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U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
April 1984
Bulletin 2205
Material in this publication is
in the public domain and may,
with appropriate credit, be
reproduced without permission.

JUL 2 6 1984


Raymond J. Donovan
Secretary of Labor

The selection of an occupation is one of the most important decisions in a person’s life. For the
young jobseeker, questions abound as to what skills are required in each field, and how those skills
may be attained or refined. Furthermore, while jobseekers may be aware of their own interests and
abilities, they face the perplexing choice of selecting a field which promises the greatest economic and
personal satisfaction.
As technological advances rapidly alter the job market, it is not only the young who need current,
accurate, and comprehensive career information. The choices are no easier for persons seeking a
career change, or for those entering the labor force at later stages in their lives. The availability of
career information is vital to all jobseekers, and to our Nation as a whole.
The Occupational Outlook Handbook is an invaluable primary source of vocational guidance
information. In clear language, it describes what workers do in each job, the training and education
they need, earnings, working conditions, and expected job prospects for selected occupations
covering a wide spectrum of the economy. I am certain that the updated 1984-85 edition of the
Occupational Outlook Handbook will provide valuable assistance to everyone seeking satisfying and
productive employment.

Prefatory Note
Janet L. Norwood
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Information on tomorrow’s career opportunities must be available for today’s youth and others if
they are to prepare realistically for their future in the world of work. Since the late 1940’s, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics has conducted research on employment in occupations for use in vocational guidance.
A major product of this research is the Occupational Outlook Handbook.
The Handbook presents current and comprehensive information on work today and job prospects
for tomorrow. Revised every two years, this 16th edition of the Handbook covers about 200 occupa­
tions . For each of these occupations, the Handbook discusses job duties, working conditions, level and
places of employment, education and training requirements, advancement possibilities, job outlook,
earnings, other occupations that require similar aptitudes, interests, or training, and sources of
additional information. Handbook information is based on data from a variety of sources, including
business firms, trade associations, labor unions, professional societies, research organizations,
educational institutions, and government agencies.
For some occupations, this edition of the Handbook includes recently developed information on
movements between occupations and into and out of the labor force. The Handbook also includes
information about the effect of the business cycle, defense spending, energy development, and other
economic variables on occupational employment, and cites occupations whose employment declined
during the 1981-82 recession. This edition of the Handbook also presents information on selected
occupations which are not discussed in detailed occupational statements.
Occupations are grouped according to the Standard Occupational Classification Manual, 1980
edition. The Handbook also contains an index referenced to the most recent edition and supplement of
the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.

The Handbook was prepared in the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Occupational Outlook,
under the supervision of Neal H. Rosenthal. General direction was provided by Ronald E. Kutscher,
Associate Commissioner for Economic Growth and Employment Projections.
General planning and coordination of the Handbook were directed by Michael Pilot.
Daniel E. Hecker, Anne Kahl, Chester C. Levine, and Patrick Wash supervised the research and
preparation of individual Handbook sections.
Members of the Office’s staff who contributed sections were Verada P. Bluford, Douglas J.
Braddock, Donald Clark, Conley Hall Dillon, Jr., Lawrence C. Drake, Jr., David S. Frank, Arthur J.
Gartaganis, LudmillaK. Murphy, Thomas Nardone, H. James Neary, JonQ. Sargent, Joel P. Segaloff,
and Audrey J. Watson.
Chester C. Levine coordinated the compilation and editing of tables and graphic arts material
associated with the Handbook. Max L. Carey developed the information on selected occupations
which are not discussed in detailed occupational statements. Gail M. Martin was responsible for the
gathering and editing of photographs.
Under the direction of Beverly A. Williams, word processing was handled by Vidella H. Hubbard,
Brenda A. Marshall, and Marilyn W. Queen.


A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, industrial organizations, and
government agencies are able to provide career information that is valuable to counselors and
jobseekers. For the convenience of Handbook users, some of these organizations are listed at the end of
each occupational statement. Although these references were assembled carefully, the Bureau of
Labor Statistics has neither authority nor facilities for investigating the organizations listed. Also,
because the Bureau does not see all the information or publications that may be sent in response to a
request, it cannot guarantee the accuracy of such information. The listing of an organization,
therefore, does not constitute in any way an endorsement or recommendation by the Bureau or the
U.S. Department of Labor, either of the organization and its activities or of the information it may
supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue.
The occupational information contained in the Handbook presents a general, composite description
of jobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The
Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as a guide for determining wages, hours,
the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job
evaluation systems.


Photograph Credits
T h e B ureau o f L abor S tatistics gratefu lly a c k n o w le d g e s the co o p eration and a ssista n c e o f the m any
g o vern m en t and private sou rces that eith er contrib uted ph otograp hs or m ad e their fa c ilitie s availab le to
U .S . D ep artm en t o f L abor photograp hers. P h otographs m ay not b e free o f ev ery p o s sib le sa fety or
health hazard. D e p ic tio n o f co m p an y or trade n am e in n o w ay co n stitu tes en d orsem en t b y the
D ep artm en t o f Labor.

A - l- I n s u la t io n , A A A O rnam ental Iron w ork s,
I n c ., A l ’s G la ss S h op , I n c ., C ity o f A lexan d ria
(V a.)— S h e r iff’s O ffic e , A le x a n d r ia A n im a l
H osp ital (V a .), A lexan d ria G azette (V a.), A le x ­
andria H o sp ita l (V a .), T h e A lib i Restaurant,
A llie d In d u str ia l M a c h in e S e r v ic e s , I n c .,

lau f M fg . C o . , I n c ., B a ltim ore G as and E lectric

tion A d m in istration, First V irgin ia B an k , Dr.
Jane F o n g , G eo rg e M a so n U n iversity, G eorge
W a s h in g to n U n iv e r s i t y H o s p i t a l , G e o r g e
W a sh in g to n U n iv e r s it y — A c a d e m ic C e n tr e ,
G e o r g e ’s P u b lick H o u se , G eo rgetow n S c h o o l
o f S c ie n c e and A rts, L td ., G eo rg eto w n U n iver­
sity, G ian t F o o d s, I n c ., Dr. M . Joan G ille s p ie ,
D .D . S . , G o ld Art Jew elers, Dr. G len n G ood h an d , D . D . S . , G u lf O il C o m p a n y — Fairfax
T erm in a l (V a .), H a d le y M e m o r ia l H o s p ita l
(W a sh ., D .C .) , H ele n e S tik e ll, Dr. A . R oy H er­

C o ., B a n k o f V irg in ia , B e a co n N orth I n c ., B io ­

o n , M .D ., H om er O p tical, In c ., H o n e y w e ll,

m etric R esea rch In stitu te, B org-W arner C orp o­

In c ., H ow ard U n iv ersity L aw S c h o o l, H unter

ration, B ro b st M u sic S tu d io , C ap itol H ill H o s­

L a b , E . B a r b o u r H u t c h in s o n E le m e n t a r y

A m erica n N ew sp a p er P u b lish ers A sso c ia tio n ,
A m erica n U n iv ersity , A n to n ’s T .V ., A rlin gton
C ou n ty (V a.)— W ater P o llu tio n C on trol P lan t,
A rtech C o rp ., A to m ic Industrial F orum , B a l-

pital (W a sh ., D .C .) , C arpenter’s D istrict C ou n ­

S c h o o l (H ern d on , V a.), H ym an C on struction

c il (W ash ., D .C .) , C h esap eak e and Potom ac

C om p any, Interior D e sig n D im e n sio n s , W .S .

T eleph one C o . , T h e C hurch o f S t. T h eresa o f

Jenks and S o n , K aufm ann O ffice E q u ip m en t,

A vila, Dr. K en n eth C lark e, D . D . S . , C olorfax

K elly S e r v ic es, John F. K en n ed y C enter for the

L aboratories, I n c ., M .C . D e a n , I n c ., D e lo itte

P erform ing A rts, K h alsa C hiropractic Center,

H askin s and S e lls , U n iv e r sity o f the D istrict o f

J o h n K u y k e n d a ll P a in t in g , L & M F lo o r s ,

C olu m b ia— S p ee c h and H earin g C lin ic , D ix ie

L eesb u rg (V a.) M u n icip al A irport, L ittle Falls

H eating and S h ee t M eta l, D o w n to w n G arage

U n ited Presbyterian C hurch, Dr. Barry L o n ­

In c ., D u p lica tiv e Im p ressio n s, I n c ., E la in e ’s o f
O ld e T ow n e, Fairfax C o u n ty (V a.) H ealth D e ­

d o n , T h e M arriott C orp., U n iv ersity o f M ary­

partm ent— D iv isio n o f E n viron m en tal H ealth ,

M a ry la n d , M cL e a n B ic y c le C enter, M errill

land— D epartm en t o f E d u cation , U n iv ersity o f

Fairfax C ou n ty (V a .) P u b lic S c h o o ls, Fairfax

L yn ch P ierce Fenner and S m ith , N a ch m a n ’s,

C ou nty (V a.)— O ffice o f C o m p reh en siv e P lan ­

In c ., N ation al A eron autics and S p ace A d m in ­

n in g , T he Fairfax H o sp ita l (V a.), Fed eral A via­

istra tio n , N a tio n a l B ro a d ca stin g C o r p ., N a ­

tion al C o a l A s so c ia tio n , N a tion a l C o in M a ­
c h in e C o ., I n c ., N a tio n a l C on structors A s s o ­
cia tio n , N ation al C o u n cil o f L a R a za , N ation al
In su ra n ce A g e n c y , N o rth ern V ir g in ia C o m ­
m u n ity C o lle g e , N U S C orporation, Pacific G as
and E lec tric C o m p a n y , P ie d m o n t A ir lin e s,
P lan n in g R esearch C orporation, P o w ell O p ti­
c ia n s, I n c ., R e /M a x D is tin c tiv e P ro p erties,
K urt K u y k en d a ll, R ic e , Carpenter, and Carroway, I n c ., Sears R o eb u ck and C o .— A u to
S e r v ic e D iv is io n , Sears R o eb u ck and C o .—
S e r v ic e Center, S e v e n E lev e n F oo d S to res, Star
U p h olstery, T im e, I n c ., Top M eat M ark et, U n ­
d erw riting S p ec ia lists, I n c ., U n ited M asonry,
I n c ., o f V irgin ia, U .S . D ep artm en t o f A g ri­
culture, U .S . P ostal S erv ice— M cL ea n B ranch
(V a.), State o f V irgin ia— D iv is io n o f Forestry,
State o f V irgin ia— D iv is io n o f H ig h w a y s, U n i­
v e r s it y o f V i r g in ia , V I P T r a v el A g e n c y ,
W D V M -T V , W a sh in g to n M etro p o lita n A rea
T r a n sit A u t h o r it y , W e s t S p r i n g f i e ld H ig h
S c h o o l (V a.), W estern B ranch D ie s e l, I n c ., T he
W harf, W illia m N o r w itz C o ., W illia m s C o n ­
stru ctio n C o ., Dr. C e c ilia P u rsel W illia m s,
W illia m so n Barber S h op, W o lfb erg , A lv a rez,
Taracido and A s so c ia te s, T h e W yatt C om pany,
Yale New Haven Magazine, Y ork D iv is io n ,
Carl Z itzm an .

C o m m en ts abou t the con ten ts o f this p u b lication and su g g estio n s for im p rovin g it are w e lco m e .
P le a se add ress th em to C h ief, D iv isio n o f O ccu p ation al O u tlook , Bureau o f L abor S tatistics,
U .S . D ep artm en t o f Labor, W ash in gton, D .C . 20212.




Guide to the Handbook










A cco u n ta n ts and auditors
B an k o fficers and m an agers
B u y e r s, retail and w h o le sa le trade
C on stru ctio n in sp ec to r s, p u b lic
adm inistration
H ealth and regu latory in sp ectors
H ealth se r v ic es adm inistrators
H o tel m an agers and assistan ts
P erso n n el and lab or relation s
sp ecia lists
P urch asing agen ts
S c h o o l adm inistrators
U n derw riters




A rch itects
S u rveyors


Mathematical scientists and systems


A ctu aries
C om p u ter sy stem s an alysts
M ath em atician s
S tatistician s


Physical scientists


Life scientists







P etroleu m en g in eers







Occupational therapists
Physical therapists
Physician assistants
Registered nurses
Respiratory therapists
Speech pathologists and audiologists






L aw yers



E co n o m ists
P sy c h o lo g is ts
S o c io lo g ists
U rban and region al plan ners


Clinical laboratory technologists and
Dental hygientists
Electrocardiograph technicians
Electroencephalographic technologists
and technicians
Health record technicians
Licensed practical nurses
Radiologic technologists
Surgical technicians


Social and recreation workers




Religious workers


Communications occupations
Public relations specialists
Radio and television announcers and
Reporters and correspondents
Writers and editors




A e ro sp a ce e n g in eers
C h em ica l en g in e er s
C iv il e n g in eers
E lectrica l en g in e er s
Industrial e n g in eers
M ech a n ica l e n g in eers
M eta llu rg ica l en g in e er s
M in in g e n g in eers
N u clea r e n g in eers


C h em ists
G e o lo g ists and g e o p h y sic ists
M ete o ro lo g ists
P h y sicists

A gricu ltu ral sc ien tists
B io lo g ic a l scien tists
F oresters and con servation ists

Social scientists and urban planners

S o c ia l w orkers
R ecreation w orkers

P rotestant m in isters
R ab bis
R om an C ath olic priests


K in dergarten and elem en ta ry teach ers
S eco n d ary sc h o o l teachers
C o lle g e and u n iversity facu lty
C o u n selors




Design occupations
Commercial and graphic artists and


Performing artists
Actors and actresses



Air traffic controllers
Broadcast technicians
Computer programmers
Electrical and electronics technicians
Legal assistants
Library technicians
Tool programmers, numerical control


Insurance agents and brokers
Manufacturers sales workers
Real estate agents and brokers
Retail trade sales workers
Securities sales workers
Havel agents
Wholesale trade sales workers


Bank tellers
Bookkeepers and accounting clerks
Computer operating personnel
Mail carriers and postal clerks
Reservation agents and transportation
ticket clerks
Secretaries and stenographers
Shipping and receiving clerks
Teacher aides
Telephone operators


Protective service occupations
Correction officers
Police and detectives, public service


Food and beverage preparation and
service occupations
Cooks and chefs
Waiters and waitresses


245 Cosmetologists
246 Flight attendants







Vehicle and mobile equipment
mechanics and repairers


A ircraft m ech an ics
A u to m o tiv e b od y repairers
A u to m o tiv e m ech an ics
D ie se l m ech an ics
Farm eq u ip m en t m ech an ics


Electrical and electronics equipment


A p p lia n ce installers and repairers
C om m u n ication s eq u ip m en t m ech an ics
C om p uter serv ice tech n ician s
L in e installers and cab le sp licers
R ad io and te le v isio n service
tech n ician s
T elep h on e and P B X installers and



Other mechanics and repairers


A ir-con d ition in g, refrigeration, and
h eating m ech an ics
C o in m ach in e servicers and repairers
Industrial m achinery repairers
M illw righ ts
M u sical instrum ent repairers
O ffice m ach in e repairers



Dental laboratory technicians
Dispensing opticians and ophthalmic
laboratory technicians
Furniture upholsterers
Hand molders
Job and die setters
Lithographers and photoengravers
Machinists and layout workers
Photographic process workers
Shoe repair occupations
Toolmakers and diemakers


Plant and system operators
Stationary engineers
Water and sewage treatment plant


Machine operators, tenders, and
setup workers
Machine tool operators
Printing press operators and assistants


Fabricators, assemblers, and
handworking occupations
Assembler occupations
Automotive painters
Welders and flamecutters


Airplane pilots
Construction machinery operators
(Operating engineers)
Industrial truck operators

Construction occupations


B rick layers and ston em ason s
C em en t m ason s and terrazzo w orkers
D ryw all applicators and tapers
E lectrician s
F loor co verin g installers
G laziers
Insu lation w orkers
Ironw orkers
Painters and paperhangers
P lum bers and pipefitters
R oofers
S h eet-m etal workers
T ilesetters


Extractive occupations




B lu e -co lla r w orkers su pervisors


B oilerm akers
B ook b in d ers
B utchers and m eatcutters
C om p ositors and typesetters




Construction laborers and helpers





Health service occupations
Dental assistants
Medical assistants
Nursing aides, orderlies, and


Cleaning service occupations
Building custodians


Personal service occupations




Companion Publications


Occupational Projections and Training
Occupational Outlook Quarterly
(inside back cover)

Precision production occupations


How to Get the Most From the Handbook
H o w m u ch training d o e s it take to enter a par­
ticular occu p a tio n ? Is e x p erien ce im portant?
H o w m u ch c a n I e x p e ct to earn? Is it d ifficu lt to
find a jo b in th is field ? W h eth er y o u are prepar­
ing to enter th e w o rld o f w ork for the first tim e,
reentering th e labor fo rce after an a b sen ce , or
plan ning to retrain fo r an occu p a tio n w ith a
m ore p ro m isin g fu tu re, su ch q u estio n s arise.
F in d in g the an sw ers can b e d ifficu lt. H ow ever,
m ore reso u rces are availab le than e ver b efo re to
h elp y o u m ak e an in fo rm ed career c h o ice .
A m o n g th ese reso u rces is the Occupational
Outlook Handbook. A p p r o x im a te ly 2 0 0 o c ­
cupations are d escrib ed in the Handbook, al­
though th e total n u m ber o f occu p a tio n s in the
U .S . e c o n o m y m ay b e co u n ted in the th ou ­
sands. O ccu p a tio n s requiring lo n g period s o f
education or train in g are m o st lik e ly to appear
in the Handbook, as are sm all b u t rapidly g ro w ­
ing field s o f em p lo y m en t.
For e a c h o f a b o u t 2 0 0 o c c u p a t io n s , th e
Handbook co n ta in s a tw o - to th ree-p age state­
m ent that te lls w h at the w ork is lik e and d is­
c u sses ed u ca tio n and training req u irem en ts, ad­
van cem en t p o s sib ilitie s , earn in gs, and the jo b
o u tlo o k . A lto g e th e r , th e s e o c c u p a t io n s a c ­
counted fo r w e ll o v er h a lf o f all jo b s in the
U n ited States in 1982. Handbook statem en ts
describ e the w ork o f a p p roxim ately 8 0 percen t
o f the N a tio n ’s p r o fe ssio n a l, te c h n ic a l, and
sa les workers; 7 0 percen t o f craft w orkers; 65
percent o f serv ice w orkers; 55 percen t o f cler­
ica l w ork ers; 5 0 p ercen t o f o p era tiv es; and
sm aller p roportions o f m anagerial w orkers and
la b o r er s.
Sum m ary data for an add ition al 170 o ccu p a ­
tion s are p resen ted in tab les that can b e fou n d at
the end o f m o st chapters. For e a ch o ccu p ation
listed , y o u w ill find a d efin ition ; the num ber o f
jo b s in 1982; and a phrase d escrib in g future
em p lo y m en t g ro w th or d e c lin e . A lto g eth er,
th ese o ccu p a tio n s acco u n ted for an add ition al
2 0 percent o f the N a tio n ’s jo b s in 1982.
T he Handbook is not m eant to b e read from
beg in n in g to en d . Start b y b ro w sin g through the
table o f co n ten ts at the front o f the b o o k or the
alphabetical in d ex at the back . L o o k for o c ­
cupations that interest y o u , or for th o se that
sou nd fam iliar. O cc u p a tio n s are g r o u p e d in
clusters o f related o ccu p a tio n s, s u c h as “ e n g i­
neers, su rveyors, and a rch itects” or “ w riters,
artists, and entertainers.”
For an o v erview , read the introductory ch ap ­
ter o n T om orrow ’s Jobs. It d isc u s se s so m e o f
the broad trends that are lik e ly to sh ape the
eco n o m y and the w orld o f w ork ov er the c o m ­
ing d ecad e.

The First Step:
Examining Yourself
Im portant as it is to learn abou t the w orld o f
w ork, the first step in m ak in g a sou n d career

c h o ic e is findin g ou t abou t you rself. A n under­
stan ding o f you r v a lu es, fe e lin g s , and g o a ls w ill
h elp y o u d eterm in e w h at y o u ’re lo o k in g for in a
career. For w h en y o u m ak e a career c h o ic e ,
y o u ’re d irectly or ind irectly m ak in g d e c isio n s
abou t the ty p es o f p eo p le y o u w ill asso cia te
w ith , th e am oun t o f leisu re tim e y o u w ill h ave,
the am ou n t o f risk y o u are com fortab le w ith ,
and the im p ortan ce o f m on ey in you r life . T h e se
d e c is io n s d ep en d o n valu es y o u already h old .

About Those Numbers at the Head of
Each Statement
The numbers in parentheses that appear just
below the title of most occupational state­
ments are D.O.T. code numbers. D.O.T.
stands for the Dictionary of Occupational Ti­
tles (fourth edition), a U.S. Department of
Labor publication. Each number helps classi­
fy jobs by the type of work done, required
training, physical demands, and working
conditions. D.O.T. numbers are used by Job
Service offices to classify applicants and job
openings, and for reporting and other operat­
ing purposes. They are included in the Hand­
book because career information centers and
libraries frequently use them for filing oc­
cupational information. An index listing
Handbook occupations by D.O.T. number
may be found just before the alphabetical
index in the back of this book.

O n e w a y o f cla rifyin g you r w ork valu es c e n ­
ters around id en tify in g the satisfaction s y o u
h o p e to g et from you r jo b . D o y o u , for e x a m ­
p le , co n sid er it im portant to h elp other p e o p le ,
or to contrib ute to the w elfare o f so c ie ty as a
w h o le ? T h e health p ro fessio n s, so c ia l w ork ,
tea ch in g , urban p lan n in g, and p u b lic ad m in ­
istration are am on g a num ber o f career field s
that offer the op p ortu nity to be o f serv ice to
C ou n selors and other p ro fession als trained in
hu m an beh avior can h elp y o u gain in sigh t into
you r v a lu es and g o a ls. T hey m ay adm inister
d ia g n o stic te sts, for ex a m p le, and then d iscu ss
the results w ith y o u . Furtherm ore, p u b lication s
on career d ecisio n m a k in g abou nd , and th ese
g en erally exp lain h o w y ou can a ssess you r v al­
u es and sk ills on you r o w n .
W o v en th rou gh ou t e v er y statem en t in the
Handbook is in fo rm a tio n that can h e lp y o u
m atch y o u r se lf to the w orld o f w ork. T h e fo l­
lo w in g list o f jo b characteristics sh ou ld b e kept
in m ind sin ce y o u w ill find them m en tion ed in
several d ifferen t sectio n s o f a ty p ica l Handbook
statem en t. R em em b er that the im portance o f
attributes su ch as th o se listed b e lo w varies from
jo b to jo b , as w e ll as from person to person.

—Problem-solving ability— requires the ability to
identify a problem and then decide what should be

done to correct it. Auto mechanics, who spend
much of their time fixing cars, need problem-solv­
ing ability.
— U ses to o ls, m ach in ery —takes a talent for working

with your hands. Often, knowing how machines
work is necessary, too. Toolmakers, who use ma­
chine tools and precision measuring instruments to
produce other tools and metal forms, need skill in
this area.
— In stru cts oth ers —needs

the ability to help others
learn how to do or understand something. Recep­
tionists and hotel clerks help others in this way.

— R e p e titio u s —involves

work in which the same
thing is done over and over again. An assembler
who works on a production line does repetitious

— H aza rd o u s —involves the use of dangerous equip­

ment or materials or work in dangerous surround­
ings. Elevator constructors, who work at great
heights, have hazardous jobs.
— O u tdoors —requires

a major portion of time to be
spent outdoors, frequently without regard to
weather conditions. Roofers, who applying roofing
materials to the tops of buildings, work outdoors.

— P h y s ic a l sta m in a —involves

the ability to lift
heavy weights, walk long distances, stand for long
periods, or stoop frequently. Bricklayers, police
officers, and chefs all need physical stamina.

—G en era lly confined —involves staying in one place
most of the time. Truckdrivers who sit behind the
wheel for many hours and statistical clerks who do
their work at a desk for most of the day are exam­
—P recision —involves high standards of accuracy.
Accountants, air traffic controllers, and machinists
are examples.
—Works w ith d eta il —involves technical data, num­
bers, or written materials. Machinists who consult
blueprints or written specifications before making
each machined product and programmers who
write instructions for the computer are examples.
—F re q u e n t p u b lic c o n ta c t —involves day-to-day
contact with people who need information or serv­
ice. Automobile service advisers, receptionists,
hotel clerks, bank tellers, waiters, and barbers are
all examples.
—P art tim e —refers to work of less than 35 hours a
week. Waiters and waitresses and real estate agents
are examples.
—A b le to se e results —refers to jobs that produce an
actual product or accomplishment. Bricklayers,
chefs, and choreographers all see results.
—C r e a tiv ity —involves new ideas, programs, de­
signs, or products. Writers, industrial designers,
and engineers are examples of the many different
kinds of workers whose jobs require creativity.
—Influences oth ers —requires the ability to stimulate
others to think or act in a certain way. Automobile
sales workers who influence customers to buy and
teachers who inspire students to learn are exam­


—Initiative— demands the ability to determine on
one’s own what should be done, as well as the
motivation to do it without close supervision. Law­
yers and newspaper reporters need initiative.

—Works as part of a team— cooperation with coworkers is an integral part of the job. Instrument
makers, who work closely with scientists and engi­
neers to translate designs into models, and school
counselors, who work closely with other staff
members, are examples.

—Competition on the job— competition with co­
workers for recognition or advancement is an inte­
gral part of the job. College teachers who compete
for tenure, securities sales workers who compete
for commissions, and models who compete for
assignments are all examples.

Identifying your interests and abilities
provides another way of matching yourself to
the world of work. Do science or math interest
you? Do you like to read? Do you enjoy work­
ing with your hands and building things? The
answers to such questions can help you dis­
cover your strengths, and may suggest careers it
would be worthwhile to explore.
Suppose you have a flair for language and
want to put your talent to work in the field of
writing and publishing. You might look for a
job as a:
— Script writer
—Advertising worker
— Technical writer
— Greeting card writer
— Crossword puzzle writer
— Public relations worker

section on Communication Occupations, but
remember that that is only the beginning! Skim
the table of contents, or read the introductory
material at the beginning of each cluster, to
determine which other statements are worth
Don’t limit yourself by examining only a few
occupations. You’ll want to begin with those
that interest you most, of course, but don’t rule
out others too soon. Some jobs may not appeal
to you simply because you’re not familiar with
them. They might be worth looking into. Re­
member, also, that you haven’t wasted your
time if you investigate a career only to decide
that it’s not right for you. Finding out what you
don’t like is important, too.
Career exploration isn’t something you do
just once. Taking stock of your interests is
something you’re apt to do from time to time
throughout your life. You will continue to
change as the years go by, and it is likely that
your career interests and goals will change as
The Next Step:
Examining the World of Work
Once you have chosen an occupation you’d like
to learn more about, you can use the Handbook
to find out what the job is like, what education
and training are needed, what the advancement
possibilities, earnings, and job outlook are like­
ly to be, and what related occupations you
might want to explore. Each statement in the
Handbook follows a standard format, making it
easier to compare different jobs. What follows
is a description of the major sections of a Hand­
book statement, plus some hints on how to use
the information.

— Textbook editor
— Manuscript reader
— Index editor
— Literary agent
— Bookstore manager
— Publisher’s representative
— Book club sales associate
— Magazine circulation assistant

New specialties in writing have developed as
a result of increasing specialization in our mod­
em world. Science writing, business writing,
and medical writing all present possible options
to those with skills in writing.
Writing and publishing jobs aren’t the only
ones that require an excellent command of lan­
guage, however. Communication skills are vital
to many occupations, and the more skills peo­
ple have in English and language arts, the more
valuable they will be in the working world.
For example, lawyers must have topnotch
communication skills to be successful in digest­
ing and analyzing large amounts of information
and presenting their c^ses before others. Lob­
byists and fundraisers, too, must be effective
communicators, as well as those who hold po­
litical office or are in social service occupa­
tions. Librarians and teachers also need good
communication skills.
To locate Handbook statements on occupa­
tions that require language skills, start with the
Digitized for2

Nature of the work. This section tells what
workers typically do on the job, what tools or
equipment they use, how closely they are super­
vised, and how their responsibilities fit in with
those of others in the same workplace. In prac­
tice, job duties vary a good deal, depending on
the size or type of employer. In general, people
in small organizations handle a wider variety of
tasks than those in large offices or firms, where
workers are likely to specialize in one or more
aspects of the job.
Working conditions. When considering an oc­
cupation, you may want to find out whether the
working conditions suit you. Some aspects of
the work may strike you as difficult, dirty, or
otherwise undesirable. Other aspects may ap­
peal to you. Most jobs offer a little of both. For
example, when overtime is required, em­
ployees must give up some of their free time and
be flexible in their personal lives. This is offset,
however, by the opportunity to earn extra in­
come or time off.
Evening or nightwork is part of the regular
work schedule in many jobs. Bartenders,
guards, broadcast journalists and technicians,
and some factory workers may be required to
work these shifts on a permanent basis. Work­
ers in other occupations, such as nurses and
police officers, may work nights on a rotating
basis. Still other workers may be assigned to
split shifts: Busdrivers, for example, may work

morning and evening rush hours with time off
in the middle of the day. However, some people
prefer shiftwork because they can pursue lei­
sure activities or take care of errands during
daytime hours.
Work settings vary greatly. They include of­
fice buildings, construction sites, mines, facto­
ries, restaurants, stores, ships and planes.
Some people like a quiet, air-conditioned set­
ting; others prefer the hum of machinery. By
knowing the setting of jobs you find interesting,
you can avoid working in an environment that
you would find unpleasant.
Many workers have to be outdoors some or
all of the time. Mail carriers, construction
workers, firefighters, and foresters are a few
examples. Being exposed to all types of weather
may be preferred to indoor work, however, by
those who enjoy the outdoors.
Some jobs are potentially dangerous. Cuts,
bums, and falls can occur in restaurant kitch­
ens, factory assembly lines, and forge shops,
for example. Consequently, many jobs, such as
those involving the use of nuclear materials or
radiologic equipment, require the use of spe­
cially designed equipment and protective
Some jobs require standing, crouching in
awkward positions, heavy lifting, or are other­
wise strenuous. Be sure you have sufficient
physical strength and stamina for the work you
are interested in.
Employment. This section tells how many
jobs there were in the occupation in 1982. The
size of an occupation has a lot to do with job
prospects because the larger the occupation, the
greater the number of openings when workers
transfer to other occupations or leave the labor
force. In exceptionally large occupations—a
category that includes secretaries, typists,
bookkeepers, cashiers, registered nurses, nurs­
ing aides, janitors, and truckdrivers—employ­
ment size is the single most important determi­
nant of the very large number of jobs
anticipated through the mid-1990’s.
This section also tells whether an occupation
is concentrated in certain industries or geo­
graphic areas. Some jobs, such as secretaries,
are found throughout the country and in almost
every industry. O thers, like actors and
actresses, are concentrated in certain parts of
the country. This type of information helps you
know where to go to look for the kind of job you
want. It also is useful to those who have strong
preferences about where they live.
In addition, information on part-time em­
ployment may be included. For students, home­
makers, retired persons, and others who may
want to work part time, knowing which occupa­
tions offer good opportunities for part-time
work can be a valuable lead in finding a job.
Training, other qualifications, and advance­
ment. This section should be read carefully
because preparing for an occupation can mean a
considerable investment of time and money. If
you currently are in school, it’s a good idea to
look closely at the high school and college
courses considered useful preparation for the
career you have in mind.

Workers can prepare for jobs in a variety of
ways, including college programs leading to a
degree, certificate, or diploma; postsecondary
vocational school programs, both public and
private; home study courses; government train­
ing programs; Armed Forces training; appren­
ticeships and other formal training offered by
employers; and high school courses. For each
occupation, the Handbook identifies the pre­
ferred training. In many cases, alternative ways
of obtaining training are listed as well. Re­
member, the amount of training you have often
determines the level at which you enter an oc­
cupation and the speed with which you ad­
Today, few people spend their entire adult
lives in a single occupation. Roughly 1 worker
in 9 changes his or her occupation each year.
And most people enter, leave, and reenter the
labor force several times over a lifetime.
If a pattern of movement exists from one
occupation to another, it usually is discussed in
this part as a Handbook statement. It is helpful
to know that certain jobs are steppingstones to
others. Typist, messenger, dining room atten­
dant, dishwasher, freight handler, and con­
struction laborer are examples of entry-level
jobs that are open to people with little or no
work experience. Skills and work habits gained
at jobs such as these can lead to more responsi­
ble, higher paying jobs.
Conversely, some occupations are not open
to beginners. Management jobs such as bank
officer, restaurant manager, or regional sales
manager, for example, generally require pre­
vious experience.
The health field offers numerous examples of
career mobility, in part because there are so
many different occupations in this large and
dynamic industry. Further, health care has be­
come so sophisticated and complex that work­
ers who already are part of the system enjoy
certain advantages over those who have no
background in health care. It is not uncommon,
for example, for a registered nurse, medical
laboratory technologist, or radiographer to un­
dertake the additional training needed to pre­
pare for a more highly skilled job as a physician
assistant, nurse practitioner, or radiation
therapy technologist. Opportunities to train for
these occupations are limited, by and large, to
people who already have a health professions
For some occupations, certification or licen­
sure is required. Physicians and nurses, ele­
mentary and secondary school teachers, bar­
bers and cosmetologists, and electricians and
plumbers are examples of workers who must be
licensed. This section identifies occupations
that require licensure and what the general re­
quirements are. However, States vary in their
licensing requirements. If you are considering
an occupation that requires a license, be sure to
check with the appropriate State agency about
specific requirements. Common requirements
include completion of a State-approved training
or educational program and passing a written
Because of licensure and certification re­
quirements, movement from one clinical health

career to another generally requires an addi­
tional set of credentials. For example, despite
what might be years of experience in a dentist’s
office, a dental assistant cannot advance to a job
as a dental hygienist without completing a for­
mal program in dental hygiene. This section
alerts readers interested in the prospects for
advancement in an occupation to potential bar­
riers posed by legal restrictions or standard
hiring practices.
In many other occupations, however, there
are no such barriers. People with related educa­
tion or experience enter without obtaining a
license or additional formal education. This is
the case in engineering, for example, where
some graduates in physics, chemistry, com­
puter science, mathematics, and other fields are
hired as engineers directly from college. Others
without engineering degrees transfer into engi­
neering from related scientific fields and techni­
cian occupations.

During the recent recession, for example, the
nursing “ shortage” vanished, reflecting a drop
in demand combined with an unanticipated sur­
ge in supply. Many hospitals reported a sudden
reversal in supply-demand conditions, with un­
filled vacancies giving way to waiting lists for
The Handbook describes job outlook pri­
marily in terms of long-term employment
growth. Most statements begin with a sentence
about expected change through the mid-1990’s.
The number of jobs for typists, for example, is
expected to grow more slowly than the average
for all occupations, while the number of jobs
for physical therapists is expected to grow
much faster than the average for all occupa­
tions. The accompanying figure explains what
is meant by these and other key phrases.

Job outlook. What’s the job market like? This
is the question uppermost in many people’s
minds as they try to determine whether a par­
ticular career is worth pursuing. What con­
stitutes a “good” or “ attractive” job varies
with the individual and depends on personal
values. But because of the cost—and often the
sacrifice—involved in preparing for a career,
the likelihood of finding a suitable job is some­
thing virtually everyone is interested in.
This, in turn, depends on the relationship
between the number of openings and the
number of people seeking to fill those openings.
Jobs for dishwashers, for example, require
physical stamina and dependability, but little in
the way of formal education or vocational
skills. Since so many people fit the description,
the supply of potential dishwashers is enor­
mous. By contrast, a job as a nuclear engineer
requires scientific and technical expertise that is
gained through years of formal training; the
number of people with the appropriate back­
ground is quite small. Most jobs fall some­
where in between.
Bear in mind that in any particular occupa­
tion, demand for workers varies according to
skill level, specialty, educational background
and professional credentials, previous experi­
ence, and so forth. Moreover, the supply of
qualified jobseekers varies as well. That is why
there can be shortages in some communities or
in some specialties while qualified applicants
are a dime a dozen in others.
Mid-level personnel may be in great de­
mand, for example, while there are too few jobs
for beginners. Such is the case in law. Law
schools have difficulty attracting and retaining
established practitioners as faculty. Established
lawyers can make more money practicing law
than teaching it. The oversupply of newly train­
ed lawyers, however, creates keen competition
for starting jobs except for the graduates of top
law schools.
Whether or not the job outlook is favorable is
partly a matter of suitable openings in the com­
munity or kind of firm where you’re seeking
work. But the amount of competition from oth­
ers who are equally well qualified is the key
factor. And the amount of competition from
other jobseekers can change almost overnight.

Changing employment between 1982 and 1995

Key Words in the Handbook

If the statement
reads . . .

Employment is
projected to . . .

Much faster than
average growth
Faster than, average
Growth about as fast as
Growing more slowly
than average
Little change

Increase 50 percent or
Increase 30 to 49
Increase 20 to 29
Increase 6 to 9 percent


Increase or decrease 5
Decrease 6 percent or

Opportunities and competition for jobs
If the statement
reads . . .
Excellent opportunities
Very good
Good or favorable
May face competition
Keen competition

The demand for
workers may
be . . .
Much greater than the
Greater than the supply
About the same as the
Less than the supply
Much less than the

Projected change is probably a more useful
guide to outlook when an occupation is grow­
ing rapidly than when it is growing slowly. If an
occupation grows rapidly, it will provide more
openings than if it grows slowly. Moreover, the
demand for talent in a rapidly growing occupa­
tion improves chances for advancement and
mobility—as anyone in the computer field can
testify. Depending on how long it takes for
training programs to respond to the heightened
demand, jobseekers’ prospects may be en­
hanced by a shortage of qualified applicants.
What can be said about job prospects when
an occupation is projected to grow more slowly
than average? There is no single answer to this
question because so many different factors are
at work. Slower-than-average growth may
mean relatively unfavorable prospects—as is


the case for postal workers and printing craft
workers. For one thing, com pany policies de­
signed to provide job security are likely to re­
duce opportunities for persons not already em ­
ployed by the firm. The printing trades, for
exam ple, have been revolutionized by the intro­
duction o f labor-saving technologies, and many
jobs have been lost. In firms that use advanced
typesetting computers, jobs vacated by experi­
enced com positors and typesetters generally
are not filled. And programs to retrain company
em ployees dislocated by new technologies have
the effect o f lim iting the number o f openings for
people outside the firm.
At the same tim e, such slow -grow ing o c­
cupations as typist and bookkeeper rank high
on the list o f occupations providing the largest
number o f job openings— a measure o f favora­
ble outlook. In both occupations, the negative
e ffe c t o f slow er-th an-average em p loym en t
growth is outw eighed by the sheer size o f the
occupation, thanks to replacement openings.
In virtually every occupation, regardless of
the rate o f growth, the need to replace workers
who leave their jobs generates m ost openings.
Replacement rates vary, but it is generally true
that the larger the occupation, the more open­
ings there are due to replacem ents. Thus even
slow -grow ing occupations can rank am ong
those with the most openings.
Research conducted in the Bureau has pro­
duced a new method o f estim ating replacement
needs. With increased understanding o f pat­
terns of labor force m ovem ent, it is clear that
rep lacem ents are a m uch m ore im portant
source of job openings than was previously
believed. For a brief explanation, see the chap­
ter entitled Assum ptions and M ethods U sed in
Preparing the Employment Projections.
For m ost occupations, the factors expected to
contribute to future demand for workers are
identified in the job outlook section o f a H a n d ­
b o o k statement. This is where you w ill find a
discussion o f the em ploym ent impact o f office
automation, robotics, shifting population pat­
terns, and so forth.
Some statements discuss job security. The
recent recession has made jobseekers painfully
aware o f the se n s itiv ity o f em p lo y m en t to
changes in the business cy cle, and the H a n d ­
b o o k gives information on the subject wherever
possible. But there are additional factors that
make som e jobs more secure than others. In the
building trades, for exam ple, seasonal patterns
and the volatility o f demand for new housing
make construction workers susceptible to high­
er than average rates o f unem ploym ent in good
times as well as bad.
For a few occupations, information is pre­
sented on the projected supply o f workers— in
particular, the number of new graduates or new­
ly qualified practitioners. N ew graduates are
not the only source of supply, however. Every
year, a large proportion o f job openings are
filled by reentrants or by people transferring
from other occupations. In occupations where
women traditionally have predominated, such
as librarian, reentrants play an especially im ­
portant role in supply. Similarly, people trans­
ferring from other occupations constitute a sub­
stantial portion o f the supply o f engineers.


When information is available, the H a n d b o o k
describes patterns o f occupational entry and
exit and explains what they mean for job out­
The information in the job outlook section
should be used carefully. The prospect o f rela­
tively few openings, or o f strong com petition,
in a field that interests you should make you
take a second look at your career choice. But
this information alone should not prevent you
from pursuing a particular career if you are
confident about your ability and determined to
reach your goal.
Keep in mind that no one can predict future
labor market conditions with perfect accuracy.
M ethods used by econom ists to develop infor­
mation on future occupational prospects differ,
and judgm ents that go into any assessm ent of
the future also differ. For every occupation cov­
ered in the H a n d b o o k , an estimate o f future
em ploym ent needs is developed. These esti­
mates are consistent with a set of assumptions
about the future. For an explanation o f how
these projections are developed, see the chapter
on assumptions and methods.
Finally, it is possible that prospects in your
com munity or State do not correspond to the
description o f job outlook in the H a n d b o o k . For
the particular job you are interested in, the
outlook in your area may be better— or it may
be much worse.
Because local conditions vary so much, it is
w ise to talk with counselors, em ployers, Job
Service staff, and others about the particular
area where you want to work. State and local
chapters of labor unions and professional asso­
ciations may be able to finish useful leads. At
the end of the follow ing chapter, you w ill find a
list o f State officials who should be able to
direct you to people familiar with the job mar­
ket in a particular city or State. Addresses and
telephone numbers are given for the directors of
the State Occupational Information Coordinat­
ing Com m ittees, and for the directors o f re­
search and analysis of the State em ploym ent
security agencies.

Earnings. Many people turn to the H a n d b o o k
for the answers to such questions as, “ How
much does the average plumber earn?” or
“ What are the highest paying jobs?” or, “ Who
earns more, a secretary or a nurse?”
Unfortunately, no single statistic can ade­
quately portray the tremendous differences in
earnings o f workers in a particular occupation,
and it is very easy to be misled. Users should
look upon the earnings data presented in this
section o f a H a n d b o o k statement as a clue to an
occupation’s attractiveness and its potential for
long-term reward. But bear in mind that the
H a n d b o o k can’t predict what you might earn,
nor does it try to. Your earnings will depend on
many things, including your experience and
ability, the firm and industry you work in, and
the section o f the country where you live.
It is true that major occupational groups ex­
hibit significant differences in pay. Usual w eek­
ly earnings of managers and administators, for
exam ple, are about double those of service
workers. But there are wide disparities w i t h i n
m ost occupations as w ell. In fact, earnings

within occupations vary so w idely that in many
cases it is im possible to say w hich o f several
jobs would pay best. Engineers earn more than
drafters, on average. But the highest paid draft­
ers (those with earnings in the top 10 percent)
make more m oney than h a l f o f all engineers.
D ifferences in skill are part o f the explana­
tion. Within a particular occupation, average
salaries o f workers at the top levels may be
several tim es as high as those in entry level
jobs. The latter usually require less training,
em body simpler job functions, and carry little
or no supervisory responsibility.
G eographic variations account for som e o f
the d ifferences in occupational pay. W hile loca­
tion is an important factor for nearly all work­
ers, it is e sp e c ia lly im portant for unskilled
workers, w hose pay levels are strongly affected
by local market conditions. Earnings generally
are higher in the North Central and Northeast
regions than in the W est and the South, but
there are exceptions. K eep in mind that the
cities that offer the highest earnings are those in
w hich it is m ost expensive to live.
Differing pay scales am ong establishm ents,
unionization, seniority, and quality o f perfor­
mances are other factors that help explain why
the earnings o f individuals in the sam e occupa­
tion may vary greatly.
But the industry in w hich a job is located may
be the m ost important influence o f all. U n­
skilled jobs invariably are at the bottom o f the
pay structure in an industry. Yet unskilled work­
ers in a high-paying industry may earn more
than skilled workers in a low -paying industry.
Janitors in petroleum refining, for exam ple, are
paid m ore, on average, than workers in the
m ost sk illed production occu pations o f the
m en’s suit industry.
G row ing concern over the persistence o f
earnings differences between w om en and men
has brought the issue o f pay equity into the
lim elight. It is clear that no single factor ac­
counts for the sizable gap between m en ’s and
w om en ’s earnings. M any factors are at work.
N onetheless, the concentration o f w om en in the
lower paying occupations and industries emer­
ges as one o f the m ost important reasons that
w om en in general earn less than men. For rea­
sons that are not fully understood, the jobs that
m ost w om en hold are generally paid at lower
rates than jobs held by men.
The accom panying chart show s how w ide
the earnings spread within an occupation can
be. Based on 1982 data from the Bureau’s an­
nual survey o f profession al, adm inistrative,
technical, and clerical pay, the chart depicts the
range in annual earnings for three occupations:
A ccountants, attorneys, and ch em ists. N ote
that the chart show s six bars each for accoun­
tants and attorneys and seven for ch em ists.
T hese reflect different work lev e ls, starting
with entry level jobs and continuing up the
career ladder to the m ost com plex and responsi­
ble positions within the occupation.
The very broad earnings spread shown here
is characteristic o f creative and highly technical
jobs that require innovative thinking or special
know ledge. By contrast, the earnings spread
for som e occupational groups is relatively nar­
row. Such is the case for maintenance craft

workers including carpenters, electricians, ma­
chinists, machinery repairers, and m ill­
wrights—largely because pay rates in these oc­
cupations are commonly set by labor-manage­
ment agreements at a single rate for experi­
enced workers. The earnings spread in clerical
occupations also tends to be narrow.
The accompanying chart, based on data from
the Current Population Survey, shows the earn­
ings distribution of bookkeepers who were em­
ployed full time in 1982. Bookkeepers’ earn­
ings, like those of clerical workers in general,
cluster tightly around the median (the midpoint
in a distribution). Half of all full-time book­
keepers earned less than $13,000 in 1982 and
half earned more. Expressing the data another
way, the shaded area under the curve indicates
that one-half of all full-time bookkeepers were
in the $10,000-$16,000 earnings range in 1982,
while one-fourth earned less than $10,000 and
one-fourth earned more than $16,000. Earnings
of the lowest paid bookkeepers (the lowest 10
percent) were under $8,000, while those of the
highest paid bookkeepers (the highest 10 per­
cent) exceeded $21,000. In other words, only 1
bookkeeper in 10 made as little as $8,000 or as
much as $21,000 in 1982.
This edition of the Handbook is the first to
use these data from the Current Population Sur­
vey to show the spread of earnings within an
occupation. Many statements indicate what
median earnings of full-time workers were in
1982, and describe the earnings of the middle
50 percent of workers, the lowest 10 percent,
and the highest 10 percent. The data relate to
earnings from wages and salaries only; earn­
ings from self-employment—which tend to be
higher than earnings from salaries—are not in­
About 9 out of 10 workers receive a wage or
salary. Often, wage and salary workers who
work overtime, irregular hours, or the night
shift receive an additional percentage of their
regular wage or salary.
Some workers, such as waiters and wait­
resses, also receive tips based on the services
they provide to customers. Automobile sales
workers and real estate agents are among work­
ers who are paid a commission—a percent of
the amount they sell. Factory workers are some­
times paid a piece rate—a set amount for each
item they produce.
About 10 percent of all workers are in busi­
ness for themselves and earn self-employment
income instead of, or in addition to, a wage or
salary. (Income from self-employment is that
amount which exceeds the expenses incurred.)
Physicians, barbers, photographers, and law­
yers are examples of workers who are fre­
quently self-employed.
Many occupations offer a chance to supple­
ment wage or salary income from a regular job
with self-employment income. For example,
electricians and carpenters often do small jobs
during evenings or weekends, and many dental
laboratory technicians “moonlight” in home
laboratories. Typists, secretaries, graphic art­
ists, and writers all have skills that permit them
to earn extra income on a freelance basis.

Within an occupation are workers whose jobs differ in complexity and
whose pay varies accordingly.
and level

Mean monthly salaries and ranges within which 80 percent
of employees fell, March 1982
$1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000

First decile


Ninth decile

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics

Most workers receive a variety of employerpaid benefits in addition to pay for time
worked. Benefits such as paid vacations and
holidays, health insurance, and pensions are an
important part of the total pay package. Some
employers offer stock options and profit-shar­
ing plans, saving plans, and bonuses. Often,
the importance of employee benefits is not fully
appreciated by jobseekers entering the labor
market for the first time; for example, they may
not be aware of the dollar value of their health
insurance—what it would cost to purchase
equivalent coverage directly from an insurance
Workers in many occupations receive part of
their earnings in the form of goods and services,
or payments in kind. Sales workers in depart­
ment stores, for example, often receive dis­
counts on merchandise. Some private house­
hold workers receive free meals and housing.

Flight attendants and other airline employees
often are entitled to reduced fares for them­
selves and their families. Workers in other jobs
may receive uniforms, business expense ac­
counts, or use of a company car.
Related occupations. If you find that an oc­
cupation appeals to you, you also may wish to
explore the jobs listed in this section. Usually,
the related occupations are those that require
similar aptitudes, interests, and education and
Sources of additional information. The
Handbook is only one source of career informa­
tion. Many associations, government agencies,
unions, and other organizations provide useful
information on careers. In this section, names
and addresses of various organizations are
listed to help you further your research into
careers that interest you.

Half of all bookkeepers earned between $10,000 and $16,000
in 1982.
Earnings distribution of full-time workers, 1982


Where To Go For More Information
Whether you have questions about a particular
job or are trying to compare various fields, the
Occupational Outlook Handbook is a good
place to begin. The Handbook will answer
many of your initial questions. But remember
that it is only one of many sources of informa­
tion about jobs and careers. After reading a few
Handbook statements, you may decide that you
want more detailed information about a par­
ticular occupation. You may want to find out
where you can go for training, or where you can
find this kind of work in your community. If you
are willing to make an effort, you will discover
that a wealth of information is available.

Sources of Career Information
Professional societies, trade associations, la­
bor unions, business firms, and educational
institutions put out a great deal of free or lowcost career material. Many of these organiza­
tions are identified in the Sources of Additional
Information section at the end of every Hand­
book statement.
If you want information for an occupation
not covered in the Handbook, check the direc­
tories in your library’s reference section for the
names of organizations that may provide career
materials. There are directories that list organi­
zations, firms, and individuals in fields as di­
verse as publishing, advertising, banking, in­
surance, retailing, manufacturing, health care,
energy, the environment, performing arts, so­
cial welfare, education, training and develop­
ment, management consulting, and much
more. Since there are thousands of directories
covering a wide variety of fields, you may want
to begin by looking in the Guide to American
Directories or The Directory of Directories.
Another good starting point is the Encyclopedia
ofAssociations, a multivolume publication that
lists thousands of trade associations, profes­
sional societies, labor unions, and fraternal and
patriotic organizations.
The National Audiovisual Center, a central
source for all audiovisual material produced by
the U.S. Government, provides free lists of
material available for rental or purchase. Sub­
ject areas include jobs and careers. Contact the
National Audiovisual Center, General Services
Administration, Information Services Section,
W ashington, D.C. 20409. Phone: (301)
Carefully assess any career materials you
obtain. Keep in mind the date and source, in
particular, Material that is too old may contain
obsolete or even misleading information. Be
especially cautious about accepting informa­
tion on employment outlook, earnings, and
training requirements if it is more than 5 years
old. The source is important because it affects
the content. Although some occupational mate­
rials are produced solely for the purpose of

objective vocational guidance, others are pro­
duced for recruitment purposes. You should be
wary of biased information, which may tend to
leave out important items, overglamorize the
occupation, overstate the earnings, or exagge­
rate the demand for workers.
Libraries, career centers, and guidance
offices are important sources of career informa­
tion. Thousands of books, brochures, maga­
zines, and audiovisual materials are available
on such subjects as occupations, careers, selfassessment, and job hunting. Your school li­
brary or guidance office is likely to have some
of this material; ask the staff for help. Collec­
tions of occupational material also can be found
in public libraries, college libraries, learning
resource centers, and career counseling cen­
Begin your library search by looking in an
encyclopedia under “ vocations” or “careers,”
and then look up specific fields. The card cata­
log will direct you to books on particular ca­
reers, such as architect or plumber. Be sure to
check the periodical section, too. You’ll find
trade and professional magazines and journals
in specific areas such as automotive mechanics
or interior design. Many libraries and career
centers have pamphlet files for specific occupa­
tions. Collections of occupational information
may also include nonprint materials such as
films, filmstrips, cassettes, tapes, and kits.
Computerized occupational information sys­
tems enable users to obtain career information
instantly. In addition to print and nonprint ma-'
terials, most career centers and guidance of­
fices offer individual counseling, group discus­
sions, guest speakers, field trips, and career
Counselors play an important role in provid­
ing career information. Vocational testing and
counseling are available in a number of places,
— guidance offices in high schools.
—career planning and placement offices in colleges.
—placement offices in vocational schools.
— vocational rehabilitation agencies.
— counseling services offered by community organi­
zations, commercial firms, and professional con­
— Job Service offices affiliated with the U.S. Em­
ployment Service.

The reputation of a particular counseling
agency should be checked with professionals in
the field. As a rule, counselors will not tell you
what to do. Instead, they are likely to admin­
ister interest inventories and aptitude tests, in­
terpret the results, talk over various pos­
sibilities, and help you explore your options.
Counselors are familiar with the job market and

also can discuss entry requirements and costs of
the schools, colleges, or training programs that
offer preparation for the kind of work in which
you are interested. Most important of all, a
counselor can help you consider occupational
information in relation to your own abilities,
aspirations, and goals.
Don’t overlook the importance of personal
contacts. Talking with people is one of the best
ways of learning about an occupation. Most
people are glad to talk about what they do and
how well they like their jobs. Have specific
questions lined up; you might question workers
about their personal experiences and knowl­
edge of their field. By asking the right ques­
tions, you will find out what kind of training is
really important, how workers got their first
jobs as well as the one they’re in now, and what
they like and dislike about the work. These
interviews serve several purposes: You get out
into the business world, you learn about an
occupation, you become familiar with inter­
viewing, and you meet people worth contacting
when you start looking for a job.

Sources of State and Local
State occupational information coordinating
committees can help you locate information
about job prospects in your State or area. By
contrast, the Handbook provides information
for the Nation as a whole. The committee may
provide the information directly, or refer you to
other sources. In many States, it can tell you
where you can go to use the State’s career infor­
mation delivery system (CIDS).
These systems, currently in place in most
States, provide national, State, and local infor­
mation to individuals who are exploring careers
or searching for jobs. They serve users in a wide
variety of settings—secondary schools, post­
secondary institutions, libraries, job training
sites, Job Service offices, and vocational re­
habilitation centers.
Using a variety of delivery modes including
on-line computer, microcomputer, printed ma­
terial, needlesort, microfiche, and toll-free
hotline, these systems provide information on
occupations, educational opportunities, stu­
dent financial aid, apprenticeships, and the mil­
To find out what kinds of career materials
have been developed for your State, contact the
director of the State occupational information
coordinating committee. Their addresses and
telephone numbers are listed at the end of this
section of the Handbook.
Employment security agencies in all 50
States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto
Rico develop detailed information about the
labor market. Typically, State agencies publish
reports that deal with current and projected

employment, characteristics of the work force,
changes in State and area economic activities,
and the employment structure of important in­
dustries. Major statistical indicators of labor
market activity are released on a monthly, quar­
terly, and annual basis. To learn which studies,
reports, and analyses are available for a par­
ticular State, contact the chief of research and
analysis in the State employment security agen­
cy. Their addresses and telephone numbers are
listed at the end of this section.

Sources of Education and Training
As a rule, professional or trade associations can
provide lists of schools that offer career prepa­
ration in a particular field— operations re­
search, publishing, or arts management, for
example. Whenever possible, the Sources of
Additional Information section at the end of
every Handbook statement directs you to or­
ganizations that can provide training informa­
For general information, a library, career
center, or guidance office may be the best place
to look; all of them ordinarily have collections
of catalogs, directories, and guides to education
and training opportunities. Computerized ca­
reer information systems available in many
schools, colleges, and Job Service offices gen­
erally provide information on education and
training, student financial aid, and related mat­
A number of handbooks gives pertinent in­
formation on courses of study, admissions re­
quirements, expenses, and student financial aid
at the Nation’s 2-year and 4-year colleges and
universities. School and public libraries almost
always have copies, as do large bookstores.
Remember that these directories are updated
and revised frequently; be sure to use the most
recent edition. Libraries and guidance offices
often have collections of college catalogs as
Postsecondary Schools with Occupational
Programs, a publication of the U.S. Depart­
ment of Education’s National Center for Educa­
tion Statistics, lists vocational-technical in­
stitutes, trade and technical schools, business
schools, and other institutions—such as hospi­
tals—that provide career training. Dozens of
vocational areas are included—accounting, au­
tomotive mechanics, cosmetology, graphic
arts, radio and television repair, truck driving,
welding, and more. The 1982 edition may be
available in counseling centers or large public
libraries, or may be purchased for $9.50 from
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov­
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
20402. S pecify GPO stock num ber
Directory of Educational Institutions, an an­
nual publication, lists schools accredited by the
Association of Independent Colleges and
Schools (AICS). Most AlCS-accredited institu­
tions are business schools. They offer programs
in secretarial science, business administration,
accounting, data processing, court reporting,
paralegal studies, fashion merchandising, travel/tourism, culinary arts, drafting, electronics,
and more. For a copy of the Directory, write:

Association of Independent Colleges and
Schools, 1 Dupont Circle, NW., Suite 350,
W ashington, D.C. 20036. Phone: (202)
Allied Health Education Directory is pub­
lished annually by the American Medical Asso­
ciation (AMA) and lists programs for health
professions training that meet the standards of
the AMA Committee on Allied Health Educa­
tion and Accreditation (CAHEA). Currently,
CAHEA accredits training programs for 26 oc­
cupations including diagnostic medical
sonographer, physician assistant, medical rec­
ord administrator, nuclear medicine tech­
nologist, perfusionist, and radiographer. Order­
ing information for the current edition of the
Directory is available from: Department of Al­
lied Health Education and Accreditation, 535
N. Dearborn St., Chicago, Illinois 60601.
Information on private trade and technical
schools is available from the National Associa­
tion of Trade and Technical Schools (NATTS).
Among their many publications are Handbook
of Trade and Technical Careers and Training,
How to Choose a Career and a Career School,
and College Plus: Put Your Degree to Work with
Trade and Technical Skills. For a complete list,
contact NATTS at 2021 K St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006. Phone: (202) 296-8892.
The National Home Study Council supplies
information about home study programs. They
distribute Directory of Accredited Home Study
Schools (free) and There’ a School in Your
Mail Box ($5.00, including postage). Requests
for these publications should be directed to
National Home Study Council, 1601 18th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009. Phone (202)
Labor unions and school guidance offices
can provide information about apprenticeships.
Local Job Service offices usually have at least
one counselor familiar with apprenticeship pro­
grams in the area. In some cities, Appren­
ticeship Information Centers (AIC’s) affiliated
with the U.S. Employment Service furnish in­
formation, counseling, and aptitude testing,
and direct people for more specific help to
union hiring halls, Joint Apprenticeship Com­
mittees, and employer sponsors. The local Job
Service can tell you whether there’s an AIC in
your community.

Sources of Financial Aid Information
If possible, consult a high school guidance
counselor or college financial aid officer for
advice on sources of financial aid. Don’t ne­
glect any possibility, for many organizations
offer scholarships, fellowships, grants, loans,
and work-study programs. Study the directo­
ries and guides to sources of student financial
aid available in guidance offices and public
libraries. Many career information systems
provide information on financial aid.
Particularly useful is the American Legion’s
Need a Lift?, a booklet containing career and
scholarship information for both undergraduate
and graduate students. The 1983 edition costs
$1.00 prepaid (includes postage) and can be
obtained from: American Legion, Attn: Em­
blem Sales, P.O. Box 1055, Indianapolis, Ind.

Meeting College Costs, a College Board
publication that is updated annually, explains
how to apply for student financial aid. High
school students should ask their guidance coun­
selors for the current edition. A listing of Col­
lege Board publications on student financial aid
may be obtained from: College Board Publica­
tion Orders, Dept. A, Box 886, New York,
N.Y. 10101.
The Federal Government provides several
kinds of financial assistance to students:
Grants, loans, work-study, and benefits. Infor­
mation about programs administered by the
U.S. Department of Education is presented in a
pamphlet entitled, Five Federal Financial Aid
Programs, 1983-84; A Student Consumer’s
Guide. This pamphlet is revised every year;
request the current edition by calling (301)
4070, or by writing to: Pell Grants, P.O.
Box 84, Washington, D.C. 20044.
Federal financial aid for students in the
health professions is administered by the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services.
Currently, major programs include Health Edu­
cation Assistance Loans (HEAL), Health Pro­
fession Student Loans, Nursing Student Loans,
and National Health Service Corps Schol­
arships. The financial aid office at the school in
which you are enrolled, or plan to enroll, can
provide information on eligibility requirements
and application procedures. Information about
National Health Service Corps Scholarships
also can be obtained by calling (301) 443-1650
between 8:30 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. Eastern time,
Monday through Friday, except Federal holi­
days, or by writing to: NHSC Scholarships,
Plarklawn Building, Room 17A-31, 5600 Fish­
ers Lane, Rockville, Md. 20857.
Some student aid programs are designed to
assist specific groups: Hispanics, blacks, native
Americans, or women, for example. Higher
Education Opportunities for Minorities and
Women: Annotated Selections, published an­
nually by the U.S. Department of Education, is
a useful guide to organizations that offer loan,
scholarship, and fellowship assistance, with
special emphasis on aid for minorities and
women. Opportunities for financial aid are
listed by field of study, including architecture,
arts and science, business, education, engineer­
ing and science, health, international affairs,
journalism, law, political science and public
administration, psychology, sociology, social
work, speech pathology and audiology, and
theology. Educational opportunities with the
Armed Forces are also described. This publica­
tion can be found in many libraries and guid­
ance offices, or may be purchased from the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
20402. Price for the 1982 edition is $5.00 and
the GPO stock number is 065-000-00175-6.
The 1983 edition is forthcoming.

Career and Counseling Information
for Special Groups
Certain groups of jobseekers face special diffi­
culties in obtaining suitable and satisfying em­
ployment. All too often, veterans, youth,
handicapped persons, minorities, and women
experience difficulty in the labor market. The


reasons for job market disadvantage vary, of
course. People may have trouble setting career
goals and looking for work for reasons as dif­
ferent as a limited command of English, a pris­
on record, or lack of self-confidence. Some
people are held back by their background—by
growing up in a setting that provided only a few
role models and little exposure to the wide
range of opportunities in the world of work.
A growing number of communities have ca­
reer counseling, training, and placement serv­
ices for people with special needs. Programs
are sponsored by a variety of organizations,
including churches and synagogues, nonprofit
organizations, social service agencies, the Job
Service, and vocational rehabilitation agencies.
Some of the most successful programs provide
the extensive support that disadvantaged job­
seekers require. They begin by helping clients
resolve personal, family, or other fundamental
problems that prevent them from finding or
keeping a suitable job. Some agencies that
serve special groups provide an array of suppor­
tive services designed to help people find and
keep jobs.
Agencies that provide employment counsel­
ing as well as other kinds of assistance are
identified in D i r e c t o r y o f C o u n s e l i n g S e r v i c e s ,
a publication that lists accredited or provisional
members of the International Association of
Counseling Services, Inc. (IACS), an affiliate
of the American Association for Counseling
and Development. The 1981-82 edition is avail­
able for $6 (including postage) from IACS at
5999 Stevenson Ave., Suite 307, Alexandria,
Va. 22304. Phone: (703) 823-9800.
Women’s centers are an excellent resource
for women seeking employment and counsel­
ing assistance. Many women’s centers are lo­
cated on college campuses. Some of these cen­
ters have a primarily academic orientation,
sponsoring historical research and policy stud­
ies, for example. Others emphasize direct serv­
ice to women in the community through out­
reach programs and counseling and job place­
ment services. Still others offer vocational
training. Women’s centers are also operated by
community organizations. Many of these cen­
ters emphasize nontraditional jobs for women,
and almost all provide information and referral
Most States and many cities and counties
have commissions or councils for women,
many of which are actively engaged in improv­
ing employment opportunities for women in
their area. A number of commissions have pre­
pared resource directories for women, and a
few operate employment or counseling pro­
Resource materials for women abound. Pub­
lications of the Women’s Bureau of the U.S.
Department of Labor, for example, include J o b
O p t i o n s f o r W o m e n in t h e 8 0 ’s and A W o m a n ’s
G u i d e t o A p p r e n t i c e s h i p . Single copies of each
may be obtained, while the supply lasts, by
sending a self-addressed mailing label to:
Women’s Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor,
Room S-3005, 200 Constitution Ave., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20210. Phone: (202)


W o m e n ’s H a n d b o o k , a publication of the
U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA),
describes services available for women seeking
to enter the ranks of small business owners. It is
available from SBA offices nationwide. For ad­
dresses and telephone numbers of SBA field
offices, look under “ United States Govern­
ment” in your local telephone directory. The
publication may also be requested from: Con­
sumer Information Center, Pueblo, Colo.
P r o f e s s i o n a l W o m e n ’s G r o u p s P r o v i d i n g E m ­

a 1983 publica­
tion of the American Association of University
Women (AAUW), is available for $2.00 (in­
cludes postage) from AAUW Sales, 2401 Vir­
ginia Ave., NW., Washington, D.C. 20037.
Phone: (202) 785-7772. AAUW issues a
number of other materials, including A J o b
H u n t e r ’s K i t , designed for women reentering
the labor force, recent college graduates, and
those interested in a mid-career change. Write
for a current publications list.

p lo y m e n t A s s is ta n c e to W o m en ,

W h e re th e J o b s A r e : S e l e c t e d C a r e e r s f o r

is published by the Business and Profes­
sional Women’s Foundation (BPW). For infor­
mation about the current edition, and a list of
other BPW materials on women and work, send
a stamped, self-addressed envelope to Publica­
tions List, BPW Foundation, 2012 Mas­
sachusetts Ave., NW., Washington, D.C.
20036. Phone: (202) 293-1200. Bibliographies
and information sheets on women’s employ­
ment issues are available free of charge from the
Marguerite Rawalt Resource Center at the same
Other career resources include D i r e c t o r y c f
S p e c i a l O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r W o m e n , published in
1981 by Garrett Park Press (Garrett Park, Md.).
The D i r e c t o r y lists sources of career training,
financial aid, and other assistance for women
entering or reentering the labor force. The pub­
lication also identifies employment-oriented
networks, programs, and organizations for
women. Look for it in a library, guidance of­
fice, or counseling center.
S u i t Y o u r s e l f . . . S h o p p i n g f o r a J o b is selfhelp publication, with tips, techniques, and
self-assessment tools for organizing a job
search. Published in 1980 by Wider Oppor­
tunities for Women (WOW), a national non­
profit women’s employment organization, it
can be purchased for $7.50 (includes postage)
from WOW, 1325 G St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005. WOW issues other materials as
well; request a current publications list. Phone:
(202) 783-5155.
W om en

D ir e c to r y o f S p e c ia l P r o g r a m s f o r M in o r ity
G r o u p M e m b e r s : C a r e e r I n fo r m a tio n S e r v ic e s ,
E m p lo y m e n t S k ills B a n k s ,

F in a n c ia l A id

(Garrett Park, Md.: Garrett Park
Press), now in its third edition, lists thousands
of educational, career, and other services and
programs that help minority group members in
their educational and career advancement
Career information for minority group mem­
bers also appears in specialized magazines in­
cluding T h e B l a c k C o l l e g i a n and M i n o r i t y E n ­

S o u rces

g in e e r .

The Veterans Administration issues a wide
variety of materials on career decisionmaking,

student financial aid, job search, and other em­
ployment-related topics. Contact: Department
of Veterans Benefits (232A), Veterans Admin­
istration Central Office, 810 Vermont Ave.,
NW., Washington, D.C. 20420. Phone: (202)
The 1981-82 edition of D i r e c t o r y c f O r g a n i ­
z a t i o n s I n t e r e s t e d in t h e H a n d i c a p p e d lists
more than 150 voluntary and public agencies in
the rehabilitation field and briefly describes
their purpose, programs, and publications.
Copies of the D i r e c t o r y , and many other print
and audiovisual materials on employment of
people with disabilities, may be obtained from:
President’s Committee on Employment of the
H andicapped, W ashington, D .C. 20210.
Phone: (202) 653-5044.
State vocational rehabilitation agencies are
an important source of career and counseling
information for people with disabilities; they
are listed in the D i r e c t o r y .
Job Opportunities for the Blind, a project of
the National Federation of the Blind in part­
nership with the U.S. Department of Labor,
operates a nationwide toll-free number:
1-800-638-7518. Services offered by the or­
ganization include recorded materials, a listing
of job openings, and seminars on employmentrelated topics for blind and deaf-blind appli­
Employment counseling and placement serv­
ices for older workers have been established in
some communities. The area agency on aging
can tell you whether there is a senior employ­
ment program in your community. Local of­
fices of the State employment service should
also be able to provide information about job
placement services for older workers. Informa­
tion about the small but growing network of
nonprofit senior employment agencies can be
obtained from the National Association of
Older Worker Employment Services, 600
Maryland Ave., SW., West Wing 100, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20024. Phone: (202) 479-1200.
Federal laws, Executive Orders, and selected
Federal grant programs bar discrimination in
employment based on race, color, religion, sex,
national origin, age, and handicap. Employers
in the private and the public sectors, Federal
contractors, and grantees are covered by these
laws. The U.S. Equal Employment Oppor­
tunity Commission (EEOC) is responsible for
administering many of the programs that pro­
hibit discrimination in employment. Informa­
tion about how to file a charge of discrimination
is available from local EEOC offices around the
country. Their addresses and telephone num­
bers are listed in telephone directories under
U.S. Government, EEOC, or from: Equal Em­
ployment Opportunity Commission, 2401E St.
N.W.. Washington, D.C. 20507. Phone: (202)
Information on Federal laws concerning fair
labor standards—including the minimum wage
law—and equal employment opportunity can
be obtained from the Office of Information and
Consumer Affairs, Employment Standards Ad­
ministration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room
C-4331, 200 Constitution Ave., NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20210.

Information on Finding a Job
These days, a well-planned job search is essen­
tial. For information on job openings, follow up
as many leads as possible. Parents, neighbors,
teachers, and counselors may know of jobs.
Check the want ads. Investigate your local Job
Service office and find out whether private or
nonprofit employment agencies in your com­
munity can help you.

W here to F in d O ut A bout Job O penings

• Job Service offices
• Civil Service announcements (Federal,
State, local)
• Classified ads
—Local and out-of-town newspapers
—Professional journals
—Trade magazines
• Labor unions
• Professional associations (State and local
• Libraries and community centers
• Women’s counseling and employment
• Youth programs
• School or college placement services
• Employment agencies and career

Merchandising Your Job Talents, a 21-page
pamphlet prepared by the U.S. Department of
Labor, offers tips on organizing your job
search, writing a resume, taking preemploy­
ment tests, and making the most of the inter­
view. The pamphlet is available at most Job
Service offices, or may be purchased from the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
20402. Price of the 1983 edition is $2.75 and
the stock number is 029-014-00212-7.
Informal job search methods. Informal meth­
ods of job search are the most popular, and also
the most effective. Informal methods include
direct application to employers with or without
referral by friends or relatives. Jobseekers lo­
cate a potential employer and file an applica­
tion, often without certain knowledge that an
opening exists.
You can find targets for your informal search
in several ways. The Yellow Pages and local
chambers of commerce will give the names and
addresses of appropriate firms in the communi­
ty where you wish to work. You can also get
listings of most firms in a specific industry—
banking, insurance, and newspaper publishing,
for example—by consulting one of the directo­
ries on the reference shelf of your public li­
brary. Friends, relatives, and people you meet
during your job search are likely to give you
ideas about places where you can apply for a
Want ads. The “Help Wanted” ads in a major
newspaper contain hundreds of job listings. As
a job search tool, they have two advantages:
They are cheap and easy to acquire, and they
often result in successful placement. There are
disadvantages as well. Want ads give a distorted
view of the local labor market, for they tend to

underrepresent small firms. They also tend to
overrepresent certain occupations, such as cler­
ical and sales jobs. How helpful they are will
depend largely on the kind of job you seek.
Bear in mind that want ads do not provide
complete information; many give little or no
description of the job, working conditions, and
pay. Some omit the identity of the employer. In
addition, firms often run multiple listings.
Some ads offer jobs in other cities (which do not
help the local worker); others advertise employ­
ment agencies rather than employment.
If you use want ads, keep the following sug­
gestions in mind:
—Don’t rely exclusively on want ads; follow up other
leads, too.
—Answer ads promptly. The opening may be filled
before the ad stops running.
—Follow the ads diligently. Checking them every
day as early as possible gives you the best advan­
tage over other applicants,which may mean the
difference between a job and a rejection.
—Don’t expect too much from “blind ads” that do
not reveal the employer’s identity. Employers use
blind ads to avoid being swamped with applicants,
or to fill a particular vacancy quietly and con­
fidentially. The chances of finding a job through
blind ads tend to be slim.
—Be cautious about answering “no experience nec­
essary” ads. Most employers are able to fill job
openings that do not require experience without
advertising in the newspaper. This type of ad may
mean that the job is hard to fill because of low
wages or poor working conditions, or because it is
straight commission work.
Public employment service. The public em­
ployment service, also called the Job Service, is
often overlooked in finding out about local job
openings. Run by the State employment se­
curity agencies under the direction of the Labor
Department’s U.S. Employment Service, the
1,700 local Job Service offices provide help

without charge. Job Service staff help job­
seekers find employment and help employers
find qualified workers. To find the office nearest
you, look in the State government telephone
listings under “ Job Service” or “ Employ­
Job matching and referral. Upon entering a
Job Service center, an applicant is interviewed
to determine the type of work for which he or
she indicates an interest and aptitude. The inter­
viewer determines if the applicant is “job
ready” or if counseling and testing services are
needed. Applicants who know what kind of
work they are qualified for may spend some
time examining the Job Bank, a computerized
listing of public and private sector job openings
that is updated every day. The Job Bank is selfservice; applicants examine a book or micro­
film viewer and select openings that interest
them. Afterwards, a Job Service staff member
may describe a particular job opening in some
detail and arrange for an interview with the
prospective employer.
Counseling and testing. Job Service centers
also help jobseekers who are uncertain about
their qualifications and the kind of work they
want. Most centers are staffed with a specialist
who furnishes complete counseling and testing
services. Counselors help jobseekers choose
and prepare for an occupation based on their
qualifications and interests. They aim to help
individuals become aware of their job potential
and then develop it. The testing program mea­
sures occupational aptitudes, clerical and liter­
ary skills, and occupational interests. Testing
and counseling before job referral ensure a bet­
ter match between applicant and job.
Servicesfor special groups. By law, veterans
are entitled to priority in interviewing, counsel­
ing, testing, job development, and job place­
ment. Special counselors called veterans em­
ployment representatives are trained to deal
with the particular problems of veterans, who


The Interview:

• Learn something
about the company
• Have specific job or
jobs in mind
• Review in your mind
your qualifications for
the job
• Be prepared to answer
broad questions about

• Answer each question
as well as you can
• Be prompt in giving
• Be well mannered
• Use good English and
avoid the use of slang
• Be cooperative and
• Don’t be afraid to ask

Personal Appearance:

Well groomed
Suitable dress
No chewing gum
Only smoke when

Test (if employer gives
• Listen carefully to
• Read each question
• Write legibly and
• Budget your time
wisely and don’t stay
on one question too

Information to Take
With you:
• Social Security
• Driver’s license
• Education, which
should include school
name or number and
address; curriculum;
dates of attendance;
highest grade
completed or date of
• Previous employment
(summer, work-study,
or part-time). Include
the following for
each job; name of
employer; address of
job; job title; dates of

• Hobbies or special
• Special skills
• References.
Usually an
employer requires
three references.
Get permission
from people before
using their names.
If you can avoid it,
do not use the
names of relatives.
For each reference,
give the following
information: name;
address; telephone
number; occupation


may find it difficult to readjust to civilian life.
Although such veterans often face multiple
problems, joblessness alone is a major barrier
to resuming an ordinary life. Special help for
disabled veterans begins with outreach units in
each State, whose job it is to identify jobless
disabled veterans and make them aware of the
many kinds of assistance available.
A special effort is made to assist youth be­
tween the ages of 16 and 22— students, drop­
outs, and graduates entering the labor market.
Youthful applicants are tested, counseled, and
aided in choosing work that suits their abilities
and interests. Each year, local Job Service cen­
ters conduct a Summer Youth Program to
provide summer jobs in city, county, and State
government agencies for low-income youth. In
addition, the Job Corps, with more than 100
centers throughout the United States, provides
an opportunity for young people to learn a skill
or obtain the educational base needed to ad­
vance in society.
The Job Service also refers applicants to op­
portunities under the Job Training Partnership
Act (JTPA) of 1982, which replaces the Com­
prehensive Employment and Training Act
(CETA) as the principal Federal legislation in
this field. JTPA focuses on preparing econom­
ically disadvantaged persons for jobs in the
private sector.
Private employment agencies. In the appro­
priate section of the classified ads or the tele­
phone book you can find numerous advertise­
ments for private employment agencies. All are
in business to make money, but some offer
higher quality service and better chances of
successful placement than others.
The three main places in which private agen­
cies advertise are newspaper want ads, the
Yellow Pages, and trade journals. Telephone
listings give little more than the name, address,
phone number, and specialty of the agency,
while trade journals generally advertise open­
ings for a particular occupation, such as ac­
countant or computer programmer. Want ads,
then, are the best source of general listings of
These listings fall into two categories—those
offering specific openings and those offering a
general promise of employment. You should
concentrate on the former and use the latter
only as a last resort. With a specific opening
mentioned in the ad, you have greater assurance
of the agency’s desire to place qualified individ­
uals in suitable jobs.
When responding to such an ad, you may
learn more about the job over the phone. If you
are interested, visit the agency, fill out an ap­
plication, present a resume, and talk with an
interviewer. The agency will then arrange an
interview with the em ployer if you are
qualified, and perhaps suggest alternative open­
ings if you are not.
Most agencies operate on a commission
basis, with the fee contingent upon a successful
match. The employer pays agencies advertising
“no fees, no contracts” and the applicant pays
nothing. Many agencies, however, do charge
applicants. You should find out the exact cost
before using the service.


Community agencies. A growing number of
nonprofit organizations throughout the Nation
provide counseling, career development, and
job placement services. These agencies gener­
ally concentrate on services for a particular
labor force group—women, youth, minorities,
ex-offenders, or older workers, for example.
It’s up to you to discover whether your com­
munity has such agencies and whether they can
help you. The local Job Service center should
be able to tell you whether such an agency has
been established in your community. Your
church, synagogue, or local library may have
the information, too.
College career planning and placement of­
fices. Career planning and placement offices at
colleges and universities offer valuable services
to students and alumni for a modest fee. Many
services, in fact, are free. College placement
offices operate as employment agencies,
matching applicants with suitable jobs and lin­
ing up interviews. On large campuses, for ex­
ample, they set up schedules and facilities for
interviews with industry recruiters. And many
offices maintain lists of local part-time, tempo­
rary, and summer jobs.
College career planning and placement of­
fices also provide services related to counseling
and job search techniques. They may, for exam­
ple, maintain a career resource library; admin­
ister tests that enable students to identify and
evaluate interests, work values, and skills; con­
duct workshops on such topics as job search
strategy, resume writing, letterwriting, and
effective interviewing; critique drafts of re­
sumes and videotapes of mock interviews;
maintain files of resumes and references; and
conduct job fairs.
State and Local Information. For each State,
the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, the
following list provides the title, address, and
telephone number of two principal sources of
labor market and career information: The State
employment security agency’s chief of research
and analysis, and the director of the State Oc­
cupational Information Coordinating Commit­
tee (SOICC).

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Indus­
trial Relations, Industrial Relations Bldg., Room
427, 649 Monroe St., Montgomery, Ala. 36130.
Phone: (205) 832-5263.
Director, Alabama Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, First Southern Towers, Suite 402,
100 Commerce S t., Montgomery Ala. 36130. Phone:
(205) 832-5737.


Chief, Labor Market Information, Research and
Analysis, Department of Economic Security, 733-A,
P.O. Box 6123, Phoenix, Ariz. 85035. Phone: (602)
Executive Director, Arizona State Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, 1535 West
Jefferson, Room 345, Phoenix, Ariz. 85007. Phone:
(602) 255-3680.

Assistant Director, Research and Analysis, Employ­
ment Security Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock,
Ark. 72203. Phone: (501) 371-1541.
Director, Arkansas State Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 2981, Little
Rock, Ark. 72203. Phone: (501) 371-3551.

Chief, Employment Data and Research Division,
Employment Development Department, P.O. Box
1679, Sacramento, Calif. 95814. Phone: (916)
Executive Director, California Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, 1027 10th Street,
No 302, Sacramento, Calif. 95814. Phone: (916)

Chief, Research and Development, Division of Em­
ployment and Training, Department of Labor and
Employment, 1728 Lincoln S t., Denver, Colo.
80203. Phone: (303) 839-5833, Ext. 43.
Director, Office of Occupational Information, Colo­
rado Occupational Information Coordinating Com­
mittee, 218 Centennial Bldg., 1313 Sherman St.,
Denver, Colo. 80203. Phone: (303) 866-4488.

Director, Research and Information, Employment
Security Division, Department of Labor, 200 Folly
Brook Blvd., Wethersfield, Conn. 06109. Phone:
(203) 641-4280.
Executive Director, Connecticut State Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee, 90 Wash­
ington St., First Floor, Hartford, Conn. 06115.
Phone: (203) 566-2502, 2503, 5047, 5699.

Chief, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation,
Department of Labor, University Plaza Complex Of­
fice, Chapman Rd., Route 273, Newark, Del. 19702.
Phone: (302) 368-6921.
Director, Delaware Occupational Information Coor­
dinating Committee, Drummond Office Plaza, Suite
3303, Building No. 3, Newark, Del. 19711. Phone:
(302) 368-6772.

District of Columbia

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Security
Division, Department of Labor, P.O. Box 1149,
Juneau, Alaska 99811. Phone: (907) 465-4502.

Chief, Branch of Labor Market Information, Depart­
ment of Employment Services, 500 C St., N.W .,
Room 411, Washington, D.C. 20001. Phone: (202)

Coordinator, Alaska Occupational Information Coor­
dinating Committee, Pouch F— State Office Bldg.,
Juneau, Alaska 99811. Phone: (907) 465-2980.

Executive Director, D.C. Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, 500 C St. NW., Suite 621,
Washington, D.C. 20001. Phone: (202) 639-1083.

Director, Research and Analysis, Division of Labor
and Employment Security, Coldwell Bldg., Tallahas­
see, Ha. 32301. Phone: (904) 488-1048.
Director, Horida Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, 124 West Jefferson St., Tallahas­
see, Fla. 32301. Phone: (904) 224-3660.

Director, Labor Information Systems, Department of
Labor, 254 Washington S t., SW ., Atlanta, Ga.
30334. Phone: (404) 656-3177.
Executive Director, Georgia Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee, 501 Pulliam St., SW.,
Room 339, Atlanta, Ga. 30312. Phone: (404)

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Labor
and Industrial Relations, 830 Punchbowl St., Hono­
lulu, Hawaii 96813. Phone: (808) 548-7639.
Executive Director, Hawaii State Occupational Infor­
mation Cordinating Committee, 830 Punchbowl St.,
Room 205, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813. Phone: (808)

Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Em­
ployment, P.O. Box 35, Boise, Idaho 83735. Phone:
(208) 384-2755.
Coordinator, Idaho Occupational Information Coor­
dinating Committee, Len B. Jordan Bldg., Room
301, 650 W. State St., Boise, Idaho 83720. Phone:
(208) 334-3705.

Director, Research and Analysis Division, Bureau of
Employment Security, Department of Labor, 910 S.
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60605. Phone: (312)
Executive Director, Illinois Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee, 217 E. Monroe, Suite
203, Springfield, 111. 62706. Phone: (217) 785-0789.

Chief of Research and Statistics, Employment Se­
curity Division, 10 N. Senate Ave., Indianapolis,
Ind. 46204. Phone: (317) 232-7701.
Director, Indiana Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, 17 W. Market St., 434 Illinois
Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 46204. Phone: (317)

Chief, Audit and Analysis, Department of Job Serv­
ice, 1000 E. Grand Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50319.
Phone: (515) 281-5802.
Executive Director, Iowa State Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, 523 E. 12th St.,
Des Moines, Iowa 50319. Phone: (515) 281-8076.

Director, Kansas Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, 512 W. 6th St., Topeka, Kans.
66603. Phone: (913) 296-5286.

Manager, Labor Market Research and Analysis, De­
partment of Manpower Services, Cabinet for Human
Resources, 275 E. Main St., Frankfort, Ky. 40621.
Phone: (502) 564-7976.
Coordinator, Kentucky Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, 275 E. Main St., D.H.R.
Bldg. 2nd Floor East, Frankfort, Ky. 40621. Phone:
(502) 564-4258.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Labor,
P.O. Box 44094, Capital Station, Baton Rouge, La.
70804. Phone: (504) 342-3141.
Director, Louisiana State Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, 1000 Science Hwy., Baton
Rouge, La. 70802. Phone: (504) 342-5149.


Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security
Commission, P.O. Box 1699, Jackson, Miss. 39205.
Phone: (601) 961-7424.
SOICC Director, Vocational Technical Education,
P.O. Box 771, Jackson, Miss. 39205. Phone: (601)

Chief, Research and Statistics, Division of Employ­
ment Security, P.O. Box 59, Jefferson City, Mo.
65104. Phone: (314) 751-3215.
Director, Missouri Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, 421 E. Dunklin St., Jefferson
City, Mo. 65101. Phone: (314) 751-3215, 3323.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Security
Division, Department of Labor and Industry, P.O.
Box 1728, Helena, Mont. 59601. Phone: (406)
Program Manager, Montana State Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, Room C317
Cosgrove Bldg., Capitol Complex, Helena, Mont.
59620. Phone: (406) 449-2741.

Director, Research and Analysis, Bureau of Employ­
ment Security, 20 Union St., Augusta, Maine 04330.
Phone: (207) 289-2271.


Executive Director, Maine State Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, State House Station
71, Augusta, Maine 04333. Phone: (207) 289-2331.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Division of Employ­
ment, Department of Labor, P.O. Box 94600, State
House Station, Lincoln, Nebr. 68509. Phone: (402)

Director, Research and Analysis, Department of
Human Resources, 1100 N. Eutaw St., Baltimore,
Md. 21201. Phone: (301) 383-5000.

Executive Director, Nebraska Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee, 538 Nebraska Hall,
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr. 68588.
Phone: (402) 472-2062.


Executive Director, Maryland Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee, Jackson Towers, Suite
304, 1123 N. Eutaw St., Baltimore, Md. 21201.
Phone: (301) 383-6350.

Chief, Employment Security Research, Employment
Security Department, 500 E. Third St., Carson City,
Nev. 89713. Phone: (702) 885-4550.


Director, Nevada Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, Capitol Complex, Kinkead Bldg.,
Room 601 „505 E. King St., Carson City, Nev. 89710.
Phone: (702) 885^)577.

Director, Job Market Research, Division of Employ­
ment Security, Hurley Bldg., Government Center,
Boston, Mass. 02114. Phone: (617) 727-6556.
Executive Director, Massachusetts Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, One Ashburton
Place, Room 2110, McCormack Bldg., Boston,
Mass. 02108. Phone: (617) 727-9740.

Director, Research and Statistics, Employment Se­
curity Commission, 7310 Woodward Ave., Room
516, Detroit, Mich. 48202. Phone: (313) 876-5445.
Executive Coordinator, Michigan Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 30015,
Lansing, Mich. 48909. Phone: (517) 373-0363.



Director, Research and Statistical Services, Depart­
ment of Economic Security, 390 N. Robert St., St.
Paul, Minn. 55101. Phone: (612) 296-6545.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of Human
Resources, Department of Labor, 401 Topeka Ave.,
Topeka, Kans. 66603. Phone: (913) 296-5058.

SOICC Director, Department of Economic Security,
690 American Center Bldg., 150 E. Kellogg Blvd.,
St. Paul, Minn. 55101. Phone: (612) 296-2072.


New Hampshire
Director, Economic Analysis and Reports, Depart­
ment of Employment Security, 32 S. Main St., Con­
cord, N.H. 03301. Phone: (603) 224-3311, Ext. 251.
SOICC Director, New Hampshire Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, c/o Department
of Employment and Training, 155 Manchester St.,
Concord, N.H. 03301. Phone: (603) 271-3156.

New Jersey
Director, Division of Planning and Research, Depart­
ment of Labor, P.O. Box 2765, Trenton, N.J. 08625.
Phone: (609) 292-2643.
Acting Staff Director, New Jersey Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box
C N 056, Trenton, N.J. 08 6 2 5 . Phone: (609)

New Mexico
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Services
Division, P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, N. Mex.
87103. Phone: (505) 841-8645.


Director, New Mexico State Occupational Informa­
tion Coordinating Committee, 401 Broadway, N.E.,
Albuquerque, N. Mex. 87102. Phone: (505)

New York
Director, Research and Statistics, Department of La­
bor, State Campus, Bldg. 12, Albany, N.Y. 12240.
Phone: (518) 457-6181.
SOICC Director, Department of Labor, State Campus
Bldg. # 1 2 , Room 559A, Albany, N.Y. 12240.
Phone: (518) 457-2930.

North Carolina

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Labor
and Industry, 7th and Foster Sts., Harrisburg, Pa.
17121. Phone: (717) 787-3265.
Director, Pennsylvania Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, Governor’s Office of Pol­
icy Development, 506 Finance Bldg., Harrisburg,
Pa. 17120. Phone: (717) 787-2086.

Puerto Rico
Chief, Department of Labor and Human Resources,
Bureau of Employment Security, 505 Munoz Rivera
Ave.— 15th Floor, Hato Rey, PR. 00917. Phone:
(809) 751-3737.

Director, Labor Market Information, Employment
Security Commission, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh,
N.C. 27611. Phone: (919) 733-2936.

Executive Director, Puerto Rico Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, Poudencio Rivera
Martinez Bldg., 505 Munoz Rivera Ave., Hato Rey,
PR. 00918. Phone: (809) 753-7110.

SOICC Director, Department of Administration, 112
W. Lane St., 218 Howard Bldg., Raleigh, N.C.
27611. Phone: (919) 733-6700.

Rhode Island

North Dakota
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security
Bureau, P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck, N.Dak. 58505.
Phone: (701) 224-2868.
Director, North Dakota Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, Pinehurst Building— P.O.
Box 1537, Bismarck, N. Dak. 58505. Phone: (701)


Supervisor, Employment Security Research, Depart­
ment of Employment Security, 24 Mason St., Provi­
dence, R.I. 02903. Phone: (401) 277-3704.
Executive Director, Rhode Island Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, 22 Hayes St.,
Room 315, Providence, R.I. 02908. Phone: (401)

South Carolina
Director, Manpower Research and Analysis, Em­
ployment Security Commission, P.O. Box 995, Co­
lumbia, S.C. 29202. Phone: (803) 758-8983.

Director, Research and Statistics, Bureau of Employ­
ment Services, 145 S. Front St., Columbus, Ohio
43216. Phone: (614) 466-3240.

Director, South Carolina Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, 1550 Gadsden St., Colum­
bia, S.C. 29202. Phone: (803) 758-3165.

Director, Ohio Occupational Information Coordinat­
ing Committee, State Department Bldg., 65 S. Front
St., Room904, Columbus, Ohio43215. Phone: (614)

South Dakota

Chief, Research and Planning, Employment Security
Commission, 310 Will Rogers Memorial Office
Bldg., Oklahoma City, Okla. 73105. Phone: (405)
Executive Director, Oklahoma Occupational Infor­
mation Coordinating Committee, School of Occupa­
tional and Adult Education, Oklahoma State Univer­
sity, 1515 W. 6th Ave., Stillwater, Okla. 74074.
Phone: (405) 377-2000, ext. 311.

Assistant Administrator, Research and Statistics, Em­
ployment D ivision, Department of Human Re­
sources, 875 Union St., NE., Salem, Oreg. 97311.
Phone: (503) 378-3220.
Coordinator, Oregon Occupational Information Co­
ordinating Committee, 875 Union St., N.E., Salem,
Oreg. 97311. Phone: (503) 378-8146.


Executive Director, Texas Occupational Information
Coordinating Committee, 15th and Congress Ave.,
Room 526T, Austin, Tex. 78778. Phone: (512)

Director, Research and Analysis, Department of Em­
ployment Security, P.O. Box 11249, Salt Lake City,
Utah 84147. Phone: (801) 533-2014.
Director, Utah Occupational Information Coordinat­
ing Committee, 140 Social Hall Ave., Salt Lake City,
Utah 84111. Phone: (801) 533-2028.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Em­
ployment and Training, P.O. Box 488, Montpelier,
Vt. 05602. Phone: (802) 229-0311.
Director, Vermont Occupational Information Coordi­
nating Committee, P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, Vt.
05602. Phone: (802) 229-0311.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Com­
mission, P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, Va. 23211.
Phone: (804) 786-7496.
SOICC Director, Vocational and Adult Education,
Department of Education, P.O. Box 6Q, Richmond,
Va. 23216. Phone: (804) 225-2735.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment Security
Department, 212 Maple Park, Olympia, Wash.
98504. Phone: (206) 753-5224.
SOICC Director, Commission for Vocational Educa­
tion, Bldg. 17, Airdustrial Park, Mail Stop LS-10,
Olympia, Wash. 98504. Phone: (206) 754-1552.

West Virginia
Chief, Research and Statistics, Office of Admin­
istrative Services, Department of Labor, P.O. Box.
730, Aberdeen, S. Dak. 57401. Phone: (605)
Executive Director, South Dakota Occupational In­
formation Coordinating Committee, 108 E. Mis­
souri, Pierre, S. Dak. 57501. Phone: (605)

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of Em­
ployment Security, 519 Cordell Hull Bldg., 436 Sixth
Ave. North, Nashville, Tenn. 37219. Phone: (615)
Director, Tennessee Occupational Information Coor­
dinating Committee, 512 Cordell Hull Bldg., 436
Sixth Ave. North, Nashville, Tenn. 37219. Phone:
(615) 741-6451.

Chief, Economic Research and Analysis, Employ­
ment Commission, 15th and Congress Ave., Austin,
Texas 78778. Phone: (512) 397-4540.

Chief, Division of Labor and Security, Department of
Em ploym ent Security, 112 C alifornia A ve.,
Charleston, W. Va. 25305. Phone: (304) 348-2660.
Executive Director, West Virginia State Occupational
Information Coordinating Committee, 1600 1/2
Washington St., E., Charleston, W. Va. 25305.
Phone: (304) 348-0061.

Chief, Labor Market Information, Department of In­
dustry, Labor and Human Relations, P.O. Box 7944,
Madison, Wis. 53707. Phone: (608) 266-5843.
Director, Wisconsin Occupational Information Coor­
dinating Committee, Educational Sciences Bldg.,
Room 952,1025 W. Johnson, Madison, Wis. 53706.
Phone: (608) 263-1048.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment Security
Commission, P.O. Box 2760, Casper, Wyo. 82602.
Phone: (307) 237-3701.
Director, Wyoming Occupational Information Coor­
dinating Committee, Hathaway Bldg.— Basement,
2300 Capitol Ave., Cheyenne, Wyo. 82002. Phone:
(307) 777-7177 or 7178.

Tomorrow’s Jobs
The number and kinds of jobs needed in tomor­
row’s economy will depend on the interplay of
demographic, economic, social, and tech­
nological factors. Employment in some oc­
cupations will grow much faster than the aver­
age rate of growth; others will decline in
importance. Some jobs will emerge as a result
of new technologies; others will disappear. And
the nature of the work in most occupations will
surely undergo change. The Bureau of Labor
Statistics analyzes the changing nature of the
economy and the factors causing these changes
and develops projections of future industry and
occupational employment. Employment pro­
jections, by their nature, are imprecise and
should not be solely relied upon in career deci­
sionmaking. Nevertheless, projections can
help you assess future opportunities in the oc­
cupations that interest you.
The Handbook presents information about
the job outlook for many occupations. In this
chapter, which provides background for those
discussions, you will find information about
expected changes in the population, the labor
force, and employment in major industrial sec­
tors and broad occupational groups. Finally,
there is a brief discussion of the importance of
replacement needs in the employment outlook.

Changes in population are among the basic
factors that will alter employment oppor­
tunities. Changes in the size and characteristics
of the population cause changes in the amount
and types of goods and services demanded.
These changes also alter the size and charac­
teristics of the labor force—the people who are
working and who are looking for work—which
in turn can influence the amount of competition
for jobs in an occupation. Three important pop­
ulation factors are population growth, shifts in
the age structure of the population, and move­
ment of the population within the country.
Growth.The population of the United States
has increased throughout this century.
However, the rate of growth declined until the
post-World War II “baby boom.” During the
late 1960’s, the rate of population growth began
to drop sharply and has remained at a low level
since (chart 1).
In 1982, the population was about 232 mil­
lion. It is expected to increase to about 260
million by 1995. The rate of growth will be
faster during the 1980’s (0.9 percent a year)
than during the early 1990’s (0.8 percent a
year). Continued population growth will mean
more consumers to provide with goods and
services, causing greater demand for workers in
many industries and occupations.
Age structure. Over time, the age structure of
the population changes. Shifts in the age struc­
ture affect the job market in many ways. The

low population growth of the 1960’s and 1970’s,
for example, resulted in a decrease in the
number of school age children in the 1970’s.
This decrease lowered the demand for educa­
tional services and employment opportunities
in teaching. During the 1970’s, as the large
number of people bom during the 1950’s enter­
ed the labor force, competition increased for
entry level jobs.
Through the mid-1990’s, the age structure of
the population will continue to shift and affect
the job market. The number of children under
13 will increase as the large number of people
bom during the baby boom have children of
their own. As the baby boom group ages, the
number of people age 35 to 54 will increase.
The number of people 65 and older will rise
sharply because of the relatively high popula­
tion growth before the 1930’s and increases in
life expectancy. Because of low population
growth during the 1970’s and 1930’s, the
number of 14- to 25-year-olds and 55- to 64year-olds will decline by 1995.
Increases in the number of children will
cause greater demand for elementary school
education during the 1980’s and secondary
school education during the early 1990’s. The
increase in the number of older people will add
to the demand for health services. Shifts in the
age structure of the population also will affect
the age structure of the labor force, discussed in
a later section.
Movement ofpopulation. Population growth
varies among the regions of the Nation. For
example, between the 1970 and 1980 censuses,
the population of the Northeast and North Cen­
tral regions increased by 0.2 percent and 4.0

percent, respectively, compared with 20.0 per­
cent in the South and 23.9 percent in the West.
These differences reflect the movement of peo­
ple to find new jobs, to retire, or for some other
reasons. Chart 2 shows the expected changes in
State populations between 1980 and 2000 if the
movement of people during that period is sim­
ilar to the movement between 1970 and 1980.
The West will continue to be the fastest
growing region of the country, increasing about
45 percent between 1980 and 2000. In the
South, the population will increase about 31
percent, with the largest absolute increase in
population. The North Central region is ex­
pected to increase only about 2 percent between
1980 and 1990, and to decline about 1 percent
from 1990 to 2000. The population of the
Northeast region will decline about 6 percent.
By the year 2000, the West and the South will
have about 60 percent of the Nation’s popula­
tion, compared to about 52 percent in 1980.
The Northeast region will have the oldest age
distribution; almost 15 percent of its population
will be age 65 or older. The West will have the
youngest age distribution; over 22 percent of
the population will be under age 15 and about
45 percent will be between the ages of 15 and
44. The age distribution of the South and North
Central regions will be similar to the national
Geographic shifts in the population alter the
demand for and supply of workers in local job
markets. In areas with a growing population,
for example, demand for public services and
construction is likely to increase. At the same
time, more people looking for work in an area
could increase competition for jobs. Therefore,

Chart 1.

The population will grow more slowly through the mid-1990’s.
Average annual percent increase

1950-55 1955-60 1960-65 1965-70 1970-75 1975-80 1980-85 1985-90 1990-95
SOURCE: Bureau of the C e n s u s


employment opportunities in an occupacould differ greatly from national projecs presented in the Handbook. Sources of
Ormation about local job market conditions
be found in the section, “Where to Go for
ore Information.”

Labor Force
The size and characteristics of the labor force
determine the number and type of people com­
peting for jobs. In addition, the size of the labor
force affects the amount of goods and services
that can be produced. Growth, alterations in the
age structure, and rising educational levels are
among the labor force changes that will affect
em ploym ent oppo rtu n ities through the
Growth. In 1982, the civilian labor force—
people with jobs and people looking in jobs—
totaled about 110 million persons. The labor
force will grow through the mid-1990’s, but at a
slower rate than in the 1960’s and 1970’s (chart
3). By 1995, the labor force is projected to be
about 131 million—an increase of about 19 per­
cent from the 1982 level.
Through the mid-1990’s, the chief cause of
labor force growth will be the continued though
slower rise in the number and proportion of
women who seek jobs. Women will account for
nearly two-thirds of the labor force growth dur­
ing 1982-95 (chart 4). Labor force growth will
be slower than in the 1960’s and 1970’s because
the low birth rates during those years will result
in few young people entering the labor force.
Age structure. Through the mid-1990’s, the
number of people age 16 to 24 in the work force
is projected to decline (chart 5). Fewer young
entrants into the labor force may ease competi­
tion for entry level jobs. In fact, employers may
have increasing difficulty in finding young
workers. The decline in the number of young
workers could be particularly important to the
Armed Forces—the single largest employer of
men in this age group.

The number of people age 25 to 54 in the
labor force is expected to increase considerably,
from about two-thirds of the labor force in 1982
to nearly three-fourths by 1995. The growing
proportion of workers age 25 to 54 could result
in higher productivity growth during this period
than in the 1970’s, since workers in that age
group generally have work experience and tend
to be more productive.
The number of people age 55 and over in the
labor force is projected to decline slightly, re­
flecting the trend toward early retirement and
the drop in the number of people age 55 to 65.
Education. Employers always wish to hire
the best qualified persons available. This does
not mean that they always choose those appli­
cants who have the most education. However,
individuals planning for a career should be
aware of the continuing rise in the educational
attainment of the work force. Between 1970 and
1982, for example, the proportion of the labor
force age 18 to 64 with at least 1 year of college
increased from 26 to 39 percent (chart 6). The
increase in educational attainment reflects both
the retirement of older workers, many of whom
had little formal education, and the influx into
the work force of young people who generally
have a high level of formal education. Among
workers age 25 to 34, for example, nearly half
have completed at least 1 year of college.
The disadvantage that less educated workers
suffer when seeking jobs is clearly shown in
their unemployment rate. In 1982, the unem­
ployment rate among 20- to 24- year- olds with
less than 4 years of high school was 32.2 per­
cent. The rate for those with 4 years of high
school was about half that, 15.5 percent. The
rates for those with 1 to 3 years of college and 4
or more years of college were only 9.6 and 5.6
percent, respectively. The connection between
higher unemployment rates and low levels of
education shows the importance of education in
a job market that increasingly requires more

Chart 2.

Changes in population will vary among the States.
Projected percent change in State populations, 1980 to 2000

National average = 18%
SO URCE: Bu reau of the C e n s u s


□ Decline
I I Increase of up to 18%
M Increase of 19 to 36%
B Increase of more than

It is also important to note that a college
degree no longer guarantees success in the job
market. Between 1970 and 1982, employment
of college graduates grew 103 percent. The pro­
portion employed in professional, technical,
and managerial occupations, however, declined
because these occupations did not expand
rapidly enough to absorb the growing supply of
graduates. As a result, 1 out of 5 college gradu­
ates who entered the labor market between 1970
and 1982 took jobs not usually requiring a de­
gree. This oversupply of graduates is likely to
continue through the mid-1990’s. Not all oc­
cupations requiring a college degree will be
overcrowded, however. Good opportunities
will exist for systems analysts and engineers,
for example.
Despite widespread publicity about the poor
job market for college graduates, a college de­
gree is still needed for most high-paying and
high-status jobs. Persons interested in occupa­
tions that require a college degree should not be
discouraged from pursuing a career that they
believe matches their interests and abilities, but
they should be aware of job market conditions.

The previous two sections discussed trends
in the population and the labor force that will
affect employment opportunities. This section
gives an overview of some other factors that
will affect the level of employment.
The number of jobs in particular industries
and occupations depends in large part on the
consumer, government, and business demand
for goods and services produced by those in­
dustries and workers. In a simple example,
there would be fewer jobs for barbers and cos­
metologists if people chose to have their hair
cut less often. However, because of the com­
plexity of the economy, the connection between
demand and employment generally is not sim­
ple, and a single change in demand can have
far-reaching consequences.
Consumer desire and government regula­
tion, for example, led to an effort by auto­
mobile manufacturers to improve the fuel effi­
ciency of cars. To do this, auto manufacturers
lightened cars by using plastic, aluminum, and
specialty steel instead of standard iron and
steel. This shift lowered the demand for goods
from the iron and steel manufacturing industry
as well as for the products of the iron and
metallurgical coal mining industries and others
that supply iron and steel manufacturers. Em­
ployment in those industries was adversely af­
fected. At the same time, demand increased for
the products of the plastic, aluminum, and spe­
cialty steel industries and the industries that
supply those manufacturers. Employment in
those industries benefited from the change.
Expansion or decline in industries affects
growth in individual occupations because in­
dustries employ different mixes of workers
(chart 7). Growth of the construction industry,
for example, would lead to increases in employ­
ment of craft workers, operatives, and laborers.
In contrast, growth in the finance, insurance,
and real estate industries would lead to an in­
crease in employment of professional, man­
agerial, sales, and clerical workers.

Changes in the manner in which goods are
produced and services are provided also affect
occupational and industrial employment. For
example, as an industry automates production,
the mix of workers is likely to change, which in
turn, will have different effects on occupational
employment growth.
Technological change is expected to affect
employment in many industries and occupa­
tions through the mid-1990’s. The increasing
use of automated machinery in automobile
manufacturing, for example, is one of the fac­
tors expected to limit employment growth in
that industry. The increasing use of word pro­
cessing equipment will limit growth of employ­
ment of typists. Despite widespread tech­
nological advances, however, employment
should continue to increase in most industries
and occupations during the 1980’s and early
Other factors affecting employment are the
fiscal policies of the Federal Government, the
monetary policies of the Federal Reserve
Board, the level of imports, and the availability
of energy. Using information on these and other
factors, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has pre­
pared three sets of projections of employment in
industries and occupations. Referred to as the
low-, moderate-, and high-growth alternatives,
the projections are based on different assump­
tions concerning growth of the labor force, un­
employment, monetary and fiscal policy, and
other factors. Each alternative provides a dif­
ferent set of estimates of employment in 1995.
The alternatives developed by the Bureau
represent only three of many possible courses
for the economy. Different assumptions would
lead to different projections of the economy.
For this reason, the alternatives should not be
viewed as the bounds of employment growth;
rather, the illustrate what might happen. Fur­
thermore, Unforeseen changes in spending pat­
terns or in technology could radically alter the
projections for individual industries and oc­
A detailed discussion of the assumptions and
methods used to develop these alternative pro­
jections can be found in a separate chapter of
the Handbook. The employment projections
from the three alternatives were presented in the
November 1983 issue of the Monthly Labor
For ease of presentation, the discussions of
projections and outlook information in the
Handbook focus on the moderate-growth alter­
native. This alternative assumes a period of
recovery from the 1981-82 recession followed
by stable economic growth through the

Chart 3.

Labor force growth will slow through the mid-1990’s.

Average annual percent increase




I----------- 1







SOURCE: Bu reau bf Lab o r S t a tis tic s

mining, and manufacturing accounted for less
than three-tenths of the country’s jobs.
Service-Producing Industries. Employment
in service-producing industries has been in­
creasing at a faster rate than employment in
goods-producing industries (chart 8). Among
the factors that have contributed to this rapid
growth are rising incomes and living standards
that result in greater demand for health care,
entertainment, and business and financial serv­
ices. In addition, the growth of cities and sub­
urbs has brought a need for more local govern­
ment services. Further, because many services
involve personal contact, relatively fewer peo­
ple have been replaced by machines in serviceproducing industries.
Through the mid-1990’s, employment is ex­
pected to continue to increase faster in serviceproducing industries than in goods-producing





' 0

industries. In fact, service-producing industries
are projected to account for about 75 percent of
all new jobs between 1982 and 1995. Employ­
ment in these industries is expected to increase
from 66.5 million in 1982 to 86.2 million in
1995, or by 30 percent. Growth will vary
among industries within the group (chart 9).
The following paragraphs summarize recent
trends and the projections of employment in the
five industrial sectors that make up the serviceproducing industries.
Transportation, communications, and public
utilities. This was the slowest growing sector of
the service-producing industries during the
1970’s and early 1980’s. Rising employment in
trucking, warehousing, and air transportation,
was offset by declining employment in rail­
roads and slow growth in other industries in the
sector. Even in the communications industries,
where demand increased greatly technological
innovations limited employment growth.

Chart 4.

Through the mid-1990’s, women will continue to account for more
than half of the growth in the labor force.
Women as a percent of labor force growth

Industrial Profile
To discuss employment trends and projections
in industries, it is useful to divide the economy
into nine industrial sectors under two broad
groups— service-producing industries and
goods-producing industries. In 1982, about 7 of
every 10 jobs were in industries that provide
services such as health care, trade, education,
repair and maintenance, government, transpor­
tation, banking, and insurance. Industries that
produce goods through farming, construction,

SO URCE: Bu re au of Lab o r S t a tis tic s


Chart 5.

Through the mid-1990’s, the number of workers in the prime working
ages will g;ow dramatically.
Labor force (millions)

SO URCE: Bu reau of Lab o r S t a tis tic s

Between 1982 and 1995, employment in
transportation, communications, and public
utilities is expected to rise from 5.7 million to
6.9 million, or by 21 percent. Rising demand
for new telecommunications services resulting
from the increased use of computer systems,
and the divestiture of the telephone company
will make communications the most rapidly
growing industry in the sector. Employment in
communications industries is projected to grow
by 40 percent, from 1.4 million to 1.9 million.
More efficient communication equipment,
however, will keep employment from rising as
rapidly as output.
Although employment in railroads and water
transportation is expected to decline, it is ex­
pected to increase in other transportation indus­
tries such as air, local transit, and trucking.
Employment in transportation as a whole
should rise by about 12 percent, from 3.5 mil­
lion to 3.9 million.

Demand for electric power, gas utilities, and
water and sanitary services will increase
through the mid-1990’s as population and in­
dustry grow. Employment in industries that de­
liver these services is expected to increase from
868,000 to 1.1 million, or by 25 percent.
Trade. Both wholesale and retail trade em­
ployment have increased as the population has
grown and as rising incomes have enabled peo­
ple to buy a greater number and variety of
goods. During the 1970’s and early 1980’s em­
ployment in trade increased at about the same
rate as in service-producing industries as a
whole. Between 1982 and 1995, wholesale and
retail trade employment is expected to grow
from 20.6 million to 26.8 million, or by 31
percent. Employment will increase faster in
retail than in wholesale trade, 33 percent com­
pared with 22 percent. Employment will rise

Chart 6.

During the 1970’s, the proportion of workers with a college
background increased substantially.
Percent distribution of labor force age 18 to 64

SOURCE: Bu reau of Lab o r S t a tis tic s


despite the use of laborsaving innovations such
as self-service m erchandising and com ­
puterized inventory systems.
The largest number of new jobs in the trade
sector is projected to be in eating and drinking
places. Other retail firms expected to have large
increases are department stores, grocery stores,
and new car dealerships. In wholesale trade, the
largest increases will be in firms wholesaling
machinery, motor vehicles, and electrical
Finance, insurance, and real estate. This
sector grew faster than any other service-pro­
ducing sector during the 1970’s and early
1980’s, as these industries expanded to meet the
financial and banking needs of the population.
Between 1982 and 1995, employment in this
sector is expected to rise from 5.4 million to 7.2
million, or by 34 percent. Demand for credit
and other financial services is expected to grow
rapidly, but automatic teller machines and com­
puterized banking and stock transactions will
prevent employment from growing as fast as
output. However, large increases in employ­
ment are expected in banks, saving and loan
associations, security brokerages, and real es­
tate firms.
Services. This sector includes a variety of
industries, such as hotels, barber shops, auto­
mobile repair shops, hospitals, engineering
firms, schools, and nonprofit organizations.
During the 1970’s and early 1980’s, employ­
ment in this sector increased faster than in serv­
ice-producing industries as a whole. Sharply
rising demand for health care, data process­
ing, and engineering and legal services were
among the forces behind this growth.
From 1982 to 1995, employment in service
industries is expected to increase from 27.5
million to 37.2 million, or by 36 percent. These
industries will provide more new jobs than any
other industry sector. Business services, in­
cluding data processing, personnel supply, and
commercial cleaning are expected to grow
more rapidly than other industries in the sector.
Employment in health services also is expected
to increase substantially. Efforts to control ris­
ing health costs, however, could sharply lower
the employment growth in health services.
Large increases in employment also are ex­
pected in engineering, legal, social, and ac­
counting services.
Government. During the 1970’s and early
1980’s, increased demand for services provided
by government—health and welfare services,
and police and fire protection—caused employ­
ment in the government sector to rise although
at a slower rate than in service-producing indus­
tries as a whole. Employment increased more in
State and local governments than in the Federal
Government. Between 1982 and 1995, as a re­
sult of public desire to limit government
growth, employment in government is expected
to rise by only 8 percent, from 7.5 million to
8.0 million.
Goods-Producing Industries. Employment in
these industries increased duimg the 1970’s, but
the 1980 and 1981-82 recessions caused a drop
in construction and manufacturing employ­
ment. Between 1982 and 1995, employment in

goods-producing industries is expected to in­
crease from 27.1 million to 33.0 million, about
22 percent. Some of the increase reflects the
rebounding of employment in manufacturing
and construction to pre-recession levels. Sig­
nificant variation in employment growth is ex­
pected among goods-producing industries
(chart 9).
Agriculture. Employment in agriculture has
declined while farm output has increased
through the use of more and better machinery,
fertilizers, feeds, pesticides, and hybrid plants.
Domestic demand for food will increase slowly
through the mid-1990’s. World-wide demand
for food will increase because of population
growth, and U.S. food exports will increase
through the next decade. Farm productivity,
however, will continue to improve—although
more slowly than in the past—and employment
is expected to decline even as production rises.
Between 1982 and 1995 agricultural employ­
ment is projected to drop from 3.2 to 3.0 mil­
lion, or by 7 percent.
Mining. Employment in the mining sector
increased substantially during the 1970’s and
early 1980’s—faster than in any other sector.
Nearly all of this growth occurred in coal
mining and oil and gas drilling.
Through the m id-1990’s, employment
growth in the mining sector will slow dramat­
ically. Between 1982 and 1995 employment is
expected to grow from 1.1 million to 1.2 mil­
lion, an increase of only 7 percent. The con­
tinued importance of coal as an energy source
will lead to higher employment in that industry.
Employment in oil and gas extraction, however,
is expected to decline as domestic production
levels off. Other mining industries are expected
to attain their pre-recession employment levels
but have little long run growth because of lower
demand and improvements in mining tech­
Construction. Employment in construction
dropped by 550,000 between 1979 and 1982, as
high interest rates and low economic activity
limited new construction, especially housing.
Despite several economic slumps, employment
had increased during the 1970’s.
As the economic recovery continues, em­
ployment in construction is expected to rise to
pre-recession levels and continue to grow. Be­
tween 1982 and 1995, employment in the con­
struction sector is expected to increase from 3.9
to 5.8 million, or by 48 percent. Through the
late 1980’s, the demand for housing is expected
to be strong as the number of households con­
tinues to increase. During the early 1990’s, the
growth in households will slow and possibly
limit the demand for new housing. Business
expansion and maintenance of existing build­
ings will lead to higher construction activity
through 1995.
Manufacturing. Recession caused a 2.2 mil­
lion drop in manufacturing employment be­
tween 1979 and 1982, following a slight in­
crease during the 1970’s. As the economy
recovers, overall manufacturing employment is
expected to increase. By 1995, employment is
projected to reach 23.1 million, about 23 per­
cent higher than the 1982 level of 18.8 million.
Much of this employment growth will occur in

Chart 7.

Industries differ substantially in the kinds of workers they employ.
Percent distribution of wage and salary workers, 1982
Craft workers,
operatives, and
managerial, sales,
and clerical workers

Finance, insurance,
and real estate

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor S t a tis tic s

the mid-1980’s, reflecting a rebounding of em­
ployment to prerecession levels. However sev­
eral key manufacturing industries, such as auto­
mobile and steel manufacturing, are not
expected to reach previous peak employment
levels. A turnaround in demand is expected to
boost production in these industries, but for­
eign competition, productivity improvements,
and technological change will limit employ­
ment requirements.
Manufacturing is divided into two broad cat­
egories— durable goods manufacturing and
nondurable goods manufacturing. Employment
in durable goods manufacturing is expected to
increase by 29 percent as rising business invest­
ment and consumer demand lead to higher de­
mand for computers, machinery, and electronic
components. Employment in nondurable goods
manufacturing is projected to increase more
slowly, by 14 percent, reflecting the tendency of

consumers to spend less of their budget on
staples such as food and clothing as their in­
come rises.

Occupational Profile
This section gives an overview of the changes
expected in employment for 16 broad groups of
occupations. These groups are based on the
Standard Occupational Classification, which
has been adopted as the classification system
for all government agencies that collect occupa­
tional employment data.
In the following discussion, as throughout
the Handbook, the employment growth rates of
individual occupations usually are compared to
the national average for all occupations. Half a
dozen phrases are used to describe the employ­
ment growth; they are explained in the box on

Chart 8.

Industries providing services will continue to employ an increasing
proportion of the work force.
Workers (millions)1

'W a g e and sa la ry workers, except for agriculture, w hich in clu d e s self-e m plo ye d and unpaid
fam ily w orkers
NOTE: D a s h e d lin e s represent low, moderate, and high p rojection s
SO URCE: Bu re au o f La b o r S t a tis tic s


It is important to remember that employment
growth will vary among the occupations within
each of the 16 broad groups, and that both the
rate of growth and the size of the change in
employment are important in analyzing the job
outlook (chart 10).
Administrative and managerial occupations.
Workers in these occupations direct and control
the activities of businesses, government agen­
cies, and other organizations, or provide tech­
nical support to workers who do. In most of
these occupations, employment is expected to
increase about as fast as the average for all
occupations. Although managers and admin­
istrators are employed throughout the economy,
differences in industry growth will result in
differences in the rates of employment growth
for managers and administrators. Employment
of managers in the health industry, for example,
is expected to increase much faster than the
average. Employment of managers also should
grow as fast as or faster than the average in
electronic components manufacturing, data
processing services, credit and securities firms,
automotive repairs, and social services. In con­
trast, managerial employment in government
and educational services is likely to grow more
slowly than the average due to the anticipated
modest growth of these industries.
Because of the increasing number of people
seeking managerial and administrative jobs and
the increasing technical requirements in many
of these occupations, experience, specialized
training, or post-baccalaureate study will be
heeded for many managerial jobs. Familiarity
with computers also will be helpful as man­
agers and administrators increasingly rely on
computerized information systems to direct
their organizations.
Engineers, scientists, and related occupa­
tions. Workers in these occupations design
buildings, machinery, products, and systems;
conduct research; and perform related ac­
tivities. Employment in many of the occupa­
tions in this group is expected to increase faster

than the average; in several—electronic engi­
neers, mechanical engineers, and systems ana­
lysts—it will increase much faster than the
Increased military expenditures, growing
demand for computers and other electronic
equipment, expansion and automation of indus­
trial production, and development of energy
sources are some of the factors expected to lead
to higher employment in engineering occupa­
tions. The growing application of computers in
business and research will contribute to in­
creased employment of systems analysts. Re­
search to expand basic knowledge, develop
new technologies and products, and protect the
environment is expected to lead to higher em­
ployment in many scientific and engineering
occupations. However, if the rate of economic
growth and the research and development lev­
els differ from those assumed, the job outlook
in many of these occupations would be altered.
Competition in some smaller occupations that
are dependent on Government funding, such as
astronomers, will continue to be keen.
Social science, social service, and related
occupations. In these occupations, workers
provide direct social services and conduct ap­
plied research into the behavior of individuals,
groups, and society at large. Employment in
many of the occupations in the group is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the average.
However, due to the number of people inter­
ested in these fields, competition for jobs is
expected in many social science occupations—
especially for academic positions. Generally,
prospects will be better for social scientists with
advanced degrees who seek work in applied
Competition also is likely for jobs as social
and recreation workers in public and voluntary
agencies as well as for salaried positions for
Teachers, librarians, and counselors. Work­
ers in these occupations help people learn, ac­
quire information, or gain insight into them­
selves. Because of anticipated enrollment

Chart 9.

Through the mid-1990’s, changes in employment will vary widely
among industries.

Projected range of employment change, 1982-95 (millions)1

0 1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11

Goods producing:


Service producing:

Transportation, communications,
and public utilities
Finance, insurance, and
real estate

SO URCE: Bu reau of Lab o r S t a t is t ic s


W a g e an d s a la ry w o rk e rs except for agriculture,
w h ich in c lu d e s self-e m p lo ye d a n d u n p a id fa m ily w orkers.

declines and an abundance of qualified job­
seekers, competition is expected for jobs in
college and university teaching, as librarians,
in counseling, and, through 1990, in secondary
school teaching. Staff cutbacks in school sys­
tems and social service agencies will intensify
competition for these jobs.
As school enrollments start increasing after
1985, job prospects for elementary school
teachers are expected to be more favorable than
in recent years. Prospects in secondary schools
may improve in the early 1990’s, as enrollments
there begin to increase. Teachers and librarians
generally will face better job prospects in scien­
tific and technical fields.
Health-related occupations. This group in­
cludes health practitioners, nurses, health tech­
nicians and technologists, health service work­
ers, dietitians, pharmacists, and therapists.
Workers in these occupations care for the sick,
help the disabled, and advise individuals and
communities on ways of maintaining and im­
proving their health.
Employment in most of the health occupa­
tions is expected to grow faster than average as
population growth—especially in the number
of older people—increases the demand for
health care. Registered nurses, nursing aides
and orderlies, because of the large size and
anticipated growth in these occupations, will be
among the occupations providing the most new
jobs through the mid-1990’s. Despite the antic­
ipated growth in the health industry, physi­
cians, dentists, chiropractors, and veterinarians
seeking to establish practices can expect un­
precedented competition due to the large
number of newly trained practitioners each
It should be noted that the projections are
based on the assumption that health care expen­
ditures will continue to increase rapidly and
that health financing will not undergo drastic
change. However, current efforts to control
health costs could result in substantial changes
in the reimbursement procedures and, thereby,
directly affect the economic incentives of sup­
pliers of health care. Such changes would be
likely to lower the projected employment levels
in many health occupations. In some, such as
health record technicians, new procedures
could lead to more growth than currently pro­
Writers, artists, and entertainers. This group
includes reporters, writers, designers, public
relations specialists, and performing artists. In
most of these occupations, employment is ex­
pected to increase as fast as the average for all
occupations. The continued importance of ad­
vertising, public relations, print and broadcast
communications, and entertainment will spur
employment growth.
Stiff competition for jobs in these occupa­
tions is likely, due to the large numbers of
people they attract. Talent and personal drive
will continue to play an extremely important
role in succeeding in these occupations. Within
individual occupations, some areas will offer
better job prospects. The best prospects for
writers and editors, for example, will be in
technical writing and in preparing business and
trade publications.

Technologists and technicians. Workers in
this group provide technical assistance to engi­
neers, and scientists, and other professional
workers as well as operate and program tech­
nical equipment independently. The continued
growth in the importance of technology to na­
tional defense, office work, manufacturing,
and other activities is expected to cause much
faster than average employment growth for sev­
eral occupations in this group, such as legal
assistants, programmers, and electrical and
electronic technicians.
Employment growth in some of the occupa­
tions will be limited by changes in technology.
Little or no change in the employment of draf­
ters is expected because of the increasing use of
computer-aided design equipment. Similarly,
little or no change in the employment of air
traffic controllers is expected due to the auto­
mation of air traffic control equipment.
— Marketing and sales occupations. Workers
in this group sell goods and services. Employ­
ment of travel agents, security sales workers,
real estate agents, and wholesale trade sales
workers is expected to grow faster than the
average due to the anticipated growth of indus­
tries in which these workers are employed.
A large number of part-time and full-time
openings are expected for cashiers and retail
trade sales workers due to the large size, high
turnover, and expected employment growth in
these occupations. Higher paying sales occupa­
tions, such as insurance agent and real estate
agent, tend to be more competitive than retail
salds occupations. Well-trained and ambitious
people who enjoy selling will have the best
chance for economic success.
Administrative support occupations, includ­
ing clerical. Workers in this group prepare and
record letters and other documents; collect ac­
counts; gather and distribute information; oper­
ate office machines; and handle other tasks that
help run businesses, government agencies, and
other organizations. Some administrative sup­
port occupations will enjoy much faster than
average employment growth. Employment of
computer operators and peripheral equipment
operators, for example, is expected to grow
much faster than the average due to the in­
creased use of computer systems.
The increase in office automation systems,
on the other hand, will limit employment op­
portunities in some administrative support oc­
cupations. Changes in organizational practices
also will affect employment for some of these
occupations. Despite a growing volume of
mail, little change is expected in the employ­
ment of mail carriers because of improved rout­
ing programs and more centralized mail deliv­
ery. Several occupations in this group will
provide many full- and part-time job openings
due to their large size and high turnover. These
include bank tellers, bookkeepers and account­
ing clerks, secretaries, shipping and receiving
clerks, and typists.
Service occupations. This group includes a
wide range of workers in protective, food and
beverage preparation, cleaning, and personal
services. Among the protective service occupa­
tions, guards are expected to have faster than
average growth because of increased concern

Chart 10.

When assessing future job opportunities, both the rate of growth
and the number of new jobs need to be considered.
Projected change in employment, 1982-95
Increase (percent)

Increase (thousands)


Computer service


Computer service


SOURCE: Bu re au of Lab o r S t a tis tic s

over crime and vandalism. However, the antici­
pated slow growth of local government spend­
ing is expected to result in slower than average
employment growth for police officers and fire­
Rising incomes, increased leisure, and the
growing number of men and women who com­
bine family responsibilities and a job are ex­
pected to contribute to faster than average em­
ployment growth among food and beverage
preparation and service occupations. Due to the
large size, high turnover, and growth of many
food service occupations, such as bartenders
and waiters/waitresses, full- and part-time job
openings will be plentiful.
Agricultural and forestry occupations.
Workers in these occupations produce raw ma­
terials necessary to meet the country’s needs for
food, clothing, and shelter. Demand for food,
fiber, and wood is expected to increase as the
world population grows. The development and
use of more productive farming and forestry
methods, however, is expected to result in de­
clining employment in most agricultural and
forestry occupations.
Mechanics and repairers. These workers ad­
just, maintain, and repair automobiles, indus­
trial equipment, computers, and many other
types of machinery. Employment in most of
these occupations is expected to grow about as
fast as the average due to the continued impor­
tance of machines in industries and homes. In
some, employment will increase faster than the
average. The increased use of computers and
advanced office machinery, for example, will
make employment of computer service techni­
cians and office machine repairers grow much
faster than the average. For some mechanic and
repairer occupations, such as communication
equipment mechanics, improvements to ma­
chinery will lower maintenance requirements
and limit employment growth.
Construction occupations. Workers in this
group construct, alter, and maintain buildings
and other structures. Employment in most of

these occupations is expected to grow faster
than the average. Some of this growth,
however, reflects a rebounding of employment
to levels that existed before the 1980 and
1981-82 recessions. Increases in the population
and the number of households and a rise in
spending for new industrial plants are factors
expected to lead to more new construction. Al­
teration and modernization of existing struc­
tures, as well as the need for maintenance and
repair on highway systems, dams, and bridges
also will contribute to increased construction
Continued technological developments in
construction methods, tools and equipment,
and materials will limit employment growth by
raising the productivity of workers. One impor­
tant development, for example, is the continued
growth in the use of prefabricated materials.
The use of these materials limits the number of
workers needed at the construction site.
Since the construction industry is sensitive to
changes in the Nation’s economy, employment
in construction occupations may fluctuate from
year to year. Construction workers can expect
to experience periods of unemployment during
downturns in the economy which usually result
in reduced construction activity.
Production occupations. Workers in these
occupations perform tasks involved in the pro­
duction of goods. They set up, adjust, operate,
and tend machinery and equipment, and use
handtools and hand-held power tools to fab­
ricate and assemble products.
The recovery of the manufacturing industry
from the 1981-82 recession and the growth pro­
jected for this sector through the mid-1990’s
will result in average employment growth in
many production occupations. For some, such
as patternmakers and job-and-die setters, most
of the employment growth reflects a rebounding
of employment to pre-recession levels.
Changes in production techniques and the in­
creased used of automated machinery, such as


robots, will prevent employment in some pro­
duction occupations from rising as rapidly as
the output of goods.
Many production occupations are sensitive
to fluctations in the business cycle. Just as em­
ployment opportunities increases when the
economy is healthy, when factory orders de­
cline during economic downturns, workers
may experience shortened workweeks, layoffs,
and plant closings.
Transportation occupations. Workers in this
group operate the equipment-used to move peo­
ple and materials. Increasing economic activity
will increase the need for transport services.
This increase in demand is expected to result in
average employment growth for truckdrivers
and airplane pilots. Increased use of automated
material handling systems, however, is ex­
pected to cause slower than average growth of
employment of industrial truck operators.
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and
laborers. Workers in this group assist skilled
workers and perform the routine unskilled tasks
required to complete a project. Jobs in these
occupations generally are expected to be plen­
tiful due to the high turnover rate. However,
economic downturns can lower the number of
openings substantially. This is particularly true
for construction laborers and other workers in

industries that are sensitive to changes in the
Nation’s economy. Over the long run, as routine
tasks are mechanized, employment in these oc­
cupations is expected to grow more slowly than
the average.
Since the employment prospects in individu­
al occupations will differ within each of the 16
groups, it is important to check the outlook for
each occupation that interests you. While the
Handbook contains information for only 190 or
so occupations, current and projected employ­
ment estimates for many more occupations—
nearly 700 in all—are presented in the 1984
edition of Occupational Projections and Train­
ing Data, 1984 Edition, BLS Bulletin 2206, a
companion volume to the Handbook.

Replacement Needs
Most discussions of future job opportunities
focus on the employment growth in industries
and occupations. Since the faster growing in­
dustries and occupations generally offer better
opportunities for employment and advance­
ment than slow growing ones, employment
growth is a good gauge of job outlook. Another
element in the employment outlook, however,
is replacement needs. Replacement openings
occur as people leave occupations. Some trans­
fer to other occupations as a step up the career

Chart 11.

Because of replacement needs, even occupations that are growing
slowly can have many job openings.
Projected growth in
employment, 1982-95 (percent)

Projected replacement
openings, 1982-95 (thousands)

school teachers
SO URCE: Bureau of Lab o r S t a tis tic s


ladder or to change careers. Some temporarily
stop working, perhaps to return to school or
care for a family. And some leave the labor
force permanently—retirees, for example.
These movements result in job openings.
Through the mid-1990’s, most jobs will be­
come available as the result of replacement
needs. Among occupations, however, the
number of replacement jobs and the proportion
of total job openings made up by replacement
needs will vary significantly. Factors that deter­
mine the number of replacement jobs in an
occupation include its size, the earnings and
status associated with the occupation, the
length of training required, the average age of
workers, and the proportion of part-time work­
ers. Occupations with the most replacement
openings generally are large, with low pay and
status, low training requirements, and a high
proportion of young and part-time workers.
Occupations with high replacement needs in­
clude: File clerks, cashiers, construction la­
borers, and stock handlers. Workers in these
occupations who lose their job or leave volun­
tarily often are able to find a similar job. They
also have not spent much money or time in
training for their jobs, so there is limited incen­
tive to stay in such occupations. Occupations
with low training requirements often attract
workers with limited attachment to the labor
force, such as young people working part time.
The occupations with relatively few replace­
ment openings, on the other hand, are ones with
high pay and status, lengthy training require­
ments, and a high proportion prime-working
age full-time workers. Among these occupa­
tions are architects, dentists, and dental labora­
tory technicians. Workers in these occupations
generally have spent several years acquiring
training that often is not applicable to other
occupations. These workers enjoy good pay
and high status, but would find it difficult to
change to other high-paying occupations with­
out extensive retraining.
When considering replacement needs, it is
important to note, first, that occupations with
little or no employment growth or slower than
average growth can still offer many job open­
ings (chart 11). Second, in many occupations
with a large number of replacement openings,
the pay and status are low. Many of the available
jobs are only part-time positions. These oc­
cupations, therefore, may not be suitable for a
person planning a long-term career, despite the
large number of openings. More information
about replacement needs is available in Oc­
cupational Projections and Training Data.

Assumptions and Methods Used in Preparing
Employment Projections
The discussions of future employment con­
tained in the Handbook are w ritten in
qualitative terms but are based on quantitative
estimates developed using the most recent data
available on population, industry and occupa­
tional employment, productivity, consumer ex­
penditures, and other factors expected to affect
employment. The Bureau’s staff specializing in
developing economic and employment projec­
tions provided much of these data, but many
other agencies of the Federal Government were
important contributors as well.
In addition, experts from industry, unions,
professional societies, and trade associations
furnished data and supplied information
through interviews. Many of these individuals
also reviewed preliminary drafts of the state­
ments. Each statement thus reflects the knowl­
edge and judgment not only of the Bureau of
Labor Statistics staff, but also of leaders in the
fields discussed. The Bureau, of course, takes
full responsibility for the published material.
Information compiled from these sources
was analyzed in conjunction with projections of
the economy to 1995 constructed as part of the
Bureau’s projections program. Like other mod­
els used in projecting economic and employ­
ment growth, the Bureau’s system encompasses
the major facets of the economy and represents
a comprehensive view of its projected structure.
It is comprised of a series of closely related
projections of the labor force, gross national
product (GNP), industrial output and produc­
tivity, average weekly hours of work, and em­
ployment for detailed industries and occupa­
tions. The model system is essentially the same
as the one used to develop the 1990 projections.
A detailed description of the model system ap­
pears in The BLS Economic Growth Model Sys­
tem Used for Projections to 1990, Bulletin

Assumptions. The Bureau has prepared three
different scenarios of economic growth through
1995. Each alternative is based on the following
general assumptions.
—The institutional framework of the U.S. economy
will not change radically, and current social, tech­
nological, and scientific trends will continue.
— No major event such as war or widespread or longlasting energy shortages will significantly alter the
industrial structure of the economy or the rate of
economic growth.
— Federal expednitures will decline as a proportion of
GNP. Federal grants-in-aid to State and local gov­
ernments will decline.

The differences among the scenarios reflect
different sets of specific assumptions about

fiscal and monetary policy. These result in
higher or lower levels of GNP and its compo­
nents, such as investment and personal con­
sumption expenditures. While these alternative
projections give some idea of how employment
could vary under different assumptions, actual
growth could be outside the range of the alter­
natives. Furthermore, unforeseen changes in
spending patterns—for example, in defense
budgets or in consumer preferences—could
greatly alter the growth of individual occupa­
tions. Unanticipated changes in technology
which affect the way goods and services are
produced could also alter growth. Detailed in­
formation about the assumptions used in these
projections is presented in the November 1983
issue of the Monthly Labor Review.
Methods. Beginning with population projec­
tions by age and sex and race developed by the
Bureau of the Census, a projection of the total
labor force is derived using expected labor
force participation rates for each population
group. In developing participation rates, the
Bureau takes into account a variety of factors
that affect decisions to enter the labor force,
such as school attendance, retirement prac­
tices, and family responsibilities.
The projection of the GNP level and the dis­
tribution of GNP by its major components (con­
sumer expenditures, investment, government,
and net exports) is carried out using a detailed
macroeconomic model of the U.S. economy.
Based on the projected labor force and on the
various fiscal and monetary policy assumptions
mentioned previously, a consistent distribution
of real GNP by its major components and asso­
ciated estimates of employment, output per
workhour, and hours paid by major producing
sectors are arrived at. The use of a mac­
roeconomic model at this stage of the projec­
tions ensures a balanced and internally consis­
tent representation of U.S. economic condi­
tions over the projection horizon. Each of the
major GNP components is in turn broken down
by producing industry. Consumer expen­
ditures, for example, are divided among indus­
tries producing goods and services such as
housing, food, automobiles, medical care, and
Once estimates are developed for these prod­
ucts and services, they are translated into de­
tailed projections of industry output, not only
for the industries producing the final product—
such as an automobile—but also for the indus­
tries that provide electric power, transportation,
component parts, and other inputs required in

the production process. Input-output tables de­
veloped by the Department of Commerce and
modified by BLS are used to estimate output.
By using estimates of future output per workhour based on studies of productivity and tech­
nological trends for each industry, industry em­
ployment projections are derived from the
output estimates. In addition, many detailed
industries are studied using regression analysis.
In these studies, equations are developed that
relate employment by industry to combinations
of economic variables, such as population and
income, that are considered determinants of
long-run changes in employment. The industry
employment projections developed through
these studies are evaluated with data generated
by the basic model to develop the final industry
employment projections. They also are used to
develop projections for industries that are not
included in the basic model.
Occupational employment projections. Pro­
jections of industry employment are translated
into occupational employment projections
using an industry-occupation matrix. The ma­
jor source of occupational staffing patterns is
the Bureau’s Occupational Employment Statis­
tics (OES) survey. The OES survey collects
data from employers on the occupational dis­
tribution of workers in all nonagricultural in­
dustries, except private households. Each in­
dustry is surveyed every 3 years.
The occupational distribution of wage and
salary workers in agriculture and private house­
holds, not covered by the OES survey, is de­
rived from the Current Population Survey
(CPS). Data on self-employed and unpaid fam­
ily workers in each occupation also come from
the CPS. Data from the matrix are available for
over 200 industries and over 600 occupations.
Staffing patterns that reflect data from the
OES surveys are projected to the target year
(1995) and, when applied to projections of total
employment by industry and summed across all
industries, yield employment projections for all
occupations in the matrix. Thus, projected em­
ployment in an occupation is determined by
changes in the proportion of workers in the
occupation in each industry, and the growth
rates of industries in which the occupation is
concentrated. For example, employment in an
occupation would be projected to grow: (1) If its
proportion of the work force increases but in­
dustry employment remains constant, or (2) if
its proportion of the work force remains con­
stant but industry employment increases.


In some cases, employment is projected on
the basis of its relationship to certain indepen­
dent variables rather than on its representation
in each industry. This approach is particularly
useful when projecting employment for an oc­
cupation that is affected by a unique set of
factors. For example, employment of elemen­
tary school teachers is projected based on
trends in pupil-teacher ratios applied to pro­
jected school attendance, and the projection of
automobile mechanics is based on the expected


stock of motor vehicles. Projections that are
developed independently are compared with
those in the matrix and revised, if necessary, to
assure consistency.
Replacement needs. In addition to projections
of employment, estimates are made of the total
number of job openings expected to occur in
many occupations. Growth in the size of an
occupation is only one source of job openings.
Employment opportunities also occur when

workers transfer to another occupation, leave
the labor force temporarily, retire, or die. Using
longitudinal data derived from the Current Pop­
ulation Survey, estimates of replacement needs
from all sources have been developed that
provide a comprehensive view of the demand
for workers in various occupations.
Detailed information on replacement needs
for many of the occupations covered in the
1984— edition of the Handbook will be pre­
sented in Occupational Projections and Train­
ing Data, 1984 Edition, BLS Bulletin 2206.

Administrative and Managerial Occupations
Managers and administrators achieve the objec­ the work varies, however, so does the level of
tives of their organization by planning and di­ education required. Some managers and ad­
recting the activities of others. In a very small ministrators, including school principals and
enterprise, the owner may also be the manager. hospital administrators, need at least a master’s
However, as a business or other organization degree. Positions such as these require the spe­
grows and becomes more complex, more peo­ cialized knowledge and skills obtained through
ple are needed to oversee the operations of the years of formal education. Other positions, in­
work force. Large corporations or government cluding production supervisor, retail buyer,
agencies may employ hundreds of managers, construction manager, and maintenance super­
organized into a hierarchy of administrative intendent, may not require a college degree.
People in these jobs often have worked their
Top level managers—executives—are pri­ way up in the organization. Their main
marily concerned with policymaking, plan­ qualification is a thorough knowledge of the
ning, staffing, and overall coordination. They operating procedures of the workplace. In some
direct the activities of the organization through fields— such as accounting and bank manage­
departmental or “middle” level managers. Top ment—continuing education can accelerate ca­
level managers include school superintendents, reer advancement.
On-the-job training enables workers with
police and fire chiefs, bank presidents, gover­
nors, mayors, hospital administrators, chief ex­ management potential to “learn the ropes.” Par­
ecutive officers of corporations, department ticularly in wholesale and retail trade, many
store managers, and government agency managers begin as management trainees, work­
ing under the direction of more experienced
Below the top management in a large organi­ managers. Management trainees may be hired
zation are the middle managers, who direct from outside the organization or promoted from
various departments. Middle managers may other positions within it. On-the-job training
handle a particular area, such as personnel, programs provide trainees with the specific
accounting, sales, finance, or marketing. Or knowledge and experience they need to perform
they may supervise the production process at a successfully.
Despite the differences in formal education
factory or industrial plant. Middle managers
are the people who keep things running and training, successful managers are likely to
smoothly. They organize activities at the oper­ have certain characteristics in common. Be­
cause they work with people, managers need to
ating level and provide direct supervision.
Middle managers work with the assistance of be able to get along with and motivate and
administrative support personnel who plan, influence others. They should be able to inspire
organize, analyze, and monitor activities. Sup­ confidence and respect in those who work for
port personnel include accountants, loan of­ them.
When they make plans and set goals for their
ficers, underwriters, employment interviewers,
purchasing agents and buyers, credit managers, enterprise, managers work with ideas. They
membership directors, business and promotion need organizational skills, good judgment, and
agents, and inspectors of all kinds. Jobs such as decisionmaking ability. Successful managers
these require technical expertise or a thorough have mastered the art of getting all the facts,
understanding of a particular procedure or coming to a decision, and communicating it
effectively. They need a strong sense of ini­
Managers and administrators are employed tiative to be able to work without close
in virtually every type of industrial plant, com­ supervision.
For some administrative positions, ana­
mercial enterprise, and government agency.
Large numbers are employed in finance, insur­ lytical, evaluative, and promotional skills are
ance, real estate, construction, government, essential. Accountants, purchasing agents, and
health, education, transportation, public util­ others provide the technical expertise upon
which management decisions are based. Like
ities, and business services.
Because of the wide range of establishments managers, they work closely with other people,
employing managers, job duties vary greatly. but usually in a support rather than a superviso­
For example, the manager of a fast-food restau­ ry capacity. Decisionmaking ability, good
rant performs tasks that differ substantially judgment, and the ability to relate to others are
from those of a school administrator, communi­ important for people in these occupations.
Earnings for managers and administrators
ty organization director, or construction
vary widely. They depend on the industry and
Since maturity and knowledge are essential, on the size and nature of the particular estab­
entrants to administrative and managerial oc­ lishment in which the manager is employed.
cupations are generally older and have more For example, restaurant managers earn consid­
education and work experience than entrants to erably less, on the average, than sales managers
most other occupations. Because the nature of outside retail trade. Earnings also vary with the

level of managerial or administrative respon­
sibility. For example, management trainees
may start working at salaries that are not much
higher than those of the people they supervise.
Earnings increase as managers gain experi­
ence, prove their ability to handle the job, and
take on additional responsibility. Median an­
nual earnings of full-time administrators and
managers, excluding self-employed, were
about $22,000 in 1982. The middle 50 percent
earned between $16,000 and $32,000. The top
10 percent earned about $40,000 or more.
On the whole, employment of managers and
administrators is projected to grow about as fast
as the average for all occupations through the
mid-1990’s. The overwhelming majority of job
openings is expected to result from the need to
replace those who transfer to other fields, re­
tire, or leave the occupation for other reasons.
The number of new jobs for managers and
administrators created as a result of employ­
ment expansion will vary by industry sector.
Government and educational services, for ex­
ample, will experience slower-than-average
growth—resulting in limited demand for addi­
tional administrators and support personnel.
Also, the large number of self-employed man­
agers and administrators is expected to decline
somewhat, as large enterprises and chain opera­
tions increasingly dominate business activity.
Projected above-average expansion in the
health services industry will generate many
new managerial and administrative support
positions in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes,
and other health-related organizations. Em­
ployment growth should also be strong among
firms involved in electronic components man­
ufacturing, computer and data processing serv­
ices, credit and securities firms, food services,
automotive repairs, automobile rental services,
and social services.
More detailed information on a number of
administrative and managerial occupations ap­
pears in the following statements.

Accountants and
(D O T . 160 through .167-042, and .267-014; and 189.117038)

Nature of the Work
Managers must have up-to-date financial infor­
mation to make important decisions. Accoun­
tants and auditors prepare, analyze, and verify
financial reports that furnish this kind of


24/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Four major fields are public, management,
and government accounting and internal audit­
ing. Public accountants have their own busi­
nesses or work for accounting firms. Manage­
ment accountants, also called industrial or
private accountants, handle the financial rec­
ords of their company. Internal auditors verify
the accuracy of their firm’s financial records and
check for waste or fraud. Government accoun­
tants and auditors examine the records of gov­
ernment agencies and audit private businesses
and individuals whose dealings are subject to
government regulations.
Accountants often concentrate on one phase
of accounting. For example, many public ac­
countants are employed primarily in auditing
(examining a client’s financial records and re­
ports and attesting that they are in comformity
with standards of preparation and reporting).
Others concentrate on tax matters, such as pre­
paring income tax forms and advising clients of
the tax advantages and disadvantages of certain
business decisions. Still others concentrate on
management consulting and offer advice on a
variety of matters. They might develop or revise
an accounting system to serve the needs of
clients more effectively or give advice about
various types of computers or electronic data
processing systems.
Management accountants provide the finan­
cial information executives need to make sound
business decisions. They may work in areas
such as taxation, budgeting, costs, or invest­
Internal auditing is rapidly growing in impor­
tance as top management must increasingly
base its decisions on reports and records rather
than personal observation. Internal auditors ex­
amine and evaluate their firm’s financial sys­
tems and management procedures to ensure
that accounting records are accurate and finan­
cial controls are adequate to protect against
fraud. They also review company operations,
evaluating their efficiency, effectiveness, and
compliance with laws and government regula­
Many persons with accounting backgrounds
work for the Federal Government as Internal
Revenue Service agents or in financial manage­
ment, financial institution examination, and
budget administration. Others staff the faculties
of business and professional schools as ac­
counting teachers, researchers, or admin­
istrators. Some accountants teach part time,
work as consultants, or serve on committees of
professional organizations.

Working Conditions
Most accountants and auditors work in offices
and have regular hours. Self-employed accoun­
tants, who may set up offices at home, work as
many hours as the business requires.
Tax accountants work long hours under
heavy pressure during the tax season. Accoun­
tants employed by large firms may travel exten­
sively to audit or work for clients or branches of
the firm.

Accountants and auditors held about 856,000
jobs in 1982; more than 200,000 were Certified

Public Accountants (CPA), 20,000 were li­
censed public accountants (primarily self-em­
ployed tax specialists), about 12,000 were Cer­
tified Internal Auditors (CIA), and about 4,000
were Certified Management Accountants
(CMA). About 10 percent of all accountants
were self-employed. Less than 10 percent work­
ed part time.
Most accountants do management account­
ing. Many others are engaged in public ac­
counting as proprietors, partners, or employees
of independent accounting firms. Other ac­
countants work for Federal, State, and local
government agencies.
Accountants and auditors are found in all
business, industrial, and government organiza­
tions. Most, however, work in large urban areas
where many public accounting firms and cen­
tral offices of large businesses are concentrated.

TVaining, Other Qualifications, and
Most public accounting and business firms re­
quire applicants for accountant and internal au­
ditor positions to have at least a bachelor’s
degree in accounting or a closely related field.
Many employers prefer those with the master’s
degree in accounting. A growing number of
employers prefer applicants who are familiar
with computers and their applications in ac­
counting and internal auditing. For beginning
accounting and auditing positions, the Federal
Government requires 4 years of college (includ­
ing 24 semester hours in accounting or audit­
ing) or an equivalent combination of education
and experience. However, applicants face com­
petition for the limited number of openings in
the Federal Government.
Previous experience in accounting or audit­
ing can help an applicant get a job. Many col­
leges offer students an opportunity to gain ex­
perience through summer or part-time inter­
nship programs conducted by public account­
ing or business firms. Such training is invalu­
able in gaining permanent employment in the
Professional recognition through certifica­
tion or licensure also is extremely valuable.
Anyone working as a “certified public accoun­
tant” must have a certificate and a license issued
by a State board of accountancy. All States use
the four-part Uniform CPA Examination, pre­
pared by the American Institute of Certified
Public Accountants, to establish certification.
The CPA examination is rigorous and candi­
dates are not required to pass all four parts at
once. However, most States require candidates
to pass at least two parts for partial credit. Many
States require all sections of the test to be
passed within a certain period of time. Al­
though the vast majority of States require CPA
candidates to be college graduates, some States
substitute a certain number of years of public
accounting experience for the educational re­
quirement. Most States require applicants to
have some public accounting experience for a
CPA certificate. For example, bachelor’s degree
holders most often need 2 years of experience
while master’s degree holders often need no
more than 1 year. Based on recommendations
made by the American Institute of Certified

Public Accountants, a few States require or are
considering requiring CPA candidates to have
training beyond a bachelor’s degree and, in
some cases, a master’s degree. This require­
ment is expected to become more common in
the coming years.
For license or registration as a “public ac­
countant” or “accounting practitioner,” some
States require only a high school diploma while
others require college training. Information on
requirements may be obtained directly from
individual State boards of accountancy or from
the National Society of Public Accountants
The Accreditation Council for Accountancy
awards accreditation in accountancy and taxa­
tion to persons who have passed a comprehen­
sive examination. Accreditation is maintained
by completing mandatory continuing educa­
tion. The Institute of Internal Auditors, Inc.,
confers the Certified Internal Auditor (CIA)
upon graduates from accredited colleges and
universities who have completed 2 years’ expe­
rience in internal auditing and who have passed
a four-part examination. The National Associa­
tion of Accountants (NAA) confers the Certifi­
cate in Management Accounting (CMA) upon
candidates who pass a series of uniform exam­
inations and meet specific educational and pro­
fessional standards.
Persons planning a career in accounting
should have an aptitude for mathematics, be
able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts
and figures quickly, and to make sound judg­
ments based on this knowledge. They must
question how and why things are done and be
able to clearly communicate the results of their
work, orally and in writing, to clients and man­
Accountants and auditors must be patient and
able to concentrate for long periods of time.
They must be good at working with systems and
computers as well as with people. Accuracy
and the ability to handle responsibility with
limited supervision are important.
Perhaps most important, because millions of
financial statement users rely on their services,

Accountants and auditors develop, analyze, and
interpret financial information.

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/25
accountants and auditors should have high stan­
dards of integrity.
A growing number of States require both
CPA’s and licensed public accountants to com­
plete a certain number of hours of continuing
education before licenses can be renewed. The
professional associations representing accoun­
tants sponsor numerous courses, seminars,
group study programs, and other forms of con­
tinuing education. Increasingly, accountants
and auditors are studying computer program­
ming so they can adapt accounting procedures
to data processing. Although capable accoun­
tants and auditors should advance rapidly, those
having inadequate academic preparation may
be assigned routine jobs and find promotion
Many graduates of junior colleges and busi­
ness and correspondence schools, as well as
outstanding bookkeepers and accounting clerks
who meet the education and experience require­
ments set by their employers, are successful in
landing junior accounting positions.
Junior public accountants usually start by
assisting with auditing work for several clients.
They may advance to intermediate positions
with more responsibility in 1 or 2 years and to
senior positions within another few years.
Those who deal successfully with top industry
executives often become supervisors, man­
agers, or partners, or transfer to executive posi­
tions in private firms. Some open their own
public accounting offices.
Beginning management accountants often
start as ledger accountants, junior internal au­
ditors, or as trainees for technical accounting
positions. They may advance to chief plant ac­
countant, chief cost accountant, budget direc­
tor, or manager of internal auditing. Some be­
come controllers, treasurers, financial vicepresidents, or corporation presidents. Many
corporation executives have backgrounds in ac­
counting, internal auditing, and finance.

more and more on the expertise of public ac­
countants in planning their operations. In addi­
tion, increases in investment and lending also
should spur demand for accountants and
Opportunities are expected to be favorable
for college graduates seeking accounting and
auditing jobs. Certified accountants, such as
CPA’s, should have a wider range of job oppor­
tunities than other accountants. However, com­
petition for jobs with prestigious accounting
firms will remain keen. Opportunities for ac­
countants without a college degree will occur
mainly in small businesses and accounting
The increasing use of computers and elec­
tronic data processing systems in accounting
and auditing should stimulate the demand for
accountants familiar with their operation. Op­
portunities should be particularly good for in­
ternal auditors and tax accountants.
Many employers prefer graduates who have
worked part time in a business or accounting
firm while in school. In fact, experience has
become so important that some employers in
business and industry seek persons with 1 or 2
years' experience for beginning positions.
Accountants rarely lose their jobs when other
workers are laid off during hard economic
times. Financial information must be de­
veloped and tax reports prepared regardless of
the state of the economy.

and $51,800, depending on their level of re­
sponsibility and the complexity of the account­
ing system. Chief accountants who direct the
accounting program of a company or one of its
establishments earned between $33,700 and
$67,900, depending upon the scope of their
authority and size of professional staff.
According to the same survey, beginning au­
ditors averaged $18,700 a year in 1983, while
experienced auditors’ earnings ranged between
$23,300 and $34,100. Beginning public ac­
countants employed by public accounting firms
averaged $18,700 a year, while earnings of ex­
perienced public accountants ranged from
$20,600 to $29,100.
In the Federal Government, the starting an­
nual salary for junior accountants and auditors
was about $13,000 in early 198l2. Candidates
who had a superior academic record could be­
gin at $16,100. Applicants with a master’s de­
gree or 2 years’ professional experience began
at $19,700. Accountants and auditors in the
Federal Government averaged about $30,500 a
year in 1982.

Related Occupations
Accountants and auditors design and control
financial records and analyze financial data.
Others for whom training in accounting is in­
valuable include appraisers, budget officers,
loan officers, financial analysts, bank officers,
actuaries, underwriters, tax collectors and reve­
nue agents, FBI special agents, securities sales
workers, and purchasing agents.

According to a 1982 College Placement Coun­
cil Salary Survey, bachelor’s degree candidates
in accounting received offers averaging around
$18,400 a year; master’s degree candidates,
The starting salary of accountants in private
industry was about $19,500 a year in 1983,
according to a national survey. Earnings of ex­
perienced accountants ranged between $23,300

Sources of Additional Information
Information about careers in accounting and
about competency tests administered in high
schools, colleges, and public accounting firms
may be obtained from;
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants,
1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N. Y. 10036.

Information on specialized fields of account­
ing and auditing is available from:

Job Outlook
Employment of accountants and auditors is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid-199'0’s due to the
key role these workers play in the management
of all types of businesses. Although employ­
ment growth will generate many new jobs,
most openings will result from the need to re­
place workers who leave the occupation, retire,
or die. While accountants and auditors tend to
leave the profession at a lower rate than mem­
bers of most other occupations, replacement
needs will be substantial because the occupa­
tion is large.
Financial information developed by accoun­
tants and verified by auditors is vital to business
decisionmaking. For example, plant expan­
sion, mergers, or foreign investments may de­
pend upon the financial condition of the firm,
tax implications of the proposed action, and
other considerations. As businesses grow, the
volume and complexity of information on bud­
gets, expenditures, and taxes grow as well,
increasing requirements for accountants and
auditors. Small businesses are expected to rely

The number of accounting graduates grew very rapidly during the
1970’s in response to a strong demand for accountants and
Bachelor’s degrees in accounting (thousands)


National Center for Education Statistics

26/Occupational Outlook Handbook
National Association of Accountants, 919 Third
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022.
National Society of Public Accountants and Ac­
creditation Council for Accountancy, 1010 North Fair­
fax St., Alexandria, Va. 22314.
The Institute of Internal Auditors, P.O. Box 1119,249
Maitland Ave., Altamonte Springs, Fla. 32701.

For information on educational institutions
offering a specialization in accounting, contact:
American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Busi­
ness, 605 Old Balias Rd., Suite 220, St. Louis, Mo.

Bank Officers and
(D.O.T. 186.117-026, -038, -050, -054, -070, -074, -078;
.137-010; .167-014, -050, -054, -058; and .267-018)

Nature of the Work
Practically every bank has a president who di­
rects operations; one or more vice presidents
who act as general managers or who are in
charge of bank departments such as trust or
credit; and a comptroller or cashier who, unlike
cashiers in stores and other businesses, is an
executive officer generally responsible for all
bank property. Large banks also may have trea­
surers and other senior officers, as well as junior
officers, to supervise the various sections with­
in different departments.
Bank officers make decisions within a fra­
mework of policy set by the board of directors
and existing laws and regulations. They must
have a broad knowledge of business activities to
relate to the operations of their department.
Further, the expanding variety of financial serv­
ices requires officers with detailed knowledge

of allied industries such as insurance, real es­
tate, and securities. Besides supervising finan­
cial services, officers advise individuals and
businesses and participate in community
Because banks offer many services, a wide
choice of careers is available to workers who
Loan officers may handle personal, install­
ment, commercial, real estate, or agricultural
loans. In the case of personal loan applications,
loan officers must evaluate an individual’s cred­
it and collateral. In the case of business loan
applications, loan officers should be familiar
with business operations and be able to analyze
a firm’s financial statements. Generally, officers
should be familiar with economics, production,
distribution, merchandising, commercial law,
and bank regulations.
Bank officers in trust management require
knowledge of financial planning and invest­
ment sources for estate and trust administra­
tion. The investment income from these ac­
counts may support families, send young
people to college, or institute a retirement
Financial service officers—whose role is
rapidly expanding—may describe the wide va­
riety of available investments and help persons
establish a suitable investment portfolio. They
help investors select an appropriate savings ac­
count and advise on the purchase of, and some­
tim es sell, real estate, securities, and
Operations officers plan, coordinate, and
control the workflow, update systems, and
strive for administrative efficiency. Careers in
bank operations include electronic data pro­
cessing manager and other positions involving
internal and customer services.
A correspondent bank officer is responsible
for relations with other banks; a branch man­
ager, for all functions of a branch office; and an

international officer, for advising customers
with financial dealings abroad. A working
knowledge of a foreign country’s financial sys­
tem, trade relations, and economic conditions
is beneficial to those interested in international
Other career fields for bank officers are audit­
ing, economics, personnel administration,
public relations, and operations and systems

Working Conditions
Since a great deal of bank business depends on
customers’ impressions, officers and managers
are provided attractive, comfortable offices and
are encouraged to dress conservatively, Bank
officers and managers typically work at least 40
hours a week; however, attending civic func­
tions, keeping abreast of community develop­
ments, establishing and maintaining business
contacts, participating in trade association
meetings, and similar activities may also occa­
sionally result in overtime work.

Bank officers and managers held over 424,000
jobs in 1982. The following tabulation presents
the distribution of wage and salary jobs by
Banking ...................................................
Commercial and stock savings
banks ..........................................
Mutual savings banks ..................
Federal Reserve b an k s.
Trust companies, nondeposit . . . .
Establishments closely related to
banks ..........................................
Credit agencies other than banks . . . .
Savings and loan associations . . .
Personal credit institutions .........
Mortgage bankers and brokers . .
Business credit institutions .........
Agricultural credit institutions . . .
Rediscount and financing institu­
tions ............................................


Training, Other Qualifications, and

Whether servicing loans or analyzing interbank transactions, bank officers rely on computers for the
rapid transmission of financial information.

Bank officer and management positions are
filled by management trainees, and by promot­
ing outstanding bank clerks or tellers who have
demonstrated the potential for increased re­
sponsibilities. College graduation usually is re­
quired for management trainees. A business
administration major in finance or a liberal arts
curriculum, including accounting, economics,
commercial law, political science, and statis­
tics, serves as excellent preparation for officertrainee positions. A Master of Business Admin­
istration (MBA) in addition to a social science
bachelor’s degree, which some employers pre­
fer, may provide an even stronger educational
foundation. However, banks do hire people
with diverse backgrounds such as chemical en­
gineering, nuclear physics, and forestry to
meet the needs of the complex, high-tech­
nology industries with which they deal.

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/27
Persons interested in becoming bank officers
should like to work independently and to ana­
lyze detailed information. The ability to com­
municate, both orally and in writing, is impor­
tant. They also need tact and good judgment to
counsel customers and supervise employees.
In small banks where the number of positions
is limited, advancement to an officer or man­
agement position may come slowly. In large
banks that have special training programs, pro­
motions may occur more quickly. For a senior
position, however, an employee usually needs
many years of experience.
Although experience, ability, and leadership
are emphasized for promotion, advancement
may be accelerated by special study. Banks
often provide opportunities for workers to
broaden their knowledge and skills. Many
banks encourage employees to take courses at
local colleges and universities. In addition,
banking associations sponsor numerous train­
ing programs, sometimes in cooperation with
colleges and universities. The American Bank­
ers Association (ABA) offers the most exten­
sive national program for bank officers. Each of
its dozen schools, located all over the country,
deals with a different phase of banking. Those
enrolled prepare extensively at home, then at­
tend annual sessions on subjects such as com­
mercial lending, installment credit, and inter­
national banking. ABA also sponsors annual
seminars and conferences and provides text­
books and other educational materials. Many
banks pay all or part of the costs for those who
successfully complete courses. The American
Institute of Banking, an arm of the ABA, has
long filled the same educational need among
junior bank staff. (See the statement on bank
tellers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Bank operations have been revolutionized by
technological improvements in computers and
data processing equipment. Knowledge of their
applications is important to upgrade managerial
skills and to enhance advancement oppor­
Because banking is an essential part of busi­
ness, well-trained, experienced officers and
managers may transfer to closely related posi­
tions in other areas of finance or to positions
within other industries, such as manufacturing,
that need individuals with banking experience.

Job Outlook
Employment of bank officers is expected to
increase faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1990’s. Rising costs due
to expanded banking services will require more
officers to provide sound management and
effective quality control. Greater international
trade and investment will stimulate interna­
tional and domestic banking activities, thus in­
creasing the need for bank officers and man­
agers. Although bank officers and managers
exhibit a relatively strong attachment to thenoccupation, most job openings will result from
the need to replace those who transfer to other
fields, retire, or leave the occupation for other

Because of the increasing number of
qualified applicants, competition for bank man­
agerial positions is expected to stiffen. Famil­
iarity with computers and other data processing
equipment may enhance one’s chances for em­
ployment. Once employed, managers and of­
ficers are likely to work year round, even during
periods of slow economic activity, because
cyclical swings in the economy seem to have
little immediate effect on banking activities.

favorable results. For the names and addresses
of banks in a specific location as well as the
names of their principal officers, consult one of
the following directories, which are published
twice each year:
T he A m e r ic a n B a n k D ir e c to r y (Norcross, Ga.,

McFadden Business Publications).
P o lk ’s W orld B ank D ire c to ry (Nashville, R.L. Polk &

R an d M c N a lly In tern ation al B an kers D ire c to ry (Chi­

Officer trainees at the bachelor’s level generally
earned between $1,100 and $1,800 a month in
1982. Those with master’s degrees generally
started at higher salaries. Graduates with a
Master of Business Administration were offered
starting salaries of $1,800 to $2,900 a month in
Salaries of bank officers averaged $24,500 in
1982. The salary level depends upon the par­
ticular position and the size and location of the
bank. For officers, as well as for other bank
employees, earnings are likely to be lower in
small towns than in big cities. The top 10 per­
cent of all bank officers earned over $46,800 a
year in 1982.

Related Occupations
Bank officers and managers combine formal
schooling with experience in one or more areas
of banking, such as lending, to provide services
for customers. Other occupations which re­
quire similar training and ability include busi­
ness representatives, industrial relations direc­
tors, safety council directors, city managers,
export managers, and purchasing agents.

Sources of Additional Information
General information about banking occupa­
tions, training opportunities, and the banking
industry itself is available from:
American Bankers Association, 1120 Connecticut
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Bank Administration Institute, 60 Gould Center,
Rolling Meadows, 111. 60008.
National Association of Bank Women, Inc., National
Office, 500 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.
The Institute of Financial Education, 111 E. Wacker
Dr., Chicago, 111. 60601.

For information about career opportunities
as a bank examiner, contact:
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Director of
Personnel, 550 17th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
Federal Home Loan Bank Board, Personnel Manage­
ment Office, 1700 G St. NW., Washington, D.C.

Information on careers with the Federal Re­
serve System is available from:
Board of Governors, The Federal Reserve System,
Personnel Department, Washington, D.C. 20551, or
from the personnel department of the Federal Reserve
bank serving each geographic area.

State bankers’ associations can furnish spe­
cific information about job opportunities in
their State. And writing directly to a particular
bank to inquire about job openings can produce

cago, Rand McNally & Co.).

Buyers, Retail and
Wholesale Trade
(D.O.T. 162.117-010; .157-018 and -022)

Nature of the Work
The Americans have been invited to a private
showing of the latest fashions in Paris. Repre­
senting a major New York department store,
they sit with a select group in an elegantly
furnished room. They watch graceful models
float down the runway displaying the latest
creations by the world’s most famous design­
ers. After some consultation, they purchase
thousands, perhaps millions of dollars worth of
goods. All in a day’s work.
Behind this glamorous facade lies a complex
system of production, distribution, and mer­
chandising which caters to the multitude of
changing consumer tastes. Two important oc­
cupations in this flow of goods are wholesale
buyers and retail buyers. Buyers purchase, for
resale, the best available merchandise at the
lowest possible prices and expedite the trans­
mission of goods from the manufacturer to the ,
consumer. Wholesale buyers purchase goods <
directly from manufacturers or from other
wholesale firms for resale to retail firms or,
occasionally, other wholesale firms. Retail "
buyers purchase goods from wholesale firms os,
occasionally, directly from manufacturers, for
resale to the public. (Information about pur­
chasing agents—buyers who purchase goods
for internal use by their employing firm—can
be found elsewhere in the Handbook.).
Wholesale buyers must be familiar with hun­
dreds of domestic and foreign manufacturers in
their industry. They must be knowledgeable
about the specifications and technical charac­
teristics of the multitude of commodities they
purchase from these producers. They must sup­
ply, in a timely and cost-effective manner, pos­
sibly hundreds of retail purchasers who may be
located throughout the Nation. These retail out­
lets may range in size from giant discount or
department store chains to small “mom and
pop” stores. This requires careful assessment of
manufacturers’ productive capacity and the
minimum wholesaler inventory level necessary
to promptly fill current and future retailers’
orders. Wholesale buyers often collaborate
with retail buyers, who are in closer contact
with the buying public, to forecast changes in
consumer preferences.

28/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Retail buyers must know what motivates
consumers to buy. Before ordering merchan­
dise, they study market research reports and
past sales records to determine which products
are in demand. They keep informed about
changes in existing products and the develop­
ment of new ones. They analyze economic con­
ditions and examine industry and trade publica­
tions to purchase the best products at the lowest
possible cost. They try to anticipate trends in
consumer tastes.
Retail buyers must be familiar with the many
manufacturers and wholesale distributors in
their industry. Buyers must be able to assess the
resale value of goods after a brief inspection
and make purchase decisions quickly. They
deal with wholesale buyers and store executives
to discuss merchandising problems and with
advertising personnel to discuss sales promo­
tions. They work closely with assistant buyers
and sales workers who are in daily contact with
retail customers. This furnishes immediate in­
formation about consumer likes and dislikes
and facilitates anticipation of taste and style
changes. Retail buyers may direct assistants
who handle routine functions such as verifying
shipment orders and inventory levels.
Technological changes in computers and
other business equipment have improved
buyers’ efficiency. For example, computers
give wholesale buyers instant access to the
specifications of thousands of commodities,
their wholesale inventory records, and their
retailers’ purchase records. This expedites the
distribution of merchandise and decreases in­
ventory storage and costs. Retail buyers’ func­
tions have been upgraded. For example, cash
registers connected to a computer, known as
point-of-sale terminals, allow retail chains to
maintain centralized, up-to-the-minute sales

Shipments are regularly spot checked to see if
manufacturers maintain buyers’ specifications for
quality and style.

and inventory records. This decreases the rou­
tine bookkeeping and enables buyers to con­
centrate on complex merchandising functions
and market analysis.

Working Conditions
Wholesale and retail trade establishments are
highly competitive, and buyers often operate
under great pressure. Anticipating customers’
preferences and ensuring that goods are in stock
when they are needed is far from easy, and
mistakes can be costly. Buyers must be resour­
ceful, show good judgment, and have self-con­
fidence to make decisions and take risks.
Buyers frequently work more than a 40-hour
week because of special sales and conferences.
Substantial traveling is required and most spend
several days a month on the road. However,
many successful buyers feel that the stimula­
tion and excitement of the job more than make
up for any emotional strain.

Buyers held about 256,000 jobs in 1982. Twothirds of the jobs were in retail firms; the rest
were in wholesale establishments. Although
buyers work in all parts of the country, most are
in major metropolitan areas where wholesale
and retail stores are concentrated.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Familiarity with merchandise and with the
wholesaling and retailing business is important
for buyers, and many persons with such experi­
ence transfer into this occupation. High school
and postsecondary marketing and distributive
education programs can launch careers in
wholesaling and retailing that lead eventually to
a buyer’s position. (More information about
marketing and distributive education appears in
the statement on retail trade sales workers
elsewhere in the Handbook.) Vocational
schools, technical institutes, and community
colleges offer postsecondary training that pre­
pares students for careers in merchandising.
Many colleges and universities offer associate
degree or bachelor’s degree programs in mar­
keting and purchasing. An increasing number
of employers prefer applicants who have a col­
lege degree.
Although courses in merchandising or mar­
keting may help in getting started in wholesal­
ing and retailing, they are not essential. Most
employers accept college graduates from any
field of study for buyer trainee programs which
combine classroom instruction in merchandis­
ing and purchasing with short rotations to vari­
ous jobs in the store. This training introduces
the new worker to store operations and policies
and to the fundamentals of merchandising and
Most trainees begin as assistant buyers sell­
ing merchandise, supervising sales workers,
checking invoices on material received, and
keeping account of stock on hand. They gradu­
ally assume buying responsibilities. They usu­
ally work as assistant buyers for at least a year
before becoming buyers. Experienced buyers
may advance to merchandise manager, and
some advance to executive jobs such as general

merchandise manager for distributors, depart­
ment stores, or chain stores.
Membership in professional and trade asso­
ciations is helpful in keeping abreast of im­
provements and changes in industry products
and practices and can facilitate advancement to
more responsible positions.
Buyers should be good at planning and deci­
sionmaking and have an interest in merchandis­
ing. They need leadership ability and com­
munications skills to supervise sales workers
and assistant buyers and to deal effectively with
manufacturers’ representatives and store ex­
ecutives. Because of the fast pace and pressure
of their work, buyers need physical stamina and
emotional stability.

Job Outlook
Employment of buyers is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s, as the wholesale and
retail trade industries expand in response to a
growing population and higher personal in­
comes. Most job openings, however, will result
from replacement needs, because many experi­
enced buyers transfer to other occupations such
as sales or managerial positions or, temporarily,
leave the labor force to assume household re­
Competition for buying jobs is expected to
remain, keen, for merchandising attracts many
college graduates. Prospects are likely to be
best for qualified applicants who enjoy the com­
petitive, fast-paced nature of merchandising.

Median annual earnings of buyers were
$17,300 is 1982. However, their income de­
pends upon the amount and type of product
purchased, the employer’s sales volume and, to
some extent, the buyers’ seniority. Buyers for
large wholesale distributors and for mass mer­
chandisers such as discount or large chain de­
partment stores are among the most highly
paid. The top 10 percent of all buyers earned
over $34,900 in 1982.
Buyers often earn cash bonuses based on
their performance. In addition, many firms
have incentive plans, such as profit sharing and
stock options.

Related Occupations
Workers in other occupations who need a
knowledge of marketing and the ability to as­
sess consumer demand are sales managers,
comparison shoppers, manufacturers’ sales
representatives, insurance sales agents, whole­
sale trade sales representatives, and travel

Sources of Additional Information
General information about a career in retailing
is available from:
National Mass Retailing Institute, 570 Seventh Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10018.

Information on schools that teach retailing is
available from your State Director of Vocational
Education and from:
National Association of Trade and Technical Schools,
2021 K St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/29
Association of Independent Colleges and Schools,
1730 M St. NW., Suite 600, Washington, D.C.

Inspectors (Public
(D.O.T. 168.167 -030, -034, -038, -046, and -050;
.267-010, -102; and 850.387-010)

Nature of the Work
Federal, State, and local government con­
struction inspectors examine the construction,
alteration, or repair of highways, streets, sewer
and water systems, dams, bridges, buildings,
and other structures to insure compliance with
building codes and ordinances, zoning regula­
tions, and contract specifications. Construction
inspectors generally specialize in one particular
type of construction work. Broadly cate­
gorized, these are building, electrical, mechan­
ical, and public works. Inspectors usually work
alone on small jobs, but several may be as­
signed to a large, complex project.
Building inspectors inspect the structural
quality of buildings. Some may specialize—for
example, in structural steel or reinforced con­
crete buildings. Before construction, inspec­
tors determine whether the plans for the build­
ing or other structure comply with building
codes regulations and are suited to the engineer­
ing and environmental demands of the building
site. They visit the worksite before the founda­
tion is poured to inspect the positioning and
depth of the footings. They inspect the founda­
tion after it has been completed. The size and
type of structure and the rate of completion
determine the number of other visits they must
make. Upon completion of the project, they
conduct a final comprehensive inspection.
Electrical inspectors inspect the installation
of electrical systems and equipment to insure
that they function properly and comply with
electrical codes and standards. They visit work­
sites to inspect new and existing wiring, light­
ing, sound and security systems, and generat­
ing equipment. They also may inspect the
installation of the electrical wiring for heating
and air-conditioning systems, kitchen ap­
pliances, and other components.
Mechanical inspectors examine plumbing
systems including septic tanks; plumbing fix­
tures and traps; and water, sewer, and vent lines.
They also inspect the installation of the me­
chanical components of kitchen appliances,
heating and air-conditioning equipment, gas­
oline and butane tanks, gas piping, and gasfired appliances. Some specialize in inspecting
boilers, mechanical components, or plumbing.
Public works inspectors insure that Federal,
State, and local government construction of
water and sewer systems, highways, streets,
bridges, and dams conforms to detailed con­
tract specifications. They inspect excavation
and fill operations, the placement of forms for
concrete, concrete mixing and pouring, and

asphalt paving. They also record the work and
materials used so that contract payments can be
calculated. Public works inspectors may spe­
cialize in highways, reinforced concrete, or
Although inspections are primarily visual,
inspectors often use tape measures, metering
devices, concrete strength measurers, and other
test equipment. They often keep a daily log of
their work, take photographs, file reports, and,
if necessary, act on their findings. For example,
construction inspectors notify the construction
contractor, superintendent, or supervisor when
they discover a detail of a project that does not
in comply with the appropriate codes, ordi­
nances, or contract specifications. If the defi­
ciency is not corrected within a reasonable
period of time, they have authority to issue a
“stop-work” order.
Many inspectors also investigate reported in­
cidents of “bootlegging,” that is, construction
or alteration that is being carried on without
proper permits. Violators of permit laws are
directed to obtain permits and submit to inspec­

Working Conditions
Construction inspectors work indoors and out.
They spend about half their time in an office
reviewing blueprints, answering letters or tele­
phone calls, writing reports, and scheduling
inspections. The rest of their time is spent trav­
eling to construction sites—usually in a gov­
ernment car—and making inspections.
Inspection sites may be dirty and cluttered
with tools, materials, or debris. Inspectors may
have to climb ladders or several flights of stairs,
or may have to crawl beneath buildings.

However, the work is not considered hazard­
Inspectors normally work regular hours.
However, after an accident at a construction
site, such as a partially collapsed concrete
structure, inspectors must respond immediately
and may work irregular hours to complete their
Inspection work tends to be steady and year
round, unlike the seasonal and intermittent
nature of employment in many construction oc­
cupations. When new construction slows, reno­
vation generally increases, enabling con­
struction inspectors to continue working full

Government construction inspectors held over
39,000 jobs in 1982. About three-fourths work­
ed for local governments, primarily municipal
or county building departments. The employ­
ment of local government construction inspec­
tors is concentrated in cities and in suburban
areas undergoing rapid growth. These govern­
ments employ large inspection staffs, including
most of the inspectors who specialize in struc­
tural steel, reinforced concrete, and boiler in­
Public works construction inspectors were
employed primarily at the Federal and State
levels. Nearly half of the construction inspec­
tors employed by the Federal Government in
1982 worked for the Department of Defense,
primarily for the U.S. Army Corps of Engi­
neers. Other Federal employers include the
Tennessee Valley Authority and the Depart­
ments of Housing and Urban Development,
Agriculture, and Interior.

Construction inspector checks an excavation project for compliance with safety regulations.

30/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Training, Other Qualifications, and
To become a construction inspector, several
years of experience as a construction contractor,
supervisor, or craft worker are generally re­
quired. Federal, State, and most local govern­
ments also require an applicant to have a high
school diploma. High school preparation
should include courses in drafting, algebra, ge­
ometry, and English.
Workers who want to become inspectors
should have a thorough knowledge of con­
struction materials and practices in either a gen­
eral area like structural or heavy construction,
or in a specialized area such as electrical or
plumbing systems, reinforced concrete, or
structural steel; a significant number of con­
struction inspectors have recent experience
as carpenters, electricians, plumbers, or
Many employers prefer inspectors who have
graduated from an apprenticeship program,
have studied engineering or architecture at least
2 years, or have a degree from a community or
junior college, with courses in construction
technology, blueprint reading, technical mathe­
matics, English, and building inspection.
Construction inspectors must be in good
physical condition in order to walk and climb
about construction sites. They also must have a
motor vehicle operator’s license. In addition,
Federal, State, and many local governments
usually require that construction inspectors
pass a civil service examination.
Construction inspectors receive most of their
training on the job. During the first couple of
weeks, working with an experienced inspector,
they leam about inspection techniques; codes,
ordinances, and regulations; contract specifica­
tions; and recordkeeping and reporting duties.
They begin by inspecting less complex types of
construction such as residential buildings. The
difficulty of their assignments is gradually in­
creased until they are able to handle complex
assignments. An engineering degree is fre­
quently needed to advance to supervisory in­
Since they advise representatives of the con­
struction industry and the general public on
building code interpretation, construction prac­
tices, and technical developments, con­
struction inspectors must keep abreast of new
building code developments. The Federal Gov­
ernment and most State and large city govern­
ments conduct formal training programs to
broaden inspectors’ their knowledge of con­
struction materials, practices, and inspection
techniques. Inspectors who work for small
agencies that do not conduct training programs
can broaden their knowledge and upgrade their
skills by attending State-conducted training
programs or by taking college or correspon­
dence courses.
Certification enhances construction inspec­
tors’ chances for higher paying, more responsbile positions. Inspectors having substan­
tial experience and education can attain cer­
tification by passing stringent examinations on
construction techniques, materials, and code
requirements developed by the Educational

Testing Service of Princeton, N.J. in collabora­
tion with the regional building associations
listed below.

Persons interested in a career as a con­
struction inspector with the Federal Govern­
ment can get information from:

Job Outlook

U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

Employment of government construction in­
spectors is expected to grow more slowly than
the average for all occupations through the
mid-1990’s. Most job openings will arise from
the need to replace those who die, retire, or
leave the occupation for other reasons.
Employment of construction inspectors is
not always directly affected by changes in the
levels of housing and commercial building ac­
tivity. Unlike most construction occupations,
inspectors do not usually experience layoffs
when construction activity declines. In an up­
turn, new jobs for inspectors increase but not to
the same degree. The construction sector—buf­
feted recently by the effects of high interest
rates—is expected to rebound from its level
during the 1981-82 recession.
Because of the increasing complexity of con­
struction technology and the trend toward the
establishment of professional standards for in­
spectors by State and local governments, job
prospects should be best for highly experienced
craft workers who have some college education
or who are certified.

The median annual salary of construction in­
spectors was substantial experience and educa­
tion can attain certification by $18,100 in 1982.
The lowest 10 percent earned $13,000 or less
while the highest 10 percent earned over
The average salary of inspectors in the
Federal Government was $24,400 in 1982. Ac­
cording to limited information, salaries for in­
spectors working for State or local governments
averaged $16,000 a year. Salaries in large met­
ropolitan areas are substantially higher than
those in small local jurisdictions. Salaries in the
North and West are slightly higher than salaries
in the South.

Related Occupations
Construction inspectors combine a knowledge
of construction principles and law with the abil­
ity to coordinate data, diagnose problems, and
communicate with people. Other occupations
involving a combination of similar skills are
drafters, estimators, industrial engineering
technicians, and surveyors.

Sources of Additional Information
For information about a career as a State or
local government construction inspector, con­
tact your State or local employment service or
the following regional building associations:
International Conference of Building Officials, 5360
South Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, Calif. 90601.
Building Officials and Code Administrations Interna­
tional, Inc., 17926 Halstead St., Homewood, 111.
Southern Building Code Congress International,
Inc., 900 Montclair Road, Birmingham, Ala. 35213.

Health and
Regulatory Inspectors
(D.O.T. 073.161-010; .261-010; .264-010; 079.117-018;
160.167-046; 168.167-010, -022, -026, -042, -062, and
-074; .261-010; .264-010; .267-018, -022, -042 through
-066, -074 through -082, -090, -098, -106, and -110;
.287; .367-018; .387-010; 169.267-030; .284-010;
379.364-010; and 620.281-014)

Nature of the Work
Protecting the public from health and safety
hazards, prohibiting unfair tradt and employ­
ment practices, controlling immigration, pre­
venting entry of prohibited matter, and raising
revenue are responsibilities of government.
Health and regulatory inspectors enforce the
laws and regulations that govern these respon­
sibilities. For a discussion of another type of
inspector, see the statement on construction in­
spectors (public administration) elsewhere in
the Handbook.
The duties, titles, and responsibilities of
Federal, State, and local health and regulatory
inspectors vary widely. Some types of inspec­
tors work only for the Federal Government
while others also are employed by State and
local governments.
Health Inspectors. Health inspectors work
with engineers, chemists, microbiologists, and
health workers to insure compliance with pub­
lic health and safety regulations governing
food, drugs, cosmetics, and other consumer
products. They also administer regulations that
govern the quarantine of persons and products
entering the United States from foreign coun­
tries. The major types of health inspectors are:
Consumer safety, food, agricultural quaran­
tine, and environmental health inspectors. In
addition, some inspectors work in a field close­
ly related to food inspection— agricultural
commodity grading.
Most consumer safety inspectors specialize
in food, feeds and pesticides, weights and mea­
sures, cosmetics, or drugs and medical equip­
ment inspection. Some are proficient in several
areas. Working individually or in teams under
a senior or supervisory inspector, they
periodically check firms that produce, handle,
store, and market food, drugs, and cosmetics.
They look for inaccurate product labeling, and
for decom position or chemical or bac­
teriological contamination that could result in a
product becoming harmful to health. They use
portable scales, cameras, ultraviolet lights,
container sampling devices, thermometers,
chemical testing kits, radiation monitors, and
other equipment to ascertain violations. They
send product samples collected as part of their
examinations to laboratories for analysis.
After completing their inspection, inspectors
discuss their observations with plant managers

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/31
or officials and point out areas where corrective
measures are needed. They write reports of
their findings, and, when necessary, compile
evidence that may be used in court if legal
action must be taken to enforce the law.
Federal and State laws empowerfood inspec­
tors to inspect meat, poultry, and their by­
products to insure that they are wholesome and
safe for public consumption. Working as an
onsite team under a veterinarian, they inspect
meat and poultry slaughtering, processing, and
packaging operations. They also check for cor­
rect product labeling and proper sanitation.
Agricultural quarantine inspectors protect
American agricultural products from the spread
of foreign plant pests and animal diseases. To
safeguard crops, forests, gardens, and live­
stock, they inspect ships, aircraft, railroad cars,
and motor vehicles entering the United States
for restricted or prohibited plant or animal ma­
Environmental health inspectors, or sani­
tarians, who work primarily for State and local
governments, insure that food, water, and air
meet government standards. They check the
cleanliness and safety of food and beverages
produced in dairies and processing plants, or
served in restaurants, hospitals, and other in­
stitutions. They often examine the handling,
processing, and serving of food for compliance
with sanitation rules and regulations. They
oversee the treatment and disposal of sewage,
refuse, and garbage. They examine places
where pollution is a danger, test for pollutants,
and collect air or water samples for analysis.
They determine the nature and cause of pollu­
tion and initiate action to stop it.
In large local and State health or agriculture
departments, environmental health inspectors
may specialize in milk and dairy products, food

sanitation, waste control, air pollution, institu­
tional sanitation, or occupational health. In
rural areas and small cities, they may be respon­
sible for a wide range of environmental health
Agricultural commodity graders apply
quality standards to aid the buying and selling
of commodities and to insure that retailers and
consumers receive wholesome and reliable
products. They generally specialize in an area
such as eggs and egg products, meat, poultry,
processed or fresh fruits and vegetables, grain,
tobacco, cotton, or dairy products. They exam­
ine product samples to determine quality and
grade, and issue official grading certificates.
Graders also may inspect the plant and equip­
ment to maintain sanitation standards.
Regulatory Inspectors. Regulatory inspectors
insure compliance with laws and regulations
that protect the public welfare. Important types
of regulatory inspectors are: Immigration;
customs; air safety; railroad; motor vehicle;
occupational safety and health; mine; wagehour compliance; and alcohol, tobacco, and
firearms inspectors.
Immigration inspectors interview and exam­
ine people seeking to enter the United States
and its territories. They inspect passports to
determine whether people are legally eligible to
enter and to verify their citizenship status and
identity. Immigration inspectors also prepare
reports, maintain records, and process applica­
tions and petitions for immigration or tempo­
rary residence in the United States.
Customs inspectors enforce laws governing
imports and exports. Stationed at airports, sea­
ports, and border crossing points, they exam­
ine, count, weigh, gauge, measure, and sample
commercial cargoes entering and leaving the
United States to determine admissibility and
the amount of tax that must be paid. They also

Health inspectors oversee compliance with public health regulations.

inspect baggage and articles worn by pas­
sengers and crew members to insure that all
merchandise is declared, proper duties are
paid, and illegal contraband is not present.
Postal inspectors observe the functioning of
the postal system and recommend improve­
ments. They investigate criminal activities such
as theft and misuse of the mail. In instances of
suspected mismanagement or fraud, they con­
duct management or financial audits. They col­
laborate with other government agencies, such
as the Internal Revenue Service, as members of
special task forces.
Aviation safety inspectors insure that Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations
which govern the quality and safety of aircraft
equipment and personnel are maintained. Avia­
tion safety inspectors may inspect aircraft and
equipment manufacturing, maintenance and re­
pair, or flight operations procedures. They usu­
ally specialize in either commercial or general
aviation aircraft. They also examine and certify
aircraft pilots, pilot examiners, flight instruc­
tors, schools, and instructional materials.
Railroad inspectors verify the compliance of
railroad systems and equipment with Federal
regulations. They investigate accidents. They
review railroads’ operating practices to assess
historical compliance with safety regulations.
Motor vehicle inspectors verify the com­
pliance of automobiles and trucks with State
requirements for safe operation and emissions.
They inspect truck cargoes to assure com­
pliance with legal limitations on permisible
gross weight and hazardous cargoes.
Occupational safety and health inspectors
visit places of employment to detect unsafe or
unhealthy working conditions. They inspect
machinery and equipment and observe em­
ployees to see that safety equipment is used and
proper precautions are taken in accordance with
Federal, State, or local government safety stan­
dards and regulations.
Occupational safety and health inspectors
usually visit a plant, factory, or other workplace
in response to a complaint or an accident. In
their reports, they describe hazards and cite
safety standards or regulations that have been
violated. They also discuss their findings with
the employer or plant manager and urge that
violations be promptly corrected.
Mine inspectors work to insure the health
and safety of miners. They visit mines and
related facilities to obtain information on health
and safety conditions and to enforce safety laws
and regulations.
Mine inspectors discuss their findings with
the management of the mine, write reports of
their findings and decisions, and issue notices
that describe violations and hazards that must
be corrected. They also investigate and report
on mine accidents and direct rescue and fire­
fighting operations when fires or explosions
Wage-hour compliance inspectors inspect
employers’ time, payroll, and personnel rec­
ords to insure compliance with Federal laws on
minimum wages, overtime, pay, employment
of minors, and equal employment opportunity.
They often interview employees to verify the

32/Occupational Outlook Handbook
written examination. Generally, agencies pre­
fer applicants who are college graduates and
whose course work is related to the job.
Food inspectors must have related experience
and pass an examination based on specialized
Aviation safety inspectors must have consid­
erable experience in aviation maintenance and
knowledge of the industry and relevant Federal
laws. In addition, FAA approved pilot and med­
ical or mechanic certificates are required. Some
also require a FAA flight instructor rating.
Many aviation safety inspectors have had flight
training and mechanical training in the Armed
Working Conditions
Forces. No written examination is required.
Most health and regulatory inspectors live an
Applicants for mine safety inspector posi­
active life; they meet many people and work in
tions generally must have experience in mine
a variety of environments. Their jobs often in­
safety, management, or supervision, or possess
volve considerable fieldwork, and some inspec­
a skill such as electrical engineering (for mine
tors travel frequently. They are furnished with
electrical inspectors). In some cases, a general
an automobile or are reimbursed for travel ex­
aptitude test may be required.
Some civil service examinations, including
At times, inspectors have unfavorable work­
those for agricultural quarantine inspectors and
ing conditions. For example, food, and alco­
agricultural commodity graders, rate applicants
hol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors fre­
solely on their experience and education and
quently come in contact with strong, unpleas­
require no written examination.
ant odors. Mine inspectors often are exposed to
Qualifications usually are similar for inspec­
the same hazards as miners. Many inspectors
tors at the State and local level. Environmental
work long and often irregular hours.
health inspectors, called sanitarians in many
States, usually must have a bachelor’s degree in
environmental health or the physical or biolog­
Health and regulatory inspectors held over ical sciences. In most States, they are licensed
101,000 jobs in 1982. About 36 percent were by examining boards.
employed by the Federal Government, 34 per­
All inspectors are trained in applicable laws
cent by State governments, and the rest by local and inspection procedures through a combina­
tion of classroom and on-the-job training. In
The largest single employer of consumer general, people who want to become health and
safety inspectors is the U.S. Food and Drug regulatory inspectors should be able to accept
Administration, but the majority work for State responsibility and like detailed work. They
governments. Most food inspectors and agri­ should be neat and personable and able to ex­
cultural commodity graders in processing press themselves well orally and in writing.
plants are employed by the U.S. Department of
Federal Government inspectors whose job
Agriculture. Agricultural quarantine inspectors performance is satisfactory advance through
work for the U.S. Public Health Service or the their career ladder to a specified full perfor­
U.S. Department of Agriculture. Most en­ mance level. Above this level (usually super­
vironmental health inspectors work for State visory positions), advancement is competitive,
and local governments.
based on agency needs and individual merit.
Most Federal regulatory inspectors work in
regional and district offices throughout the Job Outlook
United States. Aviation safety inspectors work Employment of health and regulatory inspec­
for the Federal Aviation Administration; wage- tors as a group is expected to increase more
hour compliance officers, for the Department of slowly than the average for all occupations
Labor; and alcohol, tobacco, and firearms in­ through the mid-1990’s. Employment growth is
spectors, for the Treasury Department. Oc­ expected to be constrained by slow growth in
cupational safety and health inspectors and government regulatory programs and in gov­
mine inspectors also work for the Department ernment spending. Most job openings will be to
of Labor, as well as for many State govern­ replace those who transfer to other occupations,
ments. Like agricultural quarantine inspectors, retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons.
Because health and regulatory inspectors are
immigration and customs inspectors work at
U.S. airports, seaports, and border crossing government workers, their employment is sel­
points, and at foreign airports and seaports. dom affected by general economic fluctuations.
Immigration inspectors are employed by the Most inspectors work in programs which enjoy
Department of Justice. Customs inspectors wide public support. As a result, they are less
likely to lose their jobs than many other work­
work for the Treasury Department.
ers when government programs are cut.

employer’s records and to check for com­
Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors
inspect distilleries, wineries, and breweries;
cigar and cigarette manufacturing plants;
wholesale liquor dealers and importers; fire­
arms and explosives manufacturers, dealers,
and users; and other regulated facilities. They
insure compliance with revenue laws and other
regulations on operating procedures, unfair
competition, and trade practices, and deter­
mine that appropriate taxes are paid.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Because of the wide range of inspector jobs and
varying starting levels, qualifications for em­
ployment differ greatly. Requirements are a
combination of education, experience, and a

In the Federal Government, the average starting
salary for aviation safety officers and mining
inspectors was $19,700 in 1982. Other health
and regulatory inspectors and graders started at
$13,000, on the average, in 1982.

Experienced food inspectors and agricultural
commodity graders averaged about $21,300 a
year in 1982. Experienced immigration and
customs inspectors averaged about $23,400 a
year; agricultural quarantine and alcohol, tobatcco, and firearms inspectors about $26,800 a
year; and wage-hour compliance inspectors
more than $30,800 a year in 1982. Experienced
consumer safety inspectors, mine inspectors,
and occupational safety and health inspectors
employed by the Federal Government averaged
$33,600 in 1982. Experienced aviation safety
officers averaged over $39,400 a year. Postal
inspectors averaged $37,000 a year in 1982.
According to a 1982 survey by the Interna­
tional Personnel Management Association,
nonsupervisory environmental health inspec­
tors working for selected U.S. cities and count­
ies received average starting salaries of almost
$16,900 in 1982; those working for State gov­
ernments started at about $2,200 less. Experi­
enced environmental health inspectors working
for State governments earned over $16,400, but
top supervisors and administrators made as
much as $30,700 in 1982.

Related Occupations
Health and regulatory inspectors are responsi­
ble for seeing that government laws and regula­
tions are obeyed. Revenue agents, construction
inspectors, State and local police officers, and
fish and game wardens also enforce laws.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on Federal Government jobs is
available from local offices of the State employ­
ment service, area offices of the U.S. Office of
Personnel Management, and Federal Job Infor­
mation Centers in large cities throughout the
country. For information on a career as a specif­
ic type of inspector, the Federal department or
agency that employs them may also be con­
tacted directly.
Information about State and local govern­
ment jobs is available from State civil service
commissions, usually located in each State cap­
ital, or from local government offices.

Health Services
(D.O.T. 075.117-022; 187.117-010, -018, .137-014, .167
-022, -034, -038, -090, and 188.117-082)

Nature of the Work
The unprecedented growth in expenditures for
medical care in the United States since the
mid-1960’s has produced new, larger, and more
complex health and medical care organizations
and a recognition of the need for competent
administration. Public demand for better ac­
cess, accountability, and cost control has added
new pressures, while changes in medical tech­
nology, financing patterns, and public regula­
tion have made the job of good management
more complex.
Health services administrator is an inclusive
term for individuals in a variety of positions

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/33
who plan, organize, coordinate, and evaluate
services and resources in medical facilities and
public health organizations. Employers include
hospitals, clinics, health maintenance organi­
zations (HMO’S), long-term care, ambulatory
care, and mental health facilities, home health
agencies, and rehabilitation centers. Admin­
istrators also work in State and local public
health departments.
We can find three functional levels of admin­
istration in most large health care settings—
executive, internal management, and spe­
cialized staff. The chief executive officer
provides overall management direction, but
also is concerned with community outreach,
planning, policymaking, response to govern­
ment agencies and regulations, and negotiat­
ing. This phase of the job often includes speak­
ing before civic groups, promoting public
participation in health programs, and coordi­
nating the activities of the organization with
those of government or community agencies.
Institutional planning is an increasingly impor­
tant responsibility for chief administrators,
who must assess the need for services, person­
nel, facilities, and equipment and recommend
such changes as shutting down a maternity
ward, for example, or opening an outpatient
clinic. Chief administrators need leadership
ability as well as technical skills in order to
respond effectively to the community’s require­
ments for health care while, at the same time,
satisfying demand for financial viability, cost
containment, and public and professional ac­
Day-to-day management, particularly in
large facilities, may be the responsibility of one
or more associate or assistant administrators,
who work with service unit administrators and
staff specialists. Depending on the size of the
organization, associate or assistant admin­
istrators may be responsible for budget prepara­
tion and finance; personnel administration and
in-service training; information management;
coordination of the activities of the medical,

Health administrators often start out in areas
such as finance, personnel, planning, or

nursing, physical plant, and other operating
As the health care system becomes more
complex, specialists with expertise in financial
management, systems analysis, statistics, labor
relations, marketing, and planning may join the
administrative staff.

degree, however, represented a variety of disci­
plines, mostly in the behavioral and social sci­
In 1982, about 100 colleges and universities
offered bachelor degree programs in health
services administration. About 70 schools had
programs leading to the master’s degree in hos­
pital or health services administration; 17 of
Working Conditions
these programs were in schools of public
Health administrators often work long hours.
health. Some schools offer joint degree pro­
Facilities such as nursing homes and hospitals
operate around the clock, and administrators grams, leading to a master’s in public health
may be called at all hours to settle emergency and a master’s in business administration, for
problems. The job also may include travel to example.
To enter graduate programs, applicants must
attend meetings or to inspect health care facili­
have a bachelor’s degree, with courses in natu­
ral sciences, psychology, sociology, statistics,
accounting, and economics. Competition for
Health services administrators held about entry to these programs is keen, and applicants
303,000 jobs in 1982. Hospitals and nursing need above-average grades to gain admission.
homes provide about 3 out of 5 wage and salary The programs generally last about 2 years and
jobs, as the accompanying chart shows. The include supervised administrative experience in
remaining jobs are in clinics, rehabilitation hospitals, clinics, or health agencies. Programs
centers, home health agencies, health mainte­ may include courses such as hospital organiza­
nance organizations, and group practices, for tion and management, accounting and budget
the most part.
control, personnel administration, public
Some health administrators work for State health administration, and the economics of
and local health departments and still others health care.
direct the operations of nurses registries and
New graduates with master’s degrees in
medical and dental laboratories.
health or hospital administration may be hired
by hospitals as assistant administrators, depart­
framing, Other Qualifications, and
ment heads, or project directors, and some are
As is generally true with managerial jobs, most placed in administrative residencies, or fel­
lowships, offered by some hospitals and health
entrants transfer from other occupations.
Knowledge of management principles and services organizations. These positions are nor­
practices is the essential requirement for a posi­ mally staff jobs that last perhaps 1 year and
tion in this field, and such knowledge often is provide new graduates with additional exposure
gained through work experience. Nonetheless, to a broad sampling of health administration.
New graduates from master’s degree pro­
formal educational preparation is important,
especially for those who wish to advance in the grams in public health are qualified for jobs as
program administrators or policy analysts in
Academic programs in health administra­ public health departments, voluntary agencies
tion, leading to a bachelor’s, master’s, or doc­ and professional associations such as the Amer­
toral degree, are offered by colleges, univer­ ican Heart Association or the American Hospi­
sities, and schools of public health. The various tal Association, health insurance plans, health
degree programs provide different levels of ca­ policy research institutes, corporate health-care
reer preparation. The master’s degree—in hos­ provider chains, and consulting firms.
Relatively few master’s degree recipients
pital administration, health administration, or
public health—is regarded as the standard cre­ take entry level administrative positions in
dential for many positions in this field. Educa­ nursing homes or life-care communities, al­
tional requirements vary with the size of the though graduates of the small number of long­
organization and the amount of responsibility term care administration programs are likely to
involved. Generally, larger organizations re­ do so. Many nursing home administrators pur­
quire more specialized academic preparation sue graduate education while employed,
than smaller ones do.
New recipients of bachelor’s degrees in
Academic programs in health administration
do not provide the only way of entering this health administration usually begin their ca­
field, however. For some positions, a degree in reers as administrative assistants or department
business, personnel administration, or public heads in hospitals, or as assistant admin­
administration provides an appropriate back­ istrators in small hospitals or in nursing homes.
The Ph.D. degree usually is required for
ground, and many graduate programs in these
disciplines offer concentrations in health ad­ positions in teaching or research, and is an asset
ministration. A survey conducted by the Na­ for those seeking administrative jobs in larger,
tional Center for Education Statistics (NCES) more prestigious health organizations. Al­
shows that recent graduates of master’s pro­ though some public health departments still
grams who found jobs as health services admin­ require chief administrators to be physicians,
istrators came primarily from business, man­ the trend is away from this. Nursing service
agement, and the health professions—includ­ administrators are usually chosen from among
supervisory registered nurses with admin­
ing hospital and health care administration.
Those who entered the field with a bachelor’s istrative abilities and advanced education.

34/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Licensure is not required in most areas of
health services administration, except for nurs­
ing home or long-term care administration.
About 18 States currently require at least 2
years of college for licensure, while 20 require
a bachelor’s degree. All States and the District
of Columbia require these administrators to
pass a qualifying licensing examination, and
most students prepare for it by completing a
special course of study. These preparatory
courses, usually consisting of 100 to 200 hours
of study in long-term care administration, are
available through some colleges, universities,
and home study programs. The licensing exam­
ination covers principles of administration;
management of a long-term care facility; the
role of government in long-term care; environ­
mental health and safety; and medical, psycho­
logical, and social aspects of patient care. Near­
ly half the States require applicants to complete
an internship known as an Administrator-inTraining program before taking the licensure
examination. This internship generally lasts 1
year and is supervised by a licensed admin­
istrator. Since requirements vary from State to
State, persons considering a career in long-term
care administration should investigate licensing
requirements where they wish to work.
Health services administrators are often re­
sponsible for millions of dollars of facilities and
equipment and hundreds of employees. They
need a command of business and communica­
tion skills that allows them to make timely
policy decisions and to motivate subordinates
to implement those decisions. Administrators,
especially head administrators, of all types of
health organizations need to be self-starters.
In order to create an atmosphere favorable to
good patient care, administrators must like peo­
ple, enjoy working with them, and be able to
deal effectively with them. Administrators also
should be good at public speaking.
Health administrators advance in the profes­
sion by moving into more responsible and high­
er paying positions. They may do this within
their own institution, or by shifting to another
health care facility or organization. Frequently,

an administrator’s first job in a large institution
is fairly narrow in scope—department head in
charge of purchasing, for example. Advance­
ment occurs with promotion to successively
more responsible jobs such as assistant or asso­
ciate administrator and, finally, chief admin­
istrator. Hospital administrators sometimes be­
gin their careers in small hospitals in positions
with broad responsibilities, such as assistant
administrator. Regardless of the path of ad­
vancement chosen, the ultimate occupational
goal in hospitals and nursing homes is the posi­
tion of chief executive or chief administrative
Outside the more traditional avenues of ad­
vancement, many administrators take staff
positions with the Veterans Administration,
U.S. Public Health Service, or State or local
departments of public health. Others find posi­
tions with voluntary health agencies such as the
American Cancer Society or with trade and
professional associations in the health care
field. A growing number of jobs are available
with consulting firms that provide health man­
agement services. Jobs also are available in
community health planning organizatidns.
Whether mandatory or voluntary, official or
unofficial, community health planning is a pro­
cess for governing and managing the health and
medical care system to promote equal access to
quality health care at a reasonable cost, and
individuals with academic training or experi­
ence in health administration are well suited for
health planning positions.

Job Outlook
Employment of health services administrators
is expected to grow faster than the average for
all occupations through the mid-1990’s as the
health industry expands and health services
management becomes more complex. Most job
openings, however, will result from the need to
replace personnel who transfer to another field
or retire.
The various areas of health administration
will grow at different rates in the years ahead.
Hospital administration may not contribute as

heavily as in the past to employment oppor­
tunities for health administrators. Although the
typical hospital has grown in size and the scope
and sophistication of hospital services has in­
creased, the number of hospitals is decreasing.
Population shifts and financial pressures have
caused some hospitals to close; at the same
time, hospitals are opening and expanding in
areas of population growth—notably in the
South and West.
Furthermore, the American health care sys­
tem is likely to experience a number of changes
in coming years as a result of efforts to control
the rapid increase in health care costs. Hospi­
tals, as the largest category by far of health care
expenditure, will be a focal point for cost con­
tainment. Demand for some catgories of ad­
ministrative personnel is likely to rise to meet
the need for more efficient management, to
provide closer monitoring of costs, and to ad­
minister new reimbursement systems. Pros­
pects should be bright in such areas as finance,
strategic planning, marketing, management in­
formation systems, and purchasing. On the
other hand, if new measures shift a significant
portion of health care services to non-hospital
providers, demand for administrators in hospi­
tals could decline. While it is impossible to
predict what remedies will be applied to control
costs, it is clear that cost containment will pro­
duce important changes in the organization and
delivery of hospital care.
Outside the hospital environment, demand
for administrators will be further stimulated by
the formation of health maintenance organiza­
tions, group medical practices, and a variety of
freestanding health care facilities including
emergency centers, surgicenters, and re­
habilitation centers. In the past decade, health
maintenance organizations have grown in
number and membership and they will continue
to provide jobs for health administrators. Physi­
cians forming group practices to take advantage
of economies of scale and shared expenses are
expected to provide many new opportunities for
administrators in this area of medical practice
management. Freestanding health care facili­
ties such as outpatient surgical centers and
after-hours clinics are expected to experience
very rapid growth due to their convenience and
competitive fee structure. As these facilities
become more widespread, additional jobs will
be generated. Nursing homes and long term
care facilities also will need more admin­
istrators to handle the increasing amount of
administrative work expected as these facilities
expand and diversify.
Enrollments in graduate programs in health
administration rose rapidly during the 1970’s
and graduations from those programs have re­
mained at a relatively high level. In addition,
administrative specialists with graduate de­
grees in other fields—especially business—are
entering the profession. Consequently, compe­
tition for jobs has intensified, particularly in
hospital administration. This situation is ex­
pected to continue, and it may become difficult
for persons with less than a graduate education
to obtain administrative jobs in hospitals. In
nursing homes and other long-term care facili­
ties, where a graduate degree in health admin­
istration is not ordinarily a requirement, job
opportunities will be good for individuals with
a business or management background.

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/35
The personal standing and performance of the
administrator, hospital size, geographic loca­
tion, and the type of hospital ownership are all
factors in determining the earnings of hospital
administrators. According to a survey of com­
pensation conducted for Modern Healthcare
magazine, administrators in hospitals with
fewer than 100 beds earned an average income
of about $37,000 in 1982. In hospitals of 100 to
349 beds, administrators averaged $57,500 an­
nually. In the largest hospitals, those with more
than 1,000 beds, chief administrators averaged
more than $85,000. The associate admin­
istrator is directly under the chief administrator.
Earnings for associate administrators ranged
from an average of $28,000 annually in the
smallest hospitals to $58,000 in very large hos­
Nursing and personal care home admin­
istrators usually earn lower salaries than those
paid administrators of similar size hospitals.
Starting salaries for recent graduates of mas­
ter’s programs in health administration aver­
aged $24,500 in 1981, according to a national
survey conducted by the Association of Univer­
sity Programs in Health Administration. Recent
recipients of master’s degrees in health admin­
istration starting work in Veterans Administra­
tion hospitals earned $20,256 a year in late
1982. The average salary paid administrators of
Federal hospitals was $40,800.

Related Occupations
Health services administrators plan programs,
set policies, and make decisions for a health
service agency or institution. Other admin­
istrators with similar responsibilities include
social welfare administrators, emergency med­
ical services coordinators, community organi­
zation directors, college or university depart­
ment heads, medical-record administrators,
and recreation superintendents.

Sources of Additional Information
Information about health administration and ac­
ademic programs in this field is available from:
American College of Hospital Administrators, 840
North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60611.
Association of University Programs in Health Admin­
istration, 1911 Fort Myer Drive, Suite 503, Arlington,
Va. 22209.

The job of hotel manager can be particularly hectic around check out time.
oversee the management of the accounting,
marketing, personnel, security, front office,
and maintenance departments. Satisfying
guests, handling problems, and coping with the
unexpected are important parts of the job.
General managers of large hotels usually
have an assistant and department heads, such as
sales managers, who run the various opera­
tions. On the other hand, a small hotel or motel
may require only a limited staff; and the man­
ager may assume various duties such as reserva­
tions, room assignments, and superintending
Large hotel and motel chains often centralize
some activities, such as purchasing and adver­
tising, so that individual hotels in the chain may
not need managers for these departments. Man­
agers who work for chains may be assigned to
organize a newly built or purchased hotel or to
reorganize an existing hotel or motel that is not
operating successfully.

Working Conditions

(D.O.T. 163.117-018; 185.167-106; 187.117-038, .167-046,
-062, -078, -106, -110, -122, -126; 238.137-010; and

Since hotels are open around the clock, night
and weekend work is common. Hotel em­
ployees frequently must work on shifts. Man­
agers who live in the hotel usually have regular
work schedules, but they may be called for
work at any time. Some managers employed by
resort hotels work on a seasonal basis.
Hotel managers sometimes experience the
pressures of coordinating a wide range of func­
tions. Conventions and large groups of tourists
may present unusual problems. Dealing with
irate patrons can also be stressful. The job can
be particularly hectic for front office managers
around checkout time.

Nature of the Work


Hotel managers are responsible for the profita­
ble operation of their establishments. They also

Hotel and motel managers held almost 67,000
wage and salary jobs in 1982.

National Health Council, Health Careers Program,
70 West 40th St., New York, N.Y. 10018.
American College of Health Care Administrators,
P.O. Box 5890, 4650 East-West Hwy., Bethesda,
Md. 20814.

Hotel Managers and

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Experience generally is the most important
consideration in selecting managers. This es­
pecially applies to food service managers, be­
cause the hotel restaurant and cocktail lounge
are of great importance to the success of the
entire establishment.
However, employers increasingly are em­
phasizing college or specialized postsecondary
education. A bachelor’s degree in hotel and
restaurant administration provides particularly
strong preparation for a career in hotel manage­
ment. In 1982, about 100 colleges and univer­
sities offered 4-year programs in this field. Sev­
eral hundred junior colleges, technical in­
stitutes, and other academic institutions also
have courses in hotel work that provide a good
background. However, because more aspiring
hotel managers are seeking formal training,
applicants to these programs face increasing
Included in many programs in hotel manage­
ment are courses in hotel administration, ac­
counting, economics, marketing, data process­
ing, housekeeping, food service management
and catering, and hotel maintenance engineer­
ing. Part-time or summer work in hotels and
restaurants is encouraged because the experi­
ence gained and the contacts with employers
may benefit students when they seek full-time
employment after graduation.
Managers should have initiative, self-disci­
pline, and the ability to organize and direct the
work of others. They must be able to solve
problems and concentrate on details.
Sometimes large hotels sponsor specialized,
on-the-job management training programs
which enable trainees to rotate among various
departments and receive a thorough knowledge
of the hotel’s operation. Other hotels may help
finance the necessary training in hotel manage­
ment for outstanding employees.

36/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Most hotels promote employees who have
proven their ability. Newly built hotels, par­
ticularly those without well-established on-thejob training programs, often prefer experienced
personnel for managerial positions. Hotel and
motel chains may offer better opportunities for
advancement than independently owned estab­
lishments, because employees can transfer to
another hotel or motel in the chain or to the
central office if an opening occurs. Career ad­
vancement can be accelerated by completion of
certification programs offered by the associa­
tions listed below. These programs generally
require a combination of course work, exam­
inations, and experience.

Job Outlook
Employment of salaried hotel managers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s as addi­
tional large hotels and motels are built and
chain and franchise operations spread. Most
openings are expected to occur as experienced
managers transfer to other occupations, die,
retire, or stop working for other reasons. Sea­
sonal employment opportunities will be avail­
able in resort establishments that are open only
part of the year.
Applicants who have college degrees in hotel
administration should have a decided advantage
in seeking entry positions and later advance­

In 1982, average annual earnings of salaried
hotel managers and assistants were about
$22,000, according to a survey conducted by
the American Hotel and Motel Association.
Fifty percent of these managers earned between
$15,000 and $26,000; the top 10 percent earned
$36,000 or more.
However, salaries varied greatly because of
differences in duties and responsibilities. For
example, general managers averaged $32,000,
whereas executive housekeepers averaged
$15,000. Salaries also depend upon the size and
sales volume of the hotel and its geographic
location. The manager’s level of experience is
also an important factor. In 1982, salaries of
general managers ranged from under $20,000
to over $65,000; executive housekeepers’ sal­
aries ranged from under $12,000 to over
$30,000. Managers may earn bonuses ranging
from 5 to 25 percent of their basic salary in
some hotels. In addition, they and their families
may be furnished with lodging, meals, parking,
laundry, and other services.
Most managers and assistants receive 5 to 10
paid holidays a year, paid vacation, sick leave,
life insurance, medical benefits, and pension
plans. Some hotels offer profit sharing plans,
educational assistance, and other benefits to
their employees.

Related Occupations
Hotel managers and assistants are not the only
workers concerned with organizing and direct­
ing a business where pleasing people is very
important. Others with similar responsibilities
include apartment building managers, depart­
Digitized forment store managers, and office managers.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on careers, scholarships, and cer­
tification programs in the lodging industry may
be obtained from:
The American Hotel and Motel Association, 888 7th
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10019.
Hotel Sales Management International, 1400 K St.
NW., Suite 810, Washington, D.C. 20005.
National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc.,
Second Avenue, Business and Professional Building,
Gallipolis, Ohio 45631.

For a directory of colleges and other schools
offering programs and courses in hospitality
education, write to:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Edu­
cation, Henderson Human Development Building,
Room 118, University Park, Pa. 16802.

Personnel and Labor
Relations Specialists
(D.O.T. 079.127-010; 166.067-010, .117, .167-014, -018,
-022, -026, -030, -034, .227-010, .267-018, -022 -030;.
and 169.207-010)

Nature of the Work
Attracting the best employees available and
matching them to the jobs they can do best is
important for the success of any organization.
But many enterprises are too large to permit
close contact between management and em­
ployees. Instead, personnel and labor relations
specialists provide this link—helping manage­
ment make effective use of employees’ skills,
and helping employees find satisfaction in their
jobs and working conditions. Although some
jobs in this field require only limited contact
with people outside the office, most involve
frequent contact. Dealing with people is an
essential part of the job.
Personnel specialists and labor relations spe­
cialists concentrate on different aspects of em­
ployer-employee relations.,. Personnel spe­
cialists interview, select, and recommend
applicants for job openings. They handle wage
and salary administration, training and career
development, and employee benefits. They also
keep informed of rules and regulations pertain­
ing to affirmative action and equal employment
opportunity and oversee the implementation of
policies governing hiring and advancement.
“Labor relations” means union-management
relations, and people who specialize in this
field work in unionized establishments, for the
most part. They help company officials prepare
for collective bargaining sessions, participate
in contract negotiations, and handle labor rela­
tions matters that come up every day.
In a small organization, one person can han­
dle the interviewing and hiring. By contrast, in
a large firm the professional staff of the person­
nel department may include recruiters, inter­
viewers, job analysts, benefits specialists,
training specialists, and labor relations spe­
cialists. Personnel clerks and assistants handle

routine tasks such as issuing forms, maintain­
ing files, compiling statistics, and answering
Personnel work often begins with the re­
cruiter, who maintains contacts within the
community and may travel extensively—usu­
ally to college campuses—to search for promis­
ing job applicants. Recruiters talk with appli­
cants, and recommend those who appear
qualified to fill vacancies. They may administer
tests and check references. These workers need
to be thoroughly familiar with the organization
and its personnel policies to discuss wages,
working conditions, and promotional oppor­
tunities with prospective employees. They also
need to keep informed about equal employment
opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action
EEO representatives or affirmative action co­
ordinators handle this area in large organiza­
tions. They investigate and resolve EEO griev­
ances, examine corporate practices for possible
violations, and compile and submit EEO statis­
tical reports.
Job analysts (D.O.T. 166.267-018), some­
times called compensation analysts, do very
exacting work. They collect and examine de­
tailed information about job duties to prepare
job descriptions. These descriptions explain the
duties, training, and skills each job requires.
Whenever a large organization introduces a
new job or reviews existing ones, it calls upon
the expert knowledge of the job analyst.
Establishing and maintaining a firm’s pay
system is the principal job of the compensation
manager (D.O.T. 166.167-022). Assisted by
staff specialists, compensation managers de­
vise ways to ensure fair and equitable pay rates.
They may conduct surveys to see how their
rates compare with others and to see that the
firm’s pay scale complies with laws and regula­
Human resource development is emerging as
a major specialization within personnel admin­
istration. Training specialists (D.O.T. 079.127010; 166.167-026, .227-010) are responsible for
employee education and training. Trainers con­
duct orientation sessions and arrange on-thejob training for new employees. They also de­
velop programs that help employees keep their
skills up-to-date— instruction in new pro­
cedures or in the operation of new equipment,
for example. In addition, these specialists as­
sess employee training needs, maintain rec­
ords, and evaluate training effectiveness. To
help employees prepare for future respon­
sibilities, they may set up individualized train­
ing plans, to strengthening existing skills or to
teach new skills. Career development may in­
volve study outside the company or rotation
within the firm. Depending on the firm’s size,
goals, and objectives, the responsibilities of
training specialists vary greatly.
Em ployee-benefits managers (D.O.T.
166.117-014, 166.167-018) handle the com­
pany’s employee benefits program, notably its
insurance and pension plans. Expertise in de­
signing and administering benefits programs
has increased enormously in importance since
the Employee Retirement Income Security Act
(ERISA) was enacted. In addition to health

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/37
insurance and pension coverage, many firms
now offer their employees dental insurance,
accidental death and disability insurance, auto
insurance, homeowners’ insurance, stock op­
tions, profit sharing, and thrift/savings plans.
Benefits analysts and benefits administrators
handle these programs and also may develop
and coordinate services as diverse as van-pool­
ing, child care, lunchrooms and company caf­
eterias, newsletters, health promotion and
physical fitness, and alcoholism counseling.
Some firms provide personal and financial
counseling for employees approaching retire­
ment age.
Occupational safety and health programs are
handled in various ways. In small companies
especially, accident prevention and industrial
safety are the responsibility of the personnel
department—or of the labor relations spe­
cialist, if the union has a safety representative.
Increasingly, however, a safety engineer or in­
dustrial hygienist is in charge of a separate
safety department.
Labor relations specialists (D.O.T. 166.167034) advise management on all aspects of union-management relations. When a collective
bargaining agreement is up for negotiation,
they provide background information for man­
agement’s position, which requires familiarity
with economic and wage data as well as exten­
sive knowledge of labor law and collective bar­
gaining trends. Although the director of labor
relations or other top-ranking official represent­
ing the employer negotiates the agreement, the
labor relations staff play an important role.
The labor relations staff interprets and ad­
ministers the contract, particularly grievance
procedures. Labor relations specialists might
work with the union on seniority rights under
the layoff procedure of the contract, for exam­
ple, or meet with the union steward about a
grievance. Doing the job well means staying
abreast of current developments in labor law,
including arbitration decisions, and maintain­
ing continuing liaison with union officials.
Personnel specialists in government and
those in large business firms do essentially the
same kind of work, although there are some
differences. Public personnel specialists deal
with civil service employees whose jobs are
strictly classified as to entry requirements, du­
ties, and pay. Therefore much of the emphasis
in public personnel work is on job analysis.
Training and career development are growing in
importance in the public sector, however, and
greater union activity among government
workers has created a need for labor relations
specialists to handle negotiations, grievances,
and arbitration cases for Federal, State, and
local government agencies.

Education Statistics (NCES). Others had major­
ed in psychology, sociology, counseling, edu­
cation, and other disciplines in the social and
behavioral sciences. A master’s in business ad­
ministration (M.B.A.) also is suitable prepara­
tion. In government, a bachelor’s or master’s
degree in personnel administration, political
Personnel and labor relations specialists held science, or public administration is an asset.
about 203,000 jobs in 1982. Three out of four
At least 200 colleges and universities have
jobs were in private industry. Some personnel programs leading to a degree in personnel and
and labor relations specialists work for labor labor relations. Other colleges and universities
unions. Others are employed by, or operate, offer programs in personnel administration or
management consulting firms that specialize in personnel management. About 70 colleges and
such areas as compensation, pensions and ben­ universities offer degree or certificate programs
efits, and training and staff development.
in training and development. Depending on the
Between 45,000 and 55,000 personnel and school, preparation for a career in human re­
labor relations specialists worked for Federal, sources development may be obtained in de­
State, and local governments in 1982. They partments of business administration, educa­
handled recruitment, interviewing, job classi­ tion, instructional technology, organizational
fication, training, and related matters for the development, human services, communica­
Nation’s 16 million public employees: Police tion, or public administration.
officers, firefighters, sanitation workers, teach­
Because an interdisciplinary background is
ers, hospital workers, and many others.
appropriate for work in this area, a combination
of courses in the social sciences, behavioral
sciences, business, and economics is useful.
Training, Other Qualifications, and
Prospective personnel specialists might take
Because of the diversity of duties and level of courses in principles of management, organiza­
responsibility, the educational backgrounds of tion dynamics, and human relations. Other rel­
personnel and labor relations specialists vary evant courses include business administration,
considerably. In filling entry level jobs, firms public administration, psychology, sociology,
generally seek college graduates. Some em­ political science, economics, and statistics.
ployers prefer applicants who have majored in Courses in labor law, collective bargaining, la­
personnel administration or industrial and labor bor economics, labor history, and industrial
relations, while others look for college gradu­ psychology provide a valuable background for
ates with a technical or business background. the prospective labor relations specialist.
Graduate study in industrial or labor rela­
Still others feel that a well-rounded liberal arts
tions may be required for work in labor rela­
education is best.
Nearly one-half of recent college graduates tions. A law degree seldom is required for entry
in personnel and labor relations jobs had major­ level jobs, but many people responsible for
ed in business and management, according to a contract negotiations are lawyers, and a com­
survey conducted by the National Center for bination of industrial relations courses and law
Although most personnel specialists work in
the office, some travel extensively. Recruiters
regularly attend professional meetings and visit
college campuses to interview prospective

Working Conditions
Since personnel offices generally are located
where visitors and prospective employees gain
an initial impression of the organization, work
areas tend to be modem and pleasant. Personnel
specialists usually work a standard 35- to 40hour workweek. Labor relations specialists,
however, may work longer hours—particularly
when contract agreements are being prepared
and negotiated.

A college degree is required for most beginning positions in personnel and labor relations.

38/Occupational Outlook Handbook
is highly desirable. Some experienced in per­
sonnel work move into labor relations.
For many personnel jobs, previous experi­
ence is an asset; for some, it is essential. Per­
sonnel administration requires the ability to
work with individuals as well as a commitment
to organizational goals, skills that may be de­
veloped in many ways — selling, teaching, su­
pervising, and volunteering, among others. In
fact, the majority of personnel and labor rela­
tions jobs are filled by people previously em­
ployed in another occupation. This field con­
tinues to offer clerical workers opportunities
for advancement to professional positions.
However, more responsible positions may be
filled by experienced individuals from other
fields including business, government, educa­
tion, and the military. Social services admin­
istration provides a suitable background, too.
Personnel and labor relations specialists
should speak and write effectively and be able
to work with people of all levels of education
and experience as part of a team. They must be
patient to cope with conflicting viewpoints and
emotionally stable to deal with the unexpected
and the unusual. The ability to function under
pressure is essential. Integrity, fairmindedness,
and a persuasive, congenial personality are im­
portant qualities.
Entry level workers usually enter formal or
on-the-job training programs where they learn
how to classify jobs, interview applicants, or
administer employee benefits. Next, they are
assigned to specific areas in the personnel de­
partment to gain experience. Later, they may
advance within their own company, transfer to
another employer, or even manage a major ele­
ment of the personnel program—compensa­
tion, training, or EEO/affirmative action, for
Workers in the middle ranks of a large organ­
ization often leave for a more responsible job in
a smaller organization. Exceptional employees
may be promoted to director of personnel or
labor relations. Others may join a consulting
firm or go into private business. A Ph.D. is an
asset for teaching, writing, or consulting work.

Job Outlook
The number of personnel and labor relations
specialists is expected to grow about as fast as
the average for all occupations through the
mid-1990’s. Most growth will occur in the pri­
vate sector as employers try to provide effective
employee relations programs for an expanding
and aging work force. Relatively little growth is
anticipated in public personnel administration.
As in virtually all occupations, most job open­
ings will result from replacement needs.
Demand for personnel and labor relations
specialists is associated with employment con­
ditions in the firms where they work. An ex­
panding business may hire personnel spe­
cialists to handle additional paperwork while a
business that is reducing its operations will re­
quire fewer workers. During recessions, some
industries may lay off or reduce the number of
personnel and labor relations specialists.
Other factors stimulate demand for person­
nel and labor relations specialists. Legislation
standards in occupational safety and

health, equal employment opportunity, and
pensions has greatly increased recordkeeping
and reporting requirements. Continued growth
is foreseen as employers review and evaluate
programs in these areas.
Corporate recognition of the importance of
human resource development will also spur de­
mand. Greater investment in job-specific, em­
ployer-sponsored training and retraining is an­
ticipated in the years ahead—a response to
productivity concerns, the aging of the work­
force, and technological advances that can sud­
denly leave large numbers of employees with
obsolete skills.
Although the number of jobs in this field is
projected to increase through the mid-1990’s,
the job market is likely to remain competitive,
particularly in labor relations.

Typical entry level jobs in the personnel field
include job analyst, EEO representative, bene­
fits analyst, and training specialist. These posi­
tions generally require a bachelor’s degree but
no experience. Salaries vary widely, and de­
pend on the size and location of the firm as well
as the nature of its business.
In 1983, according to a survey conducted by
the American Society for Personnel Admin­
istration and A.S. Hansen, Inc., the median
salary for job analysts—sometimes called posi­
tion analysts, wage analysts or compensation
analysts—was $22,000. EEO representatives
and training specialists each earned median sal­
aries of $25,500; benefits planning analysts had
median salaries of $27,000.
Average annual salaries of personnel direc­
tors in private industry ranged from $32,678 to
$62,645 in 1983, according to a Bureau of La­
bor Statistics survey. Top personnel and labor
relations executives in large corporations
earned considerably more.
In the Federal Government, new graduates
with a bachelor’s degree generally started at
about $13,400 a year in 1982. Those with a
master’s degree started at about $20,300. Aver­
age Federal salaries in several different areas of
personnel and labor relations work were as fol­
lows in 1982:
Mediators ................................................
Labor relations specialists ....................
Apprenticeship and training specialists
Contractor industrial relations specialists ' 33,030
Labor-management relations examiners
Personnel management specialists . . .
Wage and hour compliance specialists
Employee development specialists . . .
Occupational analysis specialists . . . .
Position classifiers .................................
Employee relations specialists.............
Equal employment opportunity spe­
cialists ..................................................
Salary and wage administrators .........
Personnel staffing specialists...............

Related Occupations
All personnel and labor relations occupations
are closely related. Other workers who help
people find jobs or help to make the work en­
vironment safe and pleasant include health and

regulatory inspectors, occupational safety and
health workers, employment counselors, re­
habilitation counselors, college career planning
and placement counselors, industrial engi­
neers, psychologists, and sociologists. Several
of these occupations are described elsewhere in
the Handbook.

Sources of Additional Information
For general information on careers in personnel
and industrial relations, write to:
American Society for Personnel Administration, 606
N. Washington St., Alexandria, VA. 22314.

Accreditation of generalists and specialists in
the personnel and human resources field is of­
fered through the Personnel Accreditation In­
stitute. For information, contact:
Executive Director, Personnel Accreditation In­
stitute, 606 N. Washington St., Alexandria, Va.

For a booklet on Careers in Training and
Development, contact:
American Society for Training and Development,
600 Maryland Ave. SW., Suite 305, Washington,
D C. 20024.

Brochures describing a career with the Na­
tional Labor Relations Board as a field exam­
iner or attorney are available from:
Director of Personnel, National Labor Relations
Board, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,
D C. 20570.

The Industrial Relations Research Associa­
tion periodically publishes a list of academic
programs in industrial relations in the IRRA
Newsletter. For the current list, contact:
Industrial Relations Research Association, 7226 So­
cial Science Building, 1180 Observatory Dr.,
Madison, Wis. 53706.

Purchasing Agents
(D.O.T. 162.117-022 and -026; .157-010, -034, and -038;
.167-010, -014, and -030)

Nature of the Work
If an organization does not have the right mate­
rials, supplies, or equipment when they are
needed, its entire production process or work
flow could be interrupted or halted. Purchasing
agents, also called industrial buyers, see to it
that the goods, materials, supplies, and serv­
ices purchased for internal use by the organiza­
tion are of suitable quality, sufficient quantity,
at the right price, and are available when
needed. Agents in industry and the government
buy raw materials, machinery, parts and com­
ponents, furniture, business machines, vehi­
cles, and office supplies. Some, called media
buyers, purchase advertising time and space.
Buyers who purchase merchandise for resale,
rather than for internal use, are described in the
statement on buyers, retail and wholesale trade,
elsewhere in the Handbook.
Purchasing agents buy supplies when the
stock on hand reaches a predetermined reorder
point, when a department in the organization
requisitions items it needs, or when market

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/39
conditions are especially favorable. Because
agents often can purchase from many sources,
their main job is selecting the supplier who
offers the best value consistent with quality,
service, and price.
Purchasing agents use a variety of means to
choose suppliers. They compare listings in cat­
alogs, directories, and trade journals. They
meet with salespersons to discuss items to be
purchased, examine samples, and attend dem­
onstrations of products and equipment. Fre­
quently, agents invite suppliers to bid on large
orders and then select the lowest bidder among
those who meet purchasing and delivery date
Sometimes purchasing agents negotiate for
custom-made products or specialized services.
To meet specifications, agents must thoroughly
understand the characteristics and functions of
these purchases. In some cases, such as com­
puter equipment, this means agents must have
considerable technical knowledge. After plac­
ing an order, the purchasing agent checks
periodically to insure prompt delivery.
Purchasing agents develop good business re­
lationships with suppliers in order to get cost
savings, favorable payment terms, quick deliv­
ery on emergency orders, or help in obtaining
scarce materials. Agents also work closely with
other employees in their own organization. For
example, they may discuss design of custommade products with company engineers, de­
fects in purchased goods with quality control
technicians, or shipment problems with work­
ers in the shipping department.
Purchasing agents’ functions may differ ac­
cording to the type and size of the organization.
In a large firm, agents usually specialize in a
commodity or group of commodities—for ex­
ample, steel, lumber, cotton, or petroleum
products. In smaller organizations, agents gen­
erally buy a wider range of goods, such as all
raw materials or all office supplies, furniture,
and business machines. Many have respon­
sibility for arranging custodial, waste disposal,
and other contractual services. Purchasing
managers usually supervise a group of purchas­
ing agents handling a number of related goods
and services.

Whatever their educational background, be­
ginning purchasing agents are enrolled in com­
pany training programs and spend considerable
time learning about company operations and
purchasing procedures. They work with experi­
enced buyers to learn about commodities,
prices, suppliers, and negotiating techniques.
They may be assigned to production planning to
learn about the purchasing system, inventory
records, and storage facilities.
Junior agents purchase standard and catalog
items. As they gain knowledge and experience,
Training, Other Qualifications, and
they may be promoted to purchasing agent,
then to senior purchasing agent. Senior agents
Although there are no universal educational purchase highly complex, usually customrequirements for entry level jobs, most large made items.
Purchasing agents must be able to analyze
organizations require a college degree and pre­
fer applicants with a master’s degree in business the technical data in suppliers’ proposals, make
administration or management. Companies buying decisions, and spend large amounts of
that manufacture machinery or chemicals may money responsibly. The job requires the ability
prefer applicants with a technical background, to work independently and a good memory for
such as engineering or science, while other details. In addition, a purchasing agent must be
companies hire business administration majors able to get along well with people to balance the
as trainees. Courses in purchasing, accounting, needs of personnel in the organization with
economics, and statistics are helpful. Famil­ budgetary constraints and to negotiate with
suppliers. An agent may work with lawyers,
iarity with computers also is desirable. Many
contract administrators, and engineers and sci­
colleges and vocational institutes offer courses
en tists when involved in com plex
in purchasing; a few colleges offer a degree in
this field.
A qualified purchasing agent can become an
Some small companies require a bachelor’s assistant purchasing manager in charge of a
degree; many others, however, hire graduates of group of purchasing agents and then advance to
associate degree and vocational education pro­ purchasing manager, director or vice president
grams in purchasing for entry level jobs. They of purchasing, or director or vice president of
also may promote clerks or technicians in the materials management. At the top levels, duties
purchasing department. Regardless of the size may overlap into other management functions
of an organization, however, a college degree is such as production, planning, and marketing.
This occupation is becoming increasingly
becoming increasingly important for advance­
professionalized and specialized. Continuing
ment to management positions.

Federal Government. Other important Federal
employers are the Department of Agriculture,
the General Services Administration, and the
Veterans Administration.
Many purchasing agents work in organiza­
tions that have fewer than five employees in the
purchasing department. Large business firms
and government agencies, however, have much
larger purchasing departments; some employ as
many as 100 specialized purchasing agents.

Working Conditions
Purchasing agents generally work a standard
35- to 40-hour week. Some overtime may be
necessary if, for example, the supply of critical
materials runs short. Although they spend most
of their time in the office, some travel to sup­
pliers, seminars, or trade shows.

Purchasing agents held about 191,000 jobs in
1982. More than one-half of all the jobs were
located in manufacturing, primarily in the ma­
chinery and transportation equipment indus­
tries. Construction companies, hospitals,
schools, and advertising firms also are large
employers of purchasing agents. Government
agencies, primarily in the Federal sector,
provided over one-sixth of all jobs. Because of
its complex and extensive purchasing require­
ments, the Department of Defense employs
about 70 percent of all purchasing agents in the

Purchasing agents select suppliers who offer the best values.

40/Occupational Outlook Handbook
education is essential for advancement. Most
agents participate in seminars offered by pro­
fessional societies and take college courses in
purchasing. Certification enhances one’s
chances for top management positions. In pri­
vate industry, the recognized mark of experi­
ence and professional competence is the desig­
nation Certified Purchasing Manager (C.P.M.).
It is conferred by the National Association of
Purchasing Management, Inc., upon candi­
dates who pass four examinations and meet
educational and experience requirements. In
government, the indications of professional
competence are the designations Professional
Public Buyer (PPB) and Certified Public Pur­
chasing Officer (CPPO), conferred by the Na­
tional Institute of Governmental Purchasing,
Inc. The PPB is earned by passing a two-part
written examination and meeting educational
and experience requirements. A candidate must
meet more stringent basic requirements and
pass a three-part written exam and an interview
assessment to earn the CPPO.

State governments, earnings ranged from
$11,000 for beginning purchasing agents to
over $40,000 for chiefs of purchasing. Gener­
ally, local governments’ salaries are somewhat
lower. However, salaries in some major metro­
politan areas surpass their State government

Related Occupations
Other workers who negotiate and contract to
purchase equipment, supplies, or other mer­
chandise include retail and wholesale buyers,
procurement services managers, livestock
commission agents, and traffic managers.

Sources of Additional Information
Further information about careers in purchasing
is available from:
National Association of Purchasing Management,
Inc.. 496 Kinderkamack Road, Oradell, N.J. 07649.
National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc.,
115 Hillwood Ave., Falls Church, Va. 22046.

Job Outlook
Employment of purchasing agents is expected
to increase about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s, as the vol­
ume of goods and services produced increases.
Goods-producing firms will expand purchasing
departments to handle the growing complexity
of manufacturing processes and to help keep
costs of production materials and supplies to a
minimum. Many opportunities also should
arise as service-producing organizations such
as hospitals and schools also recognize the im­
portance of professional purchasers in reducing
Most job openings, however, will continue to
arise from the need to replace purchasing
agents who leave their jobs. Many workers in
this occupation typically transfer to other oc­
cupations, often sales or managerial positions.
Others retire or leave the labor force for other
Persons who have a master’s degree in busi­
ness administration and a bachelor’s degree in
purchasing, or in engineering, science, or busi­
ness administration with courses in purchasing,
should have the best opportunities. Graduates
of 2-year programs in purchasing should con­
tinue to find good opportunities, especially in
small firms.

College graduates hired as junior purchasing
agents earned about $19,100 a year in 1983.
Experienced agents purchasing standard items
averaged about $23,600 a year; senior purchas­
ing agents specializing in complex or technical
goods averaged about $29,000. Assistant pur­
chasing managers received average salaries of
about $35,600 a year. Many corporate directors
of purchasing or materials management earned
well over $50,000 a year. Salaries generally are
higher in large firms where responsibilities
often are greater.
In the Federal Government, beginning pur­
chasing agents who had college degrees earned
$13,000 or $16,100 in 1982, depending on scho­
lastic achievement and experience. Among

School Administrators
(D.O.T. 091.107-010, 099.117-018, -022, and -030)

Nature of the Work
School administrators provide the leadership
and managerial ability that keep individual
schools and entire school systems running
smoothly. School administrators include school
district superintendents, assistant superinten­
dents, and assistant principals. The jobs vary
greatly, and most of what follows primarily
concerns those in the public school system.
The task of school administrators has grown
more complex in recent years. Not only are
schools and school systems larger than ever
before—the result of a continuing trend toward
consolidation—but they touch the lives of many
people, some of whom have become in­
creasingly vocal, even angry, in pursuing their
goals. It takes political as well as administrative
skill to handle the issues that confront school
leaders today: Quality education, desegrega­
tion, contract negotiations with teachers, spi­
raling costs, and taxpayer resistance to higher
taxes, to name a few. But, as educators, admin­
istrators have the satisfaction of knowing that
their work smooths the way to knowledge for
their schools’ students.
The job of a school administrator begins with
planning and setting goals. To achieve these
goals, administrators must organize, coordi­
nate, direct, and evaluate the activities of
school personnel, ensuring that they meet dead­
lines and keep to their budgets. Administrators,
acting on behalf of the school board, negotiate
contracts and settle labor disputes. They must
also maintain good relations with the public.
Superintendents, the chief administrators of
a school district, oversee and coordinate the
activities of all the schools in the district. The
board of education selects the superintendent,
whose duties range from routine administrative
tasks to long-range planning. The nature of the
job depends in part on the size of the district.

Managing the public schools in Raynham,
Massachusetts, is not quite the same as running
the public schools in Chicago. Nevertheless,
the kind of work performed by the superinten­
dent is essentially the same in every district.
On any given day, a superintendent may su­
pervise the preparation of a budget; participate
in collective bargaining sessions with em­
ployees; meet with parents, teachers, or local
citizens’ groups; plan for changes in physical
facilities or staff size due to changes in enroll­
ment; write reports to the school board; or issue
directives pertaining to the operation of the
school system.
Most superintendents have one or more dep­
uties or assistants. An assistant superinten­
dent’s duties depend on the size and organiza­
tion of the school system. In some districts,
assistant superintendents oversee all the opera­
tions in a particular geographic area; in others,
they have authority over specific activities—
personnel, budget, or instruction and pupil
services, for example.
Principals are the highest authority in a
school. They are responsible for running the
school according to the standards set by the
superintendent and board of education.
Ensuring high-quality instruction is the principal’s most important responsibility. Prin­
cipals visit classrooms, review instructional ob­
jectives, evaluate teachers, and examine learn­
ing materials. They also spend a great deal of
time doing paperwork: Filling out forms, pre­
paring administrative reports, keeping track of
attendance, seeing that supplies are properly
requisitioned and allocated, and so on. Despite
the paperwork, principals spend much of the
day with people. They confer with teachers and
other staff—advising, explaining, or answering
procedural questions; they meet with students;
and they talk with parents and members of the
In larger schools, assistant principals often
handle the discipline and coordinate social and
recreation programs. Assistant principals may
also provide individual or group counseling
about personal, social, educational, or voca­
tional matters.

Working Conditions
School administrators work mainly in their of­
fices, but they spend some time away from their
desks at meetings with parent and teacher asso­
ciations, the school board, and civic groups;
sitting in on classes; attending school assem­
blies and sports events; and checking school
physical facilities.
School superintendents and principals usu­
ally work a standard 40-hour week. However, at
night and on weekends, they often put in extra
hours at meetings or attending to problems that
require immediate attention. Unlike teachers,
administrators work year round and can usually
be found at their desks even during school

Elementary and secondary school admin­
istrators held about 133,000 jobs in 1982, most

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/41
of them in public school systems. School sys­
tems have at least one superintendent and, gen­
erally, one or more assistant superintendents.
Every school has a principal, and larger schools
may have one or more assistant principals. As­
sistant principals are generally employed in
secondary schools, which tend to be larger than
elementary schools.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
All 50 States and the District of Columbia re­
quire certification of school administrators.
Certification requirements may include good
health and character, U.S. citizenship or State
residency, graduate training in educational ad­
ministration, teaching experience, and passing
an examination. Information on specific re­
quirements may be obtained from State depart­
ments of education.
School superintendents usually are experi­
enced administrators. Many are former prin­
cipals who worked their way up through the
administrative hierarchy. Principals and assis­
tant principals are required by most school sys­
tems to have several years of experience as
classroom teachers. Teachers with varying
backgrounds sometimes move directly into
principalships. Experience in organizing and
supervising school programs and activities is
also an important qualification for principals
and assistant principals, who may have had
another administrative job—such as curricu­
lum specialist; financial advisor; or director of
audiovisual aids, arts, or special education.
Graduate study in educational administra­
tion, preferably at the doctoral level, is usually
required for a school district superintendent.
Larger districts may expect candidates for posi­
tions in the central administrative office to have
a law or business degree in addition to a gradu­
ate degree in education. A master’s degree in
educational administration is the usual prere­
quisite for a position as a school principal or
assistant principal.
The National Council for Accreditation of
Teacher Education accredits graduate programs
in educational administration on over 250 cam­
puses. Programs provide specific preparation
for elementary school principals, secondary
school principals, or school district superinten­
dents. Educational administration courses in­
clude school management, school law, school
finance and budgeting, curriculum develop­
ment and evaluation, systematic planning, su­
pervision of instruction, research design and
data analysis, personnel administration, com­
munity relations, politics in education, and
leadership. A semester of internship and field
experience is recommended.
In addition to experience and education,
school administrators need certain personal
characteristics. Leadership skills and man­
agerial ability are needed to direct the activities
of the many people employed in a school or
school system. Administrators need a personal
philosophy of education which includes an un­
derstanding of the educational process and its
goals, as well as familiarity with educational
technology, curriculum development, and

When hiring administrators, most school systems consider only experienced teachers.
strategies for meeting educational needs. Be­
cause their duties may be rather loosely de­
fined, school administrators must also have a
strong sense of direction and motivation. More­
over, they are frequently under fire from many
groups. Therefore, self-confidence and the
ability to withstand criticism are essential, as
are tact and communications skills.
Because administrative competence is so im­
portant for a school administrator, an appli­
cant’s past work record and reputation are ex­
tremely important when hiring decisions are

“burnout” or dissatisfaction with the classroom
environment, or attracted by the wider range of
duties, greater responsibilities, and higher sal­
aries—can be expected to compete for admin­
istrative positions.
Also, consolidation of both school districts
and schools is expected to continue for at least a
while longer. Thus some positions may be abol­
ished. However, while some administrative
positions may be lost, others—particularly for
assistants—are expected to be created as a re­
sult of the increased size and complexity of the
consolidated units.

Job Outlook
Employment of school administrators is ex­
pected to grow more slowly than the average for
all occupations through the mid-1990’s. Most
job openings will be to replace administrators
who leave the profession.
Pupil enrollment is the basic factor underly­
ing the demand for school administrators. Ele­
mentary school enrollments are expected to
start rising again in 1985 and to continue to rise
through 1995; secondary school enrollments
are not expected to start growing again until
after 1990, however. Therefore, employment of
elementary school principals is expected to in­
crease after 1985 and secondary school prin­
cipals, after 1990. Employment of superinten­
dents, which is determined by the number of
districts rather than by enrollments, is not ex­
pected to increase.
Although openings for principals are ex­
pected to increase, competition for school ad­
ministrator jobs may continue through the
mid-1990’s. Large numbers of teachers and
other school personnel obtain graduate degrees
in education or educational administration each
year. Many of these—whether prompted by

Salaries of school administrators vary accord­
ing to position, level of responsibility, and the
size and geographic location of the school or
school district. Salaries increase with the size of
the school or district. In general, salaries are
highest in the Ear West and Mid-Atlantic States
and lowest in the Southeast. According to the
Educational Research Service, Inc., average
salaries for selected school administrators in
1982-83 were as follows:
Superintendents (contract salary)
Deputy/associate superintendents
Assistant superintendents.........


Senior high sc h o o l...........
Junior high/middle sc h o o l.........
Elementary school ........................
Assistant principals:..............................
Senior high sc h o o l...........
Junior high/middle sc h o o l.........
Elementary S c h o o l...........

Related Occupations
School administrators need organizational and
leadership skills to manage people, programs,

42/Occupational Outlook Handbook
and financial resources successfully. The same
combination of professional competence and
managerial effectiveness is needed for admin­
istrative positions in health, welfare, religion,
and recreation. Related occupations include
hospital administrators, academic deans, direc­
tors of agencies on aging,library directors, col­
lege or university department heads, recreation
and park directors, and museum curators.

Sources of Additional Information
For information about careers in school admin­
istration, contact:
American Association of School Administrators,
1801 North Moore St., Arlington, Va. 22209.
The National Association of Secondary School Prin­
cipals, 1904 Association Drive, Reston, Virginia

(D.O.T. 169.167-058)

Nature of the Work
Insurance companies assume billions of dollars
in risks each year by transferring the risk of loss
from their policyholders to themselves. Under­
writers appraise and select the risks their com­
pany will insure. The underwriter must analyze
information in insurance applications, reports
from loss control consultants, medical reports,
and actuarial studies (reports that describe the
probability of insured loss) and then decide
whether to issue a policy. An insurance com­
pany may lose business to competitors if the
underwriter appraises risks too conservatively
or it may have to pay more claims if the under­
writing actions are too liberal. (The term under­
writer sometimes is used in referring to insur­
ance agents; see the statement on insurance

agents and brokers elsewhere in the Handbook
for a discussion of that occupation).
When deciding that an applicant is an accept­
able risk, an underwriter may outline the terms
of the contract, including the amount of the
premium. Underwriters frequently correspond
with policyholders, agents, and managers
about policy cancellations or other requests for
information. In addition, they sometimes ac­
company salespeople on appointments with
prospective customers.
Most underwriters specialize in one of three
major categories of insurance: Life, property
and liability, or health. They further specialize
in group or individual policies. The property
and liability underwriter specializes by type of
risk insured, such as fire, automobile, marine,
or workers’ compensation. In cases where casu­
alty companies insure in a single “package”
policy, covering various types of risks, the un­
derwriter must be familiar with different lines
of insurance. Some underwriters, called com­
mercial account underwriters, handle business
insurance exclusively. They often evaluate a
firm’s entire operation in appraising its insur­
ance application.
An increasing proportion of insurance sales
are being made through group contracts. A
standard group policy insures all persons in a
specified group through a single contract at
uniform premium rates, generally for life or
health insurance protection. The group under­
writer analyzes the overall composition of the
group to be sure that the total risk is not exces­
sive. Another type of group policy provides
members of a group—a labor union, for exam­
ple—with individual policies reflecting their
individual needs. These generally are casualty
policies, such as those covering automobiles.
The casualty underwriter analyzes the applica­
tion of each group member and makes individu­
al appraisals. Some group underwriters meet

Underwriters appraise’ risk by carefully reviewing relevant reports.

with union or employer representatives to dis­
cuss the types of policies available to their

Working Conditions
Underwriters have desk jobs that require no
unusual physical activity. Their offices gener­
ally are comfortable and pleasant. Although
some overtime may be required, the normal
workweek is 35-40 hours. Underwriters occa­
sionally may attend meetings away from home
for several days.

Insurance underwriters held about 76,000 jobs
in 1982. Most life insurance underwriters were
in home offices in a few large cities, such as
New York, San Francisco, Chicago, Dallas,
Philadelphia, and Hartford.

Draining, Other Qualifications, and
For beginning underwriting jobs, most large
insurance companies seek college graduates
who have a degree in liberal arts or business
administration, but a major in almost any field
provides a good general background. Some
small companies hire persons without a college
degree for underwriter trainee positions. In ad­
dition, some high school graduates who begin
as underwriting clerks may be trained as under­
writers after they demonstrate an aptitude for
the work.
Underwriter trainees begin by evaluating
routine applications under the close supervision
of an experienced risk appraiser. They study
claim files to become familiar with factors asso­
ciated with certain types of losses. As they
develop the necessary judgment, they are as­
signed policy applications that are more com­
plex and have a greater face value.
Continuing education is necessary for the
underwriter to advance. Insurance companies
generally pay tuition for underwriting courses
that their trainees successfully complete; some
also offer salary increases. Independent study
programs are available through the American
Institute of Property and Liability Under­
writers, the American College of Life Under­
writers, the Academy of Life Underwriters, the
Health Insurance Association of America, the
Insurance Institute of America, and the Life
Office Management Association. Experienced
underwriters can qualify as a “fellow” of the
Academy of Life Underwriters by passing a
series of examinations and completing a paper
on a topic in the underwriting field. Examina­
tions are given by the Institute of Home Office
Underwriters and the Home Office Life Under­
writers Association. Designation as a “fellow”
is recognized as a mark of achievement in the
underwriting field.
Underwriting can be a satisfying career for
persons who like working with detail and enjoy
evaluating information. In addition, under­
writers must be able to make prompt decisions
and communicate effectively. They must also
be imaginative and aggressive, especially when
they have to get information from outside

Administrative and Managerial Occupations/43
Experienced underwriters who complete
courses of study may advance to chief under­
writer or underwriting manager. Some under­
writing managers are promoted to senior man­
agerial jobs.

Job Outlook
Employment of underwriters is expected to rise
about as fast as the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s as insurance sales con­
tinue to expand. Most job openings, however,
are expected to result from the need to replace
underwriters who transfer to other occupations,
retire, die, or stop working for other reasons.
Several factors underlie the expected growth
in the volume of insurance and the resulting
need for underwriters. Over the next decade,
many more workers will enter the 25-54 age
group. People in this age group have the greatest
need for life and health insurance. They also
need protection for homes, automobiles, and
other valuables. A growing demand for insur­
ance coverage for working women is also ex­
pected. Growing security- consciousness
should also contribute to demand for more in­
surance protection. New or expanding busi­
nesses will need protection for new plants and

equipment, insurance for workers’ compensa­
tion, product liability, and mandatory insur­
ance against long-term gradual environmental
damage caused by hazardous waste. Competi­
tion among insurance companies and changes
in regulations affecting investment profits also
are expected to increase the need for under­
Since insurance is usually regarded as a nec­
essity regardless of economic conditions, un­
derwriters are unlikely to be laid off during a

According to a survey of property and liability
insurance companies, personal lines under­
writers earned a median salary of $18,500 a
year in 1982. Those specializing in surety
bonds earned $21,000. Senior personal lines
underwriters received a median salary of
$23,400, while senior commercial lines under­
writers earned $23,700 a year. Underwriting
supervisors in property and liability companies
earned between $26,500 and $28,000 a year in
Most insurance companies have liberal vaca­
tion policies and other employee benefits. Al­

most all insurance companies provide employ­
er-financed group life and retirement plans.

Related Occupations
Underwriters make decisions on the basis of
financial data. Other workers with the same
type of responsibility include auditors, loan of­
ficers, credit managers, and real estate ap­
praisers .

Sources of Additional Information
General information about a career as an insur­
ance underwriter is available from the home
offices of many life insurance and property and
liability insurance companies. Information
about career opportunities as an underwriter
also may be obtained from:
American Council of Life Insurance, 1850 K St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William St.,
New York, N.Y. 10038.
Alliance of American Insurers, 20 N. Wacker Dr.,
Chicago, 111. 60606.
The National Association of Independent Insurers,
Public Relations Department, 2600 River Rd., Des
Plaines, 111. 60018.




Appraise real and personal property to determine its fair value and
assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules.


More slowly than

Claims takers,

Interview unemployed workers and compile data to determine
eligibility for unemployment benefits.


Little change is

Cost estimators

Prepare cost and work completion estimates for engineering contract
bids. Compute cost estimates of raw materials, purchased equipment,
or subcontracted work and labor.


Faster than average

Credit analysts

Analyze credit data to estimate degree of risk involved in extending
credit or lending money to firms or individuals, and prepare reports
of findings.


Faster than average

Credit analysts,

Analyze fiscal data such as financial statements, to develop, write
and update credit information used to review bank’s credit
relationship with customers.


Faster than average

Postmasters and
Special agents,

Supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in postal and
related work in assigned post office.


Expected to decline

Recruit independent insurance agents in field and maintain contact
between them and home office. Advise agents on matters pertaining
to conduct of business, such as cancellations, overdue accounts,
technical problems, claims procedures, new business contacts and
new products. May gather information for underwriter. May inspect
buildings to determine fire insurance rates.


Faster than average

Collect taxes from individuals or business firms according to
prescribed laws and regulations.


More slowly than

Tax examiners,
collectors and
revenue agents


Projected growth

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects
Nature of the Work
Engineers, surveyors, and architects do plan­
ning and design. Engineers design machines,
processes, systems, and structures. Surveyors
measure and lay out land boundaries. Archi­
tects design buildings and other structures, as
well as outdoor areas. Architects, engineers,
and surveyors often work together on building
projects. Architects design the building, con­
centrating on the visual appearance as well as
the needs of owners and occupants. Engineers
design those parts of the building which are
concerned with such things as its mechanical,
heating, and electrical systems. Surveyors lay
out the building’s boundaries and the bound­
aries of the land it occupies.
Engineers apply scientific and mathematical
theories and principles to solve practical tech­
nical problems. Most work in one of the more
than 25 specialties recognized by professional
societies. Electrical, mechanical, civil, chemi­
cal, and aerospace engineering are the largest.
Although many engineers design and develop
technical products and systems, others work in
testing, production, operations, and mainte­
Architects also apply scientific and mathe­
matical theories and principles to design and
construct buildings which are esthetically ap­
pealing and safe, and which meet the needs of
their client.
Surveyors use mathematical and scientific
principles to measure and lay out land areas and
establish boundaries. They also research deeds,
write legal descriptions of land, and collect
information for maps and charts.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
The generally accepted standard for engineers
is a bachelor’s degree in engineering, although
those with degrees in natural science or mathe­
matics may sometimes qualify as engineers.
Surveyors usually qualify for their work with a
combination of postsecondary school courses
and on-the-job training. Some obtain a junior
college degree in surveying. A bachelor’s de­
gree in architecture is necessary to become an
architect. To offer architectural services to the
public, architecture graduates must have sever­
al years’ work experience and pass a licensing

Job Outlook
All occupations in this group are expected to
grow as fast as or faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s. In archi­
tecture, however, growth may not be rapid
enough to provide jobs for all of those seeking
to enter the occupation.


(D.d.T. 001.061-010, 351? and .167-010)

Nature of the Work
Designing a building involves far more than
planning an attractive exterior made of stone,
steel and glass, or other materials. Buildings
must be safe as well as attractive and suit the
needs of the people who use them. Architects
take all these things into consideration and de­
sign buildings that are esthetically appealing,
safe, and functional.
Architects provide a wide variety of profes­
sional services to individuals and organizations
planning a building project. Architects are in­
volved in all phases of development, from the
initial discussion of general ideas with the client
through construction. Their duties require a
variety of skills—design, engineering, man­
agerial, and supervisory.
The architect and client first discuss the pur­
poses, requirements, and cost of a project.
Based on the discussions, the architect prepares
a program—a report specifying the require­
ments the design must meet. The architect then
prepares carefully scaled drawings presenting
ideas for meeting the client’s needs.
After the architect’s initial proposals are dis­
cussed and accepted, the architect develops
final construction documents that incorporate
any changes required by the client. These docu­
ments show the floor plans, elevations, build­
ing sections, and other construction details of
the project. Accompanying the architectural
drawings are drawings of the structural system,
air-conditioning, heating, and ventilating sys­
tems, electrical systems, plumbing, and land­
scape plans.
Architects also specify the building materials
and, in some cases, the interior furnishings. In
all cases, the architect’s design and specifica­
tions must conform to local and State building
codes, zoning laws, fire regulations, and other
ordinances, such as those that require easy ac­
cess by handicapped persons.
Throughout the planning stage, the architect
may make changes to satisfy the client. A client
may decide that the design is too expensive and
ask the architect to make modifications, or the
client may propose additions to the original
plan. Redesigning to suit the client requires
flexibility, and sometimes considerable pa­
tience, on the part of the architect.
After all drawings are completed, the archi­
tect assists the client in selecting a contractor
and negotiating the construction contract. As
construction proceeds, the architect visits the
building site to monitor the contractor in fol­
lowing the design and using the specified mate­
rials. The architect also checks to be sure that

the quality of work meets the specified stan­
dards. The job is not complete until con­
struction is finished, all required tests are made,
construction costs are paid, and guarantees are
received from the contractor.
Architects design a wide variety of struc­
tures, such as houses, churches, hospitals, of­
fice buildings, and airports. They also design
multibuilding complexes for urban renewal
projects, college campuses, industrial parks,
and new towns. Besides designing structures,
architects also may help in selecting building
sites, preparing cost and land-use studies, and
conducting long-range planning for land de­
When working on large projects or for large
architectural firms, architects often specialize
in one phase of the work, such as designing or
administering construction contracts. This
often requires working with engineers, urban
planners, landscape architects, and others.

Working Conditions
Architects generally work in a comfortable en­
vironment. Most of their time is spent in offices
interviewing clients, developing reports and
drawings, and working with other architects
and engineers. However, they also often work at
the construction site inspecting the progress of
the project.
Architects may work under great stress to
meet deadlines and working nights and week­
ends is not uncommon.

Architects held about 84,000 jobs in 1982.
Most architects work for architectural firms—
many of which employ fewer than five workers.
The remainder work for builders, real estate
developers, or other businesses that have large
construction programs and for government
agencies responsible for housing, planning, or
community development such as the Depart­
ments of Defense, Interior, and Housing and
Urban Development.
A large proportion of architects are located in
New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston, and
Washington where many large architectural
firms are located. Increasing numbers of archi­
tects are finding employment in areas of the
South and Southwest that are attracting new
business and residential construction such as
Dallas-Ft. Worth, Phoenix, and a number of
Florida cities.

TVaining, Other Qualifications, and
All States and the District of Columbia require
individuals to be registered (licensed) before
they may call themselves architects or contract
for providing architectural services. To qualify

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/45
Although employment is expected to rise
faster than the average, supply in this small
field could exceed the number of job openings
arising from growth in demand for architects
and from replacement needs. Competition will
continue to be keen for jobs in the most pres­
tigious firms which offer good potential for
career advancement.


Architects develop the construction drawings for a building.
for the registration examination, a person gen­
erally must have at least a Bachelor of Architec­
ture degree from a program accredited by the
National Architectural Accrediting Board and
three years of acceptable experience irW archi­
tect’s office. As a substitute for the professional
degree in architecture many States accept other
combinations of formal education and experi­
ence (usually much more than 3 years) for ad­
mission to the registration examination. Many
architecture school graduates work in the field
even though they are not registered. However, a
registered architect is required to take legal
responsibility for all work.
In 1982, the National Architectural Accredit­
ing Board had accredited the programs of 92
schools offering professional degrees in archi­
tecture. Most of these schools offer either a 5year curriculum leading to a Bachelor of Archi­
tecture degree or a 6-year curriculum leading to
a Master of Architecture degree. Students also
may transfer to professional degree programs
after completing a 2-year junior or community
college program in architecture. Many archi­
tecture schools also offer graduate education
for those who already have their first profes­
sional degree. Although such graduate educa­
tion is not essential for practicing architects, it
is desirable for those engaged in specialties or
in research and teaching. A typical college ar­
chitecture program includes courses in archi­
tectural theory, design, graphics, engineering,
and urban planning, as well as in English,
mathematics, physics, economics, and the hu­
Persons planning a career in architecture
should be able to work independently, have a
capacity for solving technical problems, and be
artistically inclined. They also must be pre­
pared to work in the competitive environment
of business where leadership and ability to
work with others are important. Students who

work for architects, engineers, or building con­
tractors during summer vacations can gain
useful experience.
New graduates usually begin in architectural
firms, where they prepare architectural draw­
ings and make models of structures under the
direction of a registered architect. They also
may design; administer construction contracts;
or write specifications for building materials,
the method of installation, the quality of
finishes, and many other related details.
In large firms, architects may move to super­
visory or managerial positions. Some archi­
tects become partners in established firms.
Often, however, the architect’s goal is to own
his or her own business.

Job Outlook
Employment of architects is expected to rise
faster than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s. Demand for architects
is highly dependent upon the level of con­
struction in the United States and foreign coun­
tries. As building activity increases, demand
for architectural services also will rise. Em­
ployment growth, however, is not expected to
be as fast as in previous years. The increasing
use of computer technologies, such as com­
puter-aided design will increase the amount of
work architects can undertake. In addition, for­
eign demand for U.S. architectural services
may grow more slowly than in the past as coun­
tries that traditionally have hired American
firms develop their own architectural service.
About half of all job openings will result
from replacement needs, a much smaller pro­
portion than for all professional workers. The
number ofjob openings for architects is small in
comparison to other occupations because the
occupation is small and few architects leave the
field because they have made a large investment
in their training.

The median annual earnings for salaried archi­
tects who work full time were about $23,900 in
1982. Most earned between $18,000 and
$31,000. The top 10 percent earned more than
$40,000 and the lowest 10 percent less than
The average salary for experienced architects
in 1982 was about $21,000 a year, according to
the American Institute of Architects. Newly
hired architects received about $12,000 an­
nually to start and their salaries increase as they
work toward passing the registration examina­
Architects with well-established private
practices generally earn much more than even
highly paid salaried employees of architectural
firms. However, architects may have difficulty
getting established in their own practices and
may go through a period when their expenses
are greater than their income. Annual income
may fluctuate due to changing business condi­
In 1982, the average salary for architects
working in the Federal Government was about

Related Occupations
Architects are concerned with the design and
construction of buildings and related structures.
Others who engage in related work are building
contractors, civil engineers, urban planners,
interior designers, industrial designers, land­
scape architects, drafters, and surveyors.

Sources of Additional Information
General information about careers in architec­
ture, including a catalog of publications, can be
obtained from:
The American Institute of Architects, 1735 New York
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

Specific questions on education careers
should be addressed to:
The Association of Collegiate Schools of Architec­
ture, Inc., 1735 New York Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.

Information about the licensing examina­
tions can be obtained from:
The National Council of Architectural Registration
Boards, 1735 New York Ave. NW., Suite 700, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 018.167-010. -014, -018, -026 and -034 through
-050, .261-018, -022, and -026, and .262-010)

Nature of the Work
Surveyors establish official land boundaries,
write descriptions of land to satisfy legal re­
quirements, help set land valuations, measure

46/Occupational Outlook Handbook
construction and mineral sites, and collect in­
formation for maps and charts.
Surveys are usually conducted by a survey
party to measure distances, directions, and an­
gles between points and elevations of points,
lines, and contours on the earth’s surface. Land
surveyors, who may head one or more survey
parties, are directly responsible for a party’s
activities and the accuracy of its work. They
plan the fieldwork, select survey reference
points, and determine the precise location of
natural and constructed features of the survey
project area. They record the results of the sur­
vey, verify the accuracy of data, and prepare
sketches, maps, and reports.
A typical survey party is made up of the party
chief and one to six assistants and helpers. The
party chief leads the day-to-day work activities
of the party. Instrument assistants adjust and
operate surveying instruments such as the the­
odolite (used to measure horizontal and vertical
angles) and electronic equipment used to mea­
sure distances. These workers also compile
notes, sketches, and records of the data ob­
tained from using these instruments.
Surveyors may specialize in a particular type
of survey. Many do land surveys to locate
boundaries of a particular tract of land. They
then prepare maps and legal descriptions for
deeds, leases, and other documents. Those
doing topographic surveys determine eleva­
tions, depressions, and contours of an area, and
indicate distinguishing surface features such as
farms, buildings, forests, roads, and rivers.
Geodetic surveyors use special high-accuracy
techniques, such as satellite observations, to
measure large areas of the earth’s surface.
Geophysical prospecting surveyors mark sites
for subsurface exploration, usually petroleum
related. Marine surveyors survey harbors,
rivers, and other bodies of water to determine
shorelines, topography of the bottom, depth,
and other features.

Surveyors work as members

Photogrammetrists measure and interpret
photographic images to determine the various
physical characteristics of natural or con­
structed features of an area. By applying ana­
lytical processes and mathematical techniques
to photographs from aerial, space, ground, and
underwater locations, photogrammetrists are
able to make detailed maps of areas that are
inaccessible or difficult to survey by other
methods. Control surveys on the ground are
made to insure the accuracy of maps derived
from photogrammetric techniques. Mosaicists
and map editors help develop and verify maps
and pictures from aerial photographs.
A closely related occupation that uses sur­
veying techniques is geodesist. (The work of
geodesists is described in the statement on
geologists elsewhere in the Handbook.)

the severe decline in construction activity dur­
ing the 1981-82 recession. Engineering and ar­
chitectural consulting firms employ nearly onehalf of all surveyors. Federal, State, and local
government agencies employ about one-fourth.
Among the Federal Government agencies em­
ploying surveyors are the U. S. Geological Sur­
vey, the Bureau of Land Management, the
Army Corps of Engineers, the Forest Service,
the National Ocean Survey, and the Defense
Mapping Agency. Most surveyors in State and
local government agencies work for highway
departments and urban planning and redevelop­
ment agencies. Construction firms, oil and gas
extraction companies, and public utilities also
employ surveyors. In addition, a sizable
number own their own survey firms.

Working Conditions

Most persons prepare for surveying work by
combining postsecondary school courses in
surveying with extensive on-the-job training.
Some prepare by obtaining a college degree.
Junior and community colleges, technical in­
stitutes, and vocational schools offer 1-, 2-, and
3-year programs in surveying. A few 4-year
colleges offer bachelor’s degrees specifically in
surveying, while many others offer several
courses in the field.
High school students interested in pursuing a
career in surveying should take courses in al­
gebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, me­
chanical drawing, and computer science.
High school graduates with no formal train­
ing in surveying usually start as a member of the
survey crew. After several years of on-the-job
experience and formal training in surveying—
either in an institutional program or from a
correspondence school—workers may advance
to instrument assistant, then to party chief, and
finally to licensed surveyor.
Beginners with postsecondary school train­
ing in surveying can generally start as instru­
ment assistants. After gaining experience, they
may advance to party chief or become a li­
censed surveyor. In many instances, promo­
tions to higher level positions are based on
written examinations as well as experience.
Those interested in a career as a photogrammetrist usually need a bachelor’s degree in en­
gineering or a physical science. Most photogrammetry technicians have had some spe­
cialized postsecondary school training.
All 50 States require licensing of land sur­
veyors. Licensing requirements are generally
quite strict because, once licensed, surveyors
can be held legally responsible for their work.
Requirements for licensure vary among the
States. Generally, the quickest route to licen­
sure is a combination of 4 years of college, 2 to
4 years of experience, and passing the State
licensing exam. In most States, persons may
qualify to take the licensing exam after 5 to 12
years of surveying experience. As a prere­
quisite to licensure, some States now require a
bachelor’s degree in surveying or in a closely
related field such as civil engineering or for­
estry with courses in surveying. A few States
allow such graduates to take the licensing ex­
amination without experience in the field.

Surveyors usually work an 8-hour day 5 days a
week. Sometimes they work longer hours dur­
ing the summer months when weather condi­
tions are most suitable for surveying.
The work of a survey party is active and
sometimes strenuous. Party members often
stand for long periods and walk long distances
or climb hills with heavy packs of instruments
and equipment. They also are exposed to all
types of weather. Occasionally, they must com­
mute long distances or find temporary housing
near the survey site.
Surveyors spend considerable time on office
duties, such as planning surveys, preparing re­
ports and computations, and drawing maps.
Most computations and some map drafting are
done by computer.

Surveyors held about 40,000 jobs in 1982. This
is about 12,000 fewer than in 1980, reflecting

of a team when conducting field surveys.

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/47
Surveyors should have the ability to visualize
and understand objects, distances, sizes, and
other abstract forms. Also, because mistakes
can be very costly, surveyors must make mathe­
matical calculations quickly and accurately
while paying close attention to the smallest
detail. Leadership qualities are important for
surveyors who supervise others.
Members of a survey party must be in good
physical condition to work outdoors and carry
equipment over difficult terrain. They also need
good eyesight, coordination, and hearing to
communicate over great distances by hand or
voice signals.

buildings, and recreation areas. Construction
and improvement of the Nation’s roads and
highways also should create new surveying
positions. However, employment may fluctuate
from year to year because construction activity
is highly sensitive to changes in economic con­
There are indications that demand for sur­
veyors is becoming somewhat less dependent
on the level of construction activity. Tech­
nological innovations that utilize satellites to
collect data have opened new areas of spe­
cialization. For example, the ability to map
inaccessible areas of the earth has been greatly
expanded on both land and sea.

Job Outlook
Employment of surveyors is expected to grow
faster than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s. In addition to openings
arising from growth in the demand for these
workers, many will result from the need to
replace those who leave the occupation, retire,
or die.
In the long run, the anticipated growth in
construction should create additional jobs for
surveyors who lay out streets, shopping cen­
ters, housing developments, factories, office

In 1982, high school graduates with little or no
training or experience earned about $9,800 an­
nually at entry level jobs on survey crews with
the Federal Government. Those with 1 year of
related postsecondary training earned $10,650.
Those with an associate degree that included
courses in surveying generally started as instru­
ment assistants with an annual salary of
$11,950. The average annual salary for survey­
ing technicians in 1982 was $15,020. In early

1983, persons starting as land surveyors with
the Federal Government earned $13,400 or
$16,600 a year, depending on their qualifica­
tions. The average annual salary for land sur­
veyors in 1982 was $26,240.
Although salaries in private industry vary by
geographic area, limited information indicates
that salaries for surveyors or surveying techni­
cians are generally comparable to those in the
Federal service at any given level.

Related Occupations
Other occupations concerned with accurate
measurement and delineation of land areas,
coastlines, and natural and constructed features
include cartographers, cartographic drafters,
geodesists, and topographical drafters.

Sources of Additional Information
Information about career opportunities, licen­
sure requirements, and schools that offer train­
ing in surveying is available from:
American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 210
Little Falls St., Falls Church, Va. 22046.

General information on careers in photogrammetry is available from:
American Society of Photogrammetry, 210 Little
Falls St., Falls Church, Va. 22046.

The work of engineers has made it possible to
communicate by telephone, radio, and TV; to
travel in space; and to prolong life. Future ac­
complishments could be increased energy sup­
plies, more pollution-free powerplants, and aid
to medical science in its fight against disease.
This section, which contains an overall dis­
cussion of engineering, is followed by separate
statements on ten branches of the profession—
aerospace, chemical, civil, electrical, indus­
trial, mechanical, metallurgical, mining, nu­
clear, and petroleum engineering.

Nature of the Work
Engineers apply the theories and principles of
science and mathematics to practical technical
problems. Often their work is the link between
a scientific discovery and its application. Engi­
neers design machinery, products, systems,
and processes for efficient and economical per­
formance. They develop electric power, water
supply, and waste disposal systems. They de­
sign industrial machinery and equipment for
manufacturing goods, and heating, air-con­
ditioning, and ventilation equipment for more
comfortable living. Engineers also develop sci­
entific equipment to probe outer space and the
ocean depths; design defense and weapons sys­
tems for the Armed Forces; and design, plan,
and supervise the construction of buildings,
highways, and rapid transit systems. They also
design and develop consumer products such as
automobiles, television sets, refrigerators, and
electronic games, and systems for control and
automation of manufacturing, business, and
management processes.

Engineers must consider many factors in de­
veloping a new product. For example, in de­
veloping devices to reduce automobile exhaust
emissions, engineers must determine the gener­
al way the device will work, design and test all
components, and fit them together in an inte­
grated plan. They must then evaluate the overall
effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety of the
new device. This process applies to products as
different as lawnmowers, computers, industrial
machinery, and toys.
In addition to design and development, many
engineers work in testing, production, opera­
tions, or maintenance. They supervise produc­
tion processes in factories, determine the
causes of breakdowns, and test newly manufac­
tured products to maintain quality. They also
estimate the time and cost to complete projects.
Some work in engineering administration and
management, or in sales jobs where an engi­
neering background enables them to discuss the
technical aspects of a product and assist in plan­
ning its installation or use. (See the statement
on manufacturers’ sales workers elsewhere in
the Handbook.) Some engineers work as con­
Most engineers specialize; more than 25 spe­
cialties are recognized by professional so­
cieties. Within the major branches are over 85
subdivisions. Structural, hydraulic, and high­
way engineering, for example, are subdivisions
of civil engineering. Engineers also may spe­
cialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles,
or in one field of technology, such as propulsion
or guidance systems.
Engineers in each branch apply their knowl­
edge to many fields. Electrical engineers, for

Electrical engineering is the largest engineering specialty.
Em ploym ent, 1982 (thousands)









.................................. J
....... 1
.. .1


SO URCE: Bu reau o f L ab o r S t a tis tic s





example, work in the medical, computer, mis­
sile guidance, or power distribution fields. Be­
cause complex problems cut across traditional
fields, engineers in one field often work closely
with specialists in scientific, other engineering,
and business occupations.
Engineers often use*, calculators and com­
puters to solve mathematical equations which
describe how a machine, structure, or system
operates. Engineers.also spend a great deal of
time writing reports and consulting with other
engineers. Complex projects require many en­
gineers, each working with a small part of the
job. Supervisory engineers are responsible for
entire projects.

Working Conditions
Some engineers are at a desk in an office build­
ing almost all of the time but others work in
research laboratories, industrial plants, or con­
struction sites to inspect, supervise or solve on­
site problems. Engineers in specialties such as
civil engineering may work outdoors part of the
time. A few engineers travel extensively to
plants or construction sites. Some work over­
time to meet deadlines, often without addi­
tional compensation.

Engineering is the second largest profession,
exceeded only by teaching. In 1982, engineers
held about 1,204,000. About 600,000 or onehalf of all engineering jobs were located in
manufacturing industries—mostly in electrical
and electronic equipment, aircraft and parts,
machinery, chemicals, scientific instruments,
primary metals, fabricated metal products, and
motor vehicle industries. In 1982, over 400,000
jobs were in nonmanufacturing industries, pri­
marily in engineering and architectural serv­
ices, construction, public utilities, and business
and management consulting services.
Federal, State, and local governments em­
ployed about 160,000 engineers. Over half of
the jobs were in the Federal Government, main­
ly in the Departments of Defense, Interior, En­
ergy, Agriculture, and Transportation, and in
the National Aeronautics and Space Admin­
istration. Most engineers in State and local gov­
ernment agencies worked in highway and pub­
lic works departments.
Besides the jobs described above, about
40,000 persons held engineering faculty posi­
tions in colleges and universities in 1982. (See
the statement on college and university faculty
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Engineers are employed in every State, in
small and large cities, and in rural areas. Some
branches of engineering are concentrated in
particular industries and geographic areas, as
discussed in statements later in this chapter.

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/49
Training, Other Qualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree in engineering is generally
acceptable for beginning engineering jobs.
College graduates with a degree in science or
mathematics and experienced technicians may
also qualify for some jobs.
Many 2- or 4-year college programs in engi­
neering technology prepare students for prac­
tical design and production work rather than for
jobs that require more theoretical scientific and
mathematical knowledge. Graduates of such 4year technology programs may get jobs similar
to those obtained by graduates with a bachelor’s
degree in engineering. However, some employ­
ers regard them as having skills between those
of a technician and an engineer.
Graduate training is essential for engineering
faculty positions but is not needed for the ma­
jority of entry level engineering jobs. Many
engineers obtain a master’s degree however,
because an advanced degree often is desirable
for promotion or for learning new technology.
Some specialties, such as nuclear, environmen­
tal, or biomedical engineering, are taught
mainly at the graduate level.
About 250 colleges and universities offer a
bachelor’s degree in engineering, and over 90
colleges offer a bachelor’s degree in engineer­
ing technology. Although most institutions of­
fer programs in the larger branches of engineer­
ing, only a few offer some of the smaller
specialties. Therefore, students should investi­
gate curriculums before selecting a college.
Admissions requirements for undergraduate
engineering schools usually include courses in
advanced high school mathematics and the
physical sciences.
In a typical 4-year curriculum, the first 2
years are spent studying basic sciences—math­
ematics, physics, chemistry, and introductory
engineering—and the humanities, social sci­
ences, and English. In the last 2 years, most
courses are in engineering. Some programs of­
fer a general engineering curriculum; students
then specialize in graduate school or on the job.
Some engineering curriculums require more
than 4 years to complete. Some colleges and
universities offer 5-year master’s degree pro­
grams. In addition, several engineering schools
have arrangements whereby a student spends 3
years in a liberal arts college studying pre­
engineering subjects and 2 years in the engi­
neering school and receives a bachelor’s degree
from each.
Some 5- or even 6-year cooperative plans
combine classroom study and practical work
experience. In addition to gaining useful expe­
rience, students can thereby finance part of
their education. Tq keep up with rapid advances
in technology, engineers often continue their
education throughout their careers.
All 50 States and the District of Columbia
require licensing for engineers whose work
may affect life, health, or property, or who offer
their services to the public. In 1982, over
400,000 engineers were registered. Registra­
tion generally requires a degree from an ac­
credited engineering program, 4 years of rele­
vant work experience, and passing a State

examination. Some States will not register
those with degrees in engineering technology.
Beginning engineering graduates usually do
routine work under the close supervision of
experienced engineers and in larger companies
may also receive formal classroom or seminartype training. As they gain experience, they are
assigned more difficult tasks. Some eventually
become managers or administrators within en­
gineering; others leave engineering for non­
technical managerial, administrative, and sales
jobs. Some engineers obtain graduate degrees
in business administration to improve advance­
ment opportunities; others obtain law degrees
and become patent attorneys. Many high level
executives in government and industry began
their careers as engineers.
Engineers should be able to work as part of a
team and should have creativity, an analytical
mind, and a capacity for detail. In addition,
engineers should be able to express themselves
well—both orally and in writing.

Job Outlook
Employment opportunities for those with de­
grees in engineering are expected to be good
through 1995. In addition, there may be some
opportunities for college graduates from related
fields in certain engineering jobs.
Employment of engineers is expected to in­
crease faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through 1995. Although only a relatively
small proportion of engineers leave the profes­
sion each year, most job openings will arise
from replacement needs. Most replacement
openings are created by engineers who transfer
to management, sales, or other professional
Table 1.

occupations rather than by engineers who retire
or die.
Much of the projected growth in require­
ments for engineers will stem from the expected
higher levels of investment in industrial plants
and equipment to meet the demand for more
goods and services and to increase productivity.
More engineers also will be needed to develop
and manufacture defense-related products and
to improve transportation facilities.
Engineers will be required in energy-related
activities to develop sources of energy as well
as to design energy-saving systems for auto­
mobiles, homes, and other buildings. Engi­
neers also will be needed to solve environmen­
tal problems.
Most industries are less likely to lay off engi­
neers than other workers. Many engineers work
on long-term research and development pro­
jects or in other activities which often continue
even during recessions. However, in industries
such as electronics and aerospace, large cut­
backs in defense or research and development
expenditures may result in layoffs for engi­
It is important for engineers to continue their
education throughout their careers because
their value to their employer depends on their
knowledge of the latest technology. The pace of
technological change varies by engineering
specialty and industry. Engineers in high-tech­
nology areas such as advanced electronics or
aerospace may find that their knowledge be­
comes obsolete rapidly. Even engineers who
continue their education are vulnerable to ob­
solescence if the particular technology or prod­
uct they have specialized in becomes obsolete.

Degrees granted by engineering specialty, academic year 1980-81

Bachelor’s Master’s Doctor’s

Total ......................................................................................... .........


Aerospace, aeronautical, and astronautical engineering............... .........
Agricultural engineering ................................................................... .........
Architectural engineering................................................................... .........
Bioengineering and biomedical engineering................................... .........
Ceramic engineering ......................................................................... .........
Chemical engineering......................................................................... .........
Civil, construction, and transportation engineering ...................... .........
Electrical, electronics, and communications engineering ........... .........
Engineering, general ......................................................................... .........
Engineering mechanics ...............................................................................
Engineering physics ........................................................................... ..........
Engineering technologies.............................................................................
Environmental and sanitary engineering......................................... .........
Geological engineering ..................................................................... ..........
Geophysical engineering ................................................................... ...........
Industrial and management engineering ....................................................
Materials engineering......................................................................... ...........
Mechanical engineering ................................................................................
Metallurgical engineering ............................................................................
Mining and mineral engineering .................................................................
Naval architecture and marine engineering................................................
Nuclear engineering ........................................................................... ...........
Ocean engineering .........................................................................................
Petroleum engineering ....................................................................... ...........
Textile engineering ............................................................................. ...........
O ther..................................................................................................... ...........


Source: National Center for Education S a i t c .

49 .


50/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Engineers whose employers consider not to
have kept up may find themselves passed over
for promotions and are particularly vulnerable
to layoffs. However, it is often these high-tech­
nology areas that offer the greatest challenges,
most interesting work, and the highest salaries.
Therefore, the choice of engineering specialty
and employer involves an assessment of the risk
of possible technological obsolescence later in
one’s career versus the potential rewards.
Despite these problems, over the long run the
number of people seeking jobs as engineers is
expected to about equal the number ofjob open­
(The outlook for various branches is dis­
cussed in the separate statements that follow
this introductory section.)

Related Occupations


Society of Women Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

According to the College Placement Council,
engineering graduates with a bachelor’s degree
and no experience averaged $25,200 a year in
private industry in 1982; those with a master’s
degree and no experience, $28,200 a year; and
those with a Ph.D., $36,300. Starting offers for
those with the bachelor’s degree vary by
branch, as shown in the following tabulation.
Petroleum engineering...........................
Chemical engineering ..........................
Mining engineering ...............................
Metallurgical engineering ....................
Mechanical engineering........................
Electrical engineering ..........................
Nuclear engineering...............................
Industrial engineering ..........................
Aeronautical engineering......................
Civil engineering ...................................


Engineers in private industry in 1983 aver­
aged $25,556 at the most junior level, and
$66,938 at senior supervisory levels. Experi­
enced mid-level engineers with no supervisory
responsibilities earned about $36,726. (See
table 2.)
In the Federal Government in 1983, most
engineers with a bachelor’s degree and no expe­
rience could start at $17,383 or $21,527 a year,
depending on their college records. Those with
a master’s degree could start at $24,981, and
those having a Ph.D. degree could begin at
$26,959. The average salary for engineers in
the Federal Government was about $36,000 in

Much of the work of physical scientists, life
scientists, mathematicians, engineering and
science technicians, and architects relates to

Sources of Additional Information
General information on engineering careers—
including engineering school requirements,
courses of study, and salaries— is available
Engineering Manpower Commission of the Amer­
ican Association of Engineering Societies, 345 E.
47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
National Society of Professional Engineers, 2029 K
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

A list of accredited engineering programs
may be obtained from the Accreditation Board
for Engineering and Technology, 345 E. 47th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Societies representing many of the individu­
al branches of engineering are listed in this
chapter. Each can provide information about
careers in the particular branch.

Aerospace Engineers
(D.O.T. 002.061, .151, and .167)

Nature of the Work
Aerospace engineers design, develop, test, and
help produce commercial and military aircraft,
missiles, and spacecraft. They play an impor­
tant role in advancing technology in commer­

cial aviation, defense systems, and space explo­
Aerospace engineers often specialize in
areas like structural design, navigational guid­
ance and control, instrumentation and com­
munication, or production methods. They also
may specialize in one type of aerospace prod­
uct, such as passenger planes, helicopters, sat­
ellites, or rockets.

Aerospace engineers held about 44,000 jobs in
1982. Nearly 6 out of 10 jobs were located in
the aircraft and parts and guided missiles and
space vehicles industries. Federal Government
agencies, primarily the Department of Defense
and the National Aeronautics and Space Ad­
ministration, provided about 2 out of 10 jobs.
Business and engineering consulting firms,
communications equipment manufacturing
firms, and commercial airlines accounted for
most of the remainder.
Employment of aerospace engineers is con­
centrated in States with large aerospace man­
ufacturers, especially California, Washington,
and Texas.

Job Outlook
Employment of aerospace engineers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s as Federal
outlays increase for new military aircraft, mis­
sies, and other aerospace systems. Aerospace
engineers also will be needed to design and help
produce new commercial aircraft. Much of the
present fleet of airliners will have to be replaced
with quieter and more fuel-efficient aircraft.
Increased demand for helicopters and business
aircraft also will create opportunities for aero­
space engineers. Despite this expected growth

Table 2. Engineers’ salaries in private
industry by work level, 1983


I ...............
II .............
III ...........
IV ...........
V .............
VI ...........
VII .........
V I I I .........

Percent of Average
8.8- —— 51,460

Source: Bureau of Labor S a i t c .

An aerospace engineer discusses assembly of a missile with a production worker.

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/51
in employment, most job openings will result
from the need to replace aerospace engineers
who transfer to other occupations retire, or die.
Since a large proportion of aerospace engi­
neering jobs are defense related, severe cut­
backs in defense spending—like those which
took place in 1969 and 1970—can result in
layoffs of aerospace engineers.

Sources of Additional Information
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Inc., 1633 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10019.

(See introductory section of this chapter for
discussion of training requirements and earn­

Chemical Engineers
(D.O.T. 006.061, .151; 008.061, .151, and .167)

Nature of the Work
Chemical engineers work in many phases of the
production of chemicals and chemical prod­
ucts. They design equipment and plants and
determine and test methods of manufacturing
the products. Chemical engineers also work in
areas other than chemical manufacturing such
as the development of processes designed to
prevent pollution. Because the duties of chemi­
cal engineers cut across many fields, these pro­
fessionals must have a knowledge of chemistry,
physics, mathematics, and mechanical and
electrical engineering.
This branch of engineering is so diversified
and complex that chemical engineers fre­
quently specialize in a particular operation such
as oxidation or polymerization. Others spe­
cialize in a particular area such as pollution
control or the production of a specific product
like plastics or rubber.

Chemical engineers held 56,000 jobs in 1982.
Three-fifths were in manufacturing industries,
primarily in the chemicals, petroleum refining,
and related industries. About 1 out of 6 worked
for engineering service or consulting firms and
a small number worked for government agen­
cies or as independent consultants.

A chemical engineer tests a coal sample.
additional openings. Also, the new field of bio­
technology may create opportunities for chemi­
cal engineers.

Sources of Additional Information
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East
47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
American Chemical Society, 1155 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(See introductory part of this section for in­
formation on training requirements and earn­

Civil Engineers
(D.O.T. 005.061 and .167 except -022)

Nature of the Work
Civil engineers, who work in the oldest branch
of the engineering profession, design and super­
vise the construction of roads, airports, tun­
nels, bridges, water supply and sewage sys­
tems, and buildings. Major specialties within

Job Outlook
Employment of chemical engineers is expected
to grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1990’s. Most openings,
however, will result from the need to replace
chemical engineers who transfer to other oc­
cupations, retire, or die.
A major factor underlying projected employ­
ment growth is expansion in the energy and
chemical industries. The growing complexity
and automation of chemical processes will re­
quire additional chemical engineers to design,
build, and maintain the necessary plants and
equipment. Development of new chemicals
used in the manufacture of consumer goods,
such as plastics and synthetic fibers, will create

Civil engineers often design buildings.

civil engineering are structural, hydraulic, en­
vironmental (sanitary), transportation, high­
way, and soil mechanics.
Many civil engineers are in supervisory or
administrative positions ranging from super­
visor of a construction site to city engineer to
top-level executive. Others work as indepen­
dent consultants.

Civil engineers held over 155,000 jobs in 1982.
About 40 percent of the jobs were in Federal,
State, and local government agencies. About a
third of the jobs were in firms that provide
engineering, design, and architectural con­
sulting services. The construction industry,
public utilities, railroads, and manufacturing
industries accounted for most of the rest.
Civil engineers work in all parts of the coun­
try, usually in or near major industrial and com­
mercial centers. They often work at con­
struction sites, sometimes in remote areas or in
foreign countries. In some jobs, they often
move from place to place to work on different

52/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Job Outlook
Employment of civil engineers is expected to
increase faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1990’s. Most job open­
ings, however, will result from the need to re­
place civil engineers who transfer to other
occupations, retire, or die.
A growing population and an expanding
economy will result in a need for more civil
engineers to design and construct transporta­
tion systems, manufacturing plants, and other
Since many civil engineers are employed in
construction and related industries, employ­
ment opportunities may decrease during eco­
nomic slowdowns when many new con­
struction projects often are curtailed.

Sources of Additional Information
American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 E. 47th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

(See introductory part of this section for in­
formation on training requirements and earn­

Electrical Engineers
(D.O.T. 003.061, .151, .167, and .187)

Nature of the Work
Electrical engineers design, develop, test, and
supervise the manufacture of electrical and
electronic equipment. Electrical equipment in­
cludes power generating and transmission
equipment used by electric utilities and electric
motors, machinery controls, and lighting and
wiring in buildings, automobiles, and aircraft.
Electronic equipment includes radar, com­
puters, communications equipment, and con­
sumer goods such as TV sets and stereo compo­
nents. Electrical engineers who work with
electronic equipment often are called electronic
Electrical engineers generally specialize in a
major area—such as power distributing equip­
ment, integrated circuits, computers, electrical
equipment manufacturing, or communica­
tions—or in a subdivision of these areas—mi­
crowave communication or aviation electronic
systems, for example. Electrical engineers de­
sign new products, write performance require­
ments, and develop maintenance schedules.
They also test equipment, solve operating prob­
lems, and estimate the time and cost of engi­
neering projects. Besides manufacturing and
research, development, and design, many are
employed in administration and management or
technical sales.


An electrical engineer checks the design of an integrated circuit.
firms, public utilities, and government agen­
cies accounted for most of the remaining jobs.
Some electrical engineers worked as indepen­
dent consultants.

Job Outlook
Employment of electrical engineers is expected
to increase much faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s. The ma­
jority of job openings, however, will result from
the need to replace electrical engineers who
transfer to other occupations, retire, or die.
Although increased demand by businesses
and government for computers, communica­
tions equipment, and military electronics is ex­
pected to account for much of the projected
employment growth, consumer demand for
electrical and electronic goods, and increased
research and development in new types of auto­
mation and industrial robots should create addi­
tional jobs.
Since many electrical engineering jobs are
defense related, cutbacks in defense spend­
ing—like those which took place in 1969 and
1970—could result in layoffs of electrical engi­
neers in defense-related industries. Further­
more, those who fail to keep up with the rapid
changes in technology in some electrical engi­
neering specialties risk technological obsoles­
cence which makes them more susceptible to
layoffs or, at a minimum, likely to be passed
over for advancement.

Sources of Additional Information
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/
United States Activities Board, 1111 19th St. NW.,
Suite 608, Washington, D.C. 20036.

(See introductory part of this section for in­
formation on training requirements and earn­

Industrial Engineers

Electrical engineering is the largest branch of
(D.O.T. 010.061-026; 012.061, .067, .167 except -066,
engineering. Electrical engineers held almost and .187)
320,000 jobs in 1982. Most jobs were in firms
that manufacture electrical and electronic
equipment, business machines, professional Nature of the Work
and scientific equipment, and aircraft and Industrial engineers determine the most effec­
parts. Construction and engineering consulting tive ways for an organization to use the basic

factors of production—people, machines, ma­
terials, and energy. They are more concerned
with people and methods of business organiza­
tion than are engineers in other specialties, who
generally work more with products or pro­
cesses, such as metals, power, or mechanics.
To solve organizational, production, and re­
lated problems most efficiently, industrial engi­
neers design data processing systems and apply
mathematical concepts (operations research
techniques). They also develop management
control systems to aid in financial planning and
cost analysis, design production planning and
control systems to coordinate activities and
control product quality, and design or improve
systems for the physical distribution of goods
and services. Industrial engineers conduct sur­
veys to find plant locations with the best com­
bination of raw materials, transportation, and
taxes. They also develop wage and salary ad­
ministration systems and job evaluation pro­
grams. Many industrial engineers move into
management positions because the work is
closely related.

Some industrial engineers develop com­
puterized management control systems.

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/53
Industrial engineers held 160,000 jobs in 1982;
more than 3 out of 4 jobs were in manufacturing
industries. Because their skills can be used in
almost any type of organization, industrial en­
gineers are more widely distributed among in­
dustries than other engineers. For example,
some even work for insurance companies,
banks, hospitals, and retail organizations.
Some work for government agencies or are
independent consultants.

Job Outlook
Employment of industrial engineers is expected
to grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1990’s. Most job open­
ings, however, will result from the need to re­
place industrial engineers who transfer to other
occupations, retire, or die.
Industrial growth, more complex business
operations, and the greater use of automation
underlie the projected employment growth.
Jobs also will be created as firms seek to reduce
costs and increase productivity through scien­
tific management and safety engineering.

Sources of Additional Information
Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc., 25 Technology
Park/Atlanta, Norcross, Ga. 30092.

(See introductory part of this section for in­
formation on training requirements and earn­

Mechanical Engineers
(D.O.T. 007.061, .151, .161-022 and -034, .167-014;
014.061, .151, and .167)

Nature of the Work
Mechanical engineers are concerned with the
use, production, and transmission of mechan­
ical power. They design and develop powerproducing machines such as internal combus­
tion engines, steam and gas turbines, and jet

Almost 3 out of 5 mechanical engineers work in
manufacturing industries.

and rocket engines. They also design and de­
velop power-using machines such as refrigera­
tion and air-conditioning equipment, elevators,
machine tools, printing presses, and industrial
production equipment.
The work of mechanical engineers varies by
industry and function. Many specialties have
developed within the field; they include motor
vehicles; marine equipment; energy conversion
systems; heating, ventilating, and air-con­
ditioning; instrumentation; and special ma­
chines for industries such as petroleum, rubber,
plastics, and construction.
Large numbers of mechanical engineers do
research, test, and design work while others
work in maintenance, technical sales, and pro­
duction operations. Many are administrators or
managers. Some work as consultants.

result from the need to replace mechanical en­
gineers who transfer to other occupations, re­
tire, or die.


Nature of the Work

Mechanical engineers held about 209,000 jobs
in 1982. Almost 3 out of 5 jobs were in man­
ufacturing—most in the machinery, transporta­
tion equipment, electrical equipment, and pri­
mary and fabricated metals industries. Busi­
ness and engineering consulting services and
government agencies provided most of the re­
maining jobs.

Metallurgical engineers develop new types of
metal tailored to meet specific requirements—
heat resistant, strong but lightweight, or highly
malleable. They also develop methods to pro­
cess and convert metals into useful products.
Most of these engineers work in one of the three
main branches of metallurgy—extractive or
chemical, physical, and mechanical or process.
Extractive metallurgists are concerned with re­
moving metals from ores, and refining and al­
loying them to obtain useful metal. Physical
metallurgists deal with the nature, structure,
and physical properties of metals and their al­
loys, and with methods of converting refined
metals into final products. Mechanical metal­
lurgists develop methods such as casting, forg­
ing, rolling, and drawing to work and shape
metals. Scientists working in this field are
known as metallurgists or materials scientists,
but the distinction between scientists and engi­
neers in this field is small.

Job Outlook
Employment of mechanical engineers is ex­
pected to increase much faster than the average
for all occupations through the mid-1990’s as
the demand for machinery and machine tools
grows and industrial machinery and processes
become increasingly complex. Mechanical en­
gineers will be needed to develop new energy
systems and to help solve environmental pollu­
tion problems. Despite this expected employ­
ment growth, however, most job openings will

Sources of Additional Information
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345
E. 47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

(See introductory part of this section for in­
formation on training requirements and earn­
ings.) -

(D.O.T. 011.061, and .161.010)

A metallurgical engineer examines the structure of a metal sample.

54/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Metallurgical engineers held 14,000 jobs in
1982. The metal-producing industries provided
over one-fourth of all jobs. Metallurgical engi­
neers also work in industries that manufacture
machinery, aircraft and parts, and electrical
equipment, and in engineering consulting firms
and government agencies.

Job Outlook
Employment of metallurgical engineers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s. Most job
openings, however, will result from the need to
replace metallurgical engineers who retire, die,
or transfer to other occupations.
More metallurgical engineers will be needed
by the metalworking industries to develop new
metals and alloys as well as to adapt current
ones to new applications. For example, jet en­
gines require metals that can withstand extreme
heat. As the supply of high-grade ores dimin­
ishes, more metallurgical engineers will be re­
quired to develop new ways of recycling solid
waste materials and processing low-grade ores
now regarded as unprofitable to mine. Metal­
lurgical engineers also will be needed to solve
problems associated with the efficient use of
nuclear energy.

Sources of Additional Information


The Metallurgical Society of AIME, 420 Common­
wealth Dr., Warrendale, Pa. 15086.

Mining engineers held about 5,700 jobs in
1982. The mining industry provided about 3 out
of 5 jobs. Other jobs were located in govern­
ment agencies, engineering consulting firms,
or in manufacturing industries.
Mining engineers are usually employed at
the location of mineral deposits, often near
small communities. However, those in re­
search, management, consulting, or sales often
are located in metropolitan areas.

American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio

(See introductory part of this section for in­
formation on training requirements and earn­

Mining Engineers
(D.O.T. 010.061-014)

Nature of the Work
Mining engineers find, extract, and prepare
minerals for manufacturing industries to use.
They design open pit and underground mines,
supervise the construction of mine shafts and
tunnels in underground operations, and devise
methods for transporting minerals to process­
ing plants. Mining engineers are responsible
for the safe and economical operation of mines,
including ventilation, water supply, power,
communications, and equipment maintenance.
Some mining engineers work with geologists
and metallurgical engineers to locate and ap­
praise new ore deposits. Others develop new
mining equipment or direct mineral processing
operations to separate minerals from the dirt,
rock, and other materials they are mixed with.
Mining engineers frequently specialize in the
mining of one mineral, such as coal or copper.
With increased emphasis on protecting the
environment, many mining engineers have
been working to solve problems related to
mined-land reclamation and water and air pol­

Job Outlook
Employment of mining engineers is expected to
increase about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s. Most job
openings, however, will result from the need to
replace the large proportion of mining engi­
neers who transfer to other occupations each
Efforts to attain energy self-sufficiency
should spur the demand for coal and, therefore,
for mining engineers. The increase in demand
for coal will depend, to a great extent, on the
availability and price of other energy sources
such as petroleum, natural gas, and nuclear
energy as well as the price of coal in other
countries. More technologically advanced min­
ing systems and further enforcement of mine
health and safety regulations also will increase
the need for mining engineers. In addition,
exploration for all other minerals is increasing.
As easily mined deposits are depleted, engi­
neers must devise more efficient methods for
mining low-grade ores. Employment oppor­
tunities also will arise as new alloys and new
uses .for metals increase the demand for less
widely used ores. Recovery of metals from the
sea and the development of oil-shale deposits

could present major challenges to the mining

Sources of Additional Information
The Society of Mining Engineers of AIME, Caller
Number D, Littleton, Colo. 80127.

(See introductory part of this section for in­
formation on training requirements and earn­

Nuclear Engineers
(D.O.T. 015.061 and .151)

Nature of the Work
Nuclear engineers design, develop, monitor,
and operate nuclear power plants used to gener­
ate electricity and power Navy ships. They also
conduct research on nuclear energy and radia­
tion. For example, they may conduct research
on the nuclear fuel cycle—the production,
handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe
disposal of waste produced by nuclear ener­
gy—or on new types of nuclear energy systems
such as breeder reactors or fusion energy. Some
nuclear engineers specialize in the develop­
ment of nuclear weapons. Nuclear engineers
also develop industrial and medical uses for
radioactive materials.

Nuclear engineers held about 6,300 jobs in
1982. About 40 percent worked for the Federal
Government. Nearly half of all federally em­
ployed nuclear engineers were civilian em­
ployees of the Navy department. About one-

Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/55
third of all federally employed nuclear engi­
neers worked for the Nuclear Regulatory Com­
mission and most of the rest worked for the
Department of Energy or the Tennessee Valley
Authority. Most nonfederally employed nu­
clear engineers worked for public utilities or
engineering consulting companies. Some
worked for manufacturers of nuclear power

Job Outlook
Employment of nuclear engineers is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s. Nevertheless, most job
openings will result from the need to replace
nuclear engineers who retire, die, or leave the
Because of a combination of reduction in the
growth of demand for electric power due to
energy conservation and concerns over the
safety of nuclear power, few new nuclear power
plant construction projects may be started
through the mid-1990’s. However, more nuclear
engineers will be needed to operate the many
plants presently under construction that will be
placed in operation through the mid-1990’s. In
addition, more nuclear engineers may be
needed to improve and enforce safety standards
and to work in defense-related areas.

Sources of Additional Information
American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington
Ave., LaGrange Plark, 111. 60525.

Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Public Affairs and
Information Program, 7101 Wisconsin Ave., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20014.

(See introductory part of this section for in­
formation on training requirements and earn­

Petroleum Engineers
(D.O.T. 010.061 except -014 and -026, .051, .161-010 and
-014, and .167-010 and -014)

Nature of the Work
Most petroleum engineers explore and drill for
oil and gas. They work to achieve the maximum
profitable recovery of oil and gas from a pe­
troleum reservoir by determining and develop­
ing the most efficient production methods.
Since only a small proportion of the oil and
gas in a reservoir will flow out under natural
forces, petroleum engineers develop and use
various enhanced recovery methods, such as
flooding the oil field with water to force the oil
to the surface. The best methods in use today
recover only about half the oil. Petroleum engi­
neers’ research and development in the future
will be directed at finding ways to increase the
proportion of oil recovered in each reservoir.
Petroleum engineers also supervise drilling
operations, conduct research on drilling meth­
ods, and develop new methods to recover off­
shore oil and gas. As oil and gas become harder
to find, petroleum engineers must develop
methods of recovery in areas that were pre­
viously considered inaccessible, such as the
Arctic or the ocean depths.


Nuclear engineer reviews plans for a nuclear
power plant.

Petroleum engineers held over 26,000 jobs in
1982, mostly in the petroleum industry and
closely allied fields. Employers include major
oil companies and hundreds of smaller, inde­
pendent oil exploration, production, and serv­
ice companies. Engineering consulting firms,
government agencies, and equipment suppliers
also employ petroleum engineers. A few work
as independent consultants.
The petroleum engineer works mostly in
places where oil and gas are found. Large num­
bers of petroleum engineers are employed in
Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and California.
Also, many American petroleum engineers
work overseas in oil-producing countries.

Petroleum engineers often work at oil and gas
well sites.
Job Outlook
Employment of petroleum engineers is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the average for
all occupations through the mid-1990’s, as eco­
nomic expansion requires increasing supplies
of petroleum and natural gas. With oil and gas
becoming harder to find, more sophisticated
and expensive recovery methods will be used to
develop new sources of oil, such as offshore and
in the Arctic. Also, oil and gas drilling tech­
niques may be applied to develop geothermal
energy and recover certain minerals, which
would increase demand for petroleum engi­
neers. Despite this expected employment
growth, most job openings will result from the
need to replace petroleum engineers who trans­
fer to other occupations, retire, or die.

Sources of Additional Information
Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, 6200
North Central Expressway, Dallas, Tex. 75206.

(See introductory part of this section for in­
formation on training requirements and earn­

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians
N a tu r e o f th e W o rk

Natural scientists and mathematical scientists
seek knowledge of the physical world through
observation, study, and experimentation. The
knowledge gained through their scientific and
mathematical research activities has been used
to develop new products, increase productivity,
provide greater defense capabilities, protect the
environment, and improve health care. Three
subgroups make up this broad occupational
field: Physical scientists, life scientists, and
computer and mathematical occupations.
Physical scientists include those who study
the nature of matter and energy both on earth
and in the rest of the universe (physicists and
chemists) and those who study how physical
processes affect the earth (geologists and
geophysicists) and its atmosphere (mete­
Life scientists study living organisms and
their life processes. Biological scientists study
all forms of life and life processes. Most biolog­
ical scientists specialize in certain areas of biol­
ogy; for example, entomologists study insects

Digitized for 56

and physiologists study the life processes of
plants or animals. Agricultural scientists apply
principles of life science to problems in agri­
culture such as improving crop yield or breed­
ing better animals. Foresters and con­
servationists apply principles of life science to
conserving and increasing the productivity of
forests, rangelands, and soil.
Those in computer and mathematical oc­
cupations not only study mathematics but use it
as a tool to solve practical business or scientific
problems. Mathematicians, actuaries, statisti­
cians, and systems analysts apply mathematical
techniques to practical problems in business,
health care, defense, and other areas.

TVaining, Other Qualifications, and
For some natural science and mathematics jobs,
a bachelor’s degree is adequate for entry.
However, in fields such as mathematics, phys­
ics, biology, or agricultural science, an ad­
vanced degree is usually required for entry into
professional level jobs.

Undergraduate training for natural scientists
and mathematicians includes courses in their
major field and in related scientific fields.
In graduate school, students take more ad­
vanced courses in their major area of study and
in related sciences as well. Requirements for
the master’s or doctor’s degree usually include a
thesis, which is a report on the student’s orig­
inal research.

Job Outlook
In the past, growth in employment of natural
scientists and mathematicians has been related
to an expanding economy and to increased re­
search and development (R&D) expenditures.
Both government and industry are expected to
increase their R&D expenditures through the
mid-1990’s in order to expand our basic knowl­
edge of natural science, develop new tech­
nologies and products, and protect the natural
environment. However, if the rate of economic
growth and actual R&D levels and patterns dif­
fer from those assumed, the job outlook in
many occupations described in this section
would be altered.

Mathematical Scientists and Systems Analysts
Mathematics is both a science and a tool used in
many kinds of work. As a tool, mathematics is
essential for understanding and expressing
ideas in natural and social science, engineer­
ing, sales, and administrative and managerial
occupations. (Occupations in these fields are
discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.) Mathe­
matical techniques increasingly are applied in
these fields because of the widespread use of
computers, which help solve complex prob­
lems rapidly and inexpensively.
Although mathematics is used extensively in
many occupations, people in the occupations
covered in this section use mathematics to a
higher degree than others, and often devise new
mathematical techniques to solve problems.
Many persons with strong mathematical back­
grounds teach mathematics or do research on
both theoretical and applied mathematical
Statisticians use mathematical techniques to
design and interpret surveys and experiments
and test theories dealing with people or things.
Actuaries use statistical techniques to assess the
likelihood of risks that insurance companies
agree to cover and to calculate the costs associ­
ated with insuring such risks. Systems analysts
use mathematical, statistical, and accounting
techniques to analyze and design data process­
ing methods for business and scientific research
Most jobs related to mathematics require at
least a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, statis­
tics, or a related field and a strong background
in computer science. A graduate degree, pre­
ferably a doctorate, is necessary for college
teaching and research positions and for ad­
vancement in many nonacademic jobs.

(D.O.T. 020.167-010)

Nature of the Work
Why do young persons pay more for auto­
mobile insurance than older persons? How
much should an insurance policy cost? How
much should an organization contribute each
year to its pension fund? Answers to these and
similar questions are provided by actuaries who
design insurance and pension plans and keep
informed on their operation to make sure that
they are maintained on a sound financial basis.
Actuaries assemble and analyze statistics to
calculate probabilities of death, sickness, inju­
ry, disability, unemployment, retirement, and
property loss from accident, theft, fire, and
other hazards. They use this information to

determine the expected insured loss. For exam­
ple, they may calculate how many persons who
are 21 years old today can be expected to die
before age 65—the probability that an insured
person might die during this period is a risk to
the company. They must make sure that the
price charged for the insurance will enable the
company to pay all claims and expenses as they
occur. Finally, this price must be profitable and
yetbe competitive with other insurance com­
panies. In a similar manner, the actuary calcu­
lates premium rates and determines policy con­
tract provisions for each type of insurance
offered. Most actuaries specialize in either life
and health insurance or property and liability
(casualty) insurance; a growing number spe­
cialize in pension plans.
To perform their duties effectively, actuaries
must keep informed about general economic
and social trends, and legislative, health, and
other developments that may affect insurance
practices. Because of their broad knowledge of
insurance, company actuaries may work in in­
vestment, group underwriting, or pension plan­
ning departments. Actuaries in executive posi­
tions help determine company policy. In that
role, they may be called upon to explain com­
plex technical matters to company executives,
government officials, policyholders, and the
public. They may testify before public agencies
on proposed legislation affecting the insurance
business, for example, or explain intended
changes in premium rates or contract provi­
sions. They also may help companies develop
plans to enter new lines of business.
The small number of actuaries who work for
the Federal Government usually deal with a
particular insurance or pension program, such
as social security or life insurance for veterans
and members of the Armed Forces. Actuaries in
State government regulate insurance com­
panies, supervise the operations of State retire­
ment or pension systems, work on unemploy­
ment insurance or workers’ compensation
problems, and advise on the impact of proposed
legislation. Consulting actuaries set up {tension
and welfare plans for private companies,
unions, and government agencies. They calcu­
late future benefits and determine the amount of
employer contributions. Actuaries who are en­
rolled under the provisions of the Employee
Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
(ERISA) evaluate these pension plans and re­
port on their financial soundness.

Working Conditions
Actuaries have desk jobs that require no un­
usual physical activity; their offices generally
are comfortable and pleasant.
Actuaries generally work between 35 and 40
hours a week except during busy periods, when

Actuaries analyze statistical data to determine
the insurer’s risk.
overtime may be required. Actuaries may travel
to branch offices of their company or to clients.

Actuaries held over 8,000 jobs in 1982. Many
worked in insurance company headquarters in
New York, Hartford, Chicago, Philadelphia, or
Most of these worked for life insurance com­
panies; others worked for property and liability
(casualty) companies. The number of actuaries
employed by an insurance company depends on
its volume of business and the types of insur­
ance policies it offers. Large companies may
employ over 100 actuaries; others, generally
smaller companies, may rely instead on con­
sulting firms, accounting firms, or rating bu­
reaus (associations that supply actuarial data to
member companies). Other actuaries work for
private organizations administering indepen­
dent pension and welfare plans or for govern­
ment agencies.

lYaining, Other Qualifications, and
A good educational background for a beginning
job in a large life or casualty company is a
bachelor’s degree with a major in mathematics
or statistics; a degree in actuarial science is even
better. Some companies hire applicants with a
major in engineering, economics, or business
administration, provided the applicant has a
working knowledge of mathematics, including
calculus, probability, and statistics (20-25


58/Occupational Outlook Handbook
hours). Courses in accounting, computer sci­
ence, economics, and insurance also are useful.
Although only 34 colleges and universities of­
fer a degree in actuarial science, several hun­
dred schools offer a degree in mathematics or
A strong background in mathematics is es­
sential for persons interested in a career as an
actuary. It is an advantage to pass, while still in
school, one or more of the examinations offered
by professional actuarial societies. Three so­
cieties sponsor programs leading to full profes­
sional status in their specialty. The Society of
Actuaries gives ten actuarial examinations for
the life and health insurance and pension field;
the Casualty Actuarial Society gives ten exam­
inations for the property and liability field; and
the American Society of Pension Actuaries
gives nine examinations covering the pension
field. Because the first parts of the examination
series of each society cover similar materials,
students need not commit themselves to a spe­
cialty until they have taken three examinations.
These test competence in subjects such as linear
algebra, numerical methods, operations re­
search, probability, calculus, and statistics.
These first few examinations help students eval­
uate their potential as actuaries, and those who
pass usually have better opportunities for em­
ployment and higher starting salaries.
Actuaries are encouraged to complete the
entire series of examinations as soon as possi­
ble; completion generally takes from 5 to 10
years. Many students pass two or more actu­
arial examinations before graduating from col­
lege. Examinations are given twice each year.
Extensive home study is required to pass the
advanced examinations; many actuaries study
20-25 hours a week. Actuaries who complete
five examinations in either the life insurance
series or the pension series or seven examina­
tions in the casualty series are awarded “assoc­
iate” membership in their society. Those who
pass an entire series receive full membership
and the title “fellow.”
Consulting pension actuaries who service
private pension plans and certify their solvency
must be enrolled by the Joint Board for the
Enrollment of Actuaries. Applicants for enroll­
ment must meet certain experience and educa­
tion requirements as stipulated by the Joint
Beginning actuaries often rotate among jobs
to learn various actuarial operations and dif­
ferent phases of insurance work. At first, they
prepare tabulations for actuarial tables or per­
form other simple tasks. As they gain experi­
ence, they may supervise clerks, prepare corre­
spondence and report^, and do research.
Advancement to more responsible work as
assistant, associate, and chief actuary depends
largely on job performance and the number of
actuarial examinations passed. Actuaries who
have a broad knowledge of the insurance, pen­
sion, and employee benefits fields often ad­
vance to top administrative and executive posi­
tions in underwriting, accounting, or data
processing departments.

Job Outlook

Related Occupations

Employment of actuaries is expected to grow
faster than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s. Most job openings,
however, are expected to arise each year to
replace actuaries who transfer to other occupa­
tions, retire, die, or stop working for other
reasons. Job opportunities will be best for col­
lege graduates who have passed at least two
actuarial examinations while still in school and
have a strong mathematical and statistical back­
Employment in this occupation is influenced
by the volume of insurance sales and pension
plans, which are expected to grow over the next
decade. Shifts in the age distribution of the
population will result in a large increase in the
number of people with established careers and
family responsibilities. This is the group that
traditionally has accounted for the bulk of pri­
vate insurance sales.
In addition, changing iiisurance practices
will create a need for more actuarial services.
For example, as insurance companies branch
out into more than one kind of insurance
coverage, more actuaries will be needed to es­
tablish rates. Growth in new forms of protec­
tion, such as dental, prepaid legal, and kidnap
insurance also will stimulate demand. As peo­
ple live longer, they draw health and pension
benefits for a longer period, and actuaries will
need to recalculate the probabilities of such
factors as death, sickness, and length of retire­
ment. As more States pass competitive rating
laws, many companies that previously relied on
rating bureaus for actuarial data may create
their own actuarial departments or use the serv­
ices of consulting actuaries.
The liability of companies for damage result­
ing from their products has received much at­
tention in recent years. Actuaries will continue
to be involved in the development of product
liability insurance, as well as medical malprac­
tice, workers’ compensation coverage, and pol­
lution liability insurance.
Insurance coverage is considered a necessity
by most individuals and businesses, regardless
of economic conditions. Therefore, actuaries
are unlikely to be laid off during a recession.

Actuaries assemble and analyze statistics in
their day-to-day work. Other workers whose
jobs involve similar skills include mathemati­
cians, statisticians, economists, financial ana­
lysts, and engineering analysts.

In 1982, new college graduates entering the life
insurance field without having passed any actu­
arial exams averaged about $16,000-$17,000,
according to estimates by the Society of Actu­
aries. Beginners who had completed the first
exam received between $17,000 and $18,500,
and those who had passed the second exam
averaged between $18,500 and $20,000, de­
pending on geographic location.
Insurance companies and consulting firms
give merit increases to actuaries as they gain
experience and pass examinations. Actuaries
who became associates in 1982 averaged be­
tween $24,000 and $28,000 a year; actuaries
who became fellows during that year averaged
between $35,000 and $45,000. Fellows with
additional years of experience can earn substan­
tially more—top actuarial executives received
salaries of $50,000 a year and higher.

Sources of Additional Information
For facts about actuarial opportunities and
qualifications, contact:
American Society of Pension Actuaries, 1413 K St.
NW., 5th Floor, Washington, D.C. 20005.
Casualty Actuarial Society, One Penn Plaza, 250
West 34th St., New York, N.Y. 10119.
Society of Actuaries, 500 Park Blvd., Room 440,
Itasca, 111. 60143.
American Academy of Actuaries, 1835 K St. NW.,
Suite 515, Washington, D.C. 20006.

Computer Systems
(D.O.T. 003.167-062; 012.167-066; 020.062-010, and
.067-010; and 109.067-010)

Nature of the Work
Systems analysts plan and develop methods for
computerizing business and scientific tasks or
improving computer systems already in use.
They may work for an organization that wants
the system or for a consulting firm that develops
systems under contract.
Analysts begin an assignment by discussing
the data processing problem with managers or
specialists to determine the exact nature of the
problem and to break it down into its compo­
nent parts. If a retail chain wished to com­
puterize its inventory system, for example, sys­
tems analysts would determine what informa­
tion must be collected, how it would be
processed, and the type and frequency of re­
ports to be produced. After they have defined
the goals of the system, they use techniques
such as mathematical model building, sam­
pling, and cost accounting to plan the system.
Once a design for the system has been de­
veloped, systems analysts prepare charts and
diagrams that describe it in terms that managers
and users can understand. They also may pre­
pare a cost-benefit and return on investment
analysis to help management decide whether
the proposed system is satisfactory.
If the system is accepted, systems analysts
may determine what computer hardware and
software will be needed to set up the system.
They also prepare specifications for program­
mers to follow and work with them to “debug,”
or eliminate errors from the system. (The work
of com puter program m ers is described
elsewhere in the Handbook). The analyst also
would design any forms required to collect data
and distribute information.
Because the possible uses for computers are
so varied and complex, analysts usually spe­
cialize in either business, scientific, or engi­
neering applications. Often, they have training

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/59
or experience in the field in which they develop
computer systems.
Some analysts improve systems already in
use by developing better procedures or adapt­
ing the system to handle additional types of
data. Others do research, called advanced sys­
tems design, to devise new methods of systems

Working Conditions
Systems analysts work in offices in comfortable
surroundings. They usually work about 40
hours a week—the same as other professional
and office workers. Occasionally, however,
evening or weekend work may be necessary to
meet deadlines.

Systems analysts held about 254,000 jobs in
1982. Most systems analysts work in urban
areas for firms that manufacture durable goods,
government agencies, banks, insurance com­
panies, and data processing service firms.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
There is no universally accepted way of prepar­
ing for a job as a systems analyst because em­
ployers’ preferences depend on the work being
done. However, college graduates almost al­
ways are sought for these jobs; and, for some of
the more complex jobs, persons with graduate
degrees are preferred. Employers usually want
analysts with a background in accounting, or
business management for work in a business
environment while a background in the phys­
ical sciences, applied mathematics, or engi­
neering is preferred for work in scientifically
oriented organizations. Many employers seek
applicants who have a degree in computer sci­
ence, information science, computer informa­
tion systems, or data processing. Regardless of
college major, employers look for people who
are familiar with programming languages.

Systems analysts work with people and data.

Courses in computer concepts, systems analy­
sis, and data base management systems offer
good preparation for a job in this field.
Prior work experience is important. About 7
out of 10 persons entering this occupation typ­
ically transfer from other occupations, such as
engineer, manager, and computer programmer.
Systems analysts must be able to think log­
ically, have good communication skills, and
like working with ideas and people. They often
deal with a number of tasks simultaneously.
The ability to concentrate and pay close atten­
tion to detail also is important. Although sys­
tems analysts often work independently, they
also work in teams on large projects. They must
be able to communicate effectively with tech­
nical personnel, such as programmers and man­
agers, as well as with people who have no
computer background.
Technological advances come so rapidly in
the computer field that continuous study is nec­
essary to keep skills up to date. Training usually
takes the form of 1- and 2-week courses offered
by employers and “software” vendors. Addi­
tional training may come from professional de­
velopment seminars offered by professional
computing societies.
An indication of experience and professional
competence is the Certificate in Data Process­
ing (CDP). This designation is conferred by the
Institute for Certification of Computer Profes­
sionals upon candidates who have completed 5
years’ experience and passed a five-part exam­
In large data processing departments, per­
sons who begin as junior systems analysts may
be promoted to senior or lead systems analysts
after several years of experience. Systems ana­
lysts who show leadership ability also can ad­
vance to jobs as managers of systems analysis
or data processing departments. Systems ana­
lysts with several years of experience may start
their own computer consulting firms.

Median annual earnings of systems analysts
who worked full time in 1982 were about $540 a
week. The middle 50 percent earned between
$420 and $680 a week. The lowest 10 percent
earned less than $330 a week; the highest tenth,
more than $850.
Earnings for beginning business systems
analysts in private industry averaged about
$446 a week in 1982, according to surveys
conducted in urban areas by the Bureau of La­
bor Statistics. Experienced workers earned
from $480 to $550, and lead systems analysts
earned about $596 weekly. In the Federal Gov­
ernment, the entrance salary for recent college
graduates with a bachelor’s degree was about
$300 a week in early 1982.
Systems analysts working in the North and
West earned somewhat more than those in the
South, and generally their earnings were great­
er in transportation and public utilities, or man­
ufacturing than in finance, trade, or services.

Related Occupations
Other workers in applied mathematics, busi­
ness, and science who use logic and reasoning
ability to solve problems are programmers, fi­
nancial analysts, urban planners, engineers,
mathematicians, operations research analysts,
and actuaries.

Sources of Additional Information
Further information about the occupation of
systems analyst is available from:
Association for Systems Management, 24587 Bagley
Rd., Cleveland, Ohio 44138.
Computer Careers-DOL, DPMA, 505 Busse Hwy.,
Park Ridge, 111. 60068.

Information about the Certificate in Data
Processing is available from:
The Institute for Certification of Computer Profes­
sionals, 35 E. Wacker Dr., Suite 1752, Chicago, 111.

Job Outlook
Employment of systems analysts is expected to
grow much faster than the average for all oc­
cupations through the mid-1990’s. The demand
for systems analysts is expected to rise as ad­
vances in technology increase computer ca­
pabilities leading to new applications for com­
puters. Factory and office automation, telecom­
munications, and scientific research are just a
few areas where use of computer systems will
expand. About half of all job openings for sys­
tems analysts will result from replacement
needs—although a smaller proportion of sys­
tems analysts than all professional workers
leave their occupation each year. Most of the
systems analysts who leave the occupation
transfer to other jobs such as manager or engi­
College graduates who have had courses in
computer programming, systems analysis, and
other data processing areas as well as training or
experience in an applied field should enjoy the
best prospects for employment. Persons with­
out a college degree and college graduates un­
familiar with data processing will face competi­
tion from the large number of experienced
workers seeking jobs as systems analysts.

(D.O.T. 020.067-014 and -022)

Nature of the Work
Mathematicians work in one of the oldest and
most basic sciences. Mathematicians today are
engaged in a wide variety of activities, ranging
from the creation of new theories to the transla­
tion of scientific and managerial problems into
mathematical terms.
Mathematical work falls into two broad
classes: Theoretical (pure) mathematics; and
applied mathematics. However, these classes
are not sharply defined and often overlap.
Theoretical mathematicians advance mathe­
matical science by developing new principles
and new relationships between existing princi­
ples of mathematics. Although they seek to
increase basic knowledge without necessarily
considering its practical use, this pure and ab­
stract knowledge has been instrumental in pro­
ducing many scientific and engineering
achievements. For example, in 1854 G.F.B.
Riemann invented a seemingly impractical
non-Euclidian geometry that was to become

60/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Mathematics teaching has increased in importance.
part of Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity.
Years later, this theory contributed to the crea­
tion of atomic power.
Applied mathematicians use mathematics to
develop theories, techniques, and approaches
to solve practical problems in business, govern­
ment, engineering, and the natural and social
sciences. Their work ranges from analysis of
the mathematical aspects of launching com­
munications satellites to studies of the effects of
new drugs on disease.
Much work in applied m athem atics,
however, is carried on by persons other than
mathematicians. In fact, the number of workers
using mathematical techniques is many times
greater than the number actually designated as

Working Conditions
Mathematicians work almost exclusively in of­
fices and classrooms. Most have regular hours
and travel infrequently. They often work, with
engineers, computer scientists, and others. In­
creasingly, they are establishing firms offering
research and consulting services.

Within manufacturing, communications equip­
ment; guided missiles and space vehicles; and
aircraft industries provided the most jobs. The
Department of Defense and the National Aero­
nautics and Space Administration employed al­
most three-fourths of the mathematicians work­
ing in the Federal Government.
Mathematicians work in all States, but are
concentrated in those with high-technology in­

Training, Other Qualifications, and
An advanced degree is the preferred require­
ment for beginning teaching jobs, as well as for
most research positions. However, in most 4-

year colleges and universities, the Ph.D. de­
gree is necessary for full faculty status. Al­
though the master’s degree is generally re­
quired, a bachelor’s degree is adequate prepara­
tion for teaching jobs in some 2-year colleges
and technical institutes.
A bachelor’s degree is considered adequate
preparation for some jobs in private industry
and government. Individuals with this back­
ground usually assist senior mathematicians by
performing computations and solving less ad­
vanced problems in applied mathematics. The
majority of bachelor’s degree holders work in
related fields such as computer science where
employment opportunities are rapidly expand­
ing. However, an advanced degree is a prere­
quisite for the more responsible positions. Most
research positions require the doctorate.
The bachelor’s degree in mathematics is of­
fered by most colleges and universities. Mathe­
matics courses usually required for a degree are
analytical geometry, calculus, differential
equations, probability theory and statistics,
mathematical analysis, and modem algebra.
Many colleges and universities urge or even
require students majoring in mathematics to
take several courses in a field that uses or is
closely related to mathematics, such as com­
puter science, operations research, a physical
science, or economics. A prospective college
mathematics student should take as many math­
ematics courses as possible while in high
More than 400 colleges and universities offer
the master’s degree in mathematics; about 150
also offer the Ph.D. In graduate school, stu­
dents conduct research and take advanced
courses, usually in a specific field of mathe­
matics such as algebra, mathematical analysis,
or geometry.
For work in applied mathematics, training in
the field in which the mathematics will be used
is very important. Fields in which applied
mathematics is used extensively include phys­
ics, engineering, and operations research; of

The proportion of mathematics graduates (bachelor’s and master’s
degrees) employed in computer science increased sharply between
1976 and 1962.
Percent of employment

Mathematicians held about 11,000jobs in 1982.
In addition, about 30,000 persons held mathe­
matics faculty positions in colleges and univer­
sities, according to data from the National Sci­
ence Foundation. (See the statement on college
and university faculty elsewhere in this Hand­
Most mathematicians worked in service and
manufacturing industries and in the Federal
Government. Major employers within the serv­
ices sector were miscellaneous business serv­
ices (including research and development labo­
ratories); engineering, architectural, and sur­
veying services; and educational services.

1976 1982

1976 1982

SO URCE: N a tio n a l S c ie n c e F o u n d a tio n

1976 1982

1976 1982
All other

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/61
increasing importance are computer and infor­
mation science, business and industrial man­
agement, economics, statistics, chemistry and
life sciences, and the behavioral sciences.
Mathematicians should have a working
knowledge of computer programming since
most complex mathematical computation is
done by computer.
Mathematicians need good reasoning ability,
persistence, and the ability to apply basic prin­
ciples to new types of problems. They must be
able to communicate well since they often need
to discuss the problem to be solved with non­

and operations research analyst. In addition, a
strong background in mathematics facilitates
employment in fields such as engineering, eco­
nomics, finance, and genetics.

Job Outlook

Professional Opportunities in Mathematics
is available for $1.50 from:

Employment of mathematicians is expected to
increase about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s. Most job
openings, however, will arise from the need to
replace experienced mathematicians who trans­
fer to other occupations, retire, or leave the
labor force for other reasons.
Those with Ph.D. degrees in mathematics
should have very favorable employment oppor­
tunities. Holders of the doctorate in applied
mathematics customarily have better employ­
ment prospects than their theoretically-oriented
colleagues. However, the present shortage of
Ph.D.’s is expected to continue, and the demand
for holders of the doctorate in theoretical math­
ematics should strengthen substantially.
Industry and government agencies will need
mathematicians for work in operations re­
search, numerical analysis, computer systems
design and programming, information and data
processing, applied mathematical physics,
market research, commercial surveys, and as
consultants in industrial laboratories.
Those with a bachelor’s or master’s degree in
mathematics may have difficulty finding a job
in university teaching or theoretical research.
However, there will be many openings in ap­
plied areas such as computer science and data

Sources of Additional Information
Several brochures are available that give facts
about the field of mathematics, including career
opportunities, professional training, and col­
leges and universities with degree programs.
Seeking Employment in the Mathematical
Sciences is available for 50 cents from:
American Mathematical Society, P.O. Box 6248,
Providence, R.I. 02940.

Mathematical Association of America, 1529 18th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

For specific information on careers in applied
mathematics, contact:
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics,
1405 Architects Building, 117 S. 17th St., Phila­
delphia, Pa. 19103.

For information on a career as a mathe­
matical statistician, contact:
Professor Kjell Doksum, Institute of Mathematical
Statistics, Department of Statistics, University of
California, Berkeley, Calif. 94720.

Information on Federal job opportunities is
available from area offices of the State employ­
ment service and the U.S. Office of Personnel
Management or from Federal Job Information
Centers located in various large cities
throughout the country.

(D.O.T. 020.167-026)


Nature of the Work

According to a 1982 College Placement Coun­
cil Survey, starting salaries for mathematicians
with a bachelor’s degree averaged about
$21,300 a year. Those with a master’s degree
started at about $25,900 annually. Salaries for
new graduates having the Ph.D., most of whom
had some experience, averaged over $30,500.
The median annual salary for all working math­
ematicians was about $28,600 in 1982.
In the Federal Government in 1982, the aver­
age starting salary for mathematicians having
the bachelor’s degree and no experience was
either $13,000 or $16,100 a year, depending on
their college records. Those with the master’s
degree averaged $19,700 or $23,800; and per­
sons having the PH.D. degree started at either
$23,800 or $28,500. The average salary for all
mathematicians in the Federal Government was
about $33,400 in 1982.

Statistics are numbers that help describe the
characteristics of the world and its inhabitants.
Statisticians devise, carry out, and interpret the
numerical results of surveys and experiments.
In doing so, they apply their knowledge of
statistical methods to a particular subject area,
such as economics, human behavior, natural
science, or engineering. They may use statis­
tical techniques to predict population growth or
economic conditions, develop quality control
tests for manufactured products, or help busi­
ness managers and government officials make
decisions and evaluate the results of new pro­
Often statisticians are able to obtain accurate
information about a group of people or things
by surveying a small portion, called a sample,
of the group. For example, to determine the size
of the total audience, television rating services
ask only a few thousand families, rather than all
viewers, what programs they watch. Statisti­
cians decide where and how to get the data,
determine the type and size of the sample
group, and develop the survey questionnaire or

Related Occupations
A degree in mathematics generally qualifies
one to enter related occupations such as statisti­
cian, computer programmer, systems analyst,

Computers have greatly improved the statisti­
cian's ability to analyze large amounts of data
reporting form. They also prepare instructions
for workers who will tabulate the returns.
Since statistics are used in so many areas, it
sometimes is difficult to distinguish statisti­
cians from specialists in other fields who use
statistics. For example, a statistician working
with data on economic conditions may have the
title of economist.

Working Conditions
Statisticians usually work regular hours in of­
fices. Some statisticians may travel occasion­
ally to supervise or set up a survey, or to gather
statistical data. Some may have fairly repetitive
tasks, while others may have a variety of tasks
such as designing surveys or interpreting data.

Statisticians held over 20,000 jobs in 1982.
About 6 out of 10 jobs were in industry, pri­
marily in manufacturing, finance, insurance
companies, and business service establish­
ments such as consultants’ offices. Over onethird were in Federal, State, or local govern­
ment. Federally employed statisticians were
concentrated in the Departments of Commerce,
Agriculture, Health and Human Services, and
Defense. Others worked in colleges and univer­
sities and nonprofit organizations.
Although statisticians work in all parts of the
country, most are in metropolitan areas such as
New York City; Washington, D.C.; and Los
Angeles-Long Beach, Calif.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree with a major in statistics or
mathematics is the minimum educational re­
quirement for many beginning jobs in statistics.
For other entry level statistical jobs, however, a
bachelor’s degree with a major in an applied
field such as economics or a life science and a
minor in statistics is preferable.
Over 200 colleges and universities offered
statistics as a concentration for a bachelor’s
degree in 1982. Many schools also offer either a

62/Occupational Outlook Handbook
degree in mathematics or a sufficient number of
courses in statistics to qualify graduates for
beginning positions. Required subjects for sta­
tistics majors include mathematics through dif­
ferential and integral calculus, statistical meth­
ods, and probability theory. Due to the rapid
expansion of statistical computing—the use of
computers for statistical applications—courses
in computer science are highly recommended.
For quality-control positions, training in engi­
neering or physical or biological science is de­
sirable. For many market research, business
analysis, and forecasting jobs, courses in eco­
nomics and business administration are help­
Many colleges and universities also offered
graduate degrees in statistics in 1982, and many
other schools offered one or two graduate level
statistics courses. Acceptance into graduate
programs does not require an undergraduate
degree in statistics although a good mathe­
matics background is essential.
Beginning statisticians who have only the
bachelor’s degree often spend much of their
time doing routine work supervised by an expe­
rienced statistician. Through experience, they
may advance to positions of greater technical
and supervisory responsibility. However, op­
portunities for promotion are best for those with
advanced degrees.

Job Outlook
Employment opportunities for persons who
combine training in statistics with knowledge
of a field of application are expected to be
favorable through the mid-1990’s. Although

growth will be average in this field, most open­
ings are expected to result from the need to
replace experienced statisticians who transfer
to other occupations, retire, or leave the labor
force for other reasons.
Private industry will require increasing num­
bers of statisticians for quality control in man­
ufacturing. Statisticians with knowledge of en­
gineering and the physical sciences will find
jobs working with scientists and engineers in
research and development. Business firms will
rely more heavily than in the past on statisti­
cians to forecast sales, analyze business condi­
tions, modernize accounting procedures, and
help solve management problems. Additional
statisticians will be needed as sophisticated sta­
tistical services are increasingly contracted out
to consulting firms.
Other fields have recognized the usefulness
of statistics. For example, statistical techniques
are used to analyze legal problems and the
judicial process as well as sociological and psy­
chological relationships. As the use of statistics
expands into new areas, more statisticians will
be needed.
Federal, State, and local government agen­
cies will need statisticians for existing pro­
grams in fields such as agriculture, demogra­
phy, transportation, social security, health, and
education, and relatively new programs such as
energy conservation and environmental quality

$16,100 a year, depending on their college
grades. Beginning statisticians with the mas­
ter’s degree averaged $19,700 or $23,800.
Those with the Ph.D. began at $23,800 or
$28,500. The average annual salary for statisti­
cians in the Federal Government was about
$32,700 in 1982.
Salaries in private industry were lower than
those in the Federal Government, according to
the limited data available.

Related Occupations
Workers in the following occupations may use
statistics extensively: Market research analysts,
urban and regional planners, engineers, en­
vironmental scientists, health scientists, life
scientists, physical scientists, and social scien­
tists. Others who work with numbers are actu­
aries, mathematicians, financial analysts, com­
puter programmers, and systems analysts.

Sources of Additional Information
For information about career opportunities in
statistics, contact:
American Statistical Association, 806 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.


Information on Federal job opportunities is
available from area offices of the State employ­
ment service and the U.S. Office of Personnel
Management or from Federal Job Information
Centers located in various large cities
throughout the country.
For information on a career as a mathe­
matical statistician, contact:

In the Federal Government in 1982, the average
starting salary of statisticians who had the bach­
elor’s degree and no experience was $13,000 or

Professor Kjell Doksum, Institute of Mathematical
Statistics, Department of Statistics, University of
California, Berkeley, Calif. 94720.

Physical Scientists
Physical scientists investigate the structure and
composition of the earth and the universe.
Many physical scientists perform research de­
signed to increase basic scientific knowledge.
Others employ the results of research to solve
practical problems in developing new products,
locating new sources of oil, or predicting the
This section covers four physical science oc­
cupations—chemists, geologists and geophysi­
cists, meteorologists, and physicists (which in­
cludes astronomers). Persons who teach the
physical sciences in colleges and universities
are discussed in the statement on college and
university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.
Most physicists have Ph.D.’s. The jobs of
many other physical scientists also require a
Ph.D., especially research positions, but some
jobs in these other fields can be entered with a
bachelor’s degree.
A knowledge of the physical sciences (es­
pecially chemistry and physics) is also required
by engineers and life scientists; these occupa­
tions are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.

(D.O.T. 022.061-010 and -014, .137-010, .161-010; and

Nature of the Work
The clothes we wear, the foods we eat, the
houses in which we live—in fact, most things
that help make our lives better, from medical
care to a cleaner environment—result, in part,
from the work done by chemists.
Chemists search for and put to practical use
new knowledge about substances. Their re­
search has resulted in the development of a
tremendous variety of synthetic materials, such
as nylon and polyester fabrics, and processes
which help save energy and reduce pollution,
such as improved oil refining methods. Re­
search on the chemistry of living things
provides the basis for advances in medicine,
agriculture, and other areas.
Over 60 percent of all chemists work in re­
search and development. In basic research,
chemists investigate the properties, composi­
tion, and structure of matter and the laws that
govern the combination of elements and reac­
tions of substances. In applied research and
development, they create new products or im­
prove existing ones, often using knowledge
gained from basic research. For example, syn­
thetic rubber and plastics have resulted from
research on small molecules uniting to form
larger ones (polymerization).
The process of developing a product begins
with descriptions of the characteristics it should

have. If similar products exist, chemists test
samples to determine their ingredients. If no
such product exists, chemists experiment with
various substances to develop a product with
the required specifications.
About 10 percent of all chemists work in
production and inspection. In production,
chemists prepare instructions (batch sheets) for
plant workers that specify the kind and amount
of ingredients to use and the exact mixing time
for each stage in the process or monitor auto­
mated processes to ensure proper product yield
and quality. At each step, samples are tested for
quality control to meet industry and govern­
ment standards. Chemists keep records and
prepare reports showing results of tests. Others
work as marketing or sales representatives
where they sell and provide technical informa­
tion on chemical products.
Chemists often specialize in a subfield of
chemistry. Analytical chemists determine the
structure, composition, and nature of sub­
stances, and develop new analytical tech­
niques. An outstanding example of the ca­
pabilities of this specialty was the analysis of
moon rocks by an international team of ana­
lytical chemists. Biochemists study the chemi­
cal composition of living things. They try to
understand the complex chemical combinations
and reactions involved in reproduction,
growth, and heredity. Recent advances in bio­
chemistry have resulted in the discovery of
many of the mechanisms of reproduction and
heredity, including how to splice genes (a tech­
nique called recombinant DNA). These discov­
eries will probably lead to major advances in
medicine and to the development of new prod­
ucts and production processes. Organic chem­
ists study the chemistry of carbon compounds.
When combined with other elements, carbon
forms a vast number of substances. Many mod­
em commercial products, including drugs,
plastics, and other synthetics, have resulted
from the work of organic chemists. Inorganic
chemists study compounds other than carbon.
They may, for example, develop materials for
electronic components. Physical chemists
study the physical characteristics of atoms and
molecules and investigate how chemical reac­
tions work. This research may result in new and
better energy sources.

Working Conditions
Chemists usually work regular hours in offices
and laboratories. Some are exposed to health or
safety hazards when handling certain chemi­
cals, but there is little risk if proper procedures
are followed.

Chemists held about 89,000 jobs in 1982. Al­
most two-thirds of all chemists work for man­
ufacturing firms—about one-half of these are in

the chemical manufacturing industry; the rest
are scattered throughout other manufacturing
industries. Chemists also work for State and
local governments, primarily in health and agri­
culture, and for Federal agencies, chiefly the
Departments of Defense, Health and Human
Resources, and Agriculture. Smaller numbers
work for nonprofit research organizations. In
addition, about 19,000 persons held chemistry
faculty positions in colleges and universities in
1982. (See the statement on college and univer­
sity faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Chemists are employed in all parts of the
country, but they are concentrated in large in­
dustrial areas.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree with a major in chemistry
or a related discipline is sufficient for many
beginning jobs as a chemist. However, graduate
training is required for most research jobs, and
most college teaching jobs require a Ph.D. de­
gree. Beginning chemists should have a broad
background in chemistry, with good laboratory
Many colleges and universities offer a bach­
elor’s degree program in chemistry. About 550
are approved by the American Chemical So­
ciety. In addition to required courses in ana­
lytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chem­
istry, undergraduates usually study mathe­
matics, physics, and liberal arts.
Several hundred colleges and universities
award advanced degrees in chemistry. Graduate
students generally specialize in a subfield of
chemistry. Requirements for the master’s and
doctor’s degree usually include a thesis based
on independent research.
Students planning careers as chemists should
enjoy studying science and mathematics, and
should like working with their hands building
scientific apparatus and performing experi­
ments. Perseverance and the ability to concen­
trate on detail and to work independently are
essential. Other assets include an inquisitive
mind and imagination.
Graduates with the bachelor’s degree gener­
ally begin their careers in government or indus­
try by analyzing or testing products, working in
technical sales or service, or assisting senior
chemists in research and development laborato­
ries. Some in entry level positions are consid­
ered chemists; others are considered senior
chemical technicians. Employers may have
training and orientation programs which
provide special knowledge needed for the em­
ployer’s type of work. Candidates for an ad­
vanced degree often teach or do research in
colleges and universities while working toward
their degrees.


64/Occupational Outlook Handbook
occupations may also be similar to that of

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career opportunities
and earnings for chemists is available from:
American Chemical Society, 1155 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information on careers in biochemistry is
available from:
American Society of Biological Chemists, 9650
Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md. 20014.

Information on Federal job opportunities is
available from local offices of State employ­
ment services and the U.S. Office of Personnel
Management or from Federal Job Information
Centers located in various large cities
throughout the country.

Geologists and
(D.O.T. 024.061, .161, and .167)

Chemists with a bachelor’s degree often get jobs analyzing or testing products or assisting senior
chemists in research and development laboratories.
Beginning chemists with the master’s degree
can usually teach in a 2-year college or go into
applied research in government or private in­
dustry. The Ph.D. generally is required for
basic research, for 4-year college faculty posi­
tions, and for advancement to many admin­
istrative positions.
Many people with a bachelor’s degree in
chemistry also enter a wide range of occupa­
tions with little or no connection to chemistry.
Some enter medical, dental, veterinary, or
other health profession schools.

Job Outlook
Employment of chemists is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s. In addition to jobs aris­
ing from increased demand for chemists, many
openings will result each year as chemists
transfer to other occupations, retire, or die.
The majority of job openings are expected to
be in private industry, primarily in the develop­
ment of new products. In addition, industrial
companies will need more chemists—es­
pecially biochemists—to do biotechnology re­
search and to develop products and production
processes arising from this research.
Little growth in the employment of chemis­
try faculty in colleges and universities is ex­
Chemistry graduates may become high
school teachers. However, they usually are then
regarded as science teachers rather than chem­
ists. Others may qualify as engineers, es­
pecially if they have taken some courses in
engineering. (See statements on secondary

school teachers and engineers elsewhere in the

According to the College Placement Council,
chemists with the bachelor’s degree were of­
fered starting salaries averaging $21,000 a year
in 1982; those with the m aster’s degree,
$23,800; and those with the Ph.D., $32,600.
According to the American Chemical So­
ciety, salaries of experienced chemists in pri­
vate industry having a bachelor’s degree aver­
aged $29,000 a year in 1982; for those with a
master’s degree, $33,000; and for those with a
Ph.D., $42,000.
Depending on a person’s college record, the
annual starting salary in the Federal Govern­
ment in early 1983 for an inexperienced chemist
with a bachelor’s degree was either $13,369 or
$16,559. Those who had 2 years of graduate
study could begin at $20,256 a year. Chemists
having the Ph.D. degree could start at $24,508
or $29,374. The average salary for all chemists
in the Federal Government in 1982 was $32,800
a year.

Related Occupations
The work of chemical engineers, occupational
safety and health workers, agricultural scien­
tists, biological scientists, and chemical techni­
cians is closely related to the work done by
chemists. Many manufacturers’ sales represen­
tatives and wholesale trade sales workers in
chemical marketing use a knowledge of chem­
istry in their work, as do many technical writ­
ers. The work of other physical and life science

Nature of the Work
Geologists and geophysicists study the physical
aspects and history of the earth. They analyze
information collected through seismic prospec­
ting techniques, which involve bouncing sound
waves off deeply buried rock layers; examine
surface rocks and samples of buried rocks re­
covered by drilling; and study information col­
lected by satellites. They also identify rocks
and minerals, conduct geological surveys, con­
struct maps, and use instruments such as the
gravimeter and magnetometer to measure the
earth’s gravity and magnetic field. An impor­
tant application of geological research is locat­
ing oil and other minerals.
Geologists and geophysicists examine chem­
ical and physical properties of specimens in
laboratories under controlled temperature and
pressure. They may study fossil remains of ani­
mal and plant life or experiment with the flow of
water and oil through rocks. Laboratory equip­
ment used includes instruments such as the Xray diffractometer, which determines the struc­
ture of minerals, and the petrographic micro­
scope, used for close study of rock formations.
Besides locating resources and working in
laboratories, geologists and geophysicists also
advise construction companies and government
agencies on the suitability of proposed loca­
tions for buildings, dams, or highways. Some
administer and manage research and explora­
tion programs.
The fields of geology and geophysics are
closely related but there are differences.
Geologists study the composition, structure,
and history of the earth’s crust. They try to find
out how various rocks were formed and what
has happened to them throughout history.
Geophysicists use the principles of physics and
mathematics to study the earth’s internal com­
position, surface, and atmosphere and also

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/65
various forces such as its magnetic, electrical,
and gravitational fields.
Geologists and geophysicists usually spe­
cialize. Geodesists study the size, shape, and
gravitational field of the earth. Their principal
task is to make very precise measurements for
mapping the earth’s surface. Hydrologists
study the distribution, circulation, and physical
properties of underground and surface waters.
They may study the form and intensity of pre­
cipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil,
and its return to the ocean and atmosphere.
Mineralogists analyze and classify minerals
and precious stones according to composition
and structure. Paleontologists study fossils
found in geological formations to trace the evo­
lution of plant and animal life. Seismologists
study and interpret data from seismographs,
which measure small movements of the earth,
and other instruments to locate earthquakes and
earthquake faults. Stratigraphers study the dis­
tribution and arrangement of sedimentary rock
layers by examining their fossil and mineral
content. Meteorologists sometimes are classi­
fied as geophysical scientists. (See the state­
ment on meteorologists elsewhere in the Hand­

Working Conditions

oil and gas exploration. Mining and quarrying
companies also employ many geologists and
geophysicists. Self-employed geologists held
about 1 in 6 jobs, primarily as industry and
government consultants.
The Federal Government employed almost
5,600 geologists, geophysicists, geodesists,
and hydrologists in 1982. Almost two-thirds
worked for the Department of the Interior in the
U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Mines,
and the Bureau of Reclamation. Other Federal
agen cies that em ploy g eologists and
geophysicists include the Departments of De­
fense, Agriculture, Commerce, and Energy.
State agencies also employ geologists and
geophysicists; some work on surveys in cooper­
ation with the U .S. Geological Survey.
Geologists and geophysicists also work for
nonprofit research institutions and museums.
Some are employed by American firms over­
seas for varying periods of time. In addition,
about 7,000 persons held geology and
geophysics faculty positions in colleges and
universities in 1982. (See the statement on col­
lege and university faculty elsewhere in the

Training, Other Qualifications, and

A bachelor’s degree in geology or geophysics is
adequate for entry into some lower level
geology jobs, but better jobs with good ad­
vancement potential usually require at least a
master’s degree in geology or geophysics. Per­
sons with strong backgrounds in physics, math­
ematics, or computer science also may qualify
for some geophysics jobs. A Ph.D degree is
essential for most research positions.
Over 500 colleges and universities offer a
bachelor’s degree in geology and about 75 col­
leges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree
Geologists and geophysicists held almost in geophysics. Other programs offering train­
49,000 jobs in 1982. Over two-fifths were in oil ing for beginning geophysicists include
and gas companies, and almost one-sixth were geophysical technology, geophysical engineer­
in service firms, many of which are involved in ing, geophysical prospecting, engineering
geology, petroleum geology, and geodesy.
More than 220 universities award advanced
degrees in geology and about 70 universities
grant advanced degrees in geophysics.
Geologists and geophysicists need to be able
to work as part of a team. They should be
curious, analytical, and able to communicate
effectively. Those involved in fieldwork must
have physical stamina.
Geologists and geophysicists usually begin
their careers in field exploration or as research
„assistants in laboratories. With experience,
they can be promoted to project leader, program
manager, or other management and research
Most geologists and geophysicists divide their
time between fieldwork and office or laboratory
work. While in the field, geologists often travel
to remote sites by helicopter or jeep and cover
large areas by foot. Exploration geologists and
geophysicists often work overseas or in remote
areas. When not working outdoors, geologists
are in comfortable, well-lighted, well-venti­
lated offices and laboratories.

Job Outlook

A geologist studies geological data plotted by a

Employment of geologists and geophysicists is
expected to grow about as fast as the average for
all occupations through the mid-1990’s. In ad­
dition to new jobs created by increased demand
for geologists, many openings will arise each
year as geologists leave the occupation, retire,
or die.
Efforts to locate new sources of energy as
older sources become exhausted will continue

to stimulate domestic exploration activities and
create a need for many additional geologists,
although exploration activity may vary over the
short run depending on the price and demand
for oil. Geologists and geophysicists who have
knowledge and experience in geophysical oil
and gas exploration techniques may experience
better employment opportunities than others.
Additional geologists and geophysicists will be
needed to discover new mineral resources, to
devise techniques for exploring deeper within
the earth’s crust, and to develop more efficient
methods of mining. They also will be needed to
develop more adequate water supplies and
waste disposal methods, and to do site evalua­
tion for construction activities.

Median annual earnings of full time geologists
and geophysicists were about $33,000 in 1982;
the middle 50 percent earned between $25,000
and $40,000 annually. According to surveys
done by the College Placement Council, gradu­
ates with bachelor’s degrees in physical and
earth sciences received average starting offers
of $23,800 a year in 1982. Graduates with mas­
ter’s degrees in geology and related geological
sciences received average starting offers of
$29,000 a year.
In the Federal Government in early 1983,
geologists and geophysicists having a bach­
elor’s degree could begin at $13,369 or $16,559
a year, depending on their college records.
Those having a master’s degree could start at
$16,559 or $20,256 a year; those having the
Ph.D. degree, at $24,508 or $29,374. In 1982,
the average salary for geologists in the Federal
Government was about $33,000 a year and for
geophysicists, about $35,200 a year.

Related Occupations
Many geologists and geophysicists work in the
petroleum and natural gas industry. This indus­
try also employs many other workers who are
involved in the scientific and technical aspects
of petroleum and natural gas exploration and
extraction, including drafters, engineering
technicians, laboratory assistants (petroleum
production), petroleum engineers, and sur­
veyors. Also related to the work of geologists
and geophysicists are other physical science
occupations such as physicists, chemists, mete­
orologists, and oceanographers as well as math­
ematicians and computer scientists.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on training and career oppor­
tunities for geologists is available from:
American Geological Institute, 5202 Leesburg Pike,
Falls Church, Va. 22041.

Information on training and career oppor­
tunities for geophysicists is available from:
American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.
Society of Exploration Geophysicists, P.O. Box
3098, Tblsa, Okla. 74101.

For information on Federal Government ca­
reers, contact:

66/Occupational Outlook Handbook
U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 025.062-010)

Nature of the Work
Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere,
which is the air that surrounds the earth. Mete­
orologists try to understand the atmosphere’s
physical characteristics, motions, and pro­
cesses, and determine the way the atmosphere
affects the rest of our environment. The best
known application of this knowledge is in un­
derstanding and forecasting the weather.
However, weather information and mete­
orological research also is applied in many
other areas, such as air pollution control, fire
prevention, agriculture, air and sea transporta­
tion, and studying trends in the earth’s climate.
Meteorologists who forecast the weather,
known professionally as operational or synop­
tic meteorologists, are the largest group of spe­
cialists in this field. They study past and current
weather information, such as air pressure, tem­
perature, humidity, and wind velocity, and ap­
ply physical and mathematical relationships to
make short-range and long-range predictions.

Their data come from weather satellites and
observers in many parts of the world. Although
some forecasters still prepare and analyze
weather maps, most data now are plotted and
analyzed by computers.
Some meteorologists engage in basic and
applied research. For example, physical mete­
orologists study the chemical and physical
properties of the atmosphere. They do research
on the effect of the atmosphere on transmission
of light, sound, and radio waves, as well as
study factors affecting formation of clouds,
rain, snow, and other weather phenomena.
Other meteorologists, known as climatologists,
study trends in climate and analyze past records
on wind, rainfall, sunshine, and temperature to
determine the general pattern of weather that
makes up an area’s climate. These studies are
used to plan heating and cooling systems, de­
sign buildings, and aid in effective land utiliza­

Working Conditions
Jobs in weather stations, most of which operate
around the clock 7 days a week, often involve
night work and rotating shifts. Most stations are
at airports or in or near cities; some are in
isolated and remote areas. Meteorologists in
smaller weather stations generally work alone;
in larger ones, they work as part of a team.

Meteorologists held about 3,700 jobs in 1982.
In addition, about 1,000 persons held mete­
orology faculty positions in colleges and uni­
versities in 1982. (See the statement on college
and university faculty elsewhere in the Hand­
The largest employer of civilian mete­
orologists was the National Weather Service,
where about 1,800 worked at stations in all
parts of the United States and in a small number
of foreign areas. The Department of Defense
employed almost 200 civilian meteorologists.
A few worked for State and local governments
and for nonprofit organizations.
In addition to government, private weather
consulting firms and radio and television sta­
tions employed many meteorologists. Com­
mercial airlines also employed meteorologists
to forecast weather along flight routes and to
brief pilots on atmospheric conditions. Other
meteorologists worked for companies that de­
sign and manufacture meteorological instru­
ments or for firms in aerospace, engineering,
utilities, and other industries.
In addition to civilian meteorologists, thou­
sands of members of the Armed Forces did
forecasting and other meteorological work.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree with a major in mete­
orology is the usual minimum requirement for
beginning jobs in weather forecasting.
However, employers prefer to hire those with an
advanced degree, and an advanced degree is
increasingly necessary for promotion.
For research and college teaching and for
many top level positions in other mete­
orological activities, an advanced degree, pre­
ferably in meteorology, is essential. People
with graduate degrees in other sciences also
may qualify if they have advanced courses in
meteorology, physics, mathematics, and chem­
In 1982, about 35 colleges and universities
offered a bachelor’s degree in meteorology or
atmospheric science; about 40 schools offered
advanced degrees. Many other institutions of­
fered some courses in meteorology. Before se­
lecting a degree program in meteorology, stu­
dents should investigate the particular empha­
sis of the program, since many meteorology
programs are combined with the study of a
related scientific or engineering field.
Beginning meteorologists often start in jobs
involving routine data collection, computation,
or analysis. Experienced meteorologists may
advance to various supervisory or admin­
istrative jobs. A few very well qualified mete­
orologists with a background in business ad­
ministration may establish their own weather
consulting services.

Job Outlook

Employment of meteorologists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s.

Employment of meteorologists is expected to
grow more slowly than the average for all oc­
cupations through the mid-1990’s. Little or no
growth in employment is expected in the Na­
tional Weather Service, which employs most
meteorologists. Some new jobs will be created

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/67
in private industry as companies recognize the
value of having their own weather forecasting
and meteorological services but most of the job
openings in this very small occupation will
arise from the need to replace those who change
occupations, retire, or die. Persons with an
advanced degree in meteorology should have
the best job prospects.

physics and mathematics to answer questions
about the fundamental nature of the universe,
such as its origin and history and the evolution
of the solar system.
Most physicists work in research and de­
velopment. Some do basic research to increase
scientific knowledge. For example, they inves­
tigate the structure of the atom or the nature of
gravity. The equipment that physicists design
for their research can Qften be applied to other
The average salary for meteorologists em­
areas. For example, lasers (devices that amplify
ployed by the Federal Government was
light and emit it in a highly directional, intense
$34,200 in 1982. In early 1983, meteorologists
beam) are utilized in surgery; microwave de­
in the Federal Government with a bachelor’s
degree and no experience received starting sal­ vices are used for ovens; and measurement
aries of $13,369 or $16,559 a year, depending techniques and instruments can detect the kind
on their college grades. Those with a master’s and number of cells in blood or the amount of
degree could start at $16,559 or $20,256; those mercury or lead in foods.
Many physicists conduct applied research
with the Ph.D. degree, at $24,508 or $29,374.
However, the National Weather Service hired and help develop new devices, products, and
few professional level meteorologists in 1983; processes. For instance, their knowledge of sol­
instead it hired meteorological technicians, id-state physics led to the development of tran­
most at a starting salary of $13,369. Qualified sistors and then to the integrated circuits used in
meteorological technicians in the National calculators and computers. A small number
Weather Service may eventually be promoted to work in inspection, testing, quality control, and
other production-related jobs in industry. Some
professional meteorologists.
do consulting work.
Almost all astronomers do research. Most of
Related Occupations
Workers in other occupations concerned with their time is spent analyzing the large quantities
the physical environment include forest ecolo­ of data collected by their own and others’ obser­
gists, foresters, geologists, geophysicists, vations and writing scientific papers on the re­
oceanographers, range managers, and soil con­ sults of their research. Most astronomers spend
only a few weeks each year making observa­
tions with telescopes, radio telescopes, and
other instruments (some in orbiting satellites)
Sources of Additional Information
that can detect electromagnetic radiation from
Information on career opportunities in mete­
distant sources. Contrary to the popular image,
orology is available for 75 cents from:
astronomers almost never actually look through
American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St.,
a telescope because photographic and elec­
Boston, Mass. 02108.
tronic radiation detecting equipment is more
For facts about job opportunities with the effective than the human eye.
Most physicists specialize in one or more
National Weather Service, contact:
branches of the science—elementary-particle
National Weather Service, Personnel Section, Gramphysics; nuclear physics; atomic, electron, or
ax Bldg., 8060 13th St., Silver Spring, Md. 20910.
molecular physics; physics of condensed mat­
ter; optics; acoustics; health physics; plasma
physics; and the physics of fluids. Some spe­
cialize in a subdivision of one of these
branches. For example, subdivisions of solidstate physics include superconductivity, crys­
(D.O.T. 023.061-010, -014, .067-010; 041.061-034;
tallography, and semiconductors. However,
079.021-010 and -014)
since all physics involves the same fundamen­
tal principles, several specialties may overlap,
and in the course of their careers physicists
Nature of the Work
The flight of the space shuttle, the accuracy of frequently switch from one subfield to another.
advanced medical instruments, and even the
Growing numbers of physicists are specializ­
safety of the family car depend on research by ing in fields such as biophysics, chemical phys­
physicists. Through systematic observation and ics, and geophysics in which physics and a
experimentation, physicists use mathematical related science are combined. Furthermore, the
terms to describe the structure of the universe practical applications of physicists’ work in­
and the interaction of matter and energy. Phys­ creasingly have merged with engineering.
icists also develop theories that describe the
fundamental forces and laws of nature. Deter­
mining the basic laws governing phenomena Working Conditions
such as gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear Physicists generally work regular hours in labo­
interactions leads to discoveries and innova­ ratories, classrooms, and offices. Most phys­
tions that advance nuclear energy, electronics, icists do not encounter unusual hazards in their
communications and aerospace technology, work. Astronomers who make observations
and medical instrumentation.
may need to travel to observation facilities
Astronomy is usually considered a subfield which are usually in remote locations and fre­
of physics. Astronomers use the principles of quently work at night.


Physicists held almost 19,000 jobs in 1982. In
addition, about an equal number of persons
held physics faculty positions in colleges and
universities. (See the statement on college and
university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Private industry employed almost two-thirds of
all nonacademic physicists, primarily in com­
panies manufacturing electrical equipment, air­
craft and missiles, chemicals, and scientific
instruments. Many others worked as re­
searchers in colleges and universities, hospi­
tals, commercial laboratories, and independent
research organizations. The Federal Govern­
ment, mostly the Departments of Defense and
Commerce, employed about 3 out of 10 phys­
Although physicists are employed in all parts
of the country, their employment is greatest in
areas that have heavy industrial concentrations
and large college and university enrollments.

IVaining, Other Qualifications, and
Graduate training in physics or a closely related
field is almost essential for most entry level jobs
in physics and for advancement. The doctorate
usually is required for full faculty status at col­
leges and universities and for industrial or gov­
ernment jobs administering research and de­
velopment programs. A doctorate is also the
usual requirement for a job in astronomy.
Those having master’s degrees may qualify
for some research jobs in private industry and in
the Federal Government as well as for teaching
jobs in 2-year colleges. In universities, some
teach and assist in research while studying for
their Ph.D.
Those having bachelor’s degrees may qualify
for a few applied research and development
jobs in private industry and in the Federal Gov­
ernment. Some are employed as research or
teaching assistants in colleges and universities
while studying for advanced degrees. Many
with undergraduate physics degrees work in
engineering and other scientific fields. (See
statements on engineers, geologists and
geophysicists, programmers, and systems ana­
lysts elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Almost 800 colleges and universities offer a
bachelor’s degree in physics. The undergradu­
ate program provides a broad background in the
science and serves as a base for later specializa­
tion either in graduate school or on the job.
Some typical physics courses are mechanics,
electromagnetism, electronics, optics, ther­
modynamics, and atomic and molecular phys­
ics. Students also take courses in chemistry and
many courses in mathematics.
About 270 colleges and universities offer
advanced degrees in physics. In graduate
school, the student, with faculty guidance, usu­
ally works in a specific subfield of physics.
Graduate students, especially candidates for
Ph.D. degrees, spend a large portion of their
time conducting research.
About 50 universities offer the Ph.D. degree
in astronomy. These programs include ad­
vanced courses in astronomy, physics, and
mathematics. Some schools require that gradu­
ate students spend several months working at an

68/Occupational Outlook Handbook
this area will result from the need to replace
those who leave the occupation.
Persons with only a bachelor’s degree in
physics are not qualified to enter most physicist
jobs. However, many with bachelor’s degrees in
physics find jobs as engineers, technicians, or
computer specialists. Others become high
school physics teachers. However, they are usu­
ally regarded as teachers rather than as phys­
icists. (See the statement on secondary school
teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)


Graduate training in physics or a closely related field is essential for most entry level jobs in physics.
observatory. The usual qualification for en­
trance to a graduate program in astronomy is a
bachelor’s degree in astronomy, physics, or
mathematics with a physics minor.
Students planning a career in physics should
have an inquisitive mind, mathematical ability,
and imagination. They should be able to work
on their own, since physicists, particularly in
basic research, often receive only limited super­
Physicists, especially those who hold less
than a Ph.D., often begin their careers doing
routine laboratory tasks. After some experi­
ence, they are assigned more complex tasks and
may advance to work as project leaders or re­
search directors. Some work in top manage­
ment jobs. Physicists who develop new prod­
ucts or processes sometimes form their own
companies or join new firms to exploit their
own ideas.

Job Outlook
Employment opportunities in physics are ex­
pected to be good through 1995 for persons with

a doctorate in physics because employment is
projected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations over the period and the number of
graduate degrees awarded annually in physics
has been declining since 1970. However, per­
sons seeking jobs in astronomy are expected to
continue to encounter competition for the small
number of available openings that will occur
through 1995. Despite the faster than average
growth projected in this occupation, most job
openings will arise as physicists transfer to
other occupations, retire, or die.
Many physicists work in research and de­
velopment (R&D). The anticipated increase in
R&D expenditures through 1995 should result
in increased employment for physicists. If actu­
al R&D expenditure levels and patterns differ
significantly from those assumed, however, the
outlook would be altered.
Some with advanced degrees in physics will
be needed to teach in colleges and universities,
but opportunities will be better in private indus­
try. Since little employment growth is expected
in colleges and universities, most openings in

Median annual earnings of full time physicists
were about $33,000 in 1982; the middle 50
piercent earned between about $28,000 and
$45,000 annually.
According to an American Institute of Phys­
ics Survey of 1982 degree recipients, starting
salaries for physicists in private industry aver­
aged about $26,500 for those with a master’s
degree and $34,000 for those with a Ph.D.
Depending on their college records, phys­
icists with a bachelor’s degree could start in the
Federal Government in early 1983 at either
$13,369 or $16,559 a year. Beginning phys­
icists having a master’s degree could start at
$16,559 or $20,256, and those having the
Ph.D. degree could begin at $24,508 or
$29,374. Average earnings for all physicists in
the Federal Government in 1982 were $38,400
a year.
Starting salaries for physics college and uni­
versity faculty with the Ph.D. averaged
$23,000 in 1982, according to the American
Institute of Physics. (See the statement on col­
lege and university teachers elsewhere in the
Handbook.) Many faculty physicists supple­
ment their regular incomes by working as con­
sultants and taking on special research projects.

Related Occupations
Physics is closely related other scientific oc­
cupations such as chemistry, geology, and
geophysics. Engineers and engineering and sci­
ence technicians also use a knowledge of the
principles of physics in their work.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career opportunities in
physics is available from:
American Institute of Physics, 335 East 45th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

For a pamphlet containing information on
careers in astronomy and on schools offering
training in the field, send 25 cents to:
Dr. Harry Shipman, Education Officer, American
Astronomical Society, University of Delaware, New­
ark, Del. 19711.

Life Scientists
Life scientists study living organisms and their
life processes, such as growth, reproduction,
and behavior They apply knowledge gained
from research to specific goals such as the de­
velopment of drugs, special varieties of plants,
and ways of maintaining a cleaner environ­
ment. They are concerned with the origin, pres­
ervation, and development of life, from the
largest animal to the smallest living cell. Bio­
logical scientists study the basic life processes
of plants and animals, and agricultural scien­
tists apply their knowledge of biology to
agricultural problems. Foresters and con­
servationists use their knowledge of life science
to manage and conserve the natural resources of
forests, rangelands, and soil. Detailed informa­
tion about training requirements and job out­
look in these occupations appears in the three
statements that follow.

Agricultural Scientists
(D.O.T. 040.061-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, and -058;
041.061-014, -018, and -082)

Animal scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-014) do
research on the breeding, feeding, and diseases
of domestic farm animals.
Dairy scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-018) and
Poultry scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-042) con­
duct research on the breeding, feeding, and
management of dairy cattle and poultry.
Horticulturists (D.O.T. 040.061-038) work
with orchard and garden plants such as fruit and
nut trees, vegetables, and flowers. They seek to
improve plant culture methods for the beau­
tification of communities, homes, parks, and
other areas as well as for increasing crop quality
and yields.
Soil scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-058) study
soil characteristics, map soil types, and deter­
mine the best types of crops for each soil. They
study the responses of various types of soils to
fertilizers, tillage practices, crop rotation, and
other actions which affect the soil.
Animal breeders (D.O.T. 041.061-014) and
plant breeders (D.O.T. 041.061-082) develop
systems of breeding to develop and improve
desirable characteristics of animals and plants.
Apiculturists (D.O.T. 041.061-018) study the
culture and breeding of bees.

Working Conditions
Nature of the Work
The work done by agricultural scientists has
played an important part in making American
farm workers the most productive agricultural
workers in the world. Agricultural scientists
study farm crops and animals and develop ways
of improving their quantity and quality. They
look for ways to increase yields with less labor,
control pests and weeds more effectively, and
conserve soil and water. Agricultural science is
closely related to biological science in that both
involve the study of living organisms; agri­
cultural scientists then apply this knowledge to
solving practical problems in agriculture.
About 40 percent of all agricultural scientists
manage or administer research and develop­
ment projects or marketing or production oper­
ations in companies that produce agricultural
chemicals or machinery. About 20 percent do
research and development. Some spend most of
their time in laboratories, but some in research
and development spend much of their time
working with plants and animals in the field.
Some agricultural scientists teach in colleges
and universities and others work as consultants
to business firms or to government.
Agricultural scientists usually specialize in
one of the following areas. Agronomists
(D.O.T. 040.061-010) are concerned with the
growth and improvement of field crops. They
improve the quality and yield of crops such as
com, wheat, and cotton by developing new
growth methods or by controlling diseases,
pests, and weeds. Some agronomists may spe­
cialize in a particular crop or crop problem.

Agricultural scientists generally work regular
hours in offices, laboratories, or classrooms.
Some agricultural scientists spend much time
outdoors conducting research on farms or agri­
cultural research stations.

Agricultural scientists held about 22,000 jobs
in 1982. In addition, over 15,000 persons held
agricultural science faculty positions in col­
leges and universities in 1982. (See the state­
ment on college and university faculty
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Almost half of all agricultural scientists work
for Federal, State, or local governments. Al­
most 3,000 worked for the Federal Government
in 1982, mostly in the Department of Agri­
culture. Large numbers worked for State gov­
ernments at State agricultural colleges or agri­
cultural research stations. Almost 10 percent of
all agricultural scientists work for agricultural
service companies; others work for fertilizer
companies, seed companies, and wholesale
distribution companies. Over 2,000 agri­
cultural scientists were self-employed in 1982,
mainly as consultants.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Training requirements for agricultural scientists
depend on the specialty and the type of work
performed. A Ph.D. degree in an agricultural
science specialty is usually required for college
teaching, independent research, and for ad­
vancement to many administrative and man­

agement jobs. A master’s degree is sufficient
for some jobs in applied research. The bach­
elor’s degree is adequate preparation for some
jobs in sales, inspection, and other nonresearch
areas, but, in some cases, promotions may be
limited for those who hold no higher degree.
Those who hold degrees in related sciences
such as biology, chemistry, or physics also may
enter some agricultural science jobs.
All States have at least one land-grant college
which offers agricultural science curriculums.
Many other colleges and universities also offer
some kind of agricultural science courses.
Since some schools may not offer all spe­
cialties, students should investigate carefully
the course offerings of the schools they are
considering. Requirements for advanced de­
grees usually include fieldwork and laboratory
research as well as classroom studies and prepa­
ration of a thesis based on independent re­
Agricultural scientists should be able to work
independently or as part erf a team and must be
able to communicate their findings clearly and
concisely, both orally and in writing.
Agricultural scientists who have advanced
degrees usually begin in research or teaching
jobs. With experience, they may advance to
jobs such as supervisors of research programs.

Job Outlook
Employment of agricultural scientists is ex­
pected to grow more slowly than the average for
all occupations through the mid-1990’s. Many
agricultural scientists work for Federal, State,
or local governments where little employment
growth is expected. Employment of agricultural
scientists involved in research may grow
rapidly in private industry as advances such as
recombinant DNA now being made in bio­
technology are applied to agriculture. In addi­
tion to jobs arising from growth in demand for
agricultural scientists, job openings will occur
as agricultural scientists transfer to other oc­
cupations, retire, or die.
Employment opportunities in agricultural
science are expected to be better for those with
advanced degrees. However, a bachelor’s de­
gree in agricultural science is useful for occupa­
tions such as farmer or farm manager, cooper­
ative extension service worker, technician, or
seed or fertilizer company sales representative.
Persons with degrees in agricultural science
also work for businesses that deal with farmers
such as banks and farm equipment manufac­

According to the College Placement Council,
beginning salary offers for agricultural scien­
tists with the bachelor’s degree averaged
$16,700 a year in 1982.


70/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Agricultural scientists examine a newly developed variety of orghum.
In the Federal Government in early 1983,
agricultural scientists with a bachelor’s degree
could start at $13,369 or $16,559 a year, de­
pending on their college records. Those having
the master’s degree could start at $16,559 or
$20,256, depending on their academic records
or work experience; and those having the Ph.D.
degree could begin at $24,508 or $29,374 a
year. Agricultural scientists in the Federal Gov­
ernment averaged about $28,000 a year in

Related Occupations
The work of agricultural scientists is closely
related to that of biologists as well as to other
natural scientists such as chemists and phys­
icists. It is also related to agricultural produc­
tion occupations such as farmer and farm man­
ager and to cooperative extension service
workers as well as to foresters and conservation
scientists. Certain specialties of agricultural
science are also related to other occupations.
For example, animal scientists are related to
veterinarians, horticulturists to landscape ar­
chitects, and soil scientists to soil con­

Source of Additional Information
Information on careers in agricultural science is
available from:
Higher Education Programs, Agricultural Research
Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Admin­

istration Building, 14th St. and Independence Ave.
SW., Washington, D.C. 20250.
American Society of Agronomy, 677 S. Segoe Rd.,
Madison, Wis. 53711.
Crop Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd.,
Madison, Wis. 53711.
Soil Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd.,
Madison, Wis. 53711.

For information on careers in horticultural
science, send a stamped, self-addressed enve­
lope to:
American Society for Horticultural Science, 701
North Saint Asaph St., Alexandria, Va. 22314.

Information on Federal job opportunities is
available from local offices of State employ­
ment services and the U.S. Office of Personnel
Management or from Federal Job Information
Centers located in various large cities
throughout the country.

Biological Scientists
(D.O.T. 041.061, except -014, -018, -026, -034, -054,
-070, -074, -082, and 090; and .167-010)

Nature of the Work
Biological scientists study all aspects of living
organisms and the relationship of animals and

plants to their environment. Although many
specialize in some area such as ornithology (the
study of birds) or microbiology (the study of
microscopic organisms), all have in common
the study of life.
Many biological scientists are primarily in­
volved in research and development. Some
conduct basic research to increase knowledge
of living organisms. Others in applied research
use this knowledge in activities such as de­
veloping new m edicines, increasing crop
yields, and improving the environment. Those
working in laboratories must be familiar with
research techniques and the use of laboratory
equipment and computers. Not all research,
however, is performed in laboratories. For ex­
ample, a botanist may do research in the vol­
canic valleys of Alaska to see what plants grow
Other biological scientists work in manage­
ment or administration, for example planning
and administering programs for testing foods
and drugs and directing activities at zoos or
botanical gardens. Some work as consultants to
business firms or to government, while others
test and inspect foods, drugs, and other prod­
ucts or write for technical publications. (See the
statement on technical writers elsewhere in the
Handbook.) Some work in technical sales and
service jobs for companies manufacturing
chemicals or other technical products. (See the
statements on manufacturers’ sales represen­
tatives and wholesale trade sales workers
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Most biological scientists who come under
the broad category of biologist (D.O.T.
041.061-030) are further classified by the type
of organism they study or by the specific ac­
tivity they perform.
Anatomists (D.O.T. 041.061-010) study and
examine the structure of organisms, from cell
structure to the formation of tissues and organs.
Many specialize in human anatomy. Research
methods may entail dissections or the use of
electron microscopes.
Botanists (D.O.T. 041.061-038) deal pri­
marily with plants and their environment.
Some study all aspects of plant life, while oth­
ers specialize in areas such as identification and
classification of plants, the structure and func­
tion of various plant parts, and the causes and
cures of plant diseases.
Embryologists study the development of an
animal from a fertilized egg through the hatch­
ing process or birth, and the causes of healthy
and abnormal development.
Microbiologists (D.O.T. 041.061-058) inves­
tigate the growth and characteristics of micro­
scopic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and
molds. Medical microbiologists study the rela­
tionship between bacteria and disease or the
effect of antibiotics on bacteria. Other micro­
biologists specialize in soil bacteriology (the
effect of microorganisms on soil fertility), viro­
logy (viruses), or immunology (mechanisms
that fight infections).
Pharmacologists (D.O.T. 041.061-074) and
toxicologists conduct tests on animals such as
rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys to determine the
effects of drugs, gases, poisons, dusts, and
other substances on the functioning of tissues

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/71
and organs. Pharmacologists may develop new
or improved drugs and medicines.
Physiologists (D.O.T. 041.061-078) study
life functions of plants and animals under nor­
mal and abnormal conditions. Physiologists
may specialize in functions such as growth,
reproduction, photosynthesis, respiration, or
movement, or in the physiology of a certain
area or system of the body.
Zoologists (D.O.T. 041.061-090) study vari­
ous aspects of animals—their origin, behavior,
diseases, and life processes. Some experiment
with live animals in controlled or natural sur­
roundings while others dissect dead animals to
study their structure. Zoologists are usually
identified by the animal group studied—or­
nithologists (birds), entomologists (insects),
mammalogists (mammals), herpetologists
(reptiles), and ichthyologists (fish).
Some biological scientists apply their knowl­
edge across a number of areas and may be
classified by the functions performed. Ecolo­
gists, for example, study the relationship be­
tween organisms and their environments and
the effects of influences such as pollutants,
rainfall, temperature, and altitude on organ­
isms. For exam ple, ecologists examine
plankton (microscopic water plants and ani­
mals) and measure the radioactive content of
fish to determine the effects of pollution.
Agricultural scientists, who may also be
classified as biological scientists, are included
in a separate statement elsewhere in the Hand­

Working Conditions
Biological scientists generally work regular
hours in offices, laboratories, or classrooms
and usually are not exposed to unsafe or un­
healthy conditions. Some biological scientists
such as botanists, ecologists, and zoologists
may take field trips which involve strenuous
physical activity and primitive living condi­

Biological scientists study living organisms and
life processes.


Job Outlook

Biological scientists held about 52,000 jobs in
1982. In addition, an almost equal number of
persons held biology faculty positions in col­
leges and universities. (See the statement on
college and university faculty elsewhere in the
About 14,000 biological scientists worked
for the Federal Government in 1982. Over onequarter worked for the Department of Agri­
culture, and about one-fifth worked for the Na­
tional Institutes of Health. Large numbers also
were employed by the Department of the Inte­
rior and the Defense Department. State and
local governments combined employed about
Over 12,000 worked in private industry,
mostly in the pharmaceutical, chemical, food,
and agricultural services industries in 1982.
About 4,000 worked for nonprofit research or­
ganizations and foundations; a few were selfemployed.

Employment of biological scientists is expected
to increase faster than the average for all oc­
cupations through the mid-1990’s due to recent
advances in genetic research that should result
in new drugs, improved plants, and medical
discoveries. Advances in biological technology
should result in many additional research jobs
for biological scientists in private industry; ad­
ditional jobs are likely to be created by the
production, by biological methods, of products
which are presently produced by chemical or
other methods. Efforts to preserve the environ­
ment should also result in additional employ­
ment opportunities. In addition to jobs arising
from growth in demand for biological scien­
tists, job openings will occur as some biolog­
ical scientists transfer to other occuptions, re­
tire, or die.
Employment opportunities for biological
scientists are expected to be better for those
with advanced degrees since most new jobs will
be research oriented. Furthermore, the employ­
ment outlook will vary by specialty. Those who
have the ability to do research in areas related to
the genetic, cellular, and biochemical areas of
biology should experience better employment
opportunities than those in other specialties.
However, many persons with a bachelor’s de­
gree in biological science find jobs in occupa­
tions such as science or engineering technicians
or medical laboratory technologists. Some be­
come high school biology teachers. However,
they are usually regarded as teachers rather than
biologists. (See the statement on secondary
school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Others enter a wide range of occupations with
little or no connection to biology.
Biological scientists rarely lose their jobs
during recessions, since most are employed on
long-term research projects or in agriculture,
activities which are not much affected by eco­
nomic fluctuations.

TVaining, Other Qualifications, and
The Ph.D. degree generally is required for col­
lege teaching, independent research, and for
advancement to administrative research posi­
tions and other management jobs. A master’s
degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied
research. The bachelor’s degree is adequate
preparation for some beginning jobs, but pro­
motions often are limited for those who hold no
higher degree. New graduates with a bachelor’s
degree Can start their careers in testing and
inspecting jobs, or become technical sales and
service representatives. They also can become
senior biology technicians, medical laboratory
technologists and technicians or, with courses
in education, high school biology teachers.
(See the statement on secondary school teach­
ers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Many with a
bachelors degree in biology enter medical, den­
tal, veterinary, or other health profession
schools. Some enter a wide range of occuations
with little or no connection to biology.
Most colleges and universities offer bach­
elor’s degrees in biological science and many,
advanced degrees. Curriculums for advanced
degrees in biological science often emphasize a
particular area of biological science such as
microbiology or botany. Not all universities
offer all curriculums. Requirements for ad­
vanced degrees usually include fieldwork and
laboratory research as well as classroom studies
and preparation of a thesis. Biological scientists
who have advanced degrees usually begin in
research or teaching jobs. With experience,
they may advance to jobs such as supervisors of
research programs.
Prospective biological scientists should be
able to work independently or as part of a team
and must be able to communicate their findings
clearly and concisely, both orally and in writ­
ing. Biological scientists conducting field re­
search in remote areas must have physical

According to the College Placement Council,
beginning salary offers in private industry in
1982 averaged $16,500 a year for bachelor’s
degree recipients and $17,000 a year for mas­
ter’s degree recipients in biological science.
In the Federal Government in early 1983,
biological scientists having a bachelor’s degree
could begin at $13,369 or $16,559 a year, de­
pending on their college records. Those having
the master’s degree could start at $16,559 or
$20,256, depending on their academic records
or work experience; those having the Ph.D.
degree could begin at $24,508 or $29,374 a
year. Biological scientists in the Federal Gov­
ernment averaged $31,900 a year in 1982.

Related Occupations
Many occupations are related in some way to
biological scientists since they deal with living
organisms. These include the conservation oc­
cupations of foresters, forestry technicians,
range manangers, and soil conservationists, as
well as agricultural scientists, biochemists, soil
scientists, oceanographers, and life science
technicians. The wide array of health occupa­
tions are all related to those in the biological

72/Occupational Outlook Handbook
sciences, as are occupations dealing with rais­
ing plants and animals such as farmers and farm
workers, florists, and nursery workers.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on careers in biological
science is available from:
American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1401
Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Va. 22209.
American Physiological Society, Education Officer,
9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md. 20814.
Dr. Carol C. Baskin, Secretary, Botanical Society of
America, School of Biological Sciences, University
of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. 40506.
American Society of Zoologists, P.O. Box 2739,
California Lutheran College, Thousand Oaks, Calif.

For information on careers in horticultural
science, send a stamped, self-addressed envel­
ope to:
American Society for Horticultural Science, 701
North Saint Asaph St., Alexandria, Va. 22314.

Information on Federal job opportunities is
available from local offices of State employ­
ment services and the U.S. Office of Personnel
Management or from Federal Job Information
Centers located in various large cities
throughout the country.

Foresters and
(D.O.T. 040.061-030, -034, -046, -050, -054, and -062;
169.167-022; and 451.137-010)

Nature of the Work
Forests and rangelands serve a variety of needs:
They provide habitats for wildlife, serve as sites
for recreational activities, and supply lumber,
minerals, and water. Foresters and con­
servationists manage, develop, and help protect
these and other natural resources.
Foresters plan and supervise the growing,
protection, and harvesting of trees. They map
forest areas, estimate the amount of standing
timber and future growth, and manage timber
sales. Foresters also protect the trees from fire,
harmful insects, and disease. Some foresters
also protect wildlife and manage watersheds;
develop and supervise camps, parks, and graz­
ing lands, and do research. Foresters in exten­
sion work provide information to forest owners
and to the general public.
Range managers, also called range con­
servationists, range ecologists, or range scien­
tists, manage, improve, and protect rangelands
to maximize their use without damaging the
environment. Rangelands cover more than 1
billion acres of the United States, mostly in the
Western States and Alaska. They contain many
natural resources: Grass and shrubs for animal
grazing, wildlife habitats, water from vast wa­
tersheds, recreation facilities, and valuable
mineral and energy resources. Rangelands also

serve as areas for scientific study of the environ­
ment. Range managers help ranchers attain op­
timum livestock production by determining the
number and kind of animals to graze, the graz­
ing system to use, and the best season for graz­
ing. At the same time, however, they try to
conserve the soil and vegetation for other uses
such as wildlife habitats, outdoor recreation,
and timber.
Soil conservationists provide technical assis­
tance to farmers, ranchers, and others con­
cerned with the conservation of soil, water, and
related natural resources. They develop pro­
grams that are designed to get the most produc­
tive use of land without damaging it. Soil con­
servationists do most of their work in the field.
Conservationists visit areas with erosion prob­
lems, find the source of the problem, and de­
velop a program to combat the erosion.
Foresters and conservationists often spe­
cialize in one area of work, such as timber
management, outdoor recreation, or forest eco­

Working Conditions
Working conditions for foresters and con­
servationists vary considerably. Their image as
solitary horseback riders, singlehandedly pro­
tecting large areas of land far from civilization
no longer holds true. Modem foresters and con­
servationists spend a great deal of time working
with people. They deal regularly with landowners, loggers, forestry technicians and
aides, farmers, and ranchers.
The work can still be physically demanding,
though. Many foresters and conservationists
often work outdoors in all kinds of weather,
sometimes in remote areas. To get to these
areas, they use airplanes, helicopters, and fourwheel drive vehicles. Foresters and con­
servationists also may work long hours fighting
fires or on search-and-rescue missions.

Foresters and conservationists held nearly
31,000 jobs in 1982. About one-half worked for
the Federal Government, primarily in the De­
partment of Agriculture. About one-fourth
worked for State governments. The remainder
worked in private industry, mainly for lumber,
paper, and logging companies, and for local
governments and consulting firms. A few were
self-employed either as consultants or forest
Most soil conservationists work for the
Federal Government, mainly with the Depart­
ment of Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Serv­
Although foresters and conservationists
work in every State, employment is concen­
trated in the Western and Southeastern States
where many national forests and parks are lo­
cated and where most of the lumber and pulpwood producing forests are located. Range
managers work almost entirely in the Western
States where rangeland is located. Soil con­
servationists, on the other hand, are employed
in almost every county in the country.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree in forestry is the minimum
educational requirement for professional ca­
reers in forestry. However, due to keen job
competition and the increasingly complex
nature of the forester’s work, many employers
prefer graduates who hold advanced degrees.
Certain jobs such as teaching and research re­
quire advanced degrees.
In 1982, about 50 colleges and universities
offered bachelor’s or higher degrees in forestry;
43 of these were accredited by the Society of
American Foresters. Curriculums stress the lib­
eral arts and communications skills as well as
technical forestry subjects. Courses in forest
economics and business administration supple­
ment the student’s scientific and technical
knowledge. Many colleges require students to
spend one summer in a field camp operated by
the college. All schools encourage summer
jobs that give experience in forest or con­
servation work.
A bachelor’s degree in range management or
range science is the usual minimum educational
requirement for range managers. The Federal
Government requires at least 42 hours in plant,
animal, or soil sciences and natural resources
management courses, including at least 18
hours in range management. Graduate degrees
in range management generally are required for
teaching and research positions and may be
helpful for advancement in other jobs.
In 1982, about 18 colleges and universities
offered degrees in range management or range
science. A number of other schools offered
some courses in range management. Spe­
cialized range management courses combine
plant, animal, and soil sciences with principles
of ecology and resource management. Desir­
able electives include economics, forestry, hy­
drology, agronomy, wildlife, computer sci­
ence, and recreation.
Very few colleges and universities offer de­
grees in soil conservation. Most soil con­
servationists have degrees in agronomy, agri­
cultural education, or general agriculture; a few

Foresters and conservationists work outdoors in
all kinds of weather.

Natural Scientists and Mathematicians/73
have degrees in related fields such as wildlife
biology, forestry, and range management. Pro­
grams of study generally include 30 semester
hours in natural resources or agriculture, in­
cluding at least 3 hours in soils.
In addition to meeting the intellectual de­
mands of forestry and conservation work, for­
esters and conservationists must enjoy working
outdoors, be physically hardy, and be willing to
move—often to remote places. They must also
be able to work well with people and have good
communication skills.
Recent forestry and range management grad­
uates usually work under the supervision of
experienced foresters or range managers. After
gaining experience, they may advance to more
responsible positions. In the Federal Govern­
ment, an experienced forester may supervise an
entire forest area, and may advance to regional
forest supervisor or to a top administrative posi­
tion. In private industry, foresters start by learn­
ing the practical and administrative aspects of
the business. Many foresters work their way up
to top managerial positions within their com­
Soil conservationists usually begin working
within one county and with experience may
advance to the area and State level. Also, soil
conservationists can transfer to related occupa­
tions such as farm management advisors or land

Job Outlook
Employment of foresters and conservationists
is expected to grow more slowly than the aver­
age for all occupations through the mid-1990’s.

Employment should continue to grow faster in
private industry than in Federal and State gov­
ernments where budget limitations are likely to
restrain growth. More foresters will be needed
in private industry to ensure an increasing out­
put of forest products. Private owners of timberland also are likely to employ more foresters
as they recognize the need for—and the higher
profitability of—improved forestry and logging
practices. The growing demand for meat, wild­
life habitats, recreation, and water, as well as
continued environmental concerns should stim­
ulate the need for more range managers.
However, the employment of soil con­
servationists is expected to change little through
the mid-1990’s since the Federal Government,
the major employer, is not expected to increase
its employment of soil conservationists. Be­
sides job openings created by growth in em­
ployment, many foresters and conservationists
will be needed to replace those who retire,
transfer to other occupations, or die.

Related Occupations


For information about career opportunities in
the Federal Government, contact:

Most graduates entering the Federal Govern­
ment as foresters, range managers, or soil con­
servationists in early 1983 with just a bachelor’s
degree started at $13,369 a year, although those
with high grades or a master’s degree could start
at $16,559. In 1982, the average Federal salary
for foresters was about $27,900; for range con­
servationists, about $23,700; and for soil con­
servationists, about $26,000.

Foresters and conservationists are not the only
workers concerned with managing, develop­
ing, and protecting natural resources. Other
workers with similar responsibilities include
agricultural scientists, agricultural engineers,
biological scientists, farmers, farm managers,
ranchers, and wildlife managers.

Sources of Additional Information
General information about the forestry profes­
sion and lists of schools offering education in
forestry are available from:
Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor
Lane, Bethesda, Md. 20814.
American Forestry Association, 1319 18th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information about a career as a range man­
ager as well as a list of schools offering training
is available from:
Society for Range Management, 2760 W. 5th Ave.,
Denver, Colo. 80204.

Bureau of Land Management, Denver Service Cen­
ter, Federal Center Building 50, Denver, Colo.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, RO.
Box 2417, Washington, D.C. 20013.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation
Service, P.O. Box 2890, Washington, D.C. 20013.


Financial analysts

Conduct statistical analyses of information affecting investment
programs of public, industrial and financial institutions and private


Easter than average

Medical scientists

Includes Medical Scientists such as Physicians, Dentists, Public
Health Specialists, Pharmacists and Medical Pathologists who are
concerned with the understanding of human diseases and
improvement of human health, and are engaged in clinical
investigation or other research, production, technical writing, or
related activities.


Faster than average


Projected growth


Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious
Workers, and Lawyers
Many of the workers described in this section of
the Handbook are concerned with the social
needs of people. For example, clinical psycho­
logists help the mentally or emotionally dis­
turbed adjust to life through behavior modifica­
tion programs and other techniques. Social
workers in a wide range of settings address the
needs of individuals, families, groups, and
communities. Their work may involve any­
thing from helping an elderly person adjust to
life in a nursing home to organizing fund rais­
ing for community social welfare activities.
Recreation workers help people enjoy their
nonworking hours by organizing activities in
camps, community centers, playgrounds, and
other settings. Religious workers counsel peo­
ple in their faith and provide spiritual and moral
leadership within their communities. Lawyers
advise clients of their legal rights and obliga­
tions and suggest particular courses of action in
personal and business matters.
People in these types of jobs must be tactful,
compassionate, and sensitive to the needs of
others. Their manner must inspire trust and
confidence. In fact, religious workers, lawyers,
and others are bound by strict rules of ethics and
may not disclose matters discussed in con­
fidence with clients. Patience also is a vital
personal characteristic as clients often are con­
fused, hesitant, fearful, or angry. They may not
fully understand their circumstances and may
have difficulty expressing themselves.
Other workers described in this section con­
duct basic and applied research in the social
sciences. They deal primarily with data and
things rather than people. They use established
methods to assemble a body of fact and theory
that contributes to human knowledge. Social
scientists investigate all aspects of human so­
ciety—from an anthropologist studying the
origins of the human race or a historian study­
ing an ancient civilization to a political scientist
analyzing the results of presidential elections or
a market research analyst conducting a survey
of consumer preferences. Through their studies
and analyses, social scientists help educators,
government officials, business executives, and
others to address broad social, economic, and
political questions.
The ability to think logically and methodi­
cally and to analyze data is essential to social
science research. Other important personal
characteristics include objectivity, openmin­
dedness, and systematic work habits. Good
oral and written communication skills also are
Digitized for 74

While training and educational requirements
vary among the occupations in this cluster, ad­
vanced training leading to a doctoral or equiv­
alent professional degree is often necessary for
employment in certain settings and for “profes­
sional” recognition. Even in occupations for
which entry is possible with a bachelor’s de­
gree, for example, advancement prospects may
be quite limited for those without graduate
training. These occupations require more train­
ing than most occupations in the Handbook.
The Handbook statements that follow in­
clude more detailed information on the nature
of the work and training requirements. Infor­
mation on employment, earnings, working
conditions, and job outlook also is presented.

(D.O.T. 110)

Laws affect every aspect of our society. They
regulate the entire spectrum of relationships
among individuals, groups, businesses, and
governments. They define rights as well as re­
strictions, covering such diverse activities as
judging and punishing criminals, granting pat­
ents, drawing up business contracts, paying
taxes, settling labor disputes, constructing
buildings, and administering wills.
Because social needs and attitudes are con­
tinually changing, the legal system that regu­
lates our social, political, and economic rela­
tionships also changes. Lawyers, also called
attorneys, link the legal system and society. To
perform this role, they must understand the
world around them and be sensitive to the nu­
merous aspects of society that the law touches.
They must comprehend not only the words of a
particular statute, but the human circumstances
it addresses as well.
As our laws grow more complex, the work of
lawyers takes on broader significance. Laws
affect our lives in new ways as the legal system
takes on regulatory tasks in areas such as trans­
portation, energy conservation, consumer pro­
tection, and social welfare. Lawyers interpret
these laws, rulings, and regulations for individ­
uals and businesses.

Nature of the Work
In our society, lawyers act as both advocates
and advisors. As advocates, they represent op­
posing parties in criminal and civil trials by
presenting arguments that support each side in a
court of law. As advisors, lawyers counsel their
clients as to their legal rights and obligations

and suggest particular courses of action in busi­
ness and personal matters.
Whether acting as advocates or advisors,
nearly all attorneys have certain activities in
common. Probably the most fundamental ac­
tivities are the interpretation of the law and its
application to a specific situation. This requires
in-depth research into the purposes behind cer­
tain laws and into judicial decisions that have
applied those laws to circumstances similar to
those currently faced by the attorney. Based on
this research, the attorney helps clients decide
what actions would best serve their interests.
Lawyers must deal with people in a
courteous, efficient manner and not disclose
matters discussed in confidence with clients.
Because lawyers hold positions of great respon­
sibility, they must always adhere to strict rules
of ethics.
Finally, most lawyers write reports or briefs
which must communicate clearly and precisely.
The more detailed aspects of a lawyer’s job
depend upon his or her field and position.
While all licensed attorneys are allowed to
represent parties in court, some appear in court
more frequently than others. A few lawyers
specialize in trial work. These lawyers usually
have an exceptional ability to think quickly,
speak with ease and authority, and are thor­
oughly familiar with courtroom strategy. Trial
lawyers still spend considerable time outside
the courtroom conducting research, interview­
ing clients and witnesses, and handling other
details in preparation for trial.
Although most lawyers deal with many dif­
ferent areas of the law, a significant number
concentrate on one branch of law, such as admi­
ralty, probate, or international law. Communi­
cations lawyers, for example, may represent
radio and television stations in their dealings
with the Federal Communications Commis­
sion. They help established stations prepare and
file license renewal applications, employment
reports, and other documents required by the
FCC on a regular basis. They also keep their
clients informed of changes in FCC regula­
tions. Communications lawyers help individu­
als or corporations buy or sell a station or estab­
lish a new one.
Lawyers who represent public utilities be­
fore the Federal Power Commission and other
regulatory agencies handle matters involving
utility rates. They develop strategy, arguments,
and testimony; prepare cases for presentation;
and argue the case. These lawyers also inform
clients about changes in regulations and give
advice about the legality of their actions.

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/75
Still other lawyers advise insurance com­
panies about the legality of insurance transac­
tions. They write insurance policies to conform
with the law and to protect companies from
unwarranted claims. They review claims filed
against insurance companies and represent
companies in court.
Lawyers in private practice may concentrate
on areas such as litigation, wills, trusts, con­
tracts, mortgages, titles, and leases. Some
manage a person’s property as trustee or see that
provisions of a client’s will are carried out as
executor. Others handle only public interest
cases—civil or criminal—which have a poten­
tial impact extending well beyond the individu­
al client. Attorneys hope to use these cases as a
vehicle for legal and social reform.
A single client may employ a lawyer full
time. Often known as house counsel, this law­
yer usually advises a company about legal
questions that arise from business activities.
Such questions might involve patents, govern­
ment regulations, a business contract with an­
other company, or a collective bargaining
agreement with a union.
Attorneys employed at the various levels of
government constitute still another category.
Criminal lawyers may work for a State attorney
general, a prosecutor or public defender, or a
court. At the Federal level, attorneys may in­
vestigate cases for the Department of Justice or
other agencies. Lawyers at every government
level help develop laws and programs, draft
legislation, establish enforcement procedures,
and argue cases.
Other lawyers work for legal aid societies—
private, nonprofit corporations established to
serve poor people in particular areas. These
lawyers generally handle civil rather than crim­
inal cases.
A relatively small number of licensed attor­
neys work in law schools. Most are faculty
members who specialize in one or more sub­
jects, while others serve as administrators.

Some work full time in nonacademic settings
and teach part time. (For additional informa­
tion, see the statement on college and univer­
sity faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Working Conditions
Lawyers do most of their work in offices and
courtrooms. They sometimes meet in clients’
homes or places of business and, when neces­
sary, in hospitals or prisons. They frequently
travel to attend meetings; to gather evidence;
and to appear before courts, legislative bodies,
and other authorities.
Salaried lawyers in government and private
firms generally have structured work sched­
ules. Independent lawyers may work irregular
hours while conducting research, conferring
with clients, or preparing briefs during non­
office hours. Lawyers generally work long
hours and are under particularly heavy pressure
when a case is being tried. Preparation for court
includes keeping abreast of the latest laws and
judicial decisions.
Although work generally is not seasonal, the
work of tax lawyers may be an exception. Since
lawyers in private practice can determine their
own workload, many stay in practice well
beyond the usual retirement age.

Lawyers held about 465,000 jobs in 1982.
About three-fourths of them practiced privately,
either in law firms or in solo practices. Most of
the remaining lawyers held positions in govern­
ment, primarily at the State and local levels. In
the Federal Government, lawyers are concen­
trated in the Departments of Justice, Treasury,
and Defense, but they work for other Federal
agencies as well. Others are employed as house
counsel by public utilities, transportation firms,
banks, insurance companies, real estate agen­
cies, manufacturing firms, welfare and re­
ligious organizations, and other business firms
and nonprofit organizations. Some salaried
lawyers also have independent practices; others
do legal work part time while in another oc­

Training, Other Qualifications, and

Lawyers do research on how laws have been
interpreted and applied in the past.

To practice law in the courts of any State, a
person must be admitted to its bar. Applicants
for admission to the bar must pass a written
examination; however, a few States drop this
requirement for graduates of their own law
schools. Lawyers who have been admitted to
the bar in one State occasionally may be admit­
ted in another State without taking an examina­
tion if they meet that State’s standards of good
moral character and have a specified period of
legal experience. Federal courts and agencies
set their own qualifications for those practicing
before them.
To qualify for the bar examination in most
States, an applicant must complete at least 3
years of college and graduate from a law school
approved by the American Bar Association
(ABA) or the proper State authorities. (ABA
approval signifies that the law school meets
certain standards developed by the association

to promote quality legal education. With cer­
tain exceptions, graduates of nonapproved
schools generally are restricted to taking the bar
examination and practicing in the State in
which the school is located.) A few States ac­
cept the study of law in a law office or in
combination with study in a law school; only
California accepts the study of law by corre­
spondence as qualification for taking the bar
exam. Several States require registration and
approval of students by the State Board of Ex­
aminers, either before they enter law school or
during the ehrly years of legal study.
Although there is no nationwide bar exam,
46 States and the District of Columbia partici­
pate in the Multistate Bar Examination (MBE).
The MBE, covering issues of broad interest, is
given in addition to the State bar exam. States
vary in their treatment of MBE scores.
The required college and law school educa­
tion usually takes 7 years of full-time study
after high school—4 years of undergraduate
study followed by 3 years in law school. Al­
though some law schools accept a very small
number of students after 3 years of college,
most require applicants to have a bachelor’s
degree. To meet the needs of students who can
attend only part time, a number of law schools
have night or part-time divisions which usually
require'4 years of study. In 1981, about oneeighth of all graduates of ABA-approved
schools were part-time students.
Preparation for a career as a lawyer really
begins in college. Although there is no recom­
mended “prelaw” major, the choice of an un­
dergraduate program is important. Certain
courses and activities are desirable because they
give the student the skills needed to succeed
both in law school and in the profession. Essen­
tial skills—the ability to write, to read and
analyze, to think logically, and to communicate
verbally—are learned during high school and
college. An undergraduate program that culti­
vates these skills while broadening the student’s
view of the world is best. Majors in the social
sciences, natural sciences, and humanities all
are suitable, although a student should not spe­
cialize too narrowly. Regardless of one’s major,
courses in English, foreign language, public
speaking, government, philosophy, history,
economics, mathematics, and computer sci­
ence, among others, are highly recommended.
Students interested in a particular aspect of
law may find related courses helpful; for exam­
ple, engineering and science courses for the
prospective patent attorney, and accounting for
the future tax lawyer. In addition, typing is
advisable simply for convenience in law
Acceptance by most law schools depends on
the applicant’s ability to demonstrate an ap­
titude for the study of law, usually through good
grades and the Law School Admission Test
(LSAT), administered by the Educational Test­
ing Service. The quality of the applicant’s un­
dergraduate school, any prior work experience,
and sometimes a personal interview are also
taken into consideration. In 1982, the American
Bar Association had approved 173 law schools.
Others were approved by State authorities only.

76/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Competition for admission to law school is
intense. Enrollments rose very rapidly during
the early 1970’s, with applicants far outnumber­
ing available seats. Competition for admission
remains stiff, especially in more prestigious law
schools. Although enrollments are expected to
level off during the 1980’s and early 1990’s,
admission to law school will remain the first of
several hurdles for prospective lawyers.
During the first year or year and a half of law
school, students generally study fundamental
courses such as cdnstitutional law, contracts,
property law, judicial procedures, and legal
writing. In the remaining time, they may elect
specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor,
or corporation law. Practical experience often is
acquired by participation in school-sponsored
legal aid or legal clinic activities, in the school’s
moot court competitions in which students con­
duct appellate arguments, in practice trials un­
der the supervision of experienced lawyers and
judges, and through writing on legal issues for
the school’s law journals.
In 1982, law students in 28 states and the
District of Columbia were required to pass the
Multistate Professional Responsibility Exam­
ination (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of
the ABA codes on professional responsibility
and judicial conduct. The MPRE may be taken
during law school, usually after completing a
course on legal ethics.
A number of law schools have clinical pro­
grams where students gain legal experience
through practice trials and law school projects
under the supervision of practicing lawyers and
law school faculty. Law school clinical pro­
grams might include work in legal aid clinics,
for example, or on the staff of legislative com­
mittees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law
firms, government agencies, and corporate
legal departments also provide experience that
can be extremely valuable later on. Such train­
ing can provide references or lead directly to a
job after graduation, and can help students de­
cide what kind of practice best suits them. Cler­
kships also may be an important source of fi­
nancial aid.

Graduates receive the degree of juris doctor
(J.D.) or bachelor of law (LL.B.) as the first
professional degree. Advanced law degrees are
desirable for those planning to specialize, do
research, or teach. Some law students pursue
joint degree programs, which generally require
an additional year or more. Joint degree pro­
grams are offered in a number of areas, includ­
ing law and business administration and law
and public administration.
After graduation, lawyers must keep in­
formed about legal and nonlegal developments
that affect their practice. An attorney represent­
ing electronics manufacturers, for example,
must follow trade journals and the latest Federal
regulations. Attorneys in the Department of
State must remain well versed in current events
and international law, while divorce lawyers
read about the changing role of the family in
modem society. Many law schools and State
and local bar associations provide continuing
education courses that help lawyers stay abreast
of recent developments.
The practice of law involves a great deal of
responsibility. Persons planning careers in law
should like to work with people and be able to
win the respect and confidence of their clients,
associates, and the public. Integrity and hon­
esty are vital personal qualities. Perseverance
and reasoning ability are essential to analyze
complex cases and reach sound conclusions. At
times, lawyers need creativity when handling
new and unique legal problems.
Most beginning lawyers start in salaried
positions. Newly hired salaried attorneys usu­
ally act as research assistants to experienced
lawyers or judges. After several years of pro­
gressively responsible salaried employment,
many lawyers are admitted to partnership in
their firm, or go into practice for themselves.
Some lawyers, after years of practice, become
Some persons use their legal training in ad­
ministrative or managerial positions in various
departments of large corporations. A transfer

Law school graduates more than doubled during the 1970’s,
creating keen competition for jobs.
Law degrees (thousands)

SOURCE: National Center for Education Statistics

from a corporation’s legal department to an­
other department often is viewed as a way to
gain administrative experience and rise in the
ranks of management.

Job Outlook
Despite strong growth in the demand for law­
yers, the sizable number of law school gradu­
ates entering the job market each year has
created keen competition for jobs. Over the last
decade, the number of law school graduates
more than doubled, as shown in the accom­
panying chart. While the number of graduates
is expected to level off through the mid-1990’s,
competition for salaried jobs will remain inten­
se. New graduates, together with qualified law­
yers seeking to transfer from other occupations,
should continue to outnumber salaried open­
ings, particularly in large metropolitan areas.
Employment of lawyers grew very rapidly
during the last decade. Faster-than-average
growth is expected to continue through the
mid-1990’s as increased population and busi­
ness activity help sustain the strong demand for
attorneys. This demand also will be spurred by
growth of legal action in such areas as consum­
er protection, the environment, and safety, and
an anticipated increase in the use of legal serv­
ices by middle-income groups through legal
clinics and prepaid legal service programs. As
during the 1970’s, employment growth will be
concentrated in private salaried jobs. The
number of self-employed lawyers is expected to
grow slowly as it becomes increasingly difficult
to establish a profitable small practice, due to
the growing complexity of law, which encour­
ages specialization, and the cost of maintaining
up-to-date legal research materials.
Turnover of jobs in this occupation is very
low because its members are well paid and
enjoy considerable social status, and a substan­
tial educational investment is required for en­
try. Nevertheless, most job openings will stem
from the need to replace lawyers who transfer to
other occupations, retire, or stop working for
other reasons.
Employers will continue to be selective in
hiring new lawyers. Graduates of prestigious
law schools and those who rank high in their
classes should find salaried positions with law
firms, on the legal staffs of corporations and
government agencies, or as law clerks forjudg­
es. Graduates of less prominent schools and
those with lower scholastic ratings will experi­
ence some difficulty in finding salaried jobs.
Some graduates may be forced to accept posi­
tions for which they are overqualifed or in areas
outside their field of interest. An increasing
proportion will enter fields where legal training
is an asset but not normally a requirement. For
example, banks, insurance firms, real estate
companies, government agencies, and other or­
ganizations seek law graduates to fill many ad­
ministrative, managerial, and business posi­
Due to the competition for jobs, a law gradu­
ate’s geographic mobility and experience as­
sume greater importance. The willingness to
relocate may be an advantage in getting a job.

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/77
In addition, employers increasingly seek grad­
uates who have advanced law degrees and expe­
rience in a particular field such as tax, patent, or
admiralty law.
Establishing a new practice probably will
continue to be best in small towns and expand­
ing suburban areas, as long as an active market
for legal services already exists. In such com­
munities, competition is likely to be less than in
big cities, and new lawyers may find it easier to
become known to potential clients; also, rent
and other business costs are somewhat lower.
Nevertheless, starting a new practice will re­
main an expensive and risky proposition that
should be weighed carefully. Salaried positions
will continue largely in urban areas where gov­
ernment agencies, law firms, and big corpora­
tions are concentrated.
Some lawyers are adversely affected by
cyclical swings in the economy. During reces­
sions, the demand for some discretionary legal
services, such as planning estates, drafting
wills, and handling real estate transactions, de­
clines. Also, corporations are less likely to liti­
gate cases when declining sales and profits re­
sult in budgetary restrictions. Although few
lawyers actually lose their jobs during these
times, earnings may decline for many. Some
corporations and law firms will not hire new
attorneys until business improves. Several fac­
tors, however, mitigate the overall impact of
recessions on lawyers. During recessions, indi­
viduals and corporations face other legal prob­
lems, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, and
divorces, that require legal action. Further­
more, the continuous emergence of new laws
and legal interpretations will create new oppor­
tunities for lawyers.

In 1982, starting salaries for recent law school
graduates ranged from $10,000 a year in some
small firms to over $40,000 in some larger
ones. Beginning attorneys in private industry
averaged about $28,000 in 1983. In the Federal
Government, annual starting salaries for attor­
neys in 1982 were about $19,700 or $23,800,
depending upon academic and personal
qualifications. Factors affecting the salaries of­
fered to new graduates include: Academic rec­
ord; type, size, and location of employers; and
the desired specialized educational back­
ground. The field of law makes a difference,
too. Patent lawyers, for example, generally are
among the highest paid attorneys.
Salaries of experienced attorneys also vary
widely according to the type, size, and location
of the employers. The average salary of the
most experienced lawyers in private industry in
1983 was nearly $85,000. General attorneys in
the Federal Government averaged around
$39,200 a year in 1982; the relatively small
number of patent attorneys in the Federal Gov­
ernment averaged around $44,900.
Lawyers starting their own practice may
need to work part time in other occupations
during the first years to supplement their in­
come. Lawyers on salary receive increases as
they assume greater responsibility. Incomes of
lawyers in practice usually grow as their prac­
tices develop. Lawyers who are partners in law
firms generally earn more than those who prac­
tice alone.

Related Occupations
Legal training is useful in many other occupa­
tions. Some of these are arbitrators, hearing

examiners, journalists, patent agents, title ex­
aminers, legislative assistants, lobbyists, FBI
special agents, political office holders, and cor­
porate executives.

Sources of Additional Information
Persons considering law as a career will find
information on law schools and prelaw study in
the Prelaw Handbook, published annually by
Law School Admission Services, Box 2000,
Newtown, Pa. 18940. Copies may be available
in public or school libraries. In addition, many
colleges and universities have a prelaw advisor
who counsels undergraduates about their
course work, the LSAT, law school applica­
tions, and other matters.
Information on law schools, financial aid for
law students, and law as a career is available
Information Services, American Bar Association,
1155 East 60th St., Chicago, 111. 60637. (There may
be a slight charge for publications.)

For information on the placement of law
graduates and the legal profession in general,
National Association for Law Placement, Admin­
istrative Office, Joseph Merrick Jones Hall, Tulane
Law School, New Orleans, La. 70118.

Information on legal education is available
Association of American Law Schools, 1 Dupont
Circle NW., Suite 370, Washington, D.C. 20036.

For advice on financial aid, contact a law
school financial aid officer.
The specific requirements for admission to
the bar in a particular State may be obtained at
the State capital from the clerk of the Supreme
Court or the Secretary of the Board of Bar

Social Scientists and Urban Planners
Nature of the Work
Social scientists study all aspects of human
society—from the distribution of products and
services to newly formed religious groups or
plans for modem mass transportation systems.
Social science research provides insights that
help us understand the many different ways in
which individuals and groups make decisions,
exercise power, or respond to change. Through
their studies and analyses, social scientists and
urban planners assist educators, government
officials, business leaders, and others to solve
social, economic, and environmental prob­
Research is a basic activity for many social
scientists. They use established methods to as­
semble a body of fact and theory that contrib­
utes to human knowledge. Applied research
usually is designed to produce information that
will enable people to make better decisions or
manage their affairs more effectively. Inter­
views and surveys are widely used to collect
facts, opinions, or other information. Data col­
lection takes many other forms, however, in­
cluding living and working among the people
studied; archeological investigations; the anal­
ysis of historical records and documents; ex­
periments with human subjects or lower ani­
mals in a psychological laboratory; and the
administration of standardized tests and ques­
Regardless of their field of specialization,
social scientists are concerned with some as­
pect of society, culture, or personality.
Anthropologists study the way of life, re­
mains, language, and physical characteristics
of people in all parts of the world; they compare
the customs, values, and social patterns of dif­
ferent cultures. Anthropologists generally con­
centrate in 1 of 4 subfields: Cultural an­
thropology, archeology, linguistics, or physical
anthropology. Most anthropologists specialize
in cultural anthropology, studying the
customs, cultures, and social lives of groups in
a wide range of settings from nonindustrialized
societies to modern urban cultures. Arch­
eologists study cultures from artifacts and other
rem ains in the ground. Linguistic an­
thropologists study the role of language in vari­
ous cultures. Physical anthropologists study
the evolution of the human body and look for
the earliest evidence of human life.
Economists study the way we use our re­
sources to produce goods and services. They
compile and analyze data that explain the costs
and benefits of allocating resources in different
ways. Most economists are concerned with the
practical applications of economic policy in a
particular area, such as finance, labor, agri­
culture, transportation, energy, or health. Oth­
ers develop theories to explain economic prob­
lems such as unemployment or inflation.


Geographers study the distribution and loca­ counseling, experimental, social, or industrial
tion of various characteristics of the earth’s sur­ psychology.
Sociologists analyze the behavior of groups
face. Geographers specialize, as a rule. Eco­
nomic geographers deal with the geographic or social systems such as families, neigh­
distribution of an area’s economic activities. borhoods, or clubs. Sociologists may spe­
Political geographers are concerned with the cialize in a particular field such as criminology,
relationship of geography to politics. Physical rural sociology, or medical sociology.
Urban and regional planners develop com­
geographers study the physical characteristics
of the earth. Urban geographers study cities and prehensive plans and programs for the use of
metropolitan areas while regional geographers land for industrial and public sites. Planners
study the physical, climatic, economic, politi­ prepare for situations that are likely to develop
cal, and cultural characteristics of a particular as a result of population growth or social and
region or area, which may range in size from a economic change.
river basin to a State, country, or continent.
Cartographers design and construct maps and Working Conditions
charts. Medical geographers study the effect of Most social scientists have regular hours.
While working alone behind a desk, they read
the environment on health.
Historians describe and analyze past events and write research reports. Many experience
through writing and research. Historians usu­ the pressures of deadlines and tight schedules,
ally specialize in a specific country or geo­ and sometimes must work overtime. Their rou­
graphic region; in a particular time period; or in tine may be interrupted by telephone calls, let­
a particular field, such as social, intellectual, ters to answer, special requests for information,
political, or diplomatic history. Archivists and meetings, or conferences. Travel may be neces­
curators—who work for museums, special li­ sary to collect information or attend meetings.
braries, or historical societies—identify, classi­ Social scientists on foreign assignment must
fy, and preserve historical documents and ar­ adjust to unfamiliar cultures and climates.
Some social scientists do fieldwork. For ex­
tifacts. Biographers collect detailed informa­
tion on individuals. Genealogists trace family ample, anthropologists and archeologists often
histories, and other historians help preserve and must travel to remote areas to live among the
people they study or stay for long periods at the
protect historic buildings and sites.
Market research analysts conduct tele­ site of their excavations.
phone, personal, or mail surveys and other re­
search to determine public preferences for a Employment
wide variety of products and services. They Social scientists held over 200,000 jobs in
sometimes offer samples of a product to find out 1982. They work for a wide range of employers
whether potential customers are pleased with including government agencies; research or­
the design. They analyze the data and sum­ ganizations and consulting firms; labor unions,
marize their results in reports which are used by trade associations, and nonprofit organizations;
business, industry, and government in for­ hospitals and other health facilities; and busi­
ness firms. In addition, many persons with
mulating policy.
Political scientists investigate the ways in graduate training in a social science discipline,
which political power is gained and used. They usually a doctoral degree, are employed by
study a wide range of subjects such as Soviet- colleges and universities where they charac­
American relations, the beliefs and institutions teristically combine teaching with research and
of nations in Asia and Africa, the politics of a consulting. (For more information, see the
New England town or a major metropolis, and Handbook statement on college and university
the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court. faculty.) As a source of employment, the aca­
Studying topics such as public opinion, politi­ demic world is more important for graduates in
cal decisionmaking, and ideology, they analyze sociology or political science than for graduates
the structure and operation of governments as in urban and regional planning or psychology.
well as informal political entities. Depending
on the topic under study, a political scientist Training, Other Qualifications, and
might conduct a public opinion survey, analyze Advancement
election results, or compare the principal fea­ The Ph.D. or equivalent degree is a minimum
requirement for most positions in colleges and
tures of various tax proposals.
Psychologists study human behavior and use universities and is important for advancement
their expertise to counsel or advise individuals to many top-level nonacademic posts. Gradu­
or groups. Their research also assists adver­ ates with master’s degrees have more limited
tisers, politicians, and others interested in influ­ professional opportunities, although the situa­
encing or motivating people. While clinical tion varies a great deal by field. For example,
psychology is the largest specialty, psycholog­ job prospects for master’s degree holders in
ists specialize in many other fields such as urban and regional planning are brighter than

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/79
The number of social science graduates has declined since the
early 1970’s in response to shrinking demand.
Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees in social sciences (thousands)

depending on their college records. Those with
a master’s degree could start at $19,700, and
those having a Ph.D. degree could begin at
$23,800. The average salary of all social scien­
tists working for the Federal Government was
about $34,000.

Related Occupations
A number of fields related to social science are
covered elsewhere in the Handbook. See the
statements on lawyers, statisticians, mathe­
maticians, programmers, systems analysts, re­
porters and correspondents, social workers, re­
ligious workers, college and university faculty,
and vocational and education counselors.

Sources of Additional Information
For general information concerning the social
science occupations, contact:
1970-71 71-72 72-73 73-74 74-75 75-76 76-77 77-78 78-79 79-80 1980-81
SOURCE: National Center for Education Statistics

for master’s degree holders in sociology. Bach­
elor’s degree holders have even more limited
opportunities and in most social science oc­
cupations do not qualify for “professional”
positions. The bachelor’s degree does,
however, provide a suitable background for
many different kinds of “junior professional”
jobs, such as research assistant, administrative
aide, or management trainee.
Training in statistics and mathematics is es­
sential for most social scientists. Indeed, the
widespread use of mathematical and other
quantitative research methods in economics,
political science, market research, experimen­
tal psychology, and other fields is among the
most important trends in recent times. The abil­
ity to use computers for research purposes is a
“must” in many disciplines.
Depending on their jobs, social scientists and
urban planners may need a wide range of per­
sonal characteristics. Because they constantly
seek new information about people, things, and
ideas, intellectual curiosity and creativity are
two fundamental personal traits. The ability to
think logically and methodically is important to
a political scientist comparing the merits of
various forms of government. The ability to
analyze data is important to an economist
studying proposals to reduce budget deficits in
government. Objectivity, openmindedness,
and systematic work habits are important in all
kinds of social science research. Perseverance
is essential for an anthropologist, who might
spend years accumulating artifacts from an an­
cient civilization. Emotional stability and sen­
sitivity are vital to a clinical psychologist work­
ing with mental patients. And, of course,
written and oral communication skills are es­
sential to all these workers.

Job Outlook
Employment of social scientists is expected to
grow about as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1990’s. Most job open­
ings, however, will result from the need to re­
place social scientists who transfer to other

occupations, retire, or stop working for other
However, the number of degrees awarded in
social sciences is expected to exceed job
openings and result in competition for jobs.
Prospects are better in some disciplines than in
others. As in the past, top graduates of leading
universities will have a decided advantage in
competing for jobs, especially for the limited
number of academic jobs. Other considerations
that affect employment opportunities in these
occupations include degree level; field of spe­
cialization; specific skills and experience; de­
sired work setting; salary requirements; and
geographic mobility.
The predominance of academic employment
in such disciplines as anthropology, history,
political science, and sociology may cause se­
vere problems for these specialists through the
mid-1990’s as college enrollments decline.
Compared to the past, few academic positions
will be available, and efforts are continuing to
acquaint new graduates in these fields with al­
ternative or nontraditional career opportunities
in areas such as program administration and

According to the College Placement Council,
persons with a bachelor’s degree in marketing
and distribution received offers averaging about
$16,000 a year in 1982. Economics majors re­
ceived offers averaging around $18,500, while
other social science majors averaged around
$15,000. Social science majors with a master’s
degree received starting offers that averaged
According to a 1981 National Research
Council survey, the median annual salary of
doctoral historians was about $27,000. Doc­
toral psychologists and other social scientists
earned about $30,900.
In the Federal Government, social scientists
with a bachelor’s degree and no experience
could start at $13,000 or $16,100 a year in 1982,

Consortium of Social Science Occupations, 1733
Massachusetts Ave. NW., Suite 300, Washington,
D.C. 20036.

More detailed information about econo­
mists, psychologists, sociologists, and urban
and regional planners is presented in the Hand­
book statements that follow this introductory
For information about careers (including op­
portunities for contract work in archeology and
historic preservation and State employment op­
portunities for archeologists), job openings,
grants and fellowships, schools that offer train­
ing in anthropology, and “Getting a Job Outside
the Academy" (special publication no. 14),
The American Anthropological Association, 1703
New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.

Additional information on careers and job
openings for geographers, and on schools offer­
ing various programs in geography may be ob­
tained from:
Association of American Geographers, 1710 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.

For additional information on careers in car­
tography, surveying, and geodesy, contact:
American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 210
Little Falls St., Falls Church, Va. 22046.

For more information on careers and a list of
schools that offer courses in photogrammetry
and satellite data interpretation, contact:
American Society of Photogrammetry, 210 Little
Falls St., Falls Church, Va. 22046.

Additional information on careers and job
openings for historians and on schools offering
various programs in history is available from:
American Historical Association, 400 A St. SE.,
Washington, D.C. 20003.

For information on careers and schools offer­
ing degree programs and courses in historic
preservation, contact:
National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1785 Mas­
sachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

General information on careers for historians
is available from:

80/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Organization of American Historians, Indiana Uni­
versity, 112 North Bryan St., Bloomington, Ind.

For additional information on careers for his­
torians, send a self-addressed, stamped envel­
ope to:
American Association for State and Local History,
708 Berry Rd., Nashville, Tenn. 37204.

For information on museum careers and mu­
seum studies programs, contact:
Office of Museum Programs, Arts and Industries
Building, Room 2235, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D.C. 20560.

For information on training for museum ca­
reers, contact:
American Association of Museums, 1055 Thomas
Jefferson St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20007.

A pamphlet, Careers in Marketing (Mono­
graph Series No. 4), may be obtained from:
American Marketing Association, 250 Wacker St.,
Chicago, 111. 60606.

The American Political Science Association,
1527 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036 offers two career pamphlets, one
for undergraduates and one for faculty and
graduate students, at $1 each. Also, A Guide to
Graduate Study in Political Science is available
for $7.50 for members and $10 for nonmem­
bers. In addition, a monthly newsletter listing
job openings, primarily academic, is available
to members of the association.
Programs in Public Affairs and Administra­
tion, a directory that contains data on the aca­
demic content of programs, the student body,
the format of instruction, and other informa­
tion, may be purchased for $10 from:
National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and
Administration, 1120 G St. NW., Suite 520, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 050.067-010)

Nature of the Work
Economists study the way a society uses scarce
resources such as land, labor, raw materials,
and machinery to provide goods and services.
They analyze the results of their research to
determine the costs and benefits of making,
distributing, and using resources in a particular
way. Their research might focus on topics such
as energy costs, inflation, business cycles, un­
employment, tax policy, or farm prices.
Some economists who are primarily theoreti­
cians may develop theories through the use of
mathematical models to explain the causes of
inflation. Most economists, however, are con­
cerned with practical applications of economic
policy in a particular area, such as finance,
labor, agriculture, transportation, energy, or
health. They use their understanding of eco­
nomic relationships to advise business firms,
Digitized for insurance companies, banks, securities firms,

industry associations, labor unions, govern­
ment, and others.
Depending on the topic under study, econo­
mists may devise methods and procedures for
obtaining data they need. For example, sam­
pling techniques may be used to conduct a
survey, and econometric modeling techniques
may be used to develop projections. Preparing
reports usually is an important part of the econ­
omist’s job. He or she may be called upon to
review and analyze all the relevant data, pre­
pare tables and charts, and write up the results
in clear, concise language.
Being able to present economic and statis­
tical concepts in a meaningful way is par­
ticularly important for economists whose re­
search is policy directed. Economists who
work for business firms may be asked to
provide management with information to make
decisions on marketing and pricing of company
products; to look at the advisability of adding
new lines of merchandise, opening new
branches, or diversifying the company’s opera*tions; to analyze the effect of changes in the tax
laws; or to prepare economic and business fore­
casts. Business economists working for firms
that carry on operations abroad may be asked to
prepare forecasts of foreign economic condi­
Economists who work for government agen­
cies assess economic conditions in the United
States and abroad and estimate the economic
impact of specific changes in legislation or pub­
lic policy. For example, they may study how
changes in the minimum wage affect teenage
unemployment. Most government economists
are in the fields of agriculture, business, fi­
nance, labor, transportation, urban economics,
or international trade. For example, economists
in the U.S. Department of Commerce study
domestic production, distribution, and con­
sumption of commodities or services; those in
the Federal Trade Commission prepare industry
analyses to assist in enforcing Federal statutes
designed to eliminate unfair, deceptive, or mo­
nopolistic practices in interstate commerce; and
those in the Bureau of Labor Statistics analyze
data on prices, wages, employment, and pro­

Working Conditions
Economics faculty have flexible work sched­
ules, dividing their time among teaching, re­
search, and administrative responsibilities.
Economists working for government agencies
and private firms, on the other hand, have much
more structured work schedules. They may
work alone with only reports, statistical charts,
computers, and calculators for company. Or
they may be an integral part of a research team.
Most work under pressure of deadlines, tight
schedules, and heavy workloads, and some­
times must work overtime. Their routine may
be interrupted by telephone calls, letters, spe­
cial requests for data, meetings, or con­
ferences. Travel may be necessary to collect
data or attend conferences.

Economists review and analyze data in tables
and charts.
Economists held about 30,000 jobs in 1982.
About one-half of all economists were em­
ployed by government agencies, including a
wide range of Federal agencies. Private indus­
try, particularly manufacturing firms, banks,
insurance companies, securities and invest­
ment companies, economic research firms, and
management consulting firms, employed most
of the rest. Some economists run their own
consulting businesses. A number of economists
combine a full-time job in government or busi­
ness with part-time or consulting work in an­
other setting.
Employment of economists is concentrated
in large cities. The largest numbers are in New
York City and Washington, D.C. Some work
abroad for companies with major international
operations; for the Department of State and
other U.S. Government agencies; and for inter­
national organizations.
Besides the jobs described above, an estimat­
ed 15,000 persons held economics faculty posi­
tions in colleges and universities, according to
data from the National Science Foundation.
(For information about this occupation, see the
statement on college and university faculty
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Economists must thoroughly understand eco­
nomic theory and mathematical methods of
economic analysis. Since many beginning jobs
in government and business involve the collec­
tion and compilation of data, a thorough knowl­
edge of basic statistical procedures is required.
In addition to courses in macroeconomics, mi­
croeconomics, econometrics, and business and
economic statistics, training in computer sci­
ence is highly recommended.
At the undergraduate level, courses in the
following subjects also are valuable: Business
cycles; economic and business history; eco­
nomic development of selected areas; money

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/81
and banking; international economics; public
finance; industrial organization; labor econom­
ics; comparative economic systems; economics
of national planning; urban economic problems
and policies; marketing; consumer analysis; or­
ganizational behavior; and business law.
A bachelor’s degree with a major in econom­
ics is sufficient for many beginning research,
administrative, management trainee, and busi­
ness sales jobs. However, graduate training in­
creasingly is required for most economist jobs
and for advancement to more responsible posi­
tions. Areas of specialization at the graduate
level include advanced economic theory, com­
parative economic systems and planning, econ­
ometrics, economic development, economic
history, environmental and natural resource
economics, history of economic thought, in­
dustrial organization, institutional economics,
international economics, labor economics,
monetary economics, public finance, regional
and urban economics, and social policy. Stu­
dents should select graduate schools strong in
specialties in which they are interested. Some
schools help graduate students find internships
or part-time employment in government agen­
cies or economic research firms. Work experi­
ence and contacts can be useful in testing career
preferences and learning about the job market
for economists.
In the Federal Government, candidates for
entrance positions generally need a college de­
gree with a minimum of 21 semester hours of
economics and 3 hours of statistics, account­
ing, or calculus. However, because competition
is keen, additional education or experience may
be required.
A master’s degree generally is the minimum
requirement for a job as a college instructor in
many junior colleges and small 4-year schools.
In some colleges and universities, however, a
Ph.D. is necessary for appointment as an in­
structor. The Ph.D. is required for a pro­
fessorship and for tenure, which is becoming
increasingly difficult to obtain.
In government, industry, research organiza­
tions, and consulting firms, economists who
have a graduate degree usually can qualify for
more responsible research and administrative
positions. A Ph.D. is necessary for top posi­
tions in many organizations. Experienced
economists may advance to managerial or ex­
ecutive positions in banks, industrial concerns,
trade associations, and other organizations to
formulate business and administrative policy.
About 1,200 colleges and universities offer
bachelor’s degree programs in economics;
about 200, master’s; and about 130, doctoral
Persons considering careers as economists
should be able to work accurately with detail
since much time is spent on data analysis. Pa­
tience and persistence are necessary because
economists may spend long hours on indepen­
dent study and problem solving. Sociability
enables economists to work easily with others.
Economists must be objective and systematic in
their work and be able to express themselves
effectively both orally and in writing.

Creativity and intellectual curiosity are essen­
tial to success in this field, just as they are in
other areas of scientific endeavor.

Job Outlook
Employment of economists is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s. Most job openings will
result from the need to replace experienced
economists who transfer to other occupations,
retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons.
Overall, economists are likely to have more
favorable job prospects than most other social
scientists. Opportunities should be best in busi­
ness and industry, research organizations, and
consulting firms, reflecting the complexity of
the domestic and international economies and
increased reliance on quantitative methods of
analyzing business trends, forecasting sales,
and planning purchasing and production. Em­
ployers will seek economists well trained in
econometrics and statistics.
The continued need for economic analyses
by lawyers, accountants, engineers, health
service administrators, urban and regional
planners, and others will also increase the
number of jobs for economists. Employment of
economists in the Federal Government is ex­
pected to rise slowly—in line with the rate of
growth projected for the Federal work force as a
whole. Little or no change is expected in the
employment of economists in State and local
government. Since college enrollments are ex­
pected to decline through the mid-1990’s, little
or no employment growth is expected in col­
leges and universities. As a result, many highly
qualified economics graduates will enter nonacademic positions.
Persons who graduate with a bachelor’s de­
gree in economics through the mid-1990’s
should face very keen competition for the lim­
ited number of economist positions for which
they qualify. However, many will find employ­
ment in government, industry, and business as
management or sales trainees, or as research or
administrative assistants. Those with strong
backgrounds in mathematics, statistics, and
computer science may be hired by private firms
for market research work. Candidates who hold
master’s degrees in economics face very strong
competition, particularly for teaching positions
in colleges and universities. However, some
may gain positions in junior and community
colleges. Those with a strong background in
marketing and finance may have the best pros­
pects in business and management consulting
firms. Ph.D.’s are likely to face competition for
academic positions, although top graduates
from leading universities should have little dif­
ficulty in acquiring teaching jobs. However, a
larger number of Ph.D.’s will be forced to ac­
cept jobs at smaller, less prestigious institu­
tions. Ph.D.’s should have favorable oppor­
tunities to work as economists in government,
industry, research organizations, and con­
sulting firms.
Generally, a strong background in economic
theory and econometrics provides the tools for
acquiring any specialty within the field. Those

skilled in quantitative techniques and their ap­
plication to economic modeling and forecast­
ing, including the use of computers, may have
the best job opportunities.

According to a 1982 salary survey by the Col­
lege Placement Council, persons with a bach­
elor’s degree in economics received an average
starting salary of $18,500 a year. Median an­
nual earnings of full-time economists were
about $30,200 in 1982. The middle 50 percent
earned between $19,200 and $36,400 annually.
The lowest ten percent earned under $14,400
while the highest 10 percent earned over
The median base salary of business econo­
mists in 1982 was $43,000, according to a sur­
vey by the National Association of Business
Economists. About one-third of those respond­
ing also had income from secondary employ­
ment. Economists in general administration
and international economics commanded the
highest salaries; econometricians and teachers
the lowest. The highest paid business econo­
mists were in the mining, nondurable manufac­
turing, and securities and investment indus­
tries; the lowest paid were in colleges and
universities and in the construction industry.
The Federal Government recognizes educa­
tion and experience in certifying applicants for
entry level positions. In general, the entrance
salary for economists having a bachelor’s de­
gree averaged about $13,000 a year in 1982;
however, those with superior academic records
could begin at about $16,100. Those having a
master’s degree could qualify for positions at an
annual salary of about $19,700, while those
with a Ph.D. could begin at about $23,800.
Economists in the Federal Government aver­
aged around $34,900 a year in 1982.

Related Occupations
Economists are concerned with understanding
and interpreting financial matters, among other
subjects. Others with jobs in this area include
financial analysts, bank officers, accountants
and auditors, underwriters, actuaries, securities
sales workers, appraisers, credit analysts, loan
officers, and budget officers.

Sources of Additional Information
For information on schools offering graduate
training in economics, contact:
American Economic Association, 1313 21st Ave.
South, Nashville, Tenn. 37212.

For additional information on careers in busi­
ness economics, contact:
National Association of Business Economists, 28349
Chagrin Blvd., Suite 201, Cleveland, Ohio 44122.

(D.O.T. 045.061, .067, .107-022, -026, -030, and -034)

Nature of the Work
Psychologists study human behavior and men­
tal processes to understand and explain people’s

82/Occupational Outlook Handbook
the arts, history of psychology, psychophar­
macology, and military and rehabilitation psy­

Nearly half of all doctoral psychologists are clinical specialists.
Percent employed by specialty, 1981

Developmental and gerontological
Industrial and personnel
Counseling and guidance


■ ■ H





...... . J

~ IH
'~ n


■ E l

SOURCE: National Research Council

actions. Some research psychologists investi­
gate the physical, emotional, or social aspects
of human behavior. Other psychologists in ap­
plied fields counsel and conduct training pro­
grams; do market research; or provide health
services in hospitals or clincs.
Like other social scientists, psychologists
collect and test the validity of data and formu­
late hypotheses. Research methods depend on
the topic under study. Psychologists may gather
information through controlled laboratory ex­
periments; performance, aptitude, and intel­
ligence tests; observation, interviews, and
questionnaires; clinical studies; or surveys.
Psychologists usually specialize. Experi­
mental psychologists study behavior processes,
and work with human beings and lower animals
such as rats, monkeys, and pigeons; prominent
areas of experimental research include motiva­
tion, learning and retention, sensory and per­
ceptual processes, and genetic and neurological
factors in behavior. Developmental psycholog­
ists study the patterns and causes of behavioral
change as people progress through life; some
concern themselves with behavior during infan­
cy and childhood, while others study changes
that take place during maturity and old age.
Personality psychologists study human nature,
individual differences, and the ways in which
those differences develop. Social psychologists
examine people’s interactions with others and
with the social environment; prominent areas of
study include group behavior, leadership, at­
titudes, and interpersonal perception. Com­
parative psychologists study the behavior of
different animals, including humans. Phys­
iological psychologists study the relationship of
behavior to the biological functions of the body.
Psychologists in the field of psychometrics de­
velop and apply procedures for measuring psy­
chological variables such as intelligence and
Clinical psychologists generally work in
hospitals or clinics, or maintain their own prac­
tices. They help the mentally or emotionally

disturbed adjust to life. They interview patients;
give diagnostic tests; provide individual, fam­
ily, and group psychotherapy; and design and
carry through behavior modification programs.
Clinical psychologists may collaborate with
physicians and other specialists in developing
treatment programs. Some clinical psycholog­
ists work in universities where they train gradu­
ate students in the delivery of mental health
services. Others administer community mental
health programs. Counseling psychologists use
several techniques, including interviewing and
testing, to advise people on how to deal with
problems of everyday living—personal, social,
educational, or vocational. Educational psy­
chologists design, develop, and evaluate educa­
tional programs. School psychologists evaluate
students’ needs and problems, facilitate school
adjustment, and help solve learning and social
problems in schools. Industrial and organiza­
tional psychologists apply psychological tech­
niques to personnel administration, manage­
ment, and marketing problems. They are
involved in policy planning, training and de­
velopment, psychological test research, coun­
seling, and organizational development and
analysis, among other activities. For example,
an industrial psychologist may work with man­
agement to develop better training programs
and to reorganize the work setting to improve
worker productivity. Engineering psycholog­
ists, often employed in factories and plants,
develop and improve human/machine systems,
military equipment, and industrial products.
Community psychologists apply psychological
knowledge to problems of urban and rural life.
Consumer psychologists study the psychologi­
cal factors that determine an individual’s be­
havior as a consumer of goods and services.
Health psychologists counsel the public in
health maintenance to help people avoid serious
emotional or physical illness. Other areas of
specialization include environmental psychol­
ogy, population psychology, psychology and

Working Conditions
A psychologist’s specialty and place of employ­
ment determine his or her working conditions.
For example, clinical and counseling psycho­
logists in private practice have pleasant, com­
fortable offices and set their own hours.
However, they often have evening hours to ac­
commodate their clients. Some employed in
hospitals, nursing homes, and other health fa­
cilities often work evenings and weekends,
while others in schools and clinics work regular
hours. Psychologists employed by academic
institutions divide their time among teaching,
research, and administrative responsibilities.
Some maintain part-time clinical practices as
well. In contrast to the many psychologists who
have flexible work schedules, some in govern­
ment and private industry have more structured
schedules. Reading and writing research re­
ports, they often work alone behind a desk.
Many experience the pressures of deadlines,
tight schedules, heavy workloads, and over­
time work. Their routine may be interrupted
frequently. Travel may be required to attend
conferences or conduct research.

Psychologists held about 83,000 jobs in 1982.
Educational institutions—primarily colleges
and universities—employed about 4 out of 10
psychologists in positions involving counsel­
ing, research, and administration. Hospitals,
clinics, rehabilitation centers, nursing homes,
and other health facilities employed about 3 out
of 10 psychologists; government agencies at the
Federal, State, and local levels, about 2 out of
10. The Veterans Administration, the Depart­
ment of Defense, and the Public Health Service
employ more psychologists than other Federal
agencies. Psychologists also are employed by
research organizations, management con­
sulting firms, market research firms, and other
businesses. After several years of experience,
some enter private practice or set up their own
research or consulting firms.
Besides the jobs described above, an estimat­
ed 24,000 persons held psychology faculty
positions at colleges and universities, accord­
ing to data from the National Science Founda­
tion. For information about this occupation, see
the statement on college and university faculty
elsewhere in the Handbook.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A doctoral degree is often required for employ­
ment as a psychologist, particularly in the aca­
demic world. Understandably, entrants to this
occupation are older, on average, then entrants
to other professional occupations. People with
doctorates in psychology (Ph.D or Psy.D.—
Doctor of Psychology) qualify for a wide range
of responsible research, clinical, and counsel­
ing positions in universities, private industry,
and government.

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/83
People with a master’s degree in psychology
can administer and interpret tests as psycholog­
ical assistants. Under the supervision of psy­
chologists, they can conduct research in labora­
tories, counsel patients, or perform admin­
istrative duties. They may teach in 2-year
colleges, or work as school psychologists or
counselors. (See the Handbook statement on
vocational and education counselors.)
People with a bachelor’s degree in psychol­
ogy are qualified to assist psychologists and
other professionals in community mental health
centers, vocational rehabilitation offices, and
correctional programs; to work as research or
administrative assistants; to take jobs as train­
ees in government or business; or—provided
they meet State certification requirements—to
teach high school. However, without additional
academic training, their advancement oppor­
tunities are limited.
In the Federal Government, candidates hav­
ing at least 24 semester hours in psychology
and one course in statistics qualify for entry
level positions. Competition for these jobs is
keen, however. Clinical psychologists gener­
ally must have completed the Ph.D. or Psy.D.
requirements and have served an internship;
vocational and guidance counselors usually
need 2 years of graduate study in counseling
and 1 year of counseling experience.
At least 1 year of full-time graduate study is
needed to earn a master’s degree in psychology.
Requirements usually include practical experi­
ence in an applied setting or a master’s thesis
based on a research project. Three to five years
of graduate work usually are required for a
doctoral degree. The Ph.D. degree culminates
in a dissertation based on original research. The
Psy.D., based on practical work and examina­
tions rather than a dissertation, prepares stu­
dents for clinical and other applied positions. In
clinical or counseling psychology, the require­
ments for the doctoral degree generally include
an additional year or more of internship or su­
pervised experience.
Competition for admission into graduate
programs is keen. Some universities require an
undergraduate major in psychology. Others
prefer only basic psychology with courses in
the biological, physical, and social sciences,
statistics, and mathematics.
Over 1,100 colleges and universities offer a
bachelor’s degree program in psychology;
about 400, a master’s; about 300, a Ph.D.; and
about 10, a Psy.D. In addition, a growing
number of professional schools of psychology
not affiliated with colleges or universities offer
the Psy.D. The American Psychological Asso­
ciation (APA) presently accredits Ph.D. train­
ing programs in clinical, counseling, and
school psychology as well as Psy.D. programs.
In 1983, 129 colleges and universities offered
fully approved programs in clinical psychology
(including 7 Psy.D. programs); 37 in counsel­
ing psychology; and 24 in school psychology
(including 1 Psy.D. program). APA also has
approved about 130 internship facilities for doc­
toral training in clinical and counseling psy­
Although financial aid is becoming in­
creasingly difficult to obtain, some universities

award fellowships or scholarships, or arrange
for part-time employment. The Veterans Ad­
ministration (VA) offers predoctoral train­
eeships to interns in VA hospitals, clinics, and
related training agencies. The National Science
Foundation, the Department of Health and
Human Services, the Armed Forces, and many
other organizations also provide financial aid.
Psychologists who want to enter independent
practice must meet certification or licensing
requirements. In 1982, all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia had such requirements. Li­
censing laws vary by State, but generally re­
quire a doctorate in psychology and 2 years of
professional experience. In addition, most
States require that applicants pass a written and
an oral examination. Most State boards admin­
ister a standardized test. Some States certify
those with master’s level training as psycholog­
ical assistants or associates. Some States re­
quire continuing education for relicensure.
Most States require that licensed or certified
psychologists limit their practice to those areas
in which they have developed professional
competence through training and experience.
The American Board of Professional Psy­
chology recognizes professional achievement
by awarding diplomas in clinical, counseling,
industrial and organizational, and school psy­
chology. Candidates generally need a doctorate
in psychology, 5 years of experience, and pro­
fessional endorsements; they also must pass an

People pursuing a career in psychology must
be emotionally stable, mature, and able to deal
effectively with people. Sensitivity, compas­
sion, and the ability to lead and inspire others
are particularly important for clinical work and
counseling. Research psychologists should be
able to do detailed work independently and as
part of a team. Verbal and writing skills are
necessary to communicate research findings.
Patience and perseverance are vital qualities
because results from psychological treatment of
patients or research often are long in coming.

Job Outlook
Employment of psychologists is expected to
increase faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1990’s. Largely because
of the substantial investment in training re­
quired to enter this specialized field, psycho­
logists have a strong attachment to their oc­
cupation—only a relatively small proportion
leave the profession each year. Nevertheless,
most job openings are expected to result from
replacement needs.
Several factors may help maintain the de­
mand for psychologists: Increased emphasis on
health maintenance rather than treatment of ill­
ness; public concern for the development of
human resources, which may result in more
services for minorities, the elderly, and the
poor; and increased testing and counseling of
children. Government funding of these services
could affect the demand for psychologists.
Some openings are likely to occur as psycho­
logists increasingly study the effects on people

Sensitivity, compassion, and patience are essential qualities for counseling occupations.

84/Occupational Outlook Handbook
form. These groups include families, tribes,
communities, and governments, as well as a
variety of social, religious, political, business,
and other organizations. Sociologists study the
behavior and interaction of groups, trace their
primary activity, 1981
origin and growth, and analyze the influence of
group activities on individual members. Some
sociologists are concerned primarily with the
characteristics of social groups and institutions.
Others are more interested in the ways individu­
als are affected by the groups to which they
Fields of specialization for sociologists in­
clude social organization, social stratification
and mobility, social psychology, evaluation re­
search, urban sociology, racial and ethnic rela­
tions, political sociology, criminology and de­
viance, and industrial sociology. Other impor­
tant specialties include medical sociology—the
study of social factors that affect mental and
public health; demography—the study of the
size , characteristics, and movement of popula­
tions; gerontology—the study of the special
problems faced by the growing number of aged
persons in our rapidly changing society; social
an was about $29,000; in State and local gov­ ecology—the study of the effect of the physical
ernment, about $27,900; in hospitals and environment and technology on people; and
clinics, about $30,100; in other nonprofit or­ clinical sociology—intervention in social sys­
ganizations, about $30,500; and in business tems for assessment and change.
and industry, about $40,300. Ph.D. or Psy.D.
Sociological research, like other kinds of so­
psychologists in private practice and in applied cial science research, involves collecting infor­
specialties generally have higher earnings than mation, testing its validity, and analyzing the
other psychologists.
results. Sociologists usually conduct surveys or
The Federal Government recognizes educa­ engage in direct observation to gather the data
tion and experience in certifying applicants for they need. For example, after providing for
entry level positions. In general, the average controlled conditions, a sociologist might test
starting salary for psychologists having a bach­ the effects of different styles of leadership on
elor’s degree was about $13,000 or $16,100 a individuals in a small group. A medical so­
year in 1982; counseling psychologists with a ciologist might study the incidence of lung can­
roaster's degree andTyear of counseling experi­ cer in an area contaminated by industrial pollu­
ence could start at $19.700: clinical psycholog­ tants. Sociological researchers also conduct
ists having a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree andTyear large-scale experiments to test the efficacy of
of internship could start at $23,8007The aver­ different kinds of social programs. They might
age salary for psychologists in the Federal Gov­ test and evaluate particular programs of income
ernment was about $34,900 a year in 1982.
assistance, job training, or remedial education.
Increasingly, sociologists apply statistical and
Related Occupations
Psychologists are trained to evaluate, counsel, computer techniques in their research. The re­
and advise individuals and groups. Others who sults of sociological research aid educators,
do this kind of work are psychiatrists, social lawmakers, administrators, and others inter­
workers, clergy, special education teachers, ested in social problems and social policy. So­
ciologists work closely with members of other
and counselors.
professions including psychologists, physi­
Sources of Additional Information
cians, economists, political scientists, an­
For information on careers, educational re­ thropologists, and social workers.
quirements, and financial assistance, contact:
Some sociologists are primarily admin­
American Psychological Association, Educational
istrators. They apply their professional knowl­
Affairs Office, 1200 17th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
edge in areas as diverse as intergroup relations,
family counseling, public opinion analysis, law
Information on traineeships and fellowships enforcement, education, personnel administra­
also is available from colleges and universities tion, public relations, regional and community
that have graduate departments of psychology. planning, and health services planning. They
may, for example, administer social service
programs in family and child welfare agencies
or develop social policies and programs for
government, community, youth, or religious
(D.O.T. 054)
A number of sociologists are employed as
consultants. Using their expertise and research
Nature of the Work
Sociologists study human society and social skills, they advise on such diverse problems as
behavior by examining the groups that people halfway houses and foster care for the mentally

Most doctoral psychologists consult or teach.
Percent employed by

SOURCE: National Research Council

of technological advances in areas such as agri­
culture, energy, the environment, and the con­
servation and use of natural resources. Psycho­
logists also increasingly are involved in pro­
gram evaluation in such fields as health, educa­
tion, military service, law enforcement, and
consumer protection.
Because college enrollments are expected to
decline through the mid-1990’s, little or no em­
ployment growth is expected in colleges and
universities. As a result, there will be keen
competition for academic positions. Although
outstanding Ph.D. holders from leading univer­
sities should have no difficulty in obtaining
teaching jobs at top schools, a larger number of
Ph.D.’s will be forced to take jobs at smaller,
less prestigious institutions. Some may accept
part-time or temporary assignments with little
or no hope of gaining tenure. As a result, many
highly qualified graduates are expected to seek
nonacademic jobs.
Persons holding doctorates from leading uni­
versities in applied areas such as clinical, coun­
seling, health, and industrial or organizational
psychology should have particularly good pros­
pects. Psychologists with extensive training in
quantitative research methods and computer
science will have a competitive edge over appli­
cants without this background.
Persons with only a master’s degree in psy­
chology will probably continue to encounter
severe competition for the limited number of
jobs for which they qualify. Nevertheless, some
may find jobs as counselors in schools or as
psychological assistants in community mental
health centers. Bachelor’s degree holders can
expect very few opportunities in this field, al­
though some may find jobs as assistants in
rehabilitation centers.

According to a 1981 survey by the National
Research Council, the median annual salary of
psychologists with a doctoral degree was about
$30,900. In educational institutions, the medi­


Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawytr$/85
ill; ways of counseling ex-offenders; and mar­
ket research for advertisers and manufacturers.
Increasingly, sociologists are involved in the
evaluation of social and welfare programs.
Some do technical writing and editing.

Working Conditions
Most sociologists do a lot of desk work, reading
and writing reports on their research. So­
ciology faculty have flexible work schedules,
dividing their time between teaching, research,
consulting, and administrative responsibilities.
Sociologists working in government agencies
and private firms have more structured work
schedules, and many experience the pressures
of deadlines, tight schedules, heavy workloads,
and overtime. Their routine may be interrupted
by numerous telephone calls, letters, requests
for information, and meetings. Travel may be
required to collect data for research projects or
to attend professional conferences. So­
ciologists in private practice may work eve­
nings and weekends to accommodate clients.

Sociologists held about 6,000 jobs in 1982.
Government agencies employ about 1 out of 3
sociologists to deal with such subjects as pover­
ty, crime, public assistance, population policy,
social rehabilitation, community development,
mental health, racial and ethnic relations, and
environmental impact studies. Sociologists in
the Federal Government work primarily for the
Departments of Health and Human Services,
Interior, Agriculture, and Defense. Some de­
mographers work for international organiza­
tions such as the World Bank, the United Na­
tions, and the World Health Organization.
Some sociologists hold managerial, research,
and planning positions in hospitals, corpora­
tions, research firms, professional and trade
associations, consulting firms, and welfare or
other nonprofit organizations. Some so­
ciologists have private practices in counseling,
research, or consulting.

Sociologists collaborate with others on research.

Besides the jobs described above, about
15,000 persons held sociology faculty positions
in colleges and universities, according to data
from the National Science Foundation. For
more information about this occupation, see the
statement on college and university faculty
elsewhere in the Handbook.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
The Ph.D. degree is required for appointment
to permanent teaching and research positions in
colleges and universities and is essential for
many senior level positions in research in­
stitutes, consulting firms, corporations, and
government agencies. As the academic job
market gets tighter through the mid-1990’s, a
Ph.D. will be required increasingly for vir­
tually all professional sociologist positions.
Sociologists with m aster’s degrees can
qualify for administrative and research posi­
tions in public agencies and private businesses,
provided they have sufficient training in re­
search, statistical, and computer methods.
However, advancement opportunities generally
are more limited for master’s degree holders
than for Ph.D.’s. Sociologists with master’s de­
grees may qualify for teaching positions in
junior colleges and for some college instructorships.
Bachelor’s degree holders in sociology may
get jobs as interviewers or as administrative or
research assistants. Many work as social work­
ers, counselors, or recreation workers in public
and private welfare agencies. Sociology majors
who have sufficient training in statistical and
survey methods may qualify for positions as
junior analysts or statisticians in business or
research firms or government agencies.
About 150 colleges and universities offer
doctoral degree programs in sociology; most of
these also offer a master’s degree. In 170
schools, the master’s is the highest degree of­
fered, and about 900 schools have bachelor’s
degree programs. Sociology departments offer
a wide variety of courses including sociological
theory, social statistics and quantitative meth­
ods, crime and deviance, dynamics of social
interaction, sex roles, population, social strat­
ification, social control, small group analysis,
urban sociology, social organizations, and so­
ciology of religion, law, the arts, war, politics,
education, work and occupations, and mental
Some departments of sociology have highly
structured programs, while others are relatively
unstructured and leave course selection largely
up to the individual student. Departments have
different requirements regarding foreign lan­
guage skills, courses in statistics, internships,
and completion of a thesis for the master’s de­
In the Federal Government, candidates gen­
erally need a college degree with 24 semester
hours in sociology, including course work in
theory and methods of social research.
However, since competition for the limited
number of positions is so keen, advanced study
in the field is highly recommended.
The choice of a graduate school is important
for people who want to become sociologists.

Students should select schools that have a d e­
quate research facilities and offer appropriate
areas of specialization such as theory, demogra­
phy, clinical sociology, or quantitative meth­
ods. Opportunities to gain practical ex p erien ce
also may be available, and sociology depart­
ments frequently help place students in busi­
ness firms and government agencies.
The ability to handle independent research is
important for sociologists. Intellectual curi­
osity is an essential trait; researchers must have
inquiring minds and a desire to find explana­
tions for the phenomena they observe. Like
other social scientists, sociologists must be ofe?
jective in gathering information about sopj|l
institutions and behavior; they need analytical
skills in order to organize data effectively qp4
reach valid conclusions; and they mqst be cafe­
ful and systematic in their work. Because com­
municating their findings to other people i$
such an important part of the job, sociology
must be able to formulate the results of tt^jf
work in a way that others will understand- The
ability to speak well and to write clearly au4
concisely is a “must” in this field.

Job Outlook
Employment of sociologists is expected to in­
crease about as fast as the average for all oc­
cupations through the mid-1990’s. However,
most openings are expected to result from the
need to replace sociologists who transfer to
other occupations, retire, or leave the labor
force for other reasons. Increased demand for
sociologists is likely to arise from the need to
evaluate and administer programs designed to
cope with social and welfare problems.
The number of persons who graduate with
advanced degrees in sociology through the
mid-1990’s is likely to greatly exceed the avail­
able job openings. Graduates with a Ph.D. face
increasing competition, particularly for aca­
demic positions, although those with degrees
from the most outstanding institutions may
have an advantage in securing teaching jobs.
An increasing proportion of Ph.D.’s are ex­
pected to enter nonacademic careers. Some
may take research and administrative positions
in government, research organizations, and
business firms. Those well trained in quan­
titative research methods, including survey
techniques, advanced statistics, and computer
science, will have the widest choice of jobs. For
example, private firms that contract with the
government to evaluate social programs and
conduct other research increasingly seek so­
ciologists with strong quantitative skills. De­
mand is expected to be strong for those with
training in applied areas such as clinical so­
ciology, criminology, deviant behavior, medi­
cal sociology, social gerontology, and demog­
raphy. For example, additional demographers
may be sought to help businesses plan market­
ing and advertising programs and to help de­
veloping countries prepare population projec­
tions and formulate long-range public planning
programs. Additional gerontologists may be
needed to help formulate programs for our ex­
panding elderly population. Sociologists with
training in other applied disciplines, such as

86/Occupational Outlook Handbook
public policy, public administration, and busi­
ness administration, will be attractive to em­
ployers seeking managerial and administrative
Persons with a master’s degree will continue
to face very strong competition for academic
positions, although some may find jobs in
junior and community colleges. They also will
face strong competition for the limited number
of nonacademic sociologist positions open to
them. Some may find research and admin­
istrative jobs in research firms, business, and
government. For example, sociologists with
backgrounds in business and quantitative re­
search methods may find opportunities in mar­
ket research firms.
Bachelor’s degree holders will find few op­
portunities for jobs as professional so­
ciologists. As in the past, many graduates will
take positions as trainees and assistants in busi­
ness, industry, and government. As with ad­
vanced degree holders, training in quantitative
research methods provides these graduates with
the most marketable skills. Some may find
positions in social welfare agencies. For those
planning careers in law, journalism, business,
social work, recreation, counseling, and other
related disciplines, sociology provides an ex­
cellent background. Some who meet State cer­
tification requirements may enter high school

According to a 1981 survey by the National
Research Council, the median annual salary of
all doctoral social scientists (including so­
ciologists) was $30,900. For those in educa­
tional institutions, it was $29,800; in State and
local government, $29,200; in nonprofit organ­
izations, $30,400; and in business and industry,
The Federal Government recognizes educa­
tion and experience in certifying applicants for
entry level positions. In general, the average
entrance salary for sociologists with a bach­
elor’s degree was about $13,000 or $16,100 a
year in 1982, depending upon the applicant’s
academic record. The starting salary for those
with a master’s degree was about $19,700 a
year, and for those with a P h.D ., about
$23,800. Sociologists in the Federal Govern­
ment averaged around $30,000 a year in 1982.
In general, sociologists with the Ph.D. de­
gree earn substantially higher salaries than
those without the doctoral degree. Some so­
ciologists supplement their regular salaries
with earnings from other sources, such as con­
sulting or counseling work.

Related Occupations
Sociologists are not the only people whose jobs
require an understanding of social processes
and institutions. Others whose work demands
such expertise include anthropologists, econo­
mists, geographers, historians, political scien­
tists, psychologists, urban and regional plan­
ners, market research analysts, reporters and
correspondents, and social workers.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on careers, and gradu­
ate departments of sociology is available from:
The American Sociological Association, 1722 N St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

For information about careers in demogra­
phy, contact:
Population Association of America, 806 15th St.
NW., Suite 640, Washington, D.C. 20005.

For information on careers in clinical so­
ciology, contact:
Clinical Sociology Association, c/o Jonathan Freed­
man, President, Hutchings Psychiatric Center, P.O.
Box 27, Syracuse, N.Y. 13210.

Urban and Regional
(D.O.T. 188.167-110 and 199.167-014)

Nature of the Work
Urban and regional planners, often called com­
munity or city planners, develop programs to
provide for future growth and revitalization of
urban, suburban, and rural communities. They
help local officials make decisions on social,
economic, and environmental problems.
Planners examine community facilities such
as health clinics and schools to be sure these
facilities can meet the demands placed upon
them. They also keep abreast of the legal issues
involved in community development or re­
development and changes in housing and build­
ing codes. Because suburban growth has in­
creased the need for better ways of traveling to
the urban center, the planner’s job often in­
cludes designing new transportation systems
and parking facilities.
Urban and regional planners prepare for sit­
uations that are likely to develop as a result of
population growth or social and economic
change. They estimate, for example, the com­
munity’s long-range needs for housing, trans­
portation, and business and industrial sites.
Working within a framework set by the com­
munity government, they analyze and propose
alternative ways to achieve more efficient and
attractive urban areas.
Before preparing plans for long-range com­
munity development, urban and regional plan­
ners prepare detailed studies that show the cur­
rent use of land for residential, business, and
community purposes. These reports include
such information as the location of streets,
highways, water and sewer lines, schools, li­
braries, and recreational sites. They also
provide information on the types of industries
in the community, characteristics of the popula­
tion, and employment and economic trends.
With this information, urban and regional plan­
ners propose ways of using undeveloped land
and design the layout of recommended build­
ings and other facilities such as subway sta­
tions. They also prepare materials that show
how their programs can be carried out and what
they will cost.

Urban and regional planners often confer
with land developers, civic leaders, and other
public planning officials. They may prepare
materials for community relations programs,
speak at civic meetings, and appear before leg­
islative committees to explain their proposals.
In large organizations, planners usually spe­
cialize in areas such as physical design, com­
munity relations, and the renovation or recon­
struction of rundown business districts. In
small organizations, planners must be able to
do several kinds of work.

Working Conditions
Urban and regional planners spend most of their
time in offices. To be familiar with areas that
they are developing, however, they occasion­
ally spend time outdoors examining the features
of the land under consideration for develop­
ment, its current use, and the types of structures
existing on it. Although most planners have a
scheduled 40-hour workweek, they sometimes
must attend evening or weekend meetings or
public hearings with citizens’ groups.

Urban and regional planners held about 21,000
jobs in 1982. Local government planning agen­
cies—city, county, or regional—employ about
7 out of 10. An increasing proportion of public
agency plannners work in small jurisdictions
with populations under 50,000. State and
Federal agencies that deal with housing, trans­
portation, or environmental protection employ
most of the rest.
Many planners do consulting work, either
part time in addition to a regular job, or full
time for a firm that provides services to private
developers or government agencies. Some
planners work for large land developers or re­
search organizations.

Urban and regional planners map current and
proposed land uses.

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/87
Training, Other Qualifications, and
Employers often seek workers who have ad­
vanced training in urban or regional planning.
Most entry jobs in Federal, State, and local
government agencies require 2 years of gradu­
ate study in urban or regional planning, or the
equivalent in work experience. Although the
master’s degree in planning is the usual require­
ment at the entry level, some people who have a
bachelor’s degree in city planning, architec­
ture, or engineering may qualify for beginning
In 1982, about 80 colleges and universities
offered a master’s degree in urban or regional
planning. Although students holding a bach­
elor’s degree in architecture or engineering may
earn a master’s degree after 1 year, most gradu­
ate programs in planning require 2 or 3 years.
Graduate students spend considerable time in
workshops or laboratory courses learning to
analyze and solve urban and regional planning
problems and often are required to work in a
planning office part time or during the summer.
Candidates for jobs in Federal, State, and
local government agencies usually must pass
civil service examinations to become eligible
for appointment.
Planners must be able to think in terms of
spatial relationships and visualize the effects of
their plans and designs. They should be flexible
and able to reconcile different viewpoints to
make constructive policy recommendations.
After a few years’ experience, urban and
regional planners may advance to assignments
requiring a high degree of independent judg­
ment such as designing the physical layout of a
large development or recommending policy,
program, and budget options. Some are pro­
moted to jobs as planning directors and spend a
great deal of time meeting with officials in other
organizations, speaking to civic groups, and

supervising other professionals. Advancement
beyond planning director is difficult and often
occurs only through a transfer to a large city
with more complex problems and greater re­

Job Outlook
Employment of urban and regional planners is
expected to grow more slowly than the average
for all occupations through the mid-1990’s. De­
mand will be spurred by the importance of
environmental, economic, and energy plan­
ning; interest in zoning and land-use planning
in undeveloped and nonmetropolitan areas, in­
cluding coastal areas; the need to replace old
public facilities such as bridges, highways, and
sewers; and expected population growth in sub­
urban locations and in the South and West.
However, slow growth in local government
spending through the mid-1990’s is expected to
limit growth of urban planner jobs. Understan­
dably, most jobs will arise from the need to
replace experienced planners who transfer to
other occupations, retire, or leave the labor
force for other reasons.
In recent years, qualified applicants have ex­
ceeded openings in urban or regional planning,
and the situation is expected to persist unless
fewer degrees are awarded. As a result, some
persons trained as planners may have to accept
jobs in other areas of public policy and admin­
istration. An increasing proportion of urban
planners are expected to find jobs in the private
Graduates of prestigious academic institu­
tions should have the best job prospects. Urban
and regional planning graduates who have spe­
cialized in economic development, land-use
planning, transportation systems, or health sys­
tems may be in particular demand. With in­
creasing competition, geographic mobility and

the willingness to work in small towns or rural
areas are important for many jobseekers.

According to a 1981 survey by the American
Planning Association, urban and regional plan­
ners earned a median annual salary of about
$26,000. The median annual salary of planners
in city, county, and other local governments
was $24,600; in State governments, $25,300;
in private consulting firms, $30,000; in busi­
ness, $33,000; and in nonprofit foundations,
$24,000. For planners with over 10 years’ expe­
rience, county and joint city/county agencies
paid about $30,000 annually while private busi­
nesses and consulting firms paid about
$40,000. Directors of public planning agencies
earned from $1,300 to $2,100 more than staff
members at comparable levels of experience.
Planners with a master’s degree were hired
by the Federal Government at a starting average
salary of $19,700 a year in 1982. In some cases,
persons having less than 2 years of graduate
work could enter Federal service as interns at
yearly salaries of about $13,000 or $16,100.
Salaries of urban and regional planners em­
ployed by the Federal Government averaged
$34,000 a year in 1982.

Related Occupations
Urban and regional planners develop plans for
the orderly growth of urban and rural commu­
nities. Others whose work is related to the work
of planners include architects, city managers,
and planning engineers.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on careers and salaries
in urban and regional planning, a list of schools
offering training, and job referrals are available
American Planning Association, 1776 Massachusetts
Ave. NW.. Washington, D.C. 20036.

Social and Recreation Workers
Those considering a career in social work or
recreation should be “people-oriented,” for
helping people is what the work is all about.
Social workers and recreation workers use a
variety of techniques to help people cope with
crises or live fuller lives.
Social workers assist individuals and fam­
ilies whose lives are being tom apart by pover­
ty, alcoholism, drug abuse, behavior problems,
or illness. They find families to adopt or
provide foster care for children whose parents
are unable to take care of them; see that needy
families are able to give their children proper
food, health care, and schooling; and step in
when there is evidence of parental neglect or
abuse. School social workers help students who
have severe personal or family problems.
Group workers give guidance and support so
that young people will develop into responsible
adults. Some social workers do corrections
work, by counseling juvenile delinquents and
serving as probation officers or parole officers.
Medical social workers counsel hospital pa­
tients and advise, the family—perhaps suggest­
ing arrangements for home care after the pa­
tient leaves the hospital. Psychiatric social
workers, usually employed in hospitals,
clinics, or mental health centers, help patients
respond to their treatment and serve as a link
with the family and the community at large.
Growing attention is being given within the
profession to directing and influencing social
change. Social planners work with health,
housing, transportation, and other planners to
suggest ways of making communities more
wholesome places in which to live. Social
workers use various forms of direct action to
help people deal with some of the basic forces
that shape their lives. They may, for example,
do research to identify community needs; draft
legislation; or comment on government pro­
posals in areas such as housing, health, and
social and welfare services. Or they may help
organizations in the community work for social
Recreation workers, too, help individuals
and groups in a number of different ways. They
develop and supervise activity programs for
children, teenagers, and adults. Some spe­
cialize in therapeutic recreation, and plan and
coordinate activities for people who are hand­
icapped, emotionally disturbed, or chronically
ill. Recreation workers often operate on a team
basis with other professionals including
therapists, nurses, physicians, social workers,
counselors, and educators.
People enter professional positions in social
work and recreation from a variety of back­
grounds. To a certain extent, an applicant’s for­
mal education determines the amount of re­
sponsibility given and advancement oppor­
tunities. An MSW (master’s in social work) is


preferred or required for many social work
positions, while a college degree with a major
in recreation is increasingly important for those
aspiring to a career in recreation or leisure serv­
ices. In both fields, however, training is offered
at the associate, bachelor’s, master’s, and
Ph.D. levels. Ordinarily, a candidate with an
associate degree would be offered a job as an
activity leader or casework aide, while some­
one with a Ph.D. would be considered for a
position in teaching, research, or administra­
tion. But the job market does not always oper­
ate as predictably as this; actual hiring deci­
sions vary from time to time and place to place.
Experience, or academic training in a related
field, may be the decisive consideration.
New graduates are likely to experience com­
petition for jobs through the mid-1990’s.
However, the job market will be more crowded
in some fields of specialization and some parts
of the country than in others. More detailed
information about job outlook appears in the
statements that follow.

Social Workers
(D.O.T. 195.107-010 through -046, .137-010, .164-010,
.167-010, -014, -030, and -034, .267-014, and .367-018)

Nature of the Work
Social workers are community troubleshooters.
Through direct counseling, referral to other
services, or policymaking and advocacy, they
help individuals, families, and groups cope
with their problems. Those in the area of plan­
ning and policy help people understand how
social systems operate and propose ways of
bringing about needed change in institutions
such as health services, housing, or education.
Among the major helping professions, social
work is distinguished by a tradition of concern
for the poor and the disadvantaged.
The nature of the problem and the time and
resources available determine which of several
social work methods—casework, group work,
or community organization—will be used.
When necessary, the social worker refers cli­
ents to other professional or community re­
sources. Using their training in human be­
havior, personality theory, and social group
relations, for example, social workers might
identify the need for assistance of children,
teenagers, young adults, or older persons in
places such as community centers, schools,
hospitals, nursing homes, and correctional in­
stitutions. Social workers work in conjunction
with or coordinate the efforts of civic, re­
ligious, business, and union organizations to
combat social problems through community
programs. For a neighborhood or larger area.

they may help plan and develop health, hous­
ing, welfare, and recreation services. Social
workers often coordinate existing services,
organize fundraising for community social wel­
fare activities, and aid in developing new com­
munity services.
Social workers who specialize in family
services counsel individuals, work to strength­
en personal and family relationships, and help
clients cope with problems. They provide infor­
mation and referral services in many areas—
family budgeting and money management, lo­
cating housing, homemaker assistance for the
elderly, job training, and day care for children
of working parents.
Social workers who specialize in child wel­
fare seek to improve the well-being of children
and youth. They may advise parents on child
care and child rearing, counsel children and
youth with social adjustment difficulties, and
arrange homemaker services during a parent’s
illness. Social workers may institute legal ac­
tion to protect neglected or abused children,
help unmarried parents, and counsel couples
about adoption. After proper evaluation and
home visits, they may place children for adop­
tion, in foster homes, or institutions. If children
have serious problems in school, child welfare
workers may consult with parents, teachers,
counselors, and others to identify the underly­
ing problems.
Medical social workers and psychiatric so­
cial workers are trained to help patients and
their families with problems that may accom­
pany illness or inhibit recovery and rehabilita­
tion. They work in hospitals, clinics, health
maintenance organizations, nursing homes, re­
habilitation centers, and offices of physicians.
Hospital social workers may work with patients
or with families of patients suffering from emo­
tionally devastating illnesses. While discharge
planning remains an important area of practice
for hospital social workers, other roles are
evolving. In some hospitals, social workers un­
dertake primary care functions in departments
of pediatrics or obstetrics. They are involved in
health screening and health education, collabo­
rate with community agencies to coordinate
care, coordinate employee assistance pro­
grams, and serve as outpost workers to com­
munity agencies and groups of physicians.
Many social workers are in the mental health
field. (See chart.) Much effort has gone into
developing community based facilities to re­
duce the need for hospital care, and quite a few
of these jobs are in community mental health
centers, outpatient psychiatric clinics, or pri­
vate practice settings. Still, there are a number
of jobs for social workers who specialize in
mental health in hospitals—in psychiatric hos­
pitals in particular.

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/89

Mental health is an important social work specialty.

Percent employed by field of practice,


Mental health
Children and youth services
Medical/health services
Family services
Services to aged
School social work
Developmentally disabled
Alcohol and substance abuse
Corrections and criminal justice
Community organization and planning
All other







------ 1
------ 1
------ 1
------ 1
' - ........„........ 3,1


;............ ........)

i rm

........... .,„j

SO URCE: National Association of Social Workers

A growing number of social workers spe­
cialize in the field of aging. They plan and
evaluate services for the elderly, and help older
persons and their families deal with difficulties
brought about by diminished capacities and
changed circumstances. In nursing homes, for
example, they help patients and their families
adjust to the need for long-term institutional
Other social workers specialize in correc­
tions. Correctional treatment specialists pro­
vide direct services for inmates of penal or
correctional institutions, while probation and
parole officers help offenders who are eligible
for parole readjust to society. They counsel on
the social problems that arise on returning to
family and community life, and also may help
secure necessary education, training, employ­
ment, or community services.

percent of the members of the National Asso­
ciation of Social Workers (NASW) engaged in
private practice on either a part-time or full­
time basis.
Although employment is concentrated in ur­
ban areas, many social workers work with rural
families. A small number of social workers—
employed by the Federal Government and the
United Nations or one of its affiliated agen­
cies—serve in other parts of the world.

health agencies; and other human service agen­
Social workers practice in a variety of set­
tings. Some are employed in business and in­
dustry, as “industrial” or “occupational” social
workers. They generally are located in the per­
sonnel department or health unit, and support
employee welfare through counseling, educa­
tional programs, and referral to community
agencies. Industrial social workers might, for
example, counsel employees about emotional
problems, alcoholism, or drug abuse.
A small but growing number of social work­
ers are in private practice. In 1982, more than 11

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree is the minimum require­
ment for most professional positions in this
field. Besides the bachelor’s in social work
(BSW), undergraduate,majors in psychology,
sociology, and related fields satisfy hiring re­
quirements in many social service agencies. A
master’s degree in social work (MSW) is gener­
ally required for positions in the mental health
field and is almost always necessary for super­
visory, administrative, or research positions. A
doctorate in social work usually is required for
teaching and is desirable for some research and
administrative jobs.
In 1983, there were 335 accredited BSW
programs and 88 MSW programs. BSW pro­
grams prepare graduates for direct service posi­
tions such as caseworker or group worker.
Classroom instruction is offered in social work
practice, social welfare policies, human be­
havior and the social environment, and social
research methods. All accredited programs re­
quire supervised field experience.
An MSW degree is preferred for some entry
level positions and is a decided asset for ad­
vancement to a supervisory position. In agen­
cies facing a flood of job applicants, the MSW

Working Conditions
Most social workers have a 5-day, 35- to 40hour week. However, many, particularly in pri­
vate agencies, work part time. Many work eve­
nings and weekends to meet with clients, attend
community meetings, and handle emergency
situations. Compensatory time generally is
granted for overtime. Because social workers
often must visit clients or attend meetings,
some travel may be necessary.

Social workers held 345,000 jobs in 1982.
More than half of these jobs were in State,
county, or municipal government agencies; rel­
atively few were in the Federal Government.
Social workers in the public sector are em­
ployed primarily in departments of human re­
sources, social services, mental health, health,
housing, education, and corrections. Those in
the private sector work for voluntary nonprofit
agencies; community and religious organiza­
tions; hospitals, nursing homes, and home

A master’s degree (MSW) is often required for a job in medical social work.

90/Occupational Outlook Handbook
may be essential. Two years of specialized
study, including a period of supervised field
instruction, or internship, are required to earn a
master’s degree in social work. Field placement
affords an opportunity to test one’s suitability
for social work practice. At the same time, the
student may develop expertise in a specialized
area and make personal contacts that later are
helpful in securing a permanent job. Previous
training in social work is not required for entry
into a graduate program, but courses such as
psychology, sociology, economics, political
science, history, social anthropology, and ur­
ban studies, as well as social work, are recom­
mended. Some graduate schools offer acceler­
ated MSW programs for qualified applicants.
A limited number of scholarships and fel­
lowships are available for graduate education.
A few social welfare agencies grant workers
“educational leave” to obtain graduate educa­
Career advancement usually takes the form
of promotion to supervisor, administrator, or
director, although some social workers go into
advanced clinical or direct practice, teaching,
research, or consulting. Like other admin­
istrators, directors of social service agencies
hire, train, and supervise staff, develop and
evaluate agency programs, make budget deci­
sions, solicit funds, and represent the agency in
In addition to experience, which is essential,
advancement in the social service field often
requires an advanced degree. More than 40
schools of social work offer post-master’s pro­
grams, most of which lead to a doctoral degree.
Increasingly, social workers seeking to broaden
their career options are pursuing graduate stud­
ies in related fields including human services
administration, public administration, business
administration, health services administration,
education, and law. A number of graduate pro­
grams have developed joint degree programs in
social work and another discipline.

In 1982, 28 States had licensing or registra­
tion laws regarding social work practice and the
use of professional titles. Voluntary certifica­
tion is offered by the National Association of
Social Workers (NASW), which awards the ti­
tle ACSW (Academy of Certified Social Work­
ers) to those who qualify. For clinical social
workers, professional credentials include list­
ing in the NASW Register of Clinical Social
Workers or in the Registry of Health Care
Providers in Clinical Social Work.
Social workers should be emotionally matu­
re, objective, and sensitive, and should possess
a basic concern for people and their problems.
They must be able to handle responsibility,
work independently, and maintain good work­
ing relationships with clients and coworkers.
Volunteer, part-time, or summer work as a so­
cial work aide offer ways of testing one’s inter­
est in pursuing a career in this field.

Job Outlook
Employment of social workers is expected to
increase about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s, reflecting
public and private response to the social service
needs of a growing and aging population. The
need to replace social workers who leave the
occupation or stop working is expected to be the
principal source of jobs, however.
Expansion of social services is likely to occur
in hospitals, nursing homes, hospices, re­
habilitation programs, and home health agen­
cies; in community-based programs for the
aging; and in the area of personal, family, and
career counseling. Relatively high levels of un­
employment coupled with problems caused by
social change are expected to sustain a strong
need for personnel in the social service field.
Social workers will also be needed to work with
professionals in other fields, including housing,
transportation, criminal justice, and public ad­

Following a period of rapid growth, the number of degrees awarded
in social work has leveled off.
Degrees in social work (thousands)

SOURCE: National Center for Education Statistics

Opportunities for social workers in private
practice will continue to depend on public ac­
ceptance of their role as independent practi­
tioners; on the reimbursement issue (reimbur­
sement for clinical social work services by
health insurance or other third-party payers is
not widespread); and on competition from other
mental health providers—clinical psycholog­
ists, counselors, family therapists, and others.
Job prospects for social workers vary a great
deal. Opportunities depend to some extent
upon academic credentials—whether or not an
applicant has formal social work training, and
preferably an MSW—but geographic location
is probably the most important consideration.
Competition is keen in cities where training
programs for social workers abound. This com­
petition is certain to intensify if social service
programs are cut back in response to budget
pressures on State and local governments. At
the same time, population growth in the Sunbelt
States is spurring expansion of social service
programs there, and some isolated rural areas
find it difficult to attract and retain qualified
Trends in enrollment in social work educa­
tion will affect future job prospects for social
workers. Enrollments rose sharply in the early
1970’s, nearly doubling between 1970 and
1975. (See chart.) The number of social work
degrees awarded each year has begun to stablize
since the mid-1970’s, but a number of factors
point to a decline during the 1980’s and 1990’s.
Most important is the impending decrease in
the college-age population, projected to decline
by more than 20 percent between 1982 and
If fewer people prepare for social work ca­
reers while demand continues to grow, condi­
tions in the now-crowded job market are likely
to improve. Job search problems of MSW’s
should abate and prospects for BSW’s probably
will improve. Very strong competition will
continue, however, for the substantial number
of associate and bachelor’s degree holders seek­
ing entry level human service jobs that do not
require formal preparation in social work.
Salaries for social workers at all levels vary
greatly by type of agency (private or public;
Federal, State, or local) and geographic region,
but generally are highest in large cities and in
States with sizable urban populations. Private
practitioners, administrators, teachers, and re­
searchers often earn considerably more than
other types of social workers.
Average starting salaries for social case­
workers (positions requiring a BSW) in State
and local governments averaged about $14,300
in 1982, according to a survey conducted by the
International Personnel Management Associa­
tion; for social service supervisors, the average
starting salary was $18,100.
The average annual starting salary for social
workers (positions requiring an MSW and 1
year of related experience) in hospitals and
medical centers was about $18,100 in 1982,

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/91
according to a survey conducted by the Univer­
sity of Texas Medical Branch. Top salaries for
experienced social workers in these settings
averaged $23,800.
In the Federal Government, social workers
with an MSW started at $20,256 in 1982; aver­
age earnings for social workers in the Federal
service were $28,300. Graduates with a Ph.D.
or job experience may start at a higher salary.
Most social workers in the Federal Government
are employed by the Veterans Administration
and the Departments of Health and Human
Services, Education, Justice, and Interior.

Related Occupations
Through direct counseling or referral to other
services, social workers help people solve a
range of personal problems. Workers in oc­
cupations with similar duties include: The cler­
gy, counselors, counseling psychologists, and
vocational rehabilitation counselors.

Sources of Additional Information
For information about career opportunities in
social work, contact:
National Association of Social Workers, 7981 East­
ern Ave., Silver Spring, Md. 20910.

The Council on Social Work Education pub­
lishes an annual Directory of Accredited BSW
Programs and Directory of Accredited MSW
Programs, which may be purchased for $2.00
each, postpaid. These and other publications
are available from:
Council on Social Work Education, 1744 R St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Recreation Workers
(D.O.T. 159.124-010; 187.137-010; 195.167-018, .227-010
and -014, .367-030; and 352.167-010)

recreation such as swimming, hiking, and
horseback riding as well as outdoor education.
They also provide campers with specialized
instruction in a particular area such as music,
drama, gymnastics, tennis, or computers. In
resident camps, the staff must insure that the
campers have adequate living conditions.
Recreation personnel in industry organize
and direct leisure activities and athletic pro­
grams such as bowling and softball leagues,
social functions, and exercise and fitness pro­
Therapeutic recreation (also known as recre­
ation therapy) is a small but growing specialty
designed to help individuals recover or adjust to
illness, disability, or specific social problems.
A clinical specialty within recreation, thera­
peutic recreation is a form of individualized
medical treatment, similar to physical therapy
or occupational therapy. It is carried out in
hospitals and nursing homes, for the most part,
under the supervision of a physician.
Recreation workers occupy a variety of posi­
tions at different levels of responsibility. Recre­
ation leaders provide face-to-face leadership
and are responsible for a recreation program’s
daily operation. They may give instruction in
crafts, games, and sports, keep records, and
maintain recreation facilities. Recreation lead­
ers who give instruction in specialties such as
art, music, drama, swimming, or tennis are
called activity specialists. They often conduct
classes and coach teams in the activity in which
they specialize. A camp counselor, who is gen­
erally a recreation leader, may also be an ac­
tivity specialist. Recreation leaders usually
work under a supervisor.
Recreation supervisors plan programs to
meet the needs of the population they serve;
supervise recreation leaders, sometimes over
an entire region; and direct specialized ac­

Recreation administrators or directors man­
age recreation programs. They have overall re­
sponsibility for program planning, budget, and

Working Conditions
While the average week for recreation workers
is 35-40 hours, people entering this field should
expect some night work and irregular hours.
Workers often spend much time outdoors.
Because recreation workers are employed
wherever there are people who have leisure
time, the distribution of employment follows
overall population patterns; most jobs are in the
urban and suburban areas where the majority of
Americans live. However, jobs in camping are
found mostly in the less populated areas of the
country because of the outdoor nature and ori­
entation of camping programs. Some camp
workers receive room and board as part of their

Recreation workers held about 124,000 jobs in
1982. (This estimate does not include many
summer workers.) About 40 percent of the jobs
were in Federal, State, or local government
agencies, primarily in park and recreation de­
partments at the municipal and county levels,
and in State park systems. The Federal Govern­
ment employs recreation specialists, sports
specialists, outdoor recreation planners, and
recreation assistants and aides for programs run
by the Veterans Administration and the Depart­
ments of Defense and Interior.
Nearly 25 percent of the jobs were in mem­
bership organizations with a civic, social, fra­
ternal, or religious orientation—the Boy
Scouts, Girl Scouts, and Red Cross, for exam­
ple. Not quite 15 percent were in programs ran
by social service organizations (senior centers
and adult day care programs, for example) or in

Nature of the Work
As leisure time in our lives increases, oppor­
tunities for organized recreation become more
important. Recreation workers plan, organize,
and direct activities that help people enjoy and
benefit from leisure hours. These workers hold
a wide range of jobs, which bring them in
contact with people of all ages, socioeconomic
levels, and degrees of emotional and physical
Recreation programs, whether institu­
tionally or community based, are as diverse as
the people they serve. Employment settings
range from pristine wilderness areas to health
clubs in suburban shopping malls. At local
playgrounds and community centers, for exam­
ple, recreation personnel organize and conduct
a variety of leisure activities, including arts,
crafts, fitness, and sports. Other employment
settings include parks, camps, campgrounds,
and recreational areas; schools, churches, and
synagogues; retirement communities, nursing
homes, senior centers, and adult day care pro­
grams; and correctional institutions.
Under a camp director, counselors lead and
instruct campers in nature-oriented forms of

Teaching swimming is part of this recreation worker’s job.

92/Occupational Outlook Handbook
residential care facilities such as halfway
houses, group homes, and institutions for de­
linquent youth.
About 10 percent of the jobs were in hospi­
tals, nursing homes, and other health care facil­
ities, and most of the remainder were in private
and commercial recreation—including amuse­
ment parks, sports and entertainment centers,
wilderness and survival enterprises, tourist at­
tractions, vacation excursions, hotels and other
resorts, camps, health spas, athletic clubs,
apartment complexes, and other settings.
The recreation field is characterized by an
unusually large number of part-time, seasonal,
and volunteer jobs. Some volunteers serve on
local park and recreation boards and commis­
sions. The vast majority, however, serve as vol­
unteer activity leaders at local playgrounds, or
in youth organizations, camps, nursing homes,
hospitals, senior centers, and other settings.
Volunteer experience and part-time work dur­
ing school may lead to a full-time job. The
largest number of paid employees in the recrea­
tion field are part-time or seasonal workers.
Typical jobs include summer camp counselors
and playground leaders, lifeguards, craft spe­
cialists, and after-school and weekend recrea­
tion program leaders. Many jobs are filled by
reachers and college students.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Educational requirements for jobs in this field
vary a great deal. Many applicants for full-time
career positions are college graduates with ma­
jors in recreation, leisure studies, or physical
education, but a bachelor’s degree in any liberal
arts field may be appropriate. Some jobs re­
quire specialized training in a particular field,
such as art, music, drama, or athletics.
A college degree is not always necessary.
Some recreation positions are filled by high
school graduates, while others are filled by
graduates of associate degree programs in parks
and recreation, social work, and other human
service technologies. A number of jobs in this
field are held by college students who work
part-time while earning a degree.
Most supervisors have a bachelor’s degree
plus experience. Persons with academic prepa­
ration in parks and recreation management, lei­
sure studies, physical education, fitness man­
agement, and related fields generally have bet­
ter prospects for career advancement, although
this varies from one employer to another.
A bachelor’s degree and experience are con­
sidered minimum requirements for admin­
istrators. However, increasing numbers are ob­
taining master’s degrees in parks and recreation
as well as in related disciplines. Many persons
in other disciplines, including social work, for­
estry, and resource management, pursue gradu­
ate degrees in recreation.
In industrial recreation, companies seeking
recreation directors prefer applicants with a
bachelor’s degree in recreation and a strong
background in business administration. While a
bachelor’s degree in recreation or education is
generally the minimum requirement camp di­
rector, a master’s degree is often preferred.

In 1982, about 200 community and junior
colleges offered associate degree park and rec­
reation programs, and 300 colleges and univer­
sities offered programs leading to a bachelor’s,
master’s, or Ph.D. degree. Approximately 150
schools offered programs in therapeutic recrea­
tion; while some of these lead to an associate
degree, most are at the bachelors or masters
The National Recreation and Park Associa­
tion (NRPA) accredits 34 park and recreation
curriculums at the bachelor’s degree level. Ac­
credited programs provide broad exposure to
the history, theory, and philosophy of park and
recreation management. Courses are offered in
community organization; supervision and ad­
ministration; recreational needs of special pop­
ulations such as the elderly or handicapped; and
supervised fieldwork. Students have an oppor­
tunity to specialize in areas such as therapeutic
recreation, park management, outdoor recrea­
tion, industrial or commercial recreation, and
camp management.
The American Camping Association has de­
veloped a curriculum for camp director educa­
tion in colleges and universities. Many national
youth associations offer training courses for
camp directors at the local and regional levels.
Persons planning recreation careers must be
good at motivating people and sensitive to their
needs. Good health and physical stamina are
required. Activity planning calls for creativity
and resourcefulness. Willingness to accept re­
sponsibility and the ability to exercise judg­
ment are important qualities since recreation
personnel often work alone. To increase their
leadership skills and understanding of people,
students are advised to obtain related work ex­
perience in high school and college. Such expe­
rience may help students decide whether their
interests really point to a human service career.
Students also should talk to local park and rec­
reation professionals, school guidance coun­
selors, and others.
Professional credentials for this field are of­
fered by the National Recreation and Park As­
sociation (NRPA), the American Camping As­
sociation, the American Health Care Associa­
tion, and the National Council for Therapeutic
Recreation Certification. Over 30 States have
adopted NRPA standards for park/recreation
technicians and park/recreation professionals.
The American Camping Association certifies
individuals who meet their standards of profes­
sional competence. The American Health Care
Association maintains a registry of activity co­
ordinators who meet its standards. Finally, the
National Council for Therapeutic Recreation
Certification awards certification to recreation
therapist who meet its standards.
Neither registration nor certification is usu­
ally required for employment or advancement
in this field, although there are exceptions. In
the case of therapeutic recreation, for example,
hiring in long-term care facilities that accept
Medicare and Medicaid patients is subject to
Federal standards governing the qualifications
of members of the facility’s activity staff.
Therapeutic recreation specialists certified by

the National Council for Therapeutic Recrea­
tion Certification or registered with the Amer­
ican Health Care Association satisfy the
Federal requirement for the position of activity
coordinator. Local job market conditions play a
role, too. Employers faced with an abundance
of qualified applicants are likely to give prefer­
ence to those with professional credentials in
therapeutic recreation. Two States—Utah and
Georgia—license therapeutic recreation work­

Job Outlook
Employment of recreation workers is expected
to grow about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s as people
have more leisure time; as more older people
use senior centers and nursing homes; and as
additional recreation sites are constructed.
Most job openings, however, will result from
replacement needs.
The outlook for recreation workers depends
to a large extent on local government funding.
Budget constraints are likely to continue, al­
though priorities as well as resources for public
services vary from one community to another.
Park and recreation programs often are among
the first to be cut when budget problems arise.
Camping, however, is supported primarily by
the private sector—profit-making firms as well
as voluntary agencies run camps—and there­
fore is not as vulnerable to budget cuts as pub­
licly funded recreation programs.
Because the field is open to all college gradu­
ates regardless of major, the number of appli­
cants for full-time positions in recreation great­
ly exceeds the number of job openings. Keen
competition for jobs is expected to continue.
Individuals with recreation experience, and
those with formal training in related fields, are
expected to have the best opportunities for staff
positions. Those with graduate degrees should
have the best opportunities for supervisory or
administrative positions.
Commercial recreation is expected to offer
more favorable opportunities than either the
public or voluntary sectors. Hiring practices in
commercial recreation vary a great deal,
however, and employers’ preference for appli­
cants with formal training in recreation, phys­
ical education, and related fields has not been
clearly established.
Opportunities for therapeutic recreation
workers are likely to be good through the
mid-1990’s, in line with the anticipated demand
for additional rehabilitation services for a grow­
ing and aging population. The expanding sup­
ply of people with the requisite credentials may
lead to competition, however. (People with for­
mal training in special education and occupa­
tional therapy may qualify for jobs as
therapeutic recreation workers.) Therapeutic
recreation workers have been successful in
finding jobs working with the disabled elderly
in both institutional and community-based set­
The overall market for recreation and activity
jobs in the field of aging is likely to remain
competitive, however. This reflects differences
in the supply of qualified applicants. While
employers tend to seek individuals with formal

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/93
training in therapy when staffing programs for
severely disabled older persons, they appar­
ently feel that people from a variety of back­
grounds can function effectively with the “well
elderly.” This greatly increases the amount of
competition for jobs in senior centers, retire­
ment communities and local parks and recrea­
tion department programs for the elderly. Ac­
tivities programs in nursing homes, too, attract
an abundance of jobseekers.

According to a 1982 survey by the International
Personnel Management Association, States
paid recreation program leaders with a bach­
elor’s degree an average beginning salary of
about $13,000; experienced workers, about
$18,100. Municipalities paid program leaders
an average beginning salary of about $13,700;
experienced workers, about $17,200.
According to the American Camping Asso­
ciation, the average salary for camp directors
was about $1600 a month in public camps in
1982. Salaries for camp directors in private
camps were somewhat higher.

The average annual starting salary for recrea­
tion therapists in hospitals and medical centers
was about $15,700 in 1982, according to a sur­
vey conducted by the University of Texas Medi­
cal Branch. Top salaries for experienced recrea­
tion therapists in these settings averaged
$19,600, and some were as high as $29,800.
Most public and private recreation agencies
provide vacation and other fringe benefits such
as sick leave and hospital insurance.

Related Occupations
Recreation workers must exhibit leadership and
sensitivity in dealing with people. Other oc­
cupations that require similar personal qualities
include social workers, parole officers, human
relations counselors, school counselors,
clinical and counseling psychologists, and

Sources of Additional Information
Information about careers in recreation or in
recreation therapy is available from:
National Recreation and Park Association, Division
of Professional Services, 3101 Park Center Dr., Alex­
andria, Va. 22302.

The 1981 edition of NRPA’s Directory cf Col­
lege! University Programs in Recreation, Lei­
sure Services and Resources may be purchased
for $5.00 plus postage and handling. Career
information is also available from:
American Association for Leisure and Recreation,
1900 Association Dr., Reston, Va. 22091.

The 1983 edition of AALR’s Directory of
Professional Preparation in Parks and Recrea­
tion may be purchased for $8.50 plus postage
and handling.
For information on careers in industrial rec­
reation, contact:
National Employee Services and Recreation Associa­
tion, 2400 South Downing St., Westchester, 111.

For information on careers in camping and
job referrals, send request and postpaid return
envelope to:
American Camping Association, Bradford Woods,
Martinsville, Ind. 46151.

For information about a career as an activity
coordinator in a nursing home, or for informa­
tion about registration by the AHCA Section of
Activity Coordinators, contact:
American Health Care Association, 1200 15th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.

Religious Workers
Most religious workers are members of the cler­ obtained directly from leaders of the respective
gy. A career in the clergy requires different groups.
considerations from those in other career fields.
Persons entering the ministry, priesthood, or
rabbinate should do so primarily because they
possess a strong religious faith and a desire to
help others. Nevertheless, knowledge about the
profession, how to prepare for it, and the kind (D.O.T. 120.007-010)
of life it offers are important.
The number of clergy needed depends Nature of the Work
largely on the number of people who participate Protestant ministers lead their congregations in
in organized religious groups. This affects the worship services and administer the various
number of churches and synagogues estab­ rites of the church, such as baptism, con­
lished and pulpits to be filled. In addition to the firmation, and Holy Communion. They prepare
clergy who serve congregations, many others and deliver sermons and give religious instruc­
teach or act as administrators in seminaries and tion. They also perform marriages; conduct fu­
in other educational institutions; still others ser­ nerals; counsel individuals who seek guidance;
ve as chaplains in the Armed Forces, industry, visit the sick, aged, and handicapped at home
correctional institutions, hospitals, or on col­ and in the hospital; comfort the bereaved; and
lege campuses; some serve as missionaries or serve church members in other ways. Many
work in social welfare agencies.
Protestant ministers write articles for publica­
Persons considering a career in the clergy tion, give speeches, and engage in interfaith,
should seek the counsel of a religious leader of community, civic, educational, and recrea­
their faith to aid in evaluating their qualifica­ tional activities sponsored by or related to the
tions. Most important are a deep religious be­ interests of the church. Some ministers teach in
lief and a desire to serve the spiritual needs of seminaries, colleges, and universities.
others. Priests, ministers, and rabbis also are
The services that ministers conduct differ
expected to be models of moral and ethical among Protestant denominations and also
conduct. A person considering one of these among congregations within a denomination.
fields must realize that the civic, social, and In many denominations, ministers follow a tra­
recreational activities of a member of the clergy ditional order of worship; in others, they adapt
often are influenced and restricted by the the services to the needs of youth and other
customs and attitudes of the community.
groups within the congregation. Most services
The clergy should be sensitive to the needs of include Bible reading, hymn singing, prayers,
others and able to help people deal with these
needs. The job demands an ability to speak and
write effectively, to organize, and to supervise
others. The person entering this field also must
enjoy studying, because the occupation re­
quires continuous learning and demands con­
siderable initiative and self-discipline.
In addition to the clergy, some lay people are
religious workers. Many coordinate the ac­
tivities of various denominational groups to
meet the religious needs of students or direct
religious school programs designed to promote
religious education among members of their
faith. Like members of the clergy, they some­
times provide counseling and guidance on mar­
ital, health, financial, and religious problems.
Lay people are expected to play an increasingly
important role in nonliturgical functions.
Education and training requirements as well
as job prospects for the clergy vary widely
among faiths and even among branches within
some faiths. A detailed discussion of training
requirements, job prospects, and other infor­
mation on the clergy in the three largest faiths in
the United States—Protestant, Roman Cath­
olic, and Jewish—is presented in the following
statements. Information on the clergy in other
faiths and on lay religious workers may be

Protestant Ministers


and a sermon. In some denominations, Bible
reading by a member of the congregation and
individual testimonials may constitute a large
part of the service.
Ministers serving small congregations gener­
ally work personally with parishioners. Those
serving large congregations have greater ad­
ministrative responsibilities and spend consid­
erable time working with committees, church
officers, and staff, besides other duties. They
may share specific aspects of the ministry with
one or more associates or assistants, such as a
minister of education who assists in educational
programs for different age groups, or a minister
of music.

Working Conditions
Ministers are “on call” for any serious troubles
or emergencies that involve or affect members
of their churches. They also may work long and
irregular hours in administrative, educational,
and community service activities.
Many of the ministers’ duties are sedentary,
such as reading or doing research in a study or a
library to prepare sermons or write articles.
In some denominations, ministers are reas­
signed by a central body to a new pastorate
every few years.

In 1982, an estimated 243,000 Protestant minis­
ters served individual congregations. Some
also worked in closely related fields such as
chaplains in hospitals and the Armed Forces.

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Reiigious Workers, and Lawyers/95
Most ministers are employed by the five largest
Protestant churches—Baptist, M ethodist,
Lutheran, Presbyterian, and Pentecostal.
All cities and most towns in the United States
have at least one Protestant church with a full­
time minister. Some churches employ part-time
ministers who are seminary students, retired
ministers, or holders of secular jobs. Although
most ministers are located in urban areas, many
serve two or more congregations in less densely
populated areas.

Training and Other Qualifications
Educational requirements for entry into the
Protestant ministry vary greatly. Some de­
nominations have no formal educational re­
quirements, and others ordain persons having
various types of training in Bible colleges, Bi­
ble institutes, or liberal arts colleges.
In 1982, about 140 American Protestant theo­
logical institutes were accredited by the Asso­
ciation of Theological Schools in the United
States and Canada. These admit only students
who have received a bachelor’s degree or its
equivalent with a liberal arts major from an
accredited college. Many denominations re­
quire a 3-year course of professional study in
one of these accredited schools or seminaries
after college graduation for the degree of master
of divinity.
Recommended preseminary or undergradu­
ate college courses include English, history,
philosophy, natural sciences, social sciences,
fine arts, music, religion, and foreign lan­
guages. These courses provide a knowledge of
modem social, cultural, and scientific institu­
tions and problems. However, students consid­
ering theological study should contact, at the
earliest possible date, their denominations and
the schools to which they intend to apply, to
learn how to prepare for the program they hope
to enter.
The standard curriculum for accredited theo­
logical schools consists of four major catego­
ries: Biblical, historical, theological, and prac­
tical. Courses of a practical nature include
pastoral care, preaching, religious education,
and administration. Many accredited schools
require that students work under the supervi­
sion of a faculty member or experienced minis­
ter. Some institutions offer doctor of ministry
degrees to students who have completed addi­
tional study, usually two or more years, and
served at least two years as a minister. Schol­
arships and loans are available for students of
theological institutions.
In general, each large denomination has its
own school or schools of theology that reflect
its particular doctrine, interests, and needs.
However, many of these schools are open to
students from other denominations. Several in­
terdenominational schools associated with uni­
versities give both undergraduate and graduate
training covering a wide range of theological
points of view.
Persons who have denominational qualifica­
tions for the ministry usually are ordained after
graduation from a seminary or after serving a
probationary pastoral period. Denominations
that do not require seminary training ordain
clergy at various appointed times. For example,

the Evangelical minister may be ordained with
only a high school education.
Men and women entering the clergy often
begin their careers as pastors of small con­
gregations or as assistant pastors in large

Job Outlook
The anticipated slow growth in church mem­
bership combined with pressures of rising costs
and inadequate financial support are expected
to result in only limited growth in the need for
ministers through the mid-1990’s. The number
of persons being ordained has been increasing,
and this trend is likely to continue. As a result,
new graduates of theological schools are ex­
pected to face increasing competition in finding
positions and more experienced ministers will
face competition in moving to large con­
gregations with greater responsibility. The sup­
ply-demand situation will vary among de­
nominations, with more favorable prospects for
ministers in Evangelical churches. Ministers
willing to work in rural areas also should have
relatively favorable opportunities. Most of the
openings for ministers through the mid-1990’s
will arise from the need to replace those who
retire, die, or leave the ministry for other rea­
Employment alternatives for newly ordained
Protestant ministers who are unable to find
positions in parishes include working in youth
counseling, family relations, and welfare or­
ganizations; teaching in religious educational
institutions; and serving as chaplains in the
Armed Forces, hospitals, universities, and cor­
rectional institutions.

Salaries of Protestant clergy vary substantially,
depending on age, experience, denomination,
size and wealth of congregation, and geograph­
ic location. Based on limited information, the
estimated average annual income of Protestant
ministers was about $16,500 in 1982. Fringe
benefits, such as housing and transportation,
may add as much as 25 percent to a minister’s
annual salary.

Related Occupations
Protestant ministers advise and counsel indi­
viduals and groups regarding their religious as
well as personal, social, and vocational de­
velopment. Other occupations involved in this
type of work include social workers, clinical
and counseling psychologists, teachers, and

National Council of Churches, Professional Church
Leadership, 475 Riverside Dr., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 120.007-010)

Nature of the Work
Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of their con­
gregations, and teachers and interpreters of
Jewish law and tradition. They conduct re­
ligious services and deliver sermons on the
Sabbath and on Jewish holidays. Like other
clergy, rabbis conduct weddings and funeral
services, visit the sick, help the poor, comfort
the bereaved, supervise religious education
programs, engage in interfaith activities, and
involve themselves in community affairs.
Rabbis serving large congregations may
spend considerable time in administrative du­
ties, working with their staffs and committees.
Large congregations frequently have an associ­
ate or assistant rabbi. Many assistant rabbis
serve as educational directors.
Rabbis serve either Orthodox, Conservative,
Reform, or Reconstructionist congregations.
Regardless of their particular point of view, all
Jewish congregations preserve the substance of
Jewish religious worship. Congregations differ
in the extent to which they follow the traditional
form of worship—for example, in the wearing
of head coverings, the use of Hebrew as the
language of prayer, or the use of music or a
choir. The format of the worship service and,
therefore, the ritual that the rabbis use may vary
even among congregations belonging to the
same branch of Judaism.
Rabbis also may write for religious and lay
publications, and teach in theological semin­
aries, colleges, and universities.

Working Conditions
Rabbis work long hours and are “on call” to
visit the sick, comfort the bereaved, and coun­
sel those who need it. Community and educa­
tional activities may also require long or irreg­
ular hours.
Some of their duties are intellectual and sed­
entary, such as studying religious texts and re­
searching and writing sermons and articles for
Rabbis have a good deal of independent au­
thority, since they have no formal hierarchy.
They are responsible only to the Board of Trust­
ees of the congregations they serve.

Sources of Additional Information
Persons who are interested in entering the Prot­
estant ministry should seek the counsel of a
minister or church guidance worker. Each theo­
logical school can supply information on ad­
mission requirements. Prospective ministers
also should contact the ordination supervision
body of their particular denomination for infor­
mation on special requirements for ordination.
Occupational information about the Protes­
tant ministry can also be obtained from:

In 1982, there were an estimated 6,500 practic­
ing rabbis. Of these, approximately 1,500
Orthodox, 800 Conservative, 700 Reform, and
60 Reconstructionist rabbis had synagogues.
Most of the rest taught in Jewish Studies pro­
grams at colleges and universities. Others
worked as chaplains in the military services, in
hospitals and other institutions, or in one of the
many Jewish community service agencies.

96/Occupational Outlook Handbook
seminary get extensive practical training in
dealing with social and political problems in the
community. Training for alternatives to the
pulpit, such as leadership in community serv­
ices and religious education, increasingly is
Some seminaries grant advanced academic
degrees in fields such as Biblical and Talmudic
research. All Jewish theological seminaries
make scholarships and loans available. Newly
ordained rabbis usually begin as leaders of
small congregations, assistants to experienced
rabbis, directors of Hillel Foundations on col­
lege campuses, teachers in seminaries and
other educational institutions, or chaplains in
the Armed Forces. As a rule, experienced rab­
bis fill the pulpits of large and well-established
Jewish congregations.

Job Outlook

Counseling is an integral part of a rabbi’s duties.
Although rabbis serve Jewish communities
throughout the Nation, they are concentrated in
major metropolitan areas that have large Jewish

Training and Other Qualifications
To become eligible for ordination as a rabbi, a
student must complete a course of study in a
seminary. Entrance requirements and the cur­
riculum depend upon the branch of Judaism
with which the seminary is associated.
About 30 seminaries train Orthodox rabbis.
The Rabbi Issac Elchanan Theological Semin­
ary and the Beth Medrash Govoha Seminary
are representative of Orthodox seminaries. The
former requires a bachelor’s degree for entry
and has a formal 3-year ordination program.
The latter has no formal admission require­
ments but may require more years of study for
ordination. The training is rigorous. When stu­
dents have become sufficiently learned in the
Talmud, the Bible, and other religious studies,
they may be ordained with the approval of an
authorized rabbi, acting either independently or
as a representative of a rabbinical seminary.
The Jewish Theological Seminary of Amer­
ica trains rabbis for the Conservative branch.
The Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute
of Religion trains rabbis for the Reform branch.
Both seminaries require the completion of a 4-

year college course, as well as earlier prepara­
tion in Jewish studies, for admission to the
rabbinical program leading to ordination. A
student with a strong background in Jewish
studies can complete the course at the Con­
servative seminary in 4 years; for other enrollees, the course may take as long as 6 years.
Normally 5 years of study are required to com­
plete the rabbinical course at the Reform semin­
ary, including 1 year of preparatory study in
Jerusalem. Exceptionally well-prepared stu­
dents can shorten this 5-year period to a mini­
mum of 3 years.
The Reconstructionist Rabbinical College
trains rabbis in the newest branch of Judaism. A
bachelor’s degree is required for admission.
The rabbinical program is based on a 5-year
course of study which emphasizes, in each year,
a period in the history of Jewish civilization. In
addition, students are required to earn a mas­
ter’s degree in a related field at an area univer­
sity. Graduates are awarded the title “Rabbi”
and, with special study, can earn the Doctor of
Hebrew Letters degree.
In general, the curriculums of Jewish theo­
logical seminaries provide students with a com­
prehensive knowledge of the Bible, Talmud,
Rabbinic literature, Jewish history, theology,
and courses in education, pastoral psychology,
and public speaking. Students of the Reform

The job outlook for rabbis varies among the
four major branches of Judaism.
Orthodox clergy currently face keen compe­
tition because the number of graduates from
Orthodox seminaries is increasing at a more
rapid pace than the number of pulpits.
Rabbis in the Conservative and Reform
branches are expected to have good employ­
ment opportunities if present trends continue.
Their seminaries balance supply and demand
by limiting enrollments.
Reconstructionist rabbis also are expected to
have good employment opportunities. Mem­
bership is expanding rapidly and demand is
expected to exceed supply.
Newly ordained rabbis who do not have a
pulpit may work for a Jewish social service
agency, teach in a religious educational institu­
tion, or serve as chaplain in the Armed Forces
or in hospitals, universities, or correctional in­

Income varies, depending on the size and finan­
cial status of the congregation, as well as its
denominational branch and geographic loca­
tion. Rabbis usually earn additional income
from gifts or fees for officiating at ceremonies
such as weddings.
Based on limited information, annual earn­
ings of rabbis generally ranged from $20,000 to
$50,000 in 1982, including fringe benefits.

Related Occupations
Rabbis advise and counsel individuals and
groups regarding their religious as well as per­
sonal, social, and vocational development.
Other occupations involved in this type of work
include social workers, clinical and counseling
psychologists, teachers, and counselors.

Sources of Additional Information
Persons who are interested in becoming rabbis
should discuss their plans for a vocation with a
practicing rabbi. Information on the work of
rabbis and allied occupations can be obtained
The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary,
2540 Amsterdam Ave., New York, N.Y. 10033.

Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers/97
Beth Medrash Govoha Seminary, 626 Seventh St.,
Lakewood, N.J. 08701. (Orthodox)
The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 3080
Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10027. (Conservative)
Hebrew Union College— Jewish Institute of Re­
ligion, Director of Placement, whose three campuses
are located at 1 W. 4th St., New York, N.Y. 10012; at
3101 Clifton Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio 45220; and at
3077 University Mall, Los Angeles, Calif. 90007.
Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, Church Road
and Greenwood Avenue, Wyncote, Pa. 19095.

Roman Catholic
(D.O.T. 120.007-010)

Nature of the Work
Roman Catholic priests attend to the spiritual,
pastoral, moral, and educational needs of the
members of their church. They deliver ser­
mons, administer the sacraments of marriage
and of penance, and preside at liturgical func­
tions, such as funeral services. They also com­
fort the sick, console and counsel those in need
of guidance, and assist the poor.
Their day usually begins with morning medi­
tation and Mass and may end with the hearing
of confessions or an evening visit to a hospital
or home. Many priests direct and serve on
church committees, work in civic and charita­
ble organizations, and assist in community pro­
The two main classifications of priests—di­
ocesan (secular) and religious—have the same
powers acquired through ordination by a
bishop. The differences lie in their way of life,
their type of work, and the church authority to
whom they are immediately subject. Diocesan
priests generally work individually in parishes
assigned by the bishop of their diocese. Re­
ligious priests generally work as part of a re­
ligious order, such as the Jesuits, Dominicans,
or Franciscans. They may engage in specialized
activities, such as teaching or missionary work,
assigned by superiors of their order.
Both religious and diocesan priests hold
teaching and administrative posts in Catholic
seminaries, colleges and universities, and high
schools. Priests attached to religious orders
staff a large proportion of the church’s institu­
tions of higher education and many high
schools, whereas diocesan priests are usually
concerned with the parochial schools attached
to parish churches and with diocesan high
schools. The members of religious orders do
most of the missionary work conducted by the
Catholic Church in this country and abroad.

countries where they may live under difficult
and primitive conditions. Some live a commu­
nal life in monasteries where they devote them­
selves to prayer, study, and assigned work.
Diocesan priests are “on call” at all hours to
serve their parishioners in emergency situa­
tions. They also have many intellectual duties
including study of the scriptures and keeping up
with current religious and secular events in
order to prepare sermons. Diocesan priests are
responsible to the bishop in the diocese.

There were approximately 58,000 priests in
1982, according to the National Conference of
Catholic Bishops. There are priests in nearly
every city and town and in many rural commu­
nities. The majority are in metropolitan areas
where most Catholics reside. Large numbers of
priests are located in communities near Cath­
olic educational and other institutions.

Training and Other Qualifications
Preparation for the priesthood generally re­
quires 8 years of study beyond high school in
one of 540 seminaries. Preparatory study may
begin in the first year of high school, at the
college level, or in theological seminaries after
college graduation.
High school seminaries provide a college
preparatory program that emphasizes English
grammar, speech, literature, and social studies.
Latin is required and modem languages are
encouraged. The seminary college offers a lib­
eral arts program stressing philosophy and re­
ligion, the study of man through the behavioral
sciences and history, and the natural sciences
and mathematics. In many college seminaries,
a student may concentrate in any of these fields.

The remaining 4 years of preparation include
sacred scripture; dogmatic, moral, and pastoral
theology; homiletics (art of preaching); church
history; liturgy (Mass); and canon law. Field­
work experience usually is required; in recent
years, this aspect of a priest’s training has been
emphasized. Diocesan and religious priests at­
tend different major seminaries where slight
variations in the training reflect the differences
in their duties. Priests commit themselves not to
Postgraduate work in theology is offered at a
number of American Catholic universities or at
ecclesiastical universities around the world,
particularly in Rome. Also, many priests do
graduate work in fields unrelated to theology.
Priests are encouraged by the Catholic Church
to continue their studies, at least informally,
after ordination. In recent years, continuing
education for ordained priests has stressed
social sciences, such as sociology and psychol­
ogyYoung men never are denied entry into semi­
naries because of lack of funds. In seminaries
for secular priests, scholarships or loans are
available. Those in religious seminaries are fi­
nanced by contributions of benefactors.
A newly ordained secular priest usually
works as an assistant pastor or curate. Newly
ordained priests of religious orders are assigned
to the specialized duties for which they are
trained. Depending on the talents, interests,
and experience of the individual, many oppor­
tunities for greater responsibility exist within
the church.

Job Outlook
More priests will be needed in the years ahead
to provide for the spiritual, educational, and

Working Conditions
Priests spend long and irregular hours working
for the church and the community.
Religious priests are assigned duties by their
superiors in their particular orders. Some re­
ligious priests serve as missionaries in foreign

Spiritual guidance is an important priestly function.

98/Occupational Outlook Handbook
social needs of the increasing number of Ca­
tholics. During the past decade, the number of
ordained priests has been insufficient to fill the
needs of newly established parishes and other
Catholic institutions, and to replace priests who
retire, die, or leave the priesthood. This situa­
tion is likely to persist and perhaps worsen, if
the sharp drop in seminary enrollment con­
tinues, and if an increasing proportion of priests
retires as expected.
In response to the shortage of priests, certain
traditional functions may now be performed by
lay deacons and by teams of clergy and laity.
Presently over 6,000 lay deacons have been
ordained to preach and perform liturgical func­
tions such as distributing holy communion and
reading the gospel at the Mass. Teams of clergy
and laity undertake nonliturgical functions
such as hospital visits and meetings. These
trends are expected to increase. Priests will
continue to offer Mass, administer sacraments,
and hear confession, but probably will be less
involved in teaching and administrative and
community work.


Related Occupations

Diocesan priests’ salaries vary from diocese to
diocese. Based on limited information, most
salaries range from $2,300 to $4,400 a year.
The diocesan priest also may receive a car al­
lowance of $25 to $50 a month, free room and
board in the parish rectory, and fringe benefits
such as group insurance and retirement benefits
in the diocese.
Religious priests take a vow of poverty and
are supported by their religious order.
Priests who do special work related to the
church, such as teaching, usually receive a par­
tial salary which is less than a lay person in the
same position would receive. The difference
between the usual salary for these jobs and the
salary that the priest receives is called “contri­
buted service.” In some of these situations,
housing and related expenses may be provided;
in other cases, the priest must make his own
arrangements. Some priests doing special work
may receive the same compensation that a lay
person would receive.

Roman Catholic priests advise and counsel in­
dividuals and groups regarding their religious
as well as personal, social, and vocational de­
velopment. Other occupations involved in this
type of work include social workers, clinical
and counseling psychologists, teachers, and

Sources of Additional Information
Young men interested in entering the pri­
esthood should seek the guidance and counsel
of their parish priests. For information regard­
ing the different religious orders and the secular
priesthood, as well as a list of the seminaries
which prepare students for the priesthood, con­
tact the diocesan Directors of Vocations
through the office of the local pastor or bishop.
Occupational information about the Roman
Catholic priesthood can also be obtained from:
National Catholic Vocation Council, 1307 S. Wabash
Avenue, Chicago, 111. 60605.



Directors, religious
education and

Direct and coordinate activities of various denominational groups to
meet religious needs of students and plan, organize, and direct
church school programs designed to promote religious education
among church membership. Provide counseling and guidance relative
to marital, health, financial, and religious problems.


Little change is


Arbitrate, advise, and administer justice in courts of law. Sentence
defendants in criminal cases, on conviction by juries, according to
statutes of state or federal government or determine liability of
defendants in civil cases.


About as fast as


Adjudicate criminal cases not involving penitentiary sentences, and
civil cases concerning damages below sum specified by state law.
May issue marriage licenses and perform wedding ceremonies.


More slowly than


Projected growth

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors
Teaching, librarianship, and counseling are
“people-oriented” fields that involve helping
others learn, acquire information, or gain in­
sight into themselves. Professional positions
require a bachelor’s degree, as a rule, although
some require a master’s or doctoral degree.
Teaching is one of the largest occupations in
the United States. In 1982, kindergarten and
elementary school teachers held 1,366,000
jo b s, secondary school teach ers held
1,024,000, and college and university teachers
held 744,000. Many others held jobs as teach­
ers in preschool programs and nursery schools;
in public and private vocational education pro­
grams; in dance, music, and art studios; and in
other places. Librarianship and counseling are
much smaller fields. In 1982, librarians and
audiovisual specialists held 157,000 jobs and
counselors held 148,000.
Teaching takes place in many different set­
tings, and most people would agree that educa­
tion is a life long process. But perhaps our most
influential educational experiences occur dur­
ing the period of formal education, beginning in
preschool or kindergarten and extending
through early adulthood. Teachers help stu­
dents gain the skills they need to function in the
world around them, encouraging them to ex­
plore many subjects and master some; to identi­
fy interests and values; to learn to make deci­
sions; and to think for themselves.
Librarianship is undergoing profound
changes as libraries try to keep up with the
information explosion, assimilate new tech­
nology, and respond to budget pressures. Many
libraries are restructuring services and looking
for new ways to share resources. These de­
velopments may alter library staffing patterns
as well.
Public libraries, long thought of as centers
for recreational reading, are enlarging the
scope of their activities and finding additional
ways to serve the community—as information
and referral services, cultural centers, and
learning centers or “open universities.” School
libraries, also called media centers because so
much of their collection is not in printed form,
have become an integral part of the learning
experience in elementary and secondary
schools. College and university libraries
provide both reference collections for students
and support for highly specialized research.
Special libraries and documentation centers,
which generally tailor services to a single group
of users, have led the field in the use of com­
puters for information storage and retrieval.
Expertise in library automation is important for
all kinds of librarians, however.
Counseling has many dimensions. Coun­
selors provide personal, social, and vocational
guidance in a wide range of settings, including
schools and colleges, rehabilitation centers,

community mental health centers, halfway
houses, and counseling centers for women, mi­
norities, veterans, ex-offenders, and alcohol or
drug abusers.
Some employers require a master’s degree in
counseling, counseling psychology, social
work, or a related field, but others do not. Peer
counseling, which has proved highly effective
in many situations, is conducted by individuals
who are trained and supervised by profession­
als. Peer counselors do not ordinarily have pro­
fessional credentials themselves, however.
Moreover, counseling is a normal part of the job
for many others in the “helping professions,”
including members of the clergy, social work­
ers, psychologists, and nurses.
Job prospects in secondary and college and
university teaching, librarianship, and guid­
ance and career counseling are expected to be
competitive overall, as a result of anticipated
enrollment declines and an abundance of
qualified jobseekers. Most positions in these
fields are in the public sector, where only slow
employment growth is expected through 1995.
Staff cutbacks in school systems and social
service agencies will intensify competition for
jobs. Job prospects for elementary school
teachers are expected to be more favorable as
enrollments start increasing after 1985. Pros­
pects in secondary schools may improve in the
early 1990’s, as enrollments there begin to in­
Nonetheless, the teaching occupations in
particular are so large that replacement needs
alone will generate a substantial number of
openings throughout the decade. Furthermore,
some specializations and some parts of the

country are far more promising than others.
Jobseekers who have certain kinds of training—
particularly in science and mathematics—or
who are willing to relocate will be in a relatively
favorable position.
Training and human resource development, a
field closely related to teaching, has attracted
growing numbers of teachers seeking a career
change. Trainers need many of the skills that
mark successful teachers; they, too, must be
able to design lesson plans, speak in front of
groups, and evaluate performance. And train­
ers should be able to inspire interest and encour­
age learning. Teachers are among those who
have responded to job opportunities in the
growing field of employee development.
However, training specialists warn that many
teachers lack the knowledge of business prac­
tices and organizational dynamics needed for a
successful career in private industry. For more
information, see the statement on personnel
and labor relations specialists elsewhere in the
While library jobs are relatively hard to find,
opportunities should be favorable for librarians
with knowledge in scientific and technical
fields such as law, medicine, and engineering.
People with information-handling skills are
also in demand in other settings. New informa­
tion-handling roles, for which many librarians
are well qualified, are emerging in business and
industry, especially in the rapidly developing
“information industry.”
More detailed information on job outlook
and alternative careers appears in the state­
ments that follow.

Growth in education-related occupations will vary greatly through
the mid-1990’s.
Projected percent change in employment, 1982-95
-2 0

-1 0






SO URCE: Bu re au of Lab o r S t a tis tic s


10O/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Kindergarten and
Elementary School
(D.O.T. 092.227-010, -014; 094.224-010, .227-010
through -022; 099.224-010)

Nature of the Work
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers
play a vital role in the development of children.
What is learned or not learned in these early
years can shape children’s views of themselves
and the world, and affect later success or failure
in school and work.
Kindergarten and elementary school teach­
ers introduce children to the basics of mathe­
matics, language, science, and social studies.
They try to instill good study habits and an
appreciation for learning, and observe and eval­
uate each child’s performance and potential.
Elementary school teachers may use films,
slides, computers or instructional games to help
children learn in creative ways. They also ar­
range class trips, speakers, and class projects.
Teachers keep track of their students’ social
development and health. They observe each
child’s behavior and discuss problems—such as
habitual resistance to authority—with the par­
ents. Teachers also report health problems to
parents and school health officials.
Most elementary school teachers instruct a
group of children in several subjects while
providing individual attention as much as pos­
sible. In some schools, two or more teachers
team teach and are jointly responsible for a
group of students or for a particular subject. An
increasing number of elementary school teach­
ers specialize and teach one or two subjects to
several classes. Some teach subjects such as
music, art, or physical education, while others

Job prospects for kindergarten

concentrate on the special needs of certain
groups: Those who have reading problems, or
those who do not speak English, for example.
Much of a teacher’s work occurs outside the
classroom. Teachers generally prepare lessons
and grade papers at home, and attend faculty
meetings and supervise extracurricular ac­
tivities after school. They also serve on faculty
committees to revise curricula or to evaluate the
school’s objectives and the students’ perfor­
mance. To stay up to date on educational mate­
rials and teaching techniques, they may partici­
pate in workshops and other inservice activities
or take courses at local colleges and univer­
In many schools, teacher aides do clerical
work and supervise lunch and playground ac­
tivities so that teachers can give more individu­
al attention to students.

Working Conditions
Teachers spend much of their time standing or
walking. Kindergarten teachers may join their
students on the floor to finger paint, cut out
pictures, or do other crafts.
A teacher may often have to deal with disrup­
tive, disrespectful, and sometimes even violent
children. This can be physically and emo­
tionally taxing. Giving appropriate attention to
disabled pupils also adds to a teacher’s load.
Most elementary school teachers work a tra­
ditional 2-semester, 10-month school year with
a 2-month vacation. Teachers on a 10-month
schedule may teach in the summer session or
take other jobs. Many enroll in college courses
or special workshops. Some teachers in yearround schools work 8-week sessions, are off 1
week between sessions, and have a long mid­
winter break. This 12-month schedule makes it
difficult for teachers to take supplemental jobs.
In most States the public schools must be in
session a minimum number of days, usually

and elementary school teachers are expected to improve.

Most States as well as the District of Colum­
bia have tenure laws that protect the jobs of
teachers who have taught satisfactorily for a
certain number of years. A teacher normally
must serve a probationary period of 3 years
before attaining tenure. Tenure is not an auto­
matic guarantee of job security, but it does
provide some protection.

Kindergarten and elementary school teachers
held 1,366,000 jobs in 1982. Most elementary
school teachers work in public schools that have
students in kindergarten through grade six;
however, some teach in middle schools that
cover the 3 or 4 years between the lower ele­
mentary grades and 4 years of high school. Less
than 14 percent of elementary school teachers
work in private schools.
Since kindergarten and elementary school
teachers work directly with students, their em­
ployment is distributed geographically much
the same as population.

Draining, Other Qualifications, and
All 50 States and the District of Columbia re­
quire public elementary school teachers to be
certified by State education authorities. Some
States require teachers in private and parochial
schools to be certified as well. Generally, cer­
tification is granted by the State Board of Edu­
cation, the State Superintendent of Education,
or a Certification Advisory Committee.
Teachers may be certified to teach either the
early childhood grades (usually nursery school
through the third grade) or the elementary
grades (grades 1 through 6 or 8). Some teachers
obtain certification to teach special education or
reading at the elementary school level.
Requirements for certification vary by State,
and school systems may have additional hiring
requirements. In all States and the District of
Columbia, however, public kindergarten or ele­
mentary school teachers must have a bachelor’s
degree from an institution with an approved
teacher education program. Teacher training
programs include a variety of liberal arts
courses as well as student teaching and pre­
scribed professional education courses. Almost
half of all States require teachers to earn gradu­
ate degrees within a certain number of years
after being hired.
Twenty-one States require (or will require by
1985) applicants for certification to be tested for
competency either in basic skills, subject mat­
ter, teaching skills, or a combination of these.
Half the States have health, citizenship, or
character requirements. Complete information
on requirements for elementary school teaching
is available from State departments of educa­
tion or superintendents of schools.
Information about whether a particular
teacher training program is approved can be
obtained from the institution offering the train­
ing or from the State department of education.
Many States have reciprocity agreements that
allow teachers who are certified in one State to
become certified in another.
Kindergarten and elementary school teach­
ers should be creative, dependable, patient and

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/101
competent in handling classroom situations.
Most important, they should be vitally inter­
ested in the educational and emotional develop­
ment of children.
As teachers gain experience, they may ad­
vance to supervisory, administrative, or spe­
cialized positions within the school system.
Often, however, these positions require addi­
tional training and certification and the number
of positions is limited. As a result, for most
teachers, advancement consists of higher pay
rather than additional responsibility or a higher

Job Outlook
Job prospects for kindergarten and elementary
school teachers are expected to begin improv­
ing by the mid-1980’s. If the number of new
college graduates prepared to teach in elemen­
tary school remains at current levels there may
be more openings than qualified applicants
after the mid-1980’s. Although employment is
expected to grow, the major source of job open­
ings will be the need to replace teachers who
leave the profession. In 1980, about one-half of
those who left teaching did so for family re­
sponsibilities; about one-third transferred to
other occupations.
Employment in kindergarten and elementary
school teaching is expected to increase faster
than the average for all occupations, primarily
because of rising enrollments starting in 1985
and continuing through 1995. Additional posi­
tions also are expected as a result of lower pupilteacher ratios.
Enrollment levels and employment of class­
room teachers are closely associated. Because
of fewer births in the 1960’s, elementary school
enrollments have been declining since 1967,
when they peaked at nearly 32 million. Al­
though birth rates are not projected to increase
substantially from the level of the mid-1970’s,
the number of births is expected to rise during
the decade as more women enter the prime

childbearing ages. The National Center for Ed­
ucation Statistics projects that by 1983, the
downward enrollment trend will halt at a level
of about 27.1 million. Thereafter, elementary
school enrollments will advance to more than
33 million by 1995.
Enrollment growth will not occur at the same
rate in all areas of the country, however. Largely
because of migration to the South and West,
population growth (and therefore the increase
in enrollments) is expected to be greater in
those regions.
Whether an elementary school teacher
“shortage” develops in the mid-1980’s depends
not only on factors that affect demand for teach­
ers, but on supply as well. The basic sources of
teacher supply—recent graduates qualified to
teach at the elementary school level and former
teachers seeking reentry to the occupation—are
likely to respond to changes in the demand for
elementary school teachers. The greater avail­
ability of jobs beginning in the mid-1980’s may
encourage more people to prepare for elemen­
tary school teaching and attract more people
from the teacher reserve pool. The reserve pool
is very large because many elementary school
teachers are women who leave teaching for
household responsibilities and also because
there had been an oversupply of these teachers
for years. In 1980, more than one-third of those
who entered teaching had not worked the pre­
vious year because of household respon­
sibilities. Also, during the same year, about
two-fifths of all entrants transferred from other
jobs. If such supply responses occur, a shortage
of elementary school teachers may not develop.
In addition secondary school teachers may turn
to elementary school teaching. However, train­
ing requirements for secondary school teachers
are substantially different from those for ele­
mentary school teachers, and relatively few
secondary school teachers are expected to take
additional training for elementary level cer­
tification. Employment of teachers is also sen­
sitive to changes in State and local expenditures

The decline in the elementary school age population will be
reversed around 1985.
Population 5 to 13 years of age (thousands)

for education. Pressure from taxpayers to limit
tax and spending increases is likely to continue
through the mid-1990’s and consequently affect
the hiring of additional teachers.

According to the National Education Associa­
tion, public elementary school teachers aver­
aged $20,042 a year in 1982-83. Generally, the
Mid-Atlantic and the Far Western States paid
the highest salaries.
Collective bargaining agreements cover an
increasing number of teachers. In 1980, 31
States and the District of Columbia had laws
that required collective bargaining in teacher
contract negotiations, and an additional 8 States
permitted such bargaining. Most public school
systems that enroll 1,000 students or more bar­
gain with teacher organizations over wages,
hours, and the terms and conditions of employ­

Related Occupations
Kindergarten and elementary school teaching
requires a wide variety of skills and aptitudes,
including organizational and administrative
abilities; a talent for working with children;
communication skills; the power to influence,
motivate, and train others; creativity; and lead­
ership ability. Other occupations that use these
aptitudes include child care attendants; trainers
and employee development specialists; em­
ployment interviewers; librarians; personnel
managers; public relations representatives; so­
cial workers; and career, vocational, and school

Sources of Additional Information
Information on certification requirements is
available from local school systems and State
departments of education.
Federal financial aid is available for educa­
tion students preparing to work with the hand­
icapped. For information, enclose $1.00 and
request Special Education Career Preparation
Closer Look, 1201 16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

Information on teachers’ unions and educa­
tion-related issues can be obtained from:
American Federation of Teachers, 11 Dupont Circle
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

General information on the teaching profes­
sions can be obtained from local or State affili­
ates of the National Education Association.
A list o f colleges and universities accredited
by the National Council for Accreditation of
Teacher Education can be obtained from:
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Educa­
tion, 1919 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Suite 202, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

Secondary School
(D.O.T. 091.221-010, .277-010; 094.244-010, .277-010
through -022; and 099.224-010)

Nature of the Work
The high school years are a time of transition
from childhood to adulthood. Secondary

102/Occupational Outlook Handbook
school teachers facilitate this process. They
help students delve more deeply into subjects
introduced in elementary school and learn more
about themselves and the world.
Secondary school teachers instruct students
in a specific subject, such as English, Spanish,
mathematics, history, or biology. They may
teach a variety of related courses. Social studies
teachers, for example, may instruct two 9th
grade classes in American History, two 12th
grade classes in Contemporary American Prob­
lems, and another class in World Geography.
For each class, teachers develop lesson plans;
prepare, give, and grade examinations; and ar­
range special activities, such as a class project
to devise an urban redevelopment plan for a
Teachers design their classroom presenta­
tions to meet the individual needs and abilities
of as many as 150 students in five different
classes. They may arrange tutoring for students
or give advanced assignments for highly moti­
vated pupils.
Teachers use a variety of instructional mate­
rials including films, slides, and computer ter­
minals. They may arrange field trips, such as
planetarium visits to supplement classroom
work on astronomy.
Science teachers also supervise laboratory
work and vocational education teachers teach
shop classes to give students “hands-on” expe­
rience with instruments, tools, and machinery.
In addition to classroom teaching, secondary
school teachers prepare lessons and grade pa­
pers at home, oversee study halls and ho­
merooms, supervise extracurricular activities,
and attend meetings with parents and school
personnel. Teachers also participate in work­
shops and college classes to keep up to date on
their subject specialty and on developments in

Working Conditions
Teaching involves long periods of standing and
talking and can be both physically and mentally
tiring. Dealing with disruptive students can
also be emotionally exhausting.
Since teachers spend much time in activities
outside the classroom, they may work over 40
hours a week. Most teachers work the tradi­
tional 10-month school year with a 2-month
vacation. Teachers on a 10-month schedule may
teach in the summer session or take other jobs.
Many enroll in college courses or special work­
shops. Teachers in districts with a year-round
schedule work 8 weeks, are on vacation for 1
week, and have a 5-week midwinter break. In
most States, schools must be in session a mini­
mum number of days, usually 180.
The District of Columbia and most States
have tenure laws that protect the jobs of teachers
who have taught satisfactorily for a certain
number of years. A teacher normally must ser­
ve a probationary period of 3 years before at­
taining tenure. Tenure is not an automatic guar­
antee of job security, but it does provide some

Secondary school teachers held 1,024,000 jobs
in 1982. More than 90 percent taught in public
schools. Since teachers work directly with stu­
dents, their employment is distributed much the
same as the population.

TVaining, Other Qualifications, and
All 50 States and the District of Columbia re­
quire public secondary school teachers to be
certified. Many States require teachers in pri­
vate and parochial schools to be certified as
well. Usually certification is granted by the

State Board of Education, the State Superinten­
dent of Education, or a Certification Advisory
Requirements for certification to teach at the
secondary school level vary by State, and
school systems may have additional require­
ments. However, in all States and the District of
Columbia, teachers need a bachelor’s degree
from an approved teacher training program
with a prescribed number of credits in the sub­
ject they plan to teach. They must also complete
student teaching and other professional educa­
tion courses. Almost half the States require
teachers to obtain graduate degrees within a
certain time after being hired.
Twenty States require (or will require by
1985) applicants for teacher certification to be
tested for competency either in basic skills,
subject matter, teaching skills, or a combination
of these. Many States also have health, cit­
izenship, or character requirements. Informa­
tion on certification requirements for secondary
school teaching is available from any State de­
partment of education or superintendent of
Information about whether a particular
teacher training program is approved can be
obtained from the institution offering the train­
ing or from the State department of education.
Many States have reciprocity agreements that
allow teachers who are certified in one State to
become certified in another.
Secondary school teachers should be good at
working with young people, knowledgeable in
their special subject, and able to motivate stu­
dents and to impart knowledge to them.
With additional preparation and certifica­
tion, experienced teachers may be able to move
into positions as school librarians, reading spe­
cialists, curriculum specialists, or guidance
counselors. However, for most secondary
school teachers, advancement takes the form of
a higher salary rather than a different job. Rela­
tively few teachers move into administrative or
supervisory positions in a public school sys­
tem. To do so usually requires at least 1 year of
graduate education, several years of classroom
teaching, and sometimes a special certificate.

Job Outlook

All states require public secondary school teachers to be certified.

Prospective secondary school teachers will face
keen competition for jobsTtfrrough the early
1990’s. Employment opportunities should im­
prove thereafter. If the number of new college
graduates prepared to teach in secondary school
remains at current levels, the supply of persons
qualified to teach will greatly exceed require­
ments until the early 1990’s, and many qualified
graduates will have to consider alternatives to
secondary school teaching. College students
interested in becoming secondary school teach­
ers should take courses that apply to jobs out­
side teaching. A willingness to relocate may be
an advantage in obtaining a teaching job.
The prime sources of teacher supply are re­
cent college graduates qualified to teach sec­
ondary school and former teachers seeking to
reenter the profession. Although reentrants
have experience in their favor, many schools
may prefer to hire new graduates who com-

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/103

The decline In the high school age population will not be reversed
until the early 1990’s.
Population 14 to 17 years of age (thousands)

request Special Education Career Preparation
Closer Look, 1201 16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

Information on teachers unions and educa­
tion-related issues may be obtained from:
American Federation of Teachers, 11 Dupont Circle
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

General information on the teaching profes­
sions can be obtained from local or State affili­
ates of the National Education Association.
A list of colleges and universities accredited
by the National Council for Accreditation of
Teacher Education can be obtained from:
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Educa­
tion, 1919 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Suite 202, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.

College and
University Faculty
mand lower salaries and whose training is more
Employment of secondary school teachers is
expected to decline throughout the 1980’s and
start increasing during the early 1990’s. Pupil
enrollment is the basic factor underlying the
demand for teachers. Because of fewer births in
the early 1960’s secondary school enrollments
began declining in the mid-1970’s. The Na­
tional Center for Education Statistics projects
that enrollment in secondary schools will con­
tinue to decline through 1990. Enrollments will
begin increasing after 1990, reflecting a rise in
births after the mid-1970’s. Enrollment growth
will vary by region. Population migration to the
South and West will result in smaller enroll­
ment decline there; conversely, population
losses in Northeast and North Central States
will result in greater enrollment declines in
these States.
Since secondary school enrollments are ex­
pected to decline through 1990, nearly all open­
ings for secondary school teachers will stem
from the need to replace teachers who leave the
profession. In 1980, more than 40 percent of
secondary school teachers who left the profes­
sion transferred to other occupations; about 30
percent left to assume household respon­
sibilities; the rest retired, became unemployed,
or went back to school.
Employment of teachers is sensitive to
changes in State and local expenditures for edu­
cation. Pressure from taxpayers to limit tax and
spending increases are likely to continue
through the mid-1990’s, affecting the number of
teachers employed.
Although the overall outlook for secondary
school teachers indicates a highly competitive
market, employment conditions may be favora­
ble in certain fields. Science and mathematics
teachers are in short supply because employers
in private industry and government offer higher
salaries to people trained in mathematics and
science. Some schools also report difficulty in

finding enough teachers qualified in special ed­
ucation, vocational education, and bilingual

According to the National Education Associa­
tion, public secondary school teachers aver­
aged $21,100 a year in 1982-83. Generally,
salaries were highest in the Mid-Atlantic region
and in the Far West.
Collective bargaining agreements cover an
increasing number of teachers. In 1982, 32
States and the District of Columbia had laws
that required collective bargaining in teacher
contract negotiations, and an additional 8 States
permitted such bargaining.
In some schools, teachers receive extra pay
for coaching sports, and working with students
in extracurricular activities such as music,
drama, or school publications. Some teachers
earn extra income by work in the school system
during summer sessions. Others hold summer
jobs outside the school system.

Related Occupations
Secondary school teaching requires a wide va­
riety of skills and aptitudes, including organi­
zational, administrative, and recordkeeping
abilities; research and communication skills;
the power to influence, motivate, and train oth­
ers; and creativity. Other occupations which
use these aptitudes include: School admin­
istrators, counselors, trainers and employee de­
velopment specialists, employment inter­
viewers, librarians, personnel managers, pub­
lic relations representatives, sales represen­
tatives, and social workers.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on certification requirements and
approved teacher training institutions is avail­
able from State departments of education.
Federal financial aid is available for educa­
tion students preparing to work with the hand­
icapped. For information, enclose $1.00 and

(D.O.T. 090.227-010; and 099.224-010)

Nature of the Work
Millions of people enroll in college every year
for personal enrichment or for skills needed for
a job. Although the majority are recent high
school graduates, the number of older students
on campus is growing. Many are homemakers
preparing to enter or reenter the work force;
others have returned to school to obtain courses
for advancement in their present job or for a
career change.
College and university faculty members
provide instruction in particular fields of study
to meet the needs of these students. Faculty
members generally teach several different
courses in the same field—freshman composi­
tion and 18th century English literature, for
example. Many instruct undergraduates only,
while some instruct both undergraduates and
graduate students. Still fewer instruct only
graduate students. Usually, the more experi­
enced and educated faculty members teach the
higher level classes.
College and university faculty members use
various teaching methods depending on the
subject, interest, and the level of their students.
They may lecture in classrooms that seat hun­
dreds of students, lead seminars for only a few
students, or supervise students in laboratories.
Some use teaching assistants who may lead
discussion sections or grade exams. Closedcircuit television, computers, and other teach­
ing aids are frequently used.
College faculty members keep up with de­
velopments in their field by reading current
literature and participating in professional ac­
tivities. They also conduct and publish the re­
sults of their own scholarly research. Some
college faculty members may experience a se­
rious conflict between their responsibilities to
their students and the pressure to “publish or
perish.” Those at universities generally spend
the most time doing research; those in 2-year
colleges, the least.

104/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Most faculty members enter the profession as
instructors and have at least a master’s degree.
Because competition for positions is so keen,
many 4-year colleges and universities consider
only doctoral degree holders for entry level
academic appointments. At 2-year institutions
a doctorate may not be considered advan­
Doctoral programs usually require 4 years or
more of study beyond the bachelor’s degree,
including intensive research for a doctoral dis­
sertation that makes an original contribution to
the candidate’s field of study. A working knowl­
edge of one or more foreign languages (or com­
puter languages) and, in many fields, advanced
mathematical and statistical techniques are
often required as well. Students should consid­
er carefully their academic potential and
motivation before beginning doctoral studies.
Advancement through the academic ranks in
4-year institutions usually requires a doctorate
plus college teaching experience, even in in­
stitutions that hire master’s degree holders as
Academic, administrative, and professional
Most college faculty members enter the profession as instructors and must have at least a master’s contributions affect advancement opportunities
in this field. Research, publication, consulting
work, and other forms of professional recogni­
In addition to preparation, instruction, and being exposed to new ideas and sharing in the tion all have a bearing on a college faculty
member’s chances of promotion.
research, college and university faculty mem­ growth and development of students.
College faculty need inquiring, analytical
bers may advise students and work with student
minds and a strong desire to pursue and dis­
organizations. Department heads also have ad­ Employment
seminate knowledge. As teachers and re­
ministrative duties.
College and university faculty held 744,000 searchers, they should be able to communicate
jobs in 1982. About two out of three faculty well, both orally and in writing. And as models
Working Conditions
members holding the rank of professor, associ- ! for their students, they should be dedicated to
College faculty members generally have flexi­ ate professor, assistant professor, or instructor the principles of academic integrity and intel­
ble schedules, dividing their time among teach­ were full time, and almost one out of three were lectual honesty. College faculty need to be open
ing, research, advising, and administrative part time instructional staff. Approximately to new ideas—from their students, peers, and
responsibilities. They may work staggered 30,000 persons were full-time junior instruc­ the nonacademic community.
hours and teach classes at night. The normal tors. In addition, thousands of graduate stu­
teaching load usually is heavier in 2-year and dents, employed as assistant instructors, teach­ Job Outlook
community colleges where less emphasis is ing fellows, teaching assistants, or laboratory Employment of college and university faculty is
assistants—taught part time.
placed on research and publication.
expected to decline through the mid-1990’s.
Public institutions, which constitute less The basic factor underlying the demand for
Over 90 percent of all full-time college and
university faculty work in institutions that have than one-half of all colleges and universities, college faculty is enrollment. During the 1960’s
tenure systems (the assurance of continuing employ over 70 percent of all full-time instruc­ and the 1970’s, enrollments rose and employ­
employment with freedom from dismissal tional faculty. They employ about two-thirds of ment of college faculty increased. The steady
without cause and due process). Nearly two- the full-time faculty in all universities and 4- rise in the number of persons attending college
thirds of these faculty members are tenured. year colleges, and over 90 percent in all 2-year reflected not only growth in the number of 18- to
Under a tenure system, a faculty member usu­ institutions.
24-year-olds, but an increase in the proportion
Nearly one-third of full-time faculty teach in of college-age persons who actually went to
ally receives 1-year contracts during a proba­
tionary period lasting at least 3 years and or­ universities; almost one-half work in 4-year college. Enrollments, which peaked during the
dinarily no more than 7 years; some universities colleges; and over one-fifth teach in 2-year col­ early 1980’s, are expected to decline through
award 2- or 3-year contracts. After the proba­ leges.
the mid-1990’s as the traditional college-age
A few part-time faculty work in more than population not only decreases but the propor­
tionary period, institutions consider faculty
members for tenure. Declining enrollments and one institution of higher education. Others are tion of those going to college remains un­
budgetary constraints, however, have made ten­ primarily employed outside of an academic set­ changed or declines slightly. A growing
ure increasingly difficult for faculty members ting—in government, private industry, or in number of adults have entered college in recent
to gain. Colleges and universities are turning to nonacademic research. These people—some­ years, many on a part-time basis, but adult
short-term contracts and to part-time faculty to times referred to as “adjunct faculty”—may enrollments are not expected to completely off­
teach as little as one course a semester.
set the decline in traditional-age college stu­
save money.
dents. Employment opportunities may be better
Few professions offer vacation arrangements
in community colleges that emphasize pro­
as attractive as those in teaching. In addition to Training, Other Qualifications, and
grams for adult learners. In general, however,
the summer months during which faculty mem­ Advancement
bers may conduct research, prepare course and The overwhelming majority of full-time col­ fewer students will mean fewer college faculty
teaching materials, teach short-term summer lege and university faculty are classified in four members.
Because employment of college and univer­
classes, travel, or pursue hobbies, they also academic ranks: Professors, associate pro­
have breaks during other school holidays. Col­ fessors, assistant professors, and instructors. A sity faculty will decline, job openings will re­
sult entirely from replacement needs. In any
lege faculty also have the intangible rewards of small proportion are classified as lecturers.

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/105

The college age population is expected to decline through the
Population 18 to 24 years of age (thousands)

(D.O.T. 100 except 100.367-018)

Nature of the Work

given academic institution, the number of va­
cancies will be influenced by the age of current
faculty, tenure patterns and policies, and retire­
ment practices.
Competition for openings will be extremely
keen, particularly for faculty positions in the
largest and most prestigious institutions. The
number of Ph.D. recipients alone will exceed
greatly the number of openings for college fac­
ulty through the mid-1990’s. Many graduates
who succeed in finding academic jobs may have
to accept part-time or short-term appointments
that offer little hope of tenure.
Some fields will offer brighter employment
prospects for college faculty than others, of
course. Departments that report shortages in­
clude engineering, computer science, business
administration, and law—areas that offer very
attractive jobs outside the academic setting.
Employment of college faculty is related to the
non-academic job market in other fields in still
another way: There is an “echo effect” as
favorable job prospects in a particular field—
accounting, for example—cause large numbers
of students to sign up for courses, thus creating
a demand for more teachers. However, changes
in the job market, especially in fields like engi­
neering that are subject to cyclical fluctuations,
may cause a field temporarily to lose its popu­
larity with college students—and thereby re­
duce demand for faculty.
During the next decade an increasing propor­
tion of prospective college and university fac­
ulty members will have to seek nonacademic
positions. And some persons holding graduate
degrees may have to enter positions that have
not previously required a master’s degree or a

Earnings vary widely according to faculty rank
and type of institution. Faculty members in 4year institutions earn higher salaries, on the

average, than those in 2-year schools. Accord­
ing to a 1981-82 survey conducted by the Na­
tional Center for Education Statistics, salaries
for all full-time faculty on 9-month contracts
averaged around $25,500; professors, $33,400;
associate professors, $25,300; assistant pro­
fessors, $20,600; and instructors, $16,500.
Since over 85 percent of full-time faculty
members have 9-month contracts, many have
additional summer earnings from consulting,
teaching, research, writing for publication, or
other employment. Royalties and fees for
speaking engagements may provide additional
Som e college and university faculty m em ­
bers enjoy benefits offered by few other profes­
sions, including tuition waivers for dependents,
housing allow ances, travel allow ances, and
paid sabbatical leaves. In many institutions,
faculty members are eligible for a sabbatical
leave after 6 or 7 years o f employment.

Related Occupations
College and university faculty function both as
teachers and researchers. They must have an
aptitude for communicating information and
ideas. Related occupations include: Trainers
and employee development specialists, writers,
consultants, lobbyists, and policy analysts.
Their research activities are often similar to
those of their colleagues in industry, govern­
ment, and nonprofit research organizations.

Sources of Additional Information
Professional societies generally provide infor­
mation on employment opportunities in their
particular fields. Names and addresses of these
societies appear in the statements on specific
occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.
Answers to questions pertaining to college
and university teaching can be obtained from:
American Association of University Professors, One
Dupont Circle, NW., Suite 500, Washington, D.C.

Librarians make information available to peo­
ple. They serve as a link between the public and
the millions of sources of information by select­
ing and organizing materials and making them
Library work is divided into two basic func­
tions: User services and technical services. Li­
brarians in user services—for example, refer­
ence and children’s librarians—work directly
with users to help them find the information
they need. Librarians in technical services—
such as acquisitions librarians and catalogers—
are primarily concerned with acquiring and pre­
paring materials for use and deal less frequently
with the information user.
The size of the collection affects the scope of
the job. In small libraries or information cen­
ters, librarians generally handle all aspects of
the work. They select, purchase, and process
materials; publicize services; provide reference
help to groups and individuals; supervise the
support staff; prepare the budget; and oversee
other administrative matters. In large libraries,
librarians specialize in a single area, such as
acquisitions, cataloging, bibliography, refer­
ence, circulation, or administration. Or they
may handle special collections.
Building and maintaining a strong collection
are essential activities in any library, large or
sm all. A cquisitions librarians (D.O.T.
100.267-010) select and order books,
periodicals, films, and other materials. To keep
abreast of current literature, they read book
reviews, look over publishers’ announcements
and catalogs, confer with booksellers, and seek
advice from library users. A knowledge of book
publishing and business acumen are important,
for librarians are under pressure to get as much
for their money as possible.
After materials have been received, other
librarians prepare them for use. Classifiers
(D.O.T. 100.367-014) classify materials by
subject matter. They may skim through publica­
tions and assign classification numbers. Cata­
logers (D.O.T. 100.387-010) supervise assis­
tants who prepare cards or other access tools
that indicate the title, author, subject, publisher,
date of publication, and location in the library.
The cards are then filed in the card catalog or
other appropriate storage unit.
Bibliographers (D.O.T. 100.367-010), who
usually work in research libraries, compile lists
of books, periodicals, articles, and audiovisual
materials on particular subjects. They also rec­
ommend materials to be acquired in subject
areas with which they are familiar. Special col­
lections librarians (D.O.T. 100.267-014) col­
lect and organize books, pamphlets, man­
uscripts, and other materials in a specific field,
such as rare books, genealogy, or music. From
time to time, they may prepare reports and
exhibits to inform scholars and other re­
searchers about important additions to the col­

106/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Librarians are also classified according to the
type of library in which they work: Public li­
braries, school library/mediacenters, academic
libraries, and special libraries.
Public librarians serve people of all ages and
from all walks of life. Increasingly, public li­
brarians provide materials and services to spe­
cific groups, including persons who, because of
physical handicaps, cannot use conventional
print materials. The professional staff of a large
public library system may include the chief
librarian, an assistant chief, and division heads
who plan and coordinate the work of the entire
system. The system also may include librarians
who supervise branch libraries and specialists
in acquisitions, cataloging, special collections,
and user services.
Some public librarians work with specific
groups of readers. Children’s librarians
(D.O.T. 100.167-018) find materials children
will enjoy and show them how to use the li­
brary. They may plan and conduct special pro­
grams such as story hours or film programs.
They often work with school and community
organizations. Adult services librarians sug­
gest materials suited to the needs and interests
of adults. They may help to conduct education
programs, such as community development,
public affairs, creative arts, problems of the
aging, and home and family. Young adult li­
brarians (D.O.T. 100.167-034) help junior and
senior high school students select and use
books and other materials. They may organize
programs of interest to young adults, such as
book or film discussions or concerts of recorded
music. They also may coordinate the library’s
work with school programs. Community out­
reach librarians and bookmobile librarians

(D.O.T. 100.167-014) develop library services
to meet the needs of special groups within the
community. They might arrange for materials
to be brought to a migrant labor camp, an inner
city housing project, or a nursing home, for
School librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-030)
teach students how to use the school library/
media center. Working with teachers and media
specialists, school librarians familiarize stu­
dents with the library’s resources. They prepare
lists of materials on certain subjects and help
select materials for school programs. They also
select, order, and organize materials. In­
creasingly, the library/media center is viewed
as an integral part of the school’s overall in­
structional program, and many school li­
brarians work closely with classroom teachers
in curriculum development. They assist teach­
ers in developing study units and participate in
team teaching.
In large high schools and in many communi­
ty colleges, the media center’s collection of
films, tapes, cassettes, records, and other mate­
rials is maintained by a school library media
specialist (D.O.T. 100.167-030) or an au­
diovisual librarian (D.O.T. 100.167-010). Me­
dia center professionals also develop au­
diovisual materials and work with teachers on
Academic librarians serve students, faculty
members, and researchers in colleges and uni­
versities. They work closely with members of
the faculty to ensure that the general collection
includes reference materials required for the
hundreds of courses that might be offered dur­
ing a particular academic year. They also main­
tain the quality of the collection in research
areas for which the institution is noted.

Special librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-026)
work in information centers or libraries main­
tained by government agencies and corporate
firms such as pharmaceutical companies,
banks, law firms, advertising agencies, medi­
cal centers, and research laboratories. They
build and arrange the organization’s informa­
tion resources to suit the needs of their users.
Often, the collection is highly specialized,
being limited to subjects of particular interest to
the firm. Special librarians may conduct liter­
ature searches, compile bibliographies, or pre­
pare abstracts. In scientific and technical librar­
ies in particular, computerized data bases are an
important and much-used part of the collection.
Maintaining these, and assisting users in re­
trieving information that has been stored in a
computer’s memory, are increasingly important
parts of the special librarian’s job.
The staff of a technical library or documenta­
tion center may also include information scien­
tists (D.O.T. 109.067-010). Although they work
closely with special librarians, information sci­
entists must possess a more extensive technical
and scientific background and a knowledge of
various techniques for handling information.
They abstract complicated information into
condensed, readable form, and interpret and
analyze data for a highly specialized clientele.
Among other duties, they develop classification
systems, prepare coding and programming
techniques for computerized information stor­
age and retrieval systems, design information
networks, and develop microfilm technology.
Technological innovations are beginning to
alter traditional patterns of library organization,
and eventually may affect staffing as well. A
growing number of libraries are tying into re­
mote computer data bases through their com­
puter terminals. The idea of serving users by
providing them with access to a variety of com­
mercial data banks took hold initially in corpo­
rate libraries and inform ation centers.
However, the practice has spread and now some
public and academic libraries, too, are linked to
commercial data bases. The rise of regional
library networks also has profound implications
for library operations, for the networks make it
less important than it once was for a library to
own the materials its users want. It doesn’t
really matter where the original material is lo­
cated, if it can be accessed remotely by com­
puter or sent by facsimile machines.

Working Conditions

A master’s degree in library science (M.L.S.) is necessary for professional positions in most public,
academic, and special libraries.

Libraries generally are busy, demanding, even
stressful places to work. Contact with people,
which often is a major part of the job, can be
taxing. Physically, the job may require much
standing, stooping, bending, and reaching.
Good eye-sight is also important especially for
computer work.
Librarians typically work a 5-day, 35- to 40hour week. Public and college librarians may
work some weekends and evenings. School li­
brarians generally have the same workday
schedule as classroom teachers. A 35- to 40hour week during normal business hours is
common for special librarians.

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/107
Librarians held 150,000 jobs in 1982; in addi­
tion, audiovisual specialists held 6,300 jobs in
library/media centers. School and academic li­
braries together accounted for roughly 7 out of
10 librarians. Public libraries and special librar­
ies employed the remainder. A small number of
librarians served as consultants or administered
State and Federal library programs.
Most librarians work in cities and towns.
Those attached to bookmobile units serve wide­
ly scattered population groups.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A master’s degree in library science (M.L.S.) is
necessary to obtain an entry level professional
position in most public, academic, and special
libraries. About 120 schools offered such de­
grees in 1983. However, most employers prefer
graduates of one of the 60 library education
programs accredited by the American Library
Association in U.S. Educational preparation
for school librarianship is more diverse, reflect­
ing the considerable differences among the
States in standards and certification require­
ments for public school librarians.
Most graduate schools of library science re­
quire graduation from an accredited 4-year col­
lege or university and good grades. A broad
undergraduate background, with well defined
major and minor areas of study, is appropriate
preparation for graduate library education.
Some library schools require a reading knowl­
edge of at least one foreign language.
A typical graduate program in library sci­
ence includes basic courses in the foundations
of librarianship, including the history of books
and printing, intellectual freedom and cen­
sorship, and the role of libraries in society.
Other basic courses cover material selection
and processing; reference tools; and user serv­
ices. Advanced courses are offered in such
areas as resources for children or young adults;
classification, cataloging, indexing, and ab­
stracting; library administration; and library au­
tomation. Because virtually all aspects of rou­
tine library operation are subject to automation,
many library schools encourage students to
take courses in computer and information sci­
The master of library science (M.L.S.) pro­
gram represents a general, all-round prepara­
tion for library work, but some people spe­
cialize in a particular area such as archives,
media, or library automation. A few M.L.S.
degree holders return to library school for an
additional year of study to earn a certificate of
advanced study. A Ph.D. degree in library sci­
ence is advantageous for a teaching position or
for a top administrative post, particularly in a
college or university library or in a large library
For those interested in special libraries or
research libraries, a master’s degree, doctorate,
or professional degree in the appropriate sub­
ject specialization is highly desirable. And in
academic libraries, an advanced degree may be
essential for promotion to a senior level posi­

State certification requirements for public
school librarians vary widely. Most States re­
quire that school librarians be certified as teach­
ers. A degree in library science may not be
required, for, in many schools, the library has
become the “learning resources center” and is
staffed by media personnel with a variety of
educational backgrounds. Although some me­
dia professionals have a bachelor’s or master’s
in library science, others have a degree in media
resources, educational technology, or au­
diovisual communications. State departments
of education can provide information about
specific requirements.
Some States require certification of public
librarians employed in municipal, county, or
regional library systems. State library agencies
can provide information about these require­
In the Federal Government, which currently
hires about 120 librarians a year, beginning
positions require completion of a 4-year college
course and a master’s degree in library science,
or demonstration of the equivalent in experi­
ence and education by a passing grade on an
Scholarships for training in library science
are available from library schools, large librar­
ies, and library associations. Loans and assistantships also are available.
Because of an abundant supply of qualified
jobseekers, employers in some localities now
require some experience for what used to be
entry level positions. Graduates who have par­
ticipated in internship programs and workstudy programs or who have worked part time
may have an employment advantage over other
new graduates.
Experienced librarians may advance to ad­
ministrative positions. A master’s degree in
business or public administration may help to
obtain such positions.

Job Outlook
Employment of librarians is expected to grow
more slowly than the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1990’s. Most job open­
ings will result from the need to replace li­
brarians who transfer to other fields, retire, or
leave the occupation for other reasons.
The demand for individuals with library
skills outside traditional settings is expected to
help ease the tight job market for librarians.
Furthermore, the number of library school
graduates, which has been declining since the
mid-1970’s, may continue to drift downward.
Therefore, the oversupply could abate, and em­
ployment prospects brighten.
Employment growth in public libraries is
likely to be slower than it has been during the
last two decades. Faced with rising materials
costs and tighter operating budgets, many li­
braries are expected to hire fewer additional
Employment of academic librarians is ex­
pected to decline slightly, a reflection of the
overall decline in college enrollments expected
through the mid-1990’s. The situation will vary
from institution to institution, however.
In school libraries, a large sector, slow em­
ployment growth is foreseen, overall. Elemen­
tary school enrollments are projected to rise

after 1984; secondary school enrollments will
start increasing after 1990. In some commu­
nities, declining enrollments and fiscal con­
straints are likely to result in staff cutbacks, and
some school librarians may be transferred to
classroom teaching. In other localities,
however, population growth will spur demand
for educational personnel, including librarians.
Opportunities should be favorable for li­
brarians with specialized knowledge in scien­
tific and technical fields including medicine,
law, business, engineering, and the physical
and life sciences. These jobs are available in
special libraries and research libraries, for the
most part. Individuals with expertise in com­
puterized library systems will also be in de­
mand, because of the widespread use of com­
puters to store and retrieve information and to
handle routine operations such as ordering, cat­
aloging, and circulation control. Individuals
with a background in cataloging or in working
with children should also find good job oppor­
Information management outside the tradi­
tional library setting, a rapidly developing
field, is expected to offer excellent employment
opportunities for library school graduates and
practicing librarians with backgrounds in infor­
mation science and library automation. Private
industry, consulting firms, and government
agencies all need qualified people to set up and
maintain information systems.

Salaries of librarians vary by type of library, the
individual’s qualifications, and the size and lo­
cation of the library.
Starting salaries of graduates of library
school master’s degree programs accredited by
the American Library Association averaged
$15,633 a year in 1981, and ranged from
$14,132 in public libraries to $16,748 in special
libraries. The median salary for experienced
special librarians was $27,000 a year in 1982.
The median salary for experienced librarians in
college and university libraries was $23,500 in
1983. Librarians in the Federal Government
averaged about $28,800 in 1982.
The usual paid vacation after a year’s service
is 3 to 4 weeks. Vacations may be longer in
school libraries and somewhat shorter in those
operated by business and industry.

Related Occupations
Librarians play an important role in the transfer
of knowledge and ideas by providing people
with access to the information they need and
want. Jobs requiring similar analytical, organi­
zational, and communicative skills include ar­
chivists, information scientists, museum cura­
tors, publishers’ representatives, research ana­
lysts, information brokers, and records man­

Sources of Additional Information
Information on librarianship, including a listing
of accredited education programs and informa­
tion on scholarships or loans, may be obtained
American Library Association, 50 East Huron St.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

108/Occupational Outlook Handbook
For information on a career as a special li­
brarian, write to:
Special Libraries Association, 235 Park Ave. South,
New York, N.Y. 10003.

Material about a career in information sci­
ence may be obtained from:
American Society for Information Science, 101016th
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information on graduate schools of library
and information science can be obtained from:
Association for American Library and Information
Science Education, 471 Park Lane, State College, Pa.

Information on Federal assistance to schools
for library training is available from:
Office of Libraries and Learning Technologies, U.S.
Department of Education, 1200-19th St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20208.

Those interested in a position as a librarian in
the Federal service should write to:
Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20415.

Information concerning requirements and
application procedures for positions in the Li­
brary of Congress may be obtained directly
Personnel Office, Library of Congress, Washington,
D.C. 20540.

State library agencies can furnish informa­
tion on scholarships available through their of­
fices, requirements for certification, and gener­
al information about career prospects in the
State. Several of these agencies maintain job
“hotlines” which report current openings for
librarians in the State.
State boards of education can furnish infor­
mation on certification requirements and job
opportunities for school librarians.

work and help those who are not going to col­
lege to find full-time jobs. They also help stu­
dents with social, behavioral, and personal
problems. They may deal with students individ­
ually, or in cases where problems are wide­
spread, as in drug or alcohol abuse, they may
initiate group counseling sessions. Counselors
often consult and work closely with parents,
teachers, school psychologists, school nurses,
and social workers. Elementary school coun­
selors work with younger children, observing
them during classroom and play activities and
conferring with their teachers and parents in
order to evaluate their strengths or problems.
They work to establish a home and school en­
vironment in which the child will leam, grow,
and develop. College counselors and student
development specialists provide a broad range
of counseling services in two year community
or junior colleges and four year colleges and
universities. Counselors also work in college
placement offices, dealing with students and
alumni. These counselors are generally known
as college career planning and placement
Rehabilitation counselors assist physically,
mentally, emotionally, or socially handicapped
individuals to become self-sufficient and pro­
ductive citizens. Rehabilitation counselors
evaluate their clients’ potential for employment
and arrange for medical care, rehabilitation
programs, occupational training, and job place­
ment. To do this, they leam about their clients
by talking with them, evaluating school and
medical reports, and consulting with family
members. They also confer with physicians,
psychologists, and occupational therapists
about the types of work their clients could per­
form. They then recommend an appropriate
rehabilitation program and specialized training
to help the disabled individual become more

independent and more employable. Since em­
ployment success is an important goal of re­
habilitation counseling, counselors keep in
touch with employers about job openings and
the training required.
Employment counselors help individuals
make wise career placement decisions. Along
with their client, they explore his or her educa­
tion, training, work history, interests, skills,
personal traits, and physical capacities. They
may arrange for aptitude and achievement tests.
These counselors may suggest specific employ­
ers and appropriate ways of applying for work,
and give advice on resume writing and inter­
viewing. They may contact employers for their
clients. After placement, counselors follow up
to determine if additional assistance is re­
Mental health counselors help individuals
deal with a wide range of personal and social
problems such as drug and alcohol abuse, fam­
ily conflicts, including child and spouse abuse,
suicide, work problems, criminal behavior, and
problems of aging. They also counsel rape vic­
tims, individuals and families trying to cope
with illness and death, and people with emo­
tional problems. Mental health counselors
work closely with other specialists, including
psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social
workers, and psychiatric nurses.

Working Conditions
Rehabilitation and employment counselors
generally work a standard 40 hour week. Selfemployed counselors and those working in
mental health and community agencies often
work evenings to counsel clients who work
during the day. College career planning and
placement counselors may have to work over­
time and irregular hours, especially during re­
cruiting periods.
Most school counselors work the traditional
10-month school year with a 2-month vacation,

(D.O.T. 045.107-010, -014, -038, -042; 090.107-010; and

Nature of the Work
Counselors help individuals deal with personal,
social, educational, and career problems and
concerns. Their duties depend on the individu­
als or groups they serve and the settings in
which they work. School and college coun­
selors help students understand themselves bet­
ter—their abilities, interests, talents, and per­
sonality characteristics— and help translate
these into realistic academic and career op­
tions. They may run career information centers
and career education programs. They may use
tests or other tools to help students understand
themselves and their options. High school
counselors keep up-to-date on college admis­
sion requirements, entrance exams, and finan­
cial aid as well as job training in local trade or
technical schools and apprenticeship programs.
They help students find part-time and summer

A counselor advises a student on college search strategy.

Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/109
degree. Most graduate programs include super­
vised experience in counseling. Graduate
courses include counseling theory and tech­
niques, assessment and evaluation, individual
and group counseling, occupational and educa­
tional information, and community resources.
About 24 graduate counselor education pro­
grams are currently accredited by the Council
for Accreditation of Counseling and Related
Counselors held 148,000 jobs in 1982. Almost Educational Programs.
2 out of 3 of these jobs were in educational
Many counselors are certified. The National
services. Most of these were in secondary Board for Certified Counselors examines pro­
schools; some were in elementary schools and fessional credentials and conducts a national
colleges and universities. State and local re­ examination for those who wish to have the
habilitation agencies, Veterans Administration designation of “National Certified Counselor.”
rehabilitation programs, and V.A. hospitals
Most States require public school counselors
were major employers of counselors. Some to have both counseling and teaching certifi­
worked in training and rehabilitation organiza­ cates. However, a growing number of States no
tions such as Goodwill and Lighthouses for the longer require a teaching certificate. Depend­
ing on the State, a master’s degree in counseling
Counselors also worked in many types of and 1 to 5 years of teaching experience may be
public and private community mental health required for a counseling certificate. State de­
and social service agencies and organizations partments of education can provide specific in­
such as family (marriage) counseling services, formation.
halfway houses and homes for children and the
Vocational and related rehabilitation agen­
handicapped, offender rehabilitation agencies, cies generally require a master’s degree in re­
self-help organizations such as Alcoholics habilitation counseling, counseling and guid­
Anonymous and drug rehabilitation organiza­ ance, or counseling psychology for rehabilita­
tions, and in religious organizations providing tion counselor jobs. Some may, however,
similar services.
accept applicants with a bachelor’s degree in
rehabilitation services, counseling, psychol­
ogy, or related fields. Experience in employ­
Training, Other Qualifications, and
ment counseling, job development, psychol­
Generally, a master’s degree in student person­ ogy, education, and social work may be
nel, counseling, student personnel services, re­ helpful.
Approximately 30 colleges and universities
habilitation counseling, counseling psychol­
ogy, psychology, or a related field is required. offer a bachelor’s degree in rehabilitation serv­
In some cases, individuals with a bachelor’s ices education. In 1983, the Council on Re­
degree in psychology, sociology, counseling, habilitation Education accredited 70 graduate
or rehabilitation services are qualified, par­ programs in rehabilitation counseling. Usually,
ticularly if they have worked in related fields, 2 years of study—including a period of super­
such as social work, teaching, interviewing, vised work experience—are required for the
master’s degree.
job placement, psychology, or personnel.
Counselors in most State vocational re­
Counselor education programs at the gradu­
habilitation agencies must score competitively
ate level are available in over 400 colleges and
universities, usually in departments of educa­ on a written examination, and be evaluated by a
tion or psychology. One to two years of gradu­ board of examiners. Many employers require
ate study are usually required for a master’s rehabilitation counselors to be certified. To be­
come certified, counselors must meet educa­
tional and experience standards established by
the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor
Certification, and pass a written examination.
Some States require counselors in public em­
ployment offices to have a master’s degree; oth­
ers do not. Most counselors in State employ­
ment agencies have a bachelor’s degree plus
additional courses in guidance and counseling.
Mental health counselors generally have a
master’s degree or doctorate in mental health
counseling, another area of counseling, or in
psychology or social work. Mental health
counselors can be certified by the National
Academy of Certified Clinical Mental Health
Counselors. A master’s degree, a period of su­
pervised internship, and passing an examina­
tion are required for certification. In addition, a
number of States require a license for private
Some employers provide an initial period of
training for newly hired counselors or coun­
selor trainees. Many agencies have work-study
Counselors must be skillful communicators.

although an increasing number are employed
on 10-1/2 or 11-month contracts. They generally
have the same hours as teachers.
Since privacy is essential to permit con­
fidential and open discussions with their cli­
ents, counselors usually have private offices.

programs whereby employed counselors can
earn graduate degrees. Professional counselors
must meet continuing education requirements
for certification and licensure. They do this
through participation in graduate studies,
workshops, institutes, and personal studies.
Persons interested in counseling should have
a strong interest in helping others and the ability
to inspire respect, trust, and confidence. They
should be able to work independently or as part
of a team.
School counselors may advance by moving
to a larger school; becoming director or super­
visor of counseling or guidance; or, with further
graduate education, becoming an educational
psychologist, vocational psychologist, school
psychologist, or school administrator. Usually,
educational or vocational psychologists must
have the Ph.D. degree.
Rehabilitation, mental health, and employ­
ment counselors may advance to supervisory or
administrative jobs in their agencies. Some
counselors move into research, consulting
work, or college teaching, or go into private

Job Outlook
Employment of counselors is expected to grow
more slowly than the average for all occupa­
tions through the mid-1990’s. Most job open­
ings will result from the need to replace coun­
selors who transfer to other fields, retire, or
leave the occupation for other reasons.
Pupil enrollment is the major factor affecting
employment of school counselors. Elementary
school enrollments, which have been declining
since the early 1970’s, are projected to begin
rising again after 1984. However, enrollments
in secondary schools, where most school coun­
selors work, will not start increasing again until
after 1990. In some communities, declining
enrollments and fiscal constraints are likely to
result in staff cutbacks, with school counselors
being transferred to classroom teaching, es­
pecially in States where counselors also hold
teacher certification. The number of counselors
in colleges and universities is expected to de­
cline as college enrollments decrease.
Total employment in State and local govern­
ment, except education—where most re­
habilitation and employment counselors are
employed—is expected to increase more slow­
ly than average through the mid-1990’s, and
employment of counselors is expected to follow
this same trend.
Employment of mental health counselors and
others who work with individuals with personal
and social problems such as marital or other
family difficulties, alcoholism, drug abuse, and
aging is likely to grow faster than average,
however. Private practice, community and so­
cial service agencies, and the development of
human resource and employee assistance pro­
grams in private business and industry are ex­
pected to be areas of growth.

According to a recent survey, the average salary
of school counselors in the 1982-83 academic
year was $24,500. Salaries varied by size,
grade level, and locality of the school. Average

110/Occupational Outlook Handbook
salaries ranged from about $21,000 in the
Southeast to almost $28,000 in the Ear West.
Salaries of rehabilitation, mental health, and
employment counselors are usually somewhat
lower than those of school counselors.
Some counselors supplement their income
by part-time consulting or other work with pri­
vate or public counseling centers, government
agencies, or private industry.

Related Occupations
Counselors help people evaluate their interests,
abilities, and disabilities, as well as help them
deal with personal, social, academic, and ca­
reer problems. Others who help people in sim­
ilar ways include college and student personnel
workers, teachers, personnel workers and man­
agers, social workers, psychologists, psychia­
trists, members of the clergy, occupational and
physical therapists, training and employee de­
velopment specialists, and equal employment
opportunity/affirmative action specialists.

Sources of Additional Information
For general information about counselors, con­

American Association for Counseling and Develop­
ment, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, Va. 22304.

National Rehabilitation Counseling Association, 633
So. Washington St., Alexandria, Va. 22314.

For information on training programs ac­
credited by the Council for Accreditation of
Counseling and Related Educational Programs,

National Council on Rehabilitation Education. 1200
Commercial St., Emporia, Kans. 66801.

Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related
Educational Programs, American Association for
Counseling and Development, 5999 Stevenson Ave.,
Alexandria, Va. 22304.

For information on national certificaiton re­
quirements and procedures, contact:
National Board for Certified Counselors, 5999 Ste­
venson Ave., Alexandria, Va. 22304.

State departments of education can supply
information on colleges and universities that
offer training in guidance and counseling as
well as on State certification and licensure re­
State employment service offices can supply
information about their job opportunities and
entrance requirements.
For information about rehabilitation counsel­
ing, contact:

A list of accredited graduate programs in
rehabilitation counseling may be obtained
Council on Rehabilitation Education, 162 North State
St., Room 317, Chicago, 111. 60601.

For a list of federally funded programs offer­
ing training in rehabilitation counseling, con­
Division of Resource Development, Rehabilitation
Sendees Administration, U.S. Department of Educa­
tion, 330 C St. SW., Washington, D.C. 20201.
For inform ation on certification require­
ments for rehabilitation counselors, contact:
Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certifica­
tion, 162 North State St., Chicago, 111. 60601.

For information on certification require­
ments for mental health counselors, contact:
National Academy of Certified Clinical Mental
Health Counselors, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alex­
andria, Va. 22314.



Adult education

Teach and instruct out-of-school youths and adults in courses other
than those which lead to an occupational objective. Subjects may
include such self-improvement or avocational courses as
americanization, basic education, bridge, fine arts, homemaking,
stock market, languages, etc. Teaching may take place in a public or
private nonproprietary school whose primary business is education
and training, or in a school associated with an organization whose
primary business is other than education.

Dance instructors


Projected growth


Faster than average

Instruct pupils in ballet, ballroom, tap and other forms of dance.
Observe students to determine physical and artistic qualifications.
Explain and demonstrate techniques and methods of regulating
movement of body and feet to musical accompaniment.


Faster than average

Extension service

Instruct extension workers or develop specialized service activities in
field of agriculture or home economics. Work may involve planning
training programs, lecturing and preparing literature on such subjects
as home management or horticulture.


More slowly than

education teachers

Teach vocational and occupational subjects at the postsecondary level
(but at less than the baccalaureate) to students who have graduated or
left high school. Subjects may include business, secretarial science,
data processing, commercial art, trades or practical nursing. Teaching
may take place in a public or private proprietary school whose
primary business is education and training, or in a school associated
with an organization whose primary business is not education.


Faster than average

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners
Health practitioners diagnose, treat, and strive
to prevent illness and disease. While all of them
practice the art of healing, they differ in meth­
ods of treatment and areas of specialization.
Physicians—both doctors of medicine and doc­
tors of osteopathy—prescribe medications, ex­
ercise, proper diet, and surgery. Manipulation
of muscles and bones, especially the spine, is
the primary form of treatment given by chi­
ropractors. Optometrists specialize in eye care
and podiatrists treat foot diseases and defor­
mities. Dentists emphasize not only the treat­
ment but the prevention of problems associated
with the teeth and gums. Veterinarians treat
animals and inspect meat, poultry, and other
food as part of public health programs.
Among the health practitioners whose work
is described in this section of theHandbook, the
most numerous are physicians, who held
479,000 jobs in 1982. The other practitioner
occupations are much smaller, as the following
tabulation shows:
Physicians (M.D.’s and D.O.’s) ...........
Chiropractors .........................................


Training to become a health practitioner is
much more rigorous than training for most
other professional occupations, but practice
also offers unusual rewards. Incomes of health
practitioners greatly exceed the average and
generally are higher than those of other profes­
sional workers with similar years of graduate
education. Furthermore, health practitioners
enjoy great prestige within the community, and
most derive considerable satisfaction from
knowing that their work contributes directly to
the well-being of others.
All health practitioners must have the ability
and perseverance to complete the years of study
required. They should be emotionally stable,
able to make decisions in emergencies, and
have a strong desire to help the sick and injured.
Sincerity and an ability to gain the confidence
of patients also are important qualities.
Among these six health practitioner occupa­
tions, minimum training requirements vary
from 6 to 9 years of postsecondary education.
After college, prospective physicians must
complete 3- or 4-year programs of medical edu­
cation, followed by at least 1 year of graduate
training in a hospital (residency or internship).
Physicians who specialize, and most M.D.’s
do, spend several years in training after their
residency to qualify for specialty board exam­
inations. Two years of college are required for
entry to the 4-year chiropractic schools. Op­
tometrists, podiatrists, and veterinarians all

must complete a minimum of 2 years of college
before beginning the 4-year program.
Occupational licensing is a distinctive fea­
ture of the health sector. The right to practice
medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, and
several other professions—and the right to call
oneself a physician, dentist, nurse, or phar­
macist—is regulated by law. Each of the 50
States has legislation governing the kinds of
tasks that may be performed by a given health
professional, and specifying the training and
proof of competence necessary for practice.
Complementing the occupational licensure
laws is a system of granting professional cre­
dentials, in which associations and other non­
governmental bodies attest to an individual’s
competence through certification or registra­
The employment outlook for health practi­
tioners is expected to remain favorable through
the mid-1990’s, but the market is changing as
supply overtakes demand. The physician short­
age identified during the 1960’s and early 1970’s
has vanished as a result of legislative measures
designed to expand supply. In fact, medical
school graduates are finding it unexpectedly
difficult to secure the residency of their choice
and—later on—to start a practice. Established
practitioners report that they are seeing fewer
patients than they would like.
Nonetheless, physicians in private practice
generally work 60 hours a week or more and
their earnings potential exceeds that in most
other occupations. In the years ahead, demand
for their services will continue to grow, for the
population is increasing—especially the
number of older people, who are relatively
heavy users of health care. Moreover, rural
communities and inner city neighborhoods re­
main underserved.
The American health care system is likely to
change in a number of ways in the years ahead
as a result of efforts to control the very rapid
increase in health care costs. For example,
practice patterns are likely to change. Solo
practice is already beginning to give way to
group practice and a variety of salaried arrange­
ments, and this trend is likely to accelerate as
more and more young practitioners accept sal­
aried positions. Salaried positions for physi­
cians are found in health maintenance organiza­
tions; multispecialty group practices; am­
bulatory, emergency, critical care, and sub­
specialty procedure facilities; the Armed
Forces and the Veterans Administration; and in
other institutional settings. Especially in areas
already well served with practitioners, new
graduates appear willing to sacrifice traditional
practice patterns (and income potential) in favor
of ensured earnings, regular hours, and protec­
tion from some of the more stressful elements
of practice.

Changes in the employment situation of phy­
sicians cannot help but affect other health prac­
titioners, and competition for patients is al­
ready evident. Some specialists are moving
into general practice as referrals for specialty
work fall off. Competition appears to be mount­
ing between physicians, on the one hand, and
other providers including optom etrists,
podiatrists, chiropractors, clinical psycholog­
ists, physical therapists, and nurse midwives,
on the other. In dentistry, the ample supply of
dentists raises questions about prospects for
dental auxiliaries (hygienists and assistants).
However, relations among the health occupa­
tions are complex and the net effect of an abun­
dance of physicians and dentists is uncertain.
For more detailed information about the out­
look in individual practitioner occupations^ see
the statements that follow.

(D.O.T. 079.101-010)

Nature of the Work
Chiropractic is a system of treatment based on
the principle that a person’s health is deter­
mined largely by the nervous system, and that
interference with this system impairs normal
functions and lowers resistance to disease. Chi­
ropractors treat patients primarily by manual
manipulation (adjustments) of parts of the
body, especially the spinal column.
Because of the emphasis on the spine and its
position, most chiropractors use X-rays to help
locate the source of patients’ difficulties. In
addition to manipulation, chiropractors use
water, light, massage, ultrasound, electric, and
heat therapy. They also prescribe diet, sup­
ports, exercise, and rest. Most State laws spec­
ify the types of supplementary treatment per­
mitted in chiropractic. Chiropractors do not
prescribe drugs or surgery.

Working Conditions
Almost all chiropractors work in private offices
that are clean and comfortable. The average
workweek is about 40 hours, but this may in­
clude some evening and weekend time to ac­
commodate patients who work. Because most
chiropractors are self-employed, they can set
their own hours. Like other self-employed
health practitioners, chiropractors tend to be
older than average when they stop working al­

Chiropractors held about 25,000 jobs in 1982.
Most chiropractors were in private practice and


112/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Chiropractors treat patients primarily by manual
about 70 percent were in solo practice—that is,
they had no partners. Some were salaried assis­
tants of established practitioners or worked for
chiropractic clinics. A small number taught or
conducted research at chiropractic colleges.
Chiropractors often locate in small commu­
nities—about half work in cities of 50,000 in­
habitants or less.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
All 50 States and the District of Columbia regu­
late the practice of chiropractic and grant li­
censes to chiropractors who meet certain
educational requirements and pass a State
board examination. Many States have re­
ciprocity agreements that permit chiropractors
already licensed in another State to obtain a
license without taking an examination.
The type of practice permitted and the educa­
tional requirements for a license vary consider­
ably from one State to another, but in general,
State licensing boards require successful com­
pletion of a 4-year chiropractic course follow­
ing 2 years of college. Thirty-eight State boards
recognize only academic training in chiroprac­
tic colleges accredited by the Council on Chi­
ropractic Education. Some States require spe­
cific college courses such as English, chemis­
try, biology, or physics. Several States require
that chiropractors pass a basic science examina­
tion. The National Board of Chiropractic Ex­
aminers’ test given to chiropractic students is
accepted by 47 State boards in place of a State
In 1982, 9 of the 15 chiropractic colleges in
the United States were fully accredited by the
Council on Chiropractic Education; 5 others
were recognized candidates working toward ac­
creditation. All chiropractic colleges require
applicants to have a minimum of 2 years of

undergraduate study, including courses in En­
glish, the social sciences, chemistry, biology,
physics, and mathematics.
Chiropractic colleges emphasize courses in
manipulation and spinal adjustments. Most of­
fer a broader curriculum, however, including
subjects such as physiotherapy and nutrition.
During the first 2 years, most chiropractic col­
leges emphasize classroom and laboratory
work in subjects such as anatomy, physiology,
and biochemistry, while the last 2 years stress
clinical experience. Students completing chi­
ropractic training earn the degree of Doctor of
Chiropractic (D.C.).
Chiropractic requires a keen sense of obser­
vation to detect physical abnormalities and con­
siderable hand dexterity but not unusual
strength or endurance. Persons desiring to be­
come chiropractors should be able to work in­
dependently and handle responsibility. The
ability to work with detail is important. Sympa­
thy and understanding are desirable qualities
for dealing effectively with patients.
Most newly licensed chiropractors either set
up a new practice or purchase an established
one. Because of the financial investment neces­
sary to open and equip an office, many first
work for established chiropractors to acquire
the experience and the funds needed.

Job Outlook
Job opportunities for chiropractors through the
mid-1990’s will reflect employment growth that
is expected to be about as fast as the average for
all occupations plus the need to replace experi­
enced chiropractors who leave the profession.
Demand for chiropractic is related to the
ability of patients to pay for services, either
directly or through health insurance, and to
public acceptance of the profession, which ap­
pears to be growing. At present, newly-gradu­
ated chiropractors are entering practice with
little difficulty. Enrollments in chiropractic col­
leges have grown dramatically, however, and as
more students graduate, new chiropractors may
encounter competition establishing a practice
in areas where other practitioners already are

In chiropractic, as in other types of independent
practice, earnings are relatively low in the be­
ginning. From the limited data available, new
graduates who worked as associates to estab­
lished practitioners earned more than $15,000 a
year in 1982. Experienced chiropractors aver­
aged about $45,500, after expenses, according
to a survey conducted by the American Chi­
ropractic Association.

Related Occupations
Chiropractors diagnose, treat, and work to pre­
vent diseases, disorders, and injuries. They em­
phasize the importance of the nervous system
for good health. Others whose professions re­
quire similar skills include acupuncturists, au­
diologists, dentists, naturopathic doctors, op­
tometrists, osteopaths, podiatrists, speech pa­
thologists, and veterinarians.

Sources of Additional Information
The board of licensing in each State capital can
supply information on State licensing require­
ments for chiropractors.
General information on chiropractic as a ca­
reer is available from:
American Chiropractic Association, 1916 Wilson
Blvd., Arlington, Va. 22201.
International Chiropractors Association, 1901 L St.
NW., Suite 800, Washington, D.C. 20036.

For a list of chiropractic colleges, as well as
general information on chiropractic as a career,
Council on Chiropractic Education, 3209 Ingersoll
Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50312.

For information on requirements for admis­
sion to a specific chiropractic college, contact
the admissions office.

(D.O.T. 072)

Nature of the Work
Dentists examine teeth and tissues of the mouth
to diagnose diseases or abnormalities. They
take X-rays, fill cavities, straighten teeth, and
treat gum diseases. Dentists extract teeth and
substitute artificial dentures designed for the
individual patient. They also perform correc­
tive surgery of the gums and supporting bones.
In addition, they may clean teeth and provide
other preventive services.
Dentists spend most of their time with pa­
tients, but may devote some time to laboratory
work such as making dentures and inlays. Most
dentists, however—particularly those in large
cities—send their laboratory work to commer­
cial firms. Some dentists employ dental
hygienists to clean patients’ teeth and provide
instruction for patient self-care. Dentists may
also employ other assistants to perform office
work, assist in “chairside” duties, and provide
therapeutic services under their supervision.
(The work of dental hygienists and dental assis­
tants is described elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Most dentists are general practitioners who
provide many types of dental care; about 15
percent practice in one of the eight specialty
areas recognized by the American Dental Asso­
ciation (ADA). The largest group of specialists
are orthodontists, who straighten teeth. The
next largest group, oral surgeons, operate on
the mouth and jaws. The remainder specialize
in pedodontics (dentistry for children);
periodontics (treating the gums); prosthodontics (making artificial teeth or dentures); endo­
dontics (root canal therapy); public health den­
tistry; and oral pathology (diseases of the
About 5 percent of all dentists teach in dental
schools, do research, or administer dental
health programs on a full-time basis. Many
dentists in private practice do this work on a
part-time basis.

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/113
Working Conditions
Most dental offices are open 5 days a week, and
some dentists have evening hours. Dentists
usually work between 40 and 45 hours a week,
although many spend more than 50 hours a
week in the office. Dentists often work fewer
hours as they grow older, and a considerable
number continue in part-time practice well
beyond the usual retirement age.

Dentists held about 173,000 jobs in 1982. Be­
cause some dentists hold more than one job, the
number of jobs exceeds the number of dentists
in practice—nearly 132,000, according to the
U.S. Public Health Service.
Nine out of 10 dentists are in private practice.
Of the remainder, about half do research, teach
or hold positions in dental schools. Some work
in hospitals and clinics. About 1,000 dentists
work in the hospitals and clinics of the Veterans
Administration and the U.S. Public Health

Training, Other Qualifications, and
All 50 States and the District of Columbia re­
quire dentists to be licensed. To qualify for a
license in most States, a candidate must gradu­
ate from a dental school approved by the Amer­
ican Dental Association and pass written and
practical examinations. In 1982, candidates in
49 States and the District of Columbia could
fulfill part of the State licensing requirements
by passing a written examination given by the
National Board of Dental Examiners. Most
State licenses permit dentists to engage in both
general and specialized practice. In 16 States
and the District of Columbia, however, a dentist
must obtain a specialty license before practic­
ing as a “specialist.” Requirements include 2 or
3 years of graduate education and, in some
cases, completion of a special State examina­
tion. Extra education also is necessary in the
other 34 States, but the dental profession, not
the State licensing authority, regulates the spe­
cialist’s practice. To practice in a different
State, a licensed dentist usually must pass that
State’s examination. However, 20 States grant
licenses to dentists from other States on the
basis of their credentials. Dentists who want to
teach or do research usually spend an additional
2 to 4 years in advanced dental training in
programs operated by dental schools, hospi­
tals, and other institutions of higher education.
Dental schools require a minimum of 2 to 4
years of college-level predental education. In
fact, most dental students are college gradu­
ates. Four out of five of the students entering
dental schools in 1982 had a bachelor’s or mas­
ter’s degree. Predental education must include
courses in the sciences and humanities.
In selecting students, dental schools give
considerable weight to college grades. In addi­
tion, all dental schools participate in a nation­
wide testing program, and scores earned on
these tests are considered along with informa­
tion gathered about the applicant through rec­
ommendations and interviews. Many Statesupported dental schools give preference to res­
idents of their particular States.

Examining a patient requires manual dexterity.
Dental school generally lasts 4 academic
years, although one institution condenses the
program into 3 calendar years and another pro­
gram lasts 5 years. Studies begin with class­
room instruction and laboratory work in basic
sciences including anatomy, microbiology, bio­
chemistry, and physiology. Courses in preclinical technique and beginning courses in
clinical sciences also are provided at this time.
During the last 2 years the student treats pa­
tients chiefly in dental clinics.
Most dental colleges award the degree of
Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S). An equiv­
alent degree, Doctor of Dental Medicine
(D.M.D.), is conferred by 20 schools.
Earning a dental degree is a costly process,
but financial aid is available from the Federal
and State governments, health-related organi­
zations, industry, and dental schools. Many
dental students rely on student loans to finance
their professional training.
Dentistry requires both manual skills and a
high level of diagnostic ability. Dentists should
have good visual memory, excellent judgment
of space and shape, and a high degree of manual
dexterity, as well as scientific ability. Good
business sense, self-discipline, and the ability
to instill confidence are helpful for success in
private practice. High school students who
want to become dentists are advised to take
courses in biology, chemistry, health, and

Most dental graduates open their own offices
or purchase established practices. Some gain
experience with established dentists and save
money to equip an office; others may enter
residency training programs in approved hospi­
tals or dental schools. Dentists who enter the
Armed Forces are commissioned as captains in
the Army and Air Force and as lieutenants in the
Navy. Graduates of recognized dental schools
are eligible for positions in the Federal service
and for commissions (equivalent to lieutenants
in the Navy) in the U.S. Public Health Service.

Job Outlook
Employment of dentists is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s due to population
growth, increased awareness that regular dental
care helps prevent and control dental diseases,
and prepayment arrangements, which make it
easier for people to afford dental services.
Because of the abundant supply of practi­
tioners, however, the employment situation for
dentists is becoming competitive in some areas
of the country. The number of dental school
graduates rose sharply from the mid-1960’s un­
til the mid-1970’s, as new dental schools were
established. The expansion has moderated sin­
ce then, and first-year enrollments have de­
clined since 1980. (See chart.) Nevertheless, a
substantial number of newly qualified dentists
will enter the labor market each year.

114/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Even though the upsurge in dental school enrollments has halted,
the outlook in dentistry remains competitive.
First-year dental enrollments (thousands)

Prospective dental students should contact
the office of student financial aid at the schools
to which they apply for information on schol­
arships, grants, and loans, including Federal
financial aid.

(D.O.T. 079.101-018)

Nature of the Work










SO URCE: A m e ric an Den tal A s s o c ia t io n

As a result, an oversupply of dentists may
develop in some localities and intensify in oth­
ers. If so, various market adjustments are like­
ly—increased evening and weekend office
hours (although total hours may be reduced),
reductions in earnings, and less intensive use of
dental assistants and dental hygienists, for ex­
ample. To build clientele, dentists are likely to
experiment with new ways of providing care
and may, for example, reach out to hitherto
underserved groups such as the elderly.
Fluoridation of community water supplies
and improved dental hygiene prevent tooth and
gum disorders and preserve teeth that might
otherwise be extracted. However, since the pre­
served teeth may need care in the future, these
measures may increase rather than decrease the
demand for dental care. There will continue to
be a need for dentists to teach in dental col­
leges, administer dental public health pro­
grams, and serve in the Armed Forces.
In a departure from the usual pattern, re­
placement needs create relatively few job open­
ings. This reflects the fact that dentists have a
distinctive employment pattern: Once having
completed their training and entered dental
practice, they tend to work continuously until
they reach retirement age. Some older dentists
reduce their hours of work because of ill health
or desire for leisure, but very few people leave
dentistry to take up other careers. A compara­
ble degree of occupational attachment is found
in only a few other occupations, notably among
other health practitioners, who, like dentists,
have a considerable investment in training.

During the first year or two of practice, dentists
often earn little more than the minimum needed
to cover expenses, but their earnings usually
rise rapidly as their practice develops. Spe­
cialists generally earn considerably more than
general practitioners. The average income of
dentists in 1982 was about $55,000 a year, ac­
cording to the limited information available. In

the Federal Government, new graduates of den­
tal schools could expect to start at $24,500 a
year in 1982. Experienced dentists working for
the Federal Government in 1982 averaged
$46,000; some earned as much as $57,500.
Location is one of the major factors affecting
the income of dentists who open their own
offices. For example, in high-income urban
areas, dental services are in great demand.
However, a practice can be developed most
quickly in small towns, where new dentists can
become known easily and where they may face
less competition from established practitioners.
Although income in small towns may rise
rapidly at first, over the long run the level of
earnings, like the cost of living, may be lower
than it is in larger communities.
Except for emergencies, dental work gener­
ally can be postponed. During periods of high
unemployment and economic hardship, there­
fore, dentists tend to experience a reduction in
the volume of work and lower earnings.

Related Occupations
Dentists examine, diagnose, and treat various
oral diseases and abnormalities. Others whose
work involves personal contact and requires a
long and rigorous period of scientific training
include psychologists, optometrists, physi­
cians, veterinarians, and podiatrists.

Sources of Additional Information
For information on dentistry as a career and a
list of accredited dental schools, contact:
American Dental Association, Council on Dental Ed­
ucation, 211 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.
American Association of Dental Schools, 1619 Mas­
sachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

The American Dental Association also will
furnish a list of State boards of dental exam­
iners. Persons interested in practicing dentistry
should obtain the requirements for licensure
from the board of dental examiners of the State
where they plan to work.

Half the people in the United States wear glass­
es or contact lenses. Optometrists (doctors of
optometry) provide most of the vision care
these people need. They examine people’s eyes
to diagnose vision problems and detect signs of
disease and other abnormal conditions. They
also test to insure that the patient has proper
depth and color perception and the ability to
focus and coordinate the eyes. When necessary,
they prescribe lenses and treatment. Where evi­
dence of disease is present, the optometrist re­
fers the patient to the appropriate health care
practitioner. Most optometrists supply the pre­
scribed eyeglasses and fit and adjust contact
lenses. Optometrists also prescribe vision
therapy or other treatment which does not re­
quire surgery. In 37 States optometrists may
utilize diagnostic drugs; in three of these States
they may also utilize drugs to treat eye diseases.
Although most optometrists are in general
practice, some specialize in work with the el­
derly or with children. Others work with par­
tially sighted persons, who use microscopic or
telescopic lenses. Still others concentrate on
contact lenses or vision therapy. Optometrists
teach, do research, consult, and serve on health
advisory committees of various kinds.
Optometrists should not be confused with
either ophthalmologists or dispensing opti­
cians. Ophthalmologists are physicians (doc­
tors of medicine or osteopathy) who specialize
in medical eye care, eye diseases, and injuries;
perform eye surgery; and prescribe drugs or
other eye treatment, as well as lenses. Dispens­
ing opticians fit and adjust eyeglasses according
to prescriptions written by ophthalmologists or
optometrists; they do not examine eyes or pre­
scribe treatment. (See statements on physicians
and dispensing opticians elsewhere in the
H a n d b o o k .)

Working Conditions
Optometrists work in places—usually their
own offices—that are clean, well lighted, and
comfortable. The work requires a lot of atten­
tion to detail. Because optometrists, like other
health practitioners, generally are self-em­
ployed, they have considerable flexibility in
setting their hours of work, and often continue
to practice after the normal retirement age.
Many independent practitioners work well over
40 hours a week, including time on Saturday
and in the evening.

Optometrists held about 28,000 jobs in 1982.
The number of jobs is greater than the number

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/115

Optometrists use sophisticated instruments to examine patients’ eyes.
of practicing optometrists because some op­
tometrists hold two jobs or maintain two of­
fices. For example, an optometrist may have a
full-time private practice and also work part
time in a vision-care center. More than 9 out of
10 optometrists worked full time. Although the
majority of optometrists are in solo practice, a
growing number are in partnership or group
practices. The trend toward partnership or
group practices, which is especially pro­
nounced among younger optometrists, is asso­
ciated with the high cost of setting up a solo
practice. For the same reason, some op­
tometrists work as salaried employees in the
offices of other optometrists.
Some optometrists work in health centers
and eye clinics or teach in schools of optometry.
Others work for the Veterans Administration,
health maintenance organizations, public and
private health agencies, and insurance com­
Some optometrists in private practice also act
as consultants to industrial safety programs,
insurance com panies, m anufacturers of
ophthalmic products, and others.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
All States and the District of Columbia require
that optometrists be licensed. Applicants for a
license must have a Doctor of Optometry de­
gree from an accredited optometric school or
college and pass a State board examination. In
some States, applicants can substitute the ex­
amination of the National Board of Examiners
in Optometry, given in the second, third, and
fourth years of optometric school, for part or all
of the written State examination. Some States
allow applicants to be licensed without lengthy
examination if they have a license in another

State. In 46 States, optometrists must earn con­
tinuing education credits in optometry to renew
their licenses.
The Doctor of Optometry degree requires a
minimum of 6 or 7 years of higher education
consisting of a 4-year professional degree pro­
gram preceded by at least 2 or 3 years of preoptometric study at an accredited university, col­
lege, or junior college. Most optometry
students enter with at least a bachelor’s degree.
In 1982, there were 13 schools and colleges of
optometry in the United States accredited by
the Council on Optometric Education of the
American Optometric Association; accredita­
tion was pending for 3 other schools. Require­
ments for admission to these schools usually

include courses in English, mathematics, phys­
ics, chemistry, and biology or zoology. Some
schools also require courses in psychology, so­
cial studies, literature, philosophy, and foreign
languages. All applicants must take the Op­
tometry College Admissions Test (OCAT).
Competition is keen for admission to optome­
try schools. Therefore, superior grades in preoptometric college courses may enhance one’s
chances for acceptance.
Because most optometrists are self-em­
ployed, business ability, self-discipline, and the
ability to deal with patients tactfully are neces­
sary for success.
Many beginning optometrists enter into as­
sociate practice with an optometrist or other
health professional. Others purchase an estab­
lished practice or set up a new practice. Some
take salaried positions to obtain experience and
the necessary funds to start their own practice.
Optometrists wishing to advance in a spe­
cialized field may study for a master’s or Ph.D.
degree in visual science, physiological optics,
neurophysiology, public health, health admin­
istration, health information and communica­
tion, or health education. One-year graduate
clinical residency programs also are available
in optometric specialties including family prac­
tice optometry, pediatric optometry, geriatric
optometry, low vision rehabilitation, vision
training, contact lenses, hospital-based op­
tometry, and primary care optometry. Op­
tometrists who enter the Armed Forces as ca­
reer officers have the opportunity to work to­
ward advanced degrees and to do research on
vision problems.

Job Outlook
Opportunities for optometrists through the
mid-1990’s will reflect employment growth that
is about average for all occupations, plus the
need to replace experienced optometrists who
leave the profession.
Replacement needs arise almost entirely
from retirements and deaths, for optometrists,

Optometrists account for about a third of patient visits for eye care.
Percent of eye care visits, 1979


Physicians other
than ophthalmologists
Other (mainly
SO URCE: N a tio n a l Cen ter for H ealth S t a tis tic s





116/Occupational Outlook Handbook
like other health practitioners, have a strong
attachment to their profession and generally
remain in practice until they stop working al­
together. Few transfer to other occupations. Be­
cause over a third of all active optometrists are
55 years of age or older, it is expected that a
large number of optometrists will retire during
the next decade.
Population growth and the aging of the popu­
lation are major factors contributing to antici­
pated growth in the occupation, although a shift
in optometrists’ share of the vision care market
could also affect demand. Visits to both op­
tometrists and ophthalmologists are substan­
tially higher for persons over the age of 45,
reflecting the onset of vision problems during
middle age and the increasing severity of these
problems in old age. Rising per capita income,
which permits people to pay for more frequent
doctor visits, and greater recognition of the
importance of good vision also should increase
demand for optometric services.
Health insurance coverage of optometric
services is growing. Today, 30 million Amer­
icans are covered under some sort of vision
benefit program. Broadening of health insur­
ance coverage to provide reimbursement for
eye care provided by optometrists is likely to
bring about a shift in current patterns of service
utilization, and a greater number of optometric
visits. (Most plans already pay for vision care
provided by ophthalmologists and other physi­
cians.) If consumers change their preference
for the type of provider, the relative positions of
optometrists and ophthalmologists in the vision
care market could change. Currently, op­
tometrists account for about one-third of patient
visits for eye care, as the accompanying chart

In 1982, net earnings of new optometry gradu­
ates in their first full year of practice averaged
about $24,000. Experienced optometrists aver­
aged about $50,000 annually. Optometrists
working for the Federal Government earned an
average of $34,800 a year in 1982. Incomes
vary greatly, depending upon location, spe­
cialization, and other factors. Optometrists
who start out by working on a salaried basis
tend to earn more money initially than op­
tometrists who set up their own solo practice.
However, in the long run, those with their own
private practice have the potential to earn more
than those employed by other optometrists,
hospitals, health agencies, retail stores, or
other firms.

Sources of Additional Information
For information on optometry as a career, write
American Optometric Association, Education and
Manpower Division, 243 North Lindbergh Blvd., St.
Louis, Mo. 63141.

Additional career information and a listing of
accredited optometric educational institutions
as well as required preoptometry courses can be
obtained from:
Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry,
Suite 410, 600 Maryland Ave. SW., Washington,
D.C. 20024.

The Board of Optometry in the capital of
each State can supply information on licensing
For information on admission requirements
and sources of financial aid, including Federal
loans and scholarships, contact individual op­
tometry schools.

(D.O.T. 070 and 071)

Working Conditions
Many physicians have long, irregular hours.
Most specialists work fewer hours each week
than general practitioners. As doctors approach
retirement age, they may accept fewer new pa­
tients and tend to work shorter hours. However,
many continue in practice well beyond 70 years
of age.

Nature of the Work
Physicians perform medical examinations, di­
agnose illnesses, and treat people who are suf­
fering from injury or disease. They also advise
patients on maintaining good health. There are
two types of physicians: the M.D.—Doctor of
Medicine—and the D.O.—Doctor of Osteopa­
thy. Despite differences in training and philoso­
phy of treatment, both M.D.’s and D.O.’s use all
accepted methods of treatment, including drugs
and surgery. Osteopathic physicians, however,
place special emphasis on the musculo-skeletal
system of the body—bones, muscles, liga­
ments, and nerves. One of the basic treatments
or therapies used by osteopathic physicians
centers on manipulating this system with the

Physicians held about 479,000 jobs in 1982.
Because young physicians in particular fre­
quently “moonlight,” the number of jobs ex­
ceeds the number of individuals who are in
practice—about 430,000 M.D.’s and 20,000
D.O.’s in 1982, according to the American Med­
ical Association and the American Osteopathic
About two-thirds of the M.D.’s had office
practices; about one-fourth worked as residents
or full-time staff members in hospitals. The
remaining M.D.’s taught or had primarily ad­
ministrative or research duties.
The Northeast has the highest ratio of physi­
cians to population; the South, the lowest.

Specialists outnumber general practitioners by 6 to 1.
Percent of physicians by specialty group, 1981
Other specialty:

Anesthesiology, etc.

Surgical specialty:

General surgery
Orthopedic surgery,

Related Occupations
Other occupations in which the main activity
consists of applying logical thinking and scien­
tific knowledge to prevent, diagnose, and treat
disease, disorders, or injuries in humans or
animals are chiropractors, dentists, osteopathic
physicians, physicians, podiatrists, and vet­

Physicians may be “family doctors” who en­
gage in general practice or they may specialize
in a particular field of medicine. Most D.O.’s
are general practitioners, providing primary
care; only about 11 percent are specialists. On
the other hand, about 85 percent of the M.D.’s
who provide patient care are specialists. (See
chart). The largest of the medical specialties for
which there is postgraduate training are internal
medicine, general surgery, obstetrics and
gynecology, psychiatry, pediatrics, radiology,
anesthesiology, ophthalmology, pathology, and
orthopedic surgery. The most rapidly growing
specialties are in the primary care area—family
practice, internal medicine, and pediatrics.
Some physicians combine the practice of
medicine with research or teaching in medical

Medical specialty:

Internal medicine
Pediatrics, etc.

SOURCE: A m e ric an M e d ic a l A s s o c ia t io n

General practice
and family practice

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/117
More than half of all D.O.’s practice in cities and
towns of fewer than 50,000 inhabitants.
M.D.’s, on the other hand, have tended to locate
in urban areas, close to hospital and educational
centers, so many rural areas have been under­
served. Currently, more medical students are
being exposed to practice in rural communities
with the direct support of educational centers
and hospitals in more populous areas. In addi­
tion, some rural areas offer physicians guaran­
teed minimum incomes to offset the relatively
low earnings typical in rural medical practice.
Osteopathic physicians are located chiefly in
those States that have osteopathic hospitals. In
1982, three-fifths of all D.O.’s were in Florida,
Michigan, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio,
Texas, and Missouri. Nineteen States and the
District of Columbia each had fewer than 50
osteopathic physicians in 1982.

framing and Other Qualifications
All States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto
Rico require physicians to be licensed. Licen­
sure requirements for both D.O.’s and M.D.’s
include a minimum of 8 years of postsecondary
education—graduation from an accredited pro­
fessional school, successful completion of a
licensing examination, and, in most States, 1 or
2 years of supervised practice in an accredited
graduate medical education program (internship/residency). The licensing examination
taken by most graduates of U.S. medical
schools is the National Board of Medical Exam­
iners (NBME) test that all States except Texas
and Louisiana accept.
Graduates of foreign medical schools gener­
ally begin practice in the United States after
completing a U.S. hospital residency training
program. To enter an approved residency, grad­
uates of foreign medical schools usually must
pass an examination administered by the Edu­
cational Commission for Foreign Medical
Graduates and be certified by that organization.
After one year of work in an approved residen­
cy, foreign medical graduates, as well as gradu­
ates of U.S. medical schools who have not
taken the NBME test, must take the Federation
Licensure Examination (FLEX) that all juris­
dictions accept. Although physicians licensed
in one State usually can get a license to practice
in another without further examination, some
States limit reciprocity.
Of the 127 accredited schools in the United
States in which students can begin study for the
M.D. degree, 126 award the degree of Doctor of
Medicine (M.D.). One school offers a 2-year
program in the basic medical sciences to stu­
dents who transfer to another medical school
for the last semesters of study. Fifteen schools
of osteopathic medicine award the degree of
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.).
The minimum educational requirement for
entry to a medical or osteopathic school is nor­
mally 3 years of college; some schools require 4
years. A few medical schools allow exceptional
students to begin their professional study after 2
years of college. Most students have at least a
bachelor’s degree, and many have advanced
Required premedical study includes under­
graduate work in English, physics, biology,

and inorganic and organic chemistry. Students
also should take courses in the humanities,
mathematics, and the social sciences to acquire
a broad general education. Studies have shown
that medical students with undergraduate ma­
jors in the humanities do as well in their medical
studies as those who major in the sciences or a
“premedical curriculum.”
Medicine is a popular field of study, and
applicants must compete for entry with highly
motivated students who generally have excelled
in preprofessional education. Factors consid­
ered by the schools in admitting students in­
clude their academic record and their scores on
the Medical College Admission Test, which
almost all applicants take. Consideration also is
given to the applicant’s character, personality,
and leadership qualities, as shown by personal
interviews, letters of recommendation, and ex­
tracurricular activities. Osteopathic colleges
give considerable weight to a favorable recom­
mendation by an osteopathic physican familiar
with the applicant’s background. Many Statesupported schools give preference to State resi­
dents and, sometimes, to residents of nearby
Students spend the first semesters of medical
school primarily in laboratories and classrooms

learning basic medical sciences such as anat­
omy, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology,
microbiology, and pathology. Additionally, stu­
dents gain some clinical experience with pa­
tients during the first 2.years of study, learning
to take case histories, perform examinations,
and recognize symptoms. During the last se­
mesters, students work under supervision in
hospitals and clinics to gain experience in the
diagnosis and treatment of illness.
After graduation, almost all M.D.’s complete
1or 2 years of graduate medical education (resi­
dency). Nearly all D.O.’s serve a 12-month ro­
tating internship (including experience in sur­
gery, pediatrics, internal medicine, and other
specialties.) Physicians seeking certification in
a specialty spend from 2 to 5 years—depending
on the specialty—in advanced residency train­
ing, followed by 2 or more years of practice in
the specialty. Then they must pass the specialty
board examinations. Physicians who want to
teach or do research may take graduate work
leading to a master’s or Ph.D. degree in a field
such as biochemistry or microbiology.
A physician’s training is very costly.
However, loans and scholarships are available
from the Federal Government, State and local
governments, and private sources. To receive
this aid,the student may have to demonstrate

A career in medicine requires years of rigorous and very costly training.

118/Occupational Outlook Handbook
financial need or agree to serve at least 3 years
in the Armed Forces upon graduation.
Persons who wish to become physicians
must have a strong desire to serve the sick and
injured. They must be self-motivated and com­
petitive to survive the pressures of premedical
and medical education and the demanding
workload during the intemship/residency that
follows medical school. They must study a
great deal to keep up with the latest advances in
medical science. Sincerity and a pleasant per­
sonality are helpful in gaining the confidence of
patients. Physicians should be emotionally sta­
ble and able to make decisions in emergencies.
In view of the variation in State laws, stu­
dents interested in becoming physicians should
study carefully the professional and legal re­
quirements of the State in which they plan to
practice. Those who have completed 1 year of
graduate medical education and enter active
military duty initially serve as captains in the
Army or Air Force or as lieutenants in the Navy.
Graduates also qualify for professional medical
positions in the Federal civil service.

needed for medical research and for the grow­
ing fields of public health, rehabilitation, indus­
trial medicine, and mental health.
Replacement needs in medicine and os­
teopathic medicine account for fewer job open­
ings than in most other occupations, because
physicians exhibit very strong attachment to
their work. Once having completed training
and entered medical practice, physicians tend
to remain in the labor force until they retire.
Moreover, relatively few leave medicine for
other careers.
Supply and demand are projected to be
roughly in balance through the mid-1990’s.
However, the increasingly abundant supply of
practitioners will create problems for some in­
dividuals and lead to surpuses in some lo­
calities. Medical school enrollments have in­
creased greatly since the mid-1960’s; the
sharpest rise occurred between 1965 and 1975.
While enrollment increases have moderated
since the mid-1970’s and little change is forseen
after the mid-1980’s, the number of people
completing training each year will be relatively
large. (See chart.)
Foreign-trained physicians (including U.S.
Job Outlook
citizens who completed their training abroad)
Job opportunities for physicians through the currently account for approximately one-sixth
mid-1990’s will reflect faster-than-average em­ of all newly licensed physicians and one-fifth of
ployment growth plus the need to replace expe­ all M.D.’s in practice. The Bureau of Health
rienced physicians who leave the medical pro­ Professions anticipates the supply of foreignfession.
trained physicians to grow more slowly through
Population growth and aging contribute to the mid-1990’s than in the past. Of new physi­
the need for more physicians. Especially rapid cians who enter practice each year through
growth is projected for the elderly population, 1995, approximately 1 in 10 will be a foreign
which makes much greater use of physicians’ medical graduate.
services than younger persons. Demand for
Competition for post-graduate residencies
medical care is greatly influenced by ability to will intensify since the number of first year
pay, and access to physicians’ services is wide­ residency positions will closely match the
spread as a result of broad health insurance number of graduates from U.S. medical
coverage—through private insurance, now a schools. Newly trained physicians are likely to
standard employee benefit, as well as through experience competition as they seek to launch a
public programs including Medicare and Medi­ practice. Those who are willing to locate in
caid. In addition, more physicians will be inner cities, rural areas, and other places where

Dramatic growth in the number of medical students has contributed
to the increasingly competitive outlook for physicians.
First-year enrollm ents (thousands)

doctors are not in oversupply should have little
Intensified competition due to substantial
growth in the supply of newly qualified M.D.’s
and D.O.’s is certain to affect physicians’ earn­
ings. It also will limit their choice of practice
location and specialty. Because of greater com­
petition for patients and changes currently un­
derway in the organization and financing of the
Nation’s health care, more physicians may
choose salaried positions. Fewer will go into
solo practice. Pressure to curtail the influx of
foreign medical graduates is likely to continue.

Stipends of medical school graduates serving as
residents in hospitals vary according to the type
of residency, geographic area, and size of the
hospital, but allowances of $19,000 to $22,000
a year are common. Many hospitals also
provide full or partial room and board and other
maintenance allowances to residents.
Graduates who had completed approved 3year residencies but had no other medical expe­
rience received a starting salary at Veterans’
Administration hospitals of about $46,800 a
year in 1983. In addition, those working full
time received up to $13,000 in other cash bene­
fits or “special” payments.
Newly qualified physicians who establish
their own practice must make a sizable financial
investment to equip a modern office. During the
first year or two of independent practice, physi­
cians probably earn little more than the mini­
mum needed to pay expenses. As a rule,
however, their earnings rise rapidly as practices
Physicians have among the highest average
annual earnings of any occupational group. Ac­
cording to information from the American
I Medical Association, physicians in family or
I general practice and pediatricians averaged just
over $70,000 in 1982. Anesthesiologists’ radi! ologists’, and surgeons’ average income were
i slightly more than $130,000. The average of all
physicians’ net incomes for 1982 was about
C$100,000. Earnings of physicians depend on
factors such as the region of the country; pa­
tients’ income; and the physician’s skill, per­
sonality, professional reputation, and experi­
ence. Self-employed physicians usually earn
more than those in salaried positions.

Related Occupations
Physicians work to prevent, diagnose, and treat
diseases, disorders, and injuries. Other occupa­
tions that require similar kinds of skill and crit­
ical judgment include audiologists, chiroprac­
tors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists, speech
pathologists, and veterinarians.

Sources of Additional Information
For a list of approved medical schools, as well
as general information on premedical educa­
tion, financial aid, and medicine as a career,









SO URCE: A s s o c ia t io n of A m e ric an M e d ic a l C o lle g e s ; A m e ric an O s te o p a th ic A s s o c ia t io n

Office of Related Health Professions, American Med­
ical Association, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago 111.

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/119
Association of American Medical Colleges, Suite
200, One Dupont Circle NW., Washington, D.C.
For general information on osteopathic medicine as a
career, contact:
American Osteopathic Association, Department of
Public Relations, 212 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111.
American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic
Medicine, 4720 Montgomery Lane, Bethesda, Md.

Information on Federal scholarships and
loans is available from the directors of student
financial aid at schools of medicine and os­
teopathic medicine. Information about Armed
Forces Health Professions Scholarships is avail­
able from any local military recruiting office.
Persons who wish to practice medicine or
osteopathic medicine in a particular State
should inquire about licensure requirements di­
rectly from the board of examiners of that State.

(D.O.T. 079.101-022)

Nature of the Work
Because we use them so often in walking, run­
ning, or just standing, we are constantly and
painfully aware when our feet hurt. A growing
number of foot sufferers visit a doctor of
podiatric medicine, or podiatrist, for relief.
Podiatrists diagnose and treat diseases and dis­
orders of the foot. They perform surgery; fit
corrective devices; and prescribe drugs, phys­
ical therapy, and proper shoes. To help in diag­
noses, they take X-rays and perform or pre­
scribe blood and other pathological tests.
Podiatrists treat a variety of foot conditions,
including corns, bunions, calluses, ingrown
toenails, skin and nail diseases, deformed toes,
and arch disabilities. Whenever podiatrists find
symptoms of a medical disorder affecting other
parts of the body—arthritis, diabetes, or heart

Podiatrists diagnose and treat foot problems.

disease, for example—they refer the patient to a
physician while continuing to treat the foot
More than 4 of every 5 podiatrists are gener­
alists who provide all types of food care.
However, some podiatrists specialize in foot
surgery, orthopedics (bone, muscle, and joint
disorders), podopediatrics (children’s foot ail­
ments), or podogeriatrics (foot problems of the
elderly). Regular vigorous exercise contributes
to physical health and emotional well-being,
and with the growing popularity of jogging,
tennis, racquetball, and other fast-moving
sports, the specialty of sports medicine is show­
ing rapid growth.

Working Conditions
Podiatrists usually work independently in their
own offices. They generally work 40 hours a
week, and they set their hours to suit their

Podiatrists held about 13,000 jobs in 1982.
While the majority of podiatrists are in private
p ractice, some are employed by other
podiatrists. Other podiatrists are employed by
hospitals, health maintenance organizations,
and podiatric medical colleges. The Veterans
Administration and public health departments
also employ some podiatrists.
Podiatrists work mainly in large cities.

framing, Other Qualifications, and
All States and the District of Columbia require a
license for the practice of podiatry. To qualify
for a license, an applicant must graduate from
an accredited college of podiatric medicine and
pass a written and oral examination. Eight
States—Arizona, California, Georgia, Michi­
gan, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, and
Virginia—require applicants to serve a 1-year
residency in a hospital or clinic following grad­
uation. Most of the States grant licenses with­
out further examination to podiatrists already
licensed by another State.
The six colleges of podiatric medicine are
located in California, Illinois, Iowa, New York,
Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Minimum entrance
requirements at these schools include 3 years of
undergraduate college work with courses in En­
glish, chemistry, biology or zoology, physics,
and mathematics. However, most entrants sur­
pass the minimum requirements. About 90 per­
cent of the class entering in 1982 held at least a
bachelor’s degree, and the average enrollee had
an overall grade point average of “B” or better.
All colleges of podiatric medicine require ap­
plicants to earn an acceptable score on the Med­
ical College Admissions Test.
Of the 4 years in podiatry school, the first 2
are spent in classroom instruction and laborato­
ry work in anatomy, bacteriology, chemistry,
pathology, physiology, pharmacology, and
other basic sciences. During the final 2 years,
students gain clinical experience while con­
tinuing their academic studies. The degree of
Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (D.P.M.) is
awarded to graduates. Additional education and
experience generally are necessary to practice

in a specialty. Federal, State, and private loans
are available for students to pursue full-time
study leading to a degree in podiatric medicine.
Persons planning a career in podiatry should
have scientific aptitude and manual dexterity,
and like detailed work. A good business sense
and congeniality also are assets as in any medi­
cal profession.
Most newly licensed podiatrists set up their
own practices. Some purchase established
practices, or take salaried positions to gain the
experience and money they need to begin their
own practices.

Job Outlook
Employment of podiatrists is expected to grow
much faster than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s as podiatry continues to
gain recognition as a health profession, causing
more people to turn to podiatrists for foot care.
Health insurance is not a barrier, for public and
private programs generally cover podiatry serv­
ices. Broader participation in fast-moving
sports that tend to aggravate foot disorders will
spur demand, as will the growing number of
older people, many of whom have foot prob­
In addition to opportunities created by rapid
growth in employment, many openings will
result from the need to replace podiatrists who
retire or stop working for other reasons. Oppor­
tunities for graduates to establish new prac­
tices, as well as to enter salaried positions,
should be favorable.

Newly licensed podiatrists build their practices
over a number of years. Income during the first
several years is usually low but generally rises
significantly as the practice grows. From the
limited information available, a net income of
about $70,000 a year is common for established
podiatrists. Newly licensed podiatrists hired by
Veterans Administration hospitals earned start­
ing salaries between $24,508 and $29,374 in
early 1983.

Related Occupations
Podiatrists work to prevent, diagnose, and treat
diseases, disorders, and injuries. Other occupa­
tions that require similar skills include au­
diologists, chiropractors, d en tists, op­
tometrists, osteopathic physicians, physicians,
speech pathologists, and veterinarians.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on license requirements in a par­
ticular State is available from that State’s board
of examiners.
Information on colleges of podiatric medi­
cine, entrance requirements, curriculums, and
student financial aid is available from:
American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medi­
cine, 20 Chevy Chase Circle NW., Washington, D.C.

For additional information on podiatry as a
career, contact:
American Podiatry Association, 20 Chevy Chase Cir­
cle NW., Washington, D.C. 20015.

120/Occupational Outlook Handbook
For information about financial assistance
programs administered by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Health and Human Services, write to:
Division of Student Assistance, Health Resources
and Services Administration, 5600 Fishers Lane,
Rockville, Md. 20857.

remainder are in a variety of practice spe­
cialties. Some veterinarians inspect food, in­
vestigate disease outbreaks, or work in labora­
tories as part of Federal and State public health
programs. Others teach in veterinary colleges,
work in zoos or animal laboratories, or engage
in medical research.

Working Conditions

(D.O.T. 073. except .361-010)

Nature of the Work
Think of a veterinary doctor and you will likely
imagine someone caring for pandas and ele­
phants at the zoo or treating the family poodle
for a case of “kennel cough.” But some vets
work with scientific research teams on such
projects as searching out new pharmaceuticals
to treat heart disease. They help prevent the
outbreak and spread of animal diseases, some
of which—like rabies—can be transmitted to
human beings. Veterinarians perform surgery
on sick and injured animals and prescribe and
administer medicines and vaccines.
Over one-third of all veterinarians treat small
animals or pets exclusively. Another one-third
treat both large and small animals. Almost 10
percent specialize in the health and breeding of
cattle, poultry, sheep, swine, or horses. The

Veterinarians usually treat pet animals in hospi­
tals and clinics. Those who specialize in large
animal practice usually work out of well
equipped mobile clinics and drive considerable
distances between farms and ranches to care for
their animal patients. Veterinarians are some­
times exposed to injury, disease, and infection.
Those in private practice often work long hours.
Veterinarians in rural areas may work outdoors
in all kinds of weather. Because they are selfemployed, veterinarians in private practice usu­
ally can continue working well beyond normal
retirement age.

Veterinarians held about 36,000 jobs in 1982.
Most were in private practice. The Federal Gov­
ernment employed about 2,300 veterinarians in
civilian jobs, chiefly in the U.S. Department of
Agriculture and the U.S. Public Health Serv­
ice. Other employers of veterinarians are State
and local governments, international health
agencies, colleges of veterinary medicine,

Recent graduates often start out by working in an established veterinary practice.

medical schools, research laboratories, live­
stock farms, animal food companies, and phar­
maceutical companies.
Veterinarians are located in all parts of the
country, and the type of practice generally var­
ies according to geographic setting. Vet­
erinarians in rural areas mainly treat farm ani­
mals; those in small towns usually engage in
general practice; those in cities and suburban
areas often limit their practice to pets.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
All States and the District of Columbia require
veterinarians to have a license. To obtain a
license, applicants must have a Doctor of Vet­
erinary Medicine (D.V.M. or V.M.D.) degree
from an accredited college of veterinary medi­
cine and pass written and—in most States—
oral State board proficiency examinations.
Some States issue licenses without further ex­
amination to veterinarians already licensed by
another State.
For veterinarians seeking positions in re­
search and teaching, an additional master’s or
Ph.D. degree usually is required or, in­
creasingly, specialty board certification in a
field such as pathology, physiology, toxicology,
or laboratory animal medicine. Veterinarians
who seek specialty board certification must
complete an approved residency program, pass
the board’s examination, and meet any other
board requirements.
The D.V.M. or V.M.D. degree requires a
minimum of 6 years of college consisting of a 4year professional degree program preceded by
at least 2 years of preveterinary study that em­
phasizes the physical and biological sciences.
Several veterinary medical colleges require 3
years of preveterinary work, and most suc­
cessful applicants have completed 4 years of
college. In addition to rigorous academic in­
struction, professional training includes con­
siderable practical experience in diagnosing
and treating animal diseases, performing sur­
gery, and performing laboratory work in anat­
omy, biochemistry, and other scientific and
medical subjects.
In 1983, 25 colleges of veterinary medicine
in the United States were accredited by the
Council on Education of the American Veterin­
ary Medical Association (AVMA). Admission
to these schools is highly competitive. Each
year there are many more qualified applicants
than the schools can accept. Serious applicants
usually need grades of “B” or better, especially
in science courses. Experience in part-time or
summer jobs working with animals is advan­
tageous. Colleges usually give preference to
residents of the State in which the college is
located, because these schools are largely State
supported. In the South and West, regional
educational plans permit cooperating States
without veterinary schools to send students to
designated regional schools. In other areas,
colleges that accept out-of-State students give
priority to applicants from nearby States that do
not have veterinary schools.
The Federal Government provides some
loans for students in schools of veterinary medi­
cine, subject to the availability of funds; service

Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/121
in an underserved area after graduation may
cancel the student’s obligation.
Most veterinarians begin as employees or
partners in established practices. Those who
can afford the substantial investment needed
for drugs, instruments, and other startup costs
may set up their own practices. An even greater
investment is needed to open an animal hospital
or purchase an established practice.
Newly trained veterinarians may qualify for
civilian jobs with the U.S. Government as meat
and poultry inspectors, disease-control work­
ers, epidemiologists, research assistants, or
commissioned officers in the U.S. Public
Health Service. A license is not required for
Federal employment.

Job Outlook
Employment of veterinarians is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s, primarily because of
growth in the companion animal (horses, dogs,
and other pets) population. Emphasis on scien­
tific methods of raising and breeding livestock
and poultry, and growth in public health and
disease control programs also will stimulate the
demand for veterinarians. In addition, many
new veterinarians will be needed each year to
replace those who retire or die.
Despite rapid growth in employment, newly
qualified veterinarians may face competition in

establishing a practice in some areas due to the
increasingly abundant supply of practitioners.
Veterinary school enrollments rose sharply in
the 1970’s, and the number of graduates is ex­
pected to remain at current levels for the fore­
seeable future. The expense of establishing a
practice has prompted more and more gradu­
ates to seek employment with established vet­
erinarians until they can finance their own prac­
tices. If this trend continues, competition for
salaried positions with existing veterinary prac­
tices will grow.
Opportunities are presently excellent for
those in some specialties such as food animal
practice, toxicology, and pathology, and de­
mand for specialists is expected to remain

According to limited data from the AVMA, the
average net income for private practice vet­
erinarians was about $45,000 in 1983; incomes
vary considerably, depending on factors such as
location, type of practice, and years of experi­
Newly graduated veterinarians employed by
the Federal Government started at $22,956 a
year in 1982. The average annual salary of vet­
erinarians in the Federal Government was
$37,000 in 1982.

Related Occupations
Veterinarians use their professional training to
prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases, disor­
ders, and injuries. Others who require similar
skills are audiologists, chiropractors, dentists,
optometrists, physicians, podiatrists, and
speech pathologists.

Sources of Additional Information
A pamphlet entitled Today’s Veterinarian pres­
ents information on veterinary medicine as a
career and lists accredited colleges of veterin­
ary medicine. A free copy may be obtained by
submitting a request, together with a self-ad­
dressed, stamped business-size envelope, to:
American Veterinary Medical Association, 930 N.
Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, 111. 60196.

Information on opportunities for vet­
erinarians in the U.S. Department of Agri­
culture is available from:
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Field
Service Office, Employment Services, Butler Square
West, 5th Floor, 100 N. 6th St., Minneapolis, Minn.
Food Safety and Quality Service, Personnel Divi­
sion, Butler Square West, 4th Floor, 100 N. 6th St.,
Minneapolis, Minn. 55043.

For information on scholarships, grants, and
loans, contact the financial aid officer at the
veterinary schools to which you wish to apply.

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians,
Therapists, and Physician Assistants
The health professionals described in this sec­
tion of the Handbook care for the sick, help the
disabled, and advise individuals and commu­
nities on ways of maintaining and improving
their health. Nursing is by far the largest of
these occupations. Registered nurses held more
than 1.3 million jobs in 1982. The other occupa­
tions described here vary in size from phar­
macists (about 151,000 jobs) to physician assis­
tants (22,000 jobs).
Registered nurses are an essential part of the
health team. They work primarily in hospitals,
where they provide direct patient care, assist in
surgery and diagnostic procedures, train and
supervise other members of the staff, organize
health education activities for patients and the
community, and handle administrative tasks. A
growing number work in long-term care facili­
ties such as nursing homes, rehabilitation cen­
ters, and mental hospitals. Some engage in
community health, industrial, or school nurs­
ing, while others work in clinics or physicians’
offices or do private duty nursing. With addi­
tional training and experience, registered
nurses may assume the responsibilities of nurse
practitioners, nurse midwives, or nurse anes­
thetists. In these expanded roles, nurses per­
form tasks that otherwise would be performed
by a physician.
Three principal kinds of nursing education
programs—diploma, associate degree, and
bachelor’s degree—prepare students for careers
as registered nurses. The differences should be
understood by the prospective nursing student.
However, all nursing education programs share
the goals of teaching nurses the scientific basis
of modem nursing practice, familiarizing them
with the latest treatment and rehabilitation tech­
niques, and equipping them to understand pa­
tients’ medical, social, and psychological
The relatively new occupation of physician
assistant (PA) involves direct patient care by
workers who are trained to perform many of the
more routine tasks normally carried out by a
physician. These include taking medical histo­
ries, doing routine examinations, and making
hospital rounds. Physician assistants work un­
der a physician, usually right in the office.
Some, however, practice in rural health clinics,
prisons, and other places where physicians are
not readily available. Training commonly lasts
2 years. Admission to PA training is highly
competitive, and most students already have a
background in one of the health professions.
Legal provisions permitting physician assis­
tants to practice are not uniform throughout the
country, in part because the occupation is so


Therapists use a variety of techniques to help
patients who are injured, disabled, or emo­
tionally disturbed to regain physical or emo­
tional independence. Physical therapists use
exercise and other treatments to help patients
increase strength, mobility, and coordination.
Occupational therapists teach skills of every­
day living, including vocational skills, to peo­
ple who are disabled or handicapped. Their
goal is to help patients adapt to their limitations
and learn to be as self-sufficient as possible.
Speech pathologists and audiologists work
with children and adults who have speech, lan­
guage, or hearing impairments. Rehabilitation
counselors, whose work is closely related to
that of therapists, are discussed in the Hand­
book statement on vocational and education
A number of other therapists aid in re­
habilitation. Orientation therapists for the
blind help newly blinded persons learn to move
about unassisted; to handle such everyday ac­
tivities as dressing, grooming, eating, and
using the telephone; and to communicate by
means of Braille, reading machines, or other
devices. Recreation therapists, also known as
therapeutic recreation workers, are -trained to
use sports, games, crafts, and hobbies as part of
the rehabilitation of ill, disabled, or handicap­
ped persons. (See the statement on recreation
workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Art,
dance, and music therapists help patients re­
solve physical, emotional, or social problems
through nonverbal means of communication.
Horticultural therapists use gardening for
therapeutic purposes—as a group activity for
persons with mental or emotional problems, for
example. A bachelor’s degree with a health
professions specialization is standard prepara­
tion for most therapy occupations. For some
jobs, a master’s degree is essential.
Dietitians and pharmacists also use special
skills and expertise to assist sick or disabled
persons, although they do not provide direct
patient care. Having completed college pro­
grams that include bacteriology, chemistry, and
other sciences, these workers draw on scientific
knowledge to devise therapeutic treatments or
give advice on the effects of diet or drugs. Both
fields offer opportunities to practice in a variety
of settings. Dietitians plan diets to meet the
nutritional needs of groups as diverse as hospi­
tal patients, school children, prisoners, and
hotel guests. Pharmacists generally work in
hospitals or community pharmacies where they
dispense drugs and medicines prescribed by
health practitioners. Like other health profes­
sionals, dietitians and pharmacists sometimes

teach or do consulting work in addition to their
primary job.
Pharmacists, physical therapists, and regis­
tered nurses must havp a license to practice.
Students considering one of these careers
should investigate the licensing requirements in
the State where they plan to work. Comple­
menting the occupational licensure laws is a
system of voluntary credentialing, in which
professional associations and other nongovern­
mental bodies attest to an individual’s compe­
tence through certification or registration.
Employment in these occupations is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s. Popula­
tion growth, especially the increase in the
number of older people, will spur demand for
health care. Since the number of persons age 75
and over is projected to rise very rapidly in the
years ahead, the need for a broad range of
health and social support services for older per­
sons will escalate. However, the availability of
public and private funds to pay for health care
will continue to determine which services are
actually in place.
Health insurance terms that prescribe which
services are reimbursable affect both the indus­
try and occupational “mix” of health sector
employment. Increased coverage for hospice
services, for example, would stimulate demand
for nurses, social workers, and pastoral coun­
selors in hospices, although volunteers provide
most hospice care. Similarly, measures to en­
courage greater use of nurse practitioners,
nurse midwives, and physician assistants
would spur employment in those occupations.
Currently, a broad-based effort to contain the
rate of increase in health care costs is underway.
Although the results of various cost con­
tainment strategies are difficult to predict, it is
clear that redesign of the financing system
could mean sweeping changes in the organiza­
tion and delivery of health care in the United
States. This could alter the rate of employment
growth and cause some occupations to diverge
from current projections. In addition to new
jobs created by future growth, many openings
will occur due to replacement needs.
Several other sections of the Handbook con­
tain statements on health careers. Check the
alphabetical index at the back to locate the state­
ments on health services administrators, dental
assistants, medical assistants, nursing aides,
orderlies, and attendants, dispensing opticians
and ophthalmic laboratory technicians, and
dental laboratory technicians.
Books and brochures on health careers are
available in libraries, counseling centers, and

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physicians Assistants/123
bookstores. The Sources of Additional Infor­
mation section at the end of each Handbook
statement identifies organizations that can
provide pamphlets, lists of accredited schools,
and sources of financial aid. For an overview of
jobs in the health field, including some jobs not
covered in Handbook, request a copy of “200
Ways to a Health Career” from:
National Health Council, 1740 Broadway, New York,
N.Y. 10019.

Another useful publication is the Health Ca­
reers Guidebook, fourth edition, published in
1979 by the U.S. Department of Labor and the
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare (now the Department of Health and
Human Services). It is available for $7.50 from:
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.

(D.O.T. 077 except .121-010)

Nature of the Work
Nutrition is the science of food and its effect on
the body. It is concerned with the nutrients in
food, their use in body chemistry, and—in the
final analysis—the relationship between diet
and health. Dietitians provide nutritional coun­
seling to individuals and groups; set up and
supervise food service systems for institutions
such as hospitals and schools; and promote
sound eating habits through education and re­
search. In this field, the term “nutritionist” ap­
plies to a number of different health profession­
als involved with food science and human
nutrition. Among these are dietitians, food
technologists, and home economists.
Among dietitians, major areas of specializa­
tion include administration, education, re­
search, and clinical and community dietetics.
Administrative dietitians apply the principles
of nutrition and sound management to largescale meal planning and preparation, such as
that done in hospitals, prisons, company caf­
eterias, schools, and other institutions. They
supervise the planning, preparation, and serv­
ice of meals; select, train, and direct food serv­
ice supervisors and workers; budget for and
purchase food, equipment, and supplies; en­
force sanitary and safety regulations; and pre­
pare records and reports. Dietitians who are
directors of dietetic departments also decide on
departmental policy; coordinate dietetic serv­
ices with the activities of other departments;
and are responsible for the dietetic department
budget, which in large organizations may
amount to millions of dollars annually.
Clinical dietitians, sometimes called
therapeutic dietitians, assess nutritional needs,
develop and implement nutrition care plans,
and evaluate and report the results in hospitals,
nursing homes, or clinics. Clinical dietitians
confer with doctors and other members of the
health care team about patients’ nutritional
care, instruct patients and their families on the
requirements and importance of their diets, and

suggest ways to maintain these diets after leav­
ing the hospital or clinic. In a small institution,
a dietitian may perform both administrative and
clinical duties.
Community dietitians or nutritionists may
counsel individuals and groups on sound nutri­
tion practices to prevent disease, maintain
health, and rehabilitate persons recovering
from illness. They may engage in teaching and
research with a community health focus. This
work covers areas such as special diets, meal
planning and preparation, and food budgeting
and purchasing. Dietitians or nutritionists in
this field usually are associated with communi­
ty health programs; they may be responsible for
planning, developing, coordinating, and ad­
ministering a nutrition program or a nutrition
component within the community health pro­
gram. They work mainly for public and private
health and social service agencies, including
“meals-on-wheels” programs, congregate
meals for older Americans, and nutritional pro­
grams for women with infants and young chil­
Research dietitians seek ways to improve the
nutrition of both healthy and sick people. They
may study nutrition science and education,
food management, food service systems and
equipment, or how the body uses food. Other
research projects may investigate the nutri­
tional needs of the aging, persons who have
chronic diseases, or space travelers. Research
dietitians need advanced training in this field
and usually are employed in medical centers or
educational facilities, or they may work in com­
munity health programs.

Working Conditions
Although most dietitians work 40 hours a week,
dietitians in hospitals may sometimes work on

weekends, and those in commercial food serv­
ices have somewhat irregular hours. Dietitians
spend much of their time in clean, well-lighted,
and well-ventilated areas, such as research lab­
oratories, classrooms, or offices near food
preparation areas. However, they do spend time
in kitchens and serving areas that often are hot
and steamy. Dietitians working in hospital and
clinical settings may have to be on their feet a
lot; those involved in consulting spend a signifi­
cant amount of time traveling.

Dietitians held about 44,000 jobs in 1982.
Health care facilities, including hospitals, nurs­
ing homes, and clinics, are major employers of
dietitians, accounting for nearly 60 percent of
the jobs in 1982. Colleges, universities, and
school systems provide approximately 10 per­
cent of all jobs, and another 10 percent are in
child care or residential care facilities. Other
jobs are found in a variety of settings, including
prison systems, hotel and restaurant chains, and
business firms that provide food service for
their employees.
Many dietitians work as consultants, either
full time or part time. In addition to serving on
the staff of a hospital, for example, a dietitian
may be a consultant for another health care
facility. Nursing homes use consultants to
provide much of their dietitic supervision.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A bachelor’s degree with a major in foods and
nutrition or institution management is the basic
educational requirement for dietitians. This de­
gree can be earned in about 240 colleges and
universities, usually in departments of home

Health care facilities are major em ployers of dietitians.

124/Occupational Outlook Handbook
economics and food and nutrition sciences. Re­
quired college courses include food and nutri­
tion, institution management, chemistry, bac­
teriology, and physiology. Other important
courses are mathematics, statistics, computer
science, psychology, sociology, and econom­
ics. It is also possible to prepare for this profes­
sion by receiving an advanced degree in nutri­
tion, food service management, or related
sciences and providing evidence of qualifying
work experience.
To qualify for professional credentials as a
Registered Dietitian (R.D.), the American Di­
etetic Association (ADA) recommends com­
pletion of an approved dietetic internship or a
coordinated undergraduate program or 3 years
of approved qualified experience plus a bach­
elor’s degree or 6 months of approved qualified
experience plus an advanced degree. The
internship lasts 6 to 12 months and combines
clinical experience under a qualified dietitian
with some classroom work. In 1982, 100 in­
ternship programs were accredited by the
ADA. A growing number of coordinated under­
graduate programs have been developed that
enable students to complete their clinical expe­
rience requirement while obtaining their bach­
elor’s degree. In 1982, 67 such programs were
offered by medical schools and by departments
of allied health and home economics in colleges
and universities. These programs are ac­
credited by the ADA.
Experienced dietitians may advance to assis­
tant or associate director or director of a dietetic
department. Advancement to higher level posi­
tions in teaching and research requires graduate
education; public health nutritionists usually
must earn a graduate degree. Graduate study in
institutional or business administration is valu­
able to those interested in administrative di­
etetics. Many dietitians have acquired ad­
vanced degrees in related areas.
Persons who plan to become dietitians
should have organizational and administrative
ability as well as scientific aptitude, and should
be able to work well with people. Among the
courses recommended for high school students
interested in careers as dietitians are home eco­
nomics, business administration, biology,
health, mathematics, and chemistry.

Job Outlook
Employment of dietitians is expected to grow
faster than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s to meet the expanding
needs of hospitals and long-term care facilities.
Most job openings, however, will result from
the need to replace experienced dietitians who
stop working or transfer to other occupations. A
growing number of experienced dietitians are
moving into management positions in private
industry, for example.
The factors that underlie future growth in
demand for health services— population
growth and aging, emphasis on health educa­
tion and promotion of prudent lifestyles, and
widespread ability to pay for care through pub­
lic and private health insurance—also will spur
demand for dietitians. In addition, dietitians
will be needed in other settings, such as cater­
ing firms and restaurant chains. Dietitians also

will be needed to staff community health pro­
grams and to conduct research in food and
Staffing flexibility can be facilitated by using
full-time and part-time dietitians. For this rea­
son, opportunities for part-time employment
should remain favorable.
To help meet the demand for dietetic serv­
ices, nursing homes are using (under the super­
vision of registered dietitians) dietetic assis­
tants trained in vocational-technical schools
and dietetic technicians trained in ADA-ap­
proved programs in community colleges. Em­
ployment opportunities should continue to be
favorable for graduates of these programs.

Entry level salaries of hospital dietitians aver­
aged $17,880 a year in 1982, according to a
national survey conducted by the University of
Texas Medical Branch. Some experienced hos­
pital dietitians received as much as $41,832 a
The starting salary in the Federal Govern­
ment for those with a bachelor’s degree was
about $13,369 in 1982. The average Federal
salary for dietitians was about $24,781 in 1982.
Dietitians usually receive benefits such as
paid vacations, sick leave, holidays, health in­
surance, and retirement benefits.

Related Occupations
Dietitians apply the principles of nutrition in a
variety of situations. Other workers with sim­
ilar duties include food and home economists,
executive chefs, and food service managers.

Sources of Additional Information
For information on accredited dietetic inter­
nship and coordinated undergraduate pro­
grams, scholarships, registration, and a list of
colleges providing training for a professional
career in dietetics, contact:
The American Dietetic Association, 430 North Mich­
igan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.

The U.S. Office of Personnel Management,
Washington, D.C. 20415, has information on
hiring requirements for dietitians in Federal
hospitals and for public health nutritionists and
dietitians in the U.S. Public Health Service.

(D.O.T. 076.121-010)

Nature of the Work
Occupational therapists provide services to
people who are mentally, physically, or emo­
tionally disabled. By providing specific ac­
tivities and adaptive equipment, occupational
therapists help these people learn skills to live
independent, productive, and satisfying lives.
These activities are designed to prepare patients
to return to work, develop or restore basic func­
tions, and aid in adjustment to disabilities.

Like other health professionals, occupational
therapists usually work as a member of a medi­
cal team, which may include a physician, phys­
ical therapist, clinical psychologist, rehabilita­
tion counselor, social worker, and others. Team
members evaluate the patient in terms of their
individual specialties and consult with each
other to arrive at an overall evaluation of the
patient’s capacities, skills, and abilities. To­
gether they develop short- and long-term goals
and the means by which they may be achieved.
Various activities are used as therapy tools.
When working with children, occupational
therapists use toys and games to teach a variety
of skills. With other patients, occupational
therapists use activities of daily living skills,
such as meal preparation, bathing, and dressing
in clinic areas set up as kitchens and bathrooms.
W oodw orking, leath erw o rk , or o th er
therapeutic activities may increase motor skills,
strength, endurance, concentration, and
Often the loss of function causes the inability
to care for oneself. Occupational therapists
provide adaptive equipment such as wheel­
chairs, splints, and aids for eating and dressing.
They may design and make special equipment
for disabled patients and recommend changes
in the home or work environment to facilitate
functioning. In the treatment of individuals
with em otional problem s, occupational
therapists provide individual and group ac­
tivities to help people learn self-care and to
manage their work and leisure more efficiently.
These activities may include crafts that require
planning and time management skills, budget­
ing, shopping, meal preparation and homemak­
ing, self-care, and using ■community resources
such as public transportation and service agen­
Although they are not necessarily expert in
all these activities, occupational therapists
must know enough about them to understand
their therapeutic values and to set them into
Occupational therapists tend to work with
certain disability and age groups. For instance,
approxim ately 3 out of 5 occupational
therapists work principally with persons who
have physical disabilities; the rest work with
patients who have psychological or emotional
problems or developmental deficits. Some
work only with children and young adults; oth­
ers work exclusively with the elderly.
Besides working with patients, occupational
therapists supervise student therapists, occupa­
tional therapy assistants, volunteers, and aux­
iliary nursing workers. The chief occupational
therapist in a hospital may teach medical and
nursing students the principles of occupational
therapy. Many therapists supervise occupa­
tional therapy departments, coordinate patient
activities, or are consultants to public health
departments and mental health agencies. Some
teach in colleges and universities.

Working Conditions
Although occupational therapists generally
work a standard 40-hour week, they may occa­
sionally have to work evenings or weekends.
Their work environment varies according to the

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physicians Assistants/125
setting and available facilities. In a large re­
habilitation center, for example, the therapist
may work in a spacious room equipped with
machines, handtools, and other devices that
often generate noise. In a nursing home, the
therapist may work in a kitchen when using
food preparation as therapy. In a hospital,
therapists may work directly on the ward with
patients. Wherever they work and whatever
equipment they use, they generally have ade­
quate lighting and ventilation. The job can be
physically tiring because therapists are on their
feet much of the time.

Occupational therapists held about 25,000 jobs
in 1982. The largest number of jobs were in
hospitals, including rehabilitation and psychi­
atric hospitals. (See chart.) Employment of oc­
cupational therapists in school systems rose
sharply in response to requirements established
by the Education for All Handicapped Children
Act of 1975. Today, a substantial number of
therapists work in school systems and schools
for handicapped children. Other major employ­
ers include nursing homes, home health agen­
cies, community mental health centers, adult
day care programs, outpatient clinics, and resi­
dential care facilities.
A growing number of occupational therapists
are in private practice. They see patients in their
own offices, in patients’ homes, or in hospitals,
nursing homes, adult day care programs, and
other institutions that purchase occupational
therapy services on a contract basis.
Many work part time.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Preparation for this field requires a bachelor’s
degree in occupational therapy. Twenty-one
States and the District of Columbia require a
license to practice occupational therapy. Appli­
cants for licensure must have a degree or certifi­
cate from an accredited educational program,
successfully complete 6 months of supervised
field work and pass the State licensure examina­
Certification is available by examination
through the American Occupational Therapy
Association, which awards the title of regis­
tered occupational therapist (OTR) to qualified
In 1982, accredited programs in occupational
therapy were offered by 56 colleges and univer­
sities. Fifty-four of these schools offer a bach­
elor’s degree program; some have a 2-year pro­
gram for students who have completed the first
2 years of college. A number of schools offer a
certificate or master’s degree in occupational
therapy for students who have a bachelor’s de­
gree in another field. A graduate degree often is
required for teaching, research, or admin­
istrative positions.
Coursework in occupational therapy pro­
grams includes physical, biological, and be­
havioral sciences and the application of occupa­
tional therapy theory and skills. These pro­
grams also require students to work for 6 to 9
months in hospitals, health agencies, or schools
to gain experience in clinical practice.

Job prospects are excellent in occupational therapy.
Entry to educational programs is highly com­
petitive and applicants are screened carefully.
Persons considering this profession should have
above-average academic performance and
grades of “B” or better in biology, chemistry,
and other high school science courses. In addi­
tion to biology and chemistry, high school stu­
dents interested in a career as an occupational

therapist are advised to take courses in health,
art, and the social sciences. In choosing among
applicants, many educational programs weigh
heavily any previous job experience in a health
care setting. College students who consider
transferring from another academic discipline
to an occupational therapy program in their
sophomore or junior year need superior grades

Occupational therapists practice in a variety of settings.
Percent employed by work setting, 1982



Home health
Nursing homes
School systems
NOTE: Excludes teachers
SOURCE: American Occupational Therapy Association




126/Occupational Outlook Handbook
because competition for entrance to programs
is more intense after the freshman year.
Persons considering this career must be able
to work with people of all kinds and all ages,
with temperaments and personalities that are
likely to be as varied as patient illnesses and
handicaps. To gain patients’ confidence, it is
necessary to have a warm, friendly personality
that inspires both trust and respect. In addition
to these qualities, it is also necessary to have
ingenuity and imagination in adapting activities
to individual needs. The potential therapist also
needs to be skilled, patient, and resourceful in
teaching, since patients often present unusual
and difficult learning problems.
Newly graduated occupational therapists
generally begin as staff therapists. Advance­
ment is chiefly to supervisory or administrative
positions; some therapists pursue advanced ed­
ucation to teach and/or conduct research.

Job Outlook
Employment in this occupation is expected to
increase much faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s due to an­
ticipated rapid growth in rehabilitation pro­
grams. The number of people who will need
rehabilitation services will rise sharply. Sub­
stantial growth is expected for the population
age 75 and above, an age group that suffers a
relatively high incidence of disabling condi­
tions. Furthermore, advances in medical tech­
nology will save young lives that only a few
years ago would have been lost: Children with
severe birth defects, for example, and accident
victims—many of whom are teenagers and
young adults. Medical advances such as these
heighten the need for rehabilitative care.
As existing programs expand and new ones
are established, therapists will be needed to
staff hospital rehabilitation departments, nurs­
ing homes and other long-term care facilities,
clinics, psychiatric hospitals, programs in
schools for children with developmental and
learning disabilities, and home health pro­
Job prospects in occupational therapy
are expected to be excellent through the
mid-1990’s. Enrollments in occupational
therapy programs have leveled off, and barring
a sudden shift in enrollment patterns, the
number of graduates is projected to fall short of
job openings due to employment growth and
replacement needs.

Beginning salaries for occupational therapists
in hospitals averaged about $17,500 a year in
1982, according to a national survey conducted
by the University of Texas Medical Branch.
Most experienced occupational therapists
earned between $19,500 and $23,700; some
administrators earned as much as $34,000.
In 1982, starting salaries for therapists em­
ployed by the Federal Government, most of
whom worked for the Veterans Administration,
were about $15,000 a year. The average salary
paid occupational therapists with the Federal
Government was about $23,300 in 1982.

Related Occupations
Occupational therapists use specialized knowl­
edge to help patients return to their normal
activities and generally aid them to achieve
maximum independence. Other workers per­
forming similar duties include orthotists, pros­
thetists, physical therapists, speech pa­
thologists and audiologists, rehabilitation
counselors, therapeutic recreation workers, art
therapists, music therapists, and dance

Sources of Additional Information
For more information on occupational therapy
as a career, and for certification requirements,
write to:
American Occupational Therapy Association. 1383
Piccard Dr., Rockville, Md. 20850.

(D.O.T. 074.161-010)

Nature of the Work
Pharmacists dispense drugs and medicines pre­
scribed by doctors and dentists. They also sup­
ply information and advise people on the use of
prescription medicines and medicines that can
be obtained without prescriptions. Pharmacists
must understand the use, composition, and
effect of drugs and how they are tested for
purity and strength. They may maintain patient
medication profiles and advise physicians on
the proper selection and use of medicines.
Compounding—the actual mixing of ingre­
dients to form powders, tablets, capsules, oint­
ments, and solutions—is now only a small part
of a pharmacist’s practice, since most medi­
cines are produced by manufacturers in the
dosage and form used by the patient.
Pharmacists employed in community phar­
macies may have other duties. Besides dispens­
ing medicines, some pharmacists buy and sell
nonpharmaceutical merchandise, hire and su­
pervise personnel, and oversee the general op­
eration of the pharmacy. Other pharmacists,
however, practice in prescription pharmacies
that dispense only medicines, medical sup­
plies, and health accessories. Increasingly
community pharmacists also give advice about
and sell home health care products.
Pharmacists in hospitals and clinics dispense
inpatient and outpatient prescriptions and ad­
vise the medical staff on the selection and
effects of drugs; they also make sterile solu­
tions, buy medical supplies, teach in schools of
nursing and allied health professions, and per­
form administrative duties. In addition, phar­
macists work as consultants to the medical team
in matters related to daily patient care in hospi­
tals, nursing homes, and other health care facil­

Working Conditions
Pharmacists usually work in a clean, well-light­
ed, and well-ventilated area that resembles a
small laboratory. Shelves are lined with hun­
dreds of different drug products. In addition,

some items are refrigerated and all controlled
substances (narcotics, depressants, and stim­
ulants) are kept under lock and key. Many phar­
macists use computers to assist in the filing and
recording of prescriptions. Pharmacists spend a
lot of time on their feet.

Pharmacists held about 151,000 jobs in 1982.
Between 20 and 25 percent of all pharmacists
own their own businesses; the others hold sal­
aried positions. As the accompanying chart
shows, most pharmacists work in community
pharmacies—independently-owned or part of a
chain. The rest work for hospitals, phar­
maceutical manufacturers, wholesalers, and
government and educational institutions. Phar­
macy services in nursing homes generally are
provided on a consultant or contract basis rather
than by staff pharmacists.
Pharmacists employed by the Federal Gov­
ernment work chiefly in hospitals and clinics of
the Veterans Administration and the U.S. Pub­
lic Health Service. Other Federal agencies that
employ pharmacists—for their drug knowl­
edge, as well as to dispense drugs—include the
Department of Defense, the Food and Drug
Administration and other branches of the De­
partment of Health and Human Services, and
the Drug Enforcement Administration. State
and local health agencies and pharmaceutical
and other professional associations also employ
Some pharmacists hold more than one job.
They may work a standard week in their pri­
mary work setting and work several hours a
week in a secondary setting, as a consultant to a
nursing home or clinic, for example. Pharmacy
also offers opportunities for part-time employ­
ment. Community as well as hospital phar­
macies often remain open in the evenings and
on weekends, and all States require a licensed
pharmacist to be in attendance during pharmacy
hours. Self-employed pharmacists usually
work more hours per week than those in sal­
aried positions because of the additional re­
sponsibility of managing a business.
Most towns have at least one pharmacy with
one pharmacist or more in attendance. Most
pharmacists, however, practice in or near cities
and in those States that have the largest popula­

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A license to practice pharmacy is required in all
States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto
Rico. To obtain a license, one must graduate
from an accredited pharmacy program (a few
States allow graduation from foreign pharmacy
programs), pass a State board examination,
and—in all States—have a specified amount of
practical experience or serve an internship un­
der the supervision of a licensed pharmacist.
Internships generally are served in a communi­
ty or hospital pharmacy. In 1982, all States
except California, Florida, and Hawaii granted
a license without reexamination to qualified
pharmacists already licensed by another State.
Many pharmacists are licensed to practice in
more than one State.

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physicians Assistants/127

Pharmacists must pay close attention when filling prescriptions.
At least 5 years of study beyond high school
are required to graduate from programs ac­
credited by the American Council on Phar­
maceutical Education in the 72 colleges of phar­
macy. Five years are needed to obtain a
Bachelor of Science (B.S.) or a Bachelor of
Pharmacy (B.Pharm.) degree, the degrees re­
ceived by most graduates. Depending on a stu­
dent’s educational background, 6 or 7 years are
required for a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.)
degree. Most pharmacy schools offer the bac­
calaureate degree, and almost one-half also of­
fer the professional doctorate degree; five
schools offer only the latter. The Pharm.D. de­
gree as well as the B.S. and B.Pharm. degrees
may serve as the entry degree for licensure as a
Admission requirements vary. A few col­
leges admit students directly from high school.
Most colleges of pharmacy, however, require
entrants to have completed 1 or 2 years of pre­
pharmacy education in an accredited junior col­
lege, college, or university. A prepharmacy
curriculum usually emphasizes mathematics
and basic sciences, such as chemistry, biology,
and physics, but also includes courses in the
humanities, social sciences, and business ad­
ministration. Because entry requirements vary
among colleges of pharmacy, prepharmacy stu­
dents should acquaint themselves with the re­
quirements of the school they wish to attend.
The bachelor’s degree in pharmacy is the
minimum educational qualification for most
positions in the profession. An increasing
number of students are enrolled in advanced
professional programs leading to the Pharm.D.
degree. A master’s or Ph.D. degree in phar­
macy or a related field usually is required for
research work, and a Pharm.D., master’s, or
Ph.D. usually is necessary for administrative
work or college teaching. Although a number
of pharmacy graduates interested in further

training pursue an advanced degree in phar­
macy, there are other options. Some enter med­
ical, dental, or law school, and others pursue
graduate degrees in related disciplines.
Areas of special study include pharmaceutics
and pharmaceutical chemistry (physical and
chemical properties of drugs and dosage
forms), pharmacology (effects of drugs on the
body), pharmacognosy (drugs derived from
plant or animal sources), hospital pharmacy,
clinical pharmacy, and pharmacy administra­
tion. Clinical pharmacy is the synthesis of basic
and pharmaceutical science education and the
application of this knowledge to drug manage­
ment problems in the care of patients. Courses
in pharmacy administration are particularly
helpful to pharmacists who become executives
or managers.

All colleges of pharmacy offer courses in
pharmacy practice, designed to teach students
the skills involved in compounding and dis­
pensing prescriptions, and to strengthen their
understanding of professional ethics and re­
sponsibilities. In many cases, professional
training increasingly emphasizes direct patient
care as well as consultative services to other
health professionals.
Drug manufacturers, chain drugstores, cor­
porations, State and national pharmacy associa­
tions, colleges of pharmacy, and other organi­
zations award scholarships annually to students
studying full time toward a degree in pharmacy.
Many pharmacists are self-employed. Pro­
spective pharmacists interested in this type of
practice should have business sense and the
ability to gain the confidence of clients. Hon­
esty, integrity, orderliness, and accuracy are
important attributes.
Pharmacists often begin as employees in
community pharmacies. After they gain experi­
ence and secure the necessary capital, they may
become owners or part owners of pharmacies.
A pharmacist with experience in a chain drug­
store may advance to a managerial position,
and later to a higher executive position within
the company. Hospital pharmacists who have
the necessary training and experience may ad­
vance to director of pharmacy service or to
other administrative positions. Pharmacists in
industry often have opportunities for advance­
ment in management, sales, research, quality
control, advertising, production, packaging,
and other areas.
Some individuals put their pharmaceutical
training to work in related fields. For example,
pharmacists are hired as sales or medical serv­
ice representatives by drug manufacturers and
wholesalers. They sell medicines to communi­
ty pharmacies and to hospitals and inform
health personnel about new drugs. Some teach
in colleges of pharmacy, supervise the man­
ufacture of pharmaceuticals, or are involved in

128/Occupational Outlook Handbook
research and the development of new medi­
cines. Pharmacists also edit or write technical
articles for pharmaceutical journals. Some
combine pharmaceutical and legal training in
jobs as patent lawyers or consultants on phar­
maceutical and drug laws.

Job Outlook
Employment of pharmacists is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s, and the overall job
outlook is favorable. However, in some lo­
calities, particularly large metropolitan areas,
there appear to be imbalances leading to inten­
sified competition, a situation that may con­
As in most other occupations, the majority of
job openings will result from the need to re­
place pharmacists who leave the profession. In
pharmacy, this generally means retirement, for
pharmacists, like physicians and dentists, tend
to remain in the field until they retire. Rela­
tively few transfer to other lines of work.
Demand for pharmacists will be stimulated
by population growth and the aging of the popu­
lation, which will cause pharmacies to open or
expand in regions experiencing growth and in
places where concentrations of older people are
developing. Employment of pharmacists is ex­
pected to rise more rapidly in hospitals than in
community pharmacies. The projected increase
in the elderly population is especially impor­
tant, for the number of prescriptions influences
demand for pharmacists, and the elderly are
relatively heavy users of medicine and drugs.
Other factors likely to spur demand for phar­
macists through the mid-1990’s include scien­
tific advances that have made a wider range of
drug products available for preventive and
therapeutic uses and the widespread availability
of health insurance, which generally pays for
prescription drugs.

Salaries of pharmacists are generally influenced
by the location, size, and type of employer, as
well as the duties and responsibilities of the
position. Median annual earnings of full-time,
salaried pharmacists were about $24,100 in
1982; the middle 50 percent earned between
$19,100 and $28,300. Ten percent earned less
than $14,100 and 10 percent more than $31,100.
According to a survey by Drug Topics maga­
zine, pharmacists working in chain drugstores
in 1982 had an average base salary of $27,651
per year, while pharmacists working in inde­
pendent drugstores averaged $25,275. In gen­
eral, the highest salaries were paid on the West
The average starting salary for pharmacists
working in hospitals, medical schools, and
medical centers was about $22,800 a year in
1982, according to a national survey conducted
by the University of Texas Medical Branch;
experienced pharmacists in these workplaces
averaged about $29,700 a year. Pharmacists
who do consulting work in addition to their
primary job may have total earnings consider­
ably higher than this. Experienced phar­
macists, particularly owners or managers of
pharmacies, often earn considerably more.

The minimum entrance salary in the Federal
Government for a new graduate with a bach­
elor’s degree from an approved pharmacy de­
gree program was about $16,600 a year in 1982.
However, most graduates qualified for a begin­
ning salary of about $20,300 a year; those with
2 years of graduate work, about $24,500 a year.
Pharmacists with additional years of experience
may start at a higher salary. The average salary
for all federally employed pharmacists was
about $27,100 in 1982.
According to a survey conducted by the
American Association of Colleges of Phar­
macy, average annual salaries of full-time per­
sonnel in colleges of pharmacy during 1982
were as follows: Deans, about $57,000; assis­
tant and associate deans, about $44,000; full
professors, around $44,200; associate pro­
fessors, around $35,000; and assistant pro­
fessors, about $28,300.
With the proliferation of chain drugstores
and the increasing difficulty of owning a phar­
macy, some pharmacists have joined unions.
The main unions organizing pharmacists are
the United Food and Commercial Workers In­
ternational Union and District 1199, an affiliate
of the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store

Related Occupations
Pharmacists fill the prescriptions of physicians,
dentists, and other health practitioners and are
responsible for selecting, compounding, dis­
pensing, and preserving drugs and medicines.
Workers in other professions requiring similar
educational training and who work with phar­
maceutical compounds or perform related du­
ties include pharmaceutical bacteriologists,
p h arm aceu tical ch em ists, and p h ar­

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on pharmacy as a ca­
reer, preprofessional and professional require­
ments, programs offered by colleges of phar­
macy, and student financial aid is available
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 4630
Montgomery Ave., Suite 201, Bethesda, Md. 20814.

General information on pharmacy is avail­
able from:
American Pharmaceutical Association, 2215 Consti­
tution Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20037.

General information on independent retail
pharmacies is available from:
National Association of Retail Druggists, 205
Daingerfield Road, Alexandria, Va. 22314.

For a list of accredited colleges of pharmacy,
American Council on Pharmaceutical Education, 311
West Superior St., Chicago, 111. 60610.

Information on requirements for licensure in
a particular State is available from the Board of
Pharmacy of the State or from:
National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, One
East Wacker Dr., Suite 2210, Chicago, 111. 60601.

Information on college entrance require­
ments, curriculums, and financial aid is avail­
able from the dean of any college of pharmacy.

Physical Therapists
(D.O.T. 076.121-014)

Nature of the Work
Physical therapists plan and administer treat­
ment in order to restore bodily functions, re­
lieve pain, and prevent or limit permanent
disability to those suffering from a disabling
injury or disease. Their patients include acci­
dent victims, handicapped children, and stroke
victims. Physical therapy also is used in the
treatment of multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy,
nerve injuries, amputations, fractures, and ar­
Initially, physical therapists review and eval­
uate the patient’s condition and medical rec­
ords, perform tests or measurements, and inter­
pret the findings. Then they develop a treatment
plan in cooperation with the patient’s physi­
cian. The goal is to help patients attain max­
imum muscle strength and motor skills but, at
the same time, accept and adjust to the limiting
effects of their disabilities. Patients often are
suffering emotional as well as physical stress,
and treatment requires sensitivity in addition to
technical proficiency on the part of the
Since treatments may be prolonged, the full
cooperation of the patient is very important. As
a first step, therefore, physical therapists famil­
iarize themselves with patients’ personal back­
grounds, as well as with their medical histories,
and make an effort to gain their trust and con­
fidence. The therapist-patient relationship can
be highly important in determining the effec­
tiveness of the treatment.
Therapeutic procedures include exercise for
increasing strength, endurance, coordination,
and range of motion; electrical stimulation to
activate paralyzed muscles; instruction in car­
rying out everyday activities and in the use of
helping devices; and the application of mas­
sage, heat, cold, light, water, or electricity to
relieve pain or improve the condition of mus­
cles and skin. To carry out these procedures,
therapists must have detailed knowledge of
human anatomy and physiology and know what
steps may be taken to correct disease and injury.
Treatment can be more effective and pro­
gress faster if patients and their families under­
stand the purpose and plan and know just how
they can help. Physical therapy services include
instructing patients and their families in how to
carry on prescribed treatment programs at
home. They may need specific instruction in the
techniques of muscle contraction and relaxation
or in the care and use of braces or prosthetic
appliances. Physical therapists may personally
conduct the treatment program or supervise a
program conducted by a physical therapist as­
Physical therapists usually perform their
own evaluations of patients. In some hospitals

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physicians Assistants/129
and nursing homes, however, the director or
assistant director of the physical therapy de­
partment may handle this work, which requires
extensive training and experience. Therapists
may treat patients with a wide variety of prob­
lems, or they may specialize in pediatrics, geri­
atrics, orthopedics, sports medicine, neu­
rology, or cardiopulmonary diseases.

Working Conditions
Physical therapists generally work in pleasant
surroundings. Evening and weekend hours may
be required, especially for those in private prac­
tice who must be available at times convenient
for their patients. The job can be physically
exhausting. In addition to standing for long
periods, therapists must move equipment and
help patients turn, stand, or walk.

Physical therapists held more than 43,000 jobs
in 1982. Many jobs are part time, and, indeed,
one-fifth of all therapists hold a part-time job.
About 2 out of 5 jobs for physical therapists
are in hospitals. Many jobs are in nursing
homes—either staff positions or contract serv­
ices provided by consulting firms or indepen­
dent practitioners. Therapists also work in re­
habilitation centers, schools and residential
facilities for handicapped children, home
health agencies, outpatient clinics, and physi­
cians’ offices.
As the accompanying chart shows, a sub­
stantial number of physical therapists are in
solo or group practice, normally treating clients
referred to them by physicians. In a few States,
physical therapists treat clients who come di­
rectly to them without first being referred by a
Some therapists teach, conduct research, or
serve as consultants.

neuroanatomy, and neurophysiology; it also in­
cludes specialized courses such as bio­
mechanics of motion, human growth and de­
velopment, manifestations of disease and
trauma, and courses in specific therapeutic pro­
cedures. Besides receiving classroom instruc­
tion, students get supervised clinical experi­
ence administering physical therapy to patients
in hospitals and other treatment centers.
Competition for entry to physical therapy
programs is keen. Consequently, students se­
riously interested in attending a physical
therapy program must attain superior grades in
their earlier studies, especially in science
courses. High school courses that are useful
include health, biology, chemistry, social sci­
ence, mathematics, and physics.
Personal traits that physical therapists need
include patience, tact, resourcefulness, and
emotional stability to help patients and their
families understand the treatments and adjust to
their handicaps. Physical therapists also should
have manual dexterity and physical stamina.
Many persons who want to determine whether
they have the personal qualities needed for this
occupation volunteer for summer or part-time
work in the physical therapy department of a
hospital or clinic. Indeed, such experience is

required for admission to some education pro­
grams .
A graduate degree combined with clinical
experience increases opportunities for advance­
ment, especially to teaching, research, and ad­
ministrative positions.

Job Outlook
Employment of physical therapists is expected
to grow much faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s because of
anticipated rapid growth in rehabilitation serv­
ices. Many additional openings will result from
replacement needs.
Most new positions for physical therapists
will result from the expansion of programs to
aid disabled persons—a diverse and growing
population. The aging of the population will
spur demand, for the number of people who
need therapy will increase sharply: Very rapid
growth is projected for the population age 75
and above, a group that suffers a relatively high
incidence of disabling conditions. However, the
degree to which population growth is translated
into additional jobs for physical therapists will
depend upon other factors as well, including the
extent to which health care providers encourage

Training, Other Qualifications, and
All States, the District of Columbia, and the
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico require a license
to practice physical therapy. Applicants must
have a degree or certificate from an accredited
physical therapy educational program and pass
a State licensure examination.
Three different types of programs provide
educational preparation for entry level jobs in
this field: Bachelor’s degree programs in phys­
ical therapy; certificate (or second bachelor’s
degree) programs for those who already hold a
bachelor’s in another field, such as biology; and
entry level master’s degree programs in phys­
ical therapy.
In 1983, entry level training was offered in 84
bachelor’s degree programs, 6 certificate pro­
grams, and 10 master’s degree programs. One
of the master’s degree programs is sponsored
jointly by the U.S. Army and Baylor Univer­
sity; graduates are commissioned as officers in
the Army. In addition, 25 master’s degree pro­
grams and 7 doctoral degree programs offered
advanced training for physical therapists.
The physical therapy curriculum includes
science courses such as anatomy, physiology,

The aging of the population contributes to the growing demand for physical therapists.

130/Occupational Outlook Handbook

Physical therapists practice in a variety of settings.
Percent employed by work setting, 1982






Offices of therapists/
Rehabilitation centers
Nursing homes

Working Conditions

Home health agencies
School systems
SOURCE: American Physical Therapy Association

this level of care for elderly patients, and the
availability of funds to pay for it.
Only part of the increasing number of per­
sons requiring rehabilitation services will stem
from the aging of the population. Young per­
sons, too, need physical therapy. Advances in
medical technology have saved lives that only a
few years ago would have been lost: Children
with severe birth defects, for example, and car
crash victims, many of whom are teenagers and
young adults. Future biomedical developments
are certain to permit even more people to sur­
vive traumas that in the past would have been
fatal, thereby creating a need for rehabilitative
Job prospects in physical therapy should be
very good through the mid-1990’s. New gradu­
ates are in great demand, and the number of
people completing training programs is ex­
pected to fall short of that needed to fill job
openings. Total enrollments in accredited phys­
ical therapy programs have remained relatively
stable since the mid-1970’s. If program comple­
tions remain at current levels and demand for
rehabilitation services continues to increase,
prospects for jobseekers should become even
more favorable than they are today.

Related Occupations


The occupation of physician assistant (PA)
came into being during the 1960’s, when physi­
cians were in short supply. Additional educa­
tion enabled medical corpsmen trained during
the Vietnam conflict as well as some nurses and
others with patient-care experience to relieve
physicians of many essential but time-consum­
ing tasks. PA’s interview patients, take medical
histories, perform physical examinations, order
laboratory tests, make tentative diagnoses, and
prescribe appropriate treatments. Studies show
they have the ability to care for 8 out of 10
people who visit a family practitioner’s office in
any one day. PA’s, however, always work under
the direction of a licensed “supervising physi­

Starting salaries in hospitals for new physical
therapy graduates averaged about $18,000 a
year in 1982, according to a national survey
conducted by the University of Texas Medical
Branch. A 1982 survey conducted by the Amer­
ican Physical Therapy Association disclosed
that the average earnings for all salaried phys­
ical therapists was $23,000 and some earned
more than $35,000 a year.
Beginning therapists employed by the
Federal Government earned starting salaries of
$15,000 a year in 1982. The average salary paid
therapists was about $23,700 annually; super­
visory therapists may earn more than $33,000.

Alternative titles sometimes used by these
workers are MEDEX, physician associate, and
community health medic. Some PA’s assist
physicians in such specialty areas as pediatrics
or surgery. They perform routine procedures
such as physical exam inations, provide
postoperative care, and assist during compli­
cated medical procedures such as cardiac
catheterizations. These specialist PA’s include
child health associates, orthopedic physician
assistants, urologic physician assistants, sur­
geon assistants, and emergency room physi­
cian assistants.

Physical therapists are concemed.with the treat­
ment and rehabilitation of persons with phys­
ical or mental disabilities or disorders. They
may use exercise, massage, heat, water, elec­
tricity, and various therapeutic devices to help
their patients gain independence. Others who
do sim ilar work include occupational
therapists, speech pathologists and au­
diologists, orthotists, prosthetists, and respira­
tory therapists.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on a career as a physical
therapist and a list of accredited educational
programs in physical therapy are available
American Physical Therapy Association, 1111 North
Fairfax St., Alexandria, Va. 22314.

Physician Assistants
(D.O.T. 079.364-018)

Nature of the Work

Physician assistants work in the same places as
physicians. Hospitals, clinics, and physicians’
offices usually provide a comfortable, welllighted environment, although PA’s must often
stand for long periods and do considerable
The workweek and schedule vary according
to the setting. Some emergency room PA’s
work 24-hour shifts twice weekly, and others
work three 12-hour shifts each week. The work­
week of PA’s who work in physicians’ offices
may include some night office hours or early
morning hospital rounds to visit patients. PA’s
in clinics usually work a 5-day, 40-hour week.

Physician assistants held about 22,000 jobs in
1982. They most commonly work for physi­
cians in private practice. However, hospitals
employ an increasing proportion of PA’s—now
about 25 percent. A small but growing number
work for health maintenance organizations,
other prepaid health plans, or clinics.
Despite efforts to encourage physicians to
practice where they are needed most, many
rural areas and inner cities remain underserved.
Almost 20 percent of all Americans live in
counties with a population of less than 50,000,
yet only 8 percent of all active physicians prac­
tice in these areas. The 45 percent of all PA’s
who practice there provide badly needed health
care service.
Although most PA’s in medically under­
served areas are associated with physicians in
private practice, some work in clinics, where a
physician may be available just 1 or 2 days each
week. For the rest of the week, a PA working
with one or more nurses, technicians, or medi­
cal assistants provides all health care services.
PA’s in these clinics usually have quick tele­
phone access to a physician for consultation,
but: experience has shown that normally few
consultations are needed. The Rural Health
Clinics Service Act of 1977 helped promote this
type of practice by making reimbursement by
Medicare easier; currently, over 10 percent of
all PA’s practice in one of these clinics.

TVaining, Other Qualifications, and
In the early years of the occupation, informal
training was not uncommon, but today, nearly
all States require that new PA’s complete an
approved program. Approximately 15,000 PA’s
had completed such training programs by 1982.
Fifty-four educational programs for primary

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physicians Assistants/131
Individuals planning a career as a physician
assistant should be conscientious and willing to
study a great deal throughout their career to
keep up with medical advances. They should
exhibit leadership, self-confidence, and emo­
tional stability. A pleasant personality, pa­
tience, and the ability to deal with all kinds of
people are essential.
Formal lines of advancement have not
evolved within this young profession. There are
no head PA’s in hospitals or nursing homes as
there are head nurses; by the very nature of the
profession, individual PA’s are supervised by
physicians. Since a supervising physician
shares responsibility for the quality of care ren­
dered by the PA, this relationship must be a
close one.
Some PA’s advance after additional educa­
tion to practice in a specialty area such as emer­
gency medicine; others advance with experi­
ence to added responsibilities and higher
earnings although earnings generally level off
within 7 or 8 years after graduation.

A physician assistant monitors emergency medical treatment on the way to the hospital.
care physician assistants and 3 programs for
surgeon assistants were approved by the Com­
mittee on Allied Health Education and Ac­
creditation (CAHEA) of the American Medical
Admission requirements vary, but 2 years of
coursework at the college level in science or one
of the health professions is usually the mini­
mum requirement. Most applicants, in fact,
hold a bachelor’s or higher degree.
A background in one of the health profes­
sions is an important qualification for entry to
these highly-competive programs. Most pro­
grams prefer applicants with clinical experi­
ence in jobs ranging from medical technologist
to registered nurse, and nearly all PA students
have such a background.
Educational programs are generally 2 years
in length, although some are longer and a few
are shorter. Most PA programs are located in
medical schools, schools of allied health, or 4year colleges; a few are located in community
colleges or are hospital based. Regardless of the
institutional sponsorship, most accredited PA
programs have clinical teaching affiliations
with medical schools or medical school faculty.
PA education begins with a classroom or
didactic phase that lasts 6 to 24 months. Class­
room instruction includes human anatomy,
physiology, microbiology, clinical phar­
macology, applied psychology, clinical medi­
cine, and medical ethics, During the program’s
last 9 to 15 months, students do supervised
clinical work designed to develop practitioners’
skills. Clinical training begins with a series of
clinical practice assignments or rotations.
These rotations include family practice, inpa­
tient and ambulatory medicine, general sur­
gery, obstetrics and gynecology, emergency
medicine, internal medicine, psychiatry, and
pediatrics. Sometimes, one or more of the rota­
tions are served under the “preceptorship” or
supervision of a physician who is seeking to

hire a PA. This learning experience often leads
to a permanent position.
The number of PA programs that award a
bachelor’s degree has been growing, and cur­
rently about two-thirds of the programs do so.
Most of the remaining programs offer a certifi­
cate and/or associate degree; one offers an M.S.
MEDEX programs, which last about 18
months, are slightly shorter than other PA pro­
grams. MEDEX programs are designed for
people who have had extensive, direct patient
care experience, usually in roles such as medi­
cal corpsman or registered nurse. This back­
ground allows for a shorter period of classroom
training and increased emphasis on clinical ex­
perience. MEDEX students usually gain most
of their supervised clinical experience working
with the physician who will hire them upon
Postgraduate education for PA’s, termed the
“PA residency” , is a recent development. Resi­
dency programs, as yet unaccredited, are avail­
able in emergency medicine, general surgery,
neonatology, and occupational medicine.
State laws and regulations govern the use of
the title “physician assistant” and the scope of
PA practice in all but a few States. Most States
require that PA’s be graduates of accredited
educational programs and 35 States require that
PA’s be certified by the National Commission
on Certification of Physician Assistants, Inc.
(NCCPA). NCCPA certification attests to
clinical competence; in 1982, about 12,000
PA’s had gained certification.
The PA’s scope of practice—the duties he or
she may perform—is determined in some
States by the supervising physician and in oth­
ers by the State’s regulatory agency. There is
considerable variation among State laws and
regulations and changes commonly occur. As­
piring PA’s should investigate the laws and reg­
ulations where they wish to practice.

Job Outlook
Job opportunities for PA’s through the
mid-1990’s are expected to reflect average em­
ployment growth as well as the need to replace
experienced PA’s who leave the profession.
The occupation, though still small, has expe­
rienced extraordinary growth: The number of
formally trained PA’s was fewer than 100 in
1970. Hospitals are hiring PA’s to replace resi­
dent physicians and foreign medical graduates,
as fewer foreign graduates enter the country and
the number of surgical residency programs is
reduced. Moreover, follow-up data reveal that
nearly all newly trained PA’s find work. New
graduates may have to accept jobs in medically
underserved areas, but they do not view this as a
hardship. Most PA students report a preference
to practice in a small city or town.
Long-term prospects for PA’s are difficult to
assess, largely because of unresolved issues in
health policy. Restrictions on reimbursement
for the services of PA’s is one of the most
important questions clouding the profession’s
future. Studies have established that substitut­
ing PA’s for some physicians can lower costs
without reducing the quality of care. However,
the majority of health insurance programs—
including Medicare and Medicaid—do not gen­
erally provide reimbursement for services per­
formed solely by a PA. This uncertainty regard­
ing payment makes some hospitals and physi­
cians reluctant to hire PA’s.
Another unsettling factor is the diversity of
State laws that regulate the kinds of services
PA’s may perform. In some States, they have
the authority to make medical decisions and
prescribe treatment without the immediate su­
pervision of a physician. In others, they are
allowed to practice only where a licensed physi­
cian is present. Most States restrict the number
of drugs a PA can prescribe and some States
prohibit PA’s from writing prescriptions al­
together. Furthermore, laws regarding PA prac­
tice are under review in some States, where
proposals to expand their scope of practice have
aroused the opposition of other health
providers. Employers may be reluctant to hire
PA’s without knowing what rules will govern
their use in coming years.

132/Occupational Outlook Handbook
The now-plentiful supply of physicians also
affects prospects for PA’s. In the early 1960’s,
the Federal Government took steps to expand
the number of graduates from U.S. medical
schools. As a result, medical school enroll­
ments doubled between 1965 and 1980, and the
number of physicians in practice has risen
sharply. Barring a major surge in demand for
medical services, the increasingly abundant
supply of physicians is expected to lower pa­
tient loads for physicians and possibly decrease
the demand for PA’s in urban areas.
Some developments could heighten rather
than curtail demand for PA’s. More doctors are
locating in medically underserved areas, which
could open up additional employment oppor­
tunities for PA’s. Current emphasis on cost con­
tainment may increase the number of health
maintenance organizations (HMO’s) and other
kinds of prepaid health plans. Such plans,
which provide complete health care services to
members for a set annual charge, employ physican assistants, nurse-midwives, and nurse
practitioners in place of some physicians. Be­
cause the plan collects payment directly from
the client, the reimbursement problem does not
arise. A greater role for HMO’s in the delivery
of health care is just one of a number of possible
consequences of the effort to bring health care
spending under control. The overall effect
would undoubtedly be increased demand for
PA’s and other physician-extenders.
The aging of the population could also
favorably affect employment of PA’s. Com­
pared to younger people, the elderly visit physi­
cians more often, spend more money on medi­
cine and drugs, and spend much more time in
hospitals. Resolution of the reimbursement is­
sue could lead to greater employment of PA’s by
nursing homes and home health agencies that
serve the elderly.
Also affecting the outlook for PA’s are en­
rollments in PA training programs. In recent
years, enrollments have leveled off. If enroll­
ments remain stable while demand for PA’s
continues to grow, job opportunities for these
workers should be even more favorable.

Sources of Additional Information
For more information about the profession,
send for the brochure, Physician Assistant,
available free from:
American Academy of Physician Assistants, 1117
North 19th St., Suite 300, Arlington, Va. 22209.

Information on individual PA training pro­
grams also is available from:
Association of Physician Assistant Programs, 1117
North 19th St., Suite 300, Arlington, Va. 22209.

The 1983-84 edition of the Association’s
publication entitled Profile lists educational
programs and describes each program’s ac­
creditation status, admission procedures and
requirements, and cost. Information on cer­
tification requirements is also given. Profile
may be ordered from the Association for $10
For eligibility requirements and a description
of the Physician Assistant National Certifying
Examination write to:
National Commission on Certification of Physician
Assistants, Inc., 3384 Peachtree Rd. NE., Suite 560,
Atlanta, Ga. 30326.

Information regarding certification for
orthopedic physician assistants is available
National Board for Certification of Orthopedic Physi­
cian Assistants, 304 East 45th St., 11th Floor, New
York, N.Y. 10017.

For information regarding training and cer­
tification of urologic physician assistants,
American Board of Urologic Allied Health Profes­
sionals, Inc., 6845 Lake Shore Dr., P.O. Box 9397,
Raytown, Mo. 64133.

Registered Nurses
(D.O.T. 075.121-010, .124-010 and -014, .127-010, -014,
-018, -022, -026, and -030, .137-010, .264-010 and -014,
.371-010, .374-010, -014, -018, and -022)

Related Occupations
Other health workers who provide patient care
that requires a similar level of skill and training
include nurse practitioners, physical therapists,
and occupational therapists.

Working Conditions
Nurses generally work indoors in well-lighted,
comfortable buildings. Community health
nurses may be required to travel to patients in
all types of weather. Although most nursing
tasks are not strenuous, nurses need physical
stamina because they spend considerable time
walking and standing. Emotional stability is
required to cope with human suffering and fre­
quent emergencies. Because patients in hospi­
tals and nursing homes require care at all times,
staff nurses in these institutions may have to
work nights, weekends, and holidays.


In 1982, physician assistants starting work in
hospitals and medical centers averaged about
$20,500, according to a national survey con­
ducted by the University of Texas Medical
Branch. Typically, the highest pay for PA’s in
these settings was about $26,000, although
some earned as much as $37,000.
The average salary of PA’s in all settings was
about $22,000 in 1982. PA’s in health mainte­
nance organizations, hospitals, and physicians’
offices earn slightly more than those in clinics.
Veterans Administration hospitals started
PA’s at about $18,339 a year in 1982. Average
earnings for all PA’s employed in VA hospitals
were about $24,800 in 1982. The highest paid
Federal PA’s earned $30,500.

surgery; others care for children, the elderly, or
the mentally ill.
Registered nurses working in nursing homes
provide bedside nursing care to patients con­
valescing from surgery or an illness, and to
those suffering from chronic illnesses and dis­
abilities. They also supervise licensed practical
nurses and nursing aides.
Private duty nurses give individual care to
patients who need constant attention. They may
work in a home, a hospital, or a convalescent
Community health nurses care for patients in
clinics, homes, schools, and other community
settings. They instruct patients and families in
health care and give periodic care as prescribed
by a physician. They also may instruct com­
munity groups in proper diet and arrange for
immunizations. These nurses work with com­
munity leaders, teachers, parents, and physi­
cians in community health education. Some
community health nurses work in schools.
Office nurses assist physicians, dental sur­
geons, and, occasionally, dentists in private
practice or clinics. Sometimes they perform
routine laboratory and office work in addition to
their nursing duties.
Occupational health or industrial nurses
provide nursing care to employees in industry
and government and, along with physicians,
promote employee health. As prescribed by a
doctor, they treat minor injuries and illnesses at
work, provide needed nursing care, arrange for
further medical care if necessary, and offer
health counseling. They also may assist with
health examinations and inoculations.

Nature of the Work
Registered nurses (R.N.’s) perform a wide vari­
ety of health care functions. They observe, as­
sess, and record symptoms, reactions, and
progress of patients; administer medications;
assist in the rehabilitation of patients; instruct
patients and family members in proper health
maintenance care; and help maintain a physical
and emotional environment that promotes re­
covery. Some R.N.’s administer community
health programs, conduct research, or teach.
The work setting usually determines the scope
of the nurse’s responsibilities.
Hospital nurses constitute by far the largest
group of nurses. Most are staff nurses who
provide skilled bedside nursing care and carry
out the medical regimen prescribed by physi­
cians. They may also supervise licensed prac­
tical nurses, aides, and orderlies. Hospital
nurses usually work with groups of patients
who require similar nursing care. For instance,
some nurses work with patients who have had

Registered nurses held about 1,312,000 jobs in
1982. Two out of three jobs were in hospitals,
and the rest were in a variety of settings: Nurs­
ing homes, community health agencies, physi­
cians’ offices, student health programs, schools
of nursing, occupational health, private duty
nursing, and solo and group practice.
The following tabulation shows the distribu­
tion of employed nurses in 1980, using data
from the National Sample Survey of Registered
Nurses (in percents):
Total ................................................
H ospitals..................................................
Nursing homes or long-term care facili­
ties .......................................................
Public or community health facilities .
Physicians’ or dentists’ offices ...........
Student health services ........................
Occupational health facilities .............
Private duty nursing...............................
O ther.........................................................


Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/133

A hospital nurse monitors the patient’s condition.
Between one-fourth and one-third of all nurs­
ing jobs are part time.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
To obtain the license to practice that is required
by all States and the District of Columbia,
nurses must graduate from an approved school
of nursing and pass a national examination ad­
ministered by each State. Nurses may be li­
censed in more than one State, either by exam­
ination or endorsement of a license issued by
another State.
In 1982, about 1,455 nurse training programs
were offered in the United States. In addition,
142 master’s degree and 24 doctoral degree
programs provided advanced education in nurs­
Nursing training programs vary in length
from 2 to 5 years after graduation from high
school, depending on the nature of the pro­
gram. Programs offered by community and
junior colleges take about 2 years and lead to an
associate degree; hospital-based programs last
2-3 years and lead to a diploma; college and
university programs require 4 or 5 years and
lead to a baccalaureate degree.
There is considerable controversy about the
relative merits of the various nurse training pro­
grams. Some employers have specific prefer­
ences, but, with few exceptions, graduates of
all these programs qualify for entry level staff
nurse positions after passing the licensing ex­
Individuals considering a career in nursing
should bear in mind that the kind of program
they choose—associate, diploma, or bachelor’s
degree—will affect their future opportunities.
For supervisory or administrative positions, for
jobs in public health agencies, and for admis­
sion to graduate nursing programs, for exam­
ple, a bachelor’s degree in nursing is necessary.

Those considering research, consulting, teach­
ing, or a clinical specialization also should start
their nursing education in a bachelor’s pro­
Some R.N.’s trained in diploma or associate
degree programs subsequently enter bac­
calaureate degree programs to prepare for a
broader scope of nursing practice, but this can
be a costly and time-consuming way of securing
baccalaureate level preparation.
All nurse training programs include class­
room instruction and supervised nursing prac­
tice in hospitals and other health facilities. Stu­
dents take courses in anatomy, physiology,
microbiology, nutrition, psychology, and nurs­
ing. They also get supervised clinical experi­
ence in the care of patients who have different
types of health problems. Students in bachelor’s
degree programs as well as in some of the other
programs are assigned to community agencies
to learn how to care for patients in clinics and in
patients’ homes. Varying amounts of general
education are combined with nursing education
in all three types of programs.
From staff positions in hospitals, experi­
enced nurses may be promoted to the position
of head nurse, assistant director, and eventually,
director of nursing services.
For nurses who prefer close contact with
patients, career advancement may mean be­
coming a clinical nurse specialist, nurse practi­
tioner, nurse clinician, or nurse anesthetist.
Graduate level preparation is necessary to reach
these positions, all of which are distinguished
by the ability to exercise a high degree of inde­
pendent judgment in assessing nursing prob­
lems and determining priorities of care. Train­
ing is offered in hospitals and universities,
normally lasts 1-2 years, and leads to a certifi­
cate or master’s degree. Applicants must be
R.N.’s and many programs require up to 2 years
of nursing experience in a relevant specialty.

Nurse anesthetists complete a certificate pro­
gram allowing them to administer anesthesia
under the direction of a physician. Nurse practi­
tioners and nurse midwives have graduate level
training in diagnostic and health assessment
skills that enables them to perform certain du­
ties normally performed by a physician.
Clinical nurse specialists and nurse clinicians
have expertise in a clinical area such as pedi­
atrics or gerontology/geriatrics which usually is
obtained through completion of a master’s de­
gree program.
Both clinical specialists and nurse practi­
tioners can seek certification of their advanced
status in nursing. The American Nurses’ Asso­
ciation grants certification to those who meet
requirements for advanced training and experi­
ence and pass the certification examination.
Persons who want to pursue a nursing career
should have a sincere desire to serve humanity
and be sympathetic to the needs of others.
Nurses must be able to accept responsibility
and direct or supervise the activity of others;
they must have initiative, and in appropriate
situations be able to follow orders precisely or
determine if additional consultation is required;
and they must use good judgment in emergen­

Job Outlook
Employment of registered nurses is expected to
rise faster than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s in response to the health
care needs of a growing and aging population.
As in most other occupations, replacement
needs will be the main source of jobs, even
though R.N.’s show a strong attachment to their
field. Compared to workers in other occupa­
tions requiring a similar amount of training,
R.N.’s are less likely to transfer to another oc­
cupation. Persons who stop working as regis­
tered nurses tend to stop working altogether, at
least for a while; most resume homemaking
responsibilities. Licensed R.N.’s not currently
in the field augment the supply of approx­
imately 75,000-80,000 individuals who com­
plete nursing education programs every year.
The rapidly growing demand for registered
nurses is in part a function of their training,
which permits them to work effectively in a
wide variety of roles and employment settings.
Registered nurses’ technical skills make them
more versatile than licensed practical nurses
and nursing aides, for example. In hospitals,
the growth of intensive-care and special care
units for seriously ill patients has spurred de­
mand for clinically specialized nursing person­
nel, and this trend in favor of nursing personnel
with higher levels of formal preparation is cer­
tain to continue with the widespread applica­
tion of sophisticated medical technologies.
Efforts to hold down health care costs are
likely to produce organizational changes in the
delivery of health care, including shifts in staff­
ing patterns in hospitals and nursing homes.
Although these changes and their consequences
are a matter of conjecture, R.N.’s probably will
be affected favorably. For example, R.N.’s are
well suited for work in the rapidly emerging
“alternative” delivery systems such as health

134/Occupational Outlook Handbook
maintenance organizations, ambulatory sur­
gical clinics, and free-standing emergency cen­
The shortage of R.N.’s abated as the 1981-82
recession decreased personal spending on
health care and increased the number of R.N.’s
seeking jobs. Shortages remain, however, par­
ticularly in rural areas, some big city hospitals,
and certain specialities, such as geriatrics.
Some competition is expected through the
mid-1990’s for the more desirable, higher pay­
ing jobs, especially in areas considered highly
attractive because of climate, recreational and
cultural facilities, and in areas where training
programs abound. Nurses with a bachelor’s de­
gree should have the best prospects in those
areas. For nurses who have advanced training,
the outlook is excellent for obtaining positions
as administrators, faculty, clinical specialists,
and community health nurses.

Median annual earnings of registered nurses
who worked full time in 1982 were about
$19,000. The middle 50 percent earned be­
tween about $16,000 and $23,000. The lowest
10 percent earned about $12,000 or less. The
top 10 percent, many of whom probably were
head or supervisory nurses, earned more than
According to a survey conducted by the Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics, general duty nurses
employed full time in nursing homes in large
metropolitan areas earned annual average sal­
aries ranging from $15,000 to $22,000 in 1982.
Full-time head nurses earned from $15,000 to
$25,000 in these nursing homes.
In 1982, the Veterans Administration paid
inexperienced nurses who had a diploma or an
associate degree the starting salary of $14,901 a
year; those with a bachelor’s degree, $17,431.
Nurses employed in all Federal Government
agencies earned an average of about $23,000 in
Starting salaries of registered nurses em­
ployed in hospitals, medical schools, and medi­
cal centers averaged about $17,600 a year in
1982, according to a national survey conducted
by the University of Texas Medical Branch.
Experienced R.N.’s averaged about $23,300.
This survey also showed that head nurses aver­
aged starting salaries of about $21,800 and ex­
perienced salaries of $28,500; nurse anesthe­
tists, $25,900 and $34,200; and clinical nurse
specialists, $21,500 and $28,600.
Most hospital and nursing home nurses re­
ceive extra pay for work on evening or night
shifts. Nearly all receive from 5 to 13 paid
holidays a year, at least 2 weeks of paid vacation
after 1 year of employment, and health and
retirement benefits.

Related Occupations
Other occupations with responsibilities and du­
ties similar to those of registered nurses in­
clude: Occupational therapists, paramedics,
physical therapists, physician assistants, and
respiratory therapists.

Sources of Additional Information
The National League for Nursing (NLN) pub­
lishes a variety of materials about nursing and
nursing education, including a list of approved
schools of nursing and information on student
financial aid. One brochure describes master’s
degree programs to prepare nurse practitioners,
clinical specialists, and nurse educators. For a
complete list of NLN publications, write for a
career information brochure. Send your request
Career Information Services, National League for
Nursing, 10 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y.

Information on career opportunities as a reg­
istered nurse is available from:
American Nurses’ Association, 2420 Pershing Rd.,
Kansas City, Mo. 64108.

Information about employment oppor­
tunities in Veterans Administration hospitals is
available from local Veterans Administration
hospitals and also from:
Recruitment Division, Veterans Administration, 810
Vermont Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20420.

For information on nursing careers in hospi­
tals, contact:
American Hospital Association, Division of Nursing,
840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60611.

For a copy of Health Careers in Long-Term
Care, write:
American Health Care Association, 1200 15th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 079.361)

Nature of the Work
Respiratory therapists, sometimes called inha­
lation therapists, treat patients who have car­
diorespiratory problems. Treatment may range
from giving temporary relief to patients with
chronic asthma or emphysema to giving emer­
gency care for heart failure, stroke, drowning,
or shock. Respiratory therapists are among the
first medical specialists called for emergency
treatment of acute respiratory conditions aris­
ing from head injury or drug poisoning. Their
role is a highly responsible one because a pa­
tient who stops breathing for longer than 3 to 5
minutes has little chance of recovery without
serious brain damage. If oxygen is cut off for
more than 9 minutes, death results.
Following doctors’ orders, respiratory
therapists use special equipment, such as respi­
rators and positive-pressure breathing ma­
chines, to treat patients who need temporary or
emergency respiratory assistance. For exam­
ple, they use aerosol inhalants to confine medi­
cation to the lungs. They often treat patients
who have undergone surgery. The anesthesia
administered during surgery depresses respira­
tion, so in some cases respiratory therapy is
prescribed to restore full, deep breathing and

protect the patient against respiratory illness
that could complicate recovery. They also show
patients and their families how to use equip­
ment at home. Other duties include keeping
records of the cost of materials and charges to
patients, and maintaining and making minor
repairs to equipment. Some therapists teach or
supervise other respiratory therapy personnel.

Working Conditions
Respiratory therapists generally work a 40hour week. Because many hospitals operate
around the clock, they may be required to work
evenings or weekends. Respiratory therapists
spend long periods standing and, in an emer­
gency, may work under a great deal of stress.
The inhalants they work with are highly flam­
mable; however, adherence to safety precau­
tions and regular testing of equipment mini­
mize the danger of fire.

Respiratory therapists held about 46,000 jobs
in 1982. About 9 out of 10 jobs were located in
hospitals in departments of respiratory therapy,
anesthesiology, or pulmonary medicine. Oxy­
gen equipment rental companies, ambulance
services, nursing homes, and free-standing sur­
gical centers accounted for most of the remain­
ing jobs.

"framing, Other Qualifications, and
Respiratory apparatus has become more com­
plex in recent years and formal training is in­
creasingly important for entry to the field. Vol­
untary certification for respiratory therapy
workers is available through the National Board
for Respiratory Care. Many employers consid­
er such certification important in choosing
among candidates. California is the only State
that requires respiratory therapy workers to be
Training for respiratory therapy is offered at
the postsecondary level in hospitals, medical
schools, colleges and universities, trade
schools, vocational-technical institutes, and
the Armed Forces. In 1982, about 200 programs
in respiratory therapy were approved by the
Committee on Allied Health Education and Ac­
creditation (CAHEA) of the American Medical
Association. Another 200 programs offered
CAHEA-approved preparation for respiratory
therapy technicians.
Formal training programs vary in length and
in the credential or degree awarded. About 20
of the CAHEA-approved therapist programs
are 4-year programs that lead to a bachelor’s
degree; most of the others are somewhat shorter
in length and lead to an associate degree. Tech­
nician courses usually last about 1 year and
graduates are awarded certificates. Areas of
study for both types of programs include human
anatomy and physiology, chemistry, physics,
microbiology, and mathematics. Technical
courses deal with procedures, equipment, and
clinical tests.
People who want to enter the respiratory
therapy field should enjoy working with people
and should be sensitive to patients’ physical and
psychological needs. Respiratory therapy

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/135
earned an average salary of $19,700 a year in
In 1982, the Federal Government paid respi­
ratory therapists with 2 years of CAHEA-accredited postsecondary school training starting
salaries of about $12,000 to $13,000.
Respiratory therapy workers in hospitals re­
ceive the same benefits as other hospital per­
sonnel, including health insurance, retirement
benefits, and vacations and sick leave. Some
employers provide tuition assistance and other
educational benefits, uniforms, and parking.

Related Occupations
Respiratory therapy workers, under the super­
vision of a physician, administer respiratory
therapy care and life support to patients with
heart and lung difficulties. Other workers who
care for, treat, or train people to improve their
physical well-being include: Dialysis techni­
cians, emergency medical technicians, li­
censed practical nurses, registered nurses, oc­
cupational therapists, and physical therapists.

Sources of Additional Information
Information concerning education programs is
available from:

Explaining the steps in respiratory therapy treatment is necessary to ensure the patient’s cooperation.
workers must pay attention to detail, follow
instructions, and work as part of a team. Oper­
ating complicated respiratory therapy equip­
ment requires mechanical ability and manual
dexterity. High school students interested in
this field are encouraged to take courses in
health, biology, mathematics, physics, and
Respiratory technicians and assistants can
advance to the therapist level by taking the
appropriate courses. Indeed, some students in
respiratory therapist programs work part time
as hospital technicians.
For respiratory therapists, advancement in
clinical practice goes from care of “general” to
“critical” patients. Extra skills are needed to
judge the condition of patients with breathing
problems as well as other organ system (heart,
kidney, etc.) failures. Ability to combine
breathing care with many other nursing and
medical functions is also required.
Therapists may also advance into supervi­
sion and management positions and with addi­
tional academic training or experience may
direct the respiratory therapy department. Cre­
dentials as a Registered Respiratory Therapist
(RRT) often are required for administrative
The field of education also offers oppor­
tunities for career development. Jobs for hospi­
tal “in-service” educators are widely available,
especially for therapists with skills or training
in teaching. Many therapists have found careers
as instructors in respiratory-therapy education
programs, and with additional academic prepa­
ration they are eligible to advance up the line to
professor or program director.

Job Outlook
Employment of respiratory therapists is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all

occupations through the mid-1990’s as a result
of population growth, widespread accessibility
of hospital and surgical care through public and
private health insurance, and the development
of new diagnostic and treatment procedures in
this field. Most openings, however, will arise
from the need to replace individuals who trans­
fer to other occupations or stop working al­
Future demand for these workers will also
reflect the health care needs of an aging popula­
tion. The rate of surgery has increased, with the
most pronounced increase in operations occur­
ring among persons 65 years of age and older,
the segment of the population with the greatest
frequency of heart and lung problems. The in­
creased rate of surgery among the elderly re­
sults partly from safer and more effective sur­
gical procedures. If this trend continues,
demand for respiratory therapy workers will be
heightened. Morever, lung disease is on the
increase and trained therapists will be needed to
treat these patients. It is also expected that op­
portunities will increase in home care and in
Employment prospects should continue to be
excellent for experienced therapists and for re­
cent graduates of formal training programs.
However, the increasing availability of formally
trained therapy workers may make entry more
difficult for people with neither training nor

The starting salary of respiratory therapists em­
ployed in hospitals averaged about $15,400 a
year in 1982, according to a survey conducted
by the University of Texas Medical Branch.
Experienced respiratory therapists in hospitals

American Association for Respiratory Therapy, 1720
Regal Row, Suite 112, Dallas, Tex. 75235.

Information on the credentialing of respira­
tory therapy workers can be obtained from:
The National Board for Respiratory Care, Inc., 11015
West 75th Terrace, Shawnee Mission, Kans. 66214.

For the current list of CAHEA-approved pro­
grams for respiratory therapy occupations,
Department of Allied Health Education and Ac­
creditation, American Medical Association, 535 N.
Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 60610.

Many respiratory therapy workers receive
formal training in hospitals, vocational-tech­
nical institutes, private trade schools, and other
noncollegiate settings. Local hospitals can
provide information on training opportunities
for this and other health occupations. Non­
hospital vocational programs are listed, by city
and State, in the 1982 edition of Postsecondary
Schools with Occupational Programs, a pub­
lication of the U.S. Department of Education’s
National Center for Education Statistics. This
publication may be available in counseling cen­
ters or large public libraries.

Speech Pathologists
and Audiologists
(D.O.T. 076.101 and .107)

Nature of the Work
Almost 1 American in 10 is unable to speak or
hear clearly. When not treated, speech, lan­
guage, and hearing impairments are serious
handicaps that can cause problems throughout
life. Children who have difficulty speaking,
understanding language, or hearing cannot par­
ticipate fully with other children in play or in

136/Occupational Outlook Handbook
ordinary classroom activities. Sometimes these
children seem to have mental or emotional
problems, when in fact the problem is language
or hearing. Adults with speech, language, or
hearing impairments may have adjustment
problems on the job. Speech pathologists and
audiologists provide direct services to these
people by evaluating their speech, language, or
hearing abilities and providing treatment.
Speech pathologists work with children and
adults who have speech, language, and voice
disorders resulting from causes such as total or
partial hearing loss, brain injury, cleft palate,
learning disabilities, mental retardation, emo­
tional problems, or foreign dialect. Au­
diologists assess and treat hearing problems,
sometimes by fitting and dispensing hearing
aids. However, speech and hearing are so inter­
related that, to be competent in one of these
fields, one must be familiar with both.
The duties of speech pathologists and au­
diologists vary with education, experience, and
place of employment. In clinics, such as those
in schools and hospitals, they use diagnostic
procedures to identify and evaluate speech, lan­
guage, and hearing disorders. Then, in cooper­
ation with physicians, psychologists, physical
therapists, and counselors, they develop and
implement an organized program of therapy.
Although most speech pathologists and au­
diologists do some administrative work, direc­
tors of clinics and coordinators of speech, lan­
guage, and hearing in schools, health depart­
ments or other government agencies may be
totally involved in administration.

Working Conditions
Speech pathologists and audiologists generally
work in clean, comfortable surroundings and
spend most of their time at a desk or table.
Although the job is not physically demanding,
the close attention to detail and intense con­
centration needed can be mentally exhausting.
A great deal of satisfaction can be gained from
seeing a client improve. Lack of progress, on
the other hand, can be very frustrating.

Speech pathologists and audiologists held
about 42,000 jobs in 1982. Over two-thirds
worked in elementary and secondary schools
and colleges and universities. The rest worked
in hospitals and nursing facilities, speech, lan­
guage, and hearing centers, offices of physi­
cians, government agencies, and in private

Training, Other Qualifications, and
A master’s degree in speech-language pa­
thology or audiology is the standard credential
in this field. Medicare and Medicaid, for exam­
ple, only pay for speech-language pathology
services provided by a practitioner with a mas­
ter’s degree. Those working in public schools
generally are required to have a practice certifi­
cate issued by the State educational agency.
Some States permit those with only a bachelor’s
degree in speech pathology or audiology to
practice in public schools, but often these per­
sons are considered teachers rather than speech
pathologists or audiologists.
In 34 States, licenses are required for those
offering speech pathology and audiology serv­
ices in private practice, clinics, or other settings
outside of schools. Licensure requirements
vary among the States but usually include grad­
uation from an accredited master’s degree pro­
gram in speech-language pathology or au­
diology. Clinical experience and an examina­
tion are also required. Undergraduate courses
in speech-language pathology and audiology
programs include anatomy, physiology, phys­
ics, acoustics, sociology, linguistics, and pho­
netics. Courses in speech, language, and hear­
ing disorders as well as in child psychology and
psychology of the exceptional child also are
In 1982, about 240 colleges and universities
offered master’s or Ph.D. programs in speechlanguage pathology and audiology. Courses in­
clude advanced anatomy and physiology of the

Over two-thirds of all speech pathologists and audiologists work in educational institutions.

areas involved in hearing, speech, and lan­
guage; acoustics; psychological aspects of
communication; and analysis of speech produc­
tion, language abilities, and auditory pro­
cesses. Graduate students also take courses in
the evaluation and remediation of speech, lan­
guage, and hearing disorders and receive super­
vised clinical training in communicative disor­
Meeting the American Speech-LanguageHearing Association’s (ASHA) requirements
for a Certificate of Clinical Competence (CCC)
usually is necessary to advance professionally.
To earn the CCC, a person must have a master’s
degree or its equivalent, complete a 9-month
internship approved by the association, and
pass a national written examination.
Speech pathologists and audiologists should
be able to approach problems objectively and
have a concern for the needs of others. They
also should have considerable patience, be­
cause a client’s progress often is slow. In addi­
tion, they should be able to work with detail, to
accept responsibility, to work independently,
and to direct others.

Job Outlook
Employment of speech pathologists and au­
diologists is expected to increase about as fast
as the average for all occupations through the
mid-1990’s. Population growth will add to the
number of persons having speech, language,
and hearing problems. Emphasis on early re­
cognition and treatment of these problems in
children will continue to stimulate demand for
clinicians in schools. Many school-age chil­
dren thought to have learning disabilities actu­
ally have language or hearing disorders that
speech pathologists and audiologists can treat.
Besides job openings created by growth in em­
ployment, many speech pathologists and au­
diologists will be needed to replace those who
retire, die, or leave the occupation.

Audiologists in hospitals and medical centers
were paid about $19,500 to $23,700 a year in
1982, compared to about $18,900 to $23,500
for speech pathologists, according to a national
survey conducted by the University of Texas
Medical Branch.
The annual starting salary in the Federal
Government for speech pathologists and au­
diologists with a master’s degree was about
$20,200 in early 1983. Those having a doctoral
degree were eligible to start at about $24,500.

Related Occupations
Speech pathologists and audiologists specialize
in the diagnosis and treatment of speech, lan­
guage, and hearing problems. Workers in other
professions who also perform rehabilitative
functions include occupational therapists, op­
tometrists, physical therapists, and some physi­
cians and podiatrists.

Sources of Additional Information
State departments of education can supply in­
formation on certification requirements for
those who wish to work in public schools.
General information on speech pathology
and audiology is available from:
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association,
10801 Rockville Pike. Rockville, Md. 20852.

Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/137



Provide service in assigned areas of food service management. Teach
principles of food and nutrition and provide dietary counseling under
direction of dietitians.


Much faster than

Manual arts,
music, and
Physical therapy

Plan, organize, and direct medically oriented manual arts, musical,
or recreational programs in hospital or similar institution to
rehabilitate patients who are physically or mentally ill.


Paster than average

Administer physical therapy treatment such as massages, heat, light
and sound treatment and traction to relieve pain. Instruct, motivate
and assist patients in learning and improving functional activities.
Assist physical therapists.


Much faster than


Projected growth

Health Technologists and Technicians
Many jobs in the health field owe their existence
to the development of new laboratory pro­
cedures, diagnostic techniques, and life sup­
port systems. Clinical laboratories have been
transformed by the installation of automated
instruments that offer low-cost analyses in min­
utes. Elsewhere in the hospital, new kinds of
equipment—computerized tomography (CT)
scanners, dialysis machines, and ultrasound
scanners, for example—have made possible
new kinds of medical treatment. Technologies
that are possible candidates for widespread use
in the years ahead include digital radiography
and nuclear magnetic resonance. However, the
field of medical diagnostics is changing so
rapidly that it is impossible to predict what the
next generation of devices will bring. One thing
is certain: New occupations will emerge with
future advances in medical technology.
Four statements in this section of the Hand­
book describe health careers that involve oper­
ating or monitoring biomedical equipment: Ra­
diologic technologists, electrocardiograph
technicians, electroencephalographic tech­
nologists and technicians, and clinical labora­
tory technologists and technicians.
Most radiologic technologists operate the fa­
miliar X-ray machine, but some specialize.
Computerized tomographers, for example, use
equipment linked to a computer for cross-sec­
tion X-rays of the brain or other parts of the
body. Diagnostic medical sonographers use
equipment which produces an image from
sound waves reflected from the body to exam­
ine internal organs. Nuclear medicine tech­
nologists use radioactive substances that show
up during imaging, and radiation therapy tech­
nologists operate the equipment used to treat
cancer patients.
Electrocardiograph (EKG) technicians op­
erate equipment that monitors a patient’s heart
action. Cardiology technology includes far
more than the EKG, however, and cardiology
technologists of various kinds perform or assist
with phonocardiograms, echocardiograms, an­
giograms, stress tests, cardiac catheterizations,
and other tests that enable physicians to detect
and diagnose heart problems. For example,
heart patients scheduled for surgery may be
given an echocardiogram (an ultrasound pro­
cedure) before cardiac catheterization, often
the last step before an operation. Nuclear car­
diology and digital subtraction angiography are
new cardiac technologies that are likely to gain
in importance.
Dialysis technicians, who operate kidney
machines, and perfusionists, who operate the
heart-lung machines used in coronary bypass
surgery, are examples of health workers who
operate equipment on which patients’ lives de­


Some health occupations are auxiliary jobs
redesigned to extend the services of highly
skilled health practitioners. The dental
hygienist expands dental services without sacri­
ficing the quality of care. The emergency medi­
cal technician provides health care in the ab­
sence of a practitioner. These workers are
specially trained to provide medical attention
when no physician or nurse is available—typ­
ically at the site of a fire, automobile accident,
or other emergency.
Practical nursing is by far the largest of the
health occupations described in this section of
the Handbook. Licensed practical nurses held
about 594,000 jobs in 1982. Other large oc­
cupations are clinical laboratory technology
and radiologic technology. Most other health
technologist occupations are quite small. In
fact, fragmentation into a large number of small
and highly specialized occupations is typical of
the health labor market.
The distinction between a health technologist
and a health technician lies in the complexity of
the job. Technologists have more responsibility
than technicians, and therefore need more
training, which varies with the occupation. For
example, medical technologists, who use labo­
ratory techniques to test specimens of body
fluids and tissues for evidence of disease, need
a bachelor’s degree in medical technology,
chemistry, or biochemistry. Medical techni­
cians usually are graduates of 2-year programs.
E lectroencephalographic (EEG) tech ­
nologists, who operate m achinery that
monitors the electrical activity of patients’
brains, generally complete 1- or 2-year training
programs, while training for EEG technicians
lasts only about 6 months.
Preparation for these careers varies. Some
workers learn their skills on the job through
classroom and laboratory study combined with
closely supervised clinical experience. As a
rule, the newer the occupation, the more likely
that training will be provided on the job. In
most health technologist occupations, however,
workers are trained formally in hospitals, medi­
cal centers, community colleges, 4-year col­
leges and universities, vocational-technical in­
stitutes, or trade schools. Training require­
ments for specific occupations are described in
the statements that follow.
The Committee on Allied Health Education
and Accreditation (CAHEA) accredits training
programs for 26 allied health occupations. In­
formation about accredited programs is pub­
lished annually in the Allied Health Education
Directory, which may be purchased from:
Department of Allied Health Education and Ac­
creditation, American Medical Association, 535 N.
Dearborn St., Chicago, Illinois 60601.

Allied Health Education Programs in Col­
legiate Settings 1980: A Directory, published
by the American Society of Allied Health Pro­
fessions (ASAHP), identifies all programs in 2year and 4-year colleges and universities that
prepare students for allied health careers. Pro­
gram listings for specific occupations, arranged
by State, are available from ASAHP at 10 cents
a page (minimum order $2.00). For details,
American Society of Allied Health Professions, One
Dupont Circle NW., Suite 300, Washington, D.C.

Many allied health workers receive their
training in hospitals, vocational-technical in­
stitutes, private trade schools, and other noncollegiate settings. Such programs are listed,
by State, in the 1982 edition of Postsecondary
Schools with Occupational Programs, a pub­
lication of the U.S. Department of Education’s
National Center for Education Statistics. This
publication may be available in counseling cen­
ters or large public libraries.
Employment in the health industry is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
industries through the mid-1990’s due to popu­
lation growth, especially the substantial in­
crease in the number of older people. However,
the patient’s ability to pay for diagnostic tests,
laboratory work, surgery, and hospital stays is
one of the most important factors spurring de­
mand. Widespread availability of third-party
coverage for hospital and laboratory services
under Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial
health insurance is expected to assure continued
rapid growth in employment of health tech­
nologists and technicians.
Currently underway is a broad-based effort
to contain the rate of increase in health care
costs. To predict what will actually occur is
impossible, but cost containment, if suc­
cessful, could mean sweeping changes in the
organization and delivery of health care serv­
ices in the United States. Changes in the reim­
bursement system, combined with more strin­
gent review procedures, could slow the pur­
chase of expensive new hospital equipment and,
also reduce the number of diagnostic tests and
procedures that physicians order. Therefore,
actual growth in the health technologist occupa­
tions may diverge from the rates currently an­
Books and brochures on health careers are
available in libraries, counseling centers, and
bookstores. The Sources of Additional Infor­
mation section at the end of each Handbook
statement identifies organizations that can
provide career information, including bro­
chures that describe the work and lists of train­
ing programs. For an overview of jobs in the
health field, including some jobs not covered in

Health Technologists and Technicians/139
the Handbook, request a copy of “200 Ways to a
Health Career” from:
National Health Council, 1740 Broadway, New York,
N.Y. 10019.

Another useful publication is Health Careers
Guidebook, fourth edition, published in 1979
by the U.S. Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare (now the Department of Health and
Human Services.) It is available for $7.50
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402.

Clinical Laboratory
Technologists and
(D.O.T. 078.121-010, .161-010, .221-010, .261-010
and -014, .281-010, .361-014 and -030, and .381-014)

Nature of the Work
Laboratory tests play an important part in the
detection, diagnosis, and treatment of disease.
They are essential in detecting the presence of
illnesses in which there are changes in the body
fluids and tissues. Examples of such changes
include chemical changes in the blood, urine,
or lymph; increases or decreases in the count of
various types of white or red blood cells; micro­
scopic changes in the structure of the cells of a
diseased tissue or organ; and the presence of
parasites, viruses, or bacteria in the blood or
Although physicians use the results of labo­
ratory evaluation and diagnosis, they do not
perform the tests themselves. Instead, the tests
are done by clinical laboratory personnel.
These specialists provide laboratory services
ranging from routine tests to highly complex
analyses, and their skill level and educational
preparation vary accordingly. This section of
the Handbook discusses the work of two levels

Clinical laboratory personnel examine body
tissues and fluids to help determine the cause of
an illness.

of laboratory personnel: Technologists and health agencies, pharmaceutical firms, and re­
search institutions. Laboratory facilities gener­
Medical laboratory technologists have a ally are concentrated in metropolitan areas.
bachelor’s degree in science, as a rule. They Some laboratory workers work part time.
perform complicated chemical, biological,
In 1982, Veterans Administration hospitals
hem atological, m icroscopic, and bac­
and laboratories employed about 3,700 medical
teriological tests. These may include chemical
tests to determine, for example, the blood cho­ technologists and about 2,200 medical labora­
lesterol level, or microscopic examination of tory technicians. Others worked for the U.S.
the blood to detect the presence of diseases such Public Health Service.
as leukemia. Technologists microscopically ex­
amine other body fluids; make cultures of body Training, Other Qualifications, and
fluid or tissue samples to determine the pres­ Advancement
ence of bacteria, parasites, or other micro-or­
The usual requirement for a beginning job as a
ganisms; and analyze the samples for chemical
content or reaction. They also may type and medical technologist is a bachelors degree with
a major in medical technology or in one of the
cross-match blood samples for transfusions.
Technologists in small laboratories perform life sciences: Biology or biochemistry, for ex­
many types of tests, while those in large labora­ ample. It is also possible to qualify through ontories usually specialize. Among the areas in the-job experience, specialized training, or a
which they can specialize are biochemistry (the combination of these.
chemical analysis of body fluids), blood bank
Bachelor’s degree programs in medical tech­
technology (the collection and preparation of nology include substantial course work in
blood products for transfusion), cytotechnolochemistry, biological sciences, microbiology,
gy (the study of human body cells), hematology
(die study of blood cells), histology (the study and mathematics, plus 1 year of practical expe­
of human and animal tissue), and microbiology rience in laboratory work. These programs are
(the study of bacteria and other micro-organ­ offered by colleges and universities as well as
by hospitals. The hospital programs generally
Most medical technologists conduct tests re­ are affiliated with colleges or universities and
lated to the examination and treatment of pa­ lead to a bachelor’s degree, although a few
tients. Others do research, develop laboratory hospital programs require a bachelor’s degree
techniques, teach, or perform administrative for entry.
Many universities offer advanced degrees in
Medical laboratory technicians generally
medical technology and related clinical labora­
have an associate degree or a diploma or certifi­
cate from a private postsecondary trade or tech­ tory sciences for technologists who plan to spe­
nical school. They are midlevel laboratory cialize in a certain area of laboratory work or in
workers who function under the supervision of teaching, administration, or research.
Medical laboratory technicians acquire their
a medical technologist or laboratory supervisor.
They perform a wide range of complex tests and training in a variety of ways including com­
laboratory procedures which do not require the munity and junior colleges, hospitals, and vo­
technical knowledge of medical technologists. cational and technical schools. Many programs
Like technologists, they may work in several last 2 years and lead to an associate degree.
areas or specialize in one field.
Some medical laboratory technicians are train­
Working Conditions
ed in the Armed Forces.
Clinical laboratory personnel generally work a
Persons interested in a clinical laboratory
5-day, 40-hour week. Those working in a hos­ career should be careful about selecting a train­
pital can expect some evening and weekend ing program. Prospective employers—hospi­
duty. Laboratory workers may spend a great tals and independent laboratories—may have
deal of time on their feet.
Laboratories generally are well lighted and preferences as to program accreditation. (Ac­
clean. Although unpleasant odors and infec­ creditation indicates that a training program
tious materials often are present, few hazards meets established standards.) Prospective
exist if proper methods of sterilization and training programs should be able to provide
handling of specimens, materials, and equip­ information about the kinds of jobs obtained by
ment are used.
graduates, educational costs, the length of time
the training program has been in operation,
Clinical laboratory technologists and techni­ instructional facilities, and faculty qualifica­
cians held about 209,000 jobs in 1982. Medical tions.
Nationally recognized accrediting agencies
laboratory technologists accounted for nearly
half of these jobs, as the following tabulation in the allied health field include the Committee
on Allied Health Education and Accreditation
(CAHEA) and the Accrediting Bureau of
Medical laboratory technologists . . . .
Health Education Schools (ABHES). CAHEA
Medical laboratory technicians ...........
accredits programs that provide training for 26
Blood bank specialists..........................
Biochemistry technologits...................
allied health occupations including medical
Microbiology technologists .................
technologists, cytotechnologists, histologic
Histologic technologists........................
technicians, specialists in blood bank tech­
nology, and medical laboratory technicians.
Most medical laboratory personnel work in ABHES accredits training programs for medi­
hospitals. Others work in independent labora­ cal laboratory technicians and medical assis­
tories, physicians’ offices, clinics, public tants.

140/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Licensure and certification are well estab­
lished in the health field as methods of regulat­
ing the skill and competence of personnel. Li­
censure refers to the process by which a
government agency authorizes individuals to
engage in a given occupation and use a par­
ticular job title. Occupational licensing takes
place at the State level. Several States—includ­
ing Alabama, California, Florida, Hawaii, Ne­
vada, and Tennessee—require medical tech­
nologists or medical laboratory technicians to
be licensed. Other states, such as Georgia, re­
quire registration. More information is avail­
able from State boards of occupational licens­
ing or from State Occupational Information
Coordinating Committees.
Certification is a voluntary process by which
a nongovernmental organization such as a pro­
fessional society grants recognition to an indi­
vidual who meets prescribed standards. Widely
accepted by employers in the health industry,
certification is a prerequisite for some jobs, and
often is necessary for career advancement.
Agencies that certify medical laboratory tech­
nologists and technicians include the Board of
Registry of the American Society of Clinical
Pathologists, the American Medical Tech­
nologists, the National Certification Agency
for Medical Laboratory Personnel, and the Credentialing Commission of the International So­
ciety of Clinical Laboratory Technology.
Accuracy, dependability, and the ability to
work under pressure are important personal
characteristics for a medical laboratory worker.
Manual dexterity and normal color vision are
highly desirable.
Technologists may advance to supervisory
positions in certain areas of laboratory work, or,
after several years’ experience, to admin­
istrative medical technologist in a large hospi­
tal. Graduate education in one of the biological
sciences, chemistry, management, or education
usually speeds advancement. Technicians can
advance to technologists by getting additional
education and experience.

Job Outlook
Employment of clinical laboratory workers is
expected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s. Most
openings, however, will result from the need to
replace experienced laboratory personnel who
transfer to other occupations or stop working
Rapid growth in employment is expected be­
cause of the importance of laboratory tests for
medical diagnosis and treatment. Whenever a
physician orders chemotherapy to treat a cancer
patient, for example, a demand for clinical lab­
oratory services is created—for tests to monitor
blood chemistry, in particular. Advances in
clinical research and bioengineering tech­
nology are bound to lead to new tests and new
kinds of laboratory equipment in coming years,
thus spurring demand for laboratory personnel.
Clinical laboratory technology is in­
creasingly able to spot major diseases such as
cancer and heart disease in their early, presymptomatic stages, although the use of labora­
tory tests for early diagnosis is far from wide­
spread. If preventive medicine and early

diagnostic screening become more cost-effec­
tive, however, and are broadly accepted by the
medical community, demand for clinical labo­
ratory services could rise sharply.
Indirectly influencing growth of the field are
population growth and aging. Broad coverage
for laboratory work under Medicare, Medicaid,
and commercial health insurance has been a
significant factor in the expansion of clinical
laboratories and has contributed to the upward
spiral in health expenditures. Recent changes in
the health care financing system may encourage
hospitals to reduce the use of such services as
clinical laboratory work, and to scrutinize out­
lays for costly new technology and equipment.
However, the impact of cost containment
efforts on employment of clinical laboratory
personnel remains to be seen.

Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools,
Oak Manor Office, 29089 U.S. 20 West, Elkhart,
Ind. 46514.


Secretary-ABHES, 29089 U.S. 20 West, Elkhart,
Ind. 46514.

Salaries of clinical laboratory personnel vary
depending on the employer and geographic lo­
cation. In general, those in large cities receive
the highest salaries.
Starting salaries for medical technologists
employed by hospitals, medical schools, and
medical centers averaged about $17,100 a year
in 1982, according to a survey conducted by the
University of Texas Medical Branch. Begin­
ning salaries for cytotechnologists averaged
about $15,700; for histology technicians, about
$13,600; and for medical laboratory techni­
cians, about $13,300. According to the same
survey, experienced medical technologists
working in hospitals, medical schools, and
medical centers averaged about $22,400 a year
in 1982; cytotechnologists averaged about
$19,700; and medical laboratory technicians
and histology technicians each averaged
The Federal Government paid medical tech­
nologists a starting salary of about $13,400 a
year in 1982. Those having experience, superi­
or academic achievement, or a year of graduate
study entered at about $16,600. Starting sal­
aries for technicians began at $11,900 a year in
1982, depending on education and experience.
Medical technologists in the Federal Govern­
ment averaged about $19,900 in 1982, and med­
ical laboratory technicians, about $16,600.

Related Occupations
Clinical laboratory technologists and techni­
cians perform a wide variety of tests to help
physicians diagnose and treat disease. Their
principal activity is the analysis and identifica­
tion of substances. Other workers who perform
laboratory tests include chemistry tech­
nologists, criminalists, and food testers.

Sources of Additional Information
Career information is available from:
American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Board of
Registry, P.O. Box 12270, Chicago, 111. 60612.
American Society for Medical Technology, 330
Meadowfem Drive, Houston, Tex. 77067.
American Medical Technologists, 710 Higgins Rd.,
Park Ridge, 111. 60068.

National Certification Agency for Medical Laborato­
ry Personnel, 1725 DeSales St. NW., Suite 403,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
International Society for Clinical Laboratory Tech­
nology, 818 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 63101.

For a list of CAHEA-approved training pro­
grams for clinical laboratory personnel, write:
Committee on Allied Health Education and Ac­
creditation, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111.

For a list of training programs for medical
laboratory technicians accredited by the Ac­
crediting Bureau of Health Education Schools,

For information about employment oppor­
tunities in a Veterans Administration hospital,
contact the personnel office of that VA hospital.
Information about employment oppor­
tunities with the National Institutes of Health is
available from the Clinical Center, National In­
stitutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. 20205.

Dental Hygienists
(D.O.T. 078.361-010)

Nature of the Work
Dental hygienists, working under the direction
of a dentist, provide direct patient care; they
remove deposits and stains from patients’ teeth,
expose and develop dental X-ray films, and
perform various o th er prev en tiv e and
therapeutic services. Helping the public de­
velop and maintain good oral health is another
important aspect of the job, and hygienists may
instruct patients in the proper selection and use
of toothbrushes and other devices, for example,
or explain the relationship between diet or
smoking and oral health.
Depending on the State law, hygienists may
remove scale from teeth; apply topical fluoride
to prevent tooth decay; take medical and dental
histories; take X-rays; make impressions of
teeth for study models; and prepare other diag­
nostic aids. In some States, dental hygienists
may perform pain control and restorative pro­
Dental hygienists in school systems serve in
several capacities. Clinical functions include
examining children’s teeth, assisting the dentist
in determining the dental treatment needed, and
reporting the findings to parents. They also
scale and polish teeth and give oral hygiene
instruction. In addition, they develop and deliv­
er classroom and assembly programs on oral
A few dental hygienists assist in research
projects. Those having advanced training may
teach in schools of dental hygiene.

Health Technologists and Technicians/141
Working Conditions
Dental hygienists usually work in clean, welllighted offices. Important health safeguards for
persons in this occupation are regular medical
checkups and strict adherence to established
procedures for using X-ray equipment. The oc­
cupation is one of several covered by the Con­
sumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act
of 1981, which encourages the States to adopt
uniform standards for the training and certifica­
tion of individuals who perform medical and
dental radiologic procedures.
Most hygienists work fewer than 30 hours
per week. Some of this work may be on Satur­
days or during evening hours.

Dental hygienists held about 69,000 jobs in
1982. Because multiple jobholding is common
in this field, the number of jobs exceeds the
number of individuals at work that year. Be­
cause dentists frequently hire hygienists to
work only 2 or 3 days a week, hygienists who
want a ftill-time schedule may have to hold
more than one job.
Most dental hygienists work in private dental
offices. Other places of employment include
public health agencies, school systems, busi­
ness firms, hospitals, clinics, and schools of
dental hygiene.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Dental hygienists must be licensed. To obtain a
license, a candidate must graduate from an ac­
credited dental hygiene school and pass both a
written and a clinical examination. For the
clinical examination, the applicant is required
to perform dental hygiene procedures, such as
removing deposits and stains from a patient’s
teeth. In 1983, candidates in 49 States and the
District of Columbia could complete part of the
State licensing requirements by passing a writ­
ten examination given by the National Board of
Dental Examiners. Few States permit dental
hygienists licensed in other States to practice in
their jurisdictions without further examination.
In 1982, 202 schools of dental hygiene in the
United States were accredited by the Commis­
sion on Dental Accreditation. Most programs
grant an associate degree; others lead to a bach­
elor’s degree. A few institutions offer both
types of programs. Six schools offer master’s
degree programs in dental hygiene.
Completion of an associate degree program
usually is sufficient for the dental hygienist who
wants to practice in a private dental office. To do
research, teach, and work in public or school
health programs, at least a bachelor’s degree
usually is required. Dental hygienists with a
master’s degree work as teachers or admin­
istrators in dental hygiene and dental assisting
training programs, public health agencies, and
in associated research.
Competition is keen for admission to dental
hygiene schools. The minimum requirement
for admission to a school of dental hygiene is
graduation from high school. Several schools
that offer the bachelor’s degree admit students
to the dental hygiene program only after they
have completed 2 years of college. Dental

It is not unusual for a dental hygienist to hold several part-time jobs.
hygiene training given in the Armed Forces
usually does not fully prepare one to pass the
licensing exam, but credit for that training may
be granted to those who seek admission to ac­
credited dental hygiene programs.
The curriculum in a dental hygiene program
consists of courses in the basic sciences, dental
sciences, clinical sciences, and liberal arts.
These schools offer laboratory, clinical, and
classroom instruction in subjects such as anat­
omy, physiology, chemistry, pharmacology,
nutrition, histology (the study of tissue struc­
ture), periodontology (the study of gum dis­
eases), dental materials, and clinical dental
People who want to becom e dental
hygienists should enjoy working with others.
The ability to put patients at ease is helpful, for
patients often are under stress. Personal neat­
ness, cleanliness, and good health also are im­
portant qualities. Dental hygienists must have
manual dexterity because they use various den­
tal instruments with little room for error within
a patient’s mouth. Among high school courses
recommended for aspiring dental hygienists are
biology, health, chemistry, speech, and mathe­

Job Outlook
Employment of dental hygienists is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupations
because of the demand for dental care that will
be generated by an expanding population, the
growing awareness of the importance of oral
health, and the availability of dental prepay­
ment plans. Nonetheless, the majority of job
openings will result from the need to replace
workers who leave the occupation.
Job prospects for dental hygienists are ex­
pected to be favorable through the mid-1990’s.
Opportunities for part-time employment and
for work in rural areas also should be good.

The use of dental hygienists is more preva­
lent in some places than others; more wide­
spread recognition by dentists of hygienists’
contribution to heightened productivity is like­
ly to spur demand for these workers in areas
where they are not extensively used. Younger
dentists, in particular, tend to hire hygienists,
because they are taught in dental school how to
make effective use of auxiliaries in their dental
practice. The trend toward group practice
among dentists should also result in jobs for
dental hygienists.
The increasingly abundant supply of dentists
could work in the opposite direction, restrain­
ing demand for hygienists. There is concern
that the growing supply of dentists will lead to
smaller patient loads. If that occurs, dentists
might choose to perform more services them­
selves and hire fewer auxiliaries.

Earnings of dental hygienists are affected by the
type of employer, education, and experience of
the individual hygienist, and the geographic
location. Dental hygienists who work in private
dental offices are commonly paid by the hour or
day, although they may earn a salary or a com­
mission for work performed.
The median earnings of dental hygienists
working full time were about $315 a week in
1982. In 1982, the Federal Government paid
dental hygienists with no experience starting
salaries of between $12,000 and $ 13,400 a year
depending upon the length of their training.
Dental hygienists working for the Federal Gov­
ernment averaged about $15,400 a year, in
Dental hygienists who work for school sys­
tems, health agencies, the Federal Govern­
ment, or State agencies have the same hours,

142/Occupational Outlook Handbook
vacation, sick leave, retirement, and health in­
surance benefits as other workers in these or­

Related Occupations
Dental hygienists relieve dentists from many
routine tasks. Other occupations performing
similar duties for dentists and physicians in­
clude dental assistants, dental laboratory tech­
nicians, general duty nurses, nurse anesthe­
tists, and radiologic technologists.

Sources of Additional Information
For information on a career in dental hygiene,
Commission on Dental Acccreditation, Suite 1814,
American Dental Association, 211 E. Chicago Ave,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

For information about accredited programs
and the educational requirements to enter this
occupation, contact:
Division of Professional Development, American
Dental Hygienists’ Association, Suite 3400, 444 N.
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.

The State Board of Dental Examiners in each
State, or the American Association of Dental
Examiners, 211E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111.
60611, can supply information on licensing re­

(D.O.T. 078.362-018)

Nature of the Work
Electrocardiograms (EKG’s) are graphic heart­
beat tracings produced by an instrument called

An EKG technician attaches electrodes to a

an electrocardiograph. These tracings record
the electrical changes that occur during and
between heartbeats. Physicians order elec­
trocardiograms to help diagnose certain forms
of heart disease and to analyze changes in the
condition of a patient’s heart over a period of
time. Often the test is done before surgery.
Some physicians use electrocardiograms as a
routine diagnostic procedure for persons who
have reached a certain age. In many fields,
electrocardiograms are required as part of pre­
employment physical examinations.
Many other cardiac tests are in use, including
“invasive” tests such as cardiac catheterization
and coronary angiography. During catheteriza­
tion, a tube (catheter) is inserted through the
patient’s blood vessel into the heart. Angiogra­
phy involves the injection of radiopaque dyes to
enhance X-ray images (angiograms). Gener­
ally, the EKG is monitored during these other
cardiac tests.
Since the equipment is mobile, EKG techni­
cians can record electrocardiograms in a doc­
tor’s office, in the EKG department of a hospi­
tal, or at the patient’s bedside. After explaining
the procedure to the patient, the technician at­
taches from 3 to 12 electrodes—also called
“leads”—to the chest, arms, and legs of the
patient. Often the technician applies a gel be­
tween the electrodes and the patient’s skin, to
facilitate the passage of the electrical impulses.
By manipulating switches on the electrocar­
diograph and positioning the electrodes across
the chest, the technician traces the heart’s elec­
trical action. A stylus records the tracings on
graph paper. The test may be given while the
patient is resting or while exercising. The tech­
nician must know the anatomy of the chest and
heart to select the exact locations for the chest
electrodes. Electrodes placed in the wrong lo­
cation result in an inaccurate reading.
After the recording has been completed, the
technician prepares the electrocardiogram for
analysis by a physician, usually a heart spe­
cialist. Technicians must be able to recognize
and correct any technical errors, such as
crossed wires or electrical interference, that
prevent an accurate reading. They also must
call the doctor’s attention to any significant
deviations from the norm for the technique used
to record the EKG.
Some EKG technicians schedule appoint­
ments, type doctors’ diagnoses, maintain pa­
tients’ EKG files, care for equipment and assist
in more specialized cardiac testing.

worked in cardiology departments of large hos­
pitals. Others worked part time in small general
hospitals where workloads are usually not great
enough to demand full-time technicians. Some
worked full or part time in clinics and car­
diologists’ offices.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
EKG technicians are trained on the job as a
rule. Training usually is conducted by an EKG
supervisor or a cardiologist and lasts from 4 to 6
weeks for basic EKG tests and up to 1 year for
some of the more complex ones.
Applicants for trainee positions generally
must be high school graduates. High school
courses that are recommended for students in­
terested in this field include health, biology,
and typing. Familiarity with medical termi­
nology can be acquired in classes on human
anatomy and physiology and by studying a
medical dictionary. Applicants for EKG train­
ing should be reliable, have mechanical ap­
titude, ability to follow detailed instructions,
and presence of mind in emergencies.
The relatively few formal training programs
in cardiovascular technology are located prin­
cipally in hospitals, vocational-technical in­
stitutes, trade schools, and community col­
leges. Formal classroom programs range from
6 to 8 months. Two year associate degree pro­
grams have clinical as well as academic compo­
nents. The American Cardiology Technologists
Association (ACTA) recognizes five of these
There are no licensing requirements for EKG
technicians, and credentialing— available
through the American Cardiology Tech­
nologists Association—is voluntary.
EKG technician is the entry level position in
cardiovascular technology. With suitable expe­
rience and additional training, EKG techni­
cians may advance to monitor technician,
Holter monitor technician, stress testing techni­
cian, echocardiology technician, and cardiac
catheterization technician. Promotion to a su­
pervisory position is possible, too.

Job Outlook

Employment of EKG technicians is expected to
grow faster than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s as a result of general
population grow th, greater health con­
sciousness, and the widespread availability of
health insurance programs that help people pay
for health and medical care. Demand for tech­
nicians also should increase due to the rising
Working Conditions
proportion of older persons, the segment of the
Except for emergency cases, EKG technicians population requiring the most cardiac testing.
usually work in a relaxed atmosphere. A lot of Most job openings, however, will result from
their time is spent standing. They work directly the need to replace experienced EKG techni­
with patients and therefore must relate to many cians who transfer to other kinds of work, leave
kinds of people.
the labor force temporarily, or stop working
Technicians generally work a 5-day, 40-hour altogether.
week, which may include Saturdays and Sun:
Because entry requirements are minimal, the
days. Those in hospitals also may work evening pool of prospective jobseekers is very large. In
some communities, individuals seeking posi­
tions as EKG technicians may find that employ­
ers prefer applicants with previous EKG experi­
Electrocardiograph technicians held about ence or formal training, including Armed
21,000 jobs in 1982. Most EKG technicians Forces training.

Health Technologists and Technicians/143
EKG technicians employed in hospitals, medi­
cal schools, and medical centers earned starting
salaries of about $11,000 a year in 1982, accord­
ing to a survey conducted by the University of
Texas Medical Branch. EKG technicians who
perform more sophisticated tests generally are
paid more than those who perform only basic
ones. Some experienced EKG technicians
earned as much as $22,300 a year.
EKG technicians employed by the Federal
Government are called Medical Machine Tech­
nicians. Depending on their education and ex­
perience in this occupation, newly hired work­
ers could earn annual salaries ranging from
$11,949 to $18,339 in 1982. Usually, EKG tech­
nicians earn slightly less than the average for all
nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming.
EKG technicians in hospitals receive the
same fringe benefits as other hospital person­
nel, including health insurance, pension bene­
fits, vacation, and sick leave. Some institutions
provide tuition assistance, uniforms, and other

Related Occupations
Other occupations requiring operation of diag­
nostic or therapeutic equipment include audiometrists, electroencephalographic (EEG)
technologists and technicians, radiologic tech­
nologists, and clinical laboratory technologists
and technicians.

Sources of Additional Information
Local hospitals can supply information about
employment opportunities.
For a list of approved training programs and
information about credentialing, contact:
American Cardiology Technologists Association,
Inc., Suite 808, Reston International Center, 11800
Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, Va. 22091.

Technologists and
(D.O.T. 078.362-022)

Nature of the Work
Electroencephalography (EEG) is concerned
with recording and studying the electrical ac­
tivity of the brain. A machine called an elec­
troencephalograph, operated by an EEG tech­
nologist or technician, records this activity and
produces a written tracing of the brain’s elec­
trical impulses. This record of brain waves is
called an electroencephalogram. Neurologists
and other medical practitioners use electroen­
cephalograms to help diagnose the extent of
injury for patients suspected of having brain
tumors, strokes, or epilepsy; to measure the
effects of infectious diseases on the brain; and
to determine whether individuals who suffer

from serious adjustment problems or learning
difficulties have any organic problems. EEG
also may be used before vital organ transplant
operations to help determine when the potential
donor is “medically” dead.
Before EEG technicians and technologists
produce electroencephalograms, they take a
simplified medical history of the patient and
help the patient relax. The technician then ap­
plies the electrodes of the electro en ­
cephalograph to designated spots on the pa­
tient’s head and makes sure that the machine is
working correctly. The technician chooses the
most appropriate combinations of instrument
controls and electrodes to produce the kind of
record needed. EEG technicians must recog­
nize and correct any artifacts that appear (an
artifact is an electrical or mechanical event that
comes from somewhere other than the brain,
such as eye movement or interference from
electrical lights). The technician reports any
mechanical problems with the electroen­
cephalograph to the supervisor, so that the ma­
chine can be repaired promptly. EEG techni­
cians must know how to recognize changes in
the patient’s neurologic, cardiac, and respirato­
ry status. To react properly in an emergency,
EEG technicians must understand the kinds of
medical emergencies that can occur while they
are taking the electroencephalograph. For ex­
ample, if a patient suffers an epileptic seizure,
the EEG technician must take the proper action.
EEG technologists, who usually have a
broader knowledge of the work than techni­
cians, also use EEG equipment in conjunction
with other electrophysiologic monitoring de­
vices, such as tape recorders, computers, and
video equipment. They also can repair the
equipment. After producing an EEG recording,
the technologist may be asked to write a de­
scription of the recording for the electroencephalographer.
Besides supervising technicians during re­
cordings, EEG technologists arrange work
schedules and teach EEG techniques. Tech­
nologists often have administrative respon­
sibilities, such as managing the laboratory,
keeping records, scheduling appointments, or­
dering supplies, and establishing protocol.

Most EEG technologists and technicians work
full time.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
EEG technicians generally learn their skills on
the job. Applicants for trainee positions in hos­
pitals need a high school diploma, as a rule.
Often, EEG trainees transfer to the neurology
department from other jobs in the hospital, such
as EKG technician.
EEG technologists qualify for their jobs in
either of two ways: advancing from the techni­
cian level, or completing a formal training pro­
gram. Programs that train EEG technologists
are offered at the postsepondary level by hospi­
tals, medical centers, community colleges, vo­
cational-technical institutes, and colleges and
universities. In 1980, the Committee on Allied
Health Education and Accreditation (CAHEA)
had approved 19 of the 53 formal training pro­
grams for EEG personnel. Programs usually
last from 1 to 2 years and include laboratory
experience as well as classroom instruction in
neurology, anatomy, neuroanatomy, phys­
iology, neurophysiology, clinical and internal
medicine, psychiatry, and electronics and in­
strumentation. Graduates receive associate de­
grees or certificates.
Credentials for EEG personnel are available
through the American Board of Registration of
E lectroencephalographic Technologists
(ABRET), which awards the title “Registered
EEG Technologist” (R. EEG T.) to qualified
applicants. Although not generally required for
entry-level jobs, registration indicates profes­
sional competence, and may be necessary for
supervisory or teaching jobs.
Persons who want to enter this field should
have manual dexterity, good vision, an aptitude
for working with electronic equipment, and the
ability to work with patients as well as with
other health professionals. High school stu­
dents considering a career in this occupation
should take courses in health, biology, human
anatomy, and mathematics.

Working Conditions
EEG technologists and technicians, who usu­
ally work in clean, well-lighted surroundings,
spend about half of their time on their feet. A lot
of bending is necessary as they may work with
patients who are unruly or very ill.
A 5-day, 40-hour workweek with little over­
time is normal, although some hospitals require
EEG technologists and technicians to be “on
call” (ready to report to work at a moment’s
notice) after hours and on weekends and holi­
days. These employees generally work during
the day, but those involved in sleep studies
work evenings and nights.

Electroencephalographic technologists and
technicians held about 5,500 jobs in 1982. Hos­
pitals employ most EEG personnel. Jobs also
are available in neurology laboratories and in
the offices of neurologists and neurosurgeons.

Most EEG personnel work in hospitals.

144/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Some EEG technologists in large hospitals
can advance to chief EEG technologist and take
on increased responsibilities in laboratory man­
agement and in teaching basic techniques to
new personnel or students from EEG training
programs. Chief EEG technologists generally
are supervised by a physician—an electroencephalographer, neurologist, or neurosurgeon.

Job Outlook
Employment of EEG technologists and techni­
cians is expected to grow faster than the average
for all occupations through the mid-1990’s due
to the increased use of EEG’s in surgery, in
diagnosing and monitoring patients with brain
disease, and in research on the human brain.
EEG technologists and technicians will also be
needed to perform electrophysiological exam­
inations—somatosensory, visual, and auditory
evoked responses, for example—that have be­
come more common as a result of advances in
clinical neurophysiology. Contributing to the
increased demand for EEG technologists and
technicians is the projected expansion of the
health industry that is associated with a growing
and aging population and widespread access to
health care through health insurance.
As in other occupations, however, most
openings will arise from the need to replace
workers who transfer to other jobs or stop work­

Starting salaries of EEG technicians employed
by hospitals, medical schools, and medical
centers averaged $12,250 a year in 1982, ac­
cording to a survey by the University of Texas
Medical Branch. Starting salaries for registered
EEG technologists were $1,000 to $2,000 high­
er. Top salaries of experienced EEG technicians
ranged as high as $22,000 a year. Highly
qualified technologists may earn more as teach­
ers for special training, supervisors of EEG
laboratories, or program directors of schools of
EEG technology.
EEG technologists and technicians em­
ployed by the Federal Government are called
Medical Machine Technicians. Depending on
education and experience, beginning annual
salaries ranged from about $12,000 to $18,400
in 1982.
EEG technologists and technicians in hospi­
tals receive the same benefits as other hospital
personnel, including hospitalization, vacation,
and sick leave benefits. Some institutions
provide tuition assistance or free courses, pen­
sion programs, uniforms, and parking.

Related Occupations
Related occupations in supervised medical ac­
tivities are audiometrists, dental assistants,
electrocardiograph technicians, electrodiag­
nostic technicians, licensed practical nurses,
nursing aides, occupational therapy assistants,
surgical technicians, orderlies, physical
therapy aides, and psychiatric aides.

Sources of Additional Information
Local hospitals can supply information about
employment opportunities.

For general information about a career in
electroencephalography as well as a list of ac­
credited formal training programs, contact:
Executive Office, American Society of EEG Tech­
nologists, Sixth at Quint, Carroll, Iowa 51401.

Information on becoming a registered EEG
technologist is available from:
The Psychological Corporation, 304 E. 45th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

Health Record
(D.O.T. 079.367-014)

Nature of the Work
A medical record is a permanent document
giving a complete account of a person’s illness
or injury and the medical services rendered
while in a health care facilty. Ordinarily, it
includes such items as a patient’s medical histo­
ry, results of physical examinations, reports of
X-ray and laboratory tests, diagnosis and treat­
ment plan, doctors’ orders and notes, and
nurses’ notes. This record shows at a glance
what treatment has been given and what treat­
ment is planned for the patient. Medical records
also are used for research, insurance claims,
legal actions, professional review of treatment
and medications prescribed, and for training of
medical personnel. In addition, medical rec­
ords are used to evaluate the quality and cost of
various medical and surgical procedures, and to
plan health care in the community.
Managing an information system that meets
the medical, administrative, ethical, and legal
requirements of a health care delivery system
involves the teamwork of health record admin­
istrators, health record technicians, and health
record clerks. Often, these workers are referred
to as medical record personnel.
Record administrators direct the activities of
the health record department and develop sys­
tems for documenting, storing, and retrieving
medical information. They supervise the medi­
cal record staff, and train them for specialized
jobs. Administrators are responsible for com­
piling statistics for State or national health
agencies, assist the medical staff in evaluations
of patient care or research studies, and may be
required to testify in court about records and
record procedures. Health record admin­
istrators serving as department heads are a part
of the hospital management staff.
Technicians organize and evaluate health
records for completeness and accuracy. Using
standard classification systems, they code
symptoms, diseases, operations, procedures,
and other therapies and post these codes on the
records to facilitate retrieval of information at a
later time.
Health record technicians prepare data for
input into computers and also prepare records
for microfilming. They assist the medical staff
by tabulating data from records for research

purposes and may, for example, maintain spe­
cial registries showing occurrences of disease
by type, such as cancer, injury, or stroke. Tech­
nicians also maintain health-record indexes and
compile administrative and health statistics for
public health officials, administrators, plan­
ners, and others.
In response to inquiries from law firms, in­
surance companies, and government agencies,
health record technicians gather statistics and
prepare reports on such topics as types of dis­
eases treated, surgery, and use of hospital beds.
They may present medical records during legal
The day-to-day tasks of health record person­
nel vary with the size of the facility. For exam­
ple, in a small health care facility, a record
technician may have full responsibility for
managing the record department, whereas in a
large facility, technicians are likely to spe­
cialize in just one aspect of the work. In many
nursing homes, a record clerk—working under
a consultant who is a Registered Record Ad­
ministrator (RRA) or an Accredited Record
Technician (ART)—is responsible for main­
taining the health record system.

Working Conditions
Health record personnel generally work a stan­
dard 40-hour week in a. comfortable office en­
vironment within a hospital, nursing home, or
other health care facility. Because incorrect or
misplaced medical records could affect the
health and well-being of a patient, close atten­
tion to detail is required. Some aspects of the
job are highly repetitive.

Health record technicians held 22,000 jobs in
1982. Although most jobs are in hospitals, a
growing number are located in nursing homes,
clinics, community health centers, group prac­
tices, and health maintenance organizations.
Insurance companies employ record techni­
cians to tabulate and analyze data from medical
records for evaluating claims for reimburse­
ment. Public health departments hire techni­
cians to supervise data collection from health
care institutions and to assist in research. Man­
ufacturers of medical record systems, services,
and equipment employ health record personnel
to develop and market their products.
Some record technicians provide services to
nursing homes on a consultant basis. Other
self-employed record technicians specialize in
medical transcription—the typing of physi­
cians’ records and notes from dictating or rec­
ording equipment or, occasionally, from writ­
ten notes.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Most employers prefer to hire graduates of 2year associate degree programs accredited by
the Committee on Allied Health Education and
Accreditation (CAHEA) of the American Med­
ical Association in collaboration with the
Am erican M edical Record A ssociation

Health Technologists and Technicians/145
with similar duties include information clerks,
insurance clerks, library technical assistants,
medical secretaries, and medical transcriptionists.

Sources of Additional Information
A list of CAHEA-approved programs for health
record technicians, information about corre­
spondence courses, and general information on
careers in medical record management is avail­
able from:
American Medical Record Association, John Han­
cock Center, Suite 1850, 875 N. Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

Licensed Practical
(D.O.T. 079.374-014)

Nature of the Work

Record departments are likely to expand as hospitals increasingly monitor costs.
(AMRA). In 1982, community and junior col­
leges offered more than 80 accredited pro­
grams. Required courses include biological sci­
ences, medical terminology, medical record
science, business management, and data pro­
Credentialing of health record technicians is
voluntary, and is offered through the American
Medical Record Association (AMRA), which
awards the title of Accredited Record Techni­
cian (ART) to those who pass a written exam­
Because the number of technician jobs out­
number graduates from approved programs,
hospitals often advance promising record clerks
to technician status through on-job-training.
Medical record clerks with several years’ expe­
rience can advance to the technician level after
completing the AMRA Independent Study Pro­
gram, obtaining 30 credit hours in medical rec­
ord technology from an accredited college, and
passing the ART examination for accreditation.

Job Outlook
Employment of health record technicians is ex­
pected to grow faster than the average for all
occupations through the mid-1990’s due to the
health care needs of a growing and aging popu­
lation. Most openings, however, will occur be­
cause of replacement needs.
Directly influencing demand for record per­
sonnel is the extensive paperwork associated
with the delivery of health care—reports of
diagnostic procedures, laboratory tests, and
other clinical data needed for third-party pay­
ments, for professional review of decisions
about patient care, and for regulatory purposes.
Management’s need for accurate clinical data
for purposes of financial control is the most
important reason for anticipated employment
growth in the years immediately ahead,
however. Recently introduced changes in the
method of health care financing are expected to

heighten demand for record personnel to sup­
port management efforts to monitor and control
costs. The introduction of prospective reimbur­
sement for Medicare beneficiaries, for exam­
ple, will give hospitals a reason to monitor
patterns of diagnosis and treatment more close­
ly than ever before—and this will require analy­
sis of data maintained by health record techni­
The outlook for technicians with a 2-year
associate degree or its equivalent will be excel­
lent through the mid-1990’s. Health record
technicians are likely to need this level of train­
ing as the documentation of medical care be­
comes more specialized and complex. For that
reason, jobseekers without formal training may
experience strong competition as health record
technicians. Opportunities for part-time work
will continue, especially in nursing homes.

Earnings of health record technicians vary ac­
cording to locality. Beginning technicians in
hospitals and medical schools averaged
$12,000 in 1982, according to a national survey
conducted by the University of Texas. Experi­
enced technicians in hospital record depart­
ments averaged about $16,500. Some earned
over $19,000 a year.
In 1982, the 1,800 record technicians em­
ployed by the Federal Government averaged
about $14,400 a year. Outstanding record tech­
nicians may work up to higher supervisory
positions with corresponding pay increases, al­
though Registered Record Administrators fill
most positions.
Like other hospital employees, health record
personnel generally receive paid holidays and
vacations, health insurance, life insurance, and
retirement benefits.

Related Occupations
Health record technicians perform a variety of
technical and clerical duties including verifica­
tion, transcription, and filing. Other workers

Licensed practical nurses (LPN’s) help care for
the physically or mentally ill and infirm. Under
the direction of physicians and registered
nurses, they provide nursing care that requires
technical knowledge but not the professional
education and training of a registered nurse.
(The work of registered nurses is described
elsewhere in the Handbook.) In California and
Texas, licensed practical nurses are called li­
censed vocational nurses.
In hospitals, LPN’s provide bedside care.
They take and record temperatures and blood
pressures, change dressings, administer certain
prescribed medicines, and help patients with
bathing and other personal hygiene. They assist
physicians and registered nurses in examining
patients and in carrying out nursing pro­
cedures. They also assist in the delivery, care,
and feeding of infants, as well as in the re­
habilitation of patients. Some licensed practical
nurses work in specialized units such as inten­
sive care or recovery rooms. There they per­
form special nursing procedures and operate
sophisticated equipment to provide care for se­
riously ill or injured patients. In some in­
stances, experienced LPN’s supervise hospital
attendants and nursing aides.
LPN’s who work in private homes provide
day-to-day patient care that seldom involves
highly technical procedures or complicated
equipment. In addition to providing nursing
care, they may prepare meals, see that patients
are comfortable, and help keep up their morale.
They may teach family members how to per­
form simple nursing tasks.

Working Conditions
Licensed practical nurses in hospitals generally
work 40 hours a week, but often this includes
some work at night and on weekends and holi­
days. They often must stand for long periods
and help patients move in bed, stand, or walk.
In private homes, LPN’s usually work 8 to 12
hours a day and go home at night. Private duty
nursing affords a great deal of independence in
setting work hours and the length and frequen­
cy of vacations.

146/Occupational Outlook Handbook
Licensed practical nurses held more than
594,000 jobs in 1982.
Well over half the wage and salary jobs were
in hospitals, as the accompanying chart shows.
A substantial number of jobs were in nursing
homes, and the rest were in schools, clinics,
and doctors’ offices, for the most part.
An estimated 10 percent of LPN jobs are held
by private duty nurses. These LPN’s are either
self-employed, in which case they are hired
directly by patients or their families, or they are
employees of a nurses’ registry or temporary
help agency. About 3 LPN’s in 10 work part

Training, Other Qualifications, and
All States and the District of Columbia require
practical nurses to have a license. To become
licensed, applicants must complete a State-ap­
proved program in practical nursing and pass a
written examination. Educational requirements
for enrollment in State-approved training pro­
grams range from completion of ninth grade to
high school graduation, but a high school diplo­
ma is usually preferred.

In 1982, about 1,300 State-approved pro­
grams provided practical nursing training.
Trade, technical, or vocational schools offered
more than half of these programs. Other pro­
grams were available at community and junior
colleges, hospitals, and health agencies. Sever­
al programs operated by the Armed Forces for
military personnel were State-approved for
practical nurse training. Graduates of these pro­
grams can apply for licensure.
Practical nurse training programs generally
last 1year and include both classroom study and
clinical practice. Classroom instruction covers
nursing concepts and principles and related
subjects including anatomy, physiology, medi­
cal-surgical nursing, pediatrics, obstetrics,
psychiatric nursing, administration of drugs,
nutrition, first aid, and community health. In
addition, students receive supervised clinical
experience—usually in a hospital.
LPN’s should have a deep regard for human
welfare and be emotionally stable because work
with the sick and injured can be upsetting. As
part of a health care team, they must be able to
follow orders and work under close supervi­

Licensed practical nurses must be sensitive to the needs of patients.

Advancement opportunities are limited, al­
though in-service educational programs pre­
pare some LPN’s for work in specialized areas,
such as postsurgery recovery rooms or inten­
sive care units.
Increasingly, however, practical nurse train­
ing programs are designed to allow practical
nurse graduates to continue their education and
eventually satisfy the formal requirements for
registered nurse. For example, in over 80 asso­
ciate degree RN programs, the first year of
study satisfies the educational requirements for
LPN. After this first year of study, students can
apply for licensure as a practical nurse and
begin working, or complete both years of
coursework and seek licensure as a registered

Job Outlook
Employment of LPN’s is expected to rise faster
than the average for all occupations through the
mid-1990’s in response to the health care needs
of a growing and aging population.
As in most other occupations, replacement
needs will be the main source of jobs, despite
the fact that LPN’s show an unusually strong
attachment to their field. Compared to workers
in other occupations requiring a similar amount
of training, LPN’s are much less likely to trans­
fer to other jobs. Individuals who stop working
as practical nurses tend to stop working al­
together; most resume homemaking respon­
sibilities. LPN’s not currently active in the field
thus augment the supply of approximately
40,000-45,000 persons who complete formal
training programs each year.
The acute care, high technology emphasis of
American medicine has had the effect, over the
past decade, of restraining employment growth
in practical nursing. The widespread adoption
of sophisticated medical technologies—a con­
cept that includes diagnostic and therapeutic
procedures as well as equipment—has pro­
duced a demand for highly skilled support staff.
Registered nurses, physician assistants, and
technologists are sought for the advanced train­
ing these positions generally require.
In academic medical centers, teaching hospi­
tals, and other institutions where the most ad­
vanced technology is in place, LPN’s are being
phased out and replaced by registered nurses.
This trend could accelerate if changes in the
health care delivery system lead to changes in
the mix of hospital patients. Specifically, the
emergence of “alternative” delivery systems
such as walk-in surgical centers and clinics that
handle less serious medical problems could
mean that a larger proportion of hospital beds
will be occupied by the sickest patients, whose
conditions require the application of sophisti­
cated technologies.
While a number of factors affect future pros­
pects for LPN’s, efforts to restrain the increase
in health care costs are particularly important.
Changes in the health care financing system are
likely to produce organizational changes in the
years ahead, including shifts in staffing patterns
in hospitals and nursing homes. In some hospi­
tals, fewer LPN’s and nursing aides will be
used, but in others, little change in the mix of
nursing personnel is anticipated.

Health Technologists and Technicians/147

Employment opportunities for LPN’s are ex­
pected to be more favorable in some settings
than in others. Prospects will be excellent in
nursing homes, home health agencies, and pri­
vate duty nursing—practice settings where the
number of LPN jobs is expected to grow rapidly
through the mid-1990’s. Fewer opportunities
are foreseen in other fast-growing settings:
Health maintenance organizations, clinics, and
free-standing emergency centers will probably
hire registered nurses instead.
Nearly half of all new jobs for LPN’s will be
in the hospital sector.

Related Occupations
Other jobs that involve working closely with
people while helping them include: Emergency
medical technician, social service aide, and
teacher aide.

Sources of Additional Information
A list of State-approved training programs and
information about practical nursing is available
National League for Nursing, 10 Columbus Circle,
New York, N.Y. 10019.
National Association for Practical Nurse Education
and Service, Inc., 254 West 31st St., New York, N.Y.


Median annual earnings of LPN’s who worked
full time in 1982 were about $13,000. The mid­
dle 50 percent earned between $11,000 and
$16,000. The lowest 10 percent earned $8,000
or less. The top 10 percent earned more than
According to surveys conducted by the Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics, LPN’s employed full
time in nursing homes in large metropolitan
areas earned annual salaries ranging from
$11,000 to $18,000 in 1982. Full-time LPN’s in
hospitals in large metropolitan areas earned
from $13,000 to $19,000.
Starting salaries of LPN’s employed in hospi­
tals, medical schools, and medical centers aver­
aged about $12,700 a year in 1982, according to
a national survey conducted by the University
of Texas Medical Branch. Experienced LPN’s
averaged about $16,600.
In 1982, Federal hospitals paid LPN’s with
no experience annual salaries of $10,645.
LPN’s with 1 year of experience received
$11,949 and those with 2 years, $13,369.
Many hospitals give pay increases after spe­
cific periods of satisfactory service. Raid holi­
days and vacations, health insurance, and pen­
sion plans are typical benefits provided by hos­

For information about a career in practical
nursing, contact:
National Federation of Licensed Practical Nurses,
Inc., P.O. Box 11038, Durham, N.C. 27703.

Information |about employment oppor­
tunities in Veterans Administration hospitals is
available from local Veterans Administration
hospitals and also from:
Recruitment Division, Veterans Administration, 810
Vermont Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20420.

For information on nursing careers in hospi­
tals, contact:
American Hospital Association, Division of Nursing,
840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60611.

For a copy of “Health Careers in Long-Term
Care,’’ write:
American Health Care Association, 1200 15th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20005.

(D.O.T. 078.161-018, .162-010, .361-018 and -034, .362026 and .364-010)

Nature of the Work
The field of radiology had its beginnings in
1895, when Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X-

rays, which permit a physician to view the
interior of the human body and diagnose condi­
tions such as fractures, ulcers, blood clots, and
tumors. With the application of computer tech­
nology to radiology during the 1970’s, the field
has been revolutionized. Today, the chances of
obtaining an accurate diagnosis are vastly im­
proved as vague symptoms are routinely trans­
formed into sharp, clear pictures. Sophisticated
computer imaging devices can screen nonsurgically for disorders, often on an outpatient
basis. This means less risk for the patient than
in the past, when there often was no alternative
to invasive tests and exploratory surgery.
New applications of radioisotopes and radi­
oactive tracers led to the growth of nuclear
medicine, while the invention of therapeutic Xray machines led to the birth of radiation
therapy, also known as radiation oncology.
More recently, advances in computer tech­
nology have made possible such imaging sys­
tems as computed tomography, ultrasound, and
digital subtraction angiography, all of which
provide physicians with a good “look” at inter­
nal organs with little risk to the patient. Al­
though discovered many years ago, some of
these imaging techniques have become
clinically practical only during the last decade,
thanks to improvements in electronic circuitry
that enable computers to handle the vast amount
of data involved in a single test. Imaging sys­
tems coming into use include nuclear magnetic
resonance and positron emission tomography.
The people who operate radiologic equip­
ment are called radiologic technologists or radi­
ographers. They should not be confused with
radiologists—physicians who specialize in the
interpretation of radiographs.
Most technologists operate equipment that is
used for diagnostic imaging: X-ray machines,
fluoroscopes, computed tomography (CT)
scanners, and ultrasonic scanners, for example.
These workers are still known as X-ray tech­
nologists in some places. However, as imaging
technologies based on concepts other than Xray exposure have come into use, radiologic
technologist or radiographer has become the
standard job title. Radiation is now an impor­
tant tool for the treatment of disease as well as
for diagnosis, and a distinction frequently is
drawn between therapeutic radiologic tech­
nologists and diagnostic radiologic tech­
nologists. The emergence of nuclear medicine,
radiation therapy, and ultrasound as separate
specialties has created additional job titles.
Before a radiologic technologist can perform
any work on a patient, a physician must issue a
requisition for the work. Similar to prescrip­
tions for drugs, these requisitions assure that
radiologic technologists examine or treat only
people certified by physicians as needing such
studies or treatment. At all times, technologists
must follow precisely not only physicians’ in­
structions but also regulations concerning use
of radiation to insure that they, patients, and
coworkers are protected from its dangers.
Because radiologic technologists often work
with patients who cannot help themselves,
good health, moderate strength, and stamina
are important. A sympathetic and understand­
ing manner is helpful, for technologists need to

148/Occupational Outlook Handbook
give clear instructions and explanations to pa­
tients who often are worried and anxious. Pa­
tients may be very ill or dying. Radiation
therapy technologists in particular are called
upon to develop a close and compassionate
relationship with patients and their families, for
in contrast to the pattern in other areas of radi­
ology, these technologists are likely to admin­
ister therapy to cancer patients every day for
several weeks or more. In radiation therapy,
nuclear medicine, and even ultrasound, it is not
uncommon for patients to have breathing diffi­
culties or to go into shock or cardiac arrest; if
this happens, the technologist must be ready to
assist until other medical personnel can be
called in.
Radiologic technologists (D.O.T. 078.362026) take X-ray films (radiographs) of all parts
of the human body for use in diagnosing medi­
cal problems. They prepare patients for radi­
ologic examinations, assuring that they remove
any articles, such as belt buckles or jewelry,
through which X-rays cannot pass. Then they
position the patients, who either lie on a table,
sit, or stand, so that the correct parts of the body
can be radiographed, always taking care not to
aggravate injuries or make the patients uncom­
fortable. To prevent unnecessary radiation ex­
posure, the technologist surrounds the exposed
area with radiation protection devices, such as
lead shields, or in some way limits the size of
the X-ray beam.
After the necessary preparations, the tech­
nologist positions the radiation equipment at
the correct angle and height over the appropri­
ate area of a patient’s body. Using instruments
similar to a measuring tape, the technologist
measures the thickness of the section to be
radiographed and then sets the controls on the
machine to produce radiographs of the right
density, detail, and contrast. The technologist
then places a properly identified X-ray film of
the correct size under the part of the patient’s

An X-ray is an important diagnostic tool.

body to be examined, and makes the exposure.
Afterward, the technologist removes the film
and develops it. Throughout the procedure, the
technologist is careful to use only as much
radiation as is necessary to obtain a good diag­
nostic examination.
Before a radiologist examines a patient by
fluoroscopy (watching a patient’s internal body
movements on a monitor or screen), the radi­
ologic technologist prepares a solution of bar­
ium sulphate for the patient to drink. As this
solution passes through the patient’s digestive
tract, for example, the radiologist looks for
diseases, injuries, or defects in the patient’s
digestive system. When fluoroscopic examina­
tions are performed, whether on the digestive
tract or on other parts of the body such as chest,
heart, or blood vessels, the technologist assists
the physician by preparing and positioning the
patient, adjusting the machine, applying the
correct exposure, and making any necessary
follow-up radiographs.
Nuclear medicine technologists (D.O.T.
078.361-018), also known as radioisotope tech­
nologists, participate in or direct various ac­
tivities involving radiopharmaceuticals in med­
ical diagnosis and treatment. They may work
directly with patients; conduct laboratory stud­
ies; do research; or handle administrative func­
tions relating to the purchase, use, and disposal
of radioactive isotopes and safety procedures
required in using them.
Nuclear medicine technologists calculate
and prepare the correct dosages of radi­
onuclides or radiopharmaceuticals given to pa­
tients by mouth, injection, or other means and
then position the patient for the imaging pro­
cedures. Using special equipment, tech­
nologists make images of the radioistopes or
radionuclides as they pass through or localize in
different parts of a patient’s body. They view
images on a screen or on films to detect the
existence of pathologic conditions, which are

determined by the distribution of radioactive
isotopes in various organs, glands, and body
systems. This information is used by physi­
cians in diagnosis. Small quantities of radioac­
tive isotopes may be administered to a patient,
and body specimens, such as blood and urine,
collected and measured for radioactivity level.
Radioactive substances may also be added to
body specimens to determine hormone and
drug content.
Other responsibilities include insuring that
radiation safety procedures are carefully fol­
lowed by all workers in the nuclear medicine
laboratory and that complete and accurate rec­
ords are kept. This includes patient medical
records, patient procedures performed, and
amounts and kinds of radioisotopes received,
used, and disposed of.
Radiation therapy technologists (D.O.T.
078.361-034) treat cancer patients. They pre­
pare patients for radiotherapy and administer
prescribed doses of ionizing radiation to dis­
eased body areas. Technologists operate vari­
ous kinds of equipment, including high energy
linear accelerators and particle generators.
They must position patients under the equip­
ment with absolute accuracy, in order to expose
diseased body areas to treatment while protect­
ing the rest of the body from radiation.
Radiation therapy produces side effects such
as nausea and vomiting, hair loss, and redness
of the skin in the exposed area, so the tech­
nologist must observe the patient’s reactions
and keep the physician informed.
Other responsibilities include assisting in
maintaining the proper operation of controlling
devices and equipment, observing safety mea­
sures for patients and clinical personnel, and
keeping or helping keep patient records, as well
as assisting in the preparation and handling of
radioactive materials used in treatment pro­
With additional education, available at major
cancer centers, radiation therapy technologists
can specialize and become medical radiation
dosimetrists. In this specialty, they work with
health physicists in determining the best radia­
tion dosages for various problems as well as the
special devices needed to expose only a small
section of a body part to radiation.
Ultrasound technologists (D.O.T. 078.364010), also known as diagnostic medical
sonographers, use special equipment to trans­
mit sound waves at high frequencies into the
patient’s body, then collect reflected echoes to
form an image. The image, which results from
the “bounce-back” of sound from the areas
being scanned, is viewed on a screen and may
be automatically recorded on a printout strip or
photographed from the screen for permanent
records and for use in interpretation and diag­
nosis by physicians. Ultrasound images can be
displayed as moving pictures—an important
feature for cardiovascular and prenatal studies.
Ultrasound has quickly become a mainstay in
obstetrics and gynecology, and is coming into
widespread use in other clinical areas as well.
Ultrasound technologists select equipment
appropriate for use in ultrasound tests ordered
by physicians. They also check the patient’s
other diagnostic studies for information.

Health Technologists and Technicians/149
Sonographers explain the procedure, record
any additional medical history considered nec­
essary, and then position the patient for testing.
Viewing the screen as the scanning device is
moved over the patient’s body, sonographers
must be able to recognize subtle differences
between healthy and pathological areas, to
check for factors such as position, obstruction,
or change of shape; and to judge if the images
are satisfactory for diagnostic purposes. A high
degree of technical skill and knowledge of anat­
omy and physiology are essential to recognize
the significance of all body structures present in
the ultrasound image.
In addition to the duties involved in prepar­
ing patients and operating equipment, tech­
nologists may have administrative tasks. They
may prepare work schedules, evaluate equip­
ment, and, in general, manage ultrasound de­
partments or facilities.

Working Conditions
Radiologic technologists generally work a 40hour week that may include evening and week­
end or on-call hours. Technologists are on their
feet a lot and may be required to lift or turn
disabled patients.
There are potential radiation hazards in this
field; however, these hazards have been reduced
by the use of safety devices such as instruments
that measure radiation exposure, lead aprons,
gloves, and other shielding. Because of the
presence of radiation and radioactive materials,
technologists wear special badges while they
are in the radiation area. The badge measure­
ment rarely approaches or exceeds established
safety levels because of safety programs and
built-in safety devices.
Radiologic technologists, radiation therapy
technologists, and nuclear medicine tech­
nologists are among the occupations covered by
the Consumer Patient Radiation Health and
Safety Act of 1981, which aims to protect the
public from the hazards of unnecessary ex­
posure to medical and dental radiation by mak­
ing sure that operators of radiologic equipment
are properly trained. The Act requires the
Federal Government to set standards that the
States, in turn, may use for accrediting training
programs and certifying individuals who en­
gage in medical or dental radiography.

Radiologic technologists held about 110,000
jobs in 1982. Most were diagnostic radi­
ographers. Nuclear medicine technologists, ra­
diation therapy technologists, and ultrasound
technologists hold a relatively small proportion
of all jobs in this field.
About 7 out of every 10 jobs are in hospitals.
The rest are located in physicians’ and dentists’
offices, clinics, and laboratories. About 2,500
radiologic technologists worked for the Vet­
erans Administration in 1982: these included
2,100 diagnostic radiographers, 300 nuclear
medicine technologists, and fewer than 100 ra­
diation therapy technologists.
Many technologists work part time.

Training, Other Qualifications, and
Preparation for this field is offered at the postse­
condary level in hospitals, medical centers,
colleges and universities, trade schools, voca­
tional-technical institutes, and the Armed
Forces. Hospitals, which employ most radi­
ologic technologists, prefer to hire individuals
who have completed a formal training program.
Technologists employed in physicians’ offices
may be trained on the job, however.
Formal training programs are offered in radi­
ography, nuclear medicine technology, radia­
tion therapy technology, and diagnostic medi­
cal sonongraphy (ultrasound). These programs
vary in a number of respects: Length of train­
ing, prerequisities, class size, and cost. Pro­
grams range in length from 1to 4 years and lead
to a certificate, associate degree, or bachelor’s
degree. Two year programs are most prevalent,
Some of the 1-year certificate programs are
designed for individuals from other health pro­
fessions who wish to change fields—medical
technologists, registered nurses, and respirato­
ry therapists, for example. Certificate programs
also attract radiologic technologists interested
in developing a specialization in nuclear medi­
cine, radiation therapy, or ultrasound tech­
nology. A bachelor’s or master’s degree in one
of the radiologic technologies is desirable for
supervisory, administrative, or teaching posi­
The Committee on Allied Health Education
and Accreditation (CAHEA) accredits most
formal training programs for this field. A total
of 8,300 persons graduated from approximately
1,000 CAHEA-accredited programs in 1982:
7,200 in radiography, 700 in nuclear medicine
technology, and 400 in radiation therapy tech­
nology. (Ultrasound programs were not ac­
credited by CAHEA until 1982, so most of the
100 or so programs in diagnostic medical
sonography are not yet accredited.)
Radiography programs require, at a mini­
mum, a high school diploma or the equivalent.
High school courses in mathematics, physics,
chemistry, and biology are helpful. The pro­
grams provide both classroom and clinical in­
struction in anatomy, physiology, patient care
procedures, physics, radiation protection, prin­
ciples of imaging, medical terminology, posi­
tioning, medical ethics, radiobiology, and pa­
While it is difficult to generalize about prere­
quisities for training programs in nuclear medi­
cine, radiation therapy, and diagnostic medical
sonography, a health professions background
generally is preferred. For some programs, it is
essential. About half of the CAHEA-accredited
radiation therapy programs, and several of the
diagnostic medical sonography programs, ac­
cept applications only from radiologic tech­
nologists and registered nurses. Nuclear medi­
cine technology programs accept medical
laboratory technologists as well as radiologic
technologists and nurses. Nuclear medicine
programs that do not require a health profes­
sions background generally expect applicants
to have 2-3 years of college; many require a
bachelor’s degree.

Procedures for professional credentialing of
radiologic occupations include licensure—re­
quired by law in 12 States and Puerto Rico—
and certification or registration, which is volun­
tary. Many jobs are open only to registered or
registry-eligible technologists. Hospitals, for
example, generally require CAHEA-accredited
training plus credentials in the appropriate radi­
ologic technology. Public health departments
and private physicians are more likely to hire
technologists without such credentials.
States that currently license radiographers
are: Arizona, California, Florida, Hawaii, Indi­
ana, Kentucky, Montana, New Jersey, New
York, Oregon, Vermont, and West Virginia.
Radiation therapy technologists must hold a
license in order to work in 6 States: Arizona,
California, New Jersey, New York, Oregon,
and Vermont. New Jersey and Vermont require
nuclear medicine technologists to be licensed.
(Puerto Rico requires a license for the practice
of all three specialties: Radiography, radiation
therapy technology, and nuclear medicine tech­
Registration is offered by the American Reg­
istry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) in
three technologies: Radiography, radiation
therapy, and nuclear medicine. Credentials in
nuclear medicine technology are also awarded
by the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certifica­
tion Board (NMTCB). The American Registry
of D iagnostic M edical S onographers
(ARDMS) certifies the competence of ultra­
sound technologists.
With experience and additional training,
staff technologists in large radiography depart­
ments may be promoted to positions that re­
quire advanced skills in special procedures in­
cluding CT scanning, ultrasound, and an­
giography, or they may move into supervisory
positions such as quality assurance tech­
nologist, chief technologist, and— u l­
timately—department administrator or man­
ager. Some technologists progress by becoming
instructors or directors in radiologic technology
programs; others take jobs as sales represen­
tatives or instructors with equipment manufac­

Job Outlook
Employment in the field of radiologic tech­
nology is expected to grow faster than the aver­
age for all occupations through the mid-1990’s,
reflecting the importance of these technologies
in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. None­
theless, most openings will come from the need
to replace experienced technologists who leave
the profession.
Most radiologic technologists are young
women, and the field is characterized by a pat­
tern of movement from family responsibilities
into the labor force and back to the home again.
Technologists who leave the occupation gener­
ally do so in order to go to school or assume
household responsibilities; relatively few trans­
fer to other occupations and fewer still remain
in the field until they are old enough to retire.
While job prospects for radiologic tech­
nologists are expected to be good, overall, there
are problems of maldistribution. Supply and

150/Occupational Outlook Handbook
demand appear to be in balance in major metro­
politan areas, but rural communities have diffi­
culty recruiting and retaining qualified staff. As
a result, hiring practices vary according to the
availability of trained personnel. In small towns
and rural areas, nurses, clinical laboratory tech­
nologists, and other health professionals may
be taught to operate radiologic equipment if
trained technologists are not available. This
rarely happens in suburban areas and large cit­
Opportunities for radiation therapy tech­
nologists should should continue to be excel­
lent, although it is important to bear in mind
that this specialty is very small. Currently, radi­
ation therapy technologists are in great de­
mand, and reports of a shortage are wide­
spread. Trends in the incidence of cancer and
other malignancies will continue to be the prin­
cipal factor affecting demand for these work­
ers. Not only has there been an increase in the
number of cancer cases detected, but more
cases are being treated by radiation—either
alone or in combination with surgery or chemo­
In nuclear medicine, demand is likely to
grow in emerging specializations such as nu­
clear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology.
NMR represents a new generation in medical
diagnostics and is a potential competitor with
computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis
of brain, brain stem, and spinal cord cases be­
cause it provides very effective imaging of soft
tissues. NMR equipment employs huge super­
conductive magnets and radiowaves to reveal
detailed information about the body’s anatomy
and chemical composition. The information is
processed by a computer and the resulting im­
age displayed on a videoscreen in a control
room. While some analysts believe NMR will
be a “boom technology,” it is difficult to predict
how rapidly the new, extremely expensive
equipment will be put into place.
Efforts to bring health care spending under
control could affect radiology. Recent changes
in the health care financing system may encour­
age hospitals to reduce the use of diagnostic
radiology services, and to be more cautious
about approving outlays for costly new tech­
nology and equipment. Steps such as these
might cause employment to grow less rapidly
than currently anticipated. However, it is too
soon to predict the employment impact of cost
containment efforts; the effect on radiologic
technologists remains to be seen.
Long term prospects for radiologic tech­
nologists will also be influenced by future
trends in enrollments in formal training pro­
grams, which are expected to level off or possi­
bly decline during the 1980’s due to the sharp
decrease in the population of college age. A
stable or somewhat smaller supply of newly
qualified technologists, coupled with rapidly
growing demand, would create a highly favora­
ble situation for jobseekers.

in 1982, according to a national survey con­
ducted by the University of Texas Medical
Branch. Experienced radiologic technologists
averaged about $19,300 a year.
Workers with specialized skills earn more.
Ultrasound technologists started at about
$16,400 in 1982, according to the University of
Texas survey; radiation therapy technologists,
at about $16,700; and nuclear medicine tech­
nologists, at $17,000 a year. Experienced ultra­
sound technologists averaged $20,500 a year.
Experienced radiation therapy technologists
also averaged $20,500, and experienced nu­
clear medicine technologists earned somewhat
more—$21,400 a year, on the average.
In 1982, the Federal Government offered sal­
aries of about $13,000 a year to radiologic tech­
nologists in entry level positions. Average
Federal salaries in 1982 were about $17,000 a
year for diagnostic radiologic technologists,
$18,200 for radiation therapy technologists,
and $18,400 for nuclear medicine tech­
Sick leave, vacations, health insurance, and
other benefits are comparable to those covering
other workers in the same organization.

Related Occupations
Radiologic technologists operate sophisticated
technical equipment to help physicians, den­
tists, and other health practitioners diagnose
and treat patients. Workers in related occupa­
tions include dental hygienists, electrocar­
diograph technicians, electroencephalographic
technologists, and clinical laboratory tech­

Sources of Additional Information
For career information, enclose a stamped,
self-addressed business size envelope with
your request to:
American Society of Radiologic Technologists,
15000 Central Ave. SE, Albuquerque, N. Mex.
Society of Nuclear Medicine, 475 Park Avenue
South, New York, N.Y. 10016.
Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers, P.O.
Box 31782, Dallas, Tex. 75231.

Information about a career in radiation
therapy technology is available from:
Vice President for Professional Education, American
Cancer Society, 777 Third Ave., New York, N.Y.

For the current list of accredited training pro­
grams in radiography, radiation therapy tech­
nology, nuclear medicine technology, or diag­
nostic medical sonography, write:
Department of Allied Health Education and Ac­
creditation, American Medical Association, 535 N.
Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 60610.

Surgical Technicians
(D.O.T. 079.374-022)

Starting salaries of radiologic technologists
employed in hospitals, medical schools, and
medical centers averaged about $14,900 a year

Nature of the Work
Surgical technicians, also called surgical tech­
nologists or operating room technicians, assist

surgeons and anesthesiologists before, during,
and after surgery. They work under the supervi­
sion of physicians and registered nurses.
They help set up the operating room with the
instruments, equipment, sterile linens, and flu­
ids such as glucose that will be needed during
an operation. Surgical technicians also may
prepare patients for surgery by washing, shav­
ing, and disinfecting body areas where the sur­
geon will operate. They may transport patients
to the operating room and help drape and posi­
tion them on the operating table.
During surgery, they pass instruments and
other sterile supplies to the surgeons and the
surgeons’ assistants. They hold retractors, cut
sutures, and help count the sponges, needles,
and instruments used during the operation. Sur­
gical technicians help prepare, care for, and
dispose of specimens taken for testing during
the operation and help apply dressings. They
may operate sterilizers, lights, suction ma­
chines, and assist with diagnostic equipment.
After the operation, surgical technicians help
transfer patients to the recovery room and assist
nurses in cleaning and stocking the operating
room for the next operation.

Working Conditions
Surgical technicians work in clean, well-light­
ed, cool environments. They need stamina to be
on their feet the whole time they are on duty and
to pay close attention during operations.
Most surgery is performed during the day,
but some workplaces, such as emergency sur­
gery units, require 24-hour coverage. A 40hour, 5-day workweek is normal for surgical
technicians, although many are required at
times to be “on call” (available to work on short
notice for emergencies).

Surgical technicians held about 35,000 jobs in
1982. Although some surgical technicians—
called private scrubs—are employed directly
by surgeons, most are employed by hospitals,
clinics, surgical centers, and other institutions
that have operating room, delivery room, and
emergency room facilities.

Draining, Other Qualifications, and
Nearly all technicians receive their training in
formal programs offered by community and
junior colleges, vocational and technical
schools, or hospitals. Although most programs
last from 9 to 10 months, some community
college programs last 2 years and lead to an
associate degree. In 1983, there were about 400
training programs for surgical technicians, of
which 101 were accredited by the Committee on
Allied Health Education and Accreditation
(CAHEA). High school graduation normally is
required for admission.
Accredited programs provide classroom
training as well as supervised clinical experi­
ence. Required courses include anatomy, phys­
iology, and microbiology. Other courses in­
clude the care and safety of patients during
surgery, use of anesthesia and its hazards, and
surgical procedures. Students also learn how to

Health Technologists and Technicians/151
sterilize instruments; prevent and control infec­
tion; and handle special drugs, solutions, sup­
plies, and equipment.
Some surgical technicians receive their train­
ing in hospital-based programs for students
who have a background in allied health fields.
The length of these programs varies from 6
weeks to 1 year, depending on the trainee’s
qualifications and the objectives of the training.
Students in these programs include practical
nurses, nursing aides, clinical laboratory aides,
radiology technicians, and emergency medical
Some surgical technicians are trained in the
Armed Forces. Regardless of where they are
trained, surgical technicians are expected to
keep abreast of new developments in the field,
such as laser surgery, so they can work with the
new equipment and procedures.
Obtaining professional credentials for this
occupation is voluntary; the Liaison Council on
Certification (LCC) certifies technicians who
meet entry level knowledge by successfully
passing a national certification examination.
Continuing education is required to maintain
the certification.
Manual dexterity is a necessity for surgical
technicians because they must handle various
instruments quickly. They must be con­
scientious, orderly, and emotionally stable. In
surgery, there is very little margin for error.
High school students interested in careers in
this occupation are advised to take courses in
health and biology.
Some surgical technicians advance to assis­
tant operating room administrator and assistant
operating room supervisor. Operating room ad­
ministrators deal with the day-to-day running of
an operating room, including ordering supplies
and arranging work schedules, while operating
room supervisors direct the work of other sur­
gical technicians.

Job Outlook
Employment in this field is expected to grow
faster than the average for all occupations
through the mid-1990’s. As in other occupa­