also embalm. Employment change. Employment of funeral directors is expected to increase by 12 percent during the 2008–18 decade, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Projected job growth reflects growth in the death care services industry overall due to the aging of the population. Job prospects. In addition to employment growth, the need to replace funeral directors who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons will result in good job opportunities. Funeral directors are older, on average, than workers in most other occupations and are expected to retire in greater numbers over the coming decade. In addition, some funeral directors leave the profession because of the long and irregular hours. Job prospects may also be better for some mortuary science graduates who can relocate to get a job.  Earnings Median annual wages for funeral directors were $52,210 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $38,980 and $69,680. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $29,910 and the top 10 percent earned more than $92,940. Salaries of funeral directors depend on the number of years of experience in funeral service, the number of services performed, the number of facilities operated, the area of the country, and the director’s level of formal education. Funeral directors in large cities usually earn more than their counterparts in small towns and rural areas.  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Funeral directors................................................................................  SOC Code 11-9061  Employment, 2008 30,000  Projected Employment, 2018 33,600  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 3,600 12  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 61  Related Occupations The job of a funeral director requires tact, discretion, and compassion when dealing with grieving people. Others who need these qualities include:  Page Physicians and surgeons........................................................... 381 Psychologists............................................................................ 215 Social workers.......................................................................... 246  Sources of Additional Information For a list of accredited mortuary science programs and information on the funeral service profession, write to: hhThe National Funeral Directors Association, 13625 Bishop’s Dr., Brookfield, WI 53005. Internet: http://www.nfda.org For information about scholarships and educational programs in funeral service and mortuary science, contact: hhThe American Board of Funeral Service Education, 3414 Ashland Ave., Suite G, St. Joseph, MO 64506. Internet: http://www.abfse.org For information on specific State licensing requirements, contact the State’s licensing board. For more information about funeral directors and their work, see the Occupational Outlook Quarterly article, “Jobs in ­weddings and funerals: Working with the betrothed and the bereaved,” available in many libraries and career centers and online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2006/winter/art03.pdf. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos011.htm  Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists Significant Points  •	 The educational backgrounds of these workers vary considerably, reflecting the diversity of duties and levels of responsibility.  •	 College graduates and those who have earned certification should have the best job and advancement opportunities.  •	 Human resources occupations require strong interpersonal skills.  •	 Much faster than average growth is expected during the projection period.  Nature of the Work Every organization wants to attract, motivate, and retain the most qualified employees and match them to jobs for which they are best suited. Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists provide this connection. In the  past, these workers performed the administrative function of an organization, such as handling employee benefits questions or recruiting, interviewing, and hiring new staff in accordance with policies established by top management. Today’s human resources workers manage these tasks, but, increasingly, they consult with top executives regarding strategic planning. They have moved from behind-the-scenes staff work to leading the company in suggesting and changing policies. In an effort to enhance morale and productivity, limit job turnover, and help organizations increase performance and improve results, these workers also help their companies effectively use employee skills, provide training and development opportunities to improve those skills, and increase employees’ satisfaction with their jobs and working conditions. Although some jobs in the human resources field require only limited contact with people outside the human resources office, dealing with people is an important part of the job. There are many types of human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists. In a small organization, a human resources generalist may handle all aspects of human resources work, and thus require an extensive range of knowledge. The responsibilities of human resources generalists can vary widely, depending on their employer’s needs. In a large corporation, the director of human resources may supervise several departments, each headed by an experienced manager who most likely specializes in one human resources activity, such as employment and placement, compensation and benefits, training and development, or labor relations. The director may report to a top human resources executive. (See top executives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Employment and placement. Employment and placement managers supervise the recruitment, hiring, and separation of employees. They also supervise employment, recruitment, and placement specialists, including employment interviewers. Employment, recruitment, and placement specialists recruit and place workers. Recruitment specialists maintain contacts within the community and may travel considerably, often to job fairs and college campuses, to search for promising job applicants. Recruiters screen, interview, and occasionally test applicants. They also may check references and extend job offers. These workers must be thoroughly familiar with their organization, the work that is done, and the human resources policies of their company in order to discuss wages, working conditions and advancement opportunities with prospective employees. They also must stay informed about equal employment opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action guidelines and laws, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act. Employment interviewers—whose many job titles include human resources consultants, human resources development specialists, and human resources coordinators—help to match employers with qualified jobseekers. Similarly, employer relations representatives, who usually work in government agencies or college career centers, maintain working relationships with prospective employers and promote the use of public employment programs and services. Compensation, benefits, and job analysis. Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists administer compensation  62 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists explain company procedures and benefits to new ­employees. programs for employers and may specialize in specific areas such as pensions or position classifications. For example, job analysts, occasionally called position classifiers, collect and examine detailed information about job duties in order to prepare job descriptions. These descriptions explain the duties, training, and skills that each job requires. Whenever a large organization introduces a new job or reviews existing jobs, it calls upon the expert knowledge of job analysts. Occupational analysts research occupational classification systems and study the effects of industry and occupational trends on worker relationships. They may serve as technical liaisons between companies or departments, government, and labor unions. Establishing and maintaining a firm’s pay structure is the principal job of compensation managers. Assisted by compensation analysts or specialists, compensation managers devise ways to ensure fair and equitable pay rates. They may participate in or purchase salary surveys to see how their firm’s pay compares with others, and they ensure that the firm’s pay scale complies with changing laws and regulations. In addition, compensation managers often oversee the compensation side of their company’s performance management system. They may design reward systems such as pay-for-performance plans, which might include setting merit pay guidelines and bonus or incentive pay criteria. Compensation managers also might administer executive compensation programs or determine commission rates and other incentives for corporate sales staffs. Employee benefits managers and specialists administer a company’s employee benefits program, notably its health insurance and retirement plans. Expertise in designing, negotiating, and administering benefits programs continues to take on importance as employer-provided benefits account for a growing proportion of overall compensation costs, and as benefit plans increase in number and complexity. For example, retirement benefits might include defined benefit pension plans, defined contribution plans, such as 401(k) or thrift savings plans and profit-sharing or stock ownership plans. Health benefits might include medical, dental, and vision insurance and protection against catastrophic illness. Familiarity with health benefits  is a top priority for employee benefits managers and specialists, because of the rising cost of providing healthcare benefits to employees and retirees. In addition to health insurance and retirement coverage, many firms offer employees life and accidental death and dismemberment insurance, disability insurance, and benefits designed to meet the needs of a changing workforce, such as parental leave, long-term nursing or home care insurance, wellness programs, and flexible benefits plans. Benefits managers must keep abreast of changing Federal and State regulations and legislation that may affect employee benefits. Working with employee assistance plan managers or worklife coordinators, many benefits managers work to integrate the growing number of programs that deal with mental and physical health, such as employee assistance, obesity, and smoking cessation, into their health benefits programs. Employee assistance plan managers, also called employee welfare managers or work-life managers, are responsible for a wide array of programs to enhance employee safety and wellness and improve work-life balance. These may include occupational safety and health standards and practices, health promotion and physical fitness, medical examinations and minor health treatment, such as first aid, flexible work schedules, food service and recreation activities, carpooling and transportation programs such as transit subsidies, employee suggestion systems, child care and elder care, and counseling services. Child care and elder care are increasingly significant because of growth in the number of dual-income households and the older population. Counseling may help employees deal with emotional disorders, alcoholism, or marital, family, consumer, legal, and financial problems. Some employers offer career counseling and outplacement services. In some companies, certain programs, such as those dealing with physical security or information technology, may be coordinated in separate departments by other managers. (See administrative services managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training and development. Training and development managers and specialists create, procure, and conduct training and development programs for employees. Managers typically supervise specialists and make budget-impacting decisions in exchange for a reduced training portfolio. Increasingly, executives recognize that training offers a way of developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building worker loyalty. Enhancing employee skills can increase individual and organizational performance and help to achieve business results. Increasingly, executives realize that developing the skills and knowledge of its workforce is a business imperative that can give them a competitive edge in recruiting and retaining high quality employees and can lead to business growth. Other factors involved in determining whether training is needed include the complexity of the work environment, the rapid pace of organizational and technological change, and the growing number of jobs in fields that constantly generate new knowledge and, thus, require new skills. In addition, advances in learning theory have provided insights into how people learn and how training can be organized most effectively. Training managers oversee development of training programs, contracts, and budgets. They may perform needs assessments of the types of training needed, determine the best means  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 63  of delivering training, and create the content. They may provide employee training in a classroom, computer laboratory, or onsite production facility, or through a training film, Web videoon-demand, or self-paced or self-guided instructional guides. For live or in-person training, training managers ensure that teaching materials are prepared and the space appropriately set, training and instruction stimulate the class, and completion certificates are issued at the end of training. For computer-assisted or recorded training, trainers ensure that cameras, microphones, and other necessary technology platforms are functioning properly and that individual computers or other learning devices are configured for training purposes. They also have the responsibility for the entire learning process, and its environment, to ensure that the course meets its objectives and is measured and evaluated to understand how learning impacts performance. Training specialists plan, organize, and direct a wide range of training activities. Trainers consult with training managers and employee supervisors to develop performance improvement measures, conduct orientation sessions, and arrange on-the-job training for new employees. They help employees maintain and improve their job skills and prepare for jobs requiring greater skill. They work with supervisors to improve their interpersonal skills and to deal effectively with employees. They may set up individualized training plans to strengthen employees’ existing skills or teach new ones. Training specialists also may set up leadership or executive development programs for employees who aspire to move up in the organization. These programs are designed to develop or “groom” leaders to replace those leaving the organization and as part of a corporate succession plan. Trainers also lead programs to assist employees with job transitions as a result of mergers or consolidation, as well as retraining programs to develop new skills that may result from technological changes in the work place. In government-supported job-training programs, training specialists serve as case managers and provide basic job skills to prepare participants to function in the labor force. They assess the training needs of clients and guide them through the most appropriate training. After training, clients may either be referred to employer relations representatives or receive job placement assistance. Planning and program development is an essential part of the training specialist’s job. In order to identify and assess training needs, trainers may confer with managers and supervisors or conduct surveys. They also evaluate training effectiveness to ensure that employees actually learn and that the training they receive helps the organization meet its strategic goals and achieve results. Depending on the size, goals, and nature of the organization, trainers may differ considerably in their responsibilities and in the methods they use. Training methods also vary by whether the training predominantly is knowledge-based or skill-based or sometimes a combination of the two. For example, much knowledge-based training is conducted in a classroom setting. Most skill training provides some combination of hands-on instruction, demonstration, and practice at doing something and usually is conducted on a shop floor, studio, or laboratory where trainees gain experience and confidence. Some on-thejob training methods could apply equally to knowledge or skill training and formal apprenticeship training programs combine  classroom training and work experience. Increasingly, training programs involve interactive Internet-based training modules that can be downloaded for either individual or group instruction, for dissemination to a geographically dispersed class, or to be coordinated with other multimedia programs. These technologies allow participants to take advantage of distance learning alternatives and to attend conferences and seminars through satellite or Internet communications hookups, or use other computer-aided instructional technologies, such as those for the hearing-impaired or sight-impaired. Employee relations. An organization’s director of industrial relations forms labor policy, oversees industrial labor relations, negotiates collective bargaining agreements, and coordinates grievance procedures to handle complaints resulting from management disputes with employees. The director of industrial relations also advises and collaborates with the director of human resources, other managers, and members of their staffs, because all aspects of human resources policy—such as wages, benefits, pensions, and work practices—may be involved in drawing up a new or revised work rules that comply with a union contract. Labor relations managers and their staffs implement industrial labor relations programs. Labor relations specialists prepare information for management to use during collective bargaining agreement negotiations, a process that requires the specialist to be familiar with economic and wage data and to have extensive knowledge of labor law and collective bargaining procedures. The labor relations staff interprets and administers the contract with respect to grievances, wages and salaries, employee welfare, healthcare, pensions, union and management practices, and other contractual stipulations. In the absence of a union, industrial relations personnel may work with employees individually or with employee association representatives. Dispute resolution—attaining tacit or contractual agreements—has become increasingly significant as parties to a dispute attempt to avoid costly litigation, strikes, or other disruptions. Dispute resolution also has become more complex, involving employees, management, unions, other firms, and government agencies. Specialists involved in dispute resolution must be highly knowledgeable and experienced, and often report to the director of industrial relations. Mediators advise and counsel labor and management to prevent and, when necessary, resolve disputes over labor agreements or other labor relations issues. Arbitrators, occasionally called umpires or referees, decide disputes that bind both labor and management to specific terms and conditions of labor contracts. Labor relations specialists who work for unions perform many of the same functions on behalf of the union and its members. EEO officers, representatives, or affirmative action coordinators handle equal employment opportunity matters. They investigate and resolve EEO grievances, examine corporate practices for possible violations, and compile and submit EEO statistical reports. Other emerging specialties in human resources include international human resources managers, who handle human resources issues related to a company’s overseas operations and human resources information system specialists, who develop and apply computer programs to process human resources information, match jobseekers with job openings, and handle  64 Occupational Outlook Handbook  other human resources matters; and total compensation or total rewards specialists, who determine an appropriate mix of compensation, benefits, and incentives. Work environment. Human resources personnel usually work in clean, pleasant, and comfortable office settings. Arbitrators and mediators many of whom work independently may work out of home offices. Although most human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists work in the office, some travel extensively. For example, recruiters regularly attend professional meetings, participate in job fairs, and visit college campuses to interview prospective employees. Arbitrators and mediators often must travel to the site chosen for negotiations. Trainers and other specialists may travel to regional, satellite, or international offices of a company to meet with employees who work outside of the main corporate office. Many human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists work a standard 40-hour week. However, longer hours might be necessary for some workers—for example, labor relations managers and specialists, arbitrators, and mediators—when contract agreements or dispute resolutions are being negotiated.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The educational backgrounds of human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists vary considerably, reflecting the diversity of duties and levels of responsibility. In filling entry-level jobs, many employers seek college graduates who have majored in human resources, human resources administration, or industrial and labor relations. Other employers look for college graduates with a technical or business background or a well-rounded liberal arts education. Education and training. Although a bachelor’s degree is a typical path of entry into these occupations, many ­colleges and universities do not offer degree programs in personnel administration, human resources, or labor relations until the graduate degree level. However, many offer individual ­courses in these subjects at the undergraduate level in addition to concentrations in human resources administration or human resources management, training and development, organizational development, and compensation and benefits. Because an interdisciplinary background is appropriate in this field, a combination of courses in the social sciences, business administration, and behavioral sciences is useful. Some jobs may require more technical or specialized backgrounds in engineering, science, finance, or law. Most prospective human resources specialists should take courses in principles of management, organizational structure, and industrial psychology; however, courses in accounting or finance are becoming increasingly important. Courses in labor law, collective bargaining, labor economics, and labor history also provide a valuable background for the prospective labor relations specialist. As in many other fields, knowledge of computers and information systems is useful. An advanced degree is increasingly important for some jobs. Many labor relations jobs require graduate study in industrial or labor relations. A strong background in industrial relations and law is highly desirable for contract negotiators, mediators, and arbitrators; in fact, many people in these specialties have law degrees. A master’s degree in human resources, labor relations,  or in business administration with a concentration in human resources management is highly recommended for those seeking general and top management positions. The duties given to entry-level workers will vary, depending on whether the new workers have a degree in human resource management, have completed an internship, or have some other type of human resources-related experience. Entry-level employees commonly learn by performing administrative duties—helping to enter data into computer systems, compiling employee handbooks, researching information for a supervisor, or answering phone calls and handling routine questions. Entry-level workers often enter on-the-job training programs in which they learn how to classify jobs, interview applicants, or administer employee benefits; they then are assigned to specific areas in the human resources department to gain experience. Later, they may advance to supervisory positions, overseeing a major element of the human resources program—compensation or training, for example. Other qualifications. Experience is an asset for many specialties in the human resources area, and is essential for advancement to senior-level positions, including managers, arbitrators, and mediators. Many employers prefer entry-level workers who have gained some experience through an internship or workstudy program while in school. Employees in human resources administration and human resources development need the ability to work well with individuals and a commitment to organizational goals. This field demands skills that people may have developed elsewhere—teaching, supervising, and volunteering, among others. Human resources work also offers clerical workers opportunities to advance to more responsible or professional positions. Some positions occasionally are filled by experienced individuals from other backgrounds, including business, government, education, social services administration, and the military. The human resources field demands a range of personal qualities and skills. Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists must speak and write effectively. Ever-changing technologies and the growing complexities inherent to the many services human resources personnel provide require that they be knowledgeable about computer systems, storage and retrieval software, and how to use a wide array of digital communications devices. The growing diversity of the workforce requires that human resources managers and specialists work with or supervise people of various ages, cultural backgrounds, levels of education, and experience. Ability to speak a foreign language is an asset, especially if working in an industry with a large immigrant workforce or for a company with many overseas operations. Human resources employees must be able to cope with conflicting points of view, function under pressure, and demonstrate discretion, integrity, fair-mindedness, and a persuasive, genial personality. Because much of the information collected by these employees is confidential, they must also show the character and responsibility of dealing with sensitive employee information. Certification and advancement. Most professional associations that specialize in human resources offer classes intended to enhance the skills of their members. Some organizations offer certification programs, which are signs of competence and  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 65  credibility and can enhance advancement opportunities. For example, the International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans confers a designation in three distinct areas of specialization—group benefit, retirement, and compensation—to persons who complete a series of college-level courses and pass exams. Candidates can earn a designation in each of the specialty tracks and, simultaneously, receive credit toward becoming a Certified Employee Benefits Specialist (CEBS). The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) Certification Institute offers professional certification in the learning and performance field. Addressing nine areas of expertise, certification requires passing a knowledge-based exam and successful work experience. In addition, ASTD offers 16 short-term certificate and workshop programs covering a broad range of professional training and development topics. The Society for Human Resource Management offers two levels of certification, including the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) and the Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR). Additionally, the organization offers the Global Professional in Human Resources certification for those with international and cross-border responsibilities and the California Certification in Human Resources for those who plan to work in that State and become familiar with California’s labor and human resources laws. All designations require experience and a passing score on a comprehensive exam. The WorldatWork Society of Certified Professionals offers four distinct designations in the areas of compensation, benefits, work-life, and global remuneration that comprise the total rewards management practice. Candidates obtain the designation of Certified Compensation Professional (CCP), Certified Benefits Professional (CBP), Global Remuneration Professional (GRP), and Work-Life Certified Professional (WLCP). Certification is achieved after passing a series of knowledge-based exams within each designation. Additionally, WorldatWork offers online and classroom education covering a broad range of total rewards topics. Exceptional human resources workers may be promoted to director of human resources or industrial relations, which can eventually lead to a top managerial or executive position. Others may join a consulting or outsourcing firm or open their own business. A Ph.D. is an asset for teaching, writing, or consulting work.  Employment Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists held about 904,900 jobs in 2008. The following tabulation shows the distribution of jobs by occupational specialty: Training and development specialists.........................216,600 Employment, recruitment, and placement specialists...............................................207,900 Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists................................................................121,900 Compensation and benefits managers...........................40,500 Training and development managers............................30,400 Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists, all other..................................224,600 Human resources managers, all other...........................63,100  Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists were employed in virtually every industry. About 13 percent of human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists were employed in administrative and support services, 11 percent in professional, scientific, and technical services, 10 percent in healthcare and social assistance, and 9 percent in finance and insurance firms. About 12,900 managers and specialists were self-employed, working as consultants to public and private employers.  Job Outlook Employment is expected to grow much faster than the average for all human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists occupations. College graduates and those who have earned certification should have the best job opportunities. Employment change. Overall employment is projected to grow by 22 percent between 2008 and 2018, much faster than the average for all occupations. Legislation and court rulings revising standards in various areas—occupational safety and health, equal employment opportunity, wages, healthcare, retirement plans, and family leave, among others—will increase demand for human resources, training, and labor relations experts. Rising healthcare costs and a growing number of healthcare coverage options should continue to spur demand for specialists to develop creative compensation and benefits packages that companies can offer prospective employees.  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists....................................................................................... Human resources managers........................................................... Compensation and benefits managers........................................ Training and development managers......................................... All other human resources managers......................................... Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists............ Employment, recruitment, and placement specialists................ Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists................. Training and development specialists........................................ Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists, all other.......................................................................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  Projected Employment, 2018  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent  – 11-3040 11-3041 11-3042 11-3049 13-1070 13-1071 13-1072 13-1073  904,900 133,900 40,500 30,400 63,100 770,900 207,900 121,900 216,600  1,102,300 146,800 43,900 34,000 68,900 955,500 265,900 150,600 267,100  197,400 12,900 3,400 3,600 5,800 184,500 58,000 28,700 50,500  22 10 9 12 9 24 28 24 23  13-1079  224,600  271,900  47,200  21  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  66 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment of labor relations staff, including arbitrators and mediators, should grow as companies attempt to resolve potentially costly labor-management disputes out of court. Additional job growth may stem from increasing demand for specialists in international human resources management and human resources information systems. Job growth could be limited by the widespread use of computerized human resources information systems that make workers more productive. Like other workers, employment of human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists, particularly in larger companies, may be adversely affected by corporate downsizing, restructuring, and mergers; however, as companies once again expand operations, additional workers may be needed to manage company growth. Demand may be particularly strong for certain specialists. For example, employers are expected to devote greater resources to job-specific training programs in response to the increasing complexity of many jobs and technological advances that can leave employees with obsolete skills. Additionally, as highly trained and skilled baby boomers retire, there should be strong demand for training and development specialists to impart needed skills to their replacements. In addition, increasing efforts throughout industry to recruit and retain quality employees should create many jobs for employment, recruitment, and placement specialists. Among industries, firms involved in management, consulting, and employment services should offer many job opportunities, as businesses increasingly contract out human resources functions or hire human resources specialists on a temporary basis to deal with increasing costs and complexity of training and development programs. Demand for specialists also should increase in outsourcing firms that develop and administer complex employee benefits and compensation packages for other organizations. Job prospects. College graduates and those who have earned certification should have the best job opportunities, particularly graduates with a bachelor’s degree in human ­resources, human resources administration, or industrial and labor relations. Those with a technical or business background or a well-rounded liberal arts education also should find opportunities. Demand for human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists depends on general economic conditions and the business cycle as well as staffing needs of the companies in which they work. A rapidly expanding business is likely to hire additional human resources workers—­either as permanent employees or consultants—while businesses that have consolidated operations or merged with another company may require fewer of these workers. Also, as human resources management becomes increasingly important to the success of an organization, some small and medium-size businesses that do not have separate human resources departments may assign various human resources responsibilities to some employees in addition to their usual responsibilities; others may contract with consulting firms to establish formal procedures and train current employees to administer programs on a long-term basis. In addition to new human resources management and specialist jobs created over the 2008-2018 projection period, many job openings will arise from the need to replace workers who  transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons.  Earnings Annual salary rates for human resources workers vary according to occupation, level of experience, training, location, and firm size. Median annual wages of compensation and benefits managers were $86,500 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $64,930 and $113,480. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $49,350, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $147,050. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of compensation and benefits managers were: Computer systems design and related services...........$97,630 Insurance carriers..........................................................94,340 Management of companies and enterprises..................94,230 General medical and surgical hospitals.........................86,060 Depository credit intermediation..................................84,980  Median annual wages of training and development managers were $87,700 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $64,770 and $115,570. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $48,280, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $149,050. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of training and development managers were: Management of companies and enterprises................$93,140 Insurance carriers..........................................................92,210 General medical and surgical hospitals.........................86,820 Local government..........................................................70,430 Employment services....................................................69,170  Median annual wages of human resources managers, all other were $96,130 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $73,480 and $126,050. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $56,770, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $163,220. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of human resources managers, all other were: Management of companies and enterprises..............$107,280 General medical and surgical hospitals.........................91,580 Local government..........................................................89,240 Colleges, universities, and professional schools...........86,920 State government...........................................................76,570  Median annual wages of employment, recruitment, and placement specialists were $45,470 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $35,020 and $63,110. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $28,030, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $85,760. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of employment, recruitment, and placement specialists were: Management, scientific, and technical consulting services..................................................$56,110 Computer systems design and related services.............55,600 Management of companies and enterprises..................51,320 Local government..........................................................42,950 Employment services....................................................42,670 State government...........................................................38,970  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 67  Median annual wages of compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists were $53,860 in May 2008. The middle 50  percent earned between $42,050 and $67,730. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $34,080, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $84,310. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists were:  For information about careers and certification in employee compensation and benefits, contact: hhInternational Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans, 18700 W. Bluemound Rd., Brookfield, WI 53045. Internet: http://www.ifebp.org  Management, scientific, and technical consulting services..................................................$59,810 Local government..........................................................56,930 Management of companies and enterprises..................54,930 Agencies, brokerages, and other insurance related activities........................................53,490 Insurance carriers..........................................................51,890 State government...........................................................43,880  The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos021.htm  Median annual wages of training and development specialists were $51,450 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $38,550 and $67,450. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $29,470, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $85,160. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of training and development specialists were:  Significant Points  Computer systems design and related services...........$61,110 General medical and surgical hospitals.........................56,540 Insurance carriers..........................................................55,190 Management of companies and enterprises..................54,800 Local government..........................................................52,080 State government...........................................................48,480  According to a July 2009 salary survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates majoring in human resources, including labor and industrial relations, received starting offers averaging $45,170 a year.  Related Occupations Human resources occupations require strong interpersonal skills. Other occupations that demand these skills include:  Page Counselors................................................................................ 234 Education administrators........................................................... 41 Lawyers.................................................................................... 257 Psychologists............................................................................ 215 Public relations specialists....................................................... 350 Social and human service assistants......................................... 244 Social workers.......................................................................... 246  Sources of Additional Information For information about human resource management careers and certification, contact: hhSociety for Human Resource Management, 1800 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.shrm.org For information about careers in employee training and development and certification, contact: hhAmerican Society for Training and Development, 1640 King St., Box 1443, Alexandria, VA 22313-2043. Internet: http://www.astd.org  hhWorldatWork, 14040 N. Northsight Blvd., Scottsdale, AZ 85260. Internet: http://www.worldatwork.org  Industrial Production Managers  •	 Industrial  production managers coordinate all the people and equipment involved in the manufacturing process.  •	 Most employers prefer to hire workers with a college degree; experience in some part of production operations usually is required as well.  •	 Employment is expected to decline as overall employment in manufacturing declines.  Nature of the Work Industrial production managers plan, direct, and coordinate the production activities required to produce the vast array of goods manufactured every year in the United States. They make sure that production meets output and quality goals while remaining within budget. Depending on the size of the manufacturing plant, industrial production managers may oversee the entire plant or just one area of it. Industrial production managers devise methods to use the plant’s personnel and capital resources to best meet production goals. They may determine which machines will be used, whether new machines need to be purchased, whether overtime or extra shifts are necessary, and what the sequence of production will be. They monitor the production run to make sure that it stays on schedule, and they correct any problems that may arise. Part of an industrial production manager’s job is to come up with ways to make the production process more efficient. Traditional factory methods, such as mass assembly lines, have ­given way to “lean” production techniques, which give managers more flexibility. In a traditional assembly line, each worker was responsible for only a small portion of the assembly, repeating that task on every product. Lean production, by contrast, employs teams to build and assemble products in stations or cells. Thus, rather than specializing in a specific task, workers are capable of performing all jobs within a team. Without the constraints of the traditional assembly line, industrial production managers can more easily change production levels and staffing on different product lines to minimize inventory levels and more quickly react to changing customer demands.  68 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Industrial production managers oversee all stages of the production process. Industrial production managers also monitor product standards and implement quality control programs. They make sure that the finished product meets a certain level of quality, and if it doesn’t, they try to find out what the problem is and solve it. Although traditional quality control programs reacted only to problems that reached a certain significant level, newer management techniques and programs, such as ISO 9000, Total Quality Management (TQM), or Six Sigma, emphasize continuous quality improvement. If the problem relates to the quality of work performed in the plant, the manager may implement better training programs or reorganize the manufacturing process, often on the basis of the suggestions of employee teams. If the cause is substandard materials or parts from outside suppliers, the industrial production manager may work with the supplier to improve their quality. Industrial production managers work closely with other managers of the firm to implement the company’s policies and goals. They also must work with the firm’s financial departments in order to come up with a budget and spending plan. They work the closest with the heads of the sales, procurement, and logistics departments. Sales managers relay the client’s needs and the price the client is willing to pay to the production department, which must then fill the order. The logistics or  distribution department handles the delivery of the goods, often coordinating with the production department. The procurement department orders the supplies that the production department needs to make its products. The procurement department also is responsible for making sure that the inventories of supplies are maintained at proper levels so that production proceeds without interruption. A breakdown in communications between the production manager and the procurement department can cause slowdowns and a failure to meet production schedules. Justin-time production techniques have reduced inventory levels, making constant communication among managers, suppliers, and procurement departments even more important. Work environment. Most industrial production managers divide their time between production areas and their offices. While in the production area, they must follow established health and safety practices and wear the required protective clothing and equipment. The time in the office, which often is located near production areas, usually is spent meeting with subordinates or other department managers, analyzing production data, and writing and reviewing reports. Many industrial production managers work extended hours, especially when production deadlines must be met. In 2008, about a third of all workers worked more than 50 hours a week, on average. In facilities that operate around the clock, managers often work late shifts and may be called at any hour to deal with emergencies. This could mean going to the plant to resolve the problem, regardless of the hour, and staying until the situation is under control. Dealing with production workers as well as superiors when working under the pressure of production deadlines or emergency situations can be stressful. Corporate restructuring has eliminated levels of management and support staff, thus shifting more responsibilities to production managers and compounding the stress.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of manufacturing operations and job requirements, there is no standard preparation for this occupation. Most employers prefer to hire workers with a college degree. Experience in some part of production operations is also usually is required also. Education and training. Many industrial production managers have a college degree in business administration, management, industrial technology, or industrial engineering. However, although employers may prefer candidates with a business or engineering background, some companies will hire wellrounded graduates from other fields who are willing to spend time in a production-related job, because experience in some aspect of production operations is needed before one advances to upper management positions. Some industrial production managers enter the occupation after working their way up through the ranks, starting as production workers and then advancing to supervisory positions before being selected for management. These workers already have an intimate knowledge of the production process and the firm’s organization. To increase one’s chances of promotion, workers can expand their skills by obtaining a college degree, demonstrating leadership qualities, or taking company-­ sponsored courses to learn the additional skills needed in management positions.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 69  As production operations become more sophisticated, an increasing number of employers are looking for candidates with graduate degrees in industrial management or business administration, particularly for positions at larger plants where managers have more oversight responsibilities. Combined with an undergraduate degree in engineering, either of these graduate degrees is considered particularly good preparation. Managers who do not have graduate degrees often take courses in decision sciences, which provide them with techniques and statistical formulas that can be used to maximize efficiency and improve quality. Those who enter the field directly from college or graduate school often are unfamiliar with the firm’s production process. As a result, they may spend their first few months in the company’s training program. These programs familiarize trainees with the production process, company policies, and the requirements of the job. In larger companies, they also may include assignments to other departments, such as purchasing and accounting. A number of companies hire college graduates as first-line supervisors and promote them to management positions later. Other qualifications. Today, companies are placing greater importance on a candidate’s interpersonal skills. Because the job ­requires the ability to compromise, persuade, and negotiate, successful production managers must be well rounded and have excellent communication skills. Strong computer skills also are essential. Industrial production managers must continually keep informed of new production technologies and management practices. Many belong to professional organizations and attend trade shows or industry conferences where new equipment is displayed and new production methods and technologies discussed. Certification and advancement. Some industrial production managers earn certifications that show their competency in various quality and management systems. Although certification is not required for industrial production manager jobs, it may improve job prospects. One credential, Certified in Production and Inventory Management (CPIM), is offered by APICS, the Association for Operations Management, and requires passing a series of exams that cover supply chain management, resource planning, scheduling, production operations, and strategic planning. Those certified must complete a set number of professional development activities every 3 years to maintain their certification. The American Society for Quality offers the Certified Manager of Quality/Organizational Excellence (CMQ/OE) credential. This certification is open to managers who pass an exam and who have at least 10 years of experience or education, 5 of which must be in a decisionmaking position. It is intended for managers who lead process improvement initiatives. To main-  tain certification, workers must complete a set number of professional development units every 3 years. Industrial production managers with a proven record of superior performance may advance to plant manager or vice president of manufacturing. Others transfer to jobs with more responsibilities at larger firms. Opportunities also exist for managers to become consultants. (For more information, see the statement on management analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Employment Industrial production managers held about 156,100 jobs in 2008. About 80 percent are employed in manufacturing industries, including fabricated metal product, transportation equipment, and computer and electronic product manufacturing. Production managers work in all parts of the country, but jobs are most plentiful in areas where manufacturing is concentrated.  Job Outlook Employment is expected to decline moderately. Applicants with experience in production occupations, along with a college degree in industrial engineering, management, or a related field, will enjoy the best job prospects. Employment change. Employment of industrial production managers is expected to decline moderately by 8 percent over the 2008–18 decade. Overall manufacturing employment is expected to decline as the production process becomes more automated. However, because industrial production managers coordinate the use of both workers and machines in the production process, they will not be as affected as other occupations by automation. Nevertheless, the employment decline will result from improved productivity and increased imports of manufactured goods. Efforts to increase efficiency at the management level have led companies to ask production managers to assume more responsibilities, particularly as computers and production management software allow managers to coordinate scheduling, planning, and communication more easily among departments. In addition, more emphasis on quality in the production process has redistributed some of the production manager’s oversight responsibilities to supervisors and workers on the production line. However, most of the decisionmaking work of production managers cannot be automated, a factor that will limit the decline in their employment. Job prospects. Despite the projected employment decline, a number of jobs are expected to open because of the need to replace workers who retire or transfer to other occupations. Applicants with experience in production occupations, along with a college degree in industrial engineering, management, or business administration (particularly those with an undergraduate engineering degree and a master’s degree in business  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Industrial production managers..........................................................  SOC Code 11-3051  Employment, 2008 156,100  Projected Employment, 2018 144,100  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent -11,900 -8  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  70 Occupational Outlook Handbook  administration or industrial management), will enjoy the best job prospects. Employers also are likely to seek candidates who have excellent communication skills and related work experience and who are personable, flexible, and eager to enhance their knowledge and skills through ongoing training.  Earnings Median annual wages for industrial production managers were $83,290 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $64,390 and $108,710. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $50,330, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $140,530. Median annual wages in the manufacturing industries employing the largest numbers of industrial production managers were as follows: Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing...................$97,860 Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing...............96,620 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing...............................83,720 Printing and related support activities...........................80,080 Plastics product manufacturing.....................................78,090  Related Occupations Industrial production managers oversee production staff and equipment, ensure that production goals and quality standards are met, and implement company policies. Other managerial occupations with similar responsibilities include the following:  Page Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers...................................... 32 Construction managers............................................................... 38 Top executives............................................................................ 83  Occupations requiring comparable training and problemsolving skills include the following: Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Management analysts............................................................... 111 Operations research analysts.................................................... 145  Sources of Additional Information General information on careers in industrial production management is available from local manufacturers and schools with programs in industrial management. For more information on careers in production management and information on the CPIM certification, contact: hhAPICS, the Association for Operations Management, 8430 West Bryn Mawr Ave., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60631. Internet: http://www.apics.org For more information on quality management and the CMQ/ OE certification, contact: hhAmerican Society for Quality, 600 North Plankinton Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53203. Internet: http://www.asq.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos016.htm  Lodging Managers Significant Points  •	 Long hours, including night and weekend work, are common.  •	 Employment is projected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations.  •	 College graduates with degrees in hotel or hospitality management should have better opportunities for jobs at full-service hotels and for advancement than those without a degree.  Nature of the Work A comfortable room, good food, and a helpful staff can make being away from home an enjoyable experience for both vacationing families and business travelers. Lodging managers make sure that these conveniences are provided, while also ensuring that the establishments are run efficiently and profitably. Most lodging managers work in traditional hotels and motels, but some work in other lodging establishments, such as recreational camps and RV parks, inns, boardinghouses, and youth hostels. Lodging establishments can vary significantly in size and in the number of services they provide, which can range from supplying a simple in-room television and a continental breakfast to operating a casino and accommodating conventions. These factors affect the number and type of lodging managers employed at each property. The one person who oversees all lodging operations at a property is usually called a general manager. At larger hotels with several departments and multiple layers of management, the general manager and multiple assistant managers coordinate the activities of separate departments. (See related sections elsewhere in the Handbook on supervisors and managers of housekeeping and janitorial workers; human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists; financial managers; advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers; and food service managers.) In smaller limited-service hotels—mainly those without food and beverage service—one lodging manager may direct all the activities of the property. Lodging managers have overall responsibility for the operation and profitability of the hotel. Depending on the hotel and the size of its staff, lodging managers may either perform or direct housekeeping, personnel, office administration, marketing and sales, purchasing, security, maintenance, oversight of recreation facilities, and other activities. They may hire and train staff, set schedules, and lend a hand when needed. Within guidelines established by the owners of the hotel or executives of the hotel chain, lodging managers set room rates, allocate funds to departments, approve expenditures, and ensure that standards for guest service, decor, housekeeping, food quality, and banquet operations are met. Increasingly, lodging managers also are responsible for ensuring that the information technology common in today’s hotels is operational. Some lodging managers, often called revenue managers, work in financial management, monitoring room sales and reservations,  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 71  overseeing accounting and cash-flow matters at the hotel, projecting occupancy levels, and deciding which rooms to discount and when to offer rate specials. Front office managers, a category of lodging manager, coordinate reservations and room assignments and train and direct the hotel’s front desk staff. They ensure that guests are treated courteously, complaints and problems are resolved, and requests for special services are carried out. At some hotels, they may greet the guests personally and provide them individual attention to see their needs are met. Any adjustments to bills often are referred to front office managers for resolution. Convention services managers coordinate the activities of various departments to accommodate meetings, conventions, and special events. They meet with representatives of groups or organizations to plan the number of conference rooms to reserve, the configuration of the meeting space, and determine what other services the group will need, such as catering or banquets and audio, visual, or other electronic requirements. During the meeting or event, they resolve unexpected problems and monitor activities to ensure that hotel operations conform to the group’s expectations. Lodging managers may work with hotel sales and marketing directors and public relations directors to manage and coordinate the advertising and promotion of the hotel. They help develop lodging and dining specials and coordinate special events, such as holiday or seasonal specials. They may direct their staff to purchase advertising and to market their property to organizations or groups seeking a venue for conferences, conventions, business meetings, trade shows, and special events. Lodging managers who oversee the personnel functions of a hotel or serve as human resource directors ensure that all accounting, payroll, and employee relations matters are handled in compliance with hotel policy and applicable laws. They also oversee hiring practices and standards and ensure that training and promotion programs reflect appropriate employee development guidelines. Computers are used extensively by lodging managers and their assistants to keep track of guests’ bills, reservations, room assignments, meetings, and special events. In addition, computers are used to order food, beverages, and supplies, as well as to prepare reports for hotel owners and top-level managers. Many  Lodging managers may oversee individual departments, such as housekeeping.  hotels also provide extensive information technology services for their guests. Managers work with computer specialists and other information technology specialists to ensure that the hotel’s computer systems, Internet, and communications networks function properly. Work environment. Because hotels are open around the clock, night and weekend work is common. Many lodging managers work more than 40 hours per week and are often oncall, which means they may be called back to work at any time. In some hotels and resort properties where work is seasonal, managers may have other duties less related to guest services during the off season or they may find work in other hotels or occupations. The pressures of coordinating a wide range of activities, turning a profit for investors, and dealing with guests who sometimes are angry can be stressful. Managing conferences and working at the front desk during check-in and check-out times can be particularly hectic.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Management trainees for larger upscale hotel chains almost always need a bachelor’s or master’s degree, preferably in hospitality or hotel management. If not coming from such a college background, experience working at a hotel is generally required to get a position as a lodging manager. Education and training. Most large, full-service hotel chains usually hire people who have a bachelor’s degree in business, hotel, or hospitality management for management trainee positions; however, a liberal arts degree coupled with experience in the hospitality field may be sufficient. At other hotels, especially those with fewer services, employers look for applicants with an associate degree or certificate in hotel, restaurant, or hospitality management along with experience. Formal internships or part-time or summer work in a hotel are an asset. Most degree programs include work-study opportunities. Community colleges, junior colleges, and many universities offer certificate or degree programs in hotel, restaurant, or hospitality management leading to an associate, bachelor, or graduate degree. Technical institutes, vocational and trade schools, and other academic institutions also offer courses leading to formal recognition in hospitality management. More than 500 educational facilities across the United States provide academic training for prospective lodging managers. About 100 hospitality management programs are accredited by the Accreditation Commission for Programs in Hospitality Administration. Hotel management programs include instruction in hotel administration, accounting, economics, marketing, housekeeping, food service management and catering, and hotel maintenance and engineering. Computer training also is an integral part of hotel management training due to the widespread use of computers and hospitality-specific software in reservations, billing, and housekeeping management. Lodging managers also need to know how to generate and read profit-and-loss reports and other business and economic data. More than 450 high schools in 45 States offer the Lodging Management Program created by the Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association. This 2-year program offered to high school juniors and seniors teaches management principles and leads to a professional certification called  72 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Lodging managers..............................................................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  11-9081  59,800  Projected Employment, 2018 62,600  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 2,800 5  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  the “Certified Rooms Division Specialist.” Many colleges and universities grant participants in this program credit towards a postsecondary degree in hotel management. Hotel employees who do not have hospitality training or a college degree but who do demonstrate leadership potential and possess sufficient experience may be invited to participate in a management training program sponsored by the hotel or a hotel chain’s corporate parent. Those who already possess the people skills and service orientation needed to succeed in hotel management can usually train for technical expertise in areas such as computer use and accounting principles while on the job. Trainees usually begin as assistant managers and may rotate assignments among the hotel’s departments to gain a wide range of experiences. Relocation to another property may be required to help round out the experience and to help a trainee grow into a more responsible management position in a larger or busier hotel. Other qualifications. Lodging managers must be able to get along with many different types of people, even in stressful situations. They must be able to solve problems quickly and concentrate on details. Initiative, self-discipline, effective communication skills, and the ability to organize and direct the work of others are essential for lodging managers. Managers must have a good knowledge of hotel operations, including safety and security measures, repair and maintenance, and personnel practices. Knowledge of hotel financing is essential to operate a hotel profitably. Certification and advancement. Large hotel chains may offer better opportunities for advancement than small, independently owned establishments, but relocation every several years often is necessary for advancement. Large chains have more extensive career ladder programs and offer managers the opportunity to transfer to another hotel in the chain or to a regional or central office. Career advancement can be accelerated by the completion of certification programs offered by various hotel and lodging associations. Certification usually requires a combination of course work, examinations, and experience.  Employment Most lodging managers work in the traveler accommodation industry, including hotels and motels, although they can work for any business that provides room or shelter for people. Companies that manage hotels under contract also employ lodging managers. Lodging managers held about 59,800 jobs in 2008. Most lodging managers—almost half—worked in hotels and motels; almost as many lodging managers were self-employed, primarily as owners of small hotels and bed-and-breakfast inns.  Job Outlook Slower than average growth in employment will result as the lodging industry shifts to building more limited service hotels  and fewer full-service properties that have more departments to manage. Those seeking jobs at hotels with the highest level of guest services will face keen competition as these jobs are highly sought after by people trained in hospitality. Employment change. Employment of lodging managers is expected to grow 5 percent from 2008 to 2018, which is slower than the average for all occupations. Over the decade, travel and tourism is expected to grow, however, more new hotels will be smaller limited-service hotels that will not have large staffs or need many managers. In addition, in order to cut expenses, some lodging places are streamlining operations and either eliminating some managers or requiring fewer to be available at all times. Chain hotels are increasingly assigning a single manager to oversee multiple properties within a region. Despite these cutbacks in management, larger full-service hotels, including resort, casino, and convention hotels that provide a wider range of services to a much larger customer base will continue to generate job openings for experienced managers and management trainees. Job prospects. Job openings are expected to occur as experienced managers leave the labor force or transfer to other occupations, in part because of the long hours and stressful working conditions. Job opportunities are expected to be best for people with good customer service skills and experience in the food service or hospitality industries. People with a college degree in hotel or hospitality management are expected to have better opportunities, particularly at upscale and luxury hotels.  Earnings Median annual wages of lodging managers were $45,800 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,970 and $62,880. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $28,160 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $84,270. Median annual wages for lodging managers in traveler accommodations were $45,380. Salaries of lodging managers vary greatly according to their responsibilities, location, and the segment of the hotel industry in which they work. Managers may earn bonuses of up to 25 percent of their basic salary in some hotels and also may be furnished with meals, parking, laundry, and other services. In addition to providing typical benefits, some hotels offer profitsharing plans and educational assistance to their employees.  Related Occupations Other workers who supervise or manage a business focused on customer service include:  Page Food service managers............................................................... 55 Gaming services occupations................................................... 520 Sales worker supervisors.......................................................... 551 Property, real estate, and community association managers.............................................................. 76  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 73  Sources of Additional Information For information on the hotel and lodging industry, contact: hhAmerican Hotel and Lodging Association, 1201 New York Ave. NW., Suite 600, Washington, DC 20005. Internet: http://www.ahla.com Information on careers in the lodging industry and professional development and training programs may be obtained from: hhEducational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association, 800 N. Magnolia Ave., Suite 300, Orlando, FL 32803. Internet: http://www.ei-ahla.org For information on educational programs in hotel and restaurant management, including correspondence courses, write to: hhInternational Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 2810 North Parham Rd., Suite 230, Richmond, VA 23294. Internet: http://www.chrie.org Information on accreditation standards and a list of accredited educational programs in hospitality administration may be obtained from: hhAccreditation Commission for Programs in Hospitality Administration, PO Box 400, Oxford, MD 21654. Internet: http://www.acpha-cahm.org/ The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos015.htm  Medical and Health Services Managers Significant Points  •	 Job opportunities will be good, especially for applicants with work experience in healthcare and strong business and management skills.  •	 A master’s degree is the standard credential, although  a bachelor’s degree is adequate for some entry-level positions.  •	 Medical and health services managers typically work long hours and may be called at all hours to deal with problems.  Nature of the Work Healthcare is a business and, like every business, it needs good management to keep the business running smoothly. Medical and health services managers, also referred to as healthcare executives or healthcare administrators, plan, direct, coordinate, and supervise the delivery of healthcare. These workers are either specialists in charge of a specific clinical department or generalists who manage an entire facility or system. The structure and financing of healthcare are changing rapidly. Future medical and health services managers must be prepared to deal with the integration of healthcare delivery systems, technological innovations, an increasingly complex regulatory  environment, restructuring of work, and an increased focus on preventive care. They will be called on to improve efficiency in healthcare facilities and the quality of the care provided. Large facilities usually have several assistant administrators who aid the top administrator and handle daily decisions. Assistant administrators direct activities in clinical areas, such as nursing, surgery, therapy, medical records, and health information. In smaller facilities, top administrators handle more of the details of daily operations. For example, many nursing home administrators manage personnel, finances, facility operations, and admissions, while also providing resident care. Clinical managers have training or experience in a specific clinical area and, accordingly, have more specific responsibilities than do generalists. For example, directors of physical therapy are experienced physical therapists, and most health information and medical record administrators have a bachelor’s degree in health information or medical record administration. Clinical managers establish and implement policies, objectives, and procedures for their departments; evaluate personnel and work quality; develop reports and budgets; and coordinate activities with other managers. Health information managers are responsible for the maintenance and security of all patient records. Recent regulations enacted by the Federal Government require that all healthcare providers maintain electronic patient records and that these records be secure. As a result, health information managers must keep up with current computer and software technology, as well as with legislative requirements. In addition, as patient data become more frequently used for quality management and in medical research, health information managers must ensure that databases are complete, accurate, and available only to authorized personnel. In group medical practices, managers work closely with physicians. Whereas an office manager might handle business affairs in small medical groups, leaving policy decisions to the physicians themselves, larger groups usually employ a full-time administrator to help formulate business strategies and coordinate day-to-day business. A small group of 10 to 15 physicians might employ 1 administrator to oversee personnel matters, billing and collection, budgeting, planning, equipment outlays, and patient flow. A large practice of 40 to 50 physicians might have a chief ­administrator and several assistants, each responsible for a different area of expertise. Medical and health services managers in managed care settings perform functions similar to those of their counterparts in large group practices, except that they could have larger staffs to manage. In addition, they might do more community outreach and preventive care than do managers of a group practice. Some medical and health services managers oversee the activities of a number of facilities in health systems. Such systems might contain both inpatient and outpatient facilities and offer a wide range of patient services. Work environment. Some managers work in comfortable, private offices; others share space with other staff. Many medical and health services managers work long hours. Nursing care facilities and hospitals operate around the clock; administrators  74 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Large healthcare facilities usually have several assistant administrators who aid the top administrator and handle daily decisions. and managers may be called at all hours to deal with problems. They also travel to attend meetings or to inspect satellite facilities.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A master’s degree in one of a number of fields is the standard credential for most generalist positions as a medical or healthcare manager. A bachelor’s degree is sometimes adequate for entry-level positions in smaller facilities and departments. In physicians’ offices and some other facilities, on-the-job experience may substitute for formal education. Education and training. Medical and health services managers must be familiar with management principles and practices. A master’s degree in health services administration, long-term care administration, health sciences, public health, public administration, or business administration is the standard credential for most generalist positions in this field. However, a bachelor’s degree is adequate for some entry-level positions in smaller facilities, at the departmental level within healthcare organizations, and in health information management. Physicians’ offices and some other facilities hire those with on-thejob experience instead of formal education. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree programs in health administration are offered by colleges; universities; and schools of public health, medicine, allied health, public administration, and business administration. In 2008, according to the Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education, there were 72 schools that had accredited programs leading to the master’s degree in health services administration. For people seeking to become heads of clinical departments, a degree in the appropriate field and work experience may be sufficient early in their career. However, a master’s degree in health services administration or a related field might be required to advance. For example, nursing service administrators usually are chosen from among supervisory registered nurses with administrative abilities and graduate degrees in nursing or health services administration. Health information managers require a bachelor’s degree from an accredited program. In 2008, there were 48 accredited bachelor’s degree programs and 5 master’s degree programs in health information management, according to the Commission  on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education. Some graduate programs seek students with undergraduate degrees in business or health administration; however, many graduate programs prefer students with a liberal arts or health profession background. Candidates with previous work experience in healthcare also may have an advantage. Competition for entry into these programs is keen, and applicants need aboveaverage grades to gain admission. Graduate programs usually last between 2 and 3 years. They may include up to 1 year of supervised administrative experience and coursework in areas such as hospital organization and management, marketing, accounting and budgeting, human resources administration, strategic planning, law and ethics, biostatistics or epidemiology, health economics, and health information systems. Some programs allow students to specialize in one type of facility—­ hospitals, nursing care facilities, mental health facilities, or medical groups. Other programs encourage a generalist approach to health administration education. Licensure. All States and the District of Columbia require nursing care facility administrators to have a bachelor’s degree, pass a licensing examination, complete a State-approved training program, and pursue continuing education. Some States also require licenses for administrators in assisted-living facilities. A license is not required in other areas of medical and health services management. Certification and other qualifications. Medical and health services managers often are responsible for facilities and equipment worth millions of dollars, and for hundreds of employees. To make effective decisions, they need to be open to different opinions and good at analyzing contradictory information. They must understand finance and information systems and be able to interpret data. Motivating others to implement their decisions requires strong leadership abilities. Tact, diplomacy, flexibility, and communication skills are essential because medical and health services managers spend most of their time interacting with others. Health information managers who have a bachelor’s degree or post baccalaureate degree from an approved program and who pass an exam can earn certification as a Registered Health Information Administrator from the American Health Information Management Association. Advancement. Medical and health services managers advance by moving into more responsible and higher paying positions, such as assistant or associate administrator, department head, or chief executive officer, or by moving to larger facilities. Some experienced managers also may become consultants or professors of health care management. New graduates with master’s degrees in health services administration may start as department managers or as supervisory staff. The level of the starting position varies with the experience of the applicant and the size of the organization. Hospitals and other health facilities offer postgraduate residencies and fellowships, which usually are staff positions. Graduates from master’s degree programs also take jobs in large medical group practices, clinics, mental health facilities, nursing care corporations, and consulting firms.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 75  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Medical and health services managers...............................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  11-9111  283,500  Projected Employment, 2018 328,800  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 45,400 16  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Graduates with bachelor’s degrees in health administration usually begin as administrative assistants or assistant department heads in larger hospitals. They also may begin as department heads or assistant administrators in small hospitals or nursing care facilities.  Employment Medical and health services managers held about 283,500 jobs in 2008. About 38 percent worked in hospitals, and another 19 percent worked in offices of physicians or in nursing and residential care facilities. Many of the remainder worked in home healthcare services, Federal Government health care facilities, outpatient care centers, insurance carriers, and community care facilities for the elderly.  Job Outlook Employment is projected to grow faster than the average. Job opportunities should be good, especially for applicants with work experience in healthcare and strong business management skills. Employment change. Employment of medical and health services managers is expected to grow 16 percent from 2008 to 2018, faster than the average for all occupations. The healthcare industry will continue to expand and diversify, requiring managers to help ensure smooth business operations. Managers in all settings will be needed to improve quality and efficiency of healthcare, while controlling costs, as insurance companies and Medicare demand higher levels of ­accountability. Managers also will be needed to oversee the computerization of patient records and to ensure their security as required by law. Additional demand for managers will stem from the need to recruit workers and increase employee retention, to comply with changing regulations, to implement new technology, and to help improve the health of their communities by emphasizing preventive care. Hospitals will continue to employ the most medical and health services managers over the 2008–18 decade. However, the number of new jobs created is expected to increase at a slower rate in hospitals than in many other industries because of the growing use of clinics and other outpatient care sites. Despite relatively slow employment growth in hospitals, a large number of new jobs will be created because of the industry’s large size. Employment will grow fast in offices of health practitioners. Many services previously provided in hospitals will ­continue to shift to these settings, especially as medical technologies improve. Demand in medical group practice management will grow as medical group practices become larger and more complex. Medical and health services managers also will be employed by healthcare management companies that provide manage-  ment services to hospitals and other organizations and to specific departments such as emergency, information management systems, managed care contract negotiations, and physician recruiting. Job prospects. Job opportunities will be good, especially for applicants with work experience in healthcare and strong business management skills. Medical and health services managers with experience in large hospital facilities will enjoy an advantage in the job market, as hospitals become larger and more complex. Competition for jobs at the highest management levels will be keen because of the high pay and prestige.  Earnings Median annual wages of wage and salary medical and health services managers were $80,240 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $62,170 and $104,120. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $48,300, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $137,800. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of medical and health services managers in May 2008 were: General medical and surgical hospitals.......................$87,040 Outpatient care centers..................................................74,130 Offices of physicians.....................................................74,060 Home health care services.............................................71,450 Nursing care facilities...................................................71,190  Earnings of medical and health services managers vary by type and size of the facility and by level of responsibility. For example, the Medical Group Management Association reported that, in 2007, median salaries for administrators were $82,423 in practices with 6 or fewer physicians; $105,710 in practices with 7 to 25 physicians; and $119,000 in practices with 26 or more physicians. According to a survey by the Professional Association of Health Care Office Management, 2009 average total ­compensation for office managers in specialty physicians’ practices was $54,314 in gastroenterology; $54,201 in dermatology; $58,899 in cardiology; $48,793 in ophthalmology; $44,910 in obstetrics and gynecology; $51,263 in orthopedics; $51,466 in pediatrics; $48,814 in internal medicine; and $47,152 in family practice.  Related Occupations Medical and health services managers have training or experience in both health and management. Other occupations requiring knowledge of both fields include:  Page Insurance underwriters............................................................. 106 Social and community service managers................................. 824  76 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Sources of Additional Information  Nature of the Work  Information about undergraduate and graduate academic programs in this field is available from: hhAssociation of University Programs in Health Administration, 2000 North 14th St., Suite 780, Arlington, VA 22201. Internet: http://www.aupha.org  To homeowners, a well-managed property looks nice, operates smoothly, and preserves the resale value of the property. To businesses and investors, properly managed real estate may result in greater income and profits. Property, real estate, and community association managers maintain and raise the value of real estate investments by handling the logistics of running a property. Property and real estate managers oversee the operation of income-producing commercial or residential properties and ensure that real estate investments achieve their expected revenues. Community association managers manage the communal property and services of condominiums, cooperatives, and planned communities through their homeowner or community associations. When owners of residential homes, apartments, office buildings, or retail or industrial properties lack the time or expertise needed for the day-to-day management of their real estate investments or homeowner associations, they often hire a property or real estate manager or a community association manager. Managers are employed either directly by the owner or indirectly through a contract with a property management firm. Generally, property and real estate managers handle the financial operations of the property, making certain that rent is collected and that mortgages, taxes, insurance premiums, payroll, and maintenance bills are paid on time. Some oversee the preparation of financial statements and periodically report to the owners on the status of the property, occupancy rates, expiration dates of leases, and other matters. When vacancies occur, property managers may advertise the property or hire a leasing agent to find a tenant. They also may suggest to the owners what rent to charge. In community associations, homeowners pay no rent and pay their own real estate taxes and mortgages, but community association managers collect association fees that help pay for a variety of services such as playground, clubhouse, and swimming pool maintenance. Often, property managers negotiate contracts for janitorial, security, landscaping, trash removal, and other services. They monitor the performance of contractors and investigate and resolve complaints from residents and tenants when services are not properly provided. Managers also purchase supplies and equipment for the property and make arrangements with professionals for repairs that cannot be handled by regular property maintenance staff. In addition to fulfilling these duties, property managers must understand and comply with pertinent legislation, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Federal Fair Housing Amendment Act, and local fair housing laws. They must make certain that their renting and advertising practices are not discriminatory and that the property itself acts in accordance with all of the local, State, and Federal regulatory and building codes. Onsite property managers are responsible for the day-to-day operations of a single property, such as an apartment complex, an office building, a shopping center, or a community association. To ensure that the property is safe and properly maintained, onsite managers routinely inspect the grounds, facilities, and equipment to determine whether repairs or maintenance is needed. In handling requests for repairs or trying to resolve  For a list of accredited graduate programs in medical and health services administration, contact: hhCommission on Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education, 2111 Wilson Blvd., Suite 700, Arlington, VA 22201. Internet: http://www.cahme.org For information about career opportunities in healthcare management, contact: hhAmerican College of Healthcare Executives, One N. Franklin St., Suite 1700, Chicago, IL 60606. Internet: http://www.healthmanagementcareers.org For information about career opportunities in long-term care administration, contact: hhAmerican College of Healthcare Administrators, 1321 Duke St., Suite 400, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.achca.org For information about career opportunities in medical group practices and ambulatory care management, contact: hhMedical Group Management Association, 104 Inverness Terrace East, Englewood, CO 80112. Internet: http://www.mgma.org For information about medical and healthcare office managers, contact: hhProfessional Association of Health Care Office Management, 3755 Avocado Blvd., Suite 306, La Mesa, CA 91941. Internet: http://www.pahcom.com For information about career opportunities in health information management, contact: hhAmerican Health Information Management Association, 233 N. Michigan Ave., 21st Floor, Chicago, IL 60601. Internet: http://www.ahima.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos014.htm  Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers Significant Points  •	 Opportunities should be best for those with college degrees in business administration, real estate, or related fields and for those with professional designations.  •	 Particularly good opportunities are expected for those with experience managing housing for older people or with experience running a healthcare facility.  •	 About 46 percent of property, real estate, and community association managers are self-employed.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 77  When vacancies occur, property, real estate, and community association managers may advertise the property or hire a leasing agent to find a tenant. complaints, they meet not only with current residents, but also with prospective residents or tenants to show vacant apartments or office space. Onsite managers also are responsible for enforcing the terms of rental or lease contracts, such as rent collection, parking and pet restrictions, and termination-of-lease procedures. Other important duties of onsite managers include keeping accurate, up-to-date records of income and expenditures from property operations and submitting regular expense reports to the senior-level property manager or the owner(s). Some property and real estate managers, often called real estate asset managers, plan and direct the purchase, sale, and development of real estate properties on behalf of businesses and investors. These managers focus on long-term strategic financial planning, rather than on day-to-day operations of the property. In deciding to acquire property, real estate asset managers consider several factors, such as property values, taxes, zoning, population growth, transportation, and traffic volume and patterns. Once a site is selected, they negotiate contracts for the purchase or lease of the property, securing the most favorable terms. Real estate asset managers review their company’s real estate holdings periodically and identify properties that are no longer financially profitable. They then negotiate the sale of, or terminate the lease on, such properties. Community association managers, by contrast, do work that more closely compares to that of onsite property managers. They collect monthly assessments, prepare financial statements and budgets, negotiate with contractors, and help to resolve complaints. Usually hired by a volunteer board of directors of  the association, they manage the daily affairs, and supervise the maintenance, of property and facilities that the homeowners own and use jointly through the association. Community association managers also assist the board and owners in complying with association and government rules and regulations. Some associations cover thousands of homes and employ their own onsite staff and managers. In addition to administering an association’s financial records and budget, managers may be responsible for the operation of community pools, golf courses, and community centers and for the maintenance of landscaping and parking areas. Community association managers regularly meet with the elected boards of directors to discuss and resolve legal issues or disputes that may have an effect on the owners, as well as to review any proposed changes or improvements by homeowners to their properties, to make sure that they comply with community guidelines. They may also meet to address association finances or discuss long-term planning. Work environment. Nearly all property, real estate, and community association managers work out of an office. However, many managers spend a significant portion of their time away from their desks. Onsite managers, in particular, may spend a large part of their workday away from their offices, visiting the building engineer, showing apartments, checking on the janitorial and maintenance staff, or investigating problems reported by residents. Real estate asset managers may spend time away from home while traveling to company real estate holdings or searching for properties to purchase. Property, real estate, and community association managers often must attend evening meetings with residents, property owners, community association boards of directors, or civic groups. Not surprisingly, many managers put in long workdays, especially before financial and tax reports are due and before board and annual meetings. Some apartment managers are required to live in the apartment complexes where they work, so that they are available to handle emergencies, even when they are off duty. They usually receive compensatory time off for working nights or weekends. Many apartment managers receive time off during the week so that they may be available on weekends to show apartments to prospective residents.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement For the most part, onsite property managers who primarily oversee the rental and maintenance of properties learn on the job or have experience in the real estate or maintenance field. Managers of commercial properties and those dealing with a property’s finances and contract management increasingly are needing a bachelor’s or master’s degree in business administration, accounting, finance, or real estate management, especially if they do not have much practical experience. Education and training. Most employers prefer to hire college graduates for property management positions, particularly for offsite positions dealing with a property’s finances and contract management and for most commercial properties. A bachelor’s or master’s degree in business administration, accounting, finance, real estate, or public administration is preferred for these positions. Those with degrees in the liberal arts also may qualify, especially if they have relevant coursework. In addition, most new managers participate in on-the-job training.  78 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Many people entering jobs such as assistant property manager have onsite management experience. Licensure. Real estate managers who buy or sell property are required to be licensed by the State in which they practice. In a few States, property association managers must be licensed. Managers of public housing subsidized by the Federal Government are required to be certified. Other qualifications. Previous employment as a real estate sales agent may be an asset to onsite managers, because it provides experience that is useful in showing apartments or office space. In the past, those with backgrounds in building maintenance have advanced to onsite management positions on the depth of their knowledge of mechanical systems in buildings, but this path is becoming less common as employers place greater emphasis on administrative, financial, and communication abilities for managerial jobs. People most commonly enter real estate asset manager jobs by transferring from positions as property managers or real estate brokers. Real estate asset managers must be good negotiators, adept at persuading and working with people, and good at analyzing data in order to assess the fair-market value of property or its development potential. Resourcefulness and creativity in arranging financing are essential for managers who specialize in land development. Good speaking, writing, computer, and financial skills, as well as an ability to deal tactfully with people, are essential in all areas of property management. Certification and advancement. Many people begin property management careers as assistants, working closely with a property manager and learning how to prepare budgets, analyze insurance coverage and risk options, market property to prospective tenants, and collect overdue rent payments. In time, many assistants advance to property manager positions. Some people start as onsite managers of apartment buildings, office complexes, or community associations. As they gain experience, often working under the supervision of a more experienced property manager, they may advance to positions of greater responsibility. Those who excel as onsite managers often transfer to assistant offsite property manager positions, in which they can gain experience handling a broad range of property management responsibilities. The responsibilities and compensation of property, real estate, and community association managers increase as these workers manage more and larger properties. Property managers are responsible for several properties at a time. As their careers advance, they gradually are entrusted with larger properties that are more complex to manage. Many specialize in the management of one type of property, such as apartments, office buildings, condominiums, cooperatives, homeowners’ associations, or retail properties. Managers who do well at marketing prop-  erties to tenants might specialize in managing new properties, while those who are specifically knowledgeable about buildings and their mechanical systems might specialize in the management of older properties requiring renovation or more frequent repairs. Some experienced managers open their own property management firms. Many employers encourage managers to attend short-term formal training programs conducted by various professional and trade associations that are active in the real estate field. Employers send managers to these programs to develop their management skills and expand their knowledge of specialized fields, such as the operation and maintenance of mechanical systems in buildings, the improvement of property values, insurance and risk management, personnel management, business and real estate law, community association risks and liabilities, tenant relations, communications, accounting and financial concepts, and reserve funding. Managers also participate in these programs to prepare themselves for positions of greater responsibility in property management. The completion of such programs, plus related job experience and a satisfactory score on a written examination, can lead to certification, or the formal award of a professional designation, by the sponsoring association. (Some organizations offering certifications are listed as sources of additional information at the end of this statement.) A number of associations also require their members to adhere to a specific code of ethics.  Employment Property, real estate, and community association managers held about 304,100 jobs in 2008. About 46 percent of these managers are self-employed. Another 21 percent worked for lessors of real estate and in offices of real estate agents and brokers. Others worked for government agencies that manage public buildings.  Job Outlook As fast as average employment growth is expected. Opportunities should be best for jobseekers with a college degree in business administration, real estate, or a related field and for those who attain a professional designation. Particularly good opportunities are expected for those with experience managing housing for older people or with experience running health care facilities. Employment change. Employment of property, real estate, and community association managers is projected to increase by 8 percent during the 2008–18 decade, about as fast as average for all occupations. Job growth will be attributable to a growing population that will increasingly live in developments managed by third-party property management companies. These developments include apartment buildings, condomini-  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Property, real estate, and community association managers..............  SOC Code 11-9141  Employment, 2008 304,100  Projected Employment, 2018 329,700  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 25,600 8  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 79  ums, homeowner associations, and the fast-growing amount of senior housing. Developments of new homes are increasingly being organized with community or homeowner associations that provide community services and oversee jointly owned common areas requiring professional management. There is also increasing awareness that property management firms help make properties more profitable and improve the resale value of homes and commercial property. To cater to the increasing population, a small rise in the number of commercial and retail buildings that will need to be managed also will generate jobs for property managers. Job prospects. In addition to openings from job growth, a number of openings are expected as managers transfer to ­other occupations or leave the labor force. Opportunities should be best for jobseekers with a college degree in business administration, real estate, or a related field and for those who attain a professional designation. Because of the projected increase in the elderly population, particularly good opportunities are expected for those with experience managing housing for older people and with experience managing healthcare facilities.  and certification programs in both residential and commercial property management, contact: hhInstitute of Real Estate Management, 430 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611. Internet: http://www.irem.org  Earnings  The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos022.htm  Median annual wages of salaried property, real estate, and community association managers were $46,130 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $31,730 and $68,770 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $21,860, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $102,250 a year. Median annual wages of salaried property, real estate, and community association managers in the largest industries that employed them in May 2008 were as follows: Management of companies and enterprises................$74,010 Local government..........................................................59,480 Offices of real estate agents and brokers.......................44,160 Activities related to real estate......................................43,430 Lessors of real estate.....................................................40,180  Many resident apartment managers and onsite association managers receive the use of an apartment as part of their compensation package. In addition, managers often are reimbursed for the use of their personal vehicles.  Related Occupations Property, real estate, and community association managers plan, organize, staff, and manage the real estate operations of businesses. Workers who perform similar functions in other fields include the following:  Page Administrative services managers.............................................. 29 Education administrators........................................................... 41 Food service managers............................................................... 55 Lodging managers...................................................................... 70 Medical and health services managers....................................... 73 Real estate brokers and sales agents........................................ 540 Urban and regional planners.................................................... 220  Sources of Additional Information For information about education and careers in property management, as well as information about professional designation  For information on careers and certification programs in commercial property management, asset management, facility management, and building systems maintenance, contact: hhBuilding Owners and Managers Institute, One Park Place, Suite 475, Annapolis, MD 21401. Internet: http://www.bomi.org For information on careers and professional designation and certification programs in residential property management and community association management, contact: hhCommunity Associations Institute, 225 Reinekers Ln., Suite 300, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.caionline.org  hhNational Board of Certification for Community Association Managers, 225 Reinekers Ln., Suite 310, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.nbccam.org  Purchasing Managers, Buyers, and Purchasing Agents Significant Points  •	 About 42 percent of purchasing managers, buyers,  and purchasing agents are employed in wholesale trade or manufacturing establishments.  •	 Employment is projected to grow 7 percent, which is as fast as the average.  •	 Opportunities should be best for those with a college  degree in engineering, business, economics, or one of the applied sciences.  •	 Prospects often need continuing education or certification to advance.  Nature of the Work Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents buy a vast array of farm products, durable and nondurable goods, and services for companies and institutions. They attempt to get the best deal for their company—the highest quality goods and services at the lowest possible cost. They accomplish this by studying sales records and inventory levels of current stock, identifying foreign and domestic suppliers, and keeping abreast of changes affecting both the supply of, and demand for, needed products and materials. Purchasing professionals consider price, quality, availability, reliability, and technical support when choosing suppliers and merchandise. To be effective,  80 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Purchasing professionals use many resources to gather information about potential suppliers. purchasing professionals must have a working technical knowledge of the goods or services to be purchased. There are several major types of purchasing managers, ­buyers, and purchasing agents. Wholesale and retail buyers purchase goods, such as clothing or electronics, for resale. Purchasing agents buy goods and services for use by their own company or organization. Purchasing agents and buyers of farm products purchase goods such as grain, Christmas trees, and tobacco for further processing or resale. Purchasing managers usually handle more complicated purchases and may supervise a group of purchasing agents. Purchasing professionals employed by government agencies or manufacturing firms usually are called purchasing directors, managers, or agents; sometimes they are known as contract specialists. Purchasing professionals in government place solicitations for services and accept bids and offers through the Internet. Some purchasing managers, called contract or supply managers, specialize in negotiating and supervising supply contracts. Purchasing specialists who buy finished goods for resale are employed by wholesale and retail establishments, where they commonly are known as buyers or merchandise managers. Wholesale and retail buyers are an integral part of a complex system of distribution and merchandising that caters to the vast array of consumer needs and desires. Wholesale buyers purchase goods directly from manufacturers or from other wholesale firms for resale to retail firms, commercial establishments, and other organizations. In retail firms, buyers purchase goods from wholesale firms or directly from manufacturers for resale to the public. Buyers largely determine which products their establishment will sell. Therefore, it is essential that they have the ability to predict what will appeal to consumers. If they fail to purchase the right products for resale, buyers jeopardize the profits and reputation of their company. They keep track of inventories and sales levels, check competitors’ sales activities, and watch general economic conditions to anticipate consumer buying patterns. Buyers working for large and medium-sized firms usually specialize in acquiring one or two lines of merchandise, ­whereas buyers working for small stores may purchase the establishment’s complete inventory.  Evaluating suppliers is one of the most critical functions of a purchasing manager, buyer, or purchasing agent. Many firms now run on a lean manufacturing schedule and use just-in-time inventories so any delays in the supply chain can shut down production and potentially cost the firm its customers. Purchasing professionals use many resources to find out all they can about potential suppliers. The Internet has become an effective tool for searching catalogs, trade journals, industry and company publications, and directories. Purchasing professionals attend meetings, trade shows, and conferences to learn of new industry trends and make contacts with suppliers. They often interview prospective suppliers and visit their plants and distribution centers to assess their capabilities. It is important to make certain that the supplier is capable of delivering the desired goods or services on time, in the correct quantities, and without sacrificing quality. Once all of the necessary information on suppliers is gathered, orders are placed, and contracts are awarded to those suppliers who meet the purchaser’s needs. Most of the transaction process is now automated through use of the Internet. Purchasing professionals often work closely with other employees in a process called “team buying.” For example, before submitting an order, the team may discuss the design of custom-made products with company design engineers, the problems involving the quality of purchased goods with production supervisors, or the issues in shipping with managers in the receiving department. This additional interaction improves the quality of buying by adding different perspectives to the process. Work environment. Most purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents work in comfortable offices. They frequently work more than the standard 40-hour week, because of special sales, conferences, or production deadlines. Evening and weekend work also is common before holiday and back-to-school seasons for those working in retail trade. Consequently, many retail firms discourage the use of vacation time during peak periods. Travel is sometimes necessary. Purchasers for worldwide companies may even travel outside the United States.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Workers may begin as trainees, purchasing clerks, junior buyers, or assistant buyers. Most employers prefer to hire applicants who have a college degree and who are familiar with the merchandise they sell and with wholesaling and retailing practices. Prospects often need continuing education or certification to advance. Education and training. Educational requirements tend to vary with the size of the organization. Large stores and distributors prefer applicants who have completed a bachelor’s degree program with a business emphasis. Many manufacturing firms put an even greater emphasis on formal training, preferring applicants with a bachelor’s or master’s degree in engineering, business, economics, or one of the applied sciences. A master’s degree is essential for advancement to many top-level purchasing manager jobs. Regardless of academic preparation, new employees must learn the specifics of their employer’s business. Training periods vary in length, with most lasting 1 to 5 years. In manu-  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 81  facturing, new employees work with experienced purchasers to learn about commodities, prices, suppliers, and markets. In addition, they may be assigned to the production planning department to learn about the material requirements system and the inventory system the company uses to keep production and replenishment functions working smoothly. In wholesale and retail establishments, most trainees begin by selling merchandise, checking invoices on material received, and keeping track of stock. As they progress, trainees are given increased buying-related responsibilities. Other qualifications. Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents must know how to use various software packages and the Internet. Other important qualities include the ability to analyze technical data in suppliers’ proposals; good communication, negotiation, and mathematical skills; knowledge of supply-chain management; and the ability to perform financial analyses. People who wish to become wholesale or retail buyers should be good at planning and decision making. They also should have an interest in merchandising. In addition, marketing skills and the ability to identify products that will sell are very important. Employers often look for leadership ability, too, because buyers spend a large portion of their time supervising assistant buyers and dealing with manufacturers’ representatives and store executives. Certification and advancement. An experienced purchasing agent or buyer may become an assistant purchasing manager before advancing to purchasing manager, supply manager, or director of materials management. At the top levels, duties may overlap with other management functions, such as production, planning, logistics, and marketing. Regardless of industry, continuing education is essential for advancement. Many purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents participate in seminars offered by professional societies and take college courses in supply management. Professional certification is becoming increasingly important, especially for those just entering the occupation. There are several recognized credentials for purchasing agents and purchasing managers. The Certified Purchasing Manager (C.P.M.) designation was conferred by the Institute for Supply Management. In 2008, this certification was replaced by the Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) credential, covering the wider scope of duties now performed by purchasing professionals. The Certified Purchasing Professional (CPP) and Certified Professional Purchasing  Manager (CPPM) designations are conferred by the American Purchasing Society. The Certified Supply Chain Professional (CSCP) credential is conferred by APICS, the Association for Operations Management. For workers in Federal, State, and local government, the National Institute of Governmental Purchasing offers the designations of Certified Professional Public Buyer (CPPB) and Certified Public Purchasing Officer (CPPO). These certifications are awarded only after work-related experience and education requirements are met and written or oral exams are successfully completed.  Employment Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents held about 527,400 jobs in 2008. About 42 percent worked in the wholesale trade and manufacturing industries and another 10 percent worked in retail trade. The remainder worked mostly in service establishments, such as management of companies and enterprises or professional, scientific, and technical services. A small number were self-employed. The following tabulation shows the distribution of employment by occupational specialty: Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products....................................................295,200 Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products.....147,700 Purchasing managers.....................................................70,300 Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products...............14,100  Job Outlook Employment of purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents is expected to increase 7 percent through the year 2018. Job growth and opportunities, however, will differ among different occupations in this category. Employment change. Overall employment of purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents is expected to increase 7 percent during the 2008-18 decade, which is as fast as the average for all occupations. Employment of purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products—the largest employment group in the industry—will experience faster than average growth as more companies demand a greater number of purchased goods and services. Additionally, large companies are increasing the size of their purchasing departments to accommodate purchasing services contracts from smaller companies. Also, many purchasing agents are now charged with procuring services that traditionally had been done in-house,  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents....................... Purchasing managers..................................................................... Buyers and purchasing agents........................................................ Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products............................ Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products................... Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products..................................................................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  – 11-3061 13-1020 13-1021 13-1022  527,400 70,300 457,100 14,100 147,700  13-1023  295,200  Projected Employment, 2018 565,900 71,400 494,500 14,000 144,400 336,100  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 38,500 7 1,100 2 37,400 8 -200 -1 -3,300 -2 40,900  14  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  82 Occupational Outlook Handbook  such as computer and IT (information technology) support in addition to traditionally contracted services such as advertising. Nonetheless, demand for workers may be somewhat limited by technological improvements such as ­software that has eliminated much of the paperwork involved in ordering and procuring supplies, and the growing number of purchases being made electronically through the Internet and electronic data interchange (EDI). Demand will also be limited by offshoring of routine purchasing actions to other countries. Employment of purchasing managers is expected to have little or no change. The use of the Internet to conduct electronic commerce has made information easier to obtain, thus increasing the productivity of purchasing managers. The Internet also allows both large and small companies to bid on contracts. Exclusive supply contracts and long-term contracting have allowed companies to negotiate with fewer suppliers less frequently. Still, purchasing managers will be needed to oversee large consolidated purchasing networks, thus spurring some employment growth. Employment of purchasing agents and buyers of farm products is also projected to have little or no change, as overall growth in agricultural industries and retailers in the grocery-­ related industries consolidate. Furthermore, automation, offshoring, and the outsourcing of more services is expected to further impede employment growth. Finally, little or no change in employment of wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products, is expected. In the retail industry, mergers and acquisitions have caused buying departments to consolidate. In addition, larger retail stores are eliminating local buying departments and creating a centralized buying department at their headquarters. Job prospects. Persons who have a bachelor’s degree in engineering, business, economics, or one of the applied sciences should have the best chance of obtaining a buyer position. Industry experience and knowledge of a technical field will be an advantage for those interested in working for a manufacturing or industrial company. Government agencies and larger companies usually require a master’s degree in business or public administration for top-level purchasing positions. Most managers need experience in their respective field.  Earnings Median annual wages of purchasing managers were $89,160 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $67,370 and $115,830. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $51,490, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $142,550. Median annual wages of purchasing agents and buyers of farm products were $49,670 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $37,930 and $67,440. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $28,990, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $96,220. Median annual wages of wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products, were $48,710 in May 2008. The middle 50  percent earned between $36,460 and $66,090. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $28,710, and the highest 10 ­percent earned more than $90,100. Median annual wages in the indus-  tries employing the largest numbers of wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products, were: Management of companies and enterprises................$56,400 Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers.....................................................53,650 Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers................................................49,770 Machinery, equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers................................................46,250 Grocery stores...............................................................35,700  Median annual wages of purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products, were $53,940 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $41,670 and $70,910. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $33,650, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $88,790. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products, were: Federal Executive Branch...........................................$73,520 Aerospace product and parts manufacturing.................64,220 Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing.....................59,040 Management of companies and enterprises..................58,420 Local government..........................................................51,870  Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents receive the same benefits package as other workers, including vacations, sick leave, life and health insurance, and pension plans. In addition to receiving standard benefits, retail buyers often earn cash bonuses based on their performance and may receive discounts on merchandise bought from their employer.  Related Occupations Another occupation that obtains materials and goods for businesses:  Page Procurement clerks................................................................... 597  Other occupations that need knowledge of marketing and the ability to assess consumer demand include: Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers...................................... 32 Food service managers............................................................... 55 Insurance sales agents.............................................................. 534 Lodging managers...................................................................... 70 Sales engineers......................................................................... 545 Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing............... 547  Sources of Additional Information Further information about education, training, employment, and certification for purchasing careers is available from: hhAmerican Purchasing Society, P.O. Box 256, Aurora, IL 60506.  hhAPICS the Association for Operations Management, 8430 West Bryn Mawr Avenue, Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60631. Internet: http://www.apics.org  hhInstitute for Supply Management, P.O. Box 22160, Tempe, AZ 85285-2160. Internet: http://www.ism.ws  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 83  hhNational Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc., 151 Spring St., Suite 300, Herndon, VA 20170-5223. Internet: http://www.nigp.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos023.htm  Top Executives Significant Points  •	 Keen competition is expected because the prestige and high compensation of these jobs attract a substantial number of applicants.  •	 Top executives are among the highest paid workers; however, long hours, considerable travel, and intense pressure to succeed are common.  •	 The formal education and experience of top execu-  tives vary as extensively as the nature of their responsibilities, but many of these workers have at least a bachelor’s degree and considerable experience.  Nature of the Work All organizations have specific goals and objectives that they strive to meet. Top executives devise strategies and formulate policies to ensure that these goals and objectives are met. Although they have a wide range of titles—such as chief executive officer, chief operating officer, general manager, president, vice president, school superintendent, county administrator, and mayor—all formulate policies and direct the overall operations of businesses and corporations, public-sector organizations, nonprofit institutions, and other organizations. A corporation’s goals and policies are established by the chief executive officer in collaboration with other top executives. All of these principals are closely monitored by a board of directors. In a large corporation, the chief executive officer meets frequently with the other top executives to ensure that the overall operation of the corporation is conducted in accordance with these goals and policies. In a governmental or nonprofit organization, top executives oversee budgets and ensure that resources are used properly and that programs are carried out as planned. Chief executive officers in government often nominate citizens to boards and commissions, encourage business investment, and promote economic development in their communities. To do all of these varied tasks effectively, top executives rely on a staff of highly skilled personnel. Although the chief executive officer of a corporation retains overall accountability, a chief operating officer may be delegated several responsibilities, including the authority to oversee other executives who direct the activities of various departments and implement the organization’s guidelines on a day-to-day basis. In publicly held and nonprofit corporations, the board of directors or a similar governing body ultimately  is accountable for the success or failure of the enterprise and the chief executive officer reports to the board. In addition to being responsible for the operational success of a company, top executives, particularly chief financial officers, are accountable for the accuracy of their financial reporting, especially among publicly traded companies. The nature of the responsibilities of other high-level executives depends on an organization’s size. In small organizations, such as independent retail stores or small manufacturers, a partner, an owner, or a general manager often is responsible for purchasing, hiring, training, quality control, and day-to-day supervisory duties. In large organizations, top executives not only direct the overall organization, but also may be responsible for implementing strategies and setting the overall direction of a certain area of the company or organization. For example, chief financial officers direct the organization’s financial goals, objectives, and budgets. They oversee the investment of funds and manage associated risks, supervise cash management activities, execute capital-raising strategies to support a firm’s expansion, and deal with mergers and acquisitions. Chief information officers are responsible for the overall technological direction of their organizations. Today, these officers are playing a more important role in organizations and are increasingly becoming part of the executive team. To perform effectively, they need knowledge of the workings of the total organization. These managers propose budgets for projects and programs and make decisions about staff training and purchases of equipment. They hire and assign computer specialists, information technology workers, and support personnel to carry out information-technology-related projects. They manage the work of these employees, review their output, and establish administrative procedures and policies. Chief information officers also provide organizations with the vision to master information technology as a competitive tool. General and operations managers plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of companies and other public- or private-sector organizations. Their duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources that are too diverse and general in nature to be classified into any one area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services. In some organizations, the tasks of general and operations managers may overlap those of chief executive officers. Work environment. Top executives of large organizations typically have spacious offices and numerous support staff. Long hours, including evenings and weekends are standard for most top executives and general managers, although their schedules may be flexible. To monitor operations and meet with customers, staff, and other executives, general managers and executives travel considerably among international, national, regional, and ­local offices. Many top executives also attend meetings and conferences sponsored by various associations. In large ­organizations, job transfers between local offices or subsidiaries are common for those on an executive career track. Top executives are under intense pressure to succeed; depending on the organization, success may mean earning higher  84 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Top executives need highly developed management skills and the ability to communicate clearly and persuasively. profits, providing better service, or attaining fundraising and charitable goals. Executives in charge of poorly performing organizations or departments usually find their jobs in jeopardy.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The formal education and experience required by top executives vary as extensively as their responsibilities do, but many of these workers have at least a bachelor’s degree and considerable experience. Education and training. Many top executives have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in business administration, liberal arts, or a more specialized discipline. The specific type and level of education required often depends on the type of organization for which top executives work. College presidents and school superintendents, for example, typically have a doctoral degree in the field in which they originally taught or in education administration. (For information on lower level managers in educational services, see the Handbook statement on education administrators.) Some top executives in the public sector have a degree in public administration or liberal arts. Others might have a more specific educational background related to their jobs. (For information on lower level managers in health services, see the Handbook statement on medical and health services managers.) Many top executive positions are filled from within the organization by promoting experienced lower level managers when an opening arises. In industries such as retail trade or transportation, for example, individuals without a college degree may work their way up within the company and become executives or general managers. When hiring top executives from outside the organization, those doing the hiring often prefer managers with extensive managerial experience.  Other qualifications. Top executives must have highly developed personal qualities and be able to communicate clearly and persuasively. An analytical mind, the ability to analyze large amounts of information and data quickly, and the ability to evaluate the relationships among numerous factors, also are important qualities. For managers to succeed, they need other important qualities as well, including leadership, selfconfidence, motivation, decisiveness, flexibility, sound business judgment, and determination. Certification and advancement. Advancement may be accelerated by participation in company training programs that impart a broader knowledge of company policy and operations. Participation in conferences and seminars can expand one’s knowledge of national and international issues that influence the organization and can help the participants develop a network of useful contacts. To facilitate their promotion to an even higher level, managers who have experience in a particular field, such as accounting or engineering, may attend executive development programs geared toward their backgrounds. Managers also can help their careers by becoming familiar with the latest trends in management and by attending ­national or local training programs sponsored by various executive training organizations. For example, the Institute of Certified Professional Managers offers the Certified Manager (CM) credential, which is earned by completing training and passing an exam. This certification is held by individuals at all experience levels, from those seeking to enter management careers to those who are already senior executives. Certification is not necessary for advancement, but may be helpful in developing and demonstrating valuable management skills. General managers may advance to a top executive position, such as executive vice president, in their own firm, or they may take a corresponding position in another firm. They may even advance to peak corporate positions, such as chief operating officer or chief executive officer. Chief executive officers often become members of the board of directors of one or more firms, typically as a director of their own firm and often as chair of its board of directors. Some top executives establish their own firms or become independent consultants.  Employment Top executives held about 2.1 million jobs in 2008. Employment by detailed occupation was distributed as follows: General and operations managers............................1,733,100 Chief executives..........................................................400,400  Job Outlook Little to no change in employment of top executives is ex­pected. Keen competition for jobs is expected because the prestige and high pay of these positions attract many applicants. Employment change. Employment of top executives—­ including chief executives and general and operations managers—is expected to experience little to no change from 2008 to 2018. However, because these workers are essential to running companies and organizations, projected employment of top executives will vary by industry and will generally reflect the growth or decline of that industry. For example, job growth  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 85  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Top executives.................................................................................... Chief executives............................................................................. General and operations managers..................................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  – 11-1011 11-1021  2,133,500 400,400 1,733,100  Projected Employment, 2018 2,125,700 394,900 1,730,800  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent -7,800 0 -5,500 -1 -2,300 0  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  is expected in the fast-growing health services industry, while employment declines for top executives are projected for many manufacturing industries. Employment of top executives also will be affected by the amount of consolidation occurring in a particular industry, because some management jobs typically are lost after a merger with another company. As a business grows, the number of top executives changes less than the number of employees. Therefore, top executives are not expected to experience as much employment growth as workers in the occupations they oversee. Job prospects. Keen competition is expected for top executive positions because the prestige and high pay attract a substantial number of qualified applicants. Because this is a large occupation, numerous openings will occur each year as executives transfer to other positions, start their own businesses, or retire. However, many executives who leave their jobs transfer to other executive positions, a pattern that limits the number of job openings for new entrants to the occupation. Experienced managers whose accomplishments reflect strong leadership qualities and the ability to improve the efficiency or competitive position of an organization will have the best opportunities. In an increasingly global economy, experience in international economics, marketing, and information systems, as well as knowledge of several languages also may be beneficial.  Earnings Top executives are among the highest paid workers in the United States. However, salary levels vary substantially, depending on level of executive responsibility; length of service; and type, size, and location of the firm, organization, or government agency. For example, a top manager in a very large corporation can earn significantly more than the mayor of a small town. Median annual wages of general and operations managers in May 2008 were $91,570. The middle 50 percent earned between $62,900 and $137,020. Because the specific ­responsibilities of general and operations managers vary significantly within industries, earnings also tend to vary considerably. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of general and operations managers were as follows: Computer systems design and related services.........$133,140 Management, scientific, and technical consulting services..................................................130,390 Management of companies and enterprises................113,690 Building equipment contractors....................................91,370 Local government..........................................................82,150  Median annual wages of wage and salary chief executives in May 2008 were $158,560. Some top executives of large companies earn hundreds of thousands of dollars to more than $1 million annually, although salaries vary substantially by type and level of responsibilities and by industry. Government executives often earn considerably less. In addition to salaries, total compensation for corporate executives often includes stock options and other performance bonuses. Among other benefits commonly enjoyed by top executives in private industry are the use of executive dining rooms and company-owned aircraft and cars, access to expense allowances, and company-paid insurance premiums and physical examinations. A number of chief executive officers also are provided with company-paid club memberships and other amenities. Nonprofit and government executives usually get fewer benefits.  Related Occupations Top executives plan, organize, direct, control, and coordinate the operations of an organization and its major departments or programs. Many other management occupations have similar responsibilities, but are concentrated in specific industries or are responsible for a specific department within an organization that assigns them to another occupation. Other managerial occupations that are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook include the following:  Page Administrative services managers.............................................. 29 Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers...................................... 32 Computer and information systems managers........................... 35 Education administrators........................................................... 41 Financial managers.................................................................... 52 Food service managers............................................................... 55 Industrial production managers.................................................. 67 Lodging managers...................................................................... 70 Medical and health services managers....................................... 73  Sources of Additional Information For more information on top executives, including educational programs, contact: hhAmerican Management Association, 1601 Broadway, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10019. Internet: http://www.amanet.org  hhNational Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439. Internet: http://www.nma1.org  86 Occupational Outlook Handbook  For more information on executive financial management careers, contact: hhFinancial Executives International, 200 Campus Dr., Florham Park, NJ 07932. Internet: http://www.financialexecutives.org  hhFinancial Management Association International, College of Business Administration, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., BSN 3331, Tampa, FL 33620. Internet: http://www.fma.org  For information about management skills development, including the Certified Manager (CM) credential, contact: hhInstitute for Certified Professional Managers, James Madison University, MSC 5504, Harrisonburg, VA 22807. Internet: http://www.icpm.biz The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos012.htm  Business and Financial Operations Occupations Accountants and Auditors Significant Points  •	 Most jobs require at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field.  •	 Job  opportunities should be favorable; those who have earned professional recognition through certification or licensure, especially a CPA, should enjoy the best prospects.  •	 Much faster than average employment growth will  result from an increase in the number of businesses, changing financial laws and regulations, and greater scrutiny of company finances.  Nature of the Work Accountants and auditors help to ensure that firms are run efficiently, public records kept accurately, and taxes paid properly and on time. They analyze and communicate financial information for various entities such as companies, individual clients, and Federal, State, and local governments. Beyond carrying out the fundamental tasks of the occupation—providing information to clients by preparing, analyzing, and verifying ­financial documents—many accountants also offer budget analysis, ­financial and investment planning, information technology consulting, and limited legal services. Specific job duties vary widely among the four major fields of accounting and auditing: public accounting, management ­accounting, government accounting, and internal auditing. Public accountants perform a broad range of accounting, auditing, tax, and consulting activities for their clients, which may be corporations, governments, nonprofit organizations, or individuals. For example, some public accountants concentrate on tax matters, such as advising companies about the tax advantages and disadvantages of certain business decisions and preparing individual income tax returns. Others offer advice in areas such as compensation or employee healthcare benefits, the design of ­accounting and data processing systems, and the ­selection of controls to safeguard assets. Still others audit clients’ financial statements and inform investors and authorities that the statements have been correctly prepared and reported.  These accountants are also referred to as external ­auditors. ­Public accountants, many of whom are Certified ­Public ­Accountants (CPAs), generally have their own businesses or work for public accounting firms. Some public accountants specialize in forensic ­accounting— investigating and interpreting white-collar crimes such as securities fraud and embezzlement, bankruptcies and contract disputes, and other complex and possibly criminal financial transactions, including money laundering by organized ­criminals. Forensic accountants combine their knowledge of accounting and finance with law and investigative techniques to determine whether an activity is illegal. Many forensic accountants work closely with law enforcement personnel and lawyers during investigations and often appear as expert witnesses during trials. Management accountants—also called cost, managerial, industrial, corporate, or private accountants—record and analyze the financial information of the companies for which they work. Among their other responsibilities are budgeting, performance evaluation, cost management, and asset management. Usually, management accountants are part of executive teams involved in strategic planning or the development of new products. They analyze and interpret the financial information that corporate executives need to make sound business decisions. They also prepare financial reports for other groups, including stockholders, creditors, regulatory agencies, and tax authorities. Within accounting departments, management accountants may work in various areas, including financial analysis, planning and budgeting, and cost accounting. Government accountants and auditors work in the public sector, maintaining and examining the records of government agencies and auditing private businesses and individuals whose activities are subject to government regulations or taxation. Accountants employed by Federal, State, and local governments ensure that revenues are received and expenditures are made in accordance with laws and regulations. Those employed by the Federal Government may work as Internal Revenue Service agents or in financial management, financial institution examination, or budget analysis and administration. Internal auditors verify the effectiveness of their organization’s internal controls and check for mismanagement, waste, or fraud. They examine and evaluate their firms’ financial and information systems, management procedures, and internal  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 87  unique data management and analytical needs. Accountants also are beginning to perform more technical duties, such as implementing, controlling, and auditing computer systems and networks and developing technology plans. Work environment. Most accountants and auditors work in a typical office setting. Some may be able to do part of their work at home. Accountants and auditors employed by public accounting firms, government agencies, and organizations with multiple locations may travel frequently to perform audits at branches, clients’ places of business, or government facilities. Almost half of all accountants and auditors worked a standard 40-hour week in 2008, but many worked longer hours, particularly if they are self-employed and have numerous clients. Tax specialists often work long hours during the tax season.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Accountants and auditors analyze and interpret financial information. controls to ensure that records are accurate and controls are adequate. They also review company operations, evaluating their efficiency, effectiveness, and compliance with corporate policies and government regulations. Because computer systems commonly automate transactions and make information readily available, internal auditors may also help management evaluate the effectiveness of their controls based on real-time data, rather than personal observation. They may recommend and review controls for their organization’s computer systems, to ensure their reliability and integrity of the data. Internal auditors may also have specialty titles, such as information technology auditors, environmental auditors, and compliance auditors. Technology is rapidly changing the nature of the work of most accountants and auditors. With the aid of special software packages, accountants summarize transactions in the standard formats of financial records and organize data in special ­formats employed in financial analysis. These accounting packages greatly reduce the tedious work associated with data ­management and recordkeeping. Computers enable accountants and auditors to be more mobile and to use their clients’ computer systems to extract information from databases and the Internet. As a result, a growing number of accountants and auditors with extensive computer skills specialize in correcting problems with software or in developing software to meet  Most accountants and auditors need at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field. Many accountants and auditors choose to obtain certification to help advance their careers, such as becoming a Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Education and training. Most accountant and auditor positions require at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field. Some employers prefer applicants with a master’s degree in accounting, or with a master’s degree in business administration with a concentration in accounting. Some ­universities and colleges are now offering programs to prepare students to work in growing specialty professions such as internal auditing. Many professional associations offer continuing professional education courses, conferences, and seminars. Some graduates of junior colleges or business or correspondence schools, as well as bookkeepers and accounting clerks who meet the education and experience requirements set by their employers, can obtain junior accounting positions and advance to accountant positions by demonstrating their ­accounting skills on the job. Most beginning accountants and auditors may work under supervision or closely with an experienced accountant or auditor before gaining more independence and responsibility. Licensure and certification.   Any accountant filing a report with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is required by law to be a Certified Public Accountant (CPA). This may include senior level accountants working for or on behalf of public companies that are registered with the SEC. CPAs are licensed by their State Board of Accountancy. Any accountant who passes a national exam and meets the other requirements of the State where they practice can become a CPA. The vast majority of States require CPA candidates to be college graduates, but a few States will substitute a number of years of public accounting experience for a college degree. As of 2009, 46 States and the District of Columbia required CPA candidates to complete 150 semester hours of college coursework—an additional 30 hours beyond the usual 4-year bachelor’s degree. California, Colorado, New Hampshire, and Vermont are the only States that do not require 150 semester hours for certification. Many schools offer a 5-year combined bachelor’s and master’s degree to meet the 150 semester hour requirement, but a master’s degree is not required. Prospective accounting majors should carefully research accounting curri-  88 Occupational Outlook Handbook  cula and the requirements of any States in which they hope to become licensed. All States use the four-part Uniform CPA Examination prepared by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). The CPA examination is rigorous, and less than onehalf of those who take it each year pass every part on the first try. Candidates are not required to pass all four parts at once, but most States require candidates to pass all four sections within 18 months of passing their first section. The CPA exam is now computerized and is offered 2 months out of every quarter at various testing centers throughout the United States. Most States also require applicants for a CPA license to have some accounting experience; however requirements vary by State or jurisdiction. Nearly all States require CPAs and other public accountants to complete a certain number of hours of continuing ­professional education before their licenses can be renewed. The professional associations representing accountants sponsor numerous courses, seminars, group study programs, and other forms of continuing education. Other qualifications. Previous experience in accounting or auditing can help an applicant get a job. Many colleges offer students the opportunity to gain experience through summer or part-time internship programs conducted by public accounting or business firms. In addition, as many business processes are now automated, practical knowledge of computers and their ­applications is a great asset for jobseekers in the accounting and auditing fields. People planning a career in accounting and auditing should have an aptitude for mathematics and be able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts and figures quickly. They must be able to clearly communicate the results of their work to clients and managers both verbally and in writing. Accountants and auditors must be good at working with people, business systems, and computers. At a minimum, accountants and auditors should be familiar with basic accounting and computer software packages. Because financial decisions are made on the basis of their statements and services, accountants and auditors should have high standards of integrity. Certification and advancement. Professional recognition through certification or other designation provides a distinct advantage in the job market. Certification can attest to professional competence in a specialized field of accounting and auditing. Accountants and auditors can seek credentials from a wide variety of professional societies. The Institute of Management Accountants confers the Certified Management Accountant (CMA) designation upon applicants who complete a bachelor’s degree or who attain a minimum score or higher on specified graduate school entrance exams. Applicants must have worked at least 2 years in management accounting, pass a four-part examination, agree to meet continuing education requirements, and comply with standards of professional conduct. The exam covers areas such as financial statement analysis, working-capital policy, capital structure, valuation issues, and risk management. The Institute of Internal Auditors offers the Certified Internal Auditor (CIA) designation to graduates from accredited colleges and universities who have worked for 2 years as in-  ternal auditors and have passed a four-part examination. The IIA also offers the designations of Certified in Control Self-Assessment (CCSA), Certified Government Auditing Professional (CGAP), and Certified Financial Services Auditor (CFSA) to those who pass the exams and meet educational and experience ­requirements. ISACA confers the Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) designation upon candidates who pass an examination and have 5 years of experience auditing information systems. Information systems experience, financial or operational auditing experience, or related college credit hours can be substituted for up to 2 years of information systems auditing, control or security experience. For those accountants with their CPA, the AICPA offers the option to receive any or all of the Accredited in Business Valuation (ABV), Certified Information Technology Professional (CITP), or Personal Financial Specialist (PFS) designations. CPAs with these designations demonstrate a level of expertise in these areas in which accountants practice ever more ­frequently. The business valuation designation requires a written exam and the completion of a minimum of 10 business valuation projects that demonstrate a candidate’s experience and competence. The technology designation requires the achievement of a set number of points awarded for business technology experience and education. Candidates for the personal financial specialist designation also must achieve a certain level of points based on experience and education, pass a written exam, and submit references. Many senior corporation executives have a background in accounting, internal auditing, or finance. Beginning public accountants often advance to positions with more responsibility in 1 or 2 years and to senior positions within another few years. Those who excel may become supervisors, managers, or partners; open their own public accounting firm; or transfer to executive positions in management accounting or internal auditing in private firms. Management accountants often start as cost accountants, junior internal auditors, or trainees for other accounting positions. As they rise through the organization, they may advance to accounting manager, chief cost accountant, budget director, or manager of internal auditing. Some become controllers, treasurers, financial vice presidents, chief financial officers, or corporation presidents. Public accountants, management accountants, and internal auditors usually have much occupational mobility. Practitioners often shift into management accounting or internal ­auditing from public accounting, or between internal auditing and management accounting. It is less common for ­accountants and auditors to move from either management accounting or internal auditing into public accounting. Additionally, because they learn about and review the internal controls of various business units within a company, internal auditors often gain the experience needed to become upper-level ­managers.  Employment Accountants and auditors held about 1.3 million jobs in 2008. They worked throughout private industry and government, but 24 percent of accountants and auditors worked for accounting,  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 89  tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services firms. Approximately 8 percent of accountants and auditors were selfemployed. Most accountants and auditors work in urban areas, where public accounting firms and central or regional offices of businesses are concentrated. Some individuals with backgrounds in accounting and auditing are full-time college and university faculty; others teach part time while working as self-employed accountants or as accountants for private industry or in government. (See ­teachers— postsecondary elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Job Outlook Accountants and auditors are expected to experience much faster than average employment growth from 2008-18. Job ­opportunities should be favorable; accountants and auditors who have a professional certification, especially CPAs, should have the best prospects. Employment change. Employment of accountants and auditors is expected to grow by 22 percent between 2008 and 2018, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. This occupation will have a very large number of new jobs arise, about 279,400 over the projections decade. An increase in the number of businesses, changing financial laws and corporate governance regulations, and increased accountability for protecting an organization’s stakeholders will drive job growth. As the economy grows, the number of business establishments will increase, requiring more accountants and auditors to set up books, prepare taxes, and provide management advice. As these businesses grow, the volume and complexity of information reviewed by accountants and auditors ­regarding costs, expenditures, taxes, and internal controls will expand as well. The continued globalization of business also will lead to more demand for accounting expertise and services related to international trade and accounting rules and international mergers and acquisitions. Additionally, there is a growing movement towards International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), which uses a judgment-based system to determine the fairmarket value of assets and liabilities, which should increase demand for accountants and auditors because of their specialized expertise. An increased need for accountants and auditors also will arise from a greater emphasis on accountability, transparency, and controls in financial reporting. Increased scrutiny of company finances and accounting procedures will create opportunities for accountants and auditors, particularly CPAs, to audit financial records more thoroughly and completely. Management accountants and internal auditors increasingly will be needed to discover and eliminate fraud before audits, and ensure that important processes and procedures are documented accurately and thoroughly. Forensic accountants also will be needed to  detect illegal financial activity by individuals, companies, and organized crime rings. Job prospects. Job opportunities should be favorable. Accountants and auditors who have earned professional recognition through certification or other designation, especially a CPA, should have the best job prospects. Applicants with a master’s degree in accounting or a master’s degree in business administration with a concentration in accounting also may have an advantage. Individuals who are proficient in accounting and auditing computer software and information systems or have expertise in specialized areas—such as international business, international financial reporting standards, or current legislation—may have an advantage in getting some accounting and auditing jobs. In addition, employers increasingly seek applicants with strong interpersonal and communication skills. Many accountants work on teams with others who have different backgrounds, so they must be able to communicate ­accounting and financial information clearly and concisely. Regardless of qualifications, ­however, competition will ­remain keen for the most prestigious jobs in major accounting and ­business firms. In addition to openings from job growth, the need to replace accountants and auditors who retire or transfer to other occupations will produce numerous job openings in this large ­occupation.  Earnings Median annual wages of wage and salary accountants and auditors were $59,430 in May 2008. The middle half of the occupation earned between $45,900 and $78,210. The bottom 10 percent earned less than $36,720, and the top 10 percent earned more than $102,380. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of accountants and auditors were as follows: Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll ­services.................................................$61,480 Management of companies and enterprises..................59,820 Insurance carriers..........................................................59,550 Local government..........................................................53,660 State government...........................................................51,250  According to a salary survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates in accounting received starting offers averaging $48,993 a year in July 2009; master’s degree candidates in accounting were offered $49,786 initially. Wage and salary accountants and auditors usually receive standard benefits, including health and medical insurance, life insurance, a 401(k) plan, and paid annual leave. High-level se-  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Accountants and auditors...................................................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  13-2011  1,290,600  Projected Employment, 2018 1,570,000  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 279,400 22  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  90 Occupational Outlook Handbook  nior accountants may receive additional benefits, such as the use of a company car and an expense account.  Related Occupations Accountants and auditors design internal control systems and analyze financial data. Others for whom training in accounting is valuable include  Page Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks........................ 563 Budget analysts.......................................................................... 93 Cost estimators......................................................................... 100 Financial analysts..................................................................... 103 Loan officers............................................................................ 109 Personal financial advisors....................................................... 118 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents........................ 121  Some accountants have assumed the role of management analysts and are involved in the design, implementation, and maintenance of accounting software systems. Others who perform similar work include Computer network, systems, and database administrators...... 128 Computer software engineers and computer programmers..... 134  The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos001.htm  Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate Significant Points  •	 Workers generally must be licensed or certified, but State requirements vary.  •	 About 27 percent were self-employed. •	 Employment is expected to grow more slowly than the average over the 2008-18 decade.  •	 During recessions, demand for appraisers declines; demand for assessors is less affected by economic and real estate market fluctuations.  Sources of Additional Information  Nature of the Work  Information on accredited accounting programs can be obtained from: hhAACSB International—Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, 777 South Harbour Island Blvd., Suite 750, Tampa FL 33602. Internet: http://www.aacsb.edu/accreditation/ AccreditedMembers.asp  Appraisers and assessors of real estate estimate the value of real property whenever it is sold, mortgaged, taxed, insured, or developed. They work in localities they are familiar with, so they have knowledge of any environmental or other concerns that may affect the value of a property. They note any unique characteristics of the property and of the surrounding area, such as a specific architectural style of a building or a major highway located next to the parcel. They also take into account additional aspects of a property such as the condition of the foundation and roof of a building or any renovations that may have been done. They might take pictures to document a certain room or feature, in addition to photographing the exterior of the building. After visiting the property, the appraiser or assessor will estimate the value of the property by taking into consideration such things as comparable home sales, lease records, location, view, previous appraisals, and income potential. During the entire process, appraisers and assessors keep a meticulous record of their research, observations, and methods used in calculating the property valuation. Appraisers have independent clients and typically focus on valuing one property at a time. They often specialize in a certain type of real estate. For example, commercial appraisers specialize in property used for commercial purposes, such as stores or hotels. Residential appraisers focus on appraising homes or other residences and only provide appraisals for those that house 1 to 4 families. Other appraisers have a general practice and are willing to appraise the value of any type of real property. Assessors predominately work for local governments and are responsible for valuing properties for property tax assessment purposes. Unlike appraisers, who generally focus on one property at a time, assessors often value entire neighborhoods using mass appraisal techniques and computer-assisted mass ­appraisal systems to value all the homes in a local neighborhood at once. Although they do not usually focus on a single property, they  Information about careers in certified public accounting and CPA standards and examinations may be obtained from: hhAmerican Institute of Certified Public Accountants, 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. Internet: http://www.aicpa.org  hhAICPA Examinations Team, Parkway Corporate Center, 1230 Parkway Ave., Suite 311, Ewing, NJ 08628-3018. Internet: http://www.cpa-exam.org Information on CPA licensure requirements by State may be obtained from: hhNational Association of State Boards of Accountancy, 150 Fourth Ave. North, Suite 700, Nashville, TN 37219-2417. Internet: http://www.nasba.org Information on careers in management accounting and the CMA designation may be obtained from: hhInstitute of Management Accountants, 10 Paragon Dr., Montvale, NJ 07645-1718. Internet: http://www.imanet.org Information on careers in internal auditing and the CIA designation may be obtained from: hhThe Institute of Internal Auditors, 247 Maitland Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32701-4201. Internet: http://www.theiia.org Information on careers in information systems auditing and the CISA designation may be obtained from: hhISACA, 3701 Algonquin Rd., Suite 1010, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008. Internet: http://www.isaca.org  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 91  The offices of most independent-fee appraisers are relatively small, occupied by either the appraisers alone or by them and a small staff. However, private institutions such as banks and mortgage companies often employ several appraisers within one establishment. The size of offices of assessors depends mostly on the size of the local jurisdiction and the amount of work for which a particular office is responsible.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Appraisers play an important role in the purchasing and selling of real estate. may use single property methods if the property owner challenges the assessment. Revaluations of assessed properties are performed cyclically on a schedule established by State statute or local practice Depending on the size of the jurisdiction and the number of staff in an assessor’s office, a mass appraisal firm or a revaluation firm may do much of the work of valuing the properties in the jurisdiction. These results are then officially certified by the assessor. When properties are reassessed, assessors issue notices to property owners indicating the new assessment. Assessors must be current on tax assessment procedures and must be able to defend the accuracy of their property assessments, either to the owner directly or at a public hearing, since assessors are responsible for dealing with taxpayers who want to contest their assigned property assessments. Assessors also keep a database of every parcel in their jurisdiction, labeling the property owner, assessment history, and size of the property, as well as property maps of the jurisdiction detailing the property distribution of the jurisdiction. Work environment. Appraisers and assessors spend much of their time researching data and writing reports. However, with the advancement of computers and other technologies, such as wireless Internet, time spent in the office has decreased because research can now be done in less time and at site locations. Records that once required a visit to a courthouse or city hall often can be found online. On-site visits usually occur during daylight hours, and according to the client’s schedule. Time spent on-site rather than in the office also depends on the specialty. For example, residential appraisers tend to spend less time on office work than commercial appraisers, who could spend up to several weeks on one property analyzing information and writing reports. Appraisers who work for private institutions generally spend most of their time inside the office, making on-site visits when necessary. Appraisers and assessors usually conduct on-site appraisal work alone. Assessors and privately employed appraisers usually work a standard 40-hour work week. However, self-employed appraisers, often called “independent fee appraisers,” tend to work more than a standard 40-hour work week, including spending their evenings and weekends writing reports. Approximately 13 percent of appraisers and assessors worked part time in 2008.  The requirements to become a fully qualified appraiser or assessor are complex and vary by State and, sometimes, by the value or type of property. In general, both appraisers and assessors must be licensed or certified. Prospective appraisers and assessors should check with their State to determine the specific requirements. Education and training. Many practicing appraisers and assessors have at least a bachelor’s degree. Coursework in related subjects such as economics, finance, mathematics, computer science, English, and business or real estate law can be very useful for prospective appraisers and assessors. Federal law mandates that most appraisers hold State certification. Requirements for these certifications vary by State, but there are certain minimum standards that appraisers must meet. Most appraisers of residential real property must have at least an associate degree, while appraisers of commercial real property are required to have at least a bachelor’s degree. Unlike appraisers, there are no federally mandated education and training requirements for assessors. In most States, the State assessor board sets education and experience requirements that must be met to obtain a certificate to practice as an assessor. A few States have no Statewide requirements, with standards instead set by each locality. In States that mandate certification for assessors, the requirements are usually similar to those for appraisers. Some States also have more than one level of certification. All candidates must attend State-approved schools and facilities and take basic appraisal courses. Although appraisers generally value one property at a time while assessors value many at once, both occupations use similar methods and techniques. As a result, assessors and appraisers tend to take the same basic courses. In addition to passing a Statewide examination, candidates are usually required to have a set number of on-the-job hours that must be completed. For those States not requiring certificates for assessors, the hiring office usually will require the candidate to take basic appraisal courses, complete on-the-job training, and accrue a sufficient number of work hours to meet the requirements for obtaining appraisal licenses or certificates. Many assessors also possess a State appraisal license. Assessors tend to start out in an assessor’s office that is willing to provide on-the-job training; smaller municipalities are often unable to provide this experience. An alternate source of experience for aspiring assessors is through a revaluation firm. Licensure.    Being a Certified Residential Real Property ­Appraiser is the minimum qualification for valuing any residential property with a loan amount exceeding $250,000 and for valuing any other type of real property with a loan value of less than $250,000. Candidates for this certification must have at least an associate degree or in lieu of the degree, 21 units of  92 Occupational Outlook Handbook  specified college-level education. In addition, this certification requires 200 hours of appraiser-specific classroom training and 2,500 hours of work experience accrued over at least 2 years. Certified General Real Property Appraisers have no restrictions on the types or values of real property for which they can give valuations. Candidates for this certification must have at least a bachelor’s degree, or in lieu of the degree, 30 units of specified college-level education. In addition to a degree, this certification requires 300 hours of appraiser-specific classroom training and 3,000 hours of work experience accrued over at least 30 months. At least half of these hours must be in nonresidential appraisal work. In addition to the Federally required Certified Residential and Certified General Real Property Appraiser classifications, most States also have the Licensed Residential Real Property Appraiser classification. Holders of this license are permitted to appraise noncomplex one-to-four residential units having a transaction value of less than $1,000,000, and complex oneto-four residential units having a transaction value of less than $250,000. For the Licensed Residential Appraiser classification, candidates must obtain 150 qualifying education hours and at least 2,000 hours of on-the-job training obtained over a period of no less than 1 year. In addition, all candidates must pass an examination. In many States, those working on their appraiser requirements for licensure or certification are classified as a “trainee.” Training programs vary by State but usually require at least 75 hours of specified appraisal education before one can apply for a trainee position. The number of additional courses trainees must take depends on the State requirements and the kind of license they wish to obtain. Across all levels of certification and licensure, 15 hours of classroom education must be devoted to the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP), which are set forth by the Appraisal Standards Board (ASB) of the Appraisal Foundation. Additionally, the Licensed Residential, Certified Residential, and the General Real Property Appraiser designations each have an associated examination that must be passed before these credentials are awarded. For both appraisers and assessors, continuing education is necessary to maintain a license or certification. The minimum continuing education requirement for appraisers is 14 hours per year. Appraisers must also complete a 7-hour National USPAP Update Course every 2 years. Some States have further requirements. Continuing education may be obtained in any Stateapproved school or facility, as well as in recognized seminars and conferences held by associations or related organizations. Assessors also must fulfill a continuing education requirement in most States, but the amount varies by State. Other qualifications. Appraisers and assessors must possess good analytical skills, mathematical skills, and the ability  to pay attention to detail. They also must be able to work alone as well as with other people. Because they work with the public, appraisers and assessors must be polite and have the ability to listen and thoroughly answer any questions from clients about their work. Certification and advancement. Many appraisers and assessors choose to become a designated member of a regional or nationally recognized appraiser or assessor association. Designations are a way for appraisers or assessors to establish themselves in the profession, and are recognizable credentials to show employers and potential clients a higher level of education and experience. Obtaining a designation usually requires 5 to 10 years of training and experience, which is more than the minimum licensing requirements. Many appraisal associations have a membership category specifically for trainees, who then can receive full membership after licensure. Since States differ greatly on the requirements to become an assessor, licensure is not necessarily required for membership or designations; however, the imposed designation qualifications tend to be very stringent. Advancement within the occupation comes with experience. The higher the level of appraiser licensure, for example, the higher the fees an independent fee appraiser may charge. Staying in one particular region or focusing on one type of appraising specialty also will help to establish one’s business, reputation, and expertise. Assessors often have a career progression within their office, starting as a trainee and eventually ending up appointed or elected as a senior appraiser or supervisor.  Employment In 2008, appraisers and assessors of real estate held about 92,400 jobs. About 27 percent were self-employed; virtually all were appraisers. Employment was concentrated in areas with high levels of real estate activity, such as major metropolitan areas. Assessors are more uniformly spread throughout the country than appraisers because every locality has at least one assessor. About 29 percent of appraisers and assessors worked in local government; nearly all were assessors. Another 31 percent, mainly appraisers, worked for real estate firms.  Job Outlook Employment is expected to grow more slowly than the average. Job opportunities should be best in areas with active real estate markets, and most job openings will result from the need to replace appraisers and assessors who retire or otherwise leave the occupation permanently. Employment change. Employment of appraisers and assessors of real estate is expected to grow more slowly than the average over the 2008-18 decade, increasing by 5 percent. Demand for appraisal services is strongly tied to the real estate market,  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Appraisers and assessors of real estate..............................................  SOC Code 13-2021  Employment, 2008 92,400  Projected Employment, 2018 96,600  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 4,200 5  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 93  which can fluctuate in the short term. Over the long term, employment growth will be driven by economic expansion and population increases—factors that generate demand for real property. However, employment will be held down to a certain extent by productivity increases brought about by the increased use of computers and other technologies, which allow appraisers and assessors to deal with more properties. The increased use of automated valuation models to conduct appraisals for mortgage purposes might also shift work away from ­appraisers. Job prospects. Most job openings will result from the need to replace appraisers and assessors who retire or otherwise leave the occupation permanently. Employment opportunities should be best in areas with active real estate markets. Although opportunities for established certified appraisers are expected to be available in these areas, aspiring entrants to this occupation may have difficulty locating a trainee position because traditional sources of training positions, such as real estate offices and financial institutions, increasingly prefer not to take on new trainees. The cyclical nature of the real estate market will have a direct effect on the job prospects of appraisers, especially those who appraise residential properties. In times of recession, fewer people buy or sell real estate, causing a decrease in the demand for appraisers. As a result, opportunities will be best for appraisers who are able to switch specialties and appraise different types of properties. Because assessors are needed in every local or State jurisdiction to make assessments for property tax purposes regardless of the state of the local economy, assessors generally are less affected by economic and real estate market fluctuations than are appraisers.  Earnings Median annual wages of appraisers and assessors of real ­estate were $47,370 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,330 and $66,640. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $25,900, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $88,680. Median annual wages of those working for local governments were $43,550. Median annual wages of those working in activities related to real estate were $47,890. Earnings for independent-fee appraisers can vary significantly because they are paid fees on a per appraisal basis.  Related Occupations Other occupations that involve the inspection of real estate include the following:  Page Construction and building inspectors....................................... 628 Real estate brokers and sales agents........................................ 540  Another occupation involved in determining the value of items is: Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators..................................................................... 96  Sources of Additional Information For more information on licensure requirements, contact hhThe Appraisal Foundation, 1155 15th St. NW., Suite 1111, Washington, DC 20005. Internet: http://www.appraisalfoundation.org  For more information on individual State licensure requirements, contact hhAppraisal Subcommittee (ASC), 1401 St. NW., Suite 760, Washington, D.C. 20005. Internet: http://www.asc.gov For more information on appraisers of real estate, contact  hhAmerican Society of Appraisers, 555 Herndon Pkwy., Suite 125, Herndon, VA 20170. Internet: http://www.appraisers.org  hhAppraisal Institute, 550 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Internet: http://www.appraisalinstitute.org  hhNational Association of Independent Fee Appraisers, 401 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 2200, Chicago, IL 60611. Internet: http://www.naifa.com For more information on assessors of real estate, contact  hhInternational Association of Assessing Officers,  314 W. 10th St., Kansas City, MO 64105. Internet: http://www.iaao.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos300.htm  Budget Analysts Significant Points  •	 The need for sound financial analysis will spur job growth for budget analysts.  •	 A bachelor’s degree generally is the minimum edu-  cational requirement, but some employers prefer or require a master’s degree.  •	 Candidates with a master’s degree are expected to have the best opportunities.  •	 About 41 percent of all budget analysts work in government.  Nature of the Work Budget analysts help organizations allocate their financial resources. They develop, analyze, and execute budgets, as well as estimate future financial needs for private businesses, nonprofit organizations, and government agencies. In private sector firms, a budget analyst’s main responsibility is to examine the budget and seek new ways to improve efficiency and increase profits. In nonprofit and governmental organizations, which usually are not concerned with profits, analysts try to find the most efficient way to distribute funds and other resources among various departments and programs. In addition to managing an organization’s budget, analysts are often involved in program performance evaluation, policy analysis, and the drafting of budget-related legislation. At times, they also conduct training sessions for company or government personnel regarding new budget procedures.  94 Occupational Outlook Handbook  At the beginning of each budget cycle, managers and department heads submit operational and financial proposals to budget analysts for review. These plans outline the organization’s programs, estimate the financial needs of these programs, and propose funding initiatives to meet those needs. Analysts then examine these budget estimates and proposals for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with established procedures, regulations, and organizational objectives. Sometimes they employ cost-benefit analyses to review financial requests, assess program tradeoffs, and explore alternative funding methods. They also examine past budgets and research economic and financial developments that affect the organization’s income and expenditures. After the initial review process, budget analysts consolidate individual departmental budgets into operating and capital budget summaries. These summaries contain statements that argue for or against funding requests. Budget summaries are then submitted to senior management, or as is often the case in government organizations, to appointed or elected officials. Budget analysts then help the chief operating officer, agency head, or other top managers analyze the proposed plan and devise possible alternatives if the projected results are unsatisfactory. The final decision to approve the budget usually is made by the organization head in a private firm, or by elected officials, such as State legislators, in government. Throughout the year, analysts periodically monitor the budget by reviewing reports and accounting records to determine if allocated funds have been spent as specified. If deviations ­appear between the approved budget and actual spending, budget analysts may write a report explaining the variations and recommending revised procedures. To avoid or alleviate deficits, budget analysts may recommend program cuts or a reallocation of excess funds. They also inform program managers  Budget analysts help organizations determine the best use of financial resources.  and others within the organization of the status and availability of funds in different accounts. Data and statistical analysis software has greatly increased the amount of data and information that budget analysts can compile, review, and produce. Analysts use spreadsheet, database, and financial analysis software to improve their understanding of different budgeting options and to provide accurate, up-to-date information to agency leaders. In addition, many organizations are beginning to incorporate Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) programs into their budget-making process. ERP programs can consolidate all of an organization’s operating information into a single computer system, which helps analysts estimate the effects that a budget alteration will have on each part of an organization. Work environment. Budget analysts usually work in a comfortable office setting. They spend the majority of their time working independently, compiling and analyzing data and preparing budget proposals. Some budget analysts travel to obtain budget details first-hand or to personally verify funding ­allocation. The schedules of budget analysts vary throughout the budget cycle, and many are required to work additional hours during the initial development, mid-year reviews, and final reviews of budgets. The pressures of deadlines and tight work schedules can be stressful. In 2008, about 48 percent of budget analysts worked 40 hours per week, while about 11 percent worked more than 50 hours per week.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree usually is the minimum educational requirement for budget analyst jobs, but some organizations prefer or require a master’s degree. Entry-level budget analysts usually begin with limited responsibilities but can be promoted to intermediate-level positions within 1 to 2 years, and to senior positions with additional experience. Education and training. Employers generally require budget analysts to have at least a bachelor’s degree, but some prefer or require a master’s degree. Within the Federal Government, a bachelor’s degree in any field is sufficient for an entry-level budget analyst position. State and local governments have varying requirements, but usually require a bachelor’s degree in one of many areas, including accounting, finance, business, public administration, economics, statistics, political science, or sociology. Because developing a budget requires strong numerical and analytical skills, courses in statistics or accounting are helpful, regardless of the prospective budget analyst’s major field of study. Some States may require a master’s degree. Occasionally, budget-related or finance-related work experience can be substituted for formal education. In most organizations, budget analysts usually learn the job by working through one complete budget cycle. During the cycle, which typically lasts 1 year, analysts become familiar with the various steps involved in the budgeting process. Many budget analysts also take professional development classes throughout their careers. Other qualifications. Budget analysts must abide by strict ethical standards. Integrity, objectivity, and confidentiality are all essential when dealing with financial information, and budget analysts must avoid any personal conflicts of interest. Most  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 95  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Budget analysts..................................................................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  13-2031  67,200  Projected Employment, 2018 77,400  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 10,100 15  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  budget analysts also need mathematical skills and should be able to use software packages, including spreadsheet, database, data-mining, and financial analysis programs. Strong oral and written communication skills also are essential, because budget analysts must prepare, present, and defend budget proposals to decision makers. In addition, budget analysts must be able to work under strict time constraints. Certification and advancement. Entry-level budget analysts usually begin with limited responsibilities, working under close supervision. Capable analysts can be promoted to intermediatelevel positions within 1 to 2 years, and to senior positions with additional experience. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, senior budget analysts may be promoted to management positions in various parts of their organizations, or with other organizations with which they have worked. Government budget analysts employed at the Federal, State, or local level may earn the Certified Government Financial Manager designation granted by Advancing Government Accountability, an organization that represents government ­accountability officers. To earn this designation, candidates must have a minimum of a bachelor’s degree, 24 credit hours of study in ­financial management, and 2 years of professionallevel experience in ­governmental financial management. They also must pass a series of three exams that cover topics on the governmental environment; governmental accounting, financial reporting, and ­budgeting; and governmental financial management and control. To maintain the designation, individuals must complete 80 hours of continuing professional education every 2 years.  er amount of time. As a result, agency leaders have begun to demand more data, analyses, and other types of information relevant to the budgeting process. This has increased the workload of budget analysts, and created the need for more workers. As this process continues, demand for budget analysts will grow. Job prospects. Job openings will result from employment growth and from the need to replace workers who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons. Candidates with a master’s degree are expected to have the best opportunities. Familiarity with spreadsheet, database, data-mining, financial-analysis, and Enterprise Resource Planning software packages also should enhance a jobseeker’s prospects.  Employment  Related Occupations  Budget analysts held 67,200 jobs in 2008. Government is a major employer, accounting for 41 percent of budget analyst jobs. Budget analysts were also employed in manufacturing; management services; professional, scientific, and technical services; and schools.  Job Outlook Budget analyst jobs are expected to increase faster than average. Candidates with a master’s degree are expected to have the best opportunities. Employment change. Employment of budget analysts is expected to increase by 15 percent between 2008 and 2018, faster than the average for all occupations. Employment growth will be driven by the continuing demand for sound financial analysis in both the public and the private sectors. As businesses and other organizations become more complex and specialized, budget planning and financial control will demand greater attention. In recent years, computer applications used in budget analysis have become increasingly sophisticated, allowing more data to be analyzed and processed in a short-  Earnings Wages of budget analysts vary by experience, education, and employer. Median annual wages of budget analysts in May 2008 were $65,320. The middle 50 percent earned between $52,290 and $82,150. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $42,470, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $100,360. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of budget analysts were: Aerospace product and parts manufacturing...............$70,830 Federal Executive Branch.............................................70,650 Management of companies and enterprises..................70,460 Colleges, universities, and professional schools...........58,190 Elementary and secondary schools...............................57,700  The average annual salary in March 2009 for budget analysts employed by the Federal Government was $80,456. Other workers involved in financial analysis include:  Page Accountants and auditors........................................................... 86 Cost estimators......................................................................... 100 Financial analysts..................................................................... 103 Financial managers.................................................................... 52 Insurance underwriters............................................................. 106 Loan officers............................................................................ 109 Management analysts............................................................... 111 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents........................ 121  Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities as a budget analyst may be available from your State or local employment service. Information on careers and certification in government financial management may be obtained from: hhAdvancing of Government Accountability, 2208 Mount Vernon Ave., Alexandria, VA 22301. Internet: http://www.agacgfm.org  96 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Information on careers in budget analysis at the State government level may be obtained from: hhNational Association of State Budget Officers, Hall of the States Building, Suite 642, 444 North Capitol St. NW., Washington, DC 20001. Internet: http://www.nasbo.org Information on obtaining budget analyst positions with the Federal Government is available from the Office of Personnel Management through USAJOBS, the Federal Government’s official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.gov/ or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724-1850. This number is not toll free, and charges may result. For advice on how to find and apply for Federal jobs, see the Occupational Outlook ­Quarterly article “How to get a job in the Federal Government,” online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2004/summer/art01.pdf. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos003.htm  Claims Adjusters, Appraisers, Examiners, and Investigators Significant Points  •	 Employment  is concentrated in insurance-related  ­industries.  •	 Training and entry requirements vary widely. •	 College graduates and those with related experience  should have the best opportunities for most types of jobs; competition will be keen for jobs as investigators.  •	 Job opportunities should be best in health insurance companies, and in regions susceptible to natural ­disasters.  Nature of the Work Individuals and businesses purchase insurance policies to protect against monetary losses. In the event of a loss, policyholders submit claims, or requests for payment, seeking compensation for their loss. Adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators deal with those claims. They work primarily for property and casualty insurance companies, for whom they handle a wide variety of claims alleging property damage, liability, or bodily injury. Their main role is to investigate claims, negotiate settlements, and authorize payments to claimants, who are the policyholders who make a claim. They must be mindful not to violate their rights under Federal and State privacy laws. They must determine whether the customer’s insurance policy covers the loss and how much of the loss should be paid. Although many adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators have overlapping functions and may even perform the same tasks,  the insurance industry generally assigns specific roles to each of these claims workers. Adjusters plan and schedule the work required to process a claim. They might, for example, handle the claim filed after an automobile accident or after a storm damages a customer’s home. Adjusters investigate claims by interviewing the claimant and witnesses, consulting police and hospital records, and inspecting property damage to determine how much the company should pay for the loss. Adjusters may consult with other professionals, such as accountants, architects, construction workers, engineers, lawyers, and physicians, who can offer a more expert evaluation of a claim. The information gathered— including photographs and statements, either written, or recorded audio or video—is set down in a report that is then used to evaluate the claim. When the policyholder’s claim is approved, the claims adjuster negotiates with the claimant and settles the claim. When claims are contested, adjusters will work with attorneys and ­expert witnesses to defend the insurer’s position. Some large insurance companies centralize claims adjustment in a claims center, where the payout amount is estimated and a check is issued immediately. However, cases handled by independent adjusters, or those involving business losses or homeowner claims, such as hurricane or fire damage, all require a senior adjuster to physically inspect the damage and determine proper compensation. When it comes to business or residential loss caused by, for example, vandalism or flooding, claimants can opt not to rely on the insurance company’s adjuster and may instead choose to hire a public adjuster. Public adjusters are self employed and work in the best interest of the client, rather than the insurance company. In doing so, the adjuster prepares and presents claims to insurance companies, looking to negotiate the best possible settlement for the claimant. Insurance carriers also use the service of independent adjusters on a freelance basis, often in lieu of hiring them as regular employees. In this case the independent adjusters work in the interest of the insurance company. Claims examiners within property and casualty insurance firms may have duties similar to those of an adjuster, but often their primary job is to review claims after they are submitted in order to ensure that proper guidelines have been followed. They may assist adjusters with complicated claims or when, for instance, a natural disaster suddenly greatly increases the volume of claims. Most claims examiners work for life or health insurance companies. In health insurance companies, examiners review health-related claims to see whether costs are reasonable given the ­diagnosis. They use guides that have information on the average period of disability, expected treatments, and average hospital stays for various ailments. Examiners check claim applications for completeness and accuracy, interview medical specialists, and consult policy files to verify the information reported in a claim. They then authorize appropriate payment, deny the claim, or refer the claim to an investigator for a more thorough review. Claims examiners usually specialize in group or individual insurance plans and in hospital, dental, or prescription drug claims. In life insurance, claims examiners review the causes of death, particularly in the case of an accident, since most life  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 97  insurance policies pay additional benefits if a death is accidental. Claims examiners also may review new applications for life insurance to make sure that the applicants have no serious illnesses that would make them a high risk to insure. Another occupation that plays an important role in the accurate settlement of claims is that of the appraiser, whose role is to estimate the cost or value of an insured item. The majority of appraisers employed by insurance companies and independent adjusting firms are auto damage appraisers. These appraisers inspect damaged vehicles after an accident and estimate the cost of repairs. This information is then relayed to the adjuster, who incorporates the appraisal into the settlement. Many claims adjusters and auto damage appraisers are equipped with laptop computers from which they can download the necessary forms and files from insurance company data­ bases. Specialized software then generates estimates on standard forms. Adjusters also utilize digital cameras, which allow photographs of the damage to be sent to the company, allowing for faster and more efficient processing of claims. When adjusters or examiners suspect fraud, they refer the claim to an investigator. Insurance investigators handle claims in which the company suspects fraudulent or criminal activity, such as arson, falsified workers’ disability claims, staged accidents, or unnecessary medical treatments. The severity of insurance fraud cases can vary greatly, from claimants simply overstating damage to a vehicle to complicated fraud rings supported by dishonest doctors, lawyers, and even insurance ­personnel. Investigators usually start with a database search to obtain background information on claimants and witnesses. Investigators can access personal information and identify Social Security numbers, aliases, driver’s license numbers, addresses, phone numbers, criminal records, and past claims histories to establish whether a claimant has ever attempted insurance fraud. Then, investigators may visit claimants and witnesses to obtain an oral statement, take photographs, and inspect facilities, such as doctors’ offices, to determine, for example, whether the doctors have a proper license. Investigators often consult with legal counsel and can be expert witnesses in court cases. Often, investigators also perform surveillance work. For example, in a case involving fraudulent workers’ compensation claims, an investigator may covertly observe the claimant for several days or even weeks. If the investigator observes the subject performing an activity that is ruled out by injuries stated in a workers’ compensation claim, the investigator will take photos to document the activity and report it to the insurance company. Work environment. Working environments of claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators vary greatly. Many claims adjusters and auto damage appraisers often work outside the office, inspecting damaged buildings and automobiles. Adjusters who inspect damaged buildings must be wary of potential hazards, such as collapsed roofs and floors, as well as weakened structures. Some adjusters report to the office every morning to get their assignments, while others simply call in from home and spend their days traveling to claim sites. Occasionally, experienced adjusters must be away from home for days—for example,  when they travel to the scene of a disaster such as a tornado, hurricane, or flood—to work with local adjusters and government officials. Most claims examiners employed by life and health insurance companies work a standard 5-day, 40-hour week in a typical office environment. In contrast, adjusters often must arrange their work schedules to accommodate evening and weekend appointments with clients. This sometimes results in adjusters working irregular schedules, especially when they have a lot of claims to scrutinize. Adjusters are often called to work in the event of emergencies and may have to work 50 or 60 hours a week until all claims are resolved. Appraisers spend much of their time offsite at automotive body shops estimating vehicle damage costs. The remaining time may be spent working in the office. Many independent appraisers work from home, as continually improving valuation software has made estimating damage easier and more routine. Auto damage appraisers typically work regular hours, and rarely work on the weekends. Self employed appraisers also have the flexibility to make their own hours, as many appraisals are done by appointment. Some days, investigators will spend all day in the office, searching databases, making telephone calls, and writing reports. Other times, they may be away, performing surveillance activities or interviewing witnesses. Some of the work can involve disagreements with claimants, so the job can be stressful and potentially confrontational. Insurance investigators often work irregular hours because of the need to conduct ­surveillance and contact people who are not available during normal working hours. Early morning, evening, and weekend work is common.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training and entry requirements vary widely. Although many in these occupations do not have a college degree, most companies prefer to hire college graduates, or those with some insurancerelated work experience or vocational training. Education and training. There are no formal education requirements for any of these occupations, and a high school degree is typically the minimal requirement needed to obtain employment. However, most employers prefer to hire college  Claims adjusters evaluate insurance claims, report their findings, and make recommendations.  98 Occupational Outlook Handbook  graduates or people who have some insurance-related work experience or vocational training. While a variety of degrees can be an asset, no specific college major is recommended. For example, a claims adjuster who has a business or an accounting background might be suited to specialize in claims of financial loss due to strikes, breakdowns of equipment, or damage to merchandise. College training in architecture or engineering is helpful in adjusting industrial claims, such as those involving damage from fires or other accidents. A legal background can be beneficial to someone handling workers’ compensation and product liability cases. A medical background is useful for those examiners working on medical and life insurance claims. While auto damage appraisers are not required to have a college education, most companies prefer to hire persons with formal training, previous experience, or those with knowledge and technical skills who can identify and estimate the cost of repair. Many vocational colleges offer 2-year programs in auto body repair and teach students how to estimate the costs to repair damaged vehicles. For investigator jobs, most insurance companies prefer to hire people trained as law enforcement officers, private investigators, claims adjusters, or examiners because these workers have good interviewing and interrogation skills. Beginning claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators work on small claims under the supervision of an experienced worker. As they learn more about claims ­investigation and settlement, they are assigned larger, more complex claims. Trainees take on more responsibility as they demonstrate ­competence in handling assignments and progress in their coursework. Auto damage appraisers typically receive onthe-job training, which may last several months. This ­training ­usually involves of working under close supervision while estimating damage costs until the employer decides the trainee is ready to perform estimates on their own. Continuing education is very important for claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators because Federal and State laws and court decisions affect how claims are handled and the scope of insurance policies. Also, examiners working on life and health claims must be familiar with new medical procedures and prescription drugs. Examiners working on auto claims must be familiar with new car models and repair ­techniques. Many companies offer training sessions to inform their employees of industry changes, and a number of schools and ­associations give courses and seminars on various topics ­having to do with claims. Online courses are also making distance learning possible. Licensure.    Licensing requirements for claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators vary by State. Some States have few requirements, while others require either the completion of pre-licensing education, a satisfactory score on a licensing exam, or both. Earning a voluntary professional designation can sometimes substitute for completing an exam. In some States, claims adjusters employed by insurance companies can work under the company license and need not become licensed themselves. Public adjusters may need to meet separate or additional requirements. For example, some States  require public adjusters to file a surety bond—a unique contract between at least three parties. Some States that require licensing also require a certain number of continuing education credits per year in order to renew the license. Workers can fulfill their continuing education requirements by attending classes or workshops, by writing ­articles for claims publications, or by giving lectures and presentations. Other qualifications. Claims adjusters, appraisers, and examiners often work closely with claimants, witnesses, and other insurance professionals, so they must be able to communicate effectively with others. Knowledge of computer applications also is very helpful. In addition, a valid driver’s license and a good driving record are required for workers who must travel on the job. Some companies require applicants to pass a series of written tests designed to measure their communication, analytical, and general mathematical skills. When hiring investigators, employers look for individuals who have ingenuity and who are persistent and assertive. Investigators should not be afraid of confrontation, should communicate well, and should be able to think on their feet. Good interviewing and interrogation skills also are important and usually are acquired in earlier careers in law enforcement. Certification and advancement. Employees who demonstrate competence in claims work or administrative skills may be promoted to more responsible managerial or administrative jobs. Similarly, claims investigators may rise to become supervisor or manager of the investigations department. Once they achieve expertise, many choose to start their own independent adjusting or auto damage appraising firms. Numerous examiners and adjusters choose to earn professional certifications and designations to demonstrate their expertise. Although requirements for these designations vary, some entail a minimum number of years of experience and the successful completion of an examination; in addition, a certain number of continuing education credits must be earned each year to retain the designation.  Employment Adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators held about 306,300 jobs in 2008. Insurance carriers employed 49 percent of claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators; agencies, brokerages, and other insurance related activities, such as private claims adjusting companies, employed another 24 percent. Less than 4 percent of these jobs were held by auto damage insurance appraisers. About 2 percent of adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators were self-employed.  Job Outlook Overall employment is expected to increase as fast as average. For claims adjusters and examiners, opportunities will be best with health insurance companies. For appraiser jobs, opportunities will be best for those who have some vocational training and previous auto body repair experience. Keen competition is expected for investigator jobs as the number of applicants typically outnumbers the number of positions available. Employment change. Employment of claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators is expected to grow by 7 percent over the 2008–18 decade, as fast as average for all occupations. Employment growth of adjusters and claims ex-  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 99  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators............... Claims adjusters, examiners, and investigators.............................. Insurance appraisers, auto damage................................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  13-1030 13-1031 13-1032  306,300 294,600 11,700  Projected Employment, 2018 327,200 315,500 11,700  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 20,900 7 20,900 7 100 1  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  aminers will primarily stem from the growth of the health insurance industry. Rising health care premiums and attempts by large insurance carriers to minimize costs will result in a greater need for claims examiners to more scrupulously review a growing number of medical claims. More claims being made by a growing elderly population also should spur demand for adjusters and claims examiners. Although technology is reducing the amount of time it takes for an adjuster to complete a claim, thereby increasing the number of claims that one adjuster can handle, demand for these jobs will increase anyway because many tasks cannot be easily automated. Employment of insurance investigators is not expected to grow significantly, despite the expected increase in the number of claims in litigation and complexity of insurance fraud cases. Efficiencies gained through the Internet will continue to reduce the amount of time it takes investigators to perform background checks, allowing them to handle more cases. Little to no change in employment of auto damage appraisers is expected. Despite a growing number of drivers and auto insurance policies being sold by insurance companies, the number of claims being filed is not expected to increase as much as the number of policies as efforts to make vehicles, roads, and highways safer will yield a decrease in the number of claims per policy. Job prospects. Job opportunities for claims adjusters and examiners will be best in the health insurance industry as the industry seeks to minimize the number of paid claims, and in areas susceptible to natural disasters, such as the Gulf coast or West coast. Hurricanes in Florida or wild fires in California, for example, will continue to spur demand, and opportunities with smaller independent firms will be particularly good. And while technology has made the work more efficient, workers will still be needed to contact policyholders, inspect damaged property, and consult with experts. Numerous job openings also will result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. College graduates and those with previous related experience should have the best opportunities for jobs as claims adjusters, examiners, and investigators. Auto damage appraisers with related vocational training and auto body shop experience should have the best prospects. People entering these occupations with no formal training may find more opportunities with large insurance companies rather than small independent firms who prefer to hire experienced workers. Competition for investigator jobs will remain keen because the occupation attracts many qualified people, including ­retirees from law enforcement, the military, and experienced claims adjusters and examiners who choose to get an investigator license.  Heightened media and public awareness of insurance fraud also may attract qualified candidates to this occupation.  Earnings Median annual wages of wage and salary claims adjusters, examiners, and investigators were $55,760 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $42,400 and $70,860. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $34,140, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $84,260. Median annual wages of wage and salary auto damage ­insurance appraisers were $53,440 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $43,990 and $63,180. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $36,500, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $73,210. Many claims adjusters, especially those who work for insurance companies, receive additional bonuses or benefits as part of their job. Adjusters are often furnished with a laptop computer, a smart phone, and a company car, or are reimbursed for the use of their own vehicle for business purposes.  Related Occupations Property-casualty insurance adjusters and life and health insurance examiners must determine the validity of a claim and negotiate a settlement. They also are responsible for determining how much to reimburse the client. Occupations whose duties are related include:  Page Bill and account collectors....................................................... 561 Billing and posting clerks and machine operators................... 587 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks........................ 563 Cost estimators......................................................................... 100 Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks................................... 589 Medical records and health information technicians............... 423  In determining the validity of a claim, insurance adjusters must inspect the damage to assess the magnitude of the loss. Workers who perform similar duties include:  Page Construction and building inspectors....................................... 628 Fire inspectors and investigators.............................................. 525  To ensure that company practices and procedures are followed, property and casualty examiners review insurance claims to which a claims adjuster has already proposed a settlement. Other workers who review documents for accuracy and compliance with a given set of rules and regulations are: Accountants and auditors........................................................... 86 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents........................ 121  Auto damage appraisers must be familiar with the structure and functions of various automobiles and their parts. They must  100 Occupational Outlook Handbook  also be familiar with techniques to estimate value. The following workers have similar duties: Appraisers and assessors of real estate...................................... 90 Automotive body and related repairers.................................... 687 Automotive service technicians and mechanics....................... 690  Insurance investigators detect and investigate fraudulent claims and criminal activity. Their work is similar to that of: Private detectives and investigators.......................................... 477  Sources of Additional Information General information about a career as a claims adjuster, appraiser, examiner, or investigator is available from the home offices of many insurance companies. Information about licensing requirements for claims adjusters may be obtained from the department of insurance in each State. Information about the property-casualty insurance field can be obtained by contacting: hhInsurance Information Institute, 110 William St., New York, NY 10038. Internet: http://www.iii.org For information about professional designation and training programs, contact any of the following organizations: hhAmerican Institute for Chartered Property Casualty Underwriters and the Insurance Institute of America, 720 Providence Rd., Suite 100, Malvern, PA 19355–3433. Internet: http://www.aicpcu.org  hhInternational Claim Association, 1155 15th St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Internet: http://www.claim.org  hhNational Association of Public Insurance Adjusters, 21165 Whitfield Place, Suite 105, Potomac Falls, VA 20165. Internet: http://www.napia.com Information on careers in auto damage appraising can be obtained from: hhIndependent Automotive Damage Appraisers Association, P.O. Box 12291 Columbus, GA 31917–2291. Internet: http://www.iada.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos125.htm  Cost Estimators Significant Points  •	 About 59 percent of cost estimators work in the construction industry, and another 15 percent are employed by manufacturers.  •	 Good job opportunities are expected; those with in-  dustry work experience and a bachelor’s degree in a related field will have the best prospects.  •	 Voluntary certification can be beneficial to cost es-  timators; some employers may require professional certification for employment.  Nature of the Work Accurately forecasting the cost, size, and duration of future projects is vital to the survival of any business. Cost ­estimators develop the cost information that business owners and managers need to make a bid for a contract or to decide on the profitability of a proposed new project or product. They also ­determine which endeavors are making a profit. Regardless of the industry in which they work, estimators collect and analyze data on all of the factors that can affect costs, such as materials, labor, location, duration of the project, and special machinery requirements, including computer hardware and software. Job duties vary widely depending on the type and size of the project. The methods for estimating costs can also differ greatly by industry. On a large construction project, for example, the estimating process begins with the decision to submit a bid. After reviewing various preliminary drawings and specifications, the estimator visits the site of the proposed project. The estimator gathers information on access to the site; surface topography and drainage, and the availability of electricity, water, and other services. The estimator records this information, which may go in the final project estimate. After the site visit, the estimator determines the quantity of materials and the labor required to complete the firm’s part of the project. This process, called the quantity survey or “takeoff,” involves completing standard estimating forms, filling in dimensions, numbers of units, and other information. A cost estimator working for a general contractor, for example, estimates the costs of all of the items that the contractor must provide. Although subcontractors estimate their costs as part of their own bidding process, the general contractor’s cost estimator often analyzes bids made by subcontractors. Also during the takeoff process, the estimator must make decisions concerning equipment needs, the sequence of operations, the size of the crew required, and physical constraints at the site. Allowances for wasted materials, inclement weather, shipping delays, and other factors that may increase costs also must be incorporated in the estimate. After completing the quantity surveys, the estimator prepares a cost summary for the entire project, which includes the costs of labor, equipment, materials, subcontractors, overhead, taxes, insurance, markup, and any additional costs that may affect the project. The chief estimator then prepares the bid proposal for submission to the owner. On large construction projects, there may be several estimators, each specializing in one area, such as electrical work or excavation, concrete, and forms. Construction cost estimators also may be employed by the project’s architect, engineering firm, or owner to help establish a budget, manage and control project costs, and to track actual costs relative to bid specifications as the project develops. During construction, estimators may be employed to manage the cost of change orders and negotiate and settle and extra costs or mitigate potential claims. Estimators may also be called upon as expert witness on cost in a construction dispute case. In manufacturing, cost estimators usually are assigned to the engineering, cost, or pricing department. The estimator’s goal is to accurately estimate the costs associated with developing and producing products. The job may begin when management  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 101  Cost estimators develop information that business owners and managers need to determine the potential profitability of a new project or product. requests an estimate of the costs associated with a major redesign of an existing product or the development of a new product or production process. For example, when estimating the cost of manufacturing a new product, the estimator works with engineers, first reviewing blueprints or conceptual drawings to determine the machining operations, tools, gauges, and materials that will be required. The estimator then prepares a parts list and determines whether it would be more efficient to produce or to purchase the parts. To do this, the estimator asks for price information from potential suppliers. The next step is to determine the cost of manufacturing each component of the product. Some high-technology products require a considerable amount of computer programming during the design phase. The cost of software development is one of the fastest growing and most difficult activities to estimate. As a result, some cost estimators now specialize in estimating only computer software development and related costs. Thereafter, the cost estimator prepares time-phase charts and learning curves. Time-phase charts indicate the time required for tool design and fabrication, tool “debugging”—finding and correcting all problems—manufacturing of parts, assembly, and testing. Learning curves graphically represent the rate at which the performance of workers producing parts for the new product improves with practice. These curves are commonly called “cost reduction” curves, because many problems—such as ­engineering changes, rework, shortages of parts, and lack of operator skills—diminish as the number of units produced increases, resulting in lower unit costs. Using all of this information, the estimator then calculates the standard labor hours necessary to produce a specified number of units. Standard labor hours are then converted to dollar values, to which are added factors for waste, overhead, and profit to yield the unit cost in dollars. The estimator compares the cost of purchasing parts with the firm’s estimated cost of manufacturing them to determine which is less expensive. Computers play a vital role in cost estimation because the process often involves complex mathematical calculations and requires advanced mathematical techniques. For example, to undertake a parametric analysis (a process used to estimate costs per unit based on square footage or other specific require-  ments of a project), cost estimators use a computer database containing information on the costs and conditions of many other similar projects. Although computers cannot be used for the entire estimating process, they can relieve estimators of much of the drudgery associated with routine, repetitive, and time-consuming calculations. New and improved cost estimating software has lead to more efficient computations, leaving estimators more time to visit and analyze projects. Operations research, production control, cost, and price analysts who work for government agencies may do significant amounts of cost estimating in the course of their usual duties. In addition, the duties of construction managers may include estimating costs. (For more information, see the statements on operations research analysts and construction managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Work environment. Estimators spend most of their time in offices, but visits to construction worksites and factory floors are often needed for their work. In some industries, there may be frequent travel between a firm’s headquarters, its subsidiaries, and subcontractors. Estimators usually work a 40-hour week, but overtime is common. Cost estimators often work under pressure and stress, especially when facing bid deadlines. Inaccurate estimating can cause a firm to lose a bid or to lose money on a job that was not accurately estimated.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Job entry requirements for cost estimators will vary by industry. In the construction and manufacturing industries, employers increasingly prefer to hire cost estimators with a bachelor’s degree in a related field, although it is also possible for experienced construction workers to become cost estimators. Voluntary certification can be beneficial to cost estimators; some employers, including the Federal Government, may require professional certification for employment. Education and training. In the construction industry, employers increasingly prefer individuals with a degree in construction management, building science, or construction science, all of which usually include several courses in cost estimating. Most construction estimators also have considerable construction experience, gained through work in the industry, internships, or cooperative education programs; and for some estimators, years of experience can substitute for a degree in addition to taking classes in the field or getting an associate degree. Applicants with a thorough knowledge of construction materials, costs, and procedures in areas ranging from heavy construction to electrical work, plumbing systems, or masonry work have a competitive edge. In manufacturing industries, employers prefer to hire individuals with a degree in engineering, physical science, operations research, mathematics, or statistics or in accounting, finance, business, economics, or a related subject. In most industries, experience in quantitative techniques is important. Many colleges and universities include cost estimating as part of bachelor’s and associate degree curriculums in civil engineering, industrial engineering, information systems development, and construction management or construction engineering technology. In addition, cost estimating is often part of master’s degree programs in construction science or construction man-  102 Occupational Outlook Handbook  agement. Organizations representing cost estimators, such as the American Society of Professional Estimators (ASPE), the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE International) and the Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis (SCEA), also sponsor educational and professional development programs. These programs help students, estimatorsin-training, and experienced estimators learn about changes affecting the profession. Specialized courses and programs in cost-estimating techniques and procedures also are offered by many technical schools, community colleges, and universities. Estimators also receive long-term training on the job because every company has its own way of handling estimates. Working with an experienced estimator, newcomers become familiar with each step in the process. Those with no experience reading construction specifications or blueprints first learn that aspect of the work. Subsequently, they may accompany an experienced estimator to the construction site or shop floor, where they observe the work being done, take measurements, or perform other routine tasks. As they become more knowledgeable, estimators learn how to tabulate quantities and dimensions from drawings and how to select the appropriate prices for materials. Other qualifications. Cost estimators need to have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to analyze, compare, and interpret detailed but sometimes poorly defined information, and be able to make sound and accurate judgments based on this information. The ability to focus on details, while analyzing and managing larger obstacles, is vital. Assertiveness and self-assurance in presenting and supporting conclusions are also important, as are strong communications and interpersonal skills, because estimators may work as part of a team alongside managers, owners, engineers, and design professionals. Cost estimators also need to be proficient with computers and have skills in programming. Familiarity with cost estimation software, including commercial, and Building Information Modeling (BIM) software is beneficial. BIM software technology takes standard blueprints and creates three-dimensional models on the computer, allowing for better estimates of the building process. Proficiency in project management and the ability to incorporate work breakdown structure (WBS) techniques are increasingly important in cost estimating complex development projects. Certification and advancement. Voluntary certification can be beneficial to cost estimators because it provides professional recognition of the estimator’s competence and experience. In some instances, individual employers may even require professional certification for employment. The ASPE, AACE International, and SCEA administer certification programs. To become certified, estimators usually must have between 2 and 8 years of estimating experience and must pass a written examination. In addition, certification requirements may include the publication of at least one article or paper in the field.  For most estimators, advancement takes the form of higher pay and prestige. Some move into management positions, such as project manager for a construction firm, program manager for a government contractor, or manager of the industrial engineering department for a manufacturer. Others may go into business for themselves as consultants, providing estimating services for a fee to government or to construction or manufacturing firms.  Employment Cost estimators held about 217,800 jobs in 2008. About 59 percent of estimators were in the construction industry and another 15 percent were employed in manufacturing. The remainder worked in a wide range of other industries. Cost estimators work throughout the country, usually in or near major industrial, commercial, and government centers and in cities and suburban areas experiencing rapid change or development.  Job Outlook Employment is projected to grow much faster than average. Overall, good job opportunities are expected; those with industry work experience and a bachelor’s degree in a related field will have the best prospects. Employment change. Employment of cost estimators is expected to grow by 25 percent between 2008 and 2018, much faster than average for all occupations. Growth in the construction industry will account for most new jobs in this occupation. In particular, construction and repair of highways, streets, bridges, subway systems, airports, water and sewage systems, and electric power plants and transmission lines will stimulate the need for more cost estimators. Similarly, an increasing population will result in more construction of residential homes, hospitals, schools, restaurants, and other structures that require cost estimators. As the population ages, the demand for ­nursing and extended-care facilities will also increase. The growing complexity of ­construction projects will also boost demand for cost estimators as more workers specialize in a particular area of construction. Job prospects. Because there are no formal bachelor’s degree programs in cost estimating, some employers have difficulty recruiting qualified cost estimators, resulting in good employment opportunities. Job prospects in construction should be best for those who have a degree in construction science, construction management, or building science or have years of practical experience in the various phases of construction or in a specialty craft area. Knowledge of Building Information Modeling software would also be helpful. For cost estimating jobs in manufacturing, those who have degrees in mathematics, statistics, engineering, accounting, business administration, or  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Cost estimators...................................................................................  SOC Code 13-1051  Employment, 2008 217,800  Projected Employment, 2018 272,900  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 55,200 25  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 103  economics, and who are familiar with cost estimation software should have the best job prospects. In addition to job openings arising from employment growth, many additional openings should result annually from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations due to the sometimes stressful nature of the work, or who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons. Employment of cost estimators, like that of many other construction workers, is sensitive to the fluctuations of the economy. Workers in these trades may experience periods of unemployment when the overall level of construction falls. On the other hand, shortages of these workers may occur in some areas during peak periods of building activity.  Earnings Salaries of cost estimators vary widely by experience, education, size of firm, and industry. Median annual wages of wage and salary cost estimators in May 2008 were $56,510. The middle 50 percent earned between $42,720 and $74,320. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $33,150, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $94,470. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of cost estimators were: Nonresidential building construction..........................$65,410 Building equipment contractors....................................60,510 Building finishing contractors.......................................55,430 Residential building construction..................................55,390 Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors....................................................54,670  Related Occupations Other workers who quantitatively analyze cost information ­include:  Page Accountants and auditors........................................................... 86 Budget analysts.......................................................................... 93 Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators....... 96 Construction managers............................................................... 38 Economists............................................................................... 209 Financial analysts..................................................................... 103 Financial managers.................................................................... 52 Industrial production managers.................................................. 67 Insurance underwriters............................................................. 106 Loan officers............................................................................ 109 Market and survey researchers................................................. 212 Operations research analysts.................................................... 145 Personal financial advisors....................................................... 118  Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, certification, educational programs, and cost-estimating techniques may be obtained from: hhAACE International, 209 Prairie Ave., Suite 100, Morgantown, WV 26501. Internet: http://www.aacei.org  hhAmerican Society of Professional Estimators (ASPE), 2525 Perimeter Place Drive, Suite 103, Nashville, TN 37214. Internet: http://www.aspenational.org  hhSociety of Cost Estimating and Analysis, 527 Maple Ave. East, Suite 301, Vienna, VA 22180. Internet: http://www.sceaonline.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos006.htm  Financial Analysts Significant Points  •	 Financial analyst positions require a bachelor’s or master’s degree.  •	 Positions may also require professional licenses and certifications.  •	 Keen competition is anticipated for these highly paid positions.  •	 Financial analysts earn high wages. Nature of the Work Financial analysts provide guidance to businesses and individuals making investment decisions. Financial analysts assess the performance of stocks, bonds, commodities, and other types of investments. Also called securities analysts and investment ­analysts, they work for banks, insurance companies, mutual and pension funds, securities firms, the business media, and other businesses, making investment decisions or recommendations. Financial analysts study company financial statements and analyze commodity prices, sales, costs, expenses, and tax rates to determine a company’s value by projecting its future earnings. They often meet with company officials to gain a better insight into the firms’ prospects and management. Financial analysts can be divided into two categories: buy side analysts and sell side analysts. Analysts on the buy side work for companies that have a great deal of money to invest. These companies, called institutional investors, include mutual funds, hedge funds, insurance companies, independent money managers, and nonprofit organizations with large endowments. Buy side financial analysts devise investment strategies. Conversely, sell side analysts help securities dealers, such as banks and other firms, sell stocks, bonds, and other investments. The business media hire financial advisors that are supposed to be impartial, and occupy a role somewhere in the middle. Financial analysts generally focus on trends impacting a specific industry, region, or type of product. For example, an analyst will focus on a subject area such as the utilities industry, an area such as Latin America, or the options market. Firms with larger research departments assign analysts even narrower subject areas. They must understand how new regulations, policies, and political and economic trends may impact the investments they are watching. Risk analysts evaluate the risk in portfolio decisions, project potential losses, and determine how to limit potential losses and volatility using diversification, currency futures, derivatives, short selling, and other investment decisions.  104 Occupational Outlook Handbook  panies or potential investors, and face the pressure of deadlines. Much of their research must be done after office hours because their days are filled with telephone calls and meetings.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Financial analysts research and analyze financial data, helping managers make sound decisions. Some experienced analysts called portfolio managers supervise a team of analysts and select the mix of products, industries, and regions for their company’s investment portfolio. Hedge fund and mutual fund managers are called fund managers. Fund and portfolio managers frequently make split-second buy or sell decisions in reaction to quickly changing market conditions. These managers are not only responsible for the overall portfolio, but are also expected to explain investment decisions and strategies in meetings with investors. Ratings analysts evaluate the ability of companies or governments to pay their debts, including bonds. On the basis of their evaluation, a management team rates the risk of a company or government defaulting on its bonds. Other financial analysts perform budget, cost, and credit analysis as part of their ­responsibilities. Financial analysts use spreadsheet and statistical software packages to analyze financial data, spot trends, create portfolios, and develop forecasts. Analysts also use the data they find to measure the financial risks associated with making a particular investment decision. On the basis of their results, they recommend whether to buy, hold, or sell particular investments. Work environment. Financial analysts usually work in offices. They may work long hours, travel frequently to visit com-  Financial analysts must have a bachelor’s degree. Many positions require a master’s degree in finance or a Master of Business Administration (MBA). Positions may also require professional licenses and certifications. However, licenses and certifications are generally only earned after someone is hired. Education and training. A bachelor’s or graduate degree is required for financial analysts. Most companies require a bachelor’s degree in a related field, such as finance, business, accounting, statistics, or economics. An understanding of statistics, economics, and business is essential, and knowledge of accounting policies and procedures, corporate budgeting, and financial analysis methods is recommended. An MBA or a master’s degree in finance is often required. Advanced courses or knowledge of options pricing, bond valuation, and risk management are important. Licensure.    The Financial Industry Regulatory ­Authority (FINRA) is the main licensing organization for the securities industry. Depending on an individual’s work, different licenses may be required, although buy side analysts are less likely to need licenses. The majority of these licenses require ­sponsorship by an employer, so companies do not expect individuals to have these licenses before starting a job. Experienced workers who change jobs will need to have their licenses renewed with the new company. Other qualifications. Strong math, analytical, and problemsolving skills are essential qualifications for financial analysts. Good communication skills are necessary because these workers must present complex financial concepts and strategies. Self-confidence, maturity, and the ability to work independently are important. Financial analysts must be detail-oriented, motivated to seek out obscure information, and familiar with the workings of the economy, tax laws, and money markets. ­Although much of the software they use is proprietary, financial analysts must  be comfortable working with spreadsheets and statistical packages. With the increasing global diversification of investments, companies are assigning more financial analysts to cover foreign markets. These analysts normally specialize in one country, such as Brazil, or one region, such as Latin America. Companies prefer financial analysts to have the international experience necessary to understand the language, culture, business environment, and political conditions in the country or region that they cover. Certification and advancement. Although not always required, certifications enhance professional standing and are recommended by employers. Certifications are becoming increasingly common. Financial analysts can earn the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designation, sponsored by the CFA Institute. To qualify for this designation, applicants need a bachelor’s degree, four years of related work experience, and must pass three exams. Applicants can take the exams while they are obtaining the required work experience. Passing the exams requires several hundred hours of self-study. These ex-  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 105  ams cover subjects such as ­accounting, economics, securities analysis, ­financial markets and instruments, corporate finance, asset valuation, and portfolio management. Additional certifications are helpful for financial analysts who specialize in specific areas, such as risk ­management. Financial analysts advance by moving into positions where they are responsible for larger or more important products. They may supervise teams of financial analysts. They may become portfolio managers or fund managers, directing the investment portfolios of their companies or funds.  Employment Financial analysts held 250,600 jobs in 2008. Many financial analysts work at large financial institutions based in New York City or other major financial centers. About 47 percent of financial analysts worked in the finance and insurance industries, including securities and commodity brokers, banks and credit institutions, and insurance carriers. Others worked throughout private industry and government.  than double the national median wage. The middle 50 percent earned between $54,930 and $99,100. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $43,440, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $141,070. Annual performance bonuses are quite common and can be a significant part of their total earnings.  Related Occupations Other jobs requiring expertise in finance and investment ­include:  Page Accountants and auditors........................................................... 86 Actuaries.................................................................................. 125 Budget analysts.......................................................................... 93 Financial managers.................................................................... 52 Insurance sales agents.............................................................. 534 Insurance underwriters............................................................. 106 Personal financial advisors....................................................... 118 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents............................................................. 553  Job Outlook  Sources of Additional Information  Employment of financial analysts is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations. However, keen competition will continue for these well-paid jobs, especially for new entrants. Employment change. As the level of investment increases, overall employment of financial analysts is expected to increase by 20 percent during the 2008–18 decade, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. Primary factors for this growth are increasing complexity and global diversification of investments and growth in the overall amount of assets under management. As the number and type of mutual and hedge funds and the amount of assets invested in these funds increase, companies will need more financial analysts to research and recommend investments. As the international investment increases, companies will need more analysts to cover the global range of investment options. Job prospects. Despite employment growth, keen competition is expected for these high-paying jobs. Growth in financial services will create new positions, but there are still far more people who would like to enter the occupation. For those aspiring to financial analyst jobs, a strong academic background, including courses such as finance, accounting, and economics, is essential. Certifications and graduate degrees, such as a CFA certification or a master’s degree in business or finance, significantly improve an applicant’s prospects.  For general information on securities industry employment, contact: hhFinancial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), 1735 K St. NW. Washington, DC 20006. Internet: http://www.finra.org  Earnings Median annual wages, excluding bonuses, of wage and salary financial analysts were $73,150 in May 2008, which is more  hhSecurities Industry and Financial Markets Association, 120 Broadway, 35th Floor, New York, NY 10271.  Internet: http://www.sifma.org For information on financial analyst careers and training, contact: hhAmerican Academy of Financial Management, 200 L&A Rd., Suite B, Metairie, LA 70001. Internet: http://www.aafm.us For information on financial analyst careers and CFA certification, contact: hhCFA Institute, 560 Ray C. Hunt Dr., Charlottesville, VA 22903. Internet: http://www.cfainstitute.org For additional career information, see the ­Occupational Outlook Quarterly article “Financial analysts and personal ­financial advisors” online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/ 2000/summer/art03.pdf and in print at many libraries and career centers. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos301.htm  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Financial analysts...............................................................................  SOC Code 13-2051  Employment, 2008 250,600  Projected Employment, 2018 300,300  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 49,600 20  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  106 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Insurance Underwriters Significant Points  •	 Most large insurance companies prefer to hire candidates who have a bachelor’s degree or some insurance-related experience.  •	 Continuing education is necessary for advancement. •	 Employment is expected to decline slowly as the spread of automated underwriting software increases worker productivity  •	 Job opportunities should be best for those with strong computer skills and a background in finance.  Nature of the Work Insurance companies protect individuals and organizations from financial loss by assuming billions of dollars in risk each year—risks of car accident, property damage, illness, and ­other occurrences. Underwriters decide whether insurance is provided and, if so, under what terms. They identify and calculate the risk of loss from policyholders, establish who receives a policy, determine the appropriate premium, and write policies that cover this risk. An insurance company may lose business to competitors if risk underwriting is too conservative, or it may have to pay excessive claims if the underwriting actions are too liberal. Using sophisticated computer software, underwriters analyze information in insurance applications to determine whether a risk is acceptable and will not result in a loss. Insurance applications often are supplemented with reports from loss-control representatives, medical reports, reports from data vendors, and actuarial studies. Underwriters then must decide whether to issue the policy and, if so, determine the appropriate premium. In making this determination, underwriters consider a wide variety of factors about the applicant. For example, an underwriter working in health insurance will consider age, family history, lifestyle, and current health, whereas an underwriter working for a property-casualty insurance company is concerned with the causes of loss to which property is exposed, such as hurricanes or earthquakes, and the safeguards taken by the applicant. Therefore, underwriters serve as the main link between the insurance carrier and the insurance agent. Technology plays an important role in an underwriter’s job. Underwriters use computer applications called “smart” systems to calculate risks more efficiently and accurately. Such systems—also known as “automated underwriting systems”—analyze and rate insurance applications, recommend acceptance or denial of the risk, and adjust the premium rate according to the risk. To start the process, underwriters create software rules to screen applicants based on certain criteria, such as income and credit score for mortgage applicants or age and family medical history for life insurance applicants. After the software completes its assessment, underwriters can either approve or refute the decision, or, if it is questionable, request additional information from the applicant. These automated systems allow  underwriters to quickly make decisions and, in most cases, effectively make sound judgments and minimize losses. The Internet also has aided underwriters in their work. Many insurance carriers’ computer systems are linked to various databases on the Internet that allow immediate access to information—such as driving records and credit scores—necessary in determining a potential client’s risk. This kind of access reduces the time and paperwork needed for an underwriter to complete a risk assessment. Although there are many lines of insurance work, most underwriters specialize in one of four broad categories: life, health, mortgage, and property and casualty. Life and health insurance underwriters may further specialize in individual or group policies. An increasing proportion of insurance sales, particularly in life and health insurance, are being made through group contracts. A standard group policy insures everyone in a specified group through a single contract at a standard premium. The group underwriter analyzes the overall composition of the group to ensure that the total risk is not excessive. Another type of group policy provides members of a group—senior citizens, for example—with individual policies that reflect their particular needs. These usually are casualty policies, such as those covering automobiles. The casualty underwriter analyzes the application of each group member and makes individual appraisals. Some group underwriters meet with union or employer representatives to discuss the types of policies available to their group. Property and casualty underwriters specialize in either commercial or personal insurance and then by type of risk insured, such as fire, homeowners’, automobile, or marine. In cases where property-casualty companies provide insurance through a single “package” policy covering various types of risks, the underwriter must be familiar with different types of insurance. For business insurance, the underwriter should be able to evaluate the firm’s entire operation in appraising its application for insurance. Work environment. Underwriters mainly have sedentary desk jobs that do not require strenuous physical activity. Most underwriters are based in a company headquarters or regional branch office, but they occasionally attend meetings away from home. Construction and marine underwriters frequently travel to inspect worksites and assess risks. Although some overtime may be required, underwriters typically work a standard 40-hour week. Those in managerial positions often work more than 40 hours per week.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although there are no formal education requirements for becoming an underwriter, employers prefer candidates who have either a bachelor’s degree or insurance-related experience and strong computer skills. Much of what an underwriter does may be learned through on-the-job training, so the majority of underwriters start their careers as trainees. Education and training. For entry-level underwriting jobs, most large insurance companies prefer college graduates who have a degree in business administration or finance. However, a bachelor’s degree in almost any field—plus courses in busi-  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 107  Insurance underwriters review insurance applications and determine the appropriate premium to charge a customer. ness law and accounting—provides a good general background and may be sufficient to qualify entry-level jobseekers. Because computers are an integral part of most underwriters’ jobs, some coursework with computers is also beneficial. Still, many ­employers prefer to hire candidates who have several years of related experience in underwriting or insurance. New employees usually start as underwriter trainees or assistant underwriters. Under the supervision of an experienced risk analyst, beginning underwriters may help collect information on applicants and evaluate routine applications. Property and casualty trainees study claims files to become familiar with factors associated with certain types of losses. Many larger insurers offer work-study training programs, which generally last from a few months to a year. As trainees gain experience, they are assigned policy applications that are more complex and cover greater risks. The computer programs many underwriters use to assess risk are continually being updated, so on-the-job computer training may continue throughout an underwriter’s career. Other qualifications. Underwriters must pay attention to detail and possess good judgment to make sound decisions. Additionally, good communication and interpersonal skills are  beneficial because much of the underwriter’s work involves dealing with agents and other professionals. Certification and advancement. Continuing education is necessary for advancement, because changes in tax laws, government benefits programs, and other State and Federal ­regulations can affect the insurance needs of clients and businesses. Independent-study programs for experienced underwriters are also available. The Insurance Institute of America offers a training program for beginning underwriters. The Institute also offers the designation of Associate in Commercial Underwriting (ACU) for those starting a career in underwriting business insurance policies, or an Associate in Personal Insurance (API) for those interested in underwriting personal insurance policies. To earn either the ACU or API designation, underwriters complete a series of courses and examinations that generally last 1 to 2 years. The American Institute for Chartered Property Casualty ­Underwriters awards the Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriter (CPCU) designation to experienced underwriters. Earning the CPCU designation requires passing eight exams, having at least 3 years of insurance experience, and abiding by the Institute’s and CPCU Society’s code of professional ethics. The American College offers the equivalent Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU) designation and the Registered Health Underwriter (RHU) designation for life and health insurance professionals. For those new to the industry, the American College also offers the Life Underwriter Training Council Fellow (FUTCF), an introductory course that teaches basic insurance concepts. Experienced underwriters who complete courses of study may advance to senior underwriter or underwriting manager positions. Some underwriting managers are promoted to senior managerial jobs, but these managers often need a master’s degree. Other underwriters are attracted to the earnings potential of sales and, therefore, obtain State licenses to sell insurance and related financial products as agents or brokers.  Employment Insurance underwriters held about 102,900 jobs in 2008. Insurance carriers employed 67 percent of all underwriters. Most of the remaining underwriters work in insurance agencies and ­brokerages. Most underwriters are based in the insurance company’s home office. But some, mainly in the property and casualty area, work out of regional branch offices of the insurance company. These underwriters usually have the authority to underwrite most risks and determine an appropriate rating without consulting the home office.  Job Outlook Although employment is expected to decline slowly, job prospects will remain good because of high turnover. Employment change. Employment of underwriters is expected to decline 4 percent during the 2008-18 decade. Demand for underwriters will continue to be offset by automation and technological advancement—factors that have resulted, in large part, to stagnant employment levels over the past two decades. For example, upgrades to underwriting software have helped  108 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Insurance underwriters.......................................................................  SOC Code 13-2053  Employment, 2008 102,900  Projected Employment, 2018 98,700  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent -4,300 -4  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  increase underwriter productivity. Automated underwriting quickly rates and analyzes ­insurance applications, reducing the need for underwriters. In addition, adoption of this technology into other segments of insurance, such as life and health and long-term care, will continue to impede employment growth through the projection period, although at a slower rate than in the past. Nonetheless, even as automated underwriting continues to be ­adopted and upgrades to underwriting software makes workers more ­productive, the need for humans to verify information will continue. Additionally, some demand for underwriters may arise as insurance carriers try to restore profitability. As the carriers’ returns on their investments have declined, insurers may place more emphasis on underwriting to generate revenues. An expected increase in sales of health insurance and long-term care insurance, designed specifically for the elderly, also may result in some new jobs. As members of the baby-boom generation grow older and a growing share of the Nation’s population moves into the older age groups, more people are expected to purchase these kinds of insurance products. Job prospects. Job opportunities should be best for those with experience in related insurance jobs, a background in finance, and strong computer and communication skills. The need to replace workers who retire or transfer to another occupation will create many job openings. In fact, high turnover will account for most job openings. High turnover among underwriters results, in part, from the limited upward mobility of workers in the occupation—a scenario that is likely to continue through the projections decade (2008-18). New and emerging fields of insurance may also be a source of job opportunities for underwriters. Insurance carriers are always assessing new risks and offering new types of policies to meet changing circumstances. Underwriters are needed particularly in product development, where they assess risks and set the premiums for new lines of insurance. Growing demand for long-term care insurance—a relatively new product offered by insurance carriers—may also provide some job opportunities for underwriters.  group life and health insurance. Insurance companies usually pay tuition for underwriting courses that their trainees complete, and some also offer salary incentives.  Earnings  Information on the CLU and RHU designations can be ­obtained from hhThe American College, 270 S. Bryn Mawr Ave., Bryn Mawr, PA 19010. Internet: http://www.theamericancollege.edu  Median annual wages of wage and salary insurance underwriters were $56,790 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $43,490 and $76,700 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $35,010, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $99,940. Median annual wages of underwriters working with insurance carriers were $57,480, while underwriters’ median annual wages in agencies, brokerages, and ­other insurance-related activities were $54,410. Insurance companies usually provide better-than-average benefits, including retirement plans and employer-financed  Related Occupations Underwriters make decisions based on financial and statistical data. Other occupations with similar responsibilities include the following:  Page Accountants and auditors........................................................... 86 Actuaries.................................................................................. 125 Budget analysts.......................................................................... 93 Cost estimators......................................................................... 100 Credit analysts.......................................................................... 823 Financial managers.................................................................... 52 Loan officers............................................................................ 109  Other related jobs in the insurance industry include Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators..................................................................... 96 Insurance sales agents.............................................................. 534  Sources of Additional Information Information about a career as an insurance underwriter is available from the home offices of many insurance companies. Information about the property-casualty insurance field can be obtained by contacting hhInsurance Information Institute, 110 William St., New York, NY 10038. Internet: http://www.iii.org Information on the underwriting function and the CPCU and AU designations can be obtained from hhAmerican Institute for Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters and Insurance Institute of America, 720 Providence Rd., Suite 100, Malvern, PA 19355. Internet: http://www.aicpcu.org  hhCPCU Society, 720 Providence Rd., Malvern, PA 19355. Internet: http://www.cpcusociety.org  The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos026.htm  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 109  Loan Officers Significant Points  •	 Nearly 9 out of 10 loan officers work for commercial  banks, savings institutions, credit unions, and related financial institutions.  •	 Educational requirements range from a high school  diploma for many loan officers to a bachelor’s ­degree for commercial loan officers; previous banking, lending, or sales experience is highly valued.  •	 Good job opportunities are expected for mortgage  and consumer loan officers and excellent opportunities are expected for commercial loan officers.  •	 Earnings often fluctuate with the number of loans  generated, rising substantially when the economy is strong and interest rates are low.  Nature of the Work Many individuals take out loans to buy a house, car, or pay for a college education. Businesses use loans to start companies, purchase inventory, or invest in capital equipment. Loan ­officers facilitate this lending by finding potential clients and helping them to apply for loans. Loan officers gather information to determine the likelihood that individuals and businesses will repay the loan. Loan officers may also provide guidance to prospective borrowers who have problems qualifying for traditional loans. For example, loan officers might determine the most appropriate type of loan for a particular customer and explain specific requirements and restrictions associated with the loan. Loan officers usually specialize in commercial, consumer, or mortgage loans. Commercial or business loans help companies pay for new equipment or expand operations. Consumer loans include home equity, automobile, and personal loans. Mortgage loans are loans made to purchase real estate or to refinance an existing mortgage. Loan officers guide clients through the process of applying for a loan. The process begins with the client contacting the bank through a phone call, visiting a branch, or filling out a Web-based loan application. The loan officer obtains basic information from the client about the purpose of the loan and the applicant’s ability to pay the loan. The loan officer may need to explain the different types of loans and credit terms available to the applicant. Loan officers answer questions about the process and sometimes assist clients in filling out the ­application. After a client completes an application, the loan officer begins the process of analyzing and verifying the information on the application to determine the client’s creditworthiness. Often, loan officers can quickly access the client’s credit history by using underwriting software that determines if a client is eligible for the loan. When a credit history is not available or when unusual financial circumstances are present, the loan officer may request additional financial information from the client or, in the case of commercial loans, copies of the company’s financial statements. Commercial loans are often too complex  Loan officers guide clients through the loan application ­process. for a loan officer to rely solely on underwriting software. The variety in companies’ financial statements and varying types of collateral require human judgment. Collateral is any asset, such as a factory, house, or car, owned by the borrower that becomes the property of the bank if the loan is not repaid. Loan officers comment on, and verify, the information of a loan application in a loan file, which is used to analyze whether the prospective loan meets the lending institution’s requirements. Loan officers then decide, in consultation with their managers, whether to grant the loan. Commercial loans are sometimes so large—for example, the loan needed to build a new shopping mall—that a single bank will not lend all of the money. In this case, a commercial loan officer may work with other banks or investment bankers to put together a package of loans from multiple sources to finance the project. In many instances, loan officers act as salespeople. Commercial loan officers, for example, contact firms to determine their needs for loans. If a firm is seeking new funds, the loan officer will try to persuade the company to obtain the loan from his or her institution. Similarly, mortgage loan officers develop relationships with commercial and residential real estate agencies, so that when an individual or firm buys a property, the real estate agent might recommend contacting a specific loan officer for financing. Some loan officers, called loan underwriters, specialize in evaluating a client’s creditworthiness and may conduct a financial analysis or other risk assessment. Other loan officers, referred to as loan collection officers, contact borrowers with delinquent loan accounts to help them find a method of repayment to avoid their defaulting on the loan. If a repayment plan cannot be developed, the loan collection officer initiates collateral liquidation, in which the lender seizes the collateral used to secure the loan—a home or car, for example—and sells it to repay the loan.  110 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Work environment. Working as a loan officer usually involves considerable work outside the office. For example, commercial and mortgage loan officers frequently work away from their offices and rely on laptop computers and cellular telephones to keep in contact with their employers and clients. Mortgage loan officers often work out of their home or car, visiting offices or homes of clients to complete loan applications. Commercial loan officers sometimes travel to other cities to prepare complex loan agreements. Consumer loan officers, however, are likely to spend most of their time in an office. Most loan officers work a standard 40-hour week, but many work longer, depending on the number of clients and the demand for loans. Mortgage loan officers can work especially long hours because they are free to take on as many customers as they choose. Loan officers are especially busy when interest rates are low, causing a surge in loan applications.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Loan officers need a high school diploma and receive on-thejob training. Commercial loan officer positions often require a bachelor’s degree in finance, economics, or a related field. Previous banking, lending, or sales experience is also highly valued by employers. Education and training. Loan officer positions generally require a high school degree. Loan officers receive on-the-job training consisting of some formal company-sponsored training and informal training on the job over their first few months of employment. Commercial loan officer positions often require a bachelor’s degree in finance, economics, or a related field. Because commercial loan officers analyze the finances of businesses applying for credit, they need to understand business accounting, financial statements, and cash flow analysis. Loan officers often advance to their positions after gaining ­experience in various other related occupations, such as teller or customer service representative. Licensure.   Recent federal legislation requires that all mortgage loan officers be licensed. Licensing requirements include at least 20 hours of coursework, passing a written exam, passing a background check, and having no felony convictions. There are also continuing education requirements for mortgage loan officers to maintain their licenses. There are currently no specific licensing requirements for other loan officers. Other qualifications. People planning a career as a loan officer should be good at working with others, confident, and highly motivated. Loan officers must be willing to attend community events as representatives of their employer. Sales ability, good interpersonal and communication skills, and a strong desire to succeed also are important qualities for loan officers. Banks generally require their employees to pass a background  check. Most employers also prefer applicants who are familiar with computers and banking and financial software. Certification and advancement. Capable loan officers may advance to larger branches of their firms or to managerial positions. Some loan officers advance to supervise other loan officers and clerical staff. Various banking associations and private schools offer courses and programs for students interested in lending and for experienced loan officers who want to keep their skills current. For example, the Bank Administration Institute, an ­affiliate of the American Banker’s Association, offers the Loan Review Certificate Program for people who review and approve loans. The Mortgage Bankers Association offers the Certified Mortgage Banker (CMB) designation to loan officers in real estate finance. The association offers three CMB designations: residential, commerce, and master to candidates who have 3 years of experience, earn educational credits, and pass an exam. Completion of these courses and programs generally enhances employment and advancement opportunities.  Employment Loan officers held about 327,800 jobs in 2008. Nearly 9 out of 10 loan officers were employed by commercial banks, savings institutions, credit unions, and related financial institutions. Loan officers are employed throughout the Nation, but most work in urban and suburban areas. At some banks, particularly in rural areas, the branch or assistant manager often handles the loan application process.  Job Outlook Loan officers can expect average employment growth. Good job opportunities should exist for loan officers. Employment change. Employment of loan officers is projected to grow 10 percent between 2008 and 2018, which is about as fast as the average for all occupations. Employment growth will be driven by economic expansion and population increases—factors that generate demand for loans. Growth will be partially offset by increased automation that speeds the lending process and by the growing use of the Internet to apply for and obtain loans. However, these changes have also reduced the cost and complexity associated with refinancing loans, which could increase the number of loans originated. The use of automated underwriting software has made the loan evaluation process much simpler than in the past. Underwriting software allows loan officers—particularly loan underwriters—to evaluate many more loans in less time. In addition, the mortgage application process has become highly automated and standardized, a simplification that has enabled mortgage loan vendors to offer their services over the Internet. Online vendors accept loan applications from customers over the Internet and determine which lenders have the best interest rates  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Loan officers......................................................................................  SOC Code 13-2072  Employment, 2008 327,800  Projected Employment, 2018 360,900  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 33,000 10  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 111  for particular loans. With this knowledge, customers can go directly to the lending institution, thereby bypassing mortgage loan brokers. Shopping for loans on the Internet is expected to become more common in the future and to slow job growth for loan officers. Job prospects. Most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who retire or otherwise leave the occupation permanently. Good job opportunities should exist for mortgage and consumer loan officers. College graduates and those with banking, lending, or sales experience should have the best job prospects. Excellent opportunities should exist for commercial loan officers as banks report having a hard time finding qualified candidates. Job opportunities for loan officers are influenced by the volume of applications, which is determined largely by interest rates and by the overall level of economic activity. Although loans remain a major source of revenue for banks, demand for new loans fluctuates and affects the income and employment opportunities of loan officers. An upswing in the economy or a decline in interest rates often results in a surge in real estate buying and mortgage refinancing, requiring loan officers to work long hours processing applications and inducing lenders to hire additional loan officers. Loan officers often are paid by commission on the value of the loans they place, and when the real estate market slows they often suffer a decline in earnings and may even be subject to layoffs. The same applies to commercial loan officers, whose workloads increase during good economic times as companies seek to invest more in their businesses. In difficult economic conditions, an increase in the number of delinquent loans results in more demand for loan collection officers.  Earnings Median annual wages of wage and salary loan officers were $54,700 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $39,710 and $76,860. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $30,850, while the top 10 percent earned more than $106,360. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of loan officers were as follows: Federal Executive Branch...........................................$69,070 Management of companies and enterprises..................58,100 Nondepository credit intermediation............................54,240 Activities related to credit intermediation.....................54,140 Depository credit intermediation..................................53,490  The form of compensation for loan officers varies. Most are paid a commission based on the number of loans they originate. Some institutions pay only salaries, while others pay their loan officers a salary plus a commission or bonus based on the number of loans or the performance of the loans that they originated. Loan officers who are paid on commission usually earn more than those who earn only a salary, and those who work for smaller banks generally earn less than those employed by larger institutions. Earnings often fluctuate with the number of loans generated, rising substantially when the economy is strong and interest rates are low.  Related Occupations Loan officers help people manage financial assets and secure loans. Occupations that involve similar functions include:  Page Financial analysts..................................................................... 103 Insurance sales agents.............................................................. 534 Insurance underwriters............................................................. 106 Loan counselors....................................................................... 823 Personal financial advisors....................................................... 118 Real estate brokers and sales agents........................................ 540 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents.............................................. 553  Sources of Additional Information Information about a career as a mortgage loan officer can be obtained from: hhMortgage Bankers Association, 1331 L St. NW., Washington, DC 20005. Internet: http://www.mortgagebankers.org State bankers’ associations can furnish specific information about job opportunities in their State. Also, individual banks can supply information about job openings and the activities, responsibilities, and preferred qualifications of their loan ­officers. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos018.htm  Management Analysts Significant Points  •	 Despite 24 percent employment growth, keen com-  petition is expected for jobs; opportunities should be best for those with a graduate degree, specialized expertise, and a talent for salesmanship and public ­relations.  •	 About  26 percent, three times the average for all ­occupations, are self-employed.  •	 A bachelor’s degree is sufficient for many entry-level  government jobs; many positions in private industry require a master’s degree, specialized ­expertise, or both.  Nature of the Work As business becomes more complex, firms are continually faced with new challenges. They increasingly rely on ­management analysts to help them remain competitive amidst these ­changes. Management analysts, often referred to as management ­consultants in private industry, analyze and propose ways to improve an organization’s structure, efficiency, or profits. For example, a small but rapidly growing company might employ a consultant who is an expert in just-in-time invento-  112 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Management analysts collect and analyze information in order to make recommendations to managers. ry management to help improve its inventory-control system. In another case, a large company that has recently acquired a new division may hire management analysts to help reorganize the corporate structure and eliminate duplicate or nonessential jobs. In recent years, information technology and electronic commerce have provided new opportunities for management analysts. Companies hire consultants to develop strategies for entering and remaining competitive in the new electronic marketplace. (For information on computer specialists working in consulting, see the following statements elsewhere in the ­Handbook: computer software engineers; computer systems analysts; computer scientists; and computer programmers.) Management analysts might be single practitioners or part of large international organizations employing thousands of other consultants. Some analysts and consultants specialize in a specific industry, such as healthcare or telecommunications, while others specialize by type of business function, such as human resources, marketing, logistics, or information systems. In government, management analysts tend to specialize by type of agency. The work of management analysts and consultants varies with each client or employer and from project to project. Some projects require a team of consultants, each specializing in one area. In other projects, consultants work independently with the organization’s managers. In all cases, analysts and consultants collect, review, and analyze information in order to make recommendations to managers. Both public and private organizations use consultants for a variety of reasons. Some lack the internal resources needed to handle a project, while others need a consultant’s expertise to determine what resources will be required and what problems may be encountered if they pursue a particular opportunity. To retain a consultant, a company first solicits proposals from a number of consulting firms specializing in the area in which it needs assistance. These proposals include the estimated cost and scope of the project, staffing requirements, references from previous clients, and a completion deadline. The company then selects the proposal that best suits its needs. Some firms, however, employ internal management consulting groups rather than hiring outside consultants. After obtaining an assignment or contract, management analysts first define the nature and extent of the problem that  they have been asked to solve. During this phase, they analyze relevant data—which may include annual revenues, employment, or expenditures—and interview managers and employees while observing their operations. The analysts or consultants then develop solutions to the problem. While preparing their ­recommendations, they take into account the nature of the organization, the relationship it has with others in the industry, and its internal organization and culture. Insight into the problem often is gained by building and solving mathematical models, such as one that shows how inventory levels affect costs and product delivery times. Once they have decided on a course of action, consultants report their findings and recommendations to the client. Their suggestions usually are submitted in writing, but oral presentations regarding findings are also common. For some projects, management analysts are retained to help implement their suggestions. Like their private-sector colleagues, management analysts in government agencies try to increase efficiency and worker productivity and to control costs. For example, if an agency is planning to purchase personal computers, it must first determine which type to buy, given its budget and data-processing needs. In this case, management analysts would assess the prices and characteristics of various machines and determine which ones best meet the agency’s needs. Analysts may manage contracts for a wide range of goods and services to ensure quality performance and to prevent cost overruns. Work environment. Management analysts usually divide their time between their offices and the client’s site. In either situation, much of an analyst’s time is spent indoors in clean, well-lit offices. Because they must spend a significant portion of their time with clients, analysts travel frequently. Analysts and consultants generally work at least 40 hours a week. Uncompensated overtime is common, especially when project deadlines are approaching. Analysts may experience a great deal of stress when trying to meet a client’s demands, ­often on a tight schedule. Self-employed consultants can set their workload and hours and work at home. On the other hand, their livelihood depends on their ability to maintain and expand their client base. Salaried consultants also must impress potential clients to get and keep clients for their company.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Entry requirements for management analysts vary. For some entry-level positions, a bachelor’s degree is sufficient. For others, a master’s degree or specialized expertise is required. Education and training. Educational requirements for entry-level jobs in this field vary between private industry and government. Many employers in private industry generally seek individuals with a master’s degree in business administration or a related discipline. Some employers also require additional years of experience in the field or industry in which the worker plans to consult. Other firms hire workers with a bachelor’s degree as research analysts or associates and promote them to consultants after several years. Some government agencies require experience, graduate education, or both, but many also  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 113  hire people with a bachelor’s degree and little work experience for entry-level management analyst positions. Few universities or colleges offer formal programs in management consulting; however, many fields of study provide a suitable educational background for this occupation because of the wide range of areas addressed by management analysts. Common fields of study include business, management, ­accounting, marketing, economics, statistics, computer and information science, or engineering. Most analysts also have years of experience in management, human resources, information technology, or other specialties. Analysts also routinely attend conferences to keep abreast of current developments in their field. Other qualifications. Management analysts often work with minimal supervision, so they need to be self-motivated and disciplined. Analytical skills, the ability to get along with a wide range of people, strong oral and written communication skills, good judgment, time-management skills, and creativity are other desirable qualities. The ability to work in teams also is an important attribute as consulting teams become more common. Certification and advancement. As consultants gain experience, they often become solely responsible for specific projects, taking on more responsibility and managing their own hours. At the senior level, consultants may supervise teams working on more complex projects and become more involved in seeking out new business. Those with exceptional skills may eventually become partners in the firm and focus on attracting new clients and bringing in revenue. Senior consultants who leave their consulting firms often move to senior management positions at non-consulting firms. Others with entrepreneurial ambition may open their own firms. A high percentage of management consultants are self-­ employed, in part because business startup and overhead costs are low. Since many small consulting firms fail each year because of lack of managerial expertise and clients, persons interested in opening their own firm must have good organizational and marketing skills. Several years of consulting experience are also helpful. The Institute of Management Consultants USA, Inc. offers the Certified Management Consultant (CMC) designation to those who meet minimum levels of education and experience, submit client reviews, and pass an interview and exam covering the IMC USA’s Code of Ethics. Management consultants with a CMC designation must be recertified every 3 years. Certification is not mandatory for management consultants, but it may give a jobseeker a competitive advantage.  Employment Management analysts held about 746,900 jobs in 2008. About 26 percent of these workers, three times the average for all ­occupations, were self-employed. Management analysts are  found throughout the country, but employment is concentrated in large metropolitan areas. Management analysts work in a range of industries, including management, scientific, and technical consulting firms; computer systems design and related services firms; and Federal, State, and local governments.  Job Outlook Employment of management analysts is expected to grow 24 percent, much faster than the average for all occupations. Despite projected rapid employment growth, keen competition is expected for jobs as management analysts because the independent and challenging nature of the work and the high earnings potential make this occupation attractive to many. Employment change. Employment of management analysts is expected to grow by 24 percent, much faster than the average, over the 2008–18 decade, as industry and government increasingly rely on outside expertise to improve the performance of their organizations. Job growth is projected in very large consulting firms with international expertise and in smaller consulting firms that specialize in specific areas, such as biotechnology, healthcare, information technology, human resources, engineering, and marketing. Growth in the number of individual practitioners may be hindered by increasing use of consulting teams that are often more versatile. Job growth for management analysts will be driven by a number of changes in the business environment that have forced firms to take a closer look at their operations. These changes include regulatory changes, developments in information technology, and the growth of electronic commerce. In addition, as firms try to solve regulatory changes due to the current economic credit and housing crisis, consultants will be hired to render advice on the recovery process. Firms will also hire information technology consultants who specialize in “green” or environmentally safe use of technology management consulting to help lower energy consumption and implement “green” initiatives. Traditional companies hire analysts to help design intranets, company Web sites, or to establish online businesses. New Internet startup companies hire analysts not only to design Web sites but also to advise them in traditional business practices, such as pricing strategies, marketing, and inventory and human resource management. To offer clients better quality and a wider variety of services, consulting firms are partnering with traditional computer software and technology firms. Also, many computer firms are developing consulting practices of their own to take advantage of this expanding market. Although information technology consulting should remain one of the fastest growing consulting areas, employment in the computer services industry can be volatile, and so the most successful management analysts may also consult in other business areas.  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Management analysts.........................................................................  SOC Code 13-1111  Employment, 2008 746,900  Projected Employment, 2018 925,200  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 178,300 24  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  114 Occupational Outlook Handbook  The growth of international business will also contribute to an increase in demand for management analysts. As U.S. firms expand their business abroad, many will hire management analysts to help them form the right strategy for entering the market; to advise them on legal matters pertaining to specific countries; or to help them with organizational, administrative, and other issues, especially if the U.S. company is involved in a partnership or merger with a local firm. These trends provide management analysts with more opportunities to travel or work abroad but also require them to have a more comprehensive knowledge of international business and foreign cultures and languages. Just as globalization creates new opportunities for management analysts, it also allows U.S. firms to hire management analysts in other countries; however, because international work is expected to increase the total amount of work, this development is not expected to adversely affect employment in this occupation. Furthermore, as international and domestic markets become more competitive, firms will need to use resources more efficiently. Management analysts will be increasingly sought to help reduce costs, streamline operations, and develop marketing strategies. As this process expands and as businesses downsize, even more opportunities will be created for analysts to perform duties that were previously handled internally. Finally, more management analysts will also be needed in the public sector, as Federal, State, and local government agencies seek to improve efficiency. Job prospects. Despite rapid employment growth, keen competition is expected. The pool of applicants from which employers can draw is quite large, since analysts can have very diverse educational backgrounds and work experience. Furthermore, the independent and challenging nature of the work, combined with high earnings potential, makes this occupation attractive to many. Job opportunities are expected to be best for those with a graduate degree, specialized expertise, and a talent for salesmanship and public relations. Economic downturns can also have adverse effects on employment for some management consultants. In these times, businesses look to cut costs, and consultants may be considered an excess expense. On the other hand, some consultants might experience an increase in work during recessions because they advise businesses on how to cut costs and remain profitable.  Earnings Salaries for management analysts vary widely by years of experience and education, geographic location, specific expertise, and size of employer. Generally, management analysts employed in large firms or in metropolitan areas have the highest salaries. Median annual wages of wage and salary management analysts in May 2008 were $73,570. The middle 50 percent earned between $54,890 and $99,700. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $41,910 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $133,850. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of management analysts were: Computer systems and design related services...........$82,090 Management, scientific, and technical consulting services....................................................81,670 Federal Executive Branch.............................................79,830 Management of companies and enterprises..................73,760 State government...........................................................55,590  Salaried management analysts usually receive common benefits, such as health and life insurance, a retirement plan, vacation, and sick leave, as well as less common benefits, such as profit sharing and bonuses for outstanding work. In addition, all travel expenses usually are reimbursed by the employer. ­Self-employed consultants have to maintain their own office and provide their own benefits.  Related Occupations Management analysts collect, review, and analyze data; make recommendations; and implement their ideas. Occupations with similar duties include:  Page Accountants and auditors........................................................... 86 Budget analysts.......................................................................... 93 Cost estimators......................................................................... 100 Economists............................................................................... 209 Financial analysts..................................................................... 103 Market and survey researchers................................................. 212 Operations research analysts.................................................... 145 Personal financial advisors....................................................... 118  Some management analysts specialize in information technology and work with computers, similar to: Computer scientists.................................................................. 132 Computer systems analysts...................................................... 140  Most management analysts also have managerial experience similar to that of: Administrative services managers.............................................. 29 Advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers................................................................. 32 Financial managers.................................................................... 52 Human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists......................................... 61 Industrial production managers.................................................. 67 Top executives............................................................................ 83  Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities in management consulting is available from: hhAssociation of Management Consulting Firms, 370 Lexington Ave., Suite 2209, New York, NY 10017. Internet: http://www.amcf.org Information about the Certified Management Consultant designation can be obtained from: hhInstitute of Management Consultants USA, Inc., 2025 M St. NW., Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036. Internet: http://www.imcusa.org Information on obtaining a management analyst position with the Federal Government is available from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) through USAJOBS, the Federal Government’s official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.opm.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724-1850 or TDD (978) 461-8404. These numbers are not toll free, and charges may result. For advice on how to find and apply for Federal jobs, see the Occupational Outlook Quarterly  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 115  article “How to get a job in the Federal Government,” online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2004/summer/art01.pdf. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos019.htm  Meeting and Convention Planners Significant Points  •	 People with a variety of educational or work backgrounds can become meeting and convention planners.  •	 Planners often work long hours in the period prior to  and during a meeting or convention, and extensive travel may be required.  •	 Employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations.  •	 Opportunities will be best for individuals with a bachelor’s degree and some experience as a meeting planner.  Nature of the Work Meetings and conventions bring people together for a common purpose, and meeting and convention planners work to ensure that this purpose is achieved seamlessly. Planners coordinate every detail of meetings and conventions, from the speakers and meeting location to arranging for printed materials and audiovisual equipment. The first step in planning a meeting or convention is determining the purpose, message, or impression that the sponsoring organization wants to communicate. Planners increasingly focus on how meetings affect the goals of their organizations; for example, they may survey prospective attendees to find out what motivates them and how they learn best. A more recent option for planners is to decide whether the meeting or convention can achieve goals in a virtual format versus the traditional meeting format. Virtual conferences are offered over the Internet where attendees view speakers and exhibits online. After this decision is made, planners then choose speakers, entertainment, and content, and arrange the program to present the organization’s information in the most effective way. Meeting and convention planners search for prospective meeting sites, primarily hotels and convention or conference centers. When choosing a site, the planner considers who the prospective attendees are and how they will get to the meeting. Being close to a major airport is important for organizations that have attendees traveling long distances who are pressed for time. The planner may also select a site based on its attractiveness to increase the number of attendees. Once they have narrowed down possible locations for the meeting, planners issue requests for proposals to all possible meeting sites in which they are interested. These requests state the meeting dates and outline the planner’s needs for the meet-  ing or convention, including meeting and exhibit space, lodging, food and beverages, telecommunications, audio-visual requirements, transportation, and any other necessities. The establishments respond with proposals describing what space and services they can supply, and at what price. Meeting and convention planners review these proposals and either make recommendations to the clients or management or choose the site themselves. Once the location is selected, meeting and convention ­planners arrange support services, coordinate with the facility, prepare the site staff for the meeting, and set up all forms of electronic communication needed for the meeting or convention, such as e-mail, voice mail, video, and online communication. Meeting logistics, the management of the details of meetings and conventions, such as labor and materials, is another major component of the job. Planners register attendees and issue name badges, coordinate lodging reservations, and arrange transportation. They make sure that all necessary supplies are ordered and transported to the meeting site on time, that meeting rooms are equipped with sufficient seating and audio-visual equipment, that all exhibits and booths are set up properly, and that all materials are printed. They also make sure that the meeting adheres to fire and labor regulations and oversee food and beverage distribution. There also is a financial management component of the work. Planners negotiate contracts with facilities and suppliers. These contracts, which have become increasingly complex, are often drawn up more than a year in advance of the meeting or convention. Contracts often include clauses requiring the planner to book a certain number of rooms for meetings in order to qualify for space discounts and imposing penalties if the rooms are not filled. Therefore, it is important that the planner closely estimates how many people will attend the meeting based on previous meeting attendance and current circumstances. Planners must also oversee the finances of meetings and conventions. They are given overall budgets by their organizations and must create a detailed budget, forecasting what each aspect of the event will cost. Additionally, some planners oversee meetings that ­contribute significantly to their organization’s operating budget and must ensure that the event meets income goals. An important part of the work is measuring how well the meeting’s purpose was achieved. After determining what the objectives are, planners try to measure if objectives were met and if the meeting or conference was a success. The most common way to gauge their success is to have attendees fill out surveys about their experiences at the event. Planners can ask specific questions about what sessions were attended, how well organized the event appeared, how they felt about the overall experience, and ask for suggestions on how to improve the next event. If the purpose of a meeting or convention is publicity, a good measure of success would be how much press coverage the event received. A more precise measurement of meeting success, and one that is gaining importance, is return on investment. Planners compare the costs and benefits of an event and show whether it was worthwhile to the organization. For example, if a company holds a meeting to motivate its employees and  116 Occupational Outlook Handbook  improve company morale, the planner might track employee turnover before and after the meeting. Some aspects of the work vary by the type of organization for which planners work. Those who work for associations must market their meetings to association members, convincing members that attending the meeting is worth their time and expense. Marketing is usually less important for corporate ­meeting planners because employees are generally required to attend company meetings. Corporate planners usually have shorter time frames in which to prepare their meetings. Planners who work in Federal, State, and local governments must learn how to operate within established government procedures, such as procedures and rules for procuring materials and booking lodging for government employees. Government meeting ­planners also need to be aware of any potential ethics violations. Convention service managers, meeting professionals who work in hotels, convention centers, and similar establishments, act as liaisons between the meeting facility and planners who work for associations, businesses, or governments. They present food service options to outside planners, coordinate special requests, suggest hotel services based on the planner’s budget, and otherwise help outside planners present effective meetings and conventions in their facilities. In large organizations or those that sponsor large meetings or conventions, meeting professionals are more likely to specialize in a particular aspect of meeting planning. Some ­specialties are conference coordinators, who handle most of the meeting logistics; registrars, who handle advance registration and payment, name badges, and the set-up of on-site registration; and education planners, who coordinate the meeting content, including speakers and topics. In organizations that hold very large or complex meetings, there may be several senior positions, such as manager of registration, education seminar ­coordinator, or conference services director, with the entire meeting planning department headed by a department director. Work environment. The work of meeting and convention planners may be considered either stressful or energizing, but there is no question that it is fast-paced and demanding. Planners oversee multiple operations at one time, face numerous deadlines, and orchestrate the activities of several different groups of people. Meeting and convention planners spend the majority of their time in offices, but during meetings, they work on-site at the hotel, convention center, or other meeting location. They travel regularly to attend meetings and to visit prospective meeting sites. The extent of travel depends upon the type of organization for which the planner works. Local and regional organizations require mostly regional travel, while national and international organizations require travel to more distant locales, including travel abroad. Work hours can be long and irregular, with planners working more than 40 hours per week in the time leading up to a meeting and fewer hours after finishing a meeting. During meetings or conventions, planners may work very long days, starting as early as 5:00 a.m. and working until midnight. They are sometimes required to work on weekends. Some physical activity is required, including long hours of standing and walking and some lifting and carrying of boxes of materials, exhibits, or supplies. Planners work with the public  Meeting and convention planners search for prospective meeting sites, primarily hotels and convention or conference ­centers. and with workers from diverse backgrounds. They may get to travel to luxurious hotels and interesting places and meet speakers and meeting attendees from around the world, while enjoying a high level of autonomy.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement People with a variety of educational or work backgrounds become meeting and convention planners. Many migrate into the occupation after gaining planning experience. For example, an administrative assistant may begin planning small meetings and gradually move into a full-time position as a meeting and convention planner. Although there are some certification programs and college courses in meeting and convention planning available, most needed skills are learned through experience. Education and training. Many employers prefer applicants who have a bachelor’s degree, but this is not always required. The proportion of planners with a bachelor’s degree is increasing because the work and responsibilities are becoming more complex. Other planners enter the profession by gaining planning experience while working in another position, such as administrative assistant. Others enter the occupation after working in hotel sales or as marketing or catering coordinators. These are effective ways to learn about meeting and convention planning because these hotel personnel work with numerous meeting planners, participate in negotiations for hotel services, and witness many different meetings. Workers who enter the occupation in these ways often start at a higher level than those with bachelor’s degrees and no experience. Planners with college degrees have backgrounds in a variety of disciplines, but some useful undergraduate majors are marketing, public relations, communications, business, and hotel or hospitality management. Individuals who have studied hospitality management may start out with greater responsibilities than those with other academic backgrounds.  College students may also gain experience by planning meetings for a university organization or club. Several universities offer bachelor’s or master’s degrees with majors in meetings management. Additionally, meeting and convention planning continuing education programs are offered  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 117  by a few universities and colleges. These programs are designed for career development of meeting professionals as well as for people wishing to enter the occupation. Some programs may require 40 to more than 100 classroom hours and may last anywhere from 1 semester to 2 years. Once hired, most of the training is done informally on the job. Entry-level planners generally begin by performing small tasks under the supervision of senior meeting professionals. For example, they may issue requests for proposals and discuss the resulting proposals with higher level planners. They also may ­assist in registration, review of contracts, or the creation of meeting timelines, schedules, or objectives. They may start by planning small meetings, such as committee meetings. Those who start at small organizations have the opportunity to learn more quickly since they will be required to take on a larger number of tasks. Other qualifications. Because meeting and convention planners communicate with a wide range of people, they must have excellent written and verbal communications skills and interpersonal skills in order to convey the needs of the organization effectively. In addition, they must be good at establishing and maintaining relationships with clients and suppliers. Meeting and convention planners must be detail-oriented with excellent organizational skills, and they must be able to multi-task, meet tight deadlines, and maintain composure under pressure in a fast-paced environment. Quantitative and analytic skills are needed to formulate and follow budgets and to ­understand and negotiate contracts. The ability to speak multiple languages is a plus, since some planners must communicate with meeting attendees and speakers from around the world. Planners also need computer skills, such as the ability to use financial and registration software and the Internet. Certification and advancement. To advance in this occupation, planners must volunteer to take on more responsibility and find new and better ways of doing things in their organizations. The most important factors are demonstrated skill on the job, determination, and gaining the respect of others within the organization. Because formal education is increasingly important, those who enter the occupation may enhance their professional standing by enrolling in meeting planning courses offered by professional meeting and convention planning organizations, colleges, or universities. As meeting and convention planners prove themselves, they are given greater responsibilities. This may mean taking on a wider range of duties or moving to another planning specialty to gain experience in that area before moving to a higher level. For example, a planner may be promoted from conference coordinator, with responsibility for meeting logistics, to program coordinator, with responsibility for booking speakers and formatting the meeting’s program. The next step up may be meeting manager, who supervises all parts of the meeting, and then  director of meetings, and then possibly department director of meetings and education. Another path for promotion is to move from a small organization to a larger one, taking on responsibility for larger meetings and conventions. The Convention Industry Council offers the Certified ­Meeting Professional (CMP) credential, a voluntary certification for meeting and convention planners. Although the CMP is not required, it is widely recognized in the industry and may help in career advancement. To qualify, candidates must have a minimum of 3 years of meeting management experience, fulltime employment in a meeting management capacity, and proof of accountability for successfully completed meetings. Those who qualify must then pass an examination that covers topics such as adult learning, financial management, facilities and services, logistics, and meeting programs. The Society of Government Meeting Professionals (SGMP) offers the Certified Government Meeting Professional credential. This certification is not required to work as a government meeting planner. It may, however, be helpful to those who want to demonstrate knowledge of issues specific to planning government meetings, such as regulations and policies governing procurement and travel. To qualify for certification, candidates must have at least 1  year of membership in SGMP. Membership requires employment as a meeting planner within Federal, State, or local government or for a firm that works on government contracts. To become certified, members must take a 3-day course and pass an exam. With significant experience, meeting planners may become independent meeting consultants, advance to vice president or executive director of an association, or start their own meeting planning firms.  Employment Meeting and convention planners held about 56,600 jobs in 2008. About 27 percent worked for religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations and 14 percent worked for accommodation, including hotels and motels. The remaining worked for educational services, public and private, and in other industries that host meetings. About 6 percent of meeting planners were self-employed.  Job Outlook Employment of meeting and convention planners is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations. Opportunities will be best for individuals with a bachelor’s degree and some meeting planning experience. Employment change. Employment of meeting and convention planners is expected to grow 16 percent over the 2008-18 decade, which is faster than the average for all occupations. As businesses and organizations become increasingly international, meetings and conventions become even more important. In  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Meeting and convention planners......................................................  SOC Code 13-1121  Employment, 2008 56,600  Projected Employment, 2018 65,400  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 8,800 16  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  118 Occupational Outlook Handbook  organizations that span the country or the globe, the periodic meeting is increasingly the only time the organization can bring all of its members together. Despite the proliferation of alternative forms of communication, such as e-mail, videoconferencing, and the Internet, face-to-face interaction is still irreplaceable. In fact, these new forms of communication which foster interaction and connect individuals and groups that previously would not have collaborated actually increase the demand for meetings by these new groups and individuals. Industries that are experiencing high growth tend to experience corresponding growth in meetings and conferences. Job prospects. In addition to openings from employment growth, there will be some job openings that arise due to the need to replace workers who leave this occupation. Opportunities will be best for individuals with a bachelor’s degree and some meeting planning experience. A CMP is also viewed favorably by potential employers. The skills that meeting planners develop are useful in whichever industry they work. They often do not need industryspecific knowledge, which allows them to change industries relatively easily. There will also be opportunities for freelance meeting planners to contract with organizations that do not maintain meeting planners on staff. Demand for corporate meeting planners is susceptible to business cycle fluctuations because meetings are usually among the first expenses cut when budgets are tight. For associations, fluctuations are less pronounced because meetings are generally a source of revenue rather than an expense. However, since fewer people are able to attend association meetings during recessions, associations often reduce their meeting staff as well. Associations for industries such as healthcare, in which meeting attendance is required for professionals to maintain their licensure, are the least likely to experience cutbacks during downturns in the economy.  Sources of Additional Information For information about meeting planner certification, contact: hhConvention Industry Council, 700 N. Fairfax St., Suite 510, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.conventionindustry.org For information about the Certified Government Meeting Professional designation, contact: hhSociety of Government Meeting Professionals, 908 King St., Lower Level, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.sgmp.org For information about internships and on-campus student meeting planning organizations, contact: hhProfessional Convention Management Association, 2301 S. Lake Shore Dr., Suite 1001, Chicago, IL 60616-1419. Internet: http://www.pcma.org For information about meeting planning education, entering the profession, and career paths, contact: hhMeeting Professionals International, 3030 Lyndon B Johnson Fwy., Suite 1700, Dallas, TX 75234-2759. Internet: http://www.mpiweb.org For additional career information about meeting and convention planners, see the Occupational Outlook ­Quarterly article “Meeting and convention planners,” online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2005/fall/art03.pdf. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos298.htm  Personal Financial Advisors  Earnings Median annual wages of meeting and convention planners in May 2008 were $44,260. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,480 and $57,820. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $27,450, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $74,610. In May 2008, median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of meeting and convention planners were as follows: Management, scientific, and technical consulting services..................................................$49,600 Business, professional, labor, political, and similar organizations...........................................47,670 Other support services...................................................44,290 Colleges, universities, and professional schools...........41,860 Traveler accommodation...............................................41,470  Related Occupations Other occupations that have similar planning and organizing responsibilities include:  Page Food service managers............................................................... 55 Lodging managers...................................................................... 70 Public relations specialists....................................................... 350 Travel agents............................................................................ 557  Significant Points  •	 Most personal financial advisors have a bachelor’s degree.  •	 Math, analytical, and interpersonal skills are important.  •	 Keen  competition is anticipated for these highly paid positions, despite much faster than average job growth.  •	 About 29 percent of personal financial advisors are self-employed.  Nature of the Work Personal financial advisors assess the financial needs of individuals and assist them with investments, tax laws, and insurance decisions. Advisors help their clients identify and plan for short-term and long-term goals. Advisors help clients plan for retirement, education expenses, and general investment ­choices. Many also provide tax advice or sell insurance. Although most planners offer advice on a wide range of topics, some specialize in areas such as retirement and estate planning or risk management.  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 119  the general public. Private bankers manage portfolios for these individuals using the resources of the bank, including teams of financial analysts, accountants, lawyers, and other professionals. Private bankers sell these services to wealthy individuals, generally spending most of their time working with a small number of clients. Private bankers normally directly manage their customers’ finances. Work environment. Personal financial advisors usually work in offices or their own homes. Personal financial advisors usually work standard business hours, but they also schedule meetings with clients in the evenings or on weekends. Many also teach evening classes or hold seminars to bring in more clients. Some personal financial advisors spend a fair amount of their time traveling, to attend conferences or training sessions or to visit clients. Private bankers also generally work during standard business hours, but because they work so closely with their clients, they may have to be available outside normal hours upon request.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Personal financial advisors usually work with many clients and often must find their own customers. Personal financial advisors usually work with many clients and often must find their own customers. Many personal financial advisors spend a great deal of their time marketing their services. Many advisors meet potential clients by giving seminars or through business and social networking. Finding clients and building a customer base is one of the most important aspects of becoming a successful financial advisor. Financial advisors begin work with a client by setting up a consultation. This is usually an in-person meeting where the advisor obtains as much information as possible about the client’s finances and goals. The advisor creates a comprehensive financial plan that identifies problem areas, makes recommendations for improvement, and selects appropriate investments ­compatible with the client’s goals, attitude toward risk, and expectation or need for investment returns. Advisors sometimes seek advice from financial analysts, accountants, or lawyers. Financial advisors usually meet with established clients at least once a year to update them on potential investments and adjust their financial plan to any life changes—such as marriage, disability, or retirement. Financial advisors also answer clients’ questions regarding changes in benefit plans or the consequences of changing their job. Financial planners must educate their clients about risks and possible scenarios so that the clients don’t harbor unrealistic expectations. Many personal financial advisors are licensed to directly buy and sell financial products, such as stocks, bonds, derivatives, annuities, and insurance products. Depending upon the agreement they have with their clients, personal financial advisors may have their clients’ permission to make decisions regarding the buying and selling of stocks and bonds. Private bankers or wealth managers are personal financial advisors who work for people who have a lot of money to invest. Because they have so much capital, these clients resemble institutional investors and approach investing differently from  Personal financial advisors must have a bachelor’s degree. Many also earn a master’s degree in finance or business administration or get professional designations. Math, analytical, and interpersonal skills are important. Education and training. A bachelor’s or graduate degree is strongly preferred for personal financial advisors. Employers usually do not require a specific field of study for personal financial advisors, but a bachelor’s degree in accounting, finance, economics, business, mathematics, or law provides good preparation for the occupation. Courses in investments, taxes, estate planning, and risk management are also helpful. Programs in financial planning are becoming more available in colleges and universities. Licensure.   Personal financial advisors who directly buy or sell stocks, bonds, insurance policies, or specific investment advice need a combination of licenses that varies based upon the products they sell. In addition to those licenses, smaller firms that manage clients’ investments must be registered with state regulators, and larger firms must be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Personal financial advisors who choose to sell insurance need licenses issued by State boards. State licensing board information and requirements for registered investment advisors are available from the North American Securities Administrator Association. Other qualifications. Personal financial advisors need strong math, analytical, and interpersonal skills. They need strong sales ability, including the ability to make a wide-range of customers feel comfortable. Personal financial advisor training emphasizes the different types of investors, and how to tailor advice to the investor’s personality. They need the ability to present financial concepts to clients in easy-to-understand language. Some advisors have experience in a related occupation, such as accountant, auditor, insurance sales agent, or broker. Private bankers may have previously worked as a financial analyst and need to understand and explain highly technical investment strategies and products. Certification and advancement. Although not always required, certifications enhance professional standing and are  120 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Personal financial advisors.................................................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  13-2052  208,400  Projected Employment, 2018 271,200  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 62,800 30  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  recommended by employers. Personal financial advisors may obtain the Certified Financial Planner (CFP) credential. This certification, issued by the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards, requires 3 years of relevant experience; the completion of education requirements, including a bachelor’s degree; passing a comprehensive examination, and adherence to a code of ethics. The exam tests the candidate’s knowledge of the financial planning process, insurance and risk management, employee benefits planning, taxes and retirement planning, and investment and estate planning. Candidates are also required to have a working knowledge of debt management, planning liability, emergency fund reserves, and statistical modeling. Personal financial advisors have several different paths to advancement. Those who work in firms may move into managerial positions. Others may choose to open their own branch offices for securities firms and serve as independent registered representatives of those firms.  Employment Personal financial advisors held 208,400 jobs in May 2008. Jobs were spread throughout the country, although a significant number are located in New York, California, and Florida. About 63 percent worked in finance and insurance industries, including securities and commodity brokers, banks, insurance ­carriers, and financial investment firms. About 29 percent of personal financial advisors were self-employed, operating small investment advisory firms.  Job Outlook Employment of personal financial advisors is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations. Despite strong job growth, keen competition will continue for these well paid jobs, especially for new entrants. Employment change. Personal financial advisors are projected to grow by 30 percent over the 2008–18 period, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. Growing numbers of advisors will be needed to assist the millions of workers expected to retire in the next 10 years. As more members of the large baby boom generation reach their peak years of retirement savings, personal investments are expected to increase and more people will seek the help of experts. Many companies also have replaced traditional pension plans with retirement savings programs, so more individuals are managing their own retirements than in the past, creating jobs for advisors. In addition, as people are living longer, they should plan to finance longer retirements. The growing number and assets of very wealthy individuals will help drive growth of private bankers and wealth managers. The need for private bankers to explain and manage increasing complexity of financial and investment products will continue to drive growth.  Job prospects. Personal financial advisors will face keen competition, as relatively low barriers to entry and high ­wages attract many new entrants. Many individuals enter the field by working for a bank or full-service brokerage. Because the ­occupation requires sales, people who have strong selling skills will ultimately be most successful. A college degree and certification can lend credibility.  Earnings Median annual wages of wage and salary personal financial advisors were $69,050 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $46,390 and $119,290. Personal financial advisors who work for financial services firms are often paid a salary plus bonus. Bonuses are not included in the wage data listed here. Advisors who work for financial investment or planning firms or who are self-employed typically earn their money by charging a percentage of the clients’ assets under management. They may also earn money by charging hourly fees for their services or through fees on stock and insurance purchases. Advisors generally receive commissions for financial products they sell, in addition to charging a fee. Wages of self-employed workers are not included in the earnings given here.  Related Occupations Other jobs requiring expertise in finance and investment or in the sale of financial products include:  Page Accountants and auditors........................................................... 86 Actuaries.................................................................................. 125 Budget analysts.......................................................................... 93 Financial analysts..................................................................... 103 Financial managers.................................................................... 52 Insurance sales agents.............................................................. 534 Insurance underwriters............................................................. 106 Real estate brokers and sales agents........................................ 540 Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents............................................................. 553  Sources of Additional Information For general information on securities industry employment, contact: hhFinancial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), 1735 K St. NW., Washington, DC 20006. Internet: http://www.finra.org  hhSecurities Industry and Financial Markets Association, 120 Broadway, 35th Floor, New York, NY 10271. Internet: http://www.sifma.org For information on state and federal investment advisor ­registration, contact: hhNorth American Securities Administrator Association, 750 First St. NE., Suite 1140, Washington, DC 20002. Internet: http://www.nasaa.org  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 121  hhSecurities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 100 F St. NE., Washington, DC 20549. Internet: http://www.sec.gov For information on personal financial advisor careers, contact: hhCertified Financial Planner Board of Standards, Inc., 1425 K St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Internet: http://www.cfp.net  hhFinancial Planning Association, 4100 E. Mississippi Ave., Suite 400, Denver, CO 80246-3053. Internet: http://www.fpanet.org For additional career information, see the Occupational Outlook Quarterly article “Financial analysts and personal financial advisors” online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/ 2000/summer/art03.pdf and in print at many libraries and ­career centers. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos302.htm  Tax Examiners, Collectors, and Revenue Agents Significant Points  •	 Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents work for Federal, State, and local governments.  •	 Many workers have a bachelor’s degree, but relevant experience is important for many jobs.  •	 Employment is expected to grow as fast as the av-  erage, while retirements should create additional job openings.  •	 Competition will be greatest for positions with the ­Internal Revenue Service.  Nature of the Work Taxes are one of the certainties of life, and as long as governments collect taxes, there will be jobs for tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents. By reviewing tax returns, conducting audits, identifying taxes payable, and collecting overdue tax dollars, these workers ensure that governments obtain revenues from businesses and citizens. Tax examiners do similar work, whether they are employed at the Federal, State, or local government level. They review filed tax returns for accuracy and determine whether tax credits and deductions are allowed by law. Because many States assess individual income taxes based on the taxpayer’s reported Federal adjusted gross income, tax examiners working for the Federal Government report any adjustments or corrections they make to the States. State tax examiners then determine whether the adjustments affect the taxpayer’s State tax liability. At the local level, tax examiners often have additional duties, but an integral part of the work still includes the need to determine the factual basis for claims for refunds.  Tax examiners usually deal with the simplest tax returns— those filed by individual taxpayers with few deductions or those filed by small businesses. At the entry level, many tax examiners perform clerical duties, such as reviewing tax returns and entering them into a computer system for processing. If there is a problem, tax examiners may contact the taxpayer to resolve it. Tax examiners also review returns for accuracy, checking taxpayers’ math and making sure that the amounts that they report match those reported from other sources, such as employers and banks. In addition, examiners verify that Social Security numbers match names and that taxpayers have correctly interpreted the instructions on tax forms. Much of a tax examiner’s job involves making sure that tax credits and deductions claimed by taxpayers are legitimate. Tax examiners contact taxpayers by mail or telephone to address discrepancies and request supporting documentation. They may notify taxpayers of any overpayment or underpayment and either issue a refund or request further payment. If a taxpayer owes additional taxes, tax examiners adjust the total amount by assessing fees, interest, and penalties and notify the taxpayer of the total liability. Although most tax examiners deal with uncomplicated returns, some may work with more complex tax issues, such as pensions or business net operating losses. Revenue agents specialize in tax-related accounting work for the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and for equivalent agencies in State and local governments. Like tax examiners, they audit returns for accuracy. However, revenue agents handle complicated income, sales, and excise tax returns of businesses and large corporations. As a result, their work differs in a number of ways from that of tax examiners. Entry-level Federal revenue agents usually audit tax returns of small businesses whose market specializations are similar. As they develop expertise in an industry, such as construction, retail sales, or finance, insurance, and real estate, revenue agents work with tax returns of large corporations. Many experienced revenue agents specialize; for example, they may focus exclusively on multinational businesses. But all revenue agents working for the Federal Government must keep abreast of the lengthy, complex, and frequently changing tax code. Computer technology has simplified the research process, allowing revenue agents Internet access to relevant legal bulletins, IRS notices, and tax-related court decisions. Revenue agents also use computers to analyze data and identify trends that help pinpoint tax offenders. At the State level, revenue agents have duties similar to those of their counterparts in the Federal Government. State revenue agents use revenue adjustment reports forwarded by the IRS to determine whether adjustments made by Federal revenue agents affect a taxpayer’s taxable income in the eyes of the States. In addition, State agents consider the sales and income taxes for their own States. At the local level, revenue agents have varying titles and duties, but they still perform field audits or office audits of financial records for business firms. In some cases, local revenue agents also examine financial records of individuals. These ­local agents, like their State counterparts, rely on the information contained in Federal tax returns. However, local agents also  122 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Many tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents have a bachelor’s degree, but relevant experience is important for many jobs. must be knowledgeable enough to apply local tax laws regarding income, utility fees, or school taxes. Collectors, also called revenue officers in the IRS, deal with delinquent accounts. The process of collecting a delinquent ­account starts with the revenue agent or tax examiner sending a report to the taxpayer. If the taxpayer makes no effort to resolve the delinquent account, the case is assigned to a collector. When a collector takes a case, he or she first sends the taxpayer a notice. The collector then works with the taxpayer on how to settle the debt. In cases in which taxpayers fail to file a tax return, Federal collectors may request that the IRS prepare the return on a taxpayer’s behalf. In other instances, collectors are responsible for verifying claims that delinquent taxpayers cannot pay their ­taxes. They investigate these claims by researching court information on the status of liens, mortgages, or financial statements; locating assets through third parties, such as neighbors or local departments of motor vehicles; and requesting legal summonses for other records. Ultimately, collectors must decide whether the IRS should take a lien—a claim on an asset such as a bank account, real estate, or an automobile—to settle a debt. Collectors also have the discretion to garnish wages— that is, take a portion of earned wages—to collect taxes owed. A big part of a collector’s job at the Federal level is imposing and following up on delinquent taxpayers’ payment deadlines. For each case file, collectors must maintain records, including contacts, telephone numbers, and actions taken. Like tax examiners and revenue agents, collectors use computers to maintain files. Computer technology also gives ­collectors access to data to help them identify high-risk ­debtors—those who are unlikely to pay or are likely to flee. Collectors at the IRS usually work independently. However, they call on experts when tax examiners or revenue agents find fraudulent returns,  or when the seizure of a property will involve complex legal steps. At the State level, collectors decide whether to take action by reviewing tax returns filed in the State where they work. Collection work may be handled over the telephone or turned over to a collector who specializes in obtaining settlements. These collectors contact people directly and have the authority to issue subpoenas and request seizures of property. At the local levels, collectors have less power than their State and Federal counterparts. Although they can start the processes leading to the seizure of property and garnishment of wages, they must go through the local court system. Work environment. Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents work in clean, pleasant, and comfortable office settings. Depending upon work assignment, travel may be necessary. Revenue agents at both the Federal and State levels spend a significant portion of their time in the offices of private firms, accessing tax-related records. Some agents may be permanently stationed in the offices of large corporations with complicated tax structures. Agents at the local level usually work in city halls or municipal buildings. Collectors travel to local courthouses, county and municipal seats of government, businesses, and taxpayers’ homes to look up records, search for assets, and settle delinquent accounts. Stress can result from the need to work under a deadline. Collectors also must face the unpleasant task of confronting delinquent taxpayers. Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents generally work a 40-hour week, although some overtime might be needed during the tax season. State and local tax examiners, who may review sales, gasoline, and cigarette taxes instead of handling tax returns, may have a steadier workload year-round.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Many tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents have a bachelor’s degree. But relevant experience, or a combination of postsecondary education and experience, is sufficient qualification for many jobs. Specialized experience is sufficient to qualify for many jobs in State and local government. Education and training. In the Federal Government, workers must have a bachelor’s degree or a combination of some college education and related experience. After being hired by the IRS, employees can expect to attend several multiweek training seminars. In State and local governments, workers often have an associate degree, some college-level business classes and specialized experience, or a high school diploma and specialized experience. For more advanced entry-level positions, applicants often must have a bachelor’s degree. Candidates may sometimes qualify without a bachelor’s degree, however, if they can demonstrate experience working with tax records, tax laws and regulations, documents, financial accounts, or similar ­records. Specific education and training requirements vary by occupational specialty. Tax examiners usually must have a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related discipline or a combination of education and full-time accounting, auditing, or tax compliance work. Tax examiner candidates at the IRS must have a bachelor’s degree  Management, Business, and Financial Occupations 123  or one year of full-time specialized experience, which could include full-time work in accounting, bookkeeping, or tax analysis. After they are hired, tax examiners receive some formal training. In addition, annual employer-provided updates keep tax examiners current with changes in procedures and regulations. Collectors usually must have some combination of college education and experience in collections, management, customer service, or tax compliance, or as a loan officer or credit manager. A bachelor’s degree is required for employment as a collector with the IRS. No additional experience is required, and experience may not be substituted for the degree. Degrees in business, finance, accounting, and criminal justice are good backgrounds. Entry-level collectors receive formal and on-the-job training under an instructor’s guidance before working independently. Collectors usually complete initial training by the end of their second year of service, but may receive advanced technical instruction as they gain seniority and take on more difficult cases. Also, collectors are encouraged to continue their professional education by attending meetings to exchange information about how changes in tax laws affect collection methods. Revenue agents usually must have a bachelor’s degree in accounting, business administration, economics, or a related discipline or a combination of education and full-time business administration, accounting, or auditing work. Revenue agents with the IRS must have either a bachelor’s degree or 30 semester hours of accounting coursework along with specialized experience. Specialized experience includes full-time work in accounting, bookkeeping, or tax analysis. Other qualifications. Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents work with confidential financial and personal information; therefore, trustworthiness is crucial for maintaining the confidentiality of individuals and businesses. Applicants for Federal Government jobs must submit to a background ­investigation. Collectors need good interpersonal and communication skills because they deal directly with the public and because their reports are scrutinized when the tax agency must legally justify attempts to seize assets. They must be able to negotiate well and deal effectively with others in potentially confrontational situations. Revenue agents need strong analytical, organizational, and time management skills. They also must be able to work independently, because they spend so much time away from their home office, and they must keep current with changes in the tax code and laws. Revenue agents that travel need a valid driver’s license to perform their duties. Advancement. Advancement potential within Federal, State, and local agencies varies for tax examiners, revenue agents, and collectors. For related jobs outside government, experienced  workers can take a licensing exam administered by the Federal Government to become enrolled agents—nongovernment tax professionals authorized to represent taxpayers before the IRS. Collectors who demonstrate leadership skills and a thorough knowledge of collection activities may advance to supervisory or managerial collector positions, in which they oversee the activities of other collectors. It is only these higher level supervisors and managers who may authorize the more serious actions against individuals and businesses. The more complex collection attempts which usually are directed at larger businesses are reserved for collectors at these higher levels. Newly hired revenue agents expand their accounting knowledge and remain up to date by consulting auditing manuals and other sources for detailed information about individual industries. Employers also continually offer training in new auditing techniques and tax-related issues and court decisions. As revenue agents gain knowledge and experience, they may specialize in an industry, work with large corporations, and cover increasingly complex tax returns. Some revenue agent advancement specialties involve assisting in criminal investigations, auditing the books of suspected criminals, working with grand juries to help secure indictments, or becoming an international agent.  Employment In 2008, tax examiners, revenue agents, and collectors held about 72,700 jobs. About 98 percent worked for government. About 2 percent were self employed. In the IRS, tax examiners and revenue agents predominate because of the role of the agency. Collectors make up a smaller proportion, because most disputed tax liabilities do not require enforced ­collection.  Job Outlook Employment is expected to grow as fast as the average, while retirements over the next 10 years should create additional job openings at all levels of government. Employment change. Employment of tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents is projected to grow 13 percent during the 2008-18 decade, which is considered as fast as the average. Demand for tax examiners, revenue agents, and tax collectors will stem from changes in government policy toward tax enforcement and from growth in the number of businesses. Two factors should increase the demand for revenue agents and tax collectors—the Federal Government is expected to ­increase its tax enforcement efforts, and new technology and information sharing among tax agencies make it easier for agencies to pinpoint potential offenders, increasing the number of cases for audit and collection. The work of tax examiners is especially well suited to automation, adversely affecting demand for these workers in particular. In addition, more than 40 States and many local tax agencies contract out part of their tax collection functions to  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents..................................  SOC Code 13-2081  Employment, 2008 72,700  Projected Employment, 2018 82,200  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 9,500 13  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational ­Information Included in the Handbook.  124 Occupational Outlook Handbook  private-sector collection agencies in order to reduce costs, and this trend is likely to continue. The IRS outsourced some tax collection activities, but the agency is ending this practice. Job prospects. The large number of retirements expected over the next 10 years is expected to create many job openings at all levels of government. Both State and Federal tax agencies are continuing to focus enforcement on higher income taxpayers and businesses, which file more complicated tax returns. Because of this, workers with knowledge of accounting, tax laws, and experience working with complex tax issues will have the best opportunities. Competition will be greatest for positions with the IRS. Opportunities at the Federal level will reflect the tightening or relaxation of budget constraints imposed on the IRS, the primary employer of these workers. Employment at the State and local levels may fluctuate with the overall state of the economy. When the economy is contracting, State and local governments are likely to freeze hiring and lay off workers in response to budgetary constraints.  Earnings In May 2008, median annual wages for all tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents were $48,100. The middle 50 percent earned between $36,590 and $66,730. The bottom 10 percent earned less than $28,390, and the top 10 percent earned more than $89,630. However, wages vary considerably, depending on the level of government and occupational specialty. For example, in March 2009, the Federal Government’s average annual salary was $42,035 for tax ­examiners, $91,507 for internal revenue agents, and $63,547 for tax ­specialists. IRS employees receive family, vacation, and sick leave. Full-time permanent IRS employees are offered tax-deferred ­retirement savings and investment plans with employer matching contributions, health insurance, and life insurance.  Related Occupations Other occupations that analyze and interpret financial data ­include:  Page Accountants and auditors........................................................... 86 Budget analysts.......................................................................... 93 Cost estimators......................................................................... 100 Financial analysts..................................................................... 103 Financial managers.................................................................... 52 Loan officers............................................................................ 109 Personal financial advisors....................................................... 118  Sources of Additional Information Information on obtaining positions as tax examiners, collectors, or revenue agents with the Federal Government is available from the Office of Personnel Management through USAJOBS, the Federal Government’s official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.opm.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724-1850 or TDD (978) 461-8404. These numbers are not toll free, and charges may result. State or local government personnel offices can provide information about tax examiner, collector, or revenue agent jobs at those levels of government. For information about careers at the Internal Revenue Service, contact: hhInternal Revenue Service, 1111 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20224. Internet: http://www.jobs.irs.gov The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos260.htm  Professional and Related Occupations Computer and Mathematical Occupations Actuaries Significant Points  •	 A strong background in mathematics is essential. •	 Actuaries generally have a bachelor’s degree and  must pass a series of examinations—often taking 4 to 8 years—to gain full professional status.  •	 Competition for jobs will be keen as the number of  qualified candidates is expected to exceed the number of positions available.  •	 About 55 percent of actuaries are employed by insurance carriers.  Nature of the Work Through their knowledge of statistics, finance, and business, actuaries assess the risk of events occurring and help create policies for businesses and clients that minimize the cost of that risk. For this reason, actuaries are essential to the insurance ­industry. Actuaries analyze data to estimate the probability and likely cost to the company of an event such as death, sickness, injury, disability, or loss of property. Actuaries also address financial matters, such as how a company should invest resources to maximize return on investments, or how an individual should invest in order to attain a certain retirement income level. Using their expertise in evaluating various types of risk, actuaries help design insurance policies, pension plans, and other financial strategies in a manner which will help ensure that the plans are maintained on a sound financial basis. Most actuaries are employed in the insurance industry, specializing in either property and casualty insurance or life and health insurance. They use sophisticated modeling techniques to forecast the likelihood of certain events occurring, and the impact these events will have on claims and potential losses for the company. For example, property and casualty actuaries calculate the expected number of claims resulting from automobile accidents, which varies depending on the insured person’s age, sex, driving history, type of car, and other factors. Actuaries ensure that the premium charged for such insurance will enable the company to cover potential claims and other expenses. This premium must be profitable, yet competitive with other insurance companies. Within the life and health insurance fields, actuaries help companies develop health and long-term-care insurance policies by predicting the likelihood of occurrence of heart disease, diabetes, stroke, cancer, and other chronic ailments among a  particular group of people who have something in common, such as living in a certain area or having a family history of illness. Such work of actuaries can be beneficial to both the consumer and the company because the ability to accurately predict the likelihood of a particular health event among a certain group ensures that premiums are assessed fairly based on the risk to the company.  Additionally, life insurance actuaries help companies develop annuity and life insurance policies for individuals by estimating how long someone is expected to live. Actuaries in other financial service industries manage credit and help set a price for corporate security offerings. They also devise new investment tools to help their firms compete with other companies. Pension actuaries work under the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974 which sets minimum standards for pension and health plans in private industry. Actuaries working for the government help manage social programs such as Social Security and Medicare. Actuaries help determine corporate policy on risk, for example, and also help explain complex technical matters to company executives, government officials, shareholders, policyholders, or the general public. They may testify before public agencies on proposed legislation that affects their businesses or explain changes in contract provisions to customers. They also may help companies develop plans to enter new lines of business or new geographic markets by forecasting demand in competitive settings. Consulting actuaries provide advice to clients on a contract basis. The duties of most consulting actuaries are similar to those of other actuaries. For example, some may evaluate company pension plans by calculating the future value of employee and employer contributions and determining whether the amounts are sufficient to meet the future needs of retirees. Others help companies reduce their insurance costs by offering them advice on how to lessen the risk of injury on the job. Consulting actuaries sometimes testify in court regarding the value of potential lifetime earnings of a person who is disabled or killed in an accident, the current value of future pension benefits (in divorce cases), or other values arrived at by complex calculations. Some actuaries work in reinsurance, a field in which one insurance company arranges to share a large prospective liability policy with another insurance company in exchange for a percentage of the premium. Work environment. Actuaries have desk jobs, and their offices usually are comfortable and pleasant. While most actuaries work at least 40 hours a week, those in consulting type jobs may be required to travel and thus work more than 40 hours per week. 125  126 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Actuaries need a strong background in mathematics, statistics, and general business. They generally have a bachelor’s degree and are required to pass a series of exams in order to become certified professionals. Education and training. Actuaries need a strong foundation in mathematics and general business. Usually, actuaries earn an undergraduate degree in mathematics, statistics, or actuarial science, or a business-related field such as finance, economics, or business. While in college, students should complete coursework in economics, applied statistics, and corporate finance, which is a requirement for professional certification. Furthermore, many students obtain internships to gain experience in the profession prior to graduation. More than 100 colleges and universities offer an actuarial science program, and most offer a degree in mathematics, statistics, economics, or finance. Increasingly, companies are requiring potential employees to have passed the initial actuarial exam described in the next section, which tests an individual’s proficiency in mathematics—including calculus, probability, and statistics before being hired. Beginning actuaries often rotate among different jobs in an organization, such as marketing, underwriting, financial reporting and product development, to learn various actuarial operations and phases of insurance work. At first, they prepare data for actuarial projects or perform other simple tasks. As they gain experience, actuaries may supervise clerks, prepare correspondence, draft reports, and conduct research. They may move from one company to another early in their careers as they advance to higher positions. Licensure.   Two professional societies sponsor programs leading to full professional status in their specialty: the Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS). The SOA certifies actuaries in the fields of life insurance, health benefits systems, retirement systems, and finance and investment. The CAS gives a series of examinations in the property and casualty field, which includes automobile, homeowners, medical malpractice, workers compensation, and personal injury liability. Four of the first seven exams in the SOA and CAS examination series are jointly sponsored by the two societies and  Actuaries need a strong background in mathematics.  cover the same material. For this reason, students do not need to commit themselves to a specialty until they have taken the initial examination, which tests an individual’s competence in mathematics and helps evaluate their potential as actuaries. If candidates pass the initial exam, prospects can begin taking the next series of exams with the help of self-study guides and courses. Those who pass two or more examinations have better opportunities for employment at higher starting salaries than those who do not. These initial exams can be taken while the candidate is still in college. Many candidates find work as an actuary immediately after graduation and work through the certification process while gaining some experience in the field. In fact, many employers pay the examination fees and provide their employees time to study. As actuaries pass exams, they are often rewarded with a pay increase. Despite the fact that employers are supportive during the exam process, home study is necessary and many actuaries study for months to prepare for each exam. The process for gaining certification in the Casualty Actuarial Society is predominantly exam-based. To reach the first level of certification, the Associate or ACAS level, a candidate must complete seven exams, attend one course on professionalism and complete the coursework in applied statistics, corporate finance, and economics required by both the SOA and CAS. This process generally takes from 4 to 8 years. The next level, the Fellowship, or FCAS level, requires passing two additional exams in advanced topics, including investment and assets and dynamic financial analysis and the valuation of insurance. Most actuaries reach the fellowship level 2 to 3 years after attaining Associate status. The certification process of the Society of Actuaries blends exams with computer learning modules and coursework. After taking the initial exams, candidates must choose a specialty— group and health benefits, individual life and annuities, retirement benefits, investments or finance/enterprise risk management. To reach the Associate or ASA level, a candidate must complete the initial five exams, the coursework in applied statistics, corporate finance, and economics required by the SOA and CAS, eight computer modules with two subsequent essays, and a seminar in professionalism. This process generally takes from 4 to 8 years. To attain the Fellowship or FSA level, a candidate must pass two additional exams within a chosen specialty and must complete three computer modules, a seminar in professionalism, and a course in fellowship admissions. Attaining Fellowship status usually takes an additional 2 to 3 years after becoming an Associate. Specific requirements apply to pension actuaries, who verify the financial status of defined benefit pension plans for the Federal Government. These actuaries must be enrolled by the Joint Board of the U.S. Treasury Department and the U.S. Department of Labor for the Enrollment of Actuaries. To qualify for enrollment, applicants must meet certain experience requirements and pass two exams administered by the SOA, as stipulated by the Board. Other qualifications. Actuaries should have strong computer skills and be able to develop and use spreadsheets and databases, as well as standard statistical analysis software. Knowledge of programming languages, such as Visual Basic  Professional and Related Occupations 127  for Applications, SAS, or SQL, is also useful. Companies also increasingly prefer well-rounded individuals who, in addition to having acquired a strong technical background, have some training in business and possess strong communication skills. Good interpersonal skills also are important, particularly for consulting actuaries. To perform their duties effectively, actuaries must keep up with current economic and social trends and legislation, as well as developments in health, business, and finance that could affect insurance or investment practices. Advancement.   Advancement depends largely on job performance and the number of actuarial examinations passed. Actuaries with a broad knowledge of the insurance, pension, investment, or employee benefits fields can rise to executive positions in their companies, such as Chief Risk Officer or Chief ­Financial Officer. These generally require that actuaries use their abilities for assessing risk and apply it to the entire company as a whole. Actuaries with supervisory ability may advance to management positions in other areas, such as underwriting, accounting, data processing, marketing, and advertising. Some experienced actuaries move into consulting, often by opening their own consulting firm. A few actuaries transfer to college and university faculty positions. (See the section on teachers—postsecondary elsewhere in the ­Handbook.)  Employment Actuaries held about 19,700 jobs in 2008. About 55 percent of all actuaries were employed by insurance carriers. Approximately 16 percent work for management, scientific and technical consulting services. Others worked for insurance agents and brokers and in the management of companies and enterprises industry. A relatively small number of actuaries are employed by government agencies.  Job Outlook Employment is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations. Competition for jobs will be keen as the number of qualified candidates is expected to exceed the number of positions available. Employment change. Employment of actuaries is expected to increase by 21 percent over the 2008–18 period, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. While employment in the insurance industry—the largest employer of actuaries—will experience some growth, greater job growth will occur in other industries, such as financial services and consulting. Despite slower than average growth of the insurance industry, employment in this key sector is expected to increase during the projection period as actuaries will be needed to  develop, price, and evaluate a variety of insurance products and calculate the costs of new risks. Natural disasters should continue to require the work of actuaries in property and casualty insurance while the growing popularity of annuities, a financial product offered primarily by life insurance companies, will also spur demand. Penetration among actuaries into non-traditional areas, such as the financial services sector, to help price corporate security offerings, for example, will also contribute to some employment growth. Consulting firms should experience strong employment demand as an increasing number of industries utilize actuaries to assess risk. Increased regulation of managed healthcare companies and drafting healthcare legislation will also spur employment growth. Nonetheless, growth may be, to a degree, offset by corporate downsizing and consolidation of the insurance industry— the largest employer of actuaries. Life insurance companies, for example, are expected to increasingly shed high level actuarial positions as companies merge and streamline operations. Pension actuaries will also experience declining demand. This is largely due to the decline of defined benefit plans, which required review by an actuary, in favor of investment-based retirement funds, such as 401ks. Job prospects. Job seekers are likely to face competition because the number of job openings is expected to be less than the number of qualified applicants. College graduates who have passed two of the initial exams and completed an internship should enjoy the best prospects. A solid foundation in mathematics, including the ability to compute complex probability and statistics, is essential. Experience or skills in computer programming can also be important. In addition to job growth, a small number of jobs will open up each year to replace actuaries who retire or transfer to new jobs. The best employment opportunities should be in consulting firms. Companies that may not find it cost-effective to employ their own actuaries are increasingly hiring consulting actuaries to analyze various risks. Openings should also be available in the healthcare field if changes take place in managed healthcare. The desire to contain healthcare costs will provide job opportunities for actuaries who will be needed to evaluate the risks associated with new medical issues, such as the impact of new diseases. Because actuarial skills are increasingly seen as useful to other industries that deal with risk, such as the airline and the banking industries, additional job openings may be created in these industries.  Earnings Median annual wages of actuaries were $84,810 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $62,020 and $119,110.  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Actuaries............................................................................................  SOC Code 15-2011  Employment, 2008 19,700  Projected Employment, 2018 23,900  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 4,200 21  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  128 Occupational Outlook Handbook  The lowest 10 percent had wages less than $49,150, while the top 10 percent earned more than $160,780. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, annual starting salaries for graduates with a bachelor’s degree in actuarial science averaged $56,320 in July 2009.  Related Occupations Other workers whose jobs require mathematical and statistical skills include:  Page Accountants and auditors........................................................... 86 Budget analysts.......................................................................... 93 Economists............................................................................... 209 Financial analysts..................................................................... 103 Insurance underwriters............................................................. 106 Market and survey researchers................................................. 212 Mathematicians........................................................................ 143 Personal financial advisors....................................................... 118 Statisticians.............................................................................. 148  Sources of Additional Information Career information on actuaries specializing in pensions is available from: hhAmerican Society of Pension Professionals & Actuaries, 4245 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 750, Arlington, VA 22203. Internet: http://www.aspa.org For information about actuarial careers in life and health insurance, employee benefits and pensions, and finance and investments, contact: hhSociety of Actuaries (SOA), 475 N. Martingale Rd., Suite 600, Schaumburg, IL 60173-2226. Internet: http://www.soa.org For information about actuarial careers in property and casualty insurance, contact: hhCasualty Actuarial Society (CAS), 4350 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 250 Arlington, VA 22203. Internet: http://www.casact.org  hhThe SOA and CAS jointly sponsor a Web site for those interested in pursuing an actuarial career. Internet: http://www.beanactuary.org For general information on a career as an actuary, contact:  hhAmerican Academy of Actuaries, 1850 M St. NW., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036. Internet: http://www.actuary.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos041.htm  Computer Network, Systems, and Database Administrators Significant Points  •	 Employment is projected to grow much faster than  the average for all occupations and add 286,600 new jobs over the 2008–18 decade.  •	 Excellent job prospects are expected. •	 Workers can enter this field with many different levels  of formal education, but relevant computer skills are always needed.  Nature of the Work Information Technology (IT) has become an integral part of modern life. Among its most important functions are the efficient transmission of information and the storage and analysis of information. The workers described below all help individuals and organizations share and store information through computer networks and systems, the Internet, and computer databases. Network architects or network engineers are the designers of computer networks. They set up, test, and evaluate systems such as local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), the Internet, intranets, and other data communications systems. Systems are configured in many ways and can range from a connection between two offices in the same building to globally distributed networks, voice mail, and e-mail systems of a multinational organization. Network architects and engineers perform network modeling, analysis, and planning, which often require both hardware and software solutions. For example, setting up a network may involve the installation of several pieces of hardware, such as routers and hubs, wireless adaptors, and cables, as well as the installation and configuration of software, such as network drivers. These workers may also research related products and make necessary hardware and software recommendations, as well as address information security issues. Network and computer systems administrators design, install, and support an organization’s computer systems. They are responsible for LANs, WANs, network segments, and Internet and intranet systems. They work in a variety of environments, including large corporations, small businesses, and government organizations. They install and maintain network hardware and software, analyze problems, and monitor networks to ensure their availability to users. These workers gather data to evaluate a system’s performance, identify user needs, and determine system and network requirements. Systems administrators are responsible for maintaining system efficiency. They ensure that the design of an organization’s computer system allows all of the components, including computers, the network, and software, to work properly together. Administrators also troubleshoot problems reported by users and by automated network monitoring systems and make recommendations for future system upgrades. Many of these workers are also responsible for maintaining network and system security.  Professional and Related Occupations 129  Computer network, systems, and database administrators help organizations share and store information. Database administrators work with database management software and determine ways to store, organize, analyze, use, and present data. They identify user needs and set up new computer databases. In many cases, database administrators must integrate data from old systems into a new system. They also test and coordinate modifications to the system when needed, and troubleshoot problems when they occur. An organization’s database administrator ensures the performance of the system, understands the platform on which the database runs, and adds new users to the system. Because many databases are ­connected to the Internet, database administrators also must plan and ­coordinate security measures with network administrators. Some database administrators may also be responsible for database design, but this task is usually performed by database designers or database analysts. (Database designers are covered in the Handbook section on computer software engineers and computer programmers.) Computer security specialists plan, coordinate, and maintain an organization’s information security. These workers educate users about computer security, install security software, monitor networks for security breaches, respond to cyber attacks, and, in some cases, gather data and evidence to be used in prosecuting cyber crime. The responsibilities of computer security specialists have increased in recent years as cyber attacks have become more sophisticated. Telecommunications specialists focus on the interaction between computer and communications equipment. These workers design voice, video, and data-communication systems, supervise the installation of the systems, and provide main-  tenance and other services to clients after the systems are installed. They also test lines, oversee equipment repair, and may compile and maintain system records. Web developers are responsible for the technical aspects of Web site creation. Using software languages and tools, they create applications for the Web. They identify a site’s users and oversee its production and implementation. They determine the information that the site will contain and how it will be organized, and may use Web development software to integrate databases and other information systems. Some of these workers may be responsible for the visual appearance of Web sites. ­Using design software, they create pages that appeal to the tastes of the site’s users. Webmasters or Web administrators are responsible for maintaining Web sites. They oversee issues such as availability to users and speed of access, and are responsible for approving the content of the site. Webmasters also collect and analyze data on Web activity, traffic patterns, and other metrics, as well as monitor and respond to user feedback. Work environment. Network and computer systems administrators, network architects, database administrators, computer security specialists, Web administrators, and Web developers normally work in well-lighted, comfortable offices or computer laboratories. Most work about 40 hours a week. However, about 15 percent of network and systems administrators; 14 percent of database administrators; and about 16 percent of network systems and data communications analysts (which includes network architects, telecommunications specialists, Web administrators, and Web developers) worked more than 50 hours per week in 2008. In addition, some of these workers may be required to be “on call” outside of normal business hours in order to resolve system failures or other problems. As computer networks expand, more of these workers may be able to perform their duties from remote locations, reducing or eliminating the need to travel to the customer’s workplace. Injuries in these occupations are uncommon, but like other workers who spend long periods in front of a computer terminal typing on a keyboard, these workers are susceptible to eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements vary by occupation. Workers can enter this field with many different levels of formal education, but relevant computer skills are always needed. Certification may improve an applicant’s chances for employment and can help workers maintain adequate skill levels throughout their careers. Education and training. Network and computer systems administrators often are required to have a bachelor’s degree, although an associate degree or professional certification, along with related work experience, may be adequate for some positions. Most of these workers begin as computer support specialists before advancing into network or systems administration positions. (Computer support specialists are covered elsewhere in the Handbook.) Common majors for network and systems administrators are computer science, information science, and management information systems (MIS), but a degree in any field, supplemented with computer courses and experience, may be adequate. A bachelor’s degree in a computer-related  130 Occupational Outlook Handbook  field generally takes 4 years to complete and includes courses in computer science, computer programming, computer engineering, mathematics, and statistics. Most programs also include general education courses such as English and communications. MIS programs usually are part of the business school or college and contain courses such as finance, marketing, accounting, and management, as well as systems design, networking, database management, and systems security. For network architect and database administrator positions, a bachelor’s degree in a computer-related field generally is required, although some employers prefer applicants with a ­master’s ­degree in business administration (MBA) with a concentration in information systems. MBA programs usually require 2 years of study beyond the undergraduate degree, and, like undergraduate business programs, include courses on finance, marketing, accounting, and management, as well as database management, electronic business, and systems management and design. In addition to formal education, network architects may be required to have several years of relevant work experience. For Webmasters, an associate degree or certification is sufficient although more advanced positions might require a computer-related bachelor’s degree. For telecommunications specialists, employers prefer applicants with an associate degree in electronics or a related field, but for some positions, experience may substitute for formal education. Applicants for security specialist and Web developer positions generally need a bachelor’s degree in a computer-related field, but for some positions, related experience and certification may be adequate. Certification and other qualifications. Workers in these occupations must have strong problem-solving, analytical, and communication skills. Because they often deal with a number of tasks simultaneously, the ability to concentrate and pay close attention to detail also is important. Although these workers sometimes work independently, they frequently work in teams on large projects. As a result, they must be able to communicate effectively with other computer workers, such as programmers and managers, as well as with users or other staff who may have no computer background. Jobseekers can enhance their employment opportunities by earning certifications, which are offered through product vendors, computer associations, and other training institutions. Many employers regard these certifications as the industry standard, and some require their employees to be certified. In some cases, applicants without formal education may use certification and experience to qualify for some positions. Because technology changes rapidly, computer specialists must continue to acquire the latest skills. Many organizations offer intermediate and advanced certification programs that pertain to the most recent technological advancements. Advancement.   Entry-level network and computer systems administrators are involved in routine maintenance and monitoring of computer systems. After gaining experience and ­expertise, they are often able to advance to more senior-level positions. They may also advance to supervisory positions. Database administrators and network architects may advance into managerial positions, such as chief technology officer, on the basis of their experience. Computer specialists with work  experience and considerable expertise in a particular area may find opportunities as independent consultants. Computer security specialists can advance into supervisory positions, or may move into other occupations, such as computer systems analysts.  Employment Computer network, systems, and database administrators held about 961,200 jobs in 2008. Of these, 339,500 were network and computer systems administrators, 120,400 were database administrators, and 292,000 were network and data communications analysts. In addition, about 209,300 were classified as “computer specialists, all other,” a residual category. These workers were employed in a wide range of industries. About 14 percent of all computer network, systems, and database administrators were in computer systems design and related services. Substantial numbers of these workers were also employed in telecommunications companies, financial firms and insurance providers, business management organizations, schools, and government agencies. About 7 percent were selfemployed.  Job Outlook Employment is expected to grow much faster than the average, and job prospects should be excellent. Employment change. Overall employment of computer network, systems, and database administrators is projected to increase by 30 percent from 2008 to 2018, much faster than the average for all occupations. In addition, this occupation will add 286,600 new jobs over that period. Growth, however, will vary by specialty. Employment of network and computer systems administrators is expected to increase by 23 percent from 2008 to 2018. Computer networks are an integral part of business, and demand for these workers will increase as firms continue to invest in new technologies. The increasing adoption of mobile technologies means that more establishments will use the Internet to conduct business online. This growth translates into a need for systems administrators who can help organizations use technology to communicate with employees, clients, and consumers. Growth will also be driven by the increasing need for information security. As cyber attacks become more sophisticated, demand will increase for workers with security skills. Employment of database administrators is expected to grow by 20 percent from 2008 to 2018. Demand for these workers is expected to increase as organizations need to store, organize, and analyze increasing amounts of data. In addition, as more databases are connected to the Internet, and as data security becomes increasingly important, a growing number of these workers will be needed to protect databases from attack. Employment of network systems and data communications analysts is projected to increase by 53 percent from 2008 to 2018, placing it among the fastest growing of all occupations. This occupational category includes network architects and engineers, as well as Web administrators and developers. Demand for network architects and engineers will increase as organizations continue to upgrade their IT capacity and incorporate the newest technologies. The growing reliance on wireless networks will result in a need for many more of these workers.  Professional and Related Occupations 131  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Computer network, systems, and database administrators................ Database administrators................................................................. Network and computer systems administrators............................. Network systems and data communications analysts.................... All other computer specialists........................................................  SOC Code – 15-1061 15-1071 15-1081 15-1099  Employment, 2008 961,200 120,400 339,500 292,000 209,300  Projected Employment, 2018 1,247,800 144,700 418,400 447,800 236,800  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 286,600 30 24,400 20 78,900 23 155,800 53 27,500 13  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Workers with knowledge of information security also will be in demand, as computer networks transmit an increasing amount of sensitive data. Demand for Web administrators and Web developers will also be strong. More of these workers will be needed to accommodate the increasing amount of data sent over the Internet, as well as the growing number of Internet users. In addition, as the number of services provided over the Internet expands, Web administrators and developers will continue to see employment increases. Growth in computer network, systems, and database administrators will be rapid in the computer systems design, data processing and hosting, software publishing, and technical consulting industries, as these types of establishments utilize or provide an increasing array of IT services. Growth will also be rapid in healthcare, as these organizations look to increase their efficiency and improve patient care through the use of information systems and other technology. Growth in this occupation may be tempered somewhat by offshore outsourcing, as firms transfer work to countries with lower-prevailing wages and highly skilled work forces. In addition, the consolidation of IT services may increase efficiency, reducing the demand for workers. Job prospects. Computer network, systems, and database administrators should continue to enjoy excellent job prospects. In general, applicants with a college degree and certification will have the best opportunities. However, for some of these occupations, opportunities will be available for applicants with related work experience. Job openings in these occupations will be the result of strong employment growth, as well as the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.  Earnings Median annual wages of network and computer systems administrators were $66,310 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $51,690 and $84,110. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $41,000, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $104,070. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of network and computer systems administrators in May 2008 were as follows: Management of companies and enterprises................$70,680 Computer systems design and related services.............70,490 Wired telecommunications carriers...............................66,950 Colleges, universities, and professional schools...........57,380 Elementary and secondary schools...............................56,320  Median annual wages of database administrators were $69,740 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $52,340 and $91,850. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $39,900, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $111,950. In May 2008, median annual wages of database administrators employed in computer systems design and related services were $78,510, and for those in management of companies and enterprises, wages were $74,730. Median annual wages of network systems and data communication analysts were $71,100 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $54,330 and $90,740. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $41,660, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $110,920. These wages encompass network architects, telecommunications specialists, Webmasters, and Web developers. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of network systems and data communications analysts in May 2008 were as follows: Wired telecommunications carriers.............................$75,930 Insurance carriers..........................................................74,910 Management of companies and enterprises..................73,720 Computer systems design and related services.............72,410 Local government..........................................................64,230  Related Occupations Other occupations that work with information technology include:  Page Computer and information systems managers........................... 35 Computer scientists.................................................................. 132 Computer software engineers and computer programmers........ 134 Computer support specialists................................................... 138 Computer systems analysts...................................................... 140  Sources of Additional Information For additional information about a career as a computer network, systems, or database administrator, contact: hhThe League of Professional System Administrators, 15000 Commerce Pkwy., Suite C, Mount Laurel, NJ 08054. Internet: http://www.lopsa.org  hhData Management International, 19239 N. Dale Mabry Hwy. #132, Lutz, FL 33548. Internet: http://www.dama.org Additional information on a career in information technology is available from the following organizations:  132 Occupational Outlook Handbook  hhAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2 Penn Plaza, Suite 701, New York, NY 10121-0701. Internet: http://computingcareers.acm.org  hhInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Headquarters Office, 2001 L St. NW., Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036-4910. Internet: http://www.computer.org  hhNational Workforce Center for Emerging Technologies, 3000 Landerholm Circle SE., Bellevue, WA 98007. Internet: http://www.nwcet.org  hhUniversity of Washington Computer Science and Engineering Department, AC101 Paul G. Allen Center, Box 352350, 185 Stevens Way, Seattle, WA 98195-2350. Internet: http://www.cs.washington.edu/WhyCSE  hhNational Center for Women and Information Technology, University of Colorado, Campus Box 322 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0322. Internet: http://www.ncwit.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos305.htm  without people controlling them. Robots perform many tasks, such as sweeping floors in peoples’ homes, assembling cars on factory production lines, and “auto-piloting” airplanes. Computer science researchers employed by academic institutions (covered in the section on teachers—postsecondary, elsewhere in the Handbook) have job functions that are similar in many ways to those employed by other organizations. In general, researchers in academic settings have more flexibility to focus on pure theory, while those working in business or scientific organizations, covered here, usually focus on projects that have the possibility of producing patents and profits. Some researchers in non-academic settings, however, have considerable latitude in determining the direction of their research. Work environment. Computer scientists normally work in offices or laboratories in comfortable surroundings. Like other workers who spend long periods in front of a computer ­terminal typing on a keyboard, computer scientists are susceptible to eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A Ph.D. is required for most jobs, and an aptitude for math is important.  Computer Scientists Significant Points  •	 Most computer scientists are required to possess a Ph.D.  •	 Employment is projected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations.  •	 Job prospects are expected to be excellent. Nature of the Work The widespread and increasing use of computers and information technology has generated a need for highly trained, innovative workers with extensive theoretical expertise. These workers, called computer scientists, are the designers, creators, and inventors of new technology. By creating new technology, or finding alternative uses for existing resources, they solve complex business, scientific, and general computing problems. Some computer scientists work on multidisciplinary projects, collaborating with electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, and other specialists. Computer scientists conduct research on a wide array of topics. Examples include computer hardware architecture, virtual reality, and robotics. Scientists who research hardware architecture discover new ways for computers to process and transmit information. They design computer chips and processors, using new materials and techniques to make them work faster and give them more computing power. When working with virtual reality, scientists use technology to create life-like situations. For example, scientists may invent video games that make users feel like they are actually in the game. Computer scientists working with robotics try to create machines that can perform tasks on their own—  Computer scientists develop theories that lead to technological innovation.  Professional and Related Occupations 133  Education and training. Most computer scientists are required to possess a Ph.D. in computer science, computer engineering, or a closely related discipline. For some positions in the Federal Government, a bachelor’s degree in a computerrelated field may be adequate. In order to be admitted to a Ph.D. program, applicants generally are required to obtain a bachelor’s degree with a strong computer science or computer engineering component. Popular undergraduate majors for Ph.D. program applicants include computer science, computer engineering, software engineering, information systems, and information technology. A bachelor’s degree generally takes 4 years to complete. A Ph.D. generally requires at least 5 years of study beyond the bachelor’s degree. Ph.D. students usually spend the first two years taking classes on advanced topics, including computer and software systems, artificial intelligence, digital communication, and microprocessors. Students spend the remaining years conducting research on topics in computer science or computer engineering. Other qualifications. Computer scientists must be able to think logically and creatively. They must possess a strong aptitude for math and other technical topics, as these are critical to the computing field. Because they often deal with a number of tasks simultaneously, the ability to concentrate and pay close attention to detail also is important. Although computer scientists sometimes work independently, they frequently work in teams on large projects. As a result, they must be able to communicate effectively with computer personnel, such as programmers and managers, as well as with users or other staff who may have no technical computer background. Advancement.   After they gain experience with an organization, computer scientists may advance into managerial or project leadership positions. Some choose to leave private industry for academic positions.  Employment Computer scientists held about 28,900 jobs in 2008. Although they are increasingly employed in every sector of the economy, the greatest concentration of these workers, about 23 percent, was in the computer systems design and related services industry. Many computer scientists were also employed by software publishing firms, scientific research and development organizations, and in education.  Job Outlook Employment growth is expected to be much faster than the average, and job prospects should be excellent. Employment change. Employment of computer scientists is expected to grow by 24 percent from 2008 to 2018, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. Employment of these computer specialists is expected to grow as individuals and organizations continue to demand increasingly sophisti-  cated technologies. Job increases will be driven, in part, by very rapid growth in computer systems design and related services industry, as well as the software publishing industry, which are projected to be among the fastest growing industries in the U.S. economy. Computer scientists develop the theories that allow many new technologies to be developed. The demand for increasing efficiency in areas such as networking technology, computing speeds, software performance, and embedded systems will lead to employment growth. In addition, the growing emphasis on information security will lead to new jobs. Job prospects. Computer scientists should enjoy excellent job prospects. Graduates from Ph.D. programs in computer science and engineering are in high demand, and many companies report difficulties finding sufficient numbers of these highly skilled workers. In addition to openings resulting from rapid growth in the occupation, some additional job openings will arise from the need to replace workers who move into other occupations or who leave the labor force.  Earnings Median annual wages of computer and information scientists were $97,970 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $75,340 and $124,370. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $57,480, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $151,250. Median annual wages of computer and information scientists employed in computer systems design and related services in May 2008 were $99,900.  Related Occupations Others who work with information technology, or who engage in research and development include:  Page Computer and information systems managers........................... 35 Computer network, systems, and database administrators........ 128 Computer software engineers................................................... 161 and computer programmers.................................................. 134 Computer support specialists................................................... 138 Engineers Teachers—postsecondary......................................................... 282  Sources of Additional Information Further information about computer careers is available from: hhAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2 Penn Plaza, Suite 701, New York, NY 10121-0701. Internet: http://computingcareers.acm.org  hhInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Headquarters Office, 2001 L St. NW., Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036-4910. Internet: http://www.computer.org  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Computer and information scientists, research..................................  SOC Code 15-1011  Employment, 2008 28,900  Projected Employment, 2018 35,900  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 7,000 24  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  134 Occupational Outlook Handbook  hhNational Center for Women and Information Technology, University of Colorado, Campus Box 322 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0322. Internet: http://www.ncwit.org  hhNational Workforce Center for Emerging Technologies, 3000 Landerholm Circle SE., Bellevue, WA 98007. Internet: http://www.nwcet.org  hhUniversity of Washington Computer Science and Engineering Department, AC101 Paul G. Allen Center, Box 352350, 185 Stevens Way, Seattle, WA 98195-2350. Internet: http://www.cs.washington.edu/WhyCSE The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos304.htm  Computer Software Engineers and Computer Programmers Significant Points  •	 Computer software engineers are among the occupa-  tions projected to grow the fastest and add the most new jobs over the 2008–18 decade, resulting in excellent job prospects.  •	 Employment of computer programmers is expected to decline by 3 percent through 2018.  •	 Job prospects will be best for applicants with a bachelor’s or higher degree and relevant experience.  Nature of the Work Computer software engineers design and develop software. They apply the theories and principles of computer science and mathematical analysis to create, test, and evaluate the software applications and systems that make computers work. The tasks performed by these workers evolve quickly, reflecting changes in technology and new areas of specialization, as well as the changing practices of employers. (A separate section on computer hardware engineers appears in the engineers section of the Handbook.) Software engineers design and develop many types of software, including computer games, business applications, operating systems, network control systems, and middleware. They must be experts in the theory of computing systems, the structure of software, and the nature and limitations of hardware to ensure that the underlying systems will work properly. Computer software engineers begin by analyzing users’ needs, and then design, test, and develop software to meet those needs. During this process they create flowcharts, diagrams, and other documentation, and may also create the detailed sets of instructions, called algorithms, that actually tell the computer what to do. They also may be responsible for converting these instructions into a computer language, a process called programming or coding, but this usually is the responsibility of computer programmers.  Computer software engineers can generally be divided into two categories: applications engineers and systems engineers. Computer applications software engineers analyze end users’ needs and design, construct, deploy, and maintain general computer applications software or specialized utility programs. These workers use different programming languages, depending on the purpose of the program and the environment in which the program runs. The programming languages most often used are C, C++, Java, and Python. Some software engineers develop packaged computer applications, but most create or adapt customized applications for business and other organizations. Some of these workers also develop databases. Computer systems software engineers coordinate the construction, maintenance, and expansion of an organization’s computer systems. Working with the organization, they coordinate each department’s computer needs—ordering, inventory, billing, and payroll recordkeeping, for example—and make suggestions about its technical direction. They also might set up the organization’s intranets—networks that link computers within the organization and ease communication among various departments. Often, they are also responsible for the design and implementation of system security and data assurance. Systems software engineers also work for companies that configure, implement, and install the computer systems of other organizations. These workers may be members of the marketing or sales staff, serving as the primary technical resource for sales workers, or providing logistical and technical support. Since the selling of complex computer systems often requires substantial customization to meet the needs of the purchaser, software engineers help to identify and explain needed changes. In addition, systems software engineers are responsible for ensuring security across the systems they are configuring. Computer programmers write programs. After computer software engineers and systems analysts design software programs, the programmer converts that design into a logical series of instructions that the computer can follow (A section on computer systems analysts appears elsewhere in the Handbook.). The programmer codes these instructions in any of a number of programming languages, depending on the need. The most common languages are C++ and Python. Computer programmers also update, repair, modify, and expand existing programs. Some, especially those working on large projects that involve many programmers, use computerassisted software engineering (CASE) tools to automate much of the coding process. These tools enable a programmer to concentrate on writing the unique parts of a program. Programmers working on smaller projects often use “programmer environments,” applications that increase productivity by combining compiling, code walk-through, code generation, test data generation, and debugging functions. Programmers also use libraries of basic code that can be modified or customized for a specific application. This approach yields more reliable and consistent programs and increases programmers’ productivity by eliminating some routine steps. As software design has continued to advance, and some programming functions have become automated, programmers have begun to assume some of the responsibilities that were once performed only by software engineers. As a result, some  Professional and Related Occupations 135  Employment of computer software engineers and computer programmers is expected to grow much faster than the average. computer programmers now assist software engineers in identifying user needs and designing certain parts of computer programs, as well as other functions. Work environment. Computer software engineers and programmers normally work in clean, comfortable offices or in laboratories in which computer equipment is located. Software engineers who work for software vendors and consulting firms frequently travel to meet with customers. Telecommuting is becoming more common as technological advances allow more work to be done from remote locations. Most software engineers and programmers work 40 hours a week, but about 15 percent of software engineers and 11 percent of programmers worked more than 50 hours a week in 2008. Injuries in these occupations are rare. However, like other workers who spend long periods in front of a computer terminal typing at a keyboard, engineers and programmers are susceptible to eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree commonly is required for software engineering jobs, although a master’s degree is preferred for some positions. A bachelor’s degree also is required for many computer programming jobs, although a 2-year degree or certificate may be adequate in some cases. Employers favor applicants who already have relevant skills and experience. Workers who keep up to date with the latest technology usually have good opportunities for advancement. Education and training. For software engineering positions, most employers prefer applicants who have at least a bachelor’s degree and broad knowledge of, and experience with, a variety of computer systems and technologies. The usual college majors for applications software engineers are computer science, software engineering, or mathematics. Systems software engineers often study computer science or computer information systems. Graduate degrees are preferred for some of the more complex jobs. Many programmers require a bachelor’s degree, but a 2-year degree or certificate may be adequate for some positions. Some computer programmers hold a college degree in computer sci-  ence, mathematics, or information systems, whereas others have taken special courses in computer programming to supplement their degree in a field such as accounting, finance, or another area of business. Employers who use computers for scientific or engineering applications usually prefer college graduates who have a degree in computer or information science, mathematics, engineering, or the physical sciences. Employers who use computers for business applications prefer to hire people who have had college courses in management information systems and business, and who possess strong programming skills. A graduate degree in a related field is required for some jobs. In addition to educational attainment, employers highly value relevant programming skills and experience. Students seeking software engineering or programming jobs can enhance their employment opportunities by participating in internships. Some employers, such as large computer and consulting firms, train new employees in intensive, companybased programs. As technology advances, employers will need workers with the latest skills. To help keep up with changing technology, workers may take continuing education and professional development seminars offered by employers, software vendors, colleges and universities, private training institutions, and professional computing societies. Computer software engineers also need skills related to the industry in which they work. Engineers working for a bank, for example, should have some expertise in finance so that they understand banks’ computing needs. Certification and other qualifications. Certification is a way to demonstrate a level of competence and may provide a jobseeker with a competitive advantage. Certification programs are generally offered by product vendors or software firms, which may require professionals who work with their products to be certified. Voluntary certification also is available through various other organizations, such as professional computing ­societies. Computer software engineers and programmers must have strong problem-solving and analytical skills. Ingenuity and creativity are particularly important in order to design new, functional software programs. The ability to work with abstract concepts and to do technical analysis is especially important for systems engineers because they work with the software that controls the computer’s operation. Engineers and programmers also must be able to communicate effectively with team members, other staff, and end users. Because they often deal with a number of tasks simultaneously, they must be able to concentrate and pay close attention to detail. Business skills are also important, especially for those wishing to advance to managerial positions. Advancement. For skilled workers who keep up to date with the latest technology, prospects for advancement are good. Advancement opportunities for computer software engineers increase with experience. Eventually, they may become a project manager, manager of information systems, or chief information officer, especially if they have business skills and training. Some computer software engineers with several years of experience or expertise can find lucrative opportunities working as systems designers or independent consultants, particularly in  136 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Computer software engineers and computer programmers............... Computer programmers................................................................. Computer software engineers........................................................ Computer software engineers, applications............................... Computer software engineers, systems software.......................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  – 15-1021 15-1030 15-1031 15-1032  1,336,300 426,700 909,600 514,800 394,800  Projected Employment, 2018 1,619,300 414,400 1,204,800 689,900 515,000  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 283,000 21 -12,300 -3 295,200 32 175,100 34 120,200 30  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational ­Information Included in the Handbook.  specialized fields such as business-to-business transactions or security and data assurance. In large organizations, programmers may be promoted to lead programmer and be given supervisory responsibilities. Some applications programmers may move into systems programming after they gain experience and take courses in systems software. With general business experience, programmers may become programmer-analysts or systems analysts, or may be promoted to managerial positions. Programmers with specialized knowledge and experience with a language or operating system may become computer software engineers. As employers increasingly contract with outside firms to do programming jobs, more opportunities should arise for experienced programmers with expertise in a specific area to work as consultants.  Employment Computer software engineers and computer programmers held about 1.3 million jobs in 2008. Approximately 514,800 were computer applications software engineers, about 394,800 were computer systems software engineers, and about 426,700 were computer programmers. Although computer software engineers and computer programmers can be found in a wide range of ­industries about 32 percent were employed in computer systems design and related services. Many also worked for software publishers, manufacturers of computers and related electronic equipment, financial institutions, and insurance providers. About 48,200 computer software engineers and computer programmers were self-employed in 2008.  Job Outlook Overall, employment of computer software engineers and computer programmers is projected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations. Job prospects should be best for those with a bachelor’s degree and relevant experience. Employment change. Overall, employment of computer software engineers and computer programmers is projected to increase by 21 percent from 2008 to 2018, much faster than the average for all occupations. This will be the result of rapid growth among computer software engineers, as employment of computer programmers is expected to decline. Employment of computer software engineers is expected to increase by 32 percent from 2008–2018, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. In addition, this occupation will see a large number of new jobs, with more than 295,000 created between 2008 and 2018. Demand for computer software engineers will increase as computer networking continues to grow.  For example, expanding Internet technologies have spurred demand for computer software engineers who can develop Internet, intranet, and World Wide Web applications. Likewise, electronic data-processing systems in business, telecommunications, healthcare, government, and other settings continue to become more sophisticated and complex. Implementing, safeguarding, and updating computer systems and resolving problems will fuel the demand for growing numbers of systems software engineers. New growth areas will also continue to arise from rapidly evolving technologies. The increasing uses of the Internet, the proliferation of Web sites, and mobile technology such the as wireless Internet have created a demand for a wide variety of new products. As more software is offered over the Internet, and as businesses demand customized software to meet their specific needs, applications and systems software engineers will be needed in greater numbers. In addition, the growing use of handheld computers will create demand for new mobile applications and software systems. As these devices become a larger part of the business environment, it will be necessary to integrate current computer systems with this new, more mobile technology. In addition, information security concerns have given rise to new software needs. Concerns over “cyber security” should result in the continued investment in software that protects computer networks and electronic infrastructure. The expansion of this technology over the next 10 years will lead to an increased need for software engineers to design and develop secure applications and systems, and to integrate them into older systems. As with other information technology jobs, offshore outsourcing may temper employment growth of computer software engineers. Firms may look to cut costs by shifting operations to foreign countries with lower prevailing wages and highly educated workers. Jobs in software engineering are less prone to being offshored than are jobs in computer programming, however, because software engineering requires innovation and intense research and development. Employment of computer programmers is expected to decline slowly, decreasing by 3 percent from 2008 to 2018. Advances in programming languages and tools, the growing ability of users to write and implement their own programs, and the offshore outsourcing of programming jobs will contribute to this decline. Because they can transmit their programs digitally, computer programmers can perform their job function from anywhere in the world, allowing companies to employ workers in countries that have lower prevailing wages. Computer programmers are at a much higher risk of having their jobs offshored than are workers involved in more complex and sophisticated information technology functions, such as software ­engineering. Much  Professional and Related Occupations 137  of the work of computer programmers requires little localized or specialized knowledge and can be made routine once knowledge of a particular programming language is ­mastered. Nevertheless, employers will continue to need some local programmers, especially those who have strong technical skills and who understand an employer’s business and its programming requirements. This means that programmers will have to keep abreast of changing programming languages and techniques. Furthermore, a recent trend of domestic sourcing may help to keep a number of programming jobs onshore. Instead of hiring workers in foreign locations, some organizations have begun to contract with programmers in low-cost areas of the United States. This allows them to reduce payroll expenses, while eliminating some of the logistical issues that arise with offshore outsourcing. Job prospects. As a result of rapid employment growth over the 2008 to 2018 decade, job prospects for computer software engineers should be excellent. Those with practical experience and at least a bachelor’s degree in a computer-related field should have the best opportunities. Employers will continue to seek computer professionals with strong programming, systems analysis, interpersonal, and business skills. In addition to jobs created through employment growth, many job openings will result from the need to replace workers who move into managerial positions, transfer to other occupations, or leave the labor force. Consulting opportunities for computer software engineers also should continue to grow as businesses seek help to manage, upgrade, and customize their increasingly complicated computer systems. Although employment of computer programmers is projected to decline, numerous job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the labor force or transfer to other occupations. Prospects for these openings should be best for applicants with a bachelor’s degree and experience with a variety of programming languages and tools. As technology evolves, however, and newer, more sophisticated tools emerge, programmers will need to update their skills in order to remain competitive. Obtaining vendor-specific or language-specific certification also can provide a competitive edge.  Earnings In May 2008, median annual wages of wage-and-salary computer applications software engineers were $85,430. The middle 50 percent earned between $67,790 and $104,870. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $53,720, and the ­highest 10 percent earned more than $128,870. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of computer applications software engineers in May 2008 were as follows: Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers.........................$93,740 Software publishers.......................................................87,710 Management of companies and enterprises..................85,990 Computer systems design and related services.............84,610 Insurance carriers..........................................................80,370  In May 2008, median annual wages of wage-and-salary computer systems software engineers were $92,430. The middle  50 percent earned between $73,200 and $113,960. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $57,810, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $135,780. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of computer systems software engineers in May 2008 were as follows: Scientific research and development services...........$102,090 Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing......101,270 Software publishers.......................................................93,590 Navigational measuring electromedical and control instruments manufacturing.....................91,720 Computer systems design and related services.............91,610  Median annual wages of wage-and-salary computer programmers were $69,620 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $52,640 and $89,720 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $40,080, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $111,450. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of computer programmers in May 2008 are shown below: Software publishers.....................................................$81,780 Management of companies and enterprises..................71,040 Computer systems design and related services.............70,270 Employment services....................................................70,070 Insurance carriers..........................................................69,790  According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, starting salary offers for graduates with a bachelor’s degree in computer science averaged $61,407 in July 2009.  Related Occupations Other professional workers who deal extensively with computer technology or data include:  Page Actuaries.................................................................................. 125 Computer network, systems, and database administrators......... 128 Computer scientists.................................................................. 132 Computer support specialists................................................... 138 Computer systems analysts...................................................... 140 Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Mathematicians........................................................................ 143 Operations research analysts.................................................... 145 Statisticians.............................................................................. 148  Sources of Additional Information State employment service offices can provide information about job openings for computer programmers. Municipal chambers of commerce are an additional source of information on an area’s largest employers. Further information about computer careers is available from: hhAssociation for Computing Machinery, 2 Penn Plaza, Suite 701, New York, NY 10121-0701. Internet: http://computingcareers.acm.org  hhInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Headquarters Office, 2001 L St. NW., Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036-4910. Internet: http://www.computer.org  138 Occupational Outlook Handbook  hhNational Workforce Center for Emerging Technologies, 3000 Landerholm Circle SE., Bellevue, WA 98007. Internet: http://www.nwcet.org  hhUniversity of Washington Computer Science and Engineering Department, AC101 Paul G. Allen Center, Box 352350, 185 Stevens Way, Seattle, WA 98195-2350. Internet: http://www.cs.washington.edu/WhyCSE  hhNational Center for Women and Information Technology, University of Colorado, Campus Box 322 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0322. Internet: http://www.ncwit.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos303.htm  Computer Support Specialists Significant Points  •	 Job growth is projected to be faster than the average for all occupations.  •	 A bachelor’s degree is required for some jobs, while  an associate degree or certification is adequate for others.  •	 Job prospects should be good, especially for college graduates with relevant skills and experience.  Nature of the Work Computer support specialists provide technical assistance, support, and advice to individuals and organizations that depend on information technology. They work within organizations that use computer systems, for computer hardware or software vendors, or for third-party organizations that provide support services on a contract basis, such as help-desk service firms. Support specialists are usually differentiated between technical support specialists and help-desk technicians. Technical support specialists respond to inquiries from their organizations’ computer users and may run automatic diagnostics programs to resolve problems. In addition, they may write training manuals and train computer users in the use of new computer hardware and software. These workers also oversee the daily performance of their company’s computer systems, resolving technical problems with Local Area Networks (LAN), Wide Area Networks (WAN), and other systems. Help-desk technicians respond to telephone calls and e-mail messages from customers looking for help with computer problems. In responding to these inquiries, help-desk technicians must listen carefully to the customer, ask questions to diagnose the nature of the problem, and then patiently walk the customer through the problem-solving steps. They also install, modify, clean, and repair computer hardware and software. Many computer support specialists start out at the help desk.  Help-desk technicians deal directly with customer issues, and their employers value them as a source of feedback on their products and services. They are consulted for information about what gives customers the most trouble, as well as other customer concerns. Work environment. Computer support specialists normally work in well-lighted, comfortable offices or computer laboratories. Most work about 40 hours a week. Those who work for third-party support firms often are away from their offices, spending considerable time working at a client’s location. As computer networks expand, more computer support specialists may be able to provide technical support from remote locations. This capability would reduce or eliminate travel to the customer’s workplace, and may allow some support specialists to work from home. Injuries in this occupation are uncommon, but like other workers who type on a keyboard for long periods, computer support specialists are susceptible to eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems such as carpal tunnel ­syndrome.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A college degree is required for some computer support specialist positions, but an associate degree or certification may be sufficient for others. Strong problem-solving and communication skills are essential. Education and training. Due to the wide range of skills required, there are many paths of entry to a job as a computer support specialist. Training requirements for computer support specialist positions vary, but many employers prefer to hire applicants with some formal college education. A bachelor’s degree in computer science, computer engineering, or information systems is a prerequisite for some jobs; other jobs, however, may require only a computer-related associate degree. Some employers will hire applicants with a college degree in any field, as long as the applicant has the necessary technical skills. For some jobs, relevant computer experience and certifications may substitute for formal education.  Employment of computer support specialists is expected to increase faster than the average.  Professional and Related Occupations 139  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Computer support specialists.............................................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  15-1041  565,700  Projected Employment, 2018 643,700  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 78,000 14  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Most support specialists receive on-the-job training after being hired. This training can last anywhere from 1 week to 1 year, but a common length is about 3 months. Many computer support specialists, in order to keep up with changes in technology, continue to receive training throughout their careers by attending professional training programs offered by employers, hardware and software vendors, colleges and universities, and private training institutions. Certification and other qualifications. For some jobs, professional certification may qualify an applicant for employment. Certification can demonstrate proficiency in a product or process, and help applicants obtain some entrylevel positions. Some hardware and software vendors require their computer support specialists to be certified, and many of these will fund this training after an applicant is hired. Voluntary certification programs are offered by a wide variety of organizations, including product vendors and training institutions, and are available across the Nation. People interested in becoming a computer support specialist must have strong problem-solving, analytical, and communication skills because troubleshooting and helping others are vital parts of the job. The constant interaction with other computer personnel, customers, and employees requires computer ­support specialists to communicate effectively via e-mail, over the phone, or in person. Strong writing skills are useful in writing e-mail responses and preparing manuals for employees and customers. Advancement. Entry-level computer support specialists generally work directly with customers or in-house users. They may advance into positions that handle products or problems with higher levels of technical complexity. Some may advance into management roles. Some computer support specialists may find opportunities in other occupations, such as computer programmers or software engineers, designing products rather than assisting ­users. Promotions depend heavily on job performance, but formal education and professional certification can improve advancement opportunities. Advancement opportunities in hardware and software companies can occur quickly, sometimes within months.  Employment Computer support specialists held about 565,700 jobs in 2008. Although they worked in a wide range of industries, about 18 percent were employed in the computer systems design and related services industry. Substantial numbers of these workers were also employed in administrative and support services companies, financial institutions, insurance companies, government agencies, educational institutions, software publishers, telecommunications organizations, and healthcare ­organizations.  Job Outlook Employment is expected to increase faster than the average. Job prospects should be good, especially for those with a college degree and relevant skills. Employment change. Employment of computer support specialists is expected to increase by 14 percent from 2008 to 2018, which is faster than the average for all occupations. Demand for these workers will result as organizations and individuals continue to adopt the newest forms of technology. As technology becomes more complex and widespread, support specialists will be needed in greater numbers to resolve the technical problems that arise. Businesses, especially, will demand greater levels of support, as information technology has become essential in the business environment. Job growth will be fastest in several industries that rely heavily on technology. These include the computer systems design and related services industry; the data processing, hosting and related services industry; the software publishing industry; and the management, scientific, and technical consulting industry. These industries will employ a growing number of support specialists as they utilize and provide an increasing array of IT services. Healthcare and related establishments, in addition, may see substantial growth as these organizations look to improve their efficiency and patient care through the use of information systems and other technology. Overall growth may be dampened, to a certain extent, as some jobs are outsourced to offshore locations. Advances in technology increasingly allow computer support specialists to provide assistance remotely. Some employers may seek to reduce expenses by hiring workers in areas that have lower prevailing wages. Job prospects. Job prospects are expected to be good; those who possess a bachelor’s degree, relevant technical and communication skills, and previous work experience should have even better opportunities than applicants with an associate degree or professional certification.  Earnings Median annual wages of wage-and-salary computer support specialists were $43,450 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $33,680 and $55,990. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $26,580, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $70,750. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of computer support specialists in May 2008 were as follows: Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers.........................$48,580 Management of companies and enterprises..................45,200 Colleges, universities, and professional schools...........43,130 Computer systems design and related services.............43,080 Elementary and secondary schools...............................40,550  140 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Related Occupations  Nature of the Work  Other occupations that deal with technology or respond to customer inquiries include:  Nearly all organizations rely on computer and information technology (IT) to conduct business and operate efficiently. Computer systems analysts use IT tools to help enterprises of all sizes achieve their goals. They may design and develop new computer systems by choosing and configuring hardware and software, or they may devise ways to apply existing systems’ resources to additional tasks. Most systems analysts work with specific types of computer systems—for example, business, accounting, and financial systems or scientific and engineering systems—that vary with the kind of organization. Analysts who specialize in helping an organization select the proper system hardware and software are often called system architects or system designers. Analysts who specialize in developing and fine-tuning systems often have the more general title of systems analysts. To begin an assignment, systems analysts consult with an organization’s managers and users to define the goals of the system and then design a system to meet those goals. They specify the inputs that the system will access, decide how the inputs will be processed, and format the output to meet users’ needs. Analysts use techniques such as structured analysis, data ­modeling, information engineering, mathematical model building, sampling, and a variety of accounting principles to ensure their plans are efficient and complete. They also may prepare cost-benefit and return-on-investment analyses to help management decide whether implementing the proposed technology would be financially feasible. When a system is approved, systems analysts oversee the implementation of the required hardware and software components. They coordinate tests and observe the initial use of the system to ensure that it performs as planned. They prepare specifications, flow charts, and process diagrams for computer programmers to follow; then they work with programmers to “debug,” or eliminate errors, from the system. Systems analysts who do more in-depth testing may be called software quality assurance analysts. In addition to running tests, these ­workers ­diagnose problems, recommend solutions, and determine whether program requirements have been met. After the system has been implemented, tested, and debugged, computer systems analysts may train its users and write instruction manuals. In some organizations, programmer-analysts design and update the software that runs a computer. They also create custom applications tailored to their organization’s tasks. Because they are responsible for both programming and systems analysis, these workers must be proficient in both areas. (A separate section on computer software engineers and ­computer programmers appears elsewhere in the Handbook.) As this dual proficiency becomes more common, analysts are increasingly working with databases, object-oriented programming ­languages, client–server applications, and multimedia and Internet technology. One challenge created by expanding computer use is the need for different computer systems to communicate with each other. Many systems analysts are involved with “networking,” connecting all the computers within an organization or across organizations, as when setting up e-commerce networks to facilitate business between companies.   Page Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators............................................................................... 337 Computer and information systems managers........................... 35 Computer network, systems, and database administrators......... 128 Computer software engineers and computer programmers....... 134 Customer service representatives............................................. 567  Sources of Additional Information For additional information about a career as a computer support specialist, contact: hhAssociation of Support Professionals, 122 Barnard Ave., Watertown, MA 02472. Internet: http://asponline.com  hhHDI, 102 South Tejon, Suite 1200, Colorado Springs, CO, 80903. Internet: http://www.thinkhdi.com For additional information about computer careers, contact:  hhAssociation for Computing Machinery, 2 Penn  Plaza, Suite 701, New York, NY 10121-0701. Internet: http://computingcareers.acm.org  hhInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Headquarters Office, 2001 L St. NW., Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036-4910. Internet: http://www.computer.org  hhNational Workforce Center for Emerging Technologies, 3000 Landerholm Circle SE., Bellevue, WA 98007. Internet: http://www.nwcet.org  hhUniversity of Washington Computer Science and Engineering Department, AC101 Paul G. Allen Center, Box 352350, 185 Stevens Way, Seattle, WA 98195-2350. Internet: http://www.cs.washington.edu/WhyCSE  hhNational Center for Women and Information Technology, University of Colorado, Campus Box 322 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0322. Internet: http://www.ncwit.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos306.htm  Computer Systems Analysts Significant Points  •	 Employment is expected to increase much faster than average.  •	 Excellent job prospects are expected as organiza-  tions continue to adopt increasingly sophisticated technologies.  •	 Employers generally prefer applicants who have at least a bachelor’s degree; relevant work experience also is very important.  Professional and Related Occupations 141  Computer systems analysts use information technology to help organizations operate more effectively. Work environment. Computer systems analysts work in o­ ffices or laboratories in comfortable surroundings. Many work about 40 hours a week, but some work more than 50 hours a week. Some analysts telecommute, using computers to work from remote locations. Injuries in this occupation are uncommon, but computer systems analysts, like other workers who spend long periods typing on a computer, are susceptible to eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements for computer systems analysts vary depending on the job, but many employers prefer applicants who have a bachelor’s degree. Relevant work experience also is very important. Advancement opportunities are good for those with the necessary skills and experience.  Education and training. When hiring computer systems analysts, employers usually prefer applicants who have at least a bachelor’s degree. For more technically complex jobs, people with graduate degrees are preferred. For jobs in a technical or scientific environment, employers often seek applicants who have at least a bachelor’s degree in a technical field, such as computer science, information science, applied mathematics, engineering, or the physical sciences. For jobs in a business environment, employers often seek applicants with at least a bachelor’s degree in a business-related field such as management information systems (MIS). Increasingly, employers are seeking individuals who have a master’s degree in business administration (MBA) with a concentration in information ­systems. Despite the preference for technical degrees, however, people who have degrees in other areas may find employment as systems analysts if they also have technical skills. Courses in computer science or related subjects combined with practical experience can qualify people for some jobs in the ­occupation. Employers generally look for people with expertise relevant to the job. For example, systems analysts who wish to work for a bank may need some expertise in finance, and systems analysts who wish to work for a hospital may need some knowledge of health management. Furthermore, business enterprises generally prefer individuals with information technology, business, and accounting skills and frequently assist employees in obtaining these skills. Technological advances come so rapidly in the computer field that continuous study is necessary to remain competitive. ­Employers, hardware and software vendors, colleges and universities, and private training institutions offer continuing ­education to help workers attain the latest skills. Additional training may come from professional development seminars offered by professional computing societies. Other qualifications. Employers usually look for people who have broad knowledge and experience related to computer systems and technologies, strong problem-solving and analytical skills, and the ability to think logically. In addition, the ability to concentrate and pay close attention to detail is important because computer systems analysts often deal with many tasks simultaneously. Although these workers sometimes work independently, they frequently work in teams on large projects. Therefore, they must have good interpersonal skills and be able to communicate effectively with computer personnel, users, and other staff who may have no technical background.  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Computer systems analysts................................................................  SOC Code 15-1051  Employment, 2008 532,200  Projected Employment, 2018 640,300  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 108,100 20  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational ­Information Included in the Handbook.  142 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Advancement.   With experience, systems analysts may be promoted to senior or lead analyst. Those who possess leadership ability and good business skills also can become computer and information systems managers or can advance into executive positions such as chief information officer. Those with work experience and considerable expertise in a particular subject or application may find lucrative opportunities as independent consultants, or they may choose to start their own computer consulting firms.  Employment Computer systems analysts held about 532,200 jobs in 2008. Although they are employed in many industries, 24 percent of these workers were in the computer systems design and related services industry. Computer systems analysts also were employed by governments; insurance companies; financial institutions; and business management firms. About 30,300 computer systems analysts were self-employed in 2008.  Job Outlook Employment is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations, and job prospects should be excellent. Employment change. Employment of computer systems analysts is expected to grow by 20 percent from 2008 to 2018, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. Demand for these workers will increase as organizations continue to adopt and integrate increasingly sophisticated technologies and as the need for information security grows. As information technology becomes an increasingly important aspect of the business environment, the demand for computer networking, Internet, and intranet functions will drive demand for computer systems analysts. The increasing adoption of the wireless Internet, known as WiFi, and of personal mobile computers has created a need for new systems that can integrate these technologies into existing networks. Explosive growth in these areas is expected to fuel demand for analysts who are knowledgeable about systems development and integration. In addition, as sensitive data continues to be transmitted and stored electronically, the need for ­information ­security specialists is expected to grow rapidly. Furthermore, the healthcare industry is expected to increase its use of ­information technology and will demand the services of this occupation. The adoption of e-prescribing, electronic health ­records, and other IT platforms will drive this trend, creating a large number of new jobs. As with other information technology jobs, employment growth may be tempered somewhat by offshoring. Firms may look to cut costs by shifting operations to foreign countries with lower prevailing wages and highly skilled workers. However, due to the high level of expertise that is required, as well as the frequent need to be near the job site, systems analysts are less likely to be offshored than other IT occupations. Job prospects. Job prospects should be excellent. Job openings will occur as a result of strong job growth and from the need to replace workers who move into other occupations or who leave the labor force.  Earnings Median annual wages of wage and salary computer systems analysts were $75,500 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $58,460 and $95,810 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $45,390, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $118,440. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of computer systems analysts in May 2008 were: Professional and commercial equipment and supplies ­merchant wholesalers.........................$89,670 Computer systems design and related services.............78,680 Data processing, hosting, and related services..............78,010 Management of companies and enterprises..................76,070 Insurance carriers..........................................................74,610  Related Occupations Other workers who use computers extensively and who use logic and creativity to solve business and technical problems include:  Page Actuaries.................................................................................. 125 Computer and information systems managers........................... 35 Computer network, systems, and database administrators......... 128 Computer software engineers and computer programmers....... 134 Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Management analysts............................................................... 111 Mathematicians........................................................................ 143 Operations research analysts.................................................... 145 Statisticians.............................................................................. 148  Sources of Additional Information Further information about computer careers is available from: hhAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2 Penn Plaza, Suite 701, New York, NY 10121-0701. Internet: http://computingcareers.acm.org/  hhInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society, Headquarters Office, 2001 L St. NW, Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036-4910. Internet: http://www.computer.org  hhNational Workforce Center for Emerging Technologies, 3000 Landerholm Circle SE, Bellevue, WA 98007. Internet: http://www.nwcet.org  hhUniversity of Washington Computer Science and Engineering Department, AC101 Paul G. Allen Center, Box 352350, 185 Stevens Way, Seattle, WA 98195-2350. Internet: http://www.cs.washington.edu/WhyCSE  hhNational Center for Women and Information Technology, University of Colorado, Campus Box 322 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0322. Internet: http://www.ncwit.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos287.htm  Professional and Related Occupations 143  Mathematicians Significant Points  •	 A Ph.D. in mathematics usually is the minimum educational requirement, except in the Federal Government.  •	 Much faster than average employment growth is expected for mathematicians.  •	 Keen competition for jobs is expected. •	 Ph.D. holders with a strong background in mathematics and a related field, such as computer science or engineering, should have better employment opportunities in related occupations.  Nature of the Work Mathematics is one of the oldest and most fundamental sciences. Mathematicians use mathematical theory, computational techniques, algorithms, and the latest computer technology to solve economic, scientific, engineering, and business problems. The work of mathematicians falls into two broad classes: theoretical (pure) mathematics and applied mathematics. These classes, however, are not sharply defined and often overlap. Theoretical mathematicians advance mathematical knowledge by developing new principles and recognizing previously unknown relationships between existing principles of mathematics. Although these workers seek to increase basic knowledge without necessarily considering its practical use, such pure and abstract knowledge has been instrumental in producing or furthering many scientific and engineering achievements. Many theoretical mathematicians are employed as university faculty, dividing their time between teaching and conducting research. (See the statement on teachers—postsecondary elsewhere in the Handbook.) Applied mathematicians use theories and techniques, such as mathematical modeling and computational methods, to formulate and solve practical problems in business, government, engineering, and the physical, life, and social sciences. For example, they may analyze the most efficient way to schedule airline routes between cities, the effects and safety of new drugs, the  aerodynamic characteristics of an experimental ­automobile, or the cost-effectiveness of alternative manufacturing processes. Applied mathematicians working in industrial research and development may develop or enhance mathematical methods when solving a difficult problem. Some mathematicians, called cryptanalysts, analyze and decipher encryption systems— codes—designed to transmit military, political, financial, or law-enforcement-related information. Applied mathematicians start with a practical problem, envision its separate elements, and then reduce the elements to mathematical variables. They often use computers to analyze relationships among the variables, and they solve complex problems by developing models with alternative solutions. Individuals with titles other than mathematician also do work in applied mathematics. In fact, because mathematics is the foundation on which so many other academic disciplines are built, the number of workers using mathematical techniques is much greater than the number formally called mathematicians. For example, engineers, computer scientists, physicists, and economists are among those who use mathematics extensively. Some professionals, including statisticians, actuaries, and operations research analysts, are actually specialists in a particular branch of mathematics. (For more information, see the statements on actuaries, operations research analysts, and statisticians elsewhere in the Handbook.) Applied mathematicians frequently are required to collaborate with other workers in their organizations to find common solutions to problems. Work environment. Mathematicians usually work in comfortable offices. They often are part of interdisciplinary teams that may include economists, engineers, computer scientists, physicists, technicians, and others. Deadlines, overtime work, special requests for information or analysis, and prolonged travel to attend seminars or conferences may be part of their jobs. Mathematicians who work in academia usually have a mix of teaching and research responsibilities. These mathematicians may conduct research by themselves or in close collaboration with other mathematicians. Collaborators may work together at the same institution or from different locations, using technology such as e-mail to communicate. Mathematicians in academia also may be aided by graduate students.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Applied mathematicians use math to solve practical problems.  A Ph.D. degree in mathematics usually is the minimum educational requirement for prospective mathematicians, except in the Federal Government. Education and training. In private industry, candidates for mathematician jobs typically need a Ph.D., although there may be opportunities for those with a master’s degree. Most of the positions designated for mathematicians are in research-anddevelopment laboratories, as part of technical teams. In the Federal Government, entry-level job candidates usually must have at least a bachelor’s degree with a major in mathematics or 24 semester hours of mathematics courses. Outside the Federal Government, bachelor’s degree holders in mathematics usually are not qualified for most jobs, and many seek advanced degrees in mathematics or a related discipline. However, bachelor’s degree holders who meet State certification  144 Occupational Outlook Handbook  requirements may become primary or secondary school mathematics teachers. (For additional information, see the statement on teachers- kindergarten, elementary, middle, and secondary elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, and many universities offer master’s and doctoral degrees in pure or applied mathematics. Courses usually required for these programs include calculus, differential equations, and linear and abstract algebra. Additional courses might include probability theory and statistics, mathematical analysis, numerical analysis, topology, discrete mathematics, and mathematical logic. In graduate programs, students also conduct research and take advanced courses, usually specializing in a subfield of mathematics. Many colleges and universities advise or require students majoring in mathematics to take courses in a closely related field, such as computer science, engineering, life science, physical science, or economics. A double major in mathematics and another related discipline is particularly desirable to many employers. High school students who are prospective college mathematics majors should take as many mathematics courses as possible while in high school. Other qualifications. For jobs in applied mathematics, training in the field in which mathematics will be used is very important. Mathematics is used extensively in physics, actuarial science, statistics, engineering, and operations research. Computer science, business and industrial management, economics, finance, chemistry, geology, life sciences, and behavioral sciences are likewise dependent on applied mathematics. Mathematicians also should have substantial knowledge of computer programming, because most complex mathematical computation and much mathematical modeling are done on a computer. Mathematicians need to have good reasoning to identify, analyze, and apply basic principles to technical problems. Communication skills also are important because mathematicians must be able to interact and discuss proposed solutions with people who may not have extensive knowledge of mathematics. Advancement.    The majority of those with a master’s degree in mathematics who work in private industry do so not as mathematicians but in related fields, such as computer science, where they have titles such as computer programmer, systems analyst, or systems engineer. In these occupations, workers can advance to management positions.  Employment Mathematicians held about 2,900 jobs in 2008. Many people with mathematical backgrounds also worked in other occupations. For example, there were about 54,800 jobs for postsecondary mathematical science teachers in 2008.  Many mathematicians work for the Federal Government, primarily in the U.S. Department of Defense which accounts for about 81 percent of the mathematicians employed by the Federal Government. Many of the other mathematicians employed by the Federal Government work for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) or the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In the private sector, major employers include scientific research and development services and management, scientific, and technical consulting services. Some mathematicians also work for insurance carriers.  Job Outlook Employment of mathematicians is expected to grow much faster than average. However, keen competition for jobs is expected. Employment change. Employment of mathematicians is expected to increase by 22 percent during the 2008–18 decade, which is much faster than average for all occupations. Advancements in technology usually lead to expanding applications of mathematics, and more workers with knowledge of mathematics will be required in the future. However, jobs in industry and government often require advanced knowledge of related scientific disciplines in addition to mathematics. The most common fields in which mathematicians study and find work are computer science and software development, physics, engineering, and operations research. Many mathematicians also are involved in financial analysis and in life sciences research. Job prospects. Job competition will remain keen because employment in this occupation is relatively small and few new jobs are expected. Ph.D. holders with a strong background in mathematics and a related discipline, such as engineering or computer science, and who apply mathematical theory to realworld problems will have the best job prospects in related occupations. In addition, mathematicians with experience in computer programming will better their job prospects in many occupations. Holders of a master’s degree in mathematics will face very strong competition for jobs in theoretical research. Because the number of Ph.D. degrees awarded in mathematics continues to exceed the number of available university positions—­ especially tenure-track positions—many graduates will need to find employment in industry and government. Employment in theoretical mathematical research is sensitive to general economic fluctuations and to changes in government spending. Job prospects will be greatly influenced by changes in public and private funding for research and development.  Earnings Median annual wages of mathematicians were $95,150 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $71,430  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Mathematicians..................................................................................  SOC Code 15-2021  Employment, 2008 2,900  Projected Employment, 2018 3,600  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 700 22  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Professional and Related Occupations 145  and $119,480. The lowest 10 percent had earnings of less than $53,570, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $140,500. In March 2009, the average annual salary in the Federal Government was $107,051 for mathematicians; $107,015 for mathematical statisticians; and $101,645 for cryptanalysts.  Related Occupations Other occupations that require extensive knowledge of mathematics or, in some cases, a degree in mathematics include the following:  Page Actuaries.................................................................................. 125 Computer network, systems, and database administrators......... 128 Computer scientists.................................................................. 132 Computer software engineers and computer programmers....... 134 Computer systems analysts...................................................... 140 Operations research analysts.................................................... 145 Statisticians.............................................................................. 148  A strong background in mathematics also facilitates employment for the following workers: Economists............................................................................... 209 Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Financial analysts..................................................................... 103 Market and survey researchers................................................. 212 Personal financial advisors....................................................... 118 Physicists and astronomers...................................................... 206 Teachers—postsecondary......................................................... 282 Teachers—preschool, kindergarten, elementary, middle, and secondary.......................................................... 288  Sources of Additional Information For more information about careers and training in mathematics, especially for doctoral-level employment, contact hhAmerican Mathematical Society, 201 Charles St., Providence, RI 02904-2294. Internet: http://www.ams.org For specific information on careers in applied mathematics, contact hhSociety for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 3600 Market St. 6th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2688. Internet: http://www.siam.org Information on obtaining positions as mathematicians with the Federal Government is available from the Office of Personnel Management through USAJOBS, the Federal Government’s official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724-1850 or TDD (978) 461-8404. These numbers are not toll free, and charges may result. For advice on how to find and apply for Federal jobs, see the Occupational Outlook Quarterly article “How to get a job in the Federal Government,” online at http://www.bls.gov/ opub/ooq/2004/summer/art01.pdf. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the In-  ternet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos043.htm  Operations Research Analysts Significant Points  •	 Candidates should have strong quantitative and computer skills; employers prefer workers who have completed advanced math courses.  •	 Employment is projected to grow much faster than average.  •	 Individuals with a master’s or Ph.D. degree in opera-  tions research or management science should have excellent employment prospects; some entry-level positions are available to those with a bachelor’s degree.  Nature of the Work Operations research analysts formulate and apply mathematical modeling methods to develop and interpret information that assists management with policy formulation and other managerial functions. Using analytical techniques, operations research analysts help managers to make better decisions and solve problems. The procedures of operations ­research were first formalized by the military. They have been used in wartime to effectively deploy radar, search for enemy submarines, and get supplies to where they are most needed. In peacetime and in private enterprises, operations research is used in planning business ventures and analyzing options by using statistical analysis, data mining, simulation, computer modeling, linear programming, and other mathematical ­techniques. In addition to the military, operations research analysts today are employed in almost every industry, as companies and organizations must effectively manage money, materials, equipment, people, and time. Operations research analysts reduce the complexity of these elements by applying analytical methods from mathematics, science, and engineering, to help companies make better decisions and improve efficiency. Using sophisticated software tools, operations research analysts are largely responsible for solving complex problems, such as setting up schedules for sports leagues or determining how to organize products in supermarkets. Presenting the pros and cons of each possible scenario, analysts present solutions to managers, who use the information to make decisions. Analysts are often involved in top-level strategizing, planning, and forecasting. They help to allocate resources, measure performance, schedule, design production facilities and systems, manage the supply chain, set prices, coordinate transportation and distribution, or analyze large databases. The duties of operations research analysts vary according to the structure and management of the organizations they are assisting. Some firms centralize operations research in one department; others use operations research in each division. Many analysts work with management consulting companies  146 Occupational Outlook Handbook  that perform contract work for other firms. Analysts working in these positions often have areas of specialization, such as transportation or finance. Because problems are very complex and often require expertise from many disciplines, most analysts work in teams. Teams of analysts usually start projects by listening to managers describe problems. Analysts ask questions and search for data that may help to formally define a problem. For example, an operations research team for an auto manufacturer may be asked to determine the best inventory level for each of the parts needed on a production line and to determine the optimal number of windshields to be kept in stock. Too many windshields would be wasteful and expensive, whereas too few could halt production. Analysts study the problem, breaking it into its components. Then they gather information from a variety of sources. To determine the optimal inventory, operations research analysts might talk with engineers about production levels, discuss purchasing arrangements with buyers, and examine storage-cost data provided by the accounting department. They might also find data on past inventory levels or other statistics that may help them to project their needs. Relevant information in hand, the team determines the most appropriate analytical technique. Techniques used may include Monte Carlo simulations, linear and nonlinear programming, dynamic programming, queuing and other stochastic-process models, Markov decision processes, econometric methods, data envelopment analysis, neural networks, expert systems, decision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process. Nearly all of these techniques involve the construction of mathematical models that attempt to describe the system. The problem of the windshields, for example, would be described as a set of equations that represent real-world conditions. Using these models, the team can explicitly describe the different components and clarify the relationships among them. The model’s inputs can then be altered to examine what might happen to the system under different circumstances. In most cases, a computer program is used to numerically evaluate the model. A team will often run the model with a variety of different inputs to determine the results of each change. A model for airline flight scheduling, for example, might stipulate such things as connecting cities, the amount of fuel required to fly the routes, projected levels of passenger demand, varying ticket and fuel prices, pilot scheduling, and maintenance costs. Analysts may also use optimization techniques to determine the most cost effective or profit-maximizing solution for the airline. Based on the results of the analysis, the operations research team presents recommendations to managers. Managers may ask analysts to modify and rerun the model with different inputs or change some aspect of the model before making their deci-  Operations research analysts can advance by becoming technical specialists or supervisors on more complicated projects. sions. Once a manager reaches a final decision, the team usually works with others in the organization to ensure the plan’s successful implementation. Work environment. Operations research analysts generally work 40 hours a week; some, however, work longer. While most of their work is done in an office environment, they may spend time in the field, analyzing processes through direct observation. Because they work on projects that are of immediate interest to top managers, operations research analysts often are under pressure to meet deadlines.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Some entry-level positions are available to those with a bachelor’s degree in operations research, management science, or a related field, but higher degrees are required for many positions. Strong quantitative and computer skills are essential. Employers prefer workers who have completed advanced math courses. Education and training. A bachelor’s degree coupled with extensive coursework in mathematics and other quantitative subjects usually is the minimum education requirement. Many employers, however, prefer applicants with a master’s degree in operations research, management science, or a closely related field—such as computer science, engineering, business, applied mathematics, or information systems. Dual graduate degrees in operations research and computer science are especially attractive to employers. There are numerous degree programs in operations research and closely related fields in colleges and universities across the United States. Continuing education is important for operations research analysts. Keeping up to date with technological advances, software tools, and improvements in analytical methods is vital for maintaining their problem-solving skills.  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Operations research analysts..............................................................  SOC Code 15-2031  Employment, 2008 63,000  Projected Employment, 2018 76,900  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 13,900 22  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Professional and Related Occupations 147  Other qualifications. Those considering careers as operations research analysts should be able to pay attention to detail because much time is spent on data analysis. Candidates should also have strong computer and quantitative skills and be able to perform complex research. Employers prefer analysts who understand how to use advanced operations research software and statistical packages. Although not always required, having programming skills can be very helpful. Since operations research is a multi-disciplinary field, a background in political science, economics, statistics, engineering, accounting, and management can also be useful. Operations research analysts must be able to think logically, work well with people, and write and speak well. Advancement.    Beginning analysts usually perform routine computational work under the supervision of more experienced analysts. As novices gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more complex tasks and are given greater autonomy to design models and solve problems. Operations research analysts can advance by becoming technical specialists or project team leaders. Analysts also gain valuable insights into the industry where they work and may assume higher level managerial or administrative positions. Operations research analysts with significant experience or expertise may become independent consultants. Others may move into corporate management, where they eventually may become chief operating officers.  Employment Operations research analysts held about 63,000 jobs in 2008. Major employers include computer systems design firms; insurance carriers and other financial institutions; management; telecommunications companies; and scientific, and technical consulting services firms. Most operations research analysts in the Federal Government work for the Department of Defense.  Job Outlook Employment is projected to grow much faster than average. Individuals with a master’s or Ph.D. degree in operations research or management science should have excellent job opportunities; some entry-level positions are available to those with a bachelor’s degree. Employment change. Employment of operations research analysts is expected to grow 22 percent over the 2008–18 period, much faster than the average for all occupations. As technology advances and companies further emphasize efficiency, demand for operations research analysis should continue to grow. Technological advancements have extended the availability of data access and storage, making information more readily available. Advancements in computing capabilities and analytical software have made it cheaper and faster for analysts to solve problems. As problem solving becomes cheaper and faster with technological advances, more firms will have the ability to employ or consult with analysts. Additionally, organizations increasingly will be faced with the pressure of growing domestic and international competition and must work to maximize organizational efficiency. As a result, businesses increasingly will rely on operations research analysts to optimize profits by improving productivity  and ­reducing costs. As new technologies are introduced into the marketplace, operations research analysts will be needed to determine how to best use those new technologies. Job prospects. Jobs for operations research analysts exist in almost every industry because of the diversity of applications for their work. As businesses and government agencies continue to contract out jobs to cut costs, opportunities for operations research analysts will be best in management, scientific, and technical consulting firms. The relatively small pool of qualified candidates will result in excellent opportunities for those with a master’s or Ph.D. degree in operations research or management science. Operations research is not a particularly well-known field, which means there are fewer applicants competing for each job. In addition to job growth, some openings will result from the need to replace analysts retiring or leaving the occupation for other reasons.  Earnings Median annual wages of operations research analysts were $69,000 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $51,780 and $92,920. The lowest 10 percent had wages of less than $40,000, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $118,130. Median annual wages of operations research analysts working in management, scientific, and technical consulting services were $80,290 in May 2008. The average annual salary for operations research analysts in the Federal Government was $107,198 in March 2009. Operations research analysts generally are paid fixed annual salaries with the possibility of bonuses. They also receive benefits typical of professional employees, such as medical and life insurance and 401(k) programs. Many employers offer training programs, including tuition reimbursement programs that allow analysts to attend advanced university classes.  Related Occupations Operations research analysts apply advanced analytical methods to large, complicated problems, similar to:  Page Computer software engineers and computer programmers....... 134 Computer systems analysts...................................................... 140 Economists............................................................................... 209 Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Management analysts............................................................... 111 Market and survey researchers................................................. 212 Mathematicians........................................................................ 143 Statisticians.............................................................................. 148  Sources of Additional Information For information on career opportunities and a list of degree programs for operations research analysts, contact: hhInstitute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, 7240 Parkway Dr., Suite 300, Hanover, MD 21076. Internet: http://www.informs.org For information on operations research careers and degree programs in the Armed Forces, contact:  148 Occupational Outlook Handbook  hhMilitary Operations Research Society, 1703 N. Beauregard St., Suite 450, Alexandria, VA 22311. Internet: http://www.mors.org Information on obtaining positions as operations research analysts with the Federal Government is available from the Office of Personnel Management through USAJOBS, the Federal Government’s official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.opm.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724-1850 or TDD (978) 461-8404. These numbers are not toll free, and charges may result. For advice on how to find and apply for Federal jobs, see the Occupational Outlook Quarterly article “How to get a job in the Federal Government,” online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2004/summer/art01.pdf. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos044.htm  Statisticians  or of a group of things by surveying a small portion of the total. For example, to determine the size of the audience for particular programs, television-rating services survey only a few ­thousand families, rather than all viewers. Statisticians decide where and how to gather the data, determine the type and size of the sample group, and develop the survey questionnaire or reporting form. They also prepare instructions for workers who will collect and tabulate the data. Finally, statisticians analyze, interpret, and summarize the data with the use of computer software. In business and industry, statisticians play an important role in quality control and in product development and improvement. In an automobile company, for example, statisticians might design experiments in which engines are run until failure and breakdown in order to determine the failure time of engines exposed to extreme weather conditions. Working for a pharmaceutical company, statisticians might develop and evaluate the results of clinical trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of new medications. At a computer software firm, statisticians might help construct new statistical software packages to analyze data more accurately and efficiently. In addition to designing experiments for product development and testing, some statisticians are involved in deciding what products to manufacture, how much to charge for them, and to whom the products should be  Significant Points  •	 About 30 percent of statisticians work for Federal,  State, and local governments; private-industry employers include scientific research and development services, insurance carriers, and pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing.  •	 A master’s degree in statistics or mathematics is the minimum educational requirement for most jobs. Individuals with a degree in statistics are likely to have opportunities in a variety of fields.  Nature of the Work Statistics is the scientific application of mathematical principles to the collection, analysis, and presentation of numerical data. Statisticians apply their mathematical and statistical knowledge to the design of surveys and experiments; the collection, processing, and analysis of data; and the interpretation of experiments and survey results. Opinion polls, statements about the accuracy of scales and other measuring devices, and information about average earnings in an occupation are all usually the work of statisticians. Statisticians may apply their knowledge of statistical methods to a variety of subject areas, such as biology, economics, engineering, medicine, public health, psychology, marketing, education, and sports. Many economic, social, political, and military decisions cannot be made without statistical techniques, such as the design of experiments to gain Federal approval of a newly manufactured drug. Statistics might be needed to show whether the seemingly good results of a drug were likely because of the drug rather than just the effect of random variation in patient outcomes. One technique that is especially useful to statisticians is ­sampling—obtaining information about a population of people  Advanced computer programs have led to jobs for statisticians in many industries.  Professional and Related Occupations 149  marketed. Statisticians also may manage assets and liabilities, determining the risks and returns of certain investments. Nearly every government agency employs statisticians. Some government statisticians develop surveys that measure population growth, consumer prices, or unemployment. Other statisticians work for scientific, environmental, and agricultural agencies and may help figure out the average level of pesticides in drinking water, the number of endangered species living in a particular area, or the number of people afflicted with a certain disease. Statisticians also are employed in national defense agencies, determining the accuracy of new weapons and the likely effectiveness of defense strategies. Because statistical specialists are employed in so many different kinds of work, specialists who use statistics often have different professional designations. For example, a person using statistical methods to analyze economic data may be called an econometrician, while statisticians in public health and medicine may hold titles such as biostatistician or biometrician. Work environment. Statisticians generally work regular hours in an office environment. Sometimes, they may work more hours to meet deadlines. Some statisticians travel to provide advice on research projects, supervise and set up surveys, or gather statistical data. Although e-mail and teleconferencing make it easier for statisticians to work with clients in different areas, there still are situations that require the statistician to be present, such as during meetings or while gathering data.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A master’s degree in statistics or mathematics is the minimum educational requirement, but research and academic jobs generally require a Ph.D., while Federal Government jobs require at least a bachelor’s degree. Education and training. A master’s degree in statistics or mathematics usually is the minimum educational requirement for most statistician jobs. Research and academic positions usually require a Ph.D. in statistics. Beginning positions in industrial research often require a master’s degree combined with several years of experience. Jobs with the Federal Government require at least a bachelor’s degree. The training required for employment as an entry-level statistician in the Federal Government is a bachelor’s degree, including at least 15 semester hours of statistics or a combination of 15 hours of mathematics and statistics with at least 6 semester hours in statistics. Qualifying as a mathematical statistician in the Federal Government requires 24 semester hours of mathematics and statistics, with a minimum of 6 semester hours in statistics and 12 semester hours in an area of advanced mathematics, such as calculus, differential equations, or vector analysis. Many colleges and universities offer degree programs in statistics, biostatistics, or mathematics, while other schools also  offer graduate-level courses in applied statistics for students majoring in biology, business, economics, education, engineering, psychology, and other fields. Acceptance into graduate statistics programs does not require an undergraduate degree in statistics, although good training in mathematics is essential. Many schools also offer degrees in fields that include a sufficient number of courses in statistics to qualify graduates for some entrylevel positions with the Federal Government. Required subjects for statistics majors include differential and integral calculus, statistical methods, mathematical modeling, and probability theory. Additional recommended courses for undergraduates include linear algebra, design and analysis of experiments, applied multivariate analysis, and mathematical statistics. Because computers are used extensively for statistical applications, a strong background in computer science is highly recommended. For positions involving quality and improvement in productivity, training in engineering or physical science is useful. A background in biological, chemical, or health science is important for positions involving the preparation and testing of pharmaceutical or agricultural products. Courses in economics and business administration are valuable for many jobs in market research, business analysis, and forecasting. Advancements in technology have made a great impact on statistics. Statistical modeling continues to become quicker and easier because of increased computational power and new analytical methods or software. Continuing education is important for statisticians, who need to stay abreast of emerging technologies to perform well. Other qualifications. Good communication skills are important for statisticians who seek a job in private industry, because these statisticians often need to explain technical matters to persons without statistical expertise. An understanding of business and the economy also is valuable for those who plan to work in private industry. Advancement.   Beginning statisticians generally are supervised by an experienced statistician. With experience, they may advance to positions with more technical responsibility and, in some cases, supervisory duties. Opportunities for promotion are greater for people with advanced degrees. Master’s and Ph.D. degree ­holders usually enjoy independence in their work and may engage in ­research, develop statistical methods, or, after a number of years of experience in a particular area, become statistical consultants.  Employment Statisticians held about 22,600 jobs in 2008. About 20 percent of these jobs were in the Federal Government, where statisticians were concentrated in the Departments of Commerce, Agriculture, and Health and Human Services. Another 10 percent were found in State and local governments. Most of the remaining jobs were in private industry, especially in scientific research and development services, insurance carriers, and pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing.  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Statisticians........................................................................................  SOC Code 15-2041  Employment, 2008 22,600  Projected Employment, 2018 25,500  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 2,900 13  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  150 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Job Outlook  Related Occupations  Average employment growth is projected. Individuals with a degree in statistics should have opportunities in a variety of fields. Employment change. Employment of statisticians is projected to grow 13 percent from 2008 to 2018, about as fast as the average for all occupations. The demand for individuals with a background is statistics is projected to grow, although some jobs will be in occupations with titles other than statistician. The use of statistics is widespread and growing. Statistical models aid in decision making in both private industry and government. There will always be a demand for the skills statisticians provide. Technological advances are expected to spur demand for statisticians. Ever-faster computer processing allows statisticians to analyze greater amounts of data much more quickly and to gather and sort through large amounts of data that would not have been analyzed in the past. As data processing continues to become more efficient and less expensive, an increasing number of employers will want to employ statisticians to take advantage of the new information available. Biostatisticians should experience employment growth, ­primarily because of the growing pharmaceuticals business. As pharmaceutical companies develop new treatments and medical technologies, biostatisticians will be needed to do research and clinical trials. Job prospects. Individuals with a degree in statistics have opportunities in a variety of fields. For example, many jobs involve the analysis and interpretation of data from economics, biological science, psychology, computer software engineering, education, and other disciplines. Additional job openings will become available as currently employed statisticians transfer to other ­occupations, retire, or leave the workforce for other reasons. Among graduates with a master’s degree in statistics, those with a strong background in an allied field, such as finance, biology, engineering, or computer science, should have the best prospects of finding jobs related to their field of study.  Among the people who work with statistics are those in such diverse occupations as the following:  Earnings Median annual wage-and-salary wages of statisticians were $72,610 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $52,730 and $95,170. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $39,740, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $117,190. The average annual salary for statisticians in the Federal Government was $92,322 in March 2009, while mathematical statisticians averaged $107,015.   Page Actuaries.................................................................................. 125 Computer scientists.................................................................. 132 Computer software engineers and computer programmers....... 134 Computer systems analysts...................................................... 140 Economists............................................................................... 209 Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Financial analysts..................................................................... 103 Market and survey researchers................................................. 212 Mathematicians........................................................................ 143 Operations research analysts.................................................... 145 Personal financial advisors....................................................... 118 Social scientists, other.............................................................. 226  Some statisticians also work as: Teachers—kindergarten, elementary, middle, and secondary....................................................................... 288 Teachers—postsecondary......................................................... 282  Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in statistics, contact hhAmerican Statistical Association, 732 North Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.amstat.org For more information on doctoral-level careers and training in mathematics, a field closely related to statistics, ­contact hhAmerican Mathematical Society, 201 Charles St., Providence, RI 02904. Internet: http://www.ams.org Information on obtaining positions as statisticians with the Federal Government is available from the ­Office of Personnel Management through USAJOBS, the ­Federal Government’s official employment information ­system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.opm.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724-1850 or TDD (978) 461-8404. These numbers are not toll free, and ­charges may result. For advice on how to find and apply for Federal jobs, see the Occupational Outlook Quarterly article “How to get a job in the Federal Government,” online at http://www.bls.gov/ opub/ooq/2004/summer/art01.pdf. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos045.htm  Professional and Related Occupations 151  Architects, Surveyors, and Cartographers Architects, Except Landscape and Naval Significant Points  •	 About 21 percent of architects are self-employed— almost 3 times the proportion for all occupations.  •	 Licensing  requirements include a professional degree in architecture, at least 3 years of practical work, training, and passing all divisions of the Architect Registration Examination.  •	 Architecture graduates may face competition, especially for jobs in the most prestigious firms.  Nature of the Work People need places in which to live, work, play, learn, worship, meet, govern, shop, and eat. Architects are responsible for designing these places, whether they are private or public; indoors or out; rooms, buildings, or complexes. Architects are licensed professionals trained in the art and science of building design who develop the concepts for structures and turn those concepts into images and plans. Architects create the overall look of buildings and other structures, but the design of a building involves far more than its appearance. Buildings also must be functional, safe, and economical and must suit the needs of the people who use them. Architects consider all these factors when they design buildings and other structures. Architects may be involved in all phases of a construction project, from the initial discussion with the client through the final delivery of the completed structure. Their duties require specific skills—designing, engineering, managing, supervising, and communicating with clients and builders. Architects spend a great deal of time explaining their ideas to clients, construction contractors, and others. Successful architects must be able to communicate their unique vision persuasively.  It takes many years of education and experience to become a licensed architect.  The architect and client discuss the objectives, requirements, and budget of a project. In some cases, architects provide ­various predesign services: conducting feasibility and environmental impact studies, selecting a site, preparing cost analysis and land-use studies, or specifying the requirements the design must meet. For example, they may determine space requirements by researching the numbers and types of potential users of a building. The architect then prepares drawings and a report presenting ideas for the client to review. After discussing and agreeing on the initial proposal, architects develop final construction plans that show the building’s appearance and details for its construction. Accompanying these plans are drawings of the structural system; air-conditioning, heating, and ventilating systems; electrical systems; communications systems; plumbing; and, possibly, site and ­landscape plans. The plans also specify the building materials and, in some cases, the interior furnishings. In developing designs, architects follow building codes, zoning laws, fire regulations, and other ordinances, such as those requiring easy access by people who are disabled. Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) and building information modeling (BIM) technology has replaced traditional paper and pencil as the most common method for creating design and construction drawings. Continual revision of plans on the basis of client needs and budget constraints is often necessary. Architects may also assist clients in obtaining construction bids, selecting contractors, and negotiating construction contracts. As construction proceeds, they may visit building sites to make sure that contractors follow the design, adhere to the schedule, use the specified materials, and meet work quality standards. The job is not complete until all construction is finished, required tests are conducted, and construction costs are paid. Sometimes, architects also provide postconstruction services, such as facilities management. They advise on energy ­efficiency measures, evaluate how well the building design adapts to the needs of occupants, and make necessary ­improvements. Often working with engineers, urban planners, interior designers, landscape architects, and other professionals, architects in fact spend a great deal of their time coordinating information from, and the work of, other professionals engaged in the same project. They design a wide variety of buildings, such as office and apartment buildings, schools, churches, factories, hospitals, houses, and airport terminals. They also design complexes such as urban centers, college campuses, industrial parks, and entire communities. Architects sometimes specialize in one phase of work. Some specialize in the design of one type of building—for example, hospitals, schools, or housing. Others focus on planning and predesign services or construction management and do minimal design work. Work environment. Usually working in a comfortable environment, architects spend most of their time in offices consulting with clients, developing reports and drawings, and working  152 Occupational Outlook Handbook  with other architects and engineers. However, they often visit construction sites to review the progress of projects. In 2008, approximately 1 in 5 architects worked more than 50 hours per week, as long hours and work during nights and weekends is often necessary to meet deadlines.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There are three main steps in becoming an architect: completing a professional degree in architecture; gaining work experience through an internship; and attaining licensure by passing the Architect Registration Exam. Education and training. In most States, architects must hold a professional degree in architecture from one of the 117 schools of architecture that have degree programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). However, State architectural registration boards set their own standards, so graduation from a non-accredited program may meet the educational requirement for licensing in a few States. Most architects earn their professional degree through a 5-year Bachelor of Architecture degree program, which is intended for students with no previous architectural training. ­Others earn a master’s degree after completing a bachelor’s degree in another field or after completing a preprofessional architecture program. A master’s degree in architecture can take 1 to 5 years to complete depending on the extent of previous training in architecture. The choice of degree depends on preference and educational background. Prospective architecture students should consider the options before committing to a program. For example, although the 5-year bachelor of architecture offers the most direct route to the professional degree, courses are specialized, and if the student does not complete the program, transferring to a program in another discipline may be difficult. A typical program includes courses in architectural history and theory, building design with an emphasis on CADD, structures, technology, construction methods, professional practice, math, physical sciences, and liberal arts. Central to most architectural programs is the design studio, where students apply the skills and concepts learned in the classroom and create drawings and three-­ dimensional models of their designs. Many schools of architecture also offer postprofessional degrees for those who already have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in architecture or other areas. Although graduate education beyond the professional degree is not required for practicing architects, it may be useful for research, teaching, and certain specialties. All State architectural registration boards require architecture graduates to complete a training period—usually at least 3 years—before they may sit for the licensing exam. Every State follows the training standards established by the Intern Development Program, a program of the American Institute of ­Architects and the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB). These standards stipulate broad ­training under the supervision of a licensed architect. Most new ­graduates complete their training period by working as interns at architectural firms. Some States ­allow a portion of the training to occur in the offices of related professionals, such as ­engineers or general contractors. Architecture students who  complete internships while still in school can count some of that time toward the 3-year training period. Interns in architectural firms may assist in the design of one part of a project, help prepare architectural documents or drawings, build models, or prepare construction drawings on CADD. Interns also may research building codes and materials or write specifications for building materials, installation criteria, the quality of finishes, and other related details. Licensure.   All States and the District of Columbia require individuals to be licensed (registered) before they may call themselves architects and contract to provide architectural services. During the time between graduation and becoming licensed, architecture school graduates generally work in the field under the supervision of a licensed architect who takes legal responsibility for all work. Licensing requirements include a professional degree in architecture, a period of practical training or internship, and a passing score on all divisions of the Architect Registration Examination. The examination is broken into nine divisions consisting of either multiple choice or graphical questions. The eligibility period for completion of all divisions of the exam varies by State. Most States also require some form of continuing education to maintain a license, and many others are expected to adopt mandatory continuing education. Requirements vary by State but usually involve the completion of a certain number of ­credits annually or biennially through workshops, formal university classes, conferences, self-study courses, or other sources. Other qualifications. Architects must be able to communicate their ideas visually to their clients. Artistic and drawing ability is helpful, but not essential, to such communication. More important are a visual orientation and the ability to understand spatial relationships. Other important qualities for anyone interested in becoming an architect are creativity and the ability to work independently and as part of a team. Computer skills are also required for writing specifications, for 2-dimensional and 3- dimensional drafting using CADD programs, and for financial management. Certification and advancement. A growing number of architects voluntarily seek certification by the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. Certification is awarded after independent verification of the candidate’s educational transcripts, employment record, and professional references. Certification can make it easier to become licensed across States. In fact, it is the primary requirement for reciprocity of licensing among State Boards that are NCARB members. In 2009, approximately one-third of all licensed architects had this certification. After becoming licensed and gaining experience, architects take on increasingly complex assignments, eventually ­managing entire projects. In large firms, architects may advance to supervisory or managerial positions. Some architects become partners in established firms, while others set up their own practices. Some graduates with degrees in architecture also enter related fields, such as graphic, interior, or industrial ­design; urban planning; real estate development; civil ­engineering; and construction management.  Professional and Related Occupations 153  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Architects, except landscape and naval..............................................  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  17-1011  141,200  Projected Employment, 2018 164,200  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 22,900 16  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  Employment Architects held about 141,200 jobs in 2008. Approximately 68 percent of jobs were in the architectural, engineering, and related services industry. A small number worked for residential and nonresidential building construction firms and for government agencies responsible for housing, community planning, or construction of government buildings, such as the U.S. Departments of Defense and Interior and the General Services Administration. About 21 percent of architects are self-employed.  Job Outlook Employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations. Competition is expected, especially for positions at the most prestigious firms, and opportunities will be best for those architects who are able to distinguish themselves with their creativity. Employment change. Employment of architects is expected to increase by 16 percent between 2008 and 2018, which is faster than the average for all occupations. Current demographic trends will lead to an increase in demand for architects. As the population of Sunbelt States continues to grow, the people living there will need new places to live and work. As the population continues to live longer and baby boomers retire, there will be a need for more healthcare facilities, nursing homes, and retirement communities. In education, buildings at all levels are getting older and enrollments continue to increase, which will require many school districts and universities to build new facilities and renovate existing ones. In recent years, some architecture firms have outsourced the drafting of construction documents and basic design for largescale commercial and residential projects to architecture firms overseas. This trend is expected to continue and may have a negative impact on employment growth for lower-level architects and interns who would normally gain experience by producing these drawings. Job prospects. Besides employment growth, additional job openings will arise from the need to replace architects who transfer to other occupations or stop working for other reasons. A growing number of students are graduating with architectural degrees and some competition for entry-level jobs can be ­anticipated. Competition will be especially keen for jobs at the most prestigious architectural firms as prospective architects try to build their reputation. Prospective architects who have had internships while in school will have an advantage in obtaining positions after graduation. Opportunities will be best for those architects who are able to distinguish themselves from others with their creativity. There should be demand for architects with knowledge of “green” design. Green design, also known as sustainable design, emphasizes the efficient use of resources such as energy and water, waste and pollution reduction, conservation, and  environmentally friendly design, specifications, and materials. Rising energy costs and increased concern about the environment has led to many new buildings being built green. Employment of architects is strongly tied to the activity of the construction industry and some types of construction are sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy. For example, during recessions nonresidential construction of office and retail space tends to fall as funding for these projects becomes harder to obtain and the demand for these spaces falls. Firms involved in the design of institutional buildings, such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, and correctional facilities, will be less affected by fluctuations in the economy. Residential construction makes up a small portion of work for architects, so major changes in the housing market would not be as significant as fluctuations in the nonresidential market. Opportunities are also geographically sensitive, and some parts of the Nation may have fewer new building projects. Also, many firms specialize in specific buildings, such as hospitals or office towers, and demand for these buildings may vary by region. Architects may find it increasingly necessary to gain reciprocity in order to compete for the best jobs and projects in other States.  Earnings Median annual wages of wage-and-salary architects were $70,320 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $53,480 and $91,870. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $41,320, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $119,220. Those just starting their internships can expect to earn considerably less. Earnings of partners in established architectural firms may fluctuate because of changing business conditions. Some architects may have difficulty establishing their own practices and may go through a period when their expenses are greater than their income, requiring substantial financial resources. Many firms pay tuition and fees toward continuing education requirements for their employees.  Related Occupations Others workers involved in the construction and maintenance of buildings include:  Page Construction managers............................................................... 38 Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Landscape architects................................................................ 154 Urban and regional planners.................................................... 220  Architects design buildings and related structures. Other occupations with design responsibilities include: Commercial and industrial designers....................................... 304 Graphic designers..................................................................... 312 Interior designers...................................................................... 314  154 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Sources of Additional Information Information about education and careers in architecture can be obtained from: hhThe American Institute of Architects, 1735 New York Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006. Internet: http://www.aia.org  hhThe National Architectural Accrediting Board, 1735 New York Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006. Internet: http://www.naab.org  hhThe National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, Suite 700K, 1801 K St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20006. Internet: http://www.ncarb.org  hhThe American Institute of Architects and the American Institute of Architecture Students jointly sponsor a Web site: http://www.archcareers.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos038.htm  Landscape Architects Significant Points  •	 About 21 percent of landscape architects are selfemployed—almost 3 times the proportion for all ­occupations.  •	 Almost all States require landscape architects to be licensed, which generally requires a degree in landscape architecture from an accredited school, work experience, and a passing score on the Landscape Architect Registration Exam.  In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the purpose of the project and the funds available. They then analyze the natural elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegetation. They also assess existing buildings, roads, walkways, and utilities to determine what improvements are necessary. At all stages, they evaluate the project’s impact on the local ecosystem. After studying and analyzing the site, landscape architects prepare a preliminary design. To address the needs of the ­client, as well as the conditions at the site, they frequently make changes before a final design is approved. They also take into account any local, State, or Federal regulations, such as those protecting wetlands or historic resources. In preparing designs, computer-aided design (CAD) has become an essential tool for most landscape architects. Many landscape architects also use video simulation to help clients envision the proposed ideas and plans. For larger scale site planning, landscape architects also use geographic information systems (GIS) technology, a computer mapping system. Throughout all phases of planning and design, landscape architects consult with other professionals, such as civil engineers, hydrologists, or building architects, involved in the ­project. Once the design is complete, they prepare a proposal for the client. They produce detailed plans of the site, ­including written reports, sketches, models, photographs, land-use ­studies, and cost estimates and submit them for approval by the client and by regulatory agencies. When the plans are approved, landscape architects prepare working drawings showing all ­existing and proposed features. They also outline in detail the methods of construction and draw up a list of necessary materials. Landscape architects then monitor the implementation of their ­design, while general contractors or landscape contractors usually direct the actual construction of the site and installation of plantings.  •	 Good job opportunities are expected, but new graduates may face competition for jobs in the largest and most prestigious firms.  Nature of the Work People enjoy attractively designed gardens, public parks and playgrounds, residential areas, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, and parkways. Landscape architects ­design these areas so they are not only functional but also beautiful and harmonious with the natural environment. They plan the location of buildings, roads, and walkways, and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees. They also design and plan the restoration of natural places disturbed by humans, such as wetlands, stream corridors, mined areas, and forested land. Working with building architects, surveyors, and engineers, landscape architects help determine the best arrangement of roads and buildings. They also collaborate with environmental scientists, foresters, and other professionals to find the best way to conserve or restore natural resources. Once these decisions are made, landscape architects create detailed plans indicating new topography, vegetation, walkways, and other landscaping details, such as fountains and decorative features.  Landscape architects are involved in a wide variety of construction projects.  Professional and Related Occupations 155  Some landscape architects work on a variety of types of projects. Others specialize in a particular area, such as street and highway beautification, waterfront improvement projects, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers. Still others work in ­regional planning and resource management; feasibility, environmental impact, and cost studies; or site construction. Increasingly, landscape architects work in environmental remediation, such as preservation and restoration of wetlands or abatement of stormwater run-off in new developments. Historic landscape preservation and restoration is another area where landscape architects increasingly play a role. Landscape architects who work for government agencies do site and landscape design for government buildings, parks, and other public lands, as well as park and recreation planning in national parks and forests. In addition, they may prepare environmental impact statements and studies on environmental ­issues such as public land-use planning. Work environment. Landscape architects spend most of their time in offices creating plans and designs, preparing ­models and cost estimates, doing research, or attending ­meetings with clients and other professionals involved in a design or planning project. The remainder of their time is spent at the site. During the design and planning stage, landscape architects visit and analyze the site to verify that the design can be incorporated into the landscape. After the plans and specifications are completed, they may spend additional time at the site observing or supervising the construction. Those who work in large national or regional firms can spend considerably more time out of the office traveling to sites. Although many landscape architects work approximately 40 hours per week, about 1 in 5 worked more than 50 hours per week in 2008, as long hours and work during nights and ­weekends is often necessary to meet deadlines.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Almost every State requires landscape architects to be licensed. While requirements vary among the States, they usually include a degree in landscape architecture from an accredited school; work experience; and a passing score on the Landscape ­Architect Registration Exam. Education and training. A bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture usually is necessary for entry into the profession. Sixty-seven colleges and universities offered undergraduate or graduate programs in landscape architecture that were accredited by the Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board of the American Society of Landscape Architects in 2009. There are two undergraduate professional degrees: a Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (BLA) and a Bachelor of Science in Landscape Architecture (BSLA). These programs usually require 4 or 5 years of study for completion. Those who hold an undergraduate degree in a field other than landscape  architecture can enroll in a Master of Landscape Architecture (MLA) graduate degree program, which typically takes 3 years of ­full-time study to complete. Those who hold undergraduate degrees in landscape architecture can earn their MLA in 2 years. Courses required in these programs usually include subjects such as surveying, landscape design and construction, landscape ecology, site design, and urban and regional planning. Other courses include history of landscape architecture, plant and soil science, geology, professional practice, and general management. The design studio is a key component of any curriculum. Whenever possible, students are assigned real projects, providing them with valuable hands-on experience. While working on these projects, students become proficient in the use of computer-aided design, model building, geographic information systems, and video simulation. Many employers recommend that prospective landscape ­architects complete a summer internship with a landscape architecture firm during their formal educational studies.  Interns are able to hone their technical skills and gain an understanding of the day-to-day operations of the business, including how to win clients, generate fees, and work within a budget. Licensure and certification. As of 2009, there were 49 States that required landscape architects to be licensed. Licensing is based on the Landscape Architect Registration Examination (L.A.R.E.), sponsored by the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, and administered in two portions, a graphic portion and a multiple-choice portion. Applicants ­wishing to take the exam usually need a degree from an accredited school plus 1 to 4 years of work experience under the ­supervision of a licensed landscape architect, although standards vary by State. For those without an accredited landscape architecture degree, most states provide alternative paths to qualify to take the L.A.R.E., usually requiring more work experience. Currently, 13 States require that a State examination be passed in ­addition to the L.A.R.E. to satisfy registration requirements. State examinations focus on laws, environmental regulations, plants, soils, climate, and any other characteristics unique to the State. Because requirements for licensure are not uniform, landscape architects may find it difficult to transfer their registration from one State to another. National standards include ­graduating from an accredited program, serving 3 years of internship under the supervision of a registered landscape architect, and ­passing the L.A.R.E. can satisfy requirements in most States. By ­meeting national requirements, a landscape ­architect can also obtain certification from the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards which can be useful in ­obtaining reciprocal licensure in other States. In States where licensure is required, new hires may be called “apprentices” or “intern landscape architects” until they be-  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Landscape architects..........................................................................  SOC Code 17-1012  Employment, 2008 26,700  Projected Employment, 2018 32,000  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 5,300 20  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  156 Occupational Outlook Handbook  come licensed. Their duties vary depending on the type and size of the employing firm. They may do project research or prepare ­working drawings, construction documents, or base maps of the area to be designed. Some are allowed to ­participate in the actual design of a project. However, interns must perform all work under the supervision of a licensed landscape architect. Additionally, all drawings and specifications must be signed and sealed by the licensed landscape architect, who takes legal responsibility for the work. After gaining experience and becoming licensed, landscape architects usually can carry a ­design through all stages of development. A majority of States require some form of continuing education to maintain a license. Requirements usually involve the completion of workshops, seminars, formal university classes, conferences, self-study courses, or other classes. The Federal Government does not require its landscape architects to be licensed. Candidates for entry positions with the Federal Government should have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture. Other qualifications. People planning a career in landscape architecture should appreciate nature, enjoy working with their hands, and possess strong analytical skills. Creative vision and artistic talent also are desirable qualities. Good oral and written communication skills are essential. Landscape architects must be able to convey their ideas to other professionals and clients and to make presentations before large groups. Landscape architects must also be able to draft and design using CAD software. Knowledge of computer applications of all kinds, including word processing, desktop publishing, and spreadsheets is also important. Landscape architects use these tools to develop presentations, proposals, reports, and land impact studies for clients, colleagues, and superiors. Many landscape architects are self-employed. Self-discipline, business acumen, and good marketing skills are important qualities for those who choose to open their own business. Even with these qualities, however, some may struggle while building a client base. Advancement.   After several years, landscape architects may become project managers, taking on the responsibility for meeting schedules and budgets, in addition to overseeing the project design. Later, they may become associates or partners of a firm, with a proprietary interest in the business. Those with landscape architecture training also qualify for jobs closely related to landscape architecture, and may, after gaining some experience, become construction supervisors, land or environmental planners, or landscape consultants.  Employment Landscape architects held about 26,700 jobs in 2008. About 51 percent of landscape architects were employed in architectural, engineering, and related services. State and local governments employed approximately 6 percent. About 21 percent of landscape architects were self-employed. Employment of landscape architects is concentrated in ­urban and suburban areas throughout the country; some landscape ­architects work in rural areas, particularly those employed by the Federal Government to plan and design parks and ­recreation areas.  Job Outlook Employment is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations. There should be good job prospects overall, but new graduates may face competition for jobs in the largest and most prestigious landscape architecture firms. Employment change. Employment of landscape architects is expected to increase by 20 percent during the 2008–18 decade, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. Employment will grow as the planning and development of new construction, together with the continued redevelopment of existing buildings, creates more opportunities for landscape architects. With land costs rising and the public desiring more beautiful spaces, the importance of good site planning and landscape design is growing. Additionally, environmental concerns and increased demand for sustainably designed construction projects will spur demand for the services of landscape architects. For example, landscape architects are involved in designing green roofs that are covered with some form of vegetation, and that can significantly reduce costs associated with heating and cooling a building, as well as reduce air and water pollution. Landscape architects will also be needed to design plans to manage storm water run-off in a way that avoids pollution of waterways and conserves water resources. Job prospects. There should be good job opportunities overall as demand for landscape architecture services increases, but new graduates can expect to face competition for jobs in the largest and most prestigious landscape architecture firms. Many employers prefer to hire entry-level landscape architects who have internship experience, which significantly reduces the amount of on-the-job training required. Opportunities will be best for landscape architects who develop strong technical skills—such as computer design—communication skills, and knowledge of environmental codes and regulations. Those with additional training or experience in urban planning increase their opportunities for employment in landscape architecture firms that specialize in site planning as well as landscape design. Opportunities will vary by year and geographic region, depending on local economic conditions. During a recession, when real estate sales and construction slow down, landscape architects may face greater competition for jobs and sometimes layoffs. But because landscape architects can work on many different types of projects, they may have steadier work than other design professionals when traditional construction slows. In addition to growth, the need to replace landscape architects who retire or leave the labor force will produce some job ­openings.  Earnings In May 2008, median annual wages for landscape architects were $58,960. The middle 50 percent earned between $45,840 and $77,610. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $36,520 and the highest 10 percent earned over $97,370. Architectural, engineering, and related services employed more landscape architects than any other group of industries, and there the median annual wages were $59,610 in May 2008.  Professional and Related Occupations 157  Related Occupations Landscape architects use their knowledge of design, construction, land-use planning, and environmental issues to develop a landscape project. Others whose work requires similar skills are:  Page Architects, except landscape and naval.................................... 151 Construction managers............................................................... 38 Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying and mapping technicians..................................... 157 Urban and regional planners.................................................... 220  Others workers concerned with the environment include: Environmental scientists and specialists.................................. 199 Geoscientists and hydrologists................................................. 202  Sources of Additional Information Additional information, including a list of colleges and universities offering accredited programs in landscape architecture, is available from: hhAmerican Society of Landscape Architects, Career Information, 636 Eye St. NW., Washington, DC 20001-3736. Internet: http://www.asla.org General information on registration or licensing requirements is available from: hhCouncil of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, 3949 Pender Dr., Suite 120, Vienna, VA 22030. Internet: http://www.clarb.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos039.htm  Surveyors, Cartographers, Photogrammetrists, and Surveying and Mapping Technicians Significant Points  •	 About 7 out of 10 jobs were in architectural, engineering, and related services.  •	 Employment  is expected to grow faster than the ­average for all occupations.  •	 Surveyors,  cartographers, and photogrammetrists who have a bachelor’s degree and strong technical skills should have favorable job prospects.  Nature of the Work Surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying and mapping technicians are responsible for measuring and mapping the Earth’s surface. Surveyors establish official land, airspace, and water boundaries. They write descriptions of land for deeds, leases, and other legal documents; define  airspace for airports; and take measurements of construction and mineral sites. ­Other surveyors provide data about the shape, contour, location, ­elevation, or dimension of land or land features. Cartographers and photogrammetrists collect, analyze, interpret, and map geographic information using data from surveys and photographs. Surveying and mapping technicians assist these professionals by collecting data in the field, making calculations, and helping with computeraided drafting. Collectively, these occupations play key roles in the field of geospatial information. Surveyors measure distances, directions, and angles between points on, above, and below the Earth’s surface. In the field, they select known survey reference points and determine the precise location of important features in the survey area using specialized equipment. Surveyors also research legal records, look for evidence of previous boundaries, and analyze data to determine the location of boundary lines. They are sometimes called to provide expert testimony in court regarding their work or the work of other surveyors. Surveyors also record their results, verify the accuracy of data, and prepare plots, maps, and reports. Some surveyors perform specialized functions that support the work of other surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists. For example, geodetic surveyors use high-accuracy techniques, including satellite observations, to measure large areas of the earth’s surface. Geophysical prospecting surveyors mark sites for subsurface exploration, usually to look for petroleum. Marine or hydrographic surveyors survey harbors, rivers, and other bodies of water to determine shorelines, the topography of the bottom, water depth, and other features. Surveyors use the Global Positioning System (GPS) to locate reference points with a high degree of precision. To use this system, a surveyor places a satellite signal receiver—a small instrument mounted on a tripod—on a desired point, and another receiver on a point for which the geographic position is known. The receiver simultaneously collects information from several satellites and the known reference point to establish a precise position. The receiver also can be placed in a vehicle for tracing out road systems. Because receivers now come in different sizes and shapes, and because the cost of receivers has fallen, much more surveying work can be done with GPS. Surveyors then interpret and check the results produced by GPS. Field measurements are often taken by a survey party that gathers the information needed by the surveyor. A typical survey party consists of a party chief and one or more surveying technicians and helpers. The party chief, who may be either a surveyor or a senior surveying technician, leads day-to-day work activities. Surveying technicians assist the party chief by adjusting and operating surveying instruments, such as the total station, which measures and records angles and distances simultaneously. Surveying technicians compile notes, make sketches, and enter the data obtained from surveying instruments into computers either in the field or at the office. Photogrammetrists and cartographers measure, map, and chart the Earth’s surface. Their work involves everything  158 Occupational Outlook Handbook  from performing geographical research and compiling data to producing maps. They collect, analyze, and interpret both spatial data—such as latitude, longitude, elevation, and distance—and nonspatial data—such as population density, land-use patterns, annual precipitation levels, and demographic ­characteristics. Their maps may give both physical and social characteristics of the land. They prepare maps in either digital or graphic form, using information provided by geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems including aerial cameras, satellites, light-­imaging detection and ranging (LIDAR), or other ­technologies. LIDAR uses lasers attached to planes and other equipment to digitally map the topography of the Earth. It is often more ­accurate than traditional surveying methods and also can be used to collect other forms of data, such as the location and density of forests. Data developed by LIDAR can be used by ­surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists to provide spatial information to specialists in geology, seismology, ­forestry, ­construction, and other fields. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become an integral tool for surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying and mapping technicians. Workers use GIS to assemble, integrate, analyze, and display data about location in a digital format. They also use GIS to compile information from a variety of sources. GIS typically are used  to make maps which combine information useful for environmental studies, geology, engineering, planning, business marketing, and other disciplines. As more of these systems are developed, many mapping specialists are being called geographic information specialists. Work environment. Surveyors and surveying technicians usually work an 8-hour day, 5 days a week and may spend a lot of time outdoors. Sometimes, they work longer hours during the summer, when weather and light conditions are most suitable for fieldwork. Construction-related work may be limited during times of inclement weather. Surveyors and technicians engage in active, sometimes strenuous, work. They often stand for long periods, walk considerable distances, and climb hills with heavy packs of instruments and other equipment. They also can be exposed to all types of weather. Traveling is sometimes part of the job, and surveyors and technicians may commute long distances, stay away from home overnight, or temporarily relocate near a survey site. Surveyors also work indoors while planning surveys, searching court records for deed information, analyzing data, and preparing reports and maps. Cartographers and photogrammetrists spend most of their time in offices using computers. However, certain jobs may require extensive field work to verify results and acquire data.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Land surveyors frequently take measurements in the field.  Most surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists have a bachelor’s degree in surveying or a related field. Every State requires that surveyors be licensed. Education and training. In the past, many people with little formal training started as members of survey crews and worked their way up to become licensed surveyors, but this has become increasingly difficult. Now, most surveyors need a bachelor’s degree. A number of universities offer bachelor’s degree programs in surveying, and many community colleges, technical institutes, and vocational schools offer 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year programs in surveying or surveying technology. Cartographers and photogrammetrists usually have a bachelor’s degree in cartography, geography, surveying, engineering, forestry, computer science, or a physical science, although a few enter these positions after working as technicians. With the development of GIS, cartographers and photogrammetrists need more education and stronger technical skills—including more experience with computers—than in the past. Most cartographic and photogrammetric technicians also have specialized postsecondary education. High school students interested in surveying and cartography should take courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing, and computer science. Licensure.   All 50 States and all U.S. territories license surveyors. For licensure, most State licensing boards require that individuals pass a series of written examinations given by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES). After passing a first exam, the Fundamentals of Surveying, most candidates work under the supervision of an experienced surveyor for 4 years before taking a second exam,  Professional and Related Occupations 159  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying and mapping technicians....................................................................... Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists......................... Cartographers and photogrammetrists....................................... Surveyors................................................................................... Surveying and mapping technicians..............................................  SOC Code – 17-1020 17-1021 17-1022 17-3031  Employment, 2008 147,000 70,000 12,300 57,600 77,000  Projected Employment, 2018 174,500 81,800 15,600 66,200 92,700  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 27,600 11,900 3,300 8,600 15,700  19 17 27 15 20  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  the Principles and Practice of Surveying. Additionally, most States also require surveyors to pass a written examination prepared by the State licensing board. Specific requirements for training and education vary among the States. An increasing number of States require a bachelor’s degree in surveying or in a closely related field, such as civil engineering or forestry, regardless of the number of years of experience. Some States require the degree to be from a school accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). Most States also have a continuing education requirement. Additionally, a number of States require cartographers and photogrammetrists to be licensed as surveyors, and some States have specific licenses for photogrammetrists. Other qualifications. Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists should be able to visualize objects, distances, sizes, and abstract forms. They must work with precision and accuracy because mistakes can be costly. Surveying and mapping is a cooperative operation, so good interpersonal skills and the ability to work as part of a team is important. Certification and advancement. High school graduates with no formal training in surveying usually start as apprentices. Beginners with postsecondary school training in surveying usually can start as technicians or assistants. With on-thejob experience and formal training in surveying—either in an institutional program or from a correspondence school— workers may advance to senior survey technician, then to party chief. Depending on State licensing requirements, they may advance to licensed surveyor in some cases. The National Society of Professional Surveyors, a member organization of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, has a voluntary certification program for surveying technicians. Technicians are certified at four levels requiring progressive amounts of experience and the passing of written examinations. Although not required for State licensure, many employers require certification for promotion to positions with greater responsibilities. The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) has voluntary certification programs for technicians and professionals in photogrammetry, remote sensing, and GIS. To qualify for these professional distinctions, individuals must meet work experience and training standards and pass a written examination. The professional recognition these certifications bestow can help workers gain promotions.  Employment Surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying technicians held about 147,000 jobs in 2008. Employment was distributed by occupational specialty as follows: Surveying and mapping technicians..............................77,000 Surveyors.......................................................................57,600 Cartographers and photogrammetrists..........................12,300  The architectural, engineering, and related services industry—including firms that provided surveying and mapping services to other industries on a contract basis—provided 7 out of 10 jobs for these workers. Federal, State, and local governmental agencies provided about 15 percent of these jobs. Major Federal Government employers are the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Forest Service, and the Army Corps of Engineers. Most surveyors in State and local government work for highway departments or urban planning and redevelopment agencies. Utility companies also employ surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying technicians.  Job Outlook These occupations should experience faster than ­average employment growth. Surveyors, cartographers, and ­photogrammetrists who have a bachelor’s degree and strong technical skills should have favorable job prospects. Employment change. Employment of surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying and mapping technicians is expected to grow 19 percent from 2008 to 2018, which is faster than the average for all occupations. Increasing demand for fast, accurate, and complete geographic information will be the main source of job growth. An increasing number of firms are interested in geographic information and its applications. For example, GIS can be used to create maps and information used in emergency planning, security, marketing, urban planning, natural resource exploration, construction, and other applications. Also, the increased popularity of online interactive mapping systems and GPS devices have created a higher demand for and awareness of current and accurate digital geographic information among consumers. Growth in construction stemming from increases in the population and the related need to upgrade the Nation’s infrastructure will cause growth for surveyors and surveying technicians who ensure that projects are completed with precision and in  160 Occupational Outlook Handbook  line with original plans. These workers are usually the first on the job for any major construction project, and they provide information and recommendations to engineers, architects, contractors, and other professionals during all phases of a construction project. Job prospects. In addition to openings from growth, job openings will continue to arise from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or who leave the labor force altogether. Many cartographers and surveyors are approaching retirement age. Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists who have a bachelor’s degree and strong technical skills should have favorable job prospects. Opportunities for surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and technicians should remain concentrated in engineering, surveying, mapping, building inspection, and ­drafting services firms. Increasing demand for geographic data, as opposed to traditional surveying services, will mean better opportunities for mapping technicians and professionals who are involved in the development and use of GIS and digital mapmaking. The demand for traditional surveying services is strongly tied to construction activity and opportunities will vary by year and geographic region, depending on local economic conditions. During a recession, when real estate sales and construction slow down, surveyors and surveying technicians may face greater competition for jobs and sometimes layoffs. However, because these workers can work on many different types of projects, they may have steadier work than other workers when construction slows.  employed by local governments had median annual wages of $40,510.  Earnings  6 Montgomery Village Ave., Suite 403, Gaithersburg, MD 20879. Internet: http://www.aagsmo.org  Median annual wages of cartographers and photogrammetrists were $51,180 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $39,510 and $69,220. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,440 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $87,620. Median annual wages of surveyors were $52,980 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $38,800 and $70,010. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $29,600 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $85,620. Median annual wages of surveyors employed in architectural, engineering, and related services were $51,870 in May 2008. Median annual wages of surveying and mapping technicians were $35,120 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $27,370 and $45,860. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $21,680, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $58,030. Median annual wages of surveying and mapping technicians employed in architectural, engineering, and related services were $33,220 in May 2008, while those  Related Occupations Workers who use surveying data in land development and construction include:  Page Architects, except landscape and naval.................................... 151 Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Landscape architects................................................................ 154  Cartography is related to the work of: Environmental scientists and specialists.................................. 199 Social scientists, other.............................................................. 226 Urban and regional planners.................................................... 220  Sources of Additional Information For career information on surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying technicians, contact: hhAmerican Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 6 Montgomery Village Ave., Suite 403, Gaithersburg, MD 20879. Internet: http://www.acsm.net Information about career opportunities, licensure requirements, and the surveying technician certification program is available from: hhNational Society of Professional Surveyors, 6 Montgomery Village Ave., Suite 403, Gaithersburg, MD 20879. Internet: http://www.nspsmo.org For information on a career as a geodetic surveyor, contact:  hhAmerican Association of Geodetic Surveying (AAGS),  For career information on photogrammetrists, photogrammetric technicians, remote sensing scientists, and image-based cartographers or geographic information system specialists, contact: hhASPRS: Imaging and Geospatial Information Society, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 210, Bethesda, MD 20814-2160. Internet: http://www.asprs.org Information on careers in remote sensing, photogrammetry, surveying, GIS, and other geography-related disciplines also is available from the Spring 2005 Occupational Outlook Quarterly article, “Geography Jobs”, available online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2005/spring/art01.pdf. The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos040.htm  Professional and Related Occupations 161  Engineers Significant Points  •	 Employment is projected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations, although growth will vary by specialty; overall job opportunities for engineers are expected to be good.  •	 A bachelor’s degree in engineering is required for most entry-level jobs, but some research positions may require a graduate degree.  •	 Starting salaries are among the highest of all college graduates.  •	 Continuing education is critical for engineers in order to keep up with improvements in technology.  Nature of the Work Engineers apply the principles of science and mathematics to develop economical solutions to technical problems. Their work is the link between scientific discoveries and the commercial applications that meet societal and consumer needs. Many engineers develop new products. During the process, they consider several factors. For example, in developing an industrial robot, engineers specify the functional requirements precisely; design and test the robot’s components; integrate the components to produce the final design; and evaluate the ­design’s overall effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety. This process applies to the development of many different products, such as chemicals, computers, powerplants, helicopters, and toys. In addition to their involvement in design and development, many engineers work in testing, production, or maintenance. These engineers supervise production in factories, determine the causes of a component’s failure, and test manufactured products to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects. (See the statement on engineering and natural sciences managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Engineers use computers extensively to produce and analyze designs; to simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates; to generate specifications for parts; to monitor the quality of products; and to control the efficiency of processes. Nanotechnology, which involves the creation of highperformance materials and components by integrating atoms and molecules, also is introducing entirely new principles to the design process. Most engineers specialize. Following are details on the 17 engineering specialties covered in the Federal Government’s Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. Numerous other specialties are recognized by professional societies, and each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering, and materials engineering includes ceramic, metallurgical, and polymer engineering. Engineers  also may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one type of technology, such as turbines or semiconductor materials. Aerospace engineers design, test, and supervise the manufacture of aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles. Those who work with aircraft are called aeronautical engineers, and those working specifically with spacecraft are astronautical engineers. Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas such as structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, and production methods. They also may specialize in a particular type of aerospace product, such as commercial aircraft, military fighter jets, helicopters, spacecraft, or missiles and rockets, and may become experts in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, celestial mechanics, propulsion, acoustics, or guidance and control systems. Agricultural engineers apply their knowledge of engineering technology and science to agriculture and the efficient use of biological resources. Accordingly, they also are referred to as biological and agricultural engineers. They design agricultural machinery, equipment, sensors, processes, and structures, such as those used for crop storage. Some engineers specialize in areas such as power systems and machinery design, structural and environmental engineering, and food and bioprocess engineering. They develop ways to conserve soil and water and to improve the processing of agricultural products. Agricultural engineers often work in research and development, production, sales, or management. Biomedical engineers develop devices and procedures that solve medical and health-related problems by combining their knowledge of biology and medicine with engineering principles and practices. Many do research, along with medical scientists, to develop and evaluate systems and products such as artificial organs, prostheses (artificial devices that replace ­missing body parts), instrumentation, medical information systems, and health management and care delivery systems. Biomedical engineers also may design devices used in various medical procedures, imaging systems such as magnetic resonance  Engineers design tests for new products.  162 Occupational Outlook Handbook  imaging (MRI), and devices for automating insulin injections or controlling body functions. Most engineers in this specialty need a sound background in another engineering specialty, such as mechanical or electronics engineering, in addition to specialized biomedical training. Some specialties within biomedical engineering are biomaterials, biomechanics, medical imaging, rehabilitation engineering, and orthopedic engineering. Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry to solve problems involving the production or use of chemicals and other products. They design equipment and processes for large-scale chemical manufacturing, plan and test methods of manufacturing products and treating byproducts, and supervise production. Chemical engineers also work in a variety of manufacturing industries other than chemical manufacturing, such as those producing energy, electronics, food, clothing, and paper. In addition, they work in healthcare, biotechnology, and business services. Chemical engineers apply principles of physics, mathematics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as chemistry. Some may specialize in a particular chemical process, such as oxidation or polymerization. Others specialize in a particular field, such as nanomaterials, or in the development of specific products. They must be aware of all aspects of chemical manufacturing and how the manufacturing process affects the environment and the safety of workers and consumers. Civil engineers design and supervise the construction of roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and water supply and sewage systems. They must consider many factors in the design process from the construction costs and expected lifetime of a project to government regulations and potential environmental hazards such as earthquakes and hurricanes. Civil engineering, considered one of the oldest engineering disciplines, encompasses many specialties. The major ones are structural, water resources, construction, transportation, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions, from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Others may work in design, construction, research, and teaching. Computer hardware engineers research, design, develop, test, and oversee the manufacture and installation of computer hardware, including computer chips, circuit boards, computer systems, and related equipment such as keyboards, routers, and printers. (Computer software engineers—often simply called computer engineers—design and develop the software systems that control computers. These workers are covered elsewhere in the Handbook.) The work of computer hardware engineers is similar to that of electronics engineers in that they may ­design and test circuits and other electronic components; however, computer hardware engineers do that work only as it ­relates to computers and computer-related equipment. The rapid ­advances in computer technology are largely a result of the research, development, and design efforts of these engineers. Electrical engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electrical equipment. Some of this equipment includes electric motors; machinery controls, ­lighting, and ­wiring in buildings; radar and navigation systems; communications systems; and power generation, control, and transmission devices used by electric utilities. Electrical engineers also design the electrical systems of automobiles and aircraft. Al-  though the terms electrical and electronics engineering ­often are used interchangeably in academia and industry, electrical engineers traditionally have focused on the generation and ­supply of power, whereas electronics engineers have worked on applications of electricity to control systems or signal processing. Electrical engineers specialize in areas such as power systems engineering or electrical equipment manufacturing. Electronics engineers, except computer, are responsible for a wide range of technologies, from portable music players to global positioning systems (GPS), which can continuously provide the location of, for example, a vehicle. Electronics engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electronic equipment such as broadcast and communications systems. Many electronics engineers also work in areas closely related to computers. However, engineers whose work is related exclusively to computer hardware are considered computer hardware engineers. Electronics engineers specialize in areas such as communications, signal processing, and control systems or have a specialty within one of these areas—control systems or aviation electronics, for example. Environmental engineers use the principles of biology and chemistry to develop solutions to environmental problems. They are involved in water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues. Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies in which they evaluate the significance of the hazard, advise on its treatment and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps. They design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems, conduct research on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects, analyze scientific data, and perform quality-control checks. Environmental engineers are concerned with local and worldwide environmental issues. Some may study and attempt to minimize the effects of acid rain, global warming, automobile emissions, and ozone depletion. They also may be involved in the protection of wildlife. Many environmental engineers work as consultants, helping their clients to comply with regulations, prevent environmental damage, and clean up hazardous sites. Health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors, prevent harm to people and property by applying their knowledge of systems engineering and me-  Some engineers, like mining and civil engineers, work outside.  Professional and Related Occupations 163  chanical, chemical, and human performance principles. Using this specialized knowledge, they identify and measure potential ­hazards, such as the risk of fires or the dangers involved in handling toxic chemicals. They recommend appropriate loss prevention measures according to their probability of harm and ­potential damage. Health and safety engineers develop procedures and ­designs to reduce the risk of illness, injury, or damage. Some work in manufacturing industries to ensure that the designs of new products do not create unnecessary hazards. They must be able to anticipate, recognize, and ­evaluate ­hazardous conditions, as well as develop hazard control ­methods. Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, ­materials, information, and energy—to make a product or provide a ­service. They are concerned primarily with increasing productivity through the management of people, methods of business organization, and technology. To maximize efficiency, industrial engineers study product requirements carefully and then design manufacturing and information systems to meet those requirements with the help of mathematical methods and models. They develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, and they design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and ensure product quality. They also design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services and determine the most efficient plant locations. Industrial engineers develop wage and ­salary administration systems and job evaluation programs. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related to the work of managers. Marine engineers and naval architects are involved in the design, construction, and maintenance of ships, boats, and related equipment. They design and supervise the construction of everything from aircraft carriers to submarines and from sailboats to tankers. Naval architects work on the basic design of ships, including the form and stability of hulls. Marine engineers work on the propulsion, steering, and other systems of ships. Marine engineers and naval architects apply knowledge from a range of fields to the entire process by which water vehicles are designed and produced. Other workers who operate or supervise the operation of marine machinery on ships and other vessels sometimes may be called marine engineers or, more frequently, ship engineers, but they do different work and are covered under water transportation occupations elsewhere in the Handbook. Materials engineers are involved in the development, processing, and testing of the materials used to create a range of products, from computer chips and aircraft wings to golf clubs and snow skis. They work with metals, ceramics, plastics, semiconductors, and composites to create new materials that meet certain mechanical, electrical, and chemical requirements. They also are involved in selecting materials for new applications. Materials engineers have developed the ability to create and then study materials at an atomic level, using advanced processes to replicate the characteristics of those materials and their components with computers. Most materials engineers specialize in a particular material. For example,  metallurgical engineers specialize in metals such as steel, and ceramic engineers develop ceramic materials and the processes for making them into useful products such as glassware or fiber-optic communication lines. Mechanical engineers research, design, develop, manufacture, and test tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical devices. Mechanical engineering is one of the broadest engineering disciplines. Engineers in this discipline work on power-producing machines such as electric generators, internal ­combustion engines, and steam and gas turbines. They also work on power-using machines such as refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment, machine tools, material-handling systems, elevators and escalators, industrial production equipment, and robots used in manufacturing. Some mechanical engineers design tools that other engineers need for their work. In addition, mechanical engineers work in manufacturing or agriculture production, maintenance, or technical sales; many become administrators or managers. Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers, find, extract, and prepare coal, metals, and minerals for use by manufacturing industries and utilities. They ­design open-pit and underground mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations, and devise methods for transporting minerals to processing plants. ­Mining engineers are responsible for the safe, economical, and ­environmentally sound operation of mines. Some mining engineers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits. Others develop new mining equipment or direct mineral-processing operations that separate minerals from the dirt, rock, and other materials with which they are mixed. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral or metal, such as coal or gold. With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many mining engineers are working to solve problems related to land reclamation and to water and air pollution. Mining safety engineers use their knowledge of mine design and practices to ensure the safety of workers and to comply with State and Federal safety regulations. They inspect the surfaces of walls and roofs, monitor air quality, and examine mining equipment for compliance with safety practices.  Engineers typically need a bachelor’s degree.  164 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Nuclear engineers research and develop the processes, instruments, and systems used to derive benefits from nuclear energy and radiation. They design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear plants to generate power. They may work on the nuclear fuel cycle—the production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste produced by the generation of ­nuclear energy—or on the development of fusion energy. Some specialize in the development of nuclear power sources for naval ­vessels or spacecraft; others find industrial and medical uses for ­radioactive materials—for example, in equipment used to ­diagnose and treat medical problems. Petroleum engineers design methods for extracting oil and gas from deposits below the earth. Once these resources have been discovered, petroleum engineers work with geologists and other specialists to understand the geologic formation and properties of the rock containing the reservoir, to determine the drilling methods to be used, and to monitor drilling and production operations. They design equipment and processes to achieve the maximum profitable recovery of oil and gas. Because only a small proportion of oil and gas in a reservoir flows out under natural forces, petroleum engineers develop and use various enhanced recovery methods, including injecting water, chemicals, gases, or steam into an oil reservoir to force out more of the oil and doing computer-controlled drilling or fracturing to connect a larger area of a reservoir to a single well. Because even the best techniques in use today recover only a portion of the oil and gas in a reservoir, petroleum engineers research and develop technology and methods for increasing the recovery of these resources and lowering the cost of drilling and production operations. Work environment. Most engineers work in office buildings, laboratories, or industrial plants. Others may spend time outdoors at construction sites and oil and gas exploration and production sites, where they monitor or direct operations or solve onsite problems. Some engineers travel extensively to plants or worksites here and abroad. Many engineers work a standard 40-hour week. At times, deadlines or design standards may bring extra pressure to a job, requiring engineers to work longer hours.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Engineers typically enter the occupation with a bachelor’s ­degree in an engineering specialty, but some basic research ­positions may require a graduate degree. Engineers offering their services directly to the public must be licensed. Continuing education to keep current with rapidly changing technology is important for engineers. Education and training. A bachelor’s degree in engineering is required for almost all entry-level engineering jobs. ­College graduates with a degree in a natural science or mathematics ­occasionally may qualify for some engineering jobs, especially in specialties that are in high demand. Most engineering degrees are granted in electrical and electronics engineering, mechanical engineering, and civil engineering. However, engineers trained in one branch may work in related branches. For example, many aerospace engineers have training in ­mechanical engineering. This flexibility allows employers to meet ­staffing needs in new technologies and specialties in which engineers  may be in short supply. It also allows engineers to shift to fields with better employment prospects or to those which more closely match their interests. Most engineering programs involve a concentration of study in an engineering specialty, along with courses in both mathematics and the physical and life sciences. Many programs also include courses in general engineering. A design course, sometimes accompanied by a computer or laboratory class or both, is part of the curriculum of most programs. Often, general courses not directly related to engineering, such as those in the social sciences or humanities, also are required. In addition to the standard engineering degree, many colleges offer 2-year or 4-year degree programs in engineering technology. These programs, which usually include various hands-on laboratory classes that focus on current issues in the application of engineering principles, prepare students for practical design and production work, rather than for jobs that require more theoretical and scientific knowledge. Graduates of 4-year technology programs may get jobs similar to those obtained by graduates with a bachelor’s degree in engineering. Engineering technology graduates, however, are not qualified to register as professional engineers under the same terms as graduates with degrees in engineering. Some employers regard technology program graduates as having skills between those of a technician and an engineer. Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty positions and some research and development programs, but is not required for the majority of entry-level engineering jobs. Many experienced engineers obtain graduate degrees in engineering or business administration to learn new technology and broaden their education. Numerous high-level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers. The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) accredits college and university programs in engineering and engineering technology. ABET accreditation is based on a program’s faculty, curriculum, and facilities; the achievement of a program’s students; program improvements; and institutional commitment to specific principles of quality and ethics. Graduation from an ABET-accredited program may be required for engineers who need to be licensed. Although most institutions offer programs in the major branches of engineering, only a few offer programs in the smaller specialties. Also, programs with the same title may vary in content. For example, some programs emphasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in industry, whereas others are more theoretical and are designed to prepare students for graduate work. Therefore, students should investigate curricula and check accreditations carefully before selecting a college. Admissions requirements for undergraduate engineering schools include a solid background in mathematics (algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus) and science (biology, chemistry, and physics), in addition to courses in English, social studies, and humanities. Bachelor’s degree programs in engineering typically are designed to last 4 years, but many students find that it takes between 4 and 5 years to complete their studies. In a typical 4-year college curriculum, the first 2 years are spent studying mathematics, basic sciences, introductory engineering, humanities, and social sciences. In the last 2 years,  Professional and Related Occupations 165  most courses are in engineering, usually with a concentration in one specialty. Some programs offer a general engineering curriculum; students then specialize on the job or in graduate school. Some engineering schools have agreements with 2-year colleges whereby the college provides the initial engineering education and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, a few engineering schools have arrangements that allow students who spend 3 years in a liberal arts college studying preengineering subjects and 2 years in an engineering school studying core subjects to receive a bachelor’s degree from each school. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master’s degree programs. Some 5-year or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study with practical work, permitting students to gain valuable experience and to finance part of their education. Licensure.   All 50 States and the District of Columbia require licensure for engineers who offer their services directly to the public. Engineers who are licensed are called professional engineers (PEs). This licensure generally requires a degree from an ABET-accredited engineering program, 4 years of relevant work experience, and completion of a State examination. Recent graduates can start the licensing process by ­taking the examination in two stages. The initial Fundamentals of ­Engineering (FE) examination can be taken upon graduation. Engineers who pass this examination commonly are called engineers in training (EITs) or engineer interns (EIs). After acquiring suitable work experience, EITs can take the second examination, called the Principles and Practice of Engineering exam. Several States have imposed mandatory continuing education requirements for relicensure. Most States recognize licensure from other  States, provided that the manner in which the initial license was obtained meets or exceeds their own licensure requirements. Many civil, mechanical, and chemical engineers are licensed PEs. Independently of licensure, various certification programs are offered by professional organizations to demonstrate competency in specific fields of engineering. Other qualifications. Engineers should be creative, inquisitive, analytical, and detail oriented. They should be able to work as part of a team and to communicate well, both orally and in writing. Communication abilities are becoming increasingly important as engineers interact more frequently with specialists in a wide range of fields outside engineering. Engineers who work for the Federal Government usually must be U.S. citizens. Some engineers, particularly nuclear engineers and aerospace and other engineers working for defense contractors, may need to hold a security clearance. Certification and advancement. Beginning engineering graduates usually work under the supervision of experienced engineers and, in large companies, also may receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As new engineers gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more difficult projects with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Engineers may advance to become technical specialists or to supervise a staff or team of engineers and technicians. Some eventually may become engineering managers or enter other managerial or sales jobs. In sales, an engineering background enables them to discuss a product’s technical aspects and assist in product planning, installation, and use. (See the statements under management and business and financial operations occupations, and the statement on sales engineers elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Engineers............................................................................................ Aerospace engineers...................................................................... Agricultural engineers.................................................................... Biomedical engineers..................................................................... Chemical engineers........................................................................ Civil engineers............................................................................... Computer hardware engineers....................................................... Electrical and electronics engineers............................................... Electrical engineers.................................................................... Electronics engineers, except computer..................................... Environmental engineers................................................................ Industrial engineers, including health and safety........................... Health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors......................................................................... Industrial engineers.................................................................... Marine engineers and naval architects........................................... Materials engineers........................................................................ Mechanical engineers..................................................................... Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers.................................................................................... Nuclear engineers........................................................................... Petroleum engineers....................................................................... All other engineers.........................................................................  Projected Employment, 2018 1,750,300 79,100 3,000 27,600 31,000 345,900 77,500 304,600 160,500 144,100 70,900 273,700  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 178,300 11 7,400 10 300 12 11,600 72 -600 -2 67,600 24 2,800 4 3,100 1 2,700 2 400 0 16,600 31 33,200 14  SOC Code  Employment, 2008  17-2000 17-2011 17-2021 17-2031 17-2041 17-2051 17-2061 17-2070 17-2071 17-2072 17-2081 17-2110  1,571,900 71,600 2,700 16,000 31,700 278,400 74,700 301,500 157,800 143,700 54,300 240,400  17-2111 17-2112 17-2121 17-2131 17-2141  25,700 214,800 8,500 24,400 238,700  28,300 245,300 9,000 26,600 253,100  2,600 30,600 500 2,300 14,400  10 14 6 9 6  17-2151 17-2161 17-2171 17-2199  7,100 16,900 21,900 183,200  8,200 18,800 25,900 195,400  1,100 1,900 4,000 12,200  15 11 18 7  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  166 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Numerous professional certifications for engineers exist and may be beneficial for advancement to senior technical or managerial positions. Many certification programs are offered by the professional societies listed as sources of additional information for engineering specialties at the end of this ­statement.  Employment In 2008, engineers held about 1.6 million jobs. Following is the distribution of employment by engineering specialty: Civil engineers............................................................278,400 Mechanical engineers..................................................238,700 Industrial engineers.....................................................214,800 Electrical engineers.....................................................157,800 Electronics engineers, except computer......................143,700 Computer hardware engineers.......................................74,700 Aerospace engineers......................................................71,600 Environmental engineers...............................................54,300 Chemical engineers.......................................................31,700 Health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors............................................25,700 Materials engineers.......................................................24,400 Petroleum engineers......................................................21,900 Nuclear engineers..........................................................16,900 Biomedical engineers....................................................16,000 Marine engineers and naval architects............................8,500 Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers...........................................................7,100 Agricultural engineers.....................................................2,700 All other engineers......................................................183,200  About 36 percent of engineering jobs were found in manufacturing industries, and another 30 percent were in the professional, scientific, and technical services industries, primarily in architectural, engineering, and related services. Many engineers also worked in the construction, telecommunications, and wholesale trade industries. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 12 percent of engineers in 2008. About 6 percent were in the ­Federal Government, mainly in the U.S. Departments of ­Defense, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, and Energy, and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Many engineers in State and local government agencies worked in highway and public works departments. In 2008, about 3 percent of engineers were self-employed, many as consultants. Engineers are employed in every State, in small and large cities and in rural areas. Some branches of engineering are concentrated in particular industries and geographic areas; for example, petroleum engineering jobs tend to be located in States with sizable petroleum deposits, such as Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Alaska, and California. Other branches, such as civil engineering, are widely dispersed, and engineers in these fields often move from place to place to work on different ­projects.  Job Outlook Employment of engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations over the next decade, but growth will vary by specialty. Biomedical engineers should experience the fastest growth, while civil engineers should see the largest  employment increase. Overall job opportunities in engineering are expected to be good. Overall employment change. Overall engineering employment is expected to grow by 11 percent over the 2008–18 decade, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Engineers traditionally have been concentrated in slower growing or declining manufacturing industries, in which they will continue to be needed to design, build, test, and improve manufactured products. However, increasing employment of engineers in engineering, research and development, and consulting services industries should generate most of the employment growth. The job outlook varies by engineering specialty, as discussed later. Competitive pressures and advancing technology will force companies to improve and update product designs and to optimize their manufacturing processes. Employers will rely on engineers to increase productivity and expand output of goods and services. New technologies continue to improve the design process, enabling engineers to produce and analyze various product designs much more rapidly than in the past. Unlike the situation in some other occupations, however, technological advances are not expected to substantially limit employment opportunities in engineering, because engineers are needed to provide the ideas that lead to improved products and more productive processes. The continued globalization of engineering work will likely dampen domestic employment growth to some degree. There are many well-trained, often English-speaking engineers available around the world who are willing to work at much lower salaries than U.S. engineers. The rise of the Internet has made it relatively easy for part of the engineering work previously done by engineers in this country to be done by engineers in other countries, a factor that will tend to hold down employment growth. Even so, there will always be a need for onsite engineers to interact with other employees and clients. Overall job prospects. Overall job opportunities in engineering are expected to be good, and, indeed, prospects will be excellent in certain specialties. In addition to openings from job growth, many openings will be created by the need to replace current engineers who retire; transfer to management, sales, or other occupations; or leave engineering for other reasons. Many engineers work on long-term research and development projects or in other activities that continue even during economic slowdowns. In industries such as electronics and aerospace, however, large cutbacks in defense expenditures and in government funding for research and development have resulted in significant layoffs of engineers in the past. The trend toward contracting for engineering work with engineering services firms, both domestic and foreign, also has made engineers more vulnerable to layoffs during periods of lower demand. It is important for engineers, as it is for workers in other technical and scientific occupations, to continue their education throughout their careers, because much of their value to their employer depends on their knowledge of the latest technology. Engineers in high-technology areas, such as biotechnology or information technology, may find that their technical knowledge will become outdated rapidly. By keeping current in their field, engineers will be able to deliver the best solutions and greatest value to their employers. Engineers who have not  Professional and Related Occupations 167  Job opportunities should be favorable for graduates of engineering programs. kept current in their field may find themselves at a disadvantage when seeking promotions or during layoffs. Employment change and job outlook by engineering specialty. Aerospace engineers are expected to have 10 percent growth in employment over the projections decade, about as fast as the average for all occupations. New technologies and new designs for commercial and military aircraft and spacecraft produced during the next decade should spur demand for aerospace engineers. The employment outlook for aerospace engineers appears favorable. Although the number of degrees granted in aerospace engineering has begun to increase after many years of declines, new graduates continue to be needed to replace aerospace engineers who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons. Agricultural engineers are expected to have employment growth of 12 percent over the projections decade, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Employment growth should result from the need to increase crop yields to feed an expanding population and to produce crops used as renewable energy sources. Moreover, engineers will be needed to develop more efficient agricultural production and to conserve resources. In addition, engineers will be needed to meet the increasing demand for biosensors, used to determine the optimal treatment of crops. Biomedical engineers are expected to have employment growth of 72 percent over the projections decade, much faster than the average for all occupations. The aging of the population and a growing focus on health issues will drive demand for better medical devices and equipment designed by biomedical engineers. Along with the demand for more sophisticated medical equipment and procedures, an increased concern for cost-­effectiveness will boost demand for biomedical engineers, particularly in pharmaceutical manufacturing and related industries. Because of the growing interest in this field, the number of degrees granted in biomedical engineering has increased ­greatly. Many biomedical engineers, particularly those ­employed in research laboratories, need a graduate degree.  Chemical engineers are expected to have an employment decline of 2 percent over the projections decade. Overall employment in the chemical manufacturing industry is expected to continue to decline, although chemical companies will continue to employ chemical engineers to research and develop new chemicals and more efficient processes to increase output of existing chemicals. However, there will be employment growth for chemical engineers in service-providing industries, such as professional, scientific, and technical services, particularly for research in energy and the developing fields of biotechnology and nanotechnology. Civil engineers are expected to have employment growth of 24 percent over the projections decade, much faster than the average for all occupations. Spurred by general population growth and the related need to improve the Nation’s infrastructure, more civil engineers will be needed to design and construct or expand transportation, water supply, and pollution control systems, and buildings and building complexes. They also will be needed to repair or replace existing roads, bridges, and other public structures. Because construction industries and architectural, engineering, and related services employ many civil engineers, employment opportunities will vary by geographic area and may decrease during economic slowdowns, when construction is often curtailed. Computer hardware engineers are expected to have employment growth of 4 percent over the projections decade, slower than the average for all occupations. Although the use of information technology continues to expand rapidly, the manufacture of computer hardware is expected to be adversely affected by intense foreign competition. As computer and ­semiconductor manufacturers contract out more of their engineering needs to both domestic and foreign design firms, much of the growth in employment of hardware engineers is expected to take place in the computer systems design and related services industry. Electrical engineers are expected to have employment growth of 2 percent over the projections decade. Although strong demand for electrical devices—including electric power generators, wireless phone transmitters, high-density batteries, and navigation systems—should spur job growth, international competition and the use of engineering services performed in other countries will limit employment growth. Electrical engineers working in firms providing engineering expertise and design services to manufacturers should have better job ­prospects. Electronics engineers, except computer, are expected to experience little to no employment change over the projections decade. Although rising demand for electronic goods—including communications equipment, defense-related equipment, medical electronics, and consumer products—should continue to increase demand for electronics engineers, foreign competition in electronic products development and the use of engineering services performed in other countries will limit employment growth. Growth is expected to be fastest in service-providing industries—particularly in firms that provide engineering and design services. Environmental engineers are expected to have employment growth of 31 percent over the projections decade, much faster than the average for all occupations. More environmental engineers will be needed to help companies comply with envi-  168 Occupational Outlook Handbook  ronmental regulations and to develop methods of cleaning up environmental hazards. A shift in emphasis toward preventing problems rather than controlling those which already exist, as well as increasing public health concerns resulting from population growth, also are expected to spur demand for environmental engineers. Because of this employment growth, job ­opportunities should be favorable. Health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors, are expected to have employment growth of 10 percent over the projections decade, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Because health and safety engineers make production processes and products as safe as possible, their services should be in demand as concern increases for health and safety within work environments. As new technologies for production or processing are developed, health and safety engineers will be needed to ensure that they are safe. Industrial engineers are expected to have employment growth of 14 percent over the projections decade, faster than the average for all occupations. As firms look for new ways to reduce costs and raise productivity, they increasingly will turn to industrial engineers to develop more efficient processes and reduce costs, delays, and waste. This focus should lead to job growth for these engineers, even in some manufacturing industries with declining employment overall. Because their work is similar to that done in management occupations, many industrial engineers leave the occupation to become managers. Numerous openings will be created by the need to replace industrial engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Marine engineers and naval architects are expected to have employment growth of 6 percent over the projections decade, slower than the average for all occupations. Continued demand for naval vessels and recreational small craft should more than offset the long-term decline in the domestic design and construction of large oceangoing vessels. Good prospects are expected for marine engineers and naval architects because of growth in employment, the need to replace workers who retire  or take other jobs, and the limited number of students pursuing careers in this occupation. Materials engineers are expected to have employment growth of 9 percent over the projections decade, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Growth should result from increased use of composite and other nontraditional materials developed through biotechnology and nanotechnology research. As manufacturing firms contract for their materials engineering needs, most employment growth is expected in professional, scientific, and technical services industries. Mechanical engineers are expected to have employment growth of 6 percent over the projections decade, slower than the average for all occupations. Mechanical engineers are involved in the production of a wide range of products, and continued efforts to improve those products will create continued demand for their services. In addition, some new job opportunities will be created through the effects of emerging technologies in biotechnology, materials science, and nanotechnology. Additional opportunities outside of mechanical engineering will exist because the skills acquired through earning a degree in mechanical engineering often can be applied in other engineering specialties. Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers, are expected to have employment growth of 15 percent over the projections decade, faster than the average for all occupations. Following a lengthy period of decline, strong growth in demand for minerals is expected to create some employment growth over the 2008–18 period. Moreover, many currently employed mining engineers are approaching retirement age, a factor that should create additional job openings. Furthermore, relatively few schools offer mining engineering programs, resulting in good job opportunities for graduates. The best opportunities may require frequent travel or even living overseas for extended periods as mining operations around the world recruit graduates of U.S. mining engineering programs. Nuclear engineers are expected to have employment growth of 11 percent over the projections decade, about as fast as the  Table 1. Earnings distribution by engineering specialty, May 2008. Specialty Aerospace engineers........................................................................................ Agricultural engineers...................................................................................... Biomedical engineers....................................................................................... Chemical engineers.......................................................................................... Civil engineers................................................................................................. Computer hardware engineers......................................................................... Electrical engineers.......................................................................................... Electronics engineers, except computer........................................................... Environmental engineers.................................................................................. Health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors............................................ Industrial engineers.......................................................................................... Marine engineers and naval architects............................................................. Materials engineers.......................................................................................... Mechanical engineers....................................................................................... Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers............. Nuclear engineers............................................................................................. Petroleum engineers......................................................................................... Engineers, all other..........................................................................................  Lowest 10% $58,130 43,150 47,640 53,730 48,140 59,170 52,990 55,330 45,310  Lowest 25% $72,390 55,430 59,420 67,420 58,960 76,250 64,910 68,400 56,980  43,540 47,720 43,070 51,420 47,900 45,020 68,300 57,820 49,270  56,190 59,120 57,060 63,830 59,230 57,970 82,540 80,040 67,360  $92,520 68,730 77,400 84,680 74,600 97,400 82,160 86,370 74,020  Highest 25% $114,530 86,400 98,830 105,000 94,470 122,750 102,520 106,870 94,280  Highest 10% $134,570 108,470 121,970 130,240 115,630 148,590 125,810 129,920 115,430  72,490 73,820 74,140 81,820 74,920 75,960 97,080 108,020 88,570  90,740 91,020 94,840 102,040 94,400 96,030 115,170 148,700 110,310  106,220 107,270 118,630 124,470 114,740 122,750 136,880 >166,400 132,070  Median  Professional and Related Occupations 169  average for all occupations. Most job growth will be in research and development and engineering services. Although no commercial nuclear power plants have been built in the United States for many years, increased interest in nuclear power as an energy source will spur demand for nuclear engineers to research and develop new designs for reactors. They also will be needed to work in defense-related areas, to develop nuclear medical technology, and to improve and enforce waste management and safety standards. Nuclear engineers are expected to have good employment opportunities because the small number of nuclear engineering graduates is likely to be in rough balance with the number of job openings. Petroleum engineers are expected to have employment growth of 18 percent over the projections decade, faster than the average for all occupations. Petroleum engineers increasingly will be needed to develop new resources, as well as new methods of extracting more from existing sources. Excellent opportunities are expected for petroleum engineers because the number of job openings is likely to exceed the relatively small number of graduates. Petroleum engineers work around the world, and in fact, the best employment opportunities may include some work in other countries.  Earnings Earnings for engineers vary significantly by specialty, industry, and education. Variation in median earnings and in the earnings distributions for engineers in a number of specialties is especially significant. Table 1 shows wage distributions in May 2008 for engineers in specialties covered in this ­statement. In the Federal Government, mean annual salaries for engineers ranged from $81,085 in agricultural engineering to $126,788 in ceramic engineering in March 2009. As a group, engineers earn some of the highest average starting salaries among those holding bachelor’s degrees. Average starting salary offers for graduates of bachelor’s degree programs in engineering, according to a July 2009 survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, were as ­follows: Petroleum....................................................................$83,121 Chemical.......................................................................64,902 Mining and Mineral......................................................64,404 Computer.......................................................................61,738 Nuclear..........................................................................61,610 Electrical/electronics and communications...................60,125 Mechanical....................................................................58,766 Industrial/manufacturing...............................................58,358 Materials........................................................................57,349 Aerospace/aeronautical/astronautical............................56,311 Agricultural...................................................................54,352 Bioengineering and biomedical....................................54,158 Civil...............................................................................52,048  Related Occupations Engineers apply the principles of natural science and math-  ematics in their work. Other workers who use scientific and mathematical principles include the following:  Page Agricultural and food scientists............................................... 177 Architects, except landscape and naval.................................... 151 Atmospheric scientists............................................................. 192 Biological scientists................................................................. 181 Chemists and materials scientists............................................. 195 Computer and information systems managers........................... 35 Computer scientists.................................................................. 132 Computer software engineers and computer programmers..... 134 Drafters..................................................................................... 170 Engineering and natural sciences managers............................... 46 Engineering technicians........................................................... 173 Environmental scientists and specialists.................................. 199 Geoscientists and hydrologists................................................. 202 Mathematicians........................................................................ 143 Physicists and astronomers...................................................... 206 Sales engineers......................................................................... 545 Science technicians.................................................................. 230  Sources of Additional Information Information about careers in engineering is available from: hhJETS, 1420 King St., Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.jets.org Information on ABET-accredited engineering programs is available from: hhABET, Inc., 111 Market Place, Suite 1050, Baltimore, MD 21202. Internet: http://www.abet.org Those interested in information on the Professional Engineer licensure should contact: hhNational Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying, P.O. Box 1686, Clemson, SC 29633. Internet: http://www.ncees.org  hhNational Society of Professional Engineers, 1420 King St., Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: http://www.nspe.org Information on general engineering education and career resources is available from: hhAmerican Society for Engineering Education, 1818 N St. NW., Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036. Internet: http://www.asee.org Information on obtaining engineering positions with the ­ ederal Government is available from the ­Office of Personnel F Management through USAJOBS, the Federal Government’s ­official employment ­information system. This resource for locating and applying for job ­opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.opm.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724–1850 or TDD (978) 461–8404. These numbers are not toll free, and charges may result. For advice on how to find and ­apply for Federal jobs, see the Occupational Outlook Quarterly article “How to get a job in the Federal Government,” online at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2004/summer/art01.pdf. For more detailed information on an engineering specialty, contact societies representing the individual branches of en-  170 Occupational Outlook Handbook  gineering. Each can provide information about careers in the particular branch. Aerospace engineers hhAmerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 1801 Alexander Bell Dr., Suite 500, Reston, VA 20191. Internet: http://www.aiaa.org Agricultural engineers hhAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2950 Niles Rd., St. Joseph, MI 49085. Internet: http://www.asabe.org Biomedical engineers hhBiomedical Engineering Society, 8401 Corporate Dr., Suite 140, Landover, MD 20785. Internet: http://www.bmes.org Chemical engineers  Health and safety engineers  hhAmerican Society of Safety Engineers, 1800 E Oakton St., Des Plaines, IL 60018. Internet: http://www.asse.org Industrial engineers  hhInstitute of Industrial Engineers, 3577 Parkway Lane, Suite 200, Norcross, GA 30092. Internet: http://www.iienet.org Marine engineers and naval architects  hhSociety of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 601 Pavonia Ave., Jersey City, NJ 07306. Internet: http://www.sname.org Materials engineers  hhASM International, 9639 Kinsman Rd., Materials Park, OH 44073. Internet: http://www.asminternational.org  hhMinerals, Metals, and Materials Society, 184 Thorn Hill Rd., Warrendale, PA 15086. Internet: http://www.tms.org Mechanical engineers  hhAmerican Chemical Society, Department of Career  hhAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers, 3 Park Ave.,  Services, 1155 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036. Internet: http://www.chemistry.org  New York, NY 10016. Internet: http://www.asme.org  hhSAE International, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale,  hhAmerican Institute of Chemical Engineers, 3 Park Ave.,  PA 15096. Internet: http://www.sae.org  New York, NY 10016. Internet: http://www.aiche.org  Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers hhSociety for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., 8307 Shaffer Parkway, Littleton, CO 80127. Internet: http://www.smenet.org  Civil engineers hhAmerican Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Dr., Reston, VA 20191. Internet: http://www.asce.org Computer hardware engineers  hhIEEE Computer Society, 2001 L St. NW., Suite 700., Washington, DC 20036. Internet: http://www.computer.org Electrical and electronics engineers hhIEEE–USA, 2001 L St. NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20036. Internet: http://www.ieeeusa.org Environmental engineers hhAmerican Academy of Environmental Engineers, 130 Holiday Court, Suite 100, Annapolis, MD 21401. Internet: http://www.aaee.net  Nuclear engineers  hhAmerican Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Ave., La Grange Park, IL 60526. Internet: http://www.ans.org Petroleum engineers  hhSociety of Petroleum Engineers, 222 Palisades Creek Dr., Richardson, TX 75080. Internet: http://www.spe.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos027.htm  Drafters and Engineering Technicians Nature of the Work  Drafters Significant Points  •	 Opportunities should be best for individuals with at least 2 years of postsecondary training in drafting.  •	 Overall employment is projected to grow more slowly than average, but growth will vary by specialty.  •	 Demand for various types of drafters depends on the needs of local industry.  Drafters prepare technical drawings and plans, which are used by production and construction workers to build everything from microchips to skyscrapers. Drafters’ drawings provide visual guidelines and show how to construct a product or structure. Drawings include technical details and specify dimensions, materials, and procedures. Drafters fill in technical details using drawings, rough sketches, specifications, and calculations made by engineers, surveyors, architects, or scientists. For example, many drafters use their knowledge of standardized building techniques to draw in the details of structures. Some use their understanding of engineering and manufacturing theory and standards to draw the parts  Professional and Related Occupations 171  of a machine; they determine design elements, such as the numbers and kinds of fasteners needed to assemble the machine. Drafters use technical handbooks, tables, calculators, and computers to complete their work. Most drafters use Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) systems to prepare drawings. Consequently, some drafters may be referred to as CADD operators. With CADD systems, drafters can create and store drawings electronically so that they can be viewed, printed, or programmed directly into automated manufacturing systems. CADD systems also permit drafters to quickly prepare variations of a design. Although drafters use CADD extensively, they still need knowledge of traditional drafting techniques in order to fully understand and explain concepts. Drafting work has many specialties; the most common types of drafters are the following: Aeronautical drafters prepare engineering drawings that detail plans and specifications used in the manufacture of aircraft, missiles, and related parts. Architectural drafters draw architectural and structural features of buildings for new construction projects. These workers may specialize in a type of building, such as residential or commercial, or in a kind of material used, such as reinforced concrete, masonry, steel, or timber. Civil drafters prepare drawings and topographical and relief maps used in major construction or civil engineering projects, such as highways, bridges, pipelines, flood-control projects, and water and sewage systems. Electrical drafters prepare wiring and layout diagrams used by workers who erect, install, and repair electrical equipment and wiring in communication centers, power plants, electrical distribution systems, and buildings. Electronics drafters draw wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams, schematics, and layout drawings used in the manufacture, installation, and repair of electronic devices and components. Mechanical drafters prepare drawings showing the detail and method of assembly of a wide variety of machinery and mechanical devices, indicating dimensions, fastening methods, and other requirements. Process piping or pipeline drafters prepare drawings used in the layout, construction, and operation of oil and gas fields, refineries, chemical plants, and process piping systems. Work environment. Drafters usually work in comfortable offices. Because they spend long periods in front of computers doing detailed work, drafters may be susceptible to eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems. Most drafters work a standard 40-hour week; only a small number work part time.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers prefer applicants who have completed postsecondary school training in drafting, which is offered by technical institutes, community colleges, and some 4-year colleges and universities. Employers are most interested in applicants with well-developed drafting and mechanical drawing skills; knowledge of drafting standards, mathematics, science, and engineering technology; and a solid background in CADD techniques.  Most drafters use computer-aided design and drafting software. Education and training. High school courses in mathematics, science, computer technology, design, computer graphics, and, where available, drafting are useful for people considering a drafting career. Employers prefer applicants who have also completed training after high school at a technical institute, community college, or 4-year college or university. Prospective students should contact prospective employers to ask which schools they prefer and contact schools to ask for information about the kinds of jobs their graduates have, the type and condition of instructional facilities and equipment, and teacher ­qualifications. Technical institutes offer intensive technical training, but they provide a less general education than do community colleges. Either certificates or diplomas may be awarded, and programs can vary considerably in length and in the types of courses ­offered. Many technical institutes offer 2-year associate degree programs. Community colleges offer programs similar to those in technical institutes but include more classes in drafting theory and also often require general education classes. Courses taken at community colleges are more likely to be accepted for credit at 4-year colleges. After completing a 2-year associate degree program, graduates may obtain jobs as drafters or continue their education in a related field at a 4-year college. Most 4-year colleges do not offer training in drafting, but they do offer classes  172 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Drafters.............................................................................................. Architectural and civil drafters...................................................... Electrical and electronics drafters.................................................. Mechanical drafters........................................................................ Drafters, all other...........................................................................  SOC Code 17-3010 17-3011 17-3012 17-3013 17-3019  Employment, 2008 251,900 118,400 33,600 78,700 21,200  Projected Employment, 2018 262,500 129,100 33,900 77,800 21,700  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 10,700 4 10,800 9 300 1 -900 -1 500 2  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  in engineering, architecture, and mathematics that are useful for obtaining a job as a drafter. Technical training obtained in the Armed Forces also can be applied in civilian drafting jobs. Some additional training may be necessary, depending on the technical area or military ­specialty. Training differs somewhat within the drafting specialties, although the basics, such as mathematics, are similar. In an electronics drafting program, for example, students learn how to depict electronic components and circuits in drawings. In architectural drafting, they learn the technical specifications of ­buildings. Certification and other qualifications. Mechanical ability and visual aptitude are important for drafters. Prospective ­drafters should be able to draw well and perform detailed work accurately. Artistic ability is helpful in some specialized fields, as is knowledge of manufacturing and construction methods. In addition, prospective drafters should have good interpersonal skills because they work closely with engineers, surveyors, ­architects, and other professionals and, sometimes, with ­customers. The American Design Drafting Association (ADDA) has established a certification program for drafters. Although employers usually do not require drafters to be certified, certification demonstrates knowledge and an understanding of nationally recognized practices. Individuals who wish to become certified must pass the Drafter Certification Test, which is administered periodically at ADDA-authorized sites. Applicants are tested on basic drafting concepts, such as geometric construction, working drawings, and architectural terms and standards. Advancement. Entry-level or junior drafters usually do routine work under close supervision. After gaining experience, they may become intermediate drafters and progress to more difficult work with less supervision. At the intermediate level, they may need to exercise more judgment and perform calculations when preparing and modifying drawings. Drafters may eventually advance to senior drafter, designer, or supervisor. Many employers pay for continuing education; with appropriate college degrees, drafters may go on to become engineering technicians, engineers, or architects.  Employment Drafters held about 251,900 jobs in 2008. Architectural and civil drafters held 47 percent of these jobs, mechanical drafters held about 31 percent, and electrical and electronics drafters held about 13 percent.  About 52 percent of all jobs for drafters were in architectural, engineering, and related services firms that design construction projects or do other engineering work on a contract basis for other industries. Another 24 percent of jobs were in manufacturing industries such as machinery, fabricated metal products, computer and electronic products, and transportationequipment manufacturing. Approximately 3 percent of drafters were self-employed in 2008.  Job Outlook Drafters can expect slower than average employment growth, with the best opportunities expected for those with at least 2 years of postsecondary training. Employment change. Employment of drafters is expected to grow by 4 percent between 2008 and 2018, which is slower than the average for all occupations. However, growth will vary by specialty. Architectural and civil drafting is expected to be the fastest growing specialty, increasing by 9 percent, which is about as fast as the average. Increases in overall construction activity stemming from U.S. population growth and the related need to improve the Nation’s infrastructure should spur demand for drafters trained in architectural and civil design. In contrast to employment of architectural and civil drafters, little or no change in employment is expected of mechanical drafters and of electronic and electrical drafters. Many of these workers are concentrated in slow-growing or declining manufacturing industries that offer few opportunities for growth related to expansion. However, increasingly complex design problems associated with new products and manufacturing processes will increase the demand for mechanical drafters and electronic and electrical drafters employed in engineering and drafting services firms that will be charged with finding solutions to these problems. Across all specialties, CADD systems that are more powerful and easier to use will allow many tasks to be done by other technical professionals, thus curbing demand for drafters. Job growth also should be slowed as some drafting work, which can be done by sending CADD files over the Internet, is outsourced offshore to countries that pay lower wages. Job prospects. Opportunities should be best for individuals with at least 2 years of postsecondary training in a drafting program that provides strong technical skills and considerable experience with CADD systems. CADD has increased the complexity of drafting applications while enhancing the productivity of drafters. It also has enhanced the nature of drafting by creating more possibilities for design and drafting. As tech-  Professional and Related Occupations 173  nology continues to advance, employers will look for drafters with a strong background in fundamental drafting principles, a high level of technical sophistication, and the ability to apply their knowledge to a broader range of responsibilities. Most job openings are expected to arise from the need to replace drafters who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force completely. Employment of drafters remains tied to industries that are sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy, primarily construction and manufacturing. During recessions, drafters may be laid off. However, a growing number of drafters should continue to find employment on a temporary or contract basis as more companies turn to the employment services industry to meet their changing needs. Demand for particular drafting specialties varies throughout the country because employment usually is contingent on the needs of local industry.  Earnings Drafters’ earnings vary by specialty, location, and level of responsibility. Median annual wages of architectural and civil drafters were $44,490 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $35,290 and $55,740. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $28,220, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $67,110. Median annual wages for architectural and civil drafters in architectural, engineering, and related services were $44,390. Median annual wages of mechanical drafters were $46,640 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $36,490 and $59,010. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $29,390, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $71,340. Median annual wages for mechanical drafters in architectural, engineering, and related services were $47,630. Median annual wages of electrical and electronics drafters were $51,320 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $40,210 and $65,400. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,050, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $79,790. In architectural, engineering, and related services, median annual wages for electrical and electronics drafters were $47,910.  Related Occupations Other workers who prepare or analyze detailed drawings and make precise calculations and measurements include:  Page Architects, except landscape and naval.................................... 151 Commercial and industrial designers....................................... 304 Engineers.................................................................................. 161 Engineering technicians........................................................... 173 Landscape architects................................................................ 154 Surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying and mapping technicians............................... 157  Sources of Additional Information Information on schools offering programs in drafting and related fields is available from:  hhAccrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 302, Arlington, VA 22201. Internet: http://www.accsc.org Information about certification is available from:  hhAmerican Design Drafting Association, 105 E. Main St., Newbern, TN 38059. Internet: http://www.adda.org The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) provides information on a wide range of occupational characteristics.   Links to O*NET appear at the end of the Internet version of this occupational statement, accessible at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ocos111.htm  Engineering Technicians Significant Points  •	 Electrical  and electronic engineering technicians make up 33 percent of all engineering technicians.  •	 Employment of engineering technicians is influenced by economic conditions similar to those which affect engineers; as a result, job outlook varies by specialty.  •	 Opportunities will be best for individuals with an associate degree or other postsecondary training in engineering technology.  Nature of the Work Engineering technicians use the principles and theories of science, engineering, and mathematics to solve technical problems in research and development, manufacturing, sales, construction, inspection, and maintenance. Their work is more narrowly focused and application-oriented than that of scientists and engineers. Many engineering technicians assist engineers and scientists, especially in research and development. Others work in quality control, inspecting products and processes, conducting tests, or collecting data. In manufacturing, they may assist in product design, development, or production. Although many workers who repair or maintain various types of electrical, electronic, or mechanical equipment are called technicians, those workers are covered in the Handbook section on installation, maintenance, and repair occupations. Engineering technicians who work in research and development build or set up equipment, prepare and conduct experiments, collect data, calculate or record results, and help ­engineers or scientists in other ways, such as making prototype versions of newly designed equipment. They also assist in design work, often using computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) equipment. Most engineering technicians specialize, learning skills and working in the same disciplines as engineers. Occupational titles, therefore, tend to reflect this similarity. The Handbook does not cover in detail some branches of engineering technology, such as chemical engineering technology (the development of new chemical products and processes) and bioengineering technology (the development and implementation of ­biomedical equipment), for which there are accredited programs of study.  174 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Engineering technicians assist engineers in designing and testing new products. Aerospace engineering and operations technicians operate and maintain equipment used to test aircraft and spacecraft. New aircraft designs are subjected to years of testing before they are put into service, since failure of key components during flight can be fatal. Technicians may calibrate test equipment, such as wind tunnels, and determine causes of equipment ­malfunctions. They may also program and run computer simulations that test new designs virtually. Using computer and communications systems, aerospace engineering and operations technicians often record and interpret test data. Civil engineering technicians help civil engineers plan and oversee the construction of highways, buildings, bridges, dams, wastewater treatment systems, and other structures. Some estimate construction costs and specify materials to be used, and some may even prepare drawings or perform land-surveying duties. Others may set up and monitor instruments used to study traffic conditions. (Cost estimators; construction and building inspectors; drafters; and surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying and mapping technicians are covered elsewhere in the Handbook.) Electrical and electronic engineering technicians help design, develop, test, and manufacture electrical and electronic equipment such as communication equipment, medical monitoring devices, navigational equipment, and computers. They may work in product evaluation and testing, using measuring and diagnostic devices to adjust, test, and repair equipment. (Workers whose jobs primarily involve repairing electrical and electronic equipment are often are referred to as electronics technicians, but they are included with electrical and electronics installers and repairers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Electro-mechanical engineering technicians combine knowledge of mechanical engineering technology with knowledge of electrical and electronic circuits to design, develop, test, and manufacture electronic and computer-controlled mechanical systems, such as robotic assembly machines. They also operate these machines in factories and other worksites. Their work often overlaps that of both electrical and electronic engineering technicians and mechanical engineering technicians. Environmental engineering technicians work closely with environmental engineers and scientists in developing methods and devices used in the prevention, control, or remediation of  environmental hazards. They inspect and maintain equipment related to air pollution and recycling. Some inspect water and wastewater treatment systems to ensure that pollution control requirements are met. Industrial engineering technicians study the efficient use of personnel, materials, and machines in factories, stores, repair shops, and offices. Working under the direction of industrial engineers, they prepare layouts of machinery and equipment, plan the flow of work, conduct statistical studies of production time or quality, and analyze production costs. Mechanical engineering technicians help engineers design, develop, test, and manufacture industrial machinery, consumer products, and other equipment. They may assist in product tests by, for example, setting up instrumentation for auto crash tests. They may make sketches and rough layouts, record and analyze data, make calculations and estimates, and report on their findings. When planning production, mechanical engineering technicians prepare layouts and drawings of the assembly process and of parts to be manufactured. They estimate labor costs, equipment life, and plant space. Some test and inspect machines and equipment or work with engineers to eliminate production problems. Work environment. Most engineering technicians work 40 hours a week in laboratories, in offices, in manufacturing or ­industrial plants, or on construction sites. Some may be exposed to hazards from equipment, chemicals, or toxic materials, but incidents are rare as long as proper procedures are followed.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most employers prefer to hire engineering technicians with an associate degree or other postsecondary training in engineering technology. Training is available at technical institutes, at community colleges, at extension divisions of colleges and universities, at public and private vocational-technical schools, and in the Armed Forces. Education and training. Although it may be possible to qualify for certain engineering technician jobs without formal training, most employers prefer to hire someone with a 2-year associate degree or other postsecondary training in engineering technology. Workers with less formal engineering technology training need more time to learn skills while on the job. Prospective engineering technicians should take as many high school science and math courses as possible to prepare for programs in engineering technology after high school. Most 2-year associate degree programs accredited by the Technology Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) include at least college algebra and trigonometry and one or two basic science courses. Depending on the specialty, more math or science may be required. About 700 ABET-accredited programs are offered in engineering technology specialties. The type of technical courses required depends on the specialty. For example, prospective mechanical engineering technicians may take courses in fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and mechanical design; prospective electrical engineering technicians may need classes in electrical circuits, microprocessors, and digital electronics; and those preparing to work in environmental engineering technology need courses  Professional and Related Occupations 175  Projections data from the National Employment Matrix Occupational Title Engineering technicians, except drafters........................................... Aerospace engineering and operations technicians....................... Civil engineering technicians......................................................... Electrical and electronic engineering technicians.......................... Electro-mechanical technicians..................................................... Environmental engineering technicians......................................... Industrial engineering technicians................................................. Mechanical engineering technicians.............................................. Engineering technicians, except drafters, all other........................  SOC Code 17-3020 17-3021 17-3022 17-3023 17-3024 17-3025 17-3026 17-3027 17-3029  Employment, 2008 497,300 8,700 91,700 164,000 16,400 21,200 72,600 46,100 76,600  Projected Employment, 2018 523,100 8,900 107,200 160,400 15,600 27,500 77,400 45,500 80,600  Change, 2008-2018 Number Percent 25,800 5 200 2 15,500 17 -3,600 -2 -800 -5 6,400 30 4,800 7 -700 -1 4,000 5  (NOTE) Data in this table are rounded. See the discussion of the employment projections table in the Handbook introductory chapter on Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  in environmental regulations and safe handling of hazardous materials. Technical institutes offer intensive technical training through application and practice, but they provide less theory and general education than do community colleges. Many technical institutes offer 2-year associate degree programs and are similar to or part of a community college or State university system. Other technical institutes are run by private organizations, with programs that vary considerably in length and types of courses offered. Community colleges offer curriculums that are similar to those in technical institutes but include more theory and liberal arts. There may be little or no difference between programs at technical institutes and community colleges, as both offer associate degrees. After completing the 2-year program, some graduates get jobs as engineering technicians, whereas others continue their education at 4-year colleges. However, an associate degree in pre-engineering is different from one in engineering technology. Students who enroll in a 2-year preengineering program may find it difficult to find work as an engineering technician if they decide not to enter a 4-year engineering program because pre-engineering programs usually focus less on hands-on applications and more on academic preparatory work. Conversely, graduates of 2-year engineering technology programs may not