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Occupational Outlook Handbook  1996-97 Edition  U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics February 1996 Bulletin 2470   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  IN PRINT   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Guide to the Handbook • Highlights of the job outlook for the year 2005 are presented in Tomorrow's Jobs, page 1. • Additional career-oriented materials, available from private and public organizations, and sources of State and local job market information, are described in Sources of Career Informa­ tion, page 8. • Job search methods, and tips on applying for a job and evaluating a job offer, are discussed in Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer,  page 14. • Highlights of the kind of information presented in detailed occupational descriptions, and pointers on interpreting this information, appear in Occu­ pational  Information Included in the  Hand­  book, page 19. • For occupations not covered in detail in the Handbook, brief descriptions of the nature of the work, the number of jobs in 1994, the projected 1994-2005 change in employment, and the most significant source of training, are presented in a section beginning on page 469. • The assumptions and methods used in preparing BLS employment projections are described briefly on page 477. • A list of Dictionary of Occupational Title numbers that are related to Handbook occupations can be found on page 478. • All occupational statements in the Handbook are available in reprint form. For a list of reprints, consult page 494. • An alphabetical index of occupations found in the Handbook is on page 497. • See page 508 for a description of BLS employ­ ment outlook information on the Internet. • Information about two publications that are closely related to the Handbook—Occupational  Projections and Training Data,  1994 Edition,  Bulletin 2471, and Employment Outlook: 1994­ 2005, Bulletin 2472—appears on page 510. • An order form for current employment outlook publications can be found on page 512.  Occupational Outlook Handbook U.S. Department of Labor Robert B. Reich, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Katharine G. Abraham, Commissioner January 1996 Bulletin 2470   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1996-97 Edition   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  50 Years in Print This 22nd edition of the Handbook marks the 50th year in which occupational outlook information prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics Division of Occupational Outlook has been available for use in counseling indi­ viduals about the world of work. The first "Handbook" was prepared at the request and with the financial support of the Veterans Administra­ tion. Under provisions of the Servicemen's Readjust­ ment Act of 1944, the VA was authorized to make avail­ able to World War II veterans information concerning the need for general education and for trained personnel in the various trades, crafts, and professions. It was is­ sued in August 1946 as VA Manual M7-1, Occupational Outlook Information. In answer to many requests, in­ cluding one from the National Vocational Guidance As­ sociation, expressed in a resolution adopted at its convention in March 1947, an Occupational Outlook Handbook was published in the Spring of 1949 and made available for sale to the public for use in schools, colleges, Veterans Administration regional offices and guidance centers, employment service offices, com­ munity organizations, and other agencies engaged in the vocational guidance of young people, veterans, and workers. Subsequent editions of the Handbook were published in 1951, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1963, and bien­ nially in even numbered years since 1966.  For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328 ISBN 0-16-048450-2   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Message from the Secretary  f||§iP  The rules for competing in a technologically-advanced global economy are changing everyday. The jobs of the future and the challenges posed by global competitive­ ness will require a skilled American workforce that can quickly adapt to a changing workplace. The Occupational Outlook Handbook, the Govern­ ment’s premier publication on career guidance, provides essential information about prospective changes in the world of work and the qualifications that will be needed by tomorrow's workers. ROBERT B. REICH  iii   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  /   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Foreword  Cjlobal competition, changing technology and busi­ ness practices, and shifts in the demand for goods and services continue to reshape America's job market— creating a widespread need for comprehensive, up-todate, and reliable career information. The Bureau's Occupational Outlook Handbook—a na­ tionally recognized source of career information—de­ scribes what workers do on the job, working conditions, the training and education needed, earnings, and ex­ pected job prospects in a wide range of occupations. Employment in the approximately 250 occupations cov­ ered in the 1996-97 Handbook accounts for about 7 out of every 8 jobs in the economy. The occupational in­ formation presented this new edition should provide valuable assistance to individuals making career deci­ sions about their future work lives. KATHARINE G. ABRAHAM Commissioner Bureau of Labor Statistics v   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Acknowledgments The Handbook was produced in the Bureau of Labor Statistics under the general guidance and direction of Ronald E. Kutscher, Associate Commissioner for Employment Projec­ tions and Neal H. Rosenthal, Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook. Mike Pilot, Manager, Occupational Outlook Pro­ gram, was responsible for planning and day-to-day direction. Project leaders supervising the research and preparation of material were Douglas Braddock, Alan Eck, Chester C. Levine, and Jon Q. Sargent. Occupational analysts who con­ tributed material were Thomas A. Amirault, Megan Barkume, Verada P. Bluford, Theresa Cosca, Geof Gradler, Jeffrey C. Gruenert, Hall Dillon, Mark Mittelhauser, Rachel Moskowitz, Kurt Schrammel, Kristina Shelley, Gary Steinberg, Allison Thomson, Carolyn M. Veneri, and Drew A. Warwick. Word processing support was handled by Beverly A. Williams.  Note A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, in­ dustrial organizations, and government agencies provide career in­ formation that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience of Handbook users, some of these organizations are listed at the end of each occupational statement. Although these references were carefully compiled, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has neither authority nor facilities for investigating the organiza­ tions or the information or publications that may be sent in re­ sponse to a request and cannot guarantee the accuracy of such in­ formation. The listing of an organization, therefore, does not constitute in any way an endorsement or recommendation by the Bureau either of the organization and its activities or of the infor­ mation it may supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue. The occupational information contained in the Handbook presents a general, composite description of jobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as a guide for determining wages, hours, the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. Nor should earnings data in the Handbook be used to compute future loss of earnings in adjudication proceed­ ings involving work injuries or accidental deaths. Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with ap­ propriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Com­ ments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are welcome. Please address them to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. De­ partment of Labor, Washington, DC 20212.  VII   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Photograph Credits The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to express its appreciation for the cooperation and assistance of the many government and private sources—listed below—that either contributed photographs or made their facilities available to photographers working under contract to the U.S. Department of Labor. Photographs may not be free of every possible safety or health hazard. Depiction of company or trade name in no way constitutes endorsement by the Department of Labor. American University; Baltimore Specialty Steels; Bell Atlantic; Black Magic Film Company; Brenda Schulz, A.I.A.; Brookland Branch of Riggs Bank of Washington; Brooks Upholstery; Chapel Opticians, Inc.; Continental Airlines, Inc.; Crist Air Maintenance Services, Inc.; D.L. Boyd, Inc.; Don Zuckerman; Dr. Joan Murrell Owens, Howard University; Dr. Pierre Palian, D.D.S.; Dravo Corporation; Ed Yoe, Artist Services, Inc.; Fontana Affiliated Lithograph; Frank's Well Drilling; George Hyman Construction Company; George Meany Labor Studies Center; George Washington University; George Washington University Hospital; Giant Supermarkets; Gladhill Tractor Mart; Glaziers Local #963/BCI; Globe Auto Body, Inc.; Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA); Grace Chemical Company; Herb Gordon Dodge; H. & H. Bindery; Hyatt Regency Washington on Capitol Hill; Judge Lee Sisler, Sixth District Court of Maryland; Local 10 of Ironworkers; Maryland National Capitol Park and Planning Commission; Memorial Hospital and Medical Center of Cumberland, Maryland; Midstate Coal Company; Midwest Photo and Video; M.P.I. Pharmacy Services, Inc.; National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Government; NBC— Channel 4, Washington, DC; Northwestern Illinois Research and Development Center and the University of Illinois at Urbana— Champaign; Potomac Electric Power Company; Rabbi Warren Stone, Temple Emanuel; Representative Constance A. Morello (Maryland); Rock Terrace High School—Montgomery County, Maryland; Sandy Springs Friends School; Saspirilla Band; Strauss Technical Photo; Suburban Dental Laboratory, Inc.; Susan Sanders Fine Art Jewelry; The Treatment and Learning Centers; Toman Optician; Washington Hospital Center; Washington Fireworks Company; The Washington Times; Welch and Rushe, Inc.; WDCU—FM, Washington, DC; WGBQ—FM Radio, Galesburg, Illinois; The Woodner; Wyatt Company; University of Maryland, Electrical Engineering Depart­ ment; Working Images Photographs—Martha Tabor.  viii  Contents Special Features Tomorrow's Jobs............................................................  1  Sources of Career Information........................  8  Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer...................  14  Occupational Information Included in the Handbook.  19  Data for Occupations Not Studied in Detail................. 469 Assumptions and Methods Used in Preparing Employment Projections........................................... 477 Dictionary of Occupational Titles Coverage.................. 478 Reprints............................................................................ 494 Index................................................................................. 497  Occupational Coverage Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Accountants and auditors............................................................ Administrative services managers.............................................. Budget analysts........................................................................... Construction and building inspectors......................................... Construction managers................................................................ Cost estimators............................................................................ Education administrators............................................................ Employment interviewers........................................................... Engineering, science, and data processing managers................. Financial managers..................................................................... Funeral directors......................................................................... General managers and top executives........................................ Government chief executives and legislators............................. Health services managers............................................................ Hotel managers and assistants..................................................... Industrial production managers................................................... Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction........... Loan officers and counselors...................................................... Management analysts and consultants........................................ Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers.............. Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers......................................................................... Property and real estate managers............................................... Purchasers and buyers................................................................. Restaurant and food service managers....................................... Underwriters...............................................................................  21 24 25 28 30 32 34 37 39 41 43 44 46 48 50 52 53 57 58 60 63 66 69 72 74  Professional Specialty Occupations Engineers...................................................................................  Aerospace engineers............................................................   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  76 79 IX  Chemical engineers.................................................................... Civil engineers............................................................................ Electrical and electronics engineers........................................... Industrial engineers..................................................................... Mechanical engineers................................................................ Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers........................ Mining engineers........................................................................ Nuclear engineers....................................................................... Petroleum engineers...................................................................  80 80 81 81 82 82 83 84 84  Architects and surveyors Architects.................................................................................... Landscape architects.................................................................. Surveyors....................................................................................  85 87 89  Computer, mathematical, and operations research occupations Actuaries..................................................................................... Computer scientists and systems analysts.................................. Mathematicians........................................................................... Operations research analysts...................................................... Statisticians.................................................................................  91 93 96 97 99  Life scientists Agricultural scientists................................................................ Biological and medical scientists............................................... Foresters and conservation scientists.........................................  101 103 105  Physical scientists Chemists..................................................................................... Geologists and geophysicists..................................................... Meteorologists............................................................................ Physicists and astronomers........................................................  107 109 ill 113  Lawyers and judges..................................................................  115  Social scientists.......................................................................... Economists and marketing research analysts............................. Psychologists.............................................................................. Urban and regional planners......................................................  119 121 124 126  Social and recreation workers Human services workers............................................................ Recreation workers..................................................................... Social workers............................................................................  128 130 132  Clergy......................................................................................... Protestant ministers.................................................................... Rabbis......................................................................................... Roman Catholic priests..............................................................  134 135 136 137  Teachers, librarians, and counselors Adult education teachers............................................................ Archivists and curators............................................................... College and university faculty................................................... Counselors.................................................................................. Librarians.................................................................................... School teachers—Kindergarten, elementary, and secondary..... Special education teachers.........................................................  138 140 143 145 148 150 153  Health diagnosing practitioners Chiropractors.............................................................................. Dentists....................................................................................... Optometrists................................................................................ Physicians................................................................................... Podiatrists................................................................................... Veterinarians...............................................................................  156 157 158 160 162 163  Health assessment and treating occupations Dietitians and nutritionists.......................................................... Occupational therapists............................................................... Pharmacists................................................................................. Physical therapists....................................................................... Physician assistants..................................................................... Recreational therapists................................................................ Registered nurses........................................................................ Respiratory therapists................................................................. Speech-language pathologists and audiologists.........................  165 166 168 169 171 172 174 176 177  Communications occupations Public relations specialists.......................................................... Radio and television announcers and newscasters..................... Reporters and correspondents..................................................... Writers and editors......................................................................  179 181 182 184  Visual arts occupations Designers.................................................................................... Photographers and camera operators.......................................... Visual artists...............................................................................  186 189 191  Performing arts occupations Actors, directors, and producers................................................. Dancers and choreographers....................................................... Musicians....................................................................................  193 195 197  Insurance agents and brokers...................................................... Manufacturers’ and wholesale sales representatives.................. Real estate agents, brokers, and appraisers................................. Retail sales worker supervisors and managers............................ Retail sales workers.................................................................... Securities and financial services sales representatives................ Services sales representatives..................................................... Travel agents...............................................................................  Administrative Support Occupations, Including Clerical Adjusters, investigators, and collectors....................................... Bank tellers................................................................................. Clerical supervisors and managers.............................................. Computer and peripheral equipment operators........................... Credit clerks and authorizes...................................................... General office clerks................................................................... Information clerks....................................................................... Hotel and motel desk clerks................................................... Interviewing and new accounts clerks.................................... Receptionists.......................................................................... Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks................................................................ Mail clerks and messengers........................................................ Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing occupations.................................................. Dispatchers............................................................................. Stock clerks............................................................................ Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks................................... Postal clerks and mail carriers.................................................... Record clerks.............................................................................. Billing clerks and billing machine operators.......................... Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks....................... Brokerage clerks and statement clerks................................... File clerks................................................................................ Library assistants and bookmobile drivers............................. Order clerks............................................................................. Payroll and timekeeping clerks.............................................. Personnel clerks..................................................................... Secretaries.................................................................................... Stenographers, court reporters, and medical transcriptionists.... Teacher aides............................................................................... Telephone operators.................................................................... Typists, word processors, and data entry keyers.........................  Technicians and Related Support Occupations Health technologists and technicians Cardiovascular technologists and technicians............................. Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians...................... Dental hygienists......................................................................... Dispensing opticians................................................................... Electroneurodiagnostic technologists.......................................... Emergency medical technicians.................................................. Licensed practical nurses............................................................ Medical record technicians......................................................... Nuclear medicine technologists.................................................. Radiologic technologists............................................................. Surgical technicians.................................................................... Technologists, except health Aircraft pilots.............................................................................. Air traffic controllers.................................................................. Broadcast technicians................................................................. Computer programmers.............................................................. Drafters....................................................................................... Engineering technicians.............................................................. Library technicians..................................................................... Paralegals.................................................................................... Science technicians.....................................................................  199 200 202 203 205 206 208 209 210 212 214   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  254 258 260 261 263 264 265 267 268 268 269 270 272 273 275 276 277 279 281 282 282 283 284 285 286 287 287 289 291 293 294  Service Occupations  215 218 220 222 224 226 227 229 231  Marketing and Sales Occupations Cashiers..................................................................................... Counter and rental clerks............................................................  236 238 240 243 245 247 249 251  234 235 x  Protective service occupations Correctional officers................................................................... Firefighting occupations............................................................. Guards.......................................................................................... Police, detectives, and special agents......................................... Private detectives and investigators............................................  297 299 301 303 306  Food and beverage preparation and service occupations Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers.................................... Food and beverage service occupations......................................  308 311  Health service occupations Dental assistants.......................................................................... Medical assistants....................................................................... Nursing aides and psychiatric aides............................................ Occupational therapy assistants and aides.................................. Physical and corrective therapy assistants and aides.................  313 314 316 317 318  Personal and building service occupations Barbers and cosmetologists......................................................... Preschool teachers and child-care workers................................ Flight attendants.......................................................................... Homemaker-home health aides................................................... Janitors and cleaners and cleaningsupervisors........................... Private household workers..........................................................  Production Occupations  320 321 324 325 327 328  Assemblers Precision assemblers...................................................................  401  Blue-collar worker supervisors...............................................  402  Food processing occupations Butchers and meat, poultry, and fish cutters..............................  404  Inspectors, testers, and graders..............................................  406  Metalworking and plastics-working occupations Boilermakers............................................................................... Jewelers...................................................................................... Machinists and tool programmers.............................................. Metalworking and plastics-working machine operators............ Tool and die makers.................................................................... Welders, cutters, and welding machine operators......................  407 408 410 412 415 417  Plant and systems operators Electric power generating plant operators and power distributors and dispatchers................................................... Stationary engineers.................................................................... Water and wastewater treatment plant operators.......................  418 420 421  Printing occupations Bindery workers.......................................................................... Prepress workers......................................................................... Printing press operators..............................................................  423 425 428  Textile, apparel, and furnishings .occupations Apparel workers............................. Shoe and leather workers and repairers..................................... Textile machinery operators....................................................... Upholsterers................................................................................  429 432 433 435  Woodworking occupations......................................................  436  Miscellaneous production occupations Dental laboratory technicians.................................................... Ophthalmic laboratory technicians............................................ Painting and coating machine operators.................................... Photographic process workers...................................................  439 440 441 444  Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Related Occupations Animal caretakers, except farm.................................................. Farm operators and managers..................................................... Fishers, hunters, and trappers...................................................... Forestry and logging workers..................................................... Gardeners and groundskeepers...................................................  330 331 334 337 339  Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers Aircraft mechanics, including engine specialists....................... Automotive body repairers......................................................... Automotive mechanics............................................................... Diesel mechanics........................................................................ Electronic equipment repairers................................................... Commercial and industrial electronic equipment repairers.... Communications equipment mechanics................................. Computer and office machine repairers................................ Electronic home entertainment equipment repairers............. Telephone installers and repairers.......................................... Elevator installers and repairers.................................................. Farm equipment mechanics........................................................ General maintenance mechanics................................................. Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration technicians............ Home appliance and power tool repairers.................................. Industrial machinery repairers.................................................... Line installers and cable splicers................................................ Millwrights................................................................................. Mobile heavy equipment mechanics.......................................... Motorcycle, boat, and small-engine mechanics......................... Musical instrument repairers and tuners.................................... Vending machine servicers and repairers...................................  342 344 345 348 350 352 352 353 354 354 355 357 358 360 362 364 365 367 368 370 372 373  Construction Trades Occupations Bricklayers and stonemasons...................................................... Carpenters................................................................................... Carpet installers.......................................................................... Concrete masons and terrazzo workers...................................... Drywall workers and lathers....................................................... Electricians................................................................................. Glaziers....................................................................................... Insulation workers....................................................................... Painters and paperhangers........................................................... Plasterers..................................................................................... Plumbers and pipefitters............................................................. Roofers........................................................................................ Sheetmetal workers..................................................................... Structural and reinforcing ironworkers....................................... Tilesetters....................................................................................   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Transportation and Material Moving Occupations  376 377 379 380 382 383 385 387 389 390 392 394 395 397 398  Busdrivers................................................................................... Material moving equipment operators....................................... Rail transportation occupation................................................... Taxi drivers and chauffeurs....................................................... Truckdrivers................................................................................ Water transportation occupations..............................................  446 448 450 453 455 458  Handlers, EquipmentCleaners, Helpers, and Laborers 460  Job Opportunities in the Armed Forces........................  XI  463   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Tomorrow's Jobs Making informed career decisions requires reliable informa­ tion about opportunities that should be available in the future. This chapter presents highlights of Bureau of Labor Statistics projections of industry and occupational employment and the labor force, that can help guide your career plans. A slowdown in employment growth is expected. • Over the 1994-2005 period, employment is projected to increase by 17.7 million or 14 percent. This is slower than the 24-percent increase attained during the 11-year period, 1983-94, when the economy added 24.6 million jobs. • Wage and salary worker employment will account for 95 percent of this increase. In addition, the number of selfemployed workers is expected to increase by 950,000, to 11.6 million in 2005, while the number of unpaid family workers will decline.  • Business, health, and education services will account for 70 percent of the growth—9.2 million out of 13.6 million jobs—within services. • Health care services will account for almost one-fifth of all job growth from 1994-2005. Factors contributing to con­ tinued growth in this industry include the aging popula­ tion, which will continue to require more services, and the increased use of innovative medical technology for inten­ sive diagnosis and treatment. Patients will increasingly be shifted out of hospitals and into outpatient facilities, nurs­ ing homes, and home health care in an attempt to contain costs. • The personnel supply services industry, which provides temporary help to employers in other industries, is pro­ jected to add 1.3 million jobs from 1994 to 2005. Tem­ porary workers tend to have low wages, low job stability, and poor job benefits.  Service-producing industries will account for most new jobs. (See chart 1.)  The goods-producing sector will decline. (See chart 2.)  • Employment growth is projected to be highly concentrated by industry. The services and retail trade industries will account for 16.2 million out of a total projected growth of 16.8 million wage and salary jobs.  • The goods-producing sector faces declining employment in two of its four industries—manufacturing and mining. Employment in the other two industries—construction, and agriculture, forestry, and fishing—is expected to increase.  Chart 2. Projected percent change in employment in goods-producing industries, 1994-2005  Chart 1. Projected employment change in services industries, 1994-2005  Percent  10  Business services  i— T7777777X  Health services Construction 1 Agriculture, forestry, _ and fishing  Education services  Manufacturing All other services  Social services Engineering and management services  J  0  0.5   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1.0  1.5  2.0  2.5  Millions  3.0  3.5  4.0  2 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  • Employment in manufacturing is expected to continue to decline, losing 1.3 million jobs over the 1994-2005 period. Operators, fabricators, and laborers, and precision pro­ duction, craft, and repair occupations are expected to ac­ count for more than 1 million of these lost jobs. Systems analysts and other computer-related occupations in manu­ facturing are expected to increase. Job opportunities can arise in two ways—job growth and replacement needs. (See chart 3.) • Job growth can be measured by percent change and nu­ merical change. The fastest growing occupations do not necessarily provide the largest number of jobs. Even though an occupation is expected to grow rapidly, it may provide fewer openings than a slower growing, larger oc­ cupation. • Opportunities in large occupations are enhanced by the additional job openings resulting from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation. Some workers leave the occupation as they are promoted or change careers; others stop working to return to school, assume household responsibilities, or retire. • Replacement needs are greater in occupations with low pay and status, low training requirements, and a high propor­ tion of young and part-time workers. • Replacement needs will account for 29.4 million job openings from 1994 to 2005, far more than the 17.7 million openings projected to arise from employment growth.  Chart 3. Total job openings due to growth and replacement needs, 1994-2005 Millions 30 r  Employment change will vary widely by broad occu­ pational group. (See chart 4.) • Employment in professional specialty occupations is pro­ jected to increase at a faster rate than any other major oc­ cupational group. • Among the major occupational groups, employment in pro­ fessional specialty occupations is also projected to account for the most job growth from 1994-2005. • Professional specialty occupations—which require high educational attainment and offer high earnings—and serv­ ice occupations—which require lower educational at­ tainment and offer lower earnings—are expected to ac­ count for more than half of all job growth between 1994 and 2005. • Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related occupations is the only major occupational group projected to decline. All job openings in this group will stem from replacement needs. • Office automation is expected to have a significant effect on many individual administrative and clerical support oc­ cupations. • Precision production, craft, and repair occupations and operators, fabricators, and laborers are projected to grow much more slowly than average due to continuing ad­ vances in technology, changes in production methods, and the overall decline in manufacturing employment.  Chart 4. Projected job openings due to growth and replacement needs by major occupational group,1994-2005 Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related  Replacement needs  Technicians and related support  Growth  Precision production, craft, and repair Executives, administrators, and managers Operators, fabricators, and laborers Administrative and clerical support Marketing and sales Professional specialty Service  L_ -1 Replacement needs   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Growth  5 Millions  Tomorrow’s Jobs Chart 5. Occupations having the largest numerical increase in employment, 1994-2005  Chart 6. Occupations projected to grow the fastest, 1994-2005 Personal and home care aides Home health aides  Cashiers Janitors and cleaners Salespersons, retail  Systems analysts  Waiters and waitresses  Computer engineers Physical corrective therapy assistants and aides Electronic pagination systems workers Occupational therapy assistants and aides  Registered nurses General managers and top executives Systems analysts Home health aides  Physical therapists  Guards  Residential counselors  Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants  Human services workers  Teachers, secondary school Marketing and sales worker supervisors Teacher aides and educational assistants Receptionists and information clerks Truck drivers, light and heavy Secretaries, except legal and medical Clerical supervisors and managers Child-care workers Maintenance repairers, general utility Teachers, elementary school  Occupational therapists Manicurists Medical assistants Paralegals Medical records technicians  Mil  Teachers, special education Amusement and recreation attendants  W//////////////A  mmm  mmmm IW///////////A 0  100  200  |V/////////////A  Correction officers Operations research analysts  ■  ■  300 400 Thousands  , 500  Guards  J 600  Twenty occupations will account for half of all job growth over the 1994-2005 period. (See chart 5.) • The 20 occupations accounting for half of all job growth over the 1994-2005 period tend to be large in size rather than fast growing. Three health care occupations are in the top 10, and 3 education-related occupations are in the sec­ ond 10. The fastest growing occupations reflect growth in computer technology and health services. (See chart 6.) • Many of the fastest growing occupations are concentrated in health services, which is expected to increase more than twice as fast as the economy as a whole. Personal and home care aides, and home health aides, are expected to be in great demand to provide personal and physical care for an increasing number of elderly people and for persons who are recovering from surgery and other serious health conditions. This is occurring as hospitals and insurance companies mandate shorter stays for recovery to contain costs. • Employment of computer engineers and systems analysts is expected to grow rapidly to satisfy expanding needs for scientific research and applications of computer technology in business and industry.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3  V//////////////A 0  20  40  60 Percent  80  100  120  Declining occupational employment stems from de­ clining industry employment and technological change. (See chart 7.) • Farmers, garment sewing machine operators, and private household cleaners and servants are examples of occupa­ tions that will lose employment because of declining in­ dustry employment. • Many declining occupations are affected by structural changes, resulting from technological advances, organ­ izational changes, and other factors that affect the em­ ployment of workers. For example, the use of typists and word processors is expected to decline substantially be­ cause of productivity improvements resulting from office automation, and the increased use of word processing equipment by professional and managerial employees. Education and training affect job opportunities. (See chart 8 and table 1.)  • Workers in jobs with low education and training re­ quirements tend to have greater occupational mobility. Consequently, these jobs will provide a larger than pro­ portional share of all job openings stemming from re­ placement needs.  4 Occuptional Outlook Handbook Chart 7. Occupations with the largest projected numerical decreases in total employment, 1994-2005 Farmers  ’ .............  Typists and word processors  __________  Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks Bank tellers Sewing machine operators, garment Cleaners and servants, private household Computer operators, except peripheral equipment Billing, posting, and calculating machine operators Duplicating, mail, and other office machine operators Textile draw-out and winding machine operators and tenders File clerks Freight, stock, and material movers, hand Farm workers Machine tool cutting operators and tenders, metal and plastic Central office operators Central office and PBX installers and repairers Electrical and electronic assemblers Station installers and repairers, telephone Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping Data entry keyers, except composing  -150 Thousands  • Jobs requiring the most education and training will grow faster than jobs with lower education and training re­ quirements. • Table 1 presents the fastest growing occupations and those having the largest numerical increase in employment over the 1994-2005 period, categorized by level of education and training. Jobs requiring the most education and training will be the fastest growing and highest paying. • Occupations which require a bachelor's degree or above will average 23 percent growth, almost double the 12percent growth projected for occupations that require less education and training. • Occupations that pay above average wages are projected to grow faster than occupations with below average wages. Jobs with above average wages are expected to account for 60 percent of employment growth over the 1994-2005 pe­ riod. Jobs with higher earnings often require higher levels of education and training. • Education is important in getting a high paying job. How­ ever, many occupations—for example, registered nurses, blue-collar worker supervisors, electrical and electronic technicians/technologists, carpenters, and police and detec­ tives—do not require a college degree, yet offer higher than average earnings. Groups in the labor force with lower than average educa­ tional attainment in 1994, including Hispanics and blacks, will continue to have difficulty obtaining a share of the   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  high paying jobs that is consistent with their share of the labor force, unless their educational attainment rises. Al­ though high paying jobs will be available without college training, most jobs that pay above average wages will re­ quire a college degree. • Educational services are projected to increase by 2.2 mil­ lion jobs and account for 1 out of every 8 jobs that will be added to the economy between 1994 and 2005. Most jobs will be for teachers, who are projected to account for about 20 percent of all jobs available for college graduates. • Projected employment growth of the occupations whose earnings rank in the top quartile in the Nation was highly concentrated. Eight of the 146 occupations will account for about half of the new jobs: Registered nurses, systems analysts, blue-collar worker supervisors, general managers and top executives, and four teaching occupations— elementary school teachers, secondary school teachers, college faculty, and special education teachers. Jobs requiring the least education and training will provide the most openings, but offer the lowest pay. (See chart 9.) • The distribution of jobs by education and training, and earnings, will change little over the 1994-2005 period, with jobs requiring the least amount of education and training, and generally offering low pay, continuing to account for about 4 of every 10 jobs. • Jobs which require moderate-length and short-term training and experience (the two categories requiring the least amount of education and training) will provide over half of total job openings over the 1994-2005 period.  Tomorrow’s Jobs Chart 8. Project*3d percent growth in employment by level of eductition and training, 1994-2005  Short-term training and experience  mwmMwmmzzm  Master's degree Bachelor's degree  MMMMMMMZm  Associate degree  mmrn/mmmm  First professional  TMMmzMtmm  Chart 9. Projected total job openings by level of education and training, 1994-2005  Bachelor's degree Moderate-length training and experience Long-term training and experience  Doctoral degree  Work experience  Work experience plus bachelor's degree  Work experience plus bachelor's degree  mmmmm \  Work experience  mmrnm  Postsecondary vocational training  Short-term training and experience  WMtrnm  Associate  Postsecondary vocational training  W////////A  First professional degree  Long-term training and experience  Master's degree  Moderate-length *.................................................... training and experience C  5  10  15 Percent  20  25  Doctoral degree  30  The labor force will continue to grow faster than the population. • Spurred by the growing proportion of women who work, the labor force will grow slightly faster than the population over the 1994-2005 period.  Millions  Chart 10. Labor force by sex, 1983,1994, and projected 2005 Women Percent  Women will continue to comprise an increasing share of the labor force. (See chart 10.) • Women, as a result of a faster rate of growth than men, are projected to represent a slightly greater portion of the labor force in 2005 than in 1994—increasing from 46 to 48 per­ cent. • The number of men in the labor force is projected to grow, but at a slower rate than in the past, in part reflecting de­ clining employment in good-paying production jobs in manufacturing, and a continued shift in demand for work­ ers from the goods-producing sector to the serviceproducing sector. Men with less education and training may find it increasingly difficult to obtain jobs consistent with their experience.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1983  1994  2005  5  6 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  The labor force will become increasingly diverse. (See Chart 11. Distribution of the labor force by race, 1994 and projected 2005  chart 11.)  Percent  • The number of Hispanics, and Asians and other races, will increase much faster than blacks and white non-Hispanics. Blacks will increase faster than white non-Hispanics.  80 i-  VZA 2005  • Despite relatively slow growth, resulting in a declining share of the labor force, white non-Hispanics will still make up the vast majority of workers in 2005. Interested in more detail? • Readers interested in more information about projections and detail on the labor force, economic growth, industry and occupational employment, or methods and assump­ tions should consult the November 1995 Monthly Labor Review; The Employment Outlook: 1994-2005, BLS Bul­ letin 2472; or the Fall 1995 Occupational Outlook Quar­ terly. Information on the limitations inherent in economic projections also can be found in these publications.  White, non-Hispanic  Black   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ^'  Hispanic  Asian and other  • For more information about employment change, job openings, earnings, unemployment rates, and training re­ quirements by occupation, consult Occupational Pro­ jections and Training Data, 1996 Edition, BLS Bulletin 2471.  Tomorrow's Jobs  Table 1. Jobs growing the fastest and having the largest numerical increase in employment from 1994-2005, by level of education and training Occupations having the largest numerical increase in employment First-professional degree  Fastest growing occupations Chiropractors Lawyers Physicians Clergy Podiatrists  Lawyers Physicians Clergy Chiropractors Dentists  Doctoral degree College and university faculty Biological scientists Medical scientists Mathematicians and all other mathematical scientists  Medical scientists Biological scientists College and university faculty Mathematicians and all other mathematical scientists  Master's degree Operations research analysts Speech-language pathologists and audiologists Management analysts Counselors Urban and regional planners  Management analysts Counselors Speech-language pathologists and audiologists Psychologists Operations research analysts  Work experience plus bachelor's degree  Engineering, mathematics, and natural science managers Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers Artists and commercial artists Financial managers Education administrators  General managers and top executives Financial managers Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers Engineering, mathematics, and natural science managers Education administrators  Bachelor's degree Systems analysts Computer engineers Occupational therapists Physical therapists Special education teachers  Systems analysts Teachers, secondary school Teachers, elementary school Teachers, special education Social workers  Associate degree Paralegals Medical records technicians Dental hygienists Respiratory therapists Radiologic technologists and technicians  Registered nurses Paralegals Radiologic technologists and technicians Dental hygienists Medical records technicians  Postsecondary vocational training Manicurists Surgical technologists Data processing equipment repairers Dancers and choreographers Emergency medical technicians  Secretaries, except legal and medical Licensed practical nurses Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists Legal secretaries Medical secretaries  Work experience Nursery and greenhouse managers Lawn service managers Food service and lodging managers Clerical supervisors and managers Teachers and instructors, vocational and nonvocational training  Marketing and sales worker supervisors Clerical supervisors and managers Food service and lodging managers Instructors, adult education Teachers and instructors, vocational education and training  Long-term training and experience (more than 12 months of on-the-job training) Electronic pagination systems workers Correction officers Securities and financial services sales workers Patternmakers and layout workers, fabric and apparel Producers, directors, actors, and entertainers  Maintenance repairers, general utility Correction officers Automotive mechanics Cooks, restaurant Police patrol officers  Moderate-length training and experience (1 to 12 months of combined on-the-job experience and informal training) Physical and corrective therapy assistants and aides Occupational therapy assistants and aides Human services workers Medical assistants Detectives, except public  Human services workers Medical assistants Instructors and coaches, sports and physical training Dental assistants Painters and paper hangers, construction and maintenance  Short-term training and experience (up to 1 month of on-the-job experience) Personal and home care aides Home health aides Amusement and recreation attendants Guards Adjustment clerks   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Cashiers Janitors and cleaners, including maids and housekeepers Salespersons, retail Waiters and waitresses Home health aides  7  Sources of Career Information This chapter identifies selected sources of information about occupations and career planning, counseling, training and education, and financial aid. Also, read the occupational statements in the Handbook, including the section on sources of additional information, which lists organizations you can contact for more information about particular occupations, training, and education.  in a career. The counselor will not tell you what to do, but will administer interest inventories and aptitude tests, interpret the results, and help you explore your options. Counselors also may be able to discuss local job markets, and the entry requirements and costs of the schools, colleges, or training programs offering preparation for the kind of work that inter­ ests you. You can find counselors in:  Career information  • high school guidance offices • college career planning and placement offices • placement offices in private vocational/technical schools and institutions • vocational rehabilitation agencies • counseling services offered by community organizations • private counseling agencies and private practices • State employment service offices affiliated with the U.S. Employment Service  Listed below are several good places to start collecting infor­ mation you need on careers and job opportunities. Personal contacts. The people closest to you—your family and friends—are often overlooked, but can be extremely help­ ful. They may be able to answer your questions directly or, more importantly, put you in touch with someone else who can. This "networking" can lead to an "informational inter­ view," where you can meet with someone who is willing to answer your questions about a career or a company, and who can provide inside information on related fields and other helpful hints. This is a highly effective way to leam the rec­ ommended type of training for certain positions, how some­ one in that position entered and advanced, and what he or she likes and dislikes about the work. Public libraries, career centers, and guidance offices. These places maintain a great deal of career material. To begin your library search, look at the computer listings under "vocations" or "careers" and then under specific fields. Check the periodi­ cals section, where you will find trade and professional magazines and journals about specific occupations and indus­ tries. Familiarize yourself with the concerns and activities of potential employers by skimming their annual reports and other information they distribute to the public. You can also find occupational information on video cassettes, in kits, and through computerized information systems. Most public li­ braries maintain a relatively up-to-date collection of occupa­ tional or career materials. Don't forget the librarians; they can be a great source of information and can save you time by directing you to the information you need. Check career centers for programs such as individual coun­ seling, group discussions, guest speakers, field trips, and ca­ reer days. Also, leaf through any files of pamphlets that describe employment in different organizations. Always assess career guidance materials carefully. In­ formation should be current. Beware of materials that seem to glamorize the occupation, overstate the earnings, or exag­ gerate the demand for workers; some schools may produce such materials to attract students. Counselors. You may wish to seek help from a counselor. These professionals are trained to help you discover your strengths and weaknesses, guide you through an evaluation of your goals and values, and help you determine what you want 8  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Before employing the services of a private counselor or agency, seek recommendations and check their credentials. The International Association of Counseling Services (IACS) accredits counseling services throughout the country. To re­ ceive the listing of accredited services for your region, send a self-addressed, stamped, business-size envelope to: -•IACS, 101 South Whiting St., Suite 211, Alexandria, VA 22304.  The Directory of Counseling Services, an IACS publication providing employment counseling and other assistance, may be available in your library or school career counseling center. A list of certified career counselors by State can be obtained from: —■The National Board of Certified Counselors, 3 Terrace Way, Suite D, Greensboro, NC 27403-3660. Phone: (910)547-0607.  Internet networks and resources. The growth of on-line list­  ings has made available a wide variety of resources at your fingertips—24 hours a day, 7 days a week—if you have ac­ cess to the Internet. Companies, professional societies, aca­ demic institutions, and government agencies maintain on-line resources or "homepages" which are updated regularly with the latest information on their organization and it's activities. Listings include information such as government docu­ ments, schedules of events, job openings, and even network­ ing contacts. Listings for academic institutions provide links to career counseling and placement services through career resource centers, as well as information on financing your education. Colleges and universities also offer on-line guides to campus facilities and admission requirements and proce­ dures. The variety of career information databases available through the Internet provide much of the same information available through libraries, career centers, and guidance of­ fices. However, no single network or resource will contain all desired information, so be prepared to search a lot of different  Sources of Career Information 9  places for what you need. As in a library search, look through various lists by field or discipline, or by using particular "keywords." It may even be helpful to consult a reference book such as The Internet Yellow Pages, which should be available in most libraries. Professional societies, trade associations, labor unions, business firms, and educational institutions. These organiza­ tions provide a variety of free or inexpensive career material. Many of these are identified in the sources of additional in­ formation section of each Handbook statement. For informa­ tion on occupations not covered in the Handbook, consult directories in your library's reference section for the names of potential sources. You may need to start with The Guide to American Directories or The Directory of Directories. An­ other useful resource is The Encyclopedia of Associations, an annual multivolume publication listing trade associations, professional societies, labor unions, and fraternal and patriotic organizations. The National Technical Information Service Center, a cen­ tral source for all audiovisual material produced by the U.S. Government, rents and sells material on jobs and careers. For a catalog, contact: •"NTIS, Springfield, VA 22161. Phone: 1-800-788-6282.  For first-hand experience in an occupation, you may wish to intern, or take a summer or part-time job. Some internships offer academic credit or pay a stipend. Check with guidance offices, college career resource centers, or directly with em­ ployers. Organizations for specific groups. The organizations listed below provide information on career planning, training, job opportunities, or public policy support for specific groups. Consult directories in your library's reference center or a ca­ reer guidance office for information on additional or­ ganizations and associations geared towards special groups. Disabled:  •" American Association of Retired Persons, Workforce Program Department, 601 E St. NW„ Floor A5, Washington, DC 20049. Phone: (202) 434-2040. •■Asociaci6n Nacional Por Personas Mayores (National Association for Hispanic Elderly), 2727 W. 6th St., Suite 20, Los Angeles, CA 90057. Phone: (231) 486-1922. (This organization specifically serves low-income, minority persons who are 55 years of age and older.) •"National Caucus/Center on Black Aged,Inc., 1424 K St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 637-8400.  Veterans: Contact the nearest regional office of the Depart­ ment of Veterans Affairs or contact: ••Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS), 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Room S-1315, Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 219-9116.  Women: ••Department of Labor, Women's Bureau, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202)219-6652. •"Catalyst, 250 Park Ave. South, 5th floor, New York, NY 10003. Phone: (212) 777-8900. •"Wider Opportunities for Women, 815 15th St. NW., Suite 916, Washing­ ton, DC 20005. Phone: (202)638-3143.  Federal laws, executive orders, and selected Federal grant programs bar discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, and handicap. Infor­ mation on how to file a charge of discrimination is avail able from U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission offices around the country. Their addresses and telephone numbers are listed in telephone directories under U.S. Gov­ ernment, EEOC, or are available from: •"Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1801 L St. NW„ Washing­ ton, DC 20507. Phone: (202)663-4900  Information on Federal laws concerning fair labor standards such as the minimum wage and equal employment op­ portunity can be obtained from: •■ Office of Public Affairs, Employment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room C-4325, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Wash­ ington, DC 20210. Phone: (202)219-8743.  ••President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, 1331 F St. NW., 3rd Floor, Washington, DC 20004. Phone: (202) 376-6200.  Education and training information  The blind: Information on the free national reference and re­ ferral service provided by the Federation of the Blind can be obtained by contacting:  Colleges, schools, and training institutes readily reply to re­ quests for information. When contacting these institutions, you may want to keep in mind the following items:  •"Job Opportunities for the Blind (JOB), National Federation of the Blind, 1800 Johnson St., Baltimore, MD 21230. Phone: toll-free, 1-800-638­ 7518, or locally (410) 659-9314.  • • • • • •  Minorities: The National Urban League is a nonprofit com­ munity-based social service and civil rights organization that assists African-Americans in the achievement of social and economic equality. There are 113 local affiliates throughout the country that provide services related to employment and job training, and education and career development. Contact the affiliate nearest you for information. •■ National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 4805 Mount Hope Dr., Baltimore, MD 21215. Phone: (410) 358-8900.  Older workers: •■ National Association of Older Workers Employment Services, c/o National Council on the Aging, 409 3rd St. SW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202)479-1200.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  admission requirements courses offered certificates or degrees awarded cost available financial aid location and size of school  Check with professional and trade associations for lists of schools that offer career preparation in a field you're interested in. Guidance offices and libraries usually have copies of the kinds of directories listed below, as well as college catalogs that can provide more information on specific institutions. Helpful resources include the Directory of Private Career Schools and Colleges of Technology, put out by the Accredit­ ing Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technol­ ogy. Be sure to use the latest edition because these directories and catalogs are often revised annually.  10 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Information about home or correspondence study programs appears in the Directory of Accredited Institutions. Send re­ quests for the Directory and a list of other publications to: •"Distance Education and Training Council, 1601 18th St, NW., Washington, DC 20009, Phone: (202)234-5100.  Local labor unions, school guidance counselors, and State employment offices provide information about appren­ ticeships. Send requests for copies of The National Appren­ ticeship Program and Apprenticeship Information to: •"Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Room N-4649, Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202)219-5921.  Financial aid information Information about financial aid is available from a variety of sources. Contact your high school guidance counselor and college financial aid officer for information concerning schol­ arships, fellowships, grants, loans, and work-study programs. In addition, every State administers financial aid programs; contact State Departments of Education for information. Banks and credit unions can provide information about stu­ dent loans. You also may want to consult the directories and guides to sources of student financial aid available in guidance offices and public libraries. The Federal Government provides grants, loans, work-study programs, and other benefits to students. Information about programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education is presented in The Student Guide to Federal Financial Aid Programs, updated annually. To receive a copy, write to: •■ Federal Student Aid Information Center, c/o Federal Student Aid Programs, P.O. Box 84, Washington, DC 20044-0084, or phone, toll-free, 1-800-433-3243.  The National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993 allows individuals aged 17 and over to serve in approved local programs before, during, or after postsecondary education, to earn money for education. A participant must complete at least 1 year of full-time or 2 years of part-time service to qualify. Awards may be used for past, present, or future ex­ penses, including 2- and 4-year colleges, training programs, and graduate or professional programs. Information about service appointments may be found in high schools, colleges, and other placement offices, or can be obtained by contacting the commission on national service in your State, or by calling 1-800-94-ACORPS. Meeting College Costs, an annual publication of the College Board, explains how student financial aid works and how to apply for it. The current edition is available to high school students through guidance counselors.  Women, published in 1991 by the U.S. Department of Edu­ cation, is a guide to organizations offering assistance. This publication can be found in libraries and guidance offices, or copies may be obtained from: •"Department of Education, 400 Maryland Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20202. Phone:(202)401-3550.  The Armed Forces have several educational assistance pro­ grams. These include the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC), the New G.I. bill, and tuition assistance. In­ formation can be obtained from military recruiting centers, located in most cities.  State and local information The Handbook provides information for the Nation as a whole. For help in locating State or local area information, you may contact the following: State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (SOICC). These committees may provide the information directly, or refer you to other sources. The addresses and tele­ phone numbers of the directors of SOICC's are listed below. State employment security agencies. These agencies develop detailed information about local labor markets, such as current and projected employment by occupation and industry, char­ acteristics of the work force, and changes in State and local area economic activity. Addresses and telephone numbers of the directors of research and analysis in these agencies are listed below. Most States have career information delivery systems (CIDS). Look for these systems in secondary schools, post­ secondary institutions, libraries, job training sites, vocational rehabilitation centers, and employment service offices. Job­ seekers can use the systems' computers, printed material, mi­ crofiche, and toll-free hotlines to obtain information on oc­ cupations, educational opportunities, student financial aid, apprenticeships, and military careers. Ask counselors and SOICC's for specific locations. A computerized State Training Inventory (STI) developed by the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC) is also maintained by the SOICC's and available in every State. Education and training data are or­ ganized by occupation or training program title, type of insti­ tution, and geographic area. The database is compiled at the State level and includes more than 215,000 education and training programs offered by over 17,000 schools, colleges, and hospitals. If you are interested in STI, contact individual SOICC's for State-specific data. Alabama Director, Labor Market Information, Alabama Department of Industrial Rela­ tions, 649 Monroe St., Room 422, Montgomery, AL 36130. Phone: (205) 242-8855.  Need a Lift?, an annual publication of the American Legion, contains career and scholarship information. Copies cost $3 each, prepaid (including postage), and can be obtained from:  Director, Alabama Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Room 424, 401 Adams Ave., P.O. Box 5690, Montgomery, AL 36103-5690. Phone: (334)242-2990.  •"American Legion, Attn: Emblem Sales, P.O. Box 1050, Indianapolis, IN 46206. Phone:(317)630-1200.  Alaska  Some student aid programs are designed to assist specific groups—Hispanics, blacks, native Americans, or women, for example. Higher Education Opportunities for Minorities and  Executive Director, Alaska Department of Labor, Research and Analysis, P.O. Box 25501, Juneau, AK 99802-5501. Phone: (907)465-4518.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chief, Research and Analysis, Alaska Department of Labor, P.O. Box 25501, Juneau, AK 99802-5501. Phone: (907)465-6022.  Sources of Career Information 11 American Samoa Statistical Analyst, Research and Statistics, Office of Manpower Resources, American Samoa Government, Pago Pago, AS 96799. Phone: (684) 633­ 5172. Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Department of Human Resources, American Samoa Government, Pago Pago, AS 96799. Phone: (684)633-4485. Arizona Research Administrator, Department of Economic Security, P.O. Box 6123, Site Code 733A, Phoenix, AZ 85005. Phone: (602)542-3871. Executive Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, P.O. Box 6123, Site Code 733A, 1789 West Jefferson St., First Floor, Phoenix, AZ 85005-6123. Phone: (602)542-3871. Arkansas Chief, Arkansas Employment Security Department, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock, AR 72203. Phone; (501)682-3159. Executive Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Arkan­ sas Employment Security Division, Employment and Training Services, P.O. Box 2981 .Little Rock, AR 72203-2981. Phone: (501)682-3159. California Chief, Labor Market Information Division, Employment Development De­ partment, 700 Franklin Blvd., Suite 1100, Sacramento, CA 94280-0001. Phone: (916)262-2160. Executive Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, 1116 9th St. Lower Level, P.O. Box 944222, Sacramento, CA 94244-2220. Phone: (916) 323-6544. Colorado Director, Colorado Department of Labor, Tower 2, Suite 400, 1515 Arapahoe St., Denver, CO 80202-2117. Phone: (303)620-4977. Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, State Board Com­ munity College, 1391 Speer Blvd., Suite 600, Denver, CO 80204-2554. Phone: (303)866-4488. Connecticut Director of Research, State Labor Department, 200 Folly Brook Blvd., Weth­ ersfield, CT 06109. Phone: (203)566-2120. Executive Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Con­ necticut Department of Education, 25 Industrial Park Rd., Middletown, CT 06457-1543. Phone: (203)638-4042. Delaware Chief, Delaware Department of Labor, University Plaza, Building D, P.O. Box 9029, Newark, DE 19714. Phone: (302)368-6962. Executive Director, Office of Occupational and Labor Market Information, University Office Plaza, P.O. Box 9029, Newark, DE 19714-9029. Phone: (302) 368-6963.  Georgia Director, Labor Information Systems, Georgia Department of Labor, 223 Courtlnad St. NE„ Atlanta, GA 30303-1751. Phone: (404)656-3177. Executive Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Depart­ ment of Labor, 148 International Blvd., Sussex Place, Atlanta, GA 30303­ 1751. Phone: (404)656-9639. Guam Administrator, Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Government of Guam, P.O. Box 9970, Tamuning, GU 96911-9970. Executive Director, Human Resource Development Agency, Jay Ease Bldg., Third Floor, P.O. Box 2817, Agana, GU 96910-2817. Phone: (671) 646­ 9341. Hawaii Chief, Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, 830 Punchbowl St., Rm 304, Honolulu, HI 96813. Phone: (808)586-8999. Executive Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, 830 Punchbowl St., Room 315, Honolulu, HI 96813-5080. Phone: (808) 586­ 8750. Idaho Chief, Research and Analysis, Idaho Department of Employment, 317 Main St., Boise, ID 83735. Phone: (208)334-6169. Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Len B. Jordan Bldg., Room 301, 650 West State St., P.O. Box 83720, Boise, ID 83720-0095. Phone: (208)334-3705. Illinois Director, Illinois Department of Employment Security, 401 South State St., Suite 215, Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: (312)793-2316. Executive Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, 217 East Monroe, Suite 203, Springfield, IL 62706-1147. Phone: (217)785-0789. Indiana Director, Labor Market Information, Department of Employment and Training Services, 10 North Senate Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46204. Phone: (317) 232­ 7460. Executive Director, Department of Workforce Development State Occupa­ tional Information Coordinating Committee, Indiana Government Center South, 10 North Senate Ave., Room SE 205, Indianapolis, IN 46204-2277. Phone: (317)232-8528. Iowa Chief, Iowa Department of Employment Services, 1000 East Grand Ave., Des Moines, IA 50319. Phone: (515)281-8181. Acting Executive Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Iowa Department of Economic Development, 200 East Grand Ave., Des Moines, IA 50309-1747. Phone: (515)242-4889. Kansas Chief, Labor Market Information, Kansas Department of Human Resources, 401Topeka Blvd., Topeka, KS 66603-3182. Phone: (913) 296-5058.  District of Columbia Chief, Labor Market Information, District of Columbia Department of Em­ ployment Services, 500 C St. NW., Room 201, Washington, DC 20001. Phone: (202)724-7214.  Director, State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 401 Topeka Ave., Topeka, KS 66603-3182. Phone: (913)296-2387.  Executive Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Depart­ ment of Employment Services, 500 C St. NW., Room 215, Washington, DC 20001-2187. Phone: (202)724-7237.  Kentucky Director, Labor Market Research and Analysis, Department of Employment Services, 275 East Main St., Frankfort, KY 40621. Phone: (502)564-7976.  Florida Chief, Florida Department of Labor and Employment Security, 2012 Capitol Circle SE., Room 200 Hartman Bldg., Tallahassee, FL 32399-0674. Phone: (904) 488-1048.  Information Liaison/Manager, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, 2031 Capital Plaza Tower, Frankfort, KY 40601. Phone: (502) 564­ 4258.  Manager, Bureau of Labor Market Information/Department of Labor and Employment Security, 2012 Capitol Circle SE., Hartman Bldg., Suite 200, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0673. Phone: (904)488-1048.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Louisiana Director, Research and Statistics Division, Department of Employment and Training, P.O. Box 94094, Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9094. Phone: (504) 342­ 3141.  12 Occupational Outlook Handbook Acting Director, Louisiana Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, 1001 North 23rd, Baton Rouge, LA 70802. Phone: (504)342-5149. Maine Director, Economic Analysis and Research, Maine Department of Labor, P.O. Box 309, Augusta, ME 04330-0309. Phone: (207) 287-2271. Acting Executive Director, Maine Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, State House Station 71, Augusta, ME 04333. Phone: (207)6246200. Maryland Director, Office of Labor Market Analysis and Information, Department of Labor, Licensing, and Regulations, 1100 North Eutaw St., Room 601, Balti­ more, MD 21201. Phone: (410)767-2250. Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, State Department of Employment and Training, 1100 North Eutaw St., Room 103, Baltimore, MD 21201-2298. Phone: (410)767-2951. Massachusetts Director of Research, Division of Employment Security, 19 Staniford St., 2nd Floor, Boston, MA 02114. Phone: (617)626-6556. Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Massachusetts Di­ vision of Employment Security, Charles F. Hurley Bldg., 2nd Floor, Govern­ ment Center, Boston, MA 02114. Phone: (617)727-5718. Michigan Director, Bureau of Research and Statistics, Michigan Employment Security Commission, 7310 Woodward Ave., Room 510, Detroit, MI 48202. Phone: (313) 876-5904. Executive Coordinator, Michigan Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Victor Office Center, Third Floor, 201 North Washington Square, Box 30015, Lansing, MI 48909-7515. Phone: (517)373-0363.  Nebraska Research Administrator, Labor Market Information, Nebraska Department of Labor, 550 South 16th St., P.O. Box 94600, Lincoln, NE 68509. Phone: (402) 471-2600. Administrator, Nebraska Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 94600, 550 South 16th St., Lincoln, NE 68509-4600. Phone: (402) 471-9953. Nevada Chief, Research and Analysis/LMI, Nevada Employment Security Division, 500 East 3rd St., Carson City, NV 89713-0001. Phone: (702) 687-4550. Director, Nevada Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 500 East 3rd St., Carson City, NV 89713. Phone: (702)687-4550. New Hampshire Director, Labor Market Information, New Hampshire Department of Em­ ployment Security, 32 South Main St., Concord, NH 03301. Phone: (603) 228-4123. Director, New Hampshire State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 64B Old Suncook Rd., Concord, NH 03301. Phone: (603) 228­ 3349. New Jersey Director, Labor Market and Demographic Research, New Jersey Department of Labor, CN383, Trenton, NJ 08625. Phone: (609)292-0089. Staff Director, New Jersey Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, Room 609, Labor and Industry Bldg., CN056, Trenton, NJ 08625-0056. Phone: (609)292-2682. New Mexico Chief, Economic Research and Analysis Bureau, New Mexico Department of Labor, P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Phone: (505)841-8645. Director, New Mexico Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 401 Broadway NE., Tiwa Bldg., P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, NM 87103­ 1928. Phone: (505)841-8455.  Minnesota Director, Research and Statistical Services, Minnesota Department of Eco­ nomic Security, 390 North Robert St., 5th Floor, St. Paul, MN 55101. Phone: (612) 296-6546.  New York Director, Division of Research and Statistics, New York State Department of Labor, State Office Building Campus, Bldg. 12, Room 402, Albany, NY 12240. Phone: (518)457-6369.  Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Department of Jobs and Training, 390 North Robert Street., St. Paul, MN 55101. Phone: (612) 296-2072.  Executive Director, New York Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Research and Statistics Division, State Campus, Bldg. 12, Room 400, Albany, NY 12240. Phone: (518)457-6182.  Mississippi Chief, Labor Market Information Department, Mississippi Employment Secu­ rity Commission, P.O. Box 1699, Jackson, MS 39215-1699. Phone: (601) 961-7424.  North Carolina Director, Labor Market Information, Employment Security Commission of North Carolina, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh, NC 27611. Phone: (919) 733­ 2936.  Director, Department of Economic and Community Development, Labor As­ sistance Division/ State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee Office, 301 West Pearl St., Jackson, MS 39203-3089. Phone: (601) 949­ 2240.  Executive Director, North Carolina Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 700 Wade Avenue, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh, NC 27611. Phone: (919) 733-6700.  Missouri Chief, Research and Analysis,Division of Employment Security, 421 East Dunkin St„ P.O. Box 59, Jefferson City, MO 65104-0059. Phone: (314)7513591. Director, Missouri Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 400 Dix Rd., Jefferson City, MO 65109. Phone: (314)751-3800. Montana Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Labor and Industry, P.O. Box 1728, Helena, MT 59624. Phone: (406)444-2430. Program Manager, Montana Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, P.O. Box 1728, 1327 Lockey St., Second Floor, Helena, MT 59624-1728. Phone: (406)444-2741.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  North Dakota Director, Research and Statistics, Job Service of North Dakota, P.O. Box 5507, Bismarck, ND 58502-5507. Phone: (701)328-2860. Coordinator, North Dakota State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1720 Burnt Boat Dr., P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck, ND 58502-1537. Phone: (701)328-2733. Northern Mariana Islands Executive Director, Northern Mariana Islands Occupational Information Co­ ordinating Committee, P.O. Box 149, Saipan, CM 96950-0149. Phone: (670) 234-7394. Ohio Administrator, Labor Market Information Division, Ohio Bureau of Employ­ ment Services, 78-80 Chestnut, Columbus, OH 43215. Phone: (614) 752­ 9494.  Sources of Career Information  13  Director, Ohio Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Ohio Bu­ reau of Employment Services, P.O. Box 1618, Columbus, OH 43266-0018. Phone: (614)466-1109.  Director, Texas Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Texas Employment Commission Building, 3520 Executive Center Dr., Suite 205, Austin, TX 78731-0000. Phone: (512)502-3750.  Oklahoma Director, Research Division, Oklahoma Employment Security Commission, 305 Will Rogers Memorial Office Bldg., Oklahoma City, OK 73105. Phone: (405) 557-7265.  Utah Director, LMI & Research, Utah Department of Employment Security, P.O. Box 45249, Salt Lake City, UT 84145-0249. Phone: (801)536-7425.  Executive Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Depart­ ment of Voc/Tech Education, 1500 W. 7th Ave., Stillwater, OK 74074-4364. Phone: (405)743-5198. Oregon Adminstrator for Research, Tax and Analysis, Employment Department, 875 Union St. NE„ Salem, OR 97311. Phone: (503)378-5490.  Executive Director, Utah Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 45249, 140 East 300 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84145-0249. Phone: (801) 536-7806. Vermont Director, Policy and Information, Vermont Department of Employment and Training, P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, VT 05602. Phone: (802)828-4135.  Acting Director, Oregon Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 875 Union St. NE„ Salem, OR 97311-0101. Phone: (503)378-5490.  Director, Vermont Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 5 Green Mountain Dr., P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, VT 05601-0488. Phone: (802) 229-0311.  Pennsylvania Director, Bureau of Research and Statistics, Department of Labor and Indus­ try, 300 Captiol Associates Building, 3rd Floor, Harrisburg, PA 17120-9969. Phone: (717)787-3266.  Virginia Director, Economic Information and Services Division, Virginia Employment Commission, P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, VA 23211. Phone: (804) 786­ 7496.  Director, Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, 1224 Labor and Industry Bldg., 7th and Foster, Harrisburg, PA 17120-0019. Phone: (717) 787-8646.  Executive Director, Virginia Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, Virginia Employment Commission, 703 East Main St., P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, VA 23211-1358. Phone: (804)786-7496.  Puerto Rico Director, Research and Statistics Division, Department of Labor and Human Resources, 505 Munoz Rivera Ave., 20th Floor, Hato Rey, PR 00918. Phone: (809) 754-5385.  Virgin Islands Chief, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Virgin Islands Department of Labor, 53A and 54B Kronprindsens Gade,Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 00820. Phone: (809)776-3700.  Director, Puerto Rico Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 366212, San Juan, PR 00936-6212. Phone: (809)723-7110.  Coordinator, Virgin Islands Occupational Information Coordinating Commit­ tee, P.O. Box 3359, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 00801. Phone: (809) 776-3700.  Rhode Island Administrator, Labor Market Information, Rhode Island Department of Em­ ployment and Training, 101 Friendship St., Providence, RI 02903. Phone: (401)277-2731. Director, Rhode Island Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 22 Hayes St., Room 133, Providence, RI 02908-5092. Phone: (401)272-0830. South Carolina Director, Labor Market Information, South Carolina Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 995, Columbia, SC 29202. Phone: (803) 737-2660. Director, South Carolina Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1550 Gadsden St., P.O. Box 995, Columbia, SC 29202-0995. Phone: (803) 737-2733. South Dakota Director, Labor Information Center, South Dakota Department of Labor, 400 S. Roosvelt, P.O. Box 4730, Aberdeen, SD 57402-4730. Phone: (605) 626­ 2314. Director, Occupational Information Coordinating Council, South Dakota De­ partment of Labor, 420 South Roosevelt St., P.O. Box 4730, Aberdeen, SD 57402-4730. Phone: (605)626-2314. Tennessee Director, Research and Statistics Division, Tennessee Department of Em­ ployment Security, 500 James Robertson Pkwy., 11th Floor-Volunteer Plaza, Nashville, TN 37245-1000. Phone: (615)741-2284. Executive Director, Tennessee Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 500 James Robertson Pkwy., 11th Floor-Volunteer Plaza, Nash­ ville, TN 37219-1215. Phone: (615)741-6451. Texas Director, Economic Research and Analysis, Texas Employment Commission, 15th & Congress Ave., Room 208T, Austin, TX 78778. Phone: (512) 463­ 2616.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Washington Chief, Labor and Economic Analysis, Washington Employment Security De­ partment, P.O. Box 9046, Olympia, WA 98507-9046. Phone: (360) 438­ 4804. Acting Executive Director, Washington Occupational Information Coordinat­ ing Committee, c/o Employment Security Department, P.O. Box 9046, Olympia, WA 98507-9046. Phone: (206)438-4803. West Virginia Assistant Director, Labor and Economic Research, Bureau of Employment Programs, 112 California Ave., Charleston, WV 25305-0112. Phone: (304) 558-2660. Executive Director, West Virginia Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 5088 Washington St. West, Cross Lanes, WV 25313. Phone: (304)759-0724. Wisconsin Director, Bureau of Labor Market Information, Department of Industry, La­ bor, and Human Relations, P.O. Box 7944, Madison, WI 53707. Phone: (608) 266-5843. Administrative Director, Wisconsin Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Division of Jobs, Employment and Training Services, 201 East Washington Ave., P.O. Box 7972, Madison, WI 53707-7972. Phone: (608) 266-8012. Wyoming Manager, Research and Planning, Division of Administration, Department of Employment, P.O. Box 2760, Casper, WY 82602-2760. Phone: (307) 473­ 3801. Executive Director, Wyoming Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Post Office Box 2760, 100 West Midwest, Casper, WY 82602-2760. Phone: (307)265-6715.  Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer Information on Finding a Job It takes some people a great deal of time and effort to find a job they enjoy. Others may walk right into an ideal employ­ ment situation. Don't be discouraged if you have to pursue many leads. Friends, neighbors, teachers, and counselors may know of available jobs in your field of interest. Read the want ads. Consult State employment service offices and private or nonprofit employment agencies, or contact employers directly.  Where To Learn About Job Openings Parents, friends, and Neighbors School or college placement services Classified ads -Local and out-of-town newspapers -Professional journals -Trade magazines Employment agencies and career consultants State employment service offices Internet networks and resources Civil service announements (Federal, State, local) Labor unions Professional associations (State and local chapters) Libraries and community centers Women’s counseling and employment programs Youth programs Employers  Job search methods  • Beware of "no experience necessary" ads. These ads often signal low wages, poor working conditions, or straight commission work. • Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded, including the specific skills, educational background, and personal qualifications required for the position.  Internet networks and resources. A variety of information  on jobs and job search resources and techniques is currently available on-line through the Internet. Once you have access, on-line resources are available 7 days a week, 24 hours a day. Internet resources include Usenet newsgroups, Telnet sites, and World Wide Web resources, just to name a few. In addition to the listings of companies, professional so­ cieties, academic institutions, and government agencies, it is possible to search employment ad and career information databases directly. Available information includes govern­ ment reports, salary surveys, job listings, and even "networking" contacts within organizations. You can find out about companies or academic institutions directly, as well as the cities in which they are located. When searching employment ad databases, it is sometimes possible to post your resume on-line or send it to an employer via electronic mail. Some sources provide this service free of charge once you have access to the Internet. However, be careful that you are not going to incur any additional charges for postings or updates. No single network or resource will contain all information on employment or career opportunities, so be prepared to search for what you need. Job listings may be posted by field or discipline so it is best to begin your search using topics or "keywords." It may be helpful to consult a reference book such as The Internet Yellow Pages, which should be available in most libraries. Public employment service. The State employment service,  Want ads. The "Help Wanted" ads in newspapers list hun­  dreds of jobs. Realize, however, that many job openings are not listed. Also, be aware that the classified ads sometimes do not give some important information. Many offer little or no description of the job, working conditions, or pay. Some ads do not identify the employer. They may simply give a post office box for sending your resume. This makes follow-up inquiries very difficult. Furthermore, some ads offer out-of­ town jobs; others advertise employment agencies rather than employment. Keep the following in mind if you are using want ads: • Do not rely solely on the classifieds to find a job; follow other leads as well. • Answer ads promptly, since openings may be filled quickly, even before the ad stops appearing in the paper. • Follow the ads diligently. Check them every day, as early as possible, to give yourself an advantage.  14  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  sometimes called the Job Service, operates in coordination with the U.S. Employment Service of the U.S. Department of Labor. About 1,700 local offices, also known as employment service centers, help jobseekers find jobs and help employers find qualified workers at no cost to themselves. To find the office nearest you, look in the State government telephone listings under "Job Service" or "Employment." A computerized job network system—America's Job Bank—run by the U.S. Department of Labor, lists approxi­ mately 100,000 job openings each week. A wide range of jobs are listed all over the country, and most are full-time jobs in the private sector. Jobseekers can access these listings through the use of a personal computer in any local public employment service office, as well as in several hundred military installations. In addition, some State employment agencies have set up America's Job Bank in other settings, including libraries, schools, shopping malls, and correctional facilities. America's Job Bank is also available on-line  Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer 15  through the Internet and can be accessed at the following World Wide Web address: http://www.ajb.dni.us Tips for Finding the Right Job, a U.S. Department of Labor pamphlet, offers advice on determining your job skills, organizing your job search, writing a resume, and making the most of an interview. Job Search Guide: Strategies For Professionals, another U.S. Department of Labor publication, also discusses specific steps that jobseekers can follow to identify employment opportunities. This publication includes sections on handling your job loss, managing your personal resources, assessing your skills and interests, researching the job market, conducting the job search and networking, writing resumes and cover letters, employment interviewing and testing, and sources of additional information. Check with your State employment service office, or order a copy of these publications from the U.S. Government Printing Office. Phone: (202) 512-1800 for price and ordering information. Job matching and referral. At a State employment service office, an interviewer will determine if you are "job ready" or if counseling and testing services would be helpful before you begin your job search. After you are "job ready," you may examine available job listings and select openings that interest you. A staff member can then describe the job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers. Career counseling and testing centers can test for occupational aptitudes and interests and then help you choose and prepare for a career. Services for special groups. By law, veterans are entitled to priority at State employment service centers. Veterans' em­ ployment representatives can inform you of available assis­ tance and help you deal with any problems. Summer Youth Programs provide summer jobs in city, county, and State government agencies for low-income youth. Students, school dropouts, or graduates entering the labor market who are between 16 and 21 years of age are eligible. In addition, the Job Corps, with more than 100 centers throughout the United States, helps young people learn skills or obtain education. Service centers also refer applicants to opportunities avail­ able under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) of 1982. JTPA prepares economically disadvantaged persons and those facing barriers to employment for jobs. Federal job information. For information about employment with the U.S. Government, call the Federal Job Information Center's Career America Connection, operated by the Office of Personnel Management. The phone number is (202) 606­ 2700, or write to: *■ Federal Job Information Center, 1900 E St. NW., Room 1416,Washington DC 20415.  It is also possible to obtain this information directly on-line by accessing the Fedworld information network on the Internet. This is a central access point for locating and acquiring information about U.S. Government employment. Access Fedworld at the following World Wide Web address: http://www.fedworld.gov   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Private employment agencies. These agencies can be very helpful, but don't forget that they are in business to make money. Most agencies operate on a commission basis, with the fee dependent upon a successful match. You or the hiring company will have to pay a fee for the matching service. Find out the exact cost and who is responsible for paying it before using the service. While employment agencies can help you save time and contact employers who otherwise may be difficult to locate, in some cases, your costs may outweigh the benefits. Consider any guarantee they offer when figuring the cost. College career planning and placement offices. College placement offices facilitate matching job openings with suitable jobseekers. You can set up schedules and use avail­ able facilities for interviews with recruiters or scan lists of part-time, temporary, and summer jobs maintained in many of these offices. You also can get counseling, testing, and job search advice and take advantage of their career resource library. Here you also will be able to identify and evaluate your interests, work values, and skills; attend workshops on such topics as job search strategy, resume writing, letter writing, and effective interviewing; critique drafts of resumes and videotapes of mock interviews; explore files of resumes and references; and attend job fairs conducted by the office. Community agencies. Many nonprofit organizations offer counseling, career development, and job placement services, generally targeted to a particular group, such as women, youth, minorities, ex-offenders, or older workers. Many communities have career counseling, training, placement, and support services for employment. These pro­ grams are sponsored by a variety of organizations, including churches and synagogues, nonprofit organizations, social service agencies, the State employment service, and voca­ tional rehabilitation agencies. Many cities have commissions that provide services for these special groups. Employers. It is possible to apply directly to employers without a referral. You may locate a potential employer in the Yellow Pages, in directories of local chambers of commerce, and in other directories that provide information about employers. When you find an employer you are interested in, you can send a cover letter and resume or file a job application even if you don't know for certain that an opening exists.  Applying for a Job Resumes and application forms. Resumes and application forms are two ways to provide employers with written evidence of your skills and knowledge. Most information is common to both the resume and application form, but the way the information is presented differs. Some employers prefer a resume while others require an application form. There are many ways of organizing a resume. Depending upon the job you are applying for, you should choose the format that best highlights your skills, training, and experi­ ence. It may be helpful to look at different examples. Ex­ amples can be found in a variety of books and publications  16 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  What Goes Into a Resume A resume summarizes your qualifications and employment history. It usually is required when applying for managerial, administrative, professional, or technical positions. Although there is no set format, a resume should contain the following information: • Name, address, and telephone number. • Employment objective. State the type of work or specific job you are seeking. • Education, including school name and address, dates of atten­ dance, curriculum, and highest grade completed or degree awarded. • Experience, paid or volunteer. Include the following for each job: Job title, name and address of employer, and dates of employment. Describe your job duties. • Special skills, knowledge of machinery, proficiency in foreign languages, honors received, awards, or membership in organizations. • Note on your resume that "references are available upon request."  available through public libraries or career guidance centers. Also, ask someone to read your resume and suggest ways to improve it. In completing an application form, make sure you fill it out properly and follow all instructions. In general, the same type of information is included on an application form as in a resume. Don't omit any information asked for and be sure to check that all information provided is correct. Cover letters. A cover letter should be sent with a resume or  application form, as a way to introduce yourself to employers. It should capture the employer's attention, follow a business letter format, and should generally include the following information: • The name and address of the specific person to whom the letter is addressed • The reason for your interest in the company or position • Your main qualifications for the position (in brief) • A request for an interview • Your phone number  job Interview Tips Preparation: Learn about the organization. Have a specific job or jobs in mind. Review your qualifications for the job. Prepare answers to broad questions about yourself. Review your resume. Practice an interview with a friend or relative. Arrive before the scheduled time of your interview.  Personal Appearance: Be well groomed. Dress appropriately. Do not chew gum or smoke.  The Interview: Answer each question concisely. Respond promptly. Use good manners. Learn the name of your interviewer and shake hands as you meet. Use proper English and avoid slang. Be cooperative and enthusiastic. Ask questions about the position and the organization. Thank the interviewer, and follow up with a letter.  Test (if employer gives one): Listen closely to instructions. Read each question carefully. Write legibly and clearly. Budget your time wisely and don't dwell on one question.  Information To Bring to an Interview: Social Security number. Driver's license number. Resume. Although not all employers require applicants to bring a resume, you should be able to furnish the interviewer with information about your education, training, and previous employment. References. An employer usually requires three references. Get permission from people before using their names, and make sure they will give you a good reference. Try to avoid using relatives. For each reference, provide the following information: Name, address, telephone number, and job title.  Interviewing. An interview gives you the best opportunity to  show an employer your qualifications, so it pays to be well prepared. Each interview is different, however. The box below provides some helpful information.  Evaluating a Job Offer  ment? Is the salary fair? Does the employer offer good bene­ fits? If you have not already figured out exactly what you want, the following discussion may help you develop a set of criteria for judging job offers, whether you are starting a career, reentering the labor force after a long absence, or planning a career change.  Once you receive a job offer, you are faced with a difficult decision and must evaluate each offer carefully. Fortunately, most organizations will not expect you to accept or reject an offer on the spot. You probably will be given at least a week to make up your mind. There are many issues to consider when assessing a job offer. Will the organization be a good place to work? Will the job be interesting? How are opportunities for advance­  The organization. Background information on an organi­ zation can help you decide whether it is a good place for you to work. Factors to consider include the organization’s busi­ ness or activity, financial condition, age, size, and location. Information on growth prospects for the industry or industries that the company represents also is important. Here are some questions to ask.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer 17  Is the organization's business or activity in keeping with your own interests and beliefs? It will be easier to apply yourself to the work if you are en­ thusiastic about what the organization does. How will the size of the organization affect you? Large firms generally offer a greater variety of training pro­ grams and career paths, more managerial levels for ad­ vancement, and better employee benefits than small firms. Large employers may also have more advanced technologies in their laboratories, offices, and factories. However, jobs in large firms may tend to be highly specialized. Jobs in small firms may offer broader authority and re­ sponsibility, a closer working relationship with top manage­ ment, and a chance to clearly see your contribution to the success of the organization. Should you work for a fledgling organization or one that is well established? New businesses have a high failure rate, but for many people, the excitement of helping create a company and the potential for sharing in its success more than offset the risk of job loss. It may also be as exciting and rewarding, however, to work for a young firm which already has a foothold on success. Does it make any difference to you whether the company is private or public? A privately owned company may be controlled by an indi­ vidual or a family, which can mean that key jobs are reserved for relatives and friends. A publicly owned company is con­ trolled by a board of directors responsible to the stockholders. Key jobs are open to anyone with talent. Is the organization in an industry with favorable long­ term prospects? The most successful firms tend to be in industries that are growing rapidly. Where is the job located? If it is in another city, you need to consider the cost of living, the availability of housing and transportation, and the quality of educational and recreational facilities in the new location. Even if the place of work is in your area, consider the time and expense of commuting in your decision. It is easy to get background information on an organization simply by telephoning its public relations office. A public company's annual report to the stockholders tells about its corporate philosophy, history, products or services, goals, and financial status. Most government agencies can furnish reports that describe their programs and missions. Press re­ leases, company newsletters or magazines, and recruitment brochures also can be useful. Ask the organization for any other items that might interest a prospective employee. Background information on the organization also may be available at your public or school library. If you cannot get an annual report, check the library for reference directories that provide basic facts about the company, such as earnings, products and services, and number of employees. Some di­ rectories widely available in libraries include the following: • Dun & Bradstreet's Million Dollar Directory • Standard and Poor's Register of Corporations • Directors and Executives   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  • Moody's Industrial Manual • Thomas' Register ofAmerican Manufacturers • Ward's Business Directory  Stories about an organization in magazines and newspa­ pers can tell a great deal about its successes, failures, and plans for the future. You can identify articles on a company by looking under its name in periodical or computerized in­ dexes such as the following—however, it probably will not be useful to look back more than 2 or 3 years. • • • • •  Business Periodicals Index Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature Newspaper Index Wall Street Journal Index New York Times Index  The library also may have government publications that present projections of growth for the industry in which the organization is classified. Long-term projections of em­ ployment and output for more than 200 industries, covering the entire economy, are developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and revised every other year—see the November 1995 Monthly Labor Review for the most recent projections. The U.S. Global Trade Outlook, published annually by the U.S. Department of Commerce, is the successor to the U.S. Industrial Outlook and presents detailed analyses of the globalization of U.S. industry and growth prospects for six industrial sectors. Trade magazines also have frequent articles on the trends for specific industries. Career centers at colleges and universities often have in­ formation on employers that is not available in libraries. Ask the career center librarian how to find out about a particular organization. The career center may have an entire file of in­ formation on the company. The nature of the work. Even if everything else about the job is good, you will be unhappy if you dislike the day-to-day work. Determining in advance whether you will like the work may be difficult. However, the more you find out about it before accepting or rejecting the job offer, the more likely you are to make the right choice. You may want to ask yourself the following questions:  Does the work match your interests and make good use of your skills? The duties and responsibilities of the job should be explained in enough detail to answer this question. How important is the job in this company? An explanation of where you fit in the organization and how you are supposed to contribute to its overall objectives should give you an idea of the job's importance. Are you comfortable with the supervisor? Do the other employees seem friendly and cooperative? Does the work require travel? Does the job call for irregular hours? Some jobs involve regular hours—for example, 40 hours a week, during the day, Monday through Friday. Other jobs involve variable hours, including night, weekend, or holiday work. In addition, some jobs routinely require overtime to  18 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  meet deadlines or sales or production goals, or to better serve customers. Consider the effect of work hours on your per­ sonal life. How long do most people who enter this job stay with the company? High turnover can mean dissatisfaction with the nature of the work or something else about the job. The opportunities. A good job offers you opportunities to leam new skills, increase your earnings, and rise to positions of greater authority, responsibility, and prestige. A lack of opportunities can dampen interest in the work and result in frustration and boredom. The company should have a training plan for you. What valuable new skills does the company plan to teach you? The employer should give you some idea of promotion possibilities within the organization. What is the next step on the career ladder? If you have to wait for a job to become vacant before you can be promoted, how long does this usu­ ally take? Employers differ on their policies regarding pro­ motion from within the organization. When opportunities for advancement do arise, will you compete with applicants from outside the company? Can you apply for jobs for which you qualify elsewhere within the organization or is mobility within the firm limited?  If you are considering the salary and benefits for a job in another geographic area, make allowances for differences in the cost of living, which may be significantly higher in a large metropolitan area than in a smaller city, town, or rural area. You also should leam the organization's policy regarding overtime. Depending on the job, you may or may not be ex­ empt from laws requiring the employer to compensate you for overtime. Find out how many hours you will be expected to work each week and whether you receive overtime pay or compensatory time off for working more than the specified number of hours in a week. Also take into account that the starting salary is just that, the start. Your salary should be reviewed on a regular basis— many organizations do it every 12 months. How much can you expect to earn after 1, 2, or 3 or more years? An employer cannot be specific about the amount of pay if it in­ cludes commissions and bonuses. Benefits can also add a lot to your base pay, but they vary widely. Find out exactly what the benefit package includes and how much of the costs you must bear. Check the library or your school's career center for salary surveys such as the College Placement Council Salary Survey or salary information compiled by professional associations. Detailed data on wages and benefits are also available from: m-  The salary and benefits. Wait for the employer to introduce  these subjects. Most companies will not talk about pay until they have decided to hire you. In order to know if their offer is reasonable, you need a rough estimate of what the job should pay. You may have to go to several sources for this information. Talk to friends who recently were hired in similar jobs. Ask your teachers and the staff in the college placement office about starting pay for graduates with your qualifica­ tions. Scan the help-wanted ads in newspapers.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Compensation and Working Conditions, Division of Occupational Pay and Employee Benefit Levels, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE., Room 4160, Washington, DC 20212-0001. Phone: (202) 606-6225.  Data on weekly earnings, based on the Current Population Survey, are available from: ••Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE., Room 4945, Washington, DC 20212­ 0001. Phone: (202)606-6400.  Occupational Information Included in the Handbook The Occupational Outlook Handbook is best used as a refer­ ence; it is not meant to be read from cover to cover. Instead, start by exploring the table of contents, where related occu­ pations are grouped in clusters, or look in the alphabetical in­ dex at the end of the Handbook for specific occupations that interest you. This section is intended as an overview of how the occupational descriptions, or statements, are organized. Two earlier chapters—Tomorrow's Jobs, and Sources of Ca­ reer Information—highlight the forces that are likely to de­ termine employment opportunities in industries and occupa­ tions through the year 2005, and tell you where to obtain ad­ ditional information. Unless otherwise noted, the source of employment and earnings data presented in the Handbook is the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Many Handbook statements cite earnings data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), while other statements include earnings data from outside sources. Since the characteristics of these data vary, it is difficult to compare earnings precisely among occupations. For any occupation that sounds interesting to you, use the Handbook to find out what the work entails; what education and training you need; what the advancement possibilities, earnings, and job outlook are; and what related occupations you might consider. Each occupational statement in the Handbook follows a standard format, making it easier for you to compare occupations. The following highlights informa­ tion presented in each section of a Handbook statement, and gives some hints on how to interpret the information provided.  • How the duties of workers vary by industry, establishment and size of firm. • How the responsibilities of entry-level workers differ from those of experienced, supervisory, or self-employed work­ ers. • How technological innovations are changing what workers do and how they do it. • Emerging specialties. Working Conditions • • • • • •  Typical hours worked. The workplace environment. Susceptibility to injury, illness, and job-related stress. Necessary protective clothing and safety equipment. Physical activities required. Extent of travel required.  Employment • • • •  The number of jobs the occupation provided in 1994. Key industries employing workers in the occupation. Geographic distribution of jobs. The proportion of part-time (fewer than 35 hours a week) and self-employed workers in the occupation.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement About Those Numbers at the Beginning of Each Statement The numbers in parentheses that appear just below the title of most occupational statements are from the Dictionary of Oc­ cupational Titles (D.O.T.), Fourth Edition, Revised 1991, a U.S. Department of Labor publication. Each number classifies the occupation by the type of work, required training, physical demands, and working conditions. D.O.T. numbers are used primarily by State employment service offices to classify ap­ plicants and job openings. They are included in the Handbook because some career information centers and libraries use them for filing occupational information. An index at the back of this book beginning on page 478 cross-references the Revised Fourth Edition D.O.T. num­ bers to occupations covered in the Handbook.  • Most significant sources of training, typical length of training, and training preferred by employers. • Whether workers acquire skills through previous work experience, informal on-the-job training, formal training (including apprenticeships) offered by employers or un­ ions, the Armed Forces, home study, or hobbies and other activities. • Formal educational requirements—high school, postsec­ ondary vocational or technical training, college, or graduate or professional education. • Desirable skills, aptitudes, and personal characteristics. • Certification, examination, or licensing required for entry into the field, advancement, or for independent practice. • Continuing education or skill improvement requirements. • Paths of advancement.  Nature of the Work  Job Outlook  • What workers do on the job, the equipment they use, and how closely they are supervised.  • Forces that will result in growth or decline in the number of jobs.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  19  20 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  • Relative number of job openings an occupation provides. Occupations which are large and have high turnover rates generally provide the most job openings—reflecting the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or stop working. • Degree of competition for jobs. Is there a surplus or short­ age of jobseekers compared to the number of job openings available? Do opportunities vary by industry, size of firm,  or geographic location? Even in overcrowded fields, job openings do exist, and good students or well-qualified in­ dividuals should not be deterred from undertaking training or seeking entry. • Susceptibility to layoffs due to imports, slowdowns in economic activity, technological advancements, or budget cuts. Earnings  Key Phrases in the Handbook This box explains how to interpret the key phrases used to de­ scribe projected changes in employment. It also explains the terms used to describe the relationship between the number of job openings and the number of jobseekers. The descriptions of the relationship between the supply of and demand for workers in a particular occupation reflects the knowledge and judgment of economists in the Bureau’s Office of Employment Projections.  Changing employment between 1994 and 2005 If the statement reads:  Employment is projected to:  Grow much faster than average Grow faster than average Grow about as fast as average Grow more slowly than average, or little or no change Decline  increase 36 percent or more increase 21 to 35 percent increase 10 to 20 percent increase 0 to 9 percent decrease 1 percent or more  Opportunities and Competition for Jobs If the statement reads: Excellent opportunities Very good opportunities Good or favorable opportunities May face competition May face keen competition   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job openings compared to jobseekers may be: Much more numerous More numerous About the same Fewer Much fewer  • Typical earnings of workers in the occupation. • If earnings tend to vary with experience, location, and tenure. • Whether workers are compensated through annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, piece rates, tips, or bonuses. • Earnings of wage and salary workers compared to selfemployed persons, who held about 8 percent of all jobs in 1994. • Benefits, including health insurance, pensions, paid vaca­ tion and sick leave, family leave, child care or elder care, employee assistance programs, summers off, sabbaticals, tuition for dependents, discounted airfare or merchandise, stock options, profit sharing plans, savings plans, or ex­ pense accounts. Related Occupations • Occupations involving similar aptitudes, interests, educa­ tion, and training. Sources of Additional Information • Associations, government agencies, unions, and other or­ ganizations which provide useful occupational information. • Free or relatively inexpensive publications offering more information, some of which may be available in libraries, school career centers, or guidance offices. (For additional sources of information, read the earlier chap­ ter, Sources of Career Information.)  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Accountants and Auditors (D.O.T. 160 through .167-042, -054, .267-014)  Nature of the Work Accountants and auditors prepare, analyze, and verify financial reports and taxes, and monitor information systems that furnish this information to managers in business, industrial, and government organizations. Four major fields of accounting are public, management, and government accounting, and internal auditing. Public accountants have their own businesses or work for public accounting firms. They perform a broad range of accounting, auditing, tax, and consulting activities for their clients, who may be corporations, governments, nonprofit organizations, or individuals. Management accountants, also called industrial, corporate, or private accountants, record and analyze the financial information of the companies for which they work. They also are responsible for budgeting, performance evalua­ tion, cost management, and asset management. They are usually part of executive teams that are involved in strategic planning dr new product development. Internal auditors verify the accuracy of their organization's records and check for mismanagement, waste, or fraud. Government accountants and auditors maintain and examine the records of government agencies and audit private businesses and individuals whose activities are subject to government regulations or taxation. Within each field, accountants often concentrate on one aspect of accounting. For example, many public accountants concentrate on tax matters, such as preparing individual income tax returns and advising companies of the tax advantages and disadvantages of certain business decisions. Others concentrate on consulting and offer advice on matters such as employee health care benefits, and compensation; the design of companies' accounting and data process­ ing systems; and controls to safeguard assets. Some specialize in forensic accounting—investigating and interpreting bankruptcies and other complex financial transactions. Still others work primarily in auditing—examining a client's financial statements and reporting to investors and authorities that they have been prepared and reported correctly; however, fewer accounting firms are performing this type of work because of potential liability. Increasing numbers of accounting graduates are working in private corporations. Management accountants are to analyze and interpret the financial information corporate executives need to make sound business decisions. They also prepare financial reports for nonmanagement groups, including stockholders, creditors, regulatory agencies, and tax authorities. Within accounting departments, they may work in financial analysis, planning and budgeting, cost ac­ counting, and other areas. Internal auditing is rapidly growing in importance. As computer systems make information more timely, top management can base its decisions on actual data rather than personal observation. Internal auditors examine and evaluate their firms' financial and information systems, management procedures, and internal controls to ensure that records are accurate and controls are adequate to protect against fraud and waste. They also review company operations—evaluating their efficiency, effectiveness, and compliance with corporate   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  policies and procedures, laws, and government regulations. There are many types of highly specialized auditors, such as electronic data processing auditors, environmental auditors, engineering auditors, legal auditors, insurance premium auditors, bank auditors, and health care auditors. Accountants employed by Federal, State, and local governments see that revenues are received and expenditures are made in accor­ dance with laws and regulations. Many persons with an accounting background work for the Federal Government as Internal Revenue Service agents or in financial management, financial institution examination, and budget analysis and administration. Computers are widely used in accounting and auditing. With the aid of special software packages, accountants summarize transactions in standard formats for financial records or organize data in special formats for financial analysis. These accounting packages greatly reduce the amount of tedious manual work associated with figures and records; some packages require few specialized computer skills,  ■  Cl !  ■  *r  Many accountants work long hours during the tax season. 21  22 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  while others require formal training. Personal and laptop computers enable accountants and auditors in all fields—even those who work independently—to use their clients' computer system and to extract information from large mainframe computers. Internal auditors may recommend controls for their organization's computer system to ensure the reliability of the system and the integrity of the data. A growing number of accountants and auditors have extensive com­ puter skills and specialize in correcting problems with software or developing software to meet unique data needs. Working Conditions Accountants and auditors work in offices, but public accountants may frequently visit the offices of clients while conducting audits. Self-employed accountants may be able to do part of their work at home. Accountants and auditors employed by large firms and gov­ ernment agencies may travel frequently to perform audits at clients' places of business, branches of their firm, or government facilities. Many accountants and auditors generally work a standard 40-hour week, but many work longer, particularly if they are self-employed and free to take on the work of as many clients as they choose. For example, about 4 out of 10 self-employed accountants and auditors work more than 50 hours per week, compared to 1 out of 4 wage and salary accountants and auditors. Tax specialists often work long hours during the tax season. Employment Accountants and auditors held about 962,000 jobs in 1994. They worked throughout private industry and government, but nearly onethird worked for accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping firms, or were self-employed. Many accountants and auditors were unlicensed management accountants, internal auditors, or government accountants and audi­ tors. However, in 1994 there were 501,000 State-licensed Certified Public Accountants (CPA's), Public Accountants (PA's), Registered Public Accountants (RPA's), and Accounting Practitioners (AP’s). Most accountants and auditors work in urban areas where public accounting firms and central or regional offices of businesses are concentrated. Roughly 10 percent of all accountants were selfemployed, and less than 10 percent worked part time. Some accountants and auditors teach full time in junior colleges and colleges and universities; others teach part time while working for private industry or government or as self-employed accountants. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most public accounting and business firms require applicants for accountant and internal auditor positions to have at least a bachelor's degree in accounting or a related field. Those wishing to pursue a bachelor's degree in accounting should carefully research accounting curricula before enrolling. Many States will soon require CPA candidates to complete 150 semester hours of coursework prior to taking the CPA exam—on January 1, 2001 at least 32 states will have this requirement—and many schools have altered their curricula accordingly. Some employers prefer those with a master's degree in accounting or a master’s degree in business administration with a concentration in accounting. Most employers also prefer applicants who are familiar with computers and their applications in accounting and internal auditing. For beginning accounting and auditing positions in the Federal Government, 4 years of college (including 24 semester hours in accounting or auditing) or an equivalent combination of education and experience is required. Previous experience in accounting or auditing can help an appli­ cant get a job. Many colleges offer students an opportunity to gain experience through summer or part-time internship programs con­ ducted by public accounting or business firms. Such training is advantageous in gaining permanent employment in the field.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Professional recognition through certification or licensure also is helpful. In most States, CPA's are the only accountants who are licensed and regulated. Anyone working as a CPA must have a certificate and a license issued by a State board of accountancy. The vast majority of States require CPA candidates to be college gradu­ ates, but a few States substitute a certain number of years of public accounting experience for the educational requirement. Based on recommendations made by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, a small number of States currently require that CPA candidates complete 150 semester hours of college coursework, but most States are working toward adopting this recommendation. The 150-hour rule requires an additional 30 hours of coursework beyond the usual 4-year bachelor's degree in accounting. The composition of the additional 30 hours of coursework is unspecified by most States. All States use the four-part Uniform CPA Examination prepared by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. The 2day CPA examination is rigorous, and only about one-quarter of those who take it each year pass each part they attempt. Candidates are not required to pass all four parts at once, although most States require candidates to pass at least two parts for partial credit. Many States require all sections of the test to be passed within a certain period of time. Most States also require applicants for a CPA certifi­ cate to have some accounting experience. The designations PA or RPA are also recognized by most States, and several States continue to issue these licenses. With the growth in the number of CPA's, however, the majority of States are phasing out the PA, RPA, and other non-CPA designations by not issuing any more new licenses. Accountants who hold PA or RPA designations have similar legal rights, duties, and obligations as CPA's, but their qualifications for licensure are less stringent. The designation Ac­ counting Practitioner is also awarded by several States. It requires less formal training than a CPA license and covers a more limited scope of practice. Nearly all States require both CPA's and PA's to complete a certain number of hours of continuing professional education before their licenses can be renewed. The professional associations repre­ senting accountants sponsor numerous courses, seminars, group study programs, and other forms of continuing education. Professional societies bestow other forms of credentials on a voluntary basis. Voluntary certification can attest to professional competence in a specialized field of accounting and auditing. It also can certify that a recognized level of professional competence has been achieved by accountants and auditors who acquired some skills on the job, without the amount of formal education or public account­ ing work experience needed to meet the rigorous standards required to take the CPA examination. Employers increasingly seek appli­ cants with these credentials. The Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) confers the Certified Management Accountant (CMA) designation upon college graduates who pass a four-part examination, agree to meet continuing education requirements, comply with standards of professional conduct, and have at least 2 years' work in management accounting. The CMA program is administered through the Institute of Certified Management Accountants, an affiliate of the IMA. The Institute of Internal Auditors confers the designation Certi­ fied Internal Auditor (CIA) to graduates from accredited colleges and universities who have completed 2 years' work in internal auditing and who have passed a four-part examination. The Information Systems Audit and Control Association confers the designation Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) upon candidates who pass an examination and who have 5 years of experience in auditing electronic data processing systems. However, auditing or data proc­ essing experience and college education may be substituted for up to 3 years. The Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation, a satellite organization of the National Society of Public Accountants, awards a Certificate of Accreditation in Accountancy to those who pass a comprehensive examination, and a Certificate of Accreditation in Taxation to those with appropriate experience and education.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 23  Other organizations, such as the National Association of Certified Fraud Examiners and the Bank Administration Institute, confer specialized auditing designations. It is not uncommon for a practi­ tioner to hold multiple licenses and designations. For instance, an internal auditor might be a CPA, Certified Internal Auditor, and Certified Information Systems Auditor. Persons planning a career in accounting should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts and figures quickly, and make sound judgments based on this knowledge. They must be able to clearly communicate the results of their work, orally and in writing, to clients and management. Accountants and auditors must be good at working with people as well as with business systems and computers. Accuracy and the ability to handle responsibility with limited supervision are impor­ tant. Perhaps most important, because millions of financial statement users rely on their services, accountants and auditors should have high standards of integrity. Capable accountants and auditors should advance rapidly; those having inadequate academic preparation may be assigned routine jobs and find promotion difficult. Many graduates of junior colleges and business and correspondence schools, as well as bookkeepers and accounting clerks who meet the education and experience require­ ments set by their employers, can obtain junior accounting positions and advance to more responsible positions by demonstrating their accounting skills on the job. Beginning public accountants usually start by assisting with work for several clients. They may advance to positions with more re­ sponsibility in 1 or 2 years and to senior positions within another few years. Those who excel may become supervisors, managers, part­ ners, open their own public accounting firms, or transfer to executive positions in management accounting or internal auditing in private firms. Beginning management accountants often start as cost account­ ants, junior internal auditors, or as trainees for other accounting positions. As they rise through the organization, they may advance to accounting manager, chief cost accountant, budget director, or manager of internal auditing. Some become controllers, treasurers, financial vice presidents, chief financial officers, or corporation presidents. Many senior corporation executives have a background in accounting, internal auditing, or finance. There is a large degree of mobility among public accountants, management accountants, and internal auditors. Practitioners often shift into management accounting or internal auditing from public accounting, or between internal auditing and management account­ ing. However, it is less common for accountants and auditors to move from either management accounting or internal auditing into public accounting. Job Outlook Qualified accountants and auditors are expected to have fairly good job prospects. CPA's should continue to enjoy the widest range of job opportunities, especially as more States enact the 150-hour requirement, making it more difficult to become a CPA. Competi­ tion for the most prestigious jobs—such as those with major account­ ing and business firms—will remain keen. Applicants with a master's degree in accounting or a master's degree in business ad­ ministration with a concentration in accounting are increasingly valued, particularly among large firms. As computers now perform many increasingly complex accounting functions and allow account­ ants and auditors to analyze more information, a broad base of com­ puter experience is also advantageous. Expertise in specialized areas such as international business, specific industries, or current legisla­ tion may also be helpful in landing certain accounting and auditing jobs. Employment of accountants and auditors is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Although the profession is characterized by a relatively low  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  rate of turnover, because the occupation is so large the need to re­ place accountants and auditors who retire or move into other occupa­ tions will produce thousands of additional job openings annually. As the economy grows, the number of business establishments increases, requiring more accountants and auditors to set up their books, prepare their taxes, and provide management advice. As these businesses grow, the volume and complexity of information developed by accountants and auditors on costs, expenditures, and taxes will increase as well. More complex requirements for account­ ants and auditors also arise from changes in legislation related to taxes, financial reporting standards, business investments, mergers, and other financial matters. In addition, businesses will increasingly need quick, accurate, and individually tailored financial information due to the demands of growing international competition. The changing role of public accountants, management account­ ants, and internal auditors also will spur job growth. Public account­ ants will perform less auditing work due to potential liability, and less tax work due to growing competition from tax preparation firms, but they will assume an even greater management advisory role and expand their consulting services. These rapidly growing services will lead to increased demand for public accountants in the coming years. Management accountants also will take on a greater advisory role as they develop more sophisticated and flexible accounting systems, and focus more on analyzing operations rather than just providing financial data. Similarly, management will increasingly need internal auditors to develop new ways to discover and eliminate waste and fraud. Earnings According to a salary survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor's degree candidates in account­ ing received starting offers averaging $27,900 a year in 1995; mas­ ter's degree candidates in accounting, $31,500. According to a survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas, accountants with limited experience had median earnings of $25,400 in 1993, with the middle half earning between $23,000 and $28,200. The most experienced accountants had median earnings of $77,200, with the middle half earning between $70,300 and $85,400. Public accountants—employed by public accounting firms—with limited experience had median earnings of $28,100 in 1993, with the middle half earning between $26,900 and $29,400. The most experienced public accountants had median earnings of $48,800, with the middle half earning between $41,300 and $54,400. Many owners and part­ ners of firms earned considerably more. Based on a survey by the Institute of Management Accountants, the average salary of IMA members was about $62,300 a year in 1994. IMA members who were certified public accountants aver­ aged $68,500, while members who were certified management accountants averaged $67,000. According to a salary survey conducted by Robert Half Interna­ tional, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, accountants and auditors with up to 1 year of experience earned between $23,000 and $35,500 in 1995. Those with 1 to 3 years of experience earned between $26,000 and $39,000. Senior accountants and auditors earned between $31,000 and $47,600; managers earned between $39,900 and $68,800; and directors of accounting and auditing earned between $50,300 and $84,500 a year. The variation in salaries reflects differences in location, level of education, and credentials. In the Federal Government, the starting annual salary for junior accountants and auditors was about $18,700 in 1995. Candidates who had a superior academic record could start at $23,200, while applicants with a master's degree or 2 years of professional experi­ ence began at $28,300. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. Accountants employed by the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions averaged $50,500 a year in 1995; auditors, $53,600.  24 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Related Occupations Accountants and auditors design internal control systems and analyze financial data. Others for whom training in accounting is invaluable include appraisers, budget officers, loan officers, financial analysts and managers, bank officers, actuaries, underwriters, tax collectors and revenue agents, FBI special agents, securities sales representa­ tives, and purchasing agents. Sources of Additional Information Information about careers in certified public accounting and about CPA standards and examinations may be obtained from: •■American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, Harborside Financial Center, 201 Plaza III, Jersey City, NJ 07311-3881.  Information on management accounting and other specialized fields of accounting and auditing is available from: •■Institute of Management Accountants, 10 Paragon Dr., Montvale, NJ 07645-1760. ••National Society of Public Accountants and the Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation, 1010 North Fairfax St., Alexandria, VA 22314. •■The Institute of Internal Auditors, 249 Maitland Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32701-4201. •"The Information Systems Audit and Control Association, 3701 Algonquin Rd., Suite 1010, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008.  For information on accredited accounting programs and educa­ tional institutions offering a specialization in accounting or business management, contact: •"American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, 605 Old Balias Rd., Suite 220, St. Louis, MO 63141.  Administrative Services Managers (D.O.T. 162.117-014; 163.167-026; 169.167-034; 188.117-122, .167-106)  Nature of the Work Administrative services managers are employed throughout private industry and government, and their range of duties is broad. They coordinate and direct support services, which may include: Secretar­ ial and reception; administration; payroll; conference planning and travel; information and data processing; mail; facilities management; materials scheduling and distribution; printing and reproduction; records management; telecommunications management; personal property procurement, supply, and disposal; security; and parking. In small organizations, a single administrative services manager may oversee all support services. In larger ones, however, first-line managers report to their mid-level superiors who, in turn, report to proprietors or top-level managers. These upper-level managers, such as vice president of administrative services, are included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives. First-line administrative services managers directly oversee staffs involved in various support services. Mid-level managers develop departmental plans, set goals and deadlines, develop procedures to improve productivity and customer service, and define the respon­ sibilities of supervisory-level managers. They often are involved in the hiring and dismissal of employees but generally have no role in the formulation of personnel policy. As the size of the firm increases, administrative services manag­ ers are more likely to specialize in one or more support activities. For example, some administrative services managers work primarily as facilities managers, office managers, contract administrators, property managers, or unclaimed property officers. In many cases, the duties of these administrative services managers are quite similar to those of other managers and supervisors, some of whom are discussed in other Handbook statements. Administrative services managers who specialize in facilities management may engage in facilities planning, including the buying,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Like other managers, administrative services managers should be able to communicate effectively.  selling, or leasing of facilities; redesign work areas to be more effi­ cient and ergonomic (user-friendly); ensure that facilities comply with government regulations; and supervise maintenance, grounds, and custodial staffs. In some firms, they are called facilities managers. Some mid-level administrative services managers work as office managers and oversee first-line supervisors from various depart­ ments, including the clerical staff. In small firms, however, clerical supervisors, who are discussed in the Handbook statement on clerical supervisors and managers, perform this function. Administrative services managers who work as contract administrators direct the preparation, analysis, negotiation, and review of contracts related to the purchase or sale of equipment, materials, supplies, products, or services. However, procurement functions are generally directed by purchasers and buyers, also discussed in a separate Handbook statement. Property management is divided into the management and use of personal property such as office supplies, an administrative services management function, and real property management, which is a function of property and real estate managers, who are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook. Personal property managers acquire, distribute, and store supplies, and may sell or dispose of surplus property. Other property managers are engaged solely in surplus property disposal, which involves the resale of scraps, rejects, and surplus or unneeded supplies and machinery. This is an increasingly important source of revenue for many commercial organizations. In government, surplus property officers may receive surplus from various departments and agencies, and then sell or dispose of it to the public or other agencies. Some administrative services managers oversee unclaimed prop­ erty disposal. In government, this activity may entail auctioning off unclaimed liquid assets, such as stocks, bonds, savings accounts, and the contents of safe deposit boxes, or personal property, such as motor vehicles, after attempts to locate owners have failed. Working Conditions Administrative services managers generally work in comfortable offices. In smaller firms, where they may work alongside the people they supervise, the office may be crowded and noisy. Their work can be stressful, as they attempt to schedule work to meet deadlines. Although the 40-hour week is standard, uncompen­ sated overtime is often required to resolve problems. Managers involved in contract administration and personal property procure­ ment, use, and disposal may travel extensively between home offices, branch offices, vendors' offices, and property sales sites. Facilities  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 25  managers who are responsible for the design of work spaces often must spend time at construction sites. Facilities managers also may monitor the work of maintenance, grounds, and custodial staffs, and travel between different facilities. Employment Administrative services managers held about 279,000 jobs in 1994. Over two-fifths worked in services industries, including manage­ ment, business, social, and health services organizations. Others were found in virtually every other industry. A few run their own management services, management consulting, or facilities support services firms. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Many administrative services managers advance through the ranks in an organization, acquiring several years' work experience in various administrative positions before assuming first-line supervisory duties. All managers who oversee departmental supervisors should be famil­ iar with office procedures and equipment. Those who supervise clerical supervisors must have a working knowledge of word process­ ing, communications, data processing, and recordkeeping. Facilities managers may have a background in architecture, engineering, construction, interior design, or real estate, in addition to managerial or other administrative experience. Managers of personal property acquisition and disposal need experience in purchasing and sales and knowledge of a wide variety of supplies, machinery, and equipment. Managers concerned with supply, inventory, and distribution must be experienced in receiving, warehousing, packaging, shipping, trans­ portation, and related operations. Contract administrators may have worked as contract specialists, cost analysts, or procurement special­ ists. Managers of unclaimed property often have experience in insurance claims analysis and records management. Educational requirements vary widely. For first-line administra­ tive services managers of secretarial, mail room, and related adminis­ trative support activities, many employers prefer an associate of arts degree in business or management, although a high school diploma may suffice. For managers of audiovisual, graphics, and other more technical activities, postsecondary technical school training is pre­ ferred. For managers of highly complex services such as contract administration, a bachelor's degree, preferably in business admini­ stration or finance, is usually required. The curriculum should include courses in office technology, accounting, business mathemat­ ics, computer applications, and business law. Similarly, facilities managers often need a bachelor's degree in engineering, architecture, or business administration. Some administrative services managers have advanced degrees. Whatever the manager's educational back­ ground, it must be accompanied by related work experience reflect­ ing demonstrated ability. Persons interested in becoming administrative services managers should be able to communicate and establish effective working relationships with many different people, ranging from managers, supervisors, and professionals, to clerks and blue-collar workers. They should be analytical, detail oriented, flexible, and decisive. The ability to coordinate several activities at once and to quickly analyze and resolve specific problems is important. Ability to work under stress and cope with deadlines is also important. Advancement is easier in large firms that employ several levels of administrative services managers. Attainment of the Certified Ad­ ministrative Manager (CAM) designation, through work experience and successful completion of examinations offered by the Institute of Certified Professional Managers, can increase one's advancement potential. A bachelor's degree enhances a first-level manager's opportunities to advance to a mid-level management position, such as director of administrative services, and eventually to a top-level management position, such as executive vice president for adminis­ trative services. Those with the required capital and experience can establish their own management consulting, management services, or facilities support services firm.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of administrative services managers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Like other managerial occupations, this occupation is charac­ terized by low turnover. These factors, coupled with the ample supply of competent, experienced workers seeking managerial jobs, should result in keen competition for administrative services man­ agement positions in the coming years. Many firms are increasingly contracting out administrative serv­ ices positions and otherwise streamlining these functions in an effort to cut costs. Corporate restructuring has tempered growth in the number of administrative services managers in recent years, and this trend is expected to continue. As it becomes more common for firms to contract out administra­ tive services, however, demand for administrative services managers will increase in the management services, management consulting, and facilities support services firms that will provide the services. In addition, some categories of administrative services managers may grow more quickly than others. Facilities managers may not be subject to the same cost-cutting pressures as other administrative services managers. Also, the extent to which governments at all levels contract out for goods and services could affect demand for contract administrators and personal property managers. Earnings According to a salary survey by the Administrative Management Society Foundation, building services/facilities managers averaged about $50,300 a year in 1994; office/administrative services manag­ ers, about $40,700; and records managers, about $38,900. Average salaries ranged from $29,600 for the lowest paid records managers to $61,300 for the highest paid building services/facilities managers. According to a survey by the International Facility Management Association, unit or first-line supervisors earned a median base salary of $41,600 in 1994; section heads or second-line supervisors $55,000; and managers with two levels of supervisors reporting to them, $65,000. In the Federal Government, contract specialists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions averaged $47,890 a year in 1995; facilities managers, $45,660; administrative officers, $45,220; industrial property managers, $44,020; property disposal specialists, $40,940; and support services administrators, $35,990. Related Occupations Administrative services managers direct and coordinate support services and oversee the purchase, use, and disposal of personal property. Occupations with similar functions include administrative assistants, appraisers, buyers, clerical supervisors, contract special­ ists, cost estimators, procurement services managers, property and real estate managers, purchasing managers, and personnel managers. Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in facilities management, contact: •"International Facility Management Association, 1 East Greenway Plaza, Suite 1100, Houston, TX 77046-0194.  Budget Analysts (D.O.T. 161.117-010, .267-030)  Nature of the Work Budget analysts play a primary role in the development, analysis, and execution of budgets. Budgets are financial plans used to estimate future requirements and organize and allocate operating and capital resources effectively. The analysis of spending behavior and the planning of future operations are an integral part of the decision­  26 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  making process in most corporations and government agencies. Budget analysts work in private industry, nonprofit organizations, and the public sector. In private industry, a budget analyst examines, analyzes, and seeks new ways to improve efficiency and increase profits. Although analysts working in government generally are not concerned with profits, they too are interested in finding the most efficient distribution of funds and other resources among various departments and programs. A major responsibility of budget analysts is to provide advice and technical assistance in the preparation of annual budgets. At the beginning of the budget cycle, managers and department heads submit proposed operating and financial plans to budget analysts for review. These plans outline expected programs—including proposed program increases or new initiatives, estimated costs and expenses, and capital expenditures needed to finance these programs. Analysts begin by examining the budget estimates or proposals for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with established pro­ cedures, regulations, and organizational objectives. Sometimes they review financial requests by employing cost-benefit analysis, assess­ ing program trade-offs, and exploring alternative funding methods. They also examine past and current budgets, and research economic and financial developments that affect the organization's spending. This process allows analysts to evaluate proposals in terms of the organization's priorities and financial resources. After this review process, budget analysts consolidate the individ­ ual department budgets into operating and capital budget summaries. The analysts submit preliminary budgets to senior management, or sometimes, as is often the case in local and State governments, to appointed or elected officials, with comments and supporting state­ ments that justify or deny funding requests. By reviewing different departments' operating plans, analysts gain insight into an organiza­ tion's overall operations. This generally proves useful when they interpret and offer technical assistance to officials approving the budget. At this point in the budget process, budget analysts help the chief operating officer, agency head, or other top managers analyze the proposed plan and devise possible alternatives if the projected results are unsatisfactory. The final decision to approve the budget, however, is usually made by the organization head or elected offi­ cials, such as the state legislative body. Throughout the rest of the year, analysts periodically monitor the budget by reviewing reports and accounting records to determine if allocated funds have been spent as specified. If deviations appear between the approved budget and actual performance, budget ana­ lysts may write a report explaining the causes of the variations along with recommendations for new or revised budget procedures. They suggest reallocation of excess funds or recommend program cuts to avoid or alleviate deficits. They also inform program managers and others within their organization of the status and availability of funds in different budget accounts. Before any changes are made to an existing program or a new one is started, a budget analyst assesses its efficiency and effectiveness. Analysts also may project budget needs for long-range planning. Analysts assist in developing procedural guidelines and policies governing the development, formulation, and maintenance of the budget. If necessary, they conduct training sessions for agency or company personnel on new budget procedures. Working Conditions Budget analysts work in a normal office setting, generally 40 hours per week. However, during the initial development and mid-year and final reviews of budgets, they often experience the pressure of dead­ lines and tight work schedules. The work during these periods can be extremely stressful, and analysts are usually required to work more than the routine 40 hours a week. Budget analysts spend the majority of their time working inde­ pendently, compiling and analyzing data and preparing budget pro­ posals. Nevertheless, their routine schedule can be interrupted by   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Federal, State and local governments are major employers of budget analysts. special budget requests, meetings, and training sessions. Others may travel to obtain budget details and explanations of variances from coworkers, and to personally observe what funding is being used for in the field. Employment Budget analysts held about 66,000 jobs throughout private industry and government in 1994. Federal, State, and local governments are major employers, accounting for 1 of every 3 budget analyst jobs. The Department of Defense employed 7 of every 10 budget analysts working for the Federal Government. Other major employers of budget analysts are schools, hospitals, banks, and manufacturers of transportation equipment, chemicals and allied products, electrical and electronic machinery, and industrial machines.. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most private firms and government agencies require candidates for budget analyst positions to have at least a bachelor's degree. Within the Federal Government, a bachelor's degree in any field is sufficient background for an entry-level budget analyst position. State and local governments have varying requirements, but a bachelor's degree in one of many areas—accounting, finance, business or public administration, economics, political science, planning, statistics, or a social science such as sociology—may qualify one for entry into the occupation. Sometimes, a field closely related to the employing industry or organization within an industry, such as engineering, may  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 27  be preferred. An increasing number of states and other employers require a candidate to possess a master's degree to ensure adequate analytical and communication skills. Some firms prefer candidates with business backgrounds because business courses emphasize quantitative analytical skills. Financial experience can occasionally be substituted for formal education when applying for a budget analyst position. An increasingly small number of companies prefer to promote from within; therefore, competent accounting or payroll clerks and other clerical staff who have worked closely with the budget process are sometimes given the opportunity to advance to entry-level budget analyst positions even if they do not meet the educational requirements. Because developing a budget involves manipulating numbers and requires strong analytical skills, courses in statistics, or accounting are helpful, regardless of the prospective budget analyst's major field of study. Because most financial analysis performed by organiza­ tions is automated, a familiarity with the financial software packages used by most organizations in budget analysis, as well as word processing, is generally required by employers. Software packages commonly used by budget analysts include electronic spreadsheets and database and graphics software. Job candidates who already possess these computer skills may be preferred over those who need to be trained. In addition to analytical and computer skills, those seeking a career as a budget analyst must also be able to work under strict time constraints. Strong oral and written communication skills are essen­ tial for analysts to prepare, present, and defend budget proposals to decision makers. Entry-level budget analysts may receive some formal training when they begin their jobs. However, most employers feel that the best training is obtained by working through one complete budget cycle. During the cycle, analysts become familiar with all the steps involved in the budgeting process. The Federal Government, on the other hand, offers extensive onthe-job and classroom training for entry-level analysts, who are initially called trainees. Analysts are encouraged to participate in the various classes offered throughout their careers. Beginning analysts usually work under close supervision. Capa­ ble entry-level analysts can be promoted into intermediate level positions within 1 to 2 years, and then into senior positions within a few more years. Progressing to a higher level means added budget­ ary responsibility and can lead to a supervisory role. In the Federal Government, for example, beginning budget ana­ lysts compare projected costs with prior expenditures; consolidate and enter data prepared by others; and assist higher grade analysts by doing research. As analysts progress, they begin to develop and formulate budget estimates and justification statements; perform in­ depth analyses of budget requests; write statements supporting funding requests; advise program managers and others on the status and availability of funds in different budget activities; and present and defend budget proposals to senior managers. Because financial and analytical skills are vital in any organiza­ tion, budget analysts often are able to transfer to a related field in other organizations. Senior budget analysts in central staff functions are often candidates for senior management posistions in other parts of the organization. Job Outlook Despite the increase in demand for budget analysts, competition for jobs should remain keen because of the substantial number of quali­ fied applicants. Job opportunities are usually best for candidates with a college degree, particularly a master's. In some cases, experience is more beneficial than a degree and can be used to offset a lack of education. A working knowledge of computer financial software packages can also enhance one's employment prospects in this field. Employment of budget analysts is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to employment growth, many job openings will result from the need to replace experienced budget analysts who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. The expanding use of automation may make analysts more pro­ ductive, allowing them to process more data in less time. Also, computers are increasingly used to organize, summarize, and dis­ seminate data to the top levels in organizations, thereby centralizing decision-making and reducing the need for middle managers. Any computer-induced effects on employment may be offset, however, by a greater demand for information and analysis. Easier manipulation of and accessibility to data provide management more considerations on which to base decisions. Because of the growing complexity of business and the increasing specialization of functions within organizations, more attention is being given to planning and financial control. Many companies will continue to rely heavily on budget analysts to examine, analyze, and develop budgets to determine capital requirements and to allocate labor and other resources efficiently among all parts of the organiza­ tion. Managers will continue to use budgets as a vehicle to plan, coordinate, control, and evaluate activities within their organizations more effectively. The financial work performed by budget analysts is an important function in every organization. Financial and budget reports must be completed during periods of economic growth and slowdowns. Therefore, employment of budget analysts generally is not as ad­ versely affected by changes in the economy. Earnings Salaries of budget analysts vary widely by experience, education, and employer. According to a survey conducted by Robert Half Interna­ tional, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, starting salaries of budget and other financial analysts in small firms ranged from $23,500 to $27,000 in 1995; in large organizations, from $26,000 to $30,800. Analysts in small firms with 1 to 3 years of experience earned from $27,000 to $33,000; in large companies, from $30,000 to $38,800. Senior analysts in small firms earned from $33,000 to $38,800; in large firms, from $38,000 to $46,500. Earn­ ings of managers in this field ranged from $38,500 to $50,000 a year in small firms, while managers in large organizations earned between $46,000 and $65,000. A survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas reported that inexperienced budget analysts had median annual earnings of about $27,000 in 1993, with the middle half earning between $24,100 and $32,000 a year. In the Federal Government, budget analysts generally started as trainees earning $18,700 or $23,200 a year in 1995. Candidates with a master's degree might begin at $28,300. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The average annual salary for budget analysts employed by the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $45,700 in 1995. Related Occupations Budget analysts review, analyze, and interpret financial data; make recommendations for the future; and assist in the implementation of new ideas. Workers who use these skills in other occupations in­ clude accountants and auditors, economists, financial analysts, financial managers, and loan officers. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities as a budget analyst may be available from your State or local employment service. Persons interested in working as a budget analyst in the Federal Government can obtain information from: •■Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW„ Washington, DC 20415.  28 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Construction and Building Inspectors (D.O.T. 168.167-030, -034, -038, -046, and -050; .267-010, -102; 182.267; 850.387, .467)  Nature of the Work Construction and building inspectors examine the construction, alteration, or repair of buildings, highways and streets, sewer and water systems, dams, bridges, and other structures to ensure compli­ ance with building codes and ordinances, zoning regulations, and contract specifications. Inspectors generally specialize in one par­ ticular type of construction work or construction trade, such as electrical work or plumbing. They make an initial inspection during the first phase of construction, and follow-up inspections throughout the construction project to monitor compliance with regulations. In areas where severe natural disasters—such as earthquakes or hurri­ canes—are more common, inspectors monitor compliance with additional safety regulations. Building inspectors inspect the structural quality and general safety of buildings. Some specialize—for example, in structural steel or reinforced concrete structures. Before construction begins, plan examiners determine whether the plans for the building or other structure comply with building code regulations and are suited to the engineering and environmental demands of the building site. Inspec­ tors visit the work site before the foundation is poured to inspect the soil condition and positioning and depth of the footings. Later they return to the site to inspect the foundation after it has been com­ pleted. The size and type of structure and the rate of completion determine the number of other site visits they must make. Upon completion of the entire project, they make a final comprehensive inspection. A primary concern of building inspectors is fire safety. They inspect structure's fire sprinklers, alarms, and smoke control systems, as well as fire doors and exits. In addition, inspectors may calculate fire insurance rates by assessing the type of construction, building contents, adequacy of fire protection equipment, and risks posed by adjoining buildings. Electrical inspectors inspect the installation of electrical systems and equipment to ensure that they function properly and comply with electrical codes and standards. They visit work sites to inspect new and existing wiring, lighting, sound and security systems, motors, and generating equipment. They also inspect the installation of the electrical wiring for heating and air-conditioning systems, appli­ ances, and other components. Elevator inspectors examine lifting and conveying devices such as elevators, escalators, moving sidewalks, lifts and hoists, inclined railways, ski lifts, and amusement rides. Mechanical inspectors inspect the installation of the mechanical components of commercial kitchen appliances, heating and air­ conditioning equipment, gasoline and butane tanks, gas and oil piping, and gas-fired and oil-fired appliances. Some specialize in inspecting boilers or ventilating equipment as well. Plumbing inspectors examine plumbing systems, including pri­ vate disposal systems, water supply and distribution systems, plumbing fixtures and traps, and drain, waste, and vent lines. Public works inspectors ensure that Federal, State, and local government construction of water and sewer systems, highways, streets, bridges, and dams conforms to detailed contract specifica­ tions. They inspect excavation and fill operations, the placement of forms for concrete, concrete mixing and pouring, asphalt paving, and grading operations. They record the work and materials used so that contract payments can be calculated. Public works inspectors may specialize in highways, structural steel, reinforced concrete, or ditches. Others specialize in dredging operations required for bridges and dams or for harbors.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Home inspectors conduct inspections of newly built homes to check that they meet all regulatory requirements. Home inspectors are also increasingly hired by prospective home buyers to inspect and report on the condition of a home's major systems, components, and structure. Typically, home inspectors are hired either immediately prior to a purchase offer on a home or as a contingency to a sales contract. Construction and building inspectors increasingly use computers to help them monitor the status of construction inspection activities and keep track of permits issued. Details about construction projects, building and occupancy permits, and other documentation are now generally stored on computers so that they can easily be retrieved and kept accurate and up to date. Although inspections are primarily visual, inspectors often use tape measures, survey instruments, metering devices, and test equip­ ment such as concrete strength measurers. They keep a daily log of their work, take photographs, file reports, and, if necessary, act on their findings. For example, construction inspectors notify the con­ struction contractor, superintendent, or supervisor when they dis­ cover a code or ordinance violation or something that does not comply with the contract specifications or approved plans. If the problem is not corrected within a reasonable or specified period of time, government inspectors have authority to issue a "stop-work" order. Many inspectors also investigate construction or alterations being done without proper permits. Violators of permit laws are directed to obtain permits and submit to inspection. Working Conditions Construction and building inspectors usually work alone. However, several may be assigned to large, complex projects, particularly because inspectors specialize in different areas of construction. Though they spend considerable time inspecting construction work sites, inspectors may spend much of their time in a field office re­ viewing blueprints, answering letters or telephone calls, writing reports, and scheduling inspections. Inspection sites are dirty and may be cluttered with tools, materi­ als, or debris. Inspectors may have to climb ladders or many flights of stairs, or may have to crawl around in tight spaces. Although their work is not considered hazardous, inspectors usually wear "hard hats" for safety. Inspectors normally work regular hours. However, if an accident occurs at a construction site, inspectors must respond immediately and may work additional hours to complete their report. MmPB.  ggj|p:  Nearly 60 percent of all construction and building inspectors work for local governments.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 29  Employment Construction and building inspectors held about 64,000 jobs in 1994. Over 50 percent worked for local governments, primarily municipal or county building departments. Employment of local government inspectors is concentrated in cities and in suburban areas undergoing rapid growth. Local governments employ large inspection staffs, including many plan examiners or inspectors who specialize in structural steel, reinforced concrete, boiler, electrical, and elevator inspection. About 18 percent of all construction and building inspectors worked for engineering and architectural services firms, conducting inspections for a fee or on a contract basis. Most of the remaining inspectors were employed by the Federal and State governments. Many construction inspectors employed by the Federal Government work for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers or the General Services Administration. Other Federal employers include the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Departments of Agriculture, Housing and Urban Development, and Interior. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Individuals who want to become construction and building inspec­ tors should have a thorough knowledge of construction materials and practices in either a general area, like structural or heavy con­ struction, or in a specialized area, such as electrical or plumbing systems, reinforced concrete, or structural steel. Construction or building inspectors need several years of experience as a manager, supervisor, or craft worker before becoming inspectors. Many inspec­ tors have previously worked as carpenters, electricians, plumbers, or pipefitters. Employers prefer to hire inspectors who have formal training as well as experience. Employers look for persons who have studied engineering or architecture, or who have a degree from a community or junior college, with courses in construction technology, blueprint reading, mathematics, and building inspection. Courses in drafting, algebra, geometry, and English are also useful. Most employers require inspectors to have a high school diploma or equivalent even when they qualify on the basis of experience. Certification can enhance an inspector's opportunities for em­ ployment and advancement to more responsible positions. Most States and cities actually require some type of certification for em­ ployment. To become certified, inspectors with substantial experi­ ence and education must pass stringent examinations on code requirements, construction techniques, and materials. Many catego­ ries of certification are awarded for inspectors and plan examiners in a variety of disciplines, including the designation "CBO," Certi­ fied Building Official. (Organizations that administer certification programs are listed below in the section on Sources of Additional Information.) Construction and building inspectors must be in good physical condition in order to walk and climb about construction sites. They also must have a driver's license. In addition, Federal, State, and many local governments may require that inspectors pass a civil service examination. Construction and building inspectors usually receive most of their training on the job. At first, working with an experienced inspector, they learn about inspection techniques; codes, ordinances, and regu­ lations; contract specifications; and record keeping and reporting duties. They usually begin by inspecting less complex types of construction, such as residential buildings, and then progress to more difficult assignments. An engineering or architectural degree is often required for advancement to supervisory positions. Because they advise builders and the general public on building codes, construction practices, and technical developments, construc­ tion and building inspectors must keep abreast of changes in these areas. Many employers provide formal training programs to broaden inspectors' knowledge of construction materials, practices, and techniques. Inspectors who work for small agencies or firms that do  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  not conduct training programs can expand their knowledge and upgrade their skills by attending State-sponsored training programs, by taking college or correspondence courses, or by attending semi­ nars sponsored by the organizations that certify inspectors. Job Outlook Employment of construction and building inspectors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Growing concern for public safety and improvements in the quality of construction should continue to stimulate demand for construction and building inspectors. Despite the expected employ­ ment growth, most job openings will arise from the need to replace inspectors who transfer to other occupations or who leave the labor force. Replacement needs are relatively high because construction and building inspectors tend to be older, more experienced workers who have spent years working in other occupations. Opportunities to become a construction and building inspector should be best for highly experienced supervisors and craft workers who have some college education, some engineering or architectural training, or who are certified as inspectors or plan examiners. Thor­ ough knowledge of construction practices and skills in areas such as reading and evaluating blueprints and plans are essential. Govern­ ments—particularly Federal and State—should continue to contract out inspection work to engineering, architectural and management services firms as their budgets remain tight. However, the volume of real estate transactions will increase as the population grows, and greater emphasis on home inspections should result in rapid growth in employment of home inspectors. Inspectors are involved in all phases of construction, including maintenance and repair work, and are therefore less likely to lose jobs during recessionary periods when new construction slows. Earnings The median annual salary of construction and building inspectors was $32,300 in 1994. The middle 50 percent earned between $25,200 and $43,800. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $19,400 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $57,500 a year. Generally, building inspectors, including plan examiners, earn the highest salaries. Salaries in large metropolitan areas are substantially higher than those in small local jurisdictions. Related Occupations Construction and building inspectors combine a knowledge of con­ struction principles and law with an ability to coordinate data, diag­ nose problems, and communicate with people. Workers in other occupations using a similar combination of skills include drafters, estimators, industrial engineering technicians, surveyors, architects, and construction contractors and managers. Sources of Additional Information Information about a career and certification as a construction or building inspector is available from the following model code or­ ganizations: •"International Conference of Building Officials, 5360 Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, CA 90601-2298. •"Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, IL 60478. •"Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., 900 Montclair Rd., Birmingham, AL 35213.  Information about a career as a home inspector is available from: •"American Society of Home Inspectors, Inc., 85 West Algonquin Rd., Arlington Heights, IL 60005.  For information about a career as a State or local government construction or building inspector, contact your State or local em­ ployment service.  30 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Construction Managers (D.O.T. 182.167-010, -018, -026, -030, and -034)  Nature of the Work  Construction managers assume a wide variety of responsibilities and positions within construction firms. They are known by a range of job titles that are often used interchangeably—for example, con­ struction superintendent, general superintendent, project manager, general construction manager, or executive construction manager. Construction managers may be owners or salaried employees of a construction management or contracting firm, or individuals working under contract or as salaried employees for the owner, developer, contractor, or management firm overseeing the construction project. The Handbook uses the term "construction manager" to encompass all supervisory-level salaried and self-employed construction manag­ ers who oversee construction supervisors and workers. In the construction industry, managers and other professionals active in the industry—general managers, project engineers, cost estimators, and others—are increasingly referred to as constructors. The term constructor refers to a broad group of professionals in construction who, through education and experience, are capable of managing, coordinating, and supervising the construction process from conceptual development through final construction on a timely and economical basis. Given designs for buildings, roads, bridges, or other projects, constructors oversee the organization, scheduling, and implementation of the project to execute those designs. They are responsible for coordinating and managing people, materials, and equipment; budgets, schedules, and contracts; and the safety of employees and the general public. In contrast with the Handbook, the term "construction manager" is used more narrowly within the construction industry to denote a firm, or an individual employed by the firm, involved in management oversight of a construction project. Under this narrower definition, construction managers generally act as agents or representatives of the owner or developer throughout the life of the project. Although they generally play no direct role in the actual construction of the building or other facility, they typically schedule and coordinate all design and construction processes. They develop and implement a management plan to complete the project according to the owner's goals that allows the design and construction processes to be carried out efficiently and effectively within budgetary and schedule con­ straints. In the Handbook, "construction manager" includes these workers as well as managers working directly for the contractors who actually perform the construction. Generally, a contractor is the firm under contract to provide specialized construction services. On small projects such as remodel­ ing a home, the construction contractor is usually a self-employed construction manager or skilled trades worker who directs and over­ sees employees. On larger projects, construction managers working for a general contractor have overall responsibility for completing the construction in accordance with the engineer or architect's draw­ ings and specifications and prevailing building codes. They arrange for subcontractors to perform specialized craft work or other speci­ fied construction work. Large construction projects, like an office building or industrial complex for example, are too complicated for one person to super­ vise. These projects are divided into many segments: Site prepara­ tion, including land clearing and earth moving; sewage systems; landscaping and road construction; building construction, including excavation and laying foundations, erection of structural framework, floors, walls, and roofs; and building systems, including fire protec­ tion, electrical, plumbing, air-conditioning, and heating. Construc­ tion managers may work as part of a team or may be in charge of one or more of these activities. They may have several subordinates,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  such as assistant project managers, superintendents, field engineers, or crew supervisors, reporting to them. Construction managers plan, budget, and direct the construction project. They evaluate various construction methods and determine the most cost-effective plan and schedule. They determine the appropriate construction methods and schedule all required construc­ tion site activities into logical, specific steps, budgeting the time required to meet established deadlines. This may require sophisti­ cated estimating and scheduling techniques, using computers with specialized software. Construction managers determine the labor requirements and, in some cases, supervise or monitor the hiring and dismissal of workers. Managers direct and monitor the progress of field or site con­ struction activities, at times through other construction supervisors. This includes the delivery and use of materials, tools, and equipment; the quality of construction, worker productivity, and safety. They are responsible for obtaining all necessary permits and licenses and, depending upon the contractual arrangements, direct or monitor compliance with building and safety codes and other regulations. They regularly review engineering and architectural drawings and specifications to monitor progress and ensure compliance with plans and specifications. They track and control construction costs to avoid cost overruns. Based upon direct observation and reports by subordinate supervisors, managers may prepare daily reports of progress and requirements for labor, material, and machinery and equipment at the construction site. Construction managers meet regularly with owners, subcontractors, architects, and other design professionals to monitor and coordinate all phases of the construction project. Working Conditions Construction managers work out of a main office from which the overall construction project is monitored or out of a field office at the construction site. Management decisions regarding daily construc­ tion activities are usually made at the job site. Managers usually travel when the construction site is in another State or when they are responsible for activities at two or more sites. Management of construction projects overseas usually entails temporary residence in another country. Construction managers must be "on call" to deal with delays, bad weather, or emergencies at the site. Most work more than a standard 40-hour week since construction may proceed around-the-clock. This type of work schedule can go on for days, even weeks, to meet special project deadlines, especially if there have been unforeseen delays.  Construction managers schedule construction site activities and art responsible for all necessary permits and licenses.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 31  Although the work generally is not considered dangerous, con­ struction managers must be careful while touring construction sites, especially when large machinery, heavy equipment, and vehicles are being operated. Managers must be able to establish priorities and assign duties. They need to observe job conditions and to be alert to changes and potential problems, particularly involving safety on the job site and adherence to regulations. Employment Construction managers held about 197,000 jobs in 1994. Over 85 percent were employed in the construction industry, primarily by specialty trade contractors—for example, plumbing, heating and air­ conditioning, and electrical contractors—and general building con­ tractors. Many also worked as self-employed independent contrac­ tors in the specialty trades. Others were employed by engineering, architectural, surveying, and construction management services firms, as well as local governments, educational institutions, and real estate developers. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Persons interested in becoming a construction manager need a solid background in building science and management, as well as related work experience within the construction industry. They need to be able to understand contracts, plans, and specifications, and be knowl­ edgeable about construction methods, materials, and regulations. Familiarity with computers and software programs for job costing, scheduling, and estimating is increasingly important. Traditionally, persons advanced to construction management positions after having substantial experience as construction craft workers—for example, as carpenters, masons, plumbers, or electri­ cians—or after having worked as construction supervisors or as independent specialty contractors overseeing workers in one or more construction trades. However, more and more employers— particularly, large construction firms—seek to hire managers with industry work experience and formal postsecondary education in building science or construction management. In 1994, over 100 colleges and universities offered 4-year degree programs in construction management or construction science. These programs include courses in project control and development, site planning, design, construction methods, construction materials, value analysis, cost estimating, scheduling, contract administration, accounting, business and financial management, building codes and standards, inspection procedures, engineering and architectural sciences, mathematics, statistics, and computer science. Graduates from 4-year degree programs usually are hired as assistants to project managers, field engineers, schedulers, or cost estimators. An increas­ ing number of graduates in related fields—engineering or architec­ ture, for example—also enter construction management, often after having had substantial experience on construction projects. Around 30 colleges and universities also offer a master's degree program in construction management or construction science, and at least two offer a Ph.D. in the field. Master's degree recipients, espe­ cially those with work experience in construction, typically become construction managers in very large construction or construction management companies. Often, individuals who hold a bachelor's degree in an unrelated field seek a master's degree in order to work in the construction industry. Doctoral degree recipients generally become college professors or work in an area of research. Many individuals also attend training and educational programs sponsored by industry associations, often in collaboration with postsecondary institutions. A number of 2-year colleges throughout the country offer construction management or construction technol­ ogy programs. Construction managers should be adaptable and be able to work effectively in a fast-paced environment. They should be decisive and able to work well under pressure, particularly when faced with unexpected occurrences or delays. The ability to coordinate several major activities at once, while being able to analyze and resolve  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  specific problems is essential, as is the ability to understand engineer­ ing, architectural, and other construction drawings. Managers must be able to establish a good working relationship with many different people including owners, other managers, design professionals, supervisors, and craft workers. Advancement opportunities for construction managers vary depending upon the size and type of company for which one works. Within large firms, managers may eventually become top-level managers or executives. Highly experienced individuals may be­ come independent consultants; some serve as expert witnesses in court or as arbitrators in disputes. Those with the required capital may establish their own firms offering construction management services or their own general contracting firms overseeing construc­ tion projects from start to finish. Job Outlook Employment of construction managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the level of construction activity and complexity of construction projects continues to grow. In addition, many job openings should result annually from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Employers prefer applicants with previous construction work experience who can combine a strong background in building technology with proven supervisory or managerial skills. Prospects in construction management, engineer­ ing and architectural services, and construction contracting firms should be particularly favorable for persons with a bachelor's degree or higher in construction science, construction management, or construction engineering who have worked in construction. Increased spending on the Nation's infrastructure—highways, bridges, dams, water and sewage systems, and electric power gen­ eration and transmission facilities—will result in a greater demand for construction managers, as will the need to build more residential housing, commercial and office buildings, and factories. In addition, continuing maintenance and repair of all kinds of existing structures will also contribute to demand for these professionals. The increasing complexity of construction projects also should lead to the creation of more manager jobs. Advances in building materials and construction methods and the growing number of multipurpose buildings, electronically operated "smart" buildings, and energy-efficient structures will require the expertise of more construction managers. In addition, the proliferation of laws setting standards for buildings and construction materials, worker safety, energy efficiency, and environmental pollution have further compli­ cated the construction process and should increase demand for man­ agers. As project owners and construction companies strive to keep costs in line and reduce the causes of disputes and litigation, they will continue to depend on the services and expertise of highly effective managers. Employment of construction managers is sensitive to the short­ term nature of many construction projects and cyclical fluctuations in construction activity. During periods of diminished construction activity—when many construction workers are laid off—many construction managers remain employed to plan, schedule, or esti­ mate costs of future construction projects, as well as to manage maintenance, repair and renovation work which remains ongoing. Earnings Earnings of salaried construction managers and incomes of selfemployed independent construction contractors vary depending upon the size and nature of the construction project, its geographic loca­ tion, and economic conditions. Based on limited information avail­ able, the average starting salary for construction managers in 1994 was around $30,000 annually. The average salary for experienced construction managers in 1994 ranged from around $40,000 to $100,000 annually. Many salaried construction managers receive benefits such as bonuses, use of company motor vehicles, paid vacations, and life and health insurance.  32 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Related Occupations Construction managers participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and oversee its organization, scheduling, and implementation. Occupations that perform similar functions include architects, civil engineers, construction supervisors, cost engineers, cost estimators, developers, electrical engineers, industrial engineers, landscape architects, and mechanical engineers. Sources of Information For information about a career as a construction manager contact: •■American Institute of Constructors, 466 94th Ave. North, St. Petersburg, FL 33702. •■Associated Builders and Contractors, 1300 North 17th St., Rosslyn, VA 22209. •■Associated General Contractors of America, 1957 E St. NW„ Washington, DC 20006-5199. •■Construction Management Association of America, 7918 Jones Branch Dr., Suite 540, McLean, VA 22102.  Information on the accreditation requirements for construction science and management programs is available from: ••American Council for Construction Education, 1300 Hudson Lane, Suite 3, Monroe, LA 71201-6054.  Cost Estimators (D.O.T. 169.267-038; 221.362-018, and .367-014)  Nature of the Work Accurately predicting the cost of future projects is vital to the sur­ vival of any business. Cost estimators develop cost information for owners or managers to use in making bids for contracts, in determin­ ing if a new product will be profitable, or in determining which of a firms' products are making a profit. Regardless of the industry they work in, estimators compile and analyze data on all the factors that can influence costs—such as materials, labor, location, and special machinery requirements, including computer hardware and software. Job duties vary widely depending upon the type and size of the project. Estimators working in the construction industry and manufacturing businesses have different methods of and motivations for estimating costs. On a large construction project, for example, the estimating process begins with the decision to submit a bid. After reviewing the architect's drawings and specifications, the estimator visits the site of the proposed project. The estimator needs to gather information on access to the site and availability of electricity, water, and other services, as well as surface topography and drainage. If the project is a remodeling or renovation job, the estimator might consider the need to control noise and dust and schedule work in order to accom­ modate occupants of the building. The information developed during the site visit generally is recorded in a signed report that is made part of the final project estimate. After the site visit is completed, the estimator determines the quantity of materials and labor that the firm will have to furnish. This process, called the quantity survey or "takeoff," is completed by filling out standard estimating forms that provide spaces for the entry of dimensions, number of units, and other information. A cost estimator working for a general contractor, for example, will estimate the costs of all items the contractor must provide. Although subcon­ tractors will estimate their costs as part of their own bidding process, the general contractor's cost estimator often analyzes bids made by subcontractors as well. Also during the takeoff process, the estimator must make decisions concerning equipment needs, sequence of operations, and crew size. Allowances for the waste of materials, inclement weather, shipping delays, and other factors that may increase costs are incorporated in the takeoff.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  On completion of the quantity surveys, a total project cost sum­ mary is prepared by the chief estimator that includes the cost of labor, equipment, materials, subcontracts, overhead, taxes, insur­ ance, markup, and any other costs that may affect the project. The chief estimator then prepares the bid proposal for submission to the developer. Construction cost estimators also may be employed by the proj­ ect's architect or owner to estimate costs or track actual costs relative to bid specifications as the project develops. In large construction companies that employ more than one estimator, it is common prac­ tice for them to specialize. For instance, one person may estimate only electrical work, whereas another may concentrate on excava­ tion, concrete, and forms. In manufacturing and other firms, cost estimators generally are assigned to the engineering or cost department. The estimators' goal in manufacturing is to accurately allocate the costs associated with making products. The job may begin when management requests an estimate of the costs associated with a major redesign of an existing product or the development of a new product or production process. When estimating the cost of developing a new product, for example, the estimator works with engineers, first reviewing blueprints or conceptual drawings to determine the machining operations, tools, gauges, and materials that would be required for the job. The estima­ tor then prepares a parts list and determines whether it is more effi­ cient to produce or to purchase the parts. To do this, the estimator must initiate inquiries for price information from potential suppliers. The next step is to determine the cost of manufacturing each compo­ nent of the product. Some high technology products require a tre­ mendous amount of computer programming during the design phase. The cost of software development is one of the fastest growing and most difficult activities to estimate. Some cost estimators now specialize in only estimating computer software development and related costs. The cost estimator then prepares time-phase charts and learning curves. Time-phase charts indicate the time required for tool design and fabrication, tool "debugging"—finding and correcting all prob­ lems—manufacturing of parts, assembly, and testing. Learning curves graphically represent the rate at which performance improves with practice. These curves are commonly called "problemelimination" curves because many problems—such as engineering changes, rework, parts shortages, and lack of operator skills— diminish as the number of parts produced increases, resulting in lower unit costs. Using all of this information, the estimator then calculates the standard labor hours necessary to produce a predetermined number of units. Standard labor hours are then converted to dollar values, to  Cost estimators use computers to perform complex mathematical calculations.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 33  which are added factors for waste, overhead, and profit to yield the unit cost in dollars. The estimator then compares the cost of purchas­ ing parts with the firm's cost of manufacturing them to determine which is cheaper. Computers are widely used because cost estimating may involve complex mathematical calculations and require advanced mathemati­ cal techniques. For example, to undertake a parametric analysis, a process used to estimate project costs on a per unit basis subject to the specific requirements of a project, cost estimators use a computer database containing information on costs and conditions of many other similar projects. Although computers cannot be used for the entire estimating process, they can relieve estimators of much of the drudgery associated with routine, repetitive, and time-consuming calculations. Computers also are used to produce all of the necessary documentation with the help of basic word-processing and spread­ sheet software. This leaves estimators with more time to study and analyze projects and can lead to more accurate estimates. (More detailed information on various cost estimating techniques is avail­ able from the organizations listed under Sources of Additional In­ formation below.) Working Conditions Although estimators spend most of their time in an office, construc­ tion estimators must make frequent visits to work sites that are dirty and cluttered with debris. Likewise, estimators in manufacturing must spend time on the factory floor where it can be hot, noisy, and dirty. Cost estimators usually operate under pressure, especially when facing deadlines. Inaccurate estimating can cause a firm to lose out on a bid or lose money on a job that proves to be unprofit­ able. Although estimators normally work a 40-hour week, much overtime is often required. In some industries, frequent travel be­ tween a firm's headquarters and its subsidiaries or subcontractors also may be required. Employment Cost estimators held about 179,000 jobs in 1994, primarily in con­ struction industries. Others can be found primarily in manufacturing industries. Some cost estimators also worked for engineering and architectural services firms, business services firms, and throughout a wide range of other industries. Construction, operations research, production control, cost, and price analysts who work for government agencies also may do significant amounts of cost estimating in the course of their regular duties. (For more information, see the section on operations research analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Cost estimators work throughout the country, usually in or near major industrial, commercial, and government centers, and in cities and suburban areas undergoing rapid change or development. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Entry requirements for cost estimators vary significantly by industry. In the construction industry, employers prefer applicants with a thorough knowledge of construction materials, costs, and procedures in areas ranging from heavy construction to electrical work, plumb­ ing systems, or masonry work. Most construction estimators have considerable previous experience as a construction craft worker or manager. Individuals who combine this experience with some postsecondary training in construction estimating, or with a bache­ lor's or associate degree in civil engineering, architectural drafting, or building construction, have a competitive edge in landing jobs. In manufacturing industries, employers prefer to hire individuals with a degree in engineering, science, operations research, mathemat­ ics, or statistics, or in accounting, finance, business, or a related subject. In high-technology industries, great emphasis is placed on experience involving quantitative techniques. Cost estimators should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to quickly analyze, compare, and interpret detailed and sometimes poorly defined information, and be able to make sound and accurate judgments based on this knowledge. Assertiveness and self-con­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  fidence in presenting and supporting their conclusions are important. Cost estimators should also be familiar with computers and their application to the estimating process, including word-processing and spreadsheet packages used to produce necessary documentation. In some instances, familiarity with special estimation software or pro­ gramming skills may be useful. Regardless of their background, estimators receive much training on the job. Working with an experienced estimator, they become familiar with each step in the process. Those with no experience reading construction specifications or blueprints first learn that aspect of the work. They then may accompany an experienced estimator to the construction site or shop floor where they observe the work being done, take measurements, or perform other routine tasks. As they become more knowledgeable, estimators learn how to tabulate quantities and dimensions from drawings and how to select the appropriate material prices. Many colleges and universities include cost estimating as part of curriculums in civil engineering, industrial engineering, and con­ struction management or construction engineering technology. Courses and programs in cost estimating techniques and procedures are offered by many technical schools, junior colleges, and universi­ ties. In addition, cost estimating is a significant part of master's degree programs in construction management offered by many colleges and universities. Organizations that represent cost estima­ tors, such as American Association of Cost Engineers (AACE) International and the Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis, also sponsor educational programs. These programs help students, estimators-in-training, and experienced estimators stay abreast of changes affecting the profession. Voluntary certification can be valuable to cost estimators because it provides professional recognition of the estimator's competence and experience. Both AACE International and the Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis administer certification programs. To become certified, estimators generally must have between 3 and 7 years of estimating experience and must pass both a written and an oral examination. In addition, certification requirements may include publication of at least one article or paper in the field. For most estimators, advancement takes the form of higher pay and prestige. Some move into management positions, such as project manager for a construction firm or manager of the industrial engi­ neering department for a manufacturer. Others may go into business for themselves as consultants, providing estimating services for a fee to government or construction and manufacturing firms. Job Outlook Overall employment of cost estimators is expected to grow about as fast as average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the levels of construction and manufacturing activity increase as the economy grows. However, even when construction and manufacturing activity decline, there should always remain a demand for cost estimators to accurately predict costs in all areas of business. Some job openings will also arise from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or who leave the labor force altogether. Growth of the construction industry, where over 60 percent of all cost estimators are employed, will be the driving force behind the rising demand for these workers. The fastest growing sectors of the construction industry are expected to be special trade contractors and those associated with heavy construction and spending on the Na­ tion's infrastructure. Construction and repair of highways and streets, bridges, and construction of more subway systems, airports, water and sewage systems, and electric power plants and transmission lines will stimulate demand for many more cost estimators. Job prospects in construction should be best for those workers with a degree in construction management, engineering, or architectural drafting, or who have substantial experience in various phases of construction or a specialty craft area. Employment of cost estimators in manufacturing should remain relatively stable as firms continue to use their services to identify and  34 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  control their operating costs. Experienced estimators with degrees in engineering, science, mathematics, business administration, or eco­ nomics and who have computer expertise should have the best job prospects in manufacturing. Earnings Salaries of cost estimators vary widely by experience, education, size of firm, and industry. According to limited data available, most starting salaries in the construction industry for cost estimators with limited training were between about $17,000 and $21,000 a year in 1994. College graduates with degrees in fields such as engineering or construction management that provide a strong background in cost estimating could start at about $30,000 annually or more. Highly experienced cost estimators earned $75,000 a year or more. Starting salaries and annual earnings in the manufacturing sector usually were somewhat higher. Related Occupations Other workers who quantitatively analyze information in a similar capacity include appraisers, cost accountants, cost engineers, economists, evaluators, financial analysts, loan officers, operations research analysts, underwriters, and value engineers. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, certification, and educational programs in cost estimating in the construction industry may be obtained from: •"AACE International, 209 Prairie Ave., Suite 100, Morgantown, WV 26505. •"Professional Construction Estimators Association of America, P.O. Box 11626, Charlotte, NC 28220-1626.  Similar information about cost estimating in government, manu­ facturing, and other industries is available from: •■Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis, 101 S. Whiting St., Suite 201, Alexandria, VA 22304.  Education Administrators (D.O.T. 075.117-010, -018, -030; 090.117 except -034,. 167; 091.107; 092.167,. 117-010, . 167-014; 096.167; 097.167; 099.117 except -022, .167-034; 100.117-010; 169.267-022; 239.137-010)  Nature of the Work Smooth operation of an educational institution requires competent administrators. Education administrators provide direction, leader­ ship, and day-to-day management of educational activities in schools, colleges and universities, businesses, correctional institutions, muse­ ums, and job training and community service organizations. (College presidents and school superintendents are covered in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) Education administrators set educational standards and goals and aid in establishing the policies and procedures to carry them out. They develop academic programs; monitor students' educational progress; train and motivate teachers and other staff; manage guidance and other student services; administer recordkeeping; prepare budgets; handle relations with parents, prospective students, employers, and the community; and perform many other activities. They also supervise managers, management support staff, teach­ ers, counselors, librarians, coaches, and others. In an organization such as a small daycare center, there may be one administrator who handles all these functions. In universities or large school systems, responsibilities are divided among many administrators, each with a specific function. Principals manage elementary and secondary schools. They set  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the academic tone and they hire teachers and other staff, help them improve their skills, and evaluate them. Principals confer with staff—advising, explaining, or answering procedural questions. They visit classrooms, observe teaching methods, review instruc­ tional objectives, and examine learning materials. They actively work with teachers to develop and maintain high curriculum stan­ dards, develop mission statements, and set performance goals and objectives. As pay-for-performance becomes an accepted standard for teachers, principals must ensure that they are using clear, objec­ tive guidelines for teacher appraisals. Principals also meet and interact with other administrators, stu­ dents, parents, and representatives of community organizations. As decision-making authority shifts from school district central offices to individual schools, parents, teachers, and other members of the community are playing an increasingly important role in setting school policies and goals. Principals must pay attention to the con­ cerns of these groups when making administrative decisions. Principals prepare budgets and reports on various subjects, includ­ ing finances and attendance, and oversee the requisitioning and allocation of supplies. As school budgets become tighter, many principals are becoming more involved in public relations and fund raising in an effort to secure financial support for their schools from local businesses. Many principals take an active role in developing school/business partnerships and school-to-work transition programs for students. In recent years, schools have become more involved with stu­ dents' emotional welfare as well as their academic achievement. As a result, principals face new responsibilities. For example, in re­ sponse to the growing number of dual-income and single-parent families and teenage parents, more schools have before- and after­ school child- care programs or family resource centers, which also may offer parenting classes and social service referrals. With the help of community organizations, some principals have established programs to combat the increase in crime, drug and alcohol abuse, and sexually transmitted disease among students. Assistant principals aid the principal in the overall administration of the school. Some assistant principals hold this position for several years to prepare for advancement to principal; others are career assistant principals. Depending on the number of students, the number of assistant principals a school employs may vary. They are responsible for programming student classes, ordering textbooks and supplies, and coordinating transportation, custodial, cafeteria, and other support services. They usually handle discipline, attendance, social and recreational programs, and health and safety. They also may counsel students on personal, educational, or vocational matters. As site-based management becomes more prevalent, assistant princi­ pals are playing a greater role in curriculum development, evaluating teachers, and school-community relations, responsibilities previously assumed solely by the principal. Administrators in school district central offices manage public schools under their jurisdiction. This group includes those who direct subject area programs such as English, music, vocational education, special education, and mathematics. They plan, evaluate, standardize, and improve curriculums and teaching techniques, and help teachers improve their skills and learn about new methods and materials. They oversee career counseling programs, and testing which measures students' abilities and helps place them in appropri­ ate classes. Central office administrators also include directors of programs such as guidance, school psychology, athletics, curriculum and instruction, and professional development. With the trend to­ ward site-based management, principals and assistant principals, along with teachers and other staff, have primary responsibility for many of these programs in their individual schools. In colleges and universities, academic deans, deans of faculty, provosts, and/or university deans assist presidents and develop budgets and academic policies and programs. They direct and coor­ dinate activities of deans of individual colleges and chairpersons of academic departments.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 35  College or university department heads or chairpersons are in charge of departments such as English, biological science, or mathe­ matics. In addition to teaching, they coordinate schedules of classes and teaching assignments; propose budgets; recruit, interview, and hire applicants for teaching positions; evaluate faculty members; encourage faculty development; and perform other administrative duties. In overseeing their departments, chairpersons must consider and balance the concerns of faculty, administrators, and students. Higher education administrators also provide student services. Vice presidents of student affairs or student life, deans of students, and directors of student services may direct and coordinate admis­ sions, foreign student services, health and counseling services, career services, financial aid, and housing and residential life, as well as social, recreational, and related programs. In small colleges, they may counsel students. Registrars are custodians of students' educa­ tion records. They register students, prepare student transcripts, evaluate academic records, oversee the preparation of college cata­ logs and schedules of classes, and analyze registration statistics. Directors of admissions manage the process of recruiting and admit­ ting students, and work closely with financial aid directors, who oversee scholarship, fellowship, and loan programs. Registrars and admissions officers must adapt to technological innovations in stu­ dent information systems such as touch-tone voice response, desk-top publishing, and presentation of information—college catalogs and schedules, for example—on computer systems, including the Inter­ net. Directors of student activities plan and arrange social, cultural  Education administrators meet with other administrators, students, parents, and representatives of community organizations.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and recreational activities, assist student-run organizations, and may orient new students. Athletic directors plan and direct intramural and intercollegiate athletic activities, including publicity for athletic events, preparation of budgets, and supervision of coaches.  Working Conditions Education administrators hold management positions with significant responsibility. Coordinating and interacting with faculty, parents, and students can be fast-paced and stimulating, but also stressful and demanding. Some jobs include travel. Principals and assistant principals whose main duty is often discipline may find working with difficult students frustrating, but challenging. The number of schoolage children is rising, and some school systems have hired assistant principals when a school's population increased significantly. In other school systems, principals may manage larger student bodies, which can also be stressful. Most education administrators work more than 40 hours a week, including many nights and weekends when they oversee school activities. Unlike teachers, they usually work year round.  Employment Education administrators held about 393,000 jobs in 1994. About 9 out of 10 were in educational services—in elementary, secondary, and technical schools and colleges and universities. The rest worked in child daycare centers, religious organizations, job training centers, State departments of education, and businesses and other organiza­ tions that provide training activities for their employees.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Education administrator is not usually an entry-level job. Most education administrators begin their careers in related occupations, and prepare for a job in education administration by completing a master's or doctoral degree. Because of the diversity of duties and levels of responsibility, their educational backgrounds and experi­ ence vary considerably. Principals, assistant principals, central office administrators, and academic deans usually have taught or held another related job before moving into administration. Some teach­ ers move directly into principalships; others first become assistant principals, or gain experience in other central office administrative jobs at either the school or district level in positions such as depart­ ment head, curriculum specialist, or subject matter advisor. In some cases, administrators move up from related staff jobs such as re­ cruiter, guidance counselor, librarian, residence hall director, or financial aid or admissions counselor. Earning a graduate degree generally improves one's advancement opportunities in education administration. To be considered for education administrator positions, workers must first prove themselves in their current jobs. In evaluating candidates, supervisors look for determination, confidence, innova­ tiveness, motivation, leadership, and managerial attributes, such as ability to make sound decisions and organize and coordinate work efficiently. Since much of an administrator's job involves interacting with others, from students to parents to teachers, they must have strong interpersonal skills and be effective communicators and motivators. Knowledge of management principles and practices, gained through work experience and formal education, is important. In public schools, principals, assistant principals, and school administrators in central offices need a master's degree in education administration or educational supervision, and a State teaching certificate. Some principals and central office administrators have a doctorate or specialized degree in education administration. In private schools, which are not subject to State certification require­ ments, some principals and assistant principals hold only a bachelor's degree. However, the majority have a master's or doctoral degree.  36 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Licensing standards for principals are currently being developed and are expected to be in place by 1997. The Interstate Principals Licen­ sure Consortium will be the licensing body. Academic deans and chairpersons usually have a doctorate in their specialty. Most have held a professorship in their department before advancing. Admissions, student affairs, and financial aid directors and registrars sometimes start in related staff jobs with bachelor's degrees—any field usually is acceptable—and obtain advanced degrees in college student affairs or higher education administration. A Ph.D. or Ed.D. usually is necessary for top student affairs positions. Computer literacy and a background in mathemat­ ics or statistics may be assets in admissions, records, and financial work. Advanced degrees in higher education administration, educational supervision, and college student affairs are offered in many colleges and universities. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education accredits programs. Education administration degree programs include courses in school management, school law, school finance and budgeting, curriculum development and evaluation, research design and data analysis, community relations, politics in education, counseling, and leadership. Educational supervision degree programs include courses in supervision of instruction and curriculum, human relations, curriculum development, research, and advanced pedagogy courses. Education administrators advance by moving up an administrative ladder or transferring to larger schools or systems. They also may become superintendent of a school system or president of an educa­ tional institution.  According to a survey of public schools, conducted by the Educa­ tional Research Service, average salaries for principals and assistant principals in the 1994-95 school year were as follows: Principals: Elementary school.............................................................................$58,600 Junior high/middle school................................................................ 62,300 Senior high school............................................................................ 66,600 Assistant principals: Elementary school.............................................................................$48,500 Junior high/middle school................................................................ 52,900 Senior high school............................................................................ 55,600  In 1994-95, according to the College and University Personnel Association, median annual salaries for selected administrators in higher education were as follows: Academic deans: Medicine..........................................................................................$199,500 Law................................................................................................ 139,000 Engineering.................................................................................... 100,900 Arts and sciences............................................................................ 79,200 Business........................................................................................ 78,600 Education....................................................................................... 77,700 Social sciences............................................................................... 58,600 Mathematics................................................................................... 56,900 Student services directors:  Job Outlook Substantial competition is expected for prestigious jobs as educa­ tion administrators. Many teachers and other staff meet the educa­ tion and experience requirements for these jobs, and seek promotion. However, the number of openings is relatively small; only the most highly qualified are selected. Candidates who have the most formal education and who are willing to relocate should have the best job prospects. Employment of education administrators is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, particularly for principals and assistant principals, are likely to result from the need to replace administrators who retire. Additional openings will be created by workers who transfer to other occupations. Employment of education administrators will grow as more services are provided to students; as efforts to improve the quality of education continue; and as institutions comply with government regulations. As school enrollments increase, job opportunities for assistant principals will grow. Rather than opening new schools, many existing school populations will grow, spurring demand for assistant principals to help with the increased workload. The number of education administrators employed depends largely on State and local expenditures for education. Budgetary constraints could result in fewer administrators than anticipated; pressures to increase spending to improve the quality of education could result in more. Earnings Salaries of education administrators vary according to position, level of responsibility and experience, and the size and location of the institution. Generally, principals employed in public schools earn higher salaries than those in private schools. Based on a salary survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, master's degree candidates in education administration received starting salary offers averaging $31,600 a year in 1995; doctoral degree candidates in education administration, $58,600.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Admissions and registrar..................................................................$50,600 Student financial aid........................................................................ 43,400 Student activities.............................................................................. 33,400  Related Occupations Education administrators apply organizational and leadership skills to provide services to individuals. Workers in related occupations include health services administrators, social service agency adminis­ trators, recreation and park managers, museum directors, library directors, and professional and membership organization executives. Since principals and assistant principals generally have extensive teaching experience, their backgrounds are similar to those of teach­ ers and many school counselors.  Sources of Additional Information For information on elementary and secondary school principals, assistant principals, and central office administrators, contact: •"American Federation of School Administrators, 1729 21st St. NW., Wash­ ington, DC 20009. •"American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North Moore St„ Arlington, VA 22209  For information on elementary school principals and assistant principals, contact: •"The National Association of Elementary School Principals, 1615 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314-3483.  For information on secondary school principals and assitant principals, contact: •"The National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1904 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  For information on college student affairs administrators, contact: •"National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 1875 Connecti­ cut Ave. NW., Suite 418, Washington, DC 20009-5728.  For information on collegiate registrars and admissions officers, contact: •"American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, One Dupont Circle NW., Suite 330, Washington, DC 20036-1171.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 37  Employment Interviewers (D.O.T. 166.267-010)  Nature of the Work Whether you are looking for a job or trying to fill one, you could find yourself turning to an employment interviewer for help. Sometimes called personnel consultants, human resources coordinators, person­ nel development specialists, or employment brokers, employment interviewers help jobseekers find employment and help employers find qualified staff. Working largely in private personnel supply firms or State em­ ployment security offices (also known as job or employment service centers), employment interviewers act as brokers, putting together the best combination of applicant and job. To accomplish this, they obtain information from employers as well as jobseekers. Being a private industry employment interviewer is being a salesperson. Counselors pool together a group of qualified applicants and try to sell them to many different companies. Often a consultant will call a company that has never been a client (cold-calling) with the aim of filling their employment needs. Employers generally pay private (but not public) agencies to recruit workers. The employer places a "job order" with the agency describing the opening and listing requirements such as education, licenses or credentials, and experience. Employment interviewers often contact the employer to determine their exact personnel needs. Jobseekers are asked to fill out forms or present resumes that detail their education, experience, and other qualifications. They may be interviewed or tested and have their background, references, and credentials checked. The employment interviewer then reviews the job requirements and the jobseeker qualifications to determine the best possible match of position and employee. Although computers are increasingly used to keep records and match employers with jobseekers, personal contact with an employment interviewer re­ mains an essential part of an applicant's job search. Maintaining good relations with employers is an important part of the employment interviewer's job because this helps assure a steady flow of job orders. Being prepared to fill an opening quickly with a qualified applicant impresses employers most and keeps them as clients. Besides helping firms fill job openings, employment interviewers help individuals find jobs. The services they provide depend upon the company or type of agency they work for and the clientele it serves. Employment interviewers in personnel supply firms who place permanent employees are generally called counselors. They usually place job applicants who have the right qualifications but lack knowledge of the job market for their desired position. Counselors in these firms offer tips on personal appearance, suggestions on present­ ing a positive image of oneself, background on the company with which an interview is scheduled, and recommendations about inter­ viewing techniques. Many firms specialize in placing applicants in particular kinds of jobs, for example secretarial, word processing, computer programming and computer systems analysis, engineering, accounting, law, or health. Counselors in such firms usually have 3 to 5 years of experience in the field into which they are placing applicants. Some employment interviewers work in temporary help services companies. These companies send out their own employees to firms that need temporary help. Employment interviewers take job orders from client firms and match their requests against a list of available workers. Employment interviewers select the best qualified workers available and assign them to the firms requiring assistance. Some­ times employees placed with companies as temporaries are later hired as permanent employees.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Traditionally, firms that placed permanent employees usually dealt with highly skilled applicants, such as lawyers or accountants, and those placing temporary employees dealt with less skilled work­ ers, such as secretaries or data entry operators. However, temporary help services increasingly place workers with a wide range of educa­ tional backgrounds and work experience; businesses are turning to temporary employees to fill all types of positions to reduce costs of pay and benefits associated with hiring permanent employees. Regular evaluation of employee job skills is an important part of the job for those interviewers working in temporary help services companies. Initially, interviewers evaluate or test new employees' skills to determine their abilities and weaknesses. The results, which are kept on file, are referred to when filling job orders. In some cases, the temporary help company will train employees to improve their skills. Periodically, the interviewer may reevaluate or retest employees to identify any new skills they may have developed. The duties of employment interviewers in job service centers differ somewhat because applicants may lack marketable skills. In these centers, jobseekers present resumes and fill out forms that ask about educational attainment, job history, skills, awards, certificates, and licenses. An employment interviewer reviews these forms and asks the applicant about the type of job sought and salary range desired. Applicants sometimes have exaggerated expectations. Employment interviewers must be tactful, but persuasive, if an applicant's job or salary requests are unreasonable. Applicants may need help identifying the kind of work for which they are best suited. The employment interviewer evaluates the applicant's qualifications and either chooses an appropriate occupa­ tion or class of occupations, or refers the applicant for vocational testing. After identifying an appropriate job type, the employment inter­ viewer searches the file of job orders seeking a possible job match, and refers the applicant to the employer if a match is found. If no match is found, the interviewer shows the applicant how to use listings of available jobs. Some applicants are hindered by problems such as poor English language skills, no high school diploma, a history of drug or alcohol dependency, or a prison record. The amount and nature of special help for such applicants vary from State to State. In some States, it is the employment interviewer's responsibility to counsel hard-to-place applicants and refer them elsewhere for literacy or language instruc­ tion, vocational training, transportation assistance, child care, and other services. In other States, specially trained counselors perform this task.  Rapid expansion of temporary help firms will spur growth in the number of employment interviewers.  38 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Working Conditions Employment interviewers usually work in comfortable, well-lighted offices, often using a computer to match information about employ­ ers and jobseekers. Some interviewers, however, may spend much of their time out of the office interviewing. The work can prove hectic, especially in temporary help service companies which supply clients with immediate help for short periods of time. Some overtime may be required, and temporary workers may need their own transporta­ tion to make employer visits. The private placement industry is competitive, so counselors feel pressed to give their client companies the best service. Employment Employment interviewers held about 77,000 jobs in 1994. About 65 percent worked in the private sector for personnel supply services, generally for employment placement firms or temporary help serv­ ices companies. Another 21 percent worked for State or local gov­ ernment. Others were employed by organizations that provide various services, such as job training and vocational rehabilitation. Employees of career consulting or outplacement firms are not included in these estimates. Workers in these firms help clients market themselves; they do not act as job brokers, nor do they match individuals with particular vacancies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although most public and private agencies prefer to hire college graduates for interviewer jobs, a degree is not always necessary. Hiring requirements in the private sector reflect a firm's management approach as well as the placements in which its interviewers special­ ize. Those that place highly trained individuals such as accountants, lawyers, engineers, physicians, or managers generally have some training or experience in the field in which they are placing workers. Thus, a bachelor's, master's, or even a doctoral degree may be a prerequisite for some interviewers. Even with the right education, however, sales ability is still required to succeed in the private sector. Educational requirements play a lesser role for interviewers placing secretaries, word processing operators, and other clerical personnel. In these positions, qualities such as energy level, tele­ phone voice, and sales ability take precedence over educational attainment. Entry-level employment interviewer positions in the public sector are generally filled by college graduates, even though the positions do not always require a bachelor's degree. Some States allow substi­ tution of suitable work experience for college education. Suitable work experience is generally defined as public contact work or time spent at other jobs (including clerical jobs) in a job service office. In States that permit employment interviewers to engage in counseling, course work in counseling may be required. Most States and many large city and county governments use some form of merit system for hiring interviewers. Applicants may take a written exam, undergo a preliminary interview, or submit records of their education and experience for evaluation. Those who meet the standards are placed on a list from which the top-ranked candidates are selected for later interviews and possible hiring. Other desirable qualifications for employment interviewers include good communications skills, a desire to help people, office skills, and adaptability. A friendly, confidence-winning manner is an asset because personal interaction plays a large role in this occupa­ tion. Increasingly, employment interviewers use computers as a tool; thus, basic knowledge of computers is helpful. Advancement as an employment interviewer in the public sector is often based on a system providing regular promotions and salary increases for those meeting established standards. Advancement to supervisory positions is highly competitive. In personnel supply firms, advancement often depends on one's success in placing work­ ers and generally takes the form of greater responsibility and higher income. Successful individuals may form their own businesses.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment in this occupation is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The over­ whelming majority of new jobs will be with temporary help or per­ sonnel supply firms. Job growth is not anticipated in State job service offices because of budgetary problems and the increasing use of computerized job matching and information systems. Some addi­ tional job openings will result from the need to replace interviewers whose performance does not meet their employer's requirements for placing job applicants. Other openings will stem from the need to replace experienced interviewers who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons. Rapid expansion of firms supplying temporary help will be re­ sponsible for much of the growth in this occupation. Businesses of all types are turning to temporary help services companies for addi­ tional workers during busy periods, for handling short-term assign­ ments or one-time projects, for launching new programs, and to reduce costs of pay and benefits associated with hiring permanent employees. Expansion of the personnel supply industry, in general, will also spur job growth. Job orders will increase as the economy expands and new businesses are formed; this is expected to heighten demand for employment interviewers. Firms that lack the time or resources to develop their own screening procedures will likely turn to person­ nel firms. Employment opportunities should be better in private placement firms than in State job service centers. Entry to this occupation is relatively easy for college graduates, or people who have had some college courses, except in those positions specializing in placement of workers with highly specialized training, such as lawyers, doctors, and engineers. Employment interviewers who place permanent workers may lose their jobs during recessions because employers reduce or eliminate hiring for permanent positions during downturns in the economy. Also, during periods of high unemployment, employers have fewer problems finding the workers they need, so they turn less often to employment agencies for help. However, during these times the need for the services of employment interviewers who place tempo­ rary employees may increase. Employers are increasingly turning to temporary services because temporary employees, who generally do not receive typical benefits such as health or life insurance, are less expensive than permanent employees and are more flexible in terms of hours and working conditions. Those who place permanent or temporary personnel are more susceptible to layoffs than State job service employment interviewers. Earnings Earnings in private firms vary, in part, because the basis for compen­ sation varies. Workers in personnel supply firms tend to be paid on a commission basis; those in temporary help service companies receive a salary. When workers are paid on a commission basis (or salary plus commission), total earnings depend on how much business they bring in. This is usually based on the type as well as the number of place­ ments. Those who place more highly skilled or hard-to-find employ­ ees earn more. An interviewer or counselor working strictly on a commission basis often makes around 30 percent of what he or she bills the client, although this varies widely from firm to firm. Some work on a salary-plus-commission basis because they fill difficult or highly specialized positions requiring long periods of search. The salary, usually small by normal standards, guarantees these indi­ viduals security through slow times. The commission provides the incentive and opportunity for higher earnings. Some personnel supply firms employ new workers for a 2- to 3month probationary period during which they draw a regular salary. This gives new workers time to develop their skills and acquire some clients. At the end of the probationary period, the new employees are  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 39  evaluated, and they are either let go or switched to a commission basis. Related Occupations Employment interviewers serve as intermediaries for jobseekers and employers. Workers in several other occupations do similar jobs. Personnel officers screen and help hire new employees, but they concern themselves mainly with the hiring needs of the firm; they never represent individual jobseekers. Personnel officers may also have additional duties in areas such as payroll or benefits management. Career counselors help students and alumni find jobs, but they primarily emphasize career counseling and decision making, not placement. Counselors in community organizations and vocational rehabili­ tation facilities help clients find jobs, but they also assist with drug or alcohol dependencies, housing, transportation, child care, and other problems that stand in the way of finding and keeping a job. Sources of Additional Information For information on a career as an employment interviewer/counselor, contact:  ••National Association of Personnel Services, 3133 Mt. Vernon Ave., Alex­ andria, VA 22305. •"National Association of Temporary Services, 119 S. Saint Asaph St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information on a career as an employment interviewer in State employment security offices, contact offices of the State gov­ ernment for which you are interested in working.  Engineering, Science, and Data Processing Managers (D.O.T. 003.167-034 and -070; 005.167-010 and -022; 007.167-014; 008.167- 010; 010.161-010, -014, and .167-018; 011.161-010; 012.167-058 and -062; 018.167-022; 019.167-014; 022.161-010; 024.167-010; 029.167- 014; 162.117-030; 169.167-030 and -082; and 189.117-014)  Nature of the Work Engineering, science, and data processing managers plan, coordinate, and direct research, development, design, production, and computer related activities. They supervise a staff which may include engi­ neers, scientists, technicians, computer specialists, and data process­ ing workers, along with support personnel. Engineering, science, and data processing managers determine scientific and technical goals within broad outlines provided by top management. These goals may include the redesign of an industrial machine, improvements in manufacturing processes, the develop­ ment of a large computer program, or advances in basic scientific research. Managers make detailed plans for the accomplishment of these goals—for example, they may develop the overall concepts of new products or identify problems standing in the way of project completion. They forecast costs and equipment and personnel needs for projects and programs. They hire and assign scientists, engineers, technicians, computer specialists, data processing workers, and support personnel to carry out specific parts of the projects, supervise their work, and review their designs, programs, and reports. Managers coordinate the activities of their unit with other units or organizations. They confer with higher levels of management; with financial, industrial production, marketing, and other managers; and with contractors and equipment suppliers. They also establish working and administrative procedures and policies. Engineering managers direct and coordinate production, opera­ tions, quality assurance, testing, or maintenance in industrial plants;  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  or plan and coordinate the design and development of machinery, products, systems, and processes. Many are plant engineers, who direct and coordinate the maintenance, operation, design, and instal­ lation of equipment and machinery in industrial plants. Others manage research and development activities that produce new prod­ ucts and processes or improve existing ones. Natural science managers oversee activities in agricultural sci­ ence, chemistry, biology, geology, meteorology, or physics. They manage research and development projects and direct and coordinate testing, quality control, and production activities in research institutes and industrial plants. Electronic data processing managers direct, plan, and coordinate data processing activities. Top level managers direct all computerrelated activities in an organization. Others manage computer opera­ tions, software development, or data bases. They analyze the data processing requirements of their organization and assign, schedule, and review the work of systems analysts, computer pro­ grammers, and computer operators. They determine computer hardware requirements, evaluate equipment options, and make purchasing decisions. Some engineering, science, and data processing managers head a section of perhaps 3 to 10 or more scientists, engineers, or computer professionals. Above them are heads of divisions composed of a number of sections, with as many as 15 to 50 scientists or engineers. A few are directors of large laboratories or directors of research. Working Conditions Engineering, science, and data processing managers spend most of their time in an office. Some managers, however, may also work in laboratories or industrial plants, where they normally are exposed to the same conditions as research scientists and may occasionally be exposed to the same conditions as production workers. Most work at least 40 hours a week and may work much longer on occasion to meet project deadlines. Some may experience considerable pressure to meet technical or scientific goals within a short time or within a tight budget. Employment Engineering, science, and data processing managers held about 337,000 jobs in 1994. Although these managers are found in almost all industries, nearly two-fifths are employed in manufacturing, especially in the industrial machinery and equipment, electrical and electronic equipment, instruments, transportation equipment, and chemicals industries. However, the largest single industry employing these managers was engineering and architectural services, where  Managers of research and development activities are often scientists directly involved in research.  40 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  almost 1 in 10 worked in 1994. Others work for management and computer and data processing services companies, government, colleges and universities, and nonprofit research organizations. The majority are most likely engineering managers, often managing industrial research, development, and design projects. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Experience as an engineer, mathematician, natural scientist, or computer professional is the usual requirement for becoming an engineering, science, or data processing manager. Consequently, educational requirements are similar to those for scientists, engineers, and data processing professionals. Engineering managers start as engineers. A bachelor's degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is acceptable for beginning engineering jobs, but many engineers increase their chances for promotion to manager by obtaining a master's degree in engineering or business administration. A degree in business ad­ ministration or engineering management is especially useful for becoming a general manager. Natural science managers usually start as a chemist, physicist, biologist, or other natural scientist. Most natural scientists engaged in basic research have a Ph.D. degree. Some in applied research and other activities may have lesser degrees. First-level science manag­ ers are usually specialists in the work they supervise. For example, the manager of a group of physicists doing optical research is almost always a physicist who is an expert in optics. Most data processing managers have been systems analysts, although some may have experience as programmers, operators, or in other computer specialties. There is no universally accepted way of preparing for a job as a systems analyst. Many have degrees in computer or information science, computer information systems, or data processing and have experience as computer programmers. A bachelor's degree is usually required and a graduate degree often is preferred. However, many data processing managers have associate degrees. A typical career advancement progression in a large organi­ zation would be from programmer to programmer/analyst, to systems analyst, and then to project leader or senior analyst. The first real managerial position might be as project manager, programming supervisor, systems supervisor, or software manager. In addition to educational requirements, scientists, engineers, or computer specialists generally must have demonstrated above­ average technical skills to be considered for promotion to manager. Superiors also look for leadership and communication skills, as well as managerial attributes such as the ability to make rational deci­ sions, to manage time well, to organize and coordinate work effec­ tively, to establish good working and personal relationships, and to motivate others. Also, a successful manager must have the desire to manage. Many scientists, engineers, and computer specialists want to be promoted but actually prefer doing technical work. Some scientists and engineers become managers in marketing, personnel, purchasing, or other areas or become general managers. Job Outlook Opportunities for those who wish to become engineering, science, and data processing managers should be closely related to the growth of the occupations they supervise and the industries in which they are found. (See the accompanying chart and the statements on natural scientists, engineers, computer programmers, and computer scientists and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Because many engineers, natural scientists, and computer specialists are eligible for management and seek promotion, there can be substantial competi­ tion for these openings. Overall employment of engineering and science managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Underlying much of the growth of managers in science and engineering are competitive pressures and advancing technologies which force companies to update and improve products more frequently. Research and investment in plants and equipment  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Projected growth of engineering, natural sciences, and data processing managers over the period 1994-2005 should be closely related to the growth of the occupations they manage. Percent change  Engineers  Architects and surveyors  Life scientists  Computer, Physical mathematical, scientists and operations research specialists  Occupation group  to expand output of goods and services and to raise productivity also will add to employment requirements for science and engineering managers involved in research and development, design, and the operation and maintenance of production facilities. Many of the industries which employ engineers and scientists derive a large portion of their business from defense contracts. Because defense expenditures are being reduced, employment has declined and job outlook for managers is not as favorable in these industries compared with less defense-oriented industries. Employment of data processing managers will increase rapidly due to the fast paced expansion of the computer and data processing services industry and the increased employment of computer systems analysts. Large computer centers are consolidating or closing as small computers become more powerful, resulting in fewer oppor­ tunities for data processing managers at these centers. However, as the economy expands and as advances in technology lead to broader applications for computers, opportunities should increase and em­ ployment growth should be brisk. Earnings Earnings for engineering, science, and data processing managers vary by specialty and level of management. Science and engineering managers had average salaries that ranged from $44,000 to well over $100,000 for the most senior managers in large organizations, ac­ cording to the limited data available. Data processing managers had salaries that ranged from $35,000 to $80,000. Managers often earn about 15 to 25 percent more than those they directly supervise, although there are cases where some employees are paid more than the manager who supervises them, especially in research. According to a survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas, lower-level engineering managers had median annual earnings of $78,100 in 1993, with the middle half earning between $71,700 and $84,800. The highest-level engineering managers had median annual earnings of $105,700 with the middle half earning between $96,300 and $118,200. Beginning systems analysts managers had median annual earnings of $52,300, with the middle half earning between  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 41  $51,400 and $61,800. The most senior systems analysts managers had median annual earnings of $96,500, with the middle half earning between $88,300 and $105,300. In addition, engineering, science, and data processing managers, especially those at higher levels, often are provided more benefits (e.g., expense accounts, stock option plans, and bonuses) than nonmanagerial workers in their organizations. Related Occupations The work of engineering, science, and data processing managers is closely related to that of engineers, natural scientists, computer personnel, and mathematicians. It is also related to the work of other managers, especially general managers and top executives. Sources of Additional Information For information about a career as an engineering, science, or data processing manager, contact the sources of additional information on engineers, natural scientists, and systems analysts that are listed in statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.  Financial Managers (D.O.T. 160.167-058; 161.117-018; 169.167-086; 186.117-066,-070,-078, -086; .167-054, -086; 189.117-038)  Nature of the Work Practically every firm—whether in manufacturing, communications, finance, education, or health care—has one or more financial manag­ ers. Some of them are treasurers, controllers, credit managers, or cash managers; they prepare the financial reports required by the firm to conduct its operations and to ensure that the firm satisfies tax and regulatory requirements. Financial managers also oversee the flow of cash and financial instruments, monitor the extension of credit, assess the risk of transactions, raise capital, analyze investments, develop information to assess the present and future financial status of the firm, and communicate with stock holders and other investors. In small firms, chief financial officers usually handle all financial management functions. However, in large firms, these officers oversee financial management departments and help top managers develop financial and economic policy and establish procedures, delegate authority, and oversee the implementation of these policies. Highly trained and experienced financial managers head each financial department. Controllers direct the preparation of all finan­ cial reports—income statements, balance sheets, and special reports, such as depreciation schedules. They oversee the accounting, audit, or budget departments. Cash and credit managers monitor and control the flow of cash receipts and disbursements to meet the business and investment needs of the firm. For example, cash flow projections are needed to determine whether loans must be obtained to meet cash requirements, or whether surplus cash may be invested in interest-bearing instruments. Risk and insurance managers over­ see programs to minimize risks and losses that may arise from finan­ cial transactions and business operations undertaken by the institution. Credit operations managers establish credit rating crite­ ria, determine credit ceilings, and monitor their institution's extension of credit. Reserve officers review their institution's financial state­ ments and direct the purchase and sale of bonds and other securities to maintain the asset-liability ratio required by law. User representa­ tives in international accounting develop integrated international financial and accounting systems for the banking transactions of multinational organizations. A working knowledge of the financial systems of foreign countries is essential. Financial institutions—such as banks, savings and loan associa­ tions, credit unions, personal credit institutions, and finance compa­ nies — may serve as depositories for cash and financial instruments   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The need for skilled financial management is increasing. and offer loans, investment counseling, consumer credit, trust man­ agement, and other financial services. Some specialize in specific financial services. Financial managers in financial institutions include vice presidents—who may head one or more departments— bank branch managers, savings and loan association managers, consumer credit managers, and credit union managers. These man­ agers make decisions in accordance with policy set by the institu­ tion's board of directors and Federal and State laws and regulations. Due to changing regulations and increased government scrutiny, financial managers in financial institutions must place greater em­ phasis on accurate reporting of financial data. They must have detailed knowledge of industries allied to banking—such as insur­ ance, real estate, and securities—and a broad knowledge of business and industrial activities. With growing domestic and foreign com­ petition, knowledge of an expanding and increasingly complex variety of financial services is becoming a necessity for financial managers in financial institutions and other corporations. Besides supervising financial services, financial managers in financial insti­ tutions may advise individuals and businesses on financial planning. Working Conditions Financial managers are provided with comfortable offices, often close to top managers and to departments which develop the financial data these managers need. Financial managers typically work 40 hours a week, but many work longer hours. Attendance at meetings of financial and economic associations and similar activities is often required. In very large corporations, some traveling to subsidiary firms and to customer accounts may be necessary. Employment Financial managers held about 768,000 jobs in 1994. Although these managers are found in virtually every industry, nearly one-third were employed by financial institutions—banks, savings institutions, finance companies, credit unions, insurance companies, securities dealers, and real estate firms, for example. Another third were employed by services industries, including business, health, social, and management services. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in accounting or finance, or in business admini­ stration with an emphasis on accounting or finance, is the minimum academic preparation for financial managers. However, a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree increasingly is valued by employers. Many financial management positions are filled by promoting experienced, technically skilled professional personnel— for example, accountants, budget analysts, credit analysts, insurance  42 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  analysts, loan officers, and securities analysts—or accounting or related department supervisors in large institutions. Due to the growing complexity of global trade, shifting Federal and State laws and regulations, and a proliferation of new, complex financial instruments, continuing education is becoming vital for financial mangers. Firms often provide opportunities for workers to broaden their knowledge and skills and encourage employees to take graduate courses at colleges and universities or attend conferences sponsored by the company. In addition, financial management, banking, and credit union associations, often in cooperation with colleges and universities, sponsor numerous national or local training programs. Persons enrolled prepare extensively at home, then attend sessions on subjects such as accounting management, budget man­ agement, corporate cash management, financial analysis, interna­ tional banking, and data processing and management information systems. Many firms pay all or part of the costs for those who suc­ cessfully complete courses. Although experience, ability, and lead­ ership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by this type of special study. In some cases, financial managers may also broaden their skills and exhibit their competency in specialized fields by attaining pro­ fessional certification. For example, the Association for Investment Management and Research confers the Chartered Financial Analyst designation to investment professionals who have a bachelor's de­ gree, pass three test levels, and have 3 or more years of experience in the field. The National Association of Credit Management adminis­ ters a three-part certification program for business credit profession­ als. Through a combination of experience and examinations, these financial managers pass through the level of Credit Business Associ­ ate, to Credit Business Fellow, to Certified Credit Executive. The Treasury Management Association confers the Certified Cash Man­ ager designation to those who pass an examination and have 2 years of relevant experience. Persons interested in becoming financial managers should enjoy working independently, dealing with people, and analyzing detailed account information. The ability to communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, is also important. They also need tact, good judgment, and the ability to establish effective personal relationships to oversee staff. Financial analysis and management have been revolutionized by technological improvements in personal computers and data process­ ing equipment. Knowledge of their applications is vital to upgrade managerial skills and to enhance advancement opportunities. Because financial management is critical for efficient business operations, well-trained, experienced financial managers who display a strong grasp of the operations of various departments within their organization are prime candidates for promotion to top management positions. Some financial managers transfer to closely related posi­ tions in other industries. Those with extensive experience and access to sufficient capital may head their own consulting firms.  changing Federal and State laws and regulations. Many firms have reduced the ranks of middle managers in an effort to be more effi­ cient and competitive, but much of the restructuring and consolida­ tion is complete. The banking industry, on the other hand, is still undergoing mergers and consolidation, and may eliminate some financial management positions as a result.  Earnings The median annual salary of financial managers was $39,700 in 1994. The lowest 10 percent earned $20,200 or less, while the top 10 percent earned over $77,800. According to a 1995 survey by Robert Half International, a staff­ ing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, salaries of assistant controllers ranged from $40,000 in the smallest firms to $77,800 in the largest firms; controllers, $46,000 to $134,000; and chief financial officers/treasurers, $60,000 to $295,000. The salary level depends upon the manager's experience and the size and location of the organization, and is likely to be higher in larger organizations and cities. Many financial managers in private industry receive additional compensation in the form of bonuses, which also vary substantially by the size of the firm.  Related Occupations Financial managers combine formal education with experience in one or more areas of finance—such as asset management, lending, credit operations, securities investment, or insurance risk and loss control. Workers in other occupations which require similar training and ability include accountants and auditors, budget officers, credit analysts, loan officers, insurance consultants, portfolio managers, pension consultants, real estate advisors, securities analysts, and underwriters.  Sources of Additional Information For information about financial management careers in banking and related financial institutions, contact; •"American Bankers Association, Center for Banking Information, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information about financial careers in business credit manage­ ment, the Certified Credit Executive program, and institutions offer­ ing graduate courses in credit and financial management, contact: •"National Association of Credit Management (NACM), Credit Research Foundation, 8815 Centre Park Dr., Columbia, MD 21045-2117.  For information about careers in corporate cash management and the Certified Cash Manager program, contact: •"Treasury Management Association, 7315 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information about the Chartered Financial Analyst program, contact: Job Outlook Like other managerial occupations, the number of applicants for financial management positions is expected to exceed the number of job openings, resulting in competition for jobs. Many opportunities will exist for the most skilled, adaptable, and knowledgeable finan­ cial managers. Those who keep abreast of the latest financial instru­ ments and changing regulations, and those familiar with a range of financial services—for example, banking, business credit, credit unions, insurance, real estate, and securities—and with data process­ ing and management information systems will enjoy the best em­ ployment opportunities. Developing expertise in a rapidly growing industry, such as health care, also may prove helpful. Employment of financial managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The need for skilled financial management will increase due to the demands of global trade, the proliferation of complex financial instruments, and   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •"Association for Investment Management and Research, 5 Boar's Head Lane, P.O. Box 3668, Charlottesville, VA 22903.  For information about financial management careers in the health care industry, contact: •"Healthcare Financial Management Association, Two Westbrook Corporate Center, Suite 700, Westchester, IL 60154.  State bankers' associations can furnish specific information about job opportunities in their respective States, or write directly to a particular bank to inquire about job openings. For the names and addresses of banks and savings and related institutions, as well as the names of their principal officers, consult the following directories. •"The American Financial Directory (Norcross, Ga„ McFadden Business Publications). •"The U.S. Savings and Loan Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). •"Rand McNally Credit Union Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). •"Polk's World Bank Directory (Nashville, R.L. Polk & Co.).  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 43  INI' m  Funeral Directors (D.O.T. 187.167-030)  Nature of the Work Since the earliest of times, most peoples have held funeral ceremo­ nies. The dead have ritually been interred in pyramids, cremated on burning pyres, and sunk beneath the oceans' waves. Even today, funeral practices and rites vary greatly among various cultures and religions. Among the many diverse groups in the United States, funeral practices generally share some common elements: Removal of the remains of the deceased to a mortuary, preparation of the remains, performance of a ceremony that honors the deceased and addresses the spiritual needs of the living as well as the dead, and the burial or destruction of the remains. To unburden themselves of arranging and directing these tasks, grieving families turn to funeral directors. Funeral directors are also called morticians or undertakers. Although this career does not appeal to everyone, the men and women who work as funeral directors take great pride in the fact that they provide efficient and appropriate services that give comfort to their customers. Funeral directors interview the family to learn what they desire with regard to the nature of the funeral, the clergy members or other persons who will officiate, and the final disposition of the remains; sometimes the deceased leave detailed instructions for their own funerals. Together with the family, directors establish the location, dates, and times of wakes, memorial services, and burials. They also send a hearse to carry the body to the funeral home or mortuary. Burial in a casket is the most common method of disposing of remains in this country, although entombments also occur. Crema­ tion, which is the burning of a body in a special furnace, is increas­ ingly selected. Even when remains are cremated, the ashes are often placed in an urn and buried. Funeral directors usually stock a selec­ tion of caskets and urns for families to purchase. Directors arrange the details and handle the logistics of funerals. They prepare obituary notices and have them placed in newspapers, arrange for pallbearers and clergy, schedule with the cemetery the opening and closing of a grave, decorate and prepare the sites of all services, and provide for the transportation of the remains, mourners, and flowers between sites. They also direct preparation and shipment of remains for out-of-State burial. Funeral services may take place in the home, a house of worship, or the funeral home and at the grave site or crematory. Services may be nonreligious, but often they reflect the religion of the family, so funeral directors must be familiar with the funeral and burial customs of many faiths, ethnic groups, and fraternal organizations. For example, members of some religions seldom have the bodies of the deceased embalmed or cremated. Most funeral directors are also trained, licensed, and practicing embalmers. Embalming is a sanitary, cosmetic, and preservative process through which the body is prepared for interment. If more than 24 hours or so elapses between death and interment, State laws usually require that remains be refrigerated or embalmed. The embalmer washes the body with germicidal soap and replaces the blood with embalming fluid to preserve the body. Embalmers may reshape and reconstruct disfigured or maimed bodies using materials, such as clay, cotton, plaster of Paris, and wax. They also may apply cosmetics to provide a natural appearance, and then dress the body and place it in a casket. Embalmers maintain records such as em­ balming reports, and itemized lists of clothing or valuables delivered with the body. In large funeral homes, an embalming staff of two or more embalmers, plus several apprentices, may be employed. Funeral directors also handle the paper work involved with the person's death. They may help family members apply for veterans’ burial benefits, notify the Social Security Administration of the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  *-  t*4  Funeral directors interview the family to learn what type offuneral they desire. death, apply on behalf of survivors for the transfer of any pensions, insurance policies, or annuities, and submit papers to State authori­ ties so that a formal certificate of death may be issued and copies distributed to heirs. Funeral directors are also responsible for the success and the profitability of their businesses. Directors keep records on expenses, purchases, and services rendered; prepare and send invoices for services; prepare and submit reports for unemployment insurance; prepare Federal, State, and local tax forms; and prepare itemized bills for customers. Directors also strive to foster a cooperative spirit and friendly attitude among employees and a compassionate de­ meanor toward the families. A growing number of funeral directors are also involved in helping individuals adapt to changes in their lives following a death through post-death counseling and support group activities. Most funeral homes have a chapel, one or more viewing rooms, a casket-selection room, and a preparation room. Some also have a crematory on the premises. Equipment may include a hearse, a flower car, limousines, and sometimes an ambulance. Working Conditions Funeral directors often work long, irregular hours. Shift work is sometimes necessary because funeral home hours include evenings and weekends. In smaller funeral homes, working hours vary, but in larger homes employees generally work 8 hours a day, 5 or 6 days a week. Funeral directors occasionally come into contact with the remains of persons who had contagious diseases, but the possibility of infec­ tion is remote if strict health regulations are followed. To show proper respect and consideration for the families and the dead, funeral directors must dress appropriately. The profession usually requires short, neat hair cuts and trim beards if any, for men. Suits, ties, and dresses are customary for a conservative look. Employment Funeral directors held about 26,000 jobs in 1994. About 1 in 8 were self-employed. Nearly all worked in the funeral service and crema­ tory industry, but a few worked for the Federal Government. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Funeral directors must be licensed in all but one State, Colorado. Licensing laws vary from State to State, but most require applicants to be 21 years old, have a high school diploma, complete some college training in mortuary science, and serve an apprenticeship. After passing a State board licensing examination, new funeral directors may join the staff of a funeral home. Embalmers are re­  44 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  quired to be licensed in all States, and some States issue a single license for both funeral directors and embalmers. In States that have separate licensing and apprenticeship requirements for the two positions, most people in the field obtain both licenses. Persons interested in a career as a funeral director should contact their state board for specific state requirements. College programs in mortuary science usually last from 1 to 4 years, depending on the school. There were 42 mortuary science programs accredited by the American Board of Funeral Service Education in 1994. One-year mortuary science programs offered by some -vocational schools emphasize basic subjects such as anatomy, physiology, embalming techniques, and restorative art. Two-year programs are offered by a small number of community and junior colleges, and a few colleges and universities offer both 2- and 4-year programs. Mortuary science programs include courses in business management, accounting, and use of computers in funeral home management and client services. They also include courses in the social sciences and legal, ethical, and regulatory subjects, such as psychology, grief counseling, oral and written communication, funeral service law, business law, and ethics. The National Foundation of Funeral Service offers a continuing education program designed for active practitioners in the field. It is a 3-week program in communications, counseling, and management. Over 25 States have continuing education requirements that funeral directors must meet before a license can be renewed. Apprenticeships must be completed under an experienced and licensed funeral director or embalmer. Depending on State regula­ tions, apprenticeships last from 1 to 2 years and may be served before, during, or after mortuary school. They provide practical experience in all facets of the funeral service from embalming to transporting remains. State board licensing examinations vary, but they usually con­ sist of written and oral parts and include a demonstration of practical skills. Persons who want to work in another State may have to pass the examination for that State, although many States will grant licenses to funeral directors from another State without further examination. High school students can start preparing for a career as a funeral director by taking courses in biology and chemistry and participating public speaking or debating clubs. Part-time or summer jobs in funeral homes consist mostly of maintenance and clean-up tasks, such as washing and polishing limousines and hearses, but these tasks can help students become familiar with the operation of funeral homes. Important personal traits for funeral directors are composure, tact, and the ability to communicate easily with the public. They also should have the desire and ability to comfort people in their time of sorrow. Advancement opportunities are best in large funeral homes at which directors may earn promotions to higher paying positions such as branch manager or general manager. Some directors eventually acquire enough money and experience to establish their own funeral businesses. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for funeral directors are expected to be excellent, because the number of graduates in mortuary science is likely to continue to be less than the number of job openings in the field. Employment of funeral directors is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. De­ mand for funeral services will rise as the population grows, and with it the number of deaths. The population is projected to become older because the number of persons age 55 and over is expected to in­ crease significantly faster than the population as a whole. Cremations have been increasing over the years. This trend may lessen the demand for embalming somewhat, because embalming is not required before cremation.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Salaries of funeral directors depend on the size of the establishment and the number of services performed. A survey conducted by the National Funeral Directors Association found that the average salary, including bonus, for funeral directors who were owner-managers was $62,506 in 1994; mid-level managers averaged $44,062. Related Occupations The job of a funeral director requires tact, discretion, and compassion when dealing with grieving people. Others who need these qualities include members of the clergy, social workers, psychologists, psy­ chiatrists, and other health care professionals. Sources of Additional Information For information on the funeral service profession and funeral service statistics, write to: •"The National Funeral Directors Association, 11121 West Oklahoma Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53227.  For information about college programs in mortuary science, scholarships, and funeral service as a career, contact: ••The American Board of Funeral Service Education, P.O. Box 1305, Brunswick, ME 04011.  For information on continuing education programs in funeral service, contact: ••The National Foundation of Funeral Service, 2250 East Devon Ave., Suite 250, Des Plaines, IL 60018.  For information on programs, publications, and statistics on cremations write to: •■The Cremation Association of North America, 401 N. Michigan, Chicago, IL 60611.  General Managers and Top Executives (List of D.O.T. codes available upon request. See p. 478.) Nature of the Work Chief executive officer, president, executive vice president,, partner, financial institution president, brokerage office manager, college president, school superintendent, and police chief—all are examples of general managers and top executives who formulate the policies and direct the operations of corporations, nonprofit institutions, and government agencies. (The chief executives who formulate policy in government are discussed in detail in the Handbook statement on government chief executives and legislators.) The fundamental objective of private for-profit companies is to make a profit for their shareholders or owners, or to increase share­ holder value. Nonprofit organizations and government agencies must effectively implement programs that further their causes or policies within budgetary constraints and shifting public priorities. General managers and top executives work to ensure that their organizations meet these objectives. A corporation's general goals and policies are established by the chief executive officer in collaboration with other top executives, who are overseen by a board of directors. In a large corporation, chief executive officers must frequently meet with other executives of the corporation to ensure that operations are being carried out in accordance with the organization's policies. Although the chief executive officer of a corporation retains overall accountability, a chief operating officer may be delegated the authority to oversee the executives who direct the activities of various departments and are responsible for implementing the organization's policies in these departments on a day-to-day basis. In publicly-held corporations it is the board of directors that is ultimately accountable for the success or failure of the enterprise, and the chief executive officer reports to the  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 45  1994. They are found in every industry, but wholesale and retail trade and services industries employ over 6 out of 10.  r’wr"  P§  General managers and top executives held over 3 million jobs in 1994.  board. In nonprofit corporations, the board of trustees fulfills the same role. The scope of other high level executive's responsibilities depends greatly upon the size of the organization. In large organizations, their duties may be highly specialized. For example, they may over­ see managers of marketing, sales promotion, purchasing, finance, personnel, training, industrial relations, administrative services, electronic data processing, property management, transportation, or legal services departments. (Some of these and other managerial occupations are discussed elsewhere in this section of the Hand­ book.) In smaller firms, the chief executive or general manager might be responsible for all or a number of these functions. Middle managers, in turn, direct their individual departments' activities within the framework of the organization's overall plan. With the help of supervisory managers and their staffs, these manag­ ers oversee and motivate their workers to achieve their departments' goals as rapidly and economically as possible. In smaller organiza­ tions, such as independent retail stores or small manufacturers, a partner, owner, or general manager may be responsible for all pur­ chasing, hiring, training, quality control, and other day-to-day su­ pervisory duties. (See the Handbook statement on retail managers.) Working Conditions General managers in large firms or government agencies are usually provided with offices close to the top executives to whom they report. Top executives are generally provided with spacious offices and secretarial and support staff. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are the rule for most top executives and general managers, though their schedules may be flexible. Substantial travel is often required of managers and executives, who may travel between national, regional, and local offices or overseas to monitor operations and meet with customers and staff and other executives. Many attend meetings and conferences that are sponsored by associations which provide an opportunity to meet with prospective customers and keep abreast of technological and other developments. In large corporations, frequent job transfers between local offices or subsidiaries are common. With increasing domestic and interna­ tional competition, general managers and top executives are under intense pressure to attain ever higher profit, production, and market­ ing goals. Executives in charge of poorly performing companies or departments generally find their jobs in jeopardy. Employment General managers and top executives held over 3 million jobs in  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The educational background of managers and top executives varies as widely as the nature of their responsibilities. Many general man­ agers and top executives have a bachelor's degree or higher in liberal arts or business administration. Their major often is related to the departments they direct—for example, accounting for a manager of finance or computer science for a manager of information systems. Graduate and professional degrees are common. Many managers in administrative, marketing, financial, and manufacturing activities have a master's degree in business administration. Managers in highly technical manufacturing and research activities often have a master's degree in engineering or a doctoral degree in a scientific discipline. A law degree is mandatory for managers of legal depart­ ments; hospital administrators generally have a master's degree in health services administration or business administration. (For addi­ tional information, see the Handbook statement on health services managers.) College presidents and school superintendents generally have a doctorate, often in education administration. (See the Hand­ book statement on education administrators.) On the other hand, in some industries, such as retail trade or transportation, it is fairly com­ mon for individuals without a college degree to become managers. In the public sector, many managers have liberal arts degrees in public administration or one of the social sciences. Park superinten­ dents, for example, often have liberal arts degrees, while police chiefs are generally graduates of police academies, and hold degrees in police science or a related field. Since most general manager and top executive positions are filled by promoting experienced, lower level managers, many are promoted from within the organization. Some companies prefer that their top executives have specialized backgrounds and hire individuals who are managers in other organizations. Qualities critical for success include leadership, self-confidence, motivation, decisiveness, flexi­ bility, the ability to communicate effectively, sound business judg­ ment, and stamina. Advancement may be accelerated by participation in company training programs to gain a broader knowledge of company policy and operations. Through attendance at national or local training programs sponsored by various industry and trade associations and by continuing education, normally at company expense, managers can become familiar with the latest developments in management techniques and improve their chances of promotion. Every year, thousands of senior managers, who often have experience in a par­ ticular field, such as accounting, engineering, or science, attend executive development programs to facilitate their promotion from functional specialists to general managers. Participation in interdis­ ciplinary conferences and seminars can expand knowledge of na­ tional and international issues influencing the firm and can help develop a network of useful business contacts. General managers and top executives must have highly developed personal skills. An analytical mind able to quickly assess large amounts of information and data is very important, as is the ability to consider and evaluate the interrelationships of numerous factors. General managers and top executives also must be able to communi­ cate clearly and persuasively with customers, subordinate managers, and others. General managers may advance to top executive positions, such as executive vice president, in their own firm or they may land a corresponding position in another firm. They may even advance to peak corporate positions such as chief operating officer or chief executive officer. Chief executive officers and other top executives often become members of the board of directors of one or more firms. Typically the chief executive is also a director of his or her own firm and often chairs the board of directors. Some general managers and top executives go on to establish their own firms or become independent consultants.  46 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Job Outlook Employment of general managers and top executives is expected to grow about as fast as average for all occupations through the year 2005 as new companies start up and established companies seek managers who can help them maintain a competitive edge in domes­ tic and world markets. In addition, because this is a large occupa­ tion, many openings will occur each year as executives transfer to other positions, start their own businesses, or retire. Nonetheless, competition for top managerial jobs will be keen. Many executives who leave their jobs transfer to other executive or managerial posi­ tions, limiting openings for new entrants. Continued management efforts to downsize and restructure—resulting in layoffs of, mostly, middle managers—will add to an ample supply of competent manag­ ers seeking positions. Projected employment growth of general managers and top executives varies widely among industries. For example, employ­ ment growth is expected to be faster than average in all services industries combined, but only about as fast as average in all finance, insurance, and real estate industries combined. Employment of general managers and top executives is projected to decline in manu­ facturing industries overall. Because of the growing importance of the global market, overseas experience may give a prospective general manager an edge in seeking additional responsibility. Experienced managers whose accomplishments reflect strong leadership qualities and the ability to improve the efficiency or competitive position of an organization will have the best opportuni­ ties. In an increasingly global economy, certain types of experience, such as international economics, marketing, information systems, or knowledge of several disciplines, will also help.  Earnings General managers and top executives are among the highest paid workers in the Nation. However, salary levels vary substantially depending upon the level of managerial responsibility, length of service, and type, size, and location of the firm. At the highest level, chief executive officers (CEOs) of medium and large corporations are extremely well paid. Salaries often are related to the size of the corporation—a top manager in a very large corporation can earn significantly more than a counterpart in a small firm. Total compensation often includes, in addition to salaries, stock options and dividends, and other performance bonuses. Salaries also vary substantially by type and level of responsibili­ ties and by industry. According to a salary survey by Robert Half International, senior vice presidents/heads of lending in banks with $1 billion or more in assets earned about $200,000 in 1995. Based on a survey sponsored by the Administrative Management Society, the average salary for managers of large plants with more than 500 employees ranged from $70,000 to $108,000 in 1994. In the non­ profit sector, three quarters of the CEOs make under $81,700, accord­ ing to a survey by Abbott, Langer, & Associates. Company-paid insurance premiums and physical examinations, the use of executive dining rooms and company cars, and expense allowances are among benefits commonly enjoyed by general man­ agers and top executives in private industry. CEOs often enjoy company-paid club memberships, a limousine with driver, and other amenities. CEOs of very large corporations may have the use of private aircraft. Related Occupations General managers and top executives plan, organize, direct, control, and coordinate the operations of an organization and its major de­ partments or programs. The members of the board of directors and supervisory managers are also involved in these activities. Occupa­ tions in State and local government with similar functions are gover­ nor, mayor, commissioner, and director.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information For a wide variety of information on general managers and top executives, including educational programs and job listings, contact: ••American Management Association, 135 West 50th St., New York, NY 10020 ••National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439.  Government Chief Executives and Legislators Nature of the Work Chief executives and legislators at the Federal, State, and local level direct governmental activities and make laws that affect all of us. They are elected or appointed officials who strive to meet the needs of their constituents through effective and efficient government. Chief executives are officials who run governmental bodies that formulate and enforce laws. These officials include the President and Vice President of the United States, State governors and lieuten­ ant governors, county executives, town and township officials, mayors, and city, county, town, and township managers. All except local government managers are elected by their constituents. Man­ agers are appointed by the local government council or commission. Government chief executives, like their counterparts in the private sector, have overall responsibility for how their organizations per­ form. Working in coordination with legislators, they establish goals and then organize programs and form policies to attain them. They appoint heads of departments, such as highway, health, law enforce­ ment, park and recreation, economic development, education, and finance departments. Through these departmental heads, chief executives oversee the work of the civil servants who carry out programs and enforce laws enacted by the legislative bodies. They prepare budgets, specifying how government resources will be used, and insure that these resources are used properly and programs are carried out as planned. Chief executives meet with legislators and constituents to discuss proposed programs and encourage their support. They also may confer with leaders of other governments to solve mutual problems. Chief executives nominate citizens for boards and commissions that oversee government activities addressing problems such as drug abuse, crime, deteriorating roads, and inadequate public education. They also solicit bids from and select contractors to do work for the government, encourage business investment and economic develop­ ment in their jurisdictions, and seek Federal or State funds. Chief executives of large jurisdictions rely on a staff of aides and assistants, but those in small ones often do much of the work themselves. City, county, town, and other managers, although appointed officials, may act as chief executives. Legislators are the elected officials who pass laws or amend existing ones in order to remedy problems or to promote certain activities. They include U.S. Senators and Representatives, State senators and representatives (called assemblypersons or delegates in some States), county legislators (called supervisors, commissioners, councilmembers, or freeholders in some States), and city and town council members (called trustees, clerks, supervisors, magistrates, and commissioners, among other titles). Legislators introduce bills in the legislative body and examine and vote on bills introduced by other legislators. In preparing legis­ lation, they read staff reports and work with constituents, representa­ tives of interest groups, members of boards and commissions, the chief executive and department heads, and others with an interest in the legislation. They generally approve budgets and the appointments of department heads and commission members submitted by the chief executive. In some jurisdictions, the legislative body appoints  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 47  Many government chief executives have a staff to help do research, prepare legislation, and resolve problems.  a city, town, or county manager. Many legislators, especially at the State and Federal levels, have a staff to perform research, prepare legislation, and resolve constituents' problems. Both chief executives and legislators perform many ceremonial duties such as opening new buildings, making proclamations, wel­ coming visitors, and leading celebrations. Working Conditions The working conditions of chief executives and legislators vary with the size and budget of the governmental unit. Time spent at work ranges from meeting once a month for a local council member to 60 or more hours per week for a U. S. Senator. U.S. Senators and Representatives, governors and lieutenant governors, and chief executives and legislators in large local jurisdictions usually work full time year round, as do county and city managers. Many State legislators work full time while legislatures are in session (usually for 2 to 6 months a year) and part time the rest of the year. Local elected officials in most jurisdictions work a schedule that is officially designated part time, but many incumbents actually work a full-time schedule when unpaid duties are taken into account. In addition to their regular schedules, chief executives are on call at all hours to handle emergencies. Some jobs require only occasional out-of-town travel, but others involve long periods away from home to attend sessions of the legislature. Officials in rural districts covering a large area may drive long distances to perform their regular duties. Employment Chief executives and legislators held about 91,000 jobs in 1994. About 5 of 6 worked in local government, while the rest worked pri­ marily in State governments. The Federal Government had 535 Senators and Representatives and the President and Vice President. There were about 7,500 State legislators and, according to the Inter­ national City/County Management Association (ICMA), about 10,100 city managers. Executives and council members for local govern­ ments made up the remainder. Chief executives and legislators who do not hold full-time, yearround positions often work in a second occupation as well. This is commonly the one they held before being elected. Business owner or manager, teacher, and lawyer are common primary occupations, and there are many others as well. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because voters seek to elect the individual believed to be most qualified from among a slate of candidates who meet the minimum  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  age, residency, and citizenship requirements, the question becomes not "How does one become qualified?" but "How does one get elected?" Successful candidates usually have a strong record of accom­ plishment in paid and unpaid work. Some have business, teaching, or legal experience, but others come from a wide variety of occu­ pations. In addition, many have served as volunteers on school boards or zoning commissions; with charities, political action groups, and political campaigns; or with religious, fraternal, and social organizations. Management-level work experience and public service help develop the planning, organizing, negotiating, motivating, fundrais­ ing, budgeting, public speaking, and problem-solving skills needed to run a political campaign. Candidates must make decisions quickly, sometimes with little or contradictory information. They must inspire and motivate their constituents and their staff. They should appear sincere and candid, presenting their views thoughtfully and convincingly. Additionally, they must know how to hammer out compromises and satisfy the demands of constituents. National and Statewide campaigns also require massive amounts of energy and stamina, as well as superior fund raising skills. Town, city, and county managers are appointed by a council or commission. Managers come from a variety of educational back­ grounds. A master's degree in public administration—including courses such as public financial management and legal issues in public administration—is widely recommended but not required. Virtually all town, city, and county managers have at least a bache­ lor's degree and the majority hold a master's degree. Working as a student intern in government is recommended—the experience and personal contacts acquired can prove invaluable in eventually secur­ ing a position. Generally, a town, city, or county manager in a smaller jurisdic­ tion is required to have expertise in a wide variety of areas. Those who work for larger jurisdictions specialize in financial, administra­ tive, and personnel matters. For all managers, communication skills and the ability to get along with others are essential. Advancement opportunities for elected public officials are not clearly defined. Because elected positions normally require a period of residency and because local public support is critical, officials can usually advance to other offices only in the jurisdictions where they live. For example, council members may run for mayor or for a position in the State government, and State legislators may run for governor or for Congress. Many officials are not politically ambi­ tious, however, and do not seek advancement. Others lose their bids for reelection or voluntarily leave the occupation. A lifetime career as a government chief executive or legislator is rare. Town, city, and county managers have a clearer career path. They generally obtain a master's degree in public administration, then gain experience as management analysts or assistants in government departments working for councils or chief executives and learning about planning, budgeting, civil engineering, and other aspects of running a city. With sufficient experience, they may be hired to manage a town or a small city and may become manager of progres­ sively larger cities over time. Job Outlook Little, if any, growth is expected in the number of government chief executives and legislators through the year 2005. Few, if any, new governments are likely to form, and the number of chief executives and legislators in existing governments rarely changes. Some small increase may occur as growing communities—in the rapidly growing South and West, for example—become independent cities and towns and elect a chief executive and legislators and, perhaps, appoint a town manager. A few new positions may also develop as cities and counties without managers hire them and as unpaid offices—which are not counted as employment—are converted to paid positions. Elections give newcomers the chance to unseat incumbents or to fill vacated positions. In many elections, there is substantial compe­  48 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  tition, although the level of competition varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and from year to year. Generally, there is less competi­ tion in small jurisdictions, which have part-time positions offering relatively low salaries and little or no staff to help with routine work, than in large jurisdictions, which have full-time positions offering higher salaries, more staff, and greater status. In some cases, an incumbent runs unopposed, or an incumbent resigns, leaving only one candidate for a job. The high cost of running for such positions in large jurisdictions may serve as a deterrent, or may leave the challenger dependent on contributions from special interest groups. Earnings Earnings of public administrators vary widely, depending on the size of the government unit and on whether the job is part time, full time and year round, or full time for only a few months a year. Salaries range from little or nothing for a small town council member to $200,000 a year for the President of the United States. According to the International City/County Management Asso­ ciation, the average annual salary of mayors was about $9,900 in 1994. ICMA data indicate that the average salary for city managers was about $65,700 in 1994. Salaries ranged from $30,800 in towns with fewer than 2,500 residents to $130,400 in cities with a popula­ tion over 1 million. According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, the salary for legislators in the 40 States that paid an annual salary ranged from about $10,000 to $47,000 per year. In 6 States, legisla­ tors received a daily salary plus an allowance for expenses while legislatures were in session. Two States paid no expenses and only nominal daily salaries, while 2 States paid no salary at all but did pay a daily expense allowance. Salaries and the expense allowance were generally higher in the larger States. Data from Book of the States, 1994-95 indicate that gubernatorial annual salaries ranged from $60,000 in Arkansas to $130,000 in New York. In addition to a salary, most governors received perquisites such as transportation and an official residence. In 1995, U.S. Senators and Representatives earned $133,600, the Senate and House Majority and Minority leaders $148,400, and the Vice President $171,500. Related Occupations Related occupations include managerial positions that require a broad range of skills in addition to administrative expertise, such as corpo­ rate chief executives and board members, and high ranking officers in the military.  ager" encompasses individuals in many different positions who plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise the delivery of health care. Health services managers include both generalists—administrators who manage or help to manage an entire facility—and health special­ ists—managers in charge of specific clinical departments or services found only in the health industry. The structure and financing of health care is changing rapidly. Future health services managers must be prepared to deal with evolving integrated health care delivery systems, restructuring of work, and an increased focus on preventive care. The top administrator or chief executive officer (CEO) and the assistant administrators without specific titles are health care general­ ists, who set the overall direction of the organization. They concen­ trate on such areas as community outreach, planning, marketing, human resources, finance, and complying with government regula­ tions. Their range of knowledge is broad, including developments in the clinical departments as well as in the business arena. They often speak before civic groups, promote public participation in health programs, and coordinate the activities of the organization with those of government or community agencies. CEO’s make long-term institutional plans by assessing the need for services, personnel, facilities, and equipment and recommending changes such as opening a home health service. CEO's need leadership ability as well as technical skills to provide quality health care while, at the same time, satisfying demand for financial viability, cost containment, and public and professional accountability. Larger facilities typically have several assistant administrators to aid the top administrator and to handle day-to-day decisions. They may direct activities in clinical areas such as nursing, surgery, ther­ apy, food service, and medical records; or the activities in nonhealth areas such as finance, housekeeping, human resources, and informa­ tion management. (Because the nonhealth departments are not directly related to health care, these managers are not included in this statement. For information about them, see the statements on mana­ gerial occupations elsewhere in the Handbook). In smaller facilities, top administrators may handle more of the details of day-to-day operations. For example, many nursing home administrators directly manage personnel, finance, operations, and admissions. Clinical managers have more narrowly defined responsibilities than generalists and have training and/or experience in a specific clinical area. For example, directors of physical therapy are experi­ enced physical therapists, and most medical records administrators have a bachelor's degree in medical records administration. These managers establish and implement policies, objectives, and proce­ dures for their departments; evaluate personnel and work; develop reports and budgets; and coordinate activities with other managers.  Sources of Additional Information Information on appointed officials in local government can be ob­ tained from: ••■International City/County Management Association, 777 North Capitol St. NE., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20002.  Health Services Managers (D O.T. 072.117-010; 074.167-010, 075.117-014, -022, -026, -030 and -034; 076.117-010; 077.117-010; 078.131-010, .161-010 and -014, . 162-010; 079 117-010, .131-010, .151-010. and .167-014; 187.117-010, -058, 062, and .167-034, and-090; 188.117-082  Nature of the Work Health care is a business, albeit a special one. Like every other business, it needs good management to keep it running smoothly, especially during times of change. The term "health services man­   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Health services managers coordinate the delivery of health care services.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 49  In group practices, managers work closely with the physician owners. While an office manager may handle business affairs in small medical groups, leaving policy decisions to the physicians themselves, larger groups generally employ a full-time administrator to advise on business strategies and coordinate day-to-day business. A small group of 10 or 15 physicians might employ a single administrator to oversee personnel matters, billing and collection, budgeting, planning, equipment outlays, and patient flow. A large practice of 40 or 50 physicians may have a chief administrator and several assistants, each responsible for different areas. Health services managers in health maintenance organizations (HMO's) and other managed care settings perform functions similar to those in large group practices, except their staffs may be larger. Also, they may do more work in the areas of community outreach and preventive care than managers of a group practice. The size of the administrative staff in HMO's varies according to the size and type of HMO. Some health services managers oversee the activities of a number of facilities in multifacility health organizations. Working Conditions Many health services managers work long hours. Facilities such as nursing homes and hospitals operate around the clock, and adminis­ trators and managers may be called at all hours to deal with prob­ lems. They may also travel to attend meetings or to inspect satellite facilities. Employment Health services managers held about 315,000 jobs in 1994. Over one-half of all jobs were in hospitals. About 1 in 4 were in nursing and personal care facilities or offices and clinics of physicians. The remainder worked in home health agencies, medical and dental laboratories, offices of dentists and other practitioners, and other health and allied services. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Health services managers must be familiar with management princi­ ples and practices. Some learn from work experience. However, formal education is usually necessary for advancement. Most CEO positions require a graduate degree in health services administration, nursing administration, or business administration. For some gen­ eralist positions, employers seek applicants with clinical experience (as nurses or therapists, for example) as well as academic preparation in business or health services administration. Bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degree programs in health administration are offered by colleges, universities, and schools of public health, medicine, allied health, public administration, and business administration. There are also some certificate or diploma programs, generally lasting less than 1 year, in health services ad­ ministration and in medical office management. A master’s degree— in health services administration, long term care administration, health sciences, public health, public administration, or business administration—is the standard credential for most generalist posi­ tions in this field. However, a bachelor's degree is adequate for some entry-level positions in smaller operations. A bachelor's degree is required to work in smaller nursing homes, and a master’s degree in larger long-term care facilities. Physicians' offices and some other facilities may substitute on-the-job experience for formal education. For clinical department heads, a degree in the appropriate field and work experience are usually sufficient, but a master's degree in health services administration usually is required to advance. In 1995, 69 schools had accredited programs leading to the master's degree in health services administration, according to the Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration. Some graduate programs seek students with undergraduate de­ grees in business or health administration; however, many programs prefer students with a liberal arts or health professions background.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Competition for entry to these programs is keen, and applicants need above-average grades to gain admission. The programs generally last between 2 and 3 years. They may include up to 1 year of super­ vised administrative experience, and course work in areas such as hospital organization and management, marketing, accounting and budgeting, human resources administration, strategic planning, health economics, and health information systems. Some programs allow students to specialize in one type of facility—hospitals; nursing homes; mental health facilities; HMO's; or outpatient care facilities, including medical groups. Other programs encourage a generalist approach to health administration education. New graduates with master's degrees in health services or hospital administration may start as department managers or in staff positions. The level of the starting position varies with the experience of the applicant and the size of the facility. Postgraduate residencies and fellowships are offered by hospitals and other health facilities; these usually are staff positions. Graduates from master's degree programs also take jobs in HMO's, large group medical practices, clinics, mental health facilities, and multifacility nursing home corporations. Graduates with bachelor's degrees in health administration usually begin as administrative assistants or assistant department heads in larger hospitals, or as department heads or assistant administrators in small hospitals or in nursing homes. A Ph.D. degree may be required to teach, consult, or do research. Nursing service administrators are usually chosen from among supervisory registered nurses with administrative abilities and a graduate degree in nursing administration. All States and the District of Columbia require nursing home administrators to have a bachelor’s degree, pass a licensing examina­ tion, complete a State-approved training program, and pursue con­ tinuing education. A license is not required in other areas of health services management. Health services managers are often responsible for millions of dollars of facilities and equipment and hundreds of employees. To make effective decisions, they need to be open to different opinions and good at analyzing contradictory information. They must under­ stand finance and information systems, and be able to interpret data. To motivate others to implement their decisions, they need strong leadership qualities. Tact, diplomacy, flexibility, and communication skills are essential. Health services managers advance by moving into more respon­ sible and higher paying positions such as assistant or associate ad­ ministrator, or by moving to larger facilities. Job Outlook Employment of health services managers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as health services continue to expand and diversify. Opportunities will be good in home health care, long-term care and nontraditional health organizations such as managed care operations, particularly for health services managers with strong business and management skills. Hospitals will continue to employ the most managers, although the number of jobs will not grow nearly as fast as in other areas, such as long-term and home health care. As hospitals continue to consoli­ date, centralize, and diversify functions, competition will increase at all job levels. Employment in home health agencies, offices of other health practitioners, and nursing and personal care facilities will grow the fastest, due to an increased number of elderly who will need care. In addition, many services previously provided in hospitals will be shifted to these sectors. Demand in medical group practices will also grow as medical group practices and HMO's become larger and more complex. Health services managers will need to deal with the pres­ sures of cost containment and financial accountability, as well as the increased focus on preventive and primary care. Health services managers will also be employed by hospital management companies who provide expertise in areas such as  50 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  emergency department assistance, information management systems, managed care contract negotiations, and physician recruiting. They may also provide consulting services to medical group practices. Earnings Earnings vary by type and size of the facility, as well as by level of responsibility. For example, the Medical Group Management Asso­ ciation reported that the median salary for administrators in group practices was $65,000 in 1994. The median salary for those in small group practices—with net revenues of $2 million or less—was $48,000; for those in very large group practices—with net revenues over $10 million—$116,000. According to a survey by Modem Healthcare magazine, half of all hospital CEO's earned $165,500 or more in 1995. Salaries varied according to size of facility and geographic region. Clinical depart­ ment heads' salaries varied too. Median total compensation in 1995 for heads of the following clinical departments were: Home health, $55,000; radiology, $58,000; physical therapy, $58,200; ambula­ tory/outpatient services, $62,400, rehabilitation services, $66,700; and nursing services, $88,000. According to the Buck Survey conducted by the American Health Care Association, nursing home administrators had median annual compensation of about $47,400 in 1994. The middle 50 percent earned between $40,900 and $55,400. Assistant administrators earned about $32,000. Executives often receive bonuses based on performance outcomes such as cost-containment, quality assurance, and patient satisfaction. Related Occupations Health services managers have training or experience in both health and management. Other occupations that require knowledge of both fields are public health directors, social welfare administrators, directors of voluntary health agencies and health professional asso­ ciations, and underwriters in health insurance companies. Sources of Additional Information General information about health administration is available from: •■American College of Healthcare Executives, One North Franklin St., Suite 1700, Chicago, IL 60606.  Information about undergraduate and graduate academic pro­ grams in this field is available from: •■Association of University Programs in Health Administration, 1911 North Fort Myer Dr., Suite 503, Arlington, VA 22209.  For a list of accredited graduate programs in health services administration, contact: •■Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration, 1911 North Fort Myer Dr., Suite 503, Arlington, VA 22209.  Hotel managers are responsible for the efficient and profitable operation of their establishments. In a small hotel, motel, or inn with a limited staff, a single manager may direct all aspects of operations. However, large hotels may employ hundreds of workers, and the general manager may be aided by a number of assistant managers assigned to the various- departments of the operation. Assistant managers must ensure that the day-to-day operations of their depart­ ments meet the standards set by the general manager. The general manager has overall responsibility for the operation of the hotel. Within guidelines established by the owners of the hotel or executives of the hotel chain, the general manager sets room rates, allocates funds to departments, approves expenditures, and estab­ lishes standards for service to guests, decor, housekeeping, food quality, and banquet operations. Managers who work for chains also may be assigned to organize and staff a newly built hotel, refurbish an older hotel, or reorganize a hotel or motel that is not operating successfully. (For more information, see the statement on general managers and top executives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Resident managers live in hotels and are on call 24 hours a day to resolve problems or emergencies. However, they typically work an 8-hour day, while overseeing the day-to-day operations of the hotel. In many hotels, the general manager also serves as the resident manager. Executive housekeepers are responsible for ensuring guest rooms, meeting and banquet rooms, and public areas are clean, orderly, and well maintained. They train, schedule, and supervise the work of housekeepers, inspect rooms, and order cleaning supplies. Front office managers coordinate reservations and room assign­ ments as well as train and direct the hotel's front desk staff. They ensure guests are treated courteously, complaints and problems that may arise are resolved, and requests for special services are carried out. Food and beverage managers direct the food service operations of hotels. They oversee the hotels' restaurants, cocktail lounges, and banquet facilities. They supervise and schedule food and beverage preparation and service workers, plan menus, estimate costs, and deal with food suppliers. (For more information, see the statement on restaurant and food service managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Convention services managers coordinate the activities of large hotels' various departments for meetings, conventions, and special events. They meet with representatives of groups or organizations to plan the number of rooms to reserve, the desired configuration of hotel meeting space, and any banquet services needed. During the meeting or event, they resolve unexpected problems and monitor activities to check that hotel operations conform to the expectations of the group.  For information about career opportunities in long term care administration, contact: •"American College of Health Care Administrators, 325 S. Patrick St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information about career opportunities in medical group practices and ambulatory care management, contact:  ii.. ---I  •■Medical Group Management Association, 104 Inverness Terrace East, Englewood, CO 80112.  Hotel Managers and Assistants (D.O.T. 187.117-038, .137-018; .167-046, -078, -106, -122; and 320)  Nature of the Work A comfortable room, good food, and a helpful hotel staff can make being away from home an enjoyable experience for both vacationing families and business travelers. Hotel managers and assistant man­ agers strive to ensure their guests will have a pleasant stay.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Hotel managers are responsible for the efficient and profitable operation of their establishments.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 51  Other assistant managers are responsible for personnel, account­ ing and office administration, marketing and sales, purchasing, security, maintenance, and recreational facilities. (For more infor­ mation, see the related statements on personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers; financial managers; and market­ ing, advertising, and public relations managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Because hotels are open around the clock, night and weekend work is common. Many hotel managers work considerably more than 40 hours per week. Managers who live in the hotel usually have regular work schedules, but they may be called to work at any time. Some employees of resort hotels are managers during the busy season and have other duties during the rest of the year. Hotel managers sometimes experience the pressures of coordinat­ ing a wide range of functions. Conventions and large groups of tourists may present unusual problems. Dealing with irate patrons can be stressful. The job can be particularly hectic for front office managers around check-in and check-out time. Employment Hotel managers and assistant managers held about 105,000 wage and salary jobs in 1994. An additional number—primarily owners of small hotels and motels—were self-employed. Some were employed by companies that manage hotels and motels under contract. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Postsecondary training in hotel or restaurant management is preferred for most hotel management positions, although a college liberal arts degree may be sufficient when coupled with related hotel experience. In the past, most managers were promoted from the ranks of front desk clerks, housekeepers, waiters and chefs, and hotel sales workers. Although some employees still advance to hotel management posi­ tions without the benefit of education or training beyond high school, postsecondary education is preferred. Nevertheless, experience working in a hotel—even part time while in school—is an asset to anyone seeking a career in hotel management. Restaurant manage­ ment training or experience is also a good background for entering hotel management because the success of a hotel's food service and beverage operations is often of great importance to the profitability of the entire establishment. A bachelor's degree in hotel and restaurant administration pro­ vides particularly strong preparation for a career in hotel manage­ ment. In 1994, over 160 colleges and universities offered bachelor's and graduate programs in this field. Over 800 community and junior colleges, technical institutes, vocational and trade schools, and other academic institutions also have programs leading to an associate degree or other formal recognition in hotel or restaurant manage­ ment. Graduates of hotel or restaurant management programs usu­ ally start as trainee assistant managers, or at least advance to such positions more quickly. Hotel management programs include instruction in hotel admini­ stration, accounting, economics, marketing, housekeeping, food service management and catering, and hotel maintenance engineer­ ing. The widespread use of computers in hotel operations such as reservations, accounting, and housekeeping management is making some familiarity with computers essential. Programs encourage part­ time or summer work in hotels and restaurants because the experi­ ence gained and the contacts made with employers may benefit students when they seek full-time employment after graduation. Hotel managers must be able to get along with all kinds of people, even in stressful situations. They need initiative, self-discipline, and the ability to organize and direct the work of others. They must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. Sometimes large hotels sponsor specialized on-the-job manage­ ment training programs which allow trainees to rotate among various departments and gain a thorough knowledge of the hotel's operation.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Other hotels may help finance the necessary training in hotel man­ agement for outstanding employees. Most hotels promote employees who have proven their ability. Newly built hotels, particularly those without well-established onthe-job training programs, often prefer experienced personnel for managerial positions. Large hotel and motel chains may offer better opportunities for advancement than small, independently owned establishments, but relocation every several years often is necessary for advancement. The large chains have more extensive career ladder programs and offer managers the opportunity to transfer to another hotel or motel in the chain or to the central office if an opening occurs. Career advancement can be accelerated by comple­ tion of certification programs offered by the associations listed below. These programs generally require a combination of course work, examinations, and experience. Job Outlook Opportunities to enter hotel management are expected to be good for persons who have college degrees in hotel or restaurant management. Employment of salaried hotel managers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Business travel will continue to grow, and increased domestic and foreign tourism will also create demand for additional hotels and motels. However, manager jobs are not expected to grow as rapidly as in the past because an increasing share of the hotel industry will be com­ prised of economy properties, which generally have fewer managers than full-service hotels. In the face of financial constraints, guests are becoming more bargain-conscious, and hotel chains are increas­ ing the number of rooms in economy class hotels. Economy hotels offer clean, comfortable rooms and front desk services without costly extras like restaurants and room service. Because there are not as many departments in each hotel, fewer managers are needed on the hotel premises. Economy hotels have a general manager, and re­ gional offices of the hotel management company employ department managers, such as executive housekeepers, to oversee several hotels. Although new employment growth is expected to be concentrated in economy hotels, large full-service hotels will continue to offer many trainee and managerial opportunities. Most openings are expected to occur as experienced managers transfer to other occupa­ tions, retire, or stop working for other reasons. Earnings Salaries of hotel managers vary greatly according to their responsi­ bilities and the segment of the hotel industry in which they are em­ ployed. In early 1995, annual salaries of assistant hotel managers averaged nearly $40,000, based on a hospitality industry survey conducted by Roth Young. Salaries of assistant managers also varied because of differences in duties and responsibilities. For example, food and beverage directors averaged $44,000, according to the same survey, whereas front office managers averaged $30,000. The man­ ager's level of experience is also an important factor. In 1995, salaries of general managers averaged nearly $57,000, according to the Roth Young survey. Their salaries ranged from $40,000 to $81,000 depending on the size and type of establishment. Managers may earn bonuses up to 25 percent of their basic salary in some hotels. In addition, they and their families may be furnished with lodging, meals, parking, laundry, and other services. Most managers and assistants receive 3 to 11 paid holidays a year, paid vacation, sick leave, life insurance, medical benefits, and pen­ sion plans. Some hotels offer profit-sharing plans, educational assistance, and other benefits to their employees. Related Occupations Hotel managers and assistants are not the only workers concerned with organizing and directing a business where customer service is the cornerstone of their success. Other occupations sharing similar responsibilities include restaurant managers, apartment building managers, retail store managers, and office managers.  52 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Sources of Additional Information For information on careers and scholarships in hotel management, contact: ••The American Hotel and Motel Association (AH&MA), Information Center, 1201 New York Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20005-3931.  For information on educational programs, including correspon­ dence courses, in hotel and restaurant management, write to: •“The Educational Institute of AH&MA, P.O. Box 1240, East Lansing, MI 48826,  Information on careers in housekeeping management may be obtained from: •■National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc., 1001 Eastwind Dr., Suite 301, Westerville, OH 43081, or 1-800-200-6342.  For information on hospitality careers, as well as how to purchase a directory of colleges and other schools offering programs and courses in hotel and restaurant administration, write to: •"Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036-3097.  General career information and a directory of accredited private trade and technical schools offering programs in hotel-motel man­ agement may be obtained from: •"Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technology, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 302, Arlington, VA 22201.  Industrial Production Managers (D.O.T. 180.167-054; 181.117-010; 182.167-022; 183.117-010,-014, .161-014, .167-010, -014, -018, -022, -026, -034, -038; 188.167-094; 189.117-042, .167-042,-046)  Nature of the Work Industrial production managers coordinate the resources and activi­ ties required to produce millions of goods every year in the United States. Due to the wide variety of these goods and differences among factories, managers' duties vary from plant to plant. In general, industrial production managers share many of the same major func­ tions, regardless of the industry. These functions include responsi­ bility for production scheduling, staffing, equipment, quality control, inventory control, and the coordination of production activities with those of other departments. The primary mission of industrial production managers is plan­ ning the production schedule within budgetary limitations and time constraints. This entails analyzing the plant's personnel and capital resources and selecting the best way to meet the production quota. Industrial production managers determine which machines will be used, whether overtime or extra shifts are necessary, and the se­ quence of production. They also monitor the production run to make sure that it stays on schedule and correct any problems that may arise. Industrial production managers also monitor product standards. When quality drops below the established standard, they must de­ termine why standards aren't being maintained and how to improve the product. If the problem is poor work, the manager may imple­ ment better training programs, reorganize the manufacturing process, or institute employee suggestion or involvement programs. If the cause is substandard materials, the manager works with the purchas­ ing department to improve the quality of the product's components. Working with the purchasing department, the production manager ensures that plant inventories are maintained at their optimal level. This is vital to a firm's operation because maintaining the inventory of materials necessary for production ties up the firm's financial resources, yet insufficient quantities of materials cause delays in production. A breakdown in communications between these departments can cause slowdowns and a failure to meet production schedules.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Industrial production managers must keep up to date with the latest production technologies. Because the work of many departments is dependent upon others, managers work closely with heads of other departments such as sales, purchasing, and traffic to plan and implement companies' goals, policies, and procedures. Production managers also work closely with, and act as a liaison between, executives and first-line supervisors. Production managers usually report to the plant manager or the vice president for manufacturing. (Information about these workers can be found in the statement on general managers and top execu­ tives elsewhere in the Handbook). In many plants, one production manager is responsible for all production. In large plants with several operations—aircraft assembly, for example—there are man­ agers in charge of each operation, such as machining, assembly, or finishing. Computers play an integral role in the coordination of the pro­ duction process by providing up-to-date data on inventory, work-in­ progress, and product standards. Industrial production managers analyze these data and, working with upper management and other departments, determine if adjustments need to be made. As the trend toward a flatter management structure and worker empowerment continues, production managers will increasingly perform the role of facilitators. Instead of independently making decisions and giving and taking orders, production managers will review and discuss recommendations with subordinates and superiors in the hopes of improving productivity. Because of the additional duties resulting from corporate downsizing, production managers are delegating more authority and responsibility to first-line supervisors. Working Conditions Most industrial production managers divide their time between the shop floor and their office. While on the floor, they must follow established health and safety practices and wear the required protec­ tive clothing and equipment. The time in the office—often located on or near the production floor—is usually spent meeting with sub­ ordinates or other department managers, analyzing production data, and writing and reviewing reports. Most industrial production managers work more than 40 hours a week, especially when production deadlines must be met. In facili­ ties that operate around the clock, managers may have to work shifts  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 53  or may be called at any hour to deal with emergencies. This could mean going to the plant to resolve the problem, regardless of the hour, and staying until the situation is under control. Dealing with production workers as well as superiors when working under the pressure of production deadlines or emergency situations can be stressful. In addition, restructuring has eliminated levels of man­ agement and support staff. As a result, production managers now have to accomplish more with less, and this has greatly increased job-related stress. Employment Industrial production managers held about 206,000 jobs in 1994. Although employed throughout manufacturing industries, about onehalf are employed in industrial machinery and equipment, transpor­ tation equipment, electronic and electrical equipment, fabricated metal products, and food products manufacturing. Production man­ agers work in all parts of the country, but jobs are most plentiful in areas where manufacturing is concentrated. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of manufacturing operations and job re­ quirements, there is no standard preparation for this occupation. Many industrial production managers have a college degree in busi­ ness administration or industrial engineering. Some have a master's degree in business administration (MBA). Others are former pro­ duction line supervisors who have been promoted. Although many employers prefer candidates to have a degree in business or engineer­ ing, some companies hire liberal arts graduates. As production operations become more sophisticated, an increas­ ing number of employers are looking for candidates with MBA's. This, combined with an undergraduate degree in engineering, is considered particularly good preparation. Companies also are plac­ ing greater importance on a candidate's personality. Because the job demands technical knowledge and the ability to compromise, per­ suade, and negotiate, successful production managers must be well rounded and have excellent communication skills. Those who enter the field directly from college or graduate school often are unfamiliar with the firm's production process. As a result, they may spend their first few months on the job in the company's training program. These programs familiarize trainees with the production line, company policies and procedures, and the require­ ments of the job. In larger companies, they may also include as­ signments to other departments, such as purchasing and accounting. Blue-collar worker supervisors who advance to production man­ ager positions already have an intimate knowledge of the production process and the firm's organization. To be selected for promotion, these workers must have demonstrated leadership qualities, and often take company-sponsored courses in management skills and commu­ nications techniques. Some companies hire college graduates as blue-collar worker supervisors and then promote them. Once in their job, industrial production managers must stay abreast of new production technologies and management practices. To do this, they belong to professional organizations and attend trade shows where new equipment is displayed; they also attend industry conferences and conventions where changes in production methods and technological advances are discussed. Although certification in production management and inventory control is not required for most positions, it demonstrates an individ­ ual's knowledge of the production process and related areas. Various certifications are available through the American Production and Inventory Control Society. To be certified in production and inven­ tory management, candidates must pass a series of examinations that test their knowledge of inventory management, just-in-time systems, production control, capacity management, and materials planning. Industrial production managers with a proven record of superior performance may advance to plant manager or vice president for manufacturing. Others transfer to jobs at larger firms with more responsibilities. Opportunities also exist as consultants. (For more  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  information, see the statement on management analysts and consult­ ants elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook Employment of industrial production managers is expected to decline slightly through the year 2005. Although manufacturing output is expected to rise significantly, the trend towards smaller management staffs and the lack of growth in production worker employment will limit demand for production managers. The widening use of com­ puters for scheduling and planning is also making production manag­ ers more productive, allowing fewer of them to accomplish the same amount of work. Nevertheless, some openings will result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Many of these openings, however, may be filled through internal promotions. Opportunities should be best for those with college degrees in industrial engineering or business administration, and those with MBA's and undergraduate engineering degrees. Employers also are likely to seek candidates who have excellent communication skills, and who are personable, flexible, and eager to participate in ongoing training. Earnings Salaries of mdustrial production managers vary significantly by industry and plant size. According to Abbott, Langer, and Associ­ ates, the average salary for all production managers was $63,000 in 1994. In addition to salary, industrial production managers usually receive bonuses based on job performance. Benefits for industrial production managers tend to be similar to those offered many workers—vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and retirement plans. Related Occupations Industrial production managers oversee production staff and equip­ ment, insure that production goals and quality standards are being met, and implement company policies. Individuals with similar functions include materials, operations, purchasing, and traffic managers. Other occupations requiring similar training and skills are sales engineer, manufacturers' sales representative, and industrial engineer. Sources of Additional Information Information on industrial production management can be obtained from: •"National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439. •"American Management Association, 135 W. 50th St., New York, NY 10020.  Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction (List of D.O.T. codes available upon request. See p. 478.)  Nature of the Work Inspectors and compliance officers enforce a wide range of laws, regulations, policies, or procedures, and advise on standards that protect the public. They inspect and enforce rules on matters such as health, safety, food, immigration, licensing, interstate commerce, or international trade. Inspectors’ duties vary widely, depending upon their employer. Agricultural chemicals inspectors protect American agriculture by inspecting establishments where agricultural service products, such as livestock feed and remedies, fertilizers, and pesticides are manufactured, sold, or used. They may visit processing plants, distribution warehouses, sales outlets, agricultural service organiza-  54 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  tions, and farmers to collect product samples for analysis. They call on dealers to determine that licensing requirements have been met. They then prepare reports for supervisors and for use as evidence in legal actions. Agricultural commodity graders apply quality standards to aid the buying and selling of commodities and to insure that retailers and consumers know the quality of the products they purchase. Although this grading is not required by law, buyers generally will not pur­ chase ungraded commodities. Graders usually specialize in an area such as eggs and egg products, meat, poultry, processed or fresh fruits and vegetables, grain, tobacco, cotton, or dairy products. They examine product samples to determine quality and grade, and issue official grading certificates. Graders also may inspect the plant and equipment to maintain sanitation standards. Attendance officers investigate continued absences of pupils from public schools. Aviation safety inspectors ensure that Federal Aviation Admini­ stration (FAA) regulations which govern the quality and safety of aircraft equipment, aircraft operations, and personnel are maintained. Aviation safety inspectors may inspect aircraft and equipment manu­ facturing, maintenance and repair, or flight procedures. They may work in the areas of flight operations, maintenance, or avionics, and usually specialize in either commercial or general aviation aircraft. They also examine and certify aircraft pilots, pilot examiners, flight instructors, repair stations, schools, and instructional materials. Bank examiners investigate financial institutions to enforce Federal and State laws and regulations governing the institution's operations and solvency. Examiners schedule audits, determine actions to protect the institution's solvency and the interests of share­ holders and depositors, and recommend acceptance or rejection of applications for mergers, acquisitions, establishment of a new insti­ tution, or acceptance in the Federal Reserve System. Consumer safety inspectors inspect food, feeds and pesticides, weights and measures, biological products, cosmetics, drugs and medical equipment, as well as radiation emitting products. Some are proficient in several areas. Working individually or in teams under a senior inspector, they check on firms that produce, handle, store, or market the products they regulate. They ensure that standards are maintained and respond to consumer complaints by questioning employees, vendors, and others to obtain evidence. Inspectors look for inaccurate product labeling, and for decomposition or chemical or bacteriological contamination that could result in a product becoming harmful to health. They may use portable scales, cameras, ultraviolet lights, thermometers, chemical testing kits, radiation monitors, or other equipment to find violations. They may send product samples collected as part of their examinations to laboratories for analysis. After completing their inspection, inspectors discuss their obser­ vations with plant managers or officials and point out areas where corrective measures are needed. They write reports of their findings and, when necessary, compile evidence that may be used in court if legal action must be taken. Customs inspectors enforce laws governing imports and exports. Stationed in the United States and overseas at airports, seaports, and border crossing points, they examine, count, weigh, gauge, measure, and sample commercial and noncommercial cargoes entering and leaving the United States to determine admissibility and the amount of duties that must be paid. They insure that all cargo is properly described on accompanying importers' declarations to determine the proper duty and interdict contraband. They inspect baggage and articles carried by passengers and crew members to insure that all merchandise is declared, proper duties are paid, and contraband is not present. They also ensure that people, ships, planes, and anything used to import or export cargo comply with all appropriate entrance and clearance requirements. Dealer compliance representatives inspect franchised estab­ lishments to ascertain compliance with the franchiser's policies and procedures. They may suggest changes in financial and other operations.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Environmental health inspectors, or sanitarians, who work pri­ marily for State and local governments, ensure that food, water, and air meet government standards. They check the cleanliness and safety of food and beverages produced in dairies and processing plants, or served in restaurants, hospitals, and other institutions. They often examine the handling, processing, and serving of food for compliance with sanitation rules and regulations and oversee the treatment and disposal of sewage, refuse, and garbage. In addition, inspectors may visit pollution sources and test for pollutants by collecting air, water, or waste samples for analysis. They try to determine the nature and cause of pollution and initiate action to stop it. In large local and State health or agriculture departments, envi­ ronmental health inspectors may specialize in milk and dairy prod­ ucts, food sanitation, waste control, air pollution, water pollution, institutional sanitation, or occupational health. In rural areas and small cities, they may be responsible for a wide range of environ­ mental health activities. Equal opportunity representatives ascertain and correct unfair employment practices through consultation with and mediation between employers and minority groups. Federal and State laws require food inspectors to inspect meat, poultry, and their byproducts to ensure that they are safe for public consumption. Working onsite, frequently as part of a team, they inspect meat and poultry slaughtering, processing, and packaging operations. They also check for correct product labeling and proper sanitation. Immigration inspectors interview and examine people seeking to enter the United States and its territories. They inspect passports to determine whether people are legally eligible to enter and to verify their citizenship status and identity. Immigration inspectors also prepare reports, maintain records, and process applications and petitions for immigration or temporary residence in the United States. Logging operations inspectors review contract logging oper­ ations. They prepare reports and issue remedial instructions for violations of contractual agreements and of fire and safety regulations. Mine safety and health inspectors work to ensure the health and safety of miners. They visit mines and related facilities to obtain information on health and safety conditions and to enforce safety laws and regulations. They discuss their findings with the manage­ ment of the mine and issue citations describing violations and haz­ ards that must be corrected. Mine inspectors also investigate and report on mine accidents and may direct rescue and firefighting operations when fires or explosions occur. Motor vehicle inspectors verify the compliance of automobiles and trucks with State requirements for safe operation and emissions. They inspect truck cargoes to assure compliance with legal limita­ tions on gross weight and hazardous cargoes. Occupational safety and health inspectors visit places of em­ ployment to detect unsafe machinery and equipment or unhealthy working conditions. They discuss their findings with the employer or plant manager and order that violations be promptly corrected in accordance with Federal, State, or local government safety standards and regulations. They interview supervisors and employees in response to complaints or accidents, and may order suspension of activity posing threats to workers. Park rangers enforce laws and regulations in State and national parks. Their duties range from registering vehicles and visitors, collecting fees, and providing information regarding park use and points of interest, to patrolling areas to prevent fire, participating in first aid and rescue activities, and training and supervising other park workers. Some rangers specialize in snow safety and avalanche control. With increasing numbers of visitors to our national parks, some rangers specialize as law enforcement officers. Postal inspectors observe the functioning of the postal system and enforce laws and regulations. As law enforcement agents, postal inspectors have statutory powers of arrest and the authority to carry  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 55  firearms. They investigate criminal activities such as theft and misuse of the mail. In instances of suspected mismanagement or fraud, inspectors conduct management or financial audits. They also collaborate with other government agencies, such as the Internal Revenue Service, as members of special task forces. Quality control inspectors and coordinators inspect products manufactured or processed by private companies for government use to ensure compliance with contract specifications. They may special­ ize in specific products such as lumber, machinery, petroleum prod­ ucts, paper products, electronic equipment, or furniture. Others coordinate the activities of workers engaged in testing and evaluating pharmaceuticals in order to control quality of manufacture and ensure compliance with legal standards. Railroad inspectors verify the compliance of railroad systems and equipment with Federal safety regulations. They investigate acci­ dents and review railroads' operating practices. Revenue officers investigate and collect delinquent tax returns from individuals or businesses. They investigate leads from various sources. They attempt to resolve tax problems with taxpayers and recommend penalties, collection actions, and recommend criminal prosecutions when necessary. Securities compliance examiners implement regulations con­ cerning securities and real estate transactions. They investigate applications for registration of securities sales and complaints of irregular securities transactions, and recommend necessary legal action.  Travel accommodations raters inspect hotels, motels, restaurants, campgrounds, and vacation resorts. They evaluate travel and tourist accommodations for travel guide publishers and organizations such as tourism promoters and automobile clubs. Other inspectors and compliance officers include coroners, cus­ toms import specialists, code inspectors, mortician investigators, and dealer-compliance representatives. Closely related work is done by construction and building inspectors. (Construction and building inspectors are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Inspectors and compliance officers meet all kinds of people and work in a variety of environments. Their jobs often involve considerable field work, and some inspectors travel frequently. They are generally furnished with an automobile or are reimbursed for travel expenses. Inspectors may experience unpleasant, stressful, and dangerous working conditions. For example, mine safety and health inspectors often are exposed to the same hazards as miners. Some food inspec­ tors examine and inspect the livestock slaughtering process in slaughterhouses and frequently come in contact with unpleasant conditions. Customs inspectors have to put up with an irritated public when they search individuals, luggage, and cargo, in addition to the danger inherent to making an occasional arrest. Park rangers often work outdoors—in many cases, on rugged terrain—in very hot or bitterly cold weather for extended periods. Many inspectors work long and often irregular hours. Even those inspectors not engaged in some form of law enforcement may find themselves in adversarial roles when the organization or individual being inspected objects. Employment Inspectors and compliance officers held about 157,000 jobs in 1994. State governments employed 34 percent, the Federal Government— chiefly the Departments of Defense, Labor, Treasury, Agriculture, and Justice—employed 29 percent, and local governments employed 18 percent. The remaining 19 percent were employed in the U.S. Postal Service and throughout the private sector—primarily in edu­ cation, hospitals, insurance companies, labor unions, and manufactur­ ing firms. Most consumer safety inspectors on the Federal level work for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but the majority of these inspec­ tors work for State governments. Most food inspectors and agricul­ tural commodity graders are employed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Many health inspectors work for State and local gov­ ernments. Compliance inspectors are employed primarily by the Treasury, Justice, and Labor departments on the Federal level, as well as by State and local governments. The Department of Defense employs the most quality assurance inspectors. The Treasury De­ partment employs internal revenue officers and customs inspectors. Aviation safety inspectors work for the Federal Aviation Admini­ stration. The Environmental Protection Agency employs inspectors to verify compliance with pollution control and other laws. The U.S. Department of Labor and many State governments employ occupa­ tional safety and health inspectors, equal-opportunity officers, and mine safety and health inspectors. Immigration inspectors are em­ ployed by the U.S. Department of Justice, while the U.S. Department of Interior employs park rangers. Immigration and customs inspec­ tors work in the United States and overseas at airports, seaports, and border crossing points.  Many inspectors work long and irregular hours.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of the functions they perform, qualifications for inspector and compliance officer jobs differ greatly. Require­ ments include a combination of education, experience, and often a passing grade on a written examination. Employers may require  56 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  college training, including courses related to the job. The following examples illustrate the range of qualifications for various inspector jobs. Postal inspectors must have a bachelor's degree and 1 year's work experience. It is desirable that they have one of several professional certifications, such as that of certified public accountant. They also must pass a background suitability investigation, and meet certain health requirements, undergo a drug screening test, possess a valid State driver's license, and be a U.S. citizen between 21 and 36 years of age when hired. Aviation safety inspectors working in operations must be pilots with varying certificates, ratings, and numbers of flight hours to their credit. Maintenance and avionics inspectors must have considerable experience in aviation maintenance and knowledge of industry standards and relevant Federal laws. In addition, FAA medical certificates are required. Some also are required to have an FAA flight instructor rating. Many aviation safety inspectors have had flight and maintenance training in the Armed Forces. No written examination is required. Applicants for positions as mine safety and health inspectors generally must have experience in mine safety, management, or supervision. Some may possess a skill such as that of an electrician (for mine electrical inspectors). Applicants must meet strict medical requirements and be physically able to perform arduous duties effi­ ciently. Many mine safety inspectors are former miners. Applicants for internal revenue officer jobs must be a U.S. citizen and have a bachelor's degree or 3 years of experience in business, legal, or financial, or investigative practices. Park rangers need at least 2 years of college with at least 12 credits in science and criminal justice, although some start as part­ time, seasonal workers with the U.S. Forest Service. Most positions require a bachelor's degree. Environmental health inspectors, called sanitarians in many States, sometimes must have a bachelor's degree in environmental health or in the physical or biological sciences. In most States, they are licensed by examining boards. All inspectors and compliance officers are trained in the applica­ ble laws or inspection procedures through some combination of classroom and on-the-job training. In general, people who want to enter this occupation should be able to accept responsibility and like detailed work. Inspectors and compliance officers should be neat and personable and able to express themselves well orally and in writing. Federal Government inspectors and compliance officers whose job performance is satisfactory advance through their career ladder to a specified full performance level. For positions above this level (usually supervisory positions), advancement is competitive, based on agency needs and individual merit. Advancement opportunities in State and local governments and the private sector are often similar to those in the Federal Government. Some civil service specifications, including those for mine inspec­ tors, aviation safety inspectors, and agricultural commodity graders, rate applicants solely on their experience and education. Others require a written examination. Job Outlook Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005, reflecting a balance of growing public demand for a safe environment and quality products against the desire for smaller government and fewer regulations. Modest employment growth, particularly in local government, should stem from the expansion of regulatory and compliance programs in solid and hazardous waste disposal and water pollution. In private industry, employment growth will reflect industry growth, due to continuing self­ enforcement of government and company regulations and policies, particularly among franchise operations in various industries. Job openings will also arise from the need to replace those who transfer  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to other occupations, retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons. Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is seldom affected by general economic fluctuations. Federal, State, and local governments—which employ most inspectors—provide workers with considerable job security. As a result, inspectors are less likely to lose their jobs than many other workers. Earnings The median weekly salary of inspectors and compliance officers, except construction, was about $667 in 1994. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $388; the highest 10 percent earned over $1,130. In the Federal Government, the annual starting salaries for inspectors varied substantially in 1995—from $18,700 to $41,100—depending upon the nature of the inspection or compliance activity. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The following tabulation presents 1995 average salaries for selected inspectors and compliance officers in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and mana­ gerial positions. Aviation safety inspectors.......................................................................$62,970 Highway safety inspectors........................................................................59,750 Railroad safety inspectors.........................................................................52,790 Equal opportunity compliance officials....................................................52,420 Mine safety and health inspectors.............................................................51,850 Internal revenue agent...............................................................................50,720 Environmental protection specialists........................................................49,170 Import specialists......................................................................................47,550 Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors................................................47,050 Safety and occupational health managers.................................................46,730 Quality assurance inspectors.....................................................................43,970 Customs inspectors...................................................................................39,050 Agricultural commodity graders............................................................... 36,040 Immigration inspectors.............................................................................35,540 Securities compliance examiners..............................................................35,400 Consumer safety inspectors......................................................................31,700 Food inspectors................. 31,280 Environmental protection assistants.........................................................26,630  Most inspectors and compliance officers work for Federal, State, and local governments and in large private firms, all of which gen­ erally offer more generous benefits than do smaller firms.  Related Occupations Inspectors and compliance officers are responsible for seeing that laws and regulations are obeyed. Construction and building inspec­ tors, fire marshals, Federal, State, and local law enforcement profes­ sionals, corrections officers, and fish and game wardens also enforce laws and regulations.  Sources of Additional Information Information on Federal Government jobs is available from offices of the State employment service, area offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, and Federal Job Information Centers in large cities throughout the country. For information on a career as a specific type of Federal inspector or compliance officer, a Federal department or agency that employs them may also be contacted directly. Information about State and local government jobs is available from State civil service commissions, usually located in each State capital, or from local government offices. Information about jobs in private industry is available from the State Employment Service, which is listed under "Job Service" or "Employment" in the State government section of local telephone directories.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 57  Loan Officers and Counselors (D.O.T. 186.167-078, .267-018, -022, -026)  Nature of the Work Banks and other financial institutions need up-to-date information on companies and individuals applying for loans and credit. Customers and clients provide this information to the financial institution's loan officers and counselors, generally the first employees to be seen by them. Loan officers prepare, analyze, and verify loan applications, make decisions regarding the extension of credit, and help borrowers fill out loan applications. Loan counselors help consumers with low income or a poor credit history qualify for credit, usually a home mortgage. Loan officers usually specialize in commercial, consumer, or mortgage loans. Commercial or business loans help companies pay for new equipment or to expand operations. Consumer loans include home equity, automobile, and personal loans. Mortgage loans are made to purchase real estate or to refinance an existing mortgage. Loan officers represent lending institutions that provide funds for a variety of purposes. Personal loans can be made to consolidate bills, purchase expensive items such as an automobile or furniture, or finance a college education. Loan officers attempt to lower their firm's risk by receiving collateral—security pledged for the payment of a loan. For example, when lending money for a college education, the bank may insist that the borrower offer his or her home as collat­ eral. If the borrower were ever unable to repay the loan, the bor­ rower would have to sell the home to raise the necessary money. Loans backed by collateral also are beneficial to the customer be­ cause they generally carry a lower interest rate. Loan officers and counselors must keep abreast of new financial products and services so they can meet their customers' needs; for example, banks and other lenders now offer a variety of mortgage products, including reverse equity mortgages, shared equity mort­ gages, and adjustable rate mortgages. Loan officers meet with customers and gather basic information about the loan request. Often customers will not fully understand the information requested, and will call the loan officer for assistance. Once the customer completes the financial forms, the loan officer begins to process them. The loan officer reviews the completed financial forms for accuracy and thoroughness, and requests addi­ tional information if necessary. For example, the loan officer verifies that the customer has correctly identified the type and purpose of the loan. The loan officer then requests a credit report from one or more of the major credit reporting agencies. This information, along with comments from the loan officer, is included in a loan file, and is compared to the lending institution's requirements. Banks and other lenders have established requirements for the maximum percentage of income that can safely go to repay loans. At this point, the loan officer, in consultation with his or her manager, decides whether or not to grant the loan. A loan that would otherwise be denied may be approved if the customer can provide the lender appropriate collat­ eral. Whether or not the loan request is approved, the loan officer informs the borrower of the decision. Loan counselors meet with consumers who are attempting to purchase a home or refinance debt, but who do not qualify for loans with banks. Often clients rely on income from self-employment or government assistance to prove that they can repay the loan. Coun­ selors also help to psychologically prepare consumers to be home­ owners and to pay their debts. Counselors frequently work with clients who have little or no experience with financial matters. Loan counselors provide positive reinforcement along with the financial tools needed to qualify for a loan—this assistance may take several forms. Occasionally, counselors simply need to explain what information loan officers need to complete a loan transaction. Most of the time loan counselors help clients qualify for a bank-financed  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Mortgage loan officers typically are paid on a commission basis. mortgage loan. The loan counselor helps the client complete an application, and researches Federal, State, and local government programs that could provide the money needed for the client to purchase the home. Often several government programs are com­ bined to provide the necessary money. Working Conditions Loan officers and counselors usually work in offices, but mortgage loan officers frequently move from office to office and often visit homes of clients while completing a loan request. Commercial loan officers employed by large firms may travel frequently to prepare complex loan agreements. Most loan officers and counselors work a standard 40-hour week, but may work longer, particularly mortgage loan officers who are free to take on as many customers as they choose. Loan officers and counselors usually carry a heavy caseload and sometimes cannot accept new clients until they complete current cases. They are especially busy when interest rates are low, resulting in a surge in loan applications. Employment Loan officers and counselors held about 214,000 jobs in 1994. About 6 out of 10 are employed by commercial banks, savings institutions, and credit unions. Others are employed by nonbank financial institutions, such as mortgage brokerage firms and personal credit firms. Most loan counselors work for State and local govern­ ments, or for nonprofit organizations. Loan officers and counselors generally work in urban areas where large banks are concentrated. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most loan officer positions require a bachelor's degree in finance, economics, or a related field. Most employers also prefer applicants who are familiar with computers and their applications in banking. A mortgage loan officer is the exception, with training or experience in sales more crucial to potential employers. Some loan officers ad­ vance through the ranks in an organization, acquiring several years of work experience in various other occupations, such as teller or cus­ tomer service representative. Persons planning a career as a loan officer or counselor should be skilled in mathematics and in oral and written communication. Developing effective working relationships with different people— managers, clients, and the public—is essential to success as a loan officer or counselor. Loan officers must enjoy public contact and be willing to attend community events as a representative of their employer. Persons interested in counseling should have a strong interest in helping others and the ability to inspire trust, respect, and confidence.  58 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Because loan counselors frequently explain the complicated world of banking to clients who have never been exposed to it, patience and an understanding of mortgage banking is necessary to be an effective loan counselor. Loan counselors should be sensitive to their clients' needs and must consider the importance and pride their clients attach to home ownership. Counselors should be able to work independ­ ently or as part of a team. The American Institute of Banking, which is affiliated with the American Bankers Association, offers courses through correspon­ dence and in some colleges and universities for students and others interested in lending, as well as for experienced loan officers. The certification program for lenders leads to the title, "Certified Lender in Business Banking." Completion of these courses and programs enhances one's employment and advancement opportunities. Capable loan officers may advance to larger branches of the firm or to a managerial position, while less capable loan officers and those having inadequate academic preparation may be assigned to smaller branches and find promotion difficult. Advancement from a loan officer position usually includes becoming a supervisor over other loan officers and clerical staff. Most loan counselors receive substantial on-the-job training, gaining a thorough understanding of the requirements and procedures for approval of loans. Some acquire this knowledge through work experience in a related field. In addition, accounting skills can be very helpful. Educational requirements vary—some counselors are high school graduates while others have a college degree in econom­ ics, finance, or a related field. Like other workers, outstanding loan counselors can advance to supervisory positions. However, promotion potential is limited, and many loan counselors leave for better paying positions elsewhere. Job Outlook Employment of loan officers and counselors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. As the population and economy grow, applications for commercial, consumer, and mortgage loans will increase, spurring demand for loan officers and counselors. Growth in the variety and complexity of loans, and the importance of loan officers to the success of banks and other lending institutions, also should assure rapid employment growth. Although increased demand will generate many new jobs, most openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or retire. College graduates and those with banking or lending experience should have the best job prospects. Loan officers are less likely to lose their jobs than other workers in banks and other lending institutions during difficult economic times. Because loans are the major source of income for banks, loan officers are fundamental to the success of their organizations. Also, many loan officers are compensated in part on a commission basis. Loan counselors typically have so many clients that a reduction in their numbers would lead to a decline in the services provided to the community. However, job security is influenced by the spending patterns of local governments. Budget reductions could result in less hiring or even layoffs of loan counselors. Earnings The form of compensation for loan officers varies, depending on the lending institution. Some banks offer salary plus commission as an incentive to increase the number of loans processed, while others pay only salaries. According to a salary survey conducted by Robert Half Interna­ tional, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, residential real estate mortgage loan officers earned between $28,500 and $44,000 in 1995; commercial real estate mortgage loan officers earned between $43,300 and $70,500; consumer loan officers, be­ tween $27,200 and $45,700; and commercial lenders, between $36,100 and $82,500. Smaller banks generally paid 15 percent less than larger banks. Loan officers who are paid on a commission basis generally earn more than those on salary only.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The earnings for loan counselors varies widely, with local gov­ ernment employees in large cities earning the highest salaries. Banks and other lenders sometimes offer their loan officers free checking privileges and somewhat lower interest rates on personal loans. Loan counselors sometimes get awards for their service to the community. Related Occupations Loan officers and counselors help the public manage financial assets and secure loans. Occupations that involve similar functions include securities and financial services sales representatives, financial aid officers, real estate agents and brokers, and insurance agents and brokers. Sources of Additional Information Information about a career as a loan officer may be obtained from: «" American Bankers Association, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20036.  State bankers' associations can furnish specific information about job opportunities in their State. Or, contact individual banks to inquire about job openings, and for more details about the activities, responsibilities, and preferred qualifications of their loan officers. For the names and addresses of banks and savings and related insti­ tutions, as well as the names of their principal officers, consult one of the following directories. “•"The American Financial Directory (Norcross, Ga., McFadden Business Publications). •"Polk's World Bank Directory (Nashville, R.L. Polk & Co.). •"Rand McNally Bankers Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). •"The U.S. Savings and Loan Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). •■Rand McNally Credit Union Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.).  Your local State employment service office or municipal govern­ ment also may have information on job opportunities, particularly for loan counselors.  Management Analysts and Consultants (D.O.T. 100.117-014; 161.117-014, .167-010, -014, -018, and -022, .267 except -014 and -030; 169.167-074; 184.267; and 310.267-010)  Nature of the Work Management analysts and consultants suggest solutions to manage­ ment problems. For example, a rapidly growing small company may need help in designing a better system of control over inventories and expenses, or an established manufacturing company decides to relocate to another State and needs assistance planning the move, or a large company realizes that its corporate structure must be reorgan­ ized after acquiring a new division. These are just a few of the many organizational problems that management analysts, as they are called in government agencies, and management consultants, as business firms refer to them, help solve. The work of management analysts and consultants varies by client or employer and from project to project. For example, some projects require a team of consultants, each specializing in one area; at other times, they will work independently with the client's managers. In general, analysts and consultants first collect, review, and analyze information. They then make recommendations to management and often assist in the implementation of their proposal. Both public and private organizations use consultants for a variety of reasons. Some don’t have the internal resources needed to handle a project; others need a consultant's expertise to determine what resources will be required, and what problems may be encountered, if they pursue a particular course of action. Still others want to get outside help on how to resolve organizational problems that have  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 59  already been identified or to avoid troublesome problems that could arise. Firms providing consulting services range in size from solo practitioners to large international organizations employing thou­ sands of consultants. Some firms specialize by industry while others specialize by type of business function, such as human resources or information systems. In government, management analysts tend to specialize by type of agency. Consulting services usually are pro­ vided on a contract basis whereby a company solicits proposals from a number of consulting firms specializing in the area in which it needs assistance. These proposals include the estimated cost and scope of the project, staffing requirements, references from a number of previous clients, and the deadline. The company then selects the proposal which best meets its needs. Upon getting an assignment or contract, consultants and analysts try to define the nature and extent of the problem. During this phase of the job, they may analyze data such as annual revenues, employ­ ment, or expenditures. Next they interview managers and employees and observe the operations of the organizational unit. Next, they use their knowledge of management systems and their expertise in a particular area to develop solutions to the problem. In the course of preparing their recommendations, they must take into account the general nature of the business, the relationship the firm has with others in that industry, and the firm's internal organization and culture, as well as information gained through data collection and analysis. Once they have decided on a course of action, consultants usually report their findings and recommendations to the client, often in writing. In addition, they generally make oral presentations regard­ ing their findings. For some projects, this is all that is required; for others, consultants may assist in the implementation of their sugges­ tions. Management analysts in government agencies use the same skills as their private-sector colleagues to advise managers in government on many types of issues, most of which are similar to the problems faced by private firms. For example, if an agency is planning to purchase personal computers, it first must determine which type to buy, given its budget and data processing needs. Management analysts would assess the various types of machines available by price range and determine which best meets their department's needs. Working Conditions Management analysts and consultants usually divide their time between their offices and their client's site. Although much of their time is spent indoors in clean, well-lighted offices, they may have to  Many innovative business ideas are contributed by management consultants.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  visit a client's production facility where conditions may not be so favorable. Typically, analysts and consultants work at least 40 hours a week. Overtime is common, especially when project deadlines are near. Since they must spend a significant portion of their time with clients, they may travel frequently. Self-employed consultants can set their workload and hours and work at home. On the other hand, their livelihood depends on their ability to maintain and expand their client base. Wage and salary consultants also must favorably impress potential clients to get and keep clients for their company. Employment Management analysts and consultants held about 231,000 jobs in 1994. About half of these workers were self-employed. Most of the rest worked in management consulting firms and for Federal, State, and local governments. The majority of those working for the Fed­ eral Government were found in the Department of Defense. Management analysts and consultants are found throughout the country, but employment is concentrated in large metropolitan areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational requirements for entry level jobs in this field vary widely, but there is an increasing emphasis on scientific and techno­ logical applications at the undergraduate level. Employers in private industry generally seek individuals with a master’s degree in business administration or a related discipline. Individuals hired straight out of school with only a bachelor's degree generally work as research associates, but find it difficult to advance up the career ladder unless they get an advanced degree, Most government agencies hire people with a bachelor's degree and no work experience as entry level management analysts, and often pay for graduate classes in manage­ ment analysis. Many fields of study provide a suitable educational background for this occupation because of the diversity of problem areas ad­ dressed by management analysts and consultants. These include most areas of business and management, as well as computer and information sciences and engineering. Management analysts and consultants who are hired directly from school may participate in formal company or government training programs. Such programs often include instruction on policies and procedures, computer systems and software, research processes, and management practices and principles. Analysts and consultants routinely attend conferences to keep abreast of current developments in their field. Many entrants to this occupation have, in addition to the appro­ priate formal education, several years of experience in management or in another specialization. The value of this experience enables many to land mid-level positions. Management analysts and consultants often work with little or no supervision, so they should be self-motivated and disciplined. Ana­ lytical skills, the ability to get along with a wide range of people, strong oral and written communication skills, good judgment, the ability to manage time well, and creativity in developing solutions to problems are other desirable qualities for prospective management analysts and consultants. In large consulting firms, beginners usually start as a researcher for a consulting team. The team is responsible for the entire project and each consultant is assigned to a particular area. As consultants gain experience, they may be assigned to work on one specific project full-time, taking on more responsibility and managing their own hours. At the senior level, consultants may supervise entry level workers and become increasingly involved in seeking out new busi­ ness. Those with exceptional skills may eventually become a partner or principal in the firm. Others with entrepreneurial ambition may open their own firm. A high percentage of management consultants are self-employed, partly because business start-up costs are low. Self-employed con­  60 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  sultants also can share office space, administrative help, and other resources with other self-employed consultants or small consulting firms—thus reducing overhead costs. Many such firms fail, how­ ever, because of an inability to acquire and maintain a profitable client base. The Institute of Management Consultants (a division of the Council of Consulting Organizations, Inc.) offers the Certified Man­ agement Consultant (CMC) designation to those who pass an exami­ nation and meet minimum levels of education and experience. Certification is not mandatory for management consultants to prac­ tice, but it may give a jobseeker a competitive advantage.  Job Outlook Employment of management analysts and consultants is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as industry and government increasingly rely on outside exper­ tise to improve the performance of their organizations. Growth is expected in large consulting firms, but also in small consulting firms whose consultants will specialize in specific areas of expertise. Increased competition has forced American industry to take a closer look at its operations. As international and domestic markets become more competitive, firms must use what resources they have more efficiently. Management consultants are being increasingly relied upon to help reduce costs, streamline operations, and develop marketing strategies. As businesses downsize and eliminate needed functions as well as permanent staff, consultants will be used to perform those functions that were previously handled internally. Businesses attempting to expand, particularly into world markets, frequently need the skills of management consultants to help with organizational, administrative, and other issues. Continuing changes in the business environment also are expected to lead to demand for management consultants. Firms will use consultants to incorporate new technologies, to cope with more numerous and complex gov­ ernment regulations, and to adapt to a changing labor force. As businesses rely more on technology, there are increasing roles for consultants with a technical background, such as engineering or biotechnology, particularly when combined with an MBA. Federal, State, and local agencies also are expected to expand their use of management analysts. In the era of budget deficits, analysts' skills at identifying problems and implementing cost reduc­ tion measures are expected to become increasingly important. How­ ever, because almost one-half of the management analysts employed by the Federal Government work for the Department of Defense, Federal employment growth will increase slowly because of cutbacks in the Nation's defense budget. Despite projected rapid employment growth, competition for jobs as management consultants is expected to be keen in the private sector. Because management consultants can come from such di­ verse educational backgrounds, the pool of applicants from which employers hire is quite large. Additionally, the independent and challenging nature of the work combined with high earnings potential make this occupation attractive to many. Job opportunities are expected to be best for those with a graduate degree and some indus­ try expertise. Because many small consulting firms fail each year for lack of managerial expertise and clients, those interested in opening their own firm must have good organizational and marketing skills, plus several years of consulting experience. Earnings Salaries for management analysts and consultants vary widely by experience, education, and employer. In 1994, those who were wage and salary workers had median annual earnings of about $41,300. The middle 50 percent earned between $30,000 and $53,900. In 1994, according to the Association of Management Consulting Firms (ACME), earnings—including bonuses and/or profit sharing— for research associates in ACME member firms averaged $30,400;  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  for entry level consultants, $41,800; for management consultants, $58,300; for senior consultants, $89,200; for junior partners, $120,100; and for senior partners, $194,000. Typical benefits for salaried analysts and consultants include health and life insurance, a retirement plan, vacation and sick leave, profit sharing, and bonuses for outstanding work. In addition, all travel expenses usually are reimbursed by the employer. Selfemployed consultants usually have to maintain their own office and provide their own benefits. Related Occupations Management analysts and consultants collect, review, and analyze data; make recommendations; and assist in the implementation of their ideas. Others who use similar skills are managers, computer systems analysts, operations research analysts, economists, and financial analysts. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities in management consulting is available from: •"ACME, The Association of Management Consulting Firms, 521 Fifth Ave., 35th Floor, New York, NY 10175-3598.  For information about a career as a State or local government management analyst, contact your State or local employment service. Persons interested in a management analyst position in the Fed­ eral Government can obtain information from: •"Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW„ Washington, DC 20415.  Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations Managers (D.O.T. 096.161-010, 141.137-010: 159.167-022; 163.117-014, -018, -022, -026, .167-010, -014, -018, -022, .267-010; 164.117-010, -014, -018, .167-010; 165.117-010, -014; 185.157-014, .167-042; 187.167-162, -170; 189.117-018)  Nature of the Work The fundamental objective of any firm is to market its products or services profitably. In small firms, all marketing responsibilities may be assumed by the owner or chief executive officer. In large firms, which may offer numerous products and services nationally or even worldwide, experienced marketing, advertising, and public relations managers coordinate these and related activities. The executive vice president for marketing in large firms directs the overall marketing policy—including market research, marketing strategy, sales, advertising, promotion, pricing, product development, and public relations activities. (This occupation is included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) These activities are supervised by middle and supervisory managers who oversee staffs of professionals and technicians. Marketing managers develop the firm's detailed marketing strat­ egy. With the help of subordinates, including product development managers and market research managers, they determine the demand for products and services offered by the firm and its competitors and identify potential consumers—for example, business firms, whole­ salers, retailers, government, or the general public. Mass markets are further categorized according to various factors such as region, age, income, and lifestyle. Marketing managers develop pricing strategy with an eye towards maximizing the firm's share of the market and its profits while ensuring that the firm's customers are satisfied. In collaboration with sales, product development, and other managers, they monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services and oversee product development. Marketing managers work with advertising and promotion managers to best promote the firm's products and services and to attract potential users.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 61  agement. They observe social, economic, and political trends that might ultimately have an effect upon the firm, and make recommen­ dations to enhance the firm's public image in view of those trends. Public relations managers may confer with labor relations managers to produce internal company communications—such as news about employee-management relations—and with financial managers to produce company reports. They assist company executives in draft­ ing speeches, arranging interviews, and other forms of public contact; oversee company archives; and respond to information requests. In addition, some public relations managers handle special events such as sponsorship of races, parties introducing new products, or other activities the firm supports in order to gain public attention through the press without advertising directly.  A wide range of educational backgrounds are suitable for entry into marketing, advertising, and public relations jobs, but many employ­ ers prefer a broad liberal arts background. Sales managers direct the firm's sales program. They assign sales territories and goals and establish training programs for their sales representatives. Managers advise their sales representatives on ways to improve their sales performance. In large, multiproduct firms, they oversee regional and local sales managers and their staffs. Sales managers maintain contact with dealers and distributors. They analyze sales statistics gathered by their staffs to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of customers. Such information is vital to develop products and maxi­ mize profits. Except in the largest firms, advertising and promotion staffs generally are small and serve as a liaison between the firm and the advertising or promotion agency to which many advertising or pro­ motional functions are contracted out. Advertising managers oversee the account services, creative services, and media services depart­ ments. The account services department is managed by account executives, who assess the need for advertising and, in advertising agencies, maintain the accounts of clients. The creative services department develops the subject matter and presentation of advertis­ ing. This department is supervised by a creative director, who over­ sees the copy chief and art director and their staffs. The media services department is supervised by the media director, who over­ sees planning groups that select the communication media—for example, radio, television, newspapers, magazines, or outdoor signs—to disseminate the advertising. Promotion managers supervise staffs of promotion specialists. They direct promotion programs combining advertising with pur­ chase incentives to increase sales of products or services. In an effort to establish closer contact with purchasers—dealers, distributors, or consumers—promotion programs may involve direct mail, telemar­ keting, television or radio advertising, catalogs, exhibits, inserts in newspapers, in-store displays and product endorsements, and special events. Purchase incentives may include discounts, samples, gifts, rebates, coupons, sweepstakes, and contests. Public relations managers supervise public relations specialists (see the Handbook statement on public relations specialists). These managers direct publicity programs to a targeted public. They use any necessary communication media in their effort to maintain the support of the specific group upon whom their organization's success depends, such as consumers, stockholders, or the general public. For example, public relations managers may clarify or justify the firm's point of view on health or environmental issues to community or special interest groups. They evaluate advertising and promotion programs for compatibility with public relations efforts. Public relations managers, in effect, serve as the eyes and ears of top man­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers are provided with offices close to top managers. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are common. Working under pressure is unavoidable as schedules change, problems arise, and deadlines and goals must be met. Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers meet frequently with other managers; some meet with the public and government officials. Substantial travel may be involved. For example, attendance at meetings sponsored by associations or industries is often mandatory. Sales managers travel to national, regional, and local offices and to various dealers and distributors. Advertising and promotion manag­ ers may travel to meet with clients or representatives of communica­ tions media. At times, public relations managers travel to meet with special interest groups or government officials. Job transfers be­ tween headquarters and regional offices are common—particularly among sales managers—and can disrupt family life. Employment Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers held about 461,000 jobs in 1994. These managers are found in virtually every industry. Industries employing them in significant numbers include motor vehicle dealers; printing and publishing firms; advertising agencies; department stores; computer and data processing services firms; and management and public relations firms. Training, Advancement, and Other Qualifications A wide range of educational backgrounds are suitable for entry into marketing, advertising, and public relations managerial jobs, but many employers prefer a broad liberal arts background. A bachelor's degree in sociology, psychology, literature, or philosophy, among other subjects, is acceptable. However, requirements vary depending upon the particular job. For marketing, sales, and promotion management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor's or master's degree in business admini­ stration with an emphasis on marketing. Courses in business law, economics, accounting, finance, mathematics, and statistics are also highly recommended. In highly technical industries, such as com­ puter and electronics manufacturing, a bachelor's degree in engineer­ ing or science combined with a master’s degree in business administration is preferred. For advertising management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor's degree in advertising or journal­ ism. A course of study should include courses in marketing, con­ sumer behavior, market research, sales, communications methods and technology, and visual arts—for example, art history and photog­ raphy. For public relations management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor's or master's degree in public relations or journal­ ism. The individual's curriculum should include courses in advertis­ ing, business administration, public affairs, political science, and creative and technical writing. For all these specialties, courses in management and completion of an internship while in school are highly recommended. Familiarity with computerized word process­ ing and data base applications also are important for many market­ ing, advertising, and public relations management positions.  62 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Most marketing, advertising, and public relations management positions are filled by promoting experienced staff or related profes­ sional or technical personnel—for example, sales representatives, purchasing agents, buyers, product or brand specialists, advertising specialists, promotion specialists, and public relations specialists. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a management position generally comes slowly. In large firms, promotion may occur more quickly. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement can be accelerated by participation in management training programs conducted by many large firms. Many firms also provide their employees with continuing education opportunities, either in-house or at local colleges and universities, and encourage employee participation in seminars and conferences, often provided by professional societies. Often in collaboration with colleges and universities, numerous marketing and related associa­ tions sponsor national or local management training programs. Courses include brand and product management, international mar­ keting, sales management evaluation, telemarketing and direct sales, promotion, marketing communication, market research, organiza­ tional communication, and data processing systems procedures and management. Many firms pay all or part of the cost for those who successfully complete courses. Some associations (listed under sources of additional information) offer certification programs for marketing, advertising, and public relations managers. Certification is a sign of competence and achievement in this field that is particularly important in a competi­ tive job market. While relatively few marketing, advertising, and public relations managers currently are certified, the number of managers who seek certification is expected to grow. For example, Sales and Marketing Executives International offers a management certification program based on education and job performance. The Public Relations Society of America offers an accreditation program for public relations practitioners based on years of experience and an examination. The International Association of Business Communica­ tors offers an accreditation program for the manager or the person ready to move into communication management. The American Marketing Association is developing a certification program for marketing managers. Persons interested in becoming marketing, advertising, and public relations managers should be mature, creative, highly motivated, resistant to stress, and flexible, yet decisive. The ability to commu­ nicate persuasively, both orally and in writing, with other managers, staff, and the public is vital. Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers also need tact, good judgment, and exceptional ability to establish and maintain effective personal relationships with supervisory and professional staff members and client firms. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, mar­ keting, advertising, and public relations managers often are prime candidates for advancement. Well-trained, experienced, successful managers may be promoted to higher positions in their own or other firms. Some become top executives. Managers with extensive experience and sufficient capital may open their own businesses.  Job Outlook Marketing, advertising, and public relations manager jobs are highly coveted and will be sought by other managers or highly experienced professional and technical personnel, resulting in substantial job competition. College graduates with extensive experience, a high level of creativity, and strong communication skills should have the best job opportunities. Employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Increasingly intense domestic and global competition in products and services offered to consumers should require greater marketing, promotional, and public relations efforts. Management and public relations firms may experience  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  particularly rapid growth as businesses increasingly hire contractors for these services rather than support additional full-time staff. Projected employment growth varies by industry. For example, employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers is expected to grow much faster than average in most business services industries, such as computer and data processing, and man­ agement and public relations firms, while average growth is pro­ jected in manufacturing industries overall. Many companies that eliminated in-house marketing and advertising departments during downsizing in recent years are now relying on firms which specialize in promotion, marketing, and advertising activities to provide these services. Earnings , According to a National Association of Colleges and Employers survey, starting salary offers to marketing majors graduating in 1995 averaged about $25,000; advertising majors, about $22,000. The median annual salary of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers was $44,000 in 1994. The lowest 10 percent earned $21,000 or less, while the top 10 percent earned $98,000 or more. Many earn bonuses equal to 10 percent or more of their salaries. Surveys show that salary levels vary substantially depend­ ing upon the level of managerial responsibility, length of service, education, and the employer's size, location, and industry. For example, manufacturing firms generally pay marketing, advertising, and public relations managers higher salaries than nonmanufacturing firms. For sales managers, the size of their sales territory is another important factor. According to a 1994 survey by Abbot, Langer and Associates, of Crete, Illinois, annual incomes for sales/marketing managers varied greatly—from under $28,000 to over $250,000—depending on the manager's level of education, experience, industry, and the number of employees he or she supervised. The median annual income for top advertising managers was $44,000; top sales promotion managers was $45,000; product/brand managers, $57,000; top market research managers, $59,000; regional sales managers, $69,000; and chief marketing executives, $69,000. According to a 1994 survey by Advertising Age Magazine, an­ nual salaries of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers ranged from a low of $44,000 to a high of $145,000. Related Occupations Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers direct the sale of products and services offered by their firms and the communica­ tion of information about their firms' activities. Other personnel involved with marketing, advertising, and public relations include art directors, commercial and graphic artists, copy chiefs, copywriters, editors, lobbyists, marketing research analysts, public relations specialists, promotion specialists, sales representatives, and technical writers. (Some of these occupations are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.) Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in sales and marketing management, contact:  •"American Marketing Association, 250 S. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. •"Sales and Marketing Executives International, 458 Statler Office Tower, Cleveland, OH 44115.  For information about careers in advertising management, con­ tact: •"American Advertising Federation, Education Services Department, 1101 Vermont Ave. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005.  Information about careers in promotion management is available from:  •"Council of Sales Promotion Agencies, 750 Summer St., Stamford, CT 06901. •"Promotion Marketing Association of America, Inc., 322 Eighth Ave., Suite 1201, New York, NY 10001.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 63  Information about careers in public relations management is available from: ••Public Relations Society of America, 33 Irving Place, New York, NY 10003-2376.  Information on accreditation for business communicators is avail­ able from: ••International Business Communicators, One Hallidie Plaza, Suite 600, San Francisco, CA 94102.  Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists and Managers (D.O.T. 079.127; 099.167-010; 166.067, .117, .167 except -046, .257, .267-014 through -046; 169.107, .167-062, .207; 188.117-010,-086, .217)  Nature of the Work Attracting the most qualified employees available and matching them to the jobs for which they are best suited is important for the success of any organization. However, many enterprises are too large to permit close contact between top management and employees. Instead, personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and man­ agers, commonly known as human resources specialists and manag­ ers, provide this link. These individuals recruit and interview employees and advise on hiring decisions in accordance with policies and requirements that have been established in conjunction with top management. In an effort to improve morale and productivity and limit job turnover, they also help their firms effectively use employ­ ees' skills, provide training opportunities to enhance those skills, and boost employees’ satisfaction with their jobs and working conditions. Although some jobs in the human resources field require only limited contact with people outside the office, most involve frequent contact. Dealing with people is an essential part of the job. In a small organization, one person may handle all aspects of personnel, training, and labor relations work. In contrast, in a large corporation, the top human resources executive usually develops and coordinates personnel programs and policies. (Executives are in­ cluded in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) These policies usually are implemented by a director or manager of human resources and, in some cases, a director of indus­ trial relations. The director of human resources may oversee several depart­ ments, each headed by an experienced manager, who most likely specializes in one personnel activity such as employment, compen­ sation, benefits, training and development, or employee relations. Employment and placement managers oversee the hiring and separation of employees and supervise various workers, including equal employment opportunity specialists and recruitment specialists. Recruiters maintain contacts within the community and may travel extensively—often to college campuses—to search for promis­ ing job applicants. Recruiters screen, interview, and, in some cases, test applicants. They may also check references and extend offers of employment to qualified candidates. These workers need to be thoroughly familiar with the organization and its personnel policies to discuss wages, working conditions, and promotional opportunities with prospective employees. They also need to keep informed about equal employment opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action guide­ lines and laws, such as the Americans With Disabilities Act. EEO representatives or affirmative action coordinators handle this area in large organizations. They investigate and resolve EEO grievances, examine corporate practices for possible violations, and compile and submit EEO statistical reports. Employer relations representatives—who usually work in gov­ ernment agencies—maintain working relationships with local em­ ployers and promote the use of public employment programs and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  services. Similarly, employment interviewers—sometimes called personnel consultants—help match jobseekers with employers. (For more information, see the statement on employment interviewers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job analysts, sometimes called position classifiers, perform very exacting work. They collect and examine detailed information about job duties to prepare job descriptions. These descriptions explain the duties, training, and skills each job requires. Whenever a large organization introduces a new job or reviews existing jobs, it calls upon the expert knowledge of the job analyst. Occupational analysts conduct research, generally in large firms. They are concerned with occupational classification systems and study the effects of industry and occupational trends upon worker relationships. They may serve as technical liaison between the firm and industry, government, and labor unions. Establishing and maintaining a firm's pay system is the principal job of the compensation manager. Assisted by staff specialists, compensation managers devise ways to ensure fair and equitable pay rates. They may conduct surveys to see how their rates compare with others and to see that the firm's pay scale complies with changing laws and regulations. In addition, compensation managers often oversee their firm's performance evaluation system, and they may design reward systems such as pay-for-performance plans. Employee benefits managers handle the company's employee benefits program, notably its health insurance and pension plans. Expertise in designing and administering benefits programs continues to gain importance as employer-provided benefits account for a growing proportion of overall compensation costs, and as benefit plans increase in number and complexity. For example, pension benefits might include savings and thrift, profit-sharing, and stock ownership plans; health benefits may include long-term catastrophic illness insurance and dental insurance. Familiarity with health benefits is a top priority at present, as more firms struggle to cope with the rising cost of health care for employees and retirees. In addition to health insurance and pension coverage, some firms offer their employees life and accidental death and dismemberment insur­ ance, disability insurance, and relatively new benefits designed to meet the needs of a changing work force, such as parental leave, child care and elder care, long-term nursing home care insurance, employee assistance and wellness programs, and flexible benefits plans. Benefits managers must keep abreast of changing Federal and State regulations and legislation that may affect employee benefits. Employee assistance plan managers—also called employee welfare managers—are responsible for a wide array of programs covering occupational safety and health standards and practices; health promotion and physical fitness, medical examinations, and minor health treatment, such as first aid; plant security; publications; food service and recreation activities; car pooling; employee sugges­ tion systems; child care and elder care; and counseling services. Child and elder care are increasingly important due to growth in the number of dual-income households and the elderly population. Counseling may help employees deal with emotional disorders, alcoholism, or marital, family, consumer, legal, and financial prob­ lems. Career counseling and second career counseling for employees approaching retirement age also may be provided. In large firms, some of these programs—such as security and safety—are in sepa­ rate departments headed by other managers. Training is supervised by training and development managers. Increasingly, management recognizes that training offers a way of developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building loyalty to the firm. Training is widely accepted as a method of improving employee morale, but this is only one of the reasons for its growing importance. Other factors include the complexity of the work environment, the rapid pace of organizational and technological change, and the growing number of jobs in fields that constantly generate new knowledge. In addition, advances in learning theory have provided insights into how adults learn, and how training can be organized most effectively for them.  64 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Training specialists plan, organize, and direct a wide range of training activities. Trainers conduct orientation sessions and arrange on-the-job training for new employees. They help rank-and-file workers maintain and improve their job skills and possibly prepare for jobs requiring greater skill. They help supervisors improve their interpersonal skills in order to deal effectively with employees. They may set up individualized training plans to strengthen an employee’s existing skills or to teach new ones. Training specialists in some companies set up programs to develop executive potential among employees in lower-level positions. In government-supported train­ ing programs, training specialists function as case managers. They first assess the training needs of clients, then guide them through the most appropriate training method. After training, clients may either be referred to employer relations representatives or receive job placement assistance. Planning and program development is an important part of the train­ ing specialist's job. In order to identify and assess training needs within the firm, trainers may confer with managers and supervisors or con­ duct surveys. They also periodically evaluate training effectiveness. Depending on the size, goals, and nature of the organization, trainers may differ considerably in their responsibilities and in the methods they use. Training methods include on-the-job training; schools in which shop conditions are duplicated for trainees prior to putting them on the shop floor; apprenticeship training; classroom training; programmed instruction, which may involve interactive videos, videodiscs, and other computer-aided instructional technolo­ gies; simulators; conferences; and workshops. The director of industrial relations forms labor policy, oversees industrial labor relations, negotiates collective bargaining agree­ ments, and coordinates grievance procedures to handle complaints resulting from disputes under the contract for firms with unionized employees. The director of industrial relations also advises and collaborates with the director of human resources and other managers and members of their staff, because all aspects of personnel policy— such as wages, benefits, pensions, and work practices—may be involved in drawing up a new or revised contract. Industrial labor relations programs are implemented by labor relations managers and their staff. When a collective bargaining agreement is up for negotiation, labor relations specialists prepare information for management to use during negotiation, which re­ quires familiarity with economic and wage data as well as extensive knowledge of labor law and collective bargaining trends. The labor relations staff interprets and administers the contract with respect to grievances, wages and salaries, employee welfare, health care, pen­ sions, union and management practices, and other contractual stipu­ lations. As union membership is continuing to decline in most industries, industrial relations personnel are working more with employees who are not members of a labor union. Dispute resolution—that is, attaining tacit or contractual agree­ ments—has become increasingly important as parties to a dispute attempt to avoid costly litigation, strikes, or other disruptions. Dis­ pute resolution also has become more complex, involving employees, management, unions, other firms, and government agencies. Special­ ists involved in dispute resolution must be highly knowledgeable and experienced, and often report to the director of industrial relations. Conciliators, or mediators, advise and counsel labor and management to prevent and, when necessary, resolve disputes over labor agree­ ments or other labor relations issues. Arbitrators, sometimes called umpires or referees, decide disputes that bind both labor and man­ agement to specific terms and conditions of labor contracts. Labor relations specialists who work for unions perform many of the same functions on behalf of the union and its members. Other emerging specialists include international human resources managers, who handle human resources issues related to a company's foreign operations, and human resources information system special­ ists, who develop and apply computer programs to process personnel information, match jobseekers with job openings, and handle other personnel matters.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Orientation for new employees is often the responsibility ofpersonnel specialists. Working Conditions Personnel work generally takes place in clean, pleasant, and comfort­ able office settings. Many personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers work a standard 35- to 40-hour week. However, longer hours might be necessary for some workers—for example, labor relations specialists and managers—when contract agreements are being prepared and negotiated. Although most personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers work in the office, some travel extensively. For ex­ ample, recruiters regularly attend professional meetings and visit college campuses to interview prospective employees. Employment Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers held about 513,000 jobs in 1994. They were employed in virtually every industry. Specialists accounted for 3 out of 5 positions; managers, 2 out of 5. About 9,000—mostly specialists—were self-employed, working as consultants to public and private employers. The private sector accounted for about 85 percent of salaried jobs. Among these salaried jobs, services industries—including business, health, social, management, and educational services—accounted for 4 out of 10 jobs; labor organizations—the largest employer among specific industries—accounted for 1 out of 10. Manufacturing industries accounted for 2 out of 10 jobs, while finance, insurance, and real estate firms accounted for about 1 out of 10. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 15 percent of salaried personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers. They handled the recruitment, interviewing, job classifi­ cation, training, salary administration, benefits, employee relations, and related matters of the Nation's public employees. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of duties and level of responsibility, the educational backgrounds of personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers vary considerably. In filling entry-level jobs, firms generally seek college graduates. Some employers prefer applicants who have majored in human resources, personnel admini­ stration, or industrial and labor relations, while others look for col­ lege graduates with a technical or business background. Still others feel that a well-rounded liberal arts education is best. Many colleges and universities have programs leading to a degree in personnel, human resources, or labor relations. Some offer degree programs in personnel administration or human resources manage­ ment, training and development, or compensation and benefits. Depending on the school, courses leading to a career in human resources management may be found in departments of business  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 65  administration, education, instructional technology, organizational development, human services, communication, or public administra­ tion, or within a separate human resources institution or department. Because an interdisciplinary background is appropriate for work in this area, a combination of courses in the social sciences, business, and behavioral sciences is useful. Some jobs may require a back­ ground in engineering, science, finance, or law. Most prospective personnel specialists should take courses in compensation, recruit­ ment, training and development, and performance appraisal, as well as courses in principles of management, organizational structure, and industrial psychology. Other relevant courses include business administration, public administration, psychology, sociology, politi­ cal science, economics, and statistics. Courses in labor law, collec­ tive bargaining, labor economics, labor history, and industrial psychology also provide a valuable background for the prospective labor relations specialist. Knowledge of computers and information systems is important for some jobs. An advanced degree is increasingly important for some jobs. Many labor relations jobs require graduate study in industrial or labor relations. A law degree seldom is required for entry-level jobs, but many people responsible for contract negotiations are lawyers, and a combination of industrial relations courses and law is highly desir­ able. A background in law is also desirable for employee benefits managers and others who must interpret the growing number of laws and regulations. A degree in dispute resolution provides an excellent background for mediators, arbitrators, and related personnel. A master's degree in personnel, training, or labor relations, or in busi­ ness administration with a concentration in human resources man­ agement is desirable for those seeking general and top management positions. For many specialized jobs in this field, previous experience is an asset; for managerial positions, it is essential. Many employers prefer entry-level workers who have gained some experience through an internship or work-study program while in school. Personnel administration and human resources development require the ability to work with individuals as well as a commitment to organizational goals. This field also demands other skills that people may develop elsewhere—computer usage, selling, teaching, supervising, and volunteering, among others. This field offers clerical workers oppor­ tunities for advancement to professional positions. Responsible positions sometimes are filled by experienced individuals from other fields, including business, government, education, social services administration, and the military. Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers should speak and write effectively. The growing diversity of the workforce demands the ability to work with or supervise people with various cultural backgrounds, levels of education, and experience. Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers must be patient to cope with conflicting points of view and be able to handle the unexpected and the unusual. The ability to function under pressure is essential. Integrity, fair-mindedness, and a persuasive, congenial personality are also important qualities. Entry-level workers often enter formal or on-the-job training pro­ grams, in which they learn how to classify jobs, interview applicants, or administer employee benefits. Next, they are assigned to specific areas in the personnel department to gain experience. Later, they may advance to a managerial position, overseeing a major element of the personnel program—compensation or training, for example. Exceptional personnel, training, and labor relations workers may be promoted to director of personnel or industrial relations, which can eventually lead to a top managerial or executive position. Others may join a consulting firm or open their own business. A Ph.D. is an asset for teaching, writing, or consulting work. Though not widespread, some organizations offer certification examinations to members who meet certain education and experience requirements. Certification is a sign of competence and can enhance one's advancement opportunities. (Several of these organizations are listed under sources of additional information.)  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook The number of personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupa­ tions through the year 2005. As in other occupations, job growth among specialists is projected to outpace job growth among manag­ ers. In addition, many job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave this occupation to transfer to other jobs, retire, or for other reasons. However, the job market is likely to remain competitive in view of the abundant supply of qualified college graduates and experienced workers. Most new jobs for personnel, training, and labor relations special­ ists and managers will be in the private sector as employers, increas­ ingly concerned about productivity and quality of work, devote greater resources to job-specific training programs in response to the growing complexity of many jobs, the aging of the work force, and technological advances that can leave employees with obsolete skills. In addition, legislation and court rulings setting standards in occupa­ tional safety and health, equal employment opportunity, wages, and health, pension, family leave, and other benefits will increase de­ mand for experts in these areas. Rising health care costs, in particu­ lar, should spur demand for specialists to develop creative compensation and benefits packages that firms can offer prospective employees. Employment of labor relations staff, including arbitra­ tors and mediators, should grow as firms become more involved in labor relations, and attempt to resolve potentially costly labormanagement disputes out of court. Increasing demand for interna­ tional human resources managers and human resources information systems specialists may spur additional job growth. Employment demand should be strong in management and con­ sulting firms as well as personnel supply firms as businesses increas­ ingly contract out personnel functions or hire personnel specialists on a contractual basis to meet the increasing cost and complexity of training and development programs. Demand should also increase in firms that develop and administer the increasingly complex employee benefits and compensation packages for other organizations. Demand for personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers also is governed by the staffing needs of the firms where they work. A rapidly expanding business is likely to hire additional personnel workers—either as permanent employees or consultants— while a business that has experienced a merger or a reduction in its work force will require fewer personnel workers. Also, as human resources management becomes increasingly important to the success of an organization, some small and medium-size businesses that do not have a human resources department may employ workers to perform human resources duties on a part-time basis while maintain­ ing other unrelated responsibilities within the company. In any particular firm, the size and the job duties of the human resources staff are determined by a variety of factors, including the firm's organizational philosophy and goals, the labor intensity and skill profile of the industry, the pace of technological change, government regulations, collective bargaining agreements, standards of profes­ sional practice, and labor market conditions. Factors that could limit job growth include the widespread use of computerized human resources information systems that make work­ ers more productive. Similar to other workers, employment of personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers, particularly in larger firms, may be adversely affected by corporate downsizing and restructuring. Earnings According to a salary survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor's degree candidates majoring in human resources, including labor relations, received starting offers averaging $25,800 a year in 1995; master's degree candidates, $38,700. According to a 1994 survey of compensation in the human re­ sources field, conducted by Abbott, Langer, and Associates of Crete,  66 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Illinois, the median total cash compensation for selected personnel and labor relations occupations were: Regional human resources directors................................................... $98,900 Industrial/labor relations directors...................................................... 79,500 Compensation and benefits directors.................................................. 75,300 Benefits directors................................................................................ 74,300 Employee/community relations directors........................................... 68,000 Training directors............................................................................... 64,400 Plant/location personnel managers..................................................... 57,200 Recruitment and interviewing managers............................................. 55,000 Training generalists............................................................................ 54,600 Compensation and benefits supervisors............................................. 47,000 Benefits supervisors........................................................................... 45,900 Classroom instructors............................................ 45,900 Training material development specialists.......................................... 42,000 E.E.O./affirmative action specialists................................................... 42,000 Employment interviewing supervisors................................................ 40,600 Employee/plant nurses....................................................................... 40,300 Safety specialists................................................................................ 39,400 Employee assistance/employee counseling specialists....................... 39,100 Job evaluation specialists................................................................... 37,900 Human resources information systems specialists.............................. 35,900 Employee services/employee recreation specialists........................... 35,200 Benefits specialists............................................................................. 32,000 Personnel records specialists............................................................... 26,600  According to a survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas, personnel specialists with limited experience had median earnings of $25,000 a year in 1993. The middle half earned between $22,700 and $28,600 a year. Personnel supervisors/managers with limited experience had median earnings of $52,800 a year. The middle half earned between $46,300 and $58,600 a year. In the Federal Government in 1995, persons with a bachelor's degree or 3 years' general experience in the personnel field generally started at $18,700 a year. Those with a superior academic record or an additional year of specialized experience started at $23,200 a year. Those with a master's degree may start at $28,300, and those with a doctorate in a personnel field started at $34,300. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. There are no formal entry-level requirements for managerial positions. Applicants must possess a suitable combination of educa­ tional attainment, experience, and record of accomplishment. Labor relations specialists in the Federal Government averaged $54,000 a year in 1995; personnel managers, $52,100; equal em­ ployment opportunity specialists, $50,800; position classification specialists, $48,300; and personnel staffing specialists, $46,000. Related Occupations All personnel, training, and labor relations occupations are closely related. Other workers with skills and expertise in interpersonal relations include employment, rehabilitation, and college career planning and placement counselors; lawyers; psychologists; sociolo­ gists; social workers; public relations specialists; and teachers. These occupations are described elsewhere in the Handbook. Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in employee training and development, contact:  ••American Society for Training and Development, 1640 King St., Box 1443, Alexandria, VA 22313.  For information about careers and certification in employee compensation and benefits, contact: •"American Compensation Association, 14040 Northsight Blvd., Scottsdale, AZ 85260.  Information about careers and certification in employee benefits is available from: ••International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans, 18700 W. Bluemound Rd., Brookfield, WI53045.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For information about careers in arbitration and other aspects of dispute resolution, contact: ••American Arbitration Association, 140 West 51st St., New York, NY 10020.  For information about academic programs in industrial relations, write to:  •■Industrial Relations Research Association, University of Wisconsin, 7226 Social Science Bldg., 1180 Observatory Dr., Madison, WI 53706.  Information about personnel careers in the health care industry is available from; •■American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration, One North Franklin, 31st Floor, Chicago, IL 60606.  For information about personnel and labor relations careers in government, contact: •"International Association of Personnel in Employment Security, 1801 Louisville Rd., Frankfort, KY 40601.  Property and Real Estate Managers (DOT 186.117-042, -046, -058, and -062, .167-018, -030, -038, -042, -046, -062, -066, and -090; 187.167-190; 191.117-046 and -050)  Nature of the Work Many people own real estate in the form of a home, but, to busi­ nesses and investors, commercial real estate is a source of income and profits rather than simply a place for shelter. For them, real estate—including land and structures such as office buildings, shop­ ping centers, and apartment complexes—is a valuable asset that can produce income and appreciate in value over time if well managed. Real estate can be a source of income when it is leased to others, and a substantial business expense when it is leased from others. For this reason, property and real estate managers perform an important function in increasing and maintaining the value of real estate in­ vestments for investors. Property managers oversee the performance of income-producing commercial and residential properties and manage the communal property and services of condominium and community associations. Real estate managers, also called real estate asset managers, plan and direct the purchase, development, and disposition of real estate for businesses and are usually employed by a sole owner, large corporation, bank, pension fund, or investment group. These managers are becoming increasingly involved in long­ term strategic financial planning rather than the day-to-day opera­ tions of the property. Most property and real estate managers work in the field of property management. When owners of apartments, office buildings, or retail and industrial properties lack the time or expertise to assume the day-to-day management of their real estate investments, they often hire a property manager, or contract for services with a real estate management company. Most property managers handle sev­ eral properties simultaneously. Property managers act as the owners’ agent and adviser for the property. They market vacant space to prospective tenants, through the use of a leasing agent, advertising, or by other means, and establish rental rates in accordance with prevailing local conditions. They negotiate and prepare lease or rental agreements with tenants and collect their rent payments and other fees. Property managers also handle the financial operations of the property. They see to it that rents are received and make sure that mortgages, taxes, insurance premiums, payroll, and maintenance bills are paid on time. They also supervise the preparation of financial statements and periodically report to the owners on the status of the property, occupancy rates, dates of lease expirations, and other matters. Property managers negotiate contracts for janitorial, security, groundskeeping, trash removal, and other services. When contracts are awarded competitively, managers must solicit bids from several  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 67  contractors and recommend to the owners which bid to accept. They monitor the performance of the contractors, and investigate and resolve complaints from residents and tenants. Managers also pur­ chase all supplies and equipment needed for the property, and make arrangements with specialists for any repairs that cannot be handled by the regular property maintenance staff. Property managers hire and direct the maintenance and on-site management personnel. At smaller properties, the property manager might employ only a building engineer who maintains the building’s heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems and performs other routine maintenance and repair. Larger properties require a sizable maintenance staff supervised by a full-time on-site manager, who works under the direction of the property manager. Building manag­ ers have similar duties and responsibilities to property managers, except they are responsible for one site only. Although some on-site managers oversee large office buildings or shopping centers, most manage apartments. They train, supervise, and assign duties to the maintenance staff as well as routinely inspect the grounds, facilities, and equipment to determine what repairs are needed. Occasionally, outside contractors are required, and the on­ site manager may obtain bids for the work and submit them to the property manager. On-site managers schedule routine servicing of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems and ensure that the work of the maintenance staff and contract workers is up to standards or contract specifications. They keep records of expendi­ tures incurred for operating the property and submit regular expense reports to the property manager or owners. They may recruit main­ tenance staff, interview job applicants, and make hiring recommen­ dations to the property manager. Property and on-site managers employed by condominium and homeowner associations—known as community association manag­ ers—must be particularly adept at dealing with people. Instead of tenants, they must deal on a daily basis with homeowners—members of the community association that employs the manager. Hired by the volunteer board of directors of the association, the community association manager administers its daily affairs and oversees the maintenance of property and facilities that the homeowners own and use jointly through the association. Smaller community associations usually cannot afford professional management, but managers of larger condominiums have many of the same responsibilities as the managers of large apartment complexes. Some homeowner associa­ tions encompass thousands of homes, and, in addition to administer­ ing the associations' financial records and budget, their managers may be responsible for the operation of community pools, golf courses, community centers, and the maintenance of landscaping, parking areas, and streets. Tenant relations (in commercial properties) and resident relations (in residential properties) are an important part of the work of on-site managers, particularly apartment, condominium, and community association managers. On-site managers are responsible for enforc­ ing rules and lease restrictions, such as pet restrictions or use of parking areas. Apartment and building managers handle requests for service or repairs and try to resolve complaints. They show vacant apartments or office space to prospective residents and explain the occupancy terms. Property managers must understand the provisions of legislation, such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and the Federal Fair Housing Amendment Act, and local fair housing laws to be sure they are not being discriminatory in the renting or advertising of apartments. Some real estate managers are employed by businesses to locate, acquire, and develop real estate needed for their operations and to dispose of property no longer suited to their uses. These managers, sometimes referred to as corporate real estate managers, locate desirable sites for factories, retail stores, hotels and motels, and other business ventures and arrange to purchase or lease the property. They select a site based on their assessment of considerations such as property values, zoning, population growth, and traffic volume and patterns. They negotiate contracts for the purchase or lease of the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  property, securing the most beneficial terms for their company. Corporate real estate managers periodically review their company’s real estate holdings, identifying properties that are no longer com­ mercially attractive. They negotiate the sale or termination of the lease of properties selected for disposal. Real estate managers who work for land development companies acquire land and plan the construction of shopping centers, houses and apartments, office buildings, or industrial parks. They negotiate with representatives of local government, other businesses, commu­ nity and public interest groups, and public utilities to eliminate obstacles to the development of the land and to gain support for the planned project. It sometimes takes years to win approval for a project, and in the process managers may have to modify the plans for the project many times. Once they are free to proceed with a project, managers negotiate short-term loans to finance the construc­ tion of the project, and later negotiate long-term permanent mortgage loans. They then contract with architectural firms to draw up de­ tailed plans, and with construction companies to build the project. Working Conditions Most property and real estate managers work in clean, modem, welllighted offices, but many spend a major portion of their time away from their desks. Property managers frequently visit the properties they oversee, sometimes on a daily basis when contractors are doing major repair or renovation work. On-site managers may spend a large portion of their workday away from their office visiting the building engineer in the boiler room, checking up on the janitorial and maintenance staff, or investigating a problem reported by a tenant. Many real estate managers spend the majority of their time away from home, traveling to company real estate holdings or searching for properties that might be acquired. Property managers often must attend meetings in the evening with property owners, community association boards of directors, or civic groups. Not surprisingly, many property and real estate managers put in long work weeks. Some apartment managers are required to live in the apartment complexes where they work so that they are available to handle any emergency that occurs while they are off duty. They usually receive compensatory time off, however, for working at night or on weekends. Many apartment managers receive time off during the week so that they are available on weekends to show apartments to prospective residents. Employment Property and real estate managers held about 261,000 jobs in 1994. Most worked for real estate operators and lessors or for property  rm  • M; ?  Delegating responsibilities and communicating effectively are important to the success ofproperty and real estate managers.  68 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  management firms. Others worked for real estate development com­ panies, banks, government agencies that manage public buildings, and corporations with extensive holdings of commercial properties. Many were self-employed developers, apartment owner-managers, or owners of property management or full-service real estate firms that manage as well as sell real estate for clients. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most employers prefer to hire college graduates for property and real estate management positions. Degrees in business administration, finance, real estate, public administration, or related fields are pre­ ferred, but persons with degrees in the liberal arts are often accepted. Good speaking, writing, and financial skills, as well as an ability to deal tactfully with people, are essential. Most persons enter property and real estate management as on-site apartment or community association managers, or as assistants to property managers. Previ­ ous employment as a real estate agent may be an asset to apartment managers because it provides experience useful in showing apart­ ments and dealing with people, as well as an understanding that an attractive, well-maintained property can command higher rental rates and result in lower turnover among residents. In the past, many persons with backgrounds in building maintenance have advanced to apartment manager positions on the strength of their knowledge of building mechanical systems, but this is becoming uncommon as employers are placing greater emphasis on administrative, financial, and communication abilities for managerial jobs. On-site managers usually begin at smaller apartment complexes, condominiums, or community associations, or as an assistant man­ ager at a large property or management company. As they acquire experience working under the direction of a property manager, they may advance to positions with greater responsibility at larger proper­ ties. Persons who excel as on-site managers often transfer to assis­ tant property manager positions where they can acquire experience handling a broader range of property management responsibilities. Although most persons who enter jobs as assistant property managers do so on the strength of on-site management experience, employers are increasingly hiring inexperienced college graduates with bachelor's or master's degrees in business administration, fi­ nance, or real estate for these jobs. Assistants work closely with a property manager and acquire experience performing a variety of management tasks, such as preparing the budget, analyzing insurance coverage and risk options, marketing the property to prospective tenants, and collecting overdue rent payments. In time, many assis­ tants advance to property manager positions. The responsibilities and compensation of property managers increase as they manage larger properties. Most property managers are responsible for several properties at a time, and as their careers advance they are gradually entrusted with properties that are larger or whose management is more complex. Many specialize in the man­ agement of one type of property, such as apartments, office build­ ings, condominiums, cooperatives, homeowner associations, or retail properties. Managers who excel at marketing properties to tenants may specialize in managing new properties, while those who are particularly knowledgeable about buildings and their mechanical systems might specialize in the management of older properties that require renovation or more frequent repairs. Some experienced property and real estate managers open their own property or real estate management firms. Persons most commonly enter real estate manager jobs by trans­ ferring from positions as property managers or real estate brokers. Real estate managers must be good negotiators, adept at persuading and handling people, and good at analyzing data to assess the fair market value of property or its development potential. Resourceful­ ness and creativity in arranging financing are essential for managers who specialize in land development. Real estate managers may be required to hold a real estate broker's license. Many property and real estate managers attend short-term formal training programs conducted by various professional and trade  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  associations active in the real estate field. Employers send managers to these programs to improve their management skills and expand their knowledge of specialized subjects, such as the operation and maintenance of building mechanical systems, enhancing property values, insurance and risk management, personnel management, business and real estate law, resident/tenant relations, communica­ tions, and accounting and financial concepts. Managers also partici­ pate in these programs to prepare themselves for positions of greater responsibility in property and real estate management. Completion of these programs, together with meeting job experience standards and achieving a satisfactory score on a written examination, leads to certification, or the formal award of a professional designation, by the sponsoring association. In addition to these qualifications, some associations require their members to adhere to a specific code of ethics. Managers of public housing subsidized by the Federal Govern­ ment are required to be certified, but many property and real estate managers who work with all kinds of property choose to earn a professional designation voluntarily because it represents formal industry recognition of their achievements and status in the occupa­ tion. A number of organizations offer such programs. The Institute of Real Estate Management awards the designations Accredited Residential Manager and Certified Property Manager, while the National Association of Home Builders awards the designation Registered Apartment Manager. The National Apartment Associa­ tion confers the designations Certified Apartment Manager and Certified Apartment Property Supervisor. The Community Associa­ tions Institute bestows the designation Professional Community Association Manager and Association Management Specialist, while the Building Owners and Managers Institute International awards the designations Real Property Administrator and Facilities Management Administrator. Job Outlook Employment of property and real estate managers is projected to increase as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition to rising demand for these workers, many job openings are expected to occur as property managers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Opportunities should be best for persons with college degrees in business administration and related fields, as well as those who attain professional designa­ tions. Growth in the demand for office buildings and retail establish­ ments will spur employment of property and real estate managers. The projected expansion in wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services industries is expected to require growth in the Nation's supply of office and retail space. Some additional growth will come from adding on to existing build­ ings. However, growth will be tempered by downsizing and consoli­ dation, as well as by the leftover office space created during the building boom of the 1980s. Although some of these additions will be handled by the property manager already on the site, other addi­ tions will require the hiring of additional property managers. More complex responsibilities combined with larger facilities may lead to the hiring of more property managers per building. In addition, the expected faster than average employment growth in some retail trade industries should require greater numbers of real estate managers to acquire and develop properties for expanding restaurant, food, apparel, and specialized merchandise chains. Growth in the Nation's stock of apartments and houses also should require more property and real estate managers. Although the rate of new household formation is expected to slow somewhat over the 1994-2005 period, the high cost of purchasing a home is expected to force an increasing proportion of individuals to delay leaving rental housing. In addition, developments of new homes are increas­ ingly being organized with community or homeowner associations that provide community services and oversee jointly owned common areas, requiring professional management. To help properties be­  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 69  come more profitable, more commercial and multi-unit residential property owners are expected to place their investments in the hands of professional managers. Growth in demand should also arise as a result of the changing demographic composition of the population. The number of older people will increase during the projection period, creating a need for various types of suitable housing, such as assisted living arrange­ ments and retirement communities. Accordingly, there will be a need for property managers to operate these facilities, especially those who have a background in the operation and administrative aspects of running a health unit. Earnings Median earnings of all property and real estate managers were $22,600 a year in 1994. The middle 50 percent earned between $15,300 and $35,100. Ten percent earned less than $10,200 and 10 percent earned more than $52,500 annually. Community association managers received compensation compa­ rable to on-site and property managers employed by other types of properties. Many resident apartment managers receive the use of an apartment as part of their compensation package. Property and real estate managers often are given the use of a company automobile, and managers employed in land development often receive a small percentage of ownership in projects that they develop. Related Occupations Property and real estate managers plan, organize, staff, and manage the real estate operations of businesses. Workers who perform similar functions in other fields include restaurant and food service manag­ ers, hotel and resort managers and assistants, health services manag­ ers, education administrators, and city managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about careers in property and real estate man­ agement and programs leading to the award of a professional desig­ nation in the field is available from: •“Building Owners and Managers Association International, 1201 New York Ave. NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20005. •“Building Owners and Managers Institute International, 1521 Ritchie Hwy., Arnold, MD 21012. •“Community Associations Institute, 1630 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314. •“Institute of Real Estate Management, 430 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611. •“National Apartment Association, 1111 14th St. NW., Suite 900, Washing­ ton, DC 20005. •“National Association of Home Builders, 1201 15th St. NW., Washington, DC 20005. •“International Association of Corporate Real Estate Executives, 440 Co­ lumbia Dr., Suite 100, West Palm Beach, FL 33409.  Purchasers and Buyers (D.O.T. 162.117-018, .157-018, -022, -030, -034, and -038, .167-022, and -030; 163.117-010; 169.167-054; 184.117-078; and 185.167-034)  Nature of the Work Purchasers and buyers seek to obtain the highest quality merchandise at the lowest possible price for their employers. In general, purchas­ ers buy goods and services for the use of their company or organiza­ tion and buyers buy items for resale. They determine which com­ modities or services are best, choose the suppliers of the product or service, negotiate the lowest price, and award contracts that ensure that the correct amount of the product or service is received at the appropriate time. In order to accomplish these tasks successfully, purchasers and buyers study sales records and inventory levels of  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  current stock, identify foreign and domestic suppliers, and keep abreast of changes affecting both the supply of and demand for products and materials for which they are responsible. Purchasers and buyers evaluate and select suppliers based upon price, quality, availability, reliability, and selection. They review listings in catalogs, industry periodicals, directories, and trade jour­ nals, research the reputation and history of the suppliers, and adver­ tise anticipated purchase actions in order to solicit bids from suppliers. Meetings, trade shows, conferences, and visits to suppli­ ers' plants and distribution centers also provide opportunities for purchasers and buyers to examine products, assess a supplier's pro­ duction and distribution capabilities, as well as discuss other techni­ cal and business considerations that bear on the purchase. Specific job duties and responsibilities vary with the type of commodities or services to be purchased and the employer. Purchasing professionals who are employed by government agencies or manufacturing firms are usually called purchasing direc­ tors, managers, or agents; industrial buyers; or contract specialists. These workers acquire product materials, intermediate goods, ma­ chines, supplies, and other materials used in the production of a final product. Some purchasing managers who work in the industrial sector and specialize in negotiating and supervising supply contracts are called contract specialists or supply managers. Purchasing agents and managers obtain items ranging from raw materials, fabricated parts, machinery, and office supplies to construction services and airline tickets. The flow of work—or even the entire production process—can be slowed or halted if the right materials, supplies, or equipment are not on hand when needed. In order to be effective, purchasers and buyers must have a working technical knowledge of the goods or services to be purchased. In large industrial organizations, a distinction is often drawn between the work of a buyer or purchasing agent and that of a pur­ chasing manager. Purchasing agents and buyers typically focus on routine purchasing tasks, often specializing in a commodity or group of related commodities—for example, steel, lumber, cotton, fabri­ cated metal products, or petroleum products. This usually requires the purchaser to track such things as market conditions, price trends, or futures markets. Purchasing managers usually handle the more complex or critical purchases and may supervise a group of purchas­ ing agents handling other goods and services. Whether a person is titled purchasing agent, buyer, or manager depends more on specific industry and employer practices than on specific job duties. Changing business practices have altered the traditional roles of purchasing professionals. Manufacturing companies have begun to recognize the importance of purchasing professionals and increas­ ingly involve them at most stages of product development. Their ability to forecast a part's or material's cost, availability, and suitabil­ ity for its intended purpose can affect the entire product design. For example, potential problems with the supply of materials may be avoided by consulting the purchasing department in the early stages of product design. In addition, there is a trend toward limited-source, long-term contracting. These contracts increase the importance of supplier selection because agreements are larger in scope and longer in dura­ tion. A major responsibility of most purchasers is to work out prob­ lems that may occur with a supplier because the success of the relationship directly affects the buying firm's performance. Increasingly, purchasing professionals work closely with other employees in their own organization when deciding on purchases, an arrangement sometimes called team buying. For example, they may discuss the design of custom-made products with company design engineers, quality problems in purchased goods with quality assur­ ance engineers and production supervisors, or shipment problems with managers in the receiving department before submitting an order. Contract specialists in the Federal Government typically use sealed bids, but sometimes use negotiated agreements for complex items. Government purchasing agents and managers must follow  70 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  strict laws and regulations in their work. These legal requirements are occasionally changed, so agents and contract specialists must stay informed about the latest regulations and their applications. Other professionals, who buy finished goods for resale, are em­ ployed by wholesale and retail establishments where they are com­ monly referred to as "buyers" or "merchandise managers." Whole­ sale and retail buyers are an integral part of a complex system of distribution and merchandising that caters to the vast an-ay of con­ sumer needs and desires. Wholesale buyers purchase goods directly from manufacturers or from other wholesale firms for resale to retail firms, commercial establishments, institutions, and other organiza­ tions. In retail firms, buyers purchase goods from wholesale firms or directly from manufacturers for resale to the public. Buyers largely determine which products their establishment will sell. Therefore, it is essential that they have the ability to accurately predict what will appeal to consumers. They must constantly stay informed of the latest fashions and trends because failure to do so could jeopardize profits and the reputation of their company. Buyers also follow ads in newspapers and other media to check competitors' sales activities and watch general economic conditions to anticipate consumer buying patterns. Buyers working for large and medium-sized firms usually specialize in acquiring one or two lines of merchandise, whereas buyers working for small stores may purchase their com­ plete inventory. The use of private-label merchandise and the consolidation of buying departments have increased the responsibilities of retail buyers. Private-label merchandise, produced for a particular retailer, requires buyers to work closely with vendors to develop and obtain the desired product. The downsizing and consolidation of buying departments is also increasing the demands placed on buyers be­ cause, although the amount of work remains unchanged, there are fewer people needed to accomplish it. The result is an increase in the workloads and levels of responsibility. Many merchandise managers assist in the planning and imple­ mentation of sales promotion programs. Working with merchandis­ ing executives, they determine the nature of the sale and purchase accordingly. They also work with advertising personnel to create the ad campaign. For example, they may determine the media in which the advertisement will be placed—newspapers, direct mail, televi­ sion, or some combination of these. In addition, merchandising managers often visit the selling floor to ensure that the goods are properly displayed. Often, assistant buyers are responsible for plac­ ing orders and checking shipments. Computers are having a major effect on the jobs of purchasers and buyers. In manufacturing and service industries, computers handle most of the more routine tasks—enabling purchasing professionals  Computers allow purchasers and buyers easy access to current product, sales, and inventory information.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to concentrate mainly on the analytical aspects of the job. Compu­ ters are used to obtain up-to-date product and price listings, to track inventory levels, process routine orders, and help determine when to make purchases. Computers also maintain bidders' lists, record the history of supplier performance, and issue purchase orders. Computerized systems have dramatically simplified many of the routine buying functions and improved efficiency in determining which products are selling. For example, cash registers connected to computers, known as point-of-sale terminals, allow organizations to maintain centralized, up-to-date sales and inventory records. This information can then be used to produce weekly sales reports that reflect the types of products in demand. As well as monitoring their company’s sales, buyers use computers to gain instant access to the specifications for thousands of commodities, inventory records, and their customers' purchase records. Some firms are linked with manu­ facturers or wholesalers by electronic purchasing systems. These systems speed selection and ordering and provide information on availability and shipment, allowing buyers to better concentrate on the selection of goods and suppliers. Working Conditions Most purchasers and buyers work in comfortable, well-lighted offices at stores, corporate headquarters, or production facilities. They frequently work more than a 40-hour week because of special sales, conferences, or production deadlines. Evening and weekend work is common. For those working in retail trade, this is especially true prior to holiday seasons. Consequently, many retail firms discourage the use of vacation time from late November until early January. Buyers and merchandise managers often work under great pres­ sure since wholesale and retail stores are so competitive; buyers need physical stamina to keep up with the fast-paced nature of their work. Traveling is usually required and many purchasers and buyers spend at least several days a month on the road. Fligh-fashion buyers and purchasers for worldwide manufacturing companies often travel outside the United States. Employment Purchasers and buyers held about 621,000 jobs in 1994. Purchasing agents and purchasing managers each accounted for slightly more than one-third of the total while buyers accounted for the remainder. Almost all worked full time. About one-half of all buyers and purchasers worked in wholesale and retail trade establishments such as grocery or department stores. One-fourth worked in manufacturing. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement. Qualified persons usually begin as trainees, purchasing clerks, ex­ pediters, junior buyers, or assistant buyers. Retail and wholesale firms prefer to hire applicants who are familiar with the merchandise they sell as well as with wholesaling and retailing practices. Some retail firms promote qualified employees to assistant buyer positions; others recruit and train college graduates as assistant buyers. Most employers use a combination of methods. Educational requirements tend to vary with the size of the organi­ zation. Large stores and distributors, especially those in wholesale and retail trade, prefer applicants who have completed a bachelor's degree program that focused on business related curriculum. Many manufacturing firms desire applicants with a bachelor's or master's degree in business, economics, or technical training such as engineer­ ing or one of the applied sciences and tend to put a greater emphasis on formal training. Regardless of academic preparation, new em­ ployees must learn the specifics of their employers' business. Although training periods vary in length, most last several years. In wholesale and retail establishments, most trainees begin by selling merchandise, supervising sales workers, checking invoices on mate­ rial received, and keeping track of stock on hand, although wide­ spread use of computers has simplified some of these tasks. As they  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 71  progress, retail trainees are given more buying-related responsibili­ ties. In manufacturing, new purchasing employees are often enrolled in company training programs and spend a considerable amount of time learning about company operations and purchasing practices. They work with experienced purchasers to learn about commodities, prices, suppliers, and markets. In addition, they may be assigned to production planning to learn about the material requirements system and the inventory system. Persons who wish to become wholesale or retail buyers should be good at planning and decision making and have an interest in mer­ chandising. Anticipating consumer preferences and ensuring that goods are in stock when they are needed require resourcefulness, good judgment, and self-confidence. Buyers must be able to make decisions quickly and take risks. Marketing skills and the ability to identify products that will sell are also very important. Employers often look for leadership ability and communication skills because buyers spend a large portion of their time supervising assistant buyers and dealing with manufacturers' representatives and store executives. Purchasing professionals must be able to analyze the technical data in suppliers' proposals, make buying decisions, and spend large amounts of money responsibly. The job requires the ability to work independently as well as a part of a team. In addition, these workers must be able to get along well with people to balance the needs of departments within the organization with budgetary constraints. They may consult with lawyers, engineers, and scientists when involved in complex procurements. Experienced buyers may advance by moving to a department that manages a larger volume or by becoming a merchandise manager. Others may go to work in sales for a manufacturer. An experienced purchasing agent or buyer may become an assis­ tant purchasing manager in charge of a group of purchasing profes­ sionals before advancing to purchasing, manager, supply manager, or director of materials management. At the top levels, duties may overlap into other management functions such as production, plan­ ning, and marketing. In high technology manufacturing firms, continuing education is essential for advancement. Many purchasers participate in seminars offered by professional societies and take college courses in purchas­ ing. Although no national standard exists, professional certification is becoming increasingly important. In private industry, the recognized marks of experience and professional competence are the designations Certified Purchasing Manager (CPM), conferred by the National Association of Purchas­ ing Management and Certified Purchasing Professional (CPP) and Certified Purchasing Executive (CPE), conferred by the American Purchasing Society upon candidates who pass examinations and meet specified educational, experience, and related requirements. In Fed­ eral, State, and local government, the indications of professional competence are the designations Certified Professional Public Buyer (CPPB) and Certified Public Purchasing Officer (CPPO), conferred by the National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc. The CPPB is earned by passing a two-part written examination and meeting certain experience requirements. To earn the CPPO, a candidate must have additional purchasing and supervisory or man­ agement experience, pass a three-part written exam, and undergo an oral interview assessment. As more materials purchasing is conducted on a long-term basis, both private and public purchasing professionals are specializing in the contractual aspects of purchasing. The National Contract Man­ agement Association confers the designations Certified Associate Contract Manager (CACM) or Certified Professional Contract Man­ ager (CPCM). Candidates for these certifications must have related work experience, complete academic course-work, and pass written exams. These designations primarily apply to contract managers in the Federal Government and its suppliers.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of purchasers and buyers is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Demand for these workers will not keep pace with the rising level of economic activity because the increasing use of computers has allowed much of the paperwork typically involved in ordering and procuring supplies to be done away with, reducing the demand for lower-level buyers who traditionally performed these duties. Also, limited sourcing and long-term contracting have allowed companies to negotiate with fewer suppliers less frequently. Another industry­ wide trend is the increased use of credit cards by some employees to purchase supplies without using the services of the procurement or purchasing office. In retail trade, mergers and acquisitions have forced the consoli­ dation of buying departments, eliminating jobs. In addition, larger retail stores are removing their buying departments from geographic markets and centralizing them at their headquarters, eliminating more jobs. The Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 will restrict demand of purchasing agents within the Federal Government because it requires certain purchases under a mandated dollar value to be made electronically. Consequently, most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Persons who have a bachelor's degree in business should have the best chance of obtaining a buyer job in wholesale or retail trade or within government. A master's degree or bachelor's degree in a technical field will be an advantage for those interested in working for a manufacturing or industrial company Earnings Median annual earnings of purchasers and buyers were $31,700 in 1994. The middle 50 percent earned between $24,100 and $43,000. The lowest 10 percent averaged less than $18,500 while the top 10 percent earned more than $57,400. Merchandise managers and purchasing managers generally earned higher salaries than buyers or agents. As a general rule, those with the most education in their field have the highest incomes. The average annual salaries for purchasing agents and contract specialists in the Federal Government in 1995 were about $26,579 and $47,885, respectively. Purchasers and buyers receive the same benefits package as their coworkers, frequently including vacations, sick leave, life and health insurance, and pension plans. In addition to standard benefits, retail buyers often earn cash bonuses based on their performance and may receive discounts on merchandise bought from the employer. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations who need a knowledge of marketing and the ability to assess demand are retail sales workers, sales man­ agers, comparison shoppers, manufacturers' and wholesale sales representatives, insurance sales agents, services sales representatives, procurement services managers, and traffic managers. Sources of Additional Information Further information about careers in purchasing and certification is available from: ••American Purchasing Society, 11910 Oak Trail Way, Port Richey, FL 34668. •"National Association of Purchasing Management, Customer Service, 2055 East Centennial Circle, P.O. Box 22160, Tempe, AZ 85285. ••National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, 11800 Sunrise Valley Dr., Suite 1050, Reston, VA 22091. ••National Contract Management Association, 1912 Woodford Rd., Vienna, VA 22182.  72 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  Restaurant and Food Service Managers (D.O.T. 185.137; 187.161-010 and .167-026, -106, -126, -206, and -210; 319.137-014, -018, and-030)  Nature of the Work Food is consumed outside the home in a variety of settings. Eating places range from institutional cafeterias and fast food to elegant dining establishments. The cuisine, price, and setting where the meals are consumed vary, but managers of these dining facilities share many of the same responsibilities. Efficient and profitable operation of restaurants and institutional food service facilities requires managers and assistant managers to select and appropriately price menu items, use food and other supplies efficiently, and achieve consistent quality in food preparation and service. They also must attend to the various administrative aspects of the business, which includes recruiting, training, and supervising an adequate number of workers. In most restaurants and institutional food service facilities, the manager is assisted by one or more assistant managers, depending on the size and operating hours of the establishment. In large establish­ ments, as well as in many smaller ones, the management team con­ sists of a general manager, one or more assistant managers, and an executive chef. The executive chef is responsible for the operation of the kitchen, while the assistant managers oversee service in the dining room and other areas of the operation. In smaller restaurants, the executive chef may be the general manager, and sometimes an owner. In fast-food restaurants and other food service facilities open for long hours or 7 days a week, the manager is aided by several assistant managers, each of whom supervises a shift of workers. (For additional information, see the Handbook statements on general managers and top executives and chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers.) Many restaurants rarely change their menu, while others make frequent alterations. Institutional food service facilities and some restaurants offer a new menu every day. Managers or executive chefs select menu items, taking into account the likely number of customers, and the past popularity of dishes. Other issues taken into consideration when planning a menu include food left over from prior meals that should not be wasted, the need for variety, and the availability of foods due to seasonality and other factors. Managers or executive chefs analyze the recipes of the dishes to determine food, labor, overhead costs and to assign prices to the various dishes. Menus must be developed far enough in advance that supplies can be ordered and received in time. Ordering supplies and dealing with suppliers are important as­ pects of the work of restaurant and food service managers. On a daily basis, managers estimate food consumption, place orders with suppliers, and schedule the delivery of fresh food and beverages. They receive and check the content of deliveries, evaluating the quality of meats, poultry, fish, fruits, vegetables, and baked goods. Managers meet with the sales representatives from restaurant suppli­ ers to place orders replenishing stocks of tableware, linens, paper, cleaning supplies, cooking utensils, and furniture and fixtures. They also arrange for equipment maintenance and repairs, and for a variety of services such as waste removal and pest control. Managers interview, hire, and, when necessary, fire employees. They explain the establishment’s policies and practices to newly hired workers and oversee their training. Managers schedule the work hours of employees, making sure there are enough workers present to cover peak dining periods. Restaurant and food service managers supervise the kitchen and the dining room. They oversee food preparation and cooking, exam­ ining the quality and portion sizes to ensure that dishes are prepared   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and garnished correctly and in a timely manner. They also investi­ gate and resolve customers' complaints about food quality or service. During busy periods, managers "roll up their sleeves" and help with the cooking, clearing of tables, or other tasks. They direct the cleaning of the kitchen and dining areas and the washing of table­ ware, kitchen utensils, and equipment to maintain company and government sanitation standards. They monitor the actions of their employees and patrons on a continual basis to ensure the health and safety standards and local liquor regulations are obeyed. Managers have a variety of administrative responsibilities. In larger establishments, much of this work is delegated to a book­ keeper, but in others, managers must keep accurate records of the hours and wages of employees, prepare the payroll, and do paper­ work to comply with licensing laws and reporting requirements of tax, wage and hour, unemployment compensation, and Social Security laws. They also maintain the records of supplies and equipment purchased, and ensure that accounts with suppliers are paid on a regular basis. In addition, managers record the number, type, and cost of items sold to exclude dishes that are unpopular or less profitable. Many managers are able to ease the burden of record keeping and paperwork through the use of computers. Point-of-service-systems (POS) are used in many restaurants to increase employee productiv­ ity and allow managers to track the sales of specific menu items. Using a POS system, a server keys in the customer's order and the computer immediately sends the order to the kitchen so preparation can begin. The same system totals checks, acts as a cash register and credit card authorizer, and tracks daily sales. To minimize food costs and spoilage, many managers use inventory tracking software to compare the record of daily sales from the POS with a record of present inventory. In some establishments, when supplies needed for the preparation of popular menu items run low, additional inventory can be ordered directly from the supplier using the computer. Managers are among the first to arrive and the last to leave. At the conclusion of each day, or sometimes each shift, managers tally the cash and charge receipts received and balance them against the record of sales. They are responsible for depositing the day’s receipts at the bank, or securing it in a safe place. Managers are also respon­ sible for locking up, checking that ovens, grills, and lights are off, and switching on alarm systems. Working Conditions Evenings and weekends are popular dining periods, making night and weekend work common. However, many managers of institutional  w Managers select and appropriately price menu items so food and other supplies are used efficiently.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 73  food service facilities work more conventional hours because factory and office cafeterias are generally open only on weekdays for break­ fast and lunch. It is common for restaurant and food service manag­ ers to work 50 hours or more per week. Managers often experience the pressure of simultaneously coordi­ nating a wide range of activities. When problems occur, it is the responsibility of the manager to resolve them with minimal disrup­ tion to customers. The job can be hectic during peak dining hours, and dealing with irate customers or uncooperative employees can be stressful. Employment Restaurant and food service managers held about 526,500 jobs in 1994. Most worked in restaurants or for contract institutional food service companies, but a small number were also employed by educational institutions, hospitals, nursing and personal care facili­ ties, and civic, social, and fraternal organizations. About two-fifths were self-employed. Jobs are located throughout the country, but are most plentiful in large cities and tourist areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Many restaurant and food service manager positions are filled by promoting experienced food and beverage preparation and service workers. Waiters, waitresses, chefs, and fast-food workers who have demonstrated their potential for handling increased responsibility sometimes advance to assistant manager or management trainee jobs when openings occur. Executive chefs need extensive experience working as a chef, and general managers need experience working as assistant manager. However, most food service management com­ panies and national or regional restaurant chains also recruit man­ agement trainees from 2- and 4-year college hospitality management programs. Food service and restaurant chains prefer to hire people with degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management, but they often hire graduates with degrees in other fields who have demonstrated interest and aptitude. A bachelor's degree in restaurant and food service management provides a particularly strong preparation for a career in this occupa­ tion. In 1992, more than 160 colleges and universities offered 4-year programs in restaurant and hotel management or institutional food service management. For people not interested in pursing a 4-year degree, a good alternative is the more than 800 community and junior colleges, technical institutes, and other institutions that offer pro­ grams in these fields leading to an associate degree or other formal certification. Both 2 and 4-year programs provide instruction in subjects such as accounting, business law and management, food planning and preparation, and nutrition. Some programs combine classroom and laboratory study with internships that provide on-thejob experience. In addition, many educational institutions offer culinary programs that provide food preparation training which can lead to a career as a cook or chef and provide a foundation for ad­ vancement to an executive chef position. Most employers emphasize personal qualities. Restaurant and food service management can be demanding, so good health and stamina are important. Self-discipline, initiative, and leadership ability are essential. Managers must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. They need good communication skills to deal with customers and suppliers, as well as to motivate and direct their subordinates. A neat and clean appearance is a must because they are often in close personal contact with the public. Most restaurant chains and food service management companies have rigorous training programs for their management positions. Through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training, trainees receive instruction and gain work experience in all aspects of the operations of a restaurant or institutional food service facility—food preparation, nutrition, sanitation, security, company policies and procedures, personnel management, record keeping, and preparation of reports. Usually after 6 months or a year, trainees receive their first permanent assignment as an assistant manager.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A measure of professional achievement for restaurant and food service managers is to earn the designation of certified Foodservice Management Professional (FMP). Although not a requirement for employment or advancement in the occupation, voluntary certifica­ tion provides recognition of professional competence, particularly for managers who acquired their skills largely on the job. The Educa­ tional Foundation of the National Restaurant Association awards the FMP designation to managers who achieve a qualifying score on a written examination, complete a series of courses that cover a range of food service management topics, and who meet standards of work experience in the field. Willingness to relocate often is essential for advancement to positions with greater responsibility. Managers advance to larger establishments, or regional management positions within restaurant chains. Some eventually open their own eating and drinking estab­ lishments. Others transfer to hotel management positions, because their restaurant management experience provides a good background for food and beverage manager jobs at hotels and resorts. Job Outlook Employment of restaurant and food service managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition to growth in demand, the need to replace managers who transfer to other occupations or stop working will create many job openings. Job opportunities are expected to be best for people with bachelor's or associate degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management. Employment growth is expected to vary by industry. Eating and drinking places will provide the most new jobs as the number of eating and drinking establishments increases and other industries continue to contract out their food services. Population growth, rising personal incomes, and increased leisure time will continue to produce growth in the number of meals consumed outside the home. To meet the demand for prepared food, more restaurants will be built, and more managers will be employed to supervise them. In addition, the number of manager jobs will increase in eating and drinking places as schools, hospitals, and other businesses contract out more of their food services to institutional food service compa­ nies located in the eating and drinking industry. Employment of wage and salary managers in eating and drinking places is expected to increase more rapidly than self-employed managers. New restaurants are increasingly affiliated with national chains rather than being independently owned and operated. As this trend continues, fewer owners will manage restaurants themselves, and more restaurant managers will be employed to run the establish­ ments. Employment in eating and drinking establishments is not very sensitive to changes in economic conditions, so restaurant and food service managers are rarely laid off during hard times. However, competition among restaurants is always intense, and many restau­ rants do not survive. Food service manager jobs are expected to increase in other industries, but growth will be slowed as contracting out becomes more common. Growth in the population of elderly people is ex­ pected to result in growth of food service manager jobs in nursing homes, residential care facilities, and other health care institutions. Earnings Median earnings for restaurant and food service managers were $421 a week in 1994. The middle 50 percent earned between about $295 and $599 a week. The lowest paid 10 percent earned $220 a week or less, while the highest paid 10 percent earned over $884 a week. Earnings of restaurant and food service managers vary greatly according to their responsibilities and the type and size of establish­ ment. Based on a survey conducted for the National Restaurant Association, the median base salary of managers in restaurants was estimated to be about $28,600 a year in 1994, but managers of the largest restaurants and institutional food service facilities often had  74 Occuptional Outlook Handbook  annual salaries in excess of $45,000. Managers of fast-food restau­ rants had an estimated median base salary of $25,000 a year; manag­ ers of full-menu restaurants with table service, almost $30,000; and managers of commercial and institutional cafeterias, nearly $31,400 a year in 1994. Besides a salary, most managers received an annual bonus or incentive payment based on their performance. In 1994, most of these payments ranged between $2,000 and $8,000 a year. Executive chefs had an estimated median base salary of about $37,000 a year in 1994, but those employed in the largest restaurants and institutional food service facilities often had base salaries over $43,000. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most executive chefs ranged between $1,500 and $6,000 a year. The estimated median base salary of assistant managers was over $22,000 a year in 1994, but ranged from less than $19,000 in fastfood restaurants to over $25,000 in some of the largest restaurants and food service facilities. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most assistant managers ranged between $ 1,000 and $4,000 a year. Manager trainees had an estimated median base salary of about $20,000 a year in 1994, but had salaries of nearly $30,000 in some of the largest restaurants and food service facilities. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most trainees ranged between $500 and $2,500 a year. Most salaried restaurant and food service managers received free meals, sick leave, health and life insurance, 1 to 3 weeks of paid vacation a year, and the opportunity for additional training depending on their length of service. Related Occupations Restaurant and food service managers direct the activities of busi­ nesses which provide a service to customers. Other managers in service-oriented businesses include hotel managers and assistants, health services administrators, retail store managers, and bank managers. Sources of Additional Information Information about job opportunities may be obtained from local employers and local offices of the State employment service. Information about a career as a restaurant and food service man­ ager, 2- and 4-year college programs in restaurant and food service management, and certification as a Foodservice Management Pro­ fessional is available from: •"The Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association, Suite 1400, 250 South Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606.  General information on hospitality careers may be obtained from: •"Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036-3097.  For general career information and a directory of accredited private trade and technical schools offering programs in restaurant and food service management, write to: •"Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technology, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 302, Arlington, VA 22201.  Underwriters (D.O.T. 169.267-046)  Nature of the Work Insurance companies assume billions of dollars in risks each year by writing policies that transfer the risk of loss from their policyholders to themselves. Underwriters appraise and select the risks their com­ pany will insure. An insurance company may lose business to compe­ titors if the underwriter appraises risks too conservatively, or it may have to pay more claims if the underwriting actions are too liberal. Underwriters decide whether an applicant for insurance is an acceptable risk. They analyze information in insurance applications,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Underwriters should enjoy working with detail and analyzing infor­ mation. reports from loss control consultants, medical reports, and actuarial studies—reports that describe the probability of insured loss. They then decide whether to issue a policy and may outline the terms of the contract, including the amount of the premium. Underwriters sometimes correspond with policyholders, agents, and managers about policy cancellations or other matters. On rare occasions, they accompany sales representatives on appointments with prospective customers. (Life insurance agents and brokers are increasingly called "life underwriters;" they are included in the section on insurance agents and brokers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most underwriters specialize in one of three major categories of insurance: Life, property and casualty, or health. They further specialize in group or individual policies. Property and casualty underwriters specialize by type of risk insured, such as fire, home­ owner, automobile, marine, property, or workers' compensation. In cases where casualty companies insure in a single "package" policy, covering various types of risks, the underwriter must be familiar with different lines of insurance. Some underwriters, called commercial account underwriters, handle business insurance exclusively. They often evaluate a firm's entire operation in appraising its application for insurance. An increasing proportion of insurance sales, particularly in life and health insurance, are being made through group contracts. A standard group policy insures everyone in a specified group through a single contract at uniform premium rates. The group underwriter analyzes the overall composition of the group to ensure the total risk is not excessive. Another type of group policy provides members of a group—a labor union, for example—with individual policies reflecting their needs. These generally are casualty policies, such as those covering automobiles. The casualty underwriter analyzes the application of each group member and makes individual appraisals. Some group underwriters meet with union or employer representa­ tives to discuss the types of policies available to their group. Working Conditions Underwriters have desk jobs that require no unusual physical activ­ ity. Their offices generally are comfortable and pleasant. Although some overtime may be required, underwriters generally work from 35 to 40 hours a week. They occasionally attend meetings away from home for several days. Construction and marine underwriters often travel to inspect work sites and assess risks. Employment Insurance underwriters held about 96,000 jobs in 1994. The follow­ ing tabulation shows the percent distribution of wage and salary jobs by industry.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 75 Total......................................................................................................... 100 Fire, marine, and casualty insurance carriers............................................... 38 Insurance agents, brokers, and service......................................................... 31 Life insurance carriers.................................................................................. 16 Pension funds and miscellaneous insurance carriers.................................... 4 Medical service and health insurance carriers............................................. 3 Other industries............................................................................................ 8  The majority of underwriters worked for insurance companies, often called "carriers." Most of the remaining underwriters worked throughout the country in independent insurance agencies—firms which represent one or more insurance companies—and brokers— firms which may deal with any insurance company and represent the interests of the buyers of insurance, known as "insureds". A small number of underwriters worked for banks, mortgage companies, and real estate firms. Office underwriters in the life insurance industry are most likely to work in an insurance company's home office. In some large general agencies, underwriters help life insurance agents, or "producers", determine if the risk will be accepted or rejected by the home office. However, most regional life insurance offices deal predominantly with sales, not underwriting. Property and casualty underwriters also work in home offices, but more work for agencies or regional branch offices, where they have the authority to under­ write risks and determine an appropriate rating without consulting the home office. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement For beginning underwriting jobs, most large insurance companies prefer college graduates who have a degree in business administra­ tion or finance, with courses or experience in accounting. However, a bachelor's degree in almost any field—plus courses in business law and accounting—provides a good general background and may be sufficient to qualify. Basic familiarity with computers is essential. Beginners typically start as underwriter trainees or assistant underwriters. They may help collect information on applicants and evaluate routine applications under the supervision of an experienced risk analyst. Property and casualty trainees study claim files to become familiar with factors associated with certain types of losses. Many larger insurers offer a training program, lasting from a few months to a year, that combines study with work. As trainees de­ velop the necessary judgment, they are assigned policy applications that are more complex and cover greater risks. These often require the use of computers for more efficient processing. Continuing education is necessary for advancement. Insurance companies generally pay tuition for underwriting courses that their trainees successfully complete; some also offer salary incentives. Independent study programs for experienced property and casualty underwriters are also available. The American Institute for Chartered Property Casualty Underwriters awards the designations "Associate in Underwriting" (AU), and "Chartered Property Casualty Under­ writer" (CPCU). To earn the AU designation, underwriters complete a series of courses and examinations; it usually takes about two years to earn the AU designation. Earning the more advanced CPCU designation generally takes about 5 years, and requires passing 10 examinations covering personal and commercial insurance, risk management insurance, business law, accounting, finance, manage­ ment, economics, and ethics. Although CPCU's may be underwrit­ ers, the CPCU is intended for everyone working in any and all aspects of insurance. An AU designation is the first, formal step in developing a career in underwriting. Underwriting can be a satisfying career for people who enjoy working with detail and analyzing information. In addition, under­ writers must possess good judgment in order to make sound deci­ sions. They must also be imaginative and aggressive, especially when they have to obtain information from outside sources.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Experienced underwriters who complete courses of study may advance to senior underwriter or underwriting manager. Some underwriting managers are promoted to senior managerial jobs. Others are attracted to the earnings potential of sales and obtain state licensing to sell insurance and insurance products as agents or brokers. Job Outlook Employment of underwriters is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings are expected to result from the need to replace underwriters who transfer to other occupations or stop working altogether. A number of factors underlie the continuing need for underwrit­ ers. Shifts in the age distribution of the population will result in an increase in the number of people who assume career and family responsibilities. People in this group have the greatest need for life and property and casualty insurance. In addition, expanding long­ term healthcare and pension benefits for retirees—an increasing proportion of the population—will increase underwriting require­ ments. Growing concerns for financial security and liability should also contribute to demand for more insurance protection for homes, automobiles, pleasure craft, and other valuables. New or expanding businesses will need protection for new plants and equipment, prod­ uct liability, and insurance for workers' compensation and employee benefits. Employment of underwriters, however, is expected to increase more slowly than growth in demand for insurance. The trend toward self-insurance is expected to lower the demand for some property and casualty underwriters. Businesses that self-insure set a rate for their own company and pay premiums into a reserve fund. Additionally, many property and casualty companies are foregoing personal lines of insurance—especially automobile—and concentrating on com­ mercial lines of business. The increased use of "intelligent" or "smart" underwriting software systems is also slowing the demand for new underwriters. These systems automatically analyze and rate insurance applications, then accept or deny the risk without human intervention. Underwriters specializing in one particular area of insurance may find it difficult to transfer to another type of insurance if their jobs are threatened. Because insurance is usually regarded as a necessity, regardless of economic conditions, underwriters are unlikely to be laid off because of a recession. Earnings Median annual earnings of full-time wage and salaried underwriters in 1994 were about $30,800. The middle 50 percent earned between $22,000 and $40,500 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $18,600; the top 10 percent, more than $54,800 a year. Most insurance companies have liberal vacation policies and other employee benefits. Almost all insurance companies provide employer-financed group life and retirement plans. Related Occupations Underwriters make decisions on the basis of financial data. Other workers with the same type of responsibility include auditors, budget analysts, financial advisors, loan officers, credit managers, real estate appraisers, and risk managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about a career as an insurance underwriter is available from the home offices of many life insurance and property and liability insurance companies. Information about the insurance business in general and the underwriting function in particular also may be obtained from: •■The American Institute for Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters, 720 Providence Rd., P.O. Box 3016, Malvern, PA 19355-0716.  Professional Specialty Occupations Engineers Nature of the Work Engineers apply the theories and principles of science and mathemat­ ics to the economical solution of practical technical problems. Usually their work is the link between a scientific discovery and its commercial application. Engineers design machinery, products, systems, and processes for efficient and economical performance. They design industrial machinery and equipment for manufacturing defense-related goods and weapons systems for the Armed Forces. They design, plan, and supervise the construction of buildings, highways, and rapid transit systems. They also design and develop systems for control and automation of manufacturing, business, and management processes. Engineers consider many factors in developing a new product. For example, in developing an industrial robot, they determine precisely what function it needs to perform; design and test compo­ nents; fit them together in an integrated plan; and evaluate the de­ sign's overall effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety. This process applies to products as different as chemicals, computers, gas turbines, helicopters, and toys. In addition to design and development, many engineers work in testing, production, or maintenance. They supervise production in factories, determine the causes of breakdowns, and test manufactured products to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost to complete projects. Some work in engineering management or in sales, where an engineering background enables them to discuss the technical aspects of a product and assist in planning its installation or use. (See the statements on engineering, science, and data processing managers and manufacturers' and wholesale sales representatives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most engineers specialize; more than 25 major specialties are recognized by professional societies,and within the major branches are numerous subdivisions. Structural, environmental, and transpor­ tation engineering, for example, are subdivisions of civil engineering. Engineers also may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehi­ cles, or in one field of technology, such as propulsion or guidance systems. This section, which contains an overall discussion of engineering, is followed by separate sections on 10 engineering branches: Aero­ space; chemical; civil; electrical and electronics; industrial; mechani­ cal; metallurgical, ceramic, and materials; mining; nuclear; and petroleum engineering. Branches of engineering not covered in detail here, but in which there are established college programs include; Architectural engineering—the design of a building's inter­ nal support structure; biomedical engineering—the application of engineering to medical and physiological problems; environmental engineering—a growing discipline involved with identifying, solv­ ing, and alleviating environmental problems; and marine engineer­ ing—the design and installation of ship machinery and propulsion systems. Engineers in each branch have knowledge and training that can be applied to many fields. Electrical and electronics engineers, for example, work in the medical, computer, missile guidance, and power distribution fields. Because there are many separate problems to solve in a large engineering project, engineers in one field often work closely with specialists in other scientific, engineering, and business occupations. Engineers often use computers to simulate and test how a 76  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  machine, structure, or system operates. Many engineers also use computer-aided design systems to produce and analyze designs. They spend a great deal of time writing reports and consulting with other engineers, as complex projects often require an interdiscipli­ nary team of engineers. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects. Working Conditions Many engineers work in laboratories, industrial plants, or at con­ struction sites, where they inspect, supervise, or solve onsite prob­ lems. Others work in offices almost all of the time. Engineers in branches such as civil engineering may work outdoors part of the time. A few engineers travel extensively to plants or construction sites. Many engineers work a standard 40-hour week. At times, dead­ lines or design standards may bring extra pressure to a job. When this happens, engineers may work long hours and experience consid­ erable stress. Employment In 1994, engineers held 1,327,000 jobs. Chart 1 shows the employ­ ment of the engineering disciplines covered in this statement. Fortyseven percent of all engineering jobs were located in manufacturing  Chart 1. Electrical engineering accounted for more than one-quarter of all engineers in 1994. Engineering specialty Electrical Mechanical  Industrial Aeronautical Chemical Materials Nuclear Petroleum Mining All other engineers 50  100 150 200 250 Employment (thousands)  300  350  Professional Specialty Occupations 77  industries—mostly in electrical and electronic equipment, industrial machinery, scientific instruments, aircraft and parts, motor vehicles, chemicals, guided missiles and space vehicles, fabricated metal products, and primary metals industries. In 1994, 684,000 jobs were in nonmanufacturing ndustries, primarily in engineering and architec­ tural services, research and testing services, and business services, where firms designed construction projects or did other engineering work on a contract basis for organizations in other parts of the econ­ omy. Engineers also worked in the communications, utilities, and construction industries. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 181,000 engineers. Over half of these were in the Federal Government, mainly in the Departments of Defense, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, and Energy, and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Most engineers in State and local government agencies worked in highway and public works departments. Some engineers are self-employed consultants. Engineers are employed in every State, in small and large cities, and in rural areas. Some branches of engineering are concentrated in particular industries and geographic areas, as discussed in statements later in this chapter. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is usually required for beginning engineering jobs. College graduates with a degree in a physical science or mathematics may occasionally qualify for some engineering jobs, especially in engi­ neering specialties in high demand. Most engineering degrees are granted in branches such as electrical, mechanical, or civil engineer­ ing. However, engineers trained in one branch may work in another. This flexibility allows employers to meet staffing needs in new technologies and specialties where engineers are in short supply. It also allows engineers to shift to fields with better employment pros­ pects, or to ones that match their interests more closely. In addition to the standard engineering degree, many colleges offer degrees in engineering technology, which are offered as either 2- or 4-year programs. These programs prepare students for practical design and production work rather than for jobs that require more theoretical, scientific and mathematical knowledge. Graduates of 4year technology programs may get jobs similar to those obtained by graduates with a bachelor's degree in engineering. Some employers regard them as having skills between those of a technician and an engineer. Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty positions but is not required for the majority of entry-level engineering jobs. Many engineers obtain graduate degrees in engineering or business administration to learn new technology, broaden their education, and enhance promotion opportunities; others obtain law degrees and become attorneys. Many high-level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers. About 340 colleges and universities offer a bachelor's degree in engineering, and nearly 300 colleges offer a bachelor's degree in engineering technology, although not all are accredited programs. Although most institutions offer programs in the larger branches of engineering, only a few offer some of the smaller specialties. Also, programs of the same title may vary in content. For example, some emphasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in indus­ try, while others are more theoretical and are better for students preparing to take graduate work. Therefore, students should investi­ gate curricula and check accreditations carefully before selecting a college. Admissions requirements for undergraduate engineering schools include courses in advanced high school mathematics and the physical sciences. Bachelor's degree programs in engineering are typically designed to last 4 years, but many students find that it takes between 4 and 5 years to complete their studies. In a typical 4-year college curricu­ lum, the first 2 years are spent studying basic sciences (mathematics, physics, and chemistry), introductory engineering, and the humani­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ties, social sciences, and English. In the last 2 years, most courses are in engineering, usually with a concentration in one branch. For example, the last 2 years of an aerospace program might include courses such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer, applied aerodynamics, analytical mechanics, flight vehicle design, trajectory dynamics, and aerospace propulsion systems. Some programs offer a general engi­ neering curriculum; students then specialize in graduate school or on the job. A few engineering schools and 2-year colleges have agreements whereby the 2-year college provides the initial engineering education and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, a few engineering schools have arrange­ ments whereby a student spends 3 years in a liberal arts college studying preengineering subjects and 2 years in the engineering school and receives a bachelor's degree from each. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master's degree programs. Some 5- or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study and practical work, permitting students to gain valuable experi­ ence and finance part of their education. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require registration for engineers whose work may affect life, health, or property, or who offer their services to the public. In 1994, between 250,000 and 300,000 engineers were registered. Registration generally requires a degree from an engineering program accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, 4 years of relevant work experience, and passing a State examination. Some States will not register people with degrees in engineering technology. Engineers may be registered in several states. Beginning engineering graduates usually do routine work under the supervision of experienced engineers and, in larger companies, may also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more difficult tasks with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Engineers may become technical specialists or may supervise a staff or team of engineers and technicians. Some eventually become engineering managers or enter other managerial, management support, or sales jobs. (See the statements under ex­ ecutive, administrative, and managerial occupations; under sales occupations; and on computer scientists and systems analysts else­ where in the Handbook.) Engineers should be able to work as part of a team and should be creative, analytical, and detail-oriented. In addition, engineers should be able to communicate well—both orally and in writing. Job Outlook Employment opportunities in engineering are expected to be good through the year 2005 because employment is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations while the number of degrees granted in engineering is expected to remain near present levels through the year 2005. Many of the jobs in engineering are related to national defense. Because defense expenditures have declined, employment growth and job outlook for engineers may not be as strong as in times when defense expenditures were increasing. However, graduating engi­ neers will continue to be in demand for jobs in engineering and other areas, possibly even at the same time other engineers, especially defense industry engineers, are being laid off. Employers will rely on engineers to further increase productivity as they increase investment in plant and equipment to expand output of goods and services. In addition, competitive pressures and ad­ vancing technology will force companies to improve and update product designs more frequently. Finally, more engineers will be needed to improve deteriorating roads, bridges, water and pollution control systems, and other public facilities. Freshman engineering enrollments began declining in 1983, and the number of bachelor's degrees in engineering began declining in 1987, as shown in chart 2. Although it is difficult to project engi­ neering enrollments, this decline may continue through the late 1990s  78 Occupational Outlook Handbook Chart 2. The number of bachelor's degrees in engineering has leveled off after a period of decline.  offer the greatest challenges, the most interesting work, and the highest salaries. Therefore, the choice of engineering specialty and employer involves an assessment not only of the potential rewards but also of the risk of technological obsolescence.  Number of degrees (thousands)  Earnings Starting salaries for engineers with the bachelor's degree are signifi­ cantly higher than starting salaries of bachelor’s degree graduates in other fields. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, engineering graduates with a bachelor's degree averaged about $34,100 a year in private industry in 1994; those with a mas­ ter's degree and no experience, $40,200 a year; and those with a Ph.D., $55,300. Starting salaries for those with the bachelor's degree vary by branch, as shown in the following tabulation. Aerospace................................................................................................$30,860 Chemical................................................................................................ 39,204  Civil............................................................................................ 29,809 Electrical.................................................................... Industrial................................................................................................ Mechanical............................................................................................. Metallurgical.......................................................................................... Mining................................................................................................... Nuclear.............................. Petroleum.........................................t....................................................  1984 '85  '86  '87  '88  '89  '90  '91  '92  '93  '94  Source: Engineering Workforce Commission  because the total college-age population is projected to decline. Furthermore, the proportion of students interested in engineering careers has declined as prospects for college graduates in other fields have improved and interest in other programs has increased. Also, engineering schools have restricted enrollments, especially in de­ fense-related fields such as aerospace engineering, to accommodate the reduced opportunities in defense-related industries. Only a relatively small proportion of engineers leave the profes­ sion each year. Despite this, over 70 percent of all job openings will arise from replacement needs. A greater proportion of replacement openings is created by engineers who transfer to management, sales, or other professional specialty occupations than by those who leave the labor force. Most industries are less likely to lay off engineers than other workers. Many engineers work on long-term research and develop­ ment projects or in other activities which may continue even during recessions. In industries such as electronics and aerospace, however, large government cutbacks in defense or research and development have resulted in significant layoffs for engineers. New computer-aided design systems have improved the design process, enabling engineers to produce or modify designs much more rapidly. Engineers now produce and analyze many more design variations before selecting a final one. However, this technology is not expected to limit employment opportunities. It is important for engineers to continue their education through­ out their careers because much of their value to their employer depends on their knowledge of the latest technology. The pace of technological change varies by engineering specialty and industry. Engineers in high-technology areas such as advanced electronics may find that technical knowledge can become obsolete rapidly. Even those who continue their education are vulnerable if the particular technology or product they have specialized in becomes obsolete. Engineers who have not kept current in their field may find them­ selves passed over for promotions and are vulnerable should layoffs occur. On the other hand, it is often these high-technology areas that   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  34,840 33,267 35,051 33,429 32,638 33,603 38,286  A survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas reported that beginning engineers had median annual earnings of about $33,900 in 1993, with the middle half earning between about $30,900 and $36,900 a year. Experienced midlevel engineers with no supervisory responsibilities had median annual earnings of about $54,400, with the middle half earning between about $49,800 and $59,600 a year. Median annual earnings for engineers at senior managerial levels were about $90,000. Median annual earnings for these and other levels of engineers are shown in the following tabulation. Engineer I............................. $33,900 Engineer II.............................................................................................. 38,500 Engineer III............................................................................................ 44,800 Engineer IV......................... 54,400 Engineer V............................................................................................. 65,400 Engineer VI............................................................................................ 78,100 Engineer VII........................................................................................... 90,000 Engineer VIII.......................................................................................... 105,700  Median annual salaries for all engineers was about $46,600 in 1994. Those with a bachelor's degree had median earnings of $47,100; master’s degree holders, $53,200; and PhDs, $62,300. Median salaries for some engineering specialties were: Aerospace................................................................................................$50,200 Chemical.................................................................................. 53,100 Civil........................................................................................................ 44,700 Electrical................................................................................................ 48,000 Industrial......................... 40,900 Mechanical............................................................................... 46,400 Engineers, nec........................................................................................ 45,400  The average annual salary for engineers in the Federal Govern­ ment in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $58,080 in 1995. Related Occupations Engineers apply the principles of physical science and mathematics in their work. Other workers who use scientific and mathematical principles include physical scientists, life scientists, computer scien­ tists, mathematicians, engineering and science technicians, and architects.  Professional Specialty Occupations 79  Sources of Additional Information High school students interested in obtaining general information on a variety of engineering disciplines should contact the Junior Engineer­ ing Technical Society by sending a self-addressed business-size envelope with 6 first-class stamps affixed to: •\JETS-Guidance, at 1420 King St., Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314.  Non-high school students and those wanting more detailed infor­ mation should contact societies representing the individual branches of engineering. Each can provide information about careers in the particular branch. Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering, send $3 to: •"American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., AIAA Student Programs, The Aerospace Center, 370 L'Enfant Promenade SW., Washington, DC 20024-2518.  Chemical Engineering •"American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY 10017-2395. •"American Chemical Society, Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  Civil Engineering •"American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017.  mm  Electrical and Electronics Engineering •"Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1828 L St. NW., Suite 1202, Washington, DC 20036.  Industrial Engineering •"Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc., 25 Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, GA 30092.  Mechanical Engineering •"The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017. •"American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engi­ neers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle NE., Atlanta, GA 30329.  Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Materials Engineering •"The Minerals, Metals, & Materials Society, 420 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15086-7514. •"ASM International, Student Outreach Program, Materials Park, OH 44073­ 0002.  Mining Engineering •"The Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., P.O. Box 625002, Littleton, CO 80162-5002.  An aerospace engineer models the orbital position of a satellite.  Nuclear Engineering •"American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Ave., LaGrange Park, IL 60525.  Petroleum Engineering •"Society of Petroleum Engineers, 222 Palisades Creek Dr„ Richardson, TX 75080.  Aerospace Engineers  manufacturing industries. Federal Government agencies, primarily the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, provided more than 1 out of 7 jobs. Business serv­ ices, engineering and architectural services, research and testing services, and electrical and electronics manufacturing firms ac­ counted for most of the remainder. California, Washington, Texas, and Florida—States with large aerospace manufacturers—have the most aerospace engineers.  D.O.T. 002.061 and. 167)  Nature of the Work Aerospace engineers design, develop, test, and help manufacture commercial and military aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. They develop new technologies for use in commercial aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas like structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, or production methods. They also may special­ ize in a particular type of aerospace product, such as commercial transports, helicopters, spacecraft, or rockets. Aerospace engineers may be experts in aerodynamics, propulsion, thermodynamics, structures, celestial mechanics, acoustics, or guidance and control systems. Employment Aerospace engineers held about 56,000 jobs in 1994. About half were in the aircraft and parts and guided missile and space vehicle  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  lob Outlook Those seeking employment as aerospace engineers are likely to face keen competition because the number of job opportunities is ex­ pected to be significantly fewer than the relatively large pool of graduates. Defense Department expenditures for military aircraft, missiles, and other aerospace systems are declining, although funding for research and development of new systems has remained stable. Growth in the civilian sector, which needs to replace the present fleet of airliners with quieter and more fuel-efficient aircraft, is projected to be slow due to smaller orders from airlines and increasing foreign competition. This has caused a restructuring of firms and layoffs of personnel within both defense and civilian aircraft manufacturing that is expected to continue through the mid-1990s. Consequently, employment of aerospace engineers is expected to grow more slowly than the average through the year 2005. Future growth of employ­ ment in this field could also be limited because a higher proportion of engineers in aerospace manufacturing may come from the materials, mechanical, or electrical engineering fields. Most job openings will  80 Occupational Outlook Handbook  result from the need to replace aerospace engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. (See introductory section of this chapter for information on train­ ing requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  however, will be in nonmanufacturing industries, especially service industries. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Chemical Engineers  Civil Engineers  (D.O.T. 008.061)  (D.O.T. 005.061 except-042, .167-014 and -018; and 019.167-018)  Nature of the Work Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry and engineer­ ing to solve problems involving the production or use of chemicals. Most work in the production of chemicals and chemical products. They design equipment and develop processes for manufacturing chemicals, plan and test methods of manufacturing the products, and supervise production. Chemical engineers also work in industries other than chemical manufacturing such as electronics or aircraft manufacturing. Because the knowledge and duties of chemical engineers cut across many fields, they apply principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics, and mechanical and electrical engineering in their work. They frequently specialize in a particular operation such as oxidation or polymerization. Others specialize in a particular area such as pollution control or the production of a specific product like automotive plastics or chlorine bleach.  Nature of the Work Civil engineers work in the oldest branch of engineering. They design and supervise the construction of roads, airports, tunnels, bridges, water supply and sewage systems, and buildings. Major specialties within civil engineering are structural, water resources, environmental, construction, transportation, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions, ranging from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Others may work in design, construction, research, and teaching.  Employment Chemical engineers held over 50,000 jobs in 1994. Manufac­ turing industries employed sixty-nine percent, primarily in the chemical, petroleum refining, and related industries. Most of the rest worked for engineering services, research and testing services, or consulting firms that design chemical plants or do other work on a contract basis, or worked for government agencies or as independent consultants. Job Outlook Although employment in the chemical manufacturing industry is projected to grow very little through 2005, employment of chemical engineers should increase about as fast as the average for all occupa­ tions as chemical companies research and develop new chemicals and more efficient processes to increase output. Areas relating to the production of specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and plastics materials may provide better opportunities than other portions of the chemical industry. Much of the projected growth in employment,  Employment Civil engineers held about 184,000 jobs in 1994. Over 40 percent of the jobs were in Federal, State, and local government agencies. Another 40 percent were in firms that provide engineering consulting services, primarily developing designs for new construction projects. The construction industry, public utilities, transportation, and manu­ facturing industries accounted for most of the rest. Civil engineers usually are found working near major industrial and commercial centers, often at construction sites. Some projects are situated in remote areas or in foreign countries. In some jobs, civil engineers move from place to place to work on different projects. Job Outlook Those wishing to become civil engineers should find favorable opportunities through 2005. Spurred by general population growth and an expanding economy, more civil engineers will be needed to design and construct higher capacity transportation, water supply, and pollution control systems; large buildings and building com­ plexes; and repair or replace existing roads, bridges, and other public structures. Employment of civil engineers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to  r* -  A chemical engineer adjusts the mix of chemicals during production using automated controls.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A civil engineer construction manager reviews the progress of differ­ ent components of the project.  Professional Specialty Occupations 81  replace civil engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Because construction and related industries—including those providing design services—employ many civil engineers, employ­ ment opportunities will vary by geographic area and may decrease during economic slowdowns, when construction often is curtailed. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Electrical and Electronics Engineers (D.O.T. 003.061, .167 except -034 and -070, and .187)  Nature of the Work Electrical and electronics engineers design, develop, test, and super­ vise the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment. Electri­ cal equipment includes power generating and transmission equipment used by electric utilities, and electric motors, machinery controls, and lighting and wiring in buildings, automobiles, and aircraft. Elec­ tronic equipment includes radar, computer hardware, and communi­ cations and video equipment. The specialties of electrical and electronics engineers include several major areas—such as power generation, transmission, and distribution; communications; computer electronics; and electrical equipment manufacturing—or a subdivision of these areas— industrial robot control systems or aviation electronics, for example. Electrical and electronics engineers design new products, write performance requirements, and develop maintenance schedules. They also test equipment, solve operating problems, and estimate the time and cost of engineering projects. Employment Electrical and electronics engineers held about 349,000 jobs in 1994, making it the largest branch of engineering. Most jobs were in engineering and business consulting firms, manufacturers of electri­ cal and electronic equipment, professional and scientific instruments, and government agencies. Communications and utilities firms, industrial machinery manufacturers, and computer and data process­ ing services firms accounted for most of the remaining jobs. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for electrical and electronics engineers are expected to be good through the year 2005. Most job openings will result from job growth and the need to replace electrical engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. These  O  An electrical engineer calibrates a laser.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  openings should be sufficient to absorb the number of new graduates and other entrants. Employment in this engineering specialty is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations. Job growth is ex­ pected to be fastest in industrial sectors other than manufacturing. The need for electronics manufacturers to invest heavily in research and development to remain competitive will provide openings for graduates who have learned the latest technologies. Increased de­ mand by businesses and government for computers and communica­ tions equipment is expected to account for much of the projected employment growth. Consumer demand for electrical and electronic goods should create additional jobs. Because many electrical engineering jobs are defense related, expected cutbacks in defense spending could result in layoffs of electrical engineers, especially if a defense-related project or contract is unexpectedly canceled. Furthermore, engineers who fail to keep up with the rapid changes in technology in some specialties risk technological obsolescence, which makes them more susceptible to layoffs or, at a minimum, more likely to be passed over for advancement. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Industrial Engineers (D.O.T. 005.167-026; 012.061 -018, .067,. 167 except -022, -026, -034, -058, and -062, and .187)  Nature of the Work Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways for an organi­ zation to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, materials, information, and energy—to make or process a product. They are the bridge between management and operations. They are more concerned with increasing productivity through the manage­ ment of people, methods of business organization, and technology than are engineers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes. To solve organizational, production, and related problems most efficiently, industrial engineers carefully study the product and its requirements, design manufacturing and information systems, and use mathematical analysis methods such as operations research to meet those requirements. They develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, design production  f  Industrial engineers work to make operations more efficient.  82 Occupational Outlook Handbook  planning and control systems to coordinate activities and control product quality, and design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services. Industrial engineers conduct surveys to find plant locations with the best combination of raw materials, transportation, and costs. They also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related. Employment Industrial engineers held about 115,000 jobs in 1994; about 75 percent of jobs were in manufacturing industries. Because their skills can be used in almost any type of organization, industrial engineers are more widely distributed among manufacturing industries than other engineers. Their skills can be readily applied outside manufacturing as well. Some work for insurance companies, banks, hospitals, and retail organizations; others work for government agencies or as independ­ ent consultants. Job Outlook Employment of industrial engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005, making for favorable opportunities. Industrial growth, more complex business operations, and the greater use of automation in factories and in offices underlie the projected employment growth. Because the main function of an industrial engineer is to make a higher quality product as efficiently as possible, their services should be in demand in the manufacturing sector as firms seek to reduce costs and increase productivity through scientific management and safety engineering. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace industrial engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Mechanical Engineers (D.O.T. 007.061, .161-022, -034, and -038, and .267-010)  Nature of the Work Mechanical engineers plan and design tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical equipment. They design and develop powerproducing machines such as internal combustion engines, steam and gas turbines, and jet and rocket engines. They also design and de­ velop power-using machines such as refrigeration and air­ conditioning equipment, robots, machine tools, materials handling systems, and industrial production equipment. The work of mechanical engineers varies by industry and func­ tion. Specialties include, among others, applied mechanics, design engineering, heat transfer, power plant engineering, pressure vessels and piping, and underwater technology. Mechanical engineers design tools needed by other engineers for their work. Mechanical engineering is the broadest engineering discipline, extending across many interdependent specialties. Mechanical engineers may work in production operations, maintenance, or technical sales. Many are administrators or managers. Employment Mechanical engineers held about 231,000 jobs in 1994. More than 6 out of 10 jobs were in manufacturing—of these, most were in the machinery, transportation equipment, electrical equipment, instru­ ments, and fabricated metal products industries. Business and engi­ neering consulting services and government agencies provided most of the remaining jobs.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3? M A mechanical engineer reviews her titanium ring design and the final product.  Job Outlook Employment of mechanical engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Al­ though overall employment in manufacturing is expected to decline, employment of mechanical engineers in manufacturing should in­ crease as the demand for machinery and machine tools grows and industrial machinery and processes become increasingly complex. Employment of mechanical engineers in other sectors of the econ­ omy, such as construction and services, is expected to grow faster than average as firms in these industries learn to apply these engi­ neers' skills. Job prospects in this field should be favorable through the year 2005. Most of the expected job openings resulting from employment growth and the need to replace those who will leave the occupation should be sufficient to absorb the supply of new graduates and other entrants. Many mechanical engineering jobs are in defense-related indus­ tries. Reductions in defense spending has and may continue to result in layoffs in these industries. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Materials Engineers (D.O.T. 006.061; 011.061; and 019.061-014)  Nature of the Work Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers develop new types of metal alloys, ceramics, composites, and other materials which meet special requirements. Examples are graphite golf club shafts that are light but stiff, ceramic tiles on the space shuttle that protect it from burning up during reentry, and the alloy turbine blades in a jet engine. Most metallurgical engineers work in one of the three main branches of metallurgy—extractive or chemical, physical, and me­ chanical or process. Extractive metallurgists are concerned with removing metals from ores and refining and alloying them to obtain useful metal. Physical metallurgists study the nature, structure, and physical properties of metals and their alloys, and methods of proc­ essing them into final products. Mechanical metallurgists develop and improve metalworking processes such as casting, forging, roll­ ing, and drawing.  Professional Specialty Occupations 83  Employment of metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Many of the industries in which they are concentrated, such as stone, clay, and glass products, primary metals, fabricated metal products, and transportation equipment industries, are expected to experience little if any employment growth through the year 2005. Anticipated employment growth in service industries, such as research and testing services and engineering and architec­ tural services, however, should provide significant job openings as these firms are employed to develop improved materials for their industrial customers. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Mining Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -018)  Nature of the Work Mining engineers find, extract, and prepare metals and minerals for use by manufacturing industries. They design open pit and under­ ground mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations, and devise methods for transporting minerals to processing plants. Mining engineers are responsible for the safe, economical, and environmentally sound operation of mines. Some mining engineers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits. Others develop new mining equipment or direct mineral processing operations to separate minerals from the dirt, rock, and other materials with which they are mixed. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral or metal, such as coal or gold. With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many mining engineers work solving problems related to land reclamation and water and air pollution. A materials engineer uses x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to examine the structure of a new ceramic. Ceramic engineers develop new ceramic materials and methods for making ceramic materials into useful products. Ceramics include all nonmetallic, inorganic materials which require high temperatures in their processing. Ceramic engineers work on products as diverse as glassware, semiconductors, automobile and aircraft engine compo­ nents, fiber-optic phone lines, tile, and electric power line insulators. Materials engineers evaluate technical requirements and material specifications to develop materials that can be used, for example, to reduce the weight, but not the strength of an object. Materials engi­ neers also test and evaluate materials and develop new materials, such as the composite materials now being used in "stealth" aircraft. Employment Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers held nearly 19,000 jobs in 1994. Over one-fourth worked in metal-producing and proc­ essing industries. They also worked in research and testing services, government agencies, industries that manufacture machinery, electri­ cal equipment, and aircraft and aircraft parts, and in engineering consulting firms. Job Outlook Individuals seeking to become employed as metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers should find good opportunities, as the number of anticipated job openings should be sufficient to absorb the relatively low number of new graduates in this engineering discipline.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment Mining engineers held about 3,200 jobs in 1994. Just under twothirds worked in the mining industry. Other jobs were located in government agencies, manufacturing industries, or engineering consulting firms. Mining engineers are usually employed at the location of mineral deposits, often near small communities. Those in research and  &  -;;  ~  A mining engineer examines the plans of the current mine and the next phase to determine the best location for a conveyor system.  84 Occupational Outlook Handbook  development, management, consulting, or sales, however, often are located in metropolitan areas. Job Outlook The mining industry traditionally has few openings. In fact, em­ ployment of mining engineers is expected to decline through the year 2005. Therefore, graduates in mining engineering will face competi­ tion despite the low number of mining engineering graduates. Opportunities in the mining industry are closely related to the price of the metals and minerals they produce. If the price of these products is high, it makes it worthwhile for a mining company to invest the many millions of dollars in material moving equipment and ore processing technology necessary to operate a mine. Although prices for mined products have been unstable, the increasing activity of auto manufacturing and expanded development and repair of the Nation's roadways will help provide demand for metals and minerals. The long-term business environment for min­ ing generally is perceived to be favorable, but because a mine takes years of research, planning, and development to become fully opera­ tional, it may, even then, not contribute to expansion in employment opportunities for mining engineers. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  a i ■? 5  W\  '  -  mmm  Nuclear Engineers (D.O.T. 005.061-042; 015.061, .067, .137, and .167)  Nature of the Work Nuclear engineers conduct research on nuclear energy and radiation. They design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear power plants used to generate electricity and power Navy ships. They may work on the nuclear fuel cycle—the production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste produced by nuclear energy—or on fusion energy. Some specialize in the development of nuclear weapons; others develop industrial and medical uses for radioactive materials, such as equipment to diagnose and treat medi­ cal problems. Employment Nuclear engineers held about 15,000 jobs in 1994; about one-fifth each were in utilities, the Federal Government, and engineering consulting firms. Another 10 percent were in research and testing services. Nearly half of all federally employed nuclear engineers were civilian employees of the Navy, about one-third worked for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and most of the rest worked for the Department of Energy or the Tennessee Valley Authority. Most nonfederally employed nuclear engineers worked for public utilities or engineering consulting companies. Some worked for defense manufacturers or manufacturers of nuclear power equipment. Job Outlook Little change in employment of nuclear engineers is expected through the year 2005. Because of public concerns over the cost and safety of nuclear power, there are only a small number of nuclear power plants under construction in the United States, two of which are scheduled to begin operating before 2005. Nevertheless, nuclear engineers will be needed to operate existing plants. In addition, nuclear engineers will be needed to work in defense-related areas and to improve and enforce safety standards. Despite the expected absence of employment growth, good oppor­ tunities for nuclear engineers should exist because the small number of nuclear engineering graduates is likely to be roughly in balance with the number of job openings. Most openings will arise as nuclear engineers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A team of nuclear engineers at the controls of a nuclear power plant. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Petroleum Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -014 and -026, .161-010, and .167-010 and -014)  Nature of the Work Petroleum engineers explore for workable reservoirs containing oil or natural gas. When one is discovered, petroleum engineers work to achieve the maximum profitable recovery from the reservoir by determining and developing the most efficient production methods. Because only a small proportion of the oil and gas in a reservoir will flow out under natural forces, petroleum engineers develop and use various enhanced recovery methods. These include injecting water, chemicals, or steam into an oil reservoir to force more of the oil out, and horizontal drilling or fracturing to connect more of a gas reservoir to a well. Since even the best methods in use today recover only a portion of the oil and gas in a reservoir, petroleum engineers work to find ways to increase this proportion. Employment Petroleum engineers held about 14,000 jobs in 1994, mostly in the petroleum industry and closely allied fields. Employers include major oil companies and hundreds of smaller, independent oil explo­ ration, production, and service companies. Engineering consulting  Professional Specialty Occupations 85  Most petroleum engineers work where oil and gas are found. Large numbers are employed in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and California, including offshore sites. Many American petroleum engineers also work overseas in oil-producing countries.  » '  Petroleum engineers discuss a drilling problem on site. firms, government agencies, oil field services, and equipment suppli­ ers also employ petroleum engineers. Others work as independent consultants. Because petroleum engineers specialize in the discovery and production of oil and gas, relatively few are employed in the refining, transportation, and retail sectors of the oil and gas industry.  Job Outlook The price of oil has a major effect on the level of employment oppor­ tunities for petroleum engineers in the United States. A high price of oil and gas makes it profitable for oil exploration firms to seek oil and gas reservoirs, and they will hire petroleum engineers to do so. With low oil prices, however, it is cheaper to purchase needed oil from other countries, such as Saudi Arabia, which have vast oil reserves. Also, the best exploration opportunities are in other coun­ tries because many of the most likely petroleum-producing areas in the United States have already been explored. Employment of petroleum engineers is expected to decline through the year 2005 unless oil and gas prices unexpectedly increase enough to encourage increased exploration for oil in this country. In spite of this projected decline, employment opportunities for petro­ leum engineers should be favorable because the number of degrees granted in petroleum engineering has traditionally been low. There­ fore, new graduates are not likely to significantly exceed the number of job openings that will arise as petroleum engineers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements, earnings, and sources of additional information.)  Architects and Surveyors  Architects (D.O.T. 001.061-010 and .167-010)  Nature of the Work Architects design buildings and other structures. The design of a building involves far more than its appearance. Buildings must also be functional, safe, and economical and must suit the needs of the people who use them. Architects take all these things into consid­ eration when they design buildings and other structures. Architects provide a wide variety of professional services to individuals and organizations planning a construction project. They may be involved in all phases of development, from the initial dis­ cussion of general ideas with the client through construction. Their duties require a number of skills—design, engineering, managerial, communication, and supervisory. The architect and client first discuss the purposes, requirements, and budget of a project. Based on the discussions, architects may prepare a program—a report specifying the requirements the design must meet. In some cases, the architect assists in conducting feasi­ bility and environmental impact analyses and selecting a site. The architect then prepares drawings and written information presenting ideas for the client to review. After the initial proposals are discussed and accepted, architects develop final construction plans. These plans show the building's appearance and details for its construction. Accompanying these are drawings of the structural system; air-conditioning, heating, and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ventilating systems; electrical systems; plumbing; and possibly site and landscape plans. They also specify the building materials and, in some cases, the interior furnishings. In developing designs, archi­ tects follow building codes, zoning laws, fire regulations, and other ordinances, such as those that require easy access by disabled per­ sons. Throughout the planning stage, they make necessary changes. Although they have traditionally used pencil and paper to produce design and construction drawings, architects are increasingly turning to computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) technology for these important tasks. Architects may also assist the client in obtaining construction bids, selecting a contractor, and negotiating the construction contract. As construction proceeds, they may be employed by the client to visit the building site to ensure that the contractor is following the design, meeting the schedule, using the specified materials, and meeting the specified standards for the quality of work. The job is not complete until all construction is finished, required tests are made, and con­ struction costs are paid. Architects design a wide variety of buildings, such as office and apartment buildings, schools, churches, factories, hospitals, houses, and airport terminals. They also design multibuilding complexes such as urban centers, college campuses, industrial parks, and entire communities. In addition to designing buildings, they may advise on the selection of building sites, prepare cost analysis and land-use studies, and do long-range planning for land development. Architects sometimes specialize in one phase of work. Some specialize in the design of one type of building—for example, hospi­ tals, schools, or housing. Others specialize in construction manage­ ment or the management of their firm and do little design work.  86 Occupational Outlook Handbook  ■_■  A.  ■  Nearly one-third of all architects are self-employed.  They often work with engineers, urban planners, interior designers, landscape architects, and others. During a training period leading up to licensure as architects,  entry-level workers are called intern-architects. This training period gives them practical work experience while they prepare for the Architect Registration Examination. Typical duties may include preparing construction drawings on CADD, assisting in the design of one part of a project, or managing the production of a small project. Working Conditions Architects generally work in a comfortable environment. Most of their time is spent in offices advising clients, developing reports and drawings, and working with other architects and engineers. How­ ever, they also often work at construction sites reviewing the prog­ ress of projects. Architects may occasionally be under great stress, working nights and weekends to meet deadlines; a 40-hour workweek, however, is usual. Employment Architects held about 91,000 jobs in 1994. Most jobs were in archi­ tecture firms—the majority of which employ fewer than five work­ ers. Nearly one-third were self-employed architects, practicing as partners in architecture firms or on their own. A few worked for builders, real estate developers, and for government agencies re­ sponsible for housing, planning, or community development, such as the U.S. Departments of Defense, Interior, and Housing and Urban Development, and the General Services Administration. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require individuals to be licensed (registered) before they may call themselves architects or contract to provide architectural services. Many architecture school graduates work in the field even though they are not licensed. How­ ever, a licensed architect is required to take legal responsibility for all work. Three requirements generally must be met for licensure: A professional degree in architecture, a period of practical training or internship (usually for 3 years), and passage of all sections of the Architect Registration Examination. In many States, the professional degree in architecture must be from one of the approximately 100 schools of architecture with programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). However, State architectural registration boards set their own standards, so graduation from a non NAAB-accredited program may meet the education requirement for licensure in some States. There are several types of professional degrees in architecture. The  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  majority of all architecture degrees are from 5-year Bachelor of Architecture programs intended for students entering from high school or with no previous architecture training. Some schools offer a 2-year Master of Architecture program for students with a prepro­ fessional undergraduate degree in architecture or a related area, or a 3- or 4-year Master of Architecture program for students with a degree in another discipline. In addition, there are many combina­ tions and variations of these degree programs. The choice of degree type depends upon each individual's prefer­ ence and educational background. Prospective architecture students should carefully consider the available options before committing to a program. For example, although the 5-year Bachelor of Architec­ ture program offers the fastest route to the professional degree, courses are specialized and, if the student does not complete the program, moving to a nonarchitecture program may be difficult. A typical program includes courses in architectural history and theory, building design, including its technical and legal aspects, profes­ sional practice, math, physical sciences, and liberal arts. Many architecture schools also offer graduate education for those who already have a bachelor's or master’s degree in architecture or other areas. Although graduate education beyond the professional degree is not essential for practicing architects, it is normally required for research, teaching, and certain specialties. Architects must be able to visually communicate their ideas to clients. Artistic and drawing ability is very helpful in doing this, but not essential. More important is a visual orientation and the ability to conceptualize and understand spatial relationships. Good communi­ cation skills (both written and oral), the ability to work independently or as part of a team, and creativity are important qualities for anyone interested in becoming an architect. Computer literacy is also re­ quired as most firms use computers for word processing, specifica­ tions writing, two- and three- dimensional drafting, and financial management. A knowledge of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) is helpful and will become more important as architecture firms continue to adopt this technology. New graduates usually begin in architecture firms, where they assist in preparing architectural documents or drawings. They also may do research on building codes and materials; or write specifica­ tions for building materials, installation criteria, the quality of fin­ ishes, and other related details. Graduates with degrees in archi­ tecture also enter related fields such as graphic, interior, or industrial design; urban planning; real estate development; civil engineering; or construction management. In large firms, architects may advance to supervisory or manage­ rial positions. Some architects become partners in established firms; others set up their own practice. Job Outlook Architects' employment has traditionally been affected by the level of local construction, particularly of noninstitutional structures such as office buildings, shopping centers, schools, and healthcare facilities. The boom in construction of commercial office space and some other types of non-residential structures during the 1980s means there will be less construction of this type between 1994 and 2005. Neverthe­ less, employment growth of architects is expected to increase as fast as the average for all occupations during this period. The needed renovation and rehabilitation of old buildings, par­ ticularly in urban areas where space for new buildings is becoming limited, is expected to provide jobs for architects and to compensate somewhat for any slowdowns in jobs related to new construction. Also, the expected expansion of the population under age 15 and over age 65 should spur the demand for public and private buildings, such as schools and healthcare facilities. The need to replace archi­ tects who retire or leave the labor force for other reasons will provide many additional job openings. Despite expected employment growth and the increased number of openings due to replacement needs, prospective architects may face competition, especially if the number of architecture degrees  Professional Specialty Occupations 87  awarded remain at, or above, current levels. Traditionally, many individuals are attracted to this occupation, and there are often nu­ merous applicants for available openings, especially in the most prestigious firms. Because noninstitutional construction is sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy, architects will face particularly strong competition for jobs or clients during recessions, and layoffs may occur. Those involved in the design of institutional buildings such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, and correctional facilities, will be less affected by fluctuations in the economy. Even in times of overall good opportunities, there may be areas of the country with poor opportunities. Architects who are licensed to practice in one State must meet the licensing requirements of other States before practicing elsewhere. These requirements are becom­ ing more standardized, however, facilitating movement to other States. Because the use of computer-aided design and drafting is becom­ ing more prevalent in architecture firms, prospective architects who know CADD technology may experience better opportunities in the future, particularly in a competitive job market. Earnings According to The American Institute of Architects, the median salary for intern-architects in architecture firms was $24,700 in 1993. Licensed architects with 8 to 10 years' experience but who were not managers or principals of a firm earned a median salary of $38,900 in 1993; and principals or partners of firms earned a median salary of $50,000 in 1993. Partners in some large practices earned over $110,000. Most employers of wage and salary architects offer paid vacation and sick leave, and a majority also provide medical and life insurance plans to their employees. Employees of very small archi­ tecture firms (fewer than 5 employees) are less likely to receive these benefits. Architects who are partners in well-established architecture firms generally earn much more than their salaried employees, but their income may fluctuate due to changing business conditions. Some architects may have difficulty getting established in their own prac­ tices and may go through a period when their expenses are greater than their income, requiring substantial financial resources. Related Occupations Architects design and construct buildings and related structures. Others who engage in similar work are landscape architects, building contractors, civil engineers, urban planners, interior designers, indus­ trial designers, and graphic designers. Sources of Additional Information Information about education and careers in architecture can be obtained from: •■Architecture Fact Book, The American Institute of Architects, 1735 New York Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20006. •"Society of American Registered Architects, 1245 S. Highland Ave., Lom­ bard, IL 60148.  Landscape Architects (D.O.T. 001.061-018)  Nature of the Work Everyone enjoys attractively designed residential areas, public parks, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, parkways, and industrial parks. Landscape architects design these areas so that they are not only functional but beautiful and compatible with the natural environment as well. They may plan the location of buildings, roads, and walkways and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees. Historic preservation and natural resource conservation and reclama­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tion are other important objectives to which landscape architects may apply their knowledge of the environment as well as their design and artistic talents. Landscape architects are hired by many types of organizations— from real estate development firms starting new projects to munici­ palities constructing airports or parks. They are often involved with the development of a site from its conception. Working with archi­ tects, engineers, scientists, and other professionals, they help deter­ mine the best arrangement of roads and buildings, and the best way to conserve or restore natural resources. Once these decisions are made, landscape architects create detailed plans indicating new topography, vegetation, walkways, and landscape amenities. In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the nature and purpose of the project and the funds available. They analyze the natural elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegetation. They observe where sunlight falls on the site at different times of the day and examine the site from vari­ ous angles. They assess the effect of existing buildings, roads, walkways, and utilities on the project. After studying and analyzing the site, they prepare a preliminary design. To account for the needs of the client as well as the condi­ tions at the site, they may have to make many changes before a final design is approved. They must also take into account any local, State, or Federal regulations such as those protecting wetlands or historic resources. An increasing number of landscape architects are using computer-aided design (CAD) systems to assist them in preparing their designs. Many landscape architects also use video simulation as a tool to help clients envision the proposed ideas and plans. For larger scale site planning, landscape architects also use geographic information systems technology, a computer mapping system. Throughout all phases of the planning and design, landscape architects consult with other professionals involved in the project. Once the design is complete, they prepare a proposal for the client. They produce detailed plans of the site, including written reports, sketches, models, photographs, land-use studies, and cost estimates, and submit them for approval by the client and by regulatory agen­ cies. If the plans are approved, landscape architects prepare working drawings showing all existing and proposed features. They also outline in detail the methods of construction and draw up a list of necessary materials. Although many landscape architects supervise the installation of their design, some are involved in the construction of the site. How­ ever, this usually is done by the developer or landscape contractor. Some landscape architects work on a wide variety of projects. Others specialize in a particular area, such as residential develop­ ment, historic landscape restoration, waterfront improvement proj­ ects, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers. Still others work in regional planning and resource management; feasibility, environ­ mental impact, and cost studies; or site construction. Some land­ scape architects teach in colleges or universities. Although most landscape architects do at least some residential work, relatively few limit their practice to landscape design for individual homeowners because most residential landscape design projects are too small to provide suitable income compared with larger commercial or multiunit residential projects. Some nurseries offer residential landscape design services, but these services often are performed by lesser qualified landscape designers or others with training and experience in related areas. Landscape architects who work for government agencies do similar work at national parks, government buildings, and other government-owned facilities. In addition, they may prepare envi­ ronmental impact statements and studies on environmental issues such as public land-use planning. Working Conditions Landscape architects spend most of their time in offices creating plans and designs, preparing models and cost estimates, doing re­ search, or attending meetings. The remainder of their time is spent at  88 Occupational Outlook Handbook  f~  fff’M  Landscape architects combine their knowledge of design, construction, plants, soils, and ecology to create their final designs.  the site. During the design and planning stage, landscape architects visit and analyze the site to verify that the design can be incorporated into the landscape. After the plans and specifications are completed, they may spend additional time at the site observing or supervising the construction. Those who work in large firms may spend consid­ erably more time out of the office because of travel to sites outside the local area. Salaried employees in both government and landscape architec­ tural firms usually work regular hours, although they may work overtime to meet a project deadline. Hours of self-employed land­ scape architects may vary. Employment Landscape architects held about 14,000 jobs in 1994. Three-fifths worked for firms that provide landscape architecture services. Most of the rest were employed by architectural firms. The Federal Gov­ ernment also employs these workers; most were found in the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Defense, and Interior. About 1 of every 5 landscape architects was self-employed. Most employment for landscape architects is concentrated in urban and suburban areas in all parts of the country. Some landscape architects work in rural areas, particularly those in the Federal Gov­ ernment who plan and design parks and recreation areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's or master's degree in landscape architecture is usually necessary for entry into the profession. The bachelor's degree in landscape architecture takes 4 or 5 years to complete. There are two types of accredited master's degree programs. The master's degree as a first professional degree is a 3-year program designed for students with an undergraduate degree in another discipline; this is the most common type. The master's degree as the second professional degree is a 2-year program for students who have a bachelor's degree in landscape architecture and wish to demonstrate mastery or specialize in some aspect of landscape architecture. In 1995, approximately 55 colleges and universities offered 72 undergraduate and graduate programs in landscape architecture that were accredited by the Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board of the American Society of Landscape Architects. College courses required in this field usually include technical subjects such as surveying, landscape design and construction, landscape ecology, structural design, and city and regional planning. Other courses include history of landscape architecture, plant and soil science, geology, design and color theory, and general management. In addition, most students at the undergraduate level take a year of  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  prerequisite courses such as English, mathematics, and social and physical science. The design studio is an important aspect of many landscape architecture curriculums. Whenever possible, students are assigned real projects to work on, providing them with valuable hands-on experience. While working on real projects, students may become more proficient in the use of technologies such as computeraided design, geographic information systems, and video simulation. Forty-five States require landscape architects to be licensed or registered. Licensing is based on the Landscape Architect Registra­ tion Examination (L.A.R.E.), sponsored by the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards. Admission to the exam usually requires a degree from an accredited school plus 1 to 4 years of work experience, although standards vary from State to State. Many States require additional examinations focusing on laws and/or plant mate­ rials indigenous to their State. Because States' requirements for licensure are not uniform, land­ scape architects may not find it easy to transfer their registration to another State to practice. However, those who meet the national standard of graduating from an accredited program, serving 3 years of internship under the supervision of a registered landscape archi­ tect, and passing the L.A.R.E. can satisfy requirements in most States. In the Federal Government, candidates for entry positions should have a bachelor's or master's degree in landscape architecture. The Federal Government does not require its landscape architects to be licensed. Persons planning a career in landscape architecture should appre­ ciate nature and enjoy working with their hands. Although creativity and artistic talent are also desirable qualities, they are not absolutely essential to success as a landscape architect. High school courses in mechanical or geometric drawing, art, botany, and mathematics are helpful. Good oral communication skills are important, because these workers must be able to convey their ideas to other profession­ als and clients and to make presentations before large groups. Land­ scape architects do research and prepare reports and land impact studies, so strong writing skills are valuable. A knowledge of com­ puter applications of all kinds, including computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), is becoming increasingly necessary. Those inter­ ested in starting their own firm should be skilled in small business management. In States where licensure is required, new hires are technically called intern landscape architects until they become licensed. Their duties vary depending on the type and size of employing firm. They may do project research or prepare base maps of the area to be landscaped, while some are allowed to participate in the actual design of a project. However, interns must perform all work under the supervision of a licensed landscape architect. Additionally, all drawings and specifications must be signed and/or sealed by the licensed landscape architect, who takes legal responsibility for the work. After gaining experience and becoming licensed, landscape architects usually can carry a design through all stages of develop­ ment. After several years, they may become associates, and even­ tually they may become partners in a firm or open their own offices. Job Outlook Despite expected stronger employment growth and higher replace­ ment needs due to retirements than in the past decade, new graduates can expect to face competition for jobs as landscape architects. The number of professional degrees awarded in landscape architecture has remained steady over the years, even during times of fluctuating demand due to economic conditions. If this trend continues, the number of openings in this small occupation will be too few to absorb all jobseekers. Traditionally, however, those with landscape architecture training qualify for jobs closely related to landscape architecture, and may become construction or landscape supervisors, landscape designers, drafters, land or environmental planners, or landscape consultants.  Professional Specialty Occupations 89  Opportunities will be best for landscape architects who develop strong technical skills and a knowledge of environmental issues, codes, and regulation. Employment of landscape architects is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The level of new construction plays an important role in determining demand for landscape architects. Anticipated growth in construction is expected to increase demand for landscape architectural services over the long run. An increasing proportion of office and other commercial and industrial development will occur outside cities. These projects are typically located on larger sites with more sur­ rounding land which needs to be designed, in contrast to urban development, which often includes little or no surrounding land. Also, as the cost of land increases, the importance of good site plan­ ning and landscape design increases. Because employment is linked to new construction, however, landscape architects may face layoffs and competition for jobs when real estate sales and construction slow down, such as during a recession. Increased development of open space into recreation areas, wild­ life refuges, and parks will also require the skills of landscape archi­ tects. Continued concern for the environment should stimulate employment growth because of the need to design development projects which best fit in with the surrounding environment. In addition to the work related to new development and construc­ tion, landscape architects are expected to be involved in historic preservation, local, city, and regional planning, land reclamation, and refurbishment of existing sites. The need to replace landscape architects who retire or leave the labor force for other reasons is expected to result in nearly as many openings as new openings due to job growth. Earnings According to a 1994 American Society of Landscape Architects survey, the median salary for landscape architects in private practice was about $40,000; the median bonus, $4,000; and additional land­ scape architecture-related income, $5,000. Those who work in the public sector earned higher salaries—a median of $42,400—but median bonus amount and outside landscape architecture-related income were lower than for private practitioners. In 1995, the aver­ age annual salary for all landscape architects in the Federal Govern­ ment in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $49,570. Because many landscape architects work for small firms or are self-employed, benefits tend to be less generous than those of other workers with similar skills who work for large organizations. With the exception of those who are self-employed, however, most land­ scape architects receive health insurance, paid vacations, and sick leave. Related Occupations Landscape architects use their knowledge of design, construction, and land-use planning to develop a landscape project. Others whose work requires similar skills are architects, interior designers, civil engineers, and urban and regional planners. Landscape architects also know how to grow and use plants in the landscape. Botanists, who study plants in general, and horticulturists, who study ornamen­ tal plants as well as fruit, vegetable, greenhouse, and nursery crops, do similar work. Sources of Additional Information Additional information, including a list of colleges and universities offering accredited programs in landscape architecture, is available from: ••American Society of Landscape Architects, Career Information, 4401 Connecticut Ave. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20008.  General information on registration or licensing requirements is available from: ••Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, 12700 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 110, Fairfax, VA 22033.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Surveyors (D.O.T. 018 except. 167-022, and 024.061-014)  Nature of the Work Three groups of workers measure and map the earth's surface. Land surveyors establish official land, air space, and water boundaries. They write descriptions of land for deeds, leases, and other legal documents; define air space for airports; and measure construction and mineral sites. Survey technicians, assist land surveyors by operating survey instruments and collecting information. Mapping scientists and other surveyors collect geographic information and prepare maps of large areas. Land surveyors manage survey parties that measure distances, directions, and angles between points and elevations of points, lines, and contours on the earth's surface. They plan the fieldwork, select known survey reference points, and determine the precise location of important features in the survey area. Surveyors research legal rec­ ords and look for evidence of previous boundaries. They record the results of the survey, verify the accuracy of data, and prepare plats, maps, and reports. Surveyors who establish boundaries must be licensed by the State in which they work. The information needed by the land surveyor is gathered by a survey party. A typical survey party is made up of a party chief and several survey technicians and helpers. The party chief, who may be either a land surveyor or a senior survey technician, leads the day-to­ day work activities. The party chief is assisted by survey techni­ cians, who adjust and operate surveying instruments such as the theodolite (used to measure horizontal and vertical angles) and electronic distance-measuring equipment. Survey technicians or assistants position and hold the vertical rods or targets that the theodolite operator sights on to measure angles, distances, or eleva­ tions. They may also hold measuring tapes and chains if electronic distance-measuring equipment is not used. Survey technicians compile notes, make sketches, and enter the data obtained from these instruments into computers. Some survey parties include laborers or helpers to clear brush from sight lines, drive stakes, carry equipment, and perform other less skilled duties. New technology is changing the nature of the work of surveyors and survey technicians. For larger surveying projects, surveyors are increasingly using the Global Positioning System (GPS), a satellite system which precisely locates points on the earth using radio signals transmitted by satellites. To use it, a surveyor places a satellite receiver—about the size of a backpack—on a desired point. The receiver collects information from several differently positioned satellites simultaneously to locate its precise position. Two receivers are generally operated in synchronization, one at a known point and the other at the unknown point. The receiver can also be placed in a vehicle to trace out road systems, or for other uses. The cost of the receivers has fallen and much more surveying work is being done by GPS. Mapping scientists, like land surveyors, measure, map, and chart the earth's surface but generally cover much larger areas. Unlike land surveyors, however, mapping scientists work mainly in offices and seldom visit the sites they are mapping. Mapping scientists include workers in several occupations. Cartographers prepare maps using information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data. Photogrammetrists prepare maps and drawings by measuring and interpreting aerial photographs, using analytical processes and mathematical formulas. Photogrammetrists make detailed maps of areas that are inaccessible or difficult to survey by other methods. Map editors develop and verify map contents from aerial photographs and other reference sources. Some surveyors perform specialized functions which are closer to mapping science than traditional surveying. Geodetic surveyors use high-accuracy techniques, including satellite observations, to meas-  90 Occupational Outlook Handbook  I  Land surveyors and technicians spend a lot of their time outdoors, and may be exposed to all types of weather. sure large areas of the earth's surface. Geophysical prospecting surveyors mark sites for subsurface exploration, usually petroleum related. Marine surveyors survey harbors, rivers, and other bodies of water to determine shorelines, topography of the bottom, water depth, and other features. The work of mapping scientists is changing due to advancements in technology. These advancements include the GPS, Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—which are computerized data banks of spatial data—new earth resources data satellites, and improved aerial photography. From the older specialties of photogrammetrist or cartographer, a new type of mapping scientist is emerging. The geographic information specialist combines the functions of mapping science and surveying into a broader field concerned with the collec­ tion and analysis of geographic spatial information. Working Conditions Surveyors usually work an 8-hour day, 5 days a week, and spend a lot of their time outdoors. Sometimes they work longer hours during the summer, when weather and light conditions are most suitable for fieldwork. Land surveyors and technicians do active and sometimes strenu­ ous work. They often stand for long periods, walk long distances, and climb hills with heavy packs of instruments and equipment. They are also exposed to all types of weather. Occasionally, they may commute long distances, stay overnight, or even temporarily relocate near a survey site. Surveyors also spend considerable time in offices, planning surveys, analyzing data, and preparing reports and maps. Most computations and map drafting are performed on a computer. Map­ ping scientists spend virtually all their time in offices. Employment Surveyors held about 96,000 jobs in 1994. Engineering, architec­ tural, and surveying firms employed over three-fifths of all survey­ ors. Federal, State, and local government agencies employed an additional quarter. Major Federal Government employers are the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, the Army Corps of Engineers, the Forest Service, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Defense Mapping Agency. Most surveyors in State and local government work for highway departments and urban planning and redevelopment agencies. Con­ struction firms, mining and oil and gas extraction companies, and public utilities also employ surveyors. About 7,000 surveyors were self-employed in 1994.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most people prepare for a career as a licensed surveyor by combining postsecondary school courses in surveying with extensive on-the-job training. About 25 universities offer 4-year programs leading to a B.S. degree in surveying. Junior and community colleges, technical institutes, and vocational schools offer 1-, 2-, and 3-year programs in both surveying and surveying technology. All 50 States license land surveyors. For licensure, most State licensing boards require that individuals pass two written examina­ tions, one prepared by the State and one given by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. In addition, they must meet varying standards of formal education and work experience in the field. In the past, many surveyors started as mem­ bers of survey crews and worked their way up to licensed surveyor with little formal training in surveying. However, due to advancing technology and an increase in licensing standards, formal education requirements are increasing. Most States at the present time require some formal post-high school education course work and 10 to 12 years of surveying experience to gain licensure. However, require­ ments vary among the States. Generally, the quickest route to licen­ sure is a combination of 4 years of college, 2 to 4 years of experience (a few States do not require any), and passing the licensing examina­ tions. An increasing number of States require a bachelor's degree in surveying or in a closely related field, such as civil engineering or forestry, with courses in surveying. High school students interested in surveying should take courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing, and computer science. High school graduates with no formal training in surveying usually start as an apprentice. Beginners with postsecondary school training in surveying can generally start as technicians or assistants. With on-the-job experience and formal training in surveying—either in an institutional program or from a correspondence school— workers may advance to senior survey technician, then to party chief, and in some cases, to licensed surveyor (depending on State licens­ ing requirements). The American Congress on Surveying and Mapping has a volun­ tary certification program for survey technicians. Technicians are certified at four levels that require progressive amounts of experience and passing written examinations. Although not required for State licensure, many employers require certification for promotion to positions with greater responsibilities. Cartographers and photogrammetrists usually have a bachelor's degree in engineering or a physical science. It also is possible to enter these positions through previous experience as a photogrammetric or cartographic technician. Most cartographic and photogrammetric technicians have had some specialized postsecondary school training. With the development of Geographic Information Systems, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and other mapping scientists need additional education and more experience with com­ puters than in the past. The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing has voluntary certification programs for photogrammetrists and mapping scientists. To qualify for these professional distinctions, individuals must meet work experience standards and pass an oral or written examination. Surveyors should have the ability to visualize objects, distances, sizes, and other abstract forms. They have to work with precision and accuracy because mistakes can be costly. Surveying is a coop­ erative process, so good interpersonal skills and the ability to work as part of a team are important. Leadership qualities are important for party chief and other supervisory positions. Members of a survey party must be in good physical condition to work outdoors and carry equipment over difficult terrain. They need good eyesight, coordination, and hearing to communicate via hand and voice signals.  Professional Specialty Occupations 91  Job Outlook Employment of surveyors is expected to decline slightly through the year 2005. The widespread use of GPS and remote sensing tech­ nologies is increasing both the accuracy and productivity of survey­ ors. Job openings will result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Growth in construction through the year 2005 should require surveyors to lay out streets, shopping centers, housing developments, factories, office buildings, and recreation areas. Continuing road and highway construction and improvements should also require survey­ ors. However, employment may fluctuate from year to year along with construction activity. The employment of mapping scientists and other surveyors by private firms, and the Federal Government is expected to decline due to budget cutbacks and technological efficiency. Opportunities will be best for surveyors and mapping scientists who have at least a bachelor's degree as a result of trends towards more complex technology, upgraded licensing requirements, and the increased demand for geographic spatial data (as opposed to tradi­ tional surveying services). New technology such as GPS and GIS may increase productivity for larger projects and may enhance em­ ployment opportunities for surveyors and survey technicians who have the educational background to use it, but limit opportunities for those with less education. Earnings The median weekly earnings for surveyors and mapping scientists were about $590 a week in 1994. The middle 50 percent earned between $420 and $840 a week; 10 percent earned less than $340 a week; 10 percent earned more than $950 a week. The median annual earnings for survey technicians were about $520 a week in 1994. The middle 50 percent earned between $390 and $750 a week; 10 percent earned less than $300 a week; 10 per­ cent earned more than $960 a week.  In 1995, the Federal Government hired high school graduates with little or no training or experience at salaries or about $15,800 annually for entry level jobs on survey crews. Those with 1 year of related postsecondary training earned about $18,500 a year. Those with an associate degree that included coursework in surveying generally started as instrument assistants with an annual salary of about $21,300. In 1995, entry level land surveyors or cartographers with the Federal Government earned about $24,500 or $29,900 a year, depending on their qualifications. The average annual salary for Federal land surveyors in 1995 was about $44,200, for cartogra­ phers, about $47,700, and for geodesists, about $50,200. The aver­ age annual salary for Federal surveying technicians was about $24,400, for cartographic technicians, about $32,100, and for geo­ detic technicians, about $40,900. Related Occupations Surveying is related to the work of civil engineers and architects, since an accurate survey is the first step in land development and construction projects. Mapping science and geodetic surveying are related to the work of geologists and geophysicists, who study the earth's internal composition, surface, and atmosphere. Mapping science is also related to the work of geographers and urban planners, who study how the earth's surface is used. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, licensure requirements, and the survey technician certification program is available from: "••American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814-2122.  General information on careers in photogrammetry is available from: ••American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 5410 Grosve­ nor Lane, Suite 200, Bethesda, MD 20814.  Computer, Mathematical, and Operations Research Occupations Actuaries (D.O.T. 020.167-010)  Nature of the Work Actuaries answer questions about future risk, make pricing decisions, and formulate investment strategies. Some design insurance, finan­ cial, and pension plans and ensure that they are maintained on a sound financial basis. Most actuaries specialize in either life, health, or property and casualty insurance; others specialize in pension plans or in financial planning and investment. Actuaries assemble and analyze statistics to calculate probabilities of death, sickness, injury, disability, retirement income level, prop­ erty loss, or return on investment. They use this information to determine the expected insured loss, or to make other business deci­ sions. For example, they may calculate the probability of claims due to automobile accidents, which can vary depending on the insured's age, sex, driving history, type of car, and other factors. They must   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  make sure that the price charged for such insurance will enable the company to pay all claims and expenses as they occur. Finally, this price must be profitable and yet be competitive with other insurance companies. The actuary calculates premium rates and determines policy contract provisions for each type of insurance offered. To perform their duties effectively, actuaries must keep informed about general economic and social trends and legislative, health, business, finance, and other developments that may affect insurance or investment practices. Because of their broad knowledge of mathe­ matics, actuaries may work in investment, risk classification, or pension planning. Actuaries in executive positions help determine company policy. In that role, they may be called upon to explain complex technical matters to other company executives, government officials, policyholders, and the public. They may testify before public agencies on proposed legislation affecting their businesses, for example, or explain changes in contract provisions to customers. They also may help companies develop plans to enter new lines of business. Some actuaries work in the financial services industry, where they manage credit, prepayment, and other risks, and help price corporate offerings.  92 Occupational Outlook Handbook  4 Actuaries need a strong background in mathematics.  Consulting actuaries provide advice for a fee to various clients including insurance companies, corporations, hospitals and other health care providers, labor unions, government agencies, and attor­ neys. Some consulting actuaries set up pension and welfare plans, calculate future benefits, and determine the amount of employer contributions. Others provide advice to health care and Financial services firms. Consultants may be called upon to testify in court regarding the value of potential lifetime earnings lost by a person who has been disabled or killed in an accident, the current value of future pension benefits in divorce cases, or the calculation of auto­ mobile insurance rates. Pension actuaries enrolled under the provi­ sions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) evaluate the pension plans covered by that act and report on their financial soundness to employers and regulators. Working Conditions Actuaries have desk jobs that require little physical activity; their offices generally are comfortable and pleasant. They usually work at least 40 hours a week. Some actuaries, particularly consulting actu­ aries, often travel to meet with clients. Consulting actuaries may also be expected to work more than 40 hours per week. Employment Actuaries held about 17,000 jobs in 1994. More than 1 in 10 were self-employed. Over one-half of the actuaries who were wage and salary workers were in the insurance industry. Most worked for life insurance companies; others worked for property, casualty, and health insur­ ance companies, pension funds, and insurance agents and brokers. Most of the remaining actuaries worked for firms providing services, especially management and public relations, and actuarial consulting services. A small number of actuaries worked for security and commodity brokers or government agencies. Some are employed developing computer software for actuarial calculations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A good educational background for a beginning job in a large life or casualty company is a bachelor's degree in mathematics or statistics, or a business-related discipline, such as actuarial science, economics, finance, or accounting. Some companies hire applicants with any major, provided the applicant has a working knowledge of mathemat­ ics, including calculus, probability, and statistics, and has demon­ strated this ability by passing at least the beginning actuarial exams required for professional designation. Courses in accounting, com­ puter science, and insurance also are useful. Companies increasingly prefer well-rounded individuals who, in addition to a strong technical   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  background, have some training in liberal arts and business. Good communication and interpersonal skills are important, particularly for prospective consulting actuaries. Although only about 55 colleges and universities offer an actuarial science program, most colleges and universities offer a degree in mathematics or statistics. A strong background in mathematics is essential for persons interested in a career as an actuary. It is an advantage to pass, while still in school, two or more of the examinations offered by profes­ sional actuarial societies. Two professional societies sponsor pro­ grams leading to full professional status in their specialty. The Society of Actuaries (SOA) gives a series of actuarial examinations for the life and health insurance, pension, and finance and investment fields. The Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) gives a series of examinations for the property and casualty field, which covers risks such as fire, accidents, medical malpractice, and personal injury liability. Because the first parts of the examination series of each society are jointly sponsored and cover the same material, students need not commit themselves to a specialty until they have taken the initial examinations. These examinations test an individual's compe­ tence in subjects such as linear algebra, probability, calculus, statis­ tics, risk theory, and actuarial mathematics. The first few examinations help students evaluate their potential as actuaries. Those who pass usually have better opportunities for employment and higher starting salaries. Actuaries are encouraged to complete the entire series of exami­ nations as soon as possible, advancing first to the associate level, and then to the fellowship level. Completion of the promotion process generally takes from 5 to 10 years. Examinations are given twice each year. Extensive home study is required to pass the examina­ tions; many actuaries study for months to prepare for an examination. Most reach Associateship within 4 to 6 years. They generally spe­ cialize in the SOA courses leading to a career in either life insurance, health insurance, investment, or pension services, or else the CAS examinations in property and the casualty insurance careers. Fellow­ ship candidates usually have several years of experience. Most actuaries complete the Fellowship exams a few years after reaching Associateship. Both levels of examinations are extremely difficult. Pension actuaries who verify the financial status of defined benefit pension plans to the Federal Government must be enrolled by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries. Applicants for enrollment must meet certain experience and examination require­ ments as stipulated by the Joint Board. Beginning actuaries often rotate between jobs to learn various actuarial operations and phases of insurance work, such as marketing, underwriting, or product development. At first, they prepare data for actuarial projects or perform other simple tasks. As they gain experi­ ence, they may supervise clerks, prepare correspondence and reports, and do research. They may move from one company to another in their early careers, as they move up to progressively more responsi­ ble positions. Advancement to more responsible work depends largely on job performance and the number of actuarial examinations passed. Actuaries with a broad knowledge of the insurance, pension, invest­ ment, or employee benefits fields can advance to administrative and executive positions in their companies. Actuaries with supervisory ability may advance to management positions in other areas, such as underwriting, accounting, data processing, marketing, advertising, or planning. Job Outlook Prospective actuaries will face competition for jobs. Employment of actuaries is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to expected slower growth in the insurance industry. Anticipated downsizing and merger activity in the insurance industry is likely to have the greatest negative effect on actuaries with the least experience. Since experience is of para­ mount importance in the actuarial field, experienced actuaries should enjoy a competitive edge when vying for available openings.  Professional Specialty Occupations 93  Employment growth of consulting actuaries is expected to be faster than employment growth in insurance carriers, traditionally the leading employer of actuaries. As many companies seek to boost profitability by streamlining operations, actuarial employment may be cut back in insurance carriers. At the same time, insurance com­ panies will require fewer actuaries as a result of merger and acquisi­ tion activity within the insurance field. Investment firms and large corporations may increasingly turn to consultants to provide actuarial services formerly performed in-house. The liability of companies for damage resulting from their prod­ ucts has received much attention in recent years. Casualty actuaries will continue to be involved in the development of product liability insurance, medical malpractice and workers’ compensation coverage, and self-insurance, which may involve internal reserve funds estab­ lished by some large corporations. The growing need to evaluate catastrophic risks such as earthquakes and calculate prices for insur­ ing facilities against such risks, which may involve huge losses, will be an increasing source of demand for property and casualty actuar­ ies. So is planning for the systematic financing of environmental risks, such as toxic waste clean-up. Earnings In 1995, starting salaries for actuaries averaged about $36,000 for those with a bachelor's degree, according to the National Association of Colleges and Employers. New college graduates entering the actuarial field without having passed any actuarial exams averaged slightly lower salaries. Insurance companies and consulting firms give merit increases to actuaries as they gain experience and pass examinations. Some companies also offer cash bonuses for each professional designation achieved. A 1994 salary survey of insurance and financial services companies, conducted by the Life Office Management Association, Inc., indicated that the average base salary for a newly designated Associate, Society of Actuaries, was about $46,600. Newly desig­ nated Fellows, Society of Actuaries, received an average salary of nearly $72,700. Fellows with additional years of experience can earn substantially more. For example, the average base salary for a Fellow of the Society of Actuaries (FSA) who received the designa­ tion ten years previously (in 1984) was $96,000. Actuaries typically receive other benefits including vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans. Related Occupations Actuaries determine the probability of income or loss from various risk factors. Other workers whose jobs involve related skills include accountants, economists, financial analysts, mathematicians, rate analysts, rate engineers, risk managers, statisticians, and value engi­ neers. Sources of Additional Information For facts about actuarial careers, contact: •■American Academy of Actuaries, 1100 17th St. NW., 7th Floor, Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  For information about actuarial careers in life and health insur­ ance, contact: •Society of Actuaries, 475 N. Martingale Rd., Suite 800, Schaumburg, IL 60173-2226.  For information about actuarial careers in property and casualty insurance, contact: •Casualty Actuarial Society, 1100 N. Glebe Rd., Suite 600, Arlington, VA 22201.  Career information on actuaries specializing in pensions is avail­ able from: •American Society of Pension Actuaries, 4350 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 820, Arlington, VA 22203.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Computer Scientists and Systems Analysts (D.O.T. 030.062-010, .162-014, .167-014; 031; 032; 033; 039; and 109.067-010)  Nature of the Work The rapid spread of computers and computer-based technologies over the past two decades has generated a need for skilled, highly trained workers to design and develop hardware and software systems and to incorporate these advances into new or existing systems. Although many narrow specializations have developed and no uniform job titles exist, this professional specialty group is widely referred to as computer scientists and systems analysts. Computer scientists generally design computers and conduct research to improve their design or use, and develop and adapt principles for applying computers to new uses. Computer scientists perform many of the same duties as other computer professionals throughout a normal workday, but their jobs are distinguished by the higher level of theoretical expertise and innovation they apply to complex problems and the creation or application of new technology. Computer scientists include computer engineers, database administra­ tors, computer support analysts, and a variety of other specialized workers. Computer scientists employed by academic institutions work in areas ranging from theory, to hardware, to language design. Some work on multi-discipline projects, for example, developing and advancing uses for virtual reality. Their counterparts in private industry work in areas such as applying theory, developing special­ ized languages, or designing programming tools, knowledge-based systems, or computer games. Computer engineers work with the hardware and software aspects of systems design and development. Computer engineers may often work as part of a team that designs new computing devices or com­ puter-related equipment. Software engineers design and develop both packaged and systems software. Database administrators work with database management sys­ tems software. They reorganize and restructure data to better suit the needs of users. They also may be responsible for maintaining the efficiency of the database, system security, and may aid in design implementation. Computer support analysts provide assistance and advice to users, interpreting problems and providing technical support for hardware, software, and systems. They may work within an organization or directly for the computer or software vendor. Far more numerous, systems analysts use their knowledge and skills in a problem solving capacity, implementing the means for computer technology to meet the individual needs of an organization. They study business, scientific, or engineering data processing problems and design new solutions using computers. This process may include planning and developing new computer systems or devising ways to apply existing systems to operations still completed manually or by some less efficient method. Systems analysts may design entirely new systems, including both hardware and software, or add a single new software application to harness more of the computer's power. They work to help an organization realize the maximum benefit from its investment in equipment, personnel, and business processes. Analysts begin an assignment by discussing the data processing problem with managers and users to determine its exact nature. Much time is devoted to clearly defining the goals of the system and understanding the individual steps used to achieve them so that the problem can be broken down into separate programmable proce­ dures. Analysts then use techniques such as structured analysis, data modeling, information engineering, mathematical model building,  94 Occupational Outlook Handbook  sampling, and cost accounting to plan the system. Analysts must specify the files and records to be accessed by the system and design the processing steps, as well as the format for the output that will meet the users' needs. Once the design has been developed, systems analysts prepare charts and diagrams that describe it in terms that managers and other users can understand. They may prepare a costbenefit and return-on-investment analysis to help management decide whether the proposed system will be satisfactory and financially feasible. When a system is accepted, systems analysts may determine what computer hardware and software will be needed to set up the system or implement changes to it. They coordinate tests and observe initial use of the system to ensure it performs as planned. They prepare specifications, work diagrams, and structure charts for computer programmers to follow and then work with them to "debug," or eliminate errors from the system. Some organizations do not employ programmers; instead, a single worker called a programmer-analyst is responsible for both systems analysis and programming. As this becomes more commonplace, analysts will increasingly work with Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools and object-oriented programming lan­ guages, as well as client/server applications development and multi­ media and Internet technology. (The work of programmers is described elsewhere in the Handbook.) One obstacle associated with expanding computer use is the inability of different computers to communicate with each other. Many systems analysts are involved with connecting all the comput­ ers in an individual office, department, or establishment. This "net­ working" has many variations, and may be referred to as local area networks, wide area networks, or multi-user systems, for example. A primary goal of networking is to allow users of microcomputers— also known as personal computers or PCs—to retrieve data from a mainframe computer and use it on their machine. This connection also allows data to be entered into the mainframe from the PC. Because up-to-date information—accounting records, sales figures, or budget projections, for example—is so important in modem organizations, systems analysts may be instructed to make the computer systems in each department compatible so that facts and figures can be shared. Similarly, electronic mail requires open pathways to send messages, documents, and data from one computer "mailbox" to another across different equipment and program lines. Analysts must design the gates in the hardware and software to allow free exchange of data, custom applications, and the computer power to process it all. They study the seemingly incompatible pieces and  V: *  Systems analysts design new solutions to business, scientific, and engineering data processing problems.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  create ways to link them so that users can access information from any part of the system. Working Conditions Computer scientists and systems analysts normally work in offices or laboratories in comfortable surroundings. They usually work about 40 hours a week—the same as many other professional or office workers. However, evening or weekend work may be necessary to meet deadlines or solve problems. Given the technology available today, more work, including technical support, can be done from remote locations using modems, laptops, electronic mail, and even through the Internet. Because computer scientists and systems analysts spend long periods of time in front of a computer terminal typing on a keyboard, they are susceptible to eye strain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems. Employment Computer scientists and systems analysts held about 828,000 jobs in 1994. Although they are found in most industries, the greatest con­ centration is in the computer and data processing services industry. This includes firms that design and install computer systems; inte­ grate or network systems; perform data processing and database management; develop packaged software; and even operate entire computer facilities under contract. Many others work for govern­ ment agencies, manufacturers of computer and related electronic equipment, insurance companies, and universities. A growing number of computer scientists and systems analysts are employed on a temporary or contract basis, or as consultants. For example, a company installing a new computer system may need the services of several systems analysts just to get the system running. Because not all of them would be needed once the system is function­ ing, the company might contract directly with the systems analysts themselves or with a temporary help agency or consulting firm. Such jobs may last from several months up to 2 years or more. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There is no universally accepted way to prepare for a job as a com­ puter professional because employers' preferences depend on the work to be done. Prior work experience is very important. Many people develop advanced computer skills in other occupations in which they work extensively with computers and then transfer into computer occupations. For example, an accountant may become a systems analyst specializing in accounting systems development, or an individual may move into a systems analyst job after working as computer programmer. Employers almost always seek college graduates for computer professional positions; for some of the more complex jobs, persons with graduate degrees are preferred. Generally, a Ph.D., or at least a master’s degree in computer science or engineering, is required for computer scientist jobs in research laboratories or academic institu­ tions. Some computer scientists are able to gain sufficient experi­ ence for this type of position with only a bachelor's degree, but this is difficult. Computer engineers generally require a bachelor's degree in computer engineering, electrical engineering, or math. Computer support analysts may also need a bachelor's degree in a computerrelated field, as well as significant experience working with comput­ ers, including programming skills. For systems analyst or even database administrator positions, many employers seek applicants who have a bachelor's degree in computer science, information science, computer information sys­ tems, or data processing. Regardless of college major, employers generally look for people who are familiar with programming lan­ guages and have broad knowledge of and experience with computer systems and technologies. Courses in computer programming or systems design offer good preparation for a job in this field. For jobs in a business environment, employers usually want systems analysts to have a background in business management or a closely related  Professional Specialty Occupations 95  field, while a background in the physical sciences, applied mathemat­ ics, or engineering is preferred for work in scientifically oriented organizations. Systems analysts must be able to think logically, have good communication skills, and like working with ideas and people. They often deal with a number of tasks simultaneously. The ability to concentrate and pay close attention to detail is important. Although both computer scientists and systems analysts often work independ­ ently, they also may work in teams on large projects. They must be able to communicate effectively with computer personnel, such as programmers and managers, as well as with other staff who have no technical computer background. Technological advances come so rapidly in the computer field that continuous study is necessary to keep skills up to date. Continu­ ing education is usually offered by employers, hardware and software vendors, colleges and universities, or private training institutions. Additional training may come from professional development semi­ nars offered by professional computing societies. The Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals offers the designation Certified Computing Professional (CCP) to those who have at least 4 years of work experience as a computer profes­ sional, or at least 2 years experience and a college degree. Candi­ dates must pass a core examination testing general knowledge, plus exams in two specialty areas, or in one specialty area and two com­ puter programming languages. The Quality Assurance Institute awards the designation Certified Quality Analyst (CQA) to those who meet education and experience requirements, pass an exam, and endorse a code of ethics. Neither designation is mandatory, but professional certification may provide a job seeker a competitive advantage. Systems analysts may be promoted to senior or lead systems analysts after several years of experience. Those who show leader­ ship ability also can advance to management positions, such as manager of information systems or chief information officer. Computer engineers and scientists employed in industry may eventually advance into managerial or project leadership positions. Those employed in academic institutions can become heads of re­ search departments or published authorities in their field. Computer professionals with several years of experience and considerable expertise in a particular area may choose to start their own computer consulting firms. Job Outlook Computer scientists and systems analysts will be among the fastest growing occupations through the year 2005. In addition, tens of thousands of job openings will result annually from the need to replace workers who move into managerial positions or other occu­ pations or who leave the labor force. The demand for computer scientists and engineers is expected to rise as organizations attempt to maximize the efficiency of their computer systems. There will continue to be a need for increasingly sophisticated technological innovation. Competition will place or­ ganizations under growing pressure to use technological advances in areas such as office and factory automation, telecommunications technology, and scientific research. As the complexity of these appli­ cations grows, more computer scientists and systems analysts will be needed to design, develop, and implement the new technology. As more computing power is made available to the individual user, more computer scientists and systems analysts will be required to provide support. As users develop more sophisticated knowledge of computers, they become more aware of the machine's potential and better able to suggest how computers could be used to increase their own productivity and that of the organization. Increasingly, users are able to design and implement more of their own applica­ tions and programs. As technology continues to advance, computer scientists and systems analysts will continue to need to upgrade their levels of skill and technical expertise and their ability to interact with users will increase in importance.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The demand for "networking" to facilitate the sharing of informa­ tion will be a major factor in the rising demand for systems analysts. Falling prices of computer hardware and software should continue to induce more small businesses to computerize their operations, further stimulating demand for these workers. In order to maintain a com­ petitive edge and operate more cost effectively, firms will continue to demand computer professionals who are knowledgeable about the latest technologies and able to apply them to meet the needs of businesses. A greater emphasis on problem solving, analysis, and client/server environments will also contribute to the growing de­ mand for systems analysts. Individuals with an advanced degree in computer science should enjoy very favorable employment prospects because employers are demanding a higher level of technical expertise. College graduates with a bachelor's degree in computer science, computer engineering, information science, or information systems should also experience good prospects for employment. College graduates with non-com­ puter science majors who have had courses in computer program­ ming, systems analysis, and other data processing areas, as well as training or experience in an applied field, should be able to find jobs as computer professionals. Those who are familiar with CASE tools, object-oriented and client/server programming, and multimedia technology will have an even greater advantage, as will individuals with significant networking, database, and systems experience. Employers should increasing seek computer professionals who can combine strong programming and traditional systems analysis skills with good interpersonal and business skills. Earnings Median annual earnings of computer systems analysts and scientists who worked full time in 1994 were about $44,000. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,100 and $55,000. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $25,100 and the highest tenth, more than $69,400. Computer scientists with advanced degrees generally earn more than systems analysts. According to Robert Half International Inc., starting salaries in 1994 for systems analysts employed by large establishments employ­ ing more than 50 staff members ranged from $43,500 to $54,000. Salaries for those employed in small establishments ranged from $35,000 to $45,000. Starting salaries ranged from $51,000 to $62,000 for data base administrators, and from $45,000 to $62,000 for software engineers. In the Federal Government, the entrance salary for systems ana­ lysts who are recent college graduates with a bachelor's degree was about $18,700 a year in 1995; for those with a superior academic record, $23,200. . Related Occupations Other workers who use research, logic, and creativity to solve busi­ ness problems are computer programmers, financial analysts, urban planners, engineers, operations research analysts, management ana­ lysts, and actuaries. Sources of Additional Information Further information about computer careers is available from: •"Association for Computing Machinery, 1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036.  Information about the designation Certified Computing Profes­ sional is available from: •"Institute for the Certification of Computing Professionals, 2200 East Devon Ave., Suite 268, Des Plaines, IL 60018.  Information about the designation Certified Quality Analyst is available from: •"Quality Assurance Institute, 7575 Dr. Phillips Blvd., Suite 350, Orlando, FL 32819.  96 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Mathematicians (D.O.T. 020.067-014, .167-030; 199.267-014)  Nature of the Work Mathematics is one of the oldest and most basic sciences. Mathema­ ticians create new mathematical theories and techniques involving the latest technology and solve economic, scientific, engineering, and business problems using mathematical knowledge and computational tools. Mathematical work falls into two broad classes: theoretical (pure) mathematics and applied mathematics. However, these classes are not sharply defined and often overlap. Theoretical mathematicians advance mathematical science by developing new principles and new relationships between existing principles of mathematics. Although they seek to increase basic knowledge without necessarily considering its practical use, this pure and abstract knowledge has been instrumental in producing or fur­ thering many scientific and engineering achievements. Applied mathematicians use theories and techniques, such as mathematical modeling and computational methods, to formulate and solve practical problems in business, government, engineering, and the physical, life, and social sciences. For example, they may ana­ lyze the mathematical aspects of computer and communications networks, the effects of new drugs on disease, the aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft, or the distribution costs or manufacturing processes of businesses. Applied mathematicians working in indus­ trial research and development may develop or enhance mathemati­ cal methods when confronted with difficult problems. Some mathe­ maticians, called cryptanalysts, analyze and decipher encryption systems designed to transmit national security-related information. Mathematicians use computers extensively to analyze relation­ ships among variables, solve complex problems, develop models, and process large amounts of data. Much work in applied mathematics, however, is carried on by persons other than mathematicians. In fact, because mathematics is the foundation upon which many other academic disciplines are built, the number of workers using mathematical techniques is many times greater than the number actually designated as mathematicians. Engineers, computer scientists, physicists, and economists are among those who use mathematics extensively but have job titles other than mathematician. Some workers, such as statisticians, actuaries, and operations research analysts, actually are specialists in a particular  A large majority of mathematicians have at least a master’s degree.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  branch of mathematics. (See statements on actuaries, operations research analysts, and statisticians elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Mathematicians working for government agencies or private firms usually have structured work schedules. They may work alone, in a small group of mathematicians, or as an integral part of a team that includes engineers, computer scientists, physicists, technicians, and others. Deadlines, overtime work, special requests for information or analysis, and travel to attend seminars or conferences may be part of their jobs. Employment Mathematicians held about 14,000 jobs in 1994. In addition, about 20,000 persons held mathematics faculty positions in colleges and universities, according to the American Mathematical Society. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Many nonfaculty mathematicians work for either Federal or State governments. The Department of Defense is the primary Federal employer of mathematicians; more than three-fourths of the mathe­ maticians employed by the Federal Government work for the Navy, Army, or Air Force. In the private sector, major employers include research and testing services, educational services, security and commodity exchanges, and management and public relations serv­ ices. Within manufacturing, the drug industry is the key employer. Some mathematicians also work for banks, insurance companies, and public utilities. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in mathematics is the minimum education needed for prospective mathematicians. In the Federal Government, entry-level job candidates usually must have a 4-year degree with a major in mathematics or a 4-year degree with the equivalent of a mathematics major—24 semester hours of mathematics courses. In private industry, job candidates generally need a master's or a Ph.D. degree to obtain jobs as mathematicians. Most of the positions designated for mathematicians are in research and development labs as part of technical teams. These research scientists engage in either pure mathematical, or basic, research; or in applied research focusing on developing or improving specific products or processes. The majority of bachelor’s and master’s degree holders in private industry work, not as mathematicians, but in related fields such as computer science, where they are called computer programmers, systems analysts, or systems engineers. A bachelor's degree in mathematics is offered by most colleges and universities. Mathematics courses usually required for this degree are calculus, differential equations, and linear and abstract algebra. Additional coursework might include probability theory and statistics, mathematical analysis, numerical analysis, topology, modem algebra, discrete mathematics, and mathematical logic. Many colleges and universities urge or even require students major­ ing in mathematics to take several courses in a field that uses or is closely related to mathematics, such as computer science, engineer­ ing, operations research, a physical science, statistics, or economics. A double major in mathematics and another discipline such as com­ puter science, economics, or one of the sciences is particularly desir­ able. A prospective college mathematics major should take as many mathematics courses as possible while in high school. In 1994, about 240 colleges and universities offered a master's degree as the highest degree in either pure or applied mathematics; 195 offered a Ph.D. in pure or applied mathematics. In graduate school, students conduct research and take advanced courses, usually specializing in a subfield of mathematics. Some areas of concentra­ tion are algebra, number theory, real or complex analysis, geometry, topology, logic, and applied mathematics. For work in applied mathematics, training in the field in which the mathematics will be used is very important. Fields in which  Professional Specialty Occupations 97  applied mathematics is used extensively include physics, actuarial science, engineering, and operations research; of increasing impor­ tance are computer and information science, business and industrial management, economics, statistics, chemistry, geology, life sciences, and the behavioral sciences. Mathematicians should have substantial knowledge of computer programming because most complex mathematical computation and much mathematical modeling is done by computer. Mathematicians need good reasoning ability and persistence in order to identify, analyze, and apply basic principles to technical problems. Communication skills are also important, as mathemati­ cians must be able to interact with others, including nonmathemati­ cians, and discuss proposed solutions to problems. Job Outlook Employment of mathematicians is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The number of jobs available for workers whose educational background is solely mathematics is not expected to increase significantly. Many firms engaged in civilian research and development that use mathe­ maticians are not planning to expand their research departments much, and, in some cases, may reduce them. Expected reductions in defense-related research and development will also affect mathema­ ticians' employment, especially in the Federal Government. Those whose educational background includes the study of a related disci­ pline will have better job opportunities. However, as advancements in technology lead to expanding applications of mathematics, more workers with a knowledge of mathematics will be required. Many of these workers have job titles which reflect the end product of their work rather than the discipline of mathematics used in that work. Bachelor's degree holders in mathematics are usually not qualified for most jobs as mathematicians. However, those with a strong background in computer science, electrical or mechanical engineer­ ing, or operations research should have good opportunities in indus­ try. Bachelor’s degree holders who meet State certification requirements may become high school mathematics teachers. (For additional information, see the statement on kindergarten, elemen­ tary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Holders of a master's degree in mathematics will face very strong competition for jobs in theoretical research. However, job opportu­ nities in applied mathematics and related areas such as computer programming, operations research, and engineering design in indus­ try and government will be more numerous. Earnings According to a 1995 survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, starting salary offers for mathematics graduates with a bachelor's degree averaged about $30,300 a year and for those with a master's degree, $35,600. Starting salaries were generally higher in industry and government than in educational institutions. For exam­ ple, the American Mathematical Society reported that, based on a 1994 survey, median annual earnings for new recipients of doctorates in research were $35,000; for those in government, $45,500; and for those in business and industry, $52,500. In the Federal Government in 1995, the average annual salary for mathematicians in supervisory, nonsupervisory, and managerial positions was $58,150; for mathematical statisticians, $60,510; and for cryptanalysts, $52,840. Benefits for mathematicians tend to be similar to those offered to most professionals who work in office settings: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a retirement plan, among others. Related Occupations Other occupations that require a degree in or extensive knowledge of mathematics include actuary, statistician, computer programmer, systems analyst, systems engineer, and operations research analyst. In addition, a strong background in mathematics facilitates employ­ ment in fields such as engineering, economics, finance, and physics.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information For more information about the field of mathematics, including career opportunities and professional training, contact: American Mathematical Society, Department of Professional Programs and Services, P.O. Box 6248, Providence, RI 02940-6248. ••Mathematical Association of America, 1529 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For a 1995 resource guide on careers in mathematical sciences, send a self-addressed envelope with two first-class stamps to: •"Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, 1529 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For specific information on careers in applied mathematics, contact: ••Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 3600 University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2688.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from area offices of the State employment service and the U.S. Office of Per­ sonnel Management's Federal Job Information Centers located in various large cities throughout the country.  Operations Research Analysts (D.O.T. 020.067-018)  Nature of the Work Efficiently running a complex organization or operation such as a large manufacturing plant, an airline, or a military deployment requires the precise coordination of materials, machines, and people. Operations research analysts help organizations coordinate and operate in the most efficient manner by applying scientific methods and mathematical principles to organizational problems. Managers can then evaluate alternatives and choose the course of action that best meets the organizational goals. Operations research analysts, sometimes also called management science analysts, are problem solvers. The problems they tackle are for the most part those encountered in large business and government organizations, including strategy, forecasting, resource allocation, facilities layout, inventory control, personnel schedules, and distri­ bution systems. Their methods generally use a mathematical model consisting of a set of equations that explains how things happen within the organization. Use of models enables the analyst to break down real-world problems into their component parts, assign numeri­ cal values to different components, and determine the mathematical relationships between them. These values can be altered to examine what will happen to the system under different circumstances. The situation under consideration determines the mathematical method used. Some of the methods available include simulation, linear optimization, networks, waiting lines, and game theory. Operations research analysts use computers extensively in their work. They are typically highly proficient in database collection and management, programming, and in the development and use of sophisticated software programs. Most of the models employed by operations research analysts are so large and complicated that only a computer can solve them efficiently. The type of problem they usually handle varies by industry. For example, an analyst for an airline coordinates flight and maintenance schedules, passenger level estimates, and fuel consumption to pro­ duce an optimal schedule that ensures safety and produces the great­ est profit. An analyst employed by a hospital concentrates on a different set of problems, such as scheduling admissions, managing patient flow, assigning shifts, monitoring use of pharmacy and labo­ ratory services, and forecasting demand for adding hospital services. The duties of the operations research analyst vary according to the structure and management philosophy of the employer or client. Some firms centralize operations research in one department, while  98 Occupational Outlook Handbook  others disperse operations research personnel throughout all divi­ sions. Some operations research analysts specialize in one type of application, whereas others are generalists, especially at the begin­ ning of their careers. The degree of supervision varies by organizational structure and experience. In some organizations, analysts have a great deal of professional autonomy, while in others, analysts are more closely supervised. Operations research analysts work closely with senior managers, who have a wide variety of support needs. Analysts must adapt their work to reflect these requirements. Regardless of the industry or structure of the organization, opera­ tions research entails a similar set of procedures. Managers begin the process by describing the symptoms of a problem to the analyst, who then formally defines the problem. For example, an operations research analyst for an auto manufacturer may be asked to determine the best inventory level for each of the materials for a new produc­ tion line or, more specifically, to determine how many windshields should be kept in inventory. Analysts study the problem, then break it into its component parts. Then they gather information about each of these parts. Usually this involves consulting a wide variety of people and other sources of information, such as professional journals. To determine the most efficient amount of inventory to be kept on hand, for ex­ ample, operations research analysts might talk with engineers about production levels, discuss purchasing arrangements with industrial buyers, and examine data on storage costs provided by the account­ ing department. With this information in hand, the operations research analyst is ready to select the most appropriate analytical technique. There may be several techniques that could be used, but in some cases, the analyst must construct an original model to examine and explain the system. In almost all cases, the computer program used to run the selected model must be modified repeatedly to reflect the different circumstances of various solutions. A model for airline flight scheduling, for example, might include variables for the cities to be connected, amount of fuel required to fly the routes, projected levels of passenger demand, varying ticket and fuel prices, pilot scheduling, and maintenance costs. The analyst then chooses the values for these variables, enters them into a com­ puter which he or she has already programmed to make the calcula­ tions required, and runs the program to produce the best flight schedule consistent with various sets of assumptions. At this point, the operations research analyst presents the final work to management along with recommendations based on the results of the analysis. Additional computer runs based on different assumptions may be needed to help in making the final decision between various options. Once a decision has been reached, the analyst works with others in the organization to ensure the plan's successful implementation. Working Conditions Operations research analysts generally work regular hours in an office environment. Because they work on projects that are of im­ mediate interest to management, analysts often are under pressure to meet deadlines and often work more than a 40-hour week. Employment Operations research analysts held about 44,000 jobs in 1994. They are employed in most industries. Major employers include computer and data processing services, commercial banks and savings institu­ tions, insurance carriers, telecommunication companies, engineering and management services firms, manufacturers of transportation equipment, air carriers, and the Federal Government. About 2 out of 10 analysts work for management, research, public relations, and testing agencies that do operations research consulting for firms that do not have an in-house operations research staff. Most analysts in the Federal Government work for the Armed Forces. In addition, many operations research analysts who work in  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  l r iKfi§ jjyjjr  Operations research analysts rely on mathematics and computer skills to solve problems.  private industry do work directly or indirectly related to national defense. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers strongly prefer applicants with at least a master's degree in operations research or management science, or other quantitative disciplines. A high level of computer skills is also required. Employers often sponsor skill-improvement training for experi­ enced workers, helping them keep up with new developments in operations research techniques as well as advances in computer science. Some analysts attend advanced university classes on these subjects at their employer's expense. Operations research analysts must be able to think logically and work well with people, so employers prefer workers with good oral and written communication skills. The computer is the most impor­ tant tool for quantitative analysis, and both training and experience in programming is a must. Beginning analysts usually do routine work under the supervision of more experienced analysts. As they gain knowledge and experi­ ence, they are assigned more complex tasks, with greater autonomy to design models and solve problems. Operations research analysts advance by assuming positions as technical specialists or supervisors. The skills acquired by operations research analysts are useful for higher-level management jobs, and experienced analysts may leave the field altogether to assume nontechnical managerial or adminis­ trative positions. Job Outlook Organizations are increasingly using operations research and man­ agement science techniques to improve productivity and quality and to reduce costs. This reflects growing acceptance of a systematic approach to decisionmaking by top managers. This trend is expected to continue and should greatly stimulate demand for these workers in the years ahead. Those seeking employment as operations research or management science analysts who hold a master's or Ph.D. degree should find good opportunities through the year 2005. The number of openings generated each year as a result of employment growth and the need to replace those leaving the occupation, is expected to exceed the number of persons graduating with master's and Ph.D. degrees from management science or operations research programs. Graduates with only a bachelors degrees in operations research or management science should find opportunities as research assistants or analyst assistants in a variety of related fields, which allow them to use their quantitative abilities. Only the most highly qualified are  Professional Specialty Occupations 99  likely to find employment as operations research or management science analysts. Employment of operations research analysts is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to the increasing importance of quantitative analysis in decisionmaking. Much of the job growth is expected to occur in the transportation, manufacturing, finance, and services sectors, areas where the use of quantitative analysis can achieve dramatic im­ provements in operating efficiency and profitability. More airlines, for example, are using operations research to determine the best flight and maintenance schedules, select the best routes to service, analyze customer characteristics, and control fuel consumption, among other things. Motel chains are beginning to use operations research to improve their efficiency by analyzing automobile traffic patterns and customer attitudes to determine location, size, and style of proposed new motels. Like other management support functions, operations research grows by its own success. When one firm in an industry increases productivity by adopting a new procedure, its competitors usually follow. This competitive pressure will contribute to demand for operations research analysts. Demand also should be strong in the manufacturing sector as firms expand existing operations research staffs in the face of grow­ ing domestic and foreign competition. More manufacturers are using mathematical models to study the operations of the organization. For example, analysts will be needed to determine the best way to control product inventory, distribute finished products, and to decide where sales offices should be based. In addition, increasing factory auto­ mation will require more operations research analysts to alter exist­ ing models or develop new ones for production layout, robotics installation, work schedules, and inventory control.  interpret the resulting information or data. In doing so, they often apply their knowledge of statistical methods to a particular subject area, such as biology, economics, engineering, medicine, or psychol­ ogy. They use statistical techniques to predict population growth or economic conditions, develop quality control tests for manufactured products, assess the nature of environmental problems, analyze legal and social problems, or help business managers and government officials make decisions and evaluate the results of new programs. Some statisticians develop new statistical methods. Often statisticians are able to obtain information about a group of people or things by surveying a small portion, called a sample, of the group. For example, to determine the size of the total audience for particular programs, television rating services ask only a few thou­ sand families, rather than all viewers, which programs they watch. Statisticians decide where and how to gather the data, determine the type and size of the sample group, and develop the survey question­ naire or reporting form. They also prepare instructions for workers who will collect and tabulate the data. Finally, statisticians analyze, interpret, and summarize the data, usually using sophisticated statis­ tical computer software packages. In manufacturing industries, statisticians play an important role in the area of quality improvement. For example, a statistician in an automobile manufacturing company might design experiments using statistical models to estimate the failure time of an engine exposed to extreme weather conditions and to identify factors that lead to im­ proved performance. In chemical companies, statisticians might  Earnings According to recruiters and national operations research associations, operations research analysts with a master's degree generally earned starting salaries of about $36,000 to $45,000 a year in 1995. Experi­ enced operations research analysts earned about $50,000 to $60,000 a year in 1995. Top salaries exceed $90,000. The average annual salary for operations research analysts in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $62,450 in 1995. Related Occupations Operations research analysts apply mathematical principles to large, complicated problems. Workers in other occupations that stress quantitative analysis include computer scientists, engineers, mathe­ maticians, statisticians, and economists. Operations research is closely allied to managerial occupations in that its goal is improved organizational efficiency.  -  Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities for operations research analysts is available from: •"The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, 290 Westminster St., Providence, RI 02903.  For information on careers in the Armed Forces and Department of Defense, contact: ••Military Operations Research Society, 101 South Whiting St., Suite 202, Alexandria, VA 22304.  Statisticians (D.O.T. 020.067-022, .167-026)  Nature of the Work Statistics is the collection, analysis, and presentation of numerical data. Statisticians design surveys and experiments, then collect and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Computers are essential tools for statisticians who handle large amounts of data.  100 Occupational Outlook Handbook  design experiments to determine what combination of several chemi­ cals would lead to the best product. Statisticians working in all industries use computers extensively to process large amounts of data for statistical modeling and graphic analysis. Because statistics are used in so many areas, it sometimes is difficult to distinguish statisticians from specialists in other fields who use statistics. For example, a statistician working with data on economic conditions may have the title of economist. Working Conditions Statisticians usually work regular hours in offices. Some statisticians travel to provide advice on research projects, supervise or set up surveys, or to gather statistical data. Some may have fairly repetitive tasks, while others may have a variety of tasks, such as designing experiments. Employment Statisticians held about 14,000 jobs in 1994. Over one-fourth of these jobs were in the Federal Government, where statisticians were concentrated in the Departments of Commerce (especially the Bureau of the Census); Agriculture; and Health and Human Services. Most of the remaining jobs were in private industry, especially in the transportation equipment, research and testing services, management and public relations, and insurance industries. In addition, many statisticians work as teachers in post-secondary institutions, but they are counted as college and university faculty in the Handbook. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree with a major in statistics or mathematics is the minimum educational requirement for many beginning jobs in statis­ tics. The training required for employment as an entry level statisti­ cian in the Federal Government is a college degree including at least 15 semester hours of statistics—or a combination of 15 hours of mathematics and statistics if at least 6 semester hours are in statistics. An additional 9 semester hours in another academic discipline, such as economics, physical or biological science, medicine, education, engineering, or social science, are also required. To qualify as a mathematical statistician in the Federal Government requires 24 semester hours of mathematics and statistics with a minimum of 6 semester hours in statistics and 12 semester hours in advanced mathematics, such as calculus, differential equations, or vector analysis. Research positions in institutions of higher education and many positions in private industry require a graduate degree, often a doctorate, in statistics. About 80 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s degrees in statistics in 1994. Many other schools also offered degrees in mathematics, operations research, and other fields which included a sufficient number of courses in statistics to qualify graduates for some beginning positions, particularly in the Federal Government. Required subjects for statistics majors include differential and inte­ gral calculus, statistical methods, mathematical modeling, and prob­ ability theory. Additional courses that undergraduates should take include linear algebra, design and analysis of experiments, applied multivariate analysis, and mathematical statistics. Because comput­ ers are used extensively for statistical applications, a strong back­ ground in computer science is highly recommended. For positions involving quality and productivity improvement, training in engineer­ ing or physical science is useful. A background in biological, chemi­ cal, or health science is important for positions involving the preparation and testing of pharmaceutical or agricultural products. For many jobs in market research, business analysis, and forecasting, courses in economics and business administration are helpful. In 1994, approximately 110 universities offered a master’s degree program in statistics, and about 58 had statistics departments which offered a doctoral degree program. Many other schools also offered graduate-level courses in applied statistics for students majoring in biology, business, economics, education, engineering, psychology, and other fields. Acceptance into graduate statistics programs does  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  not require an undergraduate degree in statistics although a good mathematics background is essential. Good communications skills are important for prospective statis­ ticians, not only for those who plan to teach, but also to qualify for many positions in industry, where the need to explain statistical processes to those who are not statisticians is common. A solid understanding of business and management is also important for those who plan to work in private industry. Beginning statisticians who have only the bachelor's degree often spend much of their time doing routine work supervised by an expe­ rienced statistician. With experience, they may advance to positions of greater technical and supervisory responsibility. However, oppor­ tunities for promotion are best for those with advanced degrees. Master's and Ph.D. degree holders enjoy greater independence in their work and are qualified to engage in research, to develop statisti­ cal methods, or, after several years of experience in a particular area of technological application, to become statistical consultants. Job Outlook Although employment of statisticians is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005, job opportunities should remain favorable for individuals with statis­ tics training. Many statistics majors, particularly at the bachelor's degree level, but also at the master's degree level, may find positions in which they do not have the title of statistician. This is especially true for those involved in analyzing and interpreting data from other disciplines such as economics, biological science, psychology, or engineering. Among graduates with a bachelor's degree in statistics, those with a strong background in mathematics, engineering, or health or com­ puter science should have the best prospects of finding jobs related to their field of study in private industry or government. Federal Gov­ ernment agencies will need statisticians in fields such as demogra­ phy, agriculture, consumer and producer surveys, Social Security, health, education, energy conservation, and environmental quality control. However, competition for entry level positions in the Fed­ eral Government is expected to be strong for those just meeting the minimum qualification standards for statisticians. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school statistics teachers, a newly emerging field. (For additional information, see the statement on kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Private industry, in the face of increasing competition and strong government regulation, will continue to require statisticians, espe­ cially at the master's and Ph.D. degree levels, to not only monitor but improve productivity and quality in the manufacture of various products including pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, chemicals, and food products. For example, pharmaceutical firms will need more statisticians to assess the safety and effectiveness of the rapidly expanding number of drugs. To meet continuing competition, motor vehicle manufacturers will need statisticians to improve and monitor the quality of automobiles, trucks, and their components by develop­ ing tests for new and existing designs. Statisticians with a knowl­ edge of engineering and the physical sciences will find jobs in research and development, working with scientists and engineers to help improve design and production processes in order to ensure consistent quality of newly developed products. Business firms will rely more heavily than in the past on workers with a background in statistics to forecast sales, analyze business conditions, and help solve management problems. In addition, sophisticated statistical services will increasingly be contracted out to consulting firms. Earnings The average annual salary for statisticians in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $56,890 in 1995; mathematical statisticians averaged $60,510. Statisticians who hold advanced degrees generally earn higher starting salaries.  Professional Specialty Occupations 101  Benefits for statisticians tend to resemble those offered most professionals who work in an office setting: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a retirement plan, among others. Related Occupations People in numerous occupations work with statistics. Among them are actuaries, mathematicians, operations research analysts, computer programmers, computer systems analysts, engineers, economists, financial analysts, information scientists, life scientists, physical scientists, and social scientists.  Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in statistics, contact: ••American Statistical Association, 1429 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information on a career as a mathematical statistician, con­ tact: •■Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 3401 Investment Blvd., No. 7, Hay­ ward, CA 94545.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from area offices of the State employment service and the U.S. Office of Per­ sonnel Management or from Federal Job Information Centers located in various large cities throughout the country.  Life Scientists  Agricultural Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, and -058; 041.061-014, -018, -046, and -082; and 041.081)  Nature of the Work The work agricultural scientists do plays an important part in main­ taining and increasing the Nation's agricultural productivity. Agri­ cultural scientists study farm crops and animals and develop ways of improving their quantity and quality. They look for ways to improve crop yield and quality with less labor, control pests and weeds more safely and effectively, and conserve soil and water. They research methods of converting raw agricultural commodities into attractive and healthy food products for consumers. Agricultural science is closely related to biological science, and agricultural scientists use the principles of biology, chemistry, and other sciences to solve problems in agriculture. They often work with biological scientists on basic biological research and in apply­ ing to agriculture the advances in knowledge brought about by biotechnology. Many agricultural scientists work in basic or applied research and development. Others manage or administer research and develop­ ment programs or manage marketing or production operations in companies that produce food products or agricultural chemicals, supplies, and machinery. Some agricultural scientists are consultants to business firms, private clients, or to government. Depending on the agricultural scientist's area of specialization, the nature of the work performed varies.  scientists study plants and their growth in soils, helping producers of food, feed, and fiber crops to continue to feed a growing population while conserving natural resources and maintaining the environment. Agronomists and crop scientists not only help increase productivity, but also study ways to improve the nutritional value of crops and the quality of seed. Some crop scientists study the breeding, physiology, and management of crops and use genetic engineering to develop crops resistant to pests and drought. Soil science. Soil scientists study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. They study the responses of various soil types to fertilizers, tillage practices, and crop rotation. Many soil scientists who work for the Federal Government conduct soil surveys, classifying and mapping soils. They provide information and recommendations to farmers and other landowners regarding the best use of land and how to avoid or correct problems such as erosion. They may also consult with engineers and other technical personnel working on construction projects about the effects of, and solutions to, soil problems. Since soil science is closely related to environmental science, persons trained in soil science also apply their knowledge to ensure environ­ mental quality and effective land use. Animal science. Animal scientists develop better, more efficient ways of producing and processing meat, poultry, eggs, and milk.  Food science. Food scientists or technologists are usually employed in the food processing industry, universities, or the Federal Govern­ ment, and help meet consumer demand for food products that are healthful, safe, palatable, and convenient. To do this, they use their knowledge of chemistry, microbiology, and other sciences to develop new or better ways of preserving, processing, packaging, storing, and delivering foods. Some engage in basic research, discovering new food sources; analyzing food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, or protein; or searching for substitutes for harmful or undesirable additives, such as nitrites. Many food technologists work in product development. Others enforce government regulations, inspecting food processing areas and ensuring that sanitation, safety, quality, and waste management standards are met. Plant science. Plant science includes the disciplines of agronomy, crop science, entomology, and plant breeding, among others. These   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  An entomologist talks to local farmers about insect problems in growing com.  102 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Dairy scientists, poultry scientists, animal breeders, and other related scientists study the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals. Some animal scientists inspect and grade livestock food products, purchase livestock, or work in technical sales or marketing. As extension agents or con­ sultants, animal scientists advise agricultural producers on how to upgrade animal housing facilities properly, lower mortality rates, or increase production of animal products, such as milk or eggs. Working Conditions Agricultural scientists involved in management or basic research tend to work regular hours in offices and laboratories. The working environment for those engaged in applied research or product devel­ opment varies, depending on the discipline of agricultural science and the type of employer. For example, food scientists in private industry may work in test kitchens while investigating new process­ ing techniques. Animal scientists working for Federal or State research stations may spend part of their time at dairies, farrowing houses, feedlots, farm animal facilities, or outdoors conducting research associated with livestock. Soil and crop scientists also spend time outdoors conducting research on farms or agricultural research stations. Employment Agricultural scientists held about 26,000 jobs in 1994. In addition, several thousand persons held agricultural science faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) About one-third of all nonfaculty agricultural scientists work for Federal, State, or local governments. Nearly 1 out of 4 worked for the Federal Government in 1994, mostly in the Department of Agri­ culture. In addition, large numbers worked for State governments at State agricultural colleges or agricultural research stations. Some worked for agricultural service companies; others worked for com­ mercial research and development laboratories, seed companies, pharmaceutical companies, wholesale distributors, and food products companies. About 4,000 agricultural scientists were self-employed in 1994, mainly as consultants. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements for agricultural scientists depend on specialty and the type of work they perform. A bachelor's degree in agricul­ tural science is sufficient for some jobs in applied research or in assisting in basic research, but a master’s or doctoral degree is re­ quired for basic research. A Ph.D. degree in agricultural science is usually needed for college teaching and for advancement to adminis­ trative research positions. Degrees in related sciences such as biol­ ogy, chemistry, or physics or in related engineering specialties also may qualify persons for some agricultural science jobs. All States have a land-grant college which offers agricultural science degrees. Many other colleges and universities also offer agricultural science degrees or some agricultural science courses. However, not every school offers all specialties. A typical under­ graduate agricultural science curriculum includes communications, economics, business, and physical and life sciences courses, in addition to a wide variety of technical agricultural science courses. For prospective animal scientists, these technical agricultural science courses might include animal breeding, reproductive physiology, nutrition, and meats and muscle biology; students preparing as food scientists take courses such as food chemistry, food analysis, food microbiology, and food processing operations; and those preparing as crop or soil scientists take courses in plant pathology, soil chemistry, entomology, plant physiology, and biochemistry, among others. Advanced degree programs include classroom and fieldwork, labora­ tory research, and a thesis based on independent research. Agricultural scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Most agricultural scientists also need an understanding of basic business principles.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Agricultural scientists who have advanced degrees usually begin in research or teaching. With experience, they may advance to jobs such as supervisors of research programs or managers of other agri­ culture-related activities. Job Outlook Employment of agricultural scientists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Addi­ tionally, the need to replace agricultural scientists who retire or otherwise leave the occupation permanently will account for many more job openings than projected growth. Although the number of degrees awarded in agricultural science programs has been steady or even declined since the 1980s, new entrants, even those with ad­ vanced degrees, may still face competition for jobs as agricultural scientists. Animal and plant scientists with a background in molecu­ lar biology, microbiology, genetics, or biotechnology, soil scientists with an interest in the environment, and food technologists may find the best opportunities. Generally speaking, those with advanced degrees will be in the best position to enter jobs as agricultural scientists. However, com­ petition for teaching positions in colleges or universities and for some basic research jobs may be keen, even for doctoral holders. Federal and State budget cuts may limit funding for these positions through the year 2005. Bachelor's degree holders can work in some applied research and product development positions, but usually only in certain subfields, such as food science and technology. Also, the Federal Government hires bachelor's degree holders to work as soil scientists. Despite the more limited opportunities for those with only a bachelor's degree to obtain jobs as agricultural scientists, a bachelor's degree in agricul­ tural science is useful for managerial jobs in businesses that deal with ranchers and farmers such as feed, fertilizer, seed, and farm equip­ ment manufacturers; retailers or wholesalers; and farm credit institu­ tions. Four-year degrees may also help persons enter occupations such as farmer or farm or ranch manager, cooperative extension service agent, agricultural products inspector, technician, landscape architect, or purchasing or sales agent for agricultural commodities or farm supplies. Earnings According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, beginning salary offers in 1995 for graduates with a bachelor's degree in animal science averaged about $24,200 a year, and for graduates in plant science, $22,500. Average Federal salaries for employees in nonsupervisory, super­ visory, and managerial positions in certain agricultural science specialties in 1995 were as follows: Animal science, $61,480; agro­ nomy, $49,270; soil science, $46,140; horticulture, $48,210; ento­ mology, $58,200. Related Occupations The work of agricultural scientists is closely related to that of biolo­ gists and other natural scientists such as chemists, foresters, and conservation scientists. It is also related to agricultural production occupations such as farmer and farm manager and cooperative ex­ tension service agent. Certain specialties of agricultural science are also related to other occupations. For example, the work of animal scientists is related to that of veterinarians; horticulturists, to land­ scape architects; and soil scientists, to soil conservationists. Sources of Additional Information Information on careers in agricultural science is available from: •"American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711. •"Food and Agricultural Careers for Tomorrow, Attn.: Dr. Allan Goecker, Purdue University, 1140 Agricultural Administration Bldg., West Lafayette, IN 47907-1140.  Professional Specialty Occupations 103  For information on careers in food technology, write to: •■Institute of Food Technologists, Attn.: Dean Duxbury, Suite 300, 221 N. LaSalle St., Chicago IL 60601.  For information on careers in animal science, write to: ••The American Society of Animal Science, 309 West Clark St., Champaign, IL61820.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment security agencies or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Biological and Medical Scientists (D.O.T. 022.081-010; 041.061, except -014, -018, -046, and -082; 041.067-010; 041.261-010)  Nature of the Work Biological and medical scientists study living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Most specialize in some area of biology such as zoology (the study of animals) or microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms). Many biological scientists and virtually all medical scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to increase knowledge of living organisms. Others, in applied research, use knowledge provided by basic research to develop new medicines, increase crop yields, and improve the environment. Biological and medical scientists who conduct research usually work in laboratories and use electron microscopes, computers, thermal cyclers, or a wide variety of other equipment. Some may conduct experiments on laboratory animals or greenhouse plants. For some biological scien­ tists, a good deal of research is performed outside of laboratories. For example, a botanist may do research in tropical rain forests to see what plants grow there, or an ecologist may study how a forest area recovers after a fire. Some biological and medical scientists work in management or administration. They may plan and administer programs for testing foods and drugs, for example, or direct activities at zoos or botanical gardens. Some biological scientists work as consultants to business firms or to government, while others test and inspect foods, drugs, and other products or write for technical publications. Some work in sales and service jobs for companies manufacturing chemicals or other technical products. (See the statement on manufacturers' and wholesale sales representatives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Advances in basic biological knowledge, especially at the genetic and molecular levels, continue to spur the field of biotechnology. Biological and medical scientists using this technology manipulate the genetic material of animals or plants, attempting to make organ­ isms more productive or disease resistant. The first application of this technology has been in the medical and pharmaceutical areas. Many substances not previously available in large quantities are starting to be produced by biotechnological means; some may be useful in treating cancer and other diseases. Advances in biotechnol­ ogy have opened up research opportunities in almost all areas of biology, including commercial applications in agriculture and the food and chemical industries. Most biological scientists who come under the broad category of biologist are further classified by the type of organism they study or by the specific activity they perform, although recent advances in the understanding of basic life processes at the molecular and cellular levels have blurred some traditional classifications. Aquatic biologists study plants and animals living in water. Marine biologists study salt water organisms and limnologists study fresh water organisms. Marine biologists are sometimes erroneously called oceanographers, but oceanography usually refers to the study  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  of the physical characteristics of oceans and the ocean floor. (See the statement on geologists and geophysicists elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Biochemists study the chemical composition of living things. They try to understand the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and hered­ ity. Much of the work in biotechnology is done by biochemists and molecular biologists because this technology involves understanding the complex chemistry of life. Botanists study plants and their environment. Some study all aspects of plant life; others specialize in areas such as identification and classification of plants, the structure and function of plant parts, the biochemistry of plant processes, the causes and cures of plant diseases, and the geological record of plants. Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Medical microbiologists study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effect of antibiotics on microorganisms. Other microbiologists may specialize in environmental, food, agricultural, or industrial microbiology, virology (the study of viruses), or immunology (the study of mechanisms that fight infections). Many microbiologists are using biotechnology to advance knowledge of cell reproduction and human disease. Physiologists study life functions of plants and animals, both in the whole organism and at the cellular or molecular level, under normal and abnormal conditions. Physiologists may specialize in functions such as growth, reproduction, photosynthesis, respiration, or movement, or in the physiology of a certain area or system of the organism. Zoologists study animals—their origin, behavior, diseases, and life processes. Some experiment with live animals in controlled or natural surroundings while others dissect dead animals to study their structure. Zoologists are usually identified by the animal group studied—ornithologists (birds), mammalogists (mammals), herpe­ tologists (reptiles), and ichthyologists (fish). Ecologists study the relationship among organisms and between organisms and their environments and the effects of influences such as population size, pollutants, rainfall, temperature, and altitude. Agricultural scientists, who may also be classified as biological scientists, are included in a separate statement elsewhere in the Handbook. Biological scientists who do biomedical research are usually called medical scientists. Medical scientists working on basic re­ search into normal biological systems often do so in order to under­ stand the causes of and to discover treatment for disease and other health problems. Medical scientists may try to identify the kinds of changes in a cell, chromosome, or even gene that signal the devel­ opment of medical problems, such as different types of cancer. After identifying structures of or changes in organisms that provide clues to health problems, medical scientists may then work on the treat­ ment of problems. For example, a medical scientist involved in cancer research might try to formulate a combination of drugs which will lessen the effects of the disease. Medical scientists who have a medical degree might then administer the drugs to patients in clinical trials, monitor their reactions, and observe the results. (Medical scientists who do not have a medical degree normally collaborate with a medical doctor who deals directly with patients.) The medical scientist might then return to the laboratory to examine the results and, if necessary, adjust the dosage levels to reduce negative side effects or to try to induce even better results. In addition to using basic research to develop treatments for health problems, medical scientists attempt to discover ways to prevent health problems from developing, such as affirming the link between smoking and in­ creased risk of lung cancer, or alcoholism and liver disease. Working Conditions Biological and medical scientists generally work regular hours in offices or laboratories and usually are not exposed to unsafe or  104 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Demand will remain strong for biological and medical scientists to research health problems and discover new treatments.  unhealthy conditions. Some work with dangerous organisms or toxic substances in the laboratory, so strict safety procedures must be followed to avoid contamination. Medical scientists also spend time working in clinics and hospitals administering drugs and treatments to patients in clinical trials. Many biological scientists such as botanists, ecologists, and zoologists take field trips which involve strenuous physical activity and primitive living conditions. Employment Biological and medical scientists held about 118,000 jobs in 1994. In addition, many biological and medical scientists held biology faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Almost 1 in 3 nonfaculty biological scientists were employed by Federal, State, and local governments. Federal biological scientists worked mainly in the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, the Interior, and Defense, and in the National Institutes of Health. Most of the rest worked in the drug industry, which includes pharmaceutical and biotechnology establishments; hospitals; or research and testing laboratories. About 6 percent of medical scientists worked in re­ search and testing laboratories, with most of the remainder found in hospitals and the drug industry. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement For biological scientists, the Ph.D. degree generally is required for college teaching, independent research, and for advancement to  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  administrative positions. A master's degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied research and for jobs in management, inspection, sales, and service. The bachelor's degree is adequate for some nonre­ search jobs. Some graduates with a bachelor's degree start as bio­ logical scientists in testing and inspection, or get jobs related to biological science such as technical sales or service representatives. In some cases, graduates with a bachelor's degree are able to work in a laboratory environment on their own projects, but this is unusual. Some may work as research assistants. Others become biological technicians, medical laboratory technologists or, with courses in education, high school biology teachers. (See the statements on clinical laboratory technologists and technicians; science technicians; and kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers else­ where in the Handbook.) Many with a bachelor's degree in biology enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Some enter a wide range of occupations with little or no connection to biology. Most colleges and universities offer bachelor's degrees in biologi­ cal science and many offer advanced degrees. Curriculums for advanced degrees often emphasize a subfield such as microbiology or botany but not all universities offer all curriculums. Advanced degree programs include classroom and field work, laboratory re­ search, and a thesis or dissertation. Biological scientists who have advanced degrees often take temporary post-doctoral research posi­ tions which provide specialized research experience. In private industry, some may become managers or administrators within biology; others leave biology for nontechnical managerial, adminis­ trative, or sales jobs. Biological scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Those in private industry who aspire to management or administrative positions should possess good busi­ ness skills and be familiar with regulatory issues and marketing and management techniques. Those doing field research in remote areas must have physical stamina. The Ph.D. degree in a biological science is the minimum educa­ tion required for prospective medical scientists because the work of medical scientists is almost entirely research oriented. A Ph.D. degree qualifies one to do research on basic life processes or on particular medical problems or diseases, and to analyze and interpret the results of experiments on patients. Medical scientists who admin­ ister drug or gene therapy to human patients, or who otherwise interact medically with patients (such as drawing blood, excising tissue, or performing other invasive procedures) must have a medical degree. It is particularly helpful for medical scientists to earn both Ph.D. and medical degrees. In addition to the formal education, medical scientists are usually expected to spend several years in a post-doctoral position before they are offered permanent jobs. Post-doctoral work provides valu­ able laboratory experience, including experience in specific proc­ esses and techniques (such as gene splicing) which are transferable to other research projects later on. In some institutions, the post­ doctoral position can lead to a permanent position. Job Outlook Employment of biological and medical scientists is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Nevertheless, jobseekers can expect to face considerable competition for highly sought-after basic research positions. Bio­ logical and medical scientists will continue to conduct genetic and biotechnological research and help develop and produce products developed by new biological methods. In addition, efforts to clean up and preserve the environment will continue to add to growth. More biological scientists will be needed to determine the environ­ mental impact of industry and government actions and to correct past environmental problems. Expected expansion in research related to health issues, such as AIDS, cancer, and the Human Genome project, should also result in growth. However, much research and develop­  Professional Specialty Occupations 105  ment, including many areas of medical research, is funded by the Federal Government. Anticipated budget tightening should lead to smaller increases in research and development expenditures, further limiting the dollar amount of each grant and slowing the growth of the number of grants awarded to researchers. If, at the same time, the number of newly trained scientists continues to increase at a rate similar to that of the 1980s, both new and established scientists will experience greater difficulty winning and renewing research grants. Persons with a bachelor's degree in biological science are usually not called biological scientists, but find jobs as science or engineer­ ing technicians or health technologists and technicians. Some be­ come high school biology teachers, where they are regarded as teachers rather than biologists. Those with a doctorate in biological science may become college and university faculty. (See statements on science and engineering technicians, health technologists and technicians, high school teachers, and college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biological and medical scientists are less likely to lose their jobs during recessions than those in many other occupations because most are employed on long-term research projects or in agricultural re­ search. However, a recession could influence the amount of money allocated to new research and development efforts, particularly in areas of risky or innovative research. A recession could also limit the possibility of extension or renewal of existing projects. Earnings Median annual earnings for biological and life scientists were about $37,500 in 1994; the middle 50 percent earned between $26,700 and $49,600. Ten percent earned less than $16,300, and 10 percent earned over $67,000. For medical scientists, median annual earnings were about $36,300; the middle 50 percent earned between $27,800 and $56,700. Ten percent earned less than $20,000, and 10 percent earned over $73,900. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, beginning salary offers in private industry in 1995 averaged $22,900 a year for bachelor's degree recipients in biological science; about $29,400 for master's degree recipients; and about $48,000 for doctoral degree recipients. In the Federal Government in 1995, general biological scientists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions earned an average salary of $48,290; microbiologists averaged $54,280; ecolo­ gists, $47,840; physiologists, $61,150; and geneticists, $60,110. Related Occupations Many other occupations deal with living organisms and require a level of training similar to that of biological and medical scientists. These include the conservation occupations of forester, range man­ ager, and soil conservationist; animal breeders, horticulturists, soil scientists, and most other agricultural scientists. Many health occu­ pations are also related to those in the biological sciences, such as medical doctors, dentists, and veterinarians. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers in physiology, contact: ••American Physiological Society, Membership Services Dept., 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information on careers in biotechnology, contact: •"Biotechnology Industry Organization, 1625 K St., NW., Suite 1100, Wash­ ington, DC 20006.  For information on careers in biochemistry, contact: •"American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information on careers in botany, contact: ••Business Office, Botanical Society of America, 1725 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1293.  For information on careers in microbiology, contact: ••American Society for Microbiology, Office of Education and Training— Career Information, 1325 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20005.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Foresters and Conservation Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-030, -046, -050, -054, and -062; .167-010; 049.127)  Nature of the Work Forests and rangelands serve a variety of needs: They supply wood products, livestock forage, minerals, and water; serve as sites for recreational activities; and provide habitats for wildlife. Foresters and conservation scientists manage, develop, use, and help protect these and other natural resources. Foresters manage forested lands for a variety of purposes. Those working in private industry may procure timber from private land­ owners. To do this, foresters contact local forest owners and gain permission to take inventory of the type, amount, and location of all standing timber on the property, a process known as timber cruising. Foresters then appraise the timber's worth, negotiate the purchase of timber, and draw up a contract for procurement. Next, they subcon­ tract with loggers or pulpwood cutters for tree removal, aid in road layout, and maintain close contact with the subcontractor's workers and the landowner to ensure that the work meets the landowner's requirements, as well as Federal, State, and local environmental specifications. Forestry consultants often act as agents for the forest owner, performing the above duties and negotiating timber sales with industrial procurement foresters. Throughout the process, foresters consider the economics of the purchase as well as the environmental impact on natural resources, a function which has taken on added importance in recent years. To do this, they determine how best to conserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability and how best to comply with environmental regulations. Foresters must balance the desire to conserve forested ecosystems for future generations with the need to use forest resources for recreational or economic purposes. Foresters also supervise the planting and growing of new trees, a process called regeneration. They choose and prepare the site, using controlled burning, bulldozers, or herbicides to clear weeds, brush, and logging debris. They advise on the type, number, and placement of trees to be planted. Foresters then monitor the trees to ensure healthy growth and to determine the best time for harvesting. If they detect signs of disease or harmful insects, they decide on the best course of treatment to prevent contamination or infestation of healthy trees. Foresters who work for State and Federal governments manage public forests and parks and also work with private landowners to protect and manage forest land outside of the public domain. They may also design campgrounds and recreation areas. Foresters use a number of tools to perform their jobs: Clinome­ ters measure the heights, diameter tapes measure the diameter, and increment borers and bark gauges measure the growth of trees so that timber volumes can be computed and future growth estimated. Photogrammetry and remote sensing (aerial photographs taken from airplanes and satellites) are often used for mapping large forest areas and for detecting widespread trends of forest and land use. Comput­ ers are used extensively, both in the office and in the field, for the storage, retrieval, and analysis of information required to manage the forest land and its resources. Range managers, also called range conservationists, range ecologists, or range scientists, manage, improve, and protect rangelands to maximize their use without damaging the environment. Rangelands cover about 1 billion acres of the United States, mostly  106 Occupational Outlook Handbook  in the western States and Alaska. They contain many natural re­ sources, including grass and shrubs for animal grazing, wildlife habitats, water from vast watersheds, recreation facilities, and valu­ able mineral and energy resources. Range managers help ranchers attain optimum livestock production by determining the number and kind of animals to graze, the grazing system to use, and the best season for grazing. At the same time, however, they maintain soil stability and vegetation for other uses such as wildlife habitats and outdoor recreation. They also plan and implement revegetation of disturbed sites. Soil conservationists provide technical assistance to farmers, ranchers, State and local governments, and others concerned with the conservation of soil, water, and related natural resources. They develop programs designed to get the most productive use of land without damaging it. Conservationists visit areas with erosion problems, find the source of the problem, and help landowners and managers develop management practices to combat it. Foresters and conservation scientists often specialize in one area such as forest resource management, urban forestry, wood technol­ ogy, or forest economics. Working Conditions Working conditions vary considerably. Although some of the work is solitary, foresters and conservation scientists also deal regularly with landowners, loggers, forestry technicians and aides, farmers, ranchers, government officials, special interest groups, and the public in general. Some work regular hours in offices or labs. The work can be physically demanding. Many foresters and conservation scientists often work outdoors in all kinds of weather, sometimes in isolated areas. Some foresters may need to walk long distances through densely wooded land to carry out their work. Foresters also may work long hours fighting fires. Conservation scientists are often called in to prevent erosion after a forest fire, and they provide emergency help after floods, mudslides, and tropical storms. Employment Foresters and conservation scientists held about 41,000 jobs in 1994. About 12,000 of the salaried workers were in the Federal Govern­ ment, primarily in the Department of Agriculture's Forest Service and Natural Resource Conservation Service and in the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management. Another 24 percent worked for State governments, and 7 percent worked for local governments. The remainder worked in private industry, mainly in the forestry industry. Other significant employers included logging and lumber companies and sawmills. Some were self-employed as consultants for private landowners, State and Federal governments, and forestryrelated businesses. Most soil conservationists work for the Department of Agricul­ ture's Natural Resource Conservation Service. Others are employed by State and local governments in their soil conservation districts. Although foresters and conservation scientists work in every State, employment of foresters is concentrated in the western and southeastern States, where many national and private forests and parks are, and where most of the lumber and pulpwood-producing forests are. Range managers work almost entirely in the western States, where most of the rangeland is located. Soil conservationists, on the other hand, are employed in almost every county in the country. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in forestry is the minimum educational require­ ment for professional careers in forestry. In the Federal Government, a combination of experience and appropriate education may occa­ sionally substitute for a 4-year forestry degree, but job competition makes this difficult.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Foresters and conservation scientists spend much time working outdoors. Fourteen States have either mandatory licensing or voluntary registration requirements which a forester must meet in order to acquire the title "professional forester." Becoming licensed or regis­ tered usually requires a 4-year degree in forestry, a minimum period of training time, and passing an exam. Foresters who wish to perform specialized research or teach should have an advanced degree, preferably a Ph.D. In 1995, about 60 colleges and universities offered bachelor's or higher degrees in forestry; 47 of these were accredited by the Society of American Foresters. Curriculums stress science, mathematics, communications skills, and computer science, as well as technical forestry subjects. Courses in forest economics and business admini­ stration supplement the student's scientific and technical knowledge. Prospective foresters should also have a strong grasp on policy issues and on the increasingly numerous and complex environmental regu­ lations which affect many forestry-related activities. Many colleges require students to complete a field session either in a camp operated by the college or in a cooperative work-study program with a Federal or State agency or private industry. All schools encourage students to take summer jobs that provide experience in forestry or conserva­ tion work. A bachelor's degree in range management or range science is the usual minimum educational requirement for range managers; gradu­ ate degrees generally are required for teaching and research posi­ tions. In 1994, 31 colleges and universities offered degrees in range management or range science or in a closely related discipline with a range management or range science option. A number of other schools offered some courses in range management or range science. Specialized range management courses combine plant, animal, and soil sciences with principles of ecology and resource management. Desirable electives include economics, forestry, hydrology, agron­ omy, wildlife, animal husbandry, computer science, and recreation. Very few colleges and universities offer degrees in soil conserva­ tion. Most soil conservationists have degrees in environmental studies, agronomy, general agriculture, hydrology, or crop or soil science; a few have degrees in related fields such as wildlife biology, forestry, and range management. Programs of study generally in­ clude 30 semester hours in natural resources or agriculture, including at least 3 hours in soil science. The Soil and Water Conservation Society sponsors a certification program based on education, experi­ ence, and testing. Upon completion of the program, individuals are designated as Certified Professional Erosion and Sediment Control specialist. In addition to meeting the demands of forestry and conservation research and analysis, foresters and conservation scientists generally must enjoy working outdoors, be physically hardy, and be willing to  Professional Specialty Occupations 107  move to where the jobs are. They must also work well with people and have good communications skills. Recent forestry and range management graduates usually work under the supervision of experienced foresters or range managers. After gaining experience, they may advance to more responsible positions. In the Federal Government, most entry level foresters work in forest resource management. An experienced Federal for­ ester may supervise a ranger district, and may advance to forest supervisor, regional forester, or to a top administrative position in the national headquarters. In private industry, foresters start by learning the practical and administrative aspects of the business and acquiring comprehensive technical training. They are then introduced to contract writing, timber harvesting, and decision making. Some foresters work their way up to top managerial positions within their companies. Foresters in management usually leave the fieldwork behind, spending more of their time in an office, working with teams to develop management plans and supervising others. After gaining several years of experience, some foresters may become consulting foresters, working alone or with one or several partners. They con­ tract with State or local governments, private landowners, private industry, or other forestry consulting groups. Soil conservationists usually begin working within one county or conservation district and with experience may advance to the area, State, regional, or national level. Also, soil conservationists can transfer to related occupations such as farm or ranch management advisor or land appraiser. Job Outlook Employment of foresters and conservation scientists is expected to grow as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. At the State and local government level, demand will be spurred by a continuing emphasis on environmental protection and responsible land management. For example, urban foresters are increasingly needed to do environmental impact studies in urban areas and to help regional planning commissions make land use decisions, particularly in the Northeast and in other major population centers of the country. At the State level, more numerous and complex environmental regulations have created demand for more foresters and conservation scientists to deal with these issues. Also, the nationwide Stewardship Incentive Program, funded by the Federal Government, provides money to the States to encourage landowners to practice multiple-use forest management. Foresters will be needed to assist landowners in making decisions about how to manage their forested property. Job opportunities for soil conservationists will also grow as government regulations, such as those regarding the management of stormwater and coastlines, has created demand for persons knowledgeable about erosion, not only on farms, but in cities and suburbs. In private industry, more foresters should be needed to improve forest and logging practices, increase output and profitability, and deal with environmental regulations. Opportunities for foresters will be fewer in the Federal govern­ ment, partly due to budgetary constraints. Also, Federal land man­ agement agencies, such as the Forest Service, are de-emphasizing their timber programs and focusing increasingly on wildlife, recrea­ tion, and sustaining ecosystems, increasing demand for other life and social scientists relative to foresters. However, a large number of  foresters is expected to retire or leave the labor force for other rea­ sons, which will provide additional opportunities for jobseekers. Although job openings between 1994 and 2005 are expected to be fewer than during the 1980s, the number of degrees awarded in forestry each year is also expected to be lower, creating good opportunities. However, if the number of students graduating with forestry degrees increases quickly, jobseekers may face increased competition. Certain areas of the country offer greater job opportunities for foresters and range conservationists than others. Employment for range conservationists is concentrated in the West and Midwest, and most forestry-related employment is in the South and West. Earnings Most graduates entering the Federal Government as foresters, range managers, or soil conservationists with a bachelor’s degree started at $18,700 or $23,200 a year, in 1995, depending on academic achievement. Those with a master's degree could start at $23,200 or $28,300. Holders of doctorates could start at $34,300 or, in research positions, at $41,100. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. In 1995, the average Federal salary for foresters in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $44,700; for soil conser­ vationists, $42,220; and for forest products technologists, $58,680. In private industry, starting salaries for students with a bachelor's degree were comparable to starting salaries in the Federal Govern­ ment, but starting salaries in State and local governments were generally lower. Foresters and conservation scientists who work for Federal, State, and local governments and large private firms generally receive more generous benefits—for example, pension and retirement plans, health and life insurance, and paid vacations—than those working for smaller firms. Related Occupations Foresters and conservation scientists are not the only workers who manage, develop, and protect natural resources. Other workers with similar responsibilities include agricultural scientists, agricultural engineers, biological scientists, environmental scientists, farm and ranch managers, soil scientists and soil conservation technicians, and wildlife managers. Sources of Additional Information For information about the forestry profession and lists of schools offering education in forestry, send a self-addressed, stamped busi­ ness envelope to: •■Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Ln., Bethesda, MD 20814.  Information about a career as a range manager as well as a list of schools offering training is available from: •"Society for Range Management, 1839 York St., Denver, CO 80206.  Information about a career as a soil conservationist is available from: •■Soil and Water Conservation Society, 7515 Northeast Ankeny Rd„ RR #1, Ankeny, IA 50021-9764.  For information about career opportunities in forestry in the Federal Government, contact: •"Chief, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 96090, Washington, DC 20090-6090.  Physical Scientists Chemists (D.O.T. 022.061-010, -014, and .137-010)   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Nature of the Work Chemists search for and put to practical use new knowledge about chemicals. Although chemicals are often thought of as artificial or toxic substances, all physical things, whether naturally occurring or of human design, are composed of chemicals. Chemists have devel-  108 Occupational Outlook Handbook  oped a tremendous variety of new and improved synthetic fibers, paints, adhesives, drugs, cosmetics, electronic components, lubri­ cants, and thousands of other products. They also develop processes which save energy and reduce pollution, such as improved oil refin­ ing and petrochemical processing methods. Research on the chemis­ try of living things spurs advances in medicine, agriculture, food processing, and other areas. Many chemists work in research and development. In basic research, chemists investigate the properties, composition, and structure of matter and the laws that govern the combination of elements and reactions of substances. In applied research and devel­ opment, they create new products and processes or improve existing ones, often using knowledge gained from basic research. For exam­ ple, synthetic rubber and plastics resulted from research on small molecules uniting to form large ones (polymerization). Chemists also work in production and quality control in chemical manufacturing plants. They prepare instructions for plant workers which specify ingredients, mixing times, and temperatures for each stage in the process. They also monitor automated processes to ensure proper product yield, and they test samples to ensure they meet industry and government standards. Chemists also record and report on test results. Others are marketing or sales representatives who sell and provide technical information on chemical products. Chemists often specialize in a subfield. Analytical chemists determine the structure, composition, and nature of substances and develop analytical techniques. They also identify the presence and concentration of chemical pollutants in air, water, and soil. Organic chemists study the chemistry of the vast number of carbon com­ pounds. Many commercial products, such as drugs, plastics, and fertilizers, have been developed by organic chemists. Inorganic chemists study compounds consisting mainly of elements other than carbon, such as those in electronic components. Physical chemists study the physical characteristics of atoms and molecules and inves­ tigate how chemical reactions work. Their research may result in new and better energy sources. Biochemists, whose work encompasses both biology and chemis­ try, are included under biological scientists elsewhere in the Hand­ book. Working Conditions Chemists usually work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Research chemists spend much time in laboratories, but also work in offices when they do theoretical research or plan, record, and report on their lab research. Although some laboratories are small, others are large and may incorporate prototype chemical manufacturing facilities as well as advanced equipment. Chemists may also do  J^ill it m  Chemists who work in production and quality control test samples to ensure product specifications are met.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  some of their research in a chemical plant or outdoors—while gather­ ing samples of pollutants, for example. Some chemists are exposed to health or safety hazards when handling certain chemicals, but there is little risk if proper procedures are followed. Employment Chemists held about 97,000 jobs in 1994. The majority of chemists are employed in manufacturing firms—mostly in the chemical manu­ facturing industry, which includes firms that produce plastics and synthetic materials, drugs, soaps and cleaners, paints, industrial organic chemicals, and other miscellaneous chemical products. Chemists also work for State and local governments, primarily in health and agriculture, and for Federal agencies, chiefly in the De­ partments of Defense, Health and Human Services, and Agriculture. Others work for research and testing services. In addition, thousands of persons held chemistry faculty positions in colleges and universi­ ties. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Chemists are employed in all parts of the country, but they are mainly concentrated in large industrial areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in chemistry or a related discipline is usually the minimum education necessary to work as a chemist. However, many, if not most, research jobs require a Ph.D. degree. Many colleges and universities offer a bachelor's degree program in chemistry, 606 of which are approved by the American Chemical Society. Several hundred colleges and universities also offer ad­ vanced degree programs in chemistry. Students planning careers as chemists should enjoy studying science and mathematics, and should like working with their hands building scientific apparatus and performing experiments. Persever­ ance, curiosity, and the ability to concentrate on detail and to work independently are essential. In addition to required courses in ana­ lytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry, undergraduate chemistry majors usually study biological sciences, mathematics, and physics. Computer courses are invaluable, as employers increasingly prefer job applicants to be not only computer literate, but able to apply computer skills to modeling and simulation tasks. Laboratory instruments are also computerized, and the ability to operate and understand equipment is essential. Because research and development chemists are increasingly expected to work on interdisciplinary teams, some understanding of other disciplines, including business and marketing or economics, is desirable, along with leadership ability and good oral and written communication skills. Experience, either in academic laboratories or through internships or co-op programs in industry, also is useful. Some employers of research chemists, particularly in the pharma­ ceutical industry, prefer to hire individuals with several years of postdoctoral experience. Although graduate students typically specialize in a subfield of chemistry, such as analytical chemistry or polymer chemistry, stu­ dents usually need not specialize at the undergraduate level. In fact, undergraduates who are broadly trained have more flexibility when job hunting or changing jobs than if they narrowly define their inter­ ests. Most employers provide new bachelor's degree chemists with additional training or education. In government or industry, beginning chemists with a bachelor's degree work in technical sales or services, quality control, or assist senior chemists in research and development laboratories. Some may work in research positions, analyzing and testing products, but these may be technicians' positions, with limited upward mobility. Many employers prefer chemists with a Ph.D. to work in basic and applied research. A Ph.D. is also generally preferred for advancement to many administrative positions. Chemists who work in sales, market­ ing, or professional research positions often move into management eventually.  Professional Specialty Occupations 109  Many people with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry enter other occupations in which a chemistry background is helpful, such as technical writers or sales representatives in chemical marketing. Some enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Others choose from a wide range of occupations with little or no connection to chemistry. Chemistry graduates may become high school teachers, and those with a Ph.D. may teach at the college or university level. However, they usually are then regarded as science teachers, or college or university faculty, rather than chemists. Others may qualify as engineers, especially if they have taken some courses in engineering. Job Outlook Employment of chemists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The chemical industry, the major employer of chemists, should face continued demand for goods such as new and better pharmaceuticals and per­ sonal care products, as well as more specialty chemicals designed to address specific problems or applications. To meet these demands, research and development expenditures in the chemical industry will continue to increase, contributing to employment opportunities for chemists. Within the chemical industry, job opportunities are expected to be most plentiful in pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms. Stronger competition among drug companies and an aging population are among the several factors contributing to the need for innovative and improved drugs discovered through scientific research. Although employment growth is expected to be slower in the remaining seg­ ments of the chemical industry, there will still be a need for chemists to develop and improve products, such as cosmetics and cleansers, as well as the technologies and processes used to produce chemicals for all purposes. Job growth will also be spurred by the need for chem­ ists to monitor and measure air and water pollutants to ensure com­ pliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. Because much employment growth of chemists is expected to relate to drug research and development and environmental issues, analytical, environmental, and synthetic organic chemists should have the best job prospects. During periods of economic recession, layoffs of chemists may occur—especially in the oil refining and industrial chemicals indus­ tries. Chemists are vulnerable to temporary slowdowns in automo­ bile manufacturing and construction, end users of many of the products of the chemical industry. Earnings According to a 1995 survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, the average starting salary offer for recently gradu­ ated chemists with a bachelor's degree was about $29,300 a year; with a master's degree, $38,000; with a Ph.D., $52,900. A survey by the American Chemical Society reports that the median salary of all their members with a bachelor's degree was $45,400 a year in 1994; with a master's degree, $53,500; and with a Ph.D., $66,000. In 1995, chemists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions in the Federal Government earned an average salary of $56,070. Related (Occupations The work of chemical engineers, agricultural scientists, biological scientists, and chemical technicians is closely related to the work done by chemists. The work of other physical and life science occu­ pations, such as physicists and medical scientists, may also be similar to that of chemists. Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities and earnings for chem­ ists is available from:  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •■American Chemical Society. Department of Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Geologists and Geophysicists (D.O.T. 024.061 except -014, and .161)  Nature of the Work Geologists and geophysicists, also known as geological scientists or geoscientists, study the physical aspects and history of the earth. They identify and examine rocks, study information collected by remote sensing instruments in satellites, conduct geological surveys, construct maps, and use instruments to measure the earth's gravity and magnetic field. They also analyze information collected through seismic studies, which involves bouncing energy waves off buried rock layers. Many geologists and geophysicists search for oil, natu­ ral gas, minerals, and groundwater. Other geological scientists play an important role in preserving and cleaning up the environment. Their activities include designing and monitoring waste disposal sites, preserving water supplies, and reclaiming contaminated land and water to comply with Federal environmental regulations. They also help locate safe sites for hazardous waste facilities and landfills. Geologists and geophysicists examine chemical and physical properties of specimens in laboratories. They study fossil remains of animal and plant life or experiment with the flow of water and oil through rocks. Some geoscientists use two- or three-dimensional computer modeling to portray water layers and the flow of water or other fluids through rock cracks and porous materials. They use a variety of sophisticated laboratory instruments, including x-ray diffractometers, which determine the crystal structure of minerals, and petrographic microscopes, for the study of rock and sediment samples. Geoscientists also use seismographs, instruments which measure energy waves resulting from movements in the earth's crust, to determine the locations and intensities of earthquakes. Geoscientists working in the oil and gas industry sometimes process and interpret the maps produced by remote sensing satellites to help identify potential new oil or gas deposits. Seismic technology is also an important exploration tool. Seismic waves are used to develop 3-dimensional computer models of underground or underwa­ ter rock formations. Geologists and geophysicists also apply geological knowledge to engineering problems in constructing large buildings, dams, tunnels, and highways. Some administer and manage research and explora­ tion programs; others become general managers in petroleum and mining companies. Geology and geophysics are closely related fields, but there are major differences. Geologists study the composition, structure, and history of the earth's crust. They try to find out how rocks were formed and what has happened to them since their formation. Geo­ physicists use the principles of physics and mathematics to study not only the earth's surface but its internal composition, ground and surface waters, atmosphere, and oceans as well as its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Both, however, commonly apply their skills to the search for natural resources and to solve environ­ mental problems. There are numerous subdisciplines or specialties that fall under the two major disciplines of geology and geophysics which further differentiate the kind of work geoscientists do. For example, petro­ leum geologists explore for oil and gas deposits by studying and mapping the subsurface of the ocean or land. They use sophisticated geophysical instrumentation, well log data, and computers to collect  110 Occupational Outlook Handbook  information. Mineralogists analyze and classify minerals and pre­ cious stones according to composition and structure. Paleontologists study fossils found in geological formations to trace the evolution of plant and animal life and the geologic history of the earth. Stratigraphers help to locate minerals by studying the distribution and arrangement of sedimentary rock layers and by examining the fossil and mineral content of such layers. Those who study marine geology are usually called oceanographers or marine geologists. They study and map the ocean floor, and collect information using remote sensing devices aboard surface ships or underwater research craft. Geophysicists may specialize in areas such as geodesy, seismol­ ogy, or marine geophysics, also known as physical oceanography. Geodesists study the size and shape of the Earth, its gravitational field, tides, polar motion, and rotation. Seismologists interpret data from seismographs and other geophysical instruments to detect earthquakes and locate earthquake-related faults. Physical oceanog­ raphers study the physical aspects of oceans such as currents and the interaction of the surface of the sea with the atmosphere. Hydrology is a discipline closely related to geology and geophys­ ics. Hydrologists study the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters. They study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, movement through the earth, and its return to the ocean and atmos­ phere. The work they do is particularly important in environmental preservation and remediation.  IS.IB 3*.,,,  Geologists are able to classify rock and mineral specimens by examining the composition and structure of each.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Some geoscientists spend the majority of their time in an office, others divide their time between fieldwork and office or laboratory work. Geologists often travel to remote field sites by helicopter or four-wheel drive vehicles and cover large areas on foot. Exploration geologists and geophysicists often work overseas or in remote areas, and job relocation is not unusual. Marine geologists and oceanogra­ phers may spend considerable time at sea. Employment Geologists and geophysicists held about 46,000 jobs in 1994. Many more individuals held geology, geophysics, and oceanography fac­ ulty positions in colleges and universities, but they are counted as college and university faculty, not geologists, geophysicists, or oceanographers. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) About 1 in 5 were employed in oil and gas companies or oil and gas field service firms. Many other geologists worked for consulting firms and business services, especially engineering services. About 1 geologist in 7 was self-employed; most of whom were consultants to industry or government. The Federal Government employed about 6,100 geologists, geophysicists, oceanographers, and hydrologists in 1994. Over onehalf worked for the Department of the Interior, mostly within the U.S. Geological Survey. Others worked for the Departments of Defense, Agriculture, Commerce, Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Some worked for State agencies such as State geological surveys and State departments of conservation. Geologists and geophysicists also worked for nonprofit research institutions. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree in geology or geophysics is adequate for entry into some lower level geology jobs, but better jobs with good ad­ vancement potential usually require at least a master's degree in geology or geophysics. Persons with strong backgrounds in physics, chemistry, mathematics, or computer science also may qualify for some geophysics or geology jobs. A Ph.D. degree is required for most research positions in colleges and universities, and is also important for work in Federal agencies and some State geological surveys that involve basic research. Hundreds of colleges and universities offer a bachelor's degree in geology, geophysics, oceanography, or other geoscience. Other programs offering related training for beginning geological scientists include geophysical technology, geophysical engineering, geophysi­ cal prospecting, engineering geology, petroleum geology, hydrology, and geochemistry. In addition, several hundred more universities award advanced degrees in geology or geophysics. Geologists and geophysicists need to be able to work as part of a team. Computer modeling, data processing, and effective oral and written communication skills are important, as well as the ability to think independently and creatively. Those involved in fieldwork must have physical stamina. Traditional geoscience courses emphasizing classical geologic methods and topics (such as mineralogy, paleontology, stratigraphy, and structural geology) are important for all geoscientists. However, those students interested in working in the environmental or regula­ tory fields should take courses in hydrology, hazardous waste man­ agement, environmental legislation, chemistry, fluid mechanics, and geologic logging. Also, some employers seek applicants with field experience, so a summer internship or employment in an environ­ mentally-related area may be beneficial to prospective geoscientists. Geologists and geophysicists often begin their careers in field exploration or as research assistants in laboratories. They are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Eventually they may be promoted to project leader, program manager, or another management and research position.  Professional Specialty Occupations  Job Outlook Many jobs for geologists and geophysicists are in or related to the petroleum industry, especially the exploration for oil and gas. This industry is subject to cyclical fluctuations. Low oil prices, higher production costs, improvements in energy efficiency, shrinking oil reserves, and restrictions on potential drilling sites have caused exploration activities to be curtailed in the United States. If these conditions continue, there will be limited openings in the petroleum industry for geoscientists working in the United States. As a result of generally poor job prospects in the past few years, the number of students enrolling in geology and geophysics has dropped considerably. Although enrollments are rising again, the number of students trained in petroleum geology is likely to be so low that even a small increase in openings in the oil industry will be greater than the number of petroleum geologists and geophysicists available to fill them, creating good employment opportunities if exploration activities increase significantly. Employment prospects will be best for jobseekers who hold a master's degree and are famil­ iar with the advanced technologies, such as computer modeling, which are increasingly used to locate new oil and gas fields or pin­ point hidden deposits in existing fields. Because of the cyclical nature of the oil and gas industry, hiring on a contractual basis is common. Despite the generally poor job prospects encountered by geosci­ entists in recent years in the petroleum industry, employment of geologists and geophysicists is expected to grow as fast as the aver­ age for all occupations through the year 2005. Recent setbacks have been offset by increased demand for these professionals in environ­ mental protection and reclamation. Geologists and geophysicists will continue to be needed to help clean up contaminated sites in the United States, and to help private companies and government comply with more numerous and complex environmental regulations. In particular, jobs requiring training in engineering geology, hydrology and geochemistry should be in demand. However, the number of geoscientists obtaining training in these areas has been increasing, so they may experience competition despite the increasing number of jobs available.  Earnings Surveys by the National Association of Colleges and Employers indicate that graduates with bachelor's degrees in geology and the geological sciences received an average starting offer of about $27,900 a year in 1995. However, the starting salaries can vary widely depending on the employing industry. For example, accord­ ing to a 1994 American Association of Petroleum Geologists survey, the average salary in the oil and gas industry for geoscientists with less than 2 years of experience was about $42,500. Although the petroleum, mineral, and mining industries offer higher salaries, the competition in these areas is normally intense, and the job security less than in other areas. In 1995, the Federal Government's average salary for geologists in managerial, supervisory, and nonsupervisory positions was $55,540; for geophysicists, $62,220; for hydrologists, $51,080; and for oceanographers, $58,980.  Related Occupations Many geologists and geophysicists work in the petroleum and natural gas industry. This industry also employs many other workers in the scientific and technical aspects of petroleum and natural gas explora­ tion and extraction, including engineering technicians, science tech­ nicians, petroleum engineers, and surveyors. Also, some life scientists, physicists, chemists, and meteorologists, as well as mathematicians, computer scientists, soil scientists, and mapping scientists, perform related work in both petroleum and natural gas exploration and extraction and in environment-related activities.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  111  Sources of Additional Information Information on training and career opportunities for geologists is available from: •■American Geological Institute, 4220 King St., Alexandria, VA 22302-1507. •■Geological Society of America, P.O. Box 9140, 3300 Penrose PI., Boulder, CO 80301. •"American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Communications Depart­ ment, P.O. Box 979, Tulsa, OK 74101.  Information on training and career opportunities for geophysicists is available from: •"American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  A list of curricula in colleges and universities offering programs in oceanography and related fields is available from: •■Marine Technology Society, 1828 L St. NW., Suite 906, Washington, DC 20036.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or branches of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management located in major metropolitan areas.  Meteorologists (D.O.T. 025.062-010)  Nature of the Work Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, the air that covers the earth. Meteorologists study the atmosphere's physical characteristics, motions, and processes, and the way it affects the rest of our envi­ ronment. The best-known application of this knowledge is in fore­ casting the weather. However, weather information and meteoro­ logical research also are applied in air-pollution control, agriculture, air and sea transportation, defense, and the study of trends in the earth's climate such as global warming or ozone depletion. Meteorologists who forecast the weather, known professionally as operational meteorologists, are the largest group of specialists. They study information on air pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind velocity, and they apply physical and mathematical relationships to make short- and long-range weather forecasts. Their data come from weather satellites, weather radar, and remote sensors and observers in many parts of the world. Meteorologists use sophisticated computer models of the world's atmosphere to make long-term, short-term, and local-area forecasts. These forecasts inform not only the general public, but also those who need accurate weather information for both economic and safety reasons, as in the shipping, aviation, agri­ culture, fishing, and utilities industries. The use of weather balloons, launched several times a day, to measure wind, temperature, and humidity in the upper atmosphere, is supplemented by far more sophisticated weather equipment which transmits data as frequently as every few minutes. Doppler radar, for example, can detect rotational patterns in violent storm systems, allowing forecasters to better predict thunderstorms, tornadoes, flash floods, as well as their direction and intensity. Some meteorologists work in research. Physical meteorologists, for example, study the atmosphere's chemical and physical proper­ ties; the transmission of light, sound, and radio waves; and the trans­ fer of energy in the atmosphere. They also study factors affecting formation of clouds, rain, snow, and other weather phenomena, such as severe storms. Climatologists collect, analyze, and interpret past records of wind, rainfall, sunshine, and temperature in specific areas or regions. Their studies are used to design buildings and to plan heating and cooling systems, to aid in effective land use, and in agricultural production. Other research meteorologists examine the most effective ways to control or diminish air pollution or improve weather forecasting using mathematical models.  112 Occupational Outlook Handbook  fggjgg 4 ■Av Mp-  *.  .j  ?*>.**' idSBSfc?  ___  The Federal Government’s National Weather Service is the largest employer of civilian meteorologists.  Working Conditions Jobs in weather stations, most of which operate around the clock 7 days a week, often involve night, weekend, and holiday work and rotating shifts. During times of weather emergencies, such as hurri­ canes, operational meteorologists may work overtime. Operational meteorologists are also often under pressure to meet forecast dead­ lines. Weather stations are found all over the country: At airports, in or near cities, and in isolated and remote areas. Some meteorologists also spend time observing weather conditions and collecting data from aircraft. Meteorologists in smaller weather offices often work alone; in larger ones, they work as part of a team. Meteorologists not doing forecasting work regular hours, usually in offices. Those who work for private consulting firms or for companies that analyze and monitor emissions to improve air quality often work with other science or engineering professionals. Employment Meteorologists held about 6,600 jobs in 1994. The largest employer of civilian meteorologists is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which employs about 2,700 meteorologists. Nearly 90 percent of NOAA's meteorologists work in the National Weather Service at stations in all parts of the United States. The remainder of NOAA's meteorologists work mainly in research or in program management. The Department of Defense employs about 280 civilian meteorologists. Others work for private weather con­ sultants, research and testing services, and computer and data proc­ essing services. Although hundreds of people teach meteorology and related courses in college and university departments of meteorology or atmospheric science, physics, earth science, and geophysics, these individuals are classified as college or university faculty, rather than meteorologists. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) In addition to civilian meteorologists, thousands of members of the Armed Forces do forecasting and other meteorological work. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in meteorology or a closely related field with coursework in meteorology is the usual minimum require­ ment for a beginning job as a meteorologist. The preferred educational requirement for entry level meteorolo­ gists in the Federal Government is a bachelor's degree—not neces­ sarily in meteorology—with at least 20 semester hours of meteorology courses, including 6 hours in weather analysis and forecasting and 6 hours in dynamic meteorology. In addition to   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  meteorology coursework, differential and integral calculus and 6 hours of college physics are required. These requirements have recently been upgraded to include coursework in computer science and additional coursework appropriate for a physical science major, such as statistics, chemistry, physical oceanography, or physical climatology. Sometimes, a combination of experience and education may be substituted for a degree. Although positions in operational meteorology are available for those with only a bachelor's degree, obtaining a graduate degree enhances advancement potential. A master's degree is usually neces­ sary for conducting research and development, and a Ph.D. may be required for some research positions. Students who plan a career in research and development need not necessarily major in meteorology as an undergraduate. In fact, a bachelor's degree in mathematics, physics, or engineering is excellent preparation for graduate study in meteorology. Because meteorology is a small field, relatively few colleges and universities offer degrees in meteorology or atmospheric science, although many departments of physics, earth science, geography, and geophysics offer atmospheric science and related courses. Prospec­ tive students should make certain that courses required by the Na­ tional Weather Service and other employers are offered at the college they are considering. Computer science courses, additional meteor­ ology courses, and a strong background in mathematics and physics are important to prospective employers. Many programs combine the study of meteorology with another field, such as agriculture, engineering, or physics. For example, hydrometeorology is the blending of hydrology (the science of the earth's water) and meteor­ ology, and is the field concerned with the effect of precipitation on the hydrologic cycle and the environment. Beginning meteorologists often do routine data collection, compu­ tation, or analysis and some basic forecasting. Entry level meteor­ ologists in the Federal Government are usually placed in intern positions for training and experience. Experienced meteorologists may advance to various supervisory or administrative jobs, or may handle more complex forecasting jobs. Increasing numbers of mete­ orologists establish their own weather consulting services. Job Outlook Persons seeking employment as meteorologists are likely to face competition because the National Weather Service—the largest single employer of meteorologists—has curtailed hiring following an extensive modernization of its weather forecasting equipment. Employment of meteorologists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Employment of meteorologists in other parts of the Federal Government is not expected to increase either. Some employment growth is anticipated in private industry as the use of private weather forecasting and meteorological services by farmers, commodity investors, utilities, transportation and construction firms, and radio and television sta­ tions increases. For people in these and other areas, additional weather information, which is more closely targeted to their needs than the more general information provided by the National Weather Service, can yield significant benefits. However, because many customers for private weather services are in industries sensitive to fluctuations in the economy, the sales and growth of private weather services depend on the health of the economy. There will continue to be demand for meteorologists to analyze and monitor the dispersion of pollutants into the air to ensure com­ pliance with the Federal environmental regulations outlined in the Clean Air Act of 1990. Earnings  According to an American Meteorological Society survey, the aver­ age salary for meteorologists in entry level positions with a bache­ lor's degree was about $22,000 in 1992; for those with a master's degree, $27,000; and for those with a Ph.D. degree, $37,000.  Professional Specialty Occupations 113  The average salary for meteorologists in nonsupervisory, supervi­ sory, and managerial positions employed by the Federal Government was $50,540 in 1995. In 1995, meteorologists in the Federal Gov­ ernment with a bachelor's degree and no experience received a starting salary of about $18,700 or $23,200 a year, depending on their college grades. Those with a master's degree could start at $23,200 or $28,300; those with the Ph.D. degree, at $34,300 or $41,100. Beginning salaries for all degree levels were slightly higher in selected areas of the country where the prevailing local pay level was higher.  ■I  Related Occupations Workers in other occupations concerned with the physical environ­ ment include oceanographers; geologists and geophysicists; hy­ drologists; civil, chemical, and environmental engineers; physicists; and mathematicians. Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities in meteorology is available from: •■American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St., Boston, MA 02108. ••National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Human Resources Management Office, 1315 East West Hwy., Route Code OA/22, Silver Spring, MD 20910.  Physicists and Astronomers (D.O.T. 015.021-010; 021.067-010; 023.061-010, -014, and .067; 079.021-014)  Nature of the Work Physicists explore and identify basic principles governing the struc­ ture and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of energy, and the interaction of matter and energy. Some physicists use these principles in theoretical areas, such as the nature of time and the origin of the universe; others apply their physics knowledge to practical areas such as the development of advanced materials, electronic and optical devices, and medical equipment. Physicists design and perform experiments with lasers, cyclo­ trons, telescopes, mass spectrometers, and other equipment. Based on observations and analysis, they attempt to discover the laws that describe the forces of nature, such as gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear interactions. They also find ways to apply physical laws and theories to problems in nuclear energy, electronics, optics, materials, communications, aerospace technology, navigation equipment, and medical instrumentation. Astronomy is sometimes considered a subfield of physics. As­ tronomers use the principles of physics and mathematics to learn about the fundamental nature of the universe, including the sun, moon, planets, stars, and galaxies. They also apply their knowledge to problems in navigation and space flight. Most physicists work in research and development. Some do basic research to increase scientific knowledge. Physicists who conduct applied research build upon the discoveries made through basic research and work to develop new devices, products, and processes. For instance, basic research in solid-state physics led to the development of transistors and then to the integrated circuits used in computers. Physicists also design research equipment. This equipment often has additional unanticipated uses. For example, lasers are used in surgery; microwave devices are used for ovens; and measuring instruments can analyze blood or the chemical content of foods. A small number work in inspection, testing, quality control, and other production-related jobs in industry.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Astronomers occasionally use high powered telescopes to observe stars and planets.  Much physics research is done in small or medium-size laborato­ ries. However, experiments in plasma, nuclear, high energy, and some other areas of physics require extremely large, expensive equipment such as particle accelerators. Physicists in these subfields often work in large teams. Although physics research may require extensive experimentation in laboratories, research physicists still spend time in offices planning, recording, analyzing, and reporting on research. Almost all astronomers do research. They analyze large quanti­ ties of data gathered by observatories and satellites and write scien­ tific papers or reports on their findings. Most astronomers spend only a few weeks each year making observations with optical tele­ scopes, radio telescopes, and other instruments. Contrary to the popular image, astronomers almost never make observations by looking directly through a telescope because enhanced photographic and electronic detecting equipment can see more than the human eye. Physicists generally specialize in one of many subfields— elementary particle physics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; physics of condensed matter (solid-state physics); optics; acoustics; plasma physics; or the physics of fluids. Some specialize in a subdivision of one of these subfields; for example, within con­ densed matter physics, specialties include superconductivity, crystal­ lography, and semiconductors. However, all physics involves the same fundamental principles, so specialties may overlap, and physi­ cists may switch from one subfield to another. Also, growing num­ bers of physicists work in combined fields such as biophysics, chemical physics, and geophysics. Working Conditions Physicists often work regular hours in laboratories and offices. At times, however, those who are deeply involved in research may work long or irregular hours. Most do not encounter unusual hazards in their work. Some physicists temporarily work away from home at national or international facilities with unique equipment such as particle accelerators. Astronomers who make observations may travel to observatories, which are usually in remote locations, and routinely work at night. Employment Physicists and astronomers held nearly 20,000 jobs in 1994. Also, a significant number held physics or astronomy faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and univer­ sity faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) About one-fourth of all nonfaculty physicists and astronomers worked for commercial or noncommercial research, development, and testing laboratories. The  114 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Federal Government employed almost one-fifth, mostly in the De­ partments of Defense and Commerce and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Others worked in colleges and universi­ ties in nonfaculty positions and for State governments, electrical and electronic equipment manufacturers, drug companies, and search and navigation equipment manufacturers. Although physicists and astronomers are employed in all parts of the country, most work in areas that have universities and large research and development laboratories or observatories. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree is the usual educational requirement for physicists and astronomers, because most jobs are in research and development. (Many physics and astronomy Ph.D. holders ultimately take jobs teaching at the college or university level. See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Addi­ tional experience and training in a post-doctoral research assignment, although not required, is helpful in preparing physicists and astrono­ mers for permanent research positions. Those having bachelor's or master's degrees in physics are rarely qualified to fill positions as physicists. They are, however, usually qualified to work in an engineering-related area or other scientific fields, to work as technicians, or to assist in setting up laboratories. Some may qualify for applied research jobs in private industry or nonresearch positions in the Federal Government, and a master's degree often suffices for teaching jobs in 2-year colleges. Astronomy bachelor's degree holders often enter a field unrelated to astronomy, but they are also qualified to work in planetariums running science shows or to assist astronomers doing research. (See statements on engineers, geologists and geophysicists, computer programmers, and computer scientists and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Hundreds of colleges and universities offer a bachelor's degree in physics. The undergraduate program provides a broad background in the natural sciences and mathematics. Typical physics courses include mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, thermodynamics, atomic physics, and quantum mechanics. About 180 colleges and universities have physics departments which offer Ph.D. degrees in physics. Graduate students usually concentrate in a subfield of physics such as elementary particles or condensed matter. Many begin studying for their doctorate immedi­ ately after their bachelor's degree. About 40 universities offer the Ph.D. degree in astronomy, either through an astronomy department, a physics department, or a com­ bined physics/astronomy department. Applicants to astronomy doctoral programs face keen competition for available slots. Those planning a career in astronomy should have a very strong physics background. In fact, an undergraduate degree in physics is excellent preparation, followed by a Ph.D. in astronomy. Mathematical ability, computer skills, an inquisitive mind, imagi­ nation, and the ability to work independently are important traits for anyone planning a career in physics or astronomy. Prospective physicists who hope to work in industrial laboratories applying physics knowledge to practical problems should broaden their edu­ cational background to include courses outside of physics, such as economics, computer technology, and current affairs. Good oral and written communication skills are also important because many physicists work as part of a team or have contact with persons with non-physics backgrounds, such as clients or customers. The beginning job for most Ph.D. physics and astronomy gradu­ ates is conducting research in a postdoctoral position, where they may work with experienced physicists as they continue to learn about their specialty and develop ideas and results to be used in later work. The initial work may be routine and under the close supervision of senior scientists. After some experience, they perform more complex tasks and work more independently. Physicists who develop new products or processes sometimes form their own companies or join new firms to exploit their own ideas.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook A large proportion of physicists and astronomers are employed on research projects, many of which, in the past, were defense related. Expected reductions in defense-related research and an expected slowdown in the growth of civilian physics-related research will cause employment of physicists and astronomers to decline through the year 2005. Proposed employment cutbacks and overall budget tightening in the Federal government will also affect employment of physicists, especially those dependent on Federal research grants. The number of doctorates granted in physics has been much greater than the number of openings for physicists for several years. Al­ though physics enrollments are starting to decline slightly, the num­ ber of new Ph.D. graduates is likely to continue to be high enough to result in keen competition for the kind of research and academic jobs that those with new doctorates in physics have traditionally sought. Also, more prospective researchers will likely compete for less grant money. Although research and development budgets in private industry will continue to grow, many research laboratories in private industry are expected to reduce basic research, which is where much physics research takes place, in favor of applied or manufacturing research and product and software development. Furthermore, although the median age of physicists and astronomers is higher than the average for all occupations and many will be eligible for retirement in the next decade, it is possible that many of them will not be replaced when they retire. Persons with only a bachelor's degree in physics or astronomy are not qualified to enter most physicist or astronomer jobs. However, many find jobs as high school physics teachers and in engineering, technician, mathematics, and computer- and environment-related occupations. (See the statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.) Despite the strong competition for, and expected employment declines in, traditional physics and astronomical re­ search oriented jobs, individuals with a physics degree at any level will find their skills useful for entry to many other occupations.  Earnings The American Institute of Physics reported a median salary of $64,000 in 1994 for its members with Ph.D.'s. Those working in 4year colleges (9-10 months a year) earned the least—$45,000—while those employed in industry and hospitals earned the most—$75,000 and $77,000, respectively. Average earnings for physicists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions in the Federal Government in 1995 were $67,240 a year, and for astronomy and space scientists, $71,660.  Related Occupations The work of physicists and astronomers relates closely to that of other scientific and mathematics occupations such as chemist, ge­ ologist, geophysicist, and mathematician. Engineers and engineering and science technicians also use the principles of physics in their work.  Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities in physics is available from: •■American Institute of Physics, Career Planning and Placement, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3843. •"American Physical Society, Education Department, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3844.  For a pamphlet containing information on careers in astronomy, send your request to: •■American Astronomical Society, Education Office, University of Texas, Department of Astronomy, Austin, TX 78712-1083.  Lawyers and Judges (D.O.T. 110; 111; 119.107, .117, .167-010, .267-014; 169.267-010) Nature of the Work Lawyers. Lawyers, also called attorneys, act as both advocates and advisors in our society. As advocates, they represent one of the opposing parties in criminal and civil trials by presenting evidence that supports their client in court. As advisors, lawyers counsel their clients as to their legal rights and obligations, and suggest particular courses of action in business and personal matters. Whether acting as advocates or advisors, all attorneys interpret the law and apply it to specific situations. This requires excellent research and communi­ cation skills. Lawyers perform in-depth research into the purposes behind the applicable laws and into judicial decisions that have been applied to those laws under circumstances similar to those currently faced by the client. While all lawyers continue to make use of law libraries to prepare cases, some supplement their search of the conventional printed sources with computer software packages. Software can be used to automatically search legal literature and identify legal texts relevant to a specific case. In litigation involving many supporting documents, lawyers may use computers to organize and index the material. Tax lawyers are increasingly using computers for making tax computations and exploring alternative tax strategies for clients. Lawyers then communicate to others the information obtained by research. They advise what actions clients may take and draw up legal documents, such as wills and contracts, for clients. Lawyers must deal with people in a courteous, efficient manner and not dis­ close matters discussed in confidence with clients. They hold posi­ tions of great responsibility, and are obligated to adhere to a strict code of ethics. The more detailed aspects of a lawyer’s job depend upon his or her field of specialization and position. While all lawyers are li­ censed to represent parties in court, some appear in court more frequently than others. Some lawyers specialize in trial work. These lawyers need an exceptional ability to think quickly and speak with ease and authority, and must be thoroughly familiar with courtroom rules and strategy. Trial lawyers still spend most of their time out­ side the courtroom conducting research, interviewing clients and witnesses, and handling other details in preparation for trial. Besides trials, lawyers may specialize in other areas, such as bankruptcy, probate, or international law. Environmental lawyers, for example, may represent public interest groups, waste disposal companies, or construction firms in their dealings with the Environ­ mental Protection Agency (EPA) and other State and Federal agen­ cies. They help clients prepare and file for licenses and applications for approval before certain activities can occur. They also represent clients' interests in administrative adjudications and during drafting of new regulations. Some lawyers concentrate in the emerging field of intellectual property. These lawyers help protect clients' claims to copyrights, art work under contract, product designs, and computer programs. Still other lawyers advise insurance companies about the legality of insurance transactions. They write insurance policies to conform with the law and to protect companies from unwarranted claims. They review claims filed against insurance companies and represent the companies in court. The majority of lawyers are in private practice where they may concentrate on criminal or civil law. In criminal law, lawyers repre­ sent individuals who have been charged with crimes and argue their cases in courts of law. In civil law, attorneys assist clients with   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  litigation, wills, trusts, contracts, mortgages, titles, and leases. Some manage a person's property as a trustee or, as an executor, to ensure the provisions of a client's will are carried out. Others handle only public interest cases—civil or criminal—which have a potential impact extending well beyond the individual client. Lawyers sometimes are employed full time by a single client. If the client is a corporation, the lawyer is known as "house counsel" and usually advises the company about legal issues related to its business activities. These issues might involve patents, government regulations, contracts with other companies, property interests, or collective bargaining agreements with unions. Attorneys employed at the various levels of government make up still another category. Lawyers that work for State attorneys general, prosecutors, public defenders, and courts play a key role in the criminal justice system. At the Federal level, attorneys investigate cases for the Department of Justice or other agencies. Also, lawyers at every government level help develop programs, draft laws, inter­ pret legislation, establish enforcement procedures, and argue civil and criminal cases on behalf of the government. Other lawyers work for legal aid societies—private, nonprofit organizations established to serve disadvantaged people. These lawyers generally handle civil rather than criminal cases. A relatively small number of trained attorneys work in law schools. Most are faculty members who specialize in one or more subjects, and others serve as administrators. Some work full time in nonacademic settings and teach part time. (For additional informa­ tion, see the section on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some lawyers become judges, although not all judges have practiced law. Judges. Judges apply the law. They oversee the legal process in courts of law, resolving civil disputes and determining guilt in criminal cases according to local, State, and Federal statutes. They preside over cases touching on virtually every aspect of society, from traffic offenses to disputes over management of professional sports, from the rights of huge corporations to questions of disconnecting life support equipment for terminally ill persons. They must ensure trials and hearings are conducted fairly and that the court administers justice in a manner safeguarding the legal rights of all parties involved. Judges preside over trials or hearings and listen as attorneys representing the parties present and argue their cases. They rule on the admissibility of evidence and methods of conducting testimony, and settle disputes between the opposing attorneys. They ensure the rules and procedures are followed, and if unusual circumstances arise for which standard procedures have not been established, judges direct how the trial will proceed based on their knowledge of the law. Judges often hold pretrial hearings for cases. They listen to allegations and, based on the evidence presented, determine whether there is enough merit for a trial to be held. In criminal cases, judges may decide that persons charged with crimes should be held in jail pending their trial, or may set conditions for release through the trial. In civil cases, judges may impose restrictions upon the parties until a trial is held. When trials are held, juries are often selected to decide cases. However, judges decide cases when the law does not require a jury trial, or when the parties waive their right to a jury. Judges instruct juries on applicable laws, direct them to deduce the facts from the evidence presented, and hear their verdict. Judges sentence those convicted in criminal cases in many States. They also award relief to 115  116 Occupational Outlook Handbook  litigants including, where appropriate, compensation for damages in civil cases. Judges also work outside the courtroom "in chambers." In their private offices, judges read documents on pleadings and motions, research legal issues, hold hearings with lawyers, write opinions, and oversee the court's operations. Running a court is like running a small business, and judges manage their courts' administrative and clerical staff, too. Judges' duties vary according to the extent of their jurisdictions and powers. General trial court judges of the Federal and State court systems have jurisdiction over any case in their system. They gen­ erally try civil cases that transcend the jurisdiction of lower courts, and all cases involving felony offenses. Federal and State appellate court judges, although few in number, have the power to overrule decisions made by trial court or administrative law judges if they determine that legal errors were made in a case, or if legal precedent does not support the judgment of the lower court. They rule on fewer cases and rarely have direct contacts with the people involved. The majority of State court judges preside in courts in which jurisdiction is limited by law to certain types of cases. A variety of titles are assigned to these judges, but among the most common are municipal court judge, county court judge, magistrate, or justice of the peace. Traffic violations, misdemeanors, small claims cases, and pretrial hearings constitute the bulk of the work of these judges, but some States allow them to handle cases involving domestic relations, probate, contracts, and selected other areas of the law. Administrative law judges, formerly called hearing officers, are employed by government agencies to rule on appeals of agency administrative decisions. They make decisions on a person's eligi­ bility for various Social Security benefits or worker's compensation, protection of the environment, enforcement of health and safety regulations, employment discrimination, and compliance with eco­ nomic regulatory requirements. Working Conditions Lawyers and judges do most of their work in offices, law libraries, and courtrooms. Lawyers sometimes meet in clients' homes or places of business and, when necessary, in hospitals or prisons. They frequently travel to attend meetings; to gather evidence; and to appear before courts, legislative bodies, and other authorities. Salaried lawyers in government and private corporations gener­ ally have structured work schedules. Lawyers in private practice may work irregular hours while conducting research, conferring with clients, or preparing briefs during nonoffice hours. Lawyers often work long hours, and about half regularly work 50 hours or more per week. They are under particularly heavy pressure, for example, when a case is being tried. Preparation for court includes keeping abreast of the latest laws and judicial decisions.  HP  Lawyers and judges often work long and irregular hours.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Although work generally is not seasonal, the work of tax lawyers and other specialists may be an exception. Because lawyers in private practice can often determine their own workload and when they will retire, many stay in practice well beyond the usual retire­ ment age. Many judges work a standard 40-hour week, but a third of all judges work over 50 hours per week. Some judges with limited jurisdiction are employed part time and divide their time between their judicial responsibilities and other careers. Employment Lawyers and judges held about 735,000 jobs in 1994. About threefourths of the 656,000 lawyers practiced privately, either in law firms or in solo practices. Most of the remaining lawyers held positions in government, the greatest number at the local level. In the Federal Government, lawyers work for many different agencies but they are concentrated in the Departments of Justice, Treasury, and Defense. Other lawyers are employed as house counsel by public utilities, banks, insurance companies, real estate agencies, manufacturing firms, welfare and religious organizations, and other business firms and nonprofit organizations. Some salaried lawyers also have part­ time independent practices; others work as lawyers part time while working full time in another occupation. Judges held 79,000 jobs in 1994. All worked for Federal, State, or local governments, with about 40 percent holding positions in the Federal Government. The remainder were mostly employed at the State level. Many people trained as lawyers are not employed as lawyers or judges; they work as law clerks, law school professors, managers and administrators, and in a variety of other occupations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Lawyers. To practice law in the courts of any State or other juris­ diction, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules established by the jurisdiction's highest court. Nearly all require that applicants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examination. Most jurisdictions also require applicants to pass a separate written ethics examination. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one jurisdiction occasionally may be admitted to the bar in another without taking an examination if they meet that jurisdiction's stan­ dards of good moral character and have a specified period of legal experience. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must complete at least 3 years of college and graduate from a law school approved by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. (ABA approval signifies that the law school—particularly its library and faculty—meets certain standards developed by the Association to promote quality legal education.) In 1994, the American Bar Association approved 178 law schools. Others were approved by State authorities only. With certain excep­ tions, graduates of schools not approved by the ABA are restricted to taking the bar examination and practicing in the State or other juris­ diction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California. Seven States accept the study of law in a law office or in combination with study in a law school; only California accepts the study of law by correspondence as qualifying for taking the bar examination. Several States require registration and approval of students by the State Board of Law Examiners, either before they enter law school or during the early years of legal study. Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 47 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of the bar examination; the MBE is not required in Indiana. Louisiana, Washington, and Puerto Rico. The MBE, covering issues of broad interest, is given in addition to a locally prepared 6-hour State bar examination. The 3-hour Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) is used as part of the State bar examination in a few States. States vary in their use of MBE and MEE scores.  Professional Specialty Occupations 117  The required college and law school education usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school—4 years of undergraduate study followed by 3 years in law school. Although some law schools accept a very small number of students after 3 years of college, most require applicants to have a bachelor's degree. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions which usually require 4 years of study. In 1994, about one 1 in 8 graduates from ABA-approved schools attended part time. Preparation for a career as a lawyer really begins in college. Although there is no recommended "prelaw" major, the choice of an undergraduate program is important. Certain courses and activities are desirable because they give the student the skills needed to succeed both in law school and in the profession. Essential skills— proficiency in writing, reading and analyzing, thinking logically, and communicating verbally—are learned during high school and col­ lege. An undergraduate program that cultivates these skills while broadening the student's view of the world is desirable. Courses in English, a foreign language, public speaking, government, philoso­ phy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Whatever the major, students should study a variety of disciplines. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful. For example, many law schools with patent law tracks require bachelor's degrees, or at least several courses, in engineering and science. Future tax lawyers should have a strong undergraduate background in accounting. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant's ability to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law, usually through good undergraduate grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant's undergraduate school, any prior work experience, and sometimes a personal interview. How­ ever, law schools vary in the weight that they place on each of these factors. All law schools approved by the American Bar Association require that applicants take the LSAT. Nearly all law schools require applicants to have certified transcripts sent to the Law School Data Assembly Service, which then sends applicants' LSAT scores and their standardized records of college grades to the law schools of their choice. Both this service and the LSAT are administered by the Law School Admission Council. Competition for admission to many law schools is intense. En­ rollments rose very rapidly during the 1970s, with applicants far outnumbering available seats. Since then, law school enrollments have remained relatively unchanged, and the number of applicants has fluctuated. However, the number of applicants to most law schools still greatly exceeds the number that can be admitted. En­ rollments are expected to remain at about their present level through the year 2005, and competition for admission to the more prestigious law schools will remain keen. During the first year or year and a half of law school, students generally study fundamental courses such as constitutional law, contracts, property law, torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may elect specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporation law. Law students often acquire practi­ cal experience by participation in school sponsored legal aid or legal clinic activities, in the school's moot court competitions in which students conduct appellate arguments, in practice trials under the supervision of experienced lawyers and judges, and through research and writing on legal issues for the school's law journal. In 1994, law students in 38 States were required to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional responsibil­ ity and judicial conduct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics. A number of law schools have clinical programs where students gain legal experience through practice trials and law school projects under the supervision of practicing lawyers and law school faculty.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Law school clinical programs might include work in legal aid clinics, for example, or on the staff of legislative committees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corporate legal departments also provide experience that can be extremely valuable later on. Such training can provide references or lead directly to a job after graduation, and can help students decide what kind of practice best suits them. Clerkships also may be an important source of financial aid. Graduates receive the degree of juris doctor (J.D.) or bachelor of law (LL.B.) as the first professional degree. Advanced law degrees may be desirable for those planning to specialize, do research, or teach. Some law students pursue joint degree programs, which generally require an additional year. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas, including law and business administra­ tion and law and public administration. After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practice. Thirty-seven States and jurisdictions mandate Continuing Legal Education (CLE). Furthermore, many law schools and State and local bar associations provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent developments. The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Indi­ viduals planning careers in law should like to work with people and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associates, and the public. Integrity and honesty are vital personal qualities. Perseverance and reasoning ability are essential to analyze complex cases and reach sound conclusions. Lawyers also need creativity when handling new and unique legal problems. Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly hired salaried attorneys usually act as research assistants to experienced lawyers or judges. After several years of progressively more re­ sponsible salaried employment, some lawyers are admitted to part­ nership in their firm, or go into practice for themselves. Some lawyers, after years of practice, become full-time law school faculty or administrators; a growing number have advanced degrees in other fields as well. Some attorneys use their legal training in administrative or mana­ gerial positions in various departments of large corporations. A transfer from a corporation's legal department to another department often is viewed as a way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management. Judges. Most judges, although not all, have been lawyers first. All Federal judges and State trial and appellate court judges are required to be lawyers or "learned in law." About 40 States presently allow nonlawyers to hold limited jurisdiction judgeships, but opportunities are better with law experience. Federal administrative law judges must be lawyers and pass a competitive examination administered by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Many State administra­ tive law judges and other hearing officials are not required to be lawyers, but law degrees are preferred for most positions. Federal judges are appointed for life by the President, with the consent of the Senate. Federal administrative law judges are ap­ pointed by the various Federal agencies with virtually lifetime tenure. About half of all State judges are appointed, while the remainder are elected in partisan or nonpartisan State elections. Most State and local judges serve fixed terms, which range from 4 or 6 years for most limited jurisdiction judgeships to as long as 14 years for some appellate court judges. Judicial nominating commissions, composed of members of the bar and the public, are used to screen candidates for judgeships in many States, as well as for Federal judgeships. All States have some type of orientation for newly elected or appointed judges. The National Judicial College and the National Center for State Courts provide judicial education and training for judges and other judicial branch personnel. General and continuing education courses usually run from a couple of days to 3 weeks in length. Over half of the States, including Puerto Rico, reauire judges to enroll in continuing education courses while serving on the bench.  118 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Job Outlook Individuals interested in pursuing careers as lawyers or judges should encounter keen competition through the year 2005. Law schools still attract large numbers of applicants and are not expected to decrease their enrollments, so the supply of persons trained as lawyers should continue to exceed job openings. As for judges, the prestige associ­ ated with serving on the bench should insure continued intense competition for openings. Lawyers. Employment of lawyers has grown very rapidly since the early 1970s, and is expected to continue to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. New jobs created by growth in the profession should exceed job openings that arise from the need to replace lawyers who stop working or leave the profession. The strong growth in demand for lawyers will result from growth in the population and the general level of business activities. Demand will also be spurred by growth of legal action in such areas as employee benefits, health care, intellectual property, sexual harassment, the environment, and real estate. Legal services can be expensive, but the availability of legal clinics and prepaid legal service programs should increase the use of legal services by middle-income groups. Even though jobs for lawyers are expected to increase rapidly, competition for job openings should continue to be keen because of the large numbers graduating from law school each year. During the 1970s, the annual number of law school graduates more than dou­ bled, outpacing the rapid growth of jobs. Growth in the yearly number of law school graduates tapered off during the 1980s, but again increased in the early 1990s. The high number of graduates will strain the economy's capacity to absorb them. Although gradu­ ates with superior academic records from well-regarded law schools will continue to enjoy good opportunities, most graduates will en­ counter competition for jobs. As in the past, some graduates may have to accept positions in areas outside their field of interest or for which they feel they are overqualified. They may have to enter jobs for which legal training is an asset but not normally a requirement. For example, banks, insurance firms, real estate companies, govern­ ment agencies, and other organizations seek law graduates to fill many administrative, managerial, and business positions. Due to the competition for jobs, a law graduate's geographic mobility and work experience assume greater importance. The willingness to relocate may be an advantage in getting a job, but to be licensed in a new State, a lawyer may have to take an additional State bar examination. In addition, employers increasingly seek graduates who have advanced law degrees and experience in a par­ ticular field such as tax, patent, or admiralty law. Employment growth of lawyers will continue to be concentrated in salaried jobs, as businesses and all levels of government employ a growing number of staff attorneys, and as employment in the legal services industry is increasingly concentrated in larger law firms. The number of self-employed lawyers is expected to continue to increase slowly, reflecting the difficulty of establishing a profitable new practice in the face of competition from larger, established law firms. Also, the growing complexity of law—which encourages specialization—and the cost of maintaining up-to-date legal research materials favor larger firms. Nevertheless, for lawyers who wish to work independently, establishing a new practice probably will continue to be easiest in small towns and expanding suburban areas, as long as an active market for legal services exists. In such communities, competition from larger established law firms is likely to be less than in big cities, and new lawyers may find it easier to become known to potential clients. Additionally, rent and other business costs are somewhat lower in small towns than metropolitan areas. Yet, starting a new practice will remain an expensive and risky undertaking that should be weighed carefully. Most salaried positions will remain in urban areas where government agencies, law firms, and big corporations are concentrated.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Some lawyers are adversely affected by cyclical swings in the economy. During recessions, the demand declines for some discre­ tionary legal services, such as planning estates, drafting wills, and handling real estate transactions. Also, corporations are less likely to litigate cases when declining sales and profits result in budgetary restrictions. Although few lawyers actually lose their jobs during these times, earnings may decline for many. Some corporations and law firms will not hire new attorneys until business improves. Sev­ eral factors, however, mitigate the overall impact of recessions on lawyers. During recessions, individuals and corporations face other legal problems, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, and divorces, that require legal action. Furthermore, new laws and legal interpretations will create new opportunities for lawyers. Judges. Employment of judges is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations. Contradictory social forces affect the demand for judges. Pushing up demand are public con­ cerns about crime, safety, and efficient administration of justice; on the other hand, tight public funding should slow job growth. Competition for judgeships should remain keen. Most job open­ ings will arise as judges retire. Traditionally, many judges have held their positions until late in life. Now, early retirement is becoming more common, creating more job openings. However, becoming a judge will still be difficult. Besides competing with other qualified people, judicial candidates must gain political support in order to be elected or appointed. Earnings Annual salaries of beginning lawyers in private industry averaged about $37,000 in 1993, but top graduates obtaining positions at the Nation's largest law firms in some cases started at over $80,000 a year. In the Federal Government, annual starting salaries for attor­ neys in 1994 were about $29,200 or $36,400, depending upon aca­ demic and personal qualifications. Factors affecting the salaries offered to new graduates include: Academic record; type, size, and location of employer; and the specialized educational background desired. The field of law makes a difference, too. Patent lawyers, for example, generally are among the highest paid attorneys. Salaries of experienced attorneys also vary widely according to the type, size, and location of their employer. The average salary of the most experienced lawyers in private industry in 1993 was nearly $115,00Cf, but some senior lawyers who were partners in the Nation's top law firms earned over $1 million. General attorneys in the Federal Government averaged around $67,900 a year in 1995; the relatively small number of patent attorneys in the Federal Govern­ ment averaged around $76,300. Lawyers on salary receive increases as they assume greater re­ sponsibility. Lawyers starting their own practice may need to work part time in other occupations during the first years to supplement their income. Their incomes usually grow as their practices develop. Lawyers who are partners in law firms generally earn more than those who practice alone. Federal district court judges had salaries of $133,600 in 1995, as did judges in the Court of Federal Claims. Circuit court judges earned $141,700 a year. Federal judges with limited jurisdiction, such as magistrates and bankruptcy court judges, had salaries of $122,900 in 1995. Full-time Federal administrative law judges had average salaries of $94,800 in 1995. The Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court earned $171,500 in 1995, and the Associate Justices earned $164,100. Annual salaries of associate justices of States' highest courts averaged $91,093 in 1995, according to a survey by the National Center for State Courts, and ranged from about $64,452 to $131,085. Salaries of State intermediate appellate court judges averaged $93,970, but ranged from $75,589 to $122,893. Salaries of State judges with limited jurisdiction varied widely; many salaries are set locally.  Professional Specialty Occupations 119  Most salaried lawyers and judges were provided health and life insurance, and contributions were made on their behalf to retirement plans. Lawyers who practiced independently were only covered if they arranged and paid for such benefits themselves.  ments for admission to legal practice, a directory of State bar exami­ nation administrators, and other information on legal education. Single copies are free from the ABA, but there is a fee for multiple copies. Free information on the bar examination, financial aid for law students, and law as a career may also be obtained from:  Related Occupations Legal training is useful in many other occupations. Some of these are paralegal, arbitrator, journalist, patent agent, title examiner, legislative assistant, lobbyist, FBI special agent, political office holder, and corporate executive.  ••American Bar Association, 750 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  Information on the LSAT, the Law School Data Assembly Serv­ ice, applying to law school, and financial aid for law students may be obtained from: •■Law School Admission Council, P.O. Box 40, Newtown, PA 18940. Telephone: (215)968-1001.  Sources of Additional Information The American Bar Association annually publishes A Review of Legal Education in the United States, which provides detailed information on each of the 178 law schools approved by the ABA, State require­  The specific requirements for admission to the bar in a particular State or other jurisdiction may also be obtained at the State capital from the clerk of the Supreme Court or the administrator of the State Board of Bar Examiners.  Social Scientists (D.O.T. 029.067; 045.061, .067, .107-022, -026, -030, -034, -046; 050.067; 051; 052 except .067-014; 054; 055; 059)  Nature of the Work Social scientists study all aspects of human society—from the distri­ bution of goods and services to the beliefs of newly formed religious groups to modern mass transportation systems. Their research provides insights that help us understand the different ways in which individuals and groups make decisions, exercise power, or respond to change. Through their studies and analyses, social scientists and urban planners assist educators, government officials, business leaders, and others in solving social, economic, and environmental problems. Research is a basic activity for many social scientists. They use established or newly discovered methods to assemble facts and theory that contribute to human knowledge. Applied research usu­ ally is designed to produce information that will enable people to make better decisions or manage their affairs more effectively. Interviews and surveys are widely used to collect facts, opinions, or other information. Data collection takes many forms, however, such as living and working among the population being studied, including speaking their native language; field investigations, including the analysis of historical records and documents; experiments with human or animal subjects in a laboratory; the administration of standardized tests and questionnaires; and the preparation and inter­ pretation of maps and computer graphics. Social sciences are interdisciplinary in nature. Specialists in one field often find that their research overlaps work that is being con­ ducted in another discipline. Anthropologists study the origin and the physical, social, and cultural development and behavior of humans. They may study the way of life, remains, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world. Some compare the customs, values, and social patterns of different cultures. Anthropologists generally concentrate in sociocultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, or biological-physical anthropology. Sociocultural anthropologists study the customs, cultures, and social lives of groups in settings from nonindustrialized societies to modem urban centers. Archae­ ologists engage in the systematic recovery and examination of mate­ rial evidence, such as tools and pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations. Linguistic anthropologists study the role of  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  language in various cultures. Biological-physical anthropologists study the evolution of the human body, look for the earliest evi­ dences of human life, and analyze how culture and biology influence one another. Most anthropologists specialize in one particular region of the world. Economists study the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. They may analyze data to determine public demand for a specific mix of goods and services. Most economists are concerned with the practical applications of economic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agriculture, transportation, energy, or health. Others develop theories to explain economic phenomena such as unemployment or inflation. Marketing research analysts study market conditions in localities, regions, the Nation, or the world to determine potential sales of a product or service. They analyze data on past sales and trends to develop forecasts, and con­ duct extensive market surveys to test their conclusions. Geographers analyze distributions of physical and cultural phe­ nomena on local, regional, continental, and global scales. Geogra­ phers specialize, as a rule. Economic geographers study the distribution of resources and economic activities. Political geogra­ phers are concerned with the relationship of geography to political phenomena, while cultural geographers study the geography of cultural phenomena. Physical geographers study the variations in climates, vegetation, soil, and land forms, and their implications for human activity. Urban and transportation geographers study cities and metropolitan areas, while regional geographers study the physi­ cal, economic, political, and cultural characteristics of regions, ranging in size from a congressional district to entire continents. Medical geographers study health care delivery systems, epidemiol­ ogy, and the effect of the environment on health. (Some occupa­ tional classification systems include geographers under physical scientists rather than social scientists.) Historians research, analyze, and interpret the past. They use many sources of information in their research, including government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photo­ graphs, interviews, films, and unpublished manuscripts such as personal diaries and letters. Historians usually specialize in a spe­ cific country or region; in a particular time period; or in a particular field, such as social, intellectual, political, or diplomatic history. Biographers collect detailed information on individuals. Genealo­ gists trace family histories. Other historians help study and preserve archival materials, artifacts, and historic buildings and sites. Political scientists study the origin, development, and operation  120 Occupational Outlook Handbook  of political systems and public policy. They conduct research on a wide range of subjects such as relations between the United States and all other countries, the institutions and political life of all nations, the politics of small towns or a major metropolis, or the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court. Studying topics such as public opinion, political decisionmaking, ideology, and public policy, they analyze the structure and operation of governments as well as various politi­ cal entities. Depending on the topic under study, a political scientist might conduct a public opinion survey, analyze election results, analyze public documents, or interview public officials. Psychologists, who constitute over half of all social scientists, study human behavior and counsel or advise individuals or groups. Their research also assists business advertisers, politicians, and others interested in influencing or motivating people. While clinical psychology is the largest specialty, psychologists specialize in many other fields such as counseling, experimental, social, and industrial psychology. Sociologists study human society and social behavior by examin­ ing the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations. They also study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individ­ ual members. They are concerned with the characteristics of social groups, organizations, and institutions; the ways individuals are affected by each other and by the groups to which they belong; and the effect of social traits such as sex, age, or race on a person's daily life. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators, and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy. Expanding opportunities exist for practicing sociologists, who apply sociological knowledge, theory and methods to effect inter­ ventions at the individual, group or community levels. Practicing sociologists, including clinical sociologists, work in business, gov­ ernment, social service and education, performing evaluations, counseling, substance abuse prevention and treatment, and economic and community development. Most sociologists work in one or more specialties, such as social organization, stratification, and mobility; racial and ethnic relations; education; family; social psychology; urban, rural, political, and comparative sociology; sex roles and relations; demography; geron­ tology; criminology; and sociological practice. Urban and regional planners develop comprehensive plans and programs for the use of land. Planners prepare for situations that are likely to develop as a result of population growth or social and economic change. Working Conditions Most social scientists have regular hours. Generally working behind a desk, either alone or in collaboration with other social scientists, they read and write research reports. Many experience the pressures of writing and publishing articles, deadlines and tight schedules, and sometimes they must work overtime, for which they generally are not reimbursed. Social scientists often work as an integral part of a research team. Their routine may be interrupted frequently by tele­ phone calls, letters to answer, special requests for information, meetings, or conferences. Travel may be necessary to collect infor­ mation or attend meetings. Social scientists on foreign assignment must adjust to unfamiliar cultures, climates, and languages. Some social scientists do fieldwork. For example, anthropolo­ gists, archaeologists, and geographers often travel to remote areas, live among the people they study, learn their languages, and stay for long periods at the site of their investigations. They may work under rugged conditions, and their work may involve strenuous physical exertion. Social scientists employed by colleges and universities generally have flexible work schedules, often dividing their time among teaching, research and writing, consulting, or administrative respon­ sibilities.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment Social scientists held about 259,000 jobs in 1994. Over half of all social scientists are psychologists. Almost one-third of all social scientists—overwhelmingly psychologists—are self-employed, in­ volved in counseling, consulting, or research. Salaried social scientists worked as researchers, administrators, and counselors for a wide range of employers, including Federal, State, and local governments, educational institutions, hospitals, research and testing services, and management and public relations firms. Other employers include social service agencies, international organizations, associations, museums, historical societies, computer and data processing firms, and business firms. In addition, many persons with training in a social science disci­ pline teach in colleges and universities, and in secondary and elemen­ tary schools. (For more information, see the Handbook statements on college and university faculty, and kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers.) The proportion of social scientists who teach varies by occupation—for example, the academic world gen­ erally is a more important source of jobs for graduates in sociology than for graduates in psychology. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational attainment of social scientists is among the highest of all occupations. The Ph.D. or equivalent degree is a minimum require­ ment for most positions in colleges and universities and is important for advancement to many top level nonacademic research and admin­ istrative posts. Graduates with master's degrees in applied specialties generally have better professional opportunities outside of colleges and universities, although the situation varies by field. For example, job prospects for master's degree holders in urban or regional plan­ ning are brighter than for master’s degree holders in history. Gradu­ ates with a master's degree in a social science qualify for teaching positions in junior colleges. Bachelor's degree holders have limited opportunities and in most social science occupations do not qualify for "professional" positions. The bachelor's degree does, however, provide a suitable background for many different kinds of entry level jobs, such as research assistant, administrative aide, or management or sales trainee. With the addition of sufficient education courses, social science graduates also can qualify for teaching positions in secondary and elementary schools. Training in statistics and mathematics is essential for many social scientists. Mathematical and quantitative research methods are increasingly used in economics, geography, political science, ex­ perimental psychology, and other fields. The ability to use comput­ ers for research purposes is mandatory in most disciplines. Depending on their jobs, social scientists and urban planners may need a wide range of personal characteristics. Because they con­ stantly seek new information about people, things, and ideas, intellec­ tual curiosity and creativity are fundamental personal traits. The ability to think logically and methodically is important to a political scientist comparing the merits of various forms of government. The ability to analyze data is important to an economist studying propos­ als to reduce Federal budget deficits. Objectivity, openmindedness, and systematic work habits are important in all kinds of social science research. Perseverance is essential for an anthropologist, who might spend years accumulating artifacts from an ancient civili­ zation. Emotional stability and sensitivity are vital to a clinical psychologist working with mental patients. Written and oral com­ munication skills are essential for all these professionals. Job Outlook Employment of social scientists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005, due to concern over the environment, crime, the increasingly competitive global economy, and a wide range of other issues. The largest social sci­ ence occupation, psychologists, is expected to grow faster than average, as are economists and marketing research analysts, and urban and regional planners. All other social scientists combined,  Professional Specialty Occupations 121  including anthropologists, geographers, historians, political scientists, and sociologists, should experience average growth. Most job open­ ings, however, will result from the need to replace social scientists who transfer to other occupations or stop working altogether. Prospects are best for those with advanced degrees, and generally are better in disciplines such as economics, psychology, and urban and regional planning, which offer many opportunities in nonaca­ demic settings. However, graduates in all social science fields are expected to find enhanced job opportunities in applied fields due to the excellent research, communication, and quantitative skills they develop in graduate school. Government agencies, health and social service organizations, marketing, research and consulting firms, and a wide range of businesses seek social science graduates. Social scientists currently face stiff competition for academic positions. However, the growing importance and popularity of social science subjects in secondary schools is strengthening the demand for social science teachers at this level. Other considerations that affect employment opportunities in these occupations include specific skills and technical expertise, salary requirements, and geographic mobility. In addition, experi­ ence acquired through internships can prove invaluable later in obtaining a full-time position in a social science field. Earnings Median annual earnings of all social scientists were about $38,000 in 1994. The middle 50 percent earned between $23,200 and $52,600 annually. The lowest 10 percent earned under $17,300, while the highest 10 percent earned over $70,800. According to a 1995 survey by the National Association of Col­ leges and Employers, people with a bachelor's degree in a social science field received starting offers averaging about $22,000 a year in 1995. In the Federal Government, social scientists with a bachelor's degree and no experience could start at $18,700 or $23,200 a year in 1995, depending on their college records. Those with a master's degree could start at $28,300, and those having a Ph.D. degree could begin at $34,300, while some individuals with experience and an advanced degree could start at $41,100. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas of the country where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The average salary of social scientists working for the Federal Government in 1995 in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions in geography was about $45,230; in history was $51,180; in sociology was $56,780; and in archeology was $38,770. Related Occupations A number of fields that require training and personal qualities similar to those of the various social science fields are covered elsewhere in the Handbook. These include lawyers, statisticians, mathematicians, computer programmers, computer scientists and systems analysts, reporters and correspondents, social workers, college and university faculty, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information More detailed information about economists and marketing research analysts, psychologists, and urban and regional planners is presented in the Handbook statements that follow this introductory statement. Anthropology For information about careers in anthropology, contact; •"The American Anthropological Association, 4350 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 640, Arlington, VA 22203.  Archaeology For information about careers in archaeology, contact: •"Society for American Archaeology, 900 2nd Street NE., Suite 12, Washing­ ton, DC 20002. •"Archaeological Institute of America, 656 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Geography For information about careers in geography, contact: •■Association of American Geographers, 1710 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  History Information on careers for historians is available from: •■American Historical Association, 400 A St. SE., Washington, DC 20003. •■Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan St., Bloomington, IN 47408. •"American Association for State and Local History, 530 Church St., 6th Floor, Nashville, TN 37219.  Political Science For information about careers in political science, contact: •"American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036. •"National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, 1120 G St. NW., Suite 730, Washington, DC 20005.  Sociology Information about careers in sociology is available from: •"American Sociological Association, 1722 N St. NW., Washington, DC 20036-2981.  For information about careers in demography, contact: •"Population Association of America, 1722 N St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information about careers and certification in clinical and applied sociology, contact: •"Sociological Practice Association, Department of Pediatrics/Human Devel­ opment, B240 Life Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1317.  Economists and Marketing Research Analysts (D.O.T. 050.067)  Nature of the Work Economists. Economists study the ways a society distributes scarce resources such as land, labor, raw materials, and machinery to pro­ duce goods and services. They conduct research, collect and analyze data, monitor economic trends, and develop forecasts. They might research topics such as energy costs, inflation, interest rates, farm prices, rents, imports, or employment levels. Most economists are concerned with practical applications of economic policy in a particular area. Thfey use their understanding of economic relationships to advise businesses and other organizations, including insurance companies, banks, securities firms, industry and trade associations, labor unions, and government agencies. Econo­ mists use mathematical models to develop programs predicting the nature and length of business cycles, the effects of inflation on the economy, or the effects of tax legislation on unemployment levels. Economists devise methods and procedures for obtaining the data they need. For example, sampling techniques may be used to con­ duct a survey, and various mathematical modeling techniques may be used to develop forecasts. Preparing reports on the results of their research is an important part of the economist's job. Relevant data must be reviewed and analyzed, applicable tables and charts pre­ pared, and the results presented in clear, concise language that can be understood by non-economists. Being able to present economic and statistical concepts in a meaningful way is particularly important for economists whose research is directed toward making policy for their organization. Economists who work for government agencies may assess economic conditions in the United States or abroad in order to esti­ mate the economic effects of specific changes in legislation or public policy. They may study areas such as how the dollar's fluctuation  122 Occupational Outlook Handbook  against foreign currencies affects import and export levels. The majority of government economists work in the area of agriculture, labor, or quantitative analysis, and some economists work in almost every area of government. For example, economists in the U.S. Department of Commerce study domestic production, distribution, and consumption of commodities or services, while economists employed with the Bureau of Labor Statistics analyze data on prices, wages, employment, productivity, and safety and health. An economist working in State or local government might analyze data on trade and commerce, industrial growth, and employment and unemployment rates in order to project employment trends. Marketing Research Analysts. Marketing research analysts are concerned with the potential sales of a product or service. They analyze statistical data on past sales to predict future sales. They gather data on competitors and analyze prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution. Like economists, marketing research analysts devise methods and procedures for obtaining the data they need. They often design telephone, personal, or mail interview surveys to assess consumer preferences. The surveys usually are conducted by trained interviewers under the marketing research analyst's direction. Once the data are compiled, marketing research analysts evaluate it. They then make recommendations based upon their findings. They provide a company's management with infor­ mation needed to make decisions on the promotion, distribution, design, and pricing of company products or services, or to determine the advisability of adding new lines of merchandise, opening new branches, or otherwise diversifying the company's operations. Ana­ lysts may conduct opinion research to determine public attitudes on various issues. This can help political or business leaders and others assess public support for their policies or products. Working Conditions Economists and marketing research analysts who work for govern­ ment agencies and private firms have structured work schedules. They often work alone writing reports, preparing statistical charts, and using computers, but they may also be an integral part of a research team. Most work under pressure of deadlines and tight schedules, and sometimes must work overtime. Their routine may be interrupted by special requests for data, letters, meetings, or confer­ ences. Regular travel may be necessary to collect data or attend conferences or meetings. Employment Economists and marketing research analysts held about 48,000 jobs in 1994. Private industry, particularly economic and marketing research firms, management consulting firms, banks, securities and commodities brokers, and computer and data processing companies, employed about 8 out of 10 salaried workers. The remainder, pri­ marily economists, were employed by a wide range of government agencies, primarily in the State Government. The Departments of Labor, Agriculture, and Commerce are the largest Federal employers of economists. A number of economists and marketing research analysts combine a full-time job in government or business with part­ time or consulting work in academia or another setting. Employment of economists and marketing research analysts is concentrated in large cities. Some economists work abroad for companies with major international operations, for U.S. Government agencies, and for international organizations like the World Bank and the United Nations. Besides the jobs described above, many economists and market­ ing research analysts held economics and marketing faculty positions in colleges and universities. Economics and marketing faculty have flexible work schedules, and may divide their time among teaching, research, consulting, and administration. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Ml HI  Economists and marketing research analysts are concerned with practical applications of their work. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Graduate training is required for most private sector economist and marketing research analyst jobs, and for advancement to more re­ sponsible positions. Economics includes many specialties at the graduate level, such as advanced economic theory, econometrics, international economics, and labor economics. Students should select graduate schools strong in specialties in which they are inter­ ested. Marketing research analysts may earn advanced degrees in economics, business administration, marketing, statistics, or some closely related discipline. Some schools help graduate students find internships or part-time employment in government agencies, eco­ nomic consulting firms, Financial institutions, or marketing research firms prior to graduation. In the Federal Government, candidates for entry level economist positions must have a bachelor's degree with a minimum of 21 semester hours of economics and 3 hours of statistics, accounting, or calculus. Competition is keen for those positions which require only a bachelor's degree, however, and additional education or superior academic performance is likely to be required. For a job as an instructor in many junior and some community colleges, a master's degree is the minimum requirement. In most colleges and universities, however, a Ph.D. is necessary for appoint­ ment as an instructor. A Ph.D. and extensive publications in aca­ demic journals are required for a professorship, tenure, and promotion. Whether working in government, industry, research organizations, marketing, or consulting firms, economists and marketing research  Professional Specialty Occupations 123  analysts who have a graduate degree usually qualify for more re­ sponsible research and administrative positions. A Ph.D. is neces­ sary for top economist or marketing positions in many organizations. Many corporation and government executives have a strong back­ ground in economics or marketing. A bachelor's degree with a major in economics or marketing is generally not sufficient to obtain positions as economist or marketing analyst, but is excellent preparation for many entry level positions as a research assistant, administrative or management trainee, marketing interviewer, or any of a number of professional sales jobs. Economics majors can choose from a variety of courses, ranging from those which are intensely mathematical such as microeconom­ ics, macroeconomics, and econometrics, to more philosophical courses such as the history of economic thought. In addition to courses in business, marketing, and consumer behavior, marketing majors should take courses in related disciplines, including economics, psychology, organizational behavior, sociol­ ogy, finance, business law, and international relations. Because of the importance of quantitative skills to economists and marketing researchers, courses in mathematics, statistics, econometrics, sam­ pling theory and survey design, and computer science are extremely helpful. Aspiring economists and marketing research analysts should gain experience gathering and analyzing data, conducting interviews or surveys, and writing reports on their findings while in college. This experience can prove invaluable later in obtaining a full-time posi­ tion in the field, since much of their work in the beginning may center around these duties. With experience, economists and market­ ing research analysts eventually are assigned their own research projects. Persons considering careers as economists or marketing research analysts should be able to work accurately because much time is spent on data analysis. Patience and persistence are necessary quali­ ties since economists and marketing research analysts must spend long hours on independent study and problem solving. At the same time, they must be able to work well with others, especially market­ ing research analysts, who often interview or oversee interviews for a wide variety of individuals. Economists and marketing research analysts must be able to present their findings, both orally and in writing, in a clear, meaningful way. Job Outlook Employment of economists and marketing research analysts is ex­ pected to grow faster than average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, however, are likely to result from the need to replace experienced workers who transfer to other occupa­ tions, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Opportunities for economists should be best in private industry, especially in research, testing, and consulting firms, as more compa­ nies contract out for economic research services. Competition, the growing complexity of the global economy, and increased reliance on quantitative methods for analyzing business trends, forecasting sales, and planning purchasing and production should spur demand for economists. The continued need for economic analyses in vir­ tually every industry should result in additional jobs for economists. Employment of economists in the Federal Government should de­ cline in line with the rate of growth projected for the Federal work­ force as a whole. Slower than average employment growth is expected among economists in State and local government. A strong background in economic theory, mathematics, statistics, and econometrics provides the basis for acquiring any specialty within the field. Those skilled in quantitative techniques and their application to economic modeling and forecasting, including the use of computers, coupled with good communications skills, should have the best job opportunities. Persons who graduate with a bachelor's degree in economics through the year 2005 will face keen competition for the limited number of economist positions for which they qualify. They will  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  qualify for a number of other positions, however, where they can take advantage of their economic knowledge in conducting research, developing surveys, or analyzing data. Many graduates with bache­ lor's degrees will find good jobs in industry and business as manage­ ment or sales trainees, or administrative assistants. Economists with good quantitative skills are qualified for research assistant positions in a broad range of fields. Those who meet State certification re­ quirements may become high school economics teachers. The demand for secondary school economics teachers is expected to grow as economics becomes an increasingly important and popular course. (See the statement on kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Candidates who hold a master's degree in economics have much better employment prospects than bachelor's degree holders. Many businesses, research and consulting firms, and government agencies seek master's degree holders who have strong computer and quanti­ tative skills and can perform complex research, but do not command the higher salary of a Ph.D. Ph.D. degree holders are likely to face competition for teaching positions in colleges and universities. Demand for marketing research analysts should be strong due to an increasingly competitive global economy. Marketing research provides organizations valuable feedback from purchasers, allowing companies to evaluate consumer satisfaction and more effectively plan for the future. As companies seek to expand their market and consumers become better informed, the need for marketing profes­ sionals is increasing. Opportunities for marketing research analysts should be good in a wide range of employment settings, particularly in marketing research firms, as companies find it more profitable to contract out for marketing research services rather than supporting their own marketing department. Other organizations, including financial services organizations, health care institutions, advertising firms, manufacturing firms that produce consumer goods, and insur­ ance companies may offer job opportunities for marketing research analysts. A strong background in economic theory, mathematics, statistics, and econometrics provides the basis for acquiring any specialty within the field. Those skilled in quantitative techniques and their application to marketing research, including the use of computers, should have the best job opportunities. Like economists, marketing research graduates with related work experience and an advanced degree in marketing or a closely related business field should have the best job opportunities. Those with only a bachelor's degree but who have a strong back­ ground in mathematics, statistics, survey design, and computer science may be hired by private firms as assistants to marketing research professionals. Earnings According to a 1995 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, persons with a bachelor's degree in eco­ nomics received offers averaging $27,600 a year; for those with a bachelor's degrees in marketing, $25,400. The median base salary of business economists in 1994 was $70,000, according to a survey by the National Association of Busi­ ness Economists. Ninety two percent of the respondents held ad­ vanced degrees. The highest salaries were reported by those who had a Ph.D., with a median salary of $80,000. Master's degree holders earned a median salary of $62,000, while bachelor's degree holders earned $60,500. The highest paid business economists were in the securities and investment industry, which reported a median income of $95,000, followed by the nondurable manufacturing at $94,000 and the banking industry at $85,000. The lowest paid were in aca­ demia, wholesale and retail trade, and publishing. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the en­ trance salary for economists having a bachelor's degree averaged about $18,700 a year in 1995; however, those with superior academic records could begin at $23,200. Those having a master's degree  124 Occupational Outlook Handbook  could qualify for positions at an annual salary of $28,300. Those with a Ph.D. could begin at $34,300, while some individuals with experience and an advanced degree could start at $41,100. Starting salaries were slightly more in selected areas where the prevailing local pay was higher. Economists in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions averaged around $59,030 a year in 1995. Related Occupations Economists are concerned with understanding and interpreting financial matters, among other subjects. Other jobs in this area include financial managers, financial analysts, underwriters, actuar­ ies, securities and financial services sales workers, credit analysts, loan officers, and budget officers. Marketing research analysts do research to find out how well products or services sell. This may include the planning, implemen­ tation, and analysis of surveys to determine people's needs and preferences. Other jobs using these skills include psychologists, sociologists, and urban and regional planners. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers in economics and business, contact: •■National Association of Business Economists, 1233 20th St. NW., Suite 505, Washington. DC 20036.  For information about careers and salaries in marketing research, contact:  •"Marketing Research Association, 2189 Silas Deane Hwy., Suite 5, Rocky Hill, CT 06067. •■Council of American Survey Research Organizations, 3 Upper Devon, Port Jefferson, NY 11777.  Psychologists (D.O.T. 045.061, .067, .107-022, -026, -030, -034, and -046)  Nature of the Work Psychologists study human behavior and the mental processes related to that behavior. Research psychologists investigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Psy­ chologists in applied fields provide mental health services in hospi­ tals, clinics, schools, or private settings. Like other social scientists, psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their validity. Research methods depend on the topic under study. Psychologists may gather information through controlled laboratory experiments, as well as through personality, performance, aptitude, and intelligence tests. Other methods include observation, interviews, questionnaires, clinical studies, and surveys. Computers are widely used to record and analyze this information. Psychologists apply their knowledge and techniques to a wide range of endeavors including human services, management, educa­ tion, law, and sports. In addition to a variety of work settings, psy­ chologists specialize in many different areas. Clinical psychologists —who constitute the largest specialty—generally work in independ­ ent or group practice or in hospitals or clinics. They assist mentally or emotionally disturbed clients adjust to life and increasingly help medical and surgical patients deal with their illnesses or injuries. Some work in physical rehabilitation settings, treating patients with spinal cord injuries, chronic pain or illness, stroke, arthritis, and neurologic conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Others help people deal with life stresses such as divorce or the death of a loved one. Clinical psychologists interview patients and give diagnostic tests. They provide individual, family, and group psychotherapy, and design and implement behavior modification programs. They may collaborate with physicians and other specialists in developing and   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  implementing treatment and intervention programs that patients can understand and comply with. Some clinical psychologists work in universities, where they train graduate students in the delivery of mental health and behavioral medicine services. Others administer community mental health programs. Relatively new specialties within clinical psychology include cognitive psychology, health psychology, neuropsychology, and geropsychology. Cognitive psychologists deal with memory, think­ ing, and perceptions. Some conduct research related to computer programming and artificial intelligence. Health psychologists pro­ mote good health through health maintenance counseling programs that are designed to help people achieve goals such as to stop smok­ ing or lose weight. Neuropsychologists study the relation between the brain and behavior. They often work in stroke and head injury programs. Geropsychologists deal with the special problems faced by the elderly. The emergence and growth of these specialties re­ flects the increasing participation of psychologists in providing direct services to special patient populations. Counseling psychologists use various techniques, including inter­ viewing and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living, including career choices. (Also see the state­ ments on counselors and social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Developmental psychologists study the patterns and causes of behavioral change as people progress from infancy to adulthood. Some specialize in behavior during infancy, childhood, and adoles­ cence, while others study changes that take place during maturity or old age. The study of developmental disabilities and how they affect people is a relatively new area within developmental psychology. Experimental psychologists study behavior processes as they work with human beings and animals, such as rats, monkeys, and pigeons. Prominent areas of study in experimental research include motivation, thinking, attention, learning and retention, sensory and perceptual processes, effects of substance use and abuse, and genetic and neurological factors affecting behavior. Industrial-organizational psychologists (I/O) apply psychological techniques to personnel administration, management, and marketing problems. They are involved in applicant screening, training and development, counseling, and organizational development and analysis. An industrial psychologist might work with management to develop better training programs and to reorganize the work setting to improve worker productivity or quality of worklife. They may also act as consultants to management. School psychologists work with students, teachers, parents, and administrators to resolve students' learning and behavior problems. They collaborate with teachers, parents, and school personnel about classroom management strategies, parenting skills, substance abuse,  Many psychologists are self-employed.  Professional Specialty Occupations 125  working with students with disabilities or gifted and talented stu­ dents, and teaching and learning strategies. They may evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs, behavior management proce­ dures, and other services provided in the school setting. Social psychologists examine people's interactions with others and with the social environment. Prominent areas of study include group behavior, leadership, attitudes, and interpersonal perception. Working Conditions A psychologist's specialty and place of employment determine working conditions. Clinical, school, and counseling psychologists in private practice have pleasant, comfortable offices and set their own hours. However, they often must offer evening hours to ac­ commodate their clients. Those employed in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health facilities may work evenings and weekends, while those who work in schools and clinics generally work regular hours. Psychologists employed as faculty by colleges and universi­ ties divide their time between teaching and research, and a few have administrative responsibilities as well. Many have part-time consult­ ing practices as well. Most psychologists in government and industry have structured schedules. Psychologists often work alone, reading and writing reports. Many experience pressures due to deadlines, tight schedules, and overtime work. Their routine may be interrupted frequently. Travel may be required to attend conferences or conduct research. Employment Psychologists held about 144,000 jobs in 1994. Educational institu­ tions employed nearly 4 out of 10 salaried psychologists in positions other than teaching, involving counseling, testing, research, and administration. Three out of 10 were employed in health services, primarily in hospitals, mental health clinics, rehabilitation centers, nursing homes, and other health facilities. Government agencies at the Federal, State, and local levels employed one-sixth. Govern­ ments employ psychologists in hospitals, clinics, correctional facili­ ties, and other settings. The Department of Veterans Affairs and the Department of Defense employ about 80 percent of the psycholo­ gists working for Federal agencies. Some psychologists work in social service organizations, research organizations, management consulting firms, marketing research firms, and other businesses. After several years of experience, some psychologists—usually those with doctoral degrees—enter private practice or set up their own research or consulting firms. Over 40 percent of all psycholo­ gists are self-employed. In addition to the jobs described above, many persons held posi­ tions as psychology faculty at colleges and universities, and as high school psychology teachers. (See the statements on college and uni­ versity faculty and kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree generally is required for employment as a clinical or counseling psychologist. Psychologists with a Ph.D. qualify for a wide range of teaching, research, clinical, and counseling positions in universities, elementary and secondary schools, private industry, and government. Psychologists with a Psy.D.—Doctor of Psychology— generally work in clinical positions. Persons with a master's degree in psychology can work as organizational or industrial psychologists. Others work as psychological assistants, under the supervision of doctoral-level psychologists, and may conduct research or psycho­ logical evaluations or counsel patients. Many work as school psy­ chologists or counselors, and some teach in- high schools or 2-year colleges. A bachelor’s degree in psychology qualifies a person to assist psychologists and other professionals in community mental health centers, vocational rehabilitation offices, and correctional programs. They may work as research or administrative assistants or become sales or management trainees in business. However, without addi­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tional academic training, their opportunities in psychology are se­ verely limited. In the Federal Government, candidates having at least 24 semester hours in psychology and one course in statistics qualify for entrylevel positions. Because this is one of the few areas where one can work as a psychologist without an advanced degree, competition for these jobs is keen. Clinical psychologists generally must have com­ pleted the Ph.D. or Psy.D. requirements and have served an intern­ ship. Vocational and guidance counselors usually need 2 years of graduate study in counseling and 1 year of counseling experience. School psychology requires a master's degree followed by a 1-year internship. Most students need at least 2 years of full-time graduate study to earn a master's degree in psychology. Requirements usually include practical experience in an applied setting or a master's thesis based on an original research project. A doctoral degree usually requires 5 to 7 years of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree culminates in a dissertation based on original research. Courses in quantitative research methods, which include the use of computer-based analysis, are an integral part of graduate study and are necessary to complete the dissertation. The Psy.D. usually is based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation. In clinical or counseling psychology, the requirements for the doctoral degree generally include a year or more of internship. Competition for admission into graduate programs is keen. Some universities require an undergraduate major in psychology. Others prefer only basic psychology with courses in the biological, physical, and social sciences, statistics, and mathematics. Most colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in psy­ chology. Over 600 departments offer either a master's or a full Ph.D. program. A smaller number of professional schools of psychology offer the Psy.D. The American Psychological Association (APA) presently ac­ credits doctoral training programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, with the assistance of the National Association of School Psychologists, also is involved in the accreditation of advanced degree programs in school psychology. The APA also accredits institutions that provide internships for doctoral students in school, clinical, and counseling psychology. Psychologists in independent practice or those who offer any type of patient care, including clinical, counseling, and school psycholo­ gists, must meet certification or licensing requirements. All States and the District of Columbia have such requirements. Licensing laws vary by State and by type of position. Clinical and counseling psy­ chologists generally require a doctorate in psychology, completion of an approved internship, and 1 to 2 years of professional experience. In addition, most States require that applicants pass an examination. Most State boards administer a standardized test and many supple­ ment that with additional oral or essay questions. Most States certify those with a master's degree as school psychologists after completion of an internship. Some States require continuing education for license renewal. Most States require that licensed or certified psychologists limit their practice to those areas in which they have developed profes­ sional competence through training and experience. The American Board of Professional Psychology recognizes professional achievement by awarding certification, primarily in clinical psychology, clinical neuropsychology, counseling, forensic, industrial and organizational, and school psychology. Candidates need a doctorate in psychology, 5 years of experience, professional endorsements, and a passing grade on an examination. Aspiring psychologists who are interested in direct patient care must be emotionally stable, mature, and able to deal effectively with people. Sensitivity, compassion, and the ability to lead and inspire others are particularly important for clinical work and counseling. Research psychologists should be able to do detailed work independ­ ently and as part of a team. Verbal and writing skills are necessary to  126 Occupational Outlook Handbook  communicate research findings. Patience and perseverance are vital qualities because results from psychological treatment of patients or from research usually take a long time.  level was higher. The average salary for psychologists in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial posi­ tions was about $58,300 a year in 1995.  Job Outlook Employment of psychologists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The need to combat alcohol and drug abuse, marital strife, family violence, crime, and other problems plaguing society should stimulate employment growth. Other factors spurring demand for psychologists include increased emphasis on mental health maintenance in conjunction with the treatment of physical illness and public concern for the development of human resources, including the growing elderly population and children in school. Job opportunities in health care should remain strong in health care provider networks, such as health maintenance and preferred provider organizations, and in nursing homes and alcohol and drug abuse programs. Job opportunities will arise in businesses, nonprofit organizations, and research and computer firms for psychologists working as consultants. Companies will use psychologists’ expertise in survey design, analysis, and research to provide marketing evalua­ tion and statistical analysis. The increase in employee assistance programs, which offer employees help with personal problems, also should spur job growth. Opportunities are best for candidates with a doctoral degree. Persons holding doctorates from leading universities in applied areas, such as clinical, counseling, health, industrial, and educational psy­ chology should have particularly good prospects. Psychologists with extensive training in quantitative research methods and computer science may have a competitive edge over applicants without this background. Graduates with a master's degree in psychology will encounter competition for the limited number of jobs for which they qualify. Graduates of master's degree programs in school psychology should have the best job prospects, as schools are expected to increase student counseling and mental health services. Other master's degree holders may find jobs as psychological assistants in the community mental health field, which often requires direct supervision by a licensed psychologist. Still others may find jobs involving research and data collection and analysis in universities, government, or private companies. Bachelor's degree holders can expect very few opportunities directly related to psychology. Some may find jobs as assistants in rehabilitation centers or in other jobs involving data collection and analysis. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school psychology teachers.  Related Occupations Psychologists are trained to conduct research and teach, evaluate, counsel, and advise individuals and groups with special needs. Others who do this kind of work include psychiatrists, clinical social workers, sociologists, clergy, special education teachers, and counselors.  Earnings According to a 1993 survey by the American Psychological Associa­ tion, the median starting salary of psychologists with a doctoral degree was $39,100 in counseling psychology; $39,000 in research positions; $40,000 in clinical psychology; and $45,000 in school psychology. The median annual salary of master's degree holders was $26,000 in counseling psychology; $24,000 in clinical psychol­ ogy; $28,000 in research positions; $34,500 in school psychology, and $58,000 in industrial-organizational psychology. Some psy­ chologists have much higher earnings, particularly those in private practice. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the starting salary for psychologists having a bachelor's degree was about $18,700 a year in 1995; those with superior academic records could begin at $23,200. Counseling and school psychologists with a mas­ ter's degree and 1 year of counseling experience could start at $28,300. Clinical psychologists having a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree and 1 year of internship could start at $34,300 and some individuals with experience could start at $41,100. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas of the country where the prevailing local pay  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information For information on careers, educational requirements, financial assistance, and licensing in all fields of psychology, contact: •■American Psychological Association, Research Office and Education in Psychology and Accreditation Offices, 750 1st St. NE., Washington, DC 20002.  For information on careers, educational requirements, and licens­ ing of school psychologists, contact: •"National Association of School Psychologists, 4030 East West Highway, Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20814.  Information about State licensing requirements is available from: •■Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards, P.O. Box 4389, Montgomery, AL 36103-4389.  Information on traineeships and fellowships also is available from colleges and universities that have graduate departments of psychology.  Urban and Regional Planners (D.O.T. 188.167-110 and 199.167-014)  Nature of the Work Urban and regional planners are often referred to as community or city planners because many are employed by local governments. They develop long and short-term land use plans to provide for growth and revitalization of urban, suburban, and rural communities, while helping local officials make decisions on social, economic, and environmental problems. Planners devise plans promoting the best use of a community's land and resources for residential, commercial, and recreational activities. Planners also are involved in various other planning activities, including social services, transportation, resource devel­ opment, and the protection of ecologically sensitive regions. They address issues such as traffic congestion, air pollution, and the effect of growth and change on an area. They may formulate capital im­ provement plans for the construction of new school buildings, public housing, or sewage systems. Planners are involved in environmental issues ranging from pollution control to wetland preservation, forest conservation, and the location of new landfills. Planners also may be involved with drafting legislation on social issues such as the needs of the elderly, sheltering the homeless, or meeting the demand for new correctional facilities. Planners examine proposed community facilities such as schools to be sure these facilities will meet the demands placed upon them over time by population growth. They keep abreast of the economic and legal issues involved in zoning codes, building codes, and envi­ ronmental regulations. They ensure that builders and developers follow these codes and regulations. Planners also deal with land use and environmental issues created by population movements. For example, as suburban growth increases the need for traveling, some planners design new transportation systems and parking facilities. Before preparing plans for community development, planners report on the current use of land for residential, business, and com-  Professional Specialty Occupations 127  munity purposes. These reports include information on the location of streets, highways, water and sewer lines, schools, libraries, and cultural and recreational sites, and provide data on the types of industries in the community, characteristics of the population, and employment and economic trends. With this information, along with input from citizens' advisory committees, planners design the layout of recommended buildings and other facilities such as subway lines and stations, and prepare reports that show how their programs can be carried out and what they will cost. Planners increasingly use computers to record and analyze infor­ mation and to prepare their reports and recommendations for gov­ ernment leaders and others. Computer databases, spreadsheets, and analytical techniques are widely used to determine program costs and forecast future trends in employment, housing, transportation, or population. Computerized geographic information systems enable planners to map land areas and overlay maps with geographic vari­ ables, such as population density, as well as to combine and manipu­ late geographic information to produce alternative plans for land use or development. Urban and regional planners often confer with land developers, civic leaders, and public officials. They may function as mediators in community disputes by presenting alternatives that are acceptable to opposing parties. Planners may prepare material for community relations programs, speak at civic meetings, and appear before legis­ lative committees and elected officials to explain and defend their proposals. In large organizations, planners usually specialize in a single area such as transportation, housing, historic preservation, urban design, environmental and regulatory issues, or economic development. In small organizations, planners must be generalists, able to do various kinds of planning. Working Conditions Urban and regional planners spend much of their time in offices. To be familiar with areas that they are developing, however, they peri­ odically spend time outdoors inspecting the features of land under consideration for development, including its current use and the types of structures on it. Some local government planners involved in site development inspections spend most of their time in the field. Al­ though most planners have a scheduled 40-hour workweek, they frequently attend evening or weekend meetings or public hearings with citizens' groups. Planners may experience the pressure of deadlines and tight work schedules, as well as political pressure generated by interest groups affected by their land use proposals.  ■a  Most entry level jobs for urban and regional planners require a master’s degree.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment Urban and regional planners held about 29,000 jobs in 1994, 2 out of 3 of whom were employed by local governments. An increasing proportion of planners work in the private sector for companies involved with real estate and transportation. Others are employed in State agencies that deal with housing, transportation, or environ­ mental protection, and a small number work for the Federal Govern­ ment. Many planners do consulting work, either part time as a supple­ ment to their regular jobs, or full time. They provide services to private developers or government agencies. Private sector employers include architectural and surveying firms, management and public relations firms, educational institutions, large land developers, and law firms specializing in land use. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers prefer workers who have advanced training. Most entry level jobs in Federal, State, and local government agencies require a master's degree in urban or regional planning or urban design, or the equivalent in work experience. A bachelor's degree from an accred­ ited planning program, coupled with a master’s degree in architec­ ture, landscape architecture, or civil engineering, is good preparation for entry-level planning jobs in areas such as urban design, traffic, or the environment. A master's degree from an accredited planning program provides the best training for a number of planning fields. Although graduates from one of the limited number of accredited bachelor's degree programs qualify for many beginning positions, their advancement opportunities often are limited unless they acquire an advanced degree. Courses in related disciplines such as architec­ ture, law, earth sciences, demography, economics, finance, health administration, geographic information systems, and management are highly recommended. In addition, familiarity with computer models and statistical techniques is necessary because of the increasing use of computerized modeling and geographic information systems in planning analyses. In 1994, about 80 colleges and universities offered an accredited master's degree program and about 10 offered an accredited bache­ lor's degree program in urban or regional planning. These programs are accredited by the Planning Accreditation Board, which consists of representatives of the American Institute of Certified Planners and the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning. Most graduate programs in planning require a minimum of 2 years. Specializations most commonly offered by planning schools are environmental planning, land use and comprehensive planning, economic development, and housing. Other popular offerings in­ clude community development, transportation, and urban design. Graduate students spend considerable time in studios, workshops, and laboratory courses learning to analyze and solve planning prob­ lems. They often are required to work in a planning office part time or during the summer. Local government planning offices frequently offer students internships that provide experience that proves invalu­ able in obtaining a full-time planning position after graduation. The American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP), a profes­ sional institute within the American Planning Association (APA), grants certification to individuals who have the appropriate combina­ tion of education and professional experience and who pass an examination. Certification may be helpful for promotion. Planners must be able to think in terms of spatial relationships and visualize the effects of their plans and designs. Planners should be flexible and able to reconcile different viewpoints and to make constructive policy recommendations. The ability to communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, is necessary for anyone inter­ ested in this field. After a few years' experience, planners may advance to assign­ ments requiring a high degree of independent judgment, such as designing the physical layout of a large development or recommend­ ing policy and budget options. Some public sector planners are promoted to jobs as planning directors and spend a great deal of time  128 Occupational Outlook Handbook  meeting with officials, speaking to civic groups, and supervising a staff. Further advancement occurs through a transfer to a larger jurisdiction with more complex problems and greater responsibilities, or into related occupations, such as director of community or eco­ nomic development. In the private sector, experience leads to in­ creases in independence and compensation. Job Outlook A master's degree from an accredited planning program, or a master's degree in civil engineering or landscape architecture coupled with training in transportation, environmental planning, geographic infor­ mation systems, or urban design, provide the most marketable back­ ground. Graduates with a bachelor's degree in planning but no graduate degree will have more difficulty finding a job in this field, although prospects are much brighter for entry-level jobs for those from one of the ten undergraduate programs in the country with an accredited bachelor's degree. Employment of urban and regional planners is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, however, are expected to arise from the need to replace experienced planners who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. The continuing importance of transportation, environmental, and housing planning will increase demand for urban and regional plan­ ners. Specific factors contributing to job growth include the need to regulate commercial development of suburban areas with rapidly growing populations and legislation related to the environment, transportation, housing, and land use and development. Movements such as historic preservation and central city redevelopment will provide additional openings. However, local communities have limited resources and many demands for services. When communi­ ties need to cut expenditures, planning services may be cut before more basic services such as police or education. Most new jobs for urban and regional planners will arise in rap­ idly expanding communities. Local governments need planners to address an array of problems associated with population growth. For example, new housing developments require roads, sewer systems,  fire stations, schools, libraries, and recreation facilities that must be planned while considering budgetary constraints. Small town cham­ bers of commerce, economic development authorities and tourism bureaus are eager to hire planners, provided that the candidate has some background in marketing and public relations. Earnings Salaries of planners vary by educational attainment, type of em­ ployer, experience, size of community in which they work, and geographic location. According to a 1994 report by the APA, urban and regional planners with less than 5 years of experience earned median annual salaries of about $30,000 to $37,000. Planners with between 5 and 10 years' experience earned median salaries of about $39,000 to $42,000. Those with more than 10 years' experience earned median annual salaries of about $52,000 to $63,000. According to limited data, median annual earnings of full-time wage and salary urban and regional planners were about $45,000 in 1994. Planners with a master's degree were hired by the Federal Gov­ ernment at a starting average salary of $28,300 a year in 1994. In some cases, persons having less than 2 years of graduate work could enter Federal service as interns at yearly salaries of about $18,700 or $23,200. Salaries of community planners employed by the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial posi­ tions averaged about $55,500 a year in 1995. Related Occupations Urban and regional planners develop plans for the orderly growth of urban and rural communities. Others whose work is similar to the work of planners include architects, landscape architects, city man­ agers, civil engineers, environmental engineers, and geographers. Sources of Additional Information Information on careers, salaries, and certification in urban and re­ gional planning is available from: •■American Planning Association, Education Division, 122 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 1600, Chicago, IL 60630-6107.  Social and Recreation Workers Human Services Workers (D.O.T. 195.367 except -026 and -030)  Nature of the Work "Human services worker" is a generic term for people with various job titles, such as social service assistant, case management aide, social work assistant, residential counselor, community support worker, alcohol or drug abuse counselor, mental health technician, child-care worker, community outreach worker, life skill counselor, and gerontology aide. They generally work under the direction of professionals from a wide variety of fields, such as nursing, psychia­ try, psychology, rehabilitation, or social work. The amount of re­ sponsibility and supervision they are given varies a great deal. Some are on their own most of the time and have little direct supervision; others work under close direction. Human services workers provide direct and indirect client serv­ ices. They assess clients’ needs, establish their eligibility for benefits and services, and help clients obtain them. They examine financial documents such as rent receipts and tax returns to determine whether   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the client is eligible for food stamps, Medicaid, welfare, and other human service programs. They also arrange for transportation and escorts, if necessary, and provide emotional support. Human serv­ ices workers monitor and keep case records on clients and report progress to supervisors. Human services workers may transport or accompany clients to group meal sites, adult daycare programs, or doctors' offices; tele­ phone or visit clients' homes to make sure services are being re­ ceived; or help resolve disagreements, such as those between tenants and landlords. Human services workers play a variety of roles in community settings. They may organize and lead group activities, assist clients in need of counseling or crisis intervention, or administer a food bank or emergency fuel program. In halfway houses, group homes, and government-supported housing programs, they assist adult residents who need supervision in personal hygiene and daily living skills. They review clients' records, ensure they take correct doses of medication, talk with their families, and confer with medical personnel to gain better insight into clients' backgrounds and needs. They also provide emotional support and help clients become involved in community recreation programs and other activities.  Professional Specialty Occupations 129  ;J1S  if .&?.■ AGING  WAVNf  Human services workers may accompany clients to adult daycare programs. In psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation programs, and outpatient clinics, they may help clients master everyday living skills and teach them how to communicate more effectively and get along better with others. They support the client's participation in the treatment plan, such as individual or group counseling and occupational therapy. Working Conditions Working conditions of human services workers vary. They work in offices, group homes, shelters, day programs, sheltered workshops, hospitals, clinics, and in the field visiting clients. Most work a regular 40-hour week, although some work may be in the evening and on weekends. Human services workers in residential settings generally work in shifts because residents need supervision around the clock. The work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Under­ staffing and an inadequate work environment may add to the pres­ sure. Turnover is reported to be high, especially among workers without academic preparation for this field. Employment Human services workers held about 168,000 jobs in 1994. About one-fourth were employed by State and local governments, primarily in public welfare agencies and facilities for mentally disabled and developmentally delayed individuals. Another fourth worked in private social or human services agencies offering a variety of serv­ ices, including adult daycare, group meals, crisis intervention, and counseling. Many human services workers supervised residents of group homes and halfway houses. Human services workers also held jobs in clinics, detoxification units, community mental health centers, psychiatric hospitals, day treatment programs, and sheltered workshops. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement While some employers hire high school graduates, most prefer applicants with some college preparation in human services, social work, or one of the social or behavioral sciences. Some prefer to hire persons with a 4-year college degree. The level of formal education of human service workers often influences the kind of work they are assigned and the amount of responsibility entrusted to them. Work­ ers with no more than a high school education are likely to receive on-the-job training to work in direct care services, while those with a college degree might be assigned to do supportive counseling, coordinate program activities, or manage a group home. Employers may also look for experience in other occupations, leadership expe­ rience in an organization, or human service volunteer exposure. Some enter the field on the basis of courses in human services,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  psychology, rehabilitation, social work, sociology, or special educa­ tion. Most employers provide in-service training such as seminars and workshops. Because so many human services jobs involve direct contact with people who are vulnerable to exploitation or mistreatment, employers try to select applicants with appropriate personal qualifications. Relevant academic preparation is generally required, and volunteer or work experience is preferred. A strong desire to help others, patience, and understanding are highly valued characteristics. Other important personal traits include communication skills, a strong sense of responsibility, and the ability to manage time effectively. Hiring requirements in group homes tend to be more stringent than in other settings. In some settings, applicants may need a valid driver's license and must meet the Criminal Offense Record Investigation (CORI) requirement. Special licensure or State certifications may also apply. In 1994, 375 certificate and associate degree programs in human services or mental health were offered at community and junior colleges, vocational-technical institutes, and other postsecondary institutions. In addition, 390 programs offered a bachelor's degree in human services. Master's degree programs in human services ad­ ministration are offered as well. Generally, academic programs in this field educate students for specialized roles. Human services programs have a core curriculum that trains students in observation and recording, interviewing, communication techniques, behavior management, group dynamics, counseling, crisis intervention, case management, and referral. General education courses in liberal arts, sciences, and the humani­ ties are also part of the curriculum. Many degree programs require completion of an internship. Formal education is almost always necessary for advancement. In general, advancement requires a bachelor's or master's degree in counseling, rehabilitation, social work, or a related field. Job Outlook Opportunities for human services workers are expected to be excel­ lent for qualified applicants. The number of human services workers is projected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations between 1994 and the year 2005—ranking among the most rapidly growing occupations. Also, the need to replace workers who retire or stop working for other reasons will create additional job opportuni­ ties. These jobs are not attractive to everyone due to the emotionally draining work and relatively low pay, so qualified applicants should have little difficulty finding employment. Opportunities are expected to be best in job training programs, residential settings, and private social service agencies, which in­ clude such services as adult daycare and meal delivery programs. Demand for these services will expand with the growing number of older people, who are more likely to need services. In addition, human services workers will continue to be needed to provide serv­ ices to the mentally disabled and developmentally delayed, those with substance abuse problems, the homeless, and pregnant teenag­ ers. Faced with rapid growth in the demand for services, but slower growth in resources to provide the services, employers are expected to rely increasingly on human services workers rather than other occupations that command higher pay. Job training programs are expected to require additional human services workers as the economy grows and businesses change their mode of production, requiring workers to be retrained. Human services workers help determine workers’ eligibility for public assis­ tance programs and help them obtain services while unemployed. Residential settings should expand also as pressures to respond to the needs of the chronically mentally ill persist. For many years, chronic mental patients have been deinstitutionalized and left to their own devices. Now, more community-based programs, supported inde­ pendent living sites, and group residences are expected to be estab­ lished to house and assist the homeless and chronically mentally ill, and demand for human services workers will increase accordingly.  130 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Jobs for human services workers will grow more rapidly than overall employment in State and local governments. State and local governments employ most of their human services workers in cor­ rections and public assistance departments. Corrections departments are growing faster than other areas of government, so human services workers should find that their job opportunities increase along with other corrections jobs. Public assistance programs have been em­ ploying more human services workers in an attempt to employ fewer social workers, who are more educated and higher paid. Earnings Based on limited information, starting salaries for human services workers ranged from about $13,000 to $20,000 a year in 1994. Experienced workers generally earned between $18,000 and $27,000 annually, depending on their education, experience, and employer. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations that require skills similar to those of human services workers include social workers, religious workers, occupational therapy assistants, physical therapy assistants, psychi­ atric aides, and activity leaders. Sources of Additional Information Information on academic programs in human services may be found in most directories of 2- and 4-year colleges, available at libraries or career counseling centers. For information on programs and careers in human services, contact:  ••National Organization for Human Service Education, Brookdale Commu­ nity College, Lyncroft, NJ 07738. •■Council for Standards in Human Service Education, Northern Essex Com­ munity College, Haverhill, MA 01830.  Information on job openings may be available from State em­ ployment service offices or directly from city, county, or State de­ partments of health, mental health and mental retardation, and human resources.  Recreation Workers (D.O.T. 153.137-010; 159.124-010; 187.167-238; 195.227-010, -014; 352.167-010)  Nature of the Work Many people spend some of their leisure time participating in organ­ ized recreation ranging from aerobics or crafts to hiking or softball. Recreation programs, as diverse as the people they serve, are offered at local playgrounds and recreation areas, parks, community centers, health clubs, churches and synagogues, camps, and theme parks and tourist attractions. Recreation workers plan, organize, and direct these activities. Recreation workers organize and lead programs and watch over recreational facilities and equipment. They help people to pursue their interest in crafts, art, or sports. They enable people to share common interests in physical or mental activities for their mutual entertainment, physical fitness, and self-improvement. Recreation workers organize teams and leagues and also teach the correct use of equipment and facilities. In the workplace, recreation workers oganize and direct leisure activities and athletic programs for all ages, such as bowling and softball leagues, social functions, travel programs, discount services, and, to an increasing extent, exercise and fitness programs. These activities are generally for adults. Camp counselors lead and instruct children and teenagers in outdoor-oriented forms of recreation, such as swimming, hiking, and horseback riding as well as camping. Activities often are intended to   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  enhance campers' appreciation of nature and responsible use of the environment. In addition, counselors provide campers with special­ ized instruction in activities such as archery, boating, music, drama, gymnastics, tennis, or computers. In resident camps, counselors also provide guidance and supervise daily living and general socialization. Recreation workers occupy a variety of positions at different levels of responsibility. Recreation leaders are responsible for a recreation program s daily operation and organize and direct partici­ pants. They may lead and give instruction in dance, drama, crafts, games, and sports; schedule use of facilities and keep records of equipment use; and monitor the use of recreation facilities and equipment to make sure they are used properly. Workers who pro­ vide instruction in specialties such as art, music, drama, swimming, or tennis may be called activity specialists. They often conduct classes and coach teams in the activity in which they specialize. Recreation supervisors plan programs to meet the needs of the population they serve and supervise recreation leaders and activity specialists, sometimes over a large region. They may also direct specialized activities and special events. A growing number of supervisors use computers in their work. In a related occupation, recreational therapists help individuals recover or adjust to illness, disability, or specific social problems; this occupation is described elsewhere in the Handbook. Working Conditions Recreation workers must work while others engage in leisure time activities. While most recreation workers put in about 40 hours a week, people entering this field—especially camp counselors— should expect some night and weekend work and irregular hours. About 3 out of 10 worked part time and many jobs are seasonal. The work setting for recreation workers may be anywhere from a cruise ship to a woodland recreational park. Recreation workers often spend much of their time outdoors and may work under a variety of weather conditions. Recreation supervisors may spend most of their time in an office. Since full-time recreation workers spend more time acting as managers than hands-on activities leaders, they engage in less physical activity. However, as is the case for anyone engaged in physical activity, recreation workers risk injuries, and the work can be physically tiring. Employment Recreation workers held about 222,000 jobs in 1994, and many additional workers held summer jobs in this occupation. Of those who held full-time jobs as recreation workers, about half worked in park and recreation departments of municipal and county govern­ ments. About 17 percent worked in membership organizations with a  *•>  Recreation workers often work outdoors with children.  Professional Specialty Occupations 131  civic, social, fraternal, or religious orientation—the Boy Scouts, the YWCA, and Red Cross, for example. Another 11 percent were in programs run by social service organizations—senior centers and adult daycare programs, or residential care facilities such as halfway houses, group homes, and institutions for delinquent youth. An additional 10 percent worked for nursing and other personal care facilities. Other employers included commercial recreation establishments, amusement parks, sports and entertainment centers, wilderness and survival enterprises, tourist attractions, vacation excursion compa­ nies, hotels and resorts, summer camps, health and athletic clubs, and apartment complexes. The recreation field has an unusually large number of part-time, seasonal, and volunteer jobs. These jobs include summer camp counselors, lifeguards, craft specialists, and after-school and week­ end recreation program leaders. Teachers and college students take many jobs as recreation workers when school is not in session. Many unpaid volunteers assist paid recreation workers. The vast majority of volunteers serve as activity leaders at local day-camp programs, or in youth organizations, camps, nursing homes, hospi­ tals, senior centers, YMCA's, and other settings. Some volunteers serve on local park and recreation boards and commissions. Volun­ teer experience, part-time work during school, or a summer job can lead to a full-time job. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Education needed for recreation worker jobs ranges from a high school diploma, or sometimes less, for many summer jobs to gradu­ ate education for some administrative positions in large public sys­ tems. Full-time career professional positions usually require a college degree with a major in parks and recreation or leisure studies, but a bachelor's degree in any liberal arts field may be sufficient for some jobs in the private sector. In industrial recreation, or employee services as it is more commonly called, companies prefer to hire those with a bachelor's degree in recreation or leisure studies and a background in business administration. Specialized training or experience in a particular field, such as art, music, drama, or athletics, is an asset for many jobs. Some jobs also require a certification. For example, when teaching or coaching water-related activities, a lifesaving certificate is a prerequisite. Graduates of associate degree programs in parks and recreation, social work, and other human services disciplines also enter some career recreation positions. Occasionally high school graduates are able to enter career positions, but this is not common. Some college students work part time as recreation workers while earning degrees. A bachelor's degree and experience are preferred for most recrea­ tion supervisor jobs and required for most higher level administrator jobs. However, increasing numbers of recreation workers who aspire to administrator positions are obtaining master's degrees in parks and recreation or related disciplines. Also, many persons in other disci­ plines, including social work, forestry, and resource management, pursue graduate degrees in recreation. Programs leading to an associate or bachelor's degree in parks and recreation, leisure studies, or related fields are offered at several hundred colleges and universities. Many also offer master's or doctoral degrees in this field. In 1995, approximately 90 bachelor's degree programs in parks and recreation were accredited by the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA). Accredited programs provide broad exposure to the history, theory, and philosophy of park and recreation man­ agement. Courses offered include community organization, supervi­ sion and administration, recreational needs of special populations, such as older adults or the disabled, and supervised fieldwork. Students may specialize in areas such as therapeutic recreation, park management, outdoor recreation, industrial or commercial recreation, and camp management. The American Camping Association has developed a curriculum for camp director education. Many national youth associations offer   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  training courses for camp directors at the local and regional levels. Persons planning recreation careers should be outgoing, good at motivating people, and sensitive to the needs of others. Good health and physical fitness are required. Activity planning calls for creativ­ ity and resourcefulness. Willingness to accept responsibility and the ability to exercise good judgment are important qualities since rec­ reation personnel often work without close supervision. Part-time or summer recreation work experience while in high school or college may help students decide whether their interests really point to a human services career. Such experience also may increase their leadership skills and understanding of people. Individuals contemplating careers in recreation at the supervisory or administrative level should develop managerial skills. College courses in management, business administration, accounting, and personnel management are likely to be useful. Certification for this field is offered by the NRPA National Certi­ fication Board and the American Camping Association. The Na­ tional Recreation and Parks Association, along with its State chapters, offers certification as a Certified Leisure Professional (CLP) for those with a college degree in recreation, and as a Certified Leisure Associate (CLA) for those with less than 4 years of college, for example. The American Camping Association offers a certifica­ tion program for camp directors. Continuing education is necessary to remain certified in either field. Certification is not usually required for employment or advance­ ment in this field, but it is an asset. Employers choosing among qualified job applicants may opt to hire the person with a demon­ strated record of professional achievement represented by certifica­ tion. Job Outlook Applicants for full-time career positions in recreation will face keen competition. All college graduates can enter recreation jobs, regard­ less of major, as well as some high school and junior college gradu­ ates, so the number of full-time career jobseekers often greatly exceed the number of job openings. Opportunities for staff positions should be best for persons with job experience gained in part-time or seasonal recreation jobs, together with formal recreation training. Those with graduate degrees should have the best opportunities for supervisory or administrative positions. Prospects are better for the large number of temporary seasonal jobs. These positions, typically filled by high school or college students, do not generally have formal education requirements and are open to anyone with the desired personal qualities. Employers compete for a share of the vacationing student labor force, and, while salaries in recreation are often lower than those in other fields, the nature of the work and the opportunity to work outdoors is attractive to many. Seasonal employment prospects should be good for appli­ cants with specialized training and certification in an activity like swimming. These workers may obtain jobs as program directors. Employment of recreation workers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as growing numbers of people possess both the time and the money to purchase leisure services. Growth in these jobs will also stem from increased interest in fitness and health and the rising demand for recreational opportunities for older adults in senior centers and retirement communities. However, overall job growth in local government—where half of all recreation workers are employed—is expected to be slow due to budget constraints, and local park and recreation departments are expected to do less hiring for permanent, full-time positions than in the past. As a result, this sector's share of recreation worker employment will continue to shrink. Nonetheless, opportunities will vary widely by region, since resources as well as priorities for public services differ from one community to another. Thus, hiring prospects for recreation workers will be much better in some park and recreation departments than overall projections would suggest, but worse in others. Recreation worker jobs should also increase in social services—  132 Occupational Outlook Handbook  more recreation workers will be needed to develop and lead activity programs in senior centers, halfway houses, children s homes, and daycare programs for the mentally retarded or developmentally disabled. Similarly, the increasing elderly population will spur job growth in nursing homes and other personal care facilities. Recreation worker jobs in employee services and recreation will continue to increase as more businesses recognize the benefits to their employees of recreation programs and other services such as wellness programs and elder care. Job growth will also occur in the commercial recreation industry, composed of amusement parks, athletic clubs, camps, sports clinics, and swimming pools. Earnings Median annual earnings of recreation workers who worked full time in 1994 were about $15,500. The middle 50 percent earned between about $10,600 and $24,800, while the top 10 percent earned $38,900 or more. However, earnings of recreation directors and others in supervisory or managerial positions can be substantially higher. Most public and private recreation agencies provide full-time recreation workers with vacation and other benefits, such as paid vacation, sick leave, and health insurance. Part-time workers receive few, if any, benefits. Related Occupations .... . Recreation workers must exhibit leadership and sensitivity in dealing with people. Other occupations that require similar personal qualities include recreational therapists, social workers, parole officers, human relations counselors, school counselors, clinical and counseling psychologists, and teachers. Sources of Additional Information For information on jobs in recreation, contact employers such as local government departments of parks and recreation, nursing and personal care facilities, and YMCA's. Ordering information for materials describing careers and aca­ demic programs in recreation is available from: •"National Recreation and Park Association, Division of Professional Serv­ ices, 2775 South Quincy St., Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22206.  For information on careers in employee services and recreation, contact:  •■National Employee Services and Recreation Association, 2211 York Rd., Suite 207, Oakbrook, II, 60521.  For information on careers in camping and summer counselor opportunities, contact: •"American Camping Association, 5000 State Rd. 67 North, Martinsville, IN 46151.  Social Workers (D.O.T. 045.107-058; 189.267-010; 195.107, .137, .164, .167-010, -014, .267-018, -022, and .367-026)  Nature of the Work Social workers help people deal with a wide range of problems. They help individuals and families cope with mental illness and problems such as inadequate housing, unemployment, lack of job skills, financial mismanagement, serious illness, disability, substance abuse, unwanted pregnancy, or antisocial behavior. They also work with families who have serious conflicts, including those involving child or spousal abuse. Through direct counseling, social workers help clients identify their concerns, consider solutions, and find resources. Often, social workers provide concrete information such as where to go for debt counseling, how to find child care or elder care, how to apply for   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  public assistance or other benefits, or how to get an alcoholic or drug addict admitted to a rehabilitation program. Social workers may also arrange for services in consultation with clients and then follow through to assure the services are actually helpful. They may review eligibility requirements, fill out forms and applications, arrange for services, visit clients on a regular basis, and provide support during crises. Most social workers specialize in a clinical field such as child welfare and family services, mental health, or school social work. Clinical social workers offer psychotherapy or counseling and a range of services in public agencies, clinics, as well as in private practice. Other social workers are employed in community organi­ zation, administration, or research. Social workers in child welfare or family services may counsel children and youths who have difficulty adjusting socially, advise parents on how to care for disabled children, or arrange for home­ maker services during a parent's illness. If children have serious problems in school, child welfare workers may consult with parents, teachers, and counselors to identify underlying causes and develop plans for treatment. Some social workers assist single parents, arrange adoptions, and help find foster homes for neglected, aban­ doned, or abused children. Child welfare workers also work in residential institutions for children and adolescents. Social workers in child or adult protective services investigate reports of abuse and neglect and intervene if necessary. They may institute legal action to remove children from homes and place them temporarily in an emergency shelter or with a foster family. Mental health social workers provide services for persons with mental or emotional problems, such as individual and group therapy, outreach, crisis intervention, social rehabilitation, and training in skills of everyday living. They may also help plan for sup­ portive services to ease patients' return to the community. (Also see the statements on counselors and psychologists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Health care social workers help patients and their families cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses and handle problems that may stand in the way of recovery or rehabilitation. They may organ­ ize support groups for families of patients suffering from cancer, AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, or other illnesses. They also advise family caregivers, counsel patients, and help plan for their needs after discharge by arranging for at-home services—from meals-on-wheels to oxygen equipment. Some work on interdisciplinary teams that evaluate certain kinds of patients—geriatric or transplant patients, for example. School social workers diagnose students' problems and arrange needed services, counsel children in trouble, and help integrate disabled students into the general school population. School social workers deal with problems such as student pregnancy, misbehavior in class, and excessive absences. They also advise teachers on how to deal with problem students. Social workers in criminal justice make recommendations to courts, do pre-sentencing assessments, and provide services for prison inmates and their families. Probation and parole officers provide similar services to individuals sentenced by a court to parole or probation. Occupational social workers generally work in a corporation's personnel department or health unit. Through employee assistance programs, they help workers cope with job-related pressures or personal problems that affect the quality of their work. They offer direct counseling to employees, often those whose performance is hindered by emotional or family problems or substance abuse. They also develop education programs and refer workers to specialized community programs. Some social workers specialize in gerontological services. They run support groups for family caregivers or for the adult children of aging parents; advise elderly people or family members about the choices in such areas as housing, transportation, and long-term care; and coordinate and monitor services.  Professional Specialty Occupations 133  My}  Social workers must establish and maintain good relationships with their clients.  Social workers also focus on policy and planning. They help develop programs to address such issues as child abuse, homeless­ ness, substance abuse, poverty, and violence. These workers re­ search and analyze policies, programs, and regulations. They identify social problems and suggest legislative and other solutions. They may help raise funds or write grants to support these programs. Working Conditions Most social workers have a standard 40-hour week. However, they may work some evenings and weekends to meet with clients, attend community meetings, and handle emergencies. Some, particularly in voluntary nonprofit agencies, work part time. They may spend most of their time in an office or residential facility, but may also travel locally to visit clients or meet with service providers. The work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Under­ staffing and large caseloads add to the pressure in some agencies. Employment Social workers held about 557,000 jobs in 1994. Nearly 40 percent of the jobs were in State, county, or municipal government agencies, primarily in departments of human resources, social services, child welfare, mental health, health, housing, education, and corrections. Most in the private sector were in voluntary social service agencies, community and religious organizations, hospitals, nursing homes, or home health agencies. Although most social workers are employed in cities or suburbs, some work in rural areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree is the minimum requirement for most positions. Besides the bachelor's in social work (BSW), undergraduate majors in psychology, sociology, and related fields satisfy hiring require­ ments in some agencies, especially small community agencies. A masters degree in social work (MSW) is generally necessary for positions in health and mental health settings. Jobs in public agen­ cies may also require an MSW. Supervisory, administrative, and staff training positions usually require at least an MSW. College and University teaching positions and most research appointments nor­ mally require a doctorate in social work. In 1994, the Council on Social Work Education accredited 383 BSW programs and 117 MSW programs. There were 56 doctoral programs for Ph.D.'s in social work and DSW’s (Doctor of Social Work). BSW programs prepare graduates for direct service positions such as case worker or group worker. They include courses in social work practice, social welfare policies, human behavior and the social   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  environment, and social research methods. Accredited BSW pro­ grams require at least 400 hours of supervised field experience. An MSW degree prepares graduates to perform assessments, manage cases, and supervise other workers. Master's programs usually last 2 years and include 900 hours of supervised field in­ struction, or internship. Entry into an MSW program does not re­ quire a bachelor's in social work, but courses in psychology, biology, sociology, economics, political science, history, social anthropology, urban studies, and social work are recommended. Some schools offer an accelerated MSW program for those with a BSW. Social workers may advance to supervisor, program manager, assistant director, or executive director of an agency or department. Advancement generally requires an MSW, as well as experience. Although some social workers with a BSW may be promoted to these positions after gaining experience, some employers choose to hire managers directly from MSW programs that focus specifically on management. These graduates often have little work experience but have an understanding of management through their education and training. Other career options for social workers include teaching, research, and consulting. Some help formulate government policies by analyzing and advocating policy positions in government agen­ cies, in research institutions, and on legislators' staffs. Some social workers go into private practice. Most private prac­ titioners are clinical social workers who provide psychotherapy, usually paid through health insurance. Private practitioners must have a MSW and a period of supervised work experience. A network of contacts for referrals is also essential. Since 1993, all States and the District of Columbia have had licensing, certification, or registration laws regarding social work practice and the use of professional titles. Standards for licensing vary by State. In addition, voluntary certification is offered by the National Association of Social Workers (NASW), which grants the title ACSW (Academy of Certified Social Worker) or ACBSW (Academy of Certified Baccalaureate Social Worker) to those who qualify. For clinical social workers, who are granted the title QCSW (Qualified Clinical Social Worker), professional credentials include listing in the NASW Register of Clinical Social Workers. Advanced credentials include the NASW Diplomate in Clinical Social Work, and School Social Work Specialist. An advanced credential is also offered by the Directory of American Board of Examiners in Clinical Social Work. Credentials are particularly important for those in private practice; some health insurance providers require them for reimbursement. Social workers should be emotionally mature, objective, and sensitive to people and their problems. They must be able to handle responsibility, work independently, and maintain good working relationships with clients and coworkers. Volunteer or paid jobs as a social work aide offer ways of testing one's interest in this field. Job Outlook Employment of social workers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The number of older people, who are more likely to need social services, is growing rapidly. In addition, rising crime and juvenile delinquency as well as increasing concern about services for the mentally ill, the mentally retarded, AIDS patients, and individuals and families in crisis will spur demand for social workers. Many job openings will also arise due to the need to replace social workers who leave the occupation. Projected employment growth among social workers in hospitals reflects greater emphasis on discharge planning, which facilitates early discharge of patients by assuring that the necessary medical services and social supports are in place when individuals leave the hospital. Employment of social workers in private social service agencies will grow, but not as rapidly as demand for their services. Agencies will increasingly restructure services and hire more lower paid hu­ man services workers instead of social workers. Employment in government should also grow in response to increasing needs for  134 Occupational Outlook Handbook  public welfare and family services. However, employment levels will depend on government funding for various social service programs. Social worker employment in home health care services is grow­ ing, not only because hospitals are releasing patients more quickly, but because a large and growing number of people have impairments or disabilities that make it difficult to live at home without some form of assistance. Opportunities for social workers in private practice will expand because of the anticipated availability of funding from health insur­ ance and public-sector contracts. Also, with increasing affluence, people will be better able to pay for professional help to deal with personal problems. The growing popularity of employee assistance programs is also expected to spur demand for private practitioners, some of whom provide social work services to corporations on a contractual basis. Employment of school social workers is expected to grow, due to expanded efforts to respond to the adjustment problems of immi­ grants, children from single-parent families, and rising rates of teen pregnancy. Moreover, continued emphasis on integrating disabled children into the general school population—a requirement under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act—will lead to more jobs. Availability of State and local funding will dictate the actual increase in jobs in this setting, however. Competition for social worker jobs is stronger in cities where training programs for social workers abound; rural areas often find it difficult to attract and retain qualified staff.  Earnings According to a membership survey of the National Association of Social Workers, social workers with MSW degrees had median earnings of $30,000 in 1993. For those with BSW degrees, median earnings were between $17,500 and $20,000. In hospitals, social workers who worked full-time averaged about $33,300 in 1994, according to a survey conducted by the University of Texas Medical Branch. Salaries ranged from a minimum of about $26,700 to a maximum of about $40,100. The average annual salary for all social workers in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial posi­ tions was about $44,000 in 1995. Related Occupations Through direct counseling or referral to other services, social work­ ers help people solve a range of personal problems. Workers in occupations with similar duties include the clergy, counselors, coun­ seling psychologists, and vocational rehabilitation counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in social work, contact: •"National Association of Social Workers, IC-Career Information, 750 First St. NE., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20002-4241. •"National Network For Social Work Managers, Inc., 1316 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Suite 602, Washington, DC 20036.  An annual Directory of Accredited BSW and MSW Programs is available for a nominal charge from:  •-Council on Social Work Education, 1600 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314­ 3421.  Clergy (D.O.T. 120.107-010)  Nature of the Work Religious beliefs, be they Buddist, Christian, Jewish, Moslem, or based on some other religion, are significant influences in the lives of millions of Americans and prompt many believers to participate in organizations that reinforce their faith. In the United States about 95 percent of all religious organization members are Christians. Protes­ tants (52 percent) comprise the largest group but consist of many denominations such as Baptists, Lutherans, Methodists, and Presby­ terians. The Christian Roman Catholic Church accounts for 37 percent of religious organization membership and is the single largest religious body in the United States. Other Christians belong to the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints (3 percent) and Eastern Orthodox sects (1 percent). Non-Christians account for the remaining 5 percent of religious organization members; 4 out of 5 are Jewish. Clergy are religious and spiritual leaders, and teachers and inter­ preters of their traditions and faith. They organize and lead regular religious services on the Sabbath and on religious holidays, and conduct special wedding and funeral ceremonies upon request. They may lead worshipers in prayer, administer sacraments, deliver ser­ mons, and read from sacred texts such as the Bible, Talmud, or Koran. When not conducting worship services, clergy organize, supervise, and lead religious education programs for their congrega­ tions. Clergy often visit the sick or bereaved to provide comfort, and counsel persons who are seeking religious or moral guidance, or who are troubled by family or personal problems. They also may work to expand the membership of their congregations and solicit donations to support its activities and facilities. Clergy serving large congregations often share their duties with an associate or have more junior members of the clergy to assist  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  them. They often spend considerable time on administrative duties. They oversee the management of buildings, order supplies, contract for services and repairs when necessary, and supervise the work of paid staff and volunteers. Clergy also work with committees and officials, elected by the congregation, who guide the management of the congregation's finances and real estate. Working Conditions Members of the clergy typically work long and irregular hours. Of those who served full time as clergy, about one-third spent at least 60 hours a week on their duties. Although many of their activities are sedentary and intellectual in nature, they are frequently called upon at short notice to visit the sick, comfort the dying and their families, and provide counseling to those in need. Involvement in community, administrative, and educational activities may require clergy to work evenings, early mornings, holidays, and weekends. Training and Other Qualifications Educational requirements for entry into the clergy vary greatly. About 3 out of 4 members of the clergy have completed at least a bachelor's degree. Many denominations require that clergy complete a bachelor's degree and a program of theological study; others will admit anyone who has been "called" to the vocation. Some sects do not allow women to become clergy. The following statements on Protestant ministers, Rabbis, and Roman Catholic priests provide more detailed information; those considering careers in the clergy should check with their religious leaders to verify specific entrance requirements. Individuals considering a career in the clergy should realize they are choosing not only a career but a way of life. Religious leaders need to exude self-confidence and self motivation, while remaining tolerant and able to listen to the needs of others. They should be  Professional Specialty Occupations 135  capable of making difficult decisions, working under pressure, and living up to the moral standards set by their community.  Protestant Ministers (D.O.T. 120.107-010)  Nature of the Work Protestant ministers lead their congregations in worship services and administer the various rites of the church, such as baptism, confirma­ tion, and Holy Communion. There are many Protestant denomina­ tions. The services that ministers conduct differ among denomin­ ations and also among congregations within a denomination. In many denominations, ministers follow a traditional order of worship; in others, they adapt the services to the needs of youth and other groups within the congregation. Most services include Bible reading, hymn singing, prayers, and a sermon. In some denominations, Bible reading by a member of the congregation and individual testimonials may constitute a large part of the service. Each Protestant denomination has its own hierarchical structure. Some ministers are responsible only to the congregation they serve, while others are assigned duties by elder ministers, or by the bishops of the diocese they serve. In some denominations, ministers are reassigned to a new pastorate by a central governing body or diocese every few years. Ministers serving small congregations generally work personally with parishioners. Those serving large congregations may share specific aspects of the ministry with one or more associates or assis­ tants, such as a minister of education who assists in educational programs for different age groups, or a minister of music. Employment In 1994, there were an estimated 300,000 Protestant ministers who served individual congregations. Thousands of others served without a regular congregation, or worked in closely related fields, such as chaplains in hospitals, the Armed Forces, universities, and correc­ tional institutions. While there are numerous denominations, most ministers are employed by the five largest Protestant bodies— Baptist, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian. All cities and most towns in the United States have at least one Protestant church with a full-time minister. Although most ministers are located in urban areas, many serve two or more small congregations in less densely populated areas. Some small  I  .« wm *  Many Protestant denominations allow women to attend seminary and be ordained.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  churches increasingly are employing part-time ministers who may be seminary students, retired ministers, or holders of secular jobs. Unpaid pastors serve other churches with meager funds. Some churches employ specially trained members of the laity to conduct nonliturgical functions. Training and Other Qualifications Educational requirements for entry into the Protestant ministry vary greatly. Many denominations require—or at least strongly prefer—a college bachelor's degree followed by study at a theological school. However, some denominations have no formal educational require­ ments, and others ordain persons having various types of training in Bible colleges, Bible institutes, or liberal arts colleges. Many de­ nominations now allow women to be ordained, but others do not. Persons considering a career in the ministry should verify the en­ trance requirements with their particular denomination before decid­ ing on a career as a minister. In general, each large denomination has its own school or schools of theology that reflect its particular doctrine, interests, and needs. However, many of these schools are open to students from other denominations. Several interdenominational schools associated with universities give both undergraduate and graduate training covering a wide range of theological points of view. In 1994, over 200 American Protestant theological schools were accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. These admit only students who have received a bachelor's degree or its equivalent in liberal arts from an accredited college. After college graduation, many denominations require a 3year course of professional study in one of these accredited schools or seminaries for the degree of Master of Divinity. The standard curriculum for accredited theological schools con­ sists of four major categories; Biblical, historical, theological, and practical. Courses of a practical nature include pastoral care, preaching, religious education, and administration. Many accredited schools require that students work under the supervision of a faculty member or experienced minister. Some institutions offer Doctor of Ministry degrees to students who have completed additional study, usually 2 or more years, and served at least 2 years as a minister. Scholarships and loans are available for students of theological institutions. Persons who have denominational qualifications for the ministry usually are ordained after graduation from a seminary or after serving a probationary pastoral period. Denominations that do not require seminary training ordain clergy at various appointed times. Some evangelical churches may ordain ministers with only a high school education. Men and women entering the clergy often begin their careers as pastors of small congregations or as assistant pastors in large churches. Job Outlook Competition is expected to continue for paid Protestant ministers through the year 2005 due to slow growth of church membership and the large number of qualified candidates. Opportunities are expected to be best for graduates of theological schools. The amount of com­ petition for paid positions will vary among denominations and geo­ graphic regions. Competition will still be strong for more responsible positions serving large, urban congregations. Relatively favorable prospects are expected for ministers in evangelical churches. Ministers willing to work part time or for smaller, rural congregations also should have relatively favorable opportunities. Most of the openings for ministers through the year 2005 will arise from the need to replace retirees and, to a lesser extent, those who die or leave the ministry. Employment alternatives for newly ordained Protestant ministers who are unable to find positions in parishes include working in youth counseling, family relations, and welfare organizations; teaching in  136 Occupational Outlook Handbook  religious educational institutions; and serving as chaplains in the Armed Forces, hospitals, universities, and correctional institutions. Earnings Salaries of Protestant clergy vary substantially, depending on age, experience, denomination, size and wealth of congregation, and geographic location. Based on limited information, the estimated average annual income of Protestant ministers was about $20,000 in 1993. Including benefits such as housing, insurance, and transporta­ tion, average compensation was an estimated $40,000. In large, wealthier denominations, ministers often earned significantly higher salaries. Increasingly, ministers with modest salaries earn additional income from employment in secular occupations. Sources of Additional Information Persons who are interested in entering the Protestant ministry should seek the counsel of a minister or church guidance worker. Theologi­ cal schools can supply information on admission requirements. Prospective ministers also should contact the ordination supervision body of their particular denomination for information on special requirements for ordination.  Rabbis Rabbis teach and interpret Jewish law and tradition. (D.O.T. 120.107-010)  Nature of the Work Rabbis serve either Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, or Reconstruc­ tionist Jewish congregations. Regardless of their particular point of view, all preserve the substance of Jewish religious worship. Con­ gregations differ in the extent to which they follow the traditional form of worship—for example, in the wearing of head coverings, the use of Hebrew as the language of prayer, or the use of instrumental music or a choir. The format of the worship service and, therefore, the ritual that the rabbi uses may vary even among congregations belonging to the same branch of Judaism. Rabbis have a large amount of independence compared to other clergy since there is no formal hierarchy in their religion. They are only responsible to the Board of Trustees of the congregation they serve. Rabbis serving large congregations may spend considerable time in administrative duties, working with their staffs and commit­ tees. Large congregations frequently have an associate or assistant rabbi. Many assistant rabbis serve as educational directors. Rabbis also may write for religious and lay publications and teach in theological seminaries, colleges, and universities. Employment In 1994, there were approximately 1,800 Reform, 1,250 Conserva­ tive, 1,000 Orthodox, and 175 Reconstructionist rabbis. Although the majority served congregations, many rabbis functioned in other settings. Some taught in Jewish studies programs at colleges and universities. Others served as chaplains in the military services, in hospitals, in college settings, and other institutions, or in one of the many Jewish community service agencies. Although rabbis serve Jewish communities throughout the Nation, they are concentrated in major metropolitan areas with large Jewish populations. Training and Other Qualifications To become eligible for ordination as a rabbi, a student must complete a course of study in a seminary. Entrance requirements and the curriculum depend upon the branch of Judaism with which the seminary is associated. In general, the curriculums of Jewish theological seminaries provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of the Bible,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Talmud, Rabbinic literature, Jewish history, theology, and courses in education, pastoral psychology, and public speaking. Students get extensive practical training in dealing with social problems in the community. Training for alternatives to the pulpit, such as leadership in community services and religious education, is increasingly stressed. Some seminaries grant advanced academic degrees in such fields as Biblical and Talmudic research. All Jewish theological seminaries make scholarships and loans available. About 35 seminaries educate and ordain Orthodox rabbis. The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary and the Beth Medrash Govoha Seminary are representative of the two basic kinds of Ortho­ dox seminaries. The former requires a bachelor’s degree for entry and has a formal 4-year ordination program. The latter has no formal admission requirements but may require more years of study for ordination. The training is rigorous. When students have become sufficiently learned in the Talmud, the Bible, and other religious studies, they may be ordained with the approval of an authorized rabbi, acting either independently or as a representative of a rabbini­ cal seminary. The Jewish Theological Seminary of America educates rabbis for the Conservative branch. The Hebrew Union College Jewish Institute of Religion educates rabbis for the Reform branch. For admission to their rabbinical programs leading to ordination, both seminaries require the completion of a 4-year college course, as well as earlier preparation in Jewish studies. The Conservative seminary usually requires 5 years to complete the course of study. Normally, 5 years of study are also required to complete the rabbinical course at the Reform seminary, including 1 year of preparatory study in Jerusa­ lem. Exceptionally well-prepared students can shorten this 5-year period to a minimum of 3 years. The Reconstructionist Rabbinical College educates rabbis in the newest branch of Judaism. A bachelor’s degree is required for ad­ mission. The rabbinical program is based on a 5-year course of study which emphasizes, in each year, a period in the history of Jewish civilization. A preliminary preparatory year is required for students without sufficient grounding in Hebrew and Jewish studies. Gradu­ ates are awarded the title Rabbi and the Master of Arts in Hebrew Letters and, with special study, can earn the Doctor of Hebrew Letters degree.  Professional Specialty Occupations  Newly ordained rabbis usually begin as spiritual leaders of small congregations, assistants to experienced rabbis, directors of Hillel Foundations on college campuses, teachers in educational institutions, or chaplains in the Armed Forces. As a rule, experi­ enced rabbis fill the pulpits of large and well-established Jewish congregations. Job Outlook Job opportunities for rabbis are expected to be generally favorable in the four major branches of Judaism through the year 2005. Present unmet needs for rabbis, together with the need to replace the many rabbis approaching retirement age, should insure that the numbers of persons completing rabbinical training in the years ahead will en­ counter good job prospects. Since most rabbis prefer to serve in large, urban areas, employment opportunities generally are best in nonmetropolitan areas, particularly in smaller communities in the South, Midwest, and Northwest. Graduates of Orthodox seminaries who seek pulpits should have good opportunities as growth in enrollments slows and as many graduates choose not to seek pulpits. Orthodox rabbis willing to work in small communities should have particularly good prospects. Conservative and Reform rabbis are expected to have good em­ ployment opportunities throughout the country. Reconstructionist rabbis are expected to have very good employ­ ment opportunities since membership is expanding rapidly. Earnings Based on limited information, annual average earnings of rabbis generally ranged from $38,000 to $62,000 in 1993, including bene­ fits. Benefits may include housing, health insurance, and a retire­ ment plan. Income varies widely, depending on the size and financial status of the congregation, as well as its denominational branch and geographic location. Rabbis may earn additional income from gifts or fees for officiating at ceremonies such as bar mitzvahs and weddings. Sources of Additional Information Persons who are interested in becoming rabbis should discuss their plans for a vocation with a practicing rabbi. Information on the work of rabbis and allied occupations can be obtained from: •"Rabbinical Council of America, 305 7th Ave., New York, NY 10001. (Orthodox) •"The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 3080 Broadway, New York, NY 10027. (Conservative) •Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, 3101 Clifton Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45220-2488. (Reform) •Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, Church Rd. and Greenwood Ave., Wyncote, PA 19095.  Roman Catholic Priests (D.O.T. 120.107-010)  Nature of the Work Roman Catholic priests attend to the spiritual, pastoral, moral, and educational needs of the members of their church. A priest's day usually begins with morning meditation and mass and may end with an individual counseling session or an evening visit to a hospital or home. Many priests direct and serve on church committees, work in civic and charitable organizations, and assist in community projects. Priests in the Catholic church belong to one of two groups— diocesan or religious. Both types of priests have the same powers, acquired through ordination by a bishop. Their differences lie in  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  137  their way of life, their type of work, and the church authority to whom they are responsible. Diocesan priests commit their lives to serving the people of a diocese, a church administrative region, and generally work in parishes assigned by the bishop of their diocese. Religious priests belong to a religious order, such as the Jesuits, Dominicans, or Franciscans. Religious priests are assigned duties by their superiors in their respective religious orders. Some religious priests specialize in teaching, while others serve as missionaries in foreign countries, where they may live under difficult and primitive conditions. Others live a communal life in monasteries, where they devote their lives to prayer, study, and assigned work. Both religious and diocesan priests hold teaching and admini­ strative posts in Catholic seminaries, colleges and universities, and high schools. Priests attached to religious orders staff a large pro­ portion of the church's institutions of higher education and many high schools, whereas diocesan priests are usually concerned with the parochial schools attached to parish churches and with diocesan high schools. The members of religious orders do most of the mis­ sionary work conducted by the Catholic Church in this country and abroad. Employment There were approximately 51,000 priests in 1994, about two-thirds of them diocesan priests, according to the Official Catholic Directory. There are priests in nearly every city and town and in many rural communities. The majority are in metropolitan areas, where most Catholics reside. Large numbers of priests are located in communi­ ties near Catholic educational and other institutions. Training and Other Qualifications Preparation for the priesthood generally requires 8 years of study beyond high school in one of 349 seminaries. Priests commit them­ selves to celibacy, remaining unmarried. Only men are ordained as priests; women, may serve in only select church positions. Preparatory study for the priesthood may begin either in the first year of high school, at the college level, or in theological seminaries after college graduation. Today, most candidates for the priesthood take a 4-year degree at a conventional college or university. After graduation from college, candidates generally receive 2 years of "Pre-theology" preparatory study (philosophy, religious studies, and prayer) before entering the seminary. Theology coursework in the seminary includes sacred scripture; dogmatic, moral, and pastoral theology; homiletics (art of preaching); church history; liturgy (sacraments); and canon (church) law. Fieldwork experience usually is required; in recent years, this aspect of a priest's training has been emphasized. Diocesan and religious priests attend different major seminaries, where slight variations in the training reflect the differ­ ences in their duties. Alternatively, high school seminaries provide a college prepara­ tory program that emphasizes English grammar, speech, literature, and social studies. Latin may be required, and modem languages are encouraged. In Hispanic communities, knowledge of Spanish is mandatory. Candidates may also choose to enter a seminary college that offers a liberal arts program stressing philosophy and religion, the study of humankind through the behavioral sciences and history, and the natural sciences and mathematics. In many college seminar­ ies, a student may concentrate in any one of these fields. Young men never are denied entry into seminaries because of lack of funds. In seminaries for secular priests, scholarships or loans are available. Those in religious seminaries are financed by contri­ butions of benefactors. Postgraduate work in theology is offered at a number of American Catholic universities or at ecclesiastical universities around the world, particularly in Rome. Also, many priests do graduate work in fields unrelated to theology. Priests are encouraged by the Catholic Church to continue their studies, at least informally, after ordination. In recent years, continuing education for ordained priests has stressed  138 Occupational Outlook Handbook  ■JjjLdk  I— Diocesan priests perform mass, administer sacraments, and hear confession, in addition to teaching and performing administrative work.  social sciences, such as sociology and psychology. A newly ordained secular priest usually works as an assistant pastor or curate. Newly ordained priests of religious orders are assigned to the specialized duties for which they are trained. De­ pending on the talents, interests, and experience of the individual, many opportunities for greater responsibility exist within the church. Job Outlook The job outlook for Roman Catholic priests is expected to be very favorable through the year 2005. Many priests will be needed in the years ahead to provide for the spiritual, educational, and social needs of the increasing number of Catholics. In recent years, the number of ordained priests has been insufficient to fill the needs of newly established parishes and other Catholic institutions, and to replace priests who retire, die, or leave the priesthood. This situation is likely to continue—even if the recent modest increase in seminary enrollments continues—as an increasing proportion of priests ap­ proach retirement age.  In response to the shortage of priests, certain traditional functions increasingly are being performed by permanent deacons and by teams of clergy and laity. Presently about 10,400 permanent deacons have been ordained to preach and perform liturgical functions such as baptisms, distributing Holy Communion, and reading the gospel at the mass. The only services a deacon cannot perform are saying mass and hearing confessions. Teams of clergy and laity undertake nonliturgical functions such as hospital visits and religious teaching. Priests will continue to perform mass, administer sacraments, and hear confession, but may be less involved in teaching and adminis­ trative work. Earnings Diocesan priests' salaries vary from diocese to diocese. Based on limited information, salaries averaged about $9,000 in 1993. In addition to a salary, diocesan priests receive a package of benefits which may include a car allowance, free room and board in the parish rectory, health insurance, and a retirement plan. Including benefits, the total value of a priest's compensation package averaged about $29,000 a year in 1993. Priests who do special work related to the church, such as teach­ ing, usually receive a partial salary which is less than a lay person in the same position would receive. The difference between the usual salary for these jobs and the salary that the priest receives is called "contributed service." In some of these situations, housing and related expenses may be provided; in other cases, the priest must make his own arrangements. Some priests doing special work re­ ceive the same compensation that a lay person would receive. Religious priests take a vow of poverty and are supported by their religious order. Any personal earnings are given to the order. Their vow of poverty is recognized by the Internal Revenue Service, which exempts them from paying Federal income tax. Sources of Additional Information Young men interested in entering the priesthood should seek the guidance and counsel of their parish priests. For information regard­ ing the different religious orders and the secular priesthood, as well as a list of the seminaries which prepare students for the priesthood, contact the diocesan director of vocations through the office of the local pastor or bishop. Individuals seeking additional information about careers in the Catholic Ministry should contact their local diocese.  Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors  Adult Education Teachers (DOT 075 127-010;090.222, .227-018; 097.221, .227; 099.223, .224-014, 227-014,-018, -026, -030,-038; 149.021; 150.027-014; 151.027-014; 152.021; 153.227-014; 159.227; 166.221, .227; 235.222; 239.227; 375.227; 522.264; 621.221; 683.222; 689.324; 715.221; 740.221; 788.222; 789.222; 919.223; and 955.222)  Nature of the Work Adult education teachers work in four main areas—adult vocationaltechnical education, adult remedial education, adult continuing education, and prebaccalaureate training. Some adult education teachers provide instruction for occupations that do not require a college degree, such as welder, dental hygienist, automated systems manager, x-ray technician, farmer, and cosmetologist. Other instruc­   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tors help people update their job skills or adapt to technological advances. For example, an adult education teacher may train stu­ dents how to use new computer software programs. Other teachers provide instruction in basic education courses for school dropouts or others who need to upgrade their skills to find a job. Some adult education teachers in junior or community colleges prepare students for a 4-year degree program, teaching classes for credit that can be applied towards that degree. Adult education teachers also teach courses which students take for personal enrichment, such as cook­ ing, dancing, writing, exercise and physical fitness, photography, and finance. Adult education teachers may lecture in classrooms and also give students hands-on experience. Increasingly, adult vocationaltechnical education teachers integrate academic and vocational curriculums so that students obtain a variety of skills. For example, an electronics student may be required to take courses in principles  Professional Specialty Occupations 139  of mathematics and science in conjunction with hands-on electronics skills. Generally, teachers demonstrate techniques, have students apply them, and critique the students' work. For example, welding instructors show students various welding techniques, including the use of tools and equipment, watch them use the techniques, and have them repeat procedures until specific standards required by the trade are met. Adult education teachers who instruct in adult basic education programs may work with students who do not speak English; teach adults reading, writing, and mathematics up to the 8th-grade level; or teach adults through the 12th-grade level in preparation for the General Educational Development Examination (GED). The GED offers the equivalent of a high school diploma. These teachers may refer students for counseling or job placement. Because many people who need adult basic education are reluctant to seek it, teachers also may recruit participants. Adult education teachers also prepare lessons and assignments, grade papers and do related paperwork, attend faculty and profes­ sional meetings, and stay abreast of developments in their field. (For information on vocational education teachers in secondary schools, see the Handbook statement on kindergarten, elementary, and secon­ dary school teachers.) Working Conditions Since adult education teachers work with adult students, they do not encounter some of the behavioral or social problems sometimes found when teaching younger students. The adults are there by  ;  Many adult education teachers instruct part time while working other jobs related to their subjects.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  choice, and usually are highly motivated—attributes that can make teaching these students rewarding and satisfying. However, teachers in adult basic education deal with students at different levels of development who may lack effective study skills and self-confidence, and who may require more attention and patience than other students. Many adult education teachers work part time. To accommodate students who may have job or family responsibilities, many courses are offered at night or on weekends, and range from 2- to 4-hour workshops and 1-day minisessions to semester-long courses. Some adult education teachers have several part-time teaching assignments or work a full-time job in addition to their part-time teaching job, leading to long hours and a hectic schedule. Although most adult education teachers work in a classroom setting, some may act as consultants to a business and teach classes at the job site. Employment Adult education teachers held about 590,000 jobs in 1994. About half taught part time, a larger proportion than for other teachers, and many taught only intermittently. However, many of them also held other jobs, in many cases doing work related to the subject they taught. Many adult education teachers are self-employed. Adult education teachers are employed by public school systems; community and junior colleges; universities; businesses that provide formal education and training for their employees; automotive repair, bartending, business, computer, electronics, medical technology, and similar schools and institutes; dance studios; health clubs; job train­ ing centers; community organizations; labor unions; and religious organizations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements vary widely by State and by subject. In general, teachers need work or other experience in their field, and a license or certificate in fields where these usually are required for full professional status. In some cases, particularly at educational insti­ tutions, a master's or doctoral degree is required to teach nonvocational courses which can be applied towards a 4-year degree program. Many vocational teachers in junior or community colleges do not have a master's degree but draw on their work experience and knowledge, bringing valuable practical experience to the classroom. For general adult education classes that are taken for interest or enjoyment, an acceptable portfolio of work is required. For example, to secure a job teaching a flower arranging course, an applicant would need to show examples of previous work. Most States and the District of Columbia require adult basic education teachers and adult literacy instructors to have a bachelor's degree from an approved teacher training program, and some require teacher certification. Adult education teachers update their skills through continuing education to maintain certification—requirements vary among insti­ tutions. Teachers may take part in seminars, conferences, or gradu­ ate courses in adult education, training and development, or human resources development, or may return to work in business or industry for a limited time. Businesses are playing a growing role in adult education, forming consortiums with training institutions and junior colleges and providing input to curriculum development. In this way, adult education teachers maintain an ongoing dialogue with busi­ nesses to determine the most current skills required in the workplace. Adult education teachers should communicate and relate well with students, enjoy working with them, and be able to motivate them. Adult basic education instructors, in particular, must be pa­ tient, understanding, and supportive to make students comfortable, develop trust, and help them better understand their needs and aims. Some teachers advance to administrative positions in departments of education, colleges and universities, and corporate training de­ partments. Such positions may require advanced degrees, such as a doctorate in adult and continuing education. (See the statement on education administrators elsewhere in the Handbook.)  140 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Job Outlook Employment of adult education teachers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the demand for adult education programs continues to rise. The 35-44 year old population—the largest users of adult education—is ex­ pected to grow, contributing to increasing enrollment. Participation in continuing education grows as the educational attainment of the population increases. More people are realizing that life-long learn­ ing is important to success in their careers. To keep abreast of changes in their fields and advances in technology, an increasing number of adults are taking courses for career advancement, personal enrichment, and to upgrade their skills, spurring demand for adult education teachers. In addition, enrollment in adult basic education programs is increasing because of changes in immigration policy that require basic competency in English and civics, and an increased awareness of the difficulty in finding a good job without basic aca­ demic skills. Employment growth of adult vocational-technical education teachers will result from the need to train young adults for entry-level jobs, and experienced workers who want to switch fields or whose jobs have been eliminated due to changing technology or business reorganization. Businesses are finding it essential to provide training to their workers to remain productive and globally competitive. Cooperation between businesses and educational institutions is increasing to insure that students are taught the skills employers desire. This should result in greater demand for adult education teachers, particularly at community and junior colleges. Since adult education programs receive State and Federal funding, employment growth may be affected by government budgets. Many job openings for adult education teachers will stem from the need to replace persons who leave the occupation. Many teach part time and move into and out of the occupation for other jobs, family responsibilities, or to retire. Opportunities should be best in fields such as computer technology, automotive mechanics, and medical technology, which offer very attractive, and often higher paying, job opportunities outside of teaching. Earnings In 1994, salaried adult education teachers who usually worked full time had median earnings around $27,600 a year. The middle 50 percent earned between $18,700 and $39,700. The lowest 10 percent earned about $12,600, while the top 10 percent earned more than $50,000. Earnings varied widely by subject, academic credentials, experience, and region of the country. Part-time instructors generally are paid hourly wages and do not receive benefits or pay for prepara­ tion time outside of class. Related Occupations Adult education teaching requires a wide variety of skills and apti­ tudes, including the ability to influence, motivate, train, and teach; organizational, administrative, and communication skills; and crea­ tivity. Workers in other occupations that require these aptitudes include other teachers, counselors, school administrators, public relations specialists, employee development specialists and inter­ viewers, and social workers. Sources of Additional Information Information on adult basic education programs and teacher certifica­ tion requirements is available from State departments of education and local school districts. For information about adult vocational-technical education teaching positions, contact State departments of vocational-technical education. For information on adult continuing education teaching positions, contact departments of local government, State adult education departments, schools, colleges and universities, religious organiza­ tions, and a wide range of businesses that provide formal training for their employees.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  General information on adult education is available from: ••American Association for Adult and Continuing Education, 1200 19th St. NW., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036. •"American Vocational Association, 1410 King St., Alexandria, VA 22314. •"ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, 1900 Kenny Rd., Columbus, OH 43210-1090.  Archivists and Curators (D.O.T. 099.167-030; 101; 102 except .261-014 and .367-010; 109.067-014, .267-010, .281, .361, .364)  Nature of the Work Archivists, curators, museum and archives technicians, and conserva­ tors search for, acquire, appraise, analyze, describe, arrange, cata­ logue, restore, preserve, exhibit, maintain, and store items of lasting value so that they can be used by researchers or for exhibitions, publications, broadcasting, and other educational programs. Depend­ ing on the occupation, these items may consist of historical docu­ ments, audiovisual materials, institutional records, works of art, coins, stamps, minerals, clothing, maps, living and preserved plants and animals, buildings, computer records, or historic sites. Archivists and curators plan and oversee the arrangement, cata­ loguing, and exhibition of collections and, along with technicians and conservators, maintain collections. Archivists and curators may coordinate educational and public outreach programs, such as tours, workshops, lectures, and classes, and may work with the boards of institutions to administer plans and policies. They also may conduct research on topics or items relevant to their collections. Although some duties of archivists and curators are similar, the types of items they deal with differ. Curators usually handle objects found in cultural, biological, or historical collections, such as sculptures, textiles, and paintings, while archivists mainly handle valuable records, documents, or objects that are retained because they origi­ nally accompanied and relate specifically to the document. Archivists determine what portion of the vast amount of records maintained by various organizations, such as government agencies, corporations, or educational institutions, or by families and indi­ viduals, should be made part of permanent historical holdings, and which of these records should be put on exhibit. They maintain records in their original arrangement according to the creator's organ­ izational scheme, and describe records to facilitate retrieval. Records may be saved on any medium, including paper, film, videotape, audiotape, electronic disk, or computer. They also may be copied onto some other format to protect the original from repeated han­ dling, and to make them more accessible to researchers who use the records. As computers and various storage media evolve, archivists must keep abreast of technological advances in electronic informa­ tion storage. Archives may be part of a library, museum, or historical society, or may exist as a distinct archival unit within an organization. Ar­ chivists consider any medium containing recorded information as documents, including letters, books, and other paper documents, photographs, blueprints, audiovisual materials, and computer records, among others. Any document which reflects organizational transac­ tions, hierarchy, or procedures can be considered a record. Archi­ vists often specialize in an area of history or technology so they can better determine what records in that area qualify for retention and should become part of the archives. Archivists also may work with specialized forms of records—for example, manuscripts, electronic records, photographs, cartographic records, motion pictures, and sound recordings. Computers are increasingly used to generate and maintain archi­ val records. However, professional standards for use of computers in handling archival records are still evolving.  Professional Specialty Occupations 141  Curators oversee collections in museums, zoos, aquariums, botanic gardens, nature centers, and historic sites. They acquire items through purchases, gifts, field exploration, intermuseum ex­ changes, or, in the case of some plants and animals, reproduction. Curators also plan and prepare exhibits. In natural history museums, curators collect and observe specimens in their natural habitat. Their work involves describing and classifying species, while specially trained collection managers and technicians provide hands-on care of natural history collections. Most curators use computers to catalogue and organize their collections, and to make information about the collection available to other curators and the public. Most curators specialize in a specific field, such as botany, art, paleontology, or history. Those working in large institutions may be highly specialized. A large natural history museum, for example, would have specialists in birds, fishes, insects, and mollusks. Some curators maintain the collection while others perform administra­ tive tasks. Registrars, for example, are responsible for keeping track of and moving objects in the collection. In small institutions, with only one or a few curators, one curator may be responsible for mul­ tiple tasks, from maintaining collections to directing the affairs of museums. Conservators—also called preservation specialists or preparators—manage, care for, preserve, treat, and document works of art, artifacts, and specimens. This may require substantial historical, scientific, and archaeological research. They use x rays, chemical testing, microscopes, special lights, and other laboratory equipment and techniques to examine objects and determine their condition, the need for treatment or restoration, and the appropriate method for preservation. Conservators usually specialize in a particular material or group of objects, such as documents, paintings, decorative arts, textiles, metals, or architectural material. Emerging specialties in conservation include collections care, exhibit conservation, and environmental monitoring. Museum directors formulate policies, plan budgets, and raise funds for their museums. They coordinate activities of their staff to establish and maintain collections. As their role has evolved, museum directors increasingly need business backgrounds in addi­ tion to an understanding and empathy for the subject matter of their collections. Museum technicians assist curators and conservators by perform­ ing various preparatory and maintenance tasks on museum items. Some museum technicians may also assist curators with research. Archives technicians help archivists organize, maintain, and provide access to historical documentary materials.  Employment as an archivist or curator generally requires a master's degree and substantial practical or work experience.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions The working conditions of archivists and curators vary. Some spend most of their time working with the public, providing reference assistance and educational services. Others perform research or process records, which often means working alone or in offices with only one or two other persons. Those who restore and install exhibits or work with bulky, heavy record containers may climb, stretch, or lift, and those in zoos, botanical gardens, and other outdoor museums or historic sites frequently walk great distances. Curators may travel extensively to evaluate potential additions to the collection, to organize exhibitions, and to conduct research in their area of expertise. Employment Archivists and curators held about 19,000 jobs in 1994. About a quarter were employed in museums, botanical gardens, and zoos, and approximately 2 in 10 worked in educational services, mainly in college and university libraries. About 4 in 10 worked in Federal, State, and local government. Most Federal archivists work for the National Archives and Records Administration; others manage military archives in the Department of Defense. Most Federal Gov­ ernment curators work at the Smithsonian Institution, in the military museums of the Department of Defense, and in archaeological and other museums managed by the Department of Interior. All State governments have archival or historical records sections employing archivists. State and local governments have numerous historical museums, parks, libraries, and zoos employing curators. Some large corporations have archives or records centers, em­ ploying archivists to manage the growing volume of records created or maintained as required by law or necessary to the firms' opera­ tions. Religious and fraternal organizations, professional associa­ tions, conservation organizations, major private collectors, and research firms also employ archivists and curators. Conservators may work under contract to treat particular items, rather than as a regular employee of a museum or other institution. These conservators may work on their own as private contractors, or as an employee of a conservation laboratory which contracts their services to museums. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employment as an archivist, conservator, or curator generally re­ quires graduate education and substantial practical or work experi­ ence. Many archivists and curators work in archives or museums while completing their formal education, to gain the "hands-on" experience that many employers seek when hiring. Employers generally look for archivists with undergraduate and graduate degrees in history or library science, with courses in archi­ val science. Some positions may require knowledge of the discipline related to the collection, such as business or medicine. An increasing number of archivists have a double master's degree in history and library science. Approximately 65 colleges and universities offer courses or practical training in archival science as part of history, library science, or other discipline; some also offer a master's degree in archival studies. The Academy of Certified Archivists offers vol­ untary certification for archivists. Certification requires the applicant to have experience in the field and to pass an examination offered by the Academy. Archivists need research and analytical ability to understand the content of documents and the context in which they were created, and to decipher deteriorated or poor quality printed matter, handwrit­ ten manuscripts, or photographs and films. A background in preser­ vation management is often required of archivists since they are responsible for taking proper care of their records. Archivists also must be able to organize large amounts of information and write clear instructions for its retrieval and use. In addition, computer skills and the ability to work with electronic records and databases are increasingly important.  142 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Many archives are very small, including one-person shops, with limited promotion opportunities. Archivists typically advance by transferring to a larger unit with supervisory positions. A doctorate in history, library science, or a related field may be needed for some advanced positions, such as director of a State archives. In most museums, a master’s degree in an appropriate discipline of the museum's specialty—for example, art, history, or archaeol­ ogy—or museum studies is required for employment as a curator. Many employers prefer a doctoral degree, particularly for curators in natural history or science museums. Earning two graduate degrees— in museum studies (museology) and a specialized subject—gives a candidate a distinct advantage in this competitive job market. In small museums, curatorial positions may be available to individuals with a bachelor's degree. For some positions, an internship of full­ time museum work supplemented by courses in museum practices is needed. Museum technicians generally need a bachelor's degree in an appropriate discipline of the museum's specialty, museum studies training, or previous museum work experience, particularly in exhibit design. Similarly, archives technicians generally need a bachelor's degree in library science or history, or relevant work experience. Technician positions often serve as a stepping stone for individuals interested in archival and curatorial work. With the exception of small museums, a master's degree is needed for advancement. When hiring conservators, employers look for a master's degree in conservation, or in a closely related field, and substantial experience. There are only a few graduate programs in museum conservation techniques in the United States. Competition for entry to these programs is keen; to qualify, a student must have a background in chemistry, studio art, and art history, as well as work experience. For some programs, knowledge of a foreign language is also helpful. Conservation apprenticeships or internships as an undergraduate can also enhance one’s admission prospects. Graduate programs last 2 to 4 years; the latter years include internship training. A few individu­ als enter conservation through apprenticeships with museums, non­ profit organizations, and conservators in private practice. Appren­ ticeships should be supplemented with courses in chemistry, studio art, and history. Apprenticeship training, although accepted, gener­ ally is a more difficult route into the conservation profession. Students interested in museum work may take courses or obtain a bachelor's or master's degree in museum studies. Colleges and uni­ versities throughout the country offer bachelor's and master's degrees in museum studies. However, many employers feel that, while museum studies are helpful, a thorough knowledge of the museum's specialty and museum work experience are more important. Curatorial positions often require knowledge in a number of fields. For historic and artistic conservation, courses in chemistry, physics, and art are desirable. Since curators—particularly those in small museums—may have administrative and managerial respon­ sibilities, courses in business administration and public relations also are recommended. Similar to archivists, curators need computer skills and the ability to work with electronic databases. Curators must be flexible because of their wide variety of duties. They need an aesthetic sense to design and present exhibits, and, in small museums, manual dexterity is needed to erect exhibits or restore objects. Leadership ability and business skills are important for museum directors, while public relations skills are valuable in increasing museum attendance and fundraising. In large museums, curators may advance through several levels of responsibility, eventually to museum director. Curators in smaller museums often advance to larger ones. Individual research and publications are important for advancement. Continuing education, which enables archivists, curators, conser­ vators, and museum technicians to keep up with developments in the field, is available through meetings, conferences, and workshops sponsored by archival, historical, and curatorial associations. Some larger organizations, such as the National Archives, offer such train­ ing in-house.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Despite the anticipated increase in the employment of archivists and curators, competition for jobs is expected to be keen. Graduates with highly specialized training, such as master's degrees in both library science and history, with a concentration in archives or records management, may have the best opportunities for jobs as archivists. A job as a curator is attractive to many people, and many have the necessary subject knowledge; yet there are only a few openings. Consequently, candidates may have to work part time, or as an intern, or even as a volunteer assistant curator or research associate after completing their formal education, and substantial work experi­ ence in collection management, exhibit design, or restoration will be necessary for permanent status. Job opportunities for curators should be best in art and history museums, since these are the largest em­ ployers in the museum industry. The job outlook for conservators may be more favorable, particu­ larly for graduates of conservator programs. However, competition is stiff for the limited number of openings in these programs, and applicants need a technical background. Students who qualify and successfully complete the program, have knowledge of a foreign language, and are willing to relocate, will have an advantage over less qualified candidates in obtaining a position. Employment of archivists and curators is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Archival and curator jobs are expected to grow as public and private organizations put more emphasis on establishing archives and organizing records and information, and as public interest in science, art, history, and technology increases. Although the rate of turnover among archivists and curators is relatively low, the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or stop working will create some additional job openings. Museums and other cultural institutions may be subject to cuts in funding during recessions, reducing demand for archivists and cura­ tors during these periods. Earnings Earnings of archivists and curators vary considerably by type and size of employer, and often by specialty. Average salaries in the Federal Government, for example, are generally higher than those in religious organizations. Salaries of curators in large, well-funded museums may be several times higher than those in small ones. Salaries in the Federal Government depend on education and experience. In 1995, inexperienced archivists and curators with a bachelor's degree started at $18,700, while those with some experi­ ence started at $23,200. Those with a master's degree typically started at $28,300, and with a doctorate, $34,300 or $41,100. Be­ ginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The average annual salary for all museum curators in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was about $51,600 in 1995. Archivists averaged $50,000; museum specialists and technicians, $32,800; and archives technicians, $29,500. According to a survey by the Association of Art Museum Direc­ tors, salaries generally are highest for museum workers in Western and Mid-Atlantic States and in metropolitan areas having populations over 2 million. The following tabulation shows median salaries for selected workers in art museums in 1995: Director......................................................................................$100,000 Senior conservator....................................................................... 48,900 Chief curator............................................................................... 48,600 Curator.................................................................. .................... 47,000 Curatorial assistant...................................................................... 22,500 Related Occupations Archivists' and curators' interests in preservation and display are shared by anthropologists, arborists, archaeologists, artifacts conser­ vators, botanists, ethnologists, folklorists, genealogists, historians,  Professional Specialty Occupations  143  horticulturists, information specialists, librarians, paintings restorers, records managers, and zoologists. Sources of Additional Information For information on archivists and on schools offering courses in archival studies, contact: •"Society of American Archivists, 600 South Federal St., Suite 504, Chicago, IL 60605.  Oi<3Wy3 lA  For information about certification for archivists, contact:  Saussu J  ••Academy of Certified Archivists, 600 South Federal St., Suite 504, Chi­ cago, IL 60605.  For general information about careers as a curator and schools offering courses in museum studies, contact: ••American Association of Museums, 1225 I St. NW., Suite 200, Washing­ ton, DC 20005.  For information about curatorial careers and internships in botani­ cal gardens, contact: •"American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta, 786 Church Rd., Wayne, PA 19087.  Many college and university faculty hold a doctoral degree.  For information about conservation and preservation careers and education programs, contact: ••American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1717 K St. NW., Suite 301, Washington, DC 20006.  (D.O.T. 090.227-010)  mental matters, academic issues, curricula, budgets, equipment purchases, and hiring. Some work with student as well as commu­ nity organizations. Department chairpersons are faculty members who usually teach some courses but generally have heavier adminis­ trative responsibilities. The amount of time spent on each of these activities varies by individual circumstance and type of institution. Faculty members at universities generally spend a significant part of their time doing research; those in 4-year colleges, somewhat less; and those in 2year colleges, relatively little. However, the teaching load usually is heavier in 2-year colleges and somewhat lower at 4-year institutions.  Nature of the Work College and university faculty teach and advise over 15 million fulland part-time college students and perform a significant part of our Nation's research. They also study and meet with colleagues to keep up with developments in their field and consult with government, business, nonprofit, and community organizations. Faculty generally are organized into departments or divisions, based on subject or field. They usually teach several different courses in their department—algebra, calculus, and differential equations, for example. They may instruct undergraduate or gradu­ ate students, or both. College and university faculty may give lectures to several hun­ dred students in large halls, lead small seminars, or supervise stu­ dents in laboratories. They prepare lectures, exercises, and laboratory experiments, grade exams and papers, and advise and work with students individually. In universities, they counsel, ad­ vise, teach, and supervise graduate student teaching and research. Technology is increasingly used in the classroom as well as in re­ search. Faculty may use computers—including the Internet, elec­ tronic mail, and CD-ROMs—videotapes, and other teaching aids. Some professors may teach "satellite" courses that are broadcast to students through closed-circuit or cable television. New technology permits the collaboration and sharing of classes between institutions. Faculty keep abreast of developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in pro­ fessional conferences. They also do their own research to expand knowledge in their field. They experiment, collect and analyze data, and examine original documents, literature, and other source mate­ rial. From this, they develop hypotheses, arrive at conclusions, and publish their findings in scholarly journals, books, and electronic media. Most faculty members serve on academic or administrative committees which deal with the policies of their institution, depart-  Working Conditions College faculty generally have flexible schedules. They must be present for classes, usually 12 to 16 hours a week, and for faculty and committee meetings. Most establish regular office hours for student consultations, usually 3 to 6 hours per week. Otherwise, faculty have some flexibility to decide when and where they will work, and how much time to devote to course preparation, grading papers and ex­ ams, study, research, graduate student supervision, and other activi­ ties. Initial adjustment to these responsibilities can be challenging as new faculty adapt to switching roles from student to teacher. This adjustment may be even more difficult as class size grows in re­ sponse to faculty and budget cutbacks, increasing an instructor's workload. Some faculty members work staggered hours and teach classes at night and on weekends. This is particularly true for faculty who teach students with full-time jobs or family responsibilities on week­ days. Most faculty are employed on a 9-month contract. This pro­ vides them with great flexibility during the summer and school holidays, when they may teach or do research, travel, or pursue nonacademic interests. Most colleges and universities have funds to support faculty research or other professional development needs, including travel to conferences and research sites. Faculty may experience a conflict between their responsibilities to teach students and the pressure to do research. This may be a par­ ticular problem for young faculty seeking advancement. Increasing emphasis on undergraduate teaching performance in tenure decisions may alleviate some of this pressure, however. Part-time faculty generally spend little time on campus, because they usually don't have an office. In addition, they may teach at more than one college, requiring travel between their various places of employment. Colleges increasingly rely on part-time faculty to stretch shrinking budgets. Part-time faculty are usually not eligible for tenure. Dealing with this lack of job security and low pay can be stressful.  For information on curatorial and other positions in natural his­ tory museums, contact: •"Association of Systematics Collections, 730 11th St. NW., Second Floor, Washington, DC 20001.  •  College and University Faculty   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  144 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment College and university faculty held about 823,000 jobs in 1994, mostly in public institutions. About 4 out of 10 college and university faculty work part time. Some part-timers, known as "adjunct faculty," have primary jobs outside of academia—in government, private industry, or in non­ profit research—and teach "on the side." Others seek full-time jobs but are unable to obtain them due to intense competition for available openings. Some work part time in more than one institution. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most college and university faculty are in four academic ranks: Professor, associate professor, assistant professor, and instructor. A small number are lecturers. Most faculty members are hired as instructors or assistant profes­ sors. Four-year colleges and universities generally only consider doctoral degree holders for full-time, tenure-track positions, but may hire master's degree holders or doctoral candidates for certain disci­ plines, such as the arts, or for part-time and temporary jobs. In 2year colleges, master's degree holders often qualify for full-time positions. However, with increasing competition for available jobs, institutions can be more selective in their hiring practices. Master's degree holders may find it increasingly difficult to obtain employ­ ment as they are passed over in favor of candidates holding a Ph.D. Doctoral programs usually take 6 to 8 years of full-time study beyond the bachelor's degree (including time spent completing a master's degree and a dissertation). Some programs, such as the humanities, may take longer to complete; others, such as engineering, generally are shorter. Candidates usually specialize in a subfield of a discipline—for example, organic chemistry, counseling psychology, or European history—but also take courses covering the whole discipline. Programs include 20 or more increasingly specialized courses and seminars plus comprehensive examinations on all major areas of the field. Candidates also must complete a dissertation. This is a report on original research to answer some significant question in the field; it sets forth an original hypothesis or proposes a model and tests it. Students in the natural sciences and engineering usually do laboratory work; in the humanities, they study original documents and other published material. The dissertation, done under the guidance of one or more faculty advisors, usually takes 1 or 2 years of full-time work. In some fields, particularly the natural sciences, some students spend an additional 2 years on postdoctoral research and study before taking a faculty position. A major step in the traditional academic career is attaining tenure. Newly hired tenure-track faculty serve a certain period (usually 7 years) under term contracts. Then, their record of teaching, research, and overall contribution to the institution is reviewed; tenure is granted if the review is favorable. With tenure, a professor cannot be fired without just cause and due process. Those denied tenure usu­ ally must leave the institution. Tenure protects the faculty's aca­ demic freedom—the ability to teach and conduct research without fear of being fired for advocating unpopular ideas. It also gives both faculty and institutions the stability needed for effective research and teaching, and provides financial stability for faculty members. About 6 out of 10 full-time faculty are tenured, and many others are in the probationary period. Some institutions have adopted post-tenure review policies to encourage ongoing evaluation of tenured faculty members. The number of tenure-track positions is expected to decline. Some institutions have placed "caps" on the percentage of faculty that can be tenured. Other institutions offer prospective faculty limited term contracts—typically 2-, 3-, or 5-year full-time con­ tracts—in an effort to adapt to changes in the budget and the size of the student body. These contracts may be terminated or extended at the end of the period. Institutions are not obligated to grant tenure to these contract holders.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Some faculty—based on teaching experience, research, publica­ tion, and service on campus committees and task forces—move into administrative and managerial positions, such as departmental chair­ person, dean, and president. At 4-year institutions, such advance­ ment requires a doctoral degree. At 2-year colleges, a doctorate is helpful but not generally required, except for advancement to some top administrative postitions. (Deans and departmental chairpersons are covered in the Handbook statement on education administrators, while college presidents are included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) College faculty need intelligence, inquiring and analytical minds, and a strong desire to pursue and disseminate knowledge. They must be able to communicate clearly and logically, both orally and in writing. They should be able to establish rapport with students and, as models for them, be dedicated to the principles of academic in­ tegrity and intellectual honesty. Finally, they must be able to work in an environment where they receive little direct supervision.  Job Outlook Employment of college and university faculty is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as enrollments in higher education increase. Many additional open­ ings will arise as faculty members retire. Faculty retirements should increase significantly from the late 1990s through 2005 as a large number of faculty who entered the profession during the 1950s and 1960s reach retirement age. Most faculty members likely to retire are full-time tenured professors. However, in an effort to cut costs, institutions are expected to either leave many of these positions vacant or hire part-time faculty members as replacements. Prospec­ tive job applicants should be prepared to face intense competition for available jobs as growing numbers of Ph.D. graduates vie for fewer full-time openings. Enrollments in institutions of higher education increased in the 1980s and early 1990s despite a decline in the traditional college-age (18-24) population. This resulted from a higher proportion of 18- to 24-year-olds attending college, along with a growing number of part­ time, female, and older students. Enrollments are expected to con­ tinue to grow through the year 2005, particularly as the traditional college-age population begins increasing after 1996, when the lead­ ing edge of the baby-boom "echo" generation (children of the baby boomers) reaches college age (see accompanying chart). In the past two decades, keen competition for faculty jobs forced some applicants to accept part-time or short-term academic appoint­ ments that offered little hope of tenure, and others to seek nonaca­ demic positions. This trend of hiring adjunct or part-time faculty is likely to continue due to financial difficulties faced by colleges and universities. Many States have reduced funding for higher education. As a result, colleges have increased the hiring of part-time faculty to save money on pay and benefits. With uncertainty over future fund­ ing, many colleges and universities are taking steps to cut costs. They are emphasizing certain academic programs while eliminating others, increasing class size, stepping up fundraising efforts, and closely monitoring expenses. Once enrollments and retirements start increasing at a faster pace in the late 1990s, opportunities for college faculty positions may begin to improve somewhat. Job prospects will continue to be better in certain fields—business, engineering, health science, computer science, physical sciences, and mathematics, for example—largely because very attractive nonacademic jobs will be available for many potential faculty. Employment of college faculty is related to the nonacademic job market through an "echo effect." Excellent job prospects in a field— for example, computer science from the late 1970s to the mid1980s—cause more students to enroll, increasing faculty needs in that field. On the other hand, poor job prospects in a field, such as history in recent years, discourages students and reduces demand for faculty.  Professional Specialty Occupations 145 Enrollments in institutions of higher education will continue to increase. Millions  18  i—  12  -  10  -  For information about faculty union activities on 2- and 4-year college campuses, contact: •"American Federation of Teachers, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20001.  Special publications on higher education, available in libraries, list specific employment opportunities for faculty.  Counselors (D.O.T. 045.107-010, -014, -018, -038, -042 -050, -054, .117; 090.107; and 169.267-026)  2000  2005  Source: National Center for Education Statistics  Earnings Earnings vary according to faculty rank and type of institution and, in some cases, by field. Faculty in 4-year institutions earn higher salaries, on the average, than those in 2-year schools. According to a 1994-95 survey by the American Association of University Profes­ sors, salaries for full-time faculty on 9-month contracts averaged $49,500. By rank, the average for professors was $63,500; associate professors, $47,000; assistant professors, $39,100; lecturers, $32,600; and instructors, $29,700. Those on 11- or 12-month contracts obvi­ ously earned more. In fields with high-paying nonacademic alterna­ tives—notably medicine and law but also engineering and business, among others—earnings exceed these averages. In others—the fine arts, for example—they are lower. Many faculty members have added earnings, both during the academic year and the summer, from consulting, teaching additional courses, research, writing for publication, or other employment. Most college and university faculty enjoy some unique benefits, including access to campus facilities, tuition waivers for dependents, housing and travel allowances, and paid sabbatical leaves. Part-time faculty have fewer benefits than full-time faculty, and usually do not receive health insurance, retirement benefits, or sabbatical leave. Related Occupations College and university faculty function both as teachers and re­ searchers. They communicate information and ideas. Related occu­ pations include elementary and secondary school teachers, librarians, writers, consultants, lobbyists, trainers and employee development specialists, and policy analysts. Faculty research activities often are similar to those of scientists, as well as managers and administrators in industry, government, and nonprofit research organizations. Sources of Additional Information Professional societies generally provide information on academic and nonacademic employment opportunities in their fields. Names and addresses of these societies appear in statements elsewhere in the Handbook.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Nature of the Work Counselors assist people with personal, family, social, educational, mental health, and career decisions, problems, and concerns. Their duties depend on the individuals they serve and the settings in which they work. School and college counselors—who work at the elementary, middle, secondary, and postsecondary school levels—help students understand their abilities, interests, talents, and personality character­ istics so that the student can develop realistic academic and career options. Counselors use interviews, counseling sessions, tests, or other tools when evaluating and advising students. They may operate career information centers and career education programs. High school counselors advise on college majors, admission requirements, entrance exams, and financial aid, and on trade, technical school, and apprenticeship programs. They help students develop jobfinding skills such as resume writing and interviewing techniques. College career planning and placement counselors may assist alumni or students with career development and job hunting techniques. Counselors also help students understand and deal with their social, behavioral, and personal problems. They emphasize preven­ tive and developmental counseling to provide students with the life skills needed to deal with problems before they occur, and to enhance personal, social, and academic growth. Counselors provide special services, including alcohol and drug prevention programs, and classes that teach students to handle conflicts without resorting to violence. Counselors also try to identify cases involving do­ mestic abuse and other family problems that can affect a student's development. Counselors work with students individually, in small groups, or with entire classes. Counselors consult and work with parents, teachers, school administrators, school psychologists, school nurses, and social workers. Elementary school counselors do more social and personal counseling, and less vocational and academic counsel­ ing than secondary school counselors. They observe younger chil­ dren during classroom and play activities and confer with their teachers and parents to evaluate their strengths, problems, or special needs. They also help students develop good study habits. Rehabilitation counselors help persons deal with the personal, social, and vocational effects of their disabilities. They may counsel people with disabilities resulting from birth defects, illness or dis­ ease, accidents, or the stress of daily life. They evaluate the strengths and limitations of individuals, provide personal and vocational counseling, and may arrange for medical care, vocational training, and job placement. Rehabilitation counselors interview individuals with disabilities and their families, evaluate school and medical reports, and confer and plan with physicians, psychologists, occupa­ tional therapists, and employers to determine the capabilities and skills of the individual. Conferring with the client, they develop and implement a rehabilitation program, which may include training to help the person become more independent and employable. They also work toward increasing the client's capacity to adjust and live independently.  146 Occupational Outlook Handbook  *  3m  A master's degree, including a period of supervised clinical experience, is typically required for employment as a counselor.  Employment counselors help individuals make wise career deci­ sions. They help clients explore and evaluate their education, train­ ing, work history, interests, skills, personal traits, and physical capacities, and may arrange for aptitude and achievement tests. They also work with individuals in developing jobseeking skills and assist clients in locating and applying for jobs. Mental health counselors emphasize prevention and work with individuals and groups to promote optimum mental health. They help individuals deal with addictions and substance abuse, family, parenting, and marital problems, suicide, stress management, prob­ lems with self-esteem, issues associated with aging, job and career concerns, educational decisions, and issues of mental and emotional health. Mental health counselors work closely with other mental health specialists, including psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, psychiatric nurses, and school counselors. (See the statements on psychologists and social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Counselors can specialize in a particular area, such as marriage and family, multicultural, and gerontological counseling. A geron­ tological counselor may provide services to elderly persons who face changing lifestyles due to health problems, as well as help families cope with these changes. A multicultural counselor might help employers adjust to an increasingly diverse workforce. Working Conditions Most school counselors work the traditional 9- to 10-month school year with a 2- to 3-month vacation, although an increasing number are employed on 10 1/2- or 11-month contracts. They generally have the same hours as teachers. Rehabilitation and employment counselors generally work a standard 40-hour week. Self-employed counselors and those work­ ing in mental health and community agencies often work evenings to counsel clients who work during the day. College career planning and placement counselors may work long and irregular hours during recruiting periods. Counselors must possess high physical and emotional energy to handle the array of problems they must address. Dealing with these day to day problems can cause stress and emotional burnout. Since privacy is essential for confidential and frank discussions with clients, counselors usually have private offices. Employment Counselors held about 165,000 jobs in 1994. About 7 out of 10 were school counselors.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  In addition to elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, counselors worked in a wide variety of public and private establishments. These include health care facilities; job training, career development, and vocational rehabilitation centers; social agencies; correctional institutions; and residential care facili­ ties, such as halfway houses for criminal offenders and group homes for children, the aged, and the disabled. Counselors also worked in organizations engaged in community improvement and social change, as well as drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs and State and local government agencies. A growing number of counselors work in health maintenance organizations, insurance companies, group practice, and private practice. This growth has been spurred by laws allowing counselors to receive payments from insurance companies, and requiring employers to provide rehabilitation and counseling services to employees. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Generally, counselors have a master's degree in college student affairs, elementary or secondary school counseling, education, geron­ tological counseling, marriage and family counseling, substance abuse counseling, rehabilitation counseling, agency or community counseling, clinical mental health counseling, counseling psychol­ ogy, career counseling, or a related field. Graduate level counselor education programs in colleges and universities usually are in departments of education or psychology. Courses are grouped into eight core areas: Human growth and development; social and cultural foundations; helping relationships; groups; lifestyle and career development; appraisal; research and evaluation; and professional orientation. In an accredited program, 48 to 60 semester hours of graduate study, including a period of supervised clinical experience in counseling, are required for a master's degree. In 1995, the Council for Accreditation of Counsel­ ing and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredited 105 graduate counseling programs in counselor education, and in career, community, gerontological, mental health, school, student affairs, and marriage and family counseling. In 1995, 41 States and the District of Columbia had some form of counselor credentialing legislation, licensure, certification, or registry for practice outside schools. Requirements vary from State to State. In some States, credentialing is mandatory; in others, voluntary. Many counselors elect to be nationally certified by the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC), which grants the general practice credential, "National Certified Counselor." To be certified, a counselor must hold a master's degree in counseling from a region­ ally accredited institution, have at least 2 years of supervised profes­ sional counseling experience, and pass NBCC's National Counselor Examination for Licensure and Certification. This national certifica­ tion is voluntary and distinct from State certification. However, in some States those who pass the national exam are exempt from taking a State certification exam. NBCC also offers specialty certifi­ cation in career, gerontological, school, clinical mental health, and addictions counseling. To maintain their certification, counselors must complete 100 hours of acceptable continuing education credit every 5 years. All States require school counselors to hold State school counsel­ ing certification; however, certification varies from State to State. Some States require public school counselors to have both counseling and teaching certificates. Depending on the State, a master's degree in counseling and 2 to 5 years of teaching experience may be re­ quired for a counseling certificate. Vocational and related rehabilitation agencies generally require a master's degree in rehabilitation counseling, counseling and guid­ ance, or counseling psychology for rehabilitation counselor jobs. Some, however, may accept applicants with a bachelor's degree in rehabilitation services, counseling, psychology, sociology, or related fields. A bachelor's degree may qualify a person to work as a coun­ seling aide, rehabilitation aide, or social service worker. Experience  Professional Specialty Occupations 147  in employment counseling, job development, psychology, education, or social work may be helpful. The Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) accredits graduate programs in rehabilitation counseling. A minimum of 2 years of study—including 600 hours of supervised clinical internship experience—are required for the master's degree. In most State vocational rehabilitation agencies, applicants must pass a written examination and be evaluated by a board of examiners to obtain licensure. In addition, many employers require rehabilita­ tion counselors to be nationally certified. To become certified by the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification, counselors must graduate from an accredited educational program, complete an internship, and pass a written examination. They are then designated as "Certified Rehabilitation Counselors." To maintain their certifica­ tion, counselors must complete 100 hours of acceptable continuing education credit every 5 years. Some States require counselors in public employment offices to have a master's degree; others accept a bachelor's degree with appro­ priate counseling courses. Clinical mental health counselors generally have a master's degree in mental health counseling, another area of counseling, or in psy­ chology or social work. They are voluntarily certified by the Na­ Generally, to receive tional Board for Certified Counselors. certification as a clinical mental health counselor, a counselor must have a master's degree in counseling, 2 years of post-master's experi­ ence, a period of supervised clinical experience, a taped sample of clinical work, and a passing grade on a written examination. Some employers provide training for newly hired counselors. Many have work-study programs so that employed counselors can earn graduate degrees. Counselors must participate in graduate studies, workshops, institutes, and personal studies to maintain their certificates and licenses. Persons interested in counseling should have a strong interest in helping others and the ability to inspire respect, trust, and confidence. They should be able to work independently or as part of a team. Counselors follow the code of ethics associated with their respective certifications and licenses. Prospects for advancement vary by counseling field. School counselors may move to a larger school; become directors or super­ visors of counseling, guidance, or pupil personnel services; or, usually with further graduate education, become counselor educators, counseling psychologists, or school administrators. (See the state­ ments on psychologists and education administrators elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some counselors also may advance to work at the State department of education. Rehabilitation, mental health, and employment counselors may become supervisors or administrators in their agencies. Some coun­ selors move into research, consulting, or college teaching, or go into private or group practice. Job Outlook Overall employment of counselors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition, replacement needs should increase significantly as a large number of counselors reach retirement age. Employment of school counselors is expected to grow as a result of increasing enrollments, particularly in secondary schools, State legislation requiring counselors in elementary schools, and the ex­ panded responsibilities of counselors. Counselors increasingly are becoming involved in crisis and preventive counseling, helping students deal with issues ranging from drug and alcohol abuse to death and suicide. Despite the increasing use of counselors, how­ ever, employment growth may be dampened by budgetary con­ straints—some counselors serve more than one school. Also, counselor positions are usually cut before teacher positions when funding is tight. Rehabilitation and mental health counselors should be in strong demand. Under managed care systems, insurance companies increas­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ingly provide for reimbursement of counselors, enabling many counselors to move from schools and government agencies to private practice. Counselors are also forming group practices to receive expanded insurance coverage. The number of people who need rehabilitation services will rise as advances in medical technology continue to save lives that only a few years ago would have been lost. In addition, legislation requiring equal employment rights for persons with disabilites will spur demand for counselors. Counselors not only will help individuals with disabilities with their transition into the work force, but also will help companies comply with the law. An increasing number of employers are also offering employee assistance programs which provide mental health and alcohol and drug abuse services. More rehabilitation and mental health counsel­ ors will be needed as the elderly population grows, and as society focuses on ways of developing mental well-being, such as controlling stress associated with job and family responsibilities. Similar to other government jobs, the number of employment counselors, who work primarily for State and local government, could be limited by budgetary constraints. Opportunities for em­ ployment counselors working in private job training services, how­ ever, should grow as counselors provide skill training and other services to a growing number of laid-off workers, experienced work­ ers seeking a new or second career, full-time homemakers seeking to enter or reenter the work force, and workers who want to upgrade their skills. Earnings Median earnings for full-time educational and vocational counselors were about $36,100 a year in 1994. The middle 50 percent earned between $26,500 and $46,200 a year. The bottom 10 percent earned less than $20,000 a year, while the top 10 percent earned over $50,000 a year. According to the Educational Research Service, the average salary of public school counselors in the 1994-95 academic year was about $42,500. Many school counselors are compensated on the same pay scale as teachers. School counselors can earn additional income working summers in the school system or in other jobs. Self-employed counselors who have well-established practices, as well as counselors employed in group practices, generally have the highest earnings, as do some counselors working for private firms, such as insurance companies and private rehabilitation companies. Related Occupations Counselors help people evaluate their interests, abilities, and dis­ abilities, and deal with personal, social, academic, and career prob­ lems. Others who help people in similar ways include college and student personnel workers, teachers, personnel workers and manag­ ers, human services workers, social workers, psychologists, psychia­ trists, members of the clergy, occupational therapists, training and employee development specialists, and equal employment opportu­ nity/affirmative action specialists. Sources of Additional Information For general information about counseling, as well as information on specialties such as school, college, mental health, rehabilitation, multicultural, career, marriage and family, and gerontological coun­ seling, contact: ••American Counseling Association, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  For information on accredited counseling and related training programs, contact: ••Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, American Counseling Association, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  For information on national certification requirements for coun­ selors, contact: ••National Board for Certified Counselors, 3 Terrace Way, Suite D, Greens­ boro, NC 27403.  148 Occupational Outlook Handbook  For information about rehabilitation counseling, contact: •■National Rehabilitation Counseling Association, 1910 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091. •"National Council on Rehabilitation Education, Department of Special Education, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-2870.  For information on certification requirements for rehabilitation counselors and a list of accredited rehabilitation education programs, contact:  •■Council on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification, 1835 Rohlwing Rd., Suite E, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008.  For general information about school counselors, contact: •"American School Counselor Association, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  State departments of education can supply information on col­ leges and universities that offer approved guidance and counseling training for State certification and licensure requirements. State employment service offices have information about job opportunities and entrance requirements for counselors.  Librarians (D.O.T. 100 except .367-018; 109.267-014)  Nature of the Work Librarians assist people in finding information and using it effec­ tively in their personal and professional lives. They must have knowledge of a wide variety of scholarly and public information sources, and follow trends related to publishing, computers, and the media to effectively oversee the selection and organization of library materials. Librarians manage staff and develop and direct informa­ tion programs and systems for the public, to ensure information is being organized to meet the needs of users. There are generally three aspects of library work—user services, technical services, and administrative services. Increasingly, distinc­ tions between these services is blurred, and many librarian positions incorporate all three aspects of the work. Even librarians who spe­ cialize in one of these areas may perform other responsibilities. Librarians in user services, such as reference and children's librari­ ans, work with the public to help them find the information they need. This may involve analyzing users' needs to determine what information is appropriate, and searching for, acquiring, and provid­ ing the information. Librarians in technical services, such as acqui­ sitions and cataloguing, acquire and prepare materials for use and may not deal directly with the public. Librarians in administrative services oversee the management and planning of libraries, negotiate contracts for services, materials, and equipment, supervise library employees, perform public relations and fundraising duties, prepare budgets, and direct activities to ensure that everything functions properly. In small libraries or information centers, librarians generally handle all aspects of the work. They read book reviews, publishers' announcements, and catalogues to keep up with current literature and other available resources, and select and purchase materials from publishers, wholesalers, and distributors. Librarians prepare new materials for use by classifying them by subject matter, and describe books and other library materials in a way that users can easily find them. They supervise assistants who prepare cards, computer rec­ ords, or other access tools that direct users to resources. In large libraries, librarians may specialize in a single area, such as acquisi­ tions, cataloguing, bibliography, reference, special collections, or administration. Teamwork is increasingly important to ensure qual­ ity service to the public. Librarians also compile lists of books, periodicals, articles, and audiovisual materials on particular subjects, analyze collections, and recommend materials to be acquired. They may collect and organize  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and other materials in a specific field, such as rare books, genealogy, or music. In addition, they coordinate programs such as storytelling for children, and literacy skills and book talks for adults; publicize services; provide reference help; supervise staff; prepare budgets; write grants; and oversee other administrative matters. Librarians may be classified according to the type of library in which they work—public libraries, school library media centers, academic libraries, and special libraries. They may work with spe­ cific groups, such as children, young adults, adults, or the disadvan­ taged. In school library media centers, librarians help teachers develop curricula, acquire materials for classroom instruction, and sometimes team teach. Librarians may also work in information centers or libraries maintained by government agencies, corporations, law firms, adver­ tising agencies, museums, professional associations, medical centers, hospitals, religious organizations, and research laboratories. They build and arrange the organization's information resources, usually limited to subjects of special interest to the organization. These special librarians can provide vital information services by preparing abstracts and indexes of current periodicals, organizing bibliogra­ phies, or analyzing background information and preparing reports on areas of particular interest. For instance, a special librarian working for a corporation may provide the sales department with information on competitors or new developments affecting their field. Many libraries have access to remote databases, as well as main­ taining their own computerized databases. The widespread use of automation in libraries makes database searching skills important to librarians. Librarians develop and index databases and act as trainers to help users develop searching skills to obtain the information they need. Some libraries are forming consortiums with other libraries through electronic mail (e-mail). This allows patrons to submit information requests to several libraries at once. Use of Internet and other world-wide computer systems is also expanding the amount of available reference information. Librarians must be increasingly aware of how to use these resources to locate information. Libraries may employ automated systems librarians who plan and operate computer systems, and information science librarians who design information storage and retrieval systems and develop proce­ dures for collecting, organizing, interpreting, and classifying infor­ mation. These librarians may analyze and plan for future information needs. (See statement on computer scientists and sys­ tems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) The increasing use of automated information systems enables librarians to focus on admin­ istrative and budgeting responsibilities, grant writing, and specialized research requests, while delegating more technical and user services responsibilities to technicians. (See statement on library technicians elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some librarians apply their information management and research skills to other arenas outside libraries—for example, database devel­ opment, reference tool development, information systems, publish­ ing, Internet coordination, marketing, and training of database users. Entrepreneurial librarians may start their own consulting practices. They act as free-lance librarians or information brokers and provide services to other libraries, businesses, or government agencies. Working Conditions Working conditions in user services are different from those in technical services. Assisting users in obtaining the information for their jobs or for recreational and other needs can be challenging and satisfying. Working with users under deadlines may be demanding and stressful. In technical services, selecting and ordering new materials can be stimulating and rewarding. However, librarians may spend a significant portion of time at their desks or in front of computer terminals. Extended work at video display terminals may cause eyestrain and headaches. Nearly 1 out of 4 librarians works part time. Public and college librarians often work weekends and evenings and may have to work  Professional Specialty Occupations 149  mm . ,  A master's degree in library scie