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Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin 1730

j j i ,i




for College

Bulletin 1730
J. D. H o dg son , Secretary

Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner


F o r sa le by th e S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D o cu m e n ts, U.S. G o v e rn m e n t P r in tin g Office
W a sh in g to n , D.C. 20402 - P ric e $2.00
S to ck N u m b e r 2901-0942


The growth of our N ation’s economy brings many changes in the employment outlook
for college graduates. New occupations emerge and old ones change in nature and attrac­
tiveness. To keep abreast of these changes, counselors and college students need an authori­
tative source of occupational information. T h e O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k fo r C o lle g e G ra d u a te s
is one such source.
T h e O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k fo r C o lle g e G r a d u a te s is a guide to employment opportunities
in a broad range of professional and related occupations for which a college education is
required, is becoming increasingly necessary, or is the usual educational background for
employment. The information is reprinted from the 1 9 7 2 -7 3 edition of the O c c u p a tio n a l
O u tlo o k H a n d b o o k . In addition to information on outlook, each occupational statement
presents information on the nature of the work, places of employment, education and train­
ing requirements, earnings, and working conditions.
Also presented is a brief summary of the expected overall supply and demand situation for
college graduates through the 1970’s.

Letter from the College P lacem ent Council
Accurate and detailed vocational guidance information is becoming increasingly im­
portant to college students planning their careers in a rapidly evolving occupational complex.
However, until recently, no publication has offered complete and authoritative informa­
tion tailored to the needs of young people preparing for professional and related work. The
O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k fo r C o lle g e G r a d u a te s makes a notable contribution by supplying
this information.

Robert F. Herrick
E x e c u tiv e D ir e c to r
T h e C o lle g e P la c e m e n t C o u n c il, In c..

I ll





Tomorrow’s Jobs for College Graduates.
Occupations ....................................................
Business administration and related pro­
fessions ........................................................
Accountants ..........................................
Advertising w o r k e r s ...........................
Bank o ffic e r s..........................................
Hotel managers and assistants . . . .
Industrial traffic m a n a g e r s...............
Marketing research w o r k e r s............
Personnel w o r k e r s................................
Public relations w o r k e r s ....................
Purchasing a g e n t s ................................
Clergymen ......................................................
Protestant ministers ...........................
Rabbis ...................................................
Roman Catholic p r ie sts......................
Conservation occupations .........................
F o r e s te r s .................................................
Range m a n a g e r s..................................
Counseling o ccu p a tio n s................................
Employment c o u n se lo r s....................
Rehabilitation c o u n s e lo r s.................
School c o u n s e lo r s ................................
E n g in eerin g ......................................................
A e r o s p a c e ..............................................
A gricu ltu ral............................................
Biomedical ............................................
Ceramic .................................................
Chemical ..............................................
Civil . ......................................................
Electrical ..............................................
Industrial ..............................................
Mechanical ............................................
M etallurgical..........................................
Mining ...................................................
Health service o ccu p a tio n s.........................
Physicians ............................................
Osteopathic p h y sic ia n s......................
Dental hygienists ................................
Dentists .................................................
Registered n u r s e s ................................
Optometrists ..........................................
Pharmacists ............................................
P o d ia tr ists..........................
Chiropractors .......................................


Occupational th erap ists.........................
Physical therapists ................................
Speech pathologists and audiologists 86
Medical laboratory w o r k e r s ............
Medical record lib ra ria n s....................
Dietitians .................................................
Hospital administrators ......................
Sanitarians ............................................... 98
Veterinarians ......................................... 101
Insurance occu p a tio n s.................................. 104
Agents and brokers ............................. 108
Claim a d ju sters..................................... 110
Claim examiners ................................. 113
U nderw riters.......................................... 116
Mathematics and related f ie ld s ................... 119
M athem aticians...................................... 119
S ta tisticia n s.............................................. 122
Actuaries .............................................. 124
Natural s c ie n c e s .............................................. 127
Environmental sc ie n c e s ........................ 127
G e o lo g is ts ...................................... 127
Geophysicists ............................... 131
M eteorologists ........................... 134
Oceanographers ......................... 137
Life s c ie n c e s ........................................... 141
Life scientists ............................... 141
B io ch em ists.................................... 146
Physical s c ie n c e s .................................... 149
C h e m is ts ......................................... 149
Physicists ...................................... 153
A str o n o m e r s.................................. 155
Food scientists ............................. 158
Performing a r t s ................................................ 161
Actors and a c tr e sse s............................. 161
D a n c e r s ................................................... 164
Musicians and music teachers . . . . . 166
Singers and singing te a c h e r s............ 169
Other art-related o ccu p a tio n s..................... 172
Commercial artists ............................... 172
Industrial d esig n ers............................... 174
Interior designers and decorators . . 176
Social sciences ................................................ 179
Anthropologists .................................... 179
Economists .............................................. 181
Geographers ........................................... 183
Historians ................................................ 186



C o n ten ts -C o n tin u ed

Political scientists ................................
S o c io lo g is ts ............................................
T e a c h in g ..........................................................
Kindergarten and elementary
school te a c h e r s ................................
Secondary school te a c h e r s.................
College and university teachers . . . .
Technician occupations .............................
Engineering and science technicians
D r a ftsm e n ..............................................
Writing occupations .....................................
Newspaper reporters ........................
Technical writers ................................
Other professional and related occupations .............................................................
Airline dispatchers .............................
Architects ..............................................
City m a n a g ers.......................................
Career planning and placement
c o u n se lo r s.........................................
Cooperative extension service
w o r k e r s..............................................







FBI special a g e n ts ................................
Flight engineers ............................. .. .
Home e c o n o m ists................................
Landscape arch itects...........................
Lawyers .................................................
L ib ra ria n s..............................................
Licensed merchant marine officers .
Manufacturers’ salesmen .................
Systems analysts ................................
Pilots and c o p ilo t s .............................
Programers ............................................
Psychologists .......................................
Recreation workers ...........................
Securities s a le s m e n .............................
Social w o rk ers.......................................
Soil scien tists..........................................
Soil co n serv a tio n ists...........................
Urban planners ..................................
Occupational Outlook Service Publications and M a teria ls..................................
Sources of Additional Information or
A s s is ta n c e ...................................................



Choosing a career is one of the
most important decisions a person
makes in his lifetime. Planning a ca­
reer calls for an evaluation of one’s
abilities and interests and for knowl­
edge of future employment oppor­
tunities. These employment oppor­
tunities will be shaped by varying
trends in the many industries and
occupations that make up the econ­
omy. General information on over­
all patterns of change can give
placement officers, counselors, and
students a background to under­
stand the outlook, the education and
training requirements, and the na­
ture of particular occupations.
N o one can accurately forecast
the future. Nevertheless, with the
wealth of information available, ex­
tensive econom ic and statistical
analysis, and the best judgment of
informed experts, the future world
of work can be described in broad
The projections of demand for
college educated manpower pre­
sented in this bulletin, as well as
projections of requirements for all
workers developed by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, reflect the Bureau’s
basic model of the economy in
1980. Thus, they are influenced by
the economic, political, and techno­
logical assumptions underlying the
BLS model. Specifically, the projec­
tions assume:
1. High levels of employment and
of utilization of available manpower
in 1980;
2 . no major event will alter sub­
stantially the rate and nature of eco­
nomic growth;
3. economic and social patterns
and relationships will continue to

change at about the same rate as in
the recent past;
4. scientific and technological ad­
vancement will continue at about
the same rate as in recent years; and
5. the United States will no
longer be fighting a war. Defense
expenditures can be reduced from
the peak levels of the Vietnam con­
flict, but a still guarded relationship
between the major powers will per­
mit no major reduction in arma­

ever, among industry divisions in
both the goods- and service-produc­
ing sectors, the growth pattern will
vary. (See chart 2 .) Slower than av­
erage growth in an industry, how­
ever, does not necessarily mean that
opportunities for college graduates
will not increase significantly. Those
very factors which tend to restrict
overall employment growth, for ex­
ample, laborsaving technological de­
velopments, may stimulate requirments for highly educated and
trained manpower.

Industry Profile
In d u strie s .
1970, 47.3 million workers were on
the payrolls of service-producing in­
dustries— government;
and retail trade; services such as ed­
ucation, health, and recreation;
transportation, communication and
other utilities; and finance, insur­
ance, and real estate. This was 13.5
million more than the number em­
ployed in 1960. The major factors
underlying this rapid growth were
( 1 ) population growth; ( 2 ) increas­
ing urbanization; and ( 3 ) rising in­
comes and living standards and the
accompanying demand for improved
health, education, recreation, and
security services. (See chart 3.)
Of the 47.3 million workers in
1970, 16 percent or 7.7 million
were college graduates. (In this bul­
letin, “college graduate” refers to a
person who has completed 4 or
more years of college work, whether
or not he or she holds a college
degree.) The expected rapid growth
in the service-producing industries,
where employment is projected to
increase by 26 percent, reaching
S e rv ic e -P ro d u c in g

To help understand the Nation’s
industrial composition and how it
affects employment, industries may
be viewed as either goods-producing
or service-producing. They may be
grouped further into nine major di­
visions according to the goods or
services produced. (See chart 1.)
Most of the N ation’s workers are in
service-producing industries, which
include activities such as education,
health care, trade, repair and main­
tenance, government, transporta­
tion, banking, and insurance. These
industries employed 80 percent of
all college graduates in the labor
force in 1970. The production of
goods— farming, building, extract­
ing minerals, and manufacturing—
has required less than half of the
country’s work force since the late
1940’s. Approximately 20 percent
of the Nation’s college graduates
were employed in these industries in
In general, job growth
through the 1970’s is expected to
continue to be faster in the serviceproducing industries than in the
goods-producing industries. How­




Chart 1

W h e r e p e o p le w o r k

Employment, 1970 (m illions o f workers! 1

Nondurable I


State and Local

Transportation and public utilities
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Contract construction

Wage and salary workers, except agriculture, which includes self-employed and unpaid fam ily workers.
Source: Bureau o f Labor Statistics.

59.5 million by 1980, should result
in a rapid rise in demand for college
educated workers in these indus­
T ra d e , with the largest number of
workers among the service- produc­
ing industries, has expanded rapidly
since 1960. W holesale and retail
outlets have multiplied in large and
small cities to satisfy the needs of an
increasingly urban society. In 1970,

employment was 14.9 million, 31
percent above the 1960 level. A p­
proximately 910,000, or 6 percent
of the workers in trade, were college
graduates. Even though an increas­
ing volume of merchandise will be
distributed due to rising population
and consumer expenditures, the rate
of increase in manpower needs will
be slowed by laborsaving technology
such as data processing equipment

T h r o u g h th e 1 9 7 0 ’s, e m p lo y m e n t g r o w t h w ill
v a r y w id e l y b y in d u s t r y

Percent change, 1970-80 projected
-1 0


and automated warehouse equip­
ment, growth in the number of selfservice stores, and the increasing
use of vending machines.
G o v e r n m e n t employment, which
has grown faster than any other in­
dustry division, increased by 50 per­
cent from 8.4 million in 1960 to
12.6 million in 1970. Growth has
been mostly at the State and local
levels which, combined, increased
by almost two-thirds. Employment
growth was greatest in agencies pro­
viding education, health, sanitation,
welfare, and protective services.
Federal Government employment
increased 19 percent between 1960
and 1970.
Government is a major area of
employment for college educated
workers. Alm ost 30 percent of Gov­
ernment employees, 3.7 million in
1970, were college graduates.
Government will continue to be a
major source of new jobs for college
graduates and nongraduates alike
through the 1970’s. By 1980, em­
ployment may be as much as 33
percent higher than in 1970. Most
of the growth will be in State and
local governments where require­
ments may rise to 13.8 million in
1980, 40 percent higher than the
9.9 million employed in 1970. Fed­
eral Government employment is ex­
pected to rise slowly to about 3 mil­
lion in 1980, 11 percent above the
1970 level of 2.7 million.
S e rv ic e a n d m is c e lla n e o u s in d u s­

Contract construction

Finance, insurance, and real
Transportation and public

Source: Bureau o f Labor Statistics.

trie s employment has increased rap­

idly in recent years due to growing
demand for maintenance and repair,
advertising, domestic, and health
care services. From 1960 to 1970,
total employment in this industry di­
vision rose by about two-fifths from
about 8 million to 11.6 million. In
1970, approximately 2.2 million
(1 9 percent) were college graduates.
Service industries will be among


t o m o r r o w ’s j o b s f o r c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s

agencies, which, combined, account
for nearly two-fifths of total employ­
ment in this industry division.

Chart 3

In d u s tr ie s p r o v i d in g s e r v ic e s o f f e r m o r e j o b s
th a n th o s e p r o v i d in g g o o d s

In d u strie s . Em­
ployment in the goods-producing in­
dustries— manufacturing,
ture, construction, and mining, al­
most 26.9 million in 1970, has in­
creased slowly in recent years. Sig­
nificant gains in productivity result­
ing from automation and other tech­
nological developments, as well as
the growing skills of the work force,
have permitted large increases in
output without corresponding in­
creases in employment.
Almost 2 million workers in
goods-producing industries were col­
lege graduates in 1970. Employ­
ment in these industries is expected
to increase to 12 percent above the
1970 level by 1980. However,
widely differing patterns of employ­
ment change have occurred and will
continue to occur among the indus­
tries in this division.
M a n u fa c tu rin g , the largest divi­
sion within the goods-producing sec­
tor, employed 19.4 million workers
in 1970, an increase of 16 percent
over 1960. New products for in­
dustrial and consumer markets and
rapid growth of the defense and
space-related industries spearheaded
growth through the 1960’s. Approx­
imately 8 percent of the workers in
manufacturing industries, or 1.6
million, were college graduates.
Manufacturing employment is ex­
pected to increase by 13 percent
through the 1970’s and reach 21.9
million in 1980. Durable-goods in­
dustries employment will increase at
a slightly faster rate (1 6 percent)
nondurable-goods industries
employment (9 percent). H ow­
ever, the rate of growth will vary
among individual manufacturing in­
dustries. The machinery industry,
for example, is expected to have the

G o o d s -P r o d u c in g
Workers (in millions)1
. X *

Contract construction


Service-producing industries .

i . — -------

Transportation and
public utilities


Finance, insurance,
and real estate


Goods-producing industries

0 ... 1


1 1 1 1






1 1 1 1

.. ..1

1 -1


1 Wage and salary workers, except agriculture, which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

through the 1970’s, creating many
job openings for college graduates.
Requirements in these industries are
expected to increase by about twofifths between 1970 and 1980. M an­
power requirements in health serv­
ices are expected to grow rapidly
due to population growth, increas­
ing coverage under prepayment pro­
grams for hospitalization and medi­
cal care, and expanding health care
facilities. Business services, includ­
ing accounting, data processing, and
maintenance, also are expected to
grow very rapidly.
T r a n s p o r ta tio n a n d p u b lic u tili­
tie s employment in 1970, at 4.5

million, was only slightly more than
one-tenth higher than in 1960. D if­
ferent areas of the industry, how­
ever, have experienced different
growth trends. For example, em­
ployment increased rapidly in the
airlines industry, but declined in the
railroad industry.
In 1970, approximately 5 per­
cent, or 2 3 4 ,0 0 0 of these workers,
were college graduates. Employment
opportunities are expected to con­
tinue to increase slowly through the

1970’s, but employment trends will
vary among individual industries. A
rapid increase in employment in air
transportation is expected and a
continuing decline in railroad em­
ployment; little or no change is ex­
pected in water transportation and
electric, gas, and sanitary services.
Overall employment in these indus­
tries is expected to increase to more
than 4.7 million in 1980, 5 percent
above the 1970 level.
F in a n ce , in su ra n c e, a n d rea l e s­
ta te , which has the smallest number

of workers of the service-producing
industries, grew 38 percent since
1960, from 2.7 million to 3.7 mil­
lion in 1970. Sixteen percent of the
workers, or almost 600,000, were
grew especially rapidly in banking,
credit agencies, security and com ­
modity brokers, and dealers’ ex­
Employment in finance, insur­
ance, and real estate is projected to
keep in step with total employment
through the 1970’s, rising to 4.3
million by 1980, 16 percent above
the 1970 level. The most rapid ad­
vances will be in banking and credit

largest need for additional workers
as employment rises from nearly 2
million to more than 2.4 million. In­
dustries producing rubber and plastic
products; furniture and fixtures;
stone, clay, and glass products; and
instruments will be among other
rapidly growing manufacturing in­
dustries. In contrast, employment in
some manufacturing industries may
decline, for example, food, textile
mill products, tobacco, and petro­
leum refining.
A g r ic u ltu r e , which until the late
1800’s employed more than half of
all workers, employed only 5 per­
cent of the workers, or 3.4 million,
105,000, about 3 percent of the
total, were college graduates. Em ­
ployment in agriculture dropped by
two-fifths from 1960. A n increase in
the average size of farms, rapid
mechanization, and improved ferti­
lizers, feeds, and pesticides have cre­
ated large increases in output at the
same time that employment has
fallen sharply. The outlook in 1980
is for a farm work force 13 percent
smaller than in 1970.
C o n tr a c t c o n s tr u c tio n
ment, at more than 3.3 million in
1970, increased more than one-sixth
from 1960. In 1970, approximately
4 percent of the workers in the con­
struction industry, or 125,000, were
college graduates. Between 1970
and 1980, contract construction em­
ployment is expected to grow by al­
most two-fifths to 4.6 million. Fac­
tors that may spur an increase in
construction activity include an ex­
panding econom y resulting in more
plants and commercial establish­
ments such as office buildings,
stores, and banks; an increase in the
volume of construction maintenance
and repair (currently about onethird of new construction activity);
higher standards of living; increases


in population; and larger govern­
ment expenditures for urban renew­
al, school construction, and roads.
M in in g employment, at about
6 2 0,000 in 1970, declined by nearly
13 percent from 1960, primarily be­
cause of laborsaving technological
changes and a shift to sources of
power other than coal. The mining
industry, however, has the highest
proportion of college educated
workers among the goods-producing
industries. In 1970, 12 percent of
the employees, almost 75,000, were
college graduates.
Decreases in employment are
likely to continue through the
1970’s in all areas of the mining
industry except quarrying and other
nonmetallic mining. Total employ­
ment in mining is expected to de­
cline to about 550,000 by 1980, 12
percent below the 1970 level.
Occupational Profile
As industrial operations have
grown more complex and mecha­
nized, occupations have become
more complex and specialized, with
a shift toward white-collar jobs. In
1956, for the first time in the N a­
tion’s history, white-collar workers
— professional, managerial, clerical,
and sales— outnumbered blue-collar
workers— craftsmen, operatives, and
Through the 1970’s, there is
likely to be a continuation of the
rapid growth of white-collar occupa­
tions, slower than average growth of
blue-collar occupations, a faster
than average growth of service
workers, and a further decline of
farm workers. Total employment is
expected to increase 21 percent be­
tween 1970 and 1980. Employment
of white-collar workers is expected
to increase by 27 percent, while
blue-collar employment is expected

to increase by only 12 percent. By
1980, white-collar workers will ac­
count for more than one-half of all
employed workers, compared with
48 percent in 1970. The rapid
growth expected for white-collar and
service workers reflects continuing
expansion of the service-producing
industries which employ a relatively
large proportion of these- workers.
The growing demand for workers to
perform research and development,
to provide education and health
services, and to process the increas­
ing amount of paperwork through­
out all types of enterprise also will be
significant in the growth of whitecollar jobs. The slower than average
growth of blue-collar and farm
workers reflects the expanding use
of laborsaving equipment in the N a­
tion’s industries and farms and the
relatively slow growth of the goodsproducing industries that employ
large proportions of blue-collar
Reflecting the mounting supply of
college graduates and the shift to­
ward white-collar employment and
the rapid growth in professional oc­
cupations, the proportion of college
graduates in the labor force is in­
creasing. For example, in 1962, 11.5
percent of all workers were college
graduates. By 1970, approximately
13 percent or 10 million of the 78.6
million workers in the labor force
were college graduates. By 1980,
16.8 percent— over 15.9 million
workers— are expected to be college
graduates. Am ong reasons for the
growth in the employment of college
graduates are: (1 ) Employers are
seeking people who have higher lev­
els of education because jobs are
more complex and require greater
skill; ( 2 ) employment in those oc­
cupations requiring the most educa­
tion, for example, professional occu­
pations, will show the fastest growth


t o m o r r o w ’s j o b s f o r c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s

through the 1970’s; and
(3 )
through the 1970’s the number of
young workers will increase and
these workers will have more educa­
tion on the average than did new
entrants to the labor force in pre­
vious years.
The following sections describe
the changes that are expected to
occur among the broad occupational
groups through the 1970’s.
W h ite -c o lla r w o r k e r s — professional
and technical, managers, clerical
and sales workers— numbered about
38 million in 1970. Approximately
25 percent or 9.5 million were col­
lege graduates. (See chart 4 .) In
1980, 32 percent or 15.3 million
of the projected 48.3 million whitecollar workers are expected to be
college graduates.

group from 1970 to 1980. Increased
emphasis on socioeconom ic prog­
ress, urban renewal, transportation,
harnessing the ocean, and on the en­
vironment will account for an ex­
pected 40 percent increase among
professional, technical, and kindred
workers. Among the fastest growing
occupations in this group are dental
hygienists, medical laboratory work­
ers, oceanographers, programers,
systems analysts, and pilots.
Alm ost 60 percent (6 .7 million)
of all professional and technical
workers were college graduates in
1970. If present trends continue,
more than two-thirds, 10.5 million,
of the projected 15.5 million work­
ers in the group will be college
graduates in 1980.

P ro fe ssio n a l a n d te c h n ic a l w o r k ­

to rs totaled 8.3 million in 1970 and

ers, the third largest occupational
group in 1970, with more than 11.1
million workers, include such highly
trained personnel as doctors, teach­
ers, engineers, dentists, accountants,
and clergymen.
Professional occupations will be
the fastest growing occupational

are expected to grow at a somewhat
slower rate (15 percent) than the
average for all groups. As in the
past, the need for salaried managers
is likely to continue to increase rap­
idly because of the increasing de­
pendence of business organizations
and government agencies on man­

M a n a g e rs, officials, a n d p r o p r ie ­

Chart 4

C o lle g e g r a d u a t e s a re p r im a r il y in w h it e -c o lla r
o c c u p a t io n s
Workers, 1970 (in millions)






agement specialists. On the other
hand, the number of self-employed
managers is expected to continue to
decline through the 1970’s as larger
businesses continue to restrict growth
of small owner-operated firms.
Reflecting these trends, the pro­
portion of college graduates in man­
agement positions is expected to in­
crease from 20 percent in 1970 to
over 30 percent by 1980. In abso­
lute terms, the employment of col­
lege graduates is expected to in­
crease from 1.7 million to about 2.9
C le ric a l w o r k e rs, numbering 13.7
million in 1970, include workers
who operate computers and office
machines, keep records, take dicta­
tion, and type. Many new clerical
positions are expected to open up as
industries employing large num­
bers of clerical workers continue to
expand. The trend in retail stores
transferring to
workers functions performed by
sales persons also will tend to in­
crease the need for clerical workers.
The demand will be particularly
strong for those qualified to handle
jobs created by the change of cler­
ical operations to electronic data
processing operations. However, the
use of electronic bookkeeping ma­
chines and other mechanical devices
to do processing and repetitive work
is expected to reduce the number of
clerks in .such jobs as filing, making
up payrolls, keeping track of inven­
tories, and billing customers. On the
other hand requirements for bank
tellers, electronic computer opera­
ting personnel, and receptionists will
grow at rapid rates in the 1970’s.
Employment of clerical workers as
a group is expected to increase by
more than one-fourth between 1970
and 1980. Approximately 5 percent
or 650,000 clerical and related
workers were college graduates in


1970. This proportion is expected
to remain about the same through
the 1970’s.
S a le sw o rk e r s,
million in
1970, are found in retail stores,
wholesale firms, insurance compa­
nies, real estate agencies, manufac­
turing firms, and firms offering
goods door to door. Between 1970
and 1980, employment of sales­
workers is expected to increase by
almost one-fourth to 6 million.
Manufacturers’ salesmen are ex­
pected to be the fastest growing
group of salesworkers.
Increasing sales of many new
products resulting from population
growth, product development, and
business expansion are among themajor reasons underlying the ex­
pected increase inemployment of
salesworkers. The expected in­
creases in residential and commer­
cial construction and urban renew­
al may increase the need for real
estate agents. Continued extension
of such laws as workers compensa­
tion and automobile liability insur­
ance should boost the need for insur­
ance salesmen. The trend for stores
to remain open longer hours should
increase the need for retail salesmen.
However, changes in distribution
methods, such as self-service and
automatic vending, are likely to re­
strict the growth of salesworkers in
In 1970, 5 7 0,000 persons, 12
percent of the total in sales occupa­
tions, were college graduates. By
1980, the proportion is projected to
reach 17 percent and number ap­
proximately 1 million. The rising
number of college graduates in sales
positions reflects to some extent the
trend for employers to hire persons
with the highest educational qualifi­
cations. An increase in the propor­
tion of salesworkers who are college
graduates, however, also reflects the


changing nature of sales occupa­
tions. Increasingly, sales personnel
are required to have technical
knowledge of the product or service
being sold, especially in manufac­
turing and computer fields.
T h e b lu e -c o lla r o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s

— craftsmen, operatives, and labor­
ers— employ small percentages of
college and university graduates.
Skill requirements in these occupa­
tions are more closely related to
vocational or on-the-job training
than to academic training, and these
jobs are usually not primary em­
ployment goals of college graduates.
In 1970, only about 1 percent of
the 27.8 million blue-collar workers
were college graduates.
S e r v ic e w o r k e r s , including men and

women who provide protective serv­
ices, assist professional nurses in
hospitals, give haircuts and beauty
treatments, serve food, and clean
and care for homes, totaled 9.7 mil­
lion in 1970. Employment require­
ments for this diverse group will in­
crease about 35 percent between
1970 and 1980, the second fastest
rate of increase after professional
and technical workers. Some of the
major factors expected to increase
requirements for these workers are
the rising demand for hospital and
medical care; the greater need for
protective services as urbanization
continues and cities become more
crowded; and the more frequent use
of restaurants, beauty parlors, and
other services as income levels rise
and an increasing number of house­
wives take jobs outside the home.
Employment of workers in health
service occupations will show the
most rapid growth of all service
In 1970, only about 1 percent of
service workers, or 130,000, were
college graduates, and about the
same proportion is expected by

1980. However, the number of per­
sons with some college training may
increase more rapidly through the
1970’s. Between 1959 and 1970,
the proportion of service workers
with 1 to 3 years of college jumped
from 6 percent to over 10 percent.
F a rm w o r k e r s , including farmers,
farm managers, laborers, and fore­
men numbered about 3.1 million in
1970. Employment requirements for
farm workers are expected to de­
cline to 2.6 million in 1980. This
decrease is anticipated, in part, be­
cause of continued improvements in
farm technology. For example, im­
proved fertilizers, seeds, and feed
will permit a farmer to increase pro­
duction without increasing employ­
A little over 1 percent of all farm
workers were college graduates in
1970, and a slight increase to nearly
2 percent is anticipated by 1980 if
past trends continue.

Demand and Supply for College
Graduates, 1 9 7 0 -8 0
Between 1970 and 1980, job
openings for workers with college
degrees will stem from two sources:
Growth in demand, and replace­
ment of workers who die, retire, or
leave the labor force for other rea­
sons. Growth will be the major fac­
tor influencing manpower needs for
college graduates. In addition to
growth in those occupations which
traditionally have required a college
degree for entry, manpower needs
will be affected by the fact that a
college degree is becoming more
necessary in jobs once performed by
workers with less education. Reflect­
ing these trends, the proportion of
jobs requiring a college degree is ex­
pected to increase in all major occu­
pational groups employing relatively
large numbers of college graduates


t o m o r r o w ’s j o b s f o r c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s

— professional and technical, mana­
gerial, and sales occupations.
Over the 1 9 7 0 -8 0 period, these
factors of growth, replacement, and
rising entry requirements indicate a
need for over 9.6 million college
U.S. colleges and universities are
expected to award a record number
of degrees through the 1970’s, total­
ing 13.6 million. Of these, 9.8 mil­
lion will be bachelors’; 3.4 million
masters’; and 4 7 5 ,0 0 0 doctorates.
These college graduates represent the
potential new entrants into the labor
force; however, not all can be con­
sidered part of the effective new
supply in the year they receive their
degree. M ost master’s and doctor’s
degree recipients, for example, are
employed before receiving advanced
degrees, and are- already counted in
the existing supply of college edu­
cated workers. Other new degree re­
cipients, especially at the bachelor’s
level, delay entry into the civilian
labor force by continuing their edu­
cation, entering the Armed Forces,
or becoming housewives.
Based on past employment pat­
terns, about 9.2 million of the 13.6
million new degree recipients will
enter the civilian labor force directly
upon graduation between 1970 and
1980. Bachelor’s degree recipients
will constitute 8.1 million; master’s
degree recipients 1.1 million; and
those with doctorates 22,000. Most
persons who will receive degrees
during this period and enter the
Armed Forces will have returned to
civilian life by 1980. Hence, the ef­
fect of the draft and the Vietnam
War on the supply of college gradu­
ates is assumed to be limited.
Besides new graduates, the supply

with career planning than was nec­
essary in the 1960’s, when college
graduates generally were in short
supply. Prospective supply-demand
imbalances are in the offing in sev­
eral occupations if college students
continue to prepare for work ac­
cording to past patterns. Am ong in­
dividual fields, for example, a more
than adequate supply of elementary
and secondary school teachers is ex­
pected while the supply of physi­
cians is expected to be below re­
The remainder of this bulletin
contains discussions of the outlook
in a variety of fields generally re­
quiring college training for entry.
Young persons should read the
statements on occupations in which
they have an interest, not only to
learn about the nature of the work,
earnings, and working conditions,

of college educated workers will be
augmented by persons who gradu­
ated before 1970 but were not in
the labor force in 1970. These other
entrants will include housewives ei­
ther entering the labor force for the
first time (delayed entrants), or
reentering the labor force when
their household duties no longer re­
quire their fulltime attention. Immi­
grants are still another source of
college educated workers. These
sources are expected to provide
many additional college educated
workers over the 1 9 7 0 -8 0 period.
Between 1970 and 1980, about 9.8
million college graduates are ex­
pected to enter the labor market.
(See chart 5 .)
In summary, a rough balance be­
tween supply and demand for col­
lege educated personnel is indicated
over the 1970’s, with the edge per­
haps on the supply side. The impli­
cation is that college students in the
1970’s must be more concerned

but also to learn about the prospects
for employment in the field in the
years ahead.

F r o m 1 9 7 0 to 19 8 0 . m o r e th a n 9 m illio n d e g r e e
r e c ip ie n t s w ill e n t e r th e l a b o r fo rc e
(in millions)

Degree level


1 Total first-time entrants also includes approximately 600,000 "other entrants",
composed of delayed entrants, reentrants, and immigrants.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics.



Many professional workers play a
major role in administering busi­
nesses and a wide variety of other
organizations, both private and gov­
ernmental. These workers generally
need a college degree to qualify for
jobs in their respective fields.
Though their disciplines are ori­
ented toward business management,
they perform functions which are
Whether their organizations are
small or large, employing only a few
people or many thousands, the deci­
sions they make and their effective­
ness in implementing these deci­
sions contribute greatly to the suc­
cess or failure of the enterprise.
This chapter describes some pro­
fessional occupations that are of
vital importance to the Nation’s
businesses— accountants, advertis­
ing workers, marketing research
workers, personnel workers, and
public relations workers. Workers
engaged primarily in managerial du­
ties are covered in the section on
M a n a g e ria l O c c u p a tio n s found else­
where in the H a n d b o o k .

tioners who work on a fee basis for
businesses and individuals, or as a
member or employee of account­
ancy firms. Management account­
ants, often referred to as industrial
or private accountants, handle the
financial records of the particular
firm for which they work on a salary
work on the financial records of
government agencies and often
audit the records of private business
organizations and individuals whose
dealings are subject to government

Accountants in any field of em­
ployment may specialize in such
areas as auditing, taxes, cost ac­
counting, budgeting and control, in­
formation processing, or systems
and procedures. Approximately 100
specialties now exist in the account­
ing field. Public accountants are
likely to specialize in auditing— that
is, in reviewing financial records
and reports and giving opinions as
to their reliability. They also advise
clients on tax matters and other fi­
nancial and accounting problems.
Most management accountants are
involved in some aspect of provid­
ing management with informa­
tion for decisionmaking. Sometimes
they specialize in taxes, budgeting
or internal auditing— that is, exam­
ining and appraising financial sys-

(D .O .T. 160.188)

Nature of the Work
Accountants compile and analyze
business records and prepare finan­
cial reports, such as profit and loss
statements, balance sheets, cost
studies, and tax reports. The major
fields are public, management, and
government accounting. Public ac­
countants are independent practi­



terns and management control pro­
cedures. Many accountants in the
Federal Government are employed
as Internal Revenue agents, investi­
gators, and bank examiners, as well
as in regular accounting positions.

closely related field is increasingly
an asset; for better positions, it may
be required. Candidates having a
master’s degree in accounting, as
well as college training in other
business and liberal arts subjects,
are preferred by many firms.
Previous work experience also
Places of Employment
can be of great value in qualifying
for employment. A number of col­
About 500,000 accountants were
leges offer students an opportunity
employed in 1970, of whom over
to get such experience through in­
100,000 were Certified Public A c­
ternship programs conducted in co­
countants (C P A ’s ) . Accounting is
operation with public accounting or
one of the largest fields of profes­
business firms. For beginning ac­
sional employment for men. About
counting positions, the Federal
2 percent of the C PA ’s and less
Government requires 4 years of col­
than 20 percent of all accountants
lege training (including 24 semester
are women.
hours in accounting) or an equiva­
More than three-fifths of all ac­
lent combination of education and
countants do management account­
experience. Most universities re­
ing work. A n additional one-fifth
quire the master’s degree or the
are engaged in public accounting as
doctorate with the Certified Public
proprietors, partners, or employees
Accountancy Certificate for teach­
of independent accounting firms.
ing positions.
Over 10 percent work for Federal,
All States require that anyone
State and local government agen­
practicing in the State as a “certified
cies. A small number teach in col­
public accountant” must hold a cer­
leges and universities.
tificate issued by the State board of
Accountants are employed wher
accountancy. The CPA examina­
ever business, industrial, or govern­
tion, administered by the American
mental organizations are located.
Institute of Certified Public A c­
The majority, however, work in
countants, is used by all states to es­
large metropolitan centers where
tablish certification. In 1970, half the
there is a particularly heavy concen­
States had laws that required CPA
tration of public accounting firms
candidates to be college graduates.
and central offices of large business
In recent years, nearly 9 out of 10
successful CPA candidates have
been college graduates, and a ma­
jority of the remainder have had at
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
least 1 year of college training.
Young people interested in an ac­
Training in accounting can be ob­
counting career should be aware
tained in universities, 4-year col­
that recent reports by the American
leges, junior colleges, accounting
Institute of Certified Public A c­
and private business schools, and
countants indicate that, in the near
correspondence schools. Graduates
future, some States may require
of all these institutions are included
in the ranks of successful account­ CPA candidates to have a graduate
degree. Before the CPA certificate
ants; however, a bachelor’s degree
with a major in accounting or a is issued, at least 2 years of public


accounting experience is required
by nearly all States.
Considerably more than half the
States restrict the title “public ac­
countant” to those who are licensed
or registered. Requirements for li­
censing and registration vary con­
siderably from one State to another.
Information on these requirements
may be obtained directly from indi­
vidual State boards of accountancy,
or from the National Society of
Public Accountants.
Inexperienced accountants usu­
ally begin with fairly routine work.
Junior public accountants may be
assigned to detailed work such as
verifying cash balances or inspect­
ing vouchers. They may advance to
semisenior positions in 1 or 2 years
and to senior positions within an­
other 1 or 2 years. In the larger
firms, those successful in dealing
with top industry executives often
become supervisors, managers, or
partners, or transfer to executive
positions in private accounting.
Some become independent practi­
Beginners in management ac­
counting may start as ledger ac­
countants, junior internal auditors,
or as trainees for technical account­
ing positions. They may rise to chief
plant accountant, chief cost account­
ant, budget director, senior internal
auditor, or manager of internal au­
diting, depending on their specialty.
Some become controllers, treasur­
ers, financial vice-presidents, or cor­
poration presidents. In the Federal
Government, beginners are hired as
trainees and usually are promoted
in a year or so. In the field of col­
lege and university teaching, those
having minimum training and ex­
perience may receive the rank of in­
structor without tenure; advance­
ment and permanent faculty status
are dependent upon further educa­



Accountants who want to get to
the top in their profession usually
find it necessary to continue their
study of accountancy and related
problems— even though they al­
ready may have obtained college
degrees or CPA certificates. Even
experienced accountants may spend
many hours in study and research in
order to keep abreast of legal and
business developments that affect
their work. More and more account­
ants are studying computer opera­
tion, programing, mathematics, and
quantitative methods in order to
adapt accounting procedures to new
methods of processing business
data. Although advancement may
be rapid for capable accountants,
those having inadequate academic
preparation are likely to be assigned
to routine jobs and may find them­
selves handicapped in obtaining

Employment Outlook
Accounting employment is ex­
pected to expand very rapidly dur­
ing the 1970’s because of such fac­
tors as the greater use of accounting
information in business manage­
ment; complex and changing tax
systems; the growth in size and num­
ber of business corporations re­
quired to provide financial reports
to stockholders; and the increasing
use of accounting services by small
business organizations. As a result,
opportunities for accountants are
expected to be excellent. Demand
for college-trained accountants will
be stronger than the demand for
people without this academic back­
ground, because of the growing
complexity of business accounting
requirements. However, graduates of
business and other schools which
offer thorough training in account­
ing also should have good job pros­

pects. In addition, the trend toward
specialization is creating excellent
opportunities for persons trained in
a specific phase of accounting. In
addition to openings resulting from
employment growth, several thou­
sand accountants will be needed an­
nually during this period to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the
occupation for other reasons.
The computer is having a major
effect on the accounting profes­
sion. Electronic data processing
systems are replacing manual prep­
aration of accounting records and
financial statements. As a result, the
need for junior accountants at the
lower level may be reduced or elim­
inated. On the other hand, comput­
ers can process vast quantities of
routine data which will require the
employment of additional account­
ants to analyze the data. Also, the
computer is expected to cause rad­
ical changes in management infor­
mation systems and decisionmaking
processes in large companies. Addi­
tional highly-trained accountants
will be required to prepare, admin­
ister and analyze the information
made available by these systems.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries of beginning ac­
countants in private industry were
$8,500 a year in 1970, according to
a Bureau of Labor Statistics (B L S)
survey. Average earnings of experi­
enced accountants ranged between
$10,500 and $15,500, depending on
their level o f responsibility and the
complexity of the accounting system.
Chief accountants responsible for di­
recting the accounting program of a
company or one of its establish­
ments earned between $14,000 and
$23,000, depending upon the scope
of their authority and size of profes­
sional staff.

According to the same survey,
beginning auditors averaged $9,000
a year, while experienced auditors’
earnings ranged between $11,500
and $14,000.
Salaries are generally 10 percent
higher for accountants holding a
graduate degree or a CPA certifi­
cate. Earnings also are higher for
those who are required to travel a
great deal.
In the Federal Civil Service the
entrance salary for junior account­
ants and auditors was $8,510 in
1970. Some candidates having supe­
rior academic records could qualify
for a starting salary of $9,178.
Many experienced accountants in
the Federal Government earned
more than $15,000 a year. Those
having administrative responsibil­
ities earned more.
Public accountants are likely to
work especially long hours under
heavy pressure during the tax sea­
son. They do most of their work in
their client’s offices, and sometimes
do considerable traveling to serve
distant clients. A few management
and government accountants also do
much traveling and work irregular
hours, but the majority remain in
one office and work between 35 and
40 hours a week, under the same
general conditions as their fellow
office workers.

Sources of Additional Information
Information about C PA ’s and the
aptitude tests now given in many
high schools, colleges, and public
accounting firms may be obtained
American Institute of Certified Pub­
lic Accountants, 666 Fifth Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10019.

Further information on special­
ized fields of accounting may be ob­
tained from:


National Association of Account­
ants, 505 Park Ave., New York,
N.Y. 10022.
National Society of Public Account­
ants, 1717 Pennsylvania Avenue
N W , Washington, D.C. 20006.
Financial Executives Institute, 50
West 44th St., New York, N.Y.
The Institute of Internal Auditors,
Inc., 170 Broadway, New York,
N.Y. 10038.

(D.O.T. 050.088, 132.088; 141.081 and
.168; and 164.068 through .168)

Nature of the Work
Through advertisements, busi­
nessmen try to reach potential cus­
tomers and persuade them to buy
their products or services. Advertis­
ing workers plan and prepare these
advertisements and get them before
the public. Advertising workers in­
clude executives responsible for
planning and overall supervision,
copywriters who write the text, art­
ists who prepare the illustrations,
and layout specialists who put copy
and illustrations into the most at­
tractive arrangement possible. They
also include administrative and
technical workers who are responsi­
ble for the satisfactory reproduction
of the “ads,” and salesmen who sell
advertising space in publications or
time on radio and television pro­
grams. In a very small advertising
organization, one person may han­
dle all these tasks. Large organiza­
tions employ specialists for re­
search, copywriting, and layout
work. They sometimes have staff
members who specialize in writing
copy for particular kinds of prod­
ucts or for one type of advertising

media. The following are the spe­
cialized occupations most com­
monly found in advertising work.
A d v e r tis in g m a n a g e rs direct a
company’s advertising program.
They work mostly on policy ques­
tions— for example, the type of ad­
vertising, the size of the advertising
budget, and the agency to be em­
ployed. They then work with the
agency in planning and carrying
through the program. They also
may supervise the preparation of
special sales brochures, display
cards, and other promotional mate­
The advertising manager of a
newspaper, radio station, or other
advertising medium is concerned
chiefly with selling advertising time
or space; his functions are similar to
those of the sales manager in other
A c c o u n t e x e c u tiv e s employed in
advertising agencies handle rela­
tions between the agency and its
clients. An account executive stud­
ies the client’s sales and advertising
problems, develops a plan to meet
the client’s needs, and seeks his ap­
proval of the proposed program.
Account executives must be able to
sell ideas and maintain good rela­
tions with clients. They must know
how to write copy and use artwork,
even though copywriters and artists
usually carry out their ideas and
Some advertising agencies have
account supervisors who oversee the
work of the account executives. In
others, account executives are re­
sponsible directly to agency heads.
A d v e r tis in g c o p y w r ite r s create
the headlines, slogans, and text that
attract buyers. They collect infor­
mation about products and the peo­
ple who might use them. They use
psychology and writing techniques
to prepare copy especially suited for
readers or listeners and for the type

of advertising medium to be used.
Copywriters may specialize in copy
that appeals to certain groups—
housewives, businessmen, scientists,
engineers— or even in copy that
deals with items such as packaged
goods or industrial products. In ad­
vertising agencies, copywriters work
closely with account executives, al­
though they may be under the su­
pervision of a copy chief.
Advertisers and advertising agen­
cies employ m e d ia d ir e c to r s (or
s p a c e b u y e r s and tim e b u y e r s ) to
determine where and when advertis­
ing should be carried to reach the
largest group of prospective buyers
at the least cost. They must have a
vast amount of information about
the cost of advertising in all media
and the relative size and character­
istics of the reading, viewing, or lis­
tening audience which can be
reached in various parts of the
country by specific publications,
broadcasting stations, and other
P r o d u c tio n m a n a g e rs and their
assistants arrange to have the final
copy and artwork converted into
printed form. They deal with print­
ing, engraving, filming, recording,
and other firms involved in the re­
production of advertisements. The
production manager must have a
thorough knowledge of various
printing processes, typography, pho­
tography, paper, inks, and related
technical materials and processes.
R e se a r c h d ir e c to r s and their as­
sistants assemble and analyze infor­
mation needed for effective adver­
tising programs. They study the
possible uses of the product, its ad­
vantages and disadvantages com ­
pared with competing products, and
the best ways of reaching potential
purchasers. Such workers may
make special surveys of the buying
habits and motives of customers, or
may try out sample advertisements



to find the most convincing selling
theme or most efficient media for
carrying the advertising message.
The research director is an impor­
tant executive in advertising organi­
zations. More information on this
occupation is contained in the state­
A r tis ts a n d la y o u t m e n work
closely with advertising managers,
copywriters, and other advertising
personnel in planning and creating
visual effects in advertisements.
More information about this group
appears in the separate statements
on Commerical Artists and Photog­

Places of Employment
In 1970, more than 140,000 men
and women were employed in posi­

tions requiring considerable knowl­
edge of advertising. More than
one-third of these workers are em­
ployed in advertising agencies, and
more than half of the agency
workers are employed in the New
York City and Chicago metropoli­
tan areas. However, there are many
independent agencies in other cities,
and many leading agencies operate
branch offices outside the major
Advertising workers not em­
ployed in advertising agencies work
stores, and other organizations hav­
ing products or services to sell; for
advertising media, such as newspa­
pers and magazines; and for print­
ers, engravers, art studios, product
and package designers, and others
who provide services to advertisers
and advertising agencies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most employers, in hiring adver­
tising trainees, prefer college gradu­
ates having liberal arts training or
majors in advertising, marketing,
journalism, or business administra­
tion. However, there is no typical
educational background for success
in advertising. Some successful ad­
vertising people have started in such
varied occupations as engineer,
teacher, chemist, artist, or salesman.
Most advertising jobs require a
flair for language, both spoken and
written. Since every assignment re­
quires individual handling, a liking
for problem-solving also is very
important. Advertising personnel
should have a great interest in peo­
ple and things to help them sell
their ideas to their superiors, to ad­
vertisers, and to the public. They
must be able to accept criticism and
to gain important points with tact.
Young people planning to enter
advertising should get some experi­
ence in copywriting or related work
with their school publications and, if
possible, through summer jobs con­
nected with marketing research serv­
ices. Some large advertising organ­
izations recruit o u tsta n d in g c o lle g e
graduates and train them through
programs which cover all aspects of
advertising work. Most beginners,
however, have to locate their own
jobs by applying directly to possible
employers. Some start as assistants
in research or production work or
as space or time buyers. A few
begin as junior copywriters. One of
the best avenues of entrance to ad­
vertising work for women is through
advertising departments in retail
drive, and talent may progress from
beginning jobs to creative, research,
or managerial work. Management



positions require experience in all
phases of the advertising business.
Copywriters and account execu­
tives can usually look forward to
rapid advancement if they demon­
strate exceptional ability in dealing
with clients, since the success of an
advertising organization depends
upon satisfied advertisers. Many of
these workers prefer to remain in
their own specialities and for them
advancement is to more responsible
work at increased pay. Some top­
flight copywriters and account exec­
utives establish their own agencies.

Employment Outlook
workers is expected to increase
slowly through the 1970’s. Oppor­
tunities should be favorable, how ­
ever, for highly qualified applicants,
especially in advertising agencies, as
more and more advertisers turn
their work over to agencies. H ow ­
ever, many young people attracted
to advertising will face stiff competi­
tion for entry jobs in this field
through the 1970’s. M ost openings
— several thousand each year— will
result from the need to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the
occupation for other reasons.

ing agencies vary by size of firm.
The average salary paid by small
agencies (those having annual bill­
$1 million) was $11,000 a year in
1970. Advertising workers em­
ployed by large agencies (those
having billings between $20 million
and $40 m illion) averaged $26,000
a year. Salaries also vary by func­
tion. For example, account execu­
tives employed by small agencies
averaged $13,000 a year, while
media directors averaged less than
$7,000 a year in agencies of the
same size.
Advertising workers frequently
work under great pressure. Working
hours are sometimes irregular be­
cause deadlines must be met and
last minute changes are not uncom­
mon. Persons in creative jobs often
work evenings and weekends to
finish important assignments.
A t the same time, advertising is a
satisfying career for persons who
enjoy variety, excitement, and a
constant challenge to their creative
ability, and who can meet the com­
petition. Advertising workers have
the satisfaction of seeing their work
in print and on television, or hear­
ing it over the radio, even though
they remain unknown to the public
at large.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Sources of Additional Information
According to the limited informa­
tion available, starting salaries for
ranged from $ 6,500 to $8,000 a
year in 1970. The higher starting
salaries were paid most frequently
in very large firms that recruit out­
standing college graduates; the
lower salaries were earned in stores
and small advertising agencies.
Salaries of experienced advertis­
ing workers employed by advertis­

American Advertising Federation,
1225 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Association of Advertis­
ing Agencies, 200 Park Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.
Association of Industrial Advertis­
ers, 41 East 42nd Street, New
York, N.Y. 10017.

A list of schools which provide
training in advertising may be ob­
tained from:

Advertising Education Publications,
34ZwT'ifty-Fifth Street, Lubbock,
'Pexhs 79413.

(D.O.T. 186.118, .138, .168, and .288;
161.118; 189.118 and .168)

Nature of the Work
Practically every bank has a pres­
ident who directs operations; one or
more vice presidents who either act
as general managers or have charge
of bank departments such as trust,
or credit; and a comptroller or cash­
ier who (unlike cashiers in stores
and other businesses) is an execu­
tive officer generally responsible
for all bank property. Large banks
also may have treasurers and other
senior officers, as well as assistant
officers, to supervise the various
sections within different depart­
ments. Banking institutions em­
ployed almost 175,000 officers in
1970; women represented about
one-tenth of the total.
A bank officer makes decisions
within a framework of policy set by
the board of directors and existing
laws and regulations. He must have
a broad knowledge of business ac­
tivities, which he can relate to the
operations of his particular depart­
ment. For example, each time a
loan officer considers an applica­
tion, he analyzes the collateral and
uses his broad knowledge of busi­
ness activities. He also evaluates
carefully the credit analysis on the
individual or business firm applying
for a loan. Similarly, the trust officer
must understand each account he
administers. He must invest wisely
to manage trust funds which were
established for such purposes as
supporting families, sending young


people to college, or paying pen­
sions to retired workers. Besides
supervising financial services, bank
officers advise individuals
businessmen and participate in
many different kinds of community
Because of the variety of services
offered by banks, a wide choice of
officer careers is available for those
who wish to specialize in different
areas of banking. For example, the
lo a n o fficer must be familiar with
economics, production, distribution,
law. He also must have the ability
to analyze financial statements and
know the operations and customs of
businesses to which the bank ex­
tends credit. Careers in lending in­
clude: installment loan officer, com ­
mercial loan officer, credit depart­
ment loan officer, real estate
mortgage loan officer, and agri­
cultural loan officer. In trust serv­
ices, the tru st officer manages assets
belonging to individuals, families,

corporations, and institutions. Trust
management requires specialization
in fields such as financial planning
and investment. Specialized careers
in trust management include estate
administration, trust administration,
and investment research. The o p e r ­
a tio n s o ffic er plans, coordinates,
and controls the work flow, updates
systems, and strives for bank
efficiency. He also trains and super­
vises a large number of people.
Careers in the bank operations
area include: Customer services,
electronic data processing, and in­
ternal services.
Other career specialties include
c o r r e s p o n d e n t b a n k o fficer, who is

responsible for relations with other
banks; b ra n ch b a n k m a n a g e r, who
is responsible for all functions of a
branch office; and in te rn a tio n a l offi­
c e r, who is financial advisor to cus­
tomers in the United States and
abroad. A working knowledge of a
foreign language and knowledge of
a foreign country’s geography, poli­


tics, history, and economic growth
can help those interested in interna­
tional banking. Other career fields
for bank officers are auditing, eco­
nomics, personnel administration,
public relations, and operations re­

Places of Employment
In 1970, there were more than
commercial banks and
branch banks and more than 1,400
mutual savings banks and branches.
Bank employment is concentrated,
to a considerable extent in a rela­
tively small number of very large
banks and their branches. Thus, in
1969, the 500 largest commercial
banks in the country, each having
total deposits of $100 million or
more, employed more than one-half
of all commercial bank employees,
whereas over 8,000 small commer­
cial banks (having total deposits of
$10 million or less) employed only
about 10 percent of all commercial
bank workers.
Bank employees work mainly in
heavily populated areas. Approxi­
mately half of all bank employees
are located in New York, Califor­
nia, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and
Texas. New York City, the financial
capital of the Nation, has far more
bank employees than any other city.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Bank officer positions may be
filled by management trainees or by
promoting experienced clerical em­
ployees. Outstanding bank clerks
may be selected for promotion even
though their academic background
is limited, but college graduation is



the usual requirement for manage­
ment trainees. A business adminis­
tration major in finance or a liberal
arts curriculum including account­
ing, economics, commercial law, po­
litical science, and statistics serve as
excellent preparation for officer
trainee positions. Valuable experi­
ence may be gained through sum­
mer employment programs offered
by some banks.
M ost large city banks have wellorganized officer-training programs
usually ranging from 6 months to 1
year. Trainees may start as credit or
investment analysts or rotate among
bank departments to get the “feel”
of banking; bank officers then can
better determine the position for
which each employee is best suited.
Banks too small for formal officertrainee programs provide other
forms of training that enable train­
ees to understand bank operations.
Advancement to officer positions
may come slowly in small banks
where the number of these positions
is limited. In large banks having
special training programs, promo­
tions may come more quickly. For a
senior officer position, however,
many years of experience are usu­
ally necessary before an employee
can acquire the necessary knowl­
edge of the bank’s operations and
customers and of the community.
Although experience, ability, and
leadership receive great emphasis
when bank employees are consid­
ered for promotion to office posi­
tions, advancement also may be ac­
celerated by special study. Courses
in every phase of banking are of­
fered by the American Institute of
Banking, a long-established, indus­
try-sponsored school (See introduc­
tion to this chapter for more infor­
mation on the Institute’s program
and other training programs spon­
sored jointly by universities and
local bankers’ associations.)

Employment Outlook

Sources of Additional Information

The number of bank officers is
expected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s as banking activities ex­
pand. Increased use of electronic
computers enables banks to analyze
and plan banking operations more
extensively and to provide new
kinds of services. In addition, be­
cause bank officers are somewhat
older, on the average, than most
employee groups, a large number of
additional officers will be needed
each year to replace those who re­

Local banks and State bankers’
associations can furnish specific in­
formation about job opportunities in
local banking institutions. General
information about banking occupa­
tions, training opportunities, and the
banking industry itself is available

tire or leave their jobs for other rea­
sons. Several thousand workers will
be needed annually because of em­
ployment growth and the need to
replace bank officers who retire or
die. Many other openings will arise
as bank officers transfer to other
types of employment.
Although college graduates who
meet the standards for executive
trainees should find good opportuni­
ties for entry positions, many officer
positions will be filled by promoting
people already experienced in bank­
ing operations. Competition for
these promotions, particularly in
large banks, is likely to be keen.

National Association of Bank Wom­
en, Inc., National Office, 111 E.
Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111. 60601.

According to a private survey
conducted in 1969, large banks, in­
surance companies, and other finan­
cial institutions paid salaries ranging
from about $580 to $750 a month
to new executive trainees who were
college graduates.
The salaries of senior bank
officers may be several times as
great as these starting salaries. For
officers, as well as for other bank
employees, salaries are likely to be
lower in small towns than in big

American Bankers Association, Per­
sonnel Administration and Man­
agement Development Committee,
1120 Connecticut Avenue, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

National Bankers Association, 4310
Georgia Ave., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20011.

Information on career opportuni­
ties in consumer finance can be ob­
tained from:
The National Consumer Finance
Association, 1000 16th St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information about career oppor­
tunities as a bank examiner can be
obtained from:
Federal Deposit Insurance Corpora­
tion, Director of Personnel, 550
17th St., NW., Washington, D.C.


(D.O.T. 163.118 and 187.118 and .168)

Nature of the Work
Hotel and motel managers are re­
sponsible for operating their estab­
lishments profitably and, at the
same time, providing maximum
comfort for their guests. Of the
more than 190,000 hotel and motel
managers employed in 1970, about
90.000 were salaried and more than
Managers direct and coordinate the
activities of the front office, kitchen,
dining rooms, and the various hotel
departments, such as housekeeping,
accounting, personnel, purchasing,
publicity, and maintenance. They
make decisions on room rates, es­
tablish credit policy, and have final
responsibility for dealing with many
other kinds of problems that arise in
operating their hotels or motels.
Like other managers of business en­
terprises, they also may spend con­
siderable time conferring with busi­
ness and social groups and partici­
pating in community affairs.
In small hotels, the manager also
may perform much of the front
office clerical work. In the smallest
hotels and in many motels, the own­
ers— sometimes a family team— do
all the work necessary to operate
the business.
The general manager of a large
hotel may have several assistants
who manage one department or
more and assume general adminis­
trative responsibility when the man­
ager is absent. Because preparing
and serving food is important in the
operation of most large hotels, a
special manager usually is in charge
of this department. Managers of
large hotels usually employ a special

Manager checks convention

assistant, known as a sales manager,
whose job is to promote maxi­
mum use of hotel facilities. The
sales manager spends much time
advertising the facilities his hotel can
offer for meetings, banquets, and
Since large hotel chains often
centralize activities such as purchas­
ing supplies and equipment and
planning employee training pro­
grams, managers in these hotels
may have fewer duties than manag­
ers of independently owned hotels.
Hotel chains may assign managers
to help organize work in a newly ac­
quired hotel, or may transfer them
to established hotels in different cit­
ies or in foreign countries.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Since most hotels promote from
within, individuals who have proven


their ability, usually in front office
jobs, may be promoted to assistant
manager positions and eventually to
general manager.
Although successful hotel experi­
ence is generally the first considera­
tion in selecting managers, em­
ployers increasingly emphasize a
college education. Many believe the
best educational preparation is pro­
vided by colleges offering a special­
ized 4-year curriculum in hotel and
restaurant administration. Special­
ized courses in hotel work, available
in a few junior colleges, and study
courses given by the Educational
Institute of the American Hotel and
Motel Association are also helpful.
In colleges offering a specialized
4-year curriculum in hotel manage­
ment, the courses include hotel ad­
ministration, hotel accounting, eco­
nomics, food service management
and catering, and hotel maintenance
engineering. Students are encour­
aged to spend their summer vaca­
tions working in hotel or restaurant
jobs. The experience gained in these
jobs and the contacts with em ­
ployers may enable young people to
obtain better hotel positions after
graduation. In addition, students are
encouraged to study foreign lan­
guages and other subjects of cul­
tural value such as history, philoso­
phy, and literature.
College graduates who have ma­
jored in hotel administration usually
begin their hotel careers as front
office clerks; after acquiring the
necessary experience, they may ad­
vance to top managerial positions.
An increasing number of employers
require some experience in food op­
erations. Hotel chains may offer
better opportunities for advance­
ment than independent hotels, since
vacancies may arise in any hotel of
the chain, as well as on the central
management staff.



Some large hotel organizations
have established special programs
for management trainees who are
college graduates or for less highly
trained personnel promoted from
within. These programs consist
mainly of on-the-job training assign­
ments in which the trainee is rotated
among jobs in the various'hotel de­
partments. Some large hotels pro­
vide financial assistance to outstand­
ing employees for college study.

Employment Outlook
Well-qualified young people will
find favorable opportunities through
the 1970’s to obtain entry positions
that offer the possibility of promo­
tion to managerial work. Young ap­
plicants who have college degrees in
hotel administration will have an
advantage in seeking entry positions
and later advancement. Many open­
ings for management personnel also
will result from the need to fill va­
cancies resulting from turnover.
The number of hotel managers is
expected to increase moderately
during the 1970’s. New positions
will arise as additional hotels are
built, and as the number of motor
hotels and luxury motels expands.
See the introductory section of
this chapter for information on
Earnings and Working Conditions,
Sources of Additional Information,
and for additional information on
Employment Outlook.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Salaries of hotel employees in
managerial positions have an espe­
cially wide range, mainly because of
great differences in duties and re­
sponsibilities. Hotel manager train­
ees who are graduates of specialized
college programs start at yearly sal­

aries ranging from $8,000 to
$12,000 and are usually given peri­
odic increases for the first year or
two. Experienced managers may
earn several times as much as be­
ginners; a few, in top jobs, earn
$50,000 a year or more. In addition
to salary, hotels customarily furnish
managers and their families with
lodging in the hotel, meals, parking
facilities, laundry, and other serv­
Managers who live in
hotel usually have regular work
schedules, although managers may
be called on at any time.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on careers in hotel
work may be obtained from:
American Hotel and Motel Associa­
tion, 888 7th Avenue, New York,
N.Y. 10019.

Additional information on hotel
training opportunities and a direc­
tory of schools and colleges offering
courses and scholarships in the
hotel field may be obtained by writ­
ing to:
Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and
Institutional Education, 1522 K
Street NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 184.168)

Nature of the Work
Industrial traffic managers and
their assistants arrange transporta­
tion of raw materials and finished
products for industrial firms.
After analyzing various transpor­
tation possibilities, industrial traffic
managers choose the most efficient
type of transportation— rail, air,
road, water, pipeline, or some com ­
bination— the route and the particu­
lar carrier. They must consider fac­
tors such as freight classifications,
rates, routes, and regulations; com ­
pany time schedules; size of ship­
ment; and loss and damage rates.
This statement does not cover traffic
managers employed by railroads,
airlines, trucking firms, and other
freight carriers who are chiefly con­
cerned with attracting business to
their firms.
Activities of industrial traffic
managers range from routine check­
ing of freight bills to major planning
and policymaking. For example,
they decide whether the company
should buy and operate its own fleet
of trucks. They route and trace ship­
ments, arrange with carriers for
transportation services, prepare bills
of lading and other shipping docu­
ments, and handle claims for lost or
damaged goods. Traffic managers
maintain records of shipments,
freight rates, commodity classifica­
tions, and applicable government
regulations. Industrial traffic manag­
ers also must know about changing
transportation concepts, such as pig­
gyback freight or containerization.
Sometimes traffic managers are
responsible for the packaging of
shipments and for their companies’



warehouse facilities and transporta­
tion equipment.
Since many aspects of transporta­
tion are subject to Federal, State,
and local government regulations,
traffic managers must know about
these and any other legal matters
that apply to their companies’ ship­
ping operations. High level traffic
managers represent their companies
before rate-making and regulatory
bodies— such as the Interstate
Commerce Commission, State Com­
missions, and local traffic bureaus.

Places of Employment
In 1970, most of the over 18,000
industrial traffic managers were em­
ployed by manufacturing firms;
some worked for stores. A few were
consultants in business for them­
selves or for firms that handle trans­
portation problems for clients. Most
traffic managers are men.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although persons having only a
high school education can qualify
for a traffic manager position on the
basis of experience in traffic depart­
ments, a college education is be­
coming increasingly important for a
career in this field. For some kinds
of work, college training may be re­
quired. For example, in order to
argue cases before the U.S. Govern­
ment’s Interstate Commerce Com ­
mission, a traffic manager must
meet certain “qualification stand­
ards’’ which include at least 2
years of college. Some employers
prefer graduates having a degree in

traffic management, which is availa­
ble at more than 100 colleges, uni­
versities, and junior colleges. Others
prefer liberal arts majors who have
had courses in transportation, man­
agement, economics, statistics, mar­
keting, or commercial law.
traffic department em­
ployees often complete shipping
forms and calculate freight charges
in shipping rooms or general traffic
offices. After gaining routine experi­
ence, they may perform more tech­
nical work, such as analyzing trans­
portation statistics. A competent
worker may advance to a supervi­
sory position, such as supervisor of
rates and routes. The most compe­
tent may be promoted to assistant
general traffic manager and eventu­
ally to general traffic manager.
Workers in traffic departments
may advance by participating in
company-sponsored training pro­
grams, taking courses in colleges
and universities or schools specializ­

ing in traffic management, or at­
tending seminars sponsored by pri­
membership in the American Soci­
ety of Traffic and Transportation,
Inc. can be acquired by successfully
completing the Society’s four exami­
nations and meeting certain educa­
tion and experience requirements.
College credit may be substituted
for three of the four examinations.

Employment Outlook
A moderate increase in employ­
ment in this occupation is expected
through the 1970’s. Many new in­
dustrial traffic manager positions
will be created as corporations reor­
ganize their shipping and receiving
activities into separate traffic de­
partments to centrally control their
transportation functions.


Other factors expected to con­
tribute to growth in this field are the
increasing emphasis in many indus­
tries on efficient management of
transportation activities, and the
trend toward procuring raw mate­
rials and finished products from
more distant places and distributing
them to increasingly wider markets.
As more companies realize that
widely, they will become more con­
cerned with the economics of ship­
ping. Thus, a strong demand is ex­
pected for specialists who know
how to classify products so as to ob­
tain the lowest possible freight
rates, or choose the carriers that are
best able to handle each shipment,
and otherwise protect their compa­
nies from excessive shipping ex­


whose costs were still higher, some
traffic executives earned $40,000 or
more a year.
Traffic department employees
usually work the standard work­
week of their companies— generally
from 35 to 40 hours. Those in par­
ticularly responsible jobs may have
to spend some time outside regular
working hours preparing reports, at­
tending meetings, and traveling to
hearings before State and Federal
regulatory agencies.

Sources of Additional Information
For information on the require­
ments for certification write to:
American Society of Traffic and
Transportation, Inc., 22 West
Madison St., Chicago, 111. 60602.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Young men having college de­
grees who started as business train­
ees in the traffic departments of
large industrial firms often received
annual salaries of more than $8,000
in 1970 according to the limited
data available. Beginners having
less schooling, however, usually re­
ceived lower salaries.
Earnings of experienced traffic
managers are related generally to
their companies’ sales volume and
transportation costs. The average
(m edian) salary of traffic managers
in companies with transportation
costs totaling less than $1 million
annually was about $15,000 in
1970 according to the limited infor­
mation available. In companies
where transportation costs ranged
between $4 million and $10 million,
annual salaries ranged between
$25,000 and $30,000. In firms

(D.O.T. 050.088)

Nature of the Work
provide businessmen with much of
the information they need to make
decisions about marketing new and
existing goods and services. In
doing this, marketing research
workers collect, analyze, and inter­
pret many different kinds of infor­
mation. They prepare reports and
recommendations on such widely
differing problems as forecasting
sales; selecting a brand name, pack­
age, or design; choosing a new plant
location; deciding whether to move

goods by rail, truck, or other
method; and determining the kinds
of advertising likely to attract the
most business. In investigating
these and other matters, they con­
sider expected changes in subjects
relevant to marketing policies such
as population, income, and con­
sumer credit policies.
Most marketing research starts
with the collection of facts from
published materials, the firm’s own
records, and specialists on the sub­
ject under investigation. For exam­
ple, marketing research workers
analyzing fluctuations in their com­
pany’s sales may begin by determin­
ing periodic changes in sales volume
in several different cities. They may
then compare these fluctuations
with changes in population, income,
the size of the company’s sales
force, and the amounts the company
has spent for advertising in each
city, and thus discover the reasons
for changes in the volume of sales.
Other marketing research workers
may study changes in the quantity
of company goods on store shelves,
or make door-to-door surveys to
learn the n u m b er of c o m p a n y p rod ­
ucts already used in households.
Marketing research is often con­
cerned with the opinions and likes
and dislikes of customers. For ex­
ample, to help management decide
on the design and price of a new
line of television sets, a survey of
consumers may determine the price
they would be willing to pay and
their preferences as to color and
size of the set.
Such a survey is usually con­
ducted under the supervision of
marketing research workers who
specialize in research on consumer
goods— that is, merchandise sold to
the general public. In designing the
survey, the marketing research
worker may be assisted by a statisti-



cian in selecting a group (or “sam­
ple” ) of people to be interviewed to
make sure that their opinions repre­
sent those held by most potential
customers. He may also consult a
“motivational research” specialist
who knows how to frame questions
that will produce reliable informa­
tion on what motivates people to
buy. Once the investigation is un­
derway, the marketing research
worker may supervise the interview­
ers who call on consumers to obtain
answers to the questions. He may
also direct the work of the office
employees who tabulate and ana­
lyze the information collected. His
report summarizing the survey find­
ings also may include other infor­
mation that company officials need
in making decisions about market­
ing of old or new product lines.
Marketing research surveys con­
cerned with products used by busi­
ness and industrial firms may be
from consumer goods surveys. B e­
cause research on some industrial
products requires interviewers with
a technical knowledge of the prod­
uct involved, the marketing research
workers if it is an extensive survey)
often conducts the interviews. In his
interviews, he not only seeks opin­
ions about the product— existing or
newly developed— but also possible
new ways of adapting it to industrial
needs. He must, therefore, be a spe­
cialist both in marketing research
and in the industrial uses of the
product involved.

Places of Employment
More than 20,000 marketing re­
search workers were employed full

time in 1970. This number included
research assistants and others in
junior positions, as well as research
supervisors and directors. Most of
these workers were men. In addi­
tion, a limited number of other pro­
fessionals (statisticians, economists,
psychologists, and sociologists) and
several thousand clerical workers
(clerks who code and tabulate sur­
vey returns, typists, and others)
were employed full time in this
field. Thousands of additional
workers, many of them women,
were employed on a part time or
temporary basis as survey inter­
Among the principal employers
of marketing research workers are
manufacturing companies and inde­
pendent advertising and marketing
research organizations which do this
kind of work for clients on a con­
tract basis. Marketing research

workers are also employed by very
large stores, radio and television
firms, and newspapers; others work
for university research centers, gov­
ernment agencies, and other organi­
zations which provide information
for businessmen. Marketing re­
search organizations range in size
from one-man enterprises to large
firms having a hundred employees
or more.
The largest number of marketing
research workers is in New York
City, where many major advertising
and independent marketing research
are located,
where many large manufacturers
have their central offices. The sec­
ond largest concentration is in Chi­
cago. However, marketing research
workers are employed in many
other cities— wherever there are
central offices of large manufactur­
ing and sales organizations.



Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree is the usual
requirement to becom e a marketing
research trainee. A master’s degree
in business administration is becom ­
ing increasingly desirable, especially
for advancement to higher level po­
sitions. Many people qualify for
marketing research jobs through
previous experience in other re­
search or in work related to market­
ing. University teachers of market­
ing research or statistics sometimes
are sought by employers to head
new marketing research depart­
College courses considered valu­
able as preparation for work in
marketing research are marketing,
speech, psychology, and economics.
Candidates for some marketing re­
search positions need specialized
training in engineering or other
technical subjects, or substantial
sales experience and a thorough
knowledge of the company’s prod­
ucts. Knowledge of electronic dataprocessing procedures is becoming
important because of the growing
use of computers in sales forecast­
ing, distribution, cost analysis, and
other aspects of marketing research.
Graduate training may be necessary
for some kinds of work— for exam­
ple, motivational research or sam­
pling and other statistical techniques
connected with large-scale surveys.
Trainees in marketing research
usually start as research assistants
or junior analysts. At first, they are
likely to do considerable clerical
work, such as copying data from
published sources, editing and cod­
ing questionnaires, and tabulating
survey returns. They also learn how
to conduct interviews and how to
write reports on survey findings.

A s they gain experience, assist­
ants and junior analysts may ad­
vance to higher level positions with
responsibility for specific marketing
research projects, or to supervisory
positions. An exceptionally able in­
dividual may eventually become
marketing research director or vice
president for marketing and sales.
Marketing research workers must
have exceptional ability to recognize
and define problems, and imagina­
tion and ingenuity in applying mar­
keting research techniques to their
solution. They should be able to
adapt to change since they are con­
stantly faced with new and different
problems. Above all, their work
calls for the ability to analyze infor­
mation and to write reports which
will convince management of the
significance of the information.

Employment Outlook
College graduates trained in mar­
keting research and statistics are
likely to find favorable job oppor­
tunities in this occupation through
the 1970’s. The growing complexity
of marketing research techniques
will also expand opportunities for
psychologists, economists, and other
social scientists. Advanced degrees
are becoming increasingly necessary
for employment in marketing re­
search, and as a result, job oppor­
tunities for holders of Masters and
Ph. D degrees will be excellent.
The demand for marketing re­
search services is expected to in­
crease very rapidly through the
1970’s. It is expected that existing
marketing research organizations
will expand and that new marketing
research departments and independ­
ent research firms will be set up.

Business managers will find it
creasingly important to obtain
best information possible for
praising marketing situations


planning marketing policies. Fur­
thermore, as marketing research
techniques improve and more statis­
tical data accumulate, company
officials are likely to turn more
often to marketing research workers
for information and advice. In addi­
tion to growth needs, many open­
ings will occur each year as persons
retire, die, or leave the field for
other reasons.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries for market re­
search trainees averaged about
$8,500 a year in 1970, according to
the limited data available. Persons
having masters degrees in Business
Administration and related fields
usually started at about $12,000 a
year. Those with a technical back­
ground received slightly higher
higher for experienced marketing
research workers who attained posi­
tions with considerable responsibil­
ity. In 1970, earnings of senior
analysts were $15,000 a year. Mar­
keting research directors’ average sal­
aries were about $20,000 annually;
and vice-presidents in charge of
marketing received salaries between
$25,000 and $30,000 a year.
Marketing research workers usu­
ally work in modern, centrally lo­
cated offices. Some, especially those
employed by independent research
firms, do a considerable amount of
traveling in connection with their
work. Also, they may frequently
work under pressure and for long
hours to meet deadlines.



Sources of Additional Information
Information about specialized
types of marketing research is con­
tained in a report entitled “Market­
ing Research Procedures, A Small
Business Bibilography, Number 9 ”
which may be obtained from:
Washington, D.C. 20416.

Additional information on mar­
keting research may be obtained
American Marketing Association,
230 North Michigan Avenue, Chi­
cago, Illinois 60601.

(D.O.T. 166.088 through .268)

Nature of the Work
Attracting and keeping the best
employees available, and matching
them to jobs they can do effectively
are important for the successful op­
eration of business and government.
Personnel workers are responsible
for helping their employers attain
these objectives. They develop re­
cruiting and hiring procedures and
interview job applicants, selecting
or recommending the ones they
consider best qualified for the
openings to be filled. In addition,
personnel workers counsel em­
ployees, deal with disciplinary prob­
lems, classify jobs, plan wage and
salary scales, develop safety pro­
grams, and conduct research in per­
sonnel methods. Other important
aspects of their work involve em­
ployee-management relations, em­
ployee training, and the administra­
tion of employee benefit plans.

Some personnel jobs require only
limited contact with people; others
involve frequent contact with em­
ployees, union representatives, job
applicants, and other people in and
outside the company.
Business organizations with large
personnel departments employ per­
sonnel workers at varying levels of
responsibility. Usually the depart­
ment is headed by a director who
formulates personnel policy, advises
other company officials on person­
nel matters, and administers his de­
partment. Within the department,
supervisors and various specialists
— in wage administration, training,
safety, job classification, and other
aspects of the personnel program
— may be responsible for the work
of staff assistants and clerical em­
ployees. Small business organiza­
tions employ relatively few person­
nel workers. Sometimes one person
may be responsible for all the per­
sonnel activities as well as other
types of duties.
Personnel workers in Federal,
State, and local government agen­
cies do much the same kind of work
as those employed in large busi­

ness firms. Government personnel
workers, however, spend considera­
bly more time in activities related to
classifying jobs, and in devising, ad­
ministering, and scoring the com­
petitive examinations given to job

Places of Employment
Personnel workers are employed
in nearly all kinds of business enter­
prises and government agencies.
The total number employed in 1970
was estimated to be about 160,000.
Well over half of all personnel
workers were employed by private
firms. Large numbers also were em­
ployed by Federal, State, and local
government agencies. A small group
of personnel workers were in busi­
ness for themselves, often as man­
agement consultants or employee
management relations experts. In
addition, colleges and universities
trained personnel workers as teach­
ers of courses in personnel adminis­
tration, industrial relations, and
similar subjects.

Interviewing job applicants is an im portant responsibility in personnel work.


Most personnel workers are em­
ployed in large cities and in the
highly industrialized sections of the
country. Alm ost three-fourths of all
personnel workers are men. Many
women, however, occupy personnel
positions in organizations that em­
ploy large numbers of women
workers— for example, in depart­
ment stores, telephone companies,
insurance companies, banks, and
government agencies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A college education is becoming
increasingly important for entrance
into personnel work. Some em­
ployers hire new graduates for jun­
ior positions, and then provide
training programs to acquaint them
with their operations, policies, and
Other employers prefer to fill
their personnel positions by trans­
ferring people who already have
firsthand knowledge of operations.
A large number of the people now
in personnel work who are not col­
lege graduates entered the field in
this way.
Many employers in private indus­
try prefer college graduates who
have majored in personnel adminis­
tration; others prefer graduates who
have a general business administra­
tion background. Still other em­
ployers consider a liberal arts edu­
cation the most desirable prepara­
tion for personnel work. Young
people interested in personnel work
in government are advised to major
in public administration, political
science, or personnel administra­
tion; however, those having other
college majors also are eligible for
personnel positions in government.
For some positions, more special­
ized training may be necessary. Jobs


involving testing or employee coun­ many opportunities through the
1970’s. Although employment pros­
seling often require a bachelor’s de­
pects will probably be best for col­
gree with a major in psychology and
lege graduates who have specialized
sometimes a graduate degree in this
training in personnel administration,
field. An engineering degree may be
positions will be available also for
desirable for work dealing with time
studies or safety standards, and a people having degrees in other fields.
Opportunities for young people to
degree with a major in industrial re­
advance to personnel positions from
lations may be helpful for work in­
production, clerical, or subprofes­
volving employee management rela­
sional jobs will be limited.
tions. A background in accounting
Employment in personnel work is
may be useful for positions con­
expected to expand very rapidly as
cerned with wages or pension and
the Nation’s employment rises.
other employee benefit plans.
More personnel workers will be
After the initial period of orienta­
needed to carry on recruiting, inter­
tion, through formal or on-the-job
viewing, and related activities. Also,
training programs, college graduates
many employers are recognizing the
may progress to classifying jobs, in­
'importance of good employee rela­
terviewing applicants, or handling
tions, and are depending more
other personnel functions. After
heavily on the services of trained
they have gained experience, those
personnel workers to achieve this.
with exceptional ability may be
Employment in some specialized
promoted to executive positions,
areas of personnel work will rise
such as personnel director. Person­
faster than others. More people will
nel workers sometimes advance by
probably be engaged in psychologi­
transferring to other employers hav­
ing larger personnel programs or cal testing; the need for workers to
handle work related problems will
from a middle-rank position in a big
organization to the top job in a probably continue to increase; and
the growth of employee services,
smaller one.
safety programs, other benefit plans,
Personal qualities regarded as
and personnel research also is likely
important for success in personnel
to continue.
work include the ability to speak
and write effectively and a betterthan-average aptitude for working
with people of all levels of intelli­ Earnings and Working Conditions
gence and experience. In addition,
A national survey indicated that
the prospective personnel worker
the average annual salary of train­
should be the kind of person who
ees employed as job analysts in pri­
can see the em ployee’s point of
vate industry was about $9,000 in
view as well as the employer’s, and
1970; experienced job analysts av­
should be able to give advice in the
eraged about $13,000; directors of
best interests of both. A liking for
personnel generally earned between
detail, a high degree of persuasive­
$12,500 and $22,000; and some top
ness, and a pleasing personality also
personnel and industrial relations
are important.
executives in very large corpora­
tions earned considerably more.
Employment Outlook
In the Federal Government, in­
College graduates who enter per­ experienced graduates having bach­
sonnel work are expected to find elor’s degrees started at $6,548 a


year in 1970; those having excep­
tionally good academic records or
master’s degrees began at $8,098; a
few master’s degree holders who
ranked high in their respective
(D.O.T. 165.068)
classes received $9,881 a year. Fed­
eral Government personnel workers
with higher levels of administrative
responsibility and several years of
experience in the field were paid
Nature of the Work
more than $16,500; some in charge
All organizations want to present
of personnel for major departments
of the Federal Government earned a favorable image to the public.
Public relations workers help an
more than $22,500 a year.
Employees in personnel offices employer build and maintain such a
generally work 35 to 40 hours a public image. To accomplish this,
week. During a period of intensive they must keep themselves informed
recruitment or emergency, they may about the attitudes and opinions of
work much longer. As a rule, per­
sonnel workers are paid for holidays
and vacations, and share in the
same retirement plans and other
employee benefits available to all
professional employees in the or­
ganizations where they work.

customers, employees, and other
Public relations workers provide
information about an employer’s
business to newspapers and maga­
zines, radio and television, and
other channels of communication.
They plan the kind of publicity that
will be most effective, contact the
people who may be interested in
using it, and prepare and assemble
the necessary material. Many news­
paper items, magazine articles, and
pamphlets giving various informa­
tion about a company start at public
relations workers’ desks. These
workers also arrange speaking en­
gagements for company officials and

Sources of Additional Information
General information on personnel
work as a career may be obtained
by writing to:
American Society for Personnel Ad­
ministration, 19 Church St.,
Berea, Ohio 44017.

Information about government
careers in personnel work may be
obtained from:
Public Personnel Association, 1313
East 60th St., Chicago, 111. 60637.

Public relations worker checks material for press release.



write the speeches they deliver.
They often serve as an employer’s
representative during community
projects and ocasionally may per­
form duties such as showing a film
at a school assembly, staging a
beauty contest, or planning a con­
Public relations workers tailor
their programs to an employer’s
particular needs. In a business firm,
public relations work usually con­
cerns an employer’s relationships
with employees, stockholders, gov­
ernment agencies, and community
Public relations staffs in large
firms sometimes number 200 or
more. The director of public rela­
tions may share responsibility for
developing overall plans and pol­
icies with a company vice president
or another top executive having the
authority to make final decisions. In
addition to writers and research
workers, public relations depart­
ments employ specialists who pre­
pare material for the different media
or write reports sent to stockholders.
Public relations workers who
handle publicity for an individual, or
direct public relations for a univer­
sity or small business, may perform
all aspects of the work. They make
contacts with outsiders, do the nec­
essary planning and research, and
prepare material for publication.
These workers may combine public
relations duties with advertising or
other managerial work; and they
may be top-level officials or occupy
less important positions.

Places of Employment
About 7 5,000 public relations
workers were employed in 1970,
according to the limited data availa­
ble. Over one-fourth were women.
In recent years, an increasing num­

ber of women have entered public
relations work.
Most public relations workers are
employed by manufacturing firms,
stores, public utilities, trade and
professional associations, and labor
unions. Others are employed by
consulting firms providing public
relations services to clients for a fee.
Employment in public relations
work is concentrated in large cities
where press services and other com ­
munications facilities are readily
available, and where large corpora­
tions and trade and professional as­
sociations have their headquarters.
More than half of the public rela­
tions consulting firms in the United
States are in New York City, Los
Angeles, Chicago, and Washington,

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although college education gen­
erally is regarded as the best prepa­
ration for public relations work, em­
ployers differ in the specific type of
college background they require of
applicants. Some seek graduates
who have majored in English, jour­
nalism, or public relations; others
prefer candidates having a back­
ground in science or another field
related to the firm’s business activi­
College graduates who have sec­
retarial skills also are desired by
some employers, especially in small
firms, because they can combine
secretarial duties with public rela­
tions work. After a few years’ expe­
rience, these workers may advance
to a full-time public relations posi­
In 1970, 20 colleges offered a
bachelor’s degree in public rela­
tions, and 18 offered advanced de­
grees. In addition, about 300 col­

leges offered at least one course in
public relations.
College subjects recommended as
preparation for a public relations
career include journalism, econom ­
ics and other social sciences, busi­
ness administration, psychology,
public speaking, literature, and
physical sciences. Extracurricular
activities such as work on school
publications or student government
activities furnish valuable experi­
ence; part-time or summer employ­
ment in selling, public relations, or a
related field such as broadcasting
also are helpful.
Among the personal qualifica­
tions usually considered important
are creativity, initiative, drive, and
the ability to express thoughts
clearly and simply. Fresh ideas are
so important to effective public rela­
tions that some experts spend all of
their time developing ideas but take
no active part in carrying out pro­
grams. In selecting new employees,
many employers prefer people hav­
ing previous work experience, par­
ticularly in journalism or a related
companies— particularly
those with large public relations
programs— have formal training
programs for new employees. In
other companies, new employees
learn by working under the guid­
ance of experienced staff members.
Beginners often maintain files of
material about company activities,
scan newspapers and magazines for
appropriate articles to clip, and as­
semble information for speeches
and pamphlets. After gaining expe­
rience, they may be given progres­
sively more difficult assignments,
such as writing press releases,
speeches, and articles for publica­
tion. Promotion to supervisory and
managerial positions may come as
the worker demonstrates ability to
handle more difficult and creative



assignments. The most skilled
public relations work, which in­
volves developing overall plans and
maintaining contacts, usually is per­
formed by the department director
and his most experienced staff
members. Some experienced public
relations workers establish their
own consulting firms.

Employment Outlook
Employment in this field is ex­
pected to expand rapidly through
the 1970’s. In addition to the new
jobs created as expanding organiza­
tions require more public relations
specialists, openings will occur be­
cause of the need to replace
workers who retire or leave the field
for other reasons.
The demand for public relations
workers is expected to grow through
the 1970’s, as population increases
and the general level of business ac­
tivity rises. In recent years, the
amount of funds spent on public re­
lations has increased, and many or­
ganizations have developed new
public relations departments. This
trend should continue in the years

Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries for public rela­
tions trainees ranged from $4,600
to $7,500 a year >n 1970, according
to the limited data available. The
highest starting salaries were paid
by consulting firms in major cities
to workers who were very well
qualified from the standpoint of ed­
ucational background and previous
workers having a few years of ex­
perience earn between $9,000 and
$13,000 a year.

The salaries of experienced
workers generally are highest in
large organizations having extensive
public relations programs. In 1970,
directors of public relations em­
ployed by medium-size firms gener­
ally earned $14,000 to $18,000 an­
nually; those employed by large
corporations had salaries in the
$ 1 5,000 to $25,000 range, accord­
ing to the Public Relations Society
of America. Some officials, such as
vice presidents in charge of public
relations, earned from $25,000 to
$ 5 0 ,0 0 0 a year or more. Many
consulting firms employ large staffs
of experienced public relations spe­
cialists and often pay somewhat
higher salaries than those paid by
other business organizations. In so­
cial welfare agencies, nonprofit or­
ganizations and universities, salaries
are somewhat lower.
The workweek for public rela­
tions personnel usually is 35 to 40
hours. Irregular hours and overtime
often may be necessary, however, to
prepare or deliver speeches, attend
meetings and community functions,
and travel out of town. Occasion­
ally, the nature of their regular as­
signments or special events require
public relations workers to be on
call around the clock.

Sources of Additional Information
The Information Center, Public Re­
lations Society of America, Inc.,
845 Third Ave., New York, N.Y.
10022 .

Service Department, Public Relations
News, 127 East 80th Street, New
York, N.Y. 10021.

(D.O.T. 162.158)

Nature of the Work
Purchasing agents buy the mate­
rials, supplies,
and equipment
needed for their employer’s firms to
function. Purchasing agents and
their assistants have two main re­
sponsibilities: Obtaining goods and
services at the lowest cost consistent
with required quality and seeing
that adequate supplies are kept on
hand. What the agents buy depends
on the kind of organization employ­
ing them. For manufacturing firms,
this may be largely machinery, raw
materials, and product components;
for government agencies, it may be
office supplies, office furniture, and
business machines.
A purchasing agent buys either
when stocks on hand reach a prede­
termined re-order point or when he
receives a requisition from a depart­
ment in the organization for items it
needs. These requisitions list and
describe needed items and include
information such as required quan­
tities and delivery dates. Since the
agent usually can purchase from
many sources, his main job is to se­
lect the seller who offers the best
value. To do this, the agent must
consider many factors, such as the
exact specifications for the required
items, price, quality, quantity dis­
counts, transportation cost, and de­
livery time.
To select among suppliers, the
purchasing agent uses a variety of
means. He obtains information by
comparing listings in catalogs and
trade journals and by telephoning
various suppliers. He also meets
with salesmen to examine sample
goods, watch demonstrations of
equipment, and discuss items to be



purchased. Sometimes, the agent
also invites suppliers to bid on large
orders, and then selects the lowest
bidder who meets the requirements
regarding the specifications estab­
lished for the goods and date of de­
It is important for purchasing
agents to develop good working re­
lations with their suppliers. These
relations can result in savings on
purchases, favorable terms of pay­
ment, and quick delivery on rush
orders or material in short supply.
They also work closely with person­
nel in various departments of their
own company. For example, they
frequently discuss product specifica­
tions with company engineers or
shipment handling problems with
employees in the shipping and re­
ceiving, storage, or traffic depart­
Once an order has been placed
with a supplier, the purchasing
agent makes periodic checks to in­
sure that it will be delivered on
time. This is important in prevent­
ing interruptions in the work flow
due to lack of materials. After an

order has been received and in­
spected, the purchasing agent au­
thorizes payment to the shipper.
Because of its importance, pur­
chasing usually is designated as a
separate responsibility. Although
the head of the purchasing depart­
ment usually is called a purchasing
agent, he may have the title of vice
president-purchasing, procurement
or purchasing officer, director or
manager of purchasing, or buyer.
( “Buyers” in retail stores and oth­
ers who are engaged in buying mer­
chandise for resale in its original
form are not included in this re­
port.) In a large firm, the head of
the purchasing department directs
the work of a staff including assist­
ant purchasing agents and clerical
workers. Each purchasing assistant
may be assigned to a broad area.
One person may be responsible for
buying raw materials; another, fac­
tory machinery; and another, office
supplies. Others may specialize in
buying certain items— for example,
steel, lumber, cotton, or oil.

Purchasing agent discusses specifications of items with salesman.

Places of Employment
In 1970, half of the estimated
167,000 purchasing agents in the
United States worked in manufac­
turing industries. Large numbers
also were employed in government
agencies, wholesale and retail trade,
and service institutions.
Most purchasing agents work in
firms that have fewer than 10 em­
ployees in the purchasing depart­
ment. Some large firms, however,
may have a hundred specialized
buyers or more. About 90 percent
of all purchasing agents are men.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
For beginning positions as pur­
chasing agents, many employers
prefer to hire graduates of schools
of business administration or engi­
neering who have had courses in ac­
counting, economics, and purchas­
ing. A few require graduate training
in business administration. On the
other hand, many firms prefer expe­
rience with the company and select
purchasing workers from among
their own personnel, whether or not
they have a college education. For
advancement to high-level positions,
however, a college degree is becom­
ing increasingly important.
Regardless of previous training,
the beginner in the purchasing field
must spend considerable time learn­
ing about his company’s operations
and purchasing procedures. Some
companies provide classroom in­
struction and on-the-job training.
The beginner may be assigned to
the storekeeper’s section to learn
about operations such as keeping
inventory records, filling out forms
for the purchase of goods, or pro­
viding proper storage facilities. Fie
then may work with an experienced


buyer to learn about types of goods
purchased, prices, and sources of
supply. Following the initial training
period, the trainee may become a
junior buyer of standard catalog
items. As he gains experience and
exercises good judgment in the
various aspects of purchasing he
may be promoted to assistant pur­
chasing agent and then to purchas­
ing agent. In large companies, pur­
chasing agents or heads of purchas­
ing departments may become vice
presidents with overall responsibil­
ity for purchasing, warehousing,
traffic, and related functions.
The purchasing agent must be
able to accept the responsibility of
spending large amounts of company
money. He must also be tactful in
his many dealings with salesmen
and have a good memory for speci­

Employment Outlook
Opportunities are expected to be
good through the 1970’s for young
people to enter and advance in pur­
chasing occupations. Demand is ex­
pected to be especially strong for
graduates of schools of business ad­
ministration who have taken courses

in purchasing. Demand is expected
to be excellent also for graduates
having backgrounds in engineering
and science, for jobs in purchasing
departments of firms that manufac­
ture complex machinery, chemicals,
and other technical products. Lib­
eral arts college graduates should be
able to obtain trainee positions in
many types of firms. On the other
hand, although outstanding persons
who do not have a college education
will continue to be promoted to pur­
chasing from clerical, sales, and
other types of jobs, their opportuni­
ties for advancement to high-level
purchasing jobs will be limited.
agents and their assistants is ex­
pected to grow moderately through
the 1970’s. Some major factors un­
derlying this expected growth are
the continuing increase in the size of
business and manufacturing firms,
the development of new products
and new sources of supply (includ­
ing foreign m arkets), and the everincreasing complexity and special­
ization of business functions. Com­
petition among manufacturers for
new, improved, and less costly
goods, raw materials, and services
will further direct the attention of
top management to the importance


of purchasing functions. In addition
to job openings resulting from
growth, many job opportunities are
expected annually because of the
need to replace personnel who re­
tire, transfer to other jobs, or leave
the field for other reasons.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Beginning annual salaries of col­
lege graduates hired as trainees in
purchasing departments of large pri­
vate firms ranged from $6,300 to
$7,500 in 1970, according to the
limited data available. In the Fed­
eral Government, beginning pur­
chasing agents who had college de­
grees started at $6,548 or $8,093 in
1970, depending on the individual’s
scholastic achievement and his per­
formance on the Federal Civil Serv­
ice entrance examination.
In 1970, the annual earnings of
experienced buyers in private firms
averaged more than $9,000; more
experienced buyers, some having
supervisory duties, averaged nearly
$14,000. Some top purchasing ex­
ecutives earned between $35,000
and $75,000 a year.


The choice of the ministry,
priesthood, or rabbinate as one’s
that do not influence to the same
degree the selection of a career in
most other occupations. When
young people decide to become
clergymen, they do so primarily be­
cause of their religious faith and
their desire to help others. N ev­
ertheless, it is important for them to
know as much as possible about the
profession and how to prepare for
it, the kind of life it offers, and its
needs for personnel. They also
should understand that the civic, so­
cial, and recreational activities of
clergymen often are influenced, and
sometimes restricted, by the cus­
toms and attitudes of the commu­
The number of clergymen needed
is broadly related to the size and ge­
ographic distribution of the Nation’s
population and participation in or­
ganized religious groups. These fac­
tors affect the number of churches
and synagogues that are established
and thus the number of pulpits to be
filled. In addition to the clergy who
serve congregations, many others
teach in seminaries and other edu­
cational institutions, serve as chap­
lains in the Armed Forces, or work
as missionaries.
Young persons considering ca­
reers as clergymen should seek the
counsel of a religious leader of their
faith to aid in evaluating their quali­
fications. The most important req­
uisite, of course, is the desire to
serve the spiritual needs of others.
To deal effectively with all types of
persons, clergymen need to be
well-rounded and able to speak and
write effectively. Emotional stability
and sensitivity to the problems of
others also are essential. Clergymen

are expected to have high moral
and ethical standards.
The size and financial status of
the congregation to a large extent
determines income. Usually pay is
highest in large cities or prosperous
suburban areas. Earnings usually
rise with increased experience and
churches and a number of Jewish
Roman Catholic priests ordinarily
live in the parish rectory or their re­
ligious order provides housing.
Many clergymen receive transporta­
tion allowances or other expenses.
Gifts or fees for officiating at special
ceremonies, such as weddings, may
be an important source of additional
income; however, clergymen fre­
quently donate such earnings to
charity. Some churches establish a
uniform fee for special services
which goes directly into the church
More detailed information on the
clergy in the three largest faiths
in the United States— Protestant,
Roman Catholic, and Jewish— is
given in the following statements
that were prepared in cooperation
with leaders of these faiths. Infor­
mation on the clergy in other faiths
may be obtained directly from
leaders of the respective groups.
Numerous other church-related oc­
cupations— those of the missionary,
teacher, director of youth organiza­
tions, director of religious educa­
tion, editor of religious publications,
music director, church secretary,
recreation leader, and many others
— offer interesting and satisfying ca­
reers. In addition, opportunities to
work in connection with religious
activities are present in many other
occupations. Clergymen or educa­
tional directors of local churches or

synagogues can provide information
on the church-related occupations
and other areas offering opportuni­
ties for religious service.

(D.O.T. 120.108)

Nature of the Work
Protestant ministers lead their
congregations in worship services
and may administer the rites of bap­
tism, confirmation, and Holy Com­
munion. They prepare and deliver
sermons and give religious instruc­
tion to persons who are to be re­
ceived into membership of the
church. They also perform mar­
riages, conduct funerals, counsel in­
dividuals who seek guidance, visit
the sick and shut-in, comfort the be­
reaved, and serve their church
members in many other ways. Prot­
estant ministers also may write arti­
cles for publication, give speeches,
and engage in interfaith, commu­
nity, civic, educational, and recrea­
tional activities sponsored by or re­
lated to the interests of the church.
Some ministers teach in seminaries,
colleges, and universities.
The types of worship services
that ministers conduct differ among
Protestant denominations and also
among congregations within a de­
nomination. In some denomina­
tions, ministers follow a traditional
order of worship; in others they
adapt the services to the needs of
youth and other groups within the
congregation. Most services include
prayers, and a sermon. Bible read­
ing by a member of the congrega­
tion and individual testimonials may



constitute a large part of the service
in some demoninations.
Ministers serving small congrega­
tions generally work on a personal
basis with their parishioners. Those
serving large congregations usually
have greater administrative respon­
sibilities and spend considerable
time working with committees,
church officers, and staff, besides
performing their other duties. They
may have one or more associates or
assistants who share specific aspects
of the ministry, such as a Minister
of Education who assists in educa­
tional programs for different age

Places of Employment
In 1970, about 295,000 ministers
served over 71 million Protestants.
In addition, thousands of ministers
were in other occupations closely
related to the parish ministry. The
greatest number of clergymen are
affiliated with the five largest groups
of churches— Baptist, United Meth­
odist, Lutheran, Presbyterian, and
Episcopal. Most ministers serve in­
dividual congregations; some are
engaged in missionary activities in
the United States and in foreign
countries; others serve as chaplains
in the Armed Forces, in hospitals,
and in other institutions. Still others
teach in educational institutions, en­
gage in other religious educational
work, or are employed in social
welfare and related agencies. Less
than 5 percent of all ministers are
women; however, about 80 denomi­
nations ordain women. In some de­
nominations, an increasing number
of women who have not been or­
dained are serving as pastors’ assist­
All cities and most towns have
one Protestant church or more with
a full-time minister. The majority of

ministers are located in urban areas.
Many others live in less densely pop­
ulated areas where each may serve
two congregations or more. A larger
proportion of Protestants than
members of other faiths live in rural

Training and Other Qualifications
The educational preparation re­
quired for entry into the Protestant
ministry has a wider range than for
mos* professions. Some religious
groups have no formal educational
requirements, and others ordain per­
sons having varying amounts and
types of training in liberal arts col­
leges, Bible colleges, or Bible insti­
tutes. An increasingly large number
of denominations, however, require
a 3-year course of professional
study in a theological school follow­
ing college graduation. After com ­
pletion of such a course, the degree
of bachelor or master of divinity is
In 1970, 112 of the theological
institutions in the Nation were
accredited by the American Associa­
tion of Theological Schools. A c­
credited institutions admit only
students who have received the
bachelor’s degree or its equivalent
from an approved college. In addi­
tion, certain character and personal­
ity qualifications must be met, and
endorsement by the religious group
to which the applicant belongs is re­
quired. The American Association
of Theological Schools recommends
that preseminary studies be con­
centrated in the liberal arts. A l­
though courses in English, philoso­
phy, and history are considered
especially important, the pretheological student also should take
courses in the natural and social sci­
ences, religion, and foreign lan­
guages. The standard curriculum

recommended for accredited theo­
logical schools consists of four
major fields: Biblical, historical,
theological, and practical. There is a
trend toward more courses in psy­
chology, pastoral counseling, sociol­
ogy, religious education, administra­
tion, and other studies of a practical
nature. Many accredited schools re­
quire that students gain experience
in church work under the supervi­
sion of a faculty member or experi­
enced minister. Some institutions
offer the master of theology and the
doctor of theology degrees to stu­
dents completing 1 year or more of
additional study. Scholarships and
loans are available for students of
theological institutions.
In general, each large denomina­
tion has its own school or schools of
theology that reflect its particular
interests and needs; however, many
of these schools are open to stu­
dents from various denominations.
Several interdenominational schools
associated with universities give
both undergraduate and graduate
training covering a wide range of
theological points of view.
Candidates for the ministry
should be religious and dedicated;
they should love and have the abil­
ity to work with people, and have
high moral and ethical standards.
Good health is a valuable asset.
Persons who have denomina­
tional qualifications for the ministry
usually are ordained following grad­
uation from a seminary. In denomi­
nations that do not require seminary
training, clergymen are ordained at
appointed times. Clergymen often
begin their careers as pastofs of
small congregations or as assistant
pastors in large churches. Protes­
tant clergymen in many of the
denominations— especially
those groups that have a well-defined
church organization— often are re­
quested to serve in positions of



great administrative and denomina­
tional responsibility.

(D.O.T. 120.108)

Nature of the Work
The shortage of Protestant minis­
ters has abated significantly in re­
cent years. The trend toward
merger and unity among denomina­
tions, combined with the closing of
smaller parishes, has reduced the
demand for Protestant ministers
who serve individual congregations.
If this trend continues, new gradu­
ates of theological schools may face
increasing competition in finding
positions. The supply-demand situa­
tion will vary among denominations
and depend, in part, on the length of
formal preparation.
fewer opportunities
may arise for Protestant ministers to
serve individual congregations, min­
isters may find work among youth,
in family relations, welfare, reli­
gious education, on the campus, and
as chaplains in the Armed Forces,
hospitals, universities, and correc­
tional institutions. Most of the de­
mand during the 1970’s, however,
will result from the need to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the

Sources of Additional Information
Persons who are interested in the
Protestant ministry should seek the
counsel of a minister or church
guidance worker. Additional infor­
mation on the ministry and other
church-related occupations also are
available from many denomina­
tional offices. Information on admis­
sion requirements may be obtained
directly from
each theological

Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of
their congregations and teachers
and interpreters of Jewish law and
tradition. They conduct daily serv­
ices, and deliver sermons at serv­
ices on the Sabbath and on Jewish
holidays. Rabbis customarily are
available at all times to counsel
members of their congregations,
other followers of Judaism, and the
community at large. Many of the
rabbis’ functions— preparing and
wedding ceremonies, visiting the
sick, conducting funeral services,
comforting the bereaved, helping
the poor, counseling individuals, su­
pervising religious education pro­
grams, engaging in interfaith activi­
ties, and assuming community re­
sponsibilities— are similar to those
performed by clergymen of other
Rabbis serving large congrega­
tions may spend considerable time in
administrative duties, working with
their staffs and committees. Large
congregations frequently have an
associate or assistant rabbi in addi­
tion to the senior rabbi. Many of the
assistant rabbis serve as Educational
Rabbis serve congregations affili­
ated with 1 of the 3 wings of Juda­
ism— Orthodox, Conservative, or
Reform. Regardless of their particu­
lar point of view, all Hebrew con­
gregations preserve the substance of
Jewish religious worship. The con­
gregations differ in the extent to
which they follow the traditional
form of worship— for example, in
the wearing of head coverings, the
use of Hebrew as the language of

prayer, or the use of music. The
format of the worship service and,
therefore, the ritual that the rabbis
use may vary even among congrega­
tions belonging to the same wing of
Rabbis also may write for reli­
gious and lay publications, and
teach in theological seminaries, col­
leges, and universities.

Places of Employment
About 6,500 rabbis served al­
most 6.0 million followers of the
Jewish faith in this country in 1970.
Most are Orthodox rabbis; the rest
are about equally divided between
the Conservative and Reform wings
of Judaism. Most rabbis act as spir­
itual leaders of individual congrega­
tions; some serve as chaplains in the
Armed Forces, in hospitals, and in
other institutions. Others are admintrators or teachers in Jewish semi­
naries, communal schools, and
other educational institutions or are
employed in religious education
work for organizations such as the
Hillel Foundation. Still others are
employed by Jewish social welfare
Although rabbis serve Jewish
communities throughout the Nation,
they are concentrated in those
States that have large Jewish popu­
lations, particularly New York, Cal­
ifornia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
Maryland, and the Washington,
D.C. metropolitan area.

Training and Other Qualifications
To become eligible for ordination
as a rabbi, a student must complete
the prescribed course of study.
Entrance requirements and the
curriculum depend upon the branch
of Judaism with which the seminary

is associated. About 15 seminaries
train Orthodox rabbis in programs
of varying lengths. Two of the
larger seminaries require the com ­
pletion of a 4-year college course
for ordination. However, students
who are not college graduates may
spend a longer period at these semi­
naries and complete the require­
ments for the bachelor’s degree
while pursuing the rabbinic course.
The other Orthodox seminaries do
not require a college degree to qual­
ify for ordination, although students
who qualify usually have completed
4 years of college.
The Hebrew Union College—
Jewish Institute of Religion is the
official seminary that trains rabbis
for the Reform branch of Judaism.
The Jewish Theological Seminary of
America is the official seminary that
trains rabbis for the Conservative
branch of Judaism. Both seminaries
require the completion of a 4-year
college course, as well as prior
preparation in Jewish studies, for
admission to the rabbinic program
leading to ordination. Five years
normally are required to complete
the rabbinic course at the Reform
seminary, including 1 year of pre­
paratory study in Jerusalem. Excep­
tionally well-prepared students can
shorten this period to a minimum of
3 years. A student having a strong
background in Jewish studies can
complete the course at the Conser­
vative seminary in 4 years; for oth­
ers, the course may take as long as
6 years.
In general, the curriculums of
Jewish theological seminaries pro­
vide students with a comprehensive
knowledge of the Bible, Talmud,
Rabbinic literature, Jewish history,
theology, and courses in education,
pastoral psychology, and public
speaking. The Reform seminary
places less emphasis on the study of
Talmud and Rabbinic literature and


offers a broad course of study that
includes subjects such as human re­
lations and community organization.
Some seminaries grant advanced
academic degrees in fields such as
Biblical and Talmudic research. All
Jewish theological seminaries make
scholarships and loans available to
Newly ordained rabbis usually
begin as leaders of small congrega­
tions, assistants to experienced rab­
bis, directors of Hillel Foundations,
teachers in seminaries and other ed­
ucational institutions, or chaplains
in the Armed Forces. As a rule, the
pulpits of large and well-established
Jewish congregations are filled by
experienced rabbis.
The choice of a career as a rabbi
should be made on the basis of a
fervent belief in the religious teach­
ings and practices of Judaism, and a
desire to serve the religious needs of
others. In addition to having high
moral and ethical values, the
prospective rabbi should have good
judgment and be able to write and
speak effectively.

crease. Although an increase in the
number of students graduating from
the Jewish theological seminaries is
anticipated, the number of new rab­
bis probably will not be adequate to
fill new openings and to replace the
rabbis who retire or die, or leave
the rabbinate for other reasons. Im­
migration, once an important source
of rabbis, is no longer significant. In
fact, graduates of American semi­
naries now are in demand for Jew­
ish congregations in other countries.

Sources of Additional Information
Young people who are interested
in entering the rabbinate should
seek the guidance of a rabbi. Infor­
mation on the work of a rabbi and
allied occupations also is available
from many of the local Boards of
Rabbis in large communities. Infor­
mation on admission requirements
of Jewish theological seminaries
may be obtained directly from each


In 1970, the number of rabbis in
this country was inadequate to meet
the expanding needs of Jewish con­
gregations and other organizations
desiring their services. This situa­
tion is likely to persist through the
1970’s. Continued growth in Jewish
religious affiliation and in the num­
ber of synagogues and temples, par­
ticularly in the suburbs of cities
having large Jewish communities,
together with increasing demands of
large congregations for assistant
rabbis, are expected to create many
new openings. Demand for rabbis to
work with social welfare and other
organizations connected with the
Jewish faith also is expected to in­

(D.O.T. 120.108)

Nature of the Work
Roman Catholic priests attend to
the spiritual, moral, and educational
needs of the members of their
church. Their duties include offering
the Sacrifice of the Mass; giving re­
ligious instructions in the form of a
sermon; hearing confessions; ad­
ministering the Sacraments, includ­
ing the sacrament of marriage;
visiting and comforting the sick; con­
ducting funeral services and consol­
ing relatives and friends; counseling


those in need of guidance; and as­
sisting the poor.
Priests spend long hours per­
forming services for the church and
the community. Their day usually
begins with morning meditation and
Mass and may end with the hearing
of confessions or an evening visit to
a hospital or a home. Many of them
serve on church committees or in
civic organizations and assist in
community projects. Various soci­
eties that carry on charitable and
social programs also depend upon
priests for direction.
Although all priests have the
same powers acquired through ordi­
nation by a bishop, they are classi­
fied in two main categories— dioce­
san and religious— by reason of
their way of life, the type of work to
which they are assigned, and the
church authority to whom they are
priests (sometimes called secular
priests) generally work as individu­
als in the parishes to which they are
assigned by the bishop of their dio­
cese. Religious priests generally
work as members of a religious
community in specialized activities,
such as teaching or missionary
work, assigned to them by the supe­
riors of the religious order to which
they belong; for example, Jesuits,
Dominicans or Franciscans.
Both religious and diocesan
priests hold teaching and adminis­
trative posts in Catholic seminaries,
universities and colleges, and high
schools. Priests attached to religious
orders staff a large proportion of the
institutions of higher education and
many high schools, whereas, dioce­
san priests are concerned with the
parochial schools attached to parish
churches and with diocesan high
schools. The members of religious
orders do most of the missionary
work conducted by the Catholic
Church in this country and abroad.

Places of Employment
About 60,000 priests served
more than 48 million Catholics in
the United States in 1970. There
are priests in nearly every city and
town and in many rural communi­
ties; however, the majority are in
metropolitan areas, where most
Catholics reside. Catholics are con­
centrated in the Northeast and the
Great Lakes regions, with smaller
concentrations in California, Texas,
and Louisiana. A large number of
priests are located in communities
near Catholic educational and other
institutions. Others travel constantly
on missions to local parishes
throughout the country. Some
priests serve as chaplains with the
Armed Forces or in hospitals or
other institutions. Many are sta­
tioned throughout the world as mis­

Training and Other Qualifications
Preparation for the priesthood
requires 8 years or more of study
beyond high school. More than 450
seminaries offer such education.
Study may begin in the first year of
high school, at the college level, or
in theological seminaries after col­
lege graduation.
High school seminaries provide a
college preparatory program that
speech, literature, and social stud­
ies. Two years of Latin are required
and the study of a modern language
is encouraged. The seminary college
offers a liberal arts program, stress­
ing philosophy and religion; the
study of man through the behavioral
sciences and history; and the natural
sciences and mathematics. In many
college seminaries, a student may
concentrate in any of these fields.
The remaining 4 years of prepa­
ration includes sacred scripture;

apologetics (the branch of theology
concerning the defense and proofs
of Christianity); dogmatic, moral,
and pastoral theology; homiletics;
church history; liturgy (art of
preaching); Mass; and canon law.
Diocesan and religious priests at­
tend different major seminaries,
where slight variations in the train­
ing reflect the differences in the type
of work expected of them as priests.
During the later years of his semi­
nary course, the candidate receives
from his bishop a succession of or­
ders culminating in his ordination to
the priesthood.
Most postgraduate work in theol­
ogy is given either at Catholic Uni­
versity of America, Washington,
D.C. or at the eccelestical universi­
ties in Rome. Many priests also do
graduate work at other universities
in fields unrelated to theology.
Priests are commanded by the law
of the Catholic Church to continue
their studies, at least informally,
after ordination.
Young men are never denied
entry into seminaries because of
lack of funds. In seminaries for
secular priests, the bishop may
make arrangements for student
loans. Those in religious seminaries
often are financed by contributions
of benefactors.
Among the qualities considered
most desirable in candidates for the
Catholic priesthood are a love of
and concern for people, a deep reli­
gious conviction, a desire to spread
the Gospel of Christ, the capacity to
speak and write effectively, and the
ability to work with people. Priests
are not permitted to marry.
The first assignment of a newly
ordained secular priest is usually
that of assistant pastor or curate.
Newly ordained priests of religious
orders are assigned to the special­
ized duties for which they are
trained. Many opportunities for



greater responsibility exist within
the hierarchy of the church. D ioce­
san priests, for example, may rise to
positions such as monsignor or
bishop. Much of their time at this
level is given to administrative du­
ties. In the religious orders which
specialize in teaching, priests may
become heads of departments or as­
sume other positions which include
administrative duties.

A growing number of priests will
be needed in the years ahead to
provide for the spiritual, educa­
tional, and social needs of the grow­
ing number of Catholics in the
Nation. Although the number of

seminarians has increased steadily in
recent years, the number of ordained
priests is insufficient to fill the needs
of newly established parishes and
expanding colleges and other Cath­
olic institutions, and to replace
priests who retire or die. Although
priests usually continue to work
longer than persons in other profes­
sions, the varied demands and long
hours create a need for young
priests to assist the older ones. Also,
an increasing number of priests
have been serving in many diverse
areas— in social work, religious
radio, newspaper, and television
work, labor-management mediation,
and in foreign posts, particularly in
countries that have a shortage of
priests. Continued expansion of

these activities, in addition to the
expected further growth of the
Catholic population, will require a
steady increase in the number of
priests through the 1970’s.

Sources of Additional Information
Young men interested in entering
the priesthood should seek the guid­
ance and counsel of their parish
priest. Additional information re­
garding different religious orders
and the secular priesthood, as well
as a list of the various seminaries
which prepare students for the
priesthood, may be obtained from
Diocesan Directors of Vocations or
from the diocesan chancery office.


Forests, rangelands, wildlife, and
water are part of our country’s great
natural resources. Conservationists
protect, develop, and manage natu­
ral resources to assure that they are
not needlessly exhausted, destroyed,
or damaged, and that future needs
for these resources will be met.
A young person seeking a career
in conservation must have special­
ized training. An appropriate bache­
lor’s degree generally is necessary
for occupations such as forester and
range manager. Short-term or onthe-job training generally is neces­
sary for a semiprofessional position
such as forestry aid.
In addition to technical knowl­
edge and skills, the conservationist
must have a sincere interest in na­
ture and a desire to preserve it. He
should be oriented toward public
service because he is called upon to
work increasingly with his commu­
nity. A conservationist must be ver­
satile to work at a remote camping
area 1 week, speak before a com ­
munity group the next, and fight a
forest or brush fire the next.
This chapter describes three
conservation occupations— forester,
forestry aid, and range manager.
Soil conservationist, a related occu­
pation, is discussed elsewhere in the
H andbook.

(D.O.T. 040.081)

Nature of the Work
Forests are one of America’s
greatest natural resources. They
cover about one-third of the land

area of the country. Foresters man­
age, develop, and protect these
valuable lands and their resources—
timber, water, wildlife, forage, and
recreation areas. They estimate the
amount and value of these re­
sources. They plan and supervise the
harvesting and cutting of trees, pur­
chase and sale of trees and timber,
the processing, utilization and mar­
keting of forest products, and refor­
estation, reseeding and replanting.
Foresters also safeguard forests
from fire, destructive animals and
insects, and diseases. Other respon­
sibilities of foresters include wildlife
protection and watershed manage­
ment, and the management of
camps, parks, and grazing land.

Foresters usually specialize in
one area of work, such as timber
and wildlife management, outdoor
recreation, and forest economics.
Some of these specializations are
becoming recognized as distinct
professions. Range managers, for
example, are discussed in a separate
statement in this chapter. Foresters
also may engage in research activi­
ties, extension work (providing for­
estry information to farmers, log­
ging companies, and the public),
forest marketing, and college and
university teaching.

Places of Employment
An estimated 22,000 persons
were employed as foresters in the
United States in 1970. About onethird were employed in private in­
dustry, mainly by pulp and paper,


lumber, logging, and milling compa­
nies. More than one-fourth were
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment, mainly in the Forest Service
of the Department of Agriculture.
Other Federal agencies employing
significant numbers of foresters
were the Departments of the Inte­
rior and Defense. Most of the re­
mainder were employed by State
and local governments, colleges and
universities, and consulting firms.
Others were managers of their own
lands or were in business for them­
selves as consultants.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in forestry is the minimum educa­
tional requirement for young per­
sons seeking professional careers in
forestry. A n advanced degree is
generally required for teaching and
research positions.
Education in forestry leading to a
bachelor’s or higher degree was of­
fered in 1970 by 52 colleges and
universities of which 35 were ac­
credited by the Society of American
Foresters. The curriculums in most
of these schools include specialized
forestry courses in ten areas: (1 )
(the characteristics,
distribution, and occurrence of trees
in forests); (2 ) forest ecology
(structure and operation of the for­
est com munity); (3 ) silviculture
(methods of growing and improving
forest crops); (4 ) forest protection
(primarily against fire, insects, and
disease); ( 5 ) forest economics (ec­
onomic and business principles and
problems involved in the manage­
ment and utilization of forest re­
sources); (6 ) forest measurements
(measuring and estimating present
and potential resources); ( 7 ) forest
policy (history and current status of

Federal, State, and private policies
relating to forests and other natural
resources); ( 8 ) forest administra­
tion (principles of administration
with special reference to problems
faced by both public and private
agencies); (9 ) forest resources
management (study of the interrela­
tions among the various forest re­
sources and basic principles of for­
est land management); (1 0 ) forest
resources use (principles underlying
the uses of forest resources for
human benefit). Some colleges re­
quire that students spend one sum­
mer in a field camp operated by the
college. Students also are encour­
aged to work during summers in
jobs that will give them firsthand
experience in forest or conservation
Forestry graduates often work
under the supervision of experi­
enced foresters before advancing to
responsible positions in manage­
ment of forest lands or research.
Qualifications for success in for­
estry include an enthusiasm for out­
door work and the ability to meet
and deal effectively with people.
Many jobs also require physical
stamina and a willingness to work in
remote areas.

Employment Outlook
Requirements for foresters are
expected to increase moderately
through the 1970’s. The number of
new graduates, however, could
more than meet anticipated demand
if current trends continue. There­
fore, new forestry graduates may
face some competition for jobs.
Factors underlying the anticipated
demand for foresters are the coun­
try’s growing population and rising
living standards, which will tend to
increase the demand for forest
products and the use of forests for

recreation. Employment also may
be favorably influenced by the
growing awareness of the need to
conserve and replenish our forest
resources, and to improve the qual­
ity of the environment.
Private owners of timberland are
expected to employ increasing num­
bers of foresters to realize the
higher profitability of improved for­
estry and logging practices. The for­
est products industries also will re­
quire additional foresters to apply
new techniques for utilizing the en­
tire forest crop, to develop methods
of growing superior stands of trees
over a shorter period of time, and to
do research in genetics and fertiliza­
tion. In addition, competition from
metal, plastics, and other materials
is expected to stimulate further re­
search to develop new and im­
proved wood products.
Employment opportunities for
foresters in the Federal Government
probably will not increase signifi­
cantly through the 1970’s because
of the changing nature of the for­
ester’s duties. Specialized scientists
— biologists, horticulturists, agrono­
mists, chemists, etc., increasingly
will be hired for the more scientific
work previously performed by for­
Aids increasingly may perform
many nonprofessional duties which
could limit employment opportuni­
ties for foresters. Foresters, on the
other hand, will be more concerned
with the overall administration and
coordination of the work of special­
ists and aids.
should continue to offer employ­
ment opportunities. Forest fire con­
trol, insect and disease protection,
technical assistance to owners of
forest lands and other Federal-State
cooperative programs usually are
channeled through State forestry or­
ganizations. Growing demands for


recreation in forest lands may result
in the expansion of State parks and
other recreational areas.
College teaching and research in
areas such as forest genetics and
forest disease are other avenues of
favorable employment opportunities
for foresters, but primarily for those
having graduate degrees.
In addition to new positions
created by the rising demand for
foresters, a few hundred openings
will arise each year due to retire­
ments, deaths, and transfers out of
the professions.

Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Federal Government in
1970, beginning foresters having a
bachelor’s degree could start at ei­
ther $6,548 or $8,098 a year, de­
pending on their academic record.
Those having 1 or 2 years of gradu­
ate work could begin at $8,098 or
$9,881; those having the Ph. D. de­
gree, at $11,905 or $14,192. D is­
trict rangers employed by the Fed­
eral Government in 1970 generally
$14,19 2 a year. Foresters in top
level positions earned considerably
Beginning salaries of foresters
employed by State governments
vary widely; but, with a few excep­
tions, they tend to be lower than
Federal salaries. Entrance salaries
in private industry, according to
limited data, are fairly comparable
to Federal salary levels.
The salaries of forestry teachers
are generally the same as those paid
other faculty members. (See state­
ment on College and University
Teachers.) Foresters in educational
institutions sometimes supplement
their regular salaries with income
from part-time consulting and lec­

turing and the writing of books and
As part of his regular duties, the
forester— particularly in beginning
positions— spends considerable time
outdoors under all kinds of weather
conditions. Many foresters work
extra hours on emergency duty,
such as fire-fighting.

Sources of Additional Information
General information about the
profession of forestry, lists of read­
ing material, as well as lists of
schools offering training in forestry
is available from:
Society of American Foresters, 1010
16th St., N W , Washington, D.C.

General information also is avail­
able from:
American Forest Institute, 1835 K
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006

A booklet entitled “So You Want
to be a Forester” may be obtained
American Forestry Association, 919
17th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

Information on forestry careers
in the Forest Service is available
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Washington, D.C.

States, including Alaska. They con­
tain many natural resources includ­
ing grass and shrub forage; habitats
for livestock and wildlife; facilities
for water recreation; and environ­
mental areas for scientific research.
Range managers, also called ra n ge
c o n s e r v a tio n is ts or ra n g e sc ie n tists,
manage, develop, and protect these
rangelands and their resources.
They establish grazing plans that
will yield a high production of live­
stock while preserving soil and vegtation for other land use require­
ments— wildlife grazing, recreation,
growing timber, and watersheds.
Range managers evaluate forage re­
sources; decide on the number and
appropriate type of livestock to be
grazed and the best season for graz­
ing; restore deteriorated rangelands
through seeding or plant control;
and determine other range conser­
vation and development needs.
Range fire protection, pest control,
and grazing trespass control also are
important activities of this occupa­
tion. Because of the multiple use of
rangelands, the manager’s work
often extends into closely related
fields such as wildlife and watershed
management, land classification,
forest management, and recreation.
The range manager may also
teach, write reports, conduct re­
search in range maintenance and
improvement, and provide technical
assistance to holders of privately
owned grazing lands and to foreign

(D.O .T. 040.081)

Places of Employment
Nature of the Work
Rangelands cover more than 1
billion acres in the United States,
mostly in the Southern and Western

In 1970, an estimated 3,600 pro­
fessional range managers were em­
ployed in the United States. The
majority were employed by Federal,
State, and local government agen­

cies. In the Federal Government,
most worked in the Forest Service
and the Soil Conservation Service of
the Department of Agriculture and
in the Bureau of Land Management
of the Department of the Interior.
Some range managers are em­
ployed by privately owned range
livestock ranches and consulting
firms. Some manage their own land.
A few are self-employed ponsultants.
Others are employed by manufactur­
ing, sales, and service enterprises,
and by banks and real estate
firms which need rangeland apprais­
als. Colleges and universities also
employ range managers in teaching
and research positions.


major in range management, and 12
schools offered the Ph. D. in range
science or a related field with a
range major.
The essential courses for a degree
in range management are botany,
plant ecology, and plant physiology;
zoology; animal husbandry; soils;
chemistry; mathematics; and spe­
cialized courses in range manage­
ment. Desirable electives include
economics, statistics, physics, geol­
ogy, and watershed, and wildlife
Federal Government agencies—
primarily the Forest Service, the
Bureau of Land Management and
the Soil Conservation Service— hire
some college juniors and seniors for
summer jobs in range management.
This experience helps students qual­
ify for permanent positions as range

managers when they complete col­
Because most range managers
must meet and deal with other peo­
ple, individually or in groups, they
should be able to communicate their
ideas effectively, both in writing and
speaking. Many jobs require the
stamina to perform vigorous physi­
cal activity and a willingness to
work in arid and sparsely populated

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
range managers primarily will result
from the need to replace experi­
enced range managers who die, re­
tire, or transfer to other occupa­
tions. Employment opportunities in
the Federal Government probably

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The bachelor’s degree with a
major in range management or
range conservation is the usual re­
quirement for persons seeking em­
ployment as range managers in the
Federal Government. A bachelor’s
degree in a closely related field,
such as agronomy or forestry, in­
cluding courses in range manage­
ment and range conservation, also is
accepted. Graduate degrees are
generally required for teaching and
Training leading to a bachelor’s
degree specifically in range manage­
ment or range science was offered
in 1970 by 14 colleges and universi­
ties; 13 additional schools had pro­
grams in related fields such as for­
estry, botany, or agronomy, with an
option or major in range manage­
ment. Fourteen schools offered
master’s degrees in range manage­
ment or range science— five in agri­
culture, forestry, or botany with a

Range manager checks enclosure used fo r grass growing experiment.



will decrease because of the chang­
ing nature of the range manager’s
duties; he will assume more admin­
istrative and managerial duties. The
scientific and technical duties once
performed by range managers in­
creasingly will be performed by nat­
ural scientists. The declining em­
ployment opportunities in the Fed­
eral Government will be offset
somewhat by increasing employ­
ment opportunities in the private
Favorable job opportunities are
anticipated in private industry, since
range livestock producers and pri­
vate timber operators probably will
hire increasing numbers of range
managers. A few openings are ex­
pected in developing countries of
the Middle East, Africa, and South
Major factors underlying the in­
creasing demand for range manag­
ers are population growth, increas­
ing per capita consumption of ani­
mal products, and the growing use
of rangelands for hunting and other

Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Federal Government,
starting salaries for range managers
having the bachelor’s degree were
dependent upon the applicant’s col­
lege record and ranged from $6,548
to $8,098 in 1970. Beginning sala­
ries of those having 1 or 2 years of
graduate work were $8,098 or
$9,881; and for those having the
Ph. D. $11,905 to $14,192.
Starting salaries for range manag­
ers employed by State governments
and private industry in 1970 were
about the same as those paid by the
Federal Government. In colleges
and universities, starting salaries
were generally the same as those
paid other faculty members. (See
statement on College and University
Teachers.) Range managers in edu­
cational institutions sometimes aug­
ment their regular salaries with in­
come from part-time consulting and
lecturing and from writing books
and articles.
Range managers may spend con­
siderable time away from home
working outdoors in remote parts of
the range.

Sources of Additional Information
For general information about a
career as a range manager as well as
a list of schools offering training in
the field, write to:
Society for Range Management,
2120 South Birch Street, Denver,
Colo. 80222.

Information about career oppor­
tunities in the Federal Government
may be obtained from:
Bureau of Land Management, Den­
ver Service Center, Federal Center
Building 50, Denver, Colorado

Portland Service Center, 710 NE.
Holladay Street, Portland, Oregon
Forest Service, U. S. Department of
Agriculture, 1621 North Kent
Street, Arlington, Virginia 20415.
Soil Conservation Service, U. S. De­
partment of Agriculture, Washing­
ton, D. C. 20250.


The primary objectives of profes­
sional counseling are to help per­
sons understand themselves and
their opportunities better so that
they can make and carry out deci­
sions and plans that hold potential
for a satisfying and productive life.
Whatever the area of counseling—
personal, educational, or vocational
— counselors need a concern for in­
dividuals combined with a capacity
for objectivity; and a belief in the
worthwhileness and uniqueness of
each individual, in his right to make
and accept responsibility for his
own decisions, and in his potential
for development.
This chapter deals, in detail, with
three generally recognized special­
ties in the field: School counseling,
rehabilitation counseling, and em­
ployment counseling.
S c h o o l C o u n s e lo rs are the largest
counseling group. They are con­
cerned with the personal and social
development of pupils and the plan­
ning and achievement of their edu­
cational and vocational goals.

ality that instills confidence in their
clients. Sensitivity to the needs of
people, patience, and an ability to
communicate orally as well as in
writing are important, also.
Some persons working in other
professional occupations provide
counseling services, as well. The oc­
cupation most closely related to
counselor is counseling psycholo­
gist. Many social workers also pro­
vide counseling services. These two
occupations, as well as others in
which workers do some counseling
but primarily work in teaching,
health, law, religion, or other fields,
are described elsewhere in the
H andbook.
For information on
counseling services provided by col­
lege and university staff members
and by personnel workers in gov­
ernment and industry, see the state­
Officers” and “Personnel Workers.”

R e h a b ilita tio n C o u n s e lo rs work
with persons who are physically,
mentally, or socially handicapped.
Their counseling is vocationally ori­
ented but involves personal counsel­
ing as well.


E m p lo y m e n t C o u n s e lo rs are con­
cerned primarily with career plan­
ning and job adjustment. They may
work with the young, the old, the
able-bodied, and the disabled.
Young persons considering coun­
seling careers should have an inter­
est in helping people. The ability to
understand the behavior of people
is important to counselors who
sometimes must do a great deal of
research into the individual’s back­
ground. Counselors should have the
type of pleasant and strong person­

Nature of the Work

(D.O.T. 045.108)

Employment counselors (som e­
times called vocational counselors)
help individuals seeking aid to de­
velop a career goal that will fulfill
their potential and bring personal
satisfaction. They assist clients by
planning with them how to prepare
for and enter careers, and how to
make progress in them.
The extent of the counseling as­
sistance available differs among
agencies rendering the service.

Sometimes their clients are skilled
in specific occupations, and ready
for immediate job placement. Some­
times they need intensive training to
prepare them for jobs. The coun­
selor may help them find appropri­
ate training.
Counselors interview clients to
obtain vocationally significant infor­
mation related to their personal
traits, interests, training, work expe­
rience, and work attitudes. They
may assist individuals in filling out
questionnaires concerning their per­
sonal history and background. A d­
ditional data on a person’s general
intelligence, aptitudes and abilities,
skills, interests, and values also are
obtained from tests and personal in­
ventories which may be adminis­
tered or recorded by the counselor
or a specialist in testing. Further in­
formation may be assembled by the
counselor or the client from sources
such as former employers, schools,
and health or other agencies.
Counselors assist clients in evalu­
ating and understanding their work
potential, and provide them with in­
formation that they need in making
plans appropriate to their talents
and interests. Job requirements and
employment opportunities or train­
ing programs are discussed. In some
agencies, a vocational plan, or em­
ployability plan, is developed jointly
by the counselor and his client and
may specify a series of steps involv­
ing remedial education, vocational
training, work experience, or other
services needed to enhance his em­
ployability. Often in developing this
plan, the employment counselor
works with a team of specialists.
In many cases, employment
counselors refer clients to other
agencies for physical rehabilitation
or for psychological or other serv­
ices before, or concurrent with,
counseling. Employment counselors
must be familiar with the services
available in the community. They


of employment counselors, chiefly
in the Bureau of Indian Affairs and
the Veterans Administration. Some
people trained in employment or
vocational counseling are engaged
in research or graduate teaching.
About half of all employment coun­
selors are women.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

should be able to recognize what
services might be beneficial to a
particular client.
Counselors may help clients by
sources and appropriate ways of
applying for work. In instances
where a client needs further support
and assistance, counselors may con­
tact employers, although clients
seeking employment usually are
sent to placement interviewers after
counseling. After job placement or
entrance into training, counselors
may follow up to determine if addi­
tional assistance is needed. The ex­
panding responsibility of public em­
ployment service counselors for im­
proving the employability of disad­
vantaged persons has increased
their contacts with these persons
during training and on the job. It

also has led to group counseling and
the stationing of counselors in
neighborhood and community cen­

Places of Employment
In 1970, the largest number of
counselors— about
6 ,0 0 0 — worked in State employment
service offices, located in every
large city and in many smaller
towns. The next largest number—
probably about 2,000— worked for
various private or community agen­
cies, primarily in the larger cities.
In addition, some worked in institu­
tions such as prisons, training
schools for delinquent youths, and
mental hospitals. The Federal Gov­
ernment employed a limited number

The generally accepted minimum
educational requirement for em­
ployment counselors in State em­
ployment service offices is a bache­
lor’s degree, preferably with a
major in one of the social sciences,
plus 15 semester hours in counsel­
ing and related courses. Most States
have adopted a three-level coun­
selor classification system which in­
cludes a c o u n s e lo r tra in e e , requiring
a bachelor’s degree with 15 hours of
undergraduate or graduate work in
counseling related courses; a c o u n ­
se lo r, requiring a master’s degree or
30 graduate hours in counseling re­
lated courses; and a m a s te r c o u n se l­
o r, requiring a master’s degree and
3 years of experience, 1 of which
should be in employment service
Although minimum entrance re­
quirements are not standardized
among private and community
agencies, most of them prefer, and
many require, a master’s degree in
vocational counseling or in a related
field such as psychology, personnel
administration, education, or public
administration. Many private agen­
cies prefer to have at least one staff
member who has a doctorate in
counseling psychology or a related
field. For those lacking an advanced
degree, employers usually empha­
size experience in closely related
work such as rehabilitation counsel­


school or college counseling, or
The public employment service
offices in each State provide in-serv­
ice training programs for their new
counselors or trainees. Their experi­
enced counselors frequently are
given additional training at colleges
and universities, often leading to a
master’s degree in counseling and
guidance. Private and community
agencies also often provide in-serv­
ice training opportunities.
The professional educational cur­
riculum for employment counselors
generally includes, at the under­
graduate level, a basic foundation in
psychology with some emphasis on
sociology. At the graduate level, re­
quirements usually include courses
in techniques of appraisal and
counseling for vocational adjust­
ment, group methods, counseling
followup techniques, psychological
testing in vocational counseling, ed­
ucational psychology, psychology of
occupations, industrial psychology,
job analysis and theories of occupa­
tional choice, administration of
guidance services, and some course
work in research methods and sta­
Counselor education programs at
the graduate level are available in
about 370 colleges and universities,
most frequently in the departments
of education or psychology. To ob­
tain a master’s degree, students
must complete 1 to 2 years of grad­
uate study. All States require coun­
selors in their public employment
offices to meet State civil service or
merit system requirements that in­
clude certain minimum educational
and experience standards. They also
require a written or oral examina­
tion, or both.
Counselors who are well qualified
may advance, after experience, to
supervisory or administrative posi­
tions in their own or other organiza­

tions; some may become directors
of agencies or of other counseling
services, or area supervisors of
guidance programs; some may be­
come consultants; and others, may
become professors in the counseling

Employment Outlook
have a master’s degree, and others
with recognized related experience
in the field, will have very good em­
ployment opportunities in both
public and community agencies
through the 1970’s. In addition, col­
lege graduates having a bachelor’s
degree and 15 hours of undergradu­
ate or graduate work in counselingrelated courses will find many op­
portunities in State and local em ­
ployment service offices as counselor
Employment of counselors in
State employment service offices is
expected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s. The role of em­
ployment counselors has become in­
creasingly important as new pro­
grams have been developed to deal
with unemployment among the un­
skilled, minorities, and displaced
persons in a complex urban labor
market. Many of these programs,
beginning with the Manpower De­
velopment and Training Act of
1962, deal with training and retrain­
ing of these workers for fuller utili­
zation of their potentials. The stim­
ulus for most of these programs was
public awareness, concern, and rec­
ognition that additional services
would have to be provided if indi­
viduals with limited skills were to
find satisfactory employment. As a
result, the emphasis of employment
counseling in State employment
service offices has shifted from help­
ing unemployed persons to seek and

obtain employment to providing
multifaceted assistance to help both
unemployed and underemployed
persons obtain suitable jobs.
In addition to the counselors
needed because of growth in the oc­
cupation, many will be needed each
year through the 1970’s to replace
workers who retire, die, or leave the
profession for other reasons.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Salaries of employment counsel­
ors in State employment services
vary considerably from State to
State. In 1970, minimum annual
salaries ranged from about $6,100
to $11,600, with a mean of $7,700.
Maximum salaries ranged from
$7,700 to nearly $14,000, with a
mean of about $9,900. More than
one-third of the States listed maxi­
mum salaries of $10,000 or over.
Trainees for counseling positions in
some voluntary agencies in large cit­
ies were being hired at about
$6,500 a year; annual salaries re­
ported for experienced counselors
ranged up to $15,000 or more in
Most counselors work about 40
hours a week and have various ben­
efits, including vacations, sick leave,
pension plans, and insurance cover­
age. Counselors employed in com ­
munity agencies may work over­

Sources of Additional Information
General information on employ­
ment or vocational counseling may
be obtained from:
National Employment Counselors
Association, 1607 New Hampshire
Ave., NW., Washington, D.C.
National Vocational Guidance Asso­
ciation, Inc., 1607 New Hampshire


Ave., NW.,



Specific information regarding
local job opportunities, salaries, and
entrance requirements for positions
in public employment service offices
may be obtained from the adminis­
trative office of the particular State
employment security agency, bu­
reau, division, or commission,
which operates the service in the
State in which interested. Such
offices are usually in the State capi­

(D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of the Work
concerned primarily with the voca­
tional and personal adjustment of
persons handicapped in various
ways, either physicially, mentally,
or socially. First, the counselor in­
terviews the handicapped person to
learn his abilities, interests, and lim­
itations. Then, using such informa­
tion along with other medical,
psychological, and social data avail­
able, he helps the handicapped per­
son evaluate himself— his physical
and mental capacity, interests, and
talents— in terms of work suited to
these needs and abilities.
At this point, the counselor may
work out a plan of rehabilitation
with the handicapped person, along
with other specialists responsible for
the latter’s medical care and occu­
pational training and for other serv­
ices needed to carry out the pro­
gram. As this plan is put into effect,
the counselor meets regularly with

the disabled person to discuss the
program, check on progress made,
and help resolve problems. When
the person is ready for employment,
the counselor helps him find a suit­
able job, and often makes followup
checks to be sure that the placement
is satisfactory.
An increasing number of counsel­
ors specialize in a particular area of
rehabilitation; for example, some
work almost exclusively with the
blind, some with alcoholics, and
others with the mentally ill or re­

tarded. Still others work with the
disabled in poverty areas.
The time spent in the direct
counseling of each individual varies
with the person and the nature of
his disability, as well as with the
counselor’s workload. Some rehabil­
itation counselors are responsible
for many persons in various stages
of rehabilitation; on the other hand,
less experienced counselors, or spe­
cialized ones working with the se­
verely handicapped may handle
relatively few cases at a time. In ad-


dition to working with the handi­
capped person, the counselor also
must maintain close contact with
other professionals who work with
handicapped persons, members of
their families, other agencies and
civic groups, and private employers
who hire the handicapped. The
counselor often is responsible for
related activities, such as employer
education and community publicity
for the rehabilitation program.

Places of Employment
counselors were employed in 1970;
more than 11,000 were full-time
counselors. About three-fourths of
all rehabilitation counselors were
employed in State and local rehabil­
itation agencies financed coopera­
tively with Federal and State funds.
The remainder were employed by
hospitals, labor unions, insurance
companies, special schools, rehabili­
tation centers, sheltered workshops,
and other public and private agen­
cies that conducted rehabilitation
programs and provided job place­
ment services for the disabled. In
addition, about 400 counseling psy­
chologists in the Veterans Adminis­
An estimated 30 percent of all

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The basic educational require­
ment for entry into this occupation
is a bachelor’s degree with course
credits in counseling, psychology,
and related fields. However, em­
ployers are placing increasing em­
phasis on the master’s degree in vo­
cational or rehabilitation counseling

or in a related discipline such as
psychology, education, or social
work. Work experience in related
fields, such as vocational counseling
and placement, social work, psy­
chology, education, and other types
of counseling, is given considerable
weight by some employers, espe­
cially when considering applicants
who have only the bachelor’s de­
gree. Some agencies assist em­
ployees having bachelor’s degrees to
attain graduate degrees through
work-study programs.
Usually, 2 years are required to
qualify for the master's degree in
the fields of study preferred for re­
habilitation counseling. The curricu­
lum for the master’s degree may in­
clude a basic foundation in psychol­
ogy and specified courses in other
fields. The latter may include coun­
seling theories and techniques, oc­
cupational and educational informa­
tion, community resources, place­
ment and follow-up, tests and
measurements, the cultural and psy­
chological effects of disability, and
the medical and legislative aspects
of therapy and rehabilitation.
To earn the doctorate in rehabili­
tation counseling or in counseling
psychology may require a total of 4
to 6 years of graduate study. Inten­
sive training in psychology, other
social sciences, as well as research
methods, is required.
In 1970, 70 colleges and univer­
sities offered financial assistance to
a limited number of full-time gradu­
ate students specializing in rehabili­
tation counseling through training
grants provided by the Rehabilita­
tion Services Administration of the
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare.
To qualify for work with a num­
ber of the State Rehabilitation
Agencies applicants must comply
with State civil service and merit
system rules. In most cases, these

regulations require applicants to
pass a written competitive examina­
tion, sometimes supplemented by an
individual interview and evaluation
by a board of examiners. A few
States require counselors to be resi­
dents of the State in which they
Counselors having limited experi­
ence usually are assigned the least
difficult cases. As they gain experi­
ence, cases representing more diffi­
cult rehabilitation problems are as­
signed to them. After obtaining con­
siderable experience, rehabilitation
counselors may be advanced to su­
pervisory positions or to top admin­
istrative jobs.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for re­
habilitation counselors are expected
to be very good through the 1970’s.
In addition to openings expected to
be created by the very rapid growth
of the profession, several hundred
counselors will be needed annually
to replace those who die, retire, or
leave the field for other reasons.
Persons who have graduate work in
rehabilitation counseling or in re­
lated fields have the best employ­
ment prospects.
The number of counselors cur­
rently being trained is below the
number of new entrants that are ex­
pected to be needed during the
early 1970’s. During this period,
therefore, opportunities in rehabili­
tation counseling will be favorable
for persons with experience in re­
lated fields such as psychology, so­
cial work, and education.
Among the factors contributing
substantially to long-run demand for
the services of rehabilitation coun­
selors will be population growth,
with related increases in numbers to
be served, along with extension of

vocational rehabilitation to greater
nurnbers of the severely disabled.
An additional stimulus should be
the increasing support for the serv­
ice in general including a growing
recognition that the vocational reha­
bilitation approach helps the disad­
vantaged achieve self-support.

Earnings and Working Conditions
According to the U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and
Welfare, the median salaries of re­
habilitation counselors employed in
State agencies generally ranged
from $7,800 to $ 1 0,000 a year in
1970. Counselors working with the
disabled in the Veterans Adminis­
tration were hired in 1970 at
$13,493 or $14,665, depending
upon education and experience. A
small number of counselor trainees
were hired at annual salaries of
$9,881. For positions in V A hospi­
tals requiring the doctorate, salaries
ranged generally from $13,493 to
$16,790, depending on the appli­
cant’s experience and other qualifi­
cations. The average salary for doc­
torate degree holders was $18,900.
Counselors may spend only part
of their time counseling in their
offices, and the remainder in the
field, working with prospective em­
ployers, training agencies, and the
disabled person’s family. The ability
to drive a car is often necessary for
field work.
Rehabilitation counselors gener­
ally work a 40-hour week or less,
with little overtime work required;
however, they often must attend
community and civic meetings in
the evenings. They usually are cov­
ered by sick and annual leave bene­
fits, and pension and health plans.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on reha­
bilitation counseling as a career may
be obtained from:
American Psychological Association,
Inc., 1200 17th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.
American Rehabilitation Counseling
Association, 1607 New Hampshire
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
National Rehabilitation Counseling
Association, 1522 K St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.

A list of colleges and universities
that have received grants to provide
rehabilitation traineeships on a
graduate level is available from:
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, Rehabilitation
Services Administration, Washingtion, D.C. 20201.

(D.O.T. 045.108)

School counselors are concerned
with the educational, vocational,
and social development of students.
In carrying out their responsibilities,
counselors work with students, both
individually and in groups, as well
as with teachers, other school per­
sonnel, parents, and community
In the process of helping students
find their interests and abilities to
use in their educational and voca­
tional planning, counselors in sec­
ondary schools obtain information
from a variety of sources. These in­
clude talking with students, refer­
ring to their school and other rec­
ords, and using tests to help assess a
student’s chances of success in given
studies or occupations. The coun­

selor then helps the student analyze
and interpret the results, and devel­
ops with him— and sometimes with
his parents, as well— a course of
study and an educational plan fitting
his abilities, interests, and voca­
tional opportunities.
To acquaint a student with the
nature of the work in which he has
shown an interest, the counselor
may provide descriptions of work,
training requirements, earnings, and
outlook. He may maintain files or li­
braries of occupational literature for
both students and their parents to
use. To provide a view of real work
settings, he may arrange trips to
factories and business firms, and
show vocational films. To bring the
work-place into the school, the
counselor may conduct “career
day” programs.
He also counsels the student
about opportunities for educational
and vocational training beyond high
school, including those in 2- and 4year colleges; in trade, technical and
business schools; in apprenticeship
programs, and in programs under
the Manpower Development and
Training Act of 1962.
Counselors in secondary schools
may also help students find parttime work while in school, either to
enable them to stay in school or to
help them prepare for their voca­
tion. Counselors may also assist stu­
dents, on leaving school, in locating
full-time employment themselves or
in using community employment
services. Some counselors also take
part in studies to follow up on re­
cent graduates and dropouts, to sur­
vey local job opportunities, or to
determine the effectiveness of the
educational and guidance programs.
Many secondary school counsel­
ors, in addition, help students indi­
vidually with personal and social
problems common to adolescence.
Counselors also lead discussion



small schools by assigning more than
one school to a counselor.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

groups on topics related to student
interests and problems.
Elementary school counselors
help children to make the best use
of their abilities by identifying these
and other basic aspects of their
makeup, at an early age, and by
evaluating any learning problems.
Methods used in counseling grade
school children necessarily differ in
many ways from those used with
older students. Observations of
classroom and play activity furnish
clues about children in the lower
grades. To better understand the
children, elementary school counsel­
ors spend much of their time con­
sulting with teachers and parents.
They also work closely with other
staff members of the school, includ­
Some school counselors, particu­
larly in secondary schools, may
teach classes in occupational infor­

mation, social studies, or other sub­
jects in addition to counseling. They
also may supervise school clubs or
often after regular school hours.

Places of Employment
An estimated 54,000 school
counselors were employed full-time
during the 1970-71 school year.
More than four-fifths worked in
public secondary schools. About 10
percent were employed in public el­
ementary schools where counseling
services are being steadily ex­
panded. The others were employed
in junior colleges, technical insti­
tutes, and private elementary and
secondary schools.
The majority of counselors work
in large schools. An increasing num­
ber of school districts, however, are
providing guidance services to their

Most States require counselors to
have both a counseling and a teach­
ing certificate. (See statement on
Elementary and Secondary School
Teachers for teaching certificate re­
quirements.) A counseling certifi­
cate requires graduate level work
and usually from 1 to 5 years of
teaching experience. A person plan­
ning to counsel should learn the
specific requirements of the State in
which he plans to work, since such
among the States and also are
changing rapidly.
Undergraduate college students
interested in becoming school coun­
selors usually enroll in the regular
program of teacher education, pre­
ferably taking additional courses in
psychology and sociology. In States
where teaching experience is not a
requirement it is possible to major
in a liberal arts program. After
graduating from college, they may
gain the experience required, teach­
ing or other, before or during grad­
uate study. A few States substitute
counseling internship for teaching
experience. In some States, teachers
who have completed part of the
courses required for the master’s
degree are eligible for provisional
certification and may work as coun­
selors under supervision while tak­
ing additional courses.
The subject areas of the required
graduate-level courses usually in­
clude appraisal of the individual
student, counseling procedures for
group guidance, use of information
services for vocational development,
development and management of
overall program, professional rela­



tions and ethics, and statistics and
research. Supervised field experi­
ence or internship is provided in an
increasing number of programs.
Counselor education programs at
the graduate level are available in
more than 370 colleges and univer­
sities, most frequently in the depart­
ments of education or psychology.
To obtain a master’s degree, a stu­
dent must complete 1 to 2 years of
graduate study. School counselors
may advance to counselor supervi­
sors or directors of pupil personnel
services or to other administrative
positions within the school system.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
well-trained school counselors are
expected to be good through the
1970’s. Job openings for counselors
are expected to increase rapidly due
to continued strengthening of coun­
seling services in elementary and
secondary schools. The average
ratio of counselors to students as a
whole is still well below generally
accepted standards, despite the fi­
nancial aid which the Federal Gov­
ernment has provided to States for
school counseling programs under
the National Defense Education Act
of 1958, as amended, and other leg­
In addition to the number of
counselors needed to take care of
the anticipated expansion of the oc­
cupation, many counselors also will

be required, each year, to replace
those leaving the profession.
Am ong the factors affecting the
employment growth of school coun­
selors is the increasing recognition
of counseling as an essential educa­
tional service for all pupils— the av­
erage, the gifted, the slow, the dis­
advantaged, and the handicapped.
Moreover, Federal legislation such
as the Elementary and Secondary
Education A ct amendments of
1966, the National Defense Educa­
tion amendments of 1966, and the
Vocational Education amendments
of 1968 has extended support of
school counseling services to ele­
mentary schools, vocational and
technical schools, and junior col­
Also contributing to the increased
demand for counseling services is
the growing public awareness of the
value of guidance services in help­
ing students with personal and
social problems. This in turn, may
help reduce the number of school
dropouts. Students will also be seek­
ing advice from school counselors
about educational requirements for
concerns such as entrance-level
jobs, job changes caused by auto­
mation and other technological ad­
vances, college entrance require­
ments, and places of employment.

Earnings and Working Conditions
According to the National Educa­
tion Association, the average annual

salaries during the 1 9 6 9 -7 0 school
year for school counselors having the
bachelor’s degree ranged from
$7,3 0 0 to $10,300, and for those
having the master’s, from $8,300 to
$12,400. School counselors having
the doctorate earned as much as
$18,700. Many school counselors
had annual earnings higher than
those of classroom teachers with
comparable educational preparation
and experience. (See statements on
School Teachers and Secondary
School Teachers.)
In most school systems, counsel­
ors receive regular salary incre­
ments as their counseling experi­
ence increases, and as they obtain
additional education. Some counsel­
ors supplement their income by
part-time consulting or other work
with private or public counseling
centers, government agencies, or
private industry.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on colleges and uni­
versities offering training in guid­
ance and counseling, as well as on
the certification requirements of
each State, may be obtained from
the State department of education
at the State capital.
Additional information on this
field of work may be obtained from :
American School Counselor Associ­
ation, 1607 New Hampshire Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.


Engineers contribute in countless
ways to the welfare, technological
progress, and defense of the Nation.
They develop complex electric
power, water supply, and waste dis­
posal systems to meet the problems
of urban living. They design in­
dustrial machinery and equipment
needed to manufacture goods on a
mass production basis, and heating,
air conditioning, and ventilation
equipment for the comfort of man.
A lso, they develop scientific equip­
ment to help probe the mysteries of
outer space and the depths of the
ocean, and design and supervise the
construction of highways and rapid
transit systems for safe and more
convenient transportation. In addi­
tion, they design and develop con­
sumer products such as automo­
biles and refrigerators. They also
provide the raw materials that make
all this possible.
This chapter contains an over-all
discussion of engineering, followed
by separate statements on several
branches of the field— aerospace,
agricultural, biomedical, ceramic,
chemical, civil, electrical, industrial,
mechanical, metallurgical, and min­
ing engineering. Although most en­
gineers specialize in these or other
specific branches of the profession,
a considerable body of basic knowl­
edge and methodology is common
to most areas of engineering. Also,
unified curriculums in engineering
(without specialty designation) and
in engineering science are increasing
in popularity. Therefore, young
people considering engineering as a
career should become familiar with
the general nature of engineering as
well as with its various branches.

Nature of the Work
Engineers develop methods for
converting the raw materials and
sources of power found in nature
into useful products at a reasonable
cost in terms of time and money.
They use basic scientific principles
to solve the problems involved in
designing goods and services and
developing methods for their pro­
duction. The emphasis on the appli­
cation of scientific principles, rather
than on their discovery, is the main
factor that distinguishes the work of
the engineer from that of the scien­
tist. For example, a physicist may
discover that the properties of a gas
change when it is converted into a
liquid at extremely low tempera­
tures, but the engineer develops
uses for the liquid, or economical
methods for its production.
In designing or developing a new
product, engineers must consider
many factors. For example, in de­
signing a space capsule, they must
calculate how much heat, radiation,
air pressure, and other forces the
capsule must withstand during its
flight to insure the safety of the oc­
cupants and prevent the malfunc­
tioning of its instrumentation. E x­
periments must be conducted which
relate these factors to various con­
struction materials, as well as to the
many possible capsule sizes, shapes,
and weights. Equally important are
the human needs and limitations of
the people who must operate the
equipment. In addition, the engineer
must take into account the relative
cost of the required materials and
the cost and time of the fabrication
process. Similar factors must be
considered by engineers who design
and develop a wide variety of prod­
ucts ranging from transistor radios

and washing machines to electronic
computers and industrial machin­
Besides design and development,
engineers engage in many other ac­
tivities. Many work in inspection,
quality control, and other activities
related to production in manufac­
turing industries, mines, and agri­
culture. Others are administrators
and managers whose knowledge of
engineering is important. A large
number plan and supervise the con­
struction of buildings and highways.
Many are employed in sales posi­
tions, where they must discuss the
technical aspects of a product or as­
sist in planning its installation or
use. (See statement on Manufac­
turers’ Salesmen.) Some conduct
research aimed at supplying the
basic technological data needed for
the design and production of new or
improved products. Some engineers
work as consultants. A relatively
small group, especially at the Ph. D.
level, teach in the engineering
schools of colleges and universities.
Most engineers specialize in one
of the many branches of the profes­
sion. More than 25 engineering spe­
cialties are recognized by the pro­
fession or in engineering school cur­
branches— 11 of which are dis­
cussed separately in this chapter—
there are many subdivisions of the
branches. Structural, hydraulic, and
highway engineering, for example,
are subdivisions of civil engineering.
Engineers may also become special­
ists in the engineering problems of
one industry, or in a particular field
of technology such as propulsion or
guidance systems. Nevertheless, the
basic knowledge required for all
areas of engineering often makes it
possible for engineers to shift from
one field of specialization to an­
other, particularly for those begin­
ning their careers.
Engineers within each of the


of Defense. Significant numbers of
engineers also were in the Depart­
ments of the Interior, Agriculture,
and Transportation, and the N a­
tional Aeronautics and Space A d­
ministration. Most engineers in
State and local government agencies
were employed by highway and
public works departments.
ployed over 40,000 engineers in
1970, in research and teaching. A
small number were employed by
nonprofit research organizations.
Engineers are employed in every
State, in small cities as well as large,
and in some rural areas. However,
about two-thirds of all engineers in
private industry are employed in 10
States, and of these almost one-third
are in California, N ew York, and
Pennsylvania. The profession also
offers opportunities for employment
overseas. Some branches of engi­
neering are concentrated in particu­
lar industries, as indicated in the
statements presented later in this
branches may apply their special­
ized knowledge to many fields. For
example, electrical engineers may
work in medicine, missile guidance,
or electric power distribution. Be­
cause engineering problems are usu­
ally complex, the work in some
applied fields cuts across the tradi­
tional branches. Using a team ap­
proach to solve problems, engineers
in one field often work closely with
specialists in other scientific and en­
gineering occupations.

Places of Employment
Engineering is the second largest
professional occupation, exceeded
in size only by teaching; for men it
is the largest profession. Nearly 1.1

million engineers were employed in
the United States in 1970.
Manufacturing industries em­
ployed approximately 600,000 or
more than half of all engineers in
1970— mostly in electrical equip­
ment, aircraft and parts, machinery,
chemicals, ordnance, instruments,
primary metals, fabricated metal
products, and motor vehicles indus­
tries. Over 300,000 engineers were
employed in non-manufacturing in­
dustries in 1970, primarily in the
construction, public utilities, engi­
neering and architectural services,
and business and management
consulting services industries.
Federal, State, and local govern­
ments employed more than 150,000
engineers in 1970. Over half of these
were employed by the Federal Gov­
ernment, chiefly by the Department

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree in engineer­
ing is the generally accepted educa­
tional requirement for entrance into
engineering positions. Well-qualified
graduates having training in physics,
one of the other natural sciences, or
in mathematics may qualify for
some beginning positions in engi­
neering. Some persons without a de­
gree are able to become engineers
after long experience in a related
occupation— such as draftsmen or
engineering technicians— and some
college level training.
Advanced training is emphasized
for an increasing number of jobs.
Graduate degrees are desirable for
beginning teaching and research po­


sitions, and advancement. Further­
more, some specialities, such as nu­
clear engineering, are available only
at the graduate level.
About 270 colleges, universities,
and engineering schools offer a
bachelor’s degree in engineering.
These educational institutions offer
nearly 1,000 curricula choices. A l­
though the larger branches of engi­
neering are offered in most schools,
some specialties are taught in rela­
tively few institutions. A student
who desires to specialize should in­
vestigate various curriculums before
selecting his college. For undergrad­
uate admission, engineering schools
usually require high school courses
in mathematics and the physical sci­
ences. The quality of the applicant’s
high school work is emphasized.
In the typical 4-year curriculum,
the first 2 years are spent mainly on
basic science— mathematics, phys­
ics, and chemistry— and the human­
ities, social sciences, and English.
The last 2 years are devoted chiefly
to engineering with emphasis on a
specialty. Some programs offer gen­
eral training; the student chooses a
specialty in graduate school or ac­
quires one on the job.
Some engineering curriculums re­
quire more than 4 years to com ­
plete. However, the number of insti­
tutions having 5-year programs
leading to the bachelor’s degree is
decreasing. In addition, several en­
gineering schools now have formal
arrangements with liberal arts col­
leges whereby a student spends 3
years in liberal arts and 2 years in
engineering and receives a bache­
lor’s degree from each. This pro­
gram offers the student diversifica­
tion in his studies.
Some institutions have 5- or 6year cooperative plans under which
a student alternates school and em­
ployment. Most of these plans coor­
dinate classroom study and practical

experience. In addition to gaining
experience, the student may finance
part of his education.
Engineering graduates usually
begin work as trainees or as assist­
ants to experienced engineers.
Many large companies have special
programs to acquaint new engineers
with special industrial practices and
to determine the specialty for which
they are best suited. As they gain
experience, engineers may advance
to positions of greater responsibil­
ity. Those with proven ability often
become administrators. Increasingly
large numbers are promoted to top
executive posts. Many engineers ob­
tain graduate degrees in business
administration to improve their ad­
vancement opportunities.
All 50 States and the District of
Columbia have laws providing for
the licensing of those engineers
whose work may affect life, health,
or property; or who offer their serv­
ices to the public. In 1970, about
325,000 engineers were registered
under these laws in the United
States. Generally, registration re­
quirements include graduation from
an accredited engineering curricu­
lum, plus at least 4 years of experi­
ence and the passing of a State ex­
amination. Examining boards may
accept a longer period of experience
as a substitute for a college degree.
Prospective engineers should be
able to work as part of a team, be
innovative, have initiative, an ana­
lytical mind, a capacity for detail,
and the ability to make decisions. In
addition, engineers should be able
to communicate their ideas to spe­
cialists in areas such as marketing,
and production planning. The abil­
ity to cut across various disciplines
and systematically evaluate and
solve problems also is important.
Because of rapidly changing tech­
nologies, an engineer must be will­

ing to continue his
throughout his career.


Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
engineers are expected to be favor­
able through the 1970’s. Engineer­
ing has been one of the fastest
growing professions in recent years
and requirements for engineers are
expected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s, but at a slower
annual rate of growth than during
the 1960’s. Engineers who are not
well grounded in fundamentals and
whose specialization is very narrow
could be affected adversely by shifts
in defense activities and rapidly
changing technology. Demand prob­
ably will be strong for new gradu­
ates who have acquired recently
computer applications, and for engi­
neers who can apply engineering
principles to medical, biological, and
other sciences. New graduates hav­
ing advanced degrees should have
favorable opportunities in research
and teaching.
Among factors underlying the an­
ticipated increase in demand for en­
gineers is population growth, and
the resulting expansion of industry
to meet the demand for more goods
and services. The need for engi­
neers also will rise as a result of the
increasingly larger amount of engi­
neering time required to develop
complex industrial products and
processes and industrial automation.
Increasing public emphasis on solv­
ing domestic problems such as envi­
ronmental pollution and urban re­
development also should increase
requirements for engineers.
Some of the past increases in en­
gineering employment resulted from
increases in Federal research and
development (R&D) expenditures



for space and defense related pro­
grams. During the 1 9 7 0 -8 0 decade
R&D expenditures of Government
and industry are expected to in­
crease, although at a slower rate
than during the 1960’s. The antici­
pated slowdown in Federal R&D
spending basically reflects antici­
pated reductions in the relative im­
portance of the space and defense
components of R&D expenditures.
These trends were evidenced in the
late 1960’s and in 1970.

engineers can look forward to fa­
vorable employment opportunities.
In addition to engineers for new
positions, thousands will have to be
trained to replace workers who
transfer to other occupations, retire,
or die. The preceding discussion an­
alyzes the outlook for engineering
as a whole. Various branches are
discussed in statements later in this

Defense expenditures are an im­
portant determinant of the demand
for engineers because about 25 per­
cent of all engineers in 1970
worked in defense related activities.
The outlook for engineers presented
is based on the assumption that de­
fense activity as measured by ex­
penditures will be somewhat higher
than the level before the Vietnam
buildup, approximating the level of
the early 1960’s. If defense activity
should differ substantially from that
level, the demand for engineers will
be affected accordingly.

Earnings and Working Conditions

In addition to the level of defense
expenditures, general business con­
ditions, shifting National priorities,
and nondefense related Federal pro­
grams and policies also influence the
demand for engineers. Thus, the de­
mand for engineers fluctuates peri­
odically. The shortrun demand can
either exceed or fall short of the
number of engineers seeking profes­
sional employment. Over the longer
run, however, indications are that

N ew engineering graduates hav­
ing the bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience earned an average of
$ 1 0,400 a year in private industry
in 1 9 6 9 -7 0 according to the Col­
lege Placement Council. Master’s de­
gree graduates having no experience
averaged almost $12,000 a year;
Ph. D. graduates averaged about
accompanying tabulation
shows varying starting salaries for
bachelor degree graduates in 1 9 6 9 70:
In the Federal Government in
1970 engineers having the bache­
lor’s degree and no experience
could start at $8,510 or $10,528 a
year, depending on their college
records. Beginning engineers having
the bachelor’s degree and 1 or 2
years of graduate work could start
at $10,528 or $11,855. Those hav­
ing the Ph. D. degree could begin at
$13,493 or $14,665.
In colleges and universities, me­

Starting salaries fo r engineers by branch, 1 9 6 9 -7 0
L o w er
A verage
d e c i le 1

Aeronautical engineering............................$10,200
Chemical engineering................................. 10,800
Civil engineering ...................................... 10,000
Electrical engineering .............................. 10,400
Industrial engineering................................ 10,200
Mechanical engineering............................ 10,400
Metallurgical engineering.......................... 10,500
190 percent earned more than the amount shown.
a 10 percent earned more than the amount shown.


U pper
decile *


dian salaries of engineers with the
master’s degree started at about
$10,000 a year; and with the Ph. D.
degree, $12,300 for a 9 -1 0 month
academic year. (A lso see statement
on College and University Teach­
Most engineers can expect an in­
crease in earnings as they gain ex­
perience. For example, in 1970
according to an Engineering Man­
power Commission Survey, the av­
erage (m edian) salary of engineers
having 21 to 23 years of experience
was $18,350, 78 percent higher than
beginning engineers. Only 10 per­
cent of those having 21 to 23 years
of experience earned less than
$13,700 a year, and 10 percent
earned $ 2 5 ,6 0 0 or more. Some in
top-level executive positions had
much higher earnings.
work under quiet conditions found
in modern offices and research labo­
ratories, they may be involved in
more active work— at a missile site
preceding the launching of a space
vehicle, in a mine, at a construction
site, or at some other outdoor loca­

Sources of Additional Information
General information on engineer­
ing careers— including student se­
lection and guidance, professional
training and ethics, and salaries and
other economic aspects of engineer­
ing— may be obtained from :
Engineers’ Council for Professional
Development, 345 East 47th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.
Engineering Manpower Commission,
Engineers Joint Council, 345 East
47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
National Society of Professional
Engineers, 2029 K St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.






schools and curriculums and on
training and other qualifications
needed for entrance into the profes­
sion also may be obtained from the
Engineers Council for Professional
Development. Information on regis­
tration of engineers may be ob­
tained from the National Society of
Professional Engineers.
In addition to the organizations
listed above, other engineering soci­
branches of the engineering profes­
sion; some are listed with the
branches presented later in this
chapter. Each can provide informa­
tion about careers in the particular
branch of engineering. Many other
engineering organizations are listed
in the following publications availa­
ble in most libraries or from the
Engineering Societies Directory, pub­
lished by Engineers Joint Council,
345 East 47th Street, New York,
N.Y. 10017.
Scientific and Technical Societies of
the United States and Canada,
published by the National Acad­
emy of Sciences, National Re­
search Council.

Some engineers are members of
labor unions. Information on engi­
neering unions may be obtained
The American Federation of Tech­
nical Engineers (AFL-CIO), 1126
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 002.081)

Nature of the Work
Aerospace engineers play a vital
role in America’s space activities.

Engineers in this branch of the pro­
fession work on all types of aircraft
and spacecraft including missiles,
rockets, and conventional propel­
ler-driven and jet-powered planes.
They are concerned with all phases
of the development of aerospace
products from the initial planning
and design to the final assembly,
and testing.
Aerospace engineers usually spe­
cialize in a particular area of work,
such as structural design, naviga­
tional guidance and control, instru­
mentation and communication, sim­
ulation, propulsion, materials, test­
ing, or production methods. They
also may specialize in a particular
type of aerospace product such as
passenger planes, jet-powered mili­
tary aircraft, rockets, launch vehi­

cles, satellites, manned space cap­
sules, or landing modules.
Engineers working in the aircraft
field are usually called aeronautical
engineers. Those in the field of mis­
siles, rockets, and spacecraft often
are referred to as astronautical engi­
neers. However, engineers with de­
grees in aeronautics and astronau­
tics are usually called aerospace en­

Places of Employment
More than 60,000 aerospace en­
gineers were employed in early
1970, mainly in the aircraft and
parts industry. Some worked for
Federal Government agencies, pri­
marily the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration and the



Department of Defense. Small num­
bers worked for commercial air­
lines, consulting firms, and colleges
and universities.

Employment Outlook
Continuing developments in su­
personic, subsonic, and vertical lift
aircraft, and advancement in space
and missile activities, such as the
expansion of the Safeguard anti-bal­
listic-missile system (A B M ) and
space exploration followed by flights
to the planets, should result in a
moderate increase in requirements
for aerospace engineers. A lso, some
aerospace firms may become active
in other areas such as high speed
ground transportation. Additional
job opportunities also will arise from
the need to replace engineers who
transfer to other fields of work, re­
tire, or die. However, engineers who
are not well grounded in engineer­
ing fundamentals, and those whose
specialization is very narrow, could
be affected adversely by skill obso­
lescence caused by shifts in defense
activities and by rapidly changing
Employment requirements for
aerospace engineers are particularly
sensitive to changes in the level and
mix of defense expenditures. B e­
cause of this, employment oppor­
tunities fluctuate periodically, and in
the short run demand can fall short
of the number of aerospace engi­
neers seeking employment. Over
the longer run, however, employ­
ment opportunities for aerospace
engineers are expected to be favor­
The outlook for aerospace engi­
neers presented here is based on the
assumption that defense activity as
measured by expenditures will be
reduced from the peak levels of the
Vietnam conflict, although higher

than the level just before the Viet­
nam conflict. If defense activity
should differ substantially from that
level, the demand for aerospace en­
gineers would be affected accord­
ingly. ( See introductory section of
this chapter for discussion on train­
ing requirements and earnings. See
also chapter on Occupations in Air­
craft, Missile, and Spacecraft Manu­

Sources of Additional Information
American Institute of Aeronautics
and Astronautics, Inc., 1290 Ave­
nue of the Americas, New York,
N.Y. 10019.

(D .O .T. 013.081)

Nature of the Work
Agricultural engineers use basic
engineering principles and concepts
to develop machinery, equipment
and methods to improve the ef­
ficiency and economy of the pro­
duction, processing, and distribution
of food and other agricultural prod­
ucts. They are concerned primarily
with the design of farm machinery,
equipment, and structures; the utili­
zation of electrical energy on farms
and in food and feed processing
plants; the conservation and man­
agement of soil and water re­
sources; and the design and opera­
tion of processing equipment to
prepare agricultural products for
market. They usually specialize in a
particular area of work, such as re­
search and development, design,
testing and application, production,
sales, or management.

Places of Employment
Most of the estimated 13,000 ag­
ricultural engineers in 1970 were
employed in private industry, espe­
cially by manufacturers of farm
equipment and household equip­
ment; electrical service companies;
and distributors of farm equipment
and supplies. Some worked for en­
gineering consultants who supply
technical or management services to
farmers and farm related industries;
others were independent consult­
The Federal Government em­
ploys about 600 agricultural engi­
neers— chiefly in the Soil Conserva­
tion Service and Agricultural R e­
search Service of the Department of
Agriculture. Some are employed by
colleges and universities and a few
are employed by State and local

Employment Outlook
Employment of agricultural engi­
neers is expected to grow rapidly
through the 1970’s. Among the fac­
tors which will contribute to a
greater demand for these engineers
are the growing mechanization of
farm operations, increasing empha­
sis on conservation of resources,
and expanding population— with a
corresponding demand for food and
fibre— and the broadening use of
agricultural products and wastes as
industrial raw materials. Additional
engineers will be needed to work on
problems concerning the enormous
energy and power requirements of
farms. (See introductory section of
this chapter for discussion on train­
ing requirements and earnings. See
also chapter on Occupations in A g­



Sources of Additional Information
American Society of Agricultural
Engineers, 2950 Niles Rd., St.
Joseph, Mich. 49085.


leges and universities. Some were
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment, primarily in the National
Aeronautics and Space Administra­
tion. Some work in State institutions
and a growing number are em­
ployed in private industry to de­
velop new apparatus, processes, and
techniques, or in sales related posi­

(D.O.T. 019.481)

Employment Outlook
Nature of the Work
Biomedical engineers use engi­
neering principles to solve medical
and health related problems. Most
biomedical engineers do research,
working with life scientists, chem­
ists, and the medical profession to
study the engineering aspects of
the biological systems of man and
animals. Some design and develop
medical instruments and devices
that now include artificial hearts
and kidneys to assist medical per­
sonnel in observing, mitigating, or
alleviating physical ailments or de­
have developed lasers for surgery
and cardiac pacemakers for regulat­
ing the heartbeat. Other biomedical
engineers adapt the computer to
medical science, for example, com ­
puters to monitor patients and
process electrocardiograph data.
Biomedical engineers also design
and construct systems which mecha­
nize and automate laboratory and
clinical procedures. A few biomedi­
cal engineers sell medical instru­
ments and equipment to doctors, re­
search centers, and hospitals.

Employment opportunities for
biomedical engineers are expected
to be very favorable through the
1970’s. Although biomedical engi­
neering currently is a small field and
has few openings compared with the
larger branches of engineering, the
number of graduates also is small.
Thus, opportunities should be very
favorable for both new graduates
and qualified scientists and engi­
M.S. and Ph. D. graduates will be
in strong demand to teach and fill
positions resulting from increased
expenditures for research in areas
such as prosthetics and cybernetics.
Research could create new positions
in instrumentation and systems for
the delivery of health services. (See
introductory sections of this chapter
for a discussion on training require­
ments and earnings.)

Sources of Additional Information
Alliance for Engineering in Medicine
and Biology, 3900 Wisconsin Ave.
NW., Suite No. 300, Washington,
D.C. 20016.
Biomedical Engineering .Society, P.O.
Box 1600, Evanston, Illinois

Places of Employment
In 1970 most of the estimated
3,000 biomedical engineers were
teaching and doing research in col­

Foundation for Medical Technology,
Mt. Sinai Medical Center, 100
St., 5th, Ave., New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 006.081)

Nature of the Work
Ceramic engineers are concerned
with one of the world’s oldest and
yet newest technologies. They de­
velop methods for processing clay,
silicates, and other nonmetallic min­
erals into a wide variety of ceramic
products, ranging from glassware,
cement, and bricks, to coatings and
refractories for missile nose cones.
They may also design and supervise
the construction of the plant and
equipment used to manufacture
these products. Many ceramic engi­
neers are engaged in research and
development. Some are employed in
sales; others work as consultants or
teach in colleges and universities.
Ceramic engineers usually spe­
cialize in one or more products—
for example, products of refracto­
ries (fire- and heat-resistant mate­
rials, such as firebrick); whitewares
(such as porcelain and china dinnerware or high voltage electrical
(such as brick, tile, and terra
cotta); electronic ceramics (such as
ferrites for memory systems and mi­
crowave devices); protective and
refractory coatings for metals; glass;
abrasives; and fuel elements for
atomic energy.

Places of Employment
Most of the estimated 10,000 ce­
ramic engineers in 1970 were em­
ployed in manufacturing industries
— primarily in the stone, clay, and
glass industries. Others worked in
the iron and steel, electrical equip­
ment, aerospace, and chemical in­



dustries which produce or use ce­
ramic products. Some were em­
ployed by educational institutions,
independent research organizations,
and the Federal Government.

Employment Outlook
The outlook is for rapid growth
in the employment of ceramic engi­
neers through the 1970’s. Although
ceramic engineering is a small field
and has few openings in a year com ­
pared with large branches of engi­
neering, the number of graduates
also is small. Thus, opportunities
for new graduates should be excel­
The growth of programs related
to nuclear energy, electronics, and
space exploration will provide many
of the opportunities for ceramic en­
gineers. Ceramic materials which
are corrosion-resistant, and capable
of withstanding radiation and ex­
tremely high temperatures are be­
coming increasingly important in
the development of nuclear reactors
and space vehicles. Increasing use
of the more traditional ceramic
products, such as whitewares and
abrasives, for consumer and in­
dustrial use also will require addi­
tional ceramic engineers to improve
and adapt these products to new re­
quirements. The growing use of
structural clay and tile products in
construction will add to employ­
ment opportunities. Furthermore,
the development of new glasses of
unusual properties and the expand­
ing use of conventional glasses in
the construction and container field
probably will create additional
openings for ceramic engineers.
(See introductory section of this
chapter for discussion on training
requirements and earnings.)

Sources of Additional Information
American Ceramic Society, 4055
North High St., Columbus, Ohio

(D.O.T. 008.081)

Nature of the Work
Chemical engineers design plants
and equipment to manufacture
chemicals and chemical products.
They also determine the most
which requires a knowledge of
chemistry, physics, and mechanical
and electrical engineering. They
often design and operate pilot plants
to test their work.

This branch of engineering is so
diversified and complex that chemi­
cal engineers frequently specialize
in a particular operation such as ox­
idation or polymerization. Others
specialize in the manufacture of a
specific product, such as plastics or
rubber. Chemical engineers may en­
gage in research and development,
production, plant operation, design,
sales, management, or teaching.

Places of Employment
Approximately four-fifths of the
estimated 50,000 chemical engi­
neers in the United States in 1970
were employed in manufacturing in­
dustries— primarily in the chemicals
industry. Some were employed by
government agencies and by col­
leges and universities. A small
number worked for independent re­
search institutes or engineering con­
sulting firms, or as independent con­
sulting engineers.

Employment Outlook

C hem ical engineer checks
w a te r q uality.

The outlook is for moderate
growth of employment in chemical
engineering through the 1970’s. The
major factors underlying this ex­
pected growth are expansion of in­
dustry— the chemicals industry in
particular— and continued high lev­
els of expenditures for research and
development, in which a large por­
tion of chemical engineers are em­
ployed. The growing complexity of
chemical processes and the automa­
tion of these processes, will require
additional chemical engineers for
work related to designing, building,
and maintaining the necessary
plants and equipment. Chemical en­
gineers also will be needed in many
relatively new areas of work, such
as environmental control and the
design and development of nuclear



reactors, and in research to develop
new and better solid and liquid fuels
for missiles and rockets. Further­
more, new chemicals used in the
manufacture of consumer goods,
such as plastics and manmade
fibers, probably will create addi­
tional openings. (See introductory
section of this chapter for discussion
on training requirements and earn­
ings. See also the statement on
Chemists and chapter on Occupa­
tions in the Industrial Chemical

Sources of Additional Information

Places of Employment
Approximately 185,000 civil en­
gineers were employed ip the
United States in 1970. The majority
were employed by Federal, State,
and local government agencies and
the construction industry. Large
numbers were employed by consult­
ing engineering and architectural
firms, or worked as independent
consulting engineers. Some were
employed by public utilities, rail­
roads, and educational institutions.
Others worked in the iron and steel
industries and other major manufac­
turing industries.

American Institute of Chemical
Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 005.081)

Nature of the Work
Civil engineers design and super­
vise the construction of roads, har­
bors, airfields, tunnels, bridges,
water supply and sewage systems,
and buildings. Major specialties
within civil engineering are struc­
tural, hydraulic, sanitary, transpor­
tation (including highways and rail­
w ays), and soil mechanics.
Many civil engineers are in su­
pervisory or administrative positions
ranging from site supervisor of a
construction project or city engineer
to top-level executive. Some are en­
gaged in design, planning, research,
inspection, or maintenance activi­
ties. Others teach in colleges and
universities or work as consultants.

countries. Furthermore, civil engi­
neers in some positions often are re­
quired to move from place to place
to work on different projects.

Employment Outlook
The outlook in civil engineering
— one of the largest and oldest
branches of the profession— is for
growth through the
The expanding employment op­
portunities for civil engineers will
result from the growing needs for
housing, industrial buildings, and
created by an increasing population
and expanding economy. Work re­
lated to the problems of urban envi­
ronment, such as water and sewage
systems, air and water pollution,
and giant urban redevelopment
projects, may also require additional
civil engineers.
Large numbers of civil engineers
will also be needed each year to re­
place those who retire or die. (See
introductory section of this chapter
for discussion on training require­
ments and earnings.)

Sources of Additional Information
American Society of Civil Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York,
N.Y. 10017.

Civil engineers work in all parts
of the country, in every State and
city— usually in or near the major
industrial and commercial centers.
However, since these engineers are
frequently called upon to work at
construction sites, they are some­
times stationed in remote areas of
the United States or in foreign

(D.O.T. 003.081, .151, and .187)

Nature of the Work
Electrical engineers design, de­
velop, and supervise the manufac­
ture of electrical and electronic



equipment— including electric mo­
tors and generators; communica­
tions equipment; electronic appa­
ratus such as television, radar,
computers, and missile guidance
systems; and electrical applicances
of all kinds. They also design and
participate in the operation of facil­
ities for generating and distributing
electric power.
Electrical engineers usually spe­
cialize in a major area of work such
as electronics, electrical equipment
manufacturing, communications, or
power. Many specialize in subdivi­
sions of these broad areas; for ex­
ample, electronics engineers may
specialize in computers or in missile
guidance and tracking systems.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
electrical engineers are expected to
increase very rapidly through the
1970’s. An increased demand for
electrical equipment to automati­
cally control production processes,
using such items as computers and
sensing devices, is expected to be
among the major factors contribut­
ing to this growth. The anticipated

growing demand for electrical and
electronic consumer goods also is
expected to create many job open­
ings for electrical engineers.
The outlook for electrical engi­
neers presented here is based on the
assumption that defense activity (as
measured by expenditures) will be
reduced from the peak levels of the
Vietnam conflict, although higher
than the level just before the Viet­
nam conflict. If defense activity

A large number of electrical engi­
neers are engaged in research, de­
velopment, and design activities.
Another large group is employed in
administrative and management po­
sitions. Others are employed in var­
ious manufacturing operations or in
technical sales or teaching positions.

Places of Employment
Electrical engineering is the larg­
est branch of the profession. It is es­
timated that more than 235,000
electrical engineers were employed
in the United States in 1970 chiefly
by manufacturers of electrical and
electronic equipment, aircraft and
parts, business machines, and pro­
fessional and scientific equipment.
Many were employed by telephone
and telegraph and electric light and
power companies. Sizable numbers
were employed by government
agencies and by colleges and uni­
versities. Others worked for con­
struction firms, for engineering con­
sultants, or as independent consult­
ing engineers.

In d u s tria l e n g in e e r w orks w ith m a c h in e tool o p e ra to r to s et up produ ction.



should differ substantially from that
level, the demand for electrical en­
gineers would be affected accord­
In addition to those needed to fill
new positions, many electrical engi­
neers will be needed to replace per­
sonnel who retire or die. (See intro­
ductory section of this chapter for
discussions of training requirements
and earnings. See also chapter on
Occupations in Electronics Manu­
facturing. )

to control the quality of products;
and may design and improve sys­
tems for the physical distribution of
goods and services. Other activities
of industrial engineers include plant
location surveys, where considera­
tion is given to sources of raw mate­
rials, availability of a work force,
financing, and taxes; and the devel­
opment of wage and salary adminis­
tration and job evaluation pro­

expected to stimulate the demand
for persons in this branch of engi­
Besides those needed to fill new
positions, additional numbers of in­
dustrial engineers will be required
each year to replace those who re­
tire or die. (See introductory sec­
tion of this chapter for discussion on
training requirements and earn­

Sources of Additional Information
Places of Employment
Sources of Additional Information
Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 012.081, .168 and .188)

Nature of the Work
Industrial engineers determine
the most effective methods of using
the basic factors of production—
manpower, machines, and mate­
rials. They are concerned with peo­
ple and “things,” in contrast to
engineers in other specialties who
generally are concerned more with
developmental work in subject
fields, such as power, and me­
They may design systems for data
processing and apply operations re­
search techniques to complex or­
ganizational, production, and re­
lated problems. Industrial engineers
also develop management control
systems to aid in financial planning
and cost analysis; design production
planning and control systems to in­
sure coordination of activities and

More than two-thirds of the esti­
mated 125,000 industrial engineers
employed in early 1970 were in
among manufacturing industries
than were those in other branches
of engineering. Some worked for in­
surance companies, construction
and mining firms, and public utili­
ties. Others were employed by retail
organizations and other large busi­
ness enterprises to improve operat­
ing efficiency. Still others worked
for government agencies and educa­
tional institutions. A few were inde­
pendent consulting engineers.

Employment Outlook
The outlook is for very rapid
growth of employment in this
branch of the profession through
the 1970’s. The increasing complex­
ity of industrial operations and the
expansion of automated processes,
coupled with the growth of the N a­
tion’s industries, are among the
major factors expected to increase
the demand for industrial engineers.
Growing recognition of the impor­
tance of scientific management and
safety engineering in reducing costs
and increasing productivity also is

American Institute of Industrial
Engineers, Inc., 345 East 47th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 007.081, .151, .168, .181, and
.187; 011.081; and 019.187)

Nature of the Work
Mechanical engineers are con­
cerned with the production, trans­
mission, and use of power. They de­
sign and develop machines which
produce power, such as internal
combustion engines, steam and gas
turbines, jet and rocket engines, and
nuclear reactors. They also design
and develop a great variety of
machines which use power— refrig­
eration and air conditioning equip­
ment, elevators, machine tools,
printing presses, steel rolling mills,
and many others.
Many specialized areas of work
have developed within mechanical
engineering, and because they are
employed in nearly all industries,
their specific work varies with the
industry and the function per­
formed. Among these specialties are
those concerned with motor vehi-



ery and processes will be among the
major factors contributing to greater
employment. Continued growth of
expenditures for research and de­
velopment also will be a factor in
the growth of this branch of the
profession. Moreover, newer areas
of work, such as atomic energy,
aerospace development, and envi­
ronmental control, will probably
provide additional openings for
large numbers of mechanical engi­
Besides those needed to fill new
positions, large numbers of mechan­
ical engineers will be required each
year to replace those who retire or
die. (See introductory section of
this chapter for discussion on train­
ing requirements and earnings.)

Sources of Additional Information
M ech an ical e n g in e e r e xam in es m odel o f ball bearing.

cles, marine equipment, railroad
equipment, rocket engines, steampower, heating, ventilating and air
conditioning, hydraulics or fluid me­
chanics, instrumentation, ordnance,
and machines for specialized indus­
tries, such as petroleum, rubber and
plastics, and construction.
Large numbers of mechanical en­
gineers are engaged in research, de­
velopment, and design. Many also
are employed in administrative and
management activities. Others work
in maintenance, sales, and activities
related to production and opera­
tions in manufacturing industries.
Some teach in colleges and universi­
ties or work as consultants.

Places of Employment
About 220,0 0 0 mechanical engi­
neers were employed in the United
States in 1970. Nearly all manufac­
turing and nonmanufacturing indus­

tries employed some members of
the profession. However, nearly
three-fourths of all mechanical engi­
neers were employed in manufac­
turing industries— mainly in the pri­
mary and fabricated metals, ma­
chinery, transportation equipment,
and electrical equipment industries.
Others were employed in govern­
ment agencies, educational institu­
tions, and consulting engineering
firms. Some worked as independent
consulting engineers.

Employment Outlook
The outlook in mechanical engi­
neering— the second largest branch
of the profession— is for rapid
growth through the 1970’s. The ex­
pected expansion of industry with
the consequent demand for in­
dustrial machinery and machine
tools, and the increasing technologi­
cal complexity of industrial machin­

The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

(D.O.T. 011.081)

Nature of the Work
Metallurgical engineers develop
methods of processing and convert­
ing metals into useful products.
These engineers usually work in 1
of 2 main branches of metallurgy
— extractive or physical. Extractive
metallurgy involves the extraction
of metals from ores and their refin­
ing to obtain pure metal. Physical
metallurgy deals with the properties
of metals and their alloys, and with
methods of converting refined met­
als into useful final products. Scien-



neers will be needed to find ways of
processing low-grade ores now re­
garded as unprofitable to mine.
(See introductory section of this
chapter for discussions on training
requirements and earnings. A lso see
chapter on Occupations in the Iron
and Steel Industry.)

cialize in the extraction of specific
metal ores or coal and other nonmetallic minerals. Engineers who spe­
cialize in the extraction of petro­
leum and natural gas are usually
considered members of a separate
branch of the engineering profession
— Petroleum Engineering.

Sources of Additional Information

tists working in this field are known
as metallurgists, but the distinction
between scientists and engineers in
this field is small. Persons working
in the field of metallurgy are some­
times referred to as either materials
scientists or materials engineers.

Places of Employment

The Metallurgical Society of the
American Institute of Mining,
Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engi­
neers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

Most of the estimated 5,000 min­
ing engineers were employed in the
mining industry in 1970. Some
worked in colleges and universities
or government agencies, or as inde­
pendent consultants. Others worked
for firms producing equipment for
the mining industry.
Mining engineers are usually em­
ployed at the location of mineral
deposits, often near small communi­
ties. However, those engaged in re­
search, teaching, management, con­
sulting, or sales are often located in
large metropolitan areas.
In addition to mining engineers,
many other engineers in different
branches also are employed in the
mining industry.

Places of Employment
The metalworking industries—
primarily the iron and steel and
nonferrous metals industries— em­
ployed over one-half of the esti­
mated 5,000 to 10,000 metallurgi­
cal engineers in 1970. Many metal­
lurgical engineers worked in the
machinery, electrical equipment,
and aircraft and parts industries.
Others were employed in the mining
industry, government agencies, con­
sulting firms, independent research
organizations, and educational insti­

American Society of Metals, Metals
Park, Ohio 44073.

(D.O.T. 010.081 and .187)

Employment Outlook

Nature of the Work

Employment in this small branch
of the profession is expected to
grow rapidly through the 1970’s.
Increasing numbers of metallurgical
engineers will be needed by the
metalworking industries to work on
problems involving the development
of new metals and alloys as well as
the adaption of current ones to new
needs. For example, the develop­
ment of such products as supersonic
jet aircraft, missiles, satellites, and
spacecraft has brought about a need
for lightweight metals capable of
withstanding both extremely high
and extremely low temperatures.
Metallurgical engineers also will be
needed to solve metallurgical prob­
lems connected with the efficient
use of nuclear energy. Furthermore,
as the supply of highgrade ores di­
minishes, more metallurgical engi­

Mining engineers find and extract
minerals from the earth and prepare
minerals for use by manufacturing
industries. They design the layouts
of mines, supervise the construction
of mine shafts and tunnels in under­
ground operations,
and devise
methods of transporting extracted
minerals to processing plants. Min­
ing engineers are responsible for the
efficient operation of mines and
mine safety, including ventilation,
water supply, power, communica­
tions, and maintenance of equip­
ment. Some mining engineers work
with geologists and metallurgical
engineers to locate and appraise
new ore deposits. Others develop
new mining equipment and devise
improved methods to process ex­
tracted minerals.
Mining engineers frequently spe­

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
mining engineers are expected to be
favorable through the 1970’s. The
number of new graduates in mining
engineering entering the industry is
expected to be fewer than the num­
ber needed to provide for the antici­
pated growth in requirements and to
replace those who retire, transfer to
other fields of work, or die.
Exploration for minerals is in­
creasing, both in the United States
and in other parts of the world. Eas­
ily mined deposits are being de­
pleted, creating a growing need for
engineers to mine newly discovered


mineral deposits and to devise more
efficient methods for mining lowgrade ores. Additional employment
opportunities for mining engineers
will arise as new alloys and new
uses for metals increase the demand
for less widely used ores. Recovery
of metals from the sea and the de­


velopment of recently discovered oil
shale deposits could present major
challenges to the mining engineer.
(See introductory section to chapter
for discussion on training require­
ments and earnings. See also chap­
ter on M ining.)

Sources of Additional Information
The Society of Mining Engineers of
the American Institute of Mining,
Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engi­
neers, 345 East 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.


more heavily populated and pros­
perous sections of the Nation.
Many women are employed in
the health field. Nursing, the largest
of the major health service occupa­
tions, is second only to teaching as a
field of professional employment for
women. Other health service occu­
pations in which women predomi­
nate are practical nurse, radiologic
technologist, medical technologist,
dietitian, physical therapist, occupa­
tional therapist, speech pathologist
and audiologist, dental hygienist,
dental assistant, and medical record
librarian. On the other hand, most
dentists, optometrists, physicians,
veterinarians, pharmacists, hospital
administrators, and sanitarians are
Nurses, physicians, pharmacists,
The educational and other re­
and dentists constituted the largest
quirements for work in the health
professional health occupations in
1970, and ranged from 103,000 field are as diverse as the health
occupations themselves. For exam­
to 700,000
nurses. Other professional health ple, professional health workers—
occupations are dietitian, veteri­ physicians, dentists, pharmacists,
and others— must complete a num­
narian, optometrist, chiropractor,
ber of years of preprofessional and
osteopathic physician, and hospital
administrator. Other health service professional college education and
workers include technicians of vari­ pass a State licensing examination.
ous types, such as medical technolo­ On the other hand, some health
gist, medical X-ray technician, den­ service occupations can be entered
tal hygienist, and dental laboratory with little specialized training.
A continued rapid expansion of
technician. Large numbers— 1.2
million— worked as practical nurses employment in the health field is
and auxiliary nursing workers, in­ expected through the 1970’s, al­
cluding orderlies, nursing aids, hos­ though the rates of growth will dif­
pital attendants, and psychiatric as­ fer considerably among individual
health occupations. The factors that
are expected to contribute to an in­
Workers in the health field are
crease in the demand for health
employed in hospitals, clinics, labo­
care are the following: The coun­
nursing try’s expanding population; rising
homes, industrial plants, public standards
of living;
health agencies, mental health cen­ health consciousness; growth of
ters, private offices, and patients’ coverage under prepayment pro­
homes. Those employed in health
grams for hospitalization and medi­
occupations work mainly in the cal care, including Medicare; rapid

Almost everyone knows som e­
thing about the professional services
provided by doctors, dentists, and
pharmacists. Many also have some
firsthand knowledge of the duties
performed by nurses, attendants,
and other workers who take care of
patients in hospitals. Less well
known, but also of great importance
to the public health, is the work of
large numbers of workers employed
behind the scenes in other health
service occupations, such as labora­
tory or X-ray technician. A lto­
gether, more than 3.5 million peo­
ple were employed in health related
occupations in 1970. Employment
in this field has increased rapidly in
recent years.

expansion of expenditures for medi­
cal research; and increasing expend­
itures by Federal, State, and local
governments for health care and
services. In addition, many new
workers will be needed each year to
replace those who retire, die, or—
particularly for women—-leave the
field for other reasons. Thus, many
opportunities will be available for
employment in the health services.

(D.O.T. 070.101 and .108)

N ature of the W ork
Physicians diagnose diseases and
treat people who are in poor health.
In addition, they are concerned with
preventive medicine and with the
rehabilitation of people who are in­
jured or ill.
Physicians generally examine and
treat patients in their own offices
and in hospitals, but they also visit
patients at home when necessary.
Some physicians combine the prac­
tice of medicine with research or
teaching in medical schools. Others
hold full-time research or teaching
positions or perform administrative
work in hospitals, professional asso­
ciations, and other organizations. A
few are primarily engaged in writing
and editing medical books and mag­
In 1970, one-fifth of the physi­
cians providing patient care were
general practitioners; the others
specialized in 1 of the 33 fields
recognized by the medical profes­
sion. In recent years, the trend has
been toward specialization. Among
the largest specialties are internal
medicine, general surgery, obstetrics
and gynecology, psychiatry, pedia­
trics, radiology, anesthesiology, oph63



thalmology, pathology, and ortho­
pedic surgery.

than specialists, who tend to be con­
centrated in large cities.

Places of Em ploym ent

T raining and O ther Q ualifications

More than 305,000 physicians—
of whom 7 percent were women—
were professionally active in the
United States in 1970. About 90
percent were primarily engaged in
providing patient care services.
More than 190,000, or 7 out of 10
of these, were in office based prac­
tice; nearly 8 3 ,000 were interns,
residents, or full-time staff in hospi­
tals. Nearly 3 2,000 physicians
were working primarily in activities
other than providing patient care
services such as medical teaching,
administration, and research.

A license to practice medicine is
required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia. To qualify for a
license, a candidate must graduate
from an approved medical school,
pass a licensing examination, and
— in 33 States and the District of
Columbia— serve a 1-year hospital
internship. As of 1970, 16 States
permitted a candidate to take the
medical licensing examination upon
graduation from medical school.
Eleven States and the District of
Columbia require candidates to pass
a special examination in the basic
sciences to become eligible for the
medical licensing examination.
Licensing examinations are given
by State boards. The National
Board of Medical Examiners also
gives an examination which is ac­
cepted by 47 States and the District
of Columbia as a substitute for State
examinations. Although physicians
licensed in one State usually can ob­

In 1970, about 40 percent of all
nonfederal physicians were in New
Illinois, and Ohio. In general, the
Northeastern States have the highest
ratio of physicians to population and
the Southern States, the lowest. Gen­
eral practitioners are much more
widely distributed geographically

tain a license to practice in another
without further examination, some
States limit this reciprocity.
In 1970, there were 92 approved
schools in the United States in
which students could begin the
awarded the degree of Doctor of
Medicine (M .D .) to those complet­
ing the 4-year course; 6 offered 2year programs in the basic medical
sciences to students who could then
transfer to regular medical schools
for the last 2 years of study. Eight
additional new schools were enroll­
ing medical students, but had not
yet graduated a class. Because the
number of people applying to medi­
cal schools exceeds the beginning
enrollment capacity, preference is
given to the most highly qualified
Most medical schools require ap­
plicants to have completed at least 3
years of college education for admis­
sion to their regular programs, and
some require 4 years. A few medi­
cal schools allow selected students
having exceptional qualifications to
begin their professional study after
completing 2 years of college. The
great majority of students entering
medical schools have a bachelor’s
Premedical study must include
undergraduate courses in English,
physics, biology, and inorganic and
organic chemistry in an accredited
college. Students should acquire a
broad general education by taking
courses in the humanities, mathe­
matics, and the social sciences.
Other factors considered by medical
schools in selecting students include
the individual’s college record; and
his scores on the Medical College
Admission Test, which is taken by
almost all applicants. Consideration
also is given to the applicant’s char­
acter, personality, and leadership
qualities, as shown by personal in­


terviews, letters of recommendation,
and extracurricular activities in col­
lege. In addition, many State-sup­
ported medical schools give prefer­
ence to residents of their particular
States and, sometimes, those of
nearby States.
The first 2 years of medical
school training generally are spent
primarily in laboratories and class­
rooms, learning basic medical sci­
ences, such as anatomy, biochemis­
try, physiology, pharmacology, mi­
crobiology, and pathology. During
the last 2 years, students spend
most of their time in hospitals and
clinics under the supervision of ex­
perienced physicians. They learn to
take case histories, perform exami­
nations, and recognize diseases.
New physicians increasingly are
acquiring training beyond the 1year hospital internship. Those who
plan to be general practitioners
often spend an additional year or
two as interns or residents in a hos­
pital. To become certified special­
ists, physicians must pass specialty
board examinations. To qualify for
these examinations, they must
spend from 2 to 4 years— depend­
ing on the specialty— in advanced
hospital training as residents, fol­
lowed by 2 years or more of prac­
tice in the specialty. Some doctors
interested in teaching and research
take graduate work leading to the
master’s or Ph. D. degree in a field
such as biochemistry or microbiol­
Many graduates of foreign med­
ical schools serve as hospital interns
and residents in this country. In
1970, this group numbered about
16,000 including citizens of foreign
countries as well as U.S. citizens.
To be appointed to approved intern­
ships or residencies in U.S. hospitals,
however, these graduates (citizens
of foreign countries as well as U.S.
citizens) must pass the American

Medical Qualification Examination
given by the Educational Council
for Foreign Medical Graduates.
Medical training is very costly
because of the long time required to
earn the medical degree. However,
the Health Professions Educational
amended, provides Federal funds
for loans and scholarships of up to
$2,500 a year to help needy stu­
dents pursue full-time study leading
to the degree of Doctor of Medi­
Persons considering entering the
medical profession must have a
strong desire to serve the sick and
injured. They must be willing to
study a great deal to keep up with
the latest advances in medical sci­
ence. Besides being one of the most
exacting sciences, medicine demands
that practitioners strictly adhere to
high moral standards subscribed to
by the profession, law, and tradi­
tion. Sincerity and a pleasant per­
sonality are assets which help
physicians gain the confidence of
patients. In addition, prospective
physicians should be emotionally
stable and able to make decisions in
The majority of newly qualified
physicians open their own offices.
Those who have completed their in­
ternships and enter active military
duty initially serve as captains in the
Army or Air Force or as lieutenants
in the Navy. Graduates of accred­
ited medical schools are eligible for
commissions as senior assistant sur­
geons (equivalent to lieutenants in
the N avy) in the U.S. Public Health
Service, as well as for Federal Civil
Service professional medical posi­

Em ploym ent Outlook
Excellent opportunities are antic­
ipated for physicians through the

1970’s. Because the number of new
physicians being trained is restricted
by the present limited capacity of
medical schools, the employment of
physicians is expected to grow only
moderately, despite a steady in­
crease in the demand for their serv­
ices. However, some expansion in
medical school facilities is expected
because of recent Federal legisla­
tion which provides Federal funds
to assist in the construction of new
training facilities for physicians.
Nonetheless, any increase in the sup­
ply of physicians resulting from the
implementation of this legislation
may not be significant until the late
Increased demand for physicians’
services will result from factors such
as the anticipated population growth,
including rising numbers of older
persons— the group requiring exten­
sive physicians’ services; the in­
creasing health consciousness of
the public; and the trend toward
higher standards of medical care.
The demand for physicians also will
increase because of the extension of
prepayment programs for hospital­
ization and medical care, including
Medicare and Medicaid; continued
Federal Government provision of
medical care for members of the
Armed Forces, their families, and
veterans; and the continuing growth
in the fields of public health, reha­
bilitation, industrial medicine, and
mental health. In addition, more
physicians will be needed for medi­
cal research and to teach in medical
In addition to those needed to fill
new openings, many newly trained
doctors will be required to replace
those who retire or die.
To some extent, the rise in the
demand for physicians’ services will
be offset by developments that are
enabling physicians to care for more
patients. For example, increasing


numbers of medical technicians are
assisting physicians; new drugs and
new medical techniques are short­
ening illnesses; and growing num­
bers of physicians are able to use
their time more effectively by en­
gaging in group practice. In addi­
tion, fewer house calls are being
made by physicians because of the
growing tendency to treat patients
in hospitals and physicians’ offices.
However, these developments are
not expected to offset the overall
need for more physicians.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
New graduates serving as interns
in 1970 had an average annual sal­
ary of $7,045 in hospitals affiliated
with medical schools and $7,435 in
other hospitals. Residents during
1970 earned average annual salaries
of $8,250 in hospitals affiliated with
medical schools and $8,750 in nonaffiliated hospitals, according to the
Many hospitals also provided full or
partial room, board, and other
maintenance allowances to their in­
terns and residents.
Graduates employed by the Fed­
eral Government in 1970 could ex­
pect to receive an annual starting
salary of about $15,2 0 0 if they had
completed their internship, and
about $1 7,800 if they had com­
pleted 1 year of residency or dem­
onstrated superior achievement dur­
ing their internship.
Newly qualified physicians who
establish their own practice must
make a sizable financial investment
to equip a modern office. It is esti­
mated that during the first year or
two of independent practice, physi­
cians probably earn little more than
the minimum needed to pay the ex­
penses for maintaining their offices.
As a rule, however, their earnings

rise rapidly as their practice devel­
The net income of physicians
providing patient care services was
generally between $34,000 and
$39,000 in 1970, according to the
limited information available. Earn­
ings of physicians depend on factors
such as the region of the country in
which they practice; the patients’
income level; and the physician’s
skill, personality, and professional
reputation, as well as his length of
experience. Self-employed physi­
cians usually earn more than those
in salaried positions, and specialists
usually earn considerably more than
general practitioners. Many physi­
cians have long working days and
irregular hours. Most specialists
work fewer hours each week than
general practitioners. As doctors
grow older, they may not accept new
patients and tend to work fewer
hours. However, many continue in
practice well beyond 70 years of age.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
Persons wishing to practice in a
given State should find out about
the requirements for licensure di­
rectly from the board of medical ex­
aminers of that State. Lists of ap­
proved medical schools, as well as
general information on premedical
education and medicine as a career,
may be obtained from:
Council on Medical Education,
American Medical Association,
535 North Dearborn St., Chicago,
111. 60610.
Association of American Medical
Colleges, One Dupont Circle NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 071.108)

N ature of the W ork
Osteopathic physicians diagnose,
prescribe remedies, and treat dis­
eases of the human body. They pay
particular attention to impairments
in the musculoskeletal system. They
manual manipulative
therapy, but in most States, they
also use surgery, drugs, and all
other accepted methods of medical
care. Most osteopathic physicians
are “family doctors” who engage in
general practice. These physicians
usually see patients in their offices,
make house calls, and treat patients
in osteopathic and some city and
county hospitals. A few doctors of
osteopathy are engaged primarily in
research, teaching, or writing and
editing scientific books and journals.
In recent years, there has been an
increase in specialization. The spe­
cialties include: Internal medicine,
neurology and psychiatry, ophthal­
mology and otorhinolaryngology,
pediatrics, anesthesiology, physical
medicine and rehabilitation, derma­
tology, obstetrics and gynecology,
pathology, proctology, radiology,
and surgery.

Places of Em ploym ent
About 13,500 osteopathic physi­
cians were practicing in the United
States in 1970; approximately 7
percent were women. Nearly all of
them were in private practice. Less
than 5 percent had full-time salaried
positions, mainly in osteopathic hos­
pitals and colleges. A few were em­
ployed by private industry or gov­
ernment agencies.
Osteopathic physicians are lo­


cated chiefly in those States which
have osteopathic hospital facilities.
In 1970, about half of all osteo­
pathic physicians were in Michigan,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Missouri, and
Texas. Twenty-three States and the
District of Columbia each had fewer
than 50 osteopathic physicians.
More than half of all general practi­
tioners are located in towns and cit­
ies having less than 50,000 people;
specialists, however, practice mainly
in large cities.

T raining and O ther Q ualifications
A license to practice as an osteo­
pathic physician is required in all
States. In 1970, licensed osteopathic
physicians were qualified to engage
in all types of medical and surgical
practice in 48 States and the District
of Columbia. The remaining States
limit in varying degrees the use of
drugs or the type of surgery that can
be performed by osteopathic physi­
To obtain a license, a candidate
must be a graduate of an approved
school of osteopathy and pass a
State board examination. In 21
States and the District of Columbia,
the candidate must pass an exami­
nation in the basic sciences before
he is eligible to take the profes­
sional examination; 29 States and
the District of Columbia also re­
quire a period of internship in an
approved hospital after graduation
from an osteopathic school. All
States except Alaska, California,
Florida, and Mississippi grant licen­
ses without further examination to
properly qualified osteopathic phy­
sicians already licensed by another
Although 3 years of preosteopathic college work is the minimum
requirement for entry to schools of
osteopathy, 4 years is preferred. Os­

teopathic colleges require successful
completion of 4 years of profes­
sional study for the degree of D oc­
tor of Osteopathy (D .O .) Preosteopathic education must include
courses in chemistry, physics, biol­
ogy, and English. During the first 2
years of professional training, em­
phasis is placed on basic sciences
such as anatomy, physiology, pa­
thology and on the principles of os­
teopathy; the last 2 years are de­
voted largely to work with patients
in hospitals and clinics.
After graduation, almost all doc­
tors of osteopathy serve a 12-month
internship at 1 of the 80 osteopathic
hospitals which the American Os­
teopathic Association has approved
for intern training. Those who wish
to become specialists must have 3 to
5 years of additional training, fol­
lowed by 2 years of supervised
practice in the specialty.
The osteopathic physician’s train­
ing is very costly because of the
length of time it takes to earn the
degree of Doctor of Osteopathy.
However, the Health Professions
Educational Assistance Act of
1963, as amended, provides Federal
funds for loans and scholarships of
up to $2,500 a year to help needy
students pursue full-time study lead­
ing to the degree.
Every year, more young people
apply for admission to the 7 ap­
proved schools of osteopathy than
can be accepted. In selecting stu­
dents, these colleges consider grades
received in preprofessional educa­
tion, scores on medical aptitude
tests, and the amount of preosteopathic college work completed. In
1970, over 90 percent of the stu­
dents entering osteopathic colleges
had bachelor’s degrees. The appli­
cant’s desire to serve as an osteo­
pathic physician rather than as a
doctor trained in other fields of
medicine is a very important qualifi­

cation. The colleges also give con­
siderable weight to a favorable rec­
ommendation by an osteopathic
physician familiar with the appli­
cant’s background.
Newly qualified doctors of oste­
opathy usually establish their own
practice. A few work as assistants to
experienced physicians or become
associated with osteopathic hospi­
tals. In view of the variation in State
laws regulating the practice of oste­
opathy, persons wishing to become
osteopathic physicians should study
carefully the professional and legal
requirements of the State in which
they plan to practice. The availabil­
ity of osteopathic hospitals and clin­
ical facilities also should be consid­
ered when choosing a location.
Persons desiring to become os­
teopathic physicians must have a
strong desire to practice osteopathic
principles of healing. They should
have a keen sense of touch, emo­
tional stability, self-confidence, and
perseverance. A pleasant personal­
ity, friendliness, patience, and the
ability to deal with people are im­

Em ploym ent Outlook
for osteopathic
physicians are expected to be excel­
lent through the 1970’s. Greatest
demand for their services probably
will continue to be in States where
osteopathy is a widely accepted
method of treatment, such as Penn­
sylvania and a number of Midwest­
ern States. Generally, prospects for
beginning a successful practice are
likely to be best in rural areas, small
towns, and city suburbs, where the
young doctor of osteopathy may en­
counter less competition and there­
fore establish his professional repu­
tation more easily than in the cen­
ters of large cities.



The demand for the services of
osteopathic physicians is expected
to grow through the 1970’s because
of factors such as the anticipated
population growth, the extension of
prepayment programs for hospital­
ization and medical care including
Medicare and Medicaid, and the
trend toward higher standards of
health care. Furthermore, there is a
likelihood of greater public accept­
ance of osteopathy, liberalization of
certain State restrictions on the use
of drugs and surgery by osteopathic
physicians, and the establishment of
additional osteopathic hospitals.
Despite the expected growth in
demand, the employment of osteo­
pathic physicians is expected to in­
crease only moderately because the
number of new osteopathic physi­
cians being trained is restricted by
the limited capacity of osteopathic
colleges. Approximately half of all
through the 1970’s probably will be
needed to replace osteopathic physi­
cians who retire, die, or leave the
profession for other reasons; hence
the number of new graduates will be
barely sufficient to maintain the
present ratio of osteopathic physi­
cians to population. Although some
expansion in osteopathic college
facilities is anticipated because of
recent Federal legislation, which
provides Federal funds to assist in
the construction of new teaching
facilities for osteopathic physicians,
no significant increase in graduates
is expected through the 1970’s.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
In osteopathy, as in many of the
other health professions, incomes
usually rise markedly after the first
few years of practice. Earnings of
individual practitioners are deter­
mined mainly by such factors as

ability, experience, the income level
of the community served, and geo­
graphic location. The average in­
come above business expenses of
general practitioners, in
ranged from $25,000 to $30,000,
according to the limited data availa­
ble. Specialists usually had higher
incomes than general practitioners.
work more than 50 or 60 hours a
week. Those in general practice
work longer and more irregular
hours than specialists.

Sources of Additional Inform ation
Persons wishing to practice in a
given State should find out about
the requirements for licensure di­
rectly from the board of examiners
of that State. A list of State boards,
as well as general information on
osteopathy as a career, may be ob­
tained from:
American Osteopathic Association,
212 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111.

the dentist. They take and develop
dental X-ray films, sterilize instru­
ments, and maintain patient rec­
ords. They also may mix filling
compounds and act as chairside as­
sistants to dentists. Hygienists teach
people the techniques of mouth care
and proper diet.
Dental hygienists working in
school systems promote dental
health by examining children’s
teeth, assisting dentists in determin­
ing the dental treatment needed,
and reporting their findings to par­
ents. They also perform oral pro­
phylaxes and give instruction on
correct care and brushing of teeth.
Some help to develop classroom
projects or assembly programs on
oral health. Dental hygienists em­
ployed by health agencies work on
dental health projects or perform
clinical duties. A few assist in re­
search projects. Those having ad­
vanced training may teach in
schools of dental hygiene.

Places of Em ploym ent

(D .O .T. 078.368)

N a tu re of the W ork
Dental hygienists work under the
supervision of a dentist. They re­
m ove deposits and stains from the
teeth and apply prescribed medica­
ments to teeth for the control of
dental decay. While performing this
work (oral prophylaxis), dental hy­
gienists take and record medical
and dental histories, prepare diag­
nostic tests for interpretation by the
dentist, and chart conditions of
decay and disease for diagnosis by

Approximately 16,000 dental hy­
gienists were employed in 1970;
most of them were women. Many
work part time. Most were em­
ployed in private dental offices.
Others worked for public health
agencies, school systems, industrial
plants, clinics, hospitals, and dental
hygiene schools. Some worked as ci­
vilian employees of the Armed

Train in g and O ther Q ualifications
Dental hygienists must pass an
examination to be licensed by the
State in which they wish to practice.

In all States except Alabama, eligi­
bility for a license is limited to grad­
uates of accredited dental hygiene
schools. In 1970, candidates in 48
States and the District of Columbia
could complete part of the State li­
censing requirements by passing a
written examination given by the
National Board of Dental Examin­
ers. Upon being licensed, a hygien­
ist becomes a Registered Dental
Hygienist (R .D .H .). In order to
practice in a different State, a li­
censed dental hygienist must pass
that State’s examination.
In 1970, more than 100 schools
of dental hygiene in the United
States were accredited or provision­
ally accredited by the Council on
Dental Education of the American
Dental Association. Most of these
schools provide a 2-year certificate
or associate degree program. Some
have 4-year programs leading to the
bachelor’s degree in dental hygiene
and others offer both programs.
Programs leading to a master’s de­
gree are offered in five schools.
For dental hygienists interested in
practicing in a private dental office,
completion of the 2-year program
generally is sufficient. In order to
work in research, teaching, and in
public or school health programs,
the completion of a 4-year program
usually is required.
The minimum requirement for
admission to a school of dental hy­
giene is graduation from high
school. Several schools which offer
the bachelor’s degree admit students
to the dental hygiene program only
after they have completed 2 years
of college. Many schools also re­
quire that applicants take aptitude
tests conducted by the American
Dental Hygienists’ Association.
The curriculum at a school of
dental hygiene consists of courses in
the basic sciences, dental sciences,
and liberal arts. These schools offer


laboratory work, clinical experi­
ence, and classroom instruction in
subjects such as anatomy, chemis­
try, histology, pathology, pharma­
cology, and nutrition.
Young persons planning careers
as dental hygienists should enjoy
working with people. The ability to
put patients at ease in an uncom­
fortable situation is helpful. Other
important qualities include personal
neatness and cleanliness, manual
dexterity, and good health.

Em ploym ent Outlook
Employment opportunities for
dental hygienists are expected to be
very good through the 1970’s. D e­
spite an anticipated rise in the num­

ber of graduates from schools of
dental hygiene, the demand is ex­
pected to be greater than the num­
ber available for employment.
The demand for hygienists is ex­
pected to increase as a result of the
expanding population and the grow­
ing awareness of the importance of
regular dental care. Increased par­
ticipation in dental prepayment
plans and more group practice
among dentists will result in new
jobs for dental hygienists. Increas­
ing interest in dental care programs
for children also may lead to more
employment opportunities in this
field. In addition, a great number of
job openings will be created by
young women leaving their jobs for
marriage and family responsibilities.



Mature women who wish to re­
turn to the field, and those who de­
sire part-time positions, can expect
to find very good opportunities for

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Earnings of dental hygienists are
affected by the type of employer,
education and experience of the in­
dividual hygienist, and the area
where the job is located. Dental hy­
gienists working in private dental
offices usually are salaried em­
ployees, although some are paid a
commission for work performed or
a combination of salary and com­
mission. Those employed in re­
search, administrative, supervisory,
or teaching positions generally earn
higher salaries.
Salaries of dental hygienists who
were graduates of 2-year training
programs averaged about $6,000 to
$7,000 a year in 1970; graduates of
4-year baccalaureate programs av­
eraged $7,000 to $8,000. The an­
nual beginning salary for a dental
hygienist employed by the Federal
Government was either $5,853 or
$6,548 in late 1970, depending on
education and experience.
Dental hygienists employed full
time in private offices usually work
between 35 and 40 hours a week.
They may work on Saturdays or
during evening hours. Some hygien­
ists work for two or more dentists.
Although most dental hygienists
are employed in clean, well-lighted
offices, their work may force them
to stand for long periods of time.
Important health protections for
persons in this occupation are regu­
lar medical checkups and strict ad­
herence to established procedures
for using X-ray equipment and for

A paid vacation of 2 or 3 weeks
is common among hygienists who
work full time in dental offices.
Dental hygienists employed by
school systems, health agencies, and
the Federal or State governments
have the same hours, vacation, sick
leave, retirement, and health insur­
ance benefits as other workers in
these organizations.

Sources of A dditional Inform ation
schools and the educational require­
ments needed to enter this occupa­
tion may be obtained from :
Division of Educational Services,
American Dental Hygienists Asso­
ciation, 211 East Chicago Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

Other material on opportunities
for dental hygienists is available
Division of Dental Health, Public
Health Service, U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Wel­
fare, Washington, D.C. 20201.

Information concerning licensing
requirements can be obtained from
the State Board of Dental Examin­
ers in each State, or from National
Board of Dental Examiners, 211
East Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111.

(D.O.T. 072.108)

Dentists examine teeth and other
tissues of the mouth to diagnose dis­
eases or abnormalities. They take
X-rays where necessary, fill cavities
in the teeth, straighten teeth, and
treat gum diseases. Dentists extract

teeth and substitute artificial den­
tures especially designed for the in­
dividual patient. They also perform
corrective surgery of the gums and
supporting bones. In addition, they
may clean teeth.
Dentists spend most of their time
with patients, but may devote some
time to laboratory work such as
making dentures and inlays. Many
dentists, however— particularly in
large cities— send most of their lab­
oratory work to commercial firms.
Some dentists also employ dental
hygienists to clean patients’ teeth
and for other duties. (See statement
on Dental Hygienists.) They also
may employ other assistants who
perform office work and assist in
“chairside” duties.
Most dentists are general practi­
tioners who provide many types of
dental care; approximately 9 per­
cent are specialists. Nearly half of
these specialists are orthodontists,
who straighten teeth. The next
larger number, oral surgeons, oper­
ate in the mouth and jaws. The re­
mainder specialize in pedodontics
(dentistry for children); periodontology (treating the tissues that sup­
port the teeth); prosthodontics
(making artificial teeth or den­
tures); endodontics (root canal
therapy); public health dentistry;
and oral pathology (diseases of the
m outh).
About 3 percent of all dentists
are employed primarily in work that
does not involve “chairside” prac­
tice, such as teaching, research, and
administration. Many dentists in
private practice, however, do this
work on a part-time basis.

Places of Em ploym ent
Approximately 103,000 dentists
were at work in the United States in

1970. About 9 of every 10 were in
private practice. Of the remainder,
about 6,500 served as commis­
sioned officers in the Armed Forces;
about 1,300 had other types of Fed­
eral Government positions— chiefly
in the hospitals and clinics of the
Veterans Administration and the
Public Health Service; and some
3,500 held full-time positions in
schools, hospitals, or State and local
health agencies. Women dentists
represented only about 1 to 2 per­
cent of the profession.
Dentists tend to be concentrated


in large cities and in populous
States. In early 1970, about a third
of all dentists were located in New
York, California, Pennsylvania, and

Training, O ther Q ualifications,
and Advancem ent
A license to practice dentistry is
required in all States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia. To qualify for a
license, a candidate must be a grad­

uate of an approved dental school
and pass a State board examination.
In 1970, 48 States and the District
of Columbia recognized the exami­
nation given by the National Board
of Dental Examiners as a substitute
for the written part of the State
board examinations. One State,
Delaware, also requires new gradu­
ates to serve 1 year of hospital in­
ternship. Most State licenses permit
dentists to engage in both general
and specialized practice. In 13
States, however, a dentist cannot be
licensed as a “specialist” unless he
has 2 or 3 years of graduate educa­
tion, and several years of special­
ized experience, and passes a spe­
cial State examination. Few States
permit dentists licensed in other
States to practice in their jurisdic­
tions without further examination.
Ordinarily, the minimum educa­
tion requirements for graduation
from an approved dental school is 2
years of predental college work fol­
lowed by 4 years of professional
dental school training; 23 of the 53
dental schools in operation in the
United States in 1970 required 3
years of predental study. Predental
education must include courses in
sciences and the humanities.
In dental college, the first 2 years
are usually devoted to classroom in­
struction and laboratory work in
basic sciences such as anatomy, mi­
crobiology, and physiology. The last
2 years are spent chiefly in the
school’s dental clinic, treating pa­
tients. The degree of Doctor of
Dental Surgery (D .D .S .) is awarded
by most dental colleges. A n equiva­
lent degree, Doctor of Dental Medi­
cine (D .M .D .) is conferred by 13
Competition is keen for admit­
tance to dental schools. In selecting
students, schools give considerable
weight to college grades and amount
of college education; more than half



the students enrolling in dental
schools have bachelor’s degrees. In
addition, all dental schools partici­
pate in a nationwide admission test­
ing program, and scores earned on
these tests are considered along
with information gathered about the
applicant through recommendations
and interviews. Many State-sup­
ported dental schools also give pref­
erence to residents of their particu­
lar States.
Dentists interested in fesearch, in
teaching, or in becoming specialists
must complete advanced dental pro­
grams operated by dental schools,
hospitals, and other institutions of
higher education. These programs
last 2 to 4 years.

tists entering the Armed Forces are
commissioned as captains in the
Army and Air Force and as lieuten­
ants in the Navy. Graduates of rec­
ognized dental schools are eligible
for Federal Civil Service positions
and for commissions (equivalent to
lieutenants in the N avy) in the U.S.
Public Health Service.

Em ploym ent Outlook

Opportunities for dentists are ex­
pected to be very good through the
1970’s. The demand for dental serv­
ices is expected to increase along
with an expanding population; in­
creased awareness that regular den­
Dental education is very costly tal care helps prevent and control
because of the length of time re­ dental diseases; and the develop­
quired to earn the dental degree. ment of prepayment arrangements
However, the Health Professions which make it easier for people of
Educational Assistance A ct of moderate means to obtain dental
1963, as amended, provides Federal service. An increasing number of
funds for loans and scholarships of needy persons are expected to re­
up to $2,500 a year to help needy ceive dental care services under
students pursue full-time study lead­ Medicaid programs in various
ing to the degree.
States. Expanded dental research
The profession of dentistry re­ activities will require more trained
quires both manual skills and a high personnel; dental public health pro­
level of intelligence. Dentists should grams will need qualified adminis­
have good visual memory, excellent trators; and dental colleges will
judgment of space and shape, deli­ need additional faculty members.
cacy of touch, and a high degree of Many dentists will continue to serve
manual dexterity, as well as scien­ in the Armed Forces.
tific ability. The ability to instill
Improved dental hygiene and
confidence, self-discipline, and a fluoridation of community water
good business sense are helpful in supplies may prevent some tooth
achieving success in private prac­ and gum disorders, but such meas­
ures— by preserving teeth that
The majority of newly qualified might otherwise be extracted— may
dentists open their own offices or tend to increase rather than decrease
practices. the demand for dental care. Other
Some start in practice with estab­ new techniques, equipment, and
lished dentists, to gain experience drugs, as well as the more extensive
and to save the money required to use of dental hygienists, assistants,
equip an office; others may enter and laboratory technicians may
residency or internship training pro­ permit individual dentists to care for
grams in approved hospitals. Den­ more patients. However, these de­

velopments are not expected to
offset the need for more dentists.
Newly trained dentists will be
needed not only to fill new open­
ings, but also to replace dentists
who retire or die.
Despite the favorable outlook for
dentists, the number of men and
women who will be able to enter
this field will be restricted by the
present limited capacity of dental
schools. However, opportunities to
obtain dental training are expected
to increase because of recent Fed­
eral legislation which provides Fed­
eral funds to assist in the construc­
tion of additional training facilities
for dentists.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
During the first year or two of
practice, dentists often earn little
more than the minimum needed to
cover expenses, but their earnings
usually rise rapidly as their practice
develops. Specialists generally earn
considerably more than general
practitioners. The average income
of dentists in 1970 was about
$29,000 a year, according to limited
information available. In the Fed­
eral Government, new graduates of
dental schools could expect to re­
ceive starting yearly salaries, de­
pending on college records and
other qualifications, ranging from
$11,905 to $14,192.
Location is one of the major fac­
tors affecting the income of dentists
who open their own offices. For ex­
ample, in high-income urban areas
dental services are in great demand;
however, a practice can be devel­
oped most quickly in small towns
where new dentists easily become
known and where there may be less
competition with established practi­
tioners. Although the income from


practice in small towns may rise
rapidly at first, over the long run
the level of earnings, like the cost
of living, may be lower than that in
larger communities.
Most dental offices are open 5
days a week and some dentists have
evening hours. Dentists usually
work between 40 and 45 hours a
week, although many spend more
than 50 hours a week in the office.
Dentists often work fewer hours as
they grow older, and a considerable
number continue in part-time prac­
tice well beyond the usual retire­
ment age.

Sources of Additional Information
People wishing to practice in a
given State should get the require­
ments for licensure from the board
of dental examiners of that State.
Lists of State boards and of accred­
ited dental schools, as well as in­
formation on dentistry as a career,
may be obtained from:
American Dental Association, Coun­
cil on Dental Education, 211 East
Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.
American Association of Dental
Schools, 211 East Chicago Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60611.


(D.O.T. 075.118 through .378)

Nature of the Work
Nursing care plays a major role
in the treatment of persons who are
ill. Registered nurses, in carrying
out the medical treatment plan pre­
scribed by physicians, administer
medications and treatments; ob­
serve, evaluate, and record symp­
toms, reactions, and progess of pa­
tients; assist in the education and
rehabilitation of patients; help
maintain a physical and emotional
environment that promotes patient
recovery; instruct auxiliary person­
nel or students; and perform other
duties involving care of the sick and
injured, prevention of illness, and
promotion of good health. Nurses
may also engage in research activi­

ties or serve on the staffs of nursing
and community organizations.
H o s p ita l n u rse s are the largest
group of registered nurses. Most are
staff nurses, who perform skilled
bedside nursing such as caring for a
patient after an operation and giving
medications. They also supervise
auxiliary nursing workers. Hospital
nurses usually work in a specialty
area such as operating or recovery
room. Others work with children,
the elderly, or the mentally ill. Still
others are engaged primarily in ad­
P r iv a te d u ty n u rse s give individ­
ual care to patients needing constant
attention. The private duty nurse
may sometimes care for several hos­
pital patients who require special
care but not full-time attention.
O ffice n u rse s assist physicians,
dental surgeons, and occasionally
dentists in private practice or clin­
ics. Sometimes, they perform rou­
tine laboratory and office work.



P u b lic h e a lth n u rses care for pa­
tients in clinics or visit them in their
homes. Their duties include in­
structing patients and families, and
giving periodic care as prescribed
by a physician. They instruct groups
of patients in proper diet and ar­
range for immunizations. These
leaders, teachers, parents, and phy­
sicians in community health educa­
tion. Some public health nurses
work in schools.
N u rs e e d u c a to r s teach students
the principles and skills of nursing,
both in the classroom and in direct
patient care. They also may conduct
refresher and in-service courses for
registered nurses.
O c c u p a tio n a l h ea lth o r in d u stria l
n u rses provide nursing care to em­

ployees in industry and government,
and along with physicians promote
employee health. As prescribed by a
doctor, they treat minor injuries
and illnesses occurring at the place
of employment, provide for the
needed nursing care, arrange for
further medical care if necessary,
and offer health counseling. They
also may assist with health examina­
tions and inoculations.
(Licensed practical nurses who
also perform nursing service are dis­
cussed elsewhere in the H a n d ­
b o o k .)

Places of Employment
An estimated 700,0 0 0 registered
nurses were employed in the United
States in 1970. More than twothirds worked in hospitals, nursing
homes, and related institutions. A p­
proximately 6 0,000 were private
duty nurses who cared for patients
in hospitals and private homes, and
about 50,000 were office nurses.
Public health nurses in government
agencies, schools, visiting nurse as­

sociations, and clinics numbered
more than 50,000; nurse educators
in nursing schools accounted for
about 31,000; and occupational
health nurses in industry, approxi­
mately 20,000. Most of the others
were staff members of professional
nurse and other organizations, State
boards of nursing, or were em­
ployed by research organizations.
More than one-fourth of all
nurses employed in 1970 worked on
a part-time basis. About 1 percent
of all employed registered nurses
are men.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A license is required to practice
professional nursing in all States
and in the District of Columbia. To
obtain a license, a nurse must have
graduated from a school approved
by a State board of nursing and pass
a State board examination. Nurses
may be licensed in more than one
State, either by examination or en­
dorsement of a license issued by an­
other State.
Graduation from high school is
required for admission to all schools
of nursing. Three types of educa­
tional programs— diploma, bacca­
laureate, and associate degree— of­
fer the basic education required for
careers in registered nursing. D i­
ploma programs are conducted by
hospital and independent schools
and usually require 3 years of train­
ing; bachelor’s degree programs
usually require 4 years of study in a
college or university, although a few
require 5 years; associate degree
programs in junior and community
colleges require approximately 2
years of nursing education. In early
1970, more than 1,300 programs of
these three types were offered in the
United States. In addition, about 70

colleges and universities offered
master’s and doctoral degree pro­
grams in nursing.
Programs of nursing include
classroom instruction and super­
vised nursing practice. Students take
courses in anatomy, physiology, mi­
crobiology, nutrition, psychology,
and basic nursing care. Under close
supervision, in hospitals and health
facilities, they receive clinical expe­
rience in caring for patients who
have different types of health prob­
lems. Students in colleges offering
bachelor’s degree programs and in
some of the other schools are as­
signed to public health agencies to
learn how to care for patients in
clinics and in the patients’ homes.
General education is combined with
nursing education in baccalaureate
and associate degree programs and
in some diploma programs.
Qualified students in need of fi­
nancial aid may obtain a nursing
scholarship or a low-interest loan
under Title II of the Health Man­
power A ct of 1968. Up to 50 per­
cent of the amount of the loan may
be cancelled at the rate of 10 per­
cent for each year of full-time em­
ployment as a professional nurse in
nurse training or service in any
public or nonprofit institution or
agency. Up to 100 percent of the
loan plus interest may be cancelled
at the rate of 15 percent a year for
each complete year of service as a
full-time professional nurse in a
public or nonprofit hospital located
in an area which has a substantial
shortage of nurses at such hospitals.
The Nurse Training Act also pro­
vides traineeship funds to cover tu­
ition, fees, and a stipend and allow­
ances for nurses seeking advanced
training for positions as administra­
tors, supervisors, nursing specialists,
and nurse educators.
Young people planning nursing
careers should have a desire to



serve humanity and be sympathetic
to the needs of people. Nurses must
follow doctor’s orders precisely and
exhibit good judgment in emergen­
cies. Good mental health is helpful
in coping with human suffering and
Physical stamina may be required
for staff nurses in institutions be­
cause of the amount of time spent
walking and standing.

medicine and rehabilitation of the
handicapped. In addition to filling
new positions, large numbers will be
needed to replace those who leave
the field each year because of mar­
riage and family responsibilities.
Nurses wishing to return to work
will find very good employment op­
portunities, either full or part time.

Information on approved schools
of nursing, nursing careers, loans,
scholarships, salaries, working con­
ditions, and employment opportuni­
ties may be obtained from:

From staff positions in hospitals,
experienced nurses may advance to
head nurse, supervisor, assistant
director, and director of nursing
services. A master’s degree, how­
ever, often is required for supervi­
sory and administrative positions, as
well as for positions in nursing edu­
cation, clinical specialization, and
research. In public health agencies,
advancement is usually limited for
nurses without degrees in public
health nursing.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Information about employment
opportunities in the Veterans A d­
ministration is available from:

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
registered nurses are expected to be
very good through the 1970’s. For
nurses who have had graduate edu­
cation, the outlook is excellent for
obtaining positions as administra­
tors, teachers, clinical specialists,
public health nurses, and for work
in research.
The principal factors underlying
the anticipated rise in the demand
for nurses include a rising popula­
tion; improved economic status of
the population; extension of prepay­
ment programs for hospitalization
and medical care, including Medi­
care and Medicaid; expansion of
medical services as a result of new
medical techniques and drugs; and
increased interest in preventive

Annual starting salaries of regis­
tered nurses employed by hospitals
in 1970 averaged about $7,400, ac­
cording to a national survey con­
ducted by the University of Texas
Medical Branch. Registered nurses
employed in nursing homes can ex­
pect to earn slightly less than those
in hospitals. Salaries of industrial
nurses averaged $147 a week in
early 1970, according to a survey
conducted by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (B L S ).
Fees for private duty nurses gen­
erally were between $26 and $44
for a basic 8-hour day in early
1970, according to the American
Nurses’ Association (A N A ).
In 1970, the Veterans Adminis­
tration offered inexperienced nurses
having a diploma or an associate
degree an annual salary of $7,294;
baccalaureate graduates were of­
fered $8,519. Graduates of asso­
ciate degree programs having 1 year
of experience or those having a bac­
calaureate degree or diploma en­
tered at $6,548 in other Federal
Government agencies.
M ost hospital nurses receive
extra pay for work on evening or
night shifts. Nearly all receive at
least 2 weeks of paid vacation after
1 year of service. Most hospital
nurses receive from 5 to 13 paid
holidays a year and also some type
of health and retirement benefits.

Sources of Additional Information

ANA-NLN Committee on Nursing
Careers, American Nurses’ Asso­
ciation, 10 Columbus Circle, New
York, N.Y. 10019.

Department of Medicine and Sur­
gery, Veterans Administration,
Washington, D.C. 20420.

(D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of the Work
Optometrists help patients im­
prove and protect their vision. They
make tests to determine vision
problems and the presence of eye
diseases and other abnormal condi­
tions. When necessary, they pre­
scribe vision aids including regular
and contact lenses; telescopic and
microscopic lenses or other high
magnification aids; corrective eye
exercises; and other optical treat­
ment that does not require drugs or
surgery. Most optometrists supply
the eyeglasses prescribed; they
sometimes also do minor repair
work such as straightening eyeglass
frames. Some optometrists special­
ize in treating the vision problems
of different categories of patients
such as children, older patients, and
partially sighted persons; other op-



tometric specialists are concerned
with the effect of industrial and en­
vironmental factors on the visual ef­
ficiency of workers. A few optome­
trists are engaged in teaching, re­
search, or a combination of both.

served in the Armed Forces. The
remainder were salaried employees
who taught in colleges of optometry
or worked for established practi­
tioners, health clinics, hospitals, op­
tical instrument manufacturers, and
government agencies.
About 4 out of 10 optometrists
are located in five States— Califor­
nia, New York, Illinois, Pennsyl­
vania, and Ohio. Many small towns
and rural areas, especially in the
South, have no optometrists.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Optometrists should not be con­
fused with either ophthalmologists,
sometimes referred to as oculists, or
with dispensing opticians. Ophthal­
mologists are physicians who spe­
cialize in eye diseases and injuries,
perform eye surgery, and prescribe
drugs or other treatment, as well as
lenses. Dispensing opticians fit and
adjust eyeglasses according to pre­
scriptions written by ophthalmolo­
gists or optometrists; they do not
examine eyes or prescribe treat­
ment. (See statement on Dispensing

Places of Employment
Approximately 18,000 optome­
trists were in practice in 1970;
about 2 percent were women. More
than four-fifths of the optometrists
were self-employed; of these, most
were in solo practice and the others
were in partnerships or in group

A license is required to practice
optometry in each State and in the
District of Columbia. Reciprocity
agreements among some States al­
low an optometrist licensed in one
State to practice in another.
Applicants for licenses must be
graduates of an accredited school of
optometry and pass the State Board
examination of the State in which
they will practice. In some cases,
applicants are permitted to substi­
tute the National Board of Optome­
try examination for the written State
examination. In 1970, there were
11 schools of optometry in the
United States.
Applicants having the necessary
qualifications have an excellent
chance for admission to these
schools. To pursue full-time study
leading to a degree in optometry,
needy students may obtain loans
and scholarships up to $2,500 a
year from Federal funds provided
by the Health Professions Educa­
tional Assistance Act of 1963, as
A t least 6 years of college are
needed to become an optometrist
— 2 years of preoptometry educa­
tion in an approved college, fol­

lowed by 4 years of training in an
optometry school. In addition to the
degree, Delaware and Rhode Island
require a 6-month internship to
qualify for a license, and Missis­
sippi, 1 year of experience.
Preoptometry courses include
mathematics, physics, biology, and
chemistry, as well as English and
other liberal arts courses. Students
in schools of optometry have class­
room and laboratory work and ob­
tain professional experience in the
out-patient clinics operated by the
schools. All schools of optometry
award the degree of Doctor of Op­
tometry (O .D .). Optometrists who
wish to specialize often take gradu­
ate training. A master’s or Ph. D.
degree in physiological optics or in
a related field is usually required for
teaching and research work.
Since most optometrists are selfemployed, business ability, self-dis­
cipline, and the ability to deal with
patients tactfully are necessary for
success in this field. Manual dexter­
ity and a mechanical aptitude also
are important to the optometrist
since he must work with precision
equipment and occasionally make
Many beginning optometrists ei­
ther set up a new practice or pur­
chase an established one. Some, on
the other hand, take salaried posi­
tions to obtain experience and the
necessary funds to enter their own

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
new optometry graduates are ex­
pected to be favorable through the
1970’s. Some expansion in the seat­
ing capacity of optometry schools is
anticipated as a result of Federal as­
sistance. As a result, by the middle
1970’s the number of new graduates


may approximate the annual num­
ber needed for growth of the occu­
pation as well as for replacement of
those who retire, die, or stop prac­
ticing for other reasons.
Among the factors underlying the
expected increase in demand for
eye care services are, on the one
hand, growing numbers of persons
in groups most likely to need glasses
— older people and white-collar
workers— and, on the other, in­
creased recognition of the impor­
tance of good vision for efficiency at
work and in school. Although ex­
panded demand will be met in part
by ophthalmologists, optometrists
will continue to supply a substantial
proportion of all eye care services.
Optometrists usually locate in
heavily populated business areas.
However, opportunities to establish
a new practice generally will be best
in small towns and in residential
areas of cities, where the new op­
tometrist can become known easily.
Many communities, especially in the
South, that now have no optometric
services available also will offer op­
portunities for new graduates. A
good office location is of major im­
portance for a successful practice.
The optometrist should consider the
number of optometrists and oph­
thalmologists in the vicinity in rela­
tion to the size, occupations, age,
and income level of the population
in the area.

Earnings and Working Conditions
New optometry graduates who
begin as solo practitioners generally
have a low income during the first
few years. They usually earn less
than new optometrists who take sal­
aried positions. After a few years of
experience, the situation is usually
reversed, since the income of inde­
pendent practitioners generally ex­


ceeds the earnings of salaried op­
In 1970, starting salaries of new
optometry graduates ranged from
about $10,000 to $12,000 a year,
according to the limited information
available. The average net income
of experienced optometrists was
about $25,000. Incomes varied
greatly, depending on location, spe­
cialization, and other factors.
Most optometrists work 40 hours
a week. They may occasionally
work a few hours on Saturday.
Since the work is not strenuous, op­
tometrists can often continue to
practice after the normal retirement

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on op­
tometry as a career is available
American Optometric Association,
7000 Chippewa St., St. Louis, Mo.

Information on required preop­
tometry courses may be obtained
by writing to the optometry school
in which the prospective student
wishes to enroll. The Board of Op­
tometry in the capital of the State in
which the student plans to practice
will provide a list of optometry
schools approved by that State, as
well as licensing requirements.

(D.O.T. 074.181)

Nature of the Work
Pharmacists dispense drugs and
medicines prescribed by medical
practitioners, and supply and ad­
vise people on the use of many
medicines that can be obtained with­
out prescriptions. Pharmacists must
understand the use, composition,
and effect of drugs and be able to
test them for purity and strength.
Compounding— the actual mixing
of ingredients to form powders,
tablets, capsules, ointments, and
solutions— is only a small part of
pharmacists’ work, since many
drugs now are produced by manu­
facturers in the form used by the
Many pharmacists in drugstores
or community pharmacies also have
other duties. Besides dispensing
drugs, these pharmacists buy and
sell nonpharmaceutical merchan­
dise, hire and supervise store per­
sonnel, and oversee the general op­
eration of the store. Some pharma­
cists, however, operate prescription
pharmacies that dispense only
drugs, medical supplies, and health
accessories. Pharmacists in hospitals
dispense prescriptions and advise
the medical staff on the selection
and effects of drugs; they also make
sterile solutions, buy medical sup­
plies, teach in schools of nursing,
and perform administrative duties.
An increasing number of hospital
pharmacists work in patient care
areas as active members of the
medical team. Some pharmacists,
employed as medical sales repre­
sentatives or “detail men” by drug
manufacturers and wholesalers, sell
medicines to retail pharmacies and
to hospitals, and inform practicing



Pharm acist mixes oin tm ent.

pharmacists, doctors, dentists, and
nurses about new drugs. Others
teach in pharmacy colleges, do re­
search, supervise the manufacture
of pharmaceuticals, develop new
drugs, edit or write articles for
pharmaceutical journals, or do ad­
ministrative work.

Places of Employment
Of the nearly 129,000 licensed
pharmacists working in 1970, about
107,000 were in retail pharmacies.
Of these retail pharmacists, almost
half had their own pharmacies or
owned them in partnership; the oth­
ers were salaried employees. Most
of the remaining salaried pharma­
cists were employed by hospitals,
pharmaceutical manufacturers, and
wholesalers. Some were civilian em­
ployees of the Federal Government,

working chiefly in hospitals and
clinics of the Veterans Administra­
tion and the U.S. Public Health
Service. Others served as pharma­
cists in the Armed Forces, taught in
colleges of pharmacy, or worked for
State and local government agen­
Nearly every town has at least
one drugstore with one or more
pharmacists in attendance. Most
pharmacists, however, practice in or
near cities, and in those States
which have the greatest populations.
Women, who represent nearly 9
percent of all pharmacists, are em­
ployed in all branches of the profes­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A license to practice pharmacy is

required in all States and the D is­
trict of Columbia. To obtain a li­
cense, one must be a graduate of an
accredited pharmacy college, pass a
State Board examination and, in al­
most all States, also have a State
prescribed amount of practical ex­
perience or internship under the su­
pervision of a licensed pharmacist.
A ll States except California, Flor­
ida, and Hawaii grant a license
without examination to qualified
pharmacists already licensed by an­
other State.
In 1970, there were 74 accred­
ited colleges of pharmacy in the
United States. Some of these were
not filled to capacity and qualified
applicants usually could expect to
be accepted. Needy students may
obtain loans or scholarships up to
$2,500 a year to pursue full-time
study leading to a degree in phar­
macy from Federal funds provided
by the Health Professions Educa­
tional Assistance Act of 1963, as
amended. Several scholarships are
awarded annually by drug manufac­
turers, chain drug stores, corpora­
tions, and State and National phar­
macy associations.
To graduate from a college of
pharmacy and receive a Bachelor of
Science (B .S .) or a Bachelor of
Pharmacy (B. Pharm.) degree, one
must have at least 5 years of study
beyond high school. A few colleges
that require 6 years award a Doctor
of Pharmacy (Pharm. D .) degree at
the completion of the program. A
few colleges admit students directly
from high school and offer all the
education necessary for graduation.
Most colleges provide 3 or 4 years
of professional instruction and re­
quire all entrants to have completed
their prepharmacy education in an
accredited junior college, college, or
university. A prepharmacy curricu­
lum usually emphasizes mathemat­
ics and basic sciences, such as


chemistry and biology, but also in­
cludes courses in the humanities
and social sciences. Because entry
requirements vary among colleges
of pharmacy, prepharmacy students
should ascertain and follow the cur­
riculum required by colleges they
plan to attend.
The bachelor’s degree in phar­
macy is the minimum educational
qualification for most positions in
the profession. However, the mas­
ter’s or doctor’s degree in pharmacy
or a related field— such as pharma­
ceutical chemistry, pharmacology
(study of the effects of drugs on the
b od y), pharmacognosy (study of
the drugs derived from plant or ani­
mal sources), or pharmacy adminis­
tration— usually is required for re­
search work or college teaching.
Graduate study also is desirable for
pharmacists planning to work in
hospitals. Those interested in be­
coming hospital pharmacists can
sometimes secure 1- or 2-year in­
ternships which combine graduate
or advanced professional study and
practical experience in a hospital
Since many pharmacists are selfemployed, prospective pharmacists
should have business ability as well
as the ability to instill confidence in
customers. Honesty, integrity, or­
derliness, and manual dexterity are
important attributes for the profes­
sion. In addition, accuracy is
needed to compound and dispense
medicines, as well as keep records
required by law.
Pharmacists often begin as em­
ployees in community pharmacies.
After obtaining some experience
and the necessary funds, they may
become owners or part owners of
pharmacies. A pharmacist who
gains experience in a chain drug­
store may advance to managerial
positions and, later, to a higher


executive position within the com ­
pany. Hospital pharmacists having
the necessary training and experi­
ence may advance to chief phar­
macist or to other administrative

Employment Outlook

Most new pharmacy graduates
will find employment readily availa­
ble through the 1970’s. Most new
openings will arise each year as
pharmacists retire, die, or transfer
out of the profession. These open­
ings, together with the anticipated
gradual increase in new positions
for pharmacists, are expected to
provide enough employment oppor­
tunities to absorb each year’s gradu­
Some employment growth for
pharmacists will result from the es­
tablishment of new pharmacies, par­
ticularly in residential areas or
suburban shopping centers; the
country’s expanding population; the
rising standard of medical care; and
the growth of Medicaid and other
insurance programs that provide for
payment of prescription drugs.
Many community pharmacies may
hire additional pharmacists because
of a trend towards shorter working
hours. Employment in hospitals
probably will rise with the construc­
tion of additional facilities and the
more extensive use of pharmacists
for hospital work. Continued expan­
sion in the manufacture of pharma­
ceutical products and in research
are expected to provide more op­
portunities for pharmacists in pro­
duction, research, distribution, and
sales. Pharmacists with advanced
training will be needed for college
teaching and laboratory research.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Beginning pharmacists generally
received salaries ranging from
$10,000 to $14,000 a year in 1970,
according to limited information
available. The entrance salary in the
Federal Civil Service in 1970 for
new graduates was $9,881 or
$ 11,905 depending on college rec­
ords and other qualifications.
Experienced pharmacists practic­
ing in community pharmacies in
1970 generally were paid annual
salaries of between $12,000 and
$17,000, according to limited data
available. Owners and managers
earn more.
Community pharmacists gener­
ally work more than the standard
often are open in the evenings and
on weekends, and all States require
a registered pharmacist to be in at­
tendance during store hours. D e­
spite the general trend toward
shorter hours, 44 hours is still the
basic workweek for many salaried
pharmacists, and some work 50
hours or more a week. Self-em­
ployed pharmacists often work
more hours than those in salaried
positions. Those who teach or work
for industry, government agencies,
or hospitals have shorter work­
weeks. Salaried pharmacists usually
receive paid vacations, health insur­
ance, and other fringe benefits.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on phar­
macy as a career can be obtained
American Pharmaceutical Associa­
tion, 2215 Constitution Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20037.
American Association of Colleges
of Pharmacy, 8121 Georgia Ave.,
Silver Spring, Md. 20910.



Information about student finan­
cial aid and chain drug stores may
be obtained from:
National Association of Chain Drug
Stores, 1911 Jefferson Highway,
Arlington, Va. 22202.

Information about retail phar­
macies may be obtained from :
National Association of Retail Drug­
gists, 529 14th St., NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20004.

A list of accredited colleges may
be obtained from:
American Council on Pharmaceuti­
cal Education, 77 West Washing­
ton St., Chicago, 111. 60602.

Current requirements for licen­
sure in a particular State may be
obtained from the Board of Phar­
macy of that State or from:
National Association of Boards of
Pharmacy, 77 West Washington
St., Chicago, 111. 60602.

Information on college entrance
requirements, curriculums, and fi­
nancial aid is available from the
dean of any college of pharmacy.

(D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of the Work

diagnose and treat
diseases and deformities of the feet.
They perform foot surgery, pre­
scribe and use drugs and physical
therapy, prescribe proper shoes,
and fit corrective devices. To help
in diagnoses, they take X-rays and
perform or prescribe blood and
other pathological tests. Among the
conditions podiatrists treat are
corns, bunions, calluses, ingrown
c h ir o p o d is ts )

toenails, skin and nail diseases, de­
formed toes, and arch disabilities.
They refer patients to medical doc­
tors whenever they observe symp­
toms in the feet that may be evi­
dence of medical disorders— such
as arthritis, diabetes, or heart or
kidney disease.
A s a rule, podiatrists provide
complete foot care. Some, however,
specialize in foot surgery, orthope­
dics (bone, muscle, and joint disor­
ders), podopediatrics (children’s
foot ailm ents), or podogeriatrics
(foot problems of the elderly).

Places of Employment
Approximately 7,000 podiatrists
were actively engaged in the profes­
sion in 1970; about 5 percent were
women. Nearly all podiatrists were
self-employed. The few who had
full-time salaried positions worked
mainly in hospitals, podiatric col­
leges, or for other podiatrists. Small
numbers were employed by the
Veterans Administration or were
commissioned officers in the Armed

Podiatrists practice mainly in
large cities. In early 1970, nearly
half were located in four of the
most heavily populated States—
New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
and California. In many small towns
and rural areas, especially in the
South and the Northwest, there
were no podiatrists.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All States and the District of Co­
lumbia require a license for the
practice of podiatry. To qualify for
a license, an applicant must be a
graduate of an accredited 4-year
program in a college of podiatric
medicine and must pass a State
board examination. In addition,
three States— Michigan, N ew Jer­
sey, and Rhode Island— require ap­
plicants to serve a 1-year internship
in a hospital or clinic after gradua­
tion from a college of podiatric
medicine. Three-fourths of the
States grant licenses without further
examination to podiatrists already
licensed by another State.
The five colleges of podiatric
medicine in the United States admit
only students who have already
completed at least 2 years of col­
lege. This education must include
courses in English, chemistry, biol­
ogy or zoology, physics, and mathe­
The first 2 years of podiatry edu­
cation are chiefly in classroom in­
struction and laboratory work in
basic sciences such as anatomy,
bacteriology, chemistry, pathology,
physiology, and pharmacology. Dur­
ing the final 2 years, students con­
centrate on obtaining clinical expe­
rience. The degree of Doctor of
Podiatric Medicine (D .P .M .) is
awarded upon graduation. Addi­
tional education and experience are


generally necessary in order to qual­
ify for work in a specialized area of
podiatry. Needy students may ob­
tain loans and scholarships up to
$2,500 a year to pursue full-time
study leading to a degree in podia­
try from Federal funds provided by
the Health Professions Educational
Assistance Act of 1963, as amended.
Am ong the personal qualifica­
tions considered desirable for a ca­
reer in this profession are scientific
aptitude, manual dexterity, and a
good business sense. The ability to
get along well with people also is
M ost newly licensed podiatrists
set up their own practices. Some
purchase established practices. Oth­
ers begin by obtaining salaried posi­
tions to gain experience and to save
the money needed to establish their
own practices.

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for po­
diatrists is expected to be good
through the 1970’s. Opportunities
for new graduates to establish their
own practices, as well as to enter
salaried positions, should continue
to be favorable.
The demand for podiatrists’ serv­
ices is expected to grow with the
demand for other health services.
A n important factor underlying this
anticipated growth is an expanding
population with a greater number of
older people. This age group, the
one needing most foot care, is enti­
tled to certain podiatrists’ services
under Medicare. Furthermore, the
trend toward providing preventive
foot care for children is increasing.
In addition, more podiatrists will be
needed to furnish services in hospi­
tals, extended care facilities, and
public health programs.


Earnings and Working Conditions


In podiatry, as in many of the
other professions, incomes usually
rise markedly after the first years of
practice. Earnings of individual po­
diatrists are determined mainly by
such factors as ability, experience,
the income level of the community
served, and location. Starting sala­
ries of new podiatrists ranged from
$ 1 0,000 to $12,000 in 1970, ac­
cording to limited information avail­
able. The average net income of ex­
perienced podiatrists was about
$21,500. Income was generally
higher in large cities.
Podiatrists usually work 40 hours
a week. They may set their hours to
suit their practice.

(D.O.T. 079.108)

Sources of Additional Information
Applicants for licenses to practice
podiatry in a particular State may
obtain information on the require­
ments for licensure from the State
board of examiners in the State cap­
A list of colleges of podiatric
medicine, entrance requirements,
curriculums, and scholarships are
available from:
American Association of Colleges of
Podiatric Medicine, 20 Chevy
Chase Circle NW., Washington,
D.C. 20015.

Additional information on podia­
try as a career may be obtained
American Podiatry Association, 20
Chevy Chase Circle NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20015.

Nature of the Work
Chiropractic is a system of treat­
ment based on the principle that a
largely by his nervous system, and
that interference with this system
impairs his normal functions and
lowers his resistance to disease.
Chiropractors treat their patients
primarily by manual manipulation
of parts of the body, especially the
spinal column.
Because of the emphasis of the
importance of the spine and its posi­
tion, most chiropractors use X-rays
extensively to aid in locating the
source of patients’ difficulties. Many
also use such supplementary meas­
ures as water, light, and heat ther­
apy, and prescribe diet, exercise,
and rest. Some State laws restrict
the type of supplementary treatment
permitted in chiropractic. Chiro­
practic as a system for healing does
not include the use of drugs or sur­

Places of Employment
About 16,000 chiropractors were
employed in the United States in
1970; about 9 percent were women.
Most chiropractors were engaged in
independent private practice. Some
were salaried assistants of estab­
lished practitioners or worked for
chiropractic clinics and industrial
firms. Others taught or conducted
research at chiropractic colleges.
More than two-fifths of all chiro­
practors were located in California,
New York, Texas, Missouri, and


Some of the 11 chiropractic col­
leges in the United States in 1970
emphasized courses in manipulation
and spinal adjustments. Others of­
fered a broader curriculum, includ­
ing such subjects as physiotherapy
and nutrition. In most chiropractic
colleges, the first 2 years of the 4year curriculum are devoted chiefly
to classroom and laboratory work in
subjects such as anatomy, physiol­
ogy, and biochemistry. The last 2
years are spent in obtaining practi­
cal experience in the colleges’ clin­
ics. The degree of Doctor of
Chiropractic (D .C .) is awarded to
students completing 4 years of
chiropractic training.
Chiropractic requires considera­
ble hand dexterity but not unusual
strength or endurance. Among per­
sonal qualities considered desirable
in dealing effectively with patients
are sympathy and understanding.
Most newly licensed chiroprac­
tors either set up a new practice or
purchase an established one. Some
start as salaried chiropractors to ac­
quire experience and funds needed
to establish their own practice. A
moderate financial investment is
usually necessary to open and equip
an office.
C h iro p ra c to r tre a ts p a tie n t’s spine.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Most States and the District of
Columbia regulate the practice of
chiropractic and grant licenses to
chiropractors who meet certain edu­
cational requirements and pass a
State board examination. The type
of practice permitted and the educa­
tional requirements for licensure
vary considerably from one State to
another. In 1970, the States of Lou­
isiana and Mississippi did not regu­

late the practice of chiropractic or
issue licenses.
M ost States require successful
completion of a 4-year chiropractic
course following high school grad­
uation. About three-quarters of the
States also require 1 or 2 years of
preparatory college work before
chiropractic training. Nearly twofifths of the States also require that
chiropractors pass a basic science
examination. Chiropractors licensed
in one State may obtain a license in
another State by reciprocity.

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for chi­
ropractors is expected to be favor­
able through the 1970’s, though
only a slight increase in demand for
chiropractic services is expected.
However, the anticipated small
number of new graduates of chiro­
practic colleges probably will be in­
sufficient to fill openings created by
growth, as well as to replace chiro­
practors who retire, die, or stop
practicing for other reasons. In view
of the trend in many States toward
raising educational requirements for


chiropractic practice, opportunities
may be best for those having the
most thorough training.
Opportunities for new graduates
to begin their own practice are
likely to be best in those parts of the
country where chiropractic is most
fully accepted as a method of
health care. Opportunities also
should be good for those who wish
to enter salaried positions in chiro­
practic clinics, chiropractic colleges,
and other organizations employing
The expected slight growth in de­
mand for chiropractors’ services will
be related to an expanding popula­
tion and its increasing demand for
health care of various types, includ­
ing chiropractic treatment.
Women are expected to have
good opportunities in chiropractic,
since some women and children
prefer to be treated by women chi­

Earnings and Working Conditions
In chiropractic, as in other types
of independent practice, earnings
are relatively low in the beginning
but rise after the first few years. In­
comes of chiropractors vary widely.
Experienced chiropractors generally
had average yearly incomes ranging
from $14,000 to $28,000 in 1970,
according to the limited data availa­

Sources of Additional Information
Information on State licensing re­
quirements may be obtained from
the State Board of licensing in the
capital of the State in which the in­
dividual plans to practice.
General information on chiro­
practic as a career may be obtained

American Chiropractic Association,
American Building, 2200 Grand
Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50312.
International Chiropractors Asso­
ciation, 741 Brady St., Daven­
port, Iowa 52805.

skills such as typing and using
power tools. In programs for chil­
dren, they initiate and direct activi­
ties appropriate to the child’s matu­
ration level. Therapists may design
and make special equipment or
splints to aid disabled patients.

(D.O.T. 079.128)

Nature of the Work
Occupational therapists plan and
direct educational, vocational and
recreational activities designed to
help mentally and physically disa­
bled patients become self-sufficient.
They work as members of a medical
team which, in addition to physi­
cians may include physical thera­
pists, vocational counselors, nurses,
social workers, and other specialists.
About one-third of the total num­
ber of occupational therapists work
with emotionally handicapped pa­
tients, and the rest with persons
having physical disabilities. These
patients represent all age groups
and varying degrees of illness.
The treatment or training goals
for patients referred for occupa­
tional therapy may include regain­
ing physical, mental or emotional
stability; developing maximum selfsufficiency in the routine of daily
living (such as eating, dressing,
writing, and using a telephone);
and, in the latter stage of treatment,
performing jobs in a practical work
situation for eventual return to em­
As part of the treatment program
for adults, occupational therapists
teach manual and creative skills,
such as weaving and leatherwork­
ing, and business and industrial

In addition to patient care, occu­
pational therapists supervise student
therapists, occupational therapy as­
sistants, volunteers, and auxiliary
nursing workers. The chief occupa­
tional therapist in a hospital may
teach medical and nursing students
the principles of occupational ther­
apy. Many therapists are adminis­
trators and direct occupational ther­
apy programs, coordinate patient
activities, or act as consultants to
local and State health departments
and mental health authorities. Some
teach in colleges and universities.

Places of Employment
About 7,500 occupational thera­
pists were employed in 1970; more
than 9 out of 10 were women. More
than three-fourths of all occupa­
tional therapists work in hospitals.



Most of the remainder are employed
in rehabilitation centers, custodial
care and nursing homes, schools,
outpatient clinics, community mental
health centers, and research centers.
Some work in special workshops,
sanitariums, camps for handicapped
children and in State health depart­
ments. Others are employed in
home-care programs for patients
unable to attend clinics or work
shops. Still others are members of
the Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The minimum requirement for
entry into the profession is a degree
or certificate in occupational ther­
apy. In 1970, 36 colleges and uni­
versities in the United States offered
programs in occupational therapy
which were accredited by the Amer­
ican Medical Association and the
American Occupational Therapy
Association. A ll of these schools
offer a bachelor’s degree program
for high school graduates or transfer
students who have completed 2
years of college. Some of the
schools also offer shorter programs
leading to a certificate in occupa­
tional therapy for students having a
bachelor’s degree in another field.
The academic work in a 4-year
program emphasizes the physical,
biological, and behavioral sciences
and the application of occupational
therapy skills. In addition to the ac­
ademic work, the training includes 6
to 9 months of supervised clinical
experience in hospitals or health
agencies. Some programs give part
of the clinical experience during the
summer or during part of the senior
year. The Armed Forces offer pro­
grams whereby graduates of ap­
proved schools of occupational ther­
apy, who meet the requirements to

become commissioned officers, may
receive the clinical part of their
training while in the service.
Upon graduation and the comple­
tion of the clinical practice period,
therapists are eligible to take the ex­
amination given by the American
Occupational Therapy Association.
Those who pass this examination
may use the initials O.T.R. (O ccu­
pational Therapist Registered).
Eight universities offer a program
for occupational therapists leading to
a master’s degree in occupational
therapy. The master’s degree also is
offered at six universities as the first
professional degree for persons
holding a baccalaureate degree in
related fields. A graduate degree
often is required for teaching, re­
search, or administrative work.
Newly graduated occupational
therapists generally begin as staff
therapists. After several years on
the job, they may qualify as senior
therapists. Experienced therapists
may become directors of occupa­
tional therapy programs in large
hospitals or clinics, or may become
teachers. Some high-level positions,
such as program coordinators and
consultants, also are available in
large institutions and agencies.
Personal qualifications needed in
this profession include emotional
stability and a sympathetic but ob­
jective approach to illness and disa­
bility. An ability to teach, ingenuity,
and imagination also are needed.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
occupational therapists are expected
to be excellent through the 1970’s.
Despite anticipated increases in the
number of graduates of occupa­
tional therapy programs, the de­
mand for therapists is expected to
exceed the supply as public interest

in the rehabilitation of disabled per­
sons and the success of established
occupational therapy programs in­
creases. Many occupational thera­
pists will be needed to staff the
growing number of community
health centers and extended care fa­
cilities. There will continue to be
numerous opportunities to children,
and aged persons, as work with psy­
chiatric patients, well as with per­
sons suffering from cerebral palsy,
tuberculosis, and heart disease. In
addition to openings that will result
from growth, many openings will
arise because of the need to replace
the high proportion of young
women who leave the field for mar­
riage and family responsibilities.
women who wish to return to work
part time after rearing their children
should be excellent.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Annual salaries of staff and senior
occupational therapists ranged from
$8,000 to $10,000 in 1970, accord­
ing to the American Occupational
Therapy Association. Directors of
services, coordinators, consultants,
and others in top administrative po­
sitions generally earned annual sala­
ries of $13,000 to $18,000 in 1970.
In the Federal Government, the
beginning annual salary for inexpe­
rienced occupational therapists was
$7,294 in 1970. More than one-fifth
of all occupational therapists in
the Federal Government earned
$10,500 or more a year.
work an 8-hour day, 40-hour week,
including some evening work re­
quired in a few organizations. Vaca­
tion leave usually ranges from 2 to
4 weeks a year, and many positions
offer health and retirement benefits.



Sources of Additional Information
American Occupational Therapy As­
sociation, 251 Park Avenue South,
New York, N.Y. 10010.

(D.O.T. 079.378)

Nature of the Work
Physical therapists help persons
with muscle, nerve, joint, and bone
diseases or injuries to overcome
their disabilities. They use exer­
cises, mechanical apparatus, mas­
sage and applications of heat or
cold, light, water, or electricity to
treat patients. Most of their patients
are accident victims, crippled chil­
dren, and disabled older persons.
To develop programs for treat­
ment, physical therapists perform
muscle, nerve, and other func­
tional tests. They also keep records
of their patients’ progress during
treatments and attend conferences
with physicians and other medical
personnel to discuss this progress.
In many instances, they help dis­
abled persons to accept and adjust
to their physical handicaps. They
also show members of the patients’
families how to continue treatments
at home.
Physical therapists are members
of a health care team that is di­
rected by a physician and may in­
clude a nurse, clinical social worker,
occupational therapist, psychologist,
vocational counselor, and other spe­
cialists. Although qualified physical
therapists may treat many types of
patients, some specialize in caring
for children, or for patients having
amputations, arthritis, or paralysis.
They also may instruct physical
therapy students, as well as students

of related professions
health workers.

and other

serve as consultants in government
and voluntary agencies. In addition,
a few hundred are members of the
Armed Forces.

Places of Employment
Approximately 15,000 licensed
physical therapists were employed
in 1970. About two-thirds of all
therapists were women.
About three-fourths of all physi­
cal therapists work in general hospi­
tals; in hospitals that specialize in
the care of pediatric, orthopedic,
psychiatric, or chronically ill pa­
tients; and in nursing homes.
Most of the remainder are em­
ployed by rehabilitation or treat­
ment centers, schools or societies
for crippled children, and public
health agencies. Most of these or­
ganizations provide treatment for
patients having chronic diseases,
and some have home visiting pro­
Some therapists work in physi­
cians’ offices or clinics, teach in
schools of physical therapy, or work
for research organizations. Others

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A license is required to practice
physical therapy in 49 States and
the District of Columbia. To obtain
a license, an applicant must have a
degree or certificate from a school
of physical therapy and pass a State
board examination. In Texas and
Missouri, employers require a degree
or certificate from an approved
school of physical therapy. In 1970,
52 schools of physical therapy (in­
cluding the Army Medical Service
School) were approved by the
American Medical Association and
the American Physical Therapy A s­
sociation. Most of the schools are
part of large universities; a few are
operated by hospitals, which usually
have university affiliations.
Most of the approved schools of



physical therapy offer bachelor’s de­
gree programs. Some schools pro­
vide 1- to 2-year programs for stu­
dents who have completed some
college courses. Other schools ac­
cept those who already have a bach­
elor’s degree and give a 12- to 16month course leading to a certificate
in physical therapy. Many schools
offer both degree and certificate
Among the courses included in a
physical therapy program are anat­
omy. physiology, pathology, clinical
medicine, psychology, electrother­
apy, hydrotherapy, massage thera­
peutic exercise, and administration.
In addition to classroom instruction,
students are assigned to a hospital
or treatment center for supervised
clinical experience in the care of pa­
Several universities offer the mas­
ter’s degree in physical therapy. A
graduate degree, combined with
clinical experience, increases the
opportunities for advancement to
positions of responsibility in teach­
ing, research, and administration, as
well as in the treatment area of
physical therapy.
Because an important function of
a therapist’s job is to help patients
and their families understand the
treatments and adjust to their hand­
icaps, therapists must have patience,
tact, resourcefulness, and emotional
stability. In addition, physical thera­
pists should have manual dexterity
and physical stamina. For those
who wish to determine whether they
have the personal qualities needed
for this occupation, summer or
part-time work as a volunteer in the
physical therapy department of a
hospital or clinic may prove helpful.

Employment Outlook



physical therapists are expected to
be excellent through the 1970's.
The demand for physical thera­
pists is expected to increase very
rapidly through the 1970’s as the
result of increased public recogni­
tion of the importance of rehabilita­
tion. Many new positions for physi­
cal therapists are expected to be
created as programs to aid crippled
children and rehabilitation activities
are expanded to serve the increasing
number of disabled people who re­
growth in the number of nursing
homes also should result in the need
for many more physical therapists
to work as staff members. In addi­
tion, many openings will continue to
arise each year to replace the large
number of women who leave the
profession for marriage and family
Part-time positions will continue
to be available in many communi­
ties. These positions are particularly
attractive to married women who
wish to combine work and family
Increased demands for physical
therapy services also will result in
greater opportunities for physical
therapy assistants who generally
obtain their training in junior col­
leges or on the job in hospitals and
other institutions.

Earnings and Working Conditions
New physical therapy graduates
received starting salaries ranging
between $8,000 and $10,000 in
1970, according to the American
Physical Therapy Association. A n­
nual salaries of experienced thera­
pists generally ranged from $14,000
to $20,000. Physical therapists in
consultative, educational, or admin­
istrative positions earned salaries of
$15,000 to $25,000.

In 1970, beginning therapists em ­
ployed by the Federal Government
received annual starting salaries of
$7,294; those having high academic
standing, however, were offered
$8,098. About one-fifth of all physi­
cal therapists employed by the Fed­
eral Government were earning sala­
ries of $11,905 or more a year.
Most physical therapists work 40
hours a week. Almost all receive 2
weeks of vacation or more, and the
majority receive sick leave and
other fringe benefits.

Sources of Additional Information
American Physical Therapy Associa­
tion, 1156 15th St., NW., Wash­
ington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of the Work
The inability to speak or hear
clearly is a severe hardship to per­
sons of all ages. Children who have
difficulty speaking or hearing usu­
ally are unable to play freely with
others or to participate fully in nor­
mal classroom activities. Adults suf­
fering from speech or hearing im­
pairments often face problems of
job adjustment. Speech pathologists
and audiologists help persons hav­
ing such disorders by identifying
and evaluating their problems and
by providing treatment. In addition,
they may conduct research in the
speech and hearing field. Some are
engaged in training programs in
speech pathology and audiology at
colleges and universities.



Speech pathologists are con­
cerned primarily with speech and
language disorders and audiologists
with hearing problems. Speech and
hearing, however, are so interre­
lated that to be competent in either
of these occupations, one must have
a familiarity with both. The speech
pathologist works with children and
adults who have speech, language
and voice problems resulting from
brain injury, cleft-palate, mental re­
tardation, emotional problems, for­
eign dialect, or other causes. The
audiologist also works with children
and adults, but concerns himself
primarily with the assessment and
treatment of hearing problems such
as those caused by certain otological
or neurological disturbances.
The duties performed by speech
pathologists and audiologists vary
with their education, experience,
and employment setting. In a clini­
cal capacity, they identify and eval­
uate speech and hearing disorders
using various diagnostic procedures.
This is followed by an organized
program of therapy, with the coop­
eration of other specialists, such as
workers, physical therapists, coun­
selors, and teachers. Some perform
research work, which may consist of
investigating communicative disor­
ders and their causes and improving
methods for clinical services. Others
may supervise clinical activities or
perform other administrative work.
Speech pathologists and audiolo­
gists working in colleges or uni­
versities provide instruction in the
principles and bases of communica­
tion, communication disorders, and
clinical techniques. Many also par­
ticipate in educational programs for
physicians, nurses, teachers, and
other professional personnel. In ad­

dition, they may work in university
clinics and conduct research, usu­
ally at university centers.

Places of Employment
Approximately 22,000 persons
were employed as speech patholo­
gists and audiologists in 1970.
Women represented about threefourths of total employment. The
majority of speech pathologists and
audiologists work in public school
systems. Colleges and universities
employ the next largest number of
these specialists in classrooms, clin­
ics, and research centers. The re­
mainder are distributed among hos­
pitals, rehabilitation and community
speech and hearing centers, State
and Federal Government agencies,
industry, and private practice.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although only a few States pres­
ently have such a requirement, a

master’s degree in speech pathology
or audiology or its equivalent is
being stressed increasingly as the
minimum educational standard for
employment in public school sys­
tems. In addition, many Federal
programs, such as Medicare and
Medicaid, require that speech and
hearing services be given by, or
under the supervision of a speech
pathologist or audiologist holding a
master’s degree.
Undergraduate training in speech
pathology and audiology should in­
clude course work in anatomy, biol­
ogy, physiology, physics, and in
other related areas such as linguis­
tics, semantics, and phonetics. Some
specialized course work in speech
and hearing, as well as in child psy­
chology and psychology of the ex­
ceptional child, also is helpful. This
training is usually available at col­
leges and universities offering a
broad liberal arts program.
Graduate education in speech pa­
thology and audiology was offered
at 203 colleges and universities in
1970. Professional preparation at


the graduate level involves exten­
sive training in the fundamental
areas of speech and hearing, includ­
ing anatomy and physiology, acous­
tics, and psychological aspects of
speech and hearing disorders; and
the assessment, evaluation, and
analysis of speech production, lan­
guage abilities, and auditory proc­
esses; as well as familiarity with
various research methods used in
studying speech and hearing. Per­
sons who wish to work in public
schools should complete not only
the education and other require­
ments necessary for a teacher’s cer­
tificate in the State in which they
wish to work, but also may have to
fulfill special requirements, pre­
scribed by some States, for people
who are going to work with handi­
capped children.
Many scholarships, fellowships,
assistantships, and traineeships are
available in colleges and universi­
ties; however, most of these are at
the graduate level. The U.S. Reha­
bilitation Services Administration,
the Maternal and Child Health
Service, the U.S. Office of Educa­
tion, and the National Institutes of
Health allocate funds for teaching
and training grants to colleges and
universities offering graduate study
in speech and hearing. The Veter­
ans Administration and the Reha­
bilitation Services Administration
provide stipends for predoctoral

Speech pathologists and audiolo­
gists should have an interest and lik­
ing for people, and the ability to ap­
proach problems with objectivity.
To work effectively with persons
having speech and hearing disor­
ders, one must be sensitive, patient,
and have emotional stability.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
speech pathologists and audiologists
who have completed graduate study
are expected to be good through the
1970’s. Although some positions
will be available for individuals hav­
ing only the bachelor’s degree, the
increasing emphasis being placed on
the master’s degree by Federal agen­
cies and State governments will
limit opportunities at the bachelor’s
Many speech pathologists and
audiologists will be needed annually
through the 1970’s to staff new and
expanding programs in schools,
clinics, colleges and universities,
and hospitals. In addition, many will
be needed to replace those who die,
retire, or leave the profession for
other reasons.
Several factors are expected to
increase demand for the services of
speech pathologists and audiologists
during the
growth, which will result in an in­
crease in the absolute number of
persons having speech and hearing
problems; a lengthening life span,
which will increase the number of
persons having speech and hearing
problems that are common to later
life; a rapid expansion in expendi­
tures for medical research; the
growing public interest and aware­
ness of the serious problems con­
nected with speech and hearing dis­
orders, as illustrated by the Elemen­
tary and Secondary Education Act,
as amended, which provides for the
education of handicapped children;
and expanded Federal programs
such as Medicare and Medicaid.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Median salaries of speech pathol­
ogists and audiologists employed in

colleges and universities ranged
from $9,200 to $17,200 for a 9- to
10-month contract period in 1970,
according to the American Speech
and Hearing Association. Median
salaries may be as much as $4,700
higher for an 11- to 12-month con­
tract. Many experienced speech
pathologists and audiologists in edu­
their regular salaries by incomes
from consulting, special research
projects, and writing books and arti­
The average annual salary for
speech pathologists and audiologists
schools in 1970 was about $10,700
according to an American Speech
and Hearing Association survey of
members employed in these schools.
In 1970 the annual starting salary
in the Federal Government for
speech pathologists and audiologists
who had completed all requirements
for the master’s degree was $9,881.
Those having doctoral degrees were
eligible to start at $13,493.
Most speech pathologists and au­
diologists work 40 hours a week;
however, personnel engaged in re­
search may work longer hours. A l­
most all employment situations
provide fringe benefits such as paid
vacations, sick leave, and retirement

Sources of Additional Information
Information on certification re­
quirements for persons wishing to
work in public schools can be ob­
tained from the State Department of
education at the State capital.
A listing of college and university
programs and a booklet on student
financial aid as well as general ca­
reer information can be obtained

American Speech and Hearing Asso­
ciation, 9030 Old Georgetown
Rd., Washington, D.C. 20014.

(D.O.T. 078.128; .168; .281; and .381)

Nature of the Work
Laboratory tests play an impor­
tant part in the detection, diagnosis,
and treatment of cancer, tubercu­
losis, diabetes, meningitis, and other
workers, often called clinical labo­
ratory workers include three levels:
medical technologists, technicians,
and assistants. They perform tests
under the direction of pathologists
(physicians who specialize in diag­
nosing the causes and nature of dis­
ease), other physicians or scientists
specializing in clinical chemistry,
microbiology, or the other biologi­
cal sciences. Medical laboratory
workers use precision instruments,
such as microscopes and automatic
analyzers, to analyze the blood, tis­
sues, and fluids in the human body.
Results of such tests help physicians
treat patients.
M e d ic a l te c h n o lo g ists, who re­
quire 4 years of post-secondary
training, perform the more compli­
cated chemical, microscopic, and
bacteriological tests. These tests
may include chemical tests to de­
termine blood cholesterol level, or
microscopic examination of the
blood to detect the possibility of
leukemia. Other body fluids may be
examined microscopically; cultured
to determine the presence of bac­
teria, parasites, or other micro­


chemical content or reaction. Tech­
nologists also may type and cross­
match blood samples. Technologists
in small laboratories often perform
many types of tests. Those in large
laboratories usually specialize in
several kinds of related tests in areas
such as microbiology, parasitology,
biochemistry, blood banking, hema­
tology (the study of blood cells),
histology (tissue preparation), cy­
tology (analysis of body cells), and
nuclear medical technology (the
use of radioactive isotopes to help
detect diseases).
Most medical technologists con­
duct tests related to the examination
and treatment of patients. However,
some do research on new drugs or
on the improvement of laboratory
techniques. Others teach or perform
administrative duties.
M e d ic a l

la b o r a to r y

a ssista n ts,

who generally do not have college
training, assist the medical technol­
ogist in routine tests and related
work that can be learned in a rela­
tively short time.
Medical laboratory assistants in
large laboratories may concentrate
in one of several areas. Laboratory
assistants working in bacteriology,
serology, and parasitology prepare
and stain slides for study, apply sen­
sitivity disc to culture plates and re­
cord results; and prepare specimens
for microscopic studies. Those in
hematology collect and perform
blood counts and tests to determine
bleeding time, coagulation time,
sedimentation rate, and prothrombin
time. In clinical chemistry, assist­
ants help analyze samples of body
fluids to diagnose and treat diseases.
Assistants in the blood bank carry
out slide and test tube procedures to
identify blood groups and keep
blood-bank records. They assist in
laboratory techniques such as cen­
trifuging urine samples and prepar­

ing the samples for microscopic
In basal metabolism and electro­
cardiography work, they prepare
patients for tests as well as operate
and maintain testing equipment. In
small laboratories, medical labora­
tory assistants generally work in
many areas.
In addition to performing routine
tests, assistants may store and label
plasma; clean and sterilize labora­
tory equipment, glassware, and in­
struments; prepare solutions follow­
ing standard laboratory formulas
and procedures; keep records of
tests; and identify specimens.
M e d ic a l

la b o r a to r y

te c h n ic ia n s

generally have a higher level of skill
than assistants, but not the technical
knowledge of highly-trained tech­
nologists. Like technologists and as­
sistants, they may work in several
areas or specialize in one field.

Places of Employment
An estimated 110,000 medical
laboratory workers were employed
in 1970— two-fifths were medical
technologists. Approximately 80 to
90 percent of all medical laboratory
workers were women. However, the
number of men in the field has been
increasing in recent years.
About four-fifths of all medi­
cal laboratory workers are em­
ployed in hospitals. Other places of
employment include independent
physicians’ offices,
clinics, public health agencies, phar­
maceutical firms, and research insti­
In 1970, about 1,200 medical
technologists and about 1,500 medi­
cal laboratory technicians and as­
sistants worked in the hospitals and
laboratories of the Veterans Admin-



Medical technologist operates automatic blood cell counting machine.

istration. Others were employed by
the Armed Forces and the U.S
Public Health Service.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The usual minimum educational
requirement for beginning medical
technologists is 4 years of college
including completion of a special­
ized training program in medical
technology approved by the Am eri­
can Medical Association.
Undergraduate work must in­
clude courses in chemistry, biologi­
cal science, and mathematics. Such
studies give the technologist a broad
understanding of the scientific prin­
ciples underlying laboratory work.
The specialized training usually re­
quires 12 months of study and in­
cludes extensive laboratory work. In
1970, such training was given in

about 800 hospitals and schools,
most of which were affiliated with
colleges and universities. A bache­
lor’s degree is often awarded upon
completion of the college affiliated
program. A few schools require a
bachelor’s degree for entry into the
Many universities also offer ad­
vanced degrees in medical technol­
ogy and related subjects for technol­
ogists who plan to specialize in the
laboratory or in teaching, admin­
istration, or research.
Medical laboratory technicians
employed in 1970 had obtained
their training in a variety of educa­
tional settings. Many had received
one or more years of post-secondary
education in junior or 4-year col­
leges and universities. Some techni­
cians have attended private schools,
which offer 12- to 18-month pro­
grams to high school graduates.

Some technicians have gained expe­
rience in the Armed Forces. The
Navy, for example, conducts a 14month program to train clinical lab­
oratory and blood bank technicians
and the Army has a 50 week “sen­
ior medical laboratory specialist”
program. A few technicians re­
ceived training in nonprofit voca­
tional and technical schools.
Most medical laboratory assist­
ants employed in 1970 received
their training on the job. In recent
years, however, an increasing num­
ber have received their training in
academic programs conducted by
hospitals or vocational schools and
junior colleges in cooperation with
hospitals. In the future, academic
training probably will be required
by most employers. Hospitals offer
the greatest number of training pro­
grams, some of which were estab­
lished under the Manpower Devel­
opment and Training Act and the
Vocational Education Act. For
entry into these programs, gradua­
tion from high school with courses
in science and mathematics is re­
quired generally. The programs last
a year and include classroom in­
struction and practical training in
the laboratory. These programs
often begin with a general orienta­
tion to the clinical laboratory and
are followed by courses in bacteriol­
ogy, serology, parasitology, hema­
tology, clinical chemistry, blood
banking, and urinalysis.
Certification examinations, ad­
ministered by the Board of Medical
Technologists of the American Soci­
(A S C P ), are available to graduates
of A M A approved schools. Such
registration is important because it
indicates that a graduate has main­
tained educational standards recog­
nized by the medical profession.
ASCP-registered medical laboratory



Employment Outlook

Medical technician uses automated chemistry machine.

personnel are preferred by most
In California, Florida, Hawaii,
Tennessee, New York City, and
Puerto Rico, medical technologists
and technicians also must be li­
Technologists may be promoted
to supervisory positions in certain
areas of laboratory work or, after
several years’ experience, to chief
medical technologist in a large hos­
pital. Graduate education in one of
the biological sciences or chemistry
usually speeds advancement in all
areas. Technicians and assistants
may have difficulty advancing to
medical technologists unless they
continue their education and obtain

a bachelor’s degree in biology or
chemistry, or a degree or certificate
in medical technology.
Personal characteristics impor­
tant for medical laboratory work in­
clude accuracy, dependability, and
the ability to work under pressure.
Manual dexterity and the ability to
discriminate colors accurately are
highly desirable.
Young people interested in a
medical laboratory career should se­
lect a training program with consid­
erable care. Information should be
obtained about the kinds of jobs ob­
tained by graduates, educational
costs, the length of time the training
program has been in operation, in­
structional facilities, and faculty

Employment opportunities for
medical laboratory workers are ex­
pected to be excellent through the
1970’s. New graduates having a
bachelor’s degree in medical tech­
nology will be sought for entry tech­
nologist positions in hospitals. A
particularly strong demand is antici­
pated for technologists having grad­
uate training in biochemistry, mi­
crobiology, immunology, and virol­
ogy. Employment opportunities for
medical laboratory technicians and
assistants also are expected to be
very favorable.
Employment opportunities for
medical laboratory personnel are
expected to expand as physicians in­
creasingly depend upon laboratory
tests in routine physical checkups as
well as in the diagnosis and treat­
ment of disease. Also, the con­
struction of additional hospital and
medical facilities will increase the
demand for these workers. Other
factors affecting growth in this field
include the country’s expanding
population; rising standards of liv­
ing; increasing health consciousness;
expanding medical services resulting
from new medical techniques and
drugs; expanding medical research
activities; and extension of prepay­
ment programs for medical care, in­
cluding Medicare.
Advances in technology in gen­
eral are expected to stimulate the
demand for workers in this occupa­
tion. Many new technological devel­
opments permit greater numbers
and more varieties of tests to be
performed. Newly developed auto­
mated equipment is not expected to
limit the growth of medical technol­
ogists. However, the development
of new automated equipment that
reduces the need for personnel to
do simple repetitive tasks may tend



to partially offset the growth in de­
mand for the services of medical
laboratory assistants.
In addition to medical laboratory
workers who will be needed to fill
openings resulting from the rapid
growth of this field, large numbers
also will be needed as replacements
because many workers are young
women who may leave their jobs for
marriage and family responsibilities.
Opportunities for part-time employ­
ment will continue to be available.
Opportunities also should be good
for qualified older workers and
handicapped persons.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Salaries of medical laboratory
workers vary by employer and geo­
graphic location of employment. In
general, medical laboratory workers
employed on the West Coast and in
large cities received the highest sal­
The average starting salary for
medical technologists was about
$7,500 in 1970, according to lim­
ited data available. Beginning sala­
ries for medical laboratory assist­
ants generally ranged from $150 to
$250 a month less than those paid
medical technologists. Technicians
received salaries ranging between
those paid technologists and assist­
Newly graduated medical tech­
nologists at the baccalaureate level
employed by the Federal Govern­
m en t' in 1970 received $6,548.
Those having experience, superior
academic achievement, or a year of
graduate study entered at $8,098.
Depending on the amount and type
of education and experience, medi­
cal laboratory assistants and techni­
cians in the Federal Government
earned starting salaries ranging
from $4,621 to $5,853 a year in

generally work a 40-hour week. In
hospitals, they can expect some
night or weekend duty. Hospitals
generally provide vacation and sick
leave benefits; some have retirement
Laboratories are in general well
lighted and clean. Although un­
pleasant odors and specimens of
many kinds of diseased tissue often
are present, few hazards exist if
proper methods of sterilization and
handling of specimens, materials,
and equipment are used.
Sources of Additional Information
Information about education and
training for medical technologists,
technicians, and laboratory assist­
ants meeting standards recognized
by the medical profession and the
U.S. Office of Education as well as
career information on these fields of
work may be obtained from:
Registry of Medical Technologists
of the American Society of Clini­
cal Pathologists, 710 S. Wolcott
Ave., Chicago, 111. 60612.
American Society of Medical Tech­
nologists, Suite 1600, Hermann
Professional Bldg., Houston, Tex.

(D.O.T. 100.388)

Nature of the Work
Medical records contain medical
and surgical information on each
patient, including case histories of
illnesses or injuries, physical exami­
nation findings, reports on X-rays
and laboratory tests, physicians’ or­
ders and notes, and nurses’ notes.
These records are necessary for cor­
rect and prompt diagnosis and treat­
ment. In addition, they are used for
research, insurance claims, legal ac­
tions, evaluation of treatment and
medications prescribed, and for in­
struction in the training of medical,
nursing, and related personnel.
Medical information found in hospi­
tal records also is used to plan com ­
munity health centers and programs
and in hospital and health care ad­
Medical record librarians plan,
prepare, maintain, and analyze rec­
ords and reports on patients’ illness
and treatments. They assist medical

training programs offered in private
schools may be obtained from:
American Medical Technologists,
710 Higgins Road, Park Ridge,
111. 60068.
International Society of Clinical
Laboratory Technologists, 805
Ambassador Building, 411 North
Seventh St., St. Louis, Mo. 63101.

Information about employment
opportunities in government clinical
and research hospitals may be ob­
tained from the Department of
Medicine and Surgery, Veterans
Administration, Washington, D.C.
20421, and the Clinical Center, N a­
tional Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 20014.

Medical record librarian operates
mechanized locator file.


staff members in research projects;
develop auxiliary records (such as
indexes of physicians, diseases
treated, and operations performed);
compile statistics; make summaries
or “abstracts” of medical records;
develop systems for documenting,
storing and retrieving medical infor­
mation; direct the activities of the
medical record department; and
train auxiliary personnel. They usu­
ally represent their department at
hospital staff meetings and may be
called to testify in court.
The size and type of institution
employing medical record librarians
will affect the duties and amount of
responsibility assigned to these
workers. In large hospitals, chief
medical record librarians supervise
other medical record librarians,
medical record technicians, and
clerical workers. In small hospitals,
they may be the only employee in
the medical record department and
may perform clerical as well as pro­
fessional duties.
Medical record librarians should
not be confused with the medical li­
brarians who work chiefly with
books, periodicals, and other publi­
cations. (See statement on Librari­

Places of Employment
About 13,000 medical record li­
brarians were employed in 1970. Of
these, about 4,200 were Registered
Record Librarians, according to the
American Medical Record Associa­
tion. In addition, about 41,000
other medical record personnel were
working in this field. Most medical
record librarians were employed in
hospitals. The remainder worked in
clinics, medical research centers,
nursing homes or other extended
care facilities, the medical depart­
ments of insurance companies and


industrial firms, and in local and
State health departments. Although
most medical record librarians are
women, the number of men in the
occupation is growing.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
In 1970, 28 schools approved by
the American Medical Association
offered training in medical record li­
brary science or medical record ad­
ministration. These schools are lo­
cated in colleges and universities
and in hospitals.
Most approved medical record li­
brarian educational programs last
4 years and lead to a bachelor’s
degree in medical record adminis­
tration. The concentration in medi­
cal record administration begins in
the third or fourth year of study.
One year certificate programs also
are available for those who already
have a baccalaureate degree and
specified courses in the liberal arts
and biological sciences.
The specialized curriculum in­
cludes both theoretical instruction
and practical experience. The re­
quired courses include anatomy,
physiology, fundamentals of medical
science, medical terminology, medi­
cal record science, ethics, manage­
ment, hospital organization and ad­
ministration, health law, statistics,
and data processing. Practical expe­
rience involves hospital admitting
and discharging procedures; stand­
ard indexing and coding practices;
compilation of statistical reports;
analysis of medical data from clini­
cal records; and experience with
medical record systems for the Xray, pathology, outpatients, and
other hospital departments.
Graduates of approved schools in
medical record science are eligible
for the national registration exami­

nation, given by the American Med­
ical Record Association. Upon pass­
ing this examination, they receive
professional recognition as Regis­
tered Record Librarians.
Medical record librarians must be
accurate and interested in detail.
They also must be able to commu­
nicate clearly in speech and writing.
Because medical records are confi­
dential, they must be discreet in
processing and releasing informa­
tion. Administrators and supervisors
must be able to organize and ana­
lyze work procedures and to work
effectively with other hospital per­
Medical record librarians fre­
quently are supervisors or ad­
ministrators. They may be assistant
directors, directors of a single de­
partment, or coordinator of medical
record departments of several hospi­
tals. Others may become faculty
members of colleges and universi­

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
graduates of approved medical rec­
ord librarian programs are ex­
pected to be excellent through the
1970’s. In addition to the positions
created by growth, many openings
will occur as young women leave
the field for marriage and family re­
sponsibilities. High school graduates
will have many opportunities to be­
come medical record technicians to
assist librarians.
The increasing number of hospi­
tals and the volume and complexity
of hospital records will contribute to
a growing demand for medical rec­
ord librarians.
The importance of medical rec­
ords will continue to grow rapidly,
due to the increased demand for
clinical data for research and the


use of new drugs. Special interest in
the care of the aged has necessitated
recording data on conditions of per­
sons in nursing homes and home
care programs. More consultants
also will be needed to standardize
records in these and other areas
where medical record librarians are
not available. The increasing use of
computers to store and retrieve
medical information should increase
the demand for medical record li­

Earnings and Working Conditions
The salaries of medical record li­
brarians are influenced by the loca­
tion, size, and type of employing in­
stitution, as well as by the duties
and responsibility of the position.
The average salary for chief medical
record librarians (registered) in
1970 was $9,000 a year, according
to the American Medical Record


(D.O.T. 077.081 through .168)

Nature of the Work
Dietitians plan nutritious and ap­
petizing meals to help people main­
tain or recover good health. Their
work includes planning general and
modified menus that meet nutri­
tional requirements for health or for
medical treatment, supervising the
personnel who prepare and serve
the meals, managing purchases and
accounts, and providing guidance
on good eating habits. Administra­
tive dietitians form the largest group
in this occupation; the others are
therapeutic dietitians, teachers, or
research workers.

Administrative dietitians apply
the principles of nutrition and sound
management to large-scale meal
planning and preparation, such as
that done in hospitals, universities,
schools, and other institutions. They
supervise the preparation of meals;
select, train, and direct food-service
supervisors and workers; arrange
for the buying of food, equipment,
and supplies; enforce sanitary and
safety regulations; and prepare rec­
ords and reports. Dietitians who are
directors of a dietary department
also formulate departmental policy;
coordinate dietary service with the
activities of other departments; and
are responsible for the development
and management of the dietary de­
partment budget, which in large or­
ganizations may amount to millions
of dollars annually.

Newly graduated medical record
librarians employed by the Federal
Government generally started at
$6,548 a year in 1970; those hav­
ing bachelor’s degrees and high aca­
demic records were eligible to begin
at $8,098.
Medical record librarians usually
work a regular 40-hour week and
receive paid holidays and vacations.

Sources of Additional Information
schools and employment opportuni­
ties may be obtained from :
The American Medical Record As­
sociation, 875 N. Michigan Ave.,
Suite 1850, Chicago, 111. 60611.

Dietitians discuss patient’s menu.


Therapeutic dietitians plan and
supervise the service of meals to
meet the nutritional needs of pa­
tients. They discuss food likes and
dislikes with patients and note their
intake of food. Other duties of ther­
apeutic dietitians include calculating
modified diets, conferring with doc­
tors regarding patients’ diets, in­
structing patients and their families
on the requirements and importance
of their diets, and suggesting ways
to help them stay on these diets
after leaving the hospital. In a small
institution, one person may serve as
both the administrative and thera­
peutic dietitian.
Some dietitians, particularly those
in hospitals affiliated with medical
centers, teach dietetic, medical,
dental, and nursing students such
subjects as dietetics, foods and
nutrition, and diet therapy. A few
dietitians act as consultants to com ­
mercial enterprises, including food
processors, equipment manufac­
turers, and utility companies.
Other members of the profession,
called public health nutritionists,
conduct studies or surveys of food
and nutrition. They also take part in
research projects, such as those
concerned with the nutritional needs
of the aging, persons having chronic
diseases, or space travelers.

Places of Employment
About 30,000 dietitians were em ­
ployed in 1970— less than 10 per­
cent were men. More than two-fifths
of all dietitians worked in hospitals
and related institutions, including
nearly 1,000 who were employed by
the Veterans Administration and
the U.S. Public Health Service. A
sizable number were employed by
colleges, universities, and school
systems as teachers or as dietitians
in food-service programs. Most of


the remainder worked for public
health agencies, restaurants, or caf­
eterias, and large companies that
operated food-service programs for
their employees. Some dietitians
were commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The minimum educational re­
quirement for dietitians is a bache­
lor’s degree with a major in foods
and nutrition or institution manage­
ment. This degree can be obtained
in about 400 colleges and universi­
ties. Undergraduate work should in­
clude courses in foods and nutrition,
institution management, chemistry,
bacteriology, and physiology, and
such related courses as mathemat­
ics, psychology, sociology, and eco­
To qualify for professional recog­
nition, The American Dietetic As­
sociation recommends the comple­
tion after graduation of internship
programs or 2 years of pre-planned
experience. The programs and ex­
perience must be approved by the
Association. Many employers prefer
to hire dietitians who have com ­
pleted an internship. An important
phase of the intern’s education is
clinical experience; the remainder
of the internship is devoted to class­
room study of menu planning,
budgeting, management, other ad­
vanced subjects, and to special proj­
ects. In 1970, 80 internship pro­
grams were approved by The
American Dietetic Association. Stu­
dents in a few schools can complete
a coordinated education program,
also approved by the Association,
which qualifies them to practice im­

mediately after graduation, without
further internship.
Experienced dietitians may ad­
vance to assistant director or direc­
tor of a dietary department in a
large hospital or other institution.
Graduate education is usually re­
quired for advancement to higher
level positions in teaching and re­
search. Those interested in becom ­
ing public health nutritionists must
usually earn a graduate degree in
this field. Graduate study in institu­
tional or business administration is
valuable to those interested in ad­
ministrative dietetics.
Young persons planning to be­
come dietitians should have supervi­
sory ability to manage programs
and be able to work well with oth­
ers. They also should be neat and in
good health.

Employment Outlook
Opportunities for qualified dieti­
tians on both a full- and part-time
basis are expected to be very good
through the 1970’s.
The major factors expected to
contribute to increasing opportuni­
ties for dietitians include the expan­
sion of hospital and nursing home
facilities, more widespread use of
hospitals and medical services by an
increasing population, and the
growth of community health pro­
grams. An increasing number of
dietitians also will be needed to di­
rect food services for schools, in­
dustrial plants, and commercial eat­
ing places, and to engage in food
and nutrition research programs. In
addition, since many women select
this field because of their interest in
food and homemaking and then
leave the profession for marriage


and family responsibilities, replace­
ment needs probably will continue
to be high.
The number of men employed as
dietitians has been growing slowly
but steadily. Men are likely to find
increasing employment opportuni­
ties, especially as administrative
dietitians in college and university
food services, hospitals, and com ­
mercial eating places.
In an effort to provide the die­
tetic services demanded, employers
increasingly are hiring workers to
assist dietitians. Opportunities will
be favorable in these positions for
college graduates who have majored
in fields such as chemistry or the life
Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1970, hospitals offered new
graduates of approved internship
programs annual salaries ranging
from $8,9 0 0 to $9,750, according
to The American Dietetic Associa­
tion. New graduates without intern­
ship generally received lower start­
ing salaries. Experienced dietitians
in hospitals were paid between
$10,200 and $17,000 a year. Begin­
ning staff dietitians employed by
college and school food services re­
ceived annual salaries ranging from
$8,900 to $14,000; experienced
$ 1 1,200
The entrance salary in the Fed­
eral Government in 1970 for those
who had completed internship was
$8,098 a year. Beginning dietitians
who had a master’s degree could
start at $9,881 a year. M ost experi­
enced dietitians employed by the
Federal Government earned be­
tween $11,000 and $16,000 a year;
a few earned over $16,000. D ieti­
tians employed by State and local
governments in 1970 received year­
ly salaries ranging from about


$9,200 to $11,800, according to a
survey made by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and
Most dietitians are employed on
a weekly work schedule of 40
hours; however, dietitians in hospi­
tals may sometimes work on week­
ends, and those in commercial food
service have somewhat irregular
hours. Some hospitals provide laun­
dry service and meals in addition to
salary. Paid vacations, holidays, and
health and retirement benefits are
usually received.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on approved dietetic
internship programs, scholarships,
and employment opportunities, and
a list of colleges providing training
for a professional career in dietetics,
may be obtained from:
The American Dietetic Association,
620 North Michigan Ave., Chi­
cago, 111. 60611.

The U.S. Civil Service Commis­
sion, Washington, D.C. 20415, has
information on the requirements for
dietetic interns and dietitians in
Federal Government hospitals.

Administrators direct and coordi­
nate the many varied activities of
the hospital. They work closely with
the medical and nursing staffs and
make available to them needed aux­
iliary personnel and equipment.
They are responsible for hiring and
training workers; preparing and ad­
ministering the budget; establishing
accounting procedures; planning
current and future space needs; in­
suring the proper maintenance of
buildings and equipment; purchas­
ing supplies and equipment; and
providing for laundry, mail, tele­
phone, information, and other serv­
ices for the patients and staff.
In small hospitals, typically lo­
cated in rural or suburban areas, the
administrator generally assumes all
management functions. In large
hospitals, he is assisted by special­
ists trained either in hospital admin­
istration or in specialized mana­
gerial skills.
Under the direction of the gov­
erning board, administrators may
carry out large projects to expand
or develop the hospital’s services.
They may, for example, organize
fund-raising campaigns or plan new
medical care, research, or educa­
tional programs.

(D.O.T. 187.118)



with their staff to discuss progress,





concerning the functioning of the
hospital. Working with the medical

Nature of the Work
Hospital administrators hold the
highest executive positions in hospi­
tals; they manage all administrative
activities. They usually receive gen­
eral guidance from a hospital gov­
erning board with which they work
closely in developing plans and pol­

staff and department heads, they
may develop and maintain teaching
programs for nurses, interns, and
other hospital staff members. A d­
ministrators also may address com ­
munity gatherings, organize com ­
munity health campaigns, and par­



health care programs.




Hospital adm inistrator confers with member of staff.

Places of Employment
About 17,000 hospital adminis­
trators were employed in hospitals
and related institutions in 1970.
About two-thirds worked in non­
profit or private hospitals and insti­
tutions, and the remainder generally
worked in Federal, State, and local
government hospitals. Of those em­
ployed by the Federal Government,
most were in Veterans Administra­
tion, Armed Forces, and Public
Flealth Service hospitals. About 15
percent of all administrators and
their assistants were women; many
were members of religious orders.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Educational requirements for hos­
pital administrators vary. Most

employers prefer applicants with at
least a master’s degree in hospital
administration from an accredited
graduate program. Others prefer
formal training in social or behav­
ioral sciences, industrial engineer­
ing, or business administration,
along with extensive experience in
the health field. A few require their
administrators to be physicians or
registered professional nurses. Spe­
cialized hospitals (such as mental or
orthopedic hospitals) may prefer
physicians whose medical specialty
is the same as that of the hospital.
Hospitals run by religious groups
may seek administrators of the same
In 1970, 29 colleges and univer­
sities in the United States offered
master’s degree programs in hospi­
tal administration. To enter these
programs, applicants must have a
bachelor’s degree, including courses

in natural sciences, psychology, so­
ciology, statistics, accounting, and
economics. The programs vary in
time allocated to academic study
and to administrative residency in
hospitals or health agencies but they
generally last 2 years. The mini­
mum amount of required academic
study is about a year; residency re­
quirements range up to a year.
The curriculum may include
courses such as hospital organiza­
tion and management, accounting
and budget control, personnel ad­
ministration, public health adminis­
tration, and the economics of health
care. The residency involves an ori­
entation to all hospital activities
under the supervision of the admin­
istrator or his assistant. A Ph. D. in
hospital administration, offered in
several universities, is especially
helpful for those interested in teach­
ing and research.
The American College of H ospi­
tal Administrators provides financial
loans and scholarships to a limited
number of students for graduate
work in hospital administration.
Some Federal Government awards
for graduate training in hospital ad­
ministration also are available.
New graduates with a master’s
degree in hospital administration
usually enter the field as assistant
administrators or department heads
and occasionally as administrators
in small hospitals. Some persons
without a master’s degree in hospi­
tal administration enter the field by
working in one of the specialized
administrative areas such as person­
nel, records, budget and finance, or
data processing. With this experi­
ence and some graduate work, they
may be promoted to department
head, to assistant administrator, and
eventually to administrator. The po­
sition of hospital administrator,
especially in a large hospital, repre­
sents a career goal, and these posi­



and location of the hospital, and
size of its administrative staff and
budget. Starting salaries for new
hospital administration graduates in
private hospitals generally ranged
from $10,000 to $13,000 a year in
1970. Salaries of experienced ad­
ministrators generally ranged from
$14,000 to $30,000, according to
limited data available. New gradu­
ates employed in Veterans Adminis­
tration (V A ) hospitals started at
$9,881 a year in 1970. Salaries of
Employment Outlook
experienced V A hospital adminis­
Employment opportunities for trators, many of them physicians,
new graduates having the master’s ranged from $26,547 to $33,627 a
degree in hospital administration year.
Commissioned officers in the
are expected to be very good
through the 1970’s. Applicants with­ Armed Forces working as hospital
out graduate education will find it administrators hold ranks ranging
increasingly difficult to enter this from second lieutenant to colonel or
field. Some positions as administra­ from ensign to captain. Command­
tor are likely to continue to be filled ing officers of large Armed Forces
by physicians, nurses, or persons hospitals are physicians who may
experienced in a specialized admin­ hold higher ranks. Hospital admin­
istrators in the U.S. Public Health
istrative area.
The number of positions in hos­ Service are commissioned officers,
pital administration is expected to holding ranks ranging from lieuten­
grow rapidly through the 1970’s. As ant (junior grade) to captain in the
health facilities are expanded to Navy.
provide additional health services to
work long hours. Since hospitals op­
an increasing population, more po­
sitions are likely to be created for erate on a round-the-clock basis,
hospital administrators, and for ad­ the administrator may be called
ministrative assistants, in charge of upon to settle emergency problems
specific functions or departments. at any time of the day or night. He
Graduates of programs of hospital also may be called on to attend
administration also will find increas­ meetings held at various locations
ing employment opportunities in re­ outside the hospital. Fringe benefits
lated facilities such as nursing usually include paid vacations and
homes and other long-term care in­ holidays, sick leave, and pension
stitutions, rehabilitation facilities, and insurance coverage.
public health centers, health care
planning agencies, and hospitaliza­
tion and health insurance programs.
Sources of Additional Information

tions generally are filled by promo­
tion from within.
Personal qualifications needed
for success as a hospital administra­
tor include initiative, vitality, and
interest in helping the sick. Skills in
working with people, organizing and
directing large-scale activities, and
public speaking are important as­

Earnings and Working Conditions
Salaries of hospital administrators
depend on factors such as size, type,

Additional information
hospital administration and a list of
colleges and universities offering
this training may be obtained from:

American College of Hospital Ad­
ministrators, 840 North Lake
Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60611.
Association of University Programs
in Hospital Administration, 1
Dupont Circle, NW,, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

Information on Federal Govern­
ment awards for graduate training
in hospital administration may be
obtained from:
Bureau of Health Professions Edu­
cation and Manpower Training,
National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, Md. 20014.

(D.O.T. 079.118)

Nature of the Work
Sanitarians are specialists in envi­
ronmental health. To assure the
cleanliness and safety of the food
people eat, the liquids they drink,
and the air they breathe, sanitarians
perform a broad range of duties.
They inspect food manufacturing
and processing plants, dairies, water
supplies, hotels and restaurants,
schools, waste disposal plants,
swimming pools and other recrea­
tion facilities, housing, and other
places for health hazards. They seek
compliance with local regulations
and with State and Federal laws re­
lating to public health. They also
plan and conduct sanitation pro­
grams, administer environmental
health programs, and promote the
enactment of health regulations and
Sanitarians entering the profes­
sion usually begin in public health
or agriculture departments, or pri-



vate industry. They inspect facilities
and may collect samples of food,
air, and water to test for safety.
When necessary, they recommend
corrective action according to health
laws and regulations. As they pro­
gress to more responsible investiga­
tional work, they frequently are
required to give advice on more
complex individual and industrial
sanitation problems.
Sanitarians having supervisory
duties analyze reports of inspections
and investigations made by other
environmental health specialists,
and advise on difficult or unusual
sanitation problems. They also
may conduct investigations and give
evidence in court cases involving
public health regulations. In addi­
tion, they promote health laws and
engage in health education activi­
ties, sometimes teaching classes in
hygiene and speaking before student
assemblies, civic groups, and other
organizations. Those in top manage­
ment positions are involved with the
planning and administration of envi­

ronmental health programs and
their coordination with programs of
other agencies. Other duties may in­
clude advising government officials
on environmental health matters
and drafting health laws and regula­
Public health sanitarians work
closely with other health specialists
in the community (such as the
health officer, sanitary engineer, and
public health nurse) to investigate
and prevent outbreaks of disease,
plan for civil defense and emer­
gency disaster aid, make public
health surveys, and conduct health
education programs.
In large local and State health or
agriculture departments, and in the
Federal Government, sanitarians
may specialize in a particular area
of work, such as milk and other
dairy products, food sanitation, ref­
use and other waste control, air
housing, institutional sanitation, and
insect and rodent control. In rural
areas and small cities, they may be

responsible for a wide range of en­
vironmental health activities.
The professional sanitarian may
be assisted by a sanitarian techni­
cian during investigations to deter­
mine compliance or lack of compli­
ance with health regulations and
laws. The technician takes samples
for testing and often performs the
required tests.
Increasing numbers of sanitari­
ans are being employed outside gov­
ernment agencies. Many work in in­
dustry to prevent or minimize con­
tamination hazards and see that
clean, healthful, and safe working
conditions exist. For example, in a
food processing plant, the sanitarian
is concerned with the proper dis­
posal of refuse; the cleaning of plant
equipment; the control of micro-or­
ganisms; and the proper mainte­
nance of buildings, equipment, and
employee facilities.

Where Employed
An estimated 12,000 of the ap­
15,000 professional
worked for Federal, State, and local
governments. Most of the remainder
worked for manufacturers and pro­
cessors of food products. A small
number were teachers in colleges
and universities. A few were consul­
tants. Others worked for trade asso­
ciations, in hospitals, or for other
organizations. Probably less than 1
percent of all sanitarians are
Sanitarians are employed by
public health departments in every
State, and by private industry in
most States. About half of them
work in 10 States: California, Flor­
ida, Illinois, Indiana, New York,


Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Vir­
ginia, and Wisconsin.
In addition to professional sani­
tarians, about 5,000 sanitarian tech­
nicians and aides were employed in

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree in environ­
mental health is the preferred prep­
aration for a beginning job as a pro­
fessional sanitarian, although a
bachelor’s degree in a basic science
generally is acceptable. High level
positions usually require a graduate
degree in some aspect of public
health. In some cases, sanitarian
technicians having 2 years of college
and work experience can advance to
professional sanitarian positions.
However, as hiring standards are
raised, it will become harder for
persons without a degree to enter
the profession.
A typical curriculum leading to a
bachelor of science degree in envi­
ronmental health includes back­
ground courses in the humanities,
social sciences, mathematics, chem­
istry, physics and biology. Core
courses include microbiology (envi­
ronm ental),
miology, community health educa­
tion, public health organization
and administration, environmental
health, and field work.
Thirty-six colleges and universi­
ties offered undergraduate programs
in environmental health in 1970;
graduate training in environmental
health was available in about 100
universities. Some stipends are
available under Federal programs
for graduate study in this field.
start at the trainee level, where they
remain up to a year, working under
the supervision of experienced san­
itarians. They receive on-the-job


training in environmental health
practice and learn to evaluate con­
ditions and recommend corrective
action. After a few years of experi­
ence, they may be promoted to
minor supervisory positions with
more responsibilities. Increased re­
sponsibilities usually come with ad­
ditional experience; sometimes spe­
cialization begins at this level, espe­
cially in large local health offices.
Further advancement is possible to
top supervisory and administrative
To keep abreast of new develop­
ments and to supplement their aca­
demic training, many sanitarians
take specialized short-term training
courses in subjects such as occupa­
tional health, water supply and pol­
lution control, air pollution, radio­
logical health, milk and food protec­
tion, metropolitan planning, and
hospital sanitation.
In 1970, 35 States had laws
providing for registration of sani­
tarians; in some States, registration
is required to practice. Although re­
quirements for registration vary
considerably among the States, the
minimum educational requirement
usually is a bachelor’s degree, with
emphasis on the biological, physical,
and sanitary sciences.
Am ong the personal qualities
useful to sanitarians is the ability to
communicate effectively, since it is
necessary to write detailed reports
and to deal with persons tactfully
concerning the correction of unsani­
tary conditions. A mechanical apti­
tude also is helpful, since sanitarians
may operate various testing devices.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
sanitarians are expected to be very
Young people without a college de­

gree in one of the physical or bio­
logical sciences or in sanitary sci­
ence will face increasing difficulty in
obtaining professional positions in
this field.
Employment of sanitarians is ex­
pected to increase very rapidly
through the 1970’s, as State and
local health agencies expand their
activities in the field of environmen­
tal health. Radiological health, oc­
cupational health, food protection,
solid waste management, and water
and air pollution are expected to re­
quire the services of more trained
personnel as health dangers grow
under the stimulus of an expanding,
highly technological society.
Air pollution is one example of
an existing environmental hazard
that has attracted widespread public
concern. The discomfort and danger
of air pollution and the possible re­
lationship between it and respira­
tory ailments have attracted atten­
tion to the problem. Government on
all levels has responded by enacting
extensive legislation in environmen­
tal quality control. Legislation
which regulates the quantity of sul­
fates or other chemical compounds
that can be emitted into the air will
increase the demand for profes­
sional sanitarians.
The expanding population is an­
other factor intensifying the demand
for more trained sanitarians. The
migration of people from rural to
urban areas, along with the growth
of industries, will place a greater
strain on the food-service, housing,
and water-disposal facilities of urban
communities. Some increase in de­
mand for sanitarians is expected in
private industry, primarily in the
food industry.
Earnings and Working Conditions
Beginning sanitarians having a
college degree usually earned from


$7,000 to $7,500 in 1970, accord­
ing to the National Environmental
Health Association. Salaries of ex­
perienced professional sanitarians
generally ranged from $10,000 to
$14,000 a year; environmental
health directors often earned from
$14,000 to $30,000. Sanitary aides
and technicians without a college
$5,000 to $8,000 in 1970.
ployed in the Federal Government
began at $6,548 or $8,092 in 1970,
depending on their academic rec­
ords. Experienced sanitarians in the
Federal service generally earned
from $9,881 to $14,192.
Sanitarians spend considerable
time away from their desks. Some
come in contact with unpleasant
physical surroundings, such as sew­
age disposal facilities and slum
housing. Transportation or gasoline
allowances frequently are given, and
some health departments provide an
Sources of Additional Information
Information about careers as san­
itarians is available from the follow­
ing associations:
American Public Health Associa­
tion, 1790 Broadway, New York,
New York 10019.
International Association of Milk,
Food and Environmental Sani­
tarians, Blue Ridge Road, P.O.
Box 437, Shelbyville, Indiana
National Environmental Health As­
sociation, 1600 Pennsylvania Street,
Denver, Colorado 80203.

Information on stipends for grad­
uate study is available from:
Division of Allied Health Man­
power, Bureau of Health Profes­
sions Education and Manpower
Training, National Institutes of
Health, 9000 Rockville Pike,
Bethesda, Maryland 20014.


(D.O.T. 073.081 through .281)

Nature of the Work
Veterinarians (doctors of veternary medicine) diagnose, treat, and
control numerous diseases and inju­
ries among animals. Their work is
important for the Nation’s food
production and for public health.
Veterinarians perform surgery on
sick and injured animals, and pre­
scribe and administer drugs, medi­
cines, serums, and vaccines.
Their work is vital to public
health because it helps to prevent
the outbreak and spread of diseases
among animals. Many of these dis­
eases can be transmitted to human
Veterinarians treat animals in
veterinary hospitals and clinics, or
on the farm and ranch. In addition,

veterinarians give advice on the
care and breeding of animals.
The majority of veterinarians are
general practitioners. Of those
who are specialists, the greatest
number treat small animals or pets.
Some specialize in the health care of
cattle, poultry, sheep, swine, or
horses. Many veterinarians inspect
meat, poultry, and other foods as a
part of Federal and State public
health programs. Still others serve
on faculties of veterinary colleges.
Some do research related to animal
diseases, foods, and drugs, or may
act as part of a medical research
team, to seek knowledge about
prevention and treatment of human

Places of Employment
About 25,000 veterinarians were
working in 1970; only 2 percent
were women. Almost two-thirds of
all veterinarians were in private


practice. The Federal Government
employed about 2,400 veterinarians,
chiefly in the U.S. Department of
Agriculture; some worked for the
U.S. Public Health Service. About
1 ,0 0 0 more were commissioned of­
ficers in the Veterinary Corps of the
Army and the Air Force. In addi­
tion, many worked for State and
local government agencies and a
few worked for international health
agencies. Some were employed by
colleges of veterinary medicine, ag­
ricultural colleges, medical schools,
research and development labora­
tories, large livestock farms, animal
food companies, and pharmaceuti­
cal companies manufacturing drugs
for animals.
About two-fifths of all veterinari­
ans in the United States were in
seven States— California,
York, Texas, Illinois, Iowa, Ohio,
and Pennsylvania. Veterinarians in
rural areas chiefly treat farm ani­
mals; those in small towns usually
engage in general practice; those in
cities and suburban areas frequently
limit their practice to pets.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A license is required to practice
veterinary medicine in all States and
the District of Columbia. To obtain
a license, an applicant must have the
degree of Doctor of Veterinary
Medicine (D .V .M . or V .M .D .)
awarded upon graduation from a
veterinary school approved by the
American Veterinary Medical A sso­
ciation. H e also must pass a State
Board examination, and, in a few
States, have some practical experi­
ence under the supervision of a li­
censed veterinarian. A limited num­
ber of States issue licenses without
further examination to veterinarians
already licensed by another State.


For positions in research or
teaching, an additional master’s or
Ph. D. degree is usually required in
a field such as pathology, physiol­
ogy, or bacteriology.
Minimum requirements for the
D .V .M . or V.M .D . degree are 2
years of preveterinary college work
followed by 4 years of study in a
college of veterinary medicine.
However, most candidates complete
3 or 4 years of a preveterinary cur­
riculum (emphasizing the physical
and biological sciences). Veterinary
college training includes consider­
able practical experience diagnosing
and treating animal diseases and
performing surgery and laboratory
work in anatomy, biochemistry, and
other scientific and medical sub­
There were 18 colleges of veteri­
nary medicine in the United States
in 1970. Some of the qualifications
considered by these colleges in se­
lecting students were scholastic rec­
ord, amount and character of pre­
veterinary training, health, and an
understanding and affection for ani­
mals. Since veterinary colleges are
largely State supported, residents of
the State in which the college is lo­
cated usually are given preference.
In the South and West, regional ed­
ucational plans permit cooperating
States without veterinary schools to
send a few students to designated
regional schools. In other areas, col­
leges which accept a certain number
of students from other States usu­
ally give priority to applicants from
nearby States without veterinary
schools. The number of women stu­
dents in veterinary colleges is rela­
tively small; about 9 percent of the
students in 1970 were women.
Needy students may obtain loans
and scholarships of up to $2,500 a
year to pursue full-time study lead­
ing to the degree of Doctor of V et­
erinary Medicine under provisions

of the Veterinary M edical Educa­
tion A ct of 1966 and the Health
Manpower Act of 1968. The U.S.
Department of Agriculture offers
students who have completed their
junior year in schools of veterinary
medicine opportunities to serve as
trainees during the summer months.
Some veterinarians begin as as­
sistants to, or partners of, estab­
lished practitioners. Many start
their own practice with a modest fi­
nancial investment in drugs, instru­
ments, and an automobile. A more
substantial financial investment is
required to open an animal hospital
or purchase an established practice.
Newly qualified veterinarians may
enter the Army and Air force as
commissioned officers, or qualify for
Federal positions as meat and poul­
try inspectors, disease-control work­
ers, epidemiologists, or research
Veterinarians should have physi­
cal strength and courage to handle
animals who may become aggres­
sive because of pain or injury. They
should be able to work indepen­
dently and keep abreast of the ad­
vances in the profession.

Employment Outlook
Veterinarians are expected to
have good employment opportuni­
ties through the 1970’s. Although
an increase in the demand for their
services is anticipated, the number
of veterinarians will be restricted by
the limited capacity of schools.
However, some expansion in veteri­
nary school facilities is expected
because of passage of the Veteri­
nary Medical Education Act of
1966 which provides for funds to
assist in the construction of new
educational facilities for veterinary
colleges. Nevertheless, most vet­
erinarians who receive degrees will



b e n eed ed to rep lace th o se w h o re­

tim e fo r g o v er n m e n t a g en cies. A s

to and from farm s and m a y h a v e to

tire or die. A s a result, the d em an d

they gain ex p e r ie n c e , their in co m es

w ork

for veterin arian s w ill p rob ab ly e x ­
c e ed the su pp ly during the 1 9 7 0 's.

u su ally in crea se su b stan tially.

w eath er. V eterin a ria n s ca n co n tin u e
w o rk in g w ell b ey o n d n orm al retire­

A m o n g the factors u n d erlyin g in ­
crea sin g n eed for veterin ary serv ices

w ith o u t ex p e r ie n c e earn ed $ 1 0 ,5 3 9

are the fo llo w in g : A n in crea se in
n um ber o f liv esto ck an d p o u ltry to

T h o se w h o h ad d em o n stra ted su p e ­
rior ab ility in their stu d ies started

fee d


veterin arian s

in the F ed er a l G o v e rn m e n t in 1 9 7 0 .


at $ 1 1 ,9 0 5 . S u m m er train ees in the

from a trend tow ard subu rb an liv ­

c e iv e d $ 1 5 5 each w ee k th ey w ork ed



k in d s


m en t age b e c a u se o f m a n y o p p o r­
tu n ities fo r p art-tim e w ork.

U .S . D ep a rtm en t o f A g ricu ltu re re­

p et

p o p u la tio n ;

grad u ated

resu ltin g

g ro w in g

ex p a n d in g

N e w ly

o u td o o rs

p o p u la tio n

ing; and an in crease in veterin ary

(re p r ese n tin g

research .
m eth o d s

E m p h a sis


a rate o f

$ 8 ,0 9 8



scien tific

y e a r ) in 1 9 7 0 . E x p er ie n c ed v ete ri­


b reed in g

narian s

w o rk in g

fo r


F ed er a l

liv e sto ck and p oultry, and grow th in

G o v e rn m e n t

d o m estic

p u b lic

tw e en $ 1 3 ,5 0 0 and $ 2 6 ,7 0 0 a year.

h ealth and d isea se-co n tr o l p rogram s

T h e in co m e o f veterin arian s in p ri­

a lso w ill p rob ab ly add to the o p p o r ­

vate p ractice u su a lly is h igher than

tu n ities for veterin arian s.

that o f oth er v eterin arian s, a cc o rd ­


in tern atio n a l

gen era lly


b e­

in g to the lim ited data availab le.
V eterin a ria n s so m etim es m a y be

Earnings and Working Conditions

e x p o se d to d an ger o f p h y sica l in ­
jury, d isea se, and in fectio n . T h o se

V eterin arian s b eg in n in g their ow n
p ractice g en erally can co v e r their

in p rivate p ra ctice are lik ely to h a v e
lo n g and irregular w o rk in g h ours.

e x p en se s the first year and often add

V eterin a ria n s

to their earnings by w o rk in g part

h a v e to sp en d m u ch tim e travelin g




m ay

Sources of Additional Information
A d d itio n a l in fo r m a tio n on v eteri­
nary m ed icin e as a career, as w ell as
a list o f sc h o o ls p ro v id in g training,
m ay be o b ta in ed from :

American Veterinary Medical Asso­
ciation, 600 South Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 111. 60605.
In fo rm a tio n on o p p o r tu n itie s for
veterin arian s in the U .S . D e p a r t­
m en t o f
from :

A gricu ltu re


a v a ila b le

Agricultural Research Service, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Hyattsville, Md. 20782.
Consumer and Marketing Service,
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
536 South Clark St., Chicago, 1 1


Insurance is a multibillion dollar
business which offers many employ­
ment opportunities for young peo­
ple recently graduated from high
school or college and for experi­
enced workers.
There are about 1,800 life insur­
ance companies and more than
3,000 property and liability (som e­
times called property and casualty)
insurance companies. They conduct
their business in main offices, com ­
monly called “hom e” offices, and in
thousands of local sales offices in
cities and towns throughout the
country. Local offices may be
branches operated by an insurance
company or they may be operated
by independent agents and brokers.

Nature of the Business
Insurance policies are classified
into three broad categories: life,
health, and property and liability in­
surance. Some companies sell all
lines of insurance; others specialize
in one type or more. An increasing
number of life insurance companies
also sell equities, such as mutual
fund shares and variable annuities
(contracts yielding periodic pay­
ments that fluctuate with the value
of securities or other variable fac­
Life insurance companies sell
policies which provide not only
basic life insurance protection, but
also several other kinds of protec­
tion. Under some policies, for ex­
ample, policyholders receive an in­
come when they reach retirement
age or if they becom e disabled and
stop working; other life insurance
policies may help to pay the costs of
educating children when they reach
college age, or may give extra finan­

cial protection when the children
are young. Life insurance is used in­
creasingly to protect business inter­
ests and to guarantee employee ben­
Property and liability insurance
provides financial protection against
loss or damage to policyholders’
property and protects the policy­
holder when he is responsible for
injuries to others or damage to
other people’s property. This insur­
ance includes protection against
hazards such as fire, theft, and
windstorm, as well as workmen’s
compensation and other liability in­
surance. Both life and property and
liability companies may sell acci­
dent and health insurance, which
assists policyholders in paying medi­
cal expenses, and may furnish other
benefits for an injury or illness.
An increasing number of insur­
ance policies are written to cover
groups— from a few individuals to
many thousands. Group policies
usually are issued to employers for
the benefit of their employees. They

most often provide retirement in­
come and life or health insurance,
although some furnish automobile
or homeowners coverage. In 1968,
group life insurance protected about
43 million workers; the number of
policies in force was double the
number 10 years earlier.

Insurance Workers
The insurance business provided
jobs for about 1.4 million people in
1970. The great majority were cler­
ical and sales workers. (See chart
Alm ost half of all insurance com ­
pany employees are in clerical and
related jobs— a much larger propor­
tion than in most other industries.
These workers keep records of pre­
mium payments, services, and bene­
fits rendered to policyholders. The
majority are secretaries, stenogra­
phers, and typists; operators of
bookkeeping and other kinds of
office machines; or general office
clerks. They do much the same kind
of work in insurance companies as
in other types of business enter­
Other clerical workers occupy

Among the approximately 1.4 million^workers employed in the
insurance business almost one-half are in clerical occupations




positions of responsibility which re­
quire extensive knowledge of one
phase of insurance or more. This
group includes cla im
a d ju ste rs
(D .O .T . 2 4 1 .1 6 8 ) and cla im e x a m ­
in e rs (D .O .T . 2 4 9 .2 6 8 ) who decide
whether claims are covered by the
policy, see that payment is received
on each claim, and when necessary,
investigate the circumstances which
initiated the claim. (See the state­
ments on Claim Adjusters and
Claim Examiners later in this chap­
Salesmen are a key group of
workers in insurance companies.
About one-third of all insurance
workers are sales persons— chiefly
agents, brokers, and others who sell
policies directly to individuals and.
business firms. Agents and brokers
usually are responsible for finding
their own customers or “prospects,”
and for seeing that each policy they
sell provides the special kind of pro­
tection required by the policy­
holder. (A statement on Insurance
Agents and Brokers is included in
the chapter on Sales Occupations.)

About 1 out of 8 insurance
workers is in a managerial position.
Managers in charge of local offices,
through which most insurance pol­
icies are sold, often spend part of
their time in sales work. Others,
who work in home offices, are com ­
pany officials or administrators in
charge of actuarial calculations, pol­
icy issuance, accounting, invest­
ments, loans, and additional office
w ork .


la rg e-sca le

in v estm en t

activities of many insurance compa­
nies make financial administration a
particularly important area of em­
Professionals, employed mainly
at home offices, represent about 1
out of 25 insurance workers. These
specialists, working closely with the
managerial personnel in insurance
companies, study insurance risks
and coverage problems, analyze in­
vestment possibilities, prepare finan­
cial reports, and do other profes­
sional work. Included among them
is the a c tu a ry (D .O .T . 0 2 0 .1 8 8 ),
whose job is unique to the insurance
field. Actuaries make statistical

studies relating to various kinds of
risks and, on the basis of these stud­
ies, determine how large the pre­
mium rate on each type of policy
should be. (See statement on Actu­
aries.) Another specialist is the u n ­
d e r w r ite r (D .O .T . 1 6 9 .1 8 8 ), who
reviews insurance applications to
evaluate the degree of risk involved.
Underwriters decide whether to ac­
cept or reject an application for in­
surance; they also determine which
premium rate should apply for each
policy issued. (A statement on un­
derwriters is included in this chap­
The work of most other profes­
sional employees in insurance com ­
panies is fundamentally the same as
in other industries. Accountants, for
example, analyze insurance com ­
pany records and financial problems
relating to premiums, investments,
payments to policyholders, and
other aspects of the business. Engi­
neers work on problems connected
with policies covering industrial
work accidents, damage to in­
dustrial plants and machinery, and
other technical matters. Lawyers in­
terpret the regulations which apply
to insurance company operations,
handle the settlement of some kinds
of insurance claims, and do other
legal work. Investment analysts
evaluate real estate mortgages and
new issues of bonds and other se­
curities, analyze current investments
held by their companies, and make
recommendations on when to hold,
buy, or sell. As more electronic
computers are installed to handle
office records, an increasing number
of data processing specialists, in­
cluding programers and systems an­
alysts, are being employed. Many
companies also employ editorial,
public relations, sales promotion,
and advertising specialists.
About 1 out of 50 workers in the
insurance business performs mainte-



nance or custodial work similar to
that required by other large busi­
ness organizations.
many of these professional, clerical,
and maintenance occupations is
contained elsewhere in this H a n d ­

Places of Employment
Large numbers of insurance
workers are employed in California,
Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts,
New Jersey, New York, and Texas,
where the home offices of some of
the largest insurance companies are
located. Many insurance workers
also are employed in agencies, bro­
kerage firms, and other sales offices
in cities and towns throughout the
country. Alm ost all sales personnel
work out of local offices, whereas
the majority of professional and
clerical workers are employed in
company home offices.
More than half of all insurance
workers are employed by life insur­
ance companies and agencies; in­
cluded in this group are some large
companies with thousands of em­
ployees. Companies which deal
mainly in property and liability in­
surance, although more numerous
than the life insurance companies,
generally have fewer employees.
Many local agencies and sales
offices are also small, regardless of
the type of insurance they handle.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Insurance offers job opportunities
for people having very different ed­
ucational backgrounds and talents.
Some positions require much mana­
gerial and administrative experience
and ability; others require college

training in mathematics, accounting,
and engineering; but still others in­
volve only routine duties which can
be learned on the job.
Graduation from high school or
business school is regarded as ade­
quate preparation for most begin­
ning clerical positions. Courses in
typing, business arithmetic, and the
operation of office machines may be
valuable. These special skills often
are required for jobs in insurance
company offices, and this kind of
training provides a background of
information which helps employees
advance to more responsible posi­
other professional positions in in­
surance companies usually require
the same kinds of college training as
they do in other business firms. Col­
lege-trained people also are pre­
ferred for managerial positions,
many of which are filled by promo­
tion from within. In professional
and managerial work requiring con­
tact with the public, as well as in
sales work and claim adjusting, the
employee should have a pleasant
disposition and an outgoing person­
ality. Since insurance companies
often encourage participation in
community organizations, he should
enjoy working with others in a so­
cial situation. An employee whose
work requires frequent contact with
policyholders should inspire confi­
dence in his ability to protect the
customer’s interests.
Insurance companies and associa­
tions of companies and agents offer
several kinds of training programs
to help employees prepare for bet­
ter jobs. The Insurance Institute of
America, for example, has home
study courses for property and lia­
bility insurance adjusters, claim ex­
aminers, underwriters, loss preven­
tion specialists, managerial person­
nel, and salesmen. The Institute

awards certificates to those who
pass their examinations. The Amer­
ican College of Life Underwriters,
the National Association of Life
Underwriters, and the Life Under­
writer Training Council offer life in­
surance courses that stress the serv­
ices agents may provide to policy­
holders. Other courses, especially
designed to help clerical employees
gain a better understanding of life
insurance and life insurance com ­
pany operations, relate to the or­
ganization and operation of both
home and field offices. They are
given under the auspices of the Life
which also provides programs for
the development of supervisory and
managerial personnel.

Employment Outlook
Employment in the insurance in­
dustry is expected to rise moder­
ately through the 1970’s. New jobs
to be filled, plus openings that occur
as employees retire or stop working
for other reasons, are expected to
total many thousands each year.
Turnover is particularly high in this
industry because of the many young
women in clerical jobs who work
only for a few years and then leave
to care for their families. Still other
openings will occur as insurance
workers leave their jobs for employ­
ment in other industries.
The expected increase in employ­
ment will result mainly from a
rapidly increasing volume of insur­
ance business. A growing popula­
tion will purchase more life insur­
ance, as well as more insurance
which provides retirement income
and funds for their children’s educa­
tion. Others who do not presently
have insurance may become policy­
holders; for example, advances in
medical science are making life in­



surance available to persons who
were formerly rejected as poor in­
surance risks. The need for prop­
erty and liability insurance also will
increase as a rising standard of liv­
ing enables more individuals and
families to own one automobile or
more, buy homes, and make other
major purchases which are usually
insured. In the business world more
insurance of this kind also will be
required as new plants are built,
new equipment is installed, and
more goods are shipped throughout
the country and the world. Further­
more, as the coverage of State
workmen’s compensation laws is
broadened, more employers may
need workmen’s compensation in­
Insurance employment probably
will rise at a somewhat slower rate
than the volume of business handled
by insurance companies. A s addi­
tional types of coverage become
available through group contracts
and more multiple-line policies are
issued (those which cover a variety
of insurance risks formerly covered
in separate policies), the workload
of sales personnel in local offices
will be reduced. As more companies
install electronic computers and
other equipment to process som e‘df
the routine paperwork now done by
clerks, changes in insurance com ­
pany employment will occur. The
total number of insurance company
clerical jobs probably will continue
to rise, especially those jobs that re­
quire special training, but the pro­
portion of routine jobs is likely to
Insurance workers have better
prospects of regular employment
than workers in many other indus­
tries. Most businessmen regard
property and liability insurance as a
necessity, both during economic re­
cession and in boom periods, and
private individuals also attempt to

retain as much basic financial pro­
tection as possible, even when their
incomes decline.

E&rnings and Working Conditions
A 1 9 6 8 -6 9 survey of nonsupervisory employees in insurance compa­
nies, banks, and related businesses
showed a wide range of salaries
among the individuals in the compa­
workers in beginning, routine jobs
earned less than $70.00 a week;
some experienced employees in
more responsible positions earned
up to twice that amount. Employees
in beginning jobs as junior file
clerks averaged $71.50 a week and
office girls, $73.00. Switchboard op­
erators averaged between $87.50
and $99.00, depending upon skill
and experience. General stenogra­
phers averaged $88.00 a week and
$100.50. Typists, one of the largest
groups covered in the survey, aver­
aged $79.00 for beginning jobs and
$90.50 for experienced workers.
The average for accounting clerks
ranged from $84.50 to $123.50, de­
pending on experience and skill.
To some extent, these differences
in salary levels may be due to dif­
ferences in the specific job duties of
the employees involved, and in the
firms for which they worked. Salary
levels in different parts of the coun­
try also vary; earnings are generally
lowest in southern cities and highest
in northeastern and western metro­
politan areas. (See chapter on Cler­
ical and Related Occupations for
additional information about the
earnings of workers in other office
occupations found in insurance
com panies.)
Starting salaries for professional
workers are generally comparable
with those for similar positions in

other industries and businesses. A c­
cording to limited information avail­
able from a private survey of life in­
surance companies, 1970 college
graduates were paid starting salaries
ranging between $7,475 and $8,590
a year. Specialists having several
years’ experience in insurance may
receive annual salaries of $10,000
to $15,000; many earn $25,000 a
year or more. Unlike salaried pro­
fessional workers, agents and bro­
kers earn commissions on the pol­
icies they sell. (See the statement
on Insurance Agents and Brokers.)
Based on limited data, annual
salaries for supervisors in life in­
surance companies ranged from
$8,900 to $18,870, depending upon
the type of company operation.
Salaries for supervisors in property
and liability companies ranged from
$9,200 to $19,050 a year.
Except for agents and brokers,
who must sometimes extend their
working hours to meet with
prospective clients, insurance com ­
pany employees usually work be­
tween 35 and 40 hours a week. The
number of paid holidays is some­
what greater than in many other in­
dustries. Two-week paid vacations
generally are granted employees
after 1 year of service; in most com ­
panies, vacations are extended to 3
weeks after 10 years and, in some,
to 4 weeks after 20 years. Practi­
cally all insurance company workers
share in group plans providing life
and health insurance, as well as re­
tirement pensions.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on employ­
ment opportunities in the insurance
business may be obtained from the
personnel departments of major in­
surance companies or from insur­
ance agencies in local communities.



Other information on careers in the
insurance field is available from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William St., New York, N.Y.
National Association of Insurance
Agents, 96 Fulton St., New York,
N.Y. 10038.
American Mutual Insurance Alli­
ance, 20 North Wacker Dr., Chi­
cago, 111. 60606.
For additional information on the
salaries of clerical workers in
finance industries, including insur­
ance, see:
Area Wage Surveys, Metropolitan
Areas, United States and Regional
Summaries, 1968-69 (BLS Bulle­
tin 1625-91, 1970). Superintend­
ent of Documents, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402.

(D.O.T. 250.258)

Nature of the Work
Insurance agents and brokers sell
policies which protect individuals
and businesses against future losses
and financial pressures. They also
provide their customers with many
services related to the insurance
they sell. They may, for example,
assist in planning the financial pro­
tection which best meets the special
needs of a customer’s family; advise
about the types of insurance best
suited for the protection of an auto­
mobile, home, business establish­
ment, or other property; or help a
policyholder in obtaining settlement
of an insurance claim.

Three basic types of insurance
are available— life, property and li­
ability, and health. Agents and bro­
kers usually sell one or more of
these types of insurance. Some
agents also sell equity products,
such as mutual fund shares. Life in­
surance policies pay survivors in the
event of the policyholder’s death;
they also may provide annuities,
funds for the education of children
when they reach college age, and
other benefits which the policy­
holder has arranged in anticipation
of a future need for these funds.
Property and liability insurance pol­
icies protect policyholders from fi­
nancial losses which they might oth­
erwise incur because of automobile
accidents, fire and theft, or other
hazards. Health insurance policies
offer protection against the costs of
hospital and medical care or loss of
income due to an illness or injury.
An insurance agent may be either
an insurance company employee or
an independent businessman who is
under contract to act as the author­
ized representative of one insur­
ance company or more. A broker
occupies a somewhat different posi­
tion; he is not under contract to any
particular company but places the
policies he sells with whatever insur­
ance company he feels best meets
his clients’ needs. In other respects,
agents and brokers do much the
same kind of work.
Agents and brokers spend most
of their time discussing insurance
policies with prospective customers.
Some time must be spent in office
work— planning insurance programs
that are tailored to prospects’ needs,
preparing reports, maintaining rec­
ords, and drawing up lists of
prospective customers. Salesmen
who specialize in group policies
may help to incorporate an insur­
ance program into a company’s
bookkeeping system.

(See chapter on Insurance Occu­
pations for additional information
about life and property and liability
insurance com panies.)

Places of Employment
Of the 350,000 agents and bro­
kers who sold insurance in 1970,
about half specialized in life insur­
ance; the remainder, in property
and liability insurance. Both groups
also sold health insurance. Nine out
of ten agents and brokers were men.
Many additional agents— both men
and women— sold insurance on a
part-time basis.
Insurance agents and brokers are
employed in all parts of the country,
but the greatest number work in
large cities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although employers seldom spec­
ify age limits or formal educational
requirements, practically all agents
hired in recent years have been at
least 21 years of age, and more than
half of them have had some college
training. Many were college gradu­
ates. College training, although not
essential, may be an aid to the agent
in grasping insurance fundamentals
and in establishing good personal
clients. Courses in accounting, eco­
nomics, finance, and business law,
as well as courses in insurance sub­
jects, are considered helpful. A lib­
eral arts curriculum is equally desir­
able in preparing the prospective
Because an agent’s or broker’s
success depends on his sales ability,
he must have the initiative to locate
new prospects. He also must know
insurance fundamentals and be able



to explain policy terms clearly. En­
thusiasm, self-confidence, and a
cheerful personality are valuable.
All insurance agents and most
brokers must obtain licenses in the
States where they plan to sell insur­
ance. In most States, licenses are is­
sued only to applicants who pass
written examinations covering in­
surance fundamentals and the State
insurance laws.
Before new agents sell they usu­
ally receive training at insurance
company home offices or at the
agencies and brokerage firms where
they will be working. Some insur­
ance companies sponsor classes in
sales problems and insurance princi­
ples. This instruction may be given
over a period of several weeks or a
few months. In other cases, training
takes the form of working on the
job under the supervision of experi­
enced sales personnel.
Agents and brokers have oppor­
tunities to broaden their knowledge

of the insurance business by enroll­
ing in intermediate and advanced
courses available at many colleges
and universities and by attending in­
stitutes, conferences, and seminars
sponsored by insurance organiza­
tions. The Life Underwriter Train­
ing Council (L U T C ) offers courses
in life and health insurance for ex­
perienced life agents. A diploma in
life insurance marketing is awarded
to graduates who successfully com ­
plete the Council’s 2-year life pro­
gram. As an agent or broker ac­
quires experience and broadens his
knowledge of the life insurance
business, he can qualify for the des­
ignation Chartered Life Underwri­
ter (C L U ) by passing a series of
examinations given by the Ameri­
can Society of Chartered Life U n­
derwriters. In much the same way, a
property and liability agent, by
passing an examination given by the
American Institute for Property and
Liability Underwriters, Inc., will

qualify for the Chartered Property
Casualty Underwriter (C PC U ) des­
ignation. The CLU and CPCU des­
ignations are recognized marks of
achievement in their respective
Insurance agents who demon­
strate sales ability and leadership
may be promoted to sales manager
positions in district offices or to
offices. A few may advance to top
positions as agency superintendents
or company vice-presidents or pres­
idents. Many agents who have built
up a good clientele prefer to remain
in sales work. Some, particularly in
the property and liability field,
eventually establish their own inde­
pendent agencies or brokerage

Employment Outlook
Several thousand openings for in­
surance agents and brokers are ex­
pected to arise each year through
the 1970’s. Some will be new jobs
created as employment expands;
others will become available as
agents and brokers retire or stop
working for other reasons. Because
the rate of turnover is high among
beginners in this occupation, many
workers also will be needed to re­
place insurance agents who enter
other types of employment.
During the 1970’s, the number of
insurance agents and brokers is ex­
pected to grow moderately. As pop­
ulation and incomes rise and life ex­
pectancy increases, more families
will depend on life insurance and on
policies that provide protection in
the form of retirement income,
medical care, and funds for a col­
lege education. Expansion in in­
dustrial plant and equipment and
growth in the number of major con­
sumer purchases, such as homes or



automobiles, will contribute to in­
creased sales of property and liabil­
ity insurance. Despite the expected
increase in the number of policies
issued, however, insurance selling
will remain keenly competitive as
more insurance is sold to groups or
by mail and as electronic data proc­
essing relieves agents of clerical

Earnings and Working Conditions
Beginners in this occupation
often are guaranteed moderate sala­
ries or advances on commissions
while they are learning the business
and building up a clientele. There­
after, most agents are paid on a
commission basis. The size of the
commission varies, depending on
the type and amount of insurance
sold, and on whether the transaction
involves a new policy or the renewal
of a policy already in force. After a
few years, an agent’s commissions
on new policies sold and on re­
newals may range from $8,000 to
$20,000 annually. A number of es­
tablished and highly successful
agents and brokers earn $30,000 a
year or more.
Agents and brokers generally pay
their own automobile and traveling
expenses. In addition, those who
own and operate independent busi­
nesses must pay office rent, clerical
salaries, and other operating ex­
penses out of their earnings.
Although insurance agents usu­
ally are free to arrange their own
hours of work, they often schedule
appointments during evenings and
weekends for the convenience of
clients. Some agents spend more
than the customary 40 hours a week
on the job.

Sources of Additional Information
General occupational information
about insurance agents and brokers
may be obtained from the home
office of many life insurance and
property and liability insurance
companies. Information on State li­
censing requirements may be ob­
tained from the department of in­
surance at any State capital.
Information about a career as a
life insurance agent also may be ob­
tained from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277
Park Ave., New York, N.Y.
Life Insurance Agency Management
Association, 170 Sigourney St.,
Hartford, Conn. 06105.
The National Association of Life
Underwriters, 1922 F St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.
Information about sales training
in life and health insurance is avail­
able from:
The Life Underwriter Training
Council, 1922 F St., NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20006.
Information about property and
liability agents and brokers can be
obtained from:
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William St., New York, N.Y.
National Association of Insurance
Agents, Inc., 96 Fulton St., New
York, N.Y. 10038.

(D .O .T. 241.168, 191.268)

Nature of the Work
Claim adjusters investigate, nego­
tiate, and settle claims regarding a
policy made by those who have suf­
fered a loss. Most adjusters work
for companies that sell property and
liability insurance, although some
are assigned claims arising under
accident or health insurance pol­
icies. (See the statement on Claim
Examiners for a discussion of
claim settlement in life insurance.)
Upon receipt of an insurance
claim, the adjuster must determine
if the loss is in fact covered by the
policy; if so, it is his job to decide
the amount of the loss. The adjuster
investigates all circumstances relat­
ing to the claim, using a variety of
sources such as records, reports,
physical data, and witnesses. From
an analysis of the facts he draws a
conclusion about the extent, if any,
of the insurance company’s obliga­
tion. Sometimes his investigative
work may be aimed at determining
the extent of a third party’s liability.
In the event that a third party bears
some responsibility in a loss, the ad­
juster’s company may collect a por­
tion of the payment made to the
policyholder from this third party or
his insurance company.
When the adjuster determines
that his company is liable, his job is
to negotiate with the claimant and
settle the case. A claims man must
avoid making settlements unduly
large in relation to the real value of
a loss; at the same time, he must see
that valid claims are paid promptly.
Some adjusters have the authority
to issue a draft on company funds.
Others submit a report of their find­
ings to the insurance company
which then pays the claim.


Some adjusters work with all
lines of insurance. Others specialize
in handling claims such as those
arising from damage to property by
fire; ocean marine Josses; automo­
bile damage; workmen’s compensa­
tion losses; or bodily injury.
There are two major areas of
specialization in claim adjusting:
Property claims that result from loss
or damage; and claims resulting
from bodily injury. Bodily injury
knowledge of law and medicine. A
claims man frequently advances to
this type of adjusting after several
years’ work in another adjusting line
or as an all-lines adjuster.
M ost of an adjuster’s job is car­
ried on outside his office. He may
have to work at a construction site
where an accident has occurred, or
at the location of a fire or burglary.
While the adjuster may spend the
greater portion of a working day
driving from place to place investi­


gating claims, this travel usually is
within a single city or regional area.
A n adjuster is responsible for plan­
ning his own schedule of activities
necessary to the proper disposal of
a claim. He also must keep a careful
record of his expenses so that his
employer can reimburse him.
Adjusters increasingly use porta­
ble tape recorders in their work.
These have the advantage of short­
ening the amount of time an adjust­
er must spend in personally inter­
viewing a witness or claimant.

Places of Employment
An estimated 114,000 claim ad­
justers were employed in 1970;
most were men. Adjusters are em­
ployed by adjustment bureaus (or­
ganizations formed by several insur­
ance companies to settle claim s), by
insurance companies, and by inde­
pendent adjusting firms. Some are

self-employed. “Staff” adjusters are
on the payrolls of insurance compa­
nies; independent adjusters may be
hired by independent adjusting
firms or may contract their services
privately for a fee.
A small number of public adjust­
ers represent the insured rather
than the insurance company. These
adjusters usually are retained by
banks, financial organizations, and
other business firms to handle fire
and allied losses to property. They
negotiate claims against insurance
companies and deal with the adjust­
ers for such companies.
The beginning adjuster can look
forward to working in almost any
area of the United States, since
claims must be settled locally in all
parts of the country. Occasionally,
the adjuster may be required to
travel to the scene of a disaster,
such as a hurricane or a riot, to
work with local adjusting personnel.
Some cases result in travel outside
the United States.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Adjuster discusses loss with claimant.

A variety of educational back­
grounds are adaptable to success in
claim adjusting. Although the trend
is toward the employment of college
graduates and some companies re­
quire a degree, men without college
training are accepted by many firms.
Specialized job experience might
qualify an individual for employ­
ment as an adjuster. For example, a
person experienced in automobile
repair work may qualify as an auto
adjuster. It is likely, however, that
an adjuster who lacks college train­
ing will be slower in advancing to
senior or supervisory positions.


N o specific field of college study
is recommended; many successful
adjusters have general liberal arts
backgrounds. An adjuster whose
background is in business subjects
or accounting might choose to spe­
cialize in loss from business inter­
ruption or damage to stocks of mer­
chandise. A man with college train­
ing in engineering or law will find
his education helpful in adjusting
casualty claims. Legal training is de­
sirable, although few employers de­
mand that beginning adjusters have
a law degree.
Although insurance company ad­
justers frequently are exempt from
State licensing provisions, nearly
three-fourths of the States and
Puerto Rico require adjusters to be
licensed or to pay occupational fees.
State licensing regulations vary
widely. However, applicants usually
must comply with one or more of
the following requirements: Pass a
written examination covering the
fundamentals of adjusting; furnish
character affidavits; be 20 or 21
years of age and fulfill certain State
residency qualifications; offer proof
that they have completed an ap­
proved course in insurance or loss
adjusting; and file a surety bond.
Many insurance companies and
adjustment firms offer programs for
beginning adjusters that combine
on-the-job training with home study
courses. The Insurance Institute of
America also offers an educational
program for adjusters leading to the
Institute’s Diploma in Insurance
Loss and Claim Adjusting. This
six-semester study program is open
to all adjusters, and the Institute’s
diploma is awarded upon success­
ful completion of six national exam­
inations. Adjusters can prepare to
take these examinations by inde­
pendent home study, through com ­
pany or public classes, or. by formal


college courses in insurance. A pro­
fessional Certificate in Insurance
Adjusting also is available from the
College of Insurance in New York
Regardless of place of employ­
ment, most adjusters begin their
training with an orientation course
in general insurance principles. A
beginning adjuster is assigned to
work on small claims under supervi­
sion of an experienced adjuster.
This training may be given at one of
the metropolitan training centers
maintained by some large insurance
companies or by assignment to a
field office. As the trainee adjuster
learns more about claim investiga­
tion and settlement, both through
home study and supervised experi­
ence, he gradually assumes respon­
sibility over claims that are more
difficult to settle or higher in loss
an adjuster’s work
brings him into contact with claim­
ants, witnesses, and policyholders,
he must be skillful in adapting to a
variety of persons and situations.
He should enjoy working with peo­
ple from different backgrounds and
be able to gain their respect and co­
operation. When an adjuster’s eval­
uation of a claim differs from that of
the person who has suffered the
loss, he must exercise considerable
tact and diplomacy in explaining the
reasons for his conclusions. A n ad­
juster should be able to converse
easily with the persons from whom
he seeks information in settling a
claim; he must “speak the lan­
guage” of the police detective, the
auto damage appraiser, and the
medical specialist, to name a few.
Habits of keen observation and
careful attention to details are valu­
able to an adjuster in his work,
which demands that he gather all
facts pertinent to a claim and weigh
them together in making a decision.

Promotions to senior or chief ad­
juster depend upon an individual’s
demonstrated performance in han­
dling his claim assignments, the
evaluations of his supervisors, and
his progress in any of the study
courses available through his com­
pany, insurance associations or local
educational institutions. The adjust­
er who demonstrates administrative
skills may be promoted to supervi­
sory responsibilities in the claims
department of a field office. With
continued evidence of his ability to
organize work flow and make deci­
sions, he may advance to a mana­
gerial position in a branch office or
in the home office organization. An
adjuster who boasts a background
in law might be promoted to trial
attorney or legal manager in his
firm’s home office.

Employment Outlook
Employment of claim adjusters is
expected to increase at a rapid rate
through the 1970’s. In addition to
openings as a result of growth in the
occupation, many jobs will become
available each year from the need to
replace experienced claim adjusters
who die, retire, or transfer to other
The expected rapid growth in
employment opportunities for ad­
justers reflects anticipated expan­
sion in total volume of insurance
sales and resulting claims, especially
by property and liability insurance
companies which employ most ad­
justers. Various factors expected to
contribute to an expanded volume
of insurance sales include continued
population growth, rising personal
incomes, and changing patterns of
consumer demand for goods and
services. A rapid rate of new family
formation should result in increased
purchases of consumer durables,


such as household furnishings and
appliances, that require insurance
protection. Automobile insurance,
accounting for nearly half the total
volume of property and liability
sales in recent years, should grow
rapidly as more families purchase
second and third vehicles. In addi­
tion, greater population density will
increase the risk of accidents, fires,
and thefts, with the effect of stimu­
lating demand for these types of in­
surance coverage.
Since much of an adjuster’s time
is spent in personal contact with
claimants and others who must be
interviewed regarding a loss, the
greater volume of claims should re­
sult in a substantial increase in em­
ployment requirements for claim
adjusters. Because the nature of an
adjuster’s work usually demands
on-the-scene investigation of facts
and events, it is unlikely that con­
solidation of field operations will
significantly reduce the number of
claim adjusters assigned locally.

Earnings and Working Conditions
According to an American Insur­
ance Association/A m erican M u­
tual Insurance Alliance survey of
companies selling property and lia­
bility insurance, the average annual
salary of an all-lines adjuster was
$9,100 in 1970; salaries generally
ranged from $7,300 to $11,800 a
year. Adjusters who specialized in
ocean marine and cargo claims aver­
aged $10,200 a year, and their sala­
ries ranged from $8,300 to $12,600
Adjusters having supervisory re­
sponsibilities earned average annual
salaries of $11,400; their earnings
ranged from $9,200 to $14,600.
Some supervisory adjusters earned
as much as $18,000 annually. Most
public adjusters are paid a percent­


age of the amount of the loss adjust­
ment— generally 10 percent. An ad­
juster also may be furnished a com­
pany car or reimbursed for use of
his own vehicle during business
Claim adjusting is not a desk job.
It requires that a person be physi­
cally fit since a substantial portion
of his day may be spent in driving
from one place to another, walking
about out of doors, and climbing
stairs. An adjuster may be required
to work evenings or weekends in
order to interview witnesses and
claimants when they are available.
Since most companies provide both
immediate and 24-hour claim serv­
ice to their policyholders, some ad­
justers always must be on call. A
complicated claim can result in an
adjuster’s working long and unusual
Claim adjusting is a demanding
job and at the same time a challeng­
ing one that requires imagination
and the ability to weigh a group of
facts to reach a conclusion. N o
claim is precisely like any other, so
an adjuster’s work offers the stimu­
lus of continual variety as well as
the satisfaction of helping someone
who has suffered a loss.

Sources of Additional Information
Information about licensing re­
quirements for claim adjusters may
be obtained from the department of
insurance in each State. General in­
formation about a career as a claim
adjuster is available from the home
office of many property and liability
insurance companies. Information
regarding claim adjusters also may
be obtained from:
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William Street, New York, N.Y.

Information about a career as a
public insurance adjuster is availa­
ble from:
National Association of Public In­
surance Adjusters, 1613 Munsey
Building, Baltimore, Md. 21202

(D.O.T. 168.288 and 249.268)

Nature of the Work
Although policyholders expect
their insurance claims to be honored
promptly, a number of important
questions must be answered first. A
claim examiner, who also may be
known as a claim representative or
claim reviewer, investigates details
of an insurance loss to provide these
answers. His investigation may in­
clude reviewing claim applications
to check completeness and accu­
racy; interviewing policyholders or
medical specialists; consulting pol­
icy files to verify information on a
claim; and calculating benefit pay­
The claim examiner’s duties vary,
depending on the type of insurance
sold by his employer. When this is
life, accident, and disability insur­
ance, claim examiners usually are
assigned to particular types of
claims, such as group or health and
disability. These examiners investi­
gate and approve payment on all
claims up to a certain dollar
amount. Claims beyond this amount
are referred to a senior examiner
who has a higher approval limit.
In property and liability insur­
ance companies most of the investi­
gating is done by c la im a d ju ste rs.
(See the statement on Claim Adjust­


ers for a discussion of claim settle­ and prepares claim reports. As a re­
ment in property and liability insur­ sult, a portion of his time may be
ance.) In these companies the claim spent in the preparation and sub­
examiner usually is a home office mission of data to his company’s
employee who reviews insurance data processing section.
claims to determine whether adjust­
To correct errors or omissions on
ers are following proper procedures a claim form or to verify question­
in claim handling. Some property able facts, a claim examiner may
and liability (firms employ claim need to correspond with investigat­
workers to handle small claims, ing companies, field managers,
such as those arising over minor agents, and policyholders. Occa­
property damage to an automobile.
sionally, he travels to a field loca­
These workers are called “inside
tion where he obtains this informa­
adjusters” or “desk adjusters.”
tion by personal interview. The ex­
In both life insurance and prop­
erty and liability insurance compa­ aminer who has advanced to this
nies, some claim examiners process level of responsibility may be asked
only unusual or questionable claims, also to serve on committees, con­
referred from field or regional duct surveys of claim practices
offices to the home office. These ex­ within his company, and help to de­
aminers may be responsible also for vise more efficient systems for proc­
reviewing routine claims settled by essing claims. He may have contact
the regional office staffs. This re­ with State insurance departments
view involves determining validity and other companies regarding
of the claim and correctness of the claim policies and practices in his
decision already made by the
firm. A t this level, the claim exam­
branch office that handled it. The
iner’s job demands some knowledge
examiner makes this determination
of Federal and State insurance laws
by comparing data on the processed
and regulations, and he also may
claim application, death certificate,
appear in court to furnish testimony
or physician’s statement with the
on contested claims.
policy file.
Regardless of the type of insur­
ance sold, all claim examiners must
develop a thorough knowledge of
Places of Employment
their company’s settlement proce­
dures and basic policy provisions.
A n estimated 29,000 claim ex­
They can refer to company claim aminers were employed in the in­
manuals describing this information surance industry in 1970; about half
in detail, but efficient handling of were women. Claim examiners are
several claims a day demands that employed by all types of insurance
an examiner be familiar enough companies, life as well as property
with the manuals to make constant and liability.
referral unnecessary. A claim exam­
Claim examiners work in insur­
iner must be well acquainted also ance company home offices, in re­
with company records and forms gional offices, and in field offices.
since he frequently works with data The latter frequently are located in
furnished by other company divi­ small towns and cities where the
sions. Besides verifying a claim and companies sell and service their in­
approving its payment, a claim ex­ surance products. Large regional
aminer also maintains claim records offices and home offices are orga­


nized along similar lines; they have
separate departments for underwrit­
ing, claims, and other major func­
tions. Although jobs as claim exam­
iners are available in most areas of
the United States, higher level jobs
generally are found in regional or
home offices.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although many employers prefer
to hire college graduates for claim
examiner positions, applicants hav­
ing good high school records are ac­
cepted by many firms if they have
additional experience in clerical
work or some college training.
However, the type of work per­
formed in entry level positions dif­
fers. The employee who has a high
school education begins in a clerical
job, perhaps as a claim processor in
a group life or health department.
College graduates, or those having 2
years or more of college training,
may begin work as junior claim ex­
aminers. Although courses in insur­
ance, economics, or other business
subjects are helpful, a major in al­
most any college field is adequate
preparation. College-trained em­
ployees can anticipate promotion to
senior claim representative or claim
examiner positions after a year or
more; high school graduates usually
need several years’ experience be­
fore advancing to one of these posi­
tions. Advancement to most super­
visory claim examiner jobs demands
a college education. Although expe­
rience can sometimes be substituted
for a part of the work leading to a
college degree, the employee who
lacks formal college training gener­
ally advances at a slower rate.
The beginning claim examiner is
given on-the-job training under the
direction of an experienced claim


manager. If the trainee is a college
graduate, his on-the-job training
may be combined with courses in
insurance fundamentals or person­
nel management designed to pre­
pare him for supervisory claim
work. Many property and liability
insurance companies follow a promotion-from-within policy in select­
ing claim examiners from the ranks
of former claim adjusters. The latter
have received much of their training
for examiner positions through onthe-job experience in adjusting
The Life Office Management A s­
sociation (L O M A ) cooperates with
the International Claim Association
in offering a Claims Education Pro­
gram for life and health insurance
claim examiners. The program is
part of the LOM A Institute Insur­
ance Education Program leading to
the professional designation of
FLM I (Fellow, Life Management
Institute) upon successful comple­
tion of eight written examinations.
Most insurance companies encour­
age study by making educational
materials available to employees en­
rolled in the LOM A Institute Pro­
gram. Many firms offer classroom
instruction in preparation for the
annual examinations.
Certain aptitudes and skills are
helpful to the examiner. Since he
must communicate, by letter and
telephone, with his company’s sales
force, field managers, and policy­
holders, a claim examiner should be
able to express himself clearly. Be­
cause he has written and spoken
communication with persons of dif­
ferent educational backgrounds, he
must be flexible in adapting his
manner of writing or speaking to
the circumstances. In addition, since
he has frequent contact with the
company’s medical and legal de­
partments, he needs a knowledge of
medical and legal terms and prac­


tices. Because the claim examiner
may need to check premium pay­
ments, policy values, and other nu­
merical items in processing a claim,
some skill in performing mathemati­
cal calculations is an asset. This is
not a good job choice for a person
who overlooks details or one who
has a poor memory for facts.
Advancement may come by dif­
ferent routes. The individual who
shows unusual competence in claim
work sometimes can advance within
the claim department— either to the
position of claim approver or to an­
other supervisory claim job. A
claim supervisor may have as many
as 50 to 60 employees under his di­
rection, and devotes much of his
time to administrative duties and to
final approval of unusual claims.
Though supervisory claim positions
are available in field as well as re­
gional and home offices, many ex­
aminers find promotion to a super­
visory job requires transfer either to
a larger branch office or to the com­
pany home office. A claim examiner
with a college education should find
opportunity for advancement. It
may exist either within the claim
department or in a related area of
company operations, such as under­
writing, data processing, or adminis­

Employment Outlook
Employment requirements for
examiners are not expected to in­
crease over the 1 9 7 0 -8 0 period.
Although rapid population growth,
new family formations, and rising
personal income should stimulate
growth in insurance sales, the in­
creased volume of claims is not
likely to involve comparable in­
creases in examiner manpower.
Electronic data processing methods

and equipment will enable propor­
tionately fewer claim examiners to
process an increased volume of
claims, especially those of a routine
nature and many that arise under
group life and health insurance cov­
erage. Besides, as smaller banch
office operations continue to be con­
solidated, economies of scale will
enable insurance companies to proc­
ess a rapidly expanding volume of
claims with a relatively stable work
Although openings resulting from
employment growth are expected to
be limited, some positions will be­
come available each year of the
next decade as claim examiners die,
retire, or transfer to other fields.
These will be found in metropolitan
centers where insurance employ­
ment is concentrated. Competition
for the relatively few supervisory
claim openings is expected to be

Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings vary by type of com­
pany and location. According to
limited information available, an­
nual salaries for claim examiners
employed by life insurance compa­
nies ranged between $7,700 and
$13,050 in 1970. Salaries in the
Western United States and in
smaller companies were among the
lowest. Most claim examiners hired
as trainees by life companies earned
$6,400 a year or more; claim super­
visors for these companies had min­
imum annual salaries of about
$10,300. Some supervisors earned
$16,000 a year or more.
An American Insurance Associa­
tio n / American Mutual Insurance
Alliance survey of property and
liability companies provided earn­
ings data for their claim examiners.
In 1970, property and liability claim



examiners had average annual earn­
ings of $7,700, and many earned
more than $9,800 a year. Claim
supervisors employed by these com­
panies had annual earnings which
ranged from $9,200 to $14,600.
Claim examiners usually perform
their duties in the pleasant work
surroundings of large, well-venti­
lated office buildings. M ost claim
examiners work 35 to 40 hours a
week, although an examiner may
work longer hours at times of peak
claim load or when quarterly and
annual statements are being pre­
pared. (See the statement on In­
surance Occupations for additional
information on working conditions
and employee benefits.)

Sources of Additional Information
General information about a ca­
reer as a claim examiner is available
from the home office of many life
insurance and property and liability
insurance companies and also from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park
Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William Street, New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 169.188)

Nature of the Work
Insurance companies assume mil­
lions of dollars in risks each year,
by transferring chance of loss from
their policyholders to themselves.
The policyholder pays for this serv­
ice through regular premiums. An

underwriter’s primary function is to
select the risks his company will in­
sure. (The term underwriter some­
times is used in referring to an in­
surance salesman; see the statement
on Agents and Brokers elsewhere
in the H a n d b o o k for a discussion of
that occupation.)
An underwriter decides the ac­
ceptability of various types of risks
by analyzing information contained
in insurance applications, reports of
safety engineers, and actuarial stud­
ies (reports describing the probabil­
ity of insured lo ss). In making a de­
cision, the underwriter also checks
his company’s established practice.
When working in an area not cov­
ered by rule or precedent, however,
he must exercise considerable per­
sonal judgment. If an underwriter is
too conservative in appraising risks,
his company may lose business to a
competitor. On the other hand, if
his underwriting actions are too lib­
eral, his firm may have to pay too
many claims in the future.
When deciding that a policy is an
acceptable risk, an underwriter may
outline the terms of the contract, in­
cluding the amount of premium.
Certain underwriters may perform
other duties as well. In a small com­
pany, for example, they may have
duties such as policy issuance or
sales management. Underwriters
frequently correspond with policy­
holders, agents, and management
personnel about policy cancellation
or requests for information. In addi­
tion, they sometimes accompany
salesmen on appointments with
prospective customers.
Another of the underwriter’s
tasks is to judge the need for issuing
a policy at a higher than standard
premium because extra risk is in­
volved. In general, the premium
rate is figured for an average risk.
On a life insurance policy, for ex­
ample, the rate is based on persons

Underwriter discusses information on
a customer’s insurance application.

in good health who work in occupa­
tions where there are no substantial
hazards. A policy can be issued to
those whose health is below normal
or whose occupation involves some
risk if the underwriter charges a
higher premium as compensation.
As underwriters gain experience,
they are given more difficult cases
to evaluate and policies bearing
larger face value. In addition, they
assume the difficult task of review­
ing applications to renew policies on
which losses already have occurred.
More experienced underwriters also
help conduct formal or informal
training sessions for junior under­
writers and may supervise clerical
staff members who deal with sales­
men and policyholders.
Most underwriters specialize in
one of the three major categories of
insurance: life, property and liabil­
ity, or health. In turn, life under­
writers may specialize in one varia­
tion or more of life insurance, such
as group or individual life policies.
These underwriters must thoroughly
evaluate medical statistical studies
and the applicants’ credit reports in
reaching their decisions.


The property and liability under­
writer’s specialty is differentiated by
“line” of risk insured, such as fire,
automobile, marine, and workmen’s
compensation. Fire underwriting
demands extensive contact with rat­
ing bureaus (organizations sup­
ported by insurance companies to
develop premium rates). An auto­
mobile underwriter, on the other
hand, devotes a significant share of
his time to analyzing past experi­
ence as revealed by company statis­
tics. Some underwriters handle
“multi-peril” business insurance ex­
clusively. These specialists, who are
called commercial account under­
writers, must evaluate a firm’s entire
operation in appraising the degree
of risk involved in approving an
insurance application.
A group insurance policy insures
all persons in a specified group
through a single contract. One duty
of the group underwriter is to ana­
lyze the overall composition of the
group insured to be certain that
total risk involved is not excessive.
Some group underwriters perform
other functions similar to those of
an insurance salesman (such as
meeting with union or employer
representatives to discuss the types
of policies available to their group).
Places of Employment
An estimated 55,000 underwrit­
ers were employed in the insurance
industry in 1970. About threefourths were property and liability
underwriters, who worked in field
or home offices of insurance compa­
In contrast to the property and li­
ability part of the business, most life
insurance underwriting is performed
by home office employees. Some
life insurance underwriters work in
large regional offices organized
along much the same lines as the


company home office, that have
separate departments for group, in­
dividual life, and health insurance.
Most underwriters are men.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
College graduates are sought in­
creasingly for entry-level positions
in underwriting. Employers usually
look for candidates who have de­
grees in liberal arts or business ad­
ministration, although a major in al­
most any college field provides a
good general background. Although
high school graduates are not
barred, their opportunities for ad­
vancement are limited. They gener­
ally begin in clerical positions, per­
haps as underwriting clerks. High
school graduates who perform sat­
isfactorily in such jobs, and demon­
strate an aptitude for underwriting
tasks, then may be trained on the
job as underwriters.
The entry-level job for a college
graduate is generally that of under­
writing trainee or junior underwrit­
er. A beginning underwriter usually
goes through a training period when
he participates in a program of
study at the office, and carries out
assignments under the direction of
an experienced risk appraiser. Dur­
ing this training period, the beginner
may learn from claim files the fac­
tors associated with certain types of
losses and from renewal underwrit­
ing decisions the experience df the
risks his company has insured in the
Many underwriters supplement
their on-the-job training by home
study courses and instruction at
home office schools or at local col­
leges and universities. Although
most companies do not require it,
this supplemental training helps in
gaining advancement. Underwriters

have a choice of several inde­
pendent study programs available
through insurance associations such
as the American Institute for Prop­
erty and Liability Underwriters; the
American College for Life Under­
writers; the Home Office Life Un­
derwriters Association and the
Institute of Home Office Underwrit­
ers; and the Life Office Manage­
ment Association. Many firms pay
tuition and the cost of books for
those employees who satisfactorily
complete courses in underwriting.
Some companies also offer salary
increases as an incentive.
Underwriting can be a satisfying
career for a young man or woman
who is patient with details and who
enjoys relating and evaluating facts.
The young person who dislikes
being tied to a desk and prefers
working with people rather than
evaluating facts should consider
other career fields. In addition to
powers of analysis and good judg­
ment, an underwriter must be imag­
inative and aggressive, especially
when need arises to obtain addi­
tional information from outside
As an underwriter’s skills de­
velop, he may be promoted to sen­
ior underwriter or supervisory un­
derwriter approving policies with
substantial face values and perform­
ing certain training and administra­
tive functions. An underwriter who
demonstrates competence and who
completes available study courses
may advance further to a position as
chief underwriter or underwriting
manager of a department. An un­
derwriting manager may move on to
a senior managerial appointment
after several years.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
underwriters are expected to grow


moderately during the
Many will arise in metropolitan cen­
ters where insurance workers now
are concentrated; others will result
from a demand for underwriters to
work in field offices, especially in
property and liability insurance. In
addition to positions created by em­
ployment growth, many job open­
ings will result from the need to re­
place workers who die, retire, or
transfer to other fields.
Several factors point to an ex­
panding market for insurance sales
through the 1970’s and a resulting
need for underwriters. Continued
population growth and higher per­
sonal incomes should stimulate pur­
chases of life insurance. Property
and liability insurance sales should
expand with increased purchases of
automobiles and other consumer
durables. Both spending for new
home construction and the Ameri­
can public’s growing security con­
sciousness should contribute to de­
mand for more extensive insurance
protection. Heightened competition
among insurance companies and
changes in regulations affecting in­
vestment profits also are expected
to increase the industry’s need for
competent men and women to work
in underwriting.
Although mechanized handling of
routine policy applications may re­
duce employment opportunities for
underwriting clerks, the effect on
total employment of underwriters
should be negligible.


Earnings and Working Conditions
Salaries of life insurance under­
writers ranged from $7,360 to
$12,500 a year in 1970, according
to a Life Office Management A sso­
ciation survey of 79 U.S. compa­
nies. Earnings differed substantially
by area; employees in the South and
West averaged lower salaries than
those in the Eastern and Central
States. Experienced life insurance
underwriters employed by compa­
nies located in metropolitan New
York earned annual salaries be­
tween $10,600 and $15,620; super­
visors of underwriting in life compa­
nies earned $11,620 to $21,140 a
year. For all levels of life insurance
underwriter, salaries were highest in
large companies.
An American Insurance A sso­
ciation/A m erican Mutual Insurance
Alliance survey of companies en­
gaged in selling property and liability
insurance revealed that underwriters’
annual earnings ranged from $8,560
to $ 1 0,300 in 1970. Earnings varied
by line of underwriting specialty;
ocean marine underwriters earned
the highest annual salaries. Under­
writing supervisors in property and
liability insurance companies aver­
aged $11,730 annually; some earned
nearly $15,000 a year.
Most underwriters have desk jobs
that require no unusual physical ac­
tivity. Underwriting is performed in
pleasant, quiet surroundings; in gen­
eral, insurance company offices are

spacious and air conditioned during
the summer months. Some under­
writers may work irregular hours
when traveling to advise field per­
sonnel or attending underwriting
seminars, or at times of peak load in
policy applications. The average
work week for an underwriter is 35
to 40 hours, and most insurance
companies have liberal paid vaca­
tion policies and offer other em­
ployee benefits. Since relatively few
underwriting decisions are reviewed
at a higher level, the underwriter
holds a job of considerable respon­

Sources of Additional Information
General information about a ca­
reer as an insurance underwriter is
available from the home office of
many life insurance and property
and liability insurance companies.
Information about career opportu­
nities as an underwriter also may be
obtained from:
Institute of Life Insurance, 277 Park
Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017
Insurance Information Institute, 110
William Street, New York, N.Y.
American Mutual Insurance Alli­
ance, 20 North Wacker Drive,
Chicago, 111. 60606


Mathematics is both a profession
and a tool essential for many kinds
of work. As a tool, mathematics, in
the form of mathematical language
and methods, has been fundamental
to understanding and expressing
ideas in science, engineering, and
human affairs. The application of
mathematical methods in these
fields has increased greatly because
of the widespread use of electronic
computers in the natural sciences,
medicine, engineering, and manage­
ment and administration. As a re­
sult, employment opportunities for
persons trained in mathematics ex­
panded rapidly through the 1960’s.
A young person considering a ca­
reer in mathematics should be able
to concentrate for long periods of
time. H e should enjoy working in­
dependently with ideas and solving
problems, and must be able to pre­
sent his findings in finished reports.
This chapter includes descrip­
tions of the occupation of mathe­
matician and the two closely related
occupations of statistician and actu­
ary. Entrance into any of these
fields requires college training in
mathematics. For many types of
work, graduate education is neces­
In addition to professions cov­
ered in this chapter, many other
workers such as natural scientists
and those in data processing, dis­
cussed elsewhere in the Handbook,
use mathematics extensively.
Secondary school teachers of
mathematics are not covered in this
chapter but are included in the
statement on Secondary School

(D.O .T. 020.088)

Nature of the Work
Mathematics, one of the oldest
and most basic sciences, is also one
of the most dynamic and rapidly
growing professions. Mathemati­
cians today are engaged in a wide
variety of activities, ranging from
the creation of new theories to the
translation of scientific and mana­
gerial problems into mathematical
Mathematical work may be di­
vided into two broad classes: pure
or theoretical mathematics; and ap­
plied mathematics, which includes
mathematical computation. Theo­
principles and discover relationships
among mathematical forms. They
seek to increase basic knowledge
without necessarily considering its
use. Yet, this pure and abstract

knowledge has been instrumental in
many scientific and engineering
achievements. For example, a seem­
ingly impractical non-Euclidean ge­
ometry invented by Bernhard Riemann in 1854 became an integral
part of the theory of relativity de­
veloped by Albert Einstein more
than a half-century later.
Mathematicians in applied work
develop theories, techniques, and
approaches to solve problems in the
physical, life, and social sciences.
They analyze a problem and de­
scribe the existing relationships in
mathematical terms. Their work
ranges from the analysis of vibra­
tions and stability of rockets in
outer space to studies of the effects
of new drugs on disease.
Some mathematicians or mathe­
matical statisticians— as they are
often called, use mathematical the­
ory to design and improve statistical
methods for obtaining and interpret­
ing numerical information. They de­
velop statistical tools in areas such
as probability, experimental design,
and regression analysis. They fre­
quently work with statisticians when
planning and designing experimen­
tal surveys.

Mathematicians analyze problem.




In applied mathematics, mathe­
matical knowledge and modern
computing equipment are used to
obtain numerical answers for spe­
cific problems. Some work in this
area requires a very high level of
mathematical knowledge, skill, and
ingenuity. However, much of the
work may not require the advanced
training and inventiveness of the
mathematician. (See statements on
Programers and Systems Analysts.)
Applied and pure mathematics
are not always sharply separated in
practice; many important develop­
ments in theoretical mathematics
have arisen directly from practical
problems. For example, in recent
years, John V on Neumann devel­
oped the theory of games of strategy
to improve the methods of analyzing
conflicts between competing inter­
ests, such as those occurring in war
and economics.
Approximately one-fourth of all
mathematicians work in research
and development. Nearly one-third
are primarily college teachers, many
of whom do research part-time. A
little less than one-third are in man­
agement and administration— about
one-half of whom manage and ad­
minister research and development
programs. Most of the remainder
are concerned chiefly with opera­
tions research or production and
inspection (quality control) of man­
ufactured products.

Places of Employment
A n estimated 75,000 mathemati­
cians (including more than 5000
engaged in actuarial work) were
employed in the United States in
1970; about 10 percent were
women. More than one-half of all
mathematicians worked in private
industry, primarily in independent
research and development firms,

and in the ordnance, aircraft, ma­
chinery, and electrical equipment
industries. Other mathematicians
were employed as consultants.
Colleges and universities em­
ployed more than one-third of all
mathematicians, some of whom
have few or no teaching duties. Oth­
ers were employed by the Federal
Government, mostly by the Depart­
ment of Defense. A few worked for
nonprofit organizations and State
and local governments.
Mathematicians were employed
in all States. However, they were
concentrated in States having large
industrial areas and sizable college
and university enrollments. Nearly
half of the total were in seven States
— California, New York, Massachu­
setts, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Mary­
land, and New Jersey. One-fifth
reside in three metropolitan areas—
New York, N .Y.; Washington,
D.C.; and Los Angeles-Long Beach,

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The minimum educational require­
ment for most beginning positions
in mathematics is the bachelor’s
degree with a major in mathematics,
or with a major in an applied field
— such as physics or engineering—
and a minor in mathematics. For
many entrance positions, particu­
larly in research or teaching, gradu­
ate training in mathematics is
required. Graduate study is also
valuable for advancement to more
responsible positions in all types of
The bachelor’s degree in mathe­
matics is offered by over 1,200 col­
leges and universities throughout
the country. The undergraduate
mathematics curriculum typically
includes courses in analytical geom­

etry, calculus, differential equations,
probability and statistics, mathemat­
ical analysis, and modern algebra.
Advanced mathematics degrees
are conferred by more than 300 col­
leges and universities. In graduate
school, the student builds upon the
basic knowledge acquired in the un­
dergraduate curriculum. He usually
concentrates on a specific field of
mathematics, such as algebra, math­
ematical analysis, statistics, applied
mathematics, or topology, by con­
ducting intensive research and tak­
ing advanced courses in that field.
The bachelor’s degree is ade­
quate preparation for many posi­
tions in private industry and the
Federal Government, particularly
those connected with computer
work. Some new graduates having
the bachelor’s degree assist senior
mathematicians by performing com ­
putations and solving less advanced
mathematical problems in applied
research. Others work as graduate
teaching or research assistants in
colleges and universities while
working toward an advanced de­
Advanced degrees are required
for an ever-increasing number of
jobs in industry and Government—
in research and in many areas of
applied mathematics. The Ph. D.
degree is necessary for full faculty
status at most colleges and universi­
ties, as well as for advanced re­
search positions.
For work in applied mathematics,
training in the field to which the
mathematics will be applied is very
important. Fields in which applied
mathematics is used extensively in­
clude physics, engineering, and op­
erations research; other fields in­
clude business and industrial man­
chemistry, the life sciences, and the
behavioral sciences. Training in nu­
merical analysis and programing is



especially desirable for mathemati­
cians working with computers.

Employment Outlook
In addition to opportunities re­
sulting from the very rapid growth
expected in this field, several thou­
sand mathematicians will be needed
each year to replace those who
transfer to other fields of work, re­
tire, or die.
As in the 1960’s, there will be
strong demand for mathematicians
holding the Ph. D. degree for teach­
ing and research positions in col­
leges and universities. N ot only is
the number of students majoring in
mathematics expected to increase
sharply, but the number of students
majoring in other fields and taking
mathematics courses will rise also.
Thus, colleges and universities will
continue to provide most of the em­
ployment opportunities for theoreti­
cal mathematicians.
Mathematicians also will be re­
quired in substantial numbers to
solve an increasingly wide variety of
complex research and development
problems in engineering, natural
and social sciences, military sci­
ences, operations research, and
business management. This work
requires a high degree of mathemat­
ical competence and a broad knowl­
edge of one of these fields of appli­
cation. Expenditures to support
these research and development ac­
tivities have increased steadily
through the 1960’s and are ex­
pected to continue to rise, although
more slowly than in the past.
Between 1970 and 1980, the
number of new graduates having
degrees in mathematics is expected
to at least double. Thus, the number
of persons seeking professional
mathematics employment is ex­
pected to rise sharply, and competi­

tion for entry positions may inten­
sify. Graduates who have advanced
degrees should find favorable em­
ployment opportunities. Those who
have only the bachelor’s degree,
however, probably will face keen
competition for entry positions.
The education and training nec­
essary for a degree in mathematics
is also an excellent foundation for a
number of other occupations, par­
ticularly in fields that rely heavily
on the application of mathematical
theories and methods. Thus, in­
creasing numbers of mathematics
graduates are likely to be hired for
jobs in high school teaching, statis­
tics, actuarial work, computer pro­
graming, systems analysis, econom­
ics, engineering, physics, geophys­
ics, and life sciences. Employment
opportunities in these related fields
probably will be best for those stu­
dents who combine their mathemat­
ics major with a minor in one of
these disciplines.

for the master’s degree could start
at $9,718 or $11,526; those having
the Ph. D. degree could begin at ei­
ther $13,096 or $14,192 a year.
According to the American
Mathematical Society, college and
university teachers in 1970 were
paid median salaries which ranged
$18,000 (professors) for 9 months
of teaching. Some were paid over
$30,000 annually. Mathematicians
in educational institutions often sup­
plement their regular salaries with
income from summer teaching, spe­
cial research projects, consulting,
and writing.
The average (m edian) annual
salary for mathematicians in the
National Science Foundation’s N a­
tional Register of Scientific and
Technical Personnel was $14,300 in
1970. Only 10 percent earned less
than $9,000 a year, and about 10
percent earned $25 ,0 0 0 or more a

Earnings and Working Conditions

Sources of Additional Information

Annual starting salaries in private
industry for mathematicians and
mathematical statisticians having
the bachelor’s degree were between
$9,300 and $9,600 in 1970, accord­
ing to limited available information.
New graduates having the master’s
degree received starting salaries
which ranged between $2,200 and
$2,600 a year higher. Yearly sal­
aries for new graduates having the
Ph. D. degree, most of whom had
some experience, averaged over
$16,000 in 1970.
Depending on their college rec­
ords, mathematicians having bache­
lor’s degrees and no experience
could start in the Federal Govern­
ment in 1970 at either $7,856 or
$9,718. Beginning mathematicians
who had completed all requirements

General information on the field
of mathematics— including career
opportunities, professional training,
colleges and universities having de­
gree-credit programs, and earnings
— may be obtained from P r o fe s ­
sio n a l

T ra in in g


M a th e m a tic s ,

250, available from:
American Mathematical Society,
P.O. Box 6248, Providence, R.I.
P ro fe ssio n a l O p p o r tu n itie s in M a th ­
e m a tic s, 3 5 0 , and G u id e B o o k to
D e p a r tm e n ts


th e

M a th e m a tic a l

S c ie n c e s, 750, both available from:

Mathematical Association of Amer­
ica, 1225 Connecticut Ave. N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Specific information on careers in
applied mathematics and electronic



computer work may be obtained
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y. 10036.
Society for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics, 33 South 17th St.,
Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.

Information on careers in mathe­
matical statistics may be obtained
Institute of Mathematical Statistics,
Department of Statistics, Cali­
fornia State College at Hayward,
Hayward, Calif. 94542.

Federal Government career in­
formation may be obtained from
any regional office of the U.S. Civil
Service Commission or from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW„
Washington, D.C. 20415.

Other sources of information on
related occupations, such as Statisti­
cians, Actuaries, Programers, and
Systems Analysts may be found
elsewhere in the H a n d b o o k .

(D.O.T. 020.188)

Nature of the Work
More than ever before, the char­
acteristics of the world and its in­
habitants are being described in nu­
merical terms. Statisticians collect,
develop, analyze, and interpret
these data based on their knowledge
of statistics and of a particular field,
such as economics, demography,
behavioral science, education, life
science, physical science, or engi­
neering. They may forecast popula­
tion growth or economic conditions,

predict and evaluate the results of
new programs, develop quality con­
trol tests for manufactured prod­
ucts, or help decision-makers select
from alternative choices. Their
studies provide government and
business officials with the statistical
information needed to make deci­
sions and establish policy. Statisti­
cians sometimes work closely with
mathematicians and mathematical
statisticians. (See statement on
Mathematicians elsewhere in this
Many statisticians plan surveys,
design experiments, or analyze data.
Those who plan surveys select the
data sources, determine the type
and size of the sample groups, and
develop the survey questionnaire or
reporting form. They prepare the
instructions for those who will col­
lect or report the information and
for the workers who will code and

tabulate the returns. Statisticians
who design experiments prepare
mathematical models that will test a
particular theory. Those in analyti­
cal work interpret collected data
and summarize their findings in ta­
bles, charts, and written reports.
Another large group of statisticians
chiefly administer statistical pro­
grams. A few combine research
with teaching. The remainder are
involved in other activities such as
quality control, operations research,
production and sales forecasting,
and market research.
Because statistics has such a wide
use, it is sometimes difficult to dis­
tinguish statisticians from those sub­
ject-matter specialists making a lim­
ited use of statistics. For example, a
statistician working with data on eco­
nomic conditions may have the
title of economist.



Places of Employment
Approximately 2 4,000 statisti­
cians were employed in 1970; more
than one-third were women. Statis­
ticians are employed in nearly all
industries; about two-thirds of all
statisticians were employed by pri­
vate industry.
Federal, State, and local Govern­
ment agencies employed more than
one-fourth of all statisticians. The
Departments of Commerce; Agri­
culture; Defense; and Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare employed most
of those in the Federal Government.
Others were employed by colleges
and universities, nonprofit organiza­
tions, and research institutes.
Although statisticians were em­
ployed in all States and areas, about
one-third of them worked in three
metropolitan areas— New York,
N .Y .; Washington, D.C.; and Los
A ngeles-L ong Beach, Calif.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in statistics or mathematics is the
minimum educational requirement
for many beginning positions in sta­
tistics. For other beginning positions
in statistics, however, a bachelor’s
degree with a major in economics or
some other subject-matter field and
a minor in statistics is preferable. A
graduate degree in mathematics or
statistics is essential for faculty posi­
tions at most colleges and universi­
ties, as well as being an asset for ad­
vancement to top administrative and
consulting positions. Advancement
in analytical and survey work usu­
ally requires graduate training in the
subject-matter field as well as in sta­
Fewer than 100 colleges and uni­
versities offer training leading to a
bachelor’s degree with a major in

statistics. Most schools, however,
offer either a degree in mathemat­
ics or a sufficient number of
courses in statistics to qualify gradu­
Courses essential for statisticians in­
clude college algebra, plane trigo­
nometry, analytical geometry, dif­
ferential and integral calculus, lin­
ear algebra, and at least one course
in statistical methods. Other impor­
tant courses cover sampling correla­
tion and regression analysis, experi­
mental design, probability theory,
and computer uses and techniques.
For many quality control positions,
training in engineering and in the
application of statistical methods to
manufacturing processes is desir­
able. For many market research,
business analysis, and forecasting
positions, courses in economics,
business administration, or a related
field are helpful.
Graduate degrees in statistics
were conferred by about 60 colleges
and universities in 1970, and many
other schools offered one or two
graduate level statistical courses.
Entrance into a graduate program
in statistics usually requires a bach­
elor’s degree with a good back­
ground in mathematics. The student
should attend a school where he can
do research in his subject-matter
field, as well as take advanced
courses in statistics.
Beginning statisticians who have
only the bachelor’s degree often
spend much of their time perform­
Through experience, they usually
advance to positions of greater tech­
nical and supervisory responsibility.
Those who have exceptional ability
and interest may be promoted to
top management positions.
Am ong the personal qualifica­
tions needed by statisticians are an
interest and facility in mathematics,

and the ability to translate problems
into statistical terms.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
well qualified statisticians are ex­
pected to be favorable through the
1970’s. In addition to new positions
resulting from the rapid growth ex­
pected in the profession, hundreds
of statisticians will be needed an­
nually to replace those who retire,
die, or transfer to other fields of
Statisticians will be required in
increasing numbers by private in­
dustry in quality control work in
manufacturing. Those having a
knowledge of engineering and phys­
ical sciences will be needed to work
with scientists and engineers in re­
search and development. Business
firms are expected to rely more
heavily on statisticians to forecast
sales, analyze business conditions,
modernize accounting procedures,
and solve other management prob­
Government agencies will need
statisticians for on-going and new
programs in fields such as social se­
curity, health, education, and eco­
nomics. Others will be required to
teach the anticipated growing num­
bers of college and professional
school students, especially as the
more widespread application of sta­
tistical methods makes such courses
increasingly important to non-math­
ematics majors.
Along with the expected growth
in demand for statisticians, a steady
increase in the number of statistics
graduates is expected. However, in
recent years, the number of these
graduates was barely enough to re­
place those statisticians who retired
or died. Thus, employment oppor­
tunities for new college graduates


who have degrees in statistics are
expected to be very good through
the 1970’s.

Earnings and W orking Conditions
Starting salaries for new college
graduates employed as statisticians
in private industry generally aver­
aged between $ 7 ,0 0 0 and $ 8 ,500 a
year in 1970, according to the lim­
ited information available. Salaries
for beginning statisticians having the
master’s degree averaged about
$1,500 a year more than for those
having only the bachelor’s degree.
In the Federal Government serv­
ice in 1970, statisticians who had
the bachelor’s degree and no experi­
ence could start at either $6,548 or
$8,098 a year, depending on their
scholastic records. Beginning statis­
ticians who had completed all re­
quirements for the master’s degree
could start at $8,098 or $9,881.
Those having the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $11,905 or $14,192.

American Statistical Association,
810 18th St., NW„ Washing­
ton, D.C. 20006.

(D.O.T. 020.188)

Society for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics, 33 South 17th St.,
Philadelphia, Pa. 19103.

Information on Federal Govern­
ment careers may be obtained
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW„
Washington, D.C. 20414.

A list of reading materials on ca­
reer opportunities in the data proc­
essing field may be obtained from:
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y. 10036.

Nature of the Work
Actuaries are responsible for de­
signing insurance and pension plans
and for maintaining these programs
on a sound financial basis. They are
concerned with rates of mortality
(death), morbidity (sickness), in­
jury, disability, unemployment, re­
tirement, and property loss from ac­
cident, theft, fire, and other poten­
tial hazards. Actuaries use statistical
data and other pertinent informa­
tion to construct tables on the prob­
ability of insured loss. They develop
and analyze estimates of the insur­
er’s future earnings and investment
income, expenses, and policyholder

Statisticians employed by colleges
and universities generally earn
somewhat less than those employed
by private industry and the Federal
Government. Some indication of the
salary levels of statisticians em­
ployed as teachers may be obtained
from the earnings data for college
and university teachers as a group.
(See statement on College and
University Teachers.) In addition to
their regular salaries, statisticians in
educational institutions sometimes
earn extra income from outside re­
search projects, consulting, and

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career
opportunities in statistics may be
obtained from:

Actuary works with tables showing sickness and death rates.



claims. Taking all these factors into
consideration, actuaries determine
the premium rates and policy con­
tract provisions for each type of in­
surance offered. Most actuaries spe­
cialize in either life and health in­
surance or property and liability
(casualty) insurance.
To perform their duties effec­
tively, actuaries must keep abreast
of general economic and social
trends and legislative, health, and
other developments that may affect
insurance practices. Because of
their broad knowledge of insurance,
actuaries frequently work on prob­
lems arising in investment, under­
writing, group insurance, and pen­
sion sales and service departments.
Actuaries in executive positions
may help determine general com ­
pany policy. In that role, they ex­
plain complex technical matters to a
variety of laymen, such as other
company executives and govern­
ment officials. They also testify be­
fore public agencies on proposed
legislation affecting the insurance
business or justify intended changes
in premium rates or contract provi­
Actuaries employed by the Fed­
eral Government usually deal with a
particular insurance or pension pro­
gram, such as social security (oldage, survivors, disability, and health
insurance) or life insurance for vet­
erans and members of the Armed
Forces. Actuaries in State govern­
ment positions supervise and regu­
late insurance companies, the oper­
ation of State retirement or pension
systems, and problems connected
with unemployment insurance or
workmen’s compensation. Consult­
ing actuaries set up pensions and
welfare plans and make periodic
evaluations of these plans for pri­
vate companies, unions, and gov­
ernment agencies.

Places of Employment
were engaged in actuarial work in
the United States in 1970. Over
1,700 had full professional status.
Less than 3 percent of all actuaries
were women. About one-half of all
actuaries were employed in the three
States that are the major centers of
the insurance industry— N ew York,
Connecticut, and Illinois.
Private insurance companies em­
ployed about four-fifths of all actu­
aries. Most worked for life insur­
ance companies; the remainder
worked for property and liability
(casualty) companies. The size of
an insurance company’s actuarial
staff depends primarily upon the
volume of its insurance work. Large
companies may employ as many as
50 to 100 actuaries. Small compa­
nies may have only a few actuaries
on their staffs or rely instead on rat­
ing bureaus or consulting firms.
Consulting firms and rating bureaus
(associations that supply actuarial
data to member companies) em­
ployed most of the remainder. Sev­
eral hundred actuaries worked for
private organizations administering
independent pension and welfare
plans or for Federal or State G ov­
ernment agencies. A few taught in
colleges and universities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a thor­
ough foundation in calculus, proba­
bility, and statistics is required for
entry into actuarial work. The new
graduate having a major in fields
such as mathematics, statistics, eco­
nomics, or business administration
can usually qualify for beginning ac­
tuarial positions. The prospective
actuary should take courses in alge­

bra, analytical geometry, differential
and integral calculus, mathematical
statistics, and probability. Other de­
sirable courses include insurance
law, economics, investments, ac­
counting, and other aspects of busi­
ness administration. English and
other courses which help develop
communication skills also are rec­
ommended. Although only 17 col­
leges and universities offer training
specifically designed for actuarial
careers, several hundred institutions
offer some of the necessary courses.
It usually takes from 5 to 10
years after entering a beginning ac­
tuarial position to complete the en­
tire series of examinations required
for full professional status. These
examinations cover general mathe­
matics, specialized actuarial mathe­
matics, and all phases of the insur­
ance business. Those considering an
actuarial career should take the be­
ginning examinations covering gen­
eral mathematics while still in col­
lege. Success in passing these first
examinations helps the beginner to
evaluate his potential as an actuary.
Those who pass these examinations
usually have better opportunities for
employment and a higher starting
salary. The advanced examinations,
usually taken by those in junior ac­
tuarial positions, require extensive
home study and experience in insur­
ance work.
The 10 actuarial examinations
for the life insurance and pension
field are given by the Society of A c­
tuaries, and the nine for property
and liability (casualty) insurance by
the Casualty Actuarial Society.
Since the first two parts of the ex­
amination series of either Society
are the same, the student may defer
the selection of his insurance spe­
cialty until he becomes familiar with
the field, “Associate” membership
is awarded after completion of five
examinations in either specialty; the



designation of “Fellow” is conferred
after the successful completion of
the entire series of examinations.
Employers frequently prefer ap­
plicants who have passed one or
more actuarial examinations, or
who have gained actuarial experi­
ence in special summer training
programs for college students of­
fered by some insurance companies.
A beginning actuary usually rotates
among different jobs to learn vari­
ous actuarial operations and to be­
come familiar with different phases
of insurance work. At first, his work
may be rather routine, such as pre­
paring calculations or tabulations
for actuarial tables or reports. As he
gains experience, he may supervise
actuarial clerks and prepare corre­
spondence and reports.
Advancement to more responsi­
ble work as assistant, associate, and
chief actuary depends largely upon
the individual’s on-the-job perform­
ance and the number of actuarial
examinations he has successfully
completed. Many actuaries, because
of their broad knowledge of insur­
ance and related fields, qualify for
administrative positions in other
company activities, particularly in
underwriting, accounting, or dataprocessing departments. A signifi­
cant number of actuaries advance to
top executive positions.

Employment Outlook




actuaries are expected to be excel­
lent through the 1970’s. New gradu­
ates who have the necessary mathe­
matical education and have passed
some actuarial examinations will be
in particular demand as trainees.
Actuarial employment is ex­
pected to grow rapidly primarily be­
cause of the rising numbers of in­
surance policies of all kinds which
result, in part, from the existence of
an affluent and more insurance-con­
scious population and business com­
munity. Actuaries will be needed to
solve the growing number of prob­
lems arising from continuously
changing and increasingly complex
insurance and pension coverage.
The expanding number of group
health and life insurance plans and
pension and other benefit plans will
require actuarial services. Addi­
tional actuaries will be needed by
government regulatory agencies.
Demand will continue to be strong
for actuaries capable of working
with electronic computers. Some ac­
tuaries also will be needed each
year to replace those who retire,
die, or transfer to other occupa­

Earnings and Working Conditions
Depending on the individual’s
college records and experience, a
new college graduate entering actu­
arial work as a trainee in an insur­
ance company was paid from
$8,000 to $9,500 in 1970. Most in­

surance companies paid $200 to
$600 a year more if the trainee had
completed his first actuarial exami­
nation and another $600 to $1,100
when he completed the second ex­
Depending on their college rec­
ords, new graduates with the bache­
lor’s degree entering actuarial work
started at either $8,074 or $9,718 a
year in the Federal Government in
1970. Those with the master’s de­
gree started at $11,526.
Beginning actuaries can look for­
ward to a marked increase in earn­
ings as they gain professional expe­
rience and successfully complete
either Society’s series of examina­
tions. In insurance companies, merit
pay increases are given to those
who pass one or a group of the ex­
aminations. Fellows of either the So­
ciety of Actuaries or the Casualty
Actuarial Society earn over $18,000
a year and many actuaries earn
more than $25,000 a year. Those in
executive positions in large compa­
nies earn over $35,000.

Sources of Additional Information
Information on professional op­
portunities and qualifications may
be obtained from:
Casualty Actuarial Society, 200 East
42d St., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Society of Actuaries, 208 South
LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 60604.

The natural sciences are con­
cerned with the physical world and
the living things in it. These sci­
ences may be divided into three
broad groups— physical, life, and
sciences— all
which are discussed in this chapter.
Mathematics, often considered part
of the natural sciences, is discussed
in a separate chapter elsewhere in
the H a n d b o o k .
The physical sciences are the
largest field of employment among
the natural sciences; about 250,000
physical scientists were employed in
1970. Chemistry is the largest of the
physical science specialties; more
than 135,000 chemists were em­
ployed in 1970. Smaller num­
bers were employed as physicists
(5 0 ,0 0 0 )
and as astronomers
(1 ,4 0 0 ). There were more than
2 0 ,0 0 0
other physical scientists;
more than half were metallurgists.
An estimated 180,000 life scien­
tists specialized in 1 of 3 broad
fields— agriculture, biology, or med­
icine. The largest number, more
than 70,000, worked in biological
sciences. Nearly 50,000 were em­
ployed as agricultural scientists, and
over 60,000 worked on problems
related to medical science.
The environmental sciences are
relatively small fields of scientific
employment. In 1970, the number
of environmental scientists totaled
about 42,000. Of these, the largest
group were geologists (2 3 ,0 0 0 ).
Smaller numbers were employed as
geophysicists (8 ,2 0 0 ), oceanogra­
phers (6 ,2 0 0 ), and meteorologists
(4 ,6 0 0 ).
A bachelor’s degree is the usual
minimum educational requirement
for work in the natural sciences.
Graduate training is needed for
many positions, especially in teach­

ing and research, and is helpful for
advancement in all types of work.
In many fields, advanced degrees
are needed for most positions.
Employment in the natural sci­
ences has grown rapidly in recent
years and the outlook is for contin­
ued growth through the 1970’s.
Much of the past employment
growth resulted from increases in
Federal research and development
(R& D) expenditures for space,
health, and defense related pro­
grams. During the 1 9 7 0 -8 0 decade
R&D expenditures are expected to
increase, although at a slower rate
than during the 1960’s. The antici­
pated slowdown in Federal R&D
spending basically reflects antici-

pated reductions in the relative im­
portance of the space and defense
components of research expendi­
tures. These trends were evidenced
in the late 1960’s and in 1970.
Other factors contributing to the ex­
pected employment growth in the
natural sciences are the expansion
of industry; the increasing complex­
ity of industrial products and proc­
esses; and increased science enroll­
ments expected in college and uni­
versities, requiring more teachers.
The following chapter presents
descriptions of some of the major
occupations within the natural sci­
ences. In addition to these occupa­
tions, workers in many other fields
may require a strong background in
the natural sciences. Included are
health service occupations, which
are described elsewhere in the
H andbook.

Environmental Scientists
The environmental sciences are
concerned with the history, compo­
sition, and characteristics of the
earth’s land, water, interior, atmos­
phere, and its environment in
space. A large group of the scien­
tists in this field— mainly geologists
— explore for new sources of min­
eral fuels and ores. Some scientists
perform basic research to increase
scientific knowledge. Others work
mainly in applied research; they use
knowledge gained from basic re­
search to solve practical problems.
Meteorologists, for example, apply
scientific knowledge of the atmos­
phere to forecast weather condi­
tions for specific localities and
times. Some of these environmental
scientists teach in colleges and uni­
versities. Others may administer sci­
entific programs and operations.
Environmental scientists also have
an important role in solving the

problems of a polluted environment.
Many environmental scientists
specialize in one particular branch
of their broad occupational field.
This chapter discusses the spe­
cialties and the employment outlook
for four environmental science oc­
cupations— geologists, geophysicists,
meteorologists, and oceanographers.

(D.O.T. 024.081)

Nature of the Work
Geologists study the structure,
composition, and history of the
earth’s crust. Many geologists spend
a large amount of their time in field



work. They examine rocks, miner­
als, and fossils to determine the dis­
tribution and relationship both at
and beneath the earth’s surface.
They also gauge the thickness, di­
rection, and slope of rock layers
under the earth’s surface through
rock cores and cuttings by drilling
deep into the earth. Geologists also
search for natural resources such as
coal and water. Exploration usually
requires special skills in rock and
mineral identification, surveying,
map making, data gathering, and
technical note taking. Geologists
also spend considerable time in lab­
oratories where they examine items
or specimens obtained from field

work under controlled temperature
and pressure conditions. Research
includes analysis of physical and
chemical properties of minerals, ex­
periments with the flow of water
and oil through rocks of various
kinds, and study of fossil remains of
animal and vegetable life. G eolo­
gists use a variety of complex in­
struments such as the X-ray dif­
fractometer, which determines the
structure of minerals, and the petro­
graphic microscope, which permits
close study of rock formations and
modifications by earth processes.
Common tools used by many field
geologists include plane tables, lev­
els, transits, well logs, gravity me­

Geologist makes photo micrographs of rock.

ters, seismographs, magnetometers,
aneroid barometers, hammers, cam­
eras, and pocket lenses.
Some geologists administer re­
search and exploration programs.
Others teach and work on research
projects in colleges and universities.
Geologists usually specialize in one
or a combination of three general
areas— earth materials, earth proc­
esses, and earth history.
Geologists concerned with earth
materials search for and develop
mineral and fuel resources (oil,
water, coal, and gas) and examine
and classify rocks and fossils accord­
ing to their chemical and physical
properties. They also try to deter­
mine the origin, distribution, and
migration of certain materials in or
on the earth’s crust. E c o n o m ic g e o l­
o g is ts find and sometimes supervise
the development of mineral and
solid fuel resources. P e tro le u m
g e o lo g is ts specialize in the discovery
and recovery of liquid fuels— oil
and natural gas. Some petroleum
geologists spend much time near
drilling sites, while others interpret
regional geologic data to provide a
broad framework of petroleum-re­
lated geologic knowledge. E n g in e e r­
in g
g e o lo g is ts
apply geological
knowledge to engineering problems
in the construction of roads, air­
fields, tunnels, dams, and other
large structures. They determine, for
example, whether underground rock
layers will bear the weight of vari­
ous structures and buildings, and
advise industrial and residential
planners. P e tr o lo g is ts classify and
determine the origin of rock masses.
M in e r a lo g ists examine, analyze, and
classify minerals and precious
stones according to composition and
structure. G e o c h e m is ts study the
chemical composition and changes
in minerals and rocks to understand
better the distribution and migration
of elements in the earth’s crust.


in the sources, movement, quality
reserves, and availability of subsur­
face water for human consumption
and for industry and agriculture.
processes determine the nature and
origin of landforms and their con­
stituents such as rock masses and
sedimentary deposits. They also are
concerned with eruptive forces such
as volcanoes, and the effects of at­
erosion or glaciation. V o lc a n o lo g ists
study active and inactive volcanoes,
lava flows, and other eruptive activ­
ity. They also try to determine the
composition of the earth and the
elements composing its core. S e d im e n to lo g is ts investigate sedimentary
rocks to determine their characteris­
tics and formation processes such as
erosion, and deposition. G e o m o r ­
p h o lo g is ts study landforms on the
earth’s surface and its change, in­
cluding erosion and glaciation,
which cause or change them.
Geologists specializing in earth
history try to understand and ex­
plain the earth’s development by
determining the age, position, and
nature of its fossils. P a le o n to lo g is ts
trace the evolution and develop­
ment of past life by studying fossil­
ized remains of plants and animals
in geologic formations. G e o c h r o n o lo g ists determine the ages of rocks,
ore deposits, or various landforms
by radioactive decay of one element
or more. S tra tig r a p h e rs study the
distribution and relative arrange­
ment of sedimentary rock layers by
analyzing their fossil and mineral
Increasing numbers of geologists
specialize in new fields that require
a detailed knowledge of both geol­
ogy and one or more other sciences.
Among these specialists are A s tr o g e o lo g is ts who are concerned with
the geology of extra-terrestrial bod­

G r o u n d -w a te r g e o lo g is ts


ies. They
and apply
geology in
the M oon

work with lunar maps,
knowledge of the earth’s
studies of conditions on
and the planets. C o m ­
p u te r g e o lo g is ts use computers and
statistical analysis to solve geologic
problems. G e o lo g ic a l o c e a n o g r a ­
p h e r s study the sedimentary and
other rocks on the ocean floor and
continental shelf. (See statements
on Oceanographers and M ining.)

Places of Employment
Approximately 23,000 geologists
were employed in the United States
in 1970, almost 4 percent were
women. Nearly three-fifths of all
geologists worked for private indus­
try, mostly for petroleum and natu­
ral gas producers. A number of the
employees of American petroleum
companies worked in foreign coun­
tries. Geologists also are employed
by mining and quarrying companies.
Some geologists specialized in prob­
lems related to the construction of
dams, bridges, buildings, and high­
ways. Still other geologists worked
as independent consultants offering
specialized services to industry and
The Federal Government em­
ployed more than 1,700 geologists,
two-thirds of whom worked for the
Department of the Interior in the
U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau
of Mines, and the Bureau of R ec­
lamation. State agencies also em­
ployed geologists, some of whom
worked on surveys conducted in
cooperation with the U.S. Geologi­
cal Survey. Although a few posi­
tions were in foreign countries, most
Federal jobs were in the United
Colleges and universities em­
ployed more than 6,000 geologists.
A few others worked for nonprofit
research institutions and museums.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Young people seeking profes­
sional careers in geology should
plan to earn an advanced degree.
The master’s degree is required for
beginning research and teaching and
for most positions in exploration.
Advancement in college teaching as
well as in high-level research and
administrative posts usually requires
the Ph. D. degree. The bachelor’s
degree is considered adequate train­
ing for only a few entry jobs, pri­
marily in exploration work.
More than 330 colleges and uni­
versities offer the bachelor’s degree
in geology. In the typical under­
graduate curriculum, students de­
vote about one-fourth of their time
to geology courses, including histor­
ical geology, structural geology,
mineralogy, petrology, and inverte­
brate paleontology. About another
third of the work is in mathematics,
the related natural sciences— such
as physics and chemistry— and in
engineering; the remainder is in
general academic subjects. Statistics
and computer usage also are recom­
More than 160 universities award
advanced degrees in geology. Grad­
uate students take advanced courses
in geology and specialize in one
branch of the science.
Geologists usually begin their ca­
reers on field projects, which in­
cludes field mapping, or some type
of field exploration. Some begin in
laboratories as research assistants.
After suitable experience, they can
be promoted to project leaders, pro­
gram managers, or other positions
in management or research.
The student planning a career in
exploration geology should like out­
door activities and have the physical
stamina for geological field work.
An increasing amount of the work,



formerly done in the field, is now
accomplished by photogeology, a
technique involving the use of color
film, infrared and radar imagery to
map general geologic features. In
addition, a growing number of spe­
cialities are laboratory-oriented.
For the most part, geologists
work as a team. A curious and ana­
lytical mind is necessary in working
with complex geological problems.
Geologists should be able to adapt
to changes brought about by travel
to distant points. The ability to ex­
press oneself orally and in writing
also is important.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
geologists having advanced degrees
are expected to be - favorable
through the 1970’s. However, those
having a bachelor’s degree probably
will face keen competition for entry
positions, and may have to enter
semiprofessional positions, such as
technician or surveyor.
Demand for geologists is ex­
pected to grow moderately in Fed­
eral agencies, particularly the U.S.
Geological Survey. College and uni­
versity employment probably will
rise slightly, mainly for those having
Ph. D. degrees capable of perform­
ing high-level research.
Good opportunities exist for
those with training in geology out­
side the field. For instance, geolo­
gists may take training to qualify as
schools. These positions probably
will increase very rapidly in the next
Replacement of geologists who
are promoted to managerial posi­
tions, or who transfer to other
fields, die, or retire, however, are
expected to be the chief source of

A s world population expands and
nations become more industrialized,
demand for petroleum and minerals
will rise, and increasing numbers of
geologists will be required to locate
these resources. Geologists also will
be needed to devise techniques for
exploring deeper within the earth’s
crust and to work with engineers to
develop more efficient methods of
recovering natural resources. In­
creased construction activity de­
mands sand, gravel, and other mate­
rials, as well as good building sites.
Geologists also will be needed to
help find and maintain adequate
water supplies, and to develop
waste disposal methods which do
not contaminate water. Increased
emphasis on the environment by
urban societies also should affect re­
quirements for geologists. For ex­
ample, pollution control, land use
and reclamation, and highways and
other large construction programs
all require the assistance of geolo­
Space activities will require geol­
ogists to analyze data from the
M oon and planets. They also will
play an important role in setting up
computer systems to store and re­
trieve geologic data.
The nature of domestic petro­
leum exploration may alter the need
for geologists from year to year, and
short-run demand can either exceed
or fall short of the number availa­
ble. However, indications are that
employment prospects in petroleum
and mineral extraction will be less
favorable in the future than they
have been in the past.

Earnings and Working Conditions
The average (m edian) annual
starting salary for new geology
graduates who have a bachelor’s de­
gree was $8,650 in private industry

in 1970 according to the American
Geological Institute’s annual survey.
N ew graduates who have a master’s
degree averaged $10,500 a year to
start. Starting salaries for those who
have doctor’s degrees averaged
$12,000 a year.
Depending on their college rec­
ords, new graduates who have a
bachelor’s degree could begin at ei­
ther $8,510 or $9,448 a year in
1970 in the Federal Government.
Those who have a master’s degree
could start at $9,448 or $10,539
and those who have the Ph. D. de­
gree, at $11,905 or $14,192.
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel, the average (m edian) an­
nual salary of earth scientists in
1970 was $14,900. Only 10 percent
of the earth scientists earned less
than $10,000 and about 10 percent
earned more than $23,100.
Teachers often supplement their
regular salaries with income from
research, consulting, or writing.
Extra allowances generally are paid
geologists for work outside the
United States.
The work of geologists is often
active and sometimes strenuous.
When their work is outdoors, geolo­
gists may be exposed to all kinds of
weather. Many geologists travel a
great deal and may do field work
away from home for long periods.
Their hours of work often are un­
certain because their field activities
are affected by weather and travel.
Sources of Additional Information
General information on career
opportunities, training, and earnings
for geologists may be obtained
American Geological Institute, 2201
M St. NW„ Washington, D.C.



Information on Federal Govern­
ment careers may be obtained
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW„ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 024.081)

Nature of the Work
Geophysics is an overall term
covering a number of sciences con­
cerned with the composition and
physical aspects of the earth— its
size and shape; interior; surface;
atmosphere; the land and bodies of
water on its surface and under­
ground; and the environment of the
earth in space. Geophysicists study

the earth’s physical characteristics,
such as its electric, magnetic, and
gravitational fields; the earth’s inte­
rior heat flow, vibrations, and solar
radiation. To conduct their investi­
gations, geophysicists apply the
principles and techniques of physics,
geology, meteorology, oceanogra­
phy, geodesy, mathematics, chemis­
try, and engineering. They use many
instruments, including highly com ­
plex precision ones such as the
seismograph, which measures and
records the transmission time and
magnitude of earthquake waves or
vibrations through the earth; the
magnetometer which measures var­
iations in the earth’s magnetic field;
and the gravimeter which measures
minute variations in gravitational
attraction. Many tests are conducted
in outer space by satellites or inter­
planetary space probes. In geophys­
ical exploration, increasing use is
made of electronic computers to col­
lect and process pertinent data.

Geophysicist uses seismograph to study earth vibrations.

Geophysicists usually specialize
in one of three general phases of
the science— solid earth, fluid earth,
and upper atmosphere.
Geophysicists engaged in work
related to the solid earth are con­
cerned with the location of oil and
mineral deposits, accurate mapping
of the earth’s surface, and the be­
havior of the earth’s crust and its
properties under the great pressures
from its interior.
E x p lo r a tio n g e o p h y s ic is ts search
for oil and mineral deposits, using
the knowledge of earthquake vibra­
tions, the magnetic field, gravita­
tional attraction, and other basic
geophysical techniques. Others con­
duct research, usually to develop
new or improved techniques and in­
struments for prospecting.
S e is m o lo g is ts study the structure
of the earth’s interior and the vibra­
tions of the earth caused by earth­
quakes and manmade explosions.
They may explore for oil and min­
erals, provide information for use in
designing bridges, dams, and build­
ings in earthquake regions, or study
the problems involved in detecting
underground nuclear explosions.
Seismologists also play an important
role in interpreting data received
from the seismograph set up on the
moon during the Apollo 12 mission.
G e o d e s is ts study the size, shape,
and gravitational field of the earth.
Their principal task is the accurate
mapping of the earth’s surface. With
the aid of orbiting satellites, geodes­
ists study the earth’s surface by de­
termining the positions, elevations,
and distances between points on or
near it, measure the intensity and
direction of gravitational attraction,
and determine the distribution of
mass within the earth. As man pen­
etrates deeper into space, this task
will be extended to other celestial



H y d r o lo g is ts are concerned pri­
marily with the fluid earth phase.
They study the surface and under­
ground waters in the land areas of
the earth, with regard to their oc­
currence, circulation, distribution,
and physical properties. Hydrolo­
gists measure rivers and streams,
study rainfall, and investigate gla­
ciers, snow, and permafrost. In
practical application, some hydrolo­
gists are concerned with water sup­
plies, irrigation, flood control, and
sometimes classified as geophysical
scientists, are described elsewhere
in this chapter.)
Geophysicists involved in the up­
per-atmosphere phase investigate
the forms and properties of the
earth’s magnetic and electric fields,
and its upper and outer atmosphere.
In doing so, some compare and con­
trast the composition and atmos­
phere of the Moon, the Sun, and
the planets to that of the com posi­
tion and atmosphere of the earth.
G e o m a g n e tic ia n s a n d

A e r o n o m is ts

are concerned with the earth’s mag­
netic field— its variations, courses,
and forms in space— and with many
aspects of space science. P a le o m a g n etic ia n s learn about past magnetic
fields from rocks or lava flows that
captured the earth’s magnetism
when they solidified. T e c to n o p h y s ic ists study the structure of moun­
tains and ocean basins, the prop­
erties of materials forming the
earth’s crust, and the physical
forces that formed the mountains
and the ocean basins. P la n e to lo g ists
study the composition and atmos­
phere of the M oon, planets, and
other massive bodies in the solar
system. They depend on the findings
of deep space probes manned by as­
tronauts or equipped with geophysi­
studying solar-planetary relation­
ships are concerned not only with

the Sun’s warming rays and visible
light but also with its radio, in­
frared, ultraviolet, X-ray, and ener­
getic particle radiations. These
phenomena are investigated by
means of radio beams from the
earth’s surface, and by instruments
on satellites and deep space probes.
Meteorologists, sometimes classified
as geophysical scientists, are dis­
cussed separately in this chapter, as
is the closely related occupation of
geologists. (See also the statement
on “Mining” .)

Places of Employment
More than 8,000 geophysicists
were employed in the United States
in 1970. Private industry employed
the majority, chiefly in the petro­
leum and natural gas industry.
Other geophysicists were employed
by mining companies, exploration
and consulting firms, and research
institutions. A few were in business
for themselves as consultants and
provided services on a fee or con­
tract basis to companies and indi­
viduals engaged in prospecting or
other activities using geophysical
Geophysicists in private industry
were employed mainly in the south­
western and western sections of the
United States, including the Gulf
Coast, where most of the country’s
large oil and natural gas fields and
mineral deposits are located. Some
geophysicists employed by Ameri­
can firms are assigned to work in
foreign countries for varying periods
of time.
In 1970, Federal Government
agencies employed nearly 1,900
geophysicists, geodesists, and hy­
drologists, mainly in the U.S. G eo­
logical Survey; the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration
(N O A A ); the Army Map Service;

and the Naval Oceanographic
Office. Colleges and universities,
State governments, and nonprofit
research institutions employed small
numbers of geophysicists.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in geophysics or in one of the geo­
physical specialties qualifies young
persons for many beginning jobs in
exploration geophysics. A bache­
lor’s degree in a related science or
in engineering also is adequate
preparation for many beginning
jobs, especially in geophysical ex­
ploration. However, this study
should include courses in geophys­
ics, physics, geology, mathematics,
chemistry, and engineering. Some
background in electronic data proc­
essing is useful.
For geophysical specialties other
than exploration, and for the more
responsible positions in exploration
work, graduate education in geo­
physics or in a related physical sci­
ence usually is required. A doctor’s
degree with a major in geophysics,
or in a related science with ad­
vanced courses in geophysics, gen­
erally is required for teaching
careers. The Ph. D. is required
frequently for positions involving
fundamental research and for ad­
vancement in most types of geo­
physical work.
The bachelor’s degree in geo­
physics is awarded by more than 55
colleges and universities. These un­
dergraduate programs provide train­
ing, chiefly in exploration geophys­
ics. Other curriculums that offer the
required training for beginning jobs
as geophysicists include geophysical
technology, geophysical engineer­
ing, engineering geology, petroleum
geology, and geodesy.


The master’s degree and Ph. D.
in geophysics are granted by about
70 universities. For admission to a
graduate program, a bachelor’s de­
gree and a good background in
geology, mathematics, physics, or
engineering, or a combination of
these subjects are the usual require­
ment. In general, the graduate stu­
dent should attend a school in which
he can take advanced courses and
carry out research projects in the
aspect of geophysical science in
which he has a special interest.
Beginning geophysicists having
only the bachelor’s degree are usu­
ally given on-the-job training in the
application of geophysical principles
to their employers’ projects. If a
new employee has not taken the
courses in geophysics needed for his
job, he is taught geophysical meth­
ods and techniques on the job.
Federal Government agencies
also have training programs in
which a few geophysicists are sent
each year to universities for gradu­
ate training. Some Federal Govern­
ment agencies provide a few sum­
mer jobs for promising undergradu­
ates and make permanent positions
available to them after graduation.
Generally, young geophysicists
begin their careers in the field, en­
gaged in either field mapping or ex­
ploratory activities. Others may as­
sist senior geophysicists in a re­
search laboratory. Advancement
may be to project leader, program
manager, or another management
or top research position.
should be energetic and in excellent
health, since geophysicists often
have to work outdoors under som e­
what rugged conditions. A willing­
ness to travel is also important,
since a geophysicist may be re­
quired to move from place to place
in the course of his employment.
Young students planning careers as

geophysicists should be adaptable to
these changes.
Geophysicists generally work as
part of a team. A curious and ana­
lytical mind is necessary in working
with complex geophysical problems.
The ability to express oneself both
orally and in writing also is impor­

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
new graduates having degrees in
geophysics are expected to be good
through the 1970’s. Opportunities
will be best for those having the
master’s or doctor’s degree. There
also should be favorable opportuni­
ties in geophysical work for wellqualified people having degrees in
other sciences if they have had
some formal training in geophysics.
Very rapid growth is expected in
this profession through the 1970’s.
Federal Government agencies will
need specialists for new or ex­
panded geophysical programs. The
petroleum and mining industries
will need geophysicists for explora­
tion activities, which are expected
to expand in the 1970’s. Several
hundred new geophysicists also will
be needed each year to replace
those who leave the profession, re­
tire, or die.
Although the number of job
openings for geophysicists is not ex­
pected to be large in any 1 year,
the number of new graduates having
degrees in the science also is ex­
pected to be small. As in past years,
the number of geophysics graduates
who are seeking work as geophysi­
cists probably will be insufficient to
meet employers’ needs, and welltrained persons having degrees in
related sciences and in engineering
probably will continue to be hired
for geophysical positions.

Over the long run, further growth
in the profession is expected. As in­
creasing population leads to more
demand for petroleum and mineral
products, both the mining industry
and the petroleum industry indicate
plans to increase their employment
of geophysicists. They will be
needed to operate highly sophisti­
cated electronic equipment to find
the more concealed fuel and min­
eral deposits, in the face of antici­
pated slow-downs in conventional
exploration activities.
In addition, persons with ad­
vanced training in hydrology, seis­
mology, geodesy, and other geo­
physical specialties will be needed
for increasingly important basic re­
search as well as for development of
new techniques and instruments. In
the Federal Government, more geo­
physicists will be needed to study
problems of the Nation’s water sup­
ply and mineral resources and to
work on both flood control, and airpollution control and abatement
measures. They may be needed also
to do research into radioactivity and
cosmic and solar radiation as well as
to help with exploration of the outer
atmosphere and space, through the
use of vehicles such as sounding
rockets and artificial satellites. G eo­
physicists also will be needed to es­
tablish workable systems for infor­
mation storage and retrieval for
geophysical libraries.

Earnings and Working Conditions
In private industry in 1970 new
graduates having bachelor’s degrees
typically received average starting
salaries of $8,650 a year, according
to the American Geological Insti­
tute’s annual salary survey. New
graduates having master’s degrees
averaged $10,500 a year to start.
Beginning salaries for those who


have doctor’s degrees averaged
$12,000 a year. In private industry,
geophysical scientists working out­
side the United States usually re­
ceived bonuses and allowances.
In the Federal Government in
late 1970, graduates having bache­
lor’s degrees and no experience
could enter m ost types of geophysi­
cal work at either $8,292 or
$10,258 a year, depending upon
their college records. Those who
had completed all requirements for
the master’s degree could start at
$10,258 or $11,526; those having
the Ph. D. could start at $13,096 or
$14,192. In the Federal Govern­
ment as in industry, geophysicists
stationed outside the United States
are paid an additional amount.
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel, the average (m edian) an­
nual salary of earth scientists in
1970 was $14,900. Only 10 percent
of the earth scientists earned less
than $10 ,0 0 0 and about 10 percent
earned more than $23,100.
In educational institutions, start­
ing salaries are generally lower than
in private industry or in the Federal
Government. University teachers,
however, may supplement their in­
come by consulting, writing, or re­
search activities.
The work of geophysicists is
often active and sometimes strenu­
ous. Exploration geophysicists are
subject to reassignment in various
locations as exploration activities
shift. Their working hours may be
irregular and frequently are deter­
mined by the requirements of field

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career
opportunities, training, and earnings

for geophysicists may be obtained
American Geophysical Union, 2100
Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20037.
Society of Exploration Geophys­
icists, P. O. Box 3098, Tulsa,
Okla. 74101.

Information on Federal Govern­
ment careers may be obtained
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 025.088)

Nature of the Work
M eteorology is the study of at­
mospheric phenomena— not only of
the earth, but of all celestial bodies.
Meteorologists attempt to describe
and understand the atmosphere’s
constituents, motions, processes,
and influences. Their knowledge
helps solve many practical problems
in agriculture, transportation, com ­
munications, health, defense, and
Meteorologists usually specialize
in one branch of the science.
Weather forecasters, known profes­
sionally as s y n o p tic m e te o r o lo g is ts ,
are the largest group of specialists.
They interpret current weather in­
formation (such as air pressure,
temperature, humidity, wind veloc­
ity) reported by observers in many
parts of the world and by radio­
sondes and weather satellites. They
use their interpretations to make
short- and long-range forecasts for
specific regions. Some forecasters

still prepare and analyze weather
maps, but most interpret data di­
rectly from computers. C lim a to lo ­
g ists analyze past records on wind,
rainfall, sunshine, temperature, and
other weather data for a specific
area to determine the general pat­
tern of weather which makes up the
area’s climate. P a le o c lim a to lo g is ts
study historical climate conditions.
Such studies are useful in planning
heating and cooling systems, design­
ing structures, and aiding in effec­
tive land utilization. D y n a m ic m e ­
te o r o lo g is ts investigate the physical
laws governing atmospheric mo­
tions. These motions range from the
great global atmospheric circula­
tions around the earth and other
planets, to restless eddies (contrary
movements of air). P h y sic a l m e te o r ­
o lo g is ts study the physical nature
of the atmosphere, including its
chemical composition and electrical,
acoustical, and optical properties.
They study also the effect of the at­
mosphere on transmission of light,
sound, and radio waves, as well as
clouds, precipitation, and other
weather phenomena. M e te o r o lo g i­
c a l in stru m e n ta tio n s p e c ia lis ts de­
velop the devices that measure, re­
cord, and evaluate data on atmos­
pheric processes. For example,
some of these instruments are used
to measure size and number of drop­
lets in a cloud, structure of winds,
and pressure, humidity, and temper­
ature miles above the earth.
Specialists in applied meteorol­
ogy, sometimes called in d u stria l m e ­
te o ro lo g ists, study the relationship
human activities, biological proc­
esses, and agricultural and in­
dustrial operations. For example,
they make weather forecasts for in­
dividual companies, attempt to in­
duce rain or snow in a given area,
and work on problems such as



electronic computers to tabulate
and file large amounts of data.
A number of meteorologists
teach or do research— frequently
combining the two activities— in
universities or colleges. In colleges
without separate departments of
meteorology, they may teach geog­
raphy, mathematics, physics, chem­
istry, or geology, as well as meteor­

Places of Employment
Nearly 4,400 civilian meteorolo­
gists were employed in the United
States in 1970; approximately 2 per­
cent were women. The National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis­
tration (N O A A ), which includes
the National Weather Service, em­
ployed by far the largest number
of civilian meteorologists— nearly
2,000— at 300 stations in all parts
of the United States, the polar re­
gions, Puerto Rico, Wake Island,
and other Pacific area sites. A few
worked for other Federal Govern­
ment agencies. The Armed Forces
employed more than 300 civilian
professional meteorologists.

Meteorologist compares predicted circulation patterns with those of previous

smoke control and air pollution
Alm ost one-third of all civilian
meteorologists are engaged in re­
search and development. They are
concerned, for example, with devis­
ing mathematical models of atmos­
pheric motion as an aid to changing
weather conditions, or in carrying

out experiments designed to modify
the formation of rain. Approxi­
mately one-third are engaged pri­
marily in weather forecasting, and
about one-fourth manage or admin­
ister forecasting and research pro­
grams. In both weather forecasting




More than 800 meteorologists
worked for private industry. Com­
mercial airlines employed several
hundred to forecast weather along
flight routes and to brief pilots on
worked for private weather consult­
ing firms, which provided special
weather information for a fee, for
companies that designed and manu­
ments, and for large firms in aero­
space, insurance, utilities, and other
Colleges and universities em­
ployed more than 1,000 meteorolo­
gists in research and teaching. Sev­
eral hundred others worked for


State and local governments and for
nonprofit organizations.
In addition to these civilian me­
officers and 1,500 enlisted members
of the Armed Forces were engaged
in forecasting and other meteorolog­
ical work in 1970.
Although meteorologists are em­
ployed in all States, nearly two-fifths
were located in just two States—
California and Maryland. More
than one-tenth of all meteorologists
were employed in the Washington,
D.C. metropolitan area.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in meteorology is the usual mini­
mum educational requirement for
beginning meteorologists in weather
forecasting. However, a bachelor’s
degree in a related science or in en­
gineering is acceptable for many po­
sitions, provided the applicant has
credit for courses in meteorology.
For example, the Federal Govern­
ment’s minimum requirement for
beginning positions is a bachelor’s
degree, at least 20 semester hours of
study in meteorology (6 hours each
in synoptic meteorology and dy­
namic m eteorology) and additional
training in physics and mathematics,
including calculus.
For research and teaching and
for many top-level positions in other
meteorological activities, an ad­
vanced degree is essential, prefera­
bly in meteorology. However, per­
sons having graduate degrees in
other sciences also may qualify if
they have taken advanced meteorol­
ogy, physics, mathematics, and
About 55 colleges and universi­
ties in 1970 offered degree-credit
programs in meteorology or special­

ized meteorological disciplines; 32
of these schools granted advanced
degrees in the atmospheric sciences.
Many other institutions offered
courses in meteorology.
M eteorology training is given or
supported by the Armed Forces. In
1970, more than 500 commissioned
officers received university training
in meteorology at either the under­
graduate or graduate level. In addi­
tion, over 200 enlisted personnel
were being sponsored in college and
university programs leading to an
undergraduate degree and commis­
sion. Ex-servicemen who have ex­
perience as meteorologists fre­
quently are qualified for civilian me­
teorologist positions, not only with
the Armed Forces, but with other
employers as well.
The N O A A has an in-service
training program under which some
of its meteorologists are attending
college for advanced or specialized
training. Some college students pre­
paring for careers in meteorology
may obtain summer jobs with this
agency. Promotions for regular
full-time employees are made ac­
cording to U.S Civil Service Com­
mission regulations. (See chapter on
Occupations in Government.)
Meteorologists in the Federal
Government generally begin their
careers in 2-year training positions
at weather stations. Duties include
making weather observations, brief­
weather forecasts. Advancement is
to assistant forecaster, and fore­
somewhat limited opportunities for
advancement. However, after con­
siderable work experience, they
may advance to flight dispatcher or
to various supervisory or adminis­
trative positions. A few well-trained
meteorologists having a background
in science, engineering, and busi­

ness administration may establish
their own weather consulting serv­

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for ci­
vilian meteorologists is expected to
be favorable through the 1970’s. In
addition to job opportunities result­
ing from the rapid growth expected
in this profession, several hundred
new meteorologists will be needed
each year to replace those who
transfer to other fields, retire, or
Meteorologists having advanced
degrees will be in demand to con­
duct research, teach in colleges and
universities, and engage in manage­
ment and consulting work. The ad­
vent of weather satellites, manned
spacecraft, world-circling weather
balloons, new international cooper­
ative programs, and the use of elec­
tronic computers to make weather
forecasts have expanded greatly the
boundaries of meteorology. These
advances have opened new fields of
activity in the study of weather on a
global scale. Meteorologists will be
in demand to develop and improve
instruments used to collect and
process weather data.
Employment opportunities for
meteorologists with commercial air­
lines, weather consulting services,
and other private companies also
are expected to increase, as the
value of weather information to all
segments of our economy receives
further recognition. This recognition
also may create opportunities in re­
search positions with private re­
search organizations and colleges
and universities. The number of
teaching positions for meteorolo­
gists also should rise, primarily be­
cause of anticipated increases in


total college enrollments and in me­
teorology programs.
In addition, there will be a con­
tinuing demand for meteorologists
to work in existing programs, such
as weather measurements and fore­
casts, storm and flood forecasts, and
research on the problems of severe
storms, turbulence, and air pollu­

Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1970 meteorologists with the
bachelor’s degree and no experience
could start in Federal Government
service at $8,292 or $10,258 a year,
depending on their college records.
Meteorologists who had completed
all requirements for the master’s de­
gree could start at $10,258 or
$11,526; those having the Ph. D.
degree could begin at $13,096 or
$14,192. Workers stationed outside
the United States were paid an ad­
ditional amount. Employee benefits
for Federal Government meteorolo­
gists were the same as for other civil
service workers. (See chapter on
Occupations in Government.)
Airline meteorologists received a
starting salary ranging from $9,700
to $12,300 a year in 1970 accord­
ing to the Air Transport Associa­
tion. Meteorologists generally re­
ceive the same benefits as other air­
line employees. (See chapter on
Occupations in Civil Aviation.)
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel, the average (m edian) an­
nual salary of meteorologists in
1970 was $15,200. Only 10 percent
of the meteorologists earned less
than $10,0 0 0 and about 10 percent
earned more than $22,300.
Jobs in weather stations, which
are operated on a 24-hour, 7-day
week basis, often involve nightwork

and rotating shifts. Most stations are
at airports or at places in or near
cities; some are in isolated and re­
mote areas. Meteorologists gener­
ally work alone in smaller weather
stations, and as part of a team in
larger ones.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career
opportunities, educational facilities,
and professional development in
meteorology may be obtained from:
American Meteorological Society,
45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass.
American Geophysical Union, 2100
Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20037.

Information on employment op­
portunities with the NO A A N a­
tional Weather Service and on its
student-assistance program may be
obtained from:
Personnel Division AD42, National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad­
Blvd., Rockville, Md. 20852.

Information on the Air Force
meteorological training programs
may be obtained from the nearest
U SA F recruiting office or from:
Commander, USAF Recruiting Serv­
ice, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio

(D.O.T. 024.081 and 041.081)

Nature of the Work
The ocean, which covers more
than two-thirds of the earth’s sur­
face, provides man with valuable

foods, fossil fuels, and minerals. It
also influences the weather, serves
as a “highway” for transportation,
and offers many varieties of recrea­
tion. Oceanographers study the
ocean— its characteristics, m ove­
ments, physical properties, and
plant and animal life. The results of
their studies not only extend basic
scientific knowledge but also con­
tribute to development of practical
methods for forecasting weather,
fisheries development, mining ocean
resources, and National defense.
Some oceanographers perform
tests, make observations, and con­
duct surveys and experiments from
ships or stationary platforms in the
sea. They may collect and study
data on the ocean’s tides, currents,
waves, mountain ranges and valleys.
They also may study its tempera­
ture, density, and acoustical prop­
erties; its sediments; its sub-bottom;
its shape; its interaction with the at­
mosphere; and marine plants and
Other oceanographers perform
equally important functions in labo­
ratories on land. For instance, in
some research laboratories, fish are
measured and photographed, and
their stomach contents analyzed; ex­
otic sea specimens dissected, cata­
logued, and bottled; and plankton
(floating microscopic plants and an­
imals) identified, separated, and
sometimes counted. At other labo­
ratories, data collected from meas­
uring and detecting devices are
plotted on maps or fed to electronic
computers to test theories such as
sea-floor spreading and continental
drift. To present the results of their
charts, tabulations, reports, and
manuals, and write papers for scien­
tific journals.
In developing and carrying out
tests and observational programs,
oceanographers use the principles



and techniques of the natural sci­
ences, mathematics, and engineer­
Current exploration techniques
involve the use of instrumented
probes from surface ships and lowflying aircraft. Oceanographers use
instruments such as current meters
that reveal the circulation of very
deep water; echo sounders; the
magnetometer and gravimeter that
measure the earth’s magnetic and
gravity fields; heat probes that de­
termine the flow of heat from the

earth’s interior; and sediment corers
to extract samples from the ocean’s
floor. They also employ instruments
to test temperature and chemical
composition of the water. Specially
developed cameras equipped with
strong lights are used to photograph
marine organisms and the ocean
floor. Sounding devices are vital to
the oceanographer for communicat­
ing with teammates above the water,
and for measuring, mapping, and
locating ocean materials.
Future oceanographers may rely

Oceanographer lowers current meter to study circulation of deep waters.

on instrumented buoys to record
data at all depths, satellites to ob­
serve the ocean’s surface, and deep
research vessels (D R V ’s ) — small,
versatile submersibles to provide
“aquanauts” with a closer view of
the underwater world.
Most oceanographers are special­
ists in one of the branches of the
profession. B io lo g ic a l o c e a n o g r a ­
p h e rs (marine biologists) study the
ocean’s plant and animal life and
the environmental conditions affect­
ing them. For instance, they investi­
gate marine animals that generate
light and electricity (photolumi­
nescence), study the effects of
ocean organisms on manmade mate­
rials, search for ways to extract
drugs from seaweeds or sponges,
and determine the effects of ra­
dioactivity and pollution on the
growth of fish. P h y s ic a l o c e a n o g r a ­
p h e r s (physicists and geophysicists)
study the physical properties of the
ocean, such as its density, tempera­
ture, and ability to transmit light
and sound; the movements of the
sea; and the relationship between
the sea and the atmosphere which
may lead to control over the
weather. G e o lo g ic a l o c e a n o g r a p h e rs
(marine geologists) study the topo­
graphic features, rocks, and sedi­
ments of the ocean floor. They also
help determine the location and
availability of deposits of mineral,
oil, and gas on the ocean floor.
C h e m ic a l o c e a n o g r a p h e rs investi­
gate the chemical composition of
ocean water and sediments, as well
as chemical reactions that occur in
the sea. For example, they are con­
cerned with processes such as desal­
ination (removing salt from sea
w ater).
M a rin e
m e te o r o lo g is ts
study the interaction of the atmos­
phere and the ocean, and the proc­
esses by which weather over the
ocean is generated. O c e a n o g ra p h ic
en g in e e rs and e le c tr o n ic s p e c ia lists


design and build the systems, de­
vices, and instruments used in
oceanographic research and opera­
tions. Other tasks include laying ca­
bles, supervising underwater con­
struction, and locating sunken ships
and recovering their cargos.
About 3 out of 4 oceanographers
are engaged primarily in performing
or administering research and de­
velopment activities. A number
teach in colleges and universities; a
few are engaged in technical writing
or consulting and in the administra­
tion of activities other than re­

Places of Employment
A n estimated 5,400 oceanogra­
phers and closely related technical
personnel were employed in the
United States in 1970. About fourfifths were employed by the Federal
Government and colleges and uni­
versities. Those Federal agencies
employing substantial numbers of
oceanographers were the Naval
Oceanographic Office, and the N a­
tional Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (N O A A ), a newly
created agency combining several
Federal oceanographic-related of­
fices such as the Bureau of Com­
mercial Fisheries, and the Environ­
mental Science Services Administra­
A number of oceanographers
work in private industry for firms
that design and develop instruments
and vehicles for oceanographic re­
search. A few work for fishery labo­
ratories of State and local govern­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The minimum educational re­
quirement for beginning professional

positions in oceanography is the
bachelor’s degree with a major in
oceanography, biology, a geo-science, one of the other basic sciences,
mathematics, or engineering. To
qualify for professional positions in
research and teaching as well as for
advancement to high-level positions
in most types of work, graduate
training in oceanography or one of
the basic sciences usually is re­
Undergraduate training in ocean­
ography, marine science, ocean en­
gineering, or fisheries was offered
by only about 24 colleges and uni­
versities in 1970. Only nine institu­
tions offered the bachelor’s degree
with a major in oceanography.
However, since oceanography is an
interdisciplinary field, training in the
related basic sciences, when coupled
with a strong interest in oceanogra­
phy, is adequate preparation for
most beginning positions or for
entry into graduate school.
Important undergraduate courses
for the prospective oceanographer
are in the fields of mathematics,
geology, meteorology, and biology.
In general, the student should spe­
cialize in the particular science field
which is closest to his area of inter­
est in oceanography. For example,
students interested in chemical
oceanography should obtain a de­
gree in chemistry.
In 1970 about 22 colleges and
universities offered advanced de­
grees in oceanography, and about
2 1 other institutions offered ad­
vanced courses in fisheries, marine
science, or oceanographic engineer­
ing. The academic work of the grad­
uate student in oceanography con­
sists primarily of extensive training
in a basic science combined with
further training in oceanography.
The graduate student usually works
part of the time aboard ship, doing

oceanographic research for his dis­
sertation and acquiring familiarity
with the sea and techniques used to
obtain oceanographic information.
A variety of summer courses is of­
fered also by universities at the var­
ious marine stations along our
coasts. These are intended for both
undergraduate and graduate stu­
dents and are recommended partic­
ularly for students from inland uni­
The beginning oceanographer
with the bachelor’s degree usually
starts as a research or laboratory as­
sistant, or in routine data collection,
analysis, or computation. Most new
oceanographers receive on-the-job
training related to the specific work
at hand. The nature and extent of
the training vary with the back­
ground and needs of the individual.
Thus, the new graduate who has a
degree in a basic science rather than
in oceanography usually can be pro­
vided enough understanding of
oceanographic principles to enable
him to perform adequately in this
Beginning oceanographers having
advanced degrees usually can qual­
ify for research and teaching posi­
tions. Experienced oceanographers
may be selected for administrative
positions in which they may super­
vise a research laboratory or direct
specific survey or research projects.
Most oceanographers work part
of the time aboard oceanographic
ships at sea. These voyages may last
from a few days to several months.
A few oceanographers work nearly
all of the time aboard ship. On the
other hand, some oceanographers
never go to sea; they analyze data
collected by other scientists or pur­
sue mathematical or theoretical
studies ashore.



Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
those having advanced degrees in
oceanography— especially the Ph.
D. degree— are expected to be fa­
vorable through the 1970’s. Welltrained persons with bachelor’s de­
grees in oceanography and related
sciences will find opportunities
mainly as research assistants in rou­
tine analytical positions.
The outlook is for very rapid
growth in this profession through
the 1970’s. Growing recognition of
the importance of the oceans to the
Nation’s welfare and security has
heightened interest in oceanography
and has opened new fields for spe­
cialists. In the years ahead, improv­
ing the Nation’s defenses against
submarines and surface vessels will
require oceanographic research into
underwater sound, surface and sub­
surface currents, and configuration
of the ocean’s floor. Oceanogra­
phers will be needed too for
weather and iceberg forecasting and
to study air-sea interaction in longrange forecasts. They will be
needed to develop new technologies
for discovering and mining the fuel
and mineral resources of the ocean’s
floor, and to protect waters from
damage by pollution and land from
damage by waves and tides. Other
oceanographers may improve meth­
ods of taking foods and pharmaceu­
ticals from the oceans, manage fish­
eries, and develop economical
means of harnessing the ocean for
energy and of providing fresh water
from the sea.
The demand for oceanographers
qualified to teach in colleges and
universities also is expected to ex­
pand. A s interest in oceanography
grows and more courses in oceanog­
raphy are offered, more teachers in
the science will be needed.
Replacement of oceanographers

who transfer to other fields, retire,
or die also will provide some oppor­
Since oceanography is a relatively
small profession, job openings will
not be numerous in any 1 year.
On the other hand, the number of
new graduates having advanced de­
grees in this science is small and is
expected to remain so. As a result,
these new oceanography graduates
should continue to have favorable
employment opportunities.

Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Federal Government serv­
ice in 1970, oceanographers hav­
ing the bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience could begin at $8,292 or
$10,258 a year, depending on their
college records. Beginning oceanog­
raphers who had completed all re­
quirements for the master’s degree
could start at $10,258 or $11,526;
those having the Ph. D. degree
could begin at $13,096 or $14,192.
Scientists in geological and biologi­
cal specialties had somewhat lower
starting salaries.
In private industry in 1970, new
graduates having bachelor’s degrees
received median starting salaries of
$ 8 ,650 a year, according to a salary
survey conducted by the American
Geological Institute. New graduates
having master’s degrees averaged
$10,500 a year, and those holding
doctor’s degrees averaged $12,000
a year to start in 1970. According
to the National Science Founda­
tion’s National Register of Scientific
and Technical Personnel, the aver­
age (m edian) annual salary of earth
scientists in 1970 was $14,900.
Only 10 percent of the earth scien­
tists earned less than $10,000 and
about 10 percent earned more than
Beginning oceanographers in ed­

ucational institutions receive the
same salary as other beginning fac­
ulty members. (See statement on
“College and University Teach­
ers.” ) In addition to their regular
salaries, many experienced ocean­
ographers in educational institutions
earn extra income from consulting,
lecturing, and writing activities.
Oceanographers engaged in re­
search requiring sea voyages are
frequently away from home for
weeks or months at a time, some­
times living and working in cramped
quarters. Young persons who like
the sea, however, may find these
voyages very satisfying.

Sources of Additional Information
oceanography— including
opportunities, professional training,
colleges and universities having
applicable degree-credit programs,
earnings, and the economic signifi­
cance of oceanographic activities—
may be obtained from:
International Oceanographic Foun­
dation, 1 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Virginia Key, Miami, Fla. 33149.
National Oceanography Association,
1900 L St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration, Room 218, Bldg.
5, 6010 Executive Blvd., Rock­
ville, Maryland 20852.

Federal Government career in­
formation may be obtained from
any regional office of the U.S. Civil
Service Commission or from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

The bulletin U n iv e r sity C u rric u la
in th e M a rin e S c ie n c e s a n d R e la te d
F ie ld s may be obtained from:

Marine Sciences Affairs Staff, Bldg.

159E, Rm. 476, Washington Navy
Yard, Washington, D.C. 20390.

The booklet, O c e a n o g ra p h y In ­
S o u rc e s ’7 0 , lists the
names and addresses of industrial
organizations involved in oceanog­
raphy and publishers of oceano­
graphic educational materials, jour­
nals, and periodicals. Copies may be
purchased from:

fo r m a tio n

Printing and Publishing Office, Na­
tional Academy of Sciences, 2101
Constitution Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20418.

fa irs— S e le c tin g

P r io r ity

P ro g ra m s

( A p r il 1 9 7 0 ) , contains information

on the national oceanography pro­
gram. Copies may be obtained from:
Superintendent of Documents, Gov­
ernment Printing Office, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20402.

Some information on oceano­
graphic specialties may be obtained
from professional societies listed
elsewhere in the H a n d b o o k . (See
statements on Geologists, Geophysi­
cists, Life Scientists, Meteorologists,
and Chemists.)

The bulletin, M a rin e S c ie n c e A f -

Ufe Science Occupations
Life scientists study all living or­
ganisms and the processes that de­
termine the nature of life. They are
concerned with men and microbes,
plants and animals, and health and
disease, as well as how these organ­
isms relate to their environment.
Some scientists in these fields
perform research to expand our un­
derstandings of living things. Oth­
ers, who teach, pass this knowledge
on to students. Many scientists pur­
sue both activities. Still others apply
scientific concepts and principles to
the solution of practical problems,
such as the development of new
drugs or varieties of plants, and
seek solutions to problems of pollu­
This chapter discusses life scien­
tists as a group since they receive
comparable basic training and have
similar employment and earning
prospects. Brief descriptions are
provided about the nature of the
work of a number of life scientists
— including botanists, zoologists, mi­
crobiologists, biophysicists, ecolo­
gists, pathologists, and pharmacolo­
gists. This chapter also contains a
separate statement on biochemists.

More detailed statements for other
professional workers in the life sci­
ences— soil scientists, soil conserva­
tionists, foresters, and range manag­
ers— are discussed elsewhere in the
H andbook.

(D.O.T. 040.081, 041.081, 070.081, and

Nature of the Work
Life scientists study living organ­
isms, their structure, evolutionary
development, behavior, and life
processes. They emphasize the rela­
tionship between animals, plants,
and micro-organisms and their envi­
ronments. The number and variety
of plants and animals are so vast
and the life processes so varied and
complex that life scientists must
specialize in one of three broad
areas— agriculture, biology, medi­

Two-fifths of all life scientists are
engaged in research and develop­
ment. Many conduct basic research,
which is aimed at adding to our
knowledge of living organisms with
only secondary regard to its applica­
tion. Nevertheless, the development
crops, and antibiotics have resulted
from this type of research.
Research in the life sciences may
take many forms. A botanist explor­
ing the volcanic Alaskan valleys to
see what plants live in this strange
environment and a zoologist search­
ing the jungles of the Amazon val­
ley for previously unknown kinds of
animals are both doing research;
likewise, an entomologist in a labo­
ratory tests various chemical insecti­
cides for effectiveness and possible
hazards to human and animal life.
Life scientists must be familiar
with fundamental research tech­
niques and the use of light and elec­
tron microscopes and other complex
laboratory equipment. Advanced
techniques and principles from
chemistry and physics are applied
widely. Knowledge of mathematical
and statistical procedures, as well as
of the operation of electronic com ­
puters, often is needed in experi­
Teaching in a college or univer­
sity is the major function of nearly
one-fourth of all life scientists.
Many teachers combine independ­
ent research with their regular
teaching duties, and in some large
educational institutions, use the
major portion of their time on re­
More than one-fourth of all life
scientists are engaged in manage­
ment and administrative work, pri­
marily the planning, supervision, and
administration of programs of re-*
search or testing of foods, drugs,
and other products. Others provide
liaison between the Federal Gov-



Life scientist induces sea urchin to shed eggs for experiment.

em inent and the agricultural experi­
ment stations at State universities,
assisting in the planning, develop­
ment, and evaluation of research
programs at these stations.
The remaining life scientists are
engaged in a variety of other types
of work, such as consulting, writing,
testing, and inspection. A few are
employed in technical sales or field
service work for industrial firms;
such work may include, for exam­
ple, teaching company salesmen and
prospective purchasers the value
and proper use of new chemicals.
Some are engaged in research in
natural history museums, zoos, and
botanical gardens.
Life scientists may be classified
into three broad groups character­

ized by the general type of organism
with which they work: Botanists,
who study plants; zoologists, who
are concerned with animals; and mi­
crobiologists, who work with micro­
B o ta n is ts study all aspects of
plant life. Plant taxonomists identify
and classify plants. Plant ecologists
study the interrelationships between
environmental elements and plant
life and distribution. Other botanists
include plant morphologists, con­
cerned with the structure of plants
and plant cells; plant physiologists,
interested in the life processes of
plants; and plant pathologists, en­
gaged in determining the cause and
control of plant diseases.
Z o o lo g is ts study animal life— its

origin, classification, behavior, life
processes, diseases, and parasites
— and the ways in which animals in­
fluence and are influenced by their
environment. Some zoologists con­
duct experimental studies with live
animals, and in some cases, study
them in their natural environment.
Others work mainly in laboratories
dissecting animals and examining
them under the microscope. Zoolo­
gists who specialize in the study of
certain classes of animals may use
titles that indicate the kind of ani­
mal studied, such as ornithologists
and amphibians),
(fishes), and mammalogists (m am ­
m als).
M ic r o b io lo g is ts investigate the
growth, structure, and general char­
acteristics of bacteria, viruses,
molds, and other organisms of mi­
croscopic or submicroscopic size.
Although the terms bacteriology
and microbiology are sometimes
used interchangeably, microbiology,
the broader term, is preferable
when referring to the study of all
microscopic organisms. M icrobiolo­
gists isolate and make cultures of
these organisms in order to examine
them with a variety of highly spe­
cialized equipment. Some micro­
biologists pursue medical prob­
lems, such as the relationship be­
tween bacteria and infectious dis­
ease, or the effect of antibiotics on
bacteria. Others specialize in soil
bacteriology (the study of soil mi­
croorganisms and their relation to
soil fertility), virology (the study of
viruses), immunology (the study of
the mechanisms that fight infec­
tion), or serology (the study of ani­
mal and plant fluids, including
blood serum s).
Life scientists also may be classi­
fied according to the type of ap­
proach used— some of which are
wholly within 1 of the 3 major


groupings, and others which may be
found in all 3 groups. Some life sci­
entists are classified according to
the specific type of organism stud­
ied. Some life scientists whose work
cuts across more than one of these
major groupings, as often in the
case of college and university teach­
ers, simply may call themselves bi­
ologists. A description of the work
of some life scientists follows.
A g r o n o m is ts are concerned with
improving crops and the soil. Those
working with the soil analyze it,
map the soils of an area, or develop
and apply new methods for increas­
ing acreage yields. They also study
ways to conserve water and to de­
crease erosion. Agronomists in­
volved in crop science develop new
methods of growing crops for im­
proved quality, higher yield, and
more efficient production. They
seek new, hardier varieties of crops
and better methods of controlling
disease, pests, and weeds.
A n a to m is ts study the form and
structure of organisms. Those who
specialize in the structure of cells
are known as cytologists, whereas
those who specialize in the structure
of tissues and organs are known as
histologists. Anatomists may exam­
ine structures visible to the naked
eye or of microscopic size, or those
of submicroscopic size, visible only
through the use of the electron mi­
croscope. Many anatomists special­
ize in human anatomy.
B io c h e m ists, who are trained in
both chemistry and biology, study
the chemical processes of living
things. A more detailed description
of their work is contained in a sepa­
rate statement elsewhere in this
B io lo g ic a l
o c e a n o g r a p h e rs,
marine biologists, study the plant
and animal life in the oceans and
the environmental conditions affect­
ing them. (See separate statement on

Oceanographers elsewhere

in the

H a n d b o o k .)
B io p h y s ic is ts who are trained in
both physics and biology, investi­
gate the physical principles of living
cells and organisms, and their re­
sponses to physical forces, such as
heat, light, radiation, sound, and
electricity. They may use the elec­
tron microscope to make tissues vis­
ible down to the smallest units and
they may use nuclear reactors to
study the effect of radiation on
cells and tissues.
E c o lo g is ts study the mutual rela­

tionship among organisms and be­
tween them and their environment.
They are interested in the effects of
environmental influences such as
rainfall, temperature, and altitude
on these organisms. For instance,
ecologists extract samples of phyto­
plankton, microscopic plants which
produce most of the world’s atmos­
pheric oxygen, from bodies of water
to determine the effects of pollution
on their growth, or measure the ra­
dioactive content of fish by tracing
tagged elements as they pass
through their systems.
E m b r y o lo g is ts study the develop­
ment of an organism from fertiliza­
tion of the egg through the hatching
process or gestation period. They
investigate the physiological, bio­
chemical, and genetic mechanisms
that control and direct the processes
of development, how and why this
control is accomplished, and the
causes of abnormalities in develop­
E n to m o lo g is ts are concerned with
insects and their relation to plant
and animal life. They identify and
classify the enormous number of
different kinds of insects. Some en­
tomologists seek to control harmful
insects through the use of chemi­
cals, predatory birds, or other meth­
ods. Others develop ways to encour­

age the growth and spread of bene­
ficial insects, such as honeybees.
G e n e tic is ts explore the origin,
transmission, and development of
hereditary characteristics. Geneti­
cists engaged primarily in improving
plant and animal breeds of eco­
nomic importance— such as cereal
and tobacco crops or dairy cattle
and poultry— may be classified as
plant or animal breeders, agrono­
mists, or animal science specialists.
Theoretical geneticists search for
the mechanisms that determine in­
herited traits in plants, animals, or
H o rtic u ltu rists work with orchard
and garden plants, such as fruits,
nuts, vegetables, flowers and orna­
mental plants, and other nursery
stocks. They develop new or im­
proved plant varieties and better
methods of growing, harvesting,
storing, and transporting horticul­
tural crops. Horticulturists usually
specialize in either a specific plant
or a particular technical problem,
such as plant breeding.
H u sb a n d r y s p e c ia lis ts (anim al)
conduct research on the breeding,
feeding, management, and diseases
of domestic farm animals to im­
prove the health and yield of these
N u tr itio n is ts examime the proc­
esses through which food is utilized,
the kinds and quantities of food ele­
ments— such as minerals, fats, sug­
ars, vitamins, and proteins— that
are essential to build and repair
body tissues and maintain health,
and how these food elements are
transformed into body substances
and energy. Nutritionists also ana­
lyze food to determine its composi­
tion in terms of essential ingredients
or nutrients.
P a th o lo g is ts study the nature,
cause, and development of disease,
degeneration, and abnormal func­
tioning in humans, in animals or in



plants. Many specialize in the study
of the effects of diseases, parasites,
and insect pests on cells, tissues, and
organs. Others investigate genetic
variations and other abnormal ef­
fects caused by drugs. The term
“pathologist” is normally reserved
for specialists in human pathology
(medical pathology). Specialists in
animal pathology are usually veteri­
narians. (See statement on Veteri­
narians.) Those who study plant
diseases may be called plant pathol­
ogists or phytopathologists; their

work is discussed under the section
on botanists.
P h a r m a c o lo g ists
conduct tests
with animals such as rats, guinea
pigs, and monkeys to determine the
effects of drugs, gases, poisons,
dusts, and other substances on the
functioning of tissues and organs,
and relate their findings with medi­
cal data. They may develop new or
improved chemical compounds for
use in drugs and medicines.
P h y s io lo g is ts study the structure
and functions of cells, tissues, and

Life scientist observes plasma through filte r glass.

organs and the effects of environ­
mental factors on life processes.
They may specialize in cellular ac­
tivities or in one of the organ sys­
tems, such as the digestive, nervous,
circulatory, or reproductive systems.
The knowledge gained in such re­
search often provides the basis for
the work of many other specialists,
such as biochemists, pathologists,
pharmacologists, or nutritionists.

Places of Employment
An estimated 180,000 persons
were employed in the life sciences
in 1970. About 10 percent were
women. Of this total, nearly 48,000
worked in agricultural science, more
than 71,000 worked in biological
science, and about 61,000 worked
on problems related to medical sci­
Nearly three-fifths of the total
were employed by colleges and uni­
versities in teaching and research
positions. Medical schools and their
associated hospitals employed par­
ticularly large numbers of life scien­
tists in the medical field. State agri­
cultural colleges and agricultural
experiment stations operated by
universities in cooperation with
Federal and State Governments
employed sizable numbers of agrono­
mists, horticulturists, animal hus­
bandry specialists, entomologists,
and other agriculture-related spe­
The Federal Government in 1970
employed more than 25,000 life sci­
entists, two-thirds of whom were
employed in the Department of A g­
riculture. The Department of the
Interior employed nearly all the fish
and wildlife biologists in the Federal
Government. Other large numbers
of life scientists were employed by
the Department of the Army and
the National Institutes of Health.

State and local governments, com ­
bined, employed about 2 1,000 biol­
ogists— mostly fish and wildlife
entomologists— for work in conser­
vation, detection and control of dis­
eases, and plant breeding.
Approximately 26,000 life scien­
tists worked for private industry in
1970. Am ong the major industrial
employers were manufacturers of
pharmaceuticals, industrial chemi­
cals, and food products. A few were
self-employed. More than 5,000 life
scientists worked for privately
financed research organizations and
other nonprofit foundations.
Although life scientists were em­
ployed in all States, nearly one-third
were located in five States— Califor­
nia, New York, Pennsylvania, Illi­
nois, and Maryland. More than
one-tenth of all life scientists were
located in only two metropolitan
areas— Washington, D.C., and New
York, N .Y .

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Young people seeking profes­
sional careers in the life sciences
should plan to obtain an advanced
degree— preferably a Ph. D .— in
their field of interest. The bachelor’s
degree with a major in one of the
life sciences may be adequate prep­
aration for some beginning jobs, but
promotional opportunities for those
without graduate training are gener­
ally limited to intermediate level po­
The Ph. D. degree generally is
required for higher level college
teaching positions and for independ­
ent research. It is also necessary
for many positions involving the ad­
ministration of research programs.
N ew graduates having a master’s
degree may qualify for most entry


positions in applied research and for
some types of positions in college
Those having a bachelor’s degree
may qualify for positions involving
testing, production and operation
work, technical sales and service,
and duties connected with the en­
forcement of government regula­
tions. They also may obtain posi­
tions as advanced technicians, par­
ticularly in the medical area. Some
graduates having a bachelor’s de­
gree may take courses in education
and choose a career as a high school
teacher of biology rather than one
as a life scientist. (See statement on
Secondary School Teachers.)
Training leading to a bachelor’s
degree with a major in one of the
life science specialties is offered by
nearly all colleges and universities.
Courses differ greatly from one col­
lege to another, and it is important
that a student determine which col­
lege program best fits his interests
and needs. In general, liberal arts
colleges and universities emphasize
training in the biological sciences
and medical research. State univer­
sities and land-grant colleges offer
special advantages to those inter­
ested in agricultural sciences be­
cause their agricultural experiment
stations provide many opportunities
for practical training and research
Prospective life scientists should
obtain the broadest undergraduate
training possible in all branches of
biology and in related sciences, par­
ticularly biochemistry, organic and
inorganic chemistry, physics, and
mathematics. Courses in statistics,
calculus, biometrics and computer
programming analysis are becoming
increasingly essential. Training and
practice in laboratory techniques, in
the use of laboratory equipment,
and in fieldwork are also important.
Advanced degrees in the life sci­

ences also are conferred by a large
number of colleges and universities.
Requirements for advanced degrees
usually include fieldwork and labo­
ratory research, as well as class­
room studies and preparation of a
Young people planning careers as
life scientists should be able to work
independently, or as part of a team.
The ability to express oneself both
orally and in writing also is impor­
tant. Physical stamina and an in­
quiring mind are necessary for those
interested in research in remote

Employment Outlook
Employment in the life sciences
is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. In addition to
those needed to fill openings result­
ing from growth, thousands of life
scientists will be needed to replace
those who transfer to other fields of
work, die, or retire. However,
along with the growing number of
job openings, the number of life sci­
ence graduates also is projected to
increase rapidly. As a result, keen
competition is expected for the
more desirable positions. Those
holding advanced degrees, espe­
cially the Ph. D., should experience
less competion than bachelor’s de­
gree recipients for jobs. Opportuni­
ties for those holding only under­
graduate degrees will probably be
limited to research assistant or tech­
nician positions.
One of the major factors which
will tend to increase the employ­
ment of life scientists is the antici­
pated continued growth in research
and development, particularly in
medical research programs spon­
sored by the Federal Government
and voluntary health agencies. For
example, the Federal Government


is expected to allocate additional
millions of dollars for cancer re­
search during the next few years.
Other areas of concentrated medical
study include heart disease and
birth defects. Research in such rela­
tively new areas as space biology,
radiation biology, environmental
health, biological oceanography,
and genetic regulation also will
probably increase.
Industry also is expected to in­
crease its spending for research and
development in the biological sci­
ences. Furthermore, the stringent
health standards of the Federal reg­
ulatory agencies are likely to result
in a heightened demand for addi­
tional life scientists in industry to
perform research and testing before
new drugs, chemicals, and process­
ing methods are made available to
the public.
Another factor which should in­
crease employment of life scientists
is the substantially larger college
and university enrollments expected
during the 1970’s. Although the re­
sulting rise in demand for teachers
will be to a large extent for Ph.
D .’s, there may be some openings
for qualified people holding master’s
degrees, especially in community

Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Federal Government in
1970, life scientists having a
bachelor’s degree could begin at
$6,548 or $8,098 a year, depending
on their college records. Beginning
life scientists having the master’s
degree could start at $8,098 or
$9,881, depending upon their aca­
demic records. Those having the
Ph. D. degree could begin at
$11,905 or $14,192.
Life scientists in colleges and uni­
versities earned median salaries be­

tween $15,800 and $16,500 a year
in 1970, according to the limited
information available. (For further
information, see statement on Col­
lege and University Teachers.) Life
scientists in educational institutions
sometimes supplement their regular
salaries with income from writing,
consulting, and special research
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s Register of Sci­
entific and Technical Personnel, ag­
ricultural scientists earned about
$ 1 2,800 a year in 1970; about 10
percent received less than $8,800 a
year, while 10 percent earned at
least $19,500. The average (m e­
dian) annual salary for biological
scientists was $15,000 in 1970, ac­
cording to the Register; only 10
percent earned less than $8,700 a
year, and about 10 percent earned
$26,1 0 0 or more. In general, life
scientists in private industry tend to
have higher salaries than those in
either colleges and universities or
Government employment.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on careers
in the life sciences may be obtained
American Institute of Biological Sci­
ences, 3900 Wisconsin Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20016.
American Society of Horticultural
Science, 615 Elm Street, St.
Joseph, Michigan 49085.
American Physiological Society,
9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda,
Maryland 20014.
Ecological Society of America, Con­
necticut College, New London,
Connecticut 06320.
Specific information on Federal
Government careers may be ob­
tained from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­

ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 041.081)

Nature of the Work
The biochemist has an important
role in modern science’s search for
the basis of life and the factors that
sustain it. His professional interests
range from what determines hered­
ity to how living things react to
space travel.
Biochemists study the chemical
composition of living organisms.
They identify and analyze the
chemical processes related to bio­
logical functions, such as muscular
contraction, reproduction, and me­
tabolism. Biochemists investigate
the' effects on organisms of such
chemical substances as foods, hor­
mones, and drugs. They study the
chemical changes in living tissue
caused by genetic and environmen­
tal factors.
Biochemists study a wide variety
of substances, ranging from very
small molecules to giant macro­
molecules. They analyze chemical
compounds such as minerals and
sugars. Biochemists deal with prob­
lems in genetics, enzymology, hor­
mone action, bioenergetics, and the
phenomena of biochemical control.
Foremost among the areas of ap­
plication of biochemistry are medi­
cine, biomedicine, nutrition, and ag­
riculture. In the medical field,
biochemists may investigate the
causes and cures of disease or de­
velop diagnostic procedures. In the
biomedical area, they contribute to
our understanding of genetics, he-



devise new instruments and analyti­
cal techniques as needed. They usu­
ally report the results of their re­
search in scientific journals and
sometimes lecture before scientific
More than 3 out of 4 bio­
search. The vast majority pursue
basic research. A small group work­
ing in applied research use the dis­
coveries of basic research to solve
practical problems or develop useful
products. For example, through
basic research, biochemists discover
how a living organism forms a hor­
mone. This knowledge is put to use
by synthesizing the hormone in the
laboratory and then producing it on
a mass scale to enrich hormonedeficient organisms. The distinction
between basic and applied research,
however, is often one of degree;
biochemists may engage in both
types of work.
Some biochemists combine re­
search with teaching in colleges and
universities. Small proportions are
engaged in production and testing
activities or private consulting.

Places of Employment

Biologist isolates granules from heart tissue.

redity, brain function, and physio­
logical adaptation. In the nutritional
field, they may identify the nutrients
necessary to maintain good health
and the effects of specific defi­
ciencies on various kinds of per­
formance, including the ability to
learn. In agriculture, biochemists in­
plants, and undertake studies to dis­
cover more efficient methods of
crop cultivation, storage, and utili­
zation, and the design and use of
pest-control agents.

Biochemists apply the principles
and procedures of chemical and
physical analysis to their research
problems. Routine laboratory tasks
include weighing, filtering, distilling,
drying, and culturing substances or
materials. Some experiments re­
quire more sophisticated tasks such
as designing and constructing chem­
ical apparatus or performing tests
using radioactive tracers. Biochem­
ists use a variety of instruments
including electron microscopes and
radioactive isotope counters, and

Approximately 11,000 biochem­
ists were employed in the United
States in 1970. The number of
women in biochemistry is not
known. However, almost one-third
of all advanced degrees in biochem­
istry in recent years have been
awarded to women. More than half
of all biochemists were employed by
colleges and universities in 1970.
Many of these scientists were teach­
ing and performing research in uni­
versity-operated laboratories and
hospitals. Another 700 biochemists
worked for nonprofit organizations,
such as research institutes and foun­



Biochemist constructs molecular model.

Private industry employed more
than one-fifth of all biochemists.
The largest group of these worked
in the chemical industry, primarily
for manufacturers of drugs, insecti­
cides, and cosmetics.
Several thousand
worked for Federal, State, and local
government agencies. Most of these
scientists were employed by Federal
agencies concerned with health or
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement




quirement for beginning positions in
biochemistry is the bachelor’s de­
gree with a major in biochemistry or
chemistry, or with a major in biol­
ogy and a minor in chemistry. For
most entrance positions in research
and teaching, graduate training in
biochemistry is required. Graduate
work also is needed for advance­
ment to most high-level positions in
all types of work.
Approximately 40 schools award
the bachelor’s degree in biochemis­
try. However, nearly all colleges
and universities offer a major in bi­
ology or chemistry. The prospective
biochemist should take undergradu­

ate courses in chemistry, biology,
More than 100 colleges and uni­
versities offer graduate degrees in
biochemistry. For entrance into a
graduate program, schools usually
require the student to have a bache­
lor’s degree in biochemistry, biol­
ogy, or chemistry. However, stu­
dents who have the bachelor’s de­
gree in another basic science but
who have had several undergradu­
ate courses in chemistry usually are
In graduate school, the student
builds upon the basic knowledge
obtained in the undergraduate cur­
riculum. He takes advanced courses
and conducts research in many
areas of biochemistry. For the doc­
toral degree, he usually specializes
in a particular field of biochemistry
by doing intensive research and
writing a thesis.
Some graduate schools have a
reputation for training students in a
particular field of biochemistry. For
example, a university affiliated with
a medical school or hospital often
has the facilities and equipment
available to study the biochemistry
of disease. Therefore, a student who
desires to specialize should investi­
gate the specialties of the various
schools and make his selection care­
New graduates having the bache­
lor’s degree usually begin work as
research assistants. These positions
involve testing and analysis. In the
drug industry, for example, research
assistants analyze the ingredients of
a product to verify and maintain its
purity or quality. Some graduate
students become research or teach­
ing assistants in colleges and univer­
Beginning biochemists having ad­
vanced degrees usually qualify for
research or teaching positions.

Some experienced biochemists who
have Ph. D. degrees advance to
high-level administrative positions
and supervise research programs.
Other highly qualified biochemists,
who prefer to devote their time to
research, often become leaders in a
particular field of biochemistry.
Young people planning careers as
biochemists should be able to work
independently or as part of a team.
Preciseness, keen powers of obser­
vation, and mechanical aptitude also
are important. Prospective biochem­
ists should have analytical and cu­
rious minds while possessing the pa­
tience and perseverance needed to
complete hundreds of experiments
to solve one problem.

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook is likely
to be good for biochemists through
the 1970’s. In addition to new op­
portunities resulting from the very
rapid growth expected in this field,
several hundred will be needed each
year to replace workers who trans­
fer to other fields of work, retire, or
Although biochemistry is a rela­
tively small profession and job
openings will not be numerous in
any one year, the number of gradu­
ates who have degrees in this sci­
ence also is fairly small and is ex­
pected to remain so. Thus, the em­
ployment outlook should continue
to be favorable for biochemistry
The greatest demand will be for
the biochemist who has the Ph. D.
degree, to conduct independent re­
search or to teach.
The major factor underlying the
anticipated growth is the continued
increase in expenditures for re­
search and development in life sci­


The greatest growth in employ­
ment of biochemists is expected in
expanding areas of medical re­
search. For instance, the Federal
Government is expected to allocate
millions of dollars for cancer re­
search during the next few years.
Other areas of concentrated medical
study include heart disease, muscu­
lar dystrophy, and mental illness.
Also, an increasing number of
biochemists will be needed to work
in clinical laboratories associated
with hospitals. Additional biochem­
ists will be needed to implement
the more stringent drug standards
that have been established by Con­
gress and the Federal regulatory
agencies. Biochemistry also is be­
coming important in other fields,
such as environmental studies.
Growing college
especially of students majoring in
chemistry and the life sciences, will
strengthen the demand for biochem­
ists qualified to teach in colleges
and universities.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries paid to biochem­
ists employed by colleges and uni­
versities are comparable to those for
other professional faculty members.
Biochemists in educational institu­
tions often supplement their income
by engaging in outside research or
consulting work.
In 1970, the average (m edian)
earnings for all biochemists who
had a bachelor’s degree was
$10,800; for those having a mas­
ter’s degree, $12,500; and for those
having a Ph. D., $15,800.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on careers
in biochemistry may be obtained
American Society of Biological
Chemists, 9650 Rockville Pike,
Bethesda, Md. 20014.

Physical Scientists
The physical sciences deal with
the basic laws of the physical world.
Many physical scientists conduct
basic research designed to increase
man’s knowledge of the properties
of matter and energy. Others con­
duct applied research and use the
knowledge gained from basic re­
search to develop new products and
processes. For example, chemists in
applied research use their knowl­
edge of the interactions of various
chemicals to develop new fuels for
rockets and missiles. Physical scien­
tists also teach in colleges and uni­
versities and supervise research and
development programs.
This chapter describes three
major physical science occupations

— chemist, physicist, and astrono­
mer— and food scientists, who
apply scientific principles to the
processing of food. Engineers, life
scientists, and earth scientists also
require a background in the physi­
cal sciences; these occupations are
described in separate chapters else­
where in the H a n d b o o k .

(D.O.T. 022.081, .168, .181, and .281)

Nature of the Work
The clothes we wear, the food we
eat, the houses in which we live— in



fact, most of the things which help
to make our lives more comfortable,
healthy, and productive— have re­
sulted, in part, from the chemist’s
continuing search for new knowl­
edge. Although the day-to-day ac­
tivities of chemists generally receive
little notice, some of their discov­
eries have led to the creation of
whole new industries, such as the
plastics, frozen foods, and manmade
fibers industries.
Chemists investigate the prop­
erties and composition of matter,
and the laws that govern the combi­
nation of elements in a seemingly
endless variety of forms. They
search for new knowledge about
substances and try to utilize this
knowledge for practical use. In con­
ducting studies, they apply scientific
principles and techniques and use a
variety of specialized instruments to
measure, identify, and evaluate
changes in matter. Chemists main­
tain accurate records of their work
and prepare clear and concise re­
ports showing results of tests or ex­
periments. They often present their
findings in scientific publications or
in lectures before scientific groups.
The activities of chemists are var­
ied. Some chemists develop new
substances such as rocket fuels, sol­
ids for transistors, or vaccines.
Other chemists, by observing how
light is absorbed by a substance or
how X-rays or beams of electrons
are affected when passed through it,
determine the chemical composition
of a substance and the atomic make­
up of its molecules. Other chemists
are interested in bulk properties
rather than individual molecules of
matter; they examine the behavior
of solids, liquids, and reactions on
surfaces. Another group of chemists
study the rate at which matter un­
dergoes changes in composition,
ranging from the combustion in a jet
engine to the growth of a living or­

ganism. A sizable number of chem­
ists make qualitative and quantita­
tive measurements of the properties
of matter and develop analytical in­
struments and techniques. Biochem­
ists challenge the problems related
to the chemistry of life processes.
(See separate statement on Biochem­
ists elsewhere in the H a n d b o o k .)

gents, insecticides, and manmade
fibers. Many other chemists work
on basic research to extend scien­
tific knowledge rather than to solve
immediate practical problems. R e­
sults of basic research frequently
apply immediately to practical
problems. For example, basic re­
search on polymerization— how and

Nearly two-fifths of all chemists
are engaged in research and devel­
opment. Many research chemists
work on applied research projects
to create new products or improve
or find new uses for existing ones.
Chemists in applied research have
helped to develop a vast range of
new products including antibiotics,
plastics, synthetic rubbers, deter­

why small molecules unite to form
giant molecules— resulted in the de­




nylon, and plastics.
More than one-fourth of all chem­
ists are employed in management
and administration— especially re­
search and development activities.





chemists devote most of their time to
teaching, often combining it with re­
search. Analysis and testing is an­
other major activity of chemists be­
cause various kinds of tests must be
made at practically every stage in
the manufacture of a product, from
initial development to final produc­
tion. Nearly one-fifth of all chemists
are engaged in production and
inspection activities which may in­
sure, for instance, the quality of
final products or the improvement
of products and processes. Others
work as marketing experts or sales
representatives of chemical compa­
nies and other manufacturers in po­
sitions where the employee must be
familiar with the technical aspects
of products. Some chemists work as
private consultants to private indus­
try firms and government agencies.

ployed more than 25,000 chemists.
A smaller number worked for non­
profit research organizations. A
number of chemists were employed
by Federal Government agencies,
chiefly the U.S Departments of D e­
fense; Health, Education, and Wel­
fare; Agriculture; and Interior.
Small numbers worked for State and
local governments, primarily in
agencies concerned with health or
Chemists were employed in all
States, in small as well as large cit­
ies. However, they were usually
concentrated in large industrial
areas. Nearly one-fifth of all chem­
ists were located in four metropol­
itan areas— New York, Chicago,
Philadelphia, and Newark. About
half of the total worked in six States
— N ew York, New Jersey, Califor­
nia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illi­

Places of Employment
Chemistry is by far the largest
field of employment in the physical
sciences. Nearly 137,000 chemists
were employed in the United States
in 1970; about seven percent were
Approximately three-fourths of
all chemists were employed by pri­
vate industry in 1970. The chemi­
cals manufacturing industry em­
ployed almost half of these chem­
ists. Relatively large numbers of
other chemists were found in the in­
dustries manufacturing food, scien­
tific instruments, petroleum, rubber,
paper, textiles and apparel, electri­
cal equipment, and primary metals
products. Independent laboratories
and research institutes providing
consulting services and distributors
of chemical, pharmaceutical, food,
and petroleum products also em­
ployed significant numbers of chem­
Colleges and universities em­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in chemistry is usually the minimum
educational requirement for starting
a career as a chemist. Graduate
training is essential for many posi­
tions, particularly in research and
college teaching, and is helpful for
advancement in all types of work.
Training leading to the bachelor’s
degree in chemistry is offered by
about 1,000 colleges and universi­
ties throughout the country. In addi­
tion to the required chemistry
courses in analytical, inorganic, or­
ganic, and physical chemistry, the
undergraduate chemistry major also
takes courses in mathematics (espe­
cially analytical geometry and cal­
culus) and physics.
Advanced degrees in chemistry
are awarded by 300 colleges and
universities, many of which offer fi­

nancial assistance to students inter­
ested in graduate study. In graduate
school, the student usually special­
izes by taking several courses in a
particular field of chemistry. R e­
quirements for the master’s or doc­
tor’s degree vary by institution, but
usually include a thesis based on in­
dependent research.
N ew graduates having the bache­
lor’s degree usually qualify for be­
ginning positions in analysis and
testing, quality control, technical
service and sales, or assist senior
chemists in research and develop­
ment work. Most chemists having
only the bachelor’s degree start
their careers in industry or govern­
ment. In industry, employers often
have special training programs for
new chemistry graduates. These
programs supplement college train­
ing with specific industry techniques
and help determine the type of
work for which the new employee is
best suited. Some chemists who
have the bachelor’s degree teach or
do research in colleges and universi­
ties while working toward advanced
degrees. They also may qualify as
secondary school teachers.
Chemists having the master’s de­
gree often qualify for applied re­
search positions in government or
private industry. They also may
qualify for some teaching positions
in colleges and universities and in
2 -year colleges.
The Ph. D. degree generally is
required for basic research, for
higher level faculty positions in a
college or university, or for ad­
vancement to top-level positions in
administration and in other activi­
Students planning careers as
chemists should enjoy studying
science and mathematics, and work­
ing with their hands to build scientific
apparatus and perform experiments.
Perseverance and the ability to con­



centrate on detail and work inde­
pendently are essential to the
prospective chemist. Other desira­
ble assets include an inquisitive
mind, good memory, and imagina­
tion. The ability to write is impor­
tant in preparing reports on experi­
ments. Chemists also should have
good eye-hand coordination and

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for
chemists is expected to be favorable
through the 1970’s. In addition to
new opportunities resulting from the
rapid growth expected in the profes­
sion, thousands of new chemists will
be needed each year to replace
those who retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
Chemists will continue to be
needed to perform research and de­
velopment work. Through the
1970’s, research and development
(R&D) expenditures of Govern­
ment and industry are expected to
increase, although at a slower rate
than during the 1960’s. The antici­
pated slowdown in Federal R&D
spending basically reflects antici­
pated reductions in the relative im­
portance of the space and defense
components of R&D expenditures.
These trends were evidenced in the
late 1960’s and in 1970.
R&D expenditures not only create
jobs for chemists in research and
development, but also produce new
products that result in new positions
for chemists in other types of work.
Another factor increasing the op­
portunities for chemists is the grow­
ing demand for industrial products.
These include plastics, manmade
fibers, drugs, fertilizers, and high
energy and nuclear fuels for missiles
and space ships.
Chemists also will be required to

teach at colleges and universities
through the 1970’s to accommodate
larger enrollments expected at these
institutions. The greatest demand in
colleges and universities will be for
those who have Ph. D. degrees, but
many openings, especially in 2-year
colleges, also should arise for chem­
ists who have master’s degrees.
(See statement on College and Uni­
versity Teachers.)
New graduates also will find
openings in high school teaching,
provided they have completed the
professional education courses and
other requirements for a State
teaching certificate. However, they
usually are regarded as teachers
rather than as chemists. (See state­
ment on Secondary School Teach­

Earnings and Working Conditions
Inexperienced chemistry gradu­
ates having a bachelor’s degree had
an average (m edian) starting salary
of about $9,400 a year in private in­
dustry in 1970, according to a sur­
vey conducted by the American
Chemical Society. Inexperienced
graduates having the master’s de­
gree averaged about $11,000 a year
and those having the Ph. D. degree,
about $15,000.
In academic institutions, the av­
erage (m edian) annual starting sal­
ary for the few entrants having the
bachelor’s degree and no experience
was about $6,600, according to the
American Chemical Society. The
average salary for inexperienced
graduates having the master’s de­
gree was about $8,000, and for
those having the Ph. D degree,
$11,200. Many experienced chem­
ists in educational institutions sup­
plement their regular salaries with
income from consulting, lecturing,
and writing. Depending on the indi­

vidual’s college records, the annual
starting salary in the Federal Gov­
ernment in 1970 for an inexperi­
enced chemist having the bachelor’s
degree was either $8,292
$10,258. Beginning chemists who
have 1 year of graduate study could
start at $10,258 and those who have
years of graduate study at
$11,526. Chemists having the Ph.
D. degree could start at $13,096 or
The average (m edian) annual sal­
ary for all chemists was $15,300 in
1970, according to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel. Only 10 percent of all chem­
ists earned less than $9,600 a
year, and about 10 percent earned
$24,000 or more.
Chemists spend most of their
time working in modern, wellequipped, well-lighted laboratories,
offices, or classrooms. Chemists
work with chemicals that can be
dangerous if handled carelessly.
However, when safety regulations
are followed, health hazards are

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career
opportunities and earnings for chem­
ists may be obtained from:
American Chemical Society, 1155
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
Manufacturing Chemists’ Associa­
tion, Inc., 1825 Connecticut Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.
Specific information on Federal
Government careers may be ob­
tained from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.
For additional sources of infor-


mation, see statements on Biochem ­
ists, Chemical Engineers, and In­
dustrial Chemical Industry. Infor­
mation on chemical technicians may
be found in the statement on Tech­
nician Occupations.

(D.O.T. 023.081 and .088)

Nature of the Work
The flight of astronauts through
space, the probing of the oceans’
depths, or even the safety of the
family car depend on research by
physicists. By determining basic

laws governing phenomena such as
flow, and radioactivity, potential
difficulties can be anticipated and
Physicists observe and analyze
various forms of energy, the struc­
ture of matter, and the relationship
between matter and energy. From
their research, physicists develop
theories and discover fundamental
laws that describe the behavior of
the forces at work within the uni­
verse. Their studies have continued
to broaden man’s understanding of
the physical world and have enabled
him to make increasing use of natu­
ral resources. Physicists have con­
tributed to scientific progress in re­
cent years in areas such as nuclear
energy, electronics, communica­
tions, and aerospace.

Physicist examines hydrogen detection material.

Nearly three-fifths of all physi­
cists are engaged in research and
development. Some conduct basic
knowledge with only secondary re­
gard to its practical applications.
Some of these, called theoretical
physicists, attempt to describe in
mathematical terms interactions be­
tween matter and energy. Others,
called experimental physicists, make
careful systematic observations and
perform experiments to identify and
quantify these interactions. For ex­
ample, they try to identify and meas­
ure the lifetime of tiny particles of
matter which may exist within the
nucleus of the atom. Experimental
physicists use apparatus such as
particle accelerators, X-ray spec­
trometers, microwave devices, las­
ers, and phase and electron micro­
scopes. They may design new kinds
of instruments. The difference be­
tween theoretical and experimental
physicists is often merely one of
emphasis. Some members of the
profession are skilled in both types
of work.
A large number of physicists who
are engineering-oriented engage in
applied research and development.
They use the knowledge gained
from basic research to solve practi­
cal problems or to develop new or
improved products. For example,
the work of physicists specializing in
solid-state physics led to the devel­
opment of transistors and microcir­
cuits, which have replaced vacuum
tubes in many types of electronic
equipment ranging from hearing
aids to guidance systems for mis­
About one-fifth of all physicists
teach in colleges and universities.
Approximately another fifth are en­
gaged in management and adminis­
tration, especially research and de­
velopment programs. A small num­
ber work in activities related to the



production of industrial products
such as inspection and quality con­
trol. Some physicists do consulting
Most physicists specialize in one
or more branches of the science—
thermal phenomena,
high energy physics, optics, acous­
tics, electromagnetism, electronics,
atomic and molecular physics, nu­
clear physics, physics of fluids,
solid-state physics, or classical theo­
retical physics. They may concen­
trate in a subdivision of one of these
branches. For example, within
solid-state physics they may special­
ize in ceramics, crystallography, or
semiconductors, among others. In
addition, emerging knowledge con­
tinually opens new areas of re­
search. For example, the develop­
ment of lasers and masefs has led to
new experimentation in optics and
other fields. However, since all
physics specialties rest on the same
fundamental principles, the physi­
cist’s work often overlaps a number
of specialties.
Physicists often apply the the­
ories and methodology of their sci­
ence to problems originating in
other sciences, including astronomy,
biology, chemistry, and geology.
Growing numbers of scientists spe­
cialize in fields that combine physics
and a related science. Thus, a num­
ber of specialties have developed on
the borderline between physics and
other fields— astrophysics, biophys­
ics, chemical physics, and geophys­
ics. (Information on these occupa­
tions is continued elsewhere in the
H a n d b o o k .) Furthermore, the prac­
tical applications of physicists’ work
have increasingly merged with engi­

Places of Employment
Approximately 4 8 ,0 0 0 physicists

were employed in the United States
in 1970; nearly 4 percent were
women. Private industry employed
more than 18,000; two-fifths of
whom worked in the electrical
equipment, ordnance, and chemicals
industries. Commercial laboratories
and independent research institutes
employed more than one-fourth of
the physicists in private industry.
In 1970, colleges and universities
employed almost 22,000 research
or teaching physicists, many of
whom combined both activities.
Federal government agencies em­
ployed approximately 6,600 physi­
cists in 1970, more than threefourths of whom worked for the D e­
partment of Defense. The National
Bureau of Standards and the N a­
tional Aeronautics and Space A d­
ministration also employed signifi­
cant numbers of physicists. N on­
profit organizations employed more
than 1,500 physicists.
Physicists were employed in all
States. However, their employment
was greatest in those areas having
industrial concentrations and large
colleges and universities. Nearly
one-fourth of all physicists were
employed in four metropolitan
areas— Washington, D.C., Boston,
New York, and Los Angeles-Long
Beach. More than one-third of the
total were employed in three States
— California, New York, and M as­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in physics is generally the minimum
entrance requirement for young
people seeking careers as physicists.
Graduate training is required for
many entry positions and is helpful
for advancement in all areas of

A doctor’s degree usually is re­
quired for full faculty status at col­
leges and universities. Also, the
doctorate generally is needed for
employment in positions involving
responsibility for research and de­
velopment with any type of em­
Physicists having master’s de­
grees qualify for many research jobs
in private industry, educational in­
stitutions, and government. Some
also instruct in colleges and univer­
sities. Usually, graduate students
working toward a doctor’s degree
are assigned to teach elementary
college courses, conduct laboratory
sessions, or assist senior faculty
members on research projects.
Physicists having bachelor’s de­
grees qualify for a variety of jobs in
applied research and development
work in private industry or the Fed­
eral government. Some become re­
search assistants in colleges and
universities while working toward
advanced degrees. Many persons
having a bachelor’s degree in the
sciences do not work as physicists
but enter nontechnical work, other
sciences, or engineering.
Over 800 colleges and universi­
ties offer training leading to the
bachelor’s degree in physics. In ad­
dition, many engineering schools of­
fered a physics major as part of the
general curriculum. The undergrad­
uate program in physics provides a
broad background in the science,
which serves as a base for later spe­
cialization either in graduate school
or on the job. A few of the physics
courses typically offered in an un­
dergraduate program are mechan­
ics, electricity and magnetism, op­
tics, thermodynamics, and atomic
and molecular physics. In addition,
courses in chemistry and mathemat­
ics are required.
Approximately 250 colleges and
universities offer advanced degrees

in physics. In graduate school, the
student, with faculty guidance, usu­
ally works in a specific field. The
graduate student, especially the can­
didate for the Ph. D. degree, spends
a large portion of his time in re­
Students planning a career in
physics should have an inquisitive
mind, good memory, and imagina­
tion. Perseverance and the ability to
concentrate on detail also are im­
portant. The occupation requires
constant study and the ability to
work independently. Prospective
physicists should also possess good
eye-hand coordination and eyesight.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
physicists are expected to be favora­
ble through the 1970’s. In addition
to opportunities resulting from the
rapid growth expected in this field,
other physicists will be needed each
year to replace those who transfer
to other fields of work, retire, or
Graduate training is increasingly
the hallmark of full professional sta­
tus in physics. As in recent years, a
demand is expected for physicists
who have advanced degrees to teach
in colleges and universities. Am ong
the factors contributing to the de­
mand for physics teachers are the
rapid increase in graduate enroll­
ments and the growing need for
physics training in other science and
engineering programs.
Physicists also will be required in
substantial numbers to do complex
research and development work re­
lated to physics, engineering, or
other natural sciences. Through the
1970’s, research and development
(R&D) expenditures of Govern­
ment and industry are expected to
increase, although at a slower rate


than during the 1960’s. The antici­
pated slowdown in Federal R&D
spending basically reflects antici­
pated reductions in the relative im­
portance of the space and defense
components of R&D expenditures.
These trends were evidenced in the
late 1960’s and in 1970.
N ew graduates also will find op­
portunities in other occupations that
utilize their training. For example,
they may become high school teach­
ers, provided they complete the re­
courses and obtain a State teaching
certificate. However, they are usu­
ally regarded as teachers rather
than as physicists. (See statement
on Secondary School Teachers else­
where in the H a n d b o o k .)

Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries for physicists
having bachelor’s degrees were usu­
ally about $9,900 a year in private
industry in 1970, according to the
limited information available. Phys­
icists having master’s degrees re­
$1,900 higher than those having
bachelor’s degrees. Depending on
specialty and experience, graduates
having Ph. D. degrees generally re­
ceived entrance salaries of around
$15,000 annually, although some
were paid considerably less.
Depending on their college rec­
ords, physicists having bachelor de­
grees and no experience could start
work in the Federal Government in
1970 at either $8,292 or $10,258.
Beginning physicists who had com­
pleted all the requirements for the
master’s degree could start at
$10,258 or $11,526. Physicists
having the Ph. D degree could begin
at $13,096 or $14,192.
Starting salaries for physicists
having the Ph. D. degree on college

and university faculties averaged
$1,000 per month in 1970. (For
further information, see statement
on College and University Teach­
ers.) Many faculty physicists sup­
plement their regular incomes and
satisfy their professional interests
through consulting work and special
research projects.
The average (m edian) annual sal­
ary for physicists was $15,900 in
1970, according to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s Register of Sci­
entific and Technical Personnel.
Only 10 percent earned less than
$10,000 a year, and about 10 per­
cent earned $25,000 or more.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on career
opportunities in physics may be ob­
tained from:
American Institute of Physics, 335
East 45th St., New York, N.Y.

Information on Federal Govern­
ment careers may be obtained
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW , Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 021.088)

Nature of the Work
Astronomy often is considered
the most theoretical of all sciences,
although it has many practical ap­
plications. Astronomers study the
structure, extent, and evolution of
the universe. They collect and ana­



lyze data on the sun, moons, plan­
ets, and stars, and attempt to de­
termine the sizes, shapes, surface
temperatures, chemical composi­
tion, and motions of these bodies
and make studies of the gases and
dust between them. They compute
the positions of the planets; calcu­
late the orbits of comets, asteroids,
and artificial satellites; make statisti­
cal studies of stars and galaxies and
study the origin and nature of
cosmic radiation. Astronomers also
study the size and shape of the earth
and the properties of its upper at­
mosphere. Astronomical observa­
tions are valuable to navigation and
the accurate measurement of time.
In making detailed observations
of the heavens, astronomers use
complex photographic techniques,
light-measuring instruments, and
other optical devices. Astronomers
actually spend a limited amount of
time at the telescope, the major in­
strument used for observation. D e­
vices for making specialized obser­
vations are usually attached to the

Astronomer uses telescope to
determine position of stars.

telescope. Other methods of obser­
vation include the use of rock­
ets, balloons, and satellites carrying
various measuring devices. In proc­
essing and analyzing the vast
amounts of data derived from their
observations, astronomers often use
electronic computers and spectro­
Astronomers usually specialize in
one of the many branches of the sci­
ence. In a str o p h y sic s , they apply
physical laws to stellar atmospheres
and interiors. Some astronomers
work in the field of dynamical as­
tronomy, one of the oldest fields of
astronomy that has recently ac­
quired new importance. This branch
deals, in part, with the motions of
objects in the solar system, and
hence has a particular application in
the calculation of the orbits of
spacecraft and artificial earth satel­
lites and the paths of ballistic mis­
siles. R a d io a s tr o n o m y is a tech­
nique used to study the source and
nature of celestial radio waves by
means of radio telescopes. Among
the many other specialties are
a s tr o m e tr y (measurement of angular
positions and movements of celestial
bodies); photoelectric and photo­
graphic p h o to m e tr y (measurement
of the intensity of light); s p e c tr o s ­
c o p y o f a s tr o n o m ic a l so u r c e s (wave
length analyses of radiation from
celestial bodies); and s ta tis tic a l a s­
tr o n o m y (statistical study of large
numbers of celestial objects, such as
stars, to determine their average
More than two-thirds of all as­
tronomers are engaged in research
activities. Nearly a fifth are em­
ployed in colleges and universities,
primarily as teachers. In some
schools not having separate depart­
ments of astronomy or having only
small enrollments in the subject, as­
tronomers may teach courses in
mathematics or physics as well as

astronomy. Other members of the
profession are engaged in a variety
of activities, including administra­
tion of research programs, develop­
ment and design of astronomical in­
struments, and consultation in areas
to which astronomy is applied.

Places of Employment
Astronomy is one of the smallest
of the physical sciences; in 1970,
the total number of astronomers in
the United States was estimated to
be about 1,300. Nearly threefourths of all astronomers were em­
ployed by colleges and universities.
Many of these worked in univer­
sity-operated observatories, where
they usually devoted most of their
time to research. Other astronomers
worked for observatories financed
by nonprofit organizations.
The Federal Government em­
ployed more than 100 astronomers
in 1970. Most of these were em­
ployed by the Department of D e­
fense, mainly by the U.S. Naval Ob­
servatory and the U.S. Naval R e­
hundred astronomers were em­
ployed in private industry, many by
firms in the aerospace field. A few
astronomers worked for museums
and planetariums.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Young people seeking profes­
sional careers in astronomy should
obtain an advanced degree— prefer­
ably the Ph. D. The doctorate usu­
ally is required for high-level posi­
tions in teaching and research and is
important for other types of work in
this field. Although the bachelor’s
degree is adequate preparation for
some entry jobs, astronomers with­
out graduate work usually find that

opportunities for promotion are lim­
Undergraduate curriculums lead­
ing to the bachelor’s degree in as­
tronomy are offered by only about
40 colleges and universities. The
undergraduate work of the prospec­
tive astronomer is weighted heavily
with courses in physics and mathe­
matics. Courses in chemistry, statis­
tics, and electronics also are useful.
A few of the courses often taken by
astronomy undergraduates are me­
chanics, electricity and magnetism,
introductory courses in astronomy
and astrophysics, and astronomical
techniques and instruments.
The prospective astronomer is
not necessarily handicapped if the
college he has selected for his un­
dergraduate study does not offer a
major in astronomy. Well-qualified
students having a bachelor’s degree
in physics or mathematics with a
physics minor usually are able to
enter and pursue graduate programs
in astronomy without difficulty.
Programs leading to the doctor­
ate in astronomy are available at
about 30 institutions located in vari­
ous sections of the country. The
graduate student takes advanced
courses primarily in astronomy,
physics, and mathematics. A few
graduate schools offer celestial me­
chanics, galactic structure, radio as­
tronomy, stellar atmospheres and
interiors, theoretical astrophysics,
and binary and variable stars. Some
schools require that graduate stu­
dents spend several months in resi­
dence at an observatory. In most in­
stitutions, the program of work
leading to the doctorate is flexible
and allows the student to take the
courses which will be of most value
in his particular area of interest.
New graduates having a bache­
lor’s or master’s degree in astron­
omy usually begin as assistants in
observatories, planetariums, large


departments of astronomy in col­
leges and universities, Government
agencies, or industry. Some persons
having only the bachelor’s degree
work as research assistants while
studying toward advanced degrees;
others, particularly those in Govern­
ment employment, receive on-thejob training in the application of
astronomical principles. New gradu­
ates having the doctorate can
usually qualify for college teaching
positions and for research positions
in educational institutions, Govern­
ment, and industry.
Young persons planning a career
in astronomy should have inquisi­
tive minds, imagination, and they
should like working with ideas. Per­
severance, the ability to concentrate
on detail and to work independently
also are important.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for as­
tronomers having the Ph. D. degree
are expected to be favorable
through the 1970’s. Well-qualified
persons with only bachelor’s or
master’s degrees in astronomy will
have favorable employment pros­
pects, primarily as research and
technical assistants. As in the past,
however, the higher level profes­
sional positions in astronomy will be
filled mainly by persons having the
The outlook is for a rapid growth
of this small profession through the
1970’s. However, because astron­
omy is a small profession, the num­
ber of job openings in any 1 year
will not be large. On the other hand,
because relatively few college stu­
dents are expected to receive ad­
vanced degrees in astronomy each
year, those who do should have
good employment opportunities.
Among the factors underlying the

expected increase in demand for as­
tronomers is the progress of the
space age— the age of rockets, mis­
siles, manmade earth satellites, and
space exploration. Astronomers will
be needed to analyze the data col­
lected by rockets and spacecraft.
They also will be needed to plan
and give direction to the astronomi­
cal observations that can only be
carried out by means of equipment
placed in space vehicles.
Increased research activities in
astronomy by educational institu­
tions, Government, and industry are
expected to add to the demand for
astronomers. In recent years, the
growth of Federal Governmentsponsored research, in the form of
grants to educational institutions
and observatories (for astronomical
research and for new buildings, ob­
servatories, and equipm ent), has
opened many new positions for as­

Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1970, beginning astronomers
having the Ph. D. were eligible to
enter Federal Government service at
a salary of $13,096 or $14,192 a
year, depending on their college
record. Astronomers having the
bachelor’s degree could start at
$8,292 or $10,258 a year; those hav­
ing a bachelor’s degree and some
graduate study could begin at
$10,258 or $11,526.
According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical
Personnel, the average (m edian) an­
nual salary of all astronomers hav­
ing the Ph. D. degree was $ 15,100 in
1970. Those with master’s degrees
averaged $13,100 and bachelor’s
$13,100 in 1970.
Some astronomers make visual



photographic or photoelectric ob­
servations at night. Others make ob­
servations only 4 or 5 nights each
month, or even only a few nights a
year, and study and analyze photo­
graphic plates, photoelectric trac­
ings, and other material during
usual daytime working hours. Ob­
servational work at a telescope in­
volves exposure to the outside air
through the open dome of the ob­
servatory, sometimes on cold winter
nights. In general, however, the
physical requirements of astronomi­
cal work can be met by a reasona­
bly healthy person.

occupations are employed in food
processing, this statement is con­
cerned with only the food scientist
or f o o d te c h n o lo g ist.
Food scientists investigate the
fundamental chemical, physical, and
biological nature of food and apply
this knowledge to processing, pre­
serving, and storing an adequate, nu­
tritious, and wholesome food sup­
ply. About two-fifths of all scientists
in food processing are employed in
basic or applied research, and de­
velopment. Others work in a quality
assurance laboratory, or in the

production or processing area of a
food plant. Some teach or do basic
research in colleges and universities.
Food scientists in basic research
study the structure and composition
of foods and their changes in proc­
essing or storage. For example,
they may be interested in develop­
ing new sources of proteins, study­
ing the effects of food processing on
microorganisms, or searching for
factors that affect the flavor, tex­
ture, or appearance of foods.
In applied research and develop­
ment, food scientists create new

Sources of Additional Information
General information on careers
in astronomy may be obtained
American Astronomical Society, 211
FitzRandolph Rd., Princeton, N.J.

Specific information on Federal
Government career opportunities
may be obtained from:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil
Service Examiners for Washing­
ton, D.C., 1900 E St. NW„ Wash­
ington, D.C. 20415.

(D.O.T. 022.081, 040.081, 041.081)

Nature of the Work
Someone has estimated that the
average family of four consumes
over 5,000 pounds of food a year.
In the past, most food processing
was done at home but today, almost
all food is processed by industry.
Although people in many different

Food scientist adds flavor to enhance product.

foods and develop processes for
new products. They also improve
existing foods by making them more
nutritious and enhancing their
flavor, color, or texture. They may
formulate an idea for a new product
or modify an existing item. The idea
is submitted to management and, if
accepted, a new research project is
The scientist must ensure that
each new product will retain its
characteristics and nutritive value
during storage. He also may con­
duct chemical and microbiological
tests to see that products meet both
industry and government standards.
Other food scientists test additives
for purity, investigate changes that
take place during processing or stor­
age, or develop mass-feeding meth­
ods for food service institutions.
Food scientists also maintain rec­
ords of their work and prepare re­
ports showing results of tests or ex­
Food scientists in quality control
laboratories check raw ingredients
to note freshness, maturity, or suita­
bility for processing. For example,
the product may be tested for ten­
derness by using machines that
gauge the amount of force necessary
to shear or puncture the item. Peri­
odically, they inspect processing­
line operations and perform chemi­
cal and bacteriological tests during
and after processing to insure con­
formity with established industry
and government standards. These
tests vary according to the product
and processing method. Canned
goods, for example, may be tested
for sugar, starch, protein, fat, and
mineral content. In a frozen food
plant, the scientist must determine
that various enzymes are inactive
after the product has been proc­
essed so that the food does not lose
its flavor during storage. Other sci­
entists are concerned with packag­


ing materials that maintain shelf life
and product stability.
Whether in research or quality
control, food scientists must be fa­
miliar with fundamental research
techniques and standard testing
equipment, such as vacuum gauges
and reflectance meters.
Food scientists in quality control
laboratories often supervise techni­
cians who assist in product testing.
(See statements on Food Processing
Food scientists engaged in pro­
duction and processing schedule
processing operations, prepare pro­
proper temperature and humidity in
storage areas, and supervise sanita­
tion, including the efficient and eco­
nomical disposal of wastes. Food
scientists are responsible for ways to
increase processing efficiency. For
example, they may advise manage­
ment on the purchase of equipment
and recommend new sources of

Places of Employment
Approximately 7,300 food sci­
entists were employed in the food
processing industry in 1970. Less
than 10 percent were women. Food
scientists are employed in all sectors
of the food industry and in every
State, particularly California, Illi­
nois, New York, Pennsylvania,
Texas, Ohio, N ew Jersey, Wisconsin,
Michigan, and Iowa.
Some food scientists are em­
ployed in research by Federal Gov­
ernment agencies such as the Food
and Drug Administration, and the
Departments of Agriculture and
Defense. A few are employed by
private consulting firms and interna­
tional organizations. Some teach or
do research in colleges and universi­

ties. (See statement on College and
University Teachers.)

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree with a major
in food science or one of the physi­
cal or life sciences such as chemistry
and biology is the usual minimum
educational requirement for a be­
ginning food scientist. Graduate
training is essential for many posi­
tions, particularly research and col­
lege teaching, and for many man­
agement level jobs in industry.
Nearly 40 colleges and universi­
ties throughout the U.S. offer train­
ing leading to the bachelor’s degree
in food science. Undergraduate
courses generally include food
chemistry, analysis, microbiology,
engineering, and processing. Under­
graduate courses include other
physical sciences such as physics
and mathematics, the social sciences
and humanities, and business ad­
Advanced degrees are offered by
most of those colleges and universi­
ties that provide undergraduate
food science programs. In graduate
school, students usually specialize in
a particular area of food science.
Requirements for the master’s or
doctor’s degree vary by institution,
but usually include laboratory work
and a thesis.
A food scientist with a bachelor’s
degree might start work in produc­
tion as a quality assurance chemist
or an assistant production manager.
After obtaining sufficient experi­
ence, the food scientist in produc­
tion could advance to more re­
sponsible management positions.
The scientist also might begin as a
junior food chemist in the applied
research and development labora­
tory of a food company and be



promoted to section head or other
research management positions.
Graduates who have a master’s
degree might begin as senior food
chemists in research and develop­
ment. Graduates who have the Ph.
D. probably would begin their ca­
reers doing basic research.
Young persons planning careers
as food scientists should like techni­
cal work and have analytical minds
oriented toward detail. Flexibility
and innovativeness are important in
meeting food needs for an expand­
ing population.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
graduates of food science programs
at all degree levels are expected to
be favorable through the 1970’s. In
addition to the scientists needed to
fill new positions, several hundred
will be needed -each year to replace
those who retire or die. Am ong the
factors underlying the anticipated
increase in requirements for food
scientists is an expanding population
that is demanding a greater variety

Food-service institutions that supply
outlets, such as airlines and restau­
rants, also require many types of
convenience foods. An increasing
number of scientists also will be re­
quired in research and product de­
velopment. Expenditures for re­
search and development in the food
industry have shown moderate in­
creases in recent years and probably
will continue to rise. Research could
produce new foods from modifica­
tions of wheat, corn, rice, and soy­
beans. For example, some of the
“meat” in the future will be manu­
factured to resemble beef, pork, and
chicken. Additional food scientists
will be needed in production and
quality control because of the com ­
plexity of products and processes
and the application of higher proc­
essing standards.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Inexperienced food science grad­
uates (and graduates of other scien­
tific disciplines) with a bachelor’s
degree had starting salaries of about

$760 per month in 1970, based on
limited data. Inexperienced gradu­
ates having the master’s degree av­
eraged about $940 per month, and
those having the Ph. D. degree,
about $1,200 per month.
The average (m edian) salary for
all food scientists was $16,000 in
1970, according to the National
Science Foundation’s National Reg­
ister of Scientific and Technical
Most food scientists work in
modern, well-lighted and ventilated
laboratories. However, food scien­
tists may face a slight hazard from
slippery floors in pilot or processing

Sources of Additional Information
Information on a variety of ca­
reers in food science, and a list of
schools offering programs in food
science may be obtained from :
The Institute of Food Technologists,
Suite 2120, 221 North LaSalle
Street, Chicago, Illinois 60601.

The performing arts include
music, acting, singing, and the
dance. In these fields, the number
of talented persons seeking employ­
ment generally greatly exceeds the
number of full-time positions availa­
ble. As a result, many performers
supplement their incomes by teach­
ing, and others work much of the
time in different types of occupa­
The difficulty of earning a living
as a performer is one of the facts
young persons should bear in mind
in considering an artistic career.
They should consider, therefore, the
possible advantages of making their
art a hobby rather than a profes­
sion. Aspiring young artists usually
must spend many years in intensive
training and practice before they are
ready for public performances.
They need not only great natural
talent but also determination, a will­
ingness to work long and hard, and
an overwhelming interest in their
chosen field.
The statements which follow this
introduction give detailed informa­
tion on musicians, singers, actors,
and dancers.

stage, television, and screen produc­
tions. Actors who have minor parts
in stage productions also may serve
as understudies for the principals. If
a leading player misses a perform­
ance, the understudy has a chance
to demonstrate his acting ability.

Only a few of the approximately
15,000 actors and actresses in the
States in
achieved recognition as stars— on
the stage, in motion pictures, or on
television or radio. A somewhat
larger number are well-known, ex­
perienced performers, who fre­
quently are cast in supporting roles.
However, most of these workers are
struggling for a toehold in the pro­
fession, and are glad to pick up
parts wherever they can.

Actors who prepare for roles ei­
ther on the stage, in television, or in
the movies spend many hours in re­
hearsal. They must memorize their
lines and know their cues. Radio ac­
tors typically read their parts. They
have to be especially skilled in ex­
pressing character and emotion
through the voice, since this is their
sole means of creating an imperson­
ation for their audience.

New actors generally start in
“bit” parts, where they speak only a
few lines. If successful, they may
progress to larger, supporting roles,
of which there are several in most

In addition to the actors with
speaking parts, “extras,” who have
no lines to deliver, are used in al­
most every motion picture and
many television shows and theatre

(D.O.T. 150.028 and 150.048)

Nature of the Work
Making a character come to life
before an audience is a job that has
great glamour and fascination. It is
also hard and demanding work that
requires special talent and involves
many difficulties and uncertainties.




productions. In spectacular produc­
tions, a large number of extras take
part in crowd scenes.
Some actors find alternative jobs
as dramatic coaches or become
directors of stage, television, radio,
or motion picture productions. A
few teach in schools of acting or in
the drama departments o f colleges
and universities.

Places of Employment
Stage plays, motion pictures (in­
cluding films made especially for
television), and commercials are
the largest fields of employment for
actors, although some are employed
by “live” television and radio.
In the winter, most employment
opportunities on the stage are in
New York and other large cities. In
the summer months, stock compa­
nies in suburban and resort areas
throughout the Nation provide
many opportunities for employ­
ment. In addition many cities now
have “little theaters,” repertory
companies and dinner theaters,
which provide opportunities for
local talent as well as for profes­
sional actors and actresses from
New York and other centers. Plays
that go “on the road,” moving from
city to city, are normally produced
in New York City with casts se­
lected there.
Although employment opportuni­
ties in motion pictures and film tele­
vision are centered in Hollywood, a
few studios are in New York City;
Miami, Fla.; and other parts of the
country. In addition, many films are
shot on location, providing employ­
ment for nonprofessionals who live
in the area as “extras.” A n increas­
ing number of American-produced
films are being shot in foreign coun­
tries. In live television and radio,
most opportunities for actors are at

the headquarters of the major net­
works— in New York, Los Angeles,
and, to a lesser extent, Chicago. A
few local television and radio sta­
tions occasionally employ actors.

Training and Other Qualifications
Young people aspiring to acting
careers should get as much acting
experience as possible by taking
part in high school and college
plays, or working with little theaters
and other acting groups in their
home towns.
Formal training in acting is in­
creasingly necessary. Such training
can be obtained at special schools of
the dramatic arts, located chiefly in
N ew York, and in over 500 colleges
and universities throughout the
country. College drama curriculums
usually include courses in liberal
arts, speech, pantomime, play pro­
duction, and the history of the
drama, as well as practical courses
in acting. From these, the student
develops an appreciation of the great
plays and a greater understanding of
the roles he may be called on to
play. Graduate degrees in the fine
arts or in drama are necessary for
college teaching positions.
Acting demands patience and
total commitment since aspiring ac­
tors and actresses must wait for
parts or filming schedules, must
work long hours, and often must do
much traveling. Flawless perform­
ances require long rehearsal sched­
ules and the tedious memorizing of
lines. The actor needs stamina to
withstand the heat of stage or studio
lights, or the adverse weather condi­
tions which may exist “on location.”
Above all, young persons planning a
career in acting must have talent
and the creative ability to portray
different characters. They must
have poise, stage presence, and ag­

gressiveness to project themselves
to the audience. At the same time,
the ability to follow directions is im­
In all media, the best way to start
is to use local opportunities and to
build on the basis of such experi­
ence. Many actors who are success­
ful in local dramatic productions
eventually try to appear on the New
York stage. Inexperienced actors
usually find it extremely difficult to
obtain employment in New York or
Hollywood. The motion picture
field is especially difficult to enter,
and employment often results from
previous experience on Broadway.
To become a movie extra, one
must usually be listed by Central
Casting, a no-fee agency which
works with the Screen Extras Guild
and supplies all extras to the major
movie studios in Hollywood. Appli­
cants are accepted only when the
number of people of a particular
type on the list— for example, ath­
letic young men, old ladies, or small
children— is below the foreseeable
need. In recent years, only a very
small proportion of the total num­
ber of applicants has succeeded in
being listed. Extras have very little,
if any, opportunity to advance to
speaking roles in the movies.
The length of an actor’s working
life depends largely on his skill and
versatility. Great actors and ac­
tresses can work almost indefinitely.
On the other hand, employment op­
portunities become increasingly lim­
ited by middle age, especially for
those who become typed in roman­
tic, youthful roles.

Employment Outlook
Overcrowding has
acting field for many
expected to persist.
mate theater and also

existed in the
years and it is
In the legiti­
in motion pic-

tures, radio, and television, numbers
of job applicants greatly exceed the
jobs available. Moreover, many ac­
tors are employed in their profes­
sion for only a small part of the
The development of motion pic­
tures, radio, and TV has greatly re­
duced employment opportunities for
actors in the theater. Although a
motion picture production may use
a very large number of actors, they
are employed only during filming
and the films are widely distributed
and may be used for years. Also,
the increasing number of Ameri­
can-produced films being shot in
foreign countries will reduce em­
ployment opportunities for Ameri­
can actors. Radio uses few actors.
The number of filmed TV dramas
and commercials using actors is in­
creasing, but not enough to offset
the decline in other media. More­
broadcast “taped” dramas rather
than live productions, and, like mo­
tion picture films, these tapes may
be widely distributed and used
many times.
One possibility for future growth
in the legitimate theater lies in the
establishment of year-round profes­
sional acting companies in more cit­
ies. The number of communities
with such acting groups is growing.
The recent growth of summer stock
companies, repertory companies,
and dinner theaters also has in­
creased employment. Further in­
creases also are likely in the em­
ployment of actors on television due
partly to the expanding Public
Broadcasting System and U H F sta­
tions. In addition, increased em­
ployment opportunities are ex­
pected as a result of the expanded
use of cable TV (pay T V ). Also,
the development and wider use in
the future of video cassettes will re­


sult in more employment opportuni­
In the acting field as a whole,
however, employment opportunities
are expected to change little
through the 1970’s. The number of
new entrants to the profession is ex­
pected to outnumber employment
opportunities. Even highly talented
young people are likely to face stiff
competition and economic diffi­
culties in the profession.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Actors and actresses employed in
the legitimate theater belong to the
Actors’ Equity Association. If em­
ployed in motion pictures, including
television films, they belong to the
Screen Actors Guild, Inc., or to the
Screen Extras Guild, Inc. If em­
ployed in television or radio, they
belong to the American Federation
of Television and Radio Artists.
These unions and the show produc­
ers sign basic collective bargaining
agreements which set minimum sal­
aries, hours of work, and other con­
ditions of employment. In addition,
each actor enters into a separate
contract which may provide for
higher salaries than those specified
in the basic agreement.
The minimum weekly salary for
actors in Broadway productions was
about $165 in 1970. Those appear­
ing in small “off-Broadway” the­
aters received a minimum of $75 a
week. For shows on the road, the
minimum rate was about $220 a
week. Earnings for rehearsal time
were about $165 a week in Broad­
way shows and much lower in small
“off-Broadway” theaters. (A ll mini­
mum salaries are automatically, by
union contract, adjusted upward
commensurate with increases in the
cost of living as reflected in the Bu­

reau of Labor Statistics Consumer
Price Index.)
Motion picture actors and ac­
tresses had a minimum daily rate of
$120 in 1970. For extras, the mini­
mum rate was about $33 a day. A c­
tors on network television received
a minimum program fee of about
$ 180 for a single half-hour program
and 10 hours of rehearsal time; ac­
tors on radio received about $50 for
a half-hour performance, including
one rehearsal hour. To encourage
more stable employment on radio
and TV, minimum guarantees for
those actors with contracts for a se­
ries of programs are sometimes dis­
counted below the single program
guaranteed fee. Because of the fre­
quent periods of unemployment
characteristic of this profession, an­
nual earnings may be low for many
of the lesser known performers. In
all fields, many well-known actors
and actresses have salary rates
above the minimums. Salaries of the
few top stars are many times the fig­
ures cited.
Eight performances amount to a
week’s work on the legitimate
stage, and any additional perform­
ances are paid for as overtime. The
basic workweek after the opening of
a show is 36 hours, including 12
hours for rehearsals. Before the
opening, however, the workweek
usually is longer to allow enough
time for rehearsals. Evening work
is, of course, a regular part of a
stage actor’s life. Rehearsals may be
held late at night and on weekends
and holidays. When plays are on the
road, traveling over the weekend
often is necessary.
Most actors are covered by a
pension fund and a growing number
have hospitalization insurance to
which their employers contribute.
All equity members have paid vaca­
tions and sick leave. Most stage ac­
tors get little if any unemployment



compensation solely from acting,
since they seldom have enough em­
ployment in any State to meet the
quently, when a show closes, they
often have to take any casual work
obtainable while waiting for another

(D.O.T. 151.028 and 151.048)

Nature of the Work
Dancing is an ancient and world­
wide art, having many different
forms. Professional dancers may
perform in classical ballet or mod­
ern dance, in dance adaptations for
musical shows, in folk dances, or in
tap and other popular kinds of
dancing. In the classical ballet,
movements are based on certain
conventional or styled “positions,”
and women dance “en pointe” (on
the tips of their to es). In the mod­
em dance, movements are much
more varied but are nonetheless
carefully planned and executed to
follow a pattern.
In dance productions, the per­
formers most often work together as
a chorus. However, a group of se­
lected dancers may do special num­
bers, and a very few top artists do
solo work.
M any dancers combine teaching
with their stage work or teach full
time in schools of the dance or in
colleges and universities. The few
dancers who becom e choreogra­
phers create new ballets or dance
routines. Others are dance directors
who train dancers in new produc­
(This statement does not include

instructors of ballroom and other
social dancing.)

Places of Employment
In 1970, there were approxi­
mately 2 3 ,000 dancers and dancing
teachers in the United States. More
than half of this number were teach­
ers employed at schools of the
dance and in other schools and col­

leges. Most of the other dancers
were performers on the stage,
screen, and television. A few teach­
ers trained in dance therapy were
employed by hospitals to work in
the treatment of mental disorders.
About 90 percent of all dancers are
women, but in some types of dance,
particularly ballet and modern,
women constitute about one-half of
the performers.
Dancing teachers are located


chiefly in large cities, but many
smaller cities and towns have
schools of the dance. New York
City is the hub for the majority of
performing dancers; others are situ­
ated in most large cities.

Training and Other Qualifications
Serious training for a dancing ca­
reer traditionally begins by age 12
or earlier. For example, girls wish­
ing to become ballet dancers should
begin taking lessons at the age of 7
or 8. From 2 to 3 years of prior
preparation is needed before the
young girl should start dancing “en
pointe.” Professional training in
ballet typically takes from 10 to 12
lessons a week for 11 or 12 months
in the year and many additional
hours of practice. The length of the
training period depends on the stu­
dent’s ability and physical develop­
ment, but most dancers have their
professional audition by age 17 or
The selection of a professional
dancing school is important for two
reasons. First, the school must use
expert judgment in setting the pace
of training, since too early and too
severe exercise can permanently
damage the legs and feet. Second, the
school’s connections with producers
may help the students in obtaining
Because of the strenuous training
program in the professional schools,
the general education received by
students in these schools may not
exceed the legal minimum. How­
ever, a dancer’s education should
include subjects such as music, liter­
ature, and history to aid him in his
interpretation of dramatic episodes
and music.
About 2 0 0 colleges and universi­
ties confer bachelor’s degrees on
students who have either majored

in physical education and concen­
trated on the dance, majored in a
dance program designed to prepare
students to teach dance, or majored
in a dance program designed to pre­
pare students as professional dance
artists. Some of these schools also
give graduate degrees.
A college education is an advan­
tage in obtaining employment as a
teacher of- professional dancing or
choreography. However, dancers
who postpone their first audition for
openings in classical ballet until
graduation may compete at a disad­
vantage with younger dancers.
A teaching position in profes­
sional schools usually requires expe­
rience as a performer; in colleges
and conservatories graduate degrees
are generally required, but experi­
ence as a performer often may be
substituted. Maturity and a broad
educational background are also im­
portant for teaching positions.
The dancer’s life is one of rigor­
ous practice, perfecting of the art,
and self-discipline. Good health and
physical stamina are necessary, both
to keep in good condition and to
follow the rugged travel schedule
imposed on many dancers.
Height and body build should not
vary much from the average. Good
feet and normal arches are also re­
quired. Above all, one must have a
natural aptitude for dancing, a cre­
ative ability to express oneself
through dance.
Seldom does a dancer perform
unaccompanied. Therefore, young
persons considering a dancing ca­
reer should be able to function as
part of a team. They also should be
prepared to face the anxiety of un­
stable working conditions brought
on by show closings, audition fail­
ures, and the like.
For women dancers, employment
in ballet companies is very difficult
to obtain after the age of 30, except

for outstanding stars. Women past
25 are rarely hired for Broadway
shows unless they have already had
experience in such productions.
Men who are ballet dancers, and
men and women who perform in
modern dance productions, can usu­
ally continue somewhat longer.
After the employable age as per­
formers has passed, some dancers
teach in colleges or conservatories,
or establish their own schools. The
few who become choreographers or
dance directors can continue work­
ing as long as persons would in most
other occupations.

Employment Outlook
Opportunities in this field will be
limited both by the small number of
full-time jobs available and the rela­
tively large supply of applicants
seeking full-time work. The supply
of trained dancers has exceeded the
demand for many years. The irregu­
lar employment that has persisted
for many years is expected to con­
tinue despite a few recent unionmanagement contracts aimed at
guaranteeing some dancers full or
near-full employment each year.
Among the factors affecting demand
are the decline in the total number
of stage productions because of
competition from motion pictures
and television. Few stage shows run
more than 26 weeks and many
“fold” after the first week.
On the other hand, the number of
shows being produced is increasing,
and there is a growing trend toward
using professional dancers at in­
dustrial exhibitions, such as auto
shows. Also, some new professional
dance companies are being devel­
oped around the country, and tele­
vision will offer some additional em­
ployment opportunities. Civic and
community dance groups are in­



creasing in number, and opportuni­
ties for dancers will expand as these
develop into professional groups.
Nevertheless, employment oppor­
tunities for dance performers will
remain limited, and most of the
openings for dancers in the years
ahead will stem from the need to re­
place those who leave the field.
The employment outlook for
dancers who have the personal and
educational qualifications for teach­
ing will be much better than for
those trained only as performers.
The growing interest in the dance as
one of the fine arts is contributing to
the demand for teachers of dancing.
The increase in college enrollments
will be another factor which will
tend to enlarge teaching opportuni­
ties. (See statement on “College
and University Teachers.” )
Men dancers face less competi­
tion for employment than do
women dancers, since fewer men
than women seek dancing as a ca­

Earnings and Working Conditions
Dancers who perform profession­
ally are members of one of the un­
ions affiliated with the Associated
Actors and Artists of America
(A F L -C IO ). Dancers who perform
in opera ballets, classical ballet, and
the m odem dance belong to the
American Guild of Musical Artists,
Inc.; those who perform on televi­
sion belong to the American Feder­
ation of Television and Radio Art­
ists; and those who appear in musi­
cal comedies join Actors’ Equity
Association. Dancers may also be
members of other unions, depend­
ing upon the field in which they per­
form. (See statement on Singers and
Singing Teachers.) Minimum salary
rates, hours of work, and other con­
ditions of employment are specified

in basic agreements signed by the
unions and the producers. The sep­
arate contract signed by each danc­
er with the producer of the show
may be more favorable than the
basic agreement regarding salary,
hours of work, and working condi­
The minimum salary for dancers
in ballet and other stage productions
was about $155 a week in 1970.
The minimum rate for rehearsal
time was about $135 a week. Danc­
ers performing on tour receive a
small allowance to defray the cost
of room and board. The rate of per
diem in 1970 was $11. The em­
ployer pays the cost of transporta­
tion. If a dancer signs a contract for
a brief appearance in a perform­
ance on television or a few days’
work in a movie, the minimum rate
is higher, relative to time worked.
However, this difference is offset by
the brevity of the engagement and
the long period likely to be spent
waiting for the next one. A few per­
formers, of course, have much
higher salaries.
Some dancers qualified to teach
in schools of the ballet are able to
combine this work with engage­
ments as performers. A much
greater number of dancers have to
supplement their incomes by other
types of work.
Salaries of teachers in the techni­
cal schools of the ballet vary with
the location and prestige of the
school. Dancers employed as teach­
ers in colleges and universities are
paid on the same basis as other fac­
ulty members. (See statement on
“College and University Teach­
ers.” )
The normal workweek is 30
hours spent in rehearsals and mati­
nee and evening performances.
Extra compensation is paid for
hours worked outside the normal
workweek. Most stage perform­

ances take place, of course, in the
evening, and rehearsals may require
very long hours, often on weekends
and holidays. When shows are on
the road, traveling over the week­
end is often required.
Dancers are entitled to some paid
sick leave and various health and
welfare benefits provided by their
unions, to which the employers con­

Sources of Additional Information
Information on colleges and uni­
versities and conservatories of
music which give a major in the
dance or some courses in the dance,
and details on the types of courses
and other pertinent information
may be obtained from the Dance
Directory, compiled by the Ameri­
can Association for Health, Physical
Education and Recreation, a divi­
sion of the National Educational
Association, 1201 16th St. NW .,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
Information on wages and work­
ing conditions may be obtained
American Guild of Musical Artists,
1841 Broadway, New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 152.028 and 152.048; 090.168;
091.168; and 092.228)

Nature of the Work
Professional musicians— whether
they play in a symphony orchestra,
dance band, rock group, or “jazz
com bo”— generally have behind
them many years of study and in-


tensive practice. A s a rule, musi­
cians specialize in either popular or
classicial music; only a few play
both types professionally.
Musicians who specialize in pop­
ular music usually play the trum­
pet, trombone, clarinet, saxophone,
organ, or one of the “rhythm” in­
struments— the piano, string bass,
drums, or guitar. Dance bands play
in nightclubs, restaurants, and at
special parties. The best known
bands, jazz groups, rock groups,
and solo performers sometimes give
concerts and perform on television.
Musicians specializing in classical

music play in opera and theater or­
chestras, symphony orchestras, and
for other kinds of performances re­
quiring orchestral accompaniments.
The instruments played by most of
these musicians are the strings,
brass, and wood winds. Some form
small groups— usually a string quar­
tet or a trio— to give concerts of
chamber music.
Many pianists accompany vocal
or instrumental soloists or choral
groups or provide background
music in restaurants or other places.
Most organists play in churches,
often directing the choir. A few ex­

ceptionally brilliant musicians be­
come well-known concert artists.
They give their own concerts and
appear as soloists with symphony
orchestras. Both classical and popu­
lar musicians often make record­
ings, either individually or as mem­
bers of a group.
A very high proportion of all mu­
sicians teach in the Nation’s schools
and colleges. These teachers may be
members of the faculty of music
schools or conservatories or of col­
leges which offer instruction in in­
strumental and vocal music. Some
are music teachers in elementary or
secondary schools where they direct
vocal and instrumental music pro­
grams, teach general classroom
music appreciation, and give group
instruction on an instrument. Pri­
vate lessons are given by many
teachers employed by school sys­
tems, and by performing musicians,
either in their own studios or in
pupils’ homes.
A few musicians work in the field
of music therapy in hospitals, and in
music libraries.

Places of Employment
About 210,000 musicians and
music teachers were employed in
1970. Most professional musicians
who perform work in cities, where
the Nation’s entertainment and re­
cording activities are concentrated
such as New York, Chicago, Los
Angeles, Nashville, Miami Beach,
and New Orleans. Music teachers in
elementary and secondary schools,
as well as in colleges and universi­
ties, are employed all over the
country. Moreover, almost every
town and city has at least one pri­
vate music teacher. Dance bands
and civic orchestras also are located
in many communities, although in
the smaller towns, their members


usually are part-time musicians with
other regular jobs.
In addition to the people primar­
ily employed as musicians or music
teachers, thousands of qualified in­
strumentalists have other full-time
jobs and only occasionally work as
musicians. Most of these part-time
musicians belong to dance bands,
which are hired to play at private
parties or for special occasions.
Others, with a background in classi­
cal music, play occasionally in an
orchestra, become conductors or
composers, or do some part-time

Training and Other Qualifications
Most people who become profes­
sional musicians begin studying an
instrument at an early age. To
achieve a career as a performer or
as a music teacher, young people
training— either
through private study with an ac­
complished musician, in a college
or university which has a strong
music program, or in a conservatory
of music. They need to acquire not
only great technical skill but also a
thorough knowledge of music, and
they must learn how to interpret
music. Before a young person can
qualify for advanced study in a
music conservatory or in a college
or university school of music, an au­
dition frequently is necessary. Many
teachers in these schools are accom­
plished artists who will train only
promising young musicians.
Over 550 conservatories of music
and college and university schools
of music offer 4-year programs
leading to a bachelor’s degree in
music education. Students who
complete these programs can qual­
ify for the State certificate required
for elementary
and secondary
school positions. Conservatories and

collegiate music schools also fre­
quently award the degree of bache­
lor of music to students who major
in instrumental or vocal music. The
4-year program leading to either of
these degrees provides not only
training as a performer but also a
broad background in musical his­
tory and theory, together with some
liberal arts courses. Advanced de­
grees usually are required for col­
lege teaching positions, but excep­
tions may be made for especially
well-qualified artists.
Musicians who play jazz and
other popular music must have an
understanding of and feeling for
that style of music, but skill and
training in classical styles may ex­
pand their employment opportuni­
ties. As a rule, they take lessons
with private teachers when young,
and seize every opportunity to play
in amateur or professional perform­
ances. Some groups of young people
form their own small dance bands
or rock groups. As they gain experi­
ence and become known, the play­
ers may have opportunities to audi­
tion for other local bands, and, still
later, for the better known bands
and orchestras.
Young persons considering ca­
reers in music should have both mu­
sical talent and creative ability.
They should also have poise and
stage presence for facing large au­
diences. Since quality of performance
requires constant study and prac­
tice, self-discipline is vital. More­
over, musicians must have the
stamina for considerable travel in
meeting concert and nightclub en­
gagements, as well as rugged time
schedules, often including long night

Employment Outlook
A s a field of employment, music

performance has been overcrowded
for many years, and it is expected to
remain so through the 1970’s. Op­
portunities for concerts and recitals
are not numerous enough to provide
adequate employment for all the pi­
anists, violinists, and other instru­
mentalists qualified as concert art­
ists. Competition is usually keen for
positions which afford some stability
of employment— for example, jobs
with major orchestras and teaching
positions in conservatories and col­
leges and universities. Because of
the ease with which a musician can
enter private music teaching, the
number of music teachers has been
more than sufficient to give instruc­
tion to all the young people seeking
lessons, and will probably continue
to be. Although many opportunities
can be expected for single and
short-term engagements, playing
popular music in night clubs, the­
aters, and other places, the supply
of qualified musicians seeking such
jobs is likely to remain greater than
the demand. On the other hand,
first-class, experienced accompa­
nists and well-trained, outstanding
players of stringed instruments are
likely to remain relatively scarce;
and public school systems will prob­
ably continue to need more fully
qualified music teachers and super­
Employment opportunities for
performers are expected to increase
slightly over the long run. Although
the number of civic orchestras in
smaller communities has been grow­
ing steadily, many of these orches­
tras provide only part-time employ­
ment for musicians who work
chiefly as teachers or in other occu­
pations. Moreover, the openings
created by the establishment of
these orchestras have been more
than offset by the decline in oppor­
tunities in the theater, radio, motion
pictures, and other places; this has


resulted, in part, from the greatly
increased use of recorded music.
Some additional employment op­
portunities are expected to result
from the expanded use of cable
TV (pay T V ). Also, the devel­
opment and wider use, in the future,
of video cassettes will result in some
employment opportunities.
The employment outlook in
music education for people who are
qualified as teachers as well as mu­
sicians is better than for those quali­
fied as performers only. The num­
ber of schools with music programs
is growing and interest in music as
an avocation also is rising. Thus,
over the long run, an increase can
be expected in the employment of
elementary and secondary school
music teachers and also in the
teaching staffs of college and uni­
versity music schools and conserva­
tories of music.

Earnings and Working Conditions
The amount received for a per­
formance by either classical or pop­
ular musicians depends to a large
extent on their professional repu­
tations. Musicians who were mem­
bers of 1 of the 28 major symphony
orchestras in the United States had
minimum salaries ranging from
about $5,100 to $16,500 a year in
1970 according to the American
Symphony Orchestras League, Inc.
Six orchestras— New York, Boston,
Philadelphia, Cleveland, Cincinnati,
and Chicago— have year-round sea­
sons and minimum salaries ranging
from $10,900 to $16,500. The re­
maining 22 orchestras have seasons
ranging from 32 to 49 weeks. In­
strumentalists who were members
of small ensembles reportedly re­
ceived as much as $200 a concert.
Those who played in dance bands
were paid from $60 to $300 a week

in 1970, according to the limited in­
formation available.
The salaries of public school
music teachers are determined by
the salary schedule adopted for all
teachers. (See statements on Ele­
mentary and Secondary School
However, they fre­
quently supplement their earnings
by giving private music lessons and
taking church positions. Earnings
from private lessons are uncertain
and vary according to the musician’s
reputation, the number of teachers
in the locality, the number of stu­
dents desiring lessons, and the eco­
nomic status of the community.
Musicians who are performers
customarily work at night and on
weekends. They must also spend
considerable time in regular daily
practice and in rehearsal of new
Many musicians, primarily those
employed by symphony orchestras,
work under master wage agree­
ments, which guarantee them a sea­
son’s work lasting up to 52 weeks.
Musicians in other areas, however,
may face relatively long periods of
unemployment between jobs and,
thus, the overall level of their earn­
ings generally is lower than that of
many other occupations. Moreover,
they do not usually work steadily
for one employer. Consequently,
some performers cannot qualify for
unemployment compensation, and
few have either sick leave or vaca­
tions with pay.
Most musicians who play profes­
sionally belong to the American Fed­
eration of Musicians (A F L -C IO ).
Concert soloists also belong to the
American Guild of Musicial Artists,
Inc. (A F L -C IO ).

Sources of Additional Information
Information about wages, hours

of work, and working conditions for
professional musicians is available
American Federation of Musicians
(AFL-CIO), 641 Lexington Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10022.

Information about the require­
ments for certification of organists
and choir masters may be secured
American Guild of Organists, 630
Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y.

A list of accredited schools of
music is available from:
National Association of Schools of
Music, One Dupont Circle, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Further information about music
teaching in elementary and second­
ary schools is available from :
Music Educators National Confer­
ence, The National Education As­
sociation, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 152.048 and .028; 090.168;
091.168; and 092.228)

Nature of the Work
Professional singing is an art that
usually requires not only a fine
voice but also a highly developed
technique and a broad knowledge of
music. A small number of singing
stars make recordings or go on
concert tours in the United States
and abroad. Somewhat larger num­
bers of singers obtain leading or
supporting roles in operas and pop­
ular music shows, or secure en­
gagements as solists in oratorios and
other types of performances. Most


professional singers of classical
music are soloists in churches or syn­
agogues. Some singers also become
members of opera and musical com­
edy choruses or other professional
choral groups. Popular music sing­
ers perform in musical shows of all
kinds— in the movies, on the stage,
on radio and television, and in
nightclubs and other entertainment
places. The best known popular
music singers make and sell many

where they are qualified to teach
general music courses and lead cho­
ruses. Others give voice training or
direct choral groups in churches, in
music conservatories, or in colleges
and universities with schools or de­
partments of music.

Places of Employment
In 1970, about 75,000 people
were employed as professional sing­
ers or singing teachers. Opportuni­
ties for singing engagements are
mainly in New York City, Los A n­
geles, and Chicago— the Nation’s
chief entertainment centers. Nash­
ville, Tenn., a major center for
country and western music, is one
of the most important places for
employment of singers for both
“live” performances and recordings.
Persons trained as singers who
teach music in elementary and sec­
ondary schools, colleges, universi­
ties, and conservatories of music are
employed throughout the country.
Many singers are employed part
time, chiefly as church singers and
choir masters.

Training and Other Qualifications

Since most singers of both classi­
cal and popular music have only
part time or irregular employment
as singers, they often have full-time
jobs of other types and sing only in
the evenings or on weekends. Some
give private voice lessons. A num­
ber of singers are employed in ele­
mentary and secondary schools,

Young persons who want to per­
as singers
should acquire a broad background
in music, including its theory and
history. The ability to dance may be
helpful, since singers are sometimes
required to dance. In addition,
those interested in a singing career
should start piano lessons at an
early age. As a rule, voice training
should not begin until after the indi­
vidual has matured physically, al­
though young boys who sing in
church choirs receive some training
before their voices change. More­
over, because of the work and ex­

pense involved in voice training—
which often continues for years
after the singer’s professional career
has started— it is important that a
prospective singer have great deter­
mination. It is also important to au­
dition before a competent voice
teacher to decide whether profes­
sional training is warranted.
Young people can prepare for ca­
reers as singers of classical music by
enrolling in a music conservatory,
or a school or department of music
connected with a college or univer­
sity, or by taking private voice les­
sons. These schools provide not
only voice training, but other train­
ing necessary for understanding and
interpreting music, including mu­
sic-related training in foreign lan­
guages and sometimes dramatic
training. After completing a 4-year
course of study, a graduate may be
awarded either the degree of bache­
lor of music, bachelor of science or
arts (in m usic), or bachelor of fine
Young singers who plan to teach
music in public elementary or sec­
ondary schools need at least a bach­
elor’s degree with a major in music
education and must meet the State
certification requirements for teach­
ers. Such training is available in
over 550 colleges and universities
throughout the country. College
teachers usually are required to
have a master’s degree and some­
times a doctor’s degree, but excep­
tions may be made for especially
well-qualified artists.
Although voice training is an
asset for singers of popular music,
many with untrained voices have
had successful careers. The typical
popular song does not demand that
the voice be developed to cover as
wide a range on the musical scale as
does classical music, and the lack of
voice projection may be overcome
by using a microphone.


Young singers of popular songs
may become known by participating
in amateur and paid performances
in their communities. These engage­
ments may lead to employment with
local dance bands and possibly later
with better known ones.
In addition to musical ability,
perseverance, an outstanding per­
sonality, an attractive appearance,
and good contacts, good luck often
is required to achieve a singing ca­
reer. Singers also may be required
to have stamina for traveling to con­
cert and night club engagements.
They must be able to adapt to rigor­
ous time schedules, often working
night hours.

Employment Outlook
The employment situation for
singers will probably remain highly
competitive through the 1970’s.
Competition among popular singers
will continue to be especially keen.
A great number of short-term jobs
are expected in the entertainment
field— the opera and concert stage,
movies, theater, nightclubs, radio
and television, dance bands, and
other places— but not enough to
provide steady employment for all
qualified singers.
Little growth in overall employ­
ment opportunities for singers is
likely over the long run. The use of
recorded music has practically re­
placed the “live” singer on radio;
also, the number of television per­
formances given by singers is lim­
ited, although it may increase in fu­
ture years. However, there is a
growing demand for singers to
record popular music and commer­
cials for both radio and television
advertising. Some additional em­
ployment opportunities are ex­
pected from the expanded use of
cable TV (pay T V ). Also, the

development and wider use in the
future of video cassettes will result
in more employment opportunities.
The outlook for singers who can
meet State certification require­
ments for positions as music teach­
ers, or who can qualify for college
teaching, will be considerably better
than for performers. The demand
for music teachers in the Nation’s
elementary and secondary schools is
expected to grow, and some in­
creased employment of music teach­
ers can be expected in colleges and
universities. In addition, music
teachers will be needed to replace
those who will transfer to other
fields of work, retire, or die.
A singing career is sometimes rel­
atively short, since it depends on a
good voice and public acceptance of
the artist, both of which may be af­
fected by age. Due to these circum­
stances, singers may be subject to
unstable employment conditions
and the pressure of unreliable finan­
cial circumstances.

Singers generally work at night
and on weekends. School teachers
have regular working hours; private
voice teachers often give lessons
after school or business hours or on
weekends. Work in the entertain­
ment field is seasonal and few per­
formers have steady jobs.
Singers who perform profession­
ally usually belong to one branch or
another of the AFL-CIO union, the
Associated Actors and Actresses of
America. Singers who perform on
the concert stage or in opera belong
to the American Guild of Musical
Artists, Inc.; those who sing on radio
or television or who make phono­
graph recordings are members of the
American Federation of Television
and Radio Artists; singers in the
variety and night club field belong
to the American Guild of Variety
Artists; those who sing in musical
comedy and operettas belong to the
Actors’ Equity Association; and
those who sing in the movies belong
to the Screen Actors Guild, Inc.

Earnings and Working Conditions

Sources of Additional Information

Except for a few well-known con­
cert soloists, opera stars, top re­
cording artists of popular music,
and some singers regularly em­
ployed by dance bands and the m o­
tion picture industry, most profes­
sional singers experience difficulty
in obtaining regular employment
and have to supplement their sing­
ing incomes by doing other types of
The salaries of public school
music teachers are determined by
the salary schedule adopted for all
teachers in their school system. The
fees that private music teachers
charge depend on the teacher’s rep­
utation, the economic status of the
families in the community, and
other factors.

schools and departments of music
may be obtained from:
National Association of Schools of
Music, One Dupont Circle, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Further information about music
teaching in elementary and second­
ary schools is available from :
Music Educators National Confer­
ence, The National Education As­
sociation, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

Information concerning salary
and working conditions in opera
and concert fields is available from:
American Guild of Musical Artists,
1841 Broadway, New York, N.Y.

(D.O.T. 141.031 and .081, 970.281 and
.381, and 979.381)

Nature of the Work
A team of commerical artists
often creates the artwork in news­
papers and magazines and on bill­
boards, brochures, catalogs, and
television commericals. The art
director supervises this team of art­
ists having varying skills and special­
izations. H e may develop the art as­
pects of an advertising plan which
he turns over to a layout man for
further refinement. The la y o u t a rtist
constructs or arranges elements of
the advertisement, selects and lays
out illustrations, photographs, and
typography, and determines color
and other elements of design. He
then prepares a “rough visual” or
sketch. After consulting with the

director, he may change the visual
and complete a more comprehen­
sive layout for the customer.
Working with the layout man in
turning out the finished product are
a variety of specialists, including
T en derers, who make rough magic
marker drawings; le tte re rs , who ex­
ecute appropriate lettering either
freehand or with mechanical aids;
illu stra to rs, who sketch and draw in
more finished form; and p a s te -u p
and m e c h a n ic a l m e n , who cut and
paste basic parts of the advertise­
ment or other artwork by using a
ruling pen and other drafting tools.
g e n e ra l
b o a r d m e n , spend nearly all their
time at the drawing board perform­
ing many of these specializations.
Often supporting the general boardmen or other specialists are appren­
tices, who primarily do routine jobs
such as separating colors and cut­
ting mats.
In a small office, the art director

may perform the layout and boardwork with the aid of apprentices. In
a large bffice, the art director devel­
ops concepts with the copywriter;
sets standards; deals with clients;
and purchases needed photographs,
illustrations, lettering, and other art
work from freelancers or art services.
Advertising artists create the con­
cept and artwork for a wide variety
of promotional items or “collateral
material” including direct mail ad­
vertising, catalogs, and counter dis­
plays to supplement newspaper and
magazine ads or television commer­
cials. They also prepare slides, film
strips, and other visual aids.
Commercial artists also create
the formats of magazines and other
publications, by designing or laying
out the editorial pages and features
and producing or purchasing the
necessary illustrations or artwork.
Some commercial artists specialize
in fashion illustrations, greeting
cards, book illustrations, or in tech­
nical drawings for industry.

Places of Employment

(H i,


An estimated 60,000 commercial
artists were employed in 1970;
about two-fifths were women. Most
commercial artists were employed
in big cities, such as New York and
Chicago, where the largest users of
commercial art are to be found.
Some, however, are employed in
nearly every city.
Most commercial artists are paid
a regular salary as staff artists by
advertising agencies, commercial art
studios, advertising departments of
large companies, printing and pub­
lishing firms, textile companies,
television and motion picture stu­
dios, department stores, and a vari­
ety of other business organizations.
Many work as freelance artists, sell­
ing their artwork to any customer
— chiefly to the same types of or­
ganizations that employ salaried art-

ists. Some salaried commercial art­
ists also do freelance work in their
spare time. A number of commer­
cial artists work for Federal G ov­
ernment agencies, principally in the
Defense Department. A few teach
in art schools.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Artistic ability and good taste are
the most important qualifications
for success in commercial art, but it
is essential that these qualities be
developed by specialized training in
the techniques of commercial and
applied art. In addition, education
in the fine arts— painting, sculpture,
or architecture— and in academic
studies provides a good foundation
for obtaining employment in com­
mercial art and may be essential for
The most widely accepted train­
ing for commercial art is the in­
struction given in art schools or in­
stitutes that specialize in commer­
cial and applied art. To enter art
school, a high school education usu­
ally is required. Some schools admit
only applicants who submit accepta­
ble work samples. The course of
study, which may include some aca­
demic work, generally takes 2 or 3
years, and a certificate is awarded
on graduation. A growing number
of art schools, particularly those in
or connected with universities, re­
quire 4 years or more of study and
confer a bachelor’s degree— com­
monly the bachelor of fine arts
(B .F .A .). In these schools, com ­
mercial art instruction is supple­
mented by liberal arts courses, such
as English and history. Limited
training in commercial art also may
be obtained through public voca­
tional high schools, private homestudy schools, and practical experi­


ence on the job, but supplemental
training usually is needed for ad­
The first year in art school may
be devoted primarily to the study of
fundamentals— perspective, design,
color harmony, composition— and
to the use of pencil, crayon, pen
and ink, and other art media. Sub­
sequent study, generally more spe­
cialized, includes drawing from life,
advertising design, graphic design,
lettering, typography, illustrations,
and other courses in the student’s
particular field of interest. Artistic
judgment, imagination, and ability
to visualize ideas on paper are basic
requirements for a successful career
in commercial art.
The various specialties, however,
differ in some of the specific abili­
ties required. For example, letterers
and retouchers must do precise and
detailed work requiring excellent
coordination, whereas illustrators
and designers need imagination, a
distinctive art style, and, in most
cases, the ability to draw well. Some
experience with photography, ty­
pography, and printing production
is useful in art direction or design.
Freelance commercial artists must
sell both ideas and finished work to
clients. A knowledge of type specifi­
cations and printing production is
very helpful. Also, a business sense
and responsibility in meeting dead­
lines are assets. Art directors need a
strong educational background in
art and business practices and the
liberal arts. Advertising art directors
require a special kind of creativity
— the ability to conceive ideas that
will stimulate the sale of the clients’
products or services.
Beginning commercial artists usu­
ally need some on-the-job training
to qualify for other than strictly rou­
tine work. Advancement is based
largely on the individual’s artistic
talent, creative ability, and educa­

tion. After considerable experience,
may commercial artists leave sala­
ried employment for freelance
work. Most illustrators are freelanc­
ers; many of them have an agent.
Commercial artists usually as­
semble their best artwork into a
“portfolio,” to display their work. A
good portfolio is essential in obtain­
ing initial employment and free­
lance assignments as well as in
changing jobs.

Employment Outlook
Employment and advancement
opportunities for talented and welltrained commercial artists in most
kinds of work are expected to be fa­
vorable through the 1970’s. Young
people having only average ability
and little specialized training, how­
ever, probably will encounter com ­
petition for beginning jobs and will
have limited opportunity for ad­
Employment of commercial art­
ists through the 1970’s is expected
to increase slowly primarily as a re­
sult of the upward trend in business
expenditures for visual advertising.
This demand includes television
graphics, packing design, poster and
window displays, and greeting
cards. In addition, the expanding
field of industrial design is expected
to require more qualified artists to
do three-dimensional work with en­
gineering concepts. (See statement
on Industrial Designers.) In addition
to openings that result from growth,
some employment opportunities will
arise each year from the need to re­
place commercial artists who retire
or leave the field for other reasons.
The demand for commercial art­
ists will continue to vary with the
specialization: For example, de­
mand for pasteup and mechanical
artists is expected to increase


slightly. Jobs for designers, art
directors, and layout men are fewer,
much sought after, and open only to
experienced, highly talented, and
creative artists. Fewer staff positions
are expected as a result of increased
use of highly skilled freelance artists
for specialized jobs.

Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1970, beginning commercial
artists having no training beyond
vocational high school typically
earned from $70 to $75 a week;
graduates of 2-year professional
schools generally received from $80
to $85 a week; and graduates of 4year post-high school programs typ­
ically received $85 to $100 a week,
according to the limited data availa­
ble. Talented artists having strong
educational backgrounds and a
good portfolio, however, sometimes
started at higher salaries. After a
few years of experience, qualified
artists may expect to earn $125 to
$175 a week or more. Art directors,
designers, executives, well-known
freelance illustrators, and others in
top positions generally have much
higher earnings, from $15,0 0 0 to
$20,000 a year or more.
Earnings of freelance artists have
an especially wide range, since they
are affected by factors such as skill
level, variety, and popularity of
work, which ultimately effects the
amount and price of artwork sold.
In 1970, a freelancer received from
$25 for a single black and white
fashion sketch to $750 for a figure
in full color with a background;
from $1 ,000 to $ 2,000 for a color
cover for a national magazine; or
from $75 to $300 for a book jacket
or record album. Freelance artists
may be paid by the hour or by the
assignment. Experienced pasteup

and mechanical artists may earn at
least $4 to $8 an hour.
Salaried commercial artists gen­
erally work 35 to 40 hours a week,
but sometimes they must work addi­
tional hours and under a considera­
ble amount of pressure in order to
meet deadlines. Freelance artists
usually have irregular working

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities in commer­
cial art may be obtained from :
National Art Education Association,
National Education Association,
1201 16th St. NW„ Washington,
D.C. 20036.

product may be used. Then, he
sketches a variety of possible de­
signs, which are examined by vari­
ous departments. For example, the
designer consults his company’s en­
gineers, production supervisors, and
sales and market research staffs for
their opinions on the practicability
of producing a newly designed
product, or changing the design of
an old product, as well as the sales
potential of the proposed designs.
After the most suitable design is se­
lected by company officials, a model
may be made by the designer. The
first model of a new design is often
made of clay so that it can be al­
tered easily to reflect modifications.
The final or working model is usu­
ally made of the material to be used
in the finished product. If the model
is approved in this form, it is put
into production.

(D.O.T. 142.081)

Nature of the Work
technical knowledge of materials,
machines, and methods of produc­
tion with artistic talent to improve
the appearance and functional de­
sign of machine-made products.
Since the consuming public has wide
choice of styles in products such as
radios, television sets, automobiles,
refrigerators, and furniture, a pri­
mary objective of the industrial de­
signer is to design his own em ­
ployer’s product to compete favora­
bly with similar goods on the
As a first step, the industrial de­
signer does historical research on
the product or related products. He
studies competition in the market
and the different ways in which the

Industrial designers also may do
related types of work. For example,
they may design containers and
packages, prepare small exhibits for
display purposes, or design the en­
tire layout for industrial fairs. Some
also design the interior layout of


special purpose commercial build­
ings, such as gasoline stations and
Industrial designers employed by
a manufacturing company usually
find their work limited to the one or
few products made by their em­
ployer; many senior designers, how­
ever, are now given a free hand to
engage in long-range planning for
new or diversified products. Design­
ers who work as consultants to
more than one industrial firm, either
as freelance designers or as mem­
bers of consulting firms, may plan
and design a great variety of prod­

Places of Employment
Most of the estimated 10,000 in­
dustrial designers in 1970 were em­
ployed by large manufacturing com ­
panies and by design consulting
firms. Of the remainder, the greatest
number did freelance work or com­
bined salaried employment with it.
Some also worked for architects,
and a few were on the staffs of firms
of interior designers.
Industrial designers employed by
consulting firms are located mainly
in large cities. For example, the
New York and Chicago areas have
the largest number of design con­
sulting organizations. Those em­
ployed by industrial firms are found
in small and middle size cities as
well, since most work in the decen­
tralized manufacturing plants of
their companies.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The completion of a course of
study in industrial design— in an art
school, an art department of a uni­
versity, or a technical college— is

the usual requirement for entering
this field of work. People from
other areas, however, notably engi­
neering and architecture, may qual­
ify as industrial designers if they
have appropriate experience and ar­
tistic talent.
Formal education in industrial
design at the college or university
level usually takes 4 years to com ­
plete, and a few schools require 5
years of study. These schools award
the bachelor’s degree in industrial
design or fine arts; about half of
these schools also award the mas­
ter’s degree for advanced study in
the field. A few schools, usually pri­
vate art schools or those associated
with large art museums, offer a 3year course of study in industrial
design which leads to a diploma. In
the past few years, however, most
art and museum schools have
moved toward accreditation or
affiliation with a university, usually
offering a 4-year program and a
bachelor’s degree.
Entrance to the course of study
in industrial design is limited, with
rare exceptions, to qualified high
school graduates; in addition, some
schools may require students to pre­
sent sketches and other examples of
their artistic ability. Some schools
also require students to complete
their freshman or sophomore years
before they select an industrial de­
sign major.
Industrial design curriculums dif­
fer considerably among schools.
Some schools stress the engineering
and technical aspects of the field,
and others give students a strong
cultural background in art. N ev­
ertheless, most industrial design
curriculums include at least one
course in two-dimensional design
(color theory, spatial organization,
etc.) and one in general three-di­
mensional design (abstract sculpture
and art structures), including a sub­

stantial amount of studio practice in
the actual design of three-dimen­
sional products. In the studio
course, students learn to make
working drawings and models with
clay, wood, plaster, and other easily
worked materials. In schools that
have the necessary machinery, stu­
dents gain experience in making
models of their designs while learn­
ing to use metalworking and wood­
working machinery. Some schools
require the completion of courses in
basic engineering and in the compo­
sition of materials. All schools
which offer 4- or 5-year courses
leading to a bachelor’s degree also in­
clude academic subjects, such as
English, history, psychology, eco­
nomics, and science in their curricu­
Creative ability, skill in drawing,
and the ability to anticipate con­
sumer needs are the most important
personal qualifications needed by
young people aspiring to work in
this field. A mechanical interest also
is desirable for some types of work.
Applicants for jobs will find it help­
ful to have previously assembled a
their skill in designing and their cre­
ative talent. Since industrial design­
ers are required frequently to work
cooperatively with engineers and
other staff members, the ability to
work and communicate well with
others is important. Those who plan
to practice industrial designing on a
consulting basis should have a
knowledge of business practices and
possess sales ability.
New graduates of industrial de­
sign courses frequently start as as­
sistants to experienced designers.
They are usually given relatively
simple assignments which do not in­
volve making structural changes in
the product. As they gain experi­
ence, designers may be assigned to
supervisory positions with major re­



sponsibility for the design of a prod­
uct or a group of products. Those
who have an established reputation
in the field, as well as the necessary
funds, may start their own consult­
ing firms.

Employment Outlook
Employment in this relatively
small occupation is expected to ex­
1970’s. Employers will be actively
seeking applicants having a college
degree and outstanding talent. Some
employment opportunities also will
arise each year from the need to re­
place designers who retire or leave
the field for other reasons.
A number of factors will affect
employment of industrial designers.
Rapid obsolescence of household
and commercial equipment and the
rising population will increase the
demand for newly designed prod­
ucts. As in the past, manufacturers
will strive to hold or increase their
share of these markets through the
creation of new products, improve­
ments in the design of existing ones,
and change in package designs and
other modernizations in the appear­
ance and use of their products.
Small companies probably will
make increasing use of services of­
fered by industrial design consulting
firms to compete more effectively
with larger firms. All these factors,
in addition to rising per capita in­
come, will contribute to the long­
term growth in the employment of
industrial designers. However, as in
the past, new entrants trained spe­
cifically in industrial designing are
likely to encounter keen competi­
tion for beginning jobs from persons
with engineering, architectural, and
related educational backgrounds
who have artistic and creative tal­

Earnings and Working Conditions
Starting salaries for inexperi­
enced industrial designers employed
by manufacturing firms ranged from
$125 to $150 a week in 1970, ac­
cording to the limited information
available. Beginning salaries for
those employed by consulting firms
were usually lower. Salaries of ex­
perienced industrial designers vary
greatly, depending on such factors
as individual ability, and size and
type of firm in which employed.
Those having several years of ex­
perience earned salaries ranging
from $8,000 to $14,000 annually.
Some large manufacturing firms paid
$25,000 or more to experienced and
talented designers.
Earnings of industrial designers
who own their consulting firms,
alone or as members of a partner­
ship, vary widely, and may fluctuate
markedly from year to year. In re­
cent years, earnings of most con­
sultants were between $12,000 and
$ 2 5 ,0 0 0 and heads of large wellknown firms earned considerably
Sources of Additional Information
General information about
reers in industrial design and a
of schools offering courses and
grees in industrial design may
obtained from:


Industrial Designers Society of
America, 60 West 55th St., New
York, N.Y. 10019.

(D.O.T. 142.051)

Nature of the Work
The creative work of interior de­
signers and decorators enhances the
attractiveness of our homes and
other buildings. Designers and dec­
orators plan the functional arrange­
ment of interior space and coordi­
nate the selection (including colors)
of furniture, draperies and other
fabrics, floor coverings, and interior
accessories. They may work on the
interiors of residential or commer­
cial structures, as well as on ships
and aircraft. Some design stage sets
used for motion pictures and televi­
sion. Interior designers are more in­
volved than decorators in space
planning and other interior design;
they often work for clients on large
design projects such as the interiors
of entire office buildings, hospitals,
and libraries. Generally, their plans
include the complete layout of the
rooms within the space allowed by
the exterior walls and other frame­
work. Sometimes they redesign the
interiors of old structures. When
their plans have been completed,
the architect checks them against
his blueprints to assure compliance
with building requirements and to
solve structural problems. Some in­
terior designers also design the fur­
niture and accessories to be used in
interiors and then arrange for their
Many professionals in this field
have their own establishments, ei­
ther alone or as a member of a firm
with other designers and decorators;
they may sell some or all of the
merchandise with which they work.
Some work independently or as as­
sistants; others have large staffs,


sometimes including salespeople.
Many of the larger department
and furniture stores have separate
departments of interior decorating
or interior design, or both, to advise
customers on decorating and design
plans. The main function of these
departments is to help sell the
store’s own merchandise, although
materials from outside sources may
be used when they are essential to
the plans developed for the custom­
er. Department store decorators
and designers frequently advise the
stores’ buyers and executives about
style and color trends in interior

Interior designer helps client select

Interior designers and decorators
usually work directly with clients to
determine preferences and needs in
furnishings. They may do “boardwork,” particularly on large assign­
ments, which includes work on floor
plans and elevations and the crea­
tion of sketches, or other perspec­
tive drawings in such media as watercolor, pastels, or tempera, so
clients can visualize their plans.

They also provide cost estimates.
After the client approves both the
plans and the cost estimates, ar­
rangements are made for the pur­
chase of the furnishings; for the su­
pervision of the work of painters,
floor finishers, cabinetmakers, carpetlayers, and other craftsmen; and
for the installation and arrangement
of furnishings.

Places of Employment
More than 15,000 people were
engaged full time in interior design
and decoration in 1970. About half
were women. Men, however, pre­
dominate in the interior design field.
Many in design and decorating
work on a part-time basis.
Most workers in this field are lo­
cated in large cities. In recent years,
large department and furniture
stores have become increasingly im­
portant sources of employment for
professional interior designers and
decorators. Some designers and dec­
orators have permanent jobs with
hotel and restaurant chains. Others
are employed by designers of space
like architects or suppliers of furni­
ture and materials for use in the
space, like antique dealers, office
furniture stores, furniture and tex­
tile manufacturers, or other manu­
facturers in the interior furnishings
field. They may also work for peri­
odicals that feature articles on
homefurnishings. Some large in­
dustrial corporations employ inte­
rior designers on a permanent basis.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Formal training in interior design
and decoration is becoming increas­
ingly important for entrance into
this field of work, although many

present members of the profession
achieved success without this train­
ing. Most department stores, wellestablished design and decorating
firms, and other major employers
will accept only professionally
trained people for beginning jobs.
Usually, the minimum educational
requirement is completion of either
a 2- or 3-year course at a recog­
nized art school or institute special­
izing in interior decorating and de­
sign, or a 4-year college course
leading to a bachelor’s degree with
a major in interior design and deco­
ration. The course of study in inte­
rior design and decoration usually
includes the principles of design,
history of art, freehand and me­
chanical drawing, painting, the
study of the essentials of architec­
ture as they relate to interiors, de­
sign of furniture and exhibitions,
and study of various materials, such
as woods, metals, plastics, and fab­
rics. A knowledge of furnishings, art
pieces, and antiques is important. In
addition, courses in salesmanship,
business procedures and other busi­
ness subjects are of great value.
Membership in either the Ameri­
can Institute of Interior Designers
(A ID ) or the National Society of
Interior Designers (N S ID ), both
professional societies, is a recog­
nized mark of achievement in this
profession. Membership usually re­
quires the completion of 3 or 4
years of post-high school education,
the major emphasis having been on
training in design, and several years
of practical experience in the field,
including responsibility for supervi­
sion of all aspects of decorating
New graduates having training in
interior design and decorating usu­
ally serve a training period, either
with decorating firms, in department
stores, or in the firm of an estab­
lished designer. They may act as re­



ceptionists, as shoppers with the
task of matching materials or find­
ing accessories, or as stockroom
assistants, assistant decorators, or
junior designers. In most instances,
from 1 to 3 years of on-the-job
training is required before a trainee
is considered eligible for advance­
ment to the job of decorator. Begin­
ners who do not obtain trainee jobs
often work as salespeople for fabric,
lamp, or other interior furnishings
concerns to gain experience in deal­
ing with customers and to become
familiar with the merchandise. This
experience often makes it easier to
obtain trainee jobs with a decorat­
ing firm or department store; it also
may lead to a career in merchandis­
After considerable experience,
decorators and designers with abil­
ity may advance to decorating or
design department head, interior
furnishings coordinator, or to other
supervisory positions in department
stores or in large decorating or de­
sign firms; if they have the neces­
sary funds, they may open their own
usually advance rapidly.
Artistic talent, imagination, good
business judgment, and the ability
to deal with people are important
assets for success in this field.

decorators is anticipated through
the 1970’s. Population growth,
larger expenditures for home and
office furnishings, the increasing
availability of well-designed furnish­
ings at moderate prices, a growing
recognition among middle-income
families of the value of decorators’
services, and increasing use of de­
sign services for commercial estab­
lishments should contribute to a
greater demand for these workers.
In addition to newly created jobs,
some openings will arise each year
from the need to replace designers
and decorators who die, retire, or
leave the field for other reasons.
Department and furniture stores
are expected to employ an increas­
ing number of trained decorators
and designers. These stores also are
expected to share in the growing
volume of design and decorating
work for commercial establishments
and public buildings, formerly han­
dled almost entirely by independent
decorators. This development will
result in increased opportunities in
salaried employment. Interior de­
sign firms also are expected to con­
tinue to expand. However, employ­
ment of interior decorators and de­
signers is sensitive to changes in
general economic conditions be­
cause people often defer this kind of
expenditure when the economy
slows down.

Employment Outlook
Talented art school or college
graduates who major in interior de­
sign will find good opportunities for
employment through the 1970’s.
Applicants who can design and plan
the functional arrangement of inte­
rior space will be in strong demand.
Young people without formal train­
ing will find it increasingly difficult
to enter the field.
A slow but steady increase in em­
ployment of interior designers and

are paid straight salaries; some re­
ceive salaries plus commissions
which usually range from 5 to 10
percent of the value of their sales;
others receive commissions only,
which may be as much as one-third
of the value of their sales.
Many interior decorators having
only average skill in this field earn
incomes— from
$5,000 to $7,500 a year, even after
many years of experience. Talented
decorators who are well known in
their localities may earn up to
$15,000 or more. Designers and
decorators whose abilities are na­
tionally recognized may earn well
beyond $25,000 yearly.
Self-employed decorators have an
especially wide range of earnings;
their profits are related to factors
such as the volume of business,
their prestige as decorators, eco­
nomic level of their clients, their
own business competence, and the
percentage of wholesale prices they
receive from the sale of furnish­
Hours of work for decorators are
sometimes long and irregular. They
usually adjust their workday to suit
the needs of their clients, meeting
with them during the evenings or on
weekends, when necessary. Design­
ers’ schedules follow a more regular
workday pattern.

Sources of Additional Information
Earnings and Working Conditions
Beginning salaries ranged gener­
ally from $75 to $90 a week in
1970 for art school or college grad­
uates having formal training in inte­
rior design and decoration; some
graduates of 3- or 4-year design
schools received salaries of $100 or
more a week, according to limited
data available.
Some designers and decorators

Information about employment
and scholarship opportunities may
be obtained from:
National Society of Interior De­
signers, Inc., 315 East 62nd Street,
New York, N.Y. 10021.


(D.O.T. 055.088)

The social sciences are concerned
with all aspects of human society
from the origins of man to the latest
election returns. Social scientists,
however, generally specialize in one
major field of human relationships.
tribes, reconstruct civilizations of
the past, and analyze the cultures
and languages of all peoples, past
and present. Economists study the
allocation of land, labor, and capi­
tal. Geographers study the distribu­
tion throughout the world of people,
types of land and water masses, and
natural resources. Historians de­
scribe and interpret the people and
events of the past and present. Po­
litical scientists study the theories,
objectives, and organizations of all
types of government. Sociologists
analyze the behavior and relation­
ships of groups— such as the family,
the community, and minorities— to
the individual or to society as a
Besides these basic social sci­
ences, a number of closely related
fields are covered in separate state­
ments elsewhere in this H a n d b o o k .
(See statements on Statisticians,
Psychologists, and Social W orkers.)
About 80,000 persons were em­
ployed professionally in the basic
social sciences in 1970; about 1 out
of 10 was a woman. Overlapping
among the basic social science fields
and the sometimes hazy distinction
between these and related fields
such as business administration, for­
eign service work, and high school
teaching, make it difficult to deter­
mine the exact size of each profes­
sion. Economists, however, are the
largest social science group, and an­
thropologists the smallest.
Most social scientists are em­
ployed by colleges and universities.

A large number are employed by
the Federal Government and private
industry. The trend in some indus­
tries is to hire increasing numbers of
social science majors as trainees for
administrative and executive posi­
tions. Research councils and other
nonprofit organizations provide an
important source of employment for
economists, political scientists, and
Employment in the social sci­
ences has been increasing and is ex­
pected to grow very rapidly through
the 1970’s, mainly because of the
anticipated rise in college teaching
positions. The reasons for this ex­
pected increase are discussed in the
statement on College and University
Teachers. A rise in employment in
government also is expected. Em­
ployment in government agencies
often is greatly affected by changes
in public policy. For example, more
social scientists will be needed to
handle research and administrative
functions resulting from programs
established by Congress to relieve
unemployment and eliminate pov­
erty. Rising employment of social
scientists in private industry and
nonprofit organizations also is ex­
pected. In addition, several thou­
sand social scientists will be needed
each year to replace those who
leave the field because of retire­
ment, death, or other reasons.
Social scientists having doctor’s
degrees will find favorable employ­
ment opportunities through the
1970’s in both teaching and non­
teaching positions. For those having
less training, the outlook is different
for the various fields and is dis­
cussed in the statements that follow.

Nature of the Work
Anthropologists study man, his
origins, physical characteristics, cul­
ture, traditions, beliefs, customs,
languages, material possessions, and
his structured social relationships
and value systems. Although an­
thropologists may specialize in any
one of these areas, they are ex­
pected to have a general knowledge
in all of them.
Most anthropologists specialize in
cultural anthropology sometimes
called ethnology. E th n o lo g is ts may
spend long periods living with tribal
groups or in other communities, to
learn about their ways of life. The
ethnologist takes detailed and com­
prehensive notes describing the so­
cial customs, beliefs, and material
possessions of the people. He usu­
ally learns their language in the proc­
ess. He may make comparative
studies of the cultures and societies
of various groups. In recent years,
his investigations have included com­
plex urban societies.
A r c h e o lo g is ts excavate the places
where people lived in the past to re­
construct their history and customs
by studying the remains of homes,
tools, clothing, ornaments, and
other evidences of human life and
activity. For example, archeologists
are digging in the Pacific Coast area
between northern Mexico and Ec­
uador to find evidences of trade and
migration in the pre-Christian Era.
Some archeologists are excavating
ancient Mayan cities in M exico and
restoring temples. Others are work­
ing in the Missouri River valley to
salvage remnants of Indian villages
and sites of early military forts and
trading posts.
Some anthropologists specialize
in lin g u istic s, the scientific study of


Most anthropologists teach in
colleges and universities and often
combine research with their teach­
ing. Some anthropologists specialize
in museum work, which generally
combines management and adminis­
trative duties with fieldwork and re­
search on anthropological collec­
tions. A few are engaged primarily
in consulting, nontechnical writing,
or other activities.

Places of Employment

Anthropologist examines item obtained
on field trip.

the sounds and structures of lan­
guages and of the historical rela­
tionships among languages. They
study the relationship between the
language and the behavior of peo­
ple, and their work assists in recon­
structing the prehistory of mankind.
P h y s ic a l a n th r o p o lo g is ts apply in­
tensive training in human anatomy
and biology to the study of human
evolution, and to the scientific meas­
urement of the physical differences
among the races and groups of man­
kind as influenced by heredity and
environment. Because of their
knowledge of body structure, physi­
cal anthropologists occasionally are
employed as consultants on projects
such as the design of driver seats,
space suits, cockpits for airplanes
and spaceships, and the sizing of
clothing. They may consult on proj­
ects to improve environmental con­
ditions and on criminal cases. They
are increasingly employed in medi­
cal schools.

About 3,100 people were em­
ployed as anthropologists in 1970.
About a fifth of them were women.
Most anthropologists were em­
ployed in colleges and universities.
Several hundred worked in private
industry and nonprofit organiza­
tions. The Federal Government em­
ployed a small number, chiefly in
museums, national parks, in the Bu­
reau of Indian Affairs, and in tech­
nical aid programs. State and local
government agencies also employed
some anthropologists, usually for
museum work or health research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Young people who are interested
in careers in anthropology should
obtain Ph. D. degrees. College grad­
uates with bachelor’s degrees often
obtain temporary positions and assistantships in the graduate depart­
ments where they are working for
advanced degrees. A master’s de­
gree, plus field experience, is suffi­
cient for many beginning profession­
al positions, but promotion to top
positions is generally reserved for in­
dividuals holding the Ph. D. degree.
In many colleges and most univer­
sities, only anthropologists holding

the Ph. D. degree can obtain perma­
nent teaching appointments.
Some training in both physical
and cultural anthropology is neces­
sary for all anthropologists. Mathe­
matics is helpful since statistical
methods and computers are becom ­
ing more widely used for research in
this field. Undergraduate students
may begin their field training in ar­
cheology by arranging, through
their university department, to ac­
company expeditions as laborers or
to attend field schools established
for training. They may advance to
supervisor in charge of the digging
or collection of material and finally
may direct a portion of the work of
the expedition. Ethnologists and lin­
guists usually do their fieldwork
alone, without direct supervision.
Most anthropologists base their doc­
toral dissertations on data collected
through field research; they are,
therefore, experienced fieldworkers
by the time they obtain the Ph. D.
In 1970, departments of anthro­
pology in the U.S. numbered over
200. Most universities having grad­
uate programs also offer undergrad­
uate training in anthropology. The
choice of a graduate school is very
important. Students interested in
museum work should select a school
that can provide experience in an
associated museum having anthro­
those interested in
should choose a university that of­
fers opportunities for summer expe­
rience in archeological fieldwork or
should plan to attend an archeologi­
cal field school elsewhere during
their summer vacations.
Young people planning careers in
anthropology should have an above
average interest in natural history or
social studies and enjoy reading, re­
search, and writing. A desire to
travel and the ability to cope with

the disadvantages of remote work
areas are sometimes necessary for

Employment Outlook
The number of anthropologists is
expected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s. The largest increase in
employment will be in the college
teaching field. Some additional posi­
tions will be found in museums, ar­
mental and public health programs,
and in community survey work. Op­
portunities in other fields are likely
to be limited largely to the replace­
ment of personnel who retire, die or
leave their positions for other rea­
Anthropologists holding the doc­
torate are expected to have good
employment opportunities through
the 1970’s. Graduates with only the
master’s degree are likely to face
persistent competition for profes­
sional positions in anthropology
and may enter related fields of
work. A few who meet certification
requirements may secure high
school teaching positions. Others
may find jobs in public administra­
tion and in nonprofit organizations
and civic groups, which prefer per­
sonnel with social science training
as a general background.

Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1970, starling salaries for an­
thropologists having a Ph. D. gener­
ally ranged between $ 8,000 and
$10,000 a year. Experienced an­
thropologists may earn twice that
amount. Anthropologists employed
by educational institutions received
a median salary of $ 1 5,500 for the
calendar year or $ 1 4,000 for the ac­
ademic year, according to the N a­


tional Science Foundation’s N a­
tional Register of Scientific and
Technical Personnel.
In the Federal Government, the
starting salary was $9,881 for an­
thropologists having an M .A. and
$11,905 for those having a Ph. D.
Experienced anthropologists earned
from $14,000 to more than $20,000
a year.
Many anthropologists employed
in colleges and universities supple­
ment their regular salaries with
earnings from other sources such as
summer teaching and research
Anthropologists doing archeologi­
cal fieldwork sometimes are required
to work in adverse weather condi­
tions and perform manual labor.
They also must adapt themselves to
cultural environments which are
materially and socially different.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information concern­
ing employment opportunities and
schools offering graduate training in
anthropology may be obtained
The American Anthropological As­
sociation, 1703 New Hampshire
Avenue, NW„ Washington, D.C.

Specific inquiries about anthro­
pology as a career may be ad­
dressed to:
Smithsonian Institution,
ton, D.C. 20560.


(D.O.T. 050.088)

Nature of the Work
Economists study the problems
that arise in the utilization of lim­
ited resources of land, raw mate­
rials, and manpower to provide
goods and services. In this connec­
tion, they may analyze the relation
between the supply of and demand
for goods and services, and the
ways in which goods are produced,
distributed, and consumed. Some
economists are concerned with
practical problems such as the con­
trol of inflation, the prevention of
depression, and the development of
farm, wage, tax, and tariff policies.
Others develop theories to explain
the causes of employment and un­
employment or the ways in which
international trade influences world
economic conditions. Still others
collect and interpret data on a wide
variety of economic problems.
Economists employed in colleges
and universities teach the principles
and methods of economics and con­
duct or direct research. They fre­
quently engage in writing and con­
sulting and formulate many of the
new ideas that directly or indirectly
influence government and industry
Economists in government plan
and carry out studies for use in as­
sessing economic conditions and the
need for changes in government
policy. Their work may include the
collection of basic data, analysis, and
the preparation of reports. Most
government economists are in the
fields of
finance, labor, or international trade
and development.
Economists employed by business
firms provide management with in-



formation for decision making on
matters such as markets for and
prices of company products, the ef­
fect of government policies on busi­
ness or international trade, the ad­
visability of adding new lines of
merchandise, opening new branch
operations, or otherwise expanding
the company’s business.

cities and in university towns. The
largest numbers are in the New
York and Washington, D.C. metro­
politan areas. Some are employed
overseas, mainly by the U.S. D e­
partment of State and the Agency
for International Development.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Places of Employment
Econom ics is the largest of the
basic social science fields. About
3 3,000 economists were employed
in 1970. Industry and business em­
ployed more than one-half; colleges
and universities, more than onefourth; and government agencies—
chiefly Federal— roughly one-sixth.
A few were self-employed, or
worked for private research organi­
Economists are found in all large

Economists must have a thorough
grounding in economic theory and
methods of economic analysis. An
increasing number of universities
also emphasize the value of mathe­
matical methods of economic analy­
sis. Since many beginning jobs for
economists in government and busi­
ness involve the collection and com ­
pilation of data, a thorough knowl­
edge of basic statistical procedures
usually is required.
A bachelor’s degree with a major

in economics is sufficient for many
beginning research jobs in govern­
ment and private industry, although
persons employed in such entry jobs
are not always regarded as profes­
sional economists. In the Federal
Government, candidates for en­
trance positions must have a mini­
mum of 21 semester hours of eco­
nomics and 3 hours of statistics, ac­
counting, or calculus.
Graduate training is very impor­
tant for young people planning to
become economists. Students inter­
ested in research should select
schools that emphasize training in
research methods and statistics and
provide good research facilities.
Those who wish to work in agricul­
tural economics will find good op­
portunities to gain experience in
part-time research work at State
universities having agricultural ex­
periment stations.
The master’s degree generally is
required for appointment as a col­
lege instructor, although in large
sometimes are awarded to superior
students working toward their mas­
ter’s degree. In many large colleges
and universities, completion of all
the requirements for the Ph. D. de­
gree, except the dissertation, is nec­
essary for appointment as instruc­
tor. In government or private indus­
try, economists holding the master’s
degree usually can qualify for more
responsible research positions than
are open to those having only the
bachelor’s degree.
The Ph. D. degree is required for
a professorship in a high-ranking
college or university and is an asset
in competing for other responsible
positions in government, business,
or private research organizations.
Persons considering a career as
an economist should be accurate,
like details, and prepared to spend
much time doing research. Fre-

quently, the ability to work as part
of a team is required. Economists
must be objective in their work and
have oral and writing skills.

Employment Outlook
Employment of economists is ex­
pected to increase rapidly through
the 1970’s. Colleges and universities
will need hundreds of new instruc­
tors annually to handle an antici­
pated rapid increase in enrollments
and to replace economists who re­
tire, die, or transfer to other fields
of work. Employment of economists
by industry is expected to increase
rapidly as businessmen become
more accustomed to rely on scien­
tific methods of analyzing business
trends, forecasting sales, and plan­
ning purchasing and production op­
erations. Employment of economists
at the Federal, State, and local levels
also will increase rapidly to meet
the need for more extensive data
collection and analysis, and to pro­
vide the staff for programs aimed at
reducing unemployment and pov­
Economists having the doctorate
are expected to have very good op­
portunities for employment. Em ­
ployment opportunities for econo­
mists having a master’s degree will
be favorable, especially for those
with good training in statistics and
mathematics. Young people having
bachelors’ degrees in economics
may find employment in govern­
ment and as management trainees in
industry and business.

mists employed by colleges and
universities in 1970 was $18,000.
The median salary for those in busi­
ness, industry, and nonprofit or­
ganizations was $20,000. Econo­
mists having Ph. D .’s were paid high­
er salaries than those who have lesser
degrees and similar experience. A
substantial number of economists
supplement their basic salaries by
consulting, teaching, and other ac­
In the Federal Government, the
entrance salary in 1970 for begin­
ning economists having a bachelor’s
degree was $6,548; however, those
with superior academic records
could begin at $8,098. Those hav­
ing 2 full years of graduate training
or experience could qualify for posi­
tions at an annual salary of $9,881.
M ost experienced economists in the
Federal Government earned from
$ 1 4 ,0 0 0 to $23,000 a year; some
having greater administrative re­
sponsibilities earned considerably

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on a ca­
reer as an economist is available
American Economic Association,
1313 21st Avenue South, Nashville,
Tenn. 37212.

Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities in econom­
ics and related fields is given in the
following publications:
T h e F oreig n Service in the S ev en ­
ties, U.S. Department of State, Pub­

lication 8535, Washington,
20520. Free.

According to the National Sci­
ence Foundation’s National Regis­
ter of Scientific and Technical Per­
sonnel, the median salary of econo­


( E c o n o m ist ),


D e v e lo p er

Professional Talent
Search, Office of Personnel and
Manpower, Agency for Interna­
tional Development, Washington,
D.C. 20523. Free.

(D.O.T. 029.088 and 059.088)

Nature of the Work
Geographers study the spatial
characteristics of the earth’s terrain,
minerals, soils, water, vegetation,
and climate. They relate these char­
acteristics to changing patterns of
human settlement— where people
live, why they are located there, and
how they earn a living.
The majority of geographers are
engaged in college and university
teaching; some may combine teach­
ing and research. This research may
include the study and analysis of the
distribution of land forms, climate,
soils, vegetation, and mineral and
water resources, sometimes utilizing
surveying and meteorological instru­
ments. They also analyze the distri­
bution and structure of political or­
ganizations, transportation systems,
marketing systems, and urban sys­
tems. Many geographers spend con­
siderable time in field study, and in
analyzing maps, aerial photographs,
and observational data collected in
the field. Photographs and other
data from remote sensors on satel­
lites are used increasingly. Other ge­
ographers construct maps, graphs,
and diagrams.
Most geographers specialize in
one main branch or more of geog­
raphy. Those working in e c o n o m ic
g e o g r a p h y deal with the geographic
distribution of economic activities
— including manufacturing, mining,
farming, trade, and communica­
tions. P o litic a l g e o g r a p h y is the study
of the way political processes affect
geographic boundaries on subna­
tional, national, and international
scales, and the relationship of
geographic conditions to political
processes. U rb a n g e o g r a p h y , a


phers. Am ong the major agencies
employing these workers are the
United States Army Topographic
Command and other defense re­
lated agencies; the Department of
the Interior; and the Department of
Commerce. State and local govern­
ments also employ a small number
of geographers, mostly on city and
State planning and development
M ost of the relatively small but
growing number of geographers em­
ployed by private industry work for
marketing research organizations,
map companies, textbook publish­
ers, travel agencies, manufacturing
firms, or chain stores. A few geogra­
phers work for scientific foundafirms, or chain stores. A few geogrations and research institutes. A
small number are employed as map

growing field for geographers, is
concerned with the study of cities
and community planning. (See
statement on Urban Planners.) Spe­
cialists in p h y s ic a l g e o g r a p h y study
the earth’s physical characteristics
and those of the m oon as well. R e ­
g io n a l g e o g r a p h y pertains to all the
physical, economic, political, and
cultural characteristics of a particu­
lar region or area, which may range
in size from a river basin or an is­
land, to a State, a country, or even a
continent. Geographers in the field
of c a r to g r a p h y design and construct
maps, as well as compile data for
Many geographers have job titles
which describe their specialization,
such as cartographer, map cataloger,
or regional analyst, rather than
the title geographer. Others have ti­
tles relating to the subject matter of
their study such as photo-intelli­
gence specialist or climatological an­

alyst. Still others have titles such as
community planner, market or busi­
ness analyst, or intelligence special­
ist. M ost of those who teach in col­
leges and universities are called

Places of Employment
An estimated 7,100 geographers
were employed in the United States
in 1970; about 15 percent were
More than two-thirds of all geog­
raphers are employed by colleges
and universities. Those teaching in
institutions which do not have sepa­
rate departments of geography usu­
ally are associated with departments
of geology, economics, or other
physical or social sciences.
The Federal Government em­
ploys a large number of geogra-

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
The minimum educational re­
quirement for beginning positions in
geography usually is a bachelor’s
degree with a major in the field. For
most positions in research and
teaching, and for advancement in
many other types of work, graduate
training is required.
Training leading to the bachelor’s
degree in geography was offered by
400 colleges and universities in
1970. Undergraduate study usually
provides a general introduction to
geographic knowledge and research
methods and often includes some
field studies. Typical courses offered
are physical and cultural geography,
weather and climate, economic ge­
ography, political geography, urban
geography, location analysis, quan­
titative methods,
and regional
courses, such as the geography of
North America, Western Europe,


the U.S.S.R., and Asia. Courses in
cartography and in the interpreta­
tion of maps and aerial photographs
are offered also.
In 1970, 165 institutions offered
training leading to the master’s de­
gree, and 55 offered the Ph. D. For
admittance to a graduate program
in geography, a bachelor’s degree
with a major in geography is the
usual requirement. However, most
universities admit students with
bachelor’s degrees in any of the so­
cial or physical sciences, some if
they have background in geography.
Requirements for advanced degrees
include field and laboratory work,
as well as classroom studies and
thesis preparation.
New graduates having only the
bachelor’s degree in geography usu­
ally find positions connected with
making, interpreting, or analyzing
maps; or in research, either working
for the government or industry.
Others enter beginning positions in
the planning field. Some obtain em­
ployment as research or teaching
assistants in educational institutions
while studying for advanced de­
grees. Some earn library science de­
grees and become map librarians.
New graduates having the master’s
degree can qualify for some teach­
ing and research positions in col­
leges and for many research posi­
tions in government and industry.
The Ph. D. degree usually is re­
quired for high-level posts in college
teaching and research and may be
necessary for advancement to toplevel positions in other activities.
Young persons considering a ca­
reer as a geographer should be pre­
pared for a life of reading, studying,
and research. New research meth­
ods used by the geographer require
some mathematical abilities and
knowledge of computer capabilities.
As with all the sciences, geogra­
phers must be willing to work with

ideas and theories and should be
originative. They must be able to ex­
press themselves clearly.The ability
to work independently is important.

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for ge­
ographers is expected to be favor­
able through the 1970’s. The de­
mand will be especially strong for
geographers having the Ph. D. to fill
research and teaching positions in
colleges and universities and re­
search jobs in industry and govern­
ment. Those having the master’s de­
gree are likely to find some compe­
tition. Geographers with advanced
training in fields such as economics
or business administration also will
be in strong demand.
Colleges and universities are ex­
pected to offer the greatest number
of employment opportunities as col­
lege enrollments increase very
rapidly through the 1970’s. Rising
interest in foreign countries and
growing awareness of the value of
geography training in several other
fields of work, such as the foreign
service, should also result in in­
creased enrollments in geography
and in a need for additional teach­
ers at the college level. A growing
demand for geography teachers in
secondary schools also is antici­
Employment of geographers in
government is also likely to in­
crease. The Federal Government
may need additional personnel in
positions related to regional devel­
opment; urban planning; resource
management; planning, construc­
tion, and interpretation of maps;
and in intelligence work. State and
local government employment of
geographers also will expand, par­
ticularly in areas such as conserva­
tion, highway planning, and city,

community, and regional planning
and development.
The number of geographers em­
ployed in private industry also is
expected to rise. Market research and
location analysis should continue to
grow rapidly. Opportunities also
should increase in private area plan­
ning and development work.

Earnings and Working Conditions
In the Federal Government in
1970, geographers having the bache­
lor’s degree and no experience
started at $6,548 or $8,098 a year,
depending on their college record.
Geographers having 1 or 2 years of
graduate teaching could start at
$8,098 or $9,881; and those having
the Ph. D. degree, at $11,905.
In colleges and universities, sala­
ries of geographers depend on their
teaching rank. Assistant professors
entering the field with a Ph. D. re­
ceived at least $11,500 in 1970. Ex­
earned $20,000. (For further infor­
mation, see statement on College
and University Teachers.) Geogra­
phers in educational institutions
usually have an opportunity to earn
income from other sources, such as
consulting work, special research
projects, and publication of books
and articles.
Working conditions of most geog­
raphers are similar to those of other
teachers and office workers. G eo­
graphic research frequently requires
extensive travel in foreign countries,
as well as in the United States.

Sources of Additional Information
Association of American Geogra­
phers, 1710 16th St. N W , Wash­
ington, D.C. 20009.



(D.O.T. 052.088)

Nature of the Work
History is the record of the past
— past events, institutions, ideas,
people. Historians use these records
to describe and analyze this past—
through writing and teaching, for in­
stance. They also may relate this
knowledge of the past to current
events, in an effort to explain the
Historians may specialize in the
history either of a specific country
or area, or in a particular period of
time— ancient, medieval, or mod­
em . They may specialize also in the
history of a field, such as econom ­

ics, culture, military affairs, the
labor movement, art, or architec­
ture. The number of specialties in
history is constantly growing. Newer
fields include the history of business
and of the relationship between
technological and other aspects of
historical development. In this
country, most historians still spe­
cialize in the political history of ei­
ther the United States or m odem
Europe; however, a growing num­
ber are now specializing in African,
Latin American, Asian, or Near
Eastern history. Some historians
also specialize in phases of a larger
historical field, such as Civil War
history or Ancient Greek civiliza­
M ost historians are employed as
college teachers who may also
write, lecture, or take part in re­

Economic historian uses trend data in analysis.

search. Some, called a rc h iv ists,
work with documentary materials of
historical value, and specialize in
identifying and preserving them and
making them available. Other his­
torians specialize in writing or edit­
ing historical materials, preparing ex­
hibits, or speaking for museums,
special libraries, and historical soci­
eties. A few serve as consultants to
editors, publishers, and producers
of materials for radio, television,
and motion pictures. Historians are
employed by governments mainly in
connection with research projects,
as researchers or administrators;
they also may prepare studies, arti­
cles, and books on research find­

Places of Employment
About 15,500 persons were em­
ployed as historians in 1970. A p­
proximately 85 percent of all his­
torians were employed in colleges
and universities. About 4 percent
were employed in Federal Govern­
ment agencies, principally the N a­
tional Archives and the Depart­
ments of Defense, Interior, and
State. Small but growing numbers
were employed by other govern­
ment organizations (State, local,
and international), by nonprofit
foundations, research councils, spe­
cial libraries, State historical soci­
eties, museums, and large corpora­
Since history is taught in all U.S.
institutions of higher education, his­
torians are found in all college com­
munities. Many of the historians in
the Federal Government are em­
ployed in Washington, D.C. Histori­
ans in other types of employment
usually work in localities which
have museums or libraries with col­
lections adequate for historical re­


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Graduate education usually is
necessary for employment as an his­
torian. A master’s degree in history
is the minimum requirement for the
position of college instructor. In
many colleges and universities,
however, a Ph.D. degree is essential
for high-level teaching, research,
and administrative positions. Most
historians in the Federal Govern­
ment and in nonprofit organizations
have Ph.D. degrees, or their equiva­
lent in training and experience.
Although for some beginning jobs
in government— either
State, or local— a bachelor’s degree
with a major in history is sufficient
training; persons in such jobs may
not be regarded as professional his­
torians. A knowledge of archival
work is helpful, since these begin­
ning jobs are likely to be concerned
with collection and preservation of
historical data. For jobs in interna­
tional relations and journalism, an
undergraduate major in history is
considered helpful.

Employment Outlook
Employment in this relatively
small occupation is expected to in­
crease rapidly through the 1970’s.
A t the college level, hundreds of
new history teachers probably will
be needed annually, because of ex­
panding enrollments, as well as to
replace those faculty members who
retire, die, or leave for other types
of work. In archival work, the num­
ber of positions for historians also is
expected to rise, although more
With the doctorate, historians are
expected to have relatively favor­
through the 1970’s, although they

may face increasing competition for
jobs in college teaching. Historians
having only the master’s degree
probably will encounter considera­
ble competition. Others will find it
difficult to obtain professional posi­
tions as historians. On the other
hand, history majors who meet
State school certification require­
ments may find openings in high
school teaching. Some history ma­
jors also qualify as administrative
and management trainees in govern­
ment agencies, foundations, civic
organizations, and private industry.

The average (m edian) salary of
historians employed by colleges and
universities was $12,200 in 1970
according to the limited data avail­
able. In the Federal Government,
the starting salary for persons having
a bachelor’s degree was $6,548 in
1970. Those having a superior aca­
demic record or a year of graduate
training were eligible for positions
at an annual salary of $8,098. The
median annual salary for historians
employed by the Federal Govern­
ment in 1970 was about $14,000.
those in college teaching, supple­
ment their income by summer
teaching or writing books or arti­
cles. A few earn additional income
from lectures.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities for histori­
ans may be obtained from:
American Historical Association,
400 A St. SE., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 051.088)

Nature of the Work
Political science is the study of
government— what it is, what it
does, and how and why. Political
scientists are interested in govern­
ment at every level— local, county,
State, regional, national, and inter­
national. Many of them specialize in
one general area of political science,
such as political theory, U.S. politi­
cal institutions and processes, com­
parative political institutions and
processes, or international relations
and organizations. Some specialize
in a particular type of political insti­
tution or in the politics of a specific
Political scientists are employed
most frequently as college and uni­
versity teachers. They may combine
research, consultation, or adminis­
trative duties with teaching. Some
teach at universities in other coun­
tries, where they prepare students
for careers in public administration
and assist in the development of
training programs for government
personnel. Many political scientists
are engaged mainly in research.
They may survey public opinion on
political questions for private re­
search organizations. They may
study proposed legislation for State
or municipal legislative reference
bureaus or for congressional com ­
mittees. Other political scientists
may analyze the operations of gov­
ernment agencies or specialize in
foreign affairs research, either for
government or nongovernment or­
ganizations. Others engage in ad­
ministrative or managerial duties.
Some work as legislative aids to
congressmen and as staff members
of congressional committees.



Places of Employment
About 11,000 political scientists
were employed in 1970, largely in
colleges and universities or in gov­
ernment agencies. M ost of the re­
mainder worked in research bu­
reaus, civic and taxpayers’ associa­
tions, and large business firms.
Political scientists are employed
in nearly every college in the United
States, since courses in political sci­
ence or government are taught
widely. M ost other political scien­
tists are located in Washington,
D .C., in other large cities, or in
State capitals. Some, however, are
employed in overseas jobs, mainly
by the U.S. Department of State,
particularly for positions with the
Foreign Service, the U.S. Agency
for International Development, and
the U.S. Information Agency.

Training and Other Qualifications
Graduate training generally is re­
quired for employment as a political
scientist. College graduates having a
master’s degree can qualify for vari­
ous administrative and research po­
sitions in government and in non­
profit research or civic organiza­
tions. Nearly 100 colleges and
universities offer graduate degrees in
political science; over 50, in public
administration. Many provide field
training and offer internships for ex­
perience in government work. Many
universities award graduate degrees
in international relations, foreign
service, and area studies, as well as
political science in general. A mas­
ter’s degree in any of these fields is
very helpful in obtaining a position
in a Federal Government agency
concerned with foreign affairs.
Completion of all requirements
for the Ph. D. degree, except the
doctoral dissertation, is the usual

prerequisite for appointment as a
college instructor. The Ph. D. de­
gree itself usually is required for ad­
vancement to the position of profes­
Some young persons having only
a bachelor’s degree in political sci­
ence may qualify as trainees in
public relations or research work, or
in jobs such as budget analyst, per­
sonnel assistant, or investigators in
government or industry. Many stu­
dents having the bachelor’s degree
in political science go on to study
law; others obtain graduate training
in public administration, interna­
tional relations, or some other spe­
cialized branch of political science.
Young persons planning careers
as political scientists should be pre­
pared for a life of reading, study,
and research. An increasing reliance
upon mathematical and statistical
methods in some specialties within
the field make some knowledge of
these disciplines useful. As with all
social sciences, political scientists
must be willing to work with ideas
and theories, and able to originate
and to express themselves clearly in
writing and speaking. The ability to
work independently also is impor­

Employment Outlook
Employment of political scientists
is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. The greatest in­
crease in employment will take
place in colleges and universities. In
government agencies also, the num­
ber of political scientists in adminis­
trative jobs will probably rise be­
cause of a growing recognition of
the value of specialized training in
developing and planning new pro­
grams and analyzing policy alterna­
tives. Government agencies con­
cerned with foreign affairs will con­

tinue to employ many political
scientists. In private industry, on the
other hand, a slow growth is antici­
pated in employment of political
scientists. In addition to those re­
quired to staff new positions, many
political scientists will be needed to
fill positions vacated because of re­
tirements, deaths, or transfers.
Employment opportunities will
be more limited for those having
less than the Ph. D. degree, but
openings will be available to them
in Federal, State, and municipal
government agencies; research bu­
reaus; political organizations; and
civic and welfare agencies. For new
graduates having only the bachelor’s
degree, opportunities for employ­
ment in the political science field
probably will continue to be very
limited. However, those planning to
continue their studies in law, foreign
affairs, journalism, and other re­
lated fields will find their political
science background very helpful.
Some who meet State certification
requirements will be able to enter
high school teaching.

In educational institutions the av­
erage beginning salary of political
scientists having the master’s degree
was $6,000 to $8,500 in 1970, ac­
cording to a recent survey. The N a­
tional Science Foundation reports
that the median salary for all those
in educational institutions was
$12,000 for the academic year and
$15,300 for the calendar year.
In the Federal Government, the
starting salary for political scientists
having a bachelor’s degree was
about $6,500 a year in 1970. Those
having a superior academic record
or a year of graduate training were
eligible for positions at an annual
salary of about $8,100. Most of the


experienced political scientists in
the Federal Government earned
considerably more.
Some political scientists, particu­
larly those in college teaching, sup­
plement their income by doing sum­
mer teaching or consulting work.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on em­
ployment opportunities in political
science and public administration
may be obtained from the following
American Political Science Associa­
tion, 1527 New Hampshire Ave.
N W , Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 054.088)

Nature of the Work
Sociologists study the groups
which man forms in his association
with others— families, tribes, com ­
munities, and States, and a great va­
riety of social, religious, political,
business, and other organizations.
They study the behavior and inter­
action of these groups, trace their
origin and growth, and analyze the
influence of group activities on indi­
vidual members.
Some sociologists are concerned
primarily with the characteristics of
the social groups and institutions
themselves; others are more inter­
ested in the ways individuals are af­
fected by groups to which they be­
Many work in specialties such as
social organization, social psychol­
ogy, or rural sociology; others spe­

cialize in intergroup relations, fam­
ily problems, social effects of urban
living, population studies, or analy­
ses of public opinion. Some conduct
surveys or concentrate on research
methods. Growing numbers apply
sociological knowledge and methods
in penology and correction, educa­
tion, public relations in industry,
and regional and community plan­
ning. A few specialize in medical
sociology— the study of social fac­
tors that affect mental and public
M ost sociologists are college
teachers, but, as a rule, these teach­
ers also conduct research. Sociologi­
cal research often involves the col­
lection of data, preparation of case
studies, testing, and the conduct of
statistical surveys and laboratory
In their research work, sociolo­
gists may study individuals, families,
or communities in an attempt to dis­
cover the causes of social problems
— such as crime, juvenile delin­
quency, or poverty; the normal pat­
tern of family relations; or the dif­
ferent patterns of living in commu­
nities of varying types and sizes.
They may collect and analyze data
from official government sources to
illustrate population trends, includ­
ing changes in age, sex, race, and
other population characteristics; and
also the extent of population move­
ment among rural, suburban, and ur­
ban areas and among different geo­
graphic areas.
Sociologists may conduct surveys
which add to basic sociological
knowledge or which may be used in
public opinion, marketing, and ad­
vertising research. Some specialize
in the use of mass communication
facilities, including radio, television,
newspapers, magazines, and circu­
Sociologists sometimes supervise
research projects or the operation of

social agencies, including family and
marriage clinics. Others are consult­
ants and advise on such diverse
problems as the management of
hospitals for the mentally ill, the re­
habilitation of juvenile delinquents,
or the development of effective ad­
vertising programs to promote public
interest in particular products.

Places of Employment
Approximately 12,000 persons
were employed as sociologists in
1970. Numerous others were em­
ployed in positions requiring some
training in this field, including many
in social, recreation, and public
health work.
About three-fourths of all sociol­
ogists are employed in colleges and
universities. The remainder work in
Federal, State, local, or interna­
tional government agencies, in pri­
vate industry, in welfare or other
nonprofit organizations, or are selfemployed.
Since sociology is taught in most
institutions of higher learning, soci­
ologists may be found in nearly all
college communities. They are most
heavily concentrated, however, in
large colleges and universities which
offer graduate training in sociology
and opportunities for research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A master’s degree with a major
in sociology usually is the minimum
requirement for employment as a
sociologist. The Ph. D. degree is es­
sential for attaining a professorship
in most colleges or universities, and
is commonly required for directors
of major research projects, impor­
tant administrative positions, or

Sociologists with master’s degrees
may qualify for many administrative
and research positions, provided
they are trained in research meth­
ods and statistics. They may be re­
sponsible for specific portions o f a
survey or for the preparation o f
analyses and reports under general
supervision. A s they gain experi­
ence, they may advance to supervi­
sory positions in both public and
private agencies. Sociologists with
the master’s degree may qualify for
some college instructorships. Most
colleges, however, appoint as in­
structors only people with training
beyond the master’s level— fre­
quently the completion of all re­
quirements for the Ph. D . degree
except the doctoral dissertation.
Outstanding graduate students often
can get teaching or research assistantships which will provide both fi­
nancial aid and valuable experience.
Young people with only a bache­
lor’s degree in sociology are not
usually recognized by the profes­
sion as sociologists, although they
may secure jobs as interviewers or
as research assistants working under
close supervision. Many are em ­
ployed as caseworkers, counselors,
recreation workers, or administra­
tive assistants in public and private
welfare agencies. Sociology majors
with sufficient training in statistics
may obtain positions as beginning
statisticians. Those who meet State
certification requirements may teach
high school.
The choice of a graduate school
is very important for people plan­
ning to becom e sociologists. Stu­
dents interested in research should
select schools which emphasize
training in research methods and
statistics, and provide opportunities
to gain practical experience in re­
search work. Professors and chair­

men o f sociology departments fre­
quently aid in the placement of
Sociologists may spend much
time studying and doing research
and m ust possess the necessary oral
and writing skills to communicate
the results o f their research. Sociol­
ogists should have mathematical
skills and the ability to work inde­

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
sociologists having the Ph. D . are
expected to be good during the
1970’s. Those having only the mas­
ter’s degree will probably continue
to face considerable competition.
Sociologists well trained in re­
search methods and advanced statis­
tics will have the widest choice of
jobs. Employment opportunities are
expected to be very good for re­
search workers in rural sociology,
community development, popula­
tion analysis, public opinion re­
search, and various branches of
medical sociology. Employment op­
portunities also will increase in
other applied fields, such as the
study of juvenile delinquency and
education. Some openings are antic­
ipated in a relatively new area, the
sociology of law.
Growth in employment of sociol­
ogists is expected to increase rapidly
through the 1970’s. Because of ex­
panding enrollments, most new po­
sitions will be in college teaching.
Some of these openings will result
from the growing trend to include
sociology courses in the curricula of
other professions, such as medicine,
law, and education. A substantial
rise in the number of sociologists in
nonteaching fields is anticipated to

cope with social and welfare prob­
lems and to implement educational
and social legislation to develop
human resources. In addition, sev­
eral hundred openings will occur
each year to replace sociologists
who die, retire, or leave the field for
other reasons.

In 1970, the median academic
year salary of sociologists in educa­
tional institutions was $12,200, ac­
cording to the National Science
Foundation. Sociologists working in
nonprofit organizations and indus­
try had average annual salaries of
$14,700 and $16,200, respectively.
In the Federal Government, the
beginning salary in 1970 for sociol­
ogists having a master’s degree and
a superior academic record was
$9,881. Salaries of experienced so­
ciologists in the Federal Govern­
ment generally ranged between
$11,905 and $19,643 a year.
In general, sociologists with the
Ph. D. degree earn substantially
higher salaries than those with the
master’s degree. Many sociologists
supplement their regular salaries
with earnings from other sources,
such as summer teaching and con­
sulting work. Sociologists employed
by colleges and universities are the
most likely to have additional earn­

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on sociol­
ogists may be obtained from :
The American Sociological Associa­
tion, 1001 Connecticut Ave.,'NW .,
Washington, D.C. 20036.


Teaching is the largest of the pro­
fessions. A bout 2.6 million men and
wom en were full-time teachers in
the Nation’s elementary schools,
secondary schools, and colleges and
universities in the 1 9 7 0 -7 1 school
year. In addition, thousands taught
part time; among them were many
scientists, physicians, accountants,
members of other professions and
graduate students. Similarly, large
numbers of craftsmen instructed
part time in vocational schools.
Many other people taught in adult
education and recreation programs.
women so many employment op­
portunities. About 1.7 million or al­
most 2V z times as many women are
teachers as registered nurses, the
women. W omen teachers far out­
number men in kindergarten and
elementary schools and hold more
than half the teaching positions in
secondary (junior and senior high)
schools. However, only about onefourth of all college and university
teachers are women.


The number of teachers needed
by the Nation’s schools depends
chiefly on the number of students
enrolled. A t the beginning of the
1 9 7 0 -7 1 school year, 59.2 million
people— almost 30 percent of the
country’s total population— were
enrolled in the Nation’s schools and
colleges. Through the 1970’s, con­
tinued growth of the school and col­
lege population and continued in­
creases in high school and college
attendance rates are expected to
produce a slight increase in school
enrollments and a very rapid rate of
increase in college enrollments.
Total enrollments in all schools and
colleges combined, according to
U.S. Office of Education estimates,
may exceed 62 million by 1980.
To staff the new classrooms that
must be provided for the rising
numbers of students, and to con­
tinue to improve the student-teacher
ratio, the Nation’s full-time teaching
staff in 1980 will need to be about 7
percent or almost 180,000 more
than in 1970. An even larger num­
ber of teachers— perhaps as many

Growth in teacher requirements is closely related
to student enrollment patterns
Percent change 1970-80
-1 0


Secondary school
Elementary school
Secondary school
Elementary school




as 1.8 million— will be required to
replace those who leave the profes­
The outlook for teachers at each
educational level— in elementary
and secondary schools and also in
colleges and universities— is dis­
cussed in the following statements.

(D.O.T. 092.228)

Nature of the Work
Elementary school teaching is the
largest field of professional employ­
ment for women and is a growing
field for men. In the 197 0 -7 1 school
year, over 1.2 million kindergarten
and elementary teachers were em­
ployed. In addition, an estimated
60,000 principals and supervisors
were working in public and private
elementary schools.
Kindergarten teachers conduct a
program of education for young
children. Most frequently, they
teach one group in the morning and
another group in the afternoon.
Some, however, work with one
group all day. They provide the
children with experiences in play,
music, artwork, stories, and poetry;
and introduce them to science,
numbers, language, and social stud­
ies. In a variety of ways, kindergar­
ten teachers help to develop chil­
dren’s curiosity and zeal for learn­
ing, as well as to stimulate their
ability to think. After school hours,
kindergarten teachers may plan the
next day’s work, prepare the chil­
dren’s school records, confer with
parents or professional personnel
concerning individual children, par191

ticipate in teachers’ in-service activ­
ities, and locate and become famil­
iar with teaching resources.

tion, including teaching machines
and “talking typewriters,” and the
increasing use of teacher aids are
freeing growing numbers of elemen­
tary and kindergarten teachers from
routine duties and allowing them to
give more individual attention to
their students.

Places of Employment
Elementary school teachers are
employed in all cities, towns, vil­
lages, and in rural areas. As a result
of reorganization of school districts,
many teachers are employed in con­
solidated schools in small towns.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A ll States require that teachers in
the public schools have a certificate.
Several States require certification
for teachers in parochial and other
private elementary schools.
In 1970, 47 States and the Dis­
trict of Columbia issued regular
teaching certificates only to persons
Elementary school teachers usu­
ally work with one group of pupils
during the entire schoolday. They
teach several subjects and supervise
various activities such as lunch and
play periods. In som e school sys­
tems, however, teachers in the
upper elementary grades may teach
one or two subjects to several
groups of children. Many school
systems also employ special teach­
ers to give instruction and to assist
classroom teachers in certain sub­
jects such as art, music, physical ed­
ucation, industrial arts, foreign lan­
guages, and homemaking. Teachers
in schools which have only a few
students, largely in rural areas, may
be required to teach all subjects in
several grades. Programed instruc­

having at least 4 years of approved
college preparation. Teacher certifi­
cation in most States also requires
Twelve States require that teachers
work toward a fifth year or master’s
degree within a certain number of
years. Some school systems have
higher educational requirements
than those for State certification.
In nearly all States, certificates
are issued by State departments of
education on the basis of transcripts
of credits and recommendations
from approved colleges and univer­
sities. Certificates may be issued to
teachers from other States if the
prescribed programs have been
completed at accredited colleges or
if the teachers meet the academic
and other requirements of the State
to which they are applying. Under
certain conditions, usually related to
a shortage of qualified teachers,
most States will issue emergency or
temporary certificates to partially
prepared teachers. However, these
certificates must be renewed an­
A ll States have certain additional
requirements for public school



teaching. For example, they may re­
quire a health certificate, evidence
of citizenship, or an oath of alle­
giance. The prospective teacher
should inquire about the specific re­
quirements of the area in which he
plans to work by writing to the State
department of education or to the
superintendent of the local school
Most institutions of higher educa­
tion offer teacher preparation. In a
4-year teacher-preparation curricu­
lum, prospective elementary school
teachers spend about one-fourth of
the time in professional courses—
learning about children, the place of
the school in the community, and
materials and methods of instruc­
tion— including student teaching in
an actual school; the remainder of
their time is devoted to liberal arts
subjects. Some study of human be­
havior and learning usually is in­
After gaining experience, teach­
ers will find opportunities for ad­
vancement through annual salary
increases in the same school system;
by transferring to a system with a
higher salary schedule which recog­
nizes experience gained in another
school system; by appointment to a
supervisory, administrative, or spe­
cialized position in the school sys­
tem; or by transferring to higher
levels of teaching for which their
training and experience may qualify
Among the most important per­
sonal qualifications for elementary
school teaching are an enjoyment
and understanding of children.
Teachers must be patient and selfdisciplined, and have high standards
of personal conduct. A broad
knowledge and appreciation of the
arts, sciences, history, and literature
also are valuable. Customs and atti­
tudes of the community may influ­
ence and sometimes restrict the

civic, Social, and recreational activi­
ties of teachers.
Employment Outlook

Enrollments in kindergartens and
elementary schools in 1980 are ex­
pected to be below the 1970 levels.
As a result, the number of teaching
positions is expected to decline
slightly despite an anticipated re­
duction in the pupil-teacher ratio.
Nevertheless, large numbers of
teachers will be needed to replace
those who retire, die, or leave the
profession for other reasons. Also,
more than 50,000 teachers will be
needed to replace persons not meet­
ing certification requirements. In­
creasing emphasis on the education
of very young children, children in
low-income areas, the mentally re­
tarded, and other groups needing
special attention may result in larger
enrollments and smaller studentteacher ratios than trends would in­
dicate, with an accompanying in­
crease in the number of teachers
The number of persons qualified
to teach in elementary schools will
exceed the number of openings if
patterns of entry and reentry to the
profession continue in line with past
trends. New graduates, therefore,
may face keen competition for jobs
during the 1970’s. Young people
seeking their first teaching assign­
ment will find schools placing great
emphasis on their academic work
and the quality of their training.
Nevertheless, employment opportu­
nities may be very favorable in
urban ghettos, rural districts, and in
all geographic areas where teaching
salaries are low and better paying
opportunities are available in other
fields in the community. The out­
look for teachers who are trained to
work with children having various
handicaps also will be favorable.

Many students, however, who are
considering elementary teaching as
a career will have to change their
occupational choice and pursue
other careers.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average salary for classroom
teachers in public elementary
schools, according to National Edu­
cation Association (N E A ) esti­
mates, was $9,025 in 1970-71. In
the five highest paying States
(Alaska, New York, California,
Michigan, and Hawaii), teachers’
salaries averaged $10,000 or more;
in the six States having the lowest
salaries (Mississippi, South Dakota,
Arkansas, North Dakota, South
Carolina, and Idaho), they were
less than $7,000. An increasing
number of States (31 in the 197071 academic year) have established
minimum salary levels.
Although the average time spent
in the classroom (less than 6 hours)
usually is less than the average
workday in most other occupations,
the elementary school teacher must
spend additional time each day giv­
ing individual help, planning work,
preparing instructional materials,
developing tests, checking papers,
making out reports, and keeping
records. Conferences with parents,
meetings with school supervisors,
and other professional activities also
frequently occur after classroom
Since most schools are in session
fewer than 12 months a year, teach­
ers often take courses for profes­
sional growth or work at other jobs
during the summer. Some school
systems, however, are extending the
teachers’ working year to 12
months, including a 1-month vaca­
tion in the summer.
Employment in teaching is steady



and usually is not affected by
changes in business conditions. Ten­
ure provisions protect teachers from
arbitrary dismissal. Pension and
sick leave plans are common, and a
growing number of school systems
grant other types of leave with pay.
An increasing number of teachers
are being represented by profes­
sional teacher associations or by un­
ions that bargain collectively for
them on wages, hours, and other
conditions of employment.

Sources of Additional Information

Information on schools and certi­
fication requirements is available
from the State department of educa­
tion at each State capital.
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
ships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:
U.S. Department o f Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Office of


Other sources of general informa­
tion are:
American Federation of Teachers,
1012 14th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.
National Commission on Teacher
Standards, National Education As­
sociation, 1201 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 091.118 through .228)

Nature of the Work

school teachers—
those employed in junior and senior

high schools— usually specialize in a
particular subject. They teach sev­
eral classes every day, either in
their main subject, in related sub­
jects, or both. The most frequent
combinations are English and his­
tory or other social sciences; mathe­
matics and general science; and
chemistry and biology or general
science. Teachers in some fields,
such as home economics, agricul­
ture, commercial subjects, driver
education, music, art, and industrial
arts, less frequently conduct classes
in other subjects. The teaching
method may vary from formal lec­
tures to free discussions, depending
on the subject and the students’
needs and aptitudes. The choice of
method usually is left to the teacher.
Besides giving classroom instruc­
tion, secondary school teachers plan
and develop teaching materials, de­

velop and correct tests, keep rec­
ords and make out reports, consult
with parents, supervise study halls,
and perform other duties. The
growing use of teaching machines,
teacher aids relieves the teacher of
many routine tasks. Many teachers
supervise student activities, such as
clubs and social affairs— sometimes
after regular school hours. Main­
taining good relations with parents
and the community is an important
aspect of their jobs.
More than 1 million teachers
were employed in the Nation’s
and private
schools in 1970-71. Almost half the
classroom teachers in public sec­
ondary schools were men. Men far
outnumber women as supervisors
and administrators in both public
and private schools.



Places of Employment

The number of grades in second­
ary schools depends on the way the
local school system is organized.
Many secondary school teachers are
employed in 6-year combined jun­
ior-senior high schools (grades
7 -1 2 ); others are in separate junior
high schools of either two or three
grades (7 -8 or 7 -9 ) ; and the re­
mainder teach in 4-year high
schools (grades 9 -1 2 ) and in senior
high schools ( grades 1 0 -1 2 ).

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

In every State, a certificate is re­
quired for public secondary school
teaching. To qualify for this certifi­
cate, the prospective teacher must
have at least the equivalent of onehalf year of education courses, in­
cluding practice teaching, plus pro­
fessional courses in one or more
subjects commonly taught in sec­
ondary schools.
Twelve States require a fifth year
of study or qualification for a mas­
ter’s degree within a specified period
following the teacher’s beginning
employment. Many school systems,
especially in large cities, have re­
quirements beyond those needed for
State certification. Some systems re­
quire additional educational prepa­
ration, successful teaching experi­
ence, or special personal qualifica­
College students preparing for sec­
ondary school teaching usually de­
vote about one-third of the 4-year
course to their major, which may be
in a single subject or a group of re­
lated subjects. About one-sixth of
the time is spent in education courses
— learning about children, the
place of the school in the commu­
nity, and materials and methods of

instruction— including student teach­
ing in an actual school situation. The
remaining time is devoted to general
or liberal arts courses. Accepted
teacher-preparation curriculums are
offered by universities with schools
of education, by colleges with strong
education departments and adequate
practice-teaching facilities, and by
teachers’ colleges.
Although certification require­
ments vary among the States, the
person who is well prepared for sec­
ondary school teaching in one State
usually has little trouble meeting re­
quirements in another State. A
well-qualified teacher ordinarily can
obtain temporary certification in a
State while preparing to meet its ad­
ditional requirements.
Qualified secondary school teach­
ers may advance to department
heads, supervisors, assistant princi­
pals, principals, superintendents, or
other administrative officers as
openings occur. At least 1 year of
professional education beyond the
bachelor’s degree and several years
of successful classroom teaching are
required for most supervisory and
administrative positions. Often, a
doctorate is required for appoint­
ment as superintendent. Some expe­
rienced teachers are assigned as
part- or full-time guidance counsel­
ors or as teachers of handicapped
or other special groups of children.
Usually, additional preparation and
sometimes special certificates are
required for these assignments.
Probably the most important per­
sonal qualifications for secondary
school teaching are an appreciation
and understanding of adolescent
children. Patience and self-disci­
pline are desirable traits, as are high
standards of personal conduct. In
addition to an enthusiasm for the
subjects they teach, a broad knowl­
edge and appreciation of the arts,
sciences, history, and literature also

are desirable. Civic, social, and rec­
reational activities of teachers may
be influenced, and sometimes re­
stricted, by the customs and atti­
tudes of their community.

Employment Outlook

A slowing of enrollment growth
in secondary schools is expected dur­
ing the 1970’s. Most teaching posi­
tions will result, therefore, from
the need to replace the large number
of women teachers who leave the
profession for family responsibilities.
If the total number of degrees
awarded increases as projected by
the U.S. Office of Education, and
if trends in the proportion of grad­
uates prepared to teach in second­
ary schools continues through the
1970’s, the total number of new
graduates available for secondary
school teaching positions will in­
crease significantly. In addition,
many women will continue to wish
to reenter teaching after a period of
full-time homemaking. New gradu­
ates, therefore, may face keen com­
petition for jobs. Also, young people
planning to teach, therefore, are
likely to find school boards placing
much greater emphasis on the type
and quality of an applicant’s profes­
sional training and academic per­
Despite the anticipated improved
supply situation, opportunities will
be very favorable in some geographic
areas and in subject fields such
as the physical sciences, for which
the demand in private industry
and government is also great. In
addition, increased demand for
teachers trained in the education of
children who are mentally retarded
or physically handicapped are ex­
pected. Considerable additional de­
mand for teachers also may be gen­
erated by Federal legislation that

provides for supplementary educa­
tional centers and services and the
Teacher Corps. These extensive ad­
ditions to present teaching services
will be available to both public and
private school children. Neverthe­
less, if patterns of entry and reentry
to the profession continue in line
with past trends, the number of per­
sons seeking to enter secondary
teaching will significantly exceed re­
quirements. Many students, there­
fore, who are considering secondary
teaching as a career, will have to
change their occupational choice
and pursue other careers.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The average annual salary for all
classroom teachers in public sec­
ondary schools was about $9,540 in
1970-71, according to estimates by
the National Education Association.
In Alaska, California, and New
$11,400 or more. The average was
$7,500 or less in Mississippi, Ar­
kansas, Idaho, South Carolina, Ken­
tucky, Alabama, and Oklahoma. At
the beginning of the 1970-71 aca­
demic year, 31 States had minimum
teacher salary laws.
Teachers of vocational education,
physical education, and other spe­
cial subjects often receive higher
salaries than other teachers. Under
salary schedules in effect in most
school systems, teachers in all sub­
ject fields get regular salary in­
creases as they gain experience and
additional education.
Teachers’ salaries usually are
lower in towns and small cities than
in larger cities or suburbs, but
higher educational and experience
requirements are likely to prevail in
large city school systems. On the
average, salaries of principals in the
largest cities, where administrative


responsibilities are great, are much
higher than in towns and small cit­
ies. Salaries of superintendents in
1970-71 averaged nearly $40,000
in the largest school systems.
Teachers often add to their in­
comes by teaching in summer
school, working as camp and recre­
ational counselors, or doing other
work. Some teachers supplement
their incomes during the regular
school year. They may teach in
adult or evening classes, work parttime in business or industry, or
write for publication.
Some form of retirement is pro­
vided for most teachers. Nearly all
school systems have some provision
for sick leave, and an increasing
number grant other types of leave
with pay.
According to a recent survey, the
average workweek of secondary
school teachers is about 46 hours a
week, of which 23 Vi hours are
spent in classroom instruction and
the remainder in out-of-class in­
struction and other duties. An in­
creasing number of teachers are rep­
resented by professional teacher as­
sociations or by unions that bargain
collectively for them on wages,
hours, and other conditions of em­

Sources of Additional Information

Information on schools and certi­
fication requirements is available
from the State department of educa­
tion at the State capital.
Information on the Teacher
Corps, internships, graduate fellow­
ships, and other information on
teaching may be obtained from:
U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, Office of Edu­
cation, Washington, D.C. 20202.

Other sources of information are:

American Federation of Teachers,
1012 14th St. NW„ Washington,
D.C. 20005.
National Commission on Teacher
Standards, National Education A s­
sociation, 1201 16th St. N W ,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

(D.O.T. 090.168 and .228)

Nature of the Work

About 720,000 teachers were
employed in the Nation’s 2,600 col­
leges and universities in the fall of
1970. Approximately 336,000 were
full-time teachers of degree credit
courses; in addition, 167,000 taught
such courses part time. The remain­
der included junior instructional
staff (primarily graduate students),
and staff who taught non-degree
courses and gave instruction by
television, radio, or mail.
Most full-time college and uni­
versity teachers instruct in the social
sciences, teacher education, English
and journalism, fine arts, mathemat­
ics, physical or biological sciences,
engineering, or the health profes­
sions. Teaching duties may include
preparing and delivering lectures,
leading class discussions, directing
graduate students in teaching fresh­
man courses, preparing tests and in­
struction materials, counseling and
assisting individual students, and
checking and grading assignments
and tests. Grading sometimes is
done by teaching assistants or, for
objective tests, by computers. In
many 4-year institutions, the usual
teaching load is 12 to 15 hours a
week. Associate professors and full



professors— who advise graduate
students and often engage actively
in research— may spend only 6 to 8
hours a week in actual classroom
In addition to teaching, many col­
lege teachers conduct or direct re­
search, write for publication, or aid
in college administration. Some act
as consultants to business, in­
dustrial, scientific, or government

Places of Employment

About nine-tenths of all full- and
part-time teachers were employed
by universities and 4-year colleges
in 1970; most of the remainder
were in 2-year institutions.
Men predominate in college
teaching and hold more than ninetenths of the positions in engineer­
ing, the physical sciences, agricul­
ture, and law. However, most teach­
ers in nursing, home economics, and
library science are women.
College teachers are concen­
trated in the States having the larg­
est college enrollments. In the fall
of 1970, resident and extension en­
rollments exceeded 1.1 million in
California and were over 700,000 in
New York. Three other States had

enrollments of more than 400,000:
Illinois, Texas, and Pennsylvania.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

To qualify for most beginning po­
sitions, applicants must have at least
the master’s degree, and for many,
they must have completed all re­
quirements for the doctorate except
the dissertation. A number of States
require State certification to teach in
public 2-year colleges. To obtain
such a certificate, the master’s de­
gree and certain courses in educa­
tion are required.
To enter college teaching, spe­
cialization in some subject field is
necessary. In addition, undergradu­
ate courses in the humanities, social
sciences, natural sciences, and the
mastery of at least one foreign lan­
guage are important. Intensive in­
struction in the selected field of spe­
cialization is given in graduate
school. Outstanding graduate stu­
dents receive valuable experience
through part-time teaching assistantships. Some students develop
teaching competence by participat­
ing in informal seminars or meetings
prospective college teachers, espe­

cially those in education depart­
ments and junior colleges, gain ex­
perience in high school teaching.
Most 4-year colleges and univer­
sities recognize four academic
ranks: Instructor, assistant profes­
sor, associate professor, and full
professor. A National Education
Association survey indicates that
one-quarter of the teaching faculty
are professors, nearly one-quarter
associate professors, one-third are
assistant professors, and almost onefifth are instructors or lecturers.
Few institutions grant tenure
(permanent appointment) to in­
structors having less than 3 years of
service. Advancement to associate
professorship generally requires
considerable teaching experience
and often a doctor’s degree. In
some institutions, research and pub­
lication also may be required. A
doctor’s degree and 7 or more years
of teaching experience usually are
necessary to become a full profes­
sor. Outstanding achievements, gen­
erally through research or publica­
tions, hastens advancement.
Beginning teachers in fields that
are in strong demand, such as engi­
neering, mathematics, and medi­
cine, sometimes are appointed at
higher ranks than other teachers
having comparable experience and
education. A doctor’s degree is re­
quired particularly for advancement
in the biological sciences, physical
sciences, psychology, social sci­
ences, philosophy, and religion; it is
least likely to be a requirement in
business and commerce, engineer­
ing, fine arts, health and physical
education, and home economics.
Fellowships are available under
the National Defense Education Act
to candidates for doctoral degrees
who plan careers in college or uni­
versity teaching. The Education
Professions Development Act of
1967 authorizes Federally supported



fellowships for master’s degree
study for those planning to enter or
already engaged in teaching at twoyear colleges, four-year colleges, and

Employment Outlook

College teaching opportunities
are expected to be good for those
having doctoral degrees or having
completed all requirements for the
doctorate except the dissertation.
Opportunities also will be favorable
for new entrants having the master’s
degree, particularly in 2-year col­
A great increase in college enroll­
ment is in prospect. The number of
young people in the 18- to 21-year
age group is expected to rise by
nearly 2.7 million between 1970
and 1980. At the same time, larger
proportions of young people of col­
lege age will attend college— owing
to rising family income, recent Fed­
eral legislation to help needy college
students, and greater demand for
college-trained personnel. The an­
ticipated increase in the number of
community colleges and schools of­
fering evening classes also will per­
mit more young people and adults
to attend. If the proportion contin­
ues to increase and facilities are
available, college enrollments for
degree credit will increase from 7.6
million in 1970 to more than 11.2
million in 1980, according to the
U.S. Office of Education.
Taking all these factors into ac­
count, the Office of Education esti­
mates that the full-time college
teaching staff for resident degree
credit courses will increase from
336,000 in 1970 to 460,000 in
1980, or by 37 percent.
The supply of new college teach­
ers, which consists largely of stu­
dents receiving graduate degrees,

also is expected to grow. The U.S.
Office of Education estimates that
the number of doctorates conferred
through 1980 will average about
50,000 a year, and the number of
master’s degrees about 360,000 an­
nually. It is difficult, however, to say
how many of these will enter teach­
ing. Industry, government, and non­
profit organizations also offer em­
ployment opportunities to persons
having graduate degrees, often at
higher salaries than colleges. How­
ever, a smaller proportion of each
year’s doctor’s degree recipients will
be needed to meet the demand for
college teachers. As a result, per­
sons may face some competition in
obtaining positions of their choice.

Earnings and Working Conditions

The median salary of full-time
faculty who were engaged primarily
in teaching in 4-year institutions
was estimated at $11,745 in 196970 (9 m o.), based on National Ed­
ucation Association data. Salaries
generally were higher in universities
than in colleges, and highest in large
universities. Highest median salaries
were paid in the Far West and New
England. Estimated median salaries
by rank were:
P ro fesso r............................................$16,799
Associate P r o fe sso r ....................... 12,985
Assistant Professor ....................... 10,698
Instructor or L ectu rer..................

The median salary paid full-time
faculty in public 2-year colleges in
1969-70 was estimated at $10,850.
Teachers in nonpublic 2-year col­
leges received an estimated median
salary of $8,190.
Faculty members who teach year
round usually receive higher salaries
than those employed for the aca­
demic year only. Teachers in pro­
fessional schools (medicine, dentis­
try, etc.) and graduate schools gen­

erally receive higher salaries than
teachers in other colleges.
Some faculty members supple­
ment their regular salaries with
earnings from a variety of sources.
The chief source is additional teach­
ing (often in summer sessions).
Consulting work may be a major
source of extra income, particularly
in engineering and physical sci­
ences. Research grants are now
common, especially in many large,
well-known universities; fees for
lecturing and royalties on publica­
tions are other possible sources of
income. Opportunities for addi­
tional income usually increase as
the faculty member gains recogni­
tion. For most college teachers, ad­
ditional income is small.
Retirement plans differ consider­
ably among institutions, but an in­
creasing number are participating in
the Government social security pro­
gram, often as an accompaniment to
plans of their own. The greatest
number of institutions have set 65
years as the normal retirement age,
although most of these extend the
age limit if desired.
Many colleges and universities
provide benefits such as: Sabbatical
leaves of absence— typically, 1
year’s leave with half salary or a
half-year’s leave at full salary after
6 or 7 years of employment; other
types of leave for advanced study;
life, sickness, and accident insur­
ance; reduced tuition charges or
cash-tuition grants for children of
faculty members; housing allow­
ances; travel funds for attending
professional meetings; and other

Sources of Additional Information

Information on college teaching
as a career is available from:


U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Office of
Education, Washington,

American Association of University
Professors, 1 Dupont Circle NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Council on Education,
1 Dupont Circle NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

American Federation of Teachers,
1012 14th St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005
1201 16th St. N W , Washington,
D.C. 20036.

Professional societies in the vari­
ous subject fields will generally
provide information on teaching re­

quirements and employment oppor­
tunities in their particular fields.
Names and addresses of societies
are given in the statements on spe­
cific professions elsewhere in the
H andbook.


growing rapidly because of the
needs of an expanding and increas­
ingly technical economy matched to
the growing recognition of the im­
portance of technicians. This chap­
ter is concerned with the technicians
who work with engineers and scien­
tists, and with draftsmen, also usu­
ally considered technicians. Infor­
mation on surveyors, often classified
as technicians, and on technical oc­
cupations in the health field— in­
cluding dental laboratory techni­
cians, radiological technologists,
and dental hygienists— is presented
elsewhere in the H an dbook.

(D.O.T. .002 through .029)

Nature of the Work

The term “technician,” as used
here, refers to workers whose jobs
require both knowledge and use of
scientific and mathematical theory;
specialized education or training in
some aspect of technology or sci­
ence; and who, as a rule, work di­
rectly with scientists and engineers.
There is no generally accepted defi­
nition of the term “technician.” For
example, it is used by employers to
refer to workers in a great variety of
jobs, requiring a wide range of ed­
ucation and training. The term is
applied to employees doing rela­
tively routine work, to persons per­
forming work requiring skills within
a limited sphere, and to persons

doing highly technical work, among
them assistants to engineers and sci­
The workers’ job titles may be
descriptive of their technical level
(for example, biological aid, or en­
gineering technician) or their work
activity (for example, quality-con­
trol technician, production analyst,
tool designer, materials tester, or
time-study analyst). Some em­
ployees use the word “technician,”
preceded by adjectives, such as me­
chanical, electrical, electronics, or
chemical, which describes areas of
technology in which their personnel
are employed.
The jobs of engineering and sci­
ence technicians are more limited
than those of the professional engi­
neer or scientist, and have a greater
practical orientation. Many techni­
cian jobs require the ability to ana­
lyze and solve engineering and sci­
ence problems and to prepare for­
mal reports on experiments, tests,
or other projects. Most of these jobs
require some aptitude in mathemat­
ics; others, the ability to visualize
objects and to make sketches and
drawings. Design jobs often require
creative ability. Many technician
jobs require some familiarity with
one or more of the skilled trades,
although not the ability to perform
as a craftsman. Others demand ex­
tensive knowledge of industrial ma­
chinery, tools, equipment, and proc­
esses. Some jobs held by these tech­
nicians are supervisory and require
both technical knowledge and the
ability to supervise people.
In carrying out their assignments,
engineering and science technicians
frequently use complex electronic
and mechanical instruments, experi­
mental laboratory apparatus, and
drafting instruments. Almost all of

the technicians whose jobs are de­
scribed in this statement must be
able to use engineering handbooks
and computing devices, such as the
slide rule or calculating machine.

Technicians engage in virtually
every aspect of engineering and sci­
entific work. In research, develop­
ment, and design, one of the largest
areas of employment, they conduct
experiments or tests; set up, cali­
brate, and operate instruments; and
make calculations. They also assist
scientists and engineers in develop­
ing experimental equipment and
models by making drawings and
sketches and, under the engineer’s
direction, frequently do some design
Technicians also work in jobs re­
lated to production, usually follow­
ing a program course laid out by
the engineer or scientist, but often
without close supervision. They may
aid in the various phases of produc­
tion operation, such as working out
specifications for materials and
methods of manufacture, devising
tests to insure quality control of
products, or making time-and-motion studies (timing and analyzing



the worker’s movements) designed
to improve the efficiency of a partic­
ular operation. They also may per­
form liaison work between engi­
neering and production or other de­
Technicians often do work that
might otherwise have to be done by
engineers. They may serve as tech­
nical sales or field representatives of
manufacturers; advise on installa­
tion and maintenance problems of
complex machinery; or write speci­
fications and technical manuals.
(See statement on Technical Writ­
The following sections describe a
number of technological fields in
which engineering and science tech­
nicians are trained and employed.
A ero n a u tical T echnology. Tech­
nicians specializing in this area of
technology work with engineers and
scientists in many phases of the de­
sign and production of aircraft, heli­
copters, rockets, guided missiles,
and spacecraft. Many aid engineers
in preparing layouts of structures,
control systems, or equipment in­
stallations by collecting information,
making calculations, and perform­
ing many other tasks. They work on
projects involving stress analysis,
aerodynamics, structural design,
flight test evaluation, or weight con­
trol. For example, under the direc­
tion of an engineer, a technician
might estimate weight factors, cen­
ters of gravity, and other items af­
fecting load capacity of an airplane
or missile. Other technicians work­
ing on engineering projects prepare
or check drawings for technical ac­
curacy, practicability, and economy.
Technicians sometimes help to
estimate the cost of the materials
and labor needed to manufacture
aircraft and missiles. They also may
be responsible for liaison between
the engineers who do the planning
and development work, and the

craftsmen who convert the engi­
neers’ ideas into finished products.
For example, as an aircraft or mis­
sile is built, the liaison technician
checks it for conformance to speci­
fications, keeps the engineer in­
formed as to progress, and in­
vestigates any production engi­
neering problems that arise. He
changes in the design, the ma­
terials, or the method of fabri­
Other aeronautical technicians
are employed as manufacturer’s
field service representatives, serving
as the link between their company
and the military, commercial air­
lines, and other customers. Techni­
cians often prepare instruction man­
uals, bulletins, catalogs, and other
technical materials. (See statements
on Aerospace Engineers and Air­
plane Mechanics, and chapter on
Occupations in Aircraft, Missile,
and Spacecraft Manufacturing.)
A ir-C o n d itio n in g , H eating, and
R efrigeration T ech n ology. Air-con­

ditioning technology involves the
control of air including its heating,
cooling, humidity, cleanliness, and
movement. Technicians in this field
often become specialists in one area
of work, such as refrigeration, and
sometimes in a particular type of
activity, such as research and devel­
opment or design of layouts for
heating, cooling, or refrigeration
In the manufacture of air-condi­
tioning, heating, and refrigeration
equipment, technicians work in re­
search and engineering depart­
ments, usually as aids to engineers
and scientists. They may be as­
signed to such jobs as devising
methods for testing equipment or
Technically trained personnel also
assist in designing the air-condition­
ing, heating, or refrigeration sys­

tems for a particular office, store, or
other location and prepare instruc­
tions for their installation. In de­
signing the layout for an air-condi­
tioning or heating system, they must
determine the cooling or heating re­
quirements, decide what kind of
equipment is most suitable, and es­
timate costs. Technicians employed
as salesmen by equipment manufac­
turers must be able to supply con­
tractors who design and install sys­
tems with information on such tech­
nical subjects as installation, main­
tenance, operating costs, and ex­
pected performance of equipment.
(See also statement on Refrigera­
tion and Air-Conditioning Mechan­
C h em ical T echnology. Techni­
cians specializing in this area work
mainly with chemists and chemical
engineers in the development, pro­
duction, sale, and utilization of chem­
ical and related products and equip­
ment. The field of chemistry is so
broad that chemical technicians
often become specialists in the
problems of a particular industry,
such as food processing, or in a par­
ticular activity, such as quality con­
Most chemical technicians work
in research and development, test­
ing, or other laboratory work. They
conduct experiments and tabulate
and analyze the results. In testing
work, technicians make chemical
tests of materials to determine
whether the materials meet specifi­
cations or whether particular sub­
stances are present and, if so, in
what quantities. They may, for ex­
ample, analyze steel for carbon,
phosphorous, and sulfur content, or
water for the amount of silica, iron,
and calcium present. They also per­
form experiments to determine the
characteristics of substances such as
the specific gravity and ash content
of oil. Technicians employed in re­



search or testing laboratories often
assemble and use such apparatus
and instruments as dilatometers
(which measure the dilation or ex­
pansion of a substance), analytical
balances, and centrifuges.
Outside the laboratory, chemical
technicians are sometimes employed
to supervise various operations in
the production of chemical products
and as technical salesman of chemi­
cals and chemical equipment. (See
also statements on Chemists and
Chemical Engineers, and chapter on
Occupations in the Industrial
Chemical Industry.)
C ivil

E ngineering

T echnology.

Technicians trained in this area as­
sist civil engineers in performing
many of the tasks necessary in the
planning, design, and construction
of highways, railroads, bridges, via­
ducts, dams, and other types of
structures. During the planning
stage, technicians may help to esti­
mate costs, to prepare specifications
for materials, or participate in sur­
veying, drafting, detailing, or de­
signing work. Once the actual con­
struction work has begun, they may
assist the contractor or superintend­
ent in scheduling construction activ­
ities or inspecting the work to as­
sure conformance to blueprints and
specifications. (See also statements
on Civil Engineers, Draftsmen, and
E lectron ics
T ech n ology.
field includes radio, radar, sonar,
telemetering, television, telephony,
and other forms of communication;
industrial and medical measuring,
recording, indicating, and control­
ling devices; navigational equip­
ment; missile and spacecraft guid­
ance and control instruments; elec­
tronic computers; and many other
types of equipment using vacuum
tubes, transistors, semiconductors,
and printed circuits. Because the
field is so broad, technicians gener­

ally become specialists in one area
— for example, induction or dielec­
tric heating, servomechanisms, au­
tomation controls, or ultrasonics.
Technicians working with engi­
neers and scientists in the field of
electronics do complex technical
work that is more difficult than rou­
tine operating and repair work.
(For additional information on
broadcast technicians see chapter
on Occupations in Radio and Tele­
vision Broadcasting.)

Industrial P ro d u ctio n T echnol­
ogy. Technicians trained in this area
are sometimes called industrial
technicians o r p ro d u ctio n techni­
cians. They assist industrial engi­

neers on problems involving the ef­
ficient use of personnel, materials,
and machines in the production of
goods or services. Their work in­
cludes preparing layouts of machin­
ery and equipment, planning the
flow of work, and making statistical
studies and analyses of production

costs. The industrial technician also
may conduct time-and-motion stud­
In the course of their duties,
many industrial technicians acquire
experience which enables them to
qualify for other jobs. For example,
those expert in machinery and pro­
duction methods may move into the
field of industrial safety. Others who
specialize in job analysis may be­
come involved in the setting of job
standards and in the interviewing,
testing, hiring, and training of per­
sonnel. Still others may move into
production supervision. (See state­
ments on Personnel Workers and
Industrial Engineers.)
M ech an ical
T ech n ology.
chanical technology is a broad term
usually used to cover a large num­
ber of specialized fields, including
automotive technology, diesel tech­
nology, tool design, machine design,
and production technology.
Technicians in the above areas of
mechanical technology often assist
engineers in design and develop­
ment work by making freehand
sketches and rough layouts of pro­
posed machinery and other equip­
ment and parts. They help to deter­
mine whether a proposed design
change in a product is practical and
how much the product will cost to
produce. They also may be required
to solve design problems such as
those involving tolerance, stress,
strain, friction, and vibration.
The planning and testing of ex­
perimental machines and equipment
for performance, durability, and ef­
ficiency provide a large area of
work for technicians. In the testing
procedure, they record data, make
computations, plot graphs, analyze
results, and write reports. They
sometimes make recommendations
for design changes to improve per­
formance. Their jobs often require
skill in the use of instruments, test



equipment and gages, such as dyna­
mometers, as well as the ability to
prepare and interpret drawings.
One of the better known spe­
cialties which may be grouped
under mechanical engineering tech­
nology is that of to o l d esig n e r. The
tool designer designs tools and de­
vices for the mass production of
manufactured articles. He originates
and prepares sketches of the designs
for cutting tools, jigs, dies, special
fixtures, and other attachments used
in machine operations. He also may
make detailed drawings of these
tools and fixtures or supervise oth­
ers in making them. Besides devel­
oping new tools, designers fre­
quently redesign tools to improve
their efficiency.
Machine drafting, with some de­
signing, is another major area of
work often grouped under mechani­
cal technology. The work is de­
scribed elsewhere in this chapter.
Some mechanical technicians are
employed in manufacturing depart­
ments to help develop plans for test­
ing and inspecting machines and
equipment, or to work with engi­
neers in eliminating production
problems. Some obtain jobs as tech­
nical salesmen. (See statements on
Mechanical Engineers, Automobile
Mechanics, Manufacturers’ Sales­
men, and Diesel M echanics.)
As industry becomes increasingly
mechanized, new technical occupa­
tions continue to emerge. For exam­
ple, in stru m e n ta tio n te c h n o lo g y has
evolved from the introduction of au­
tomatic controls and precision-meas­
uring devices in manufacturing op­
erations. In industrial plants and
laboratories, instruments are used to
record data, to control and regulate
the operation of machinery, and to
measure time, weight, temperature,
speed of moving parts, mixtures,
volume, flow, strain, and pressure.
Technicians in this field work with

engineers and scientists who de­
velop and design these highly com ­
plex devices, as well as with those
who use them for research and de­
velopment work. (See also state­
ment on Instrument Makers.)
Another new area of work for
technicians, which has resulted from
recognition of the need for a more
scientific approach toward the re­
duction of industrial hazards, is
safety technology. In the rapidly
growing atomic energy field, in par­
ticular, technicians work with scien­
tists and engineers on problems of
radiation safety, inspection, and
decontamination. (See chapter on
Occupations in the Atomic Energy
F ield.) Other new areas include the
environmental control field, where
technicians are concerned with the
problems of air and water pollution.

Places of Employment
An estimated 650,000 engineer­
ing and science technicians, not in­
cluding draftsmen and surveyors,
were employed in 1970— about 11
4 6 0,000 of these technicians (more
than 7 out of 10) were employed by
private industry. The manufacturing
industries employing the largest
numbers of engineering and science
technicians were electrical equip­
ment, chemicals, machinery, and
aerospace. In the nonmanufacturing
sector, large numbers of technicians
were employed in the communica­
tions industry and by engineering
and architectural firms.
In 1970, the Federal Government
employed over 85,000 engineering
and science technicians; chiefly as
engineering aids and technicians,
electronic technicians, equipment
specialists, cartographic aids, mete­
orological technicians, and physical

science technicians. Of these engi­
neering and science technicians, the
largest number worked for the D e­
partment of Defense. Most of the
others were employed by the D e­
partments of Transportation, Agri­
culture, Interior, and Commerce.
State Government agencies em­
ployed nearly 50,000 engineering
and science technicians in 1970 and
local governments about 12,000.
The remainder were employed by
colleges and universities, mostly in
university-operated research insti­
tutes, and by nonprofit organiza­

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Young men and women who wish
to prepare for careers as engineer­
ing or science technicians can obtain
the necessary training from a great
variety of educational institutions or
can qualify for their work right on
the job. Most employers, however,
seek workers who have had some
form of specialized training for
more responsible technician jobs.
Specialized formal training pro­
grams are offered in post-secondary
schools— technical institutes, junior
and community colleges, area voca­
tional technical schools, and exten­
sion divisions of colleges and univer­
sities— as well as in technical and
technical-vocational high schools.
Other ways in which persons can
become qualified for technician jobs
are by completing an on-the-job
training program, through work ex­
perience and formal courses taken
on a part-time basis in post-second­
ary or correspondence schools, or
through training and experience ob­
tained while serving in the Armed
Forces. In addition, many engineer­
ing and science students who have
not completed all the requirements


for a bachelor’s degree, as well as
some other persons having a college
education in mathematics and sci­
ence, are able to qualify for techni­
cian jobs after they obtain some ad­
ditional technical training and expe­
rience. In general, post-secondary
school technical training is required
for a growing number of engineer­
ing and science technician jobs.
Engineering and science techni­
cians usually begin work as trainees
or in the more routine positions
under the direct supervision of an
experienced technician, scientist, or
engineer. A s they gain experience,
they are given more responsibility,
often carrying out a particular as­
signment under only general super­
vision. Technicians may move into
supervisory positions. Those having
exceptional ability sometimes obtain
additional formal education and are
promoted to professional engineer­
ing positions.
For admittance to most schools
offering post-secondary technician
training, a high school diploma is
usually required. Some schools, how­
ever, admit students without a high
school diploma if they are able to
pass special examinations and other­
wise demonstrate their ability to per­
form work above the high school
level. A ll engineering and science
occupations require basic training
in mathematics and science, thus
students should obtain a sound back­
ground in these subjects when in
high school. Many post-secondary
schools have arrangements for help­
ing students make up deficiencies in
these subjects.
Programs offered by schools spe­
cializing in post-secondary technical
training require 1, 2, 3, or 4 years
of full-time study. The majority are
2 -year programs leading to an asso­
ciate of arts or science degree. Eve­
ning as well as day sessions are gen­
erally available. The courses offered


in science, mathematics, and engi­
neering are usually at the college
level. They include instruction in
laboratory techniques and the use of
instruments, and emphasize the
practical problems met on the job.
Students also are instructed in the
use of machinery and tools to give
them a familiarity with this equip­
ment rather than to develop skills.
Some 4-year programs for the
bachelor’s degree in technology
place more emphasis on courses in
the humanities and business admin­
istration than the 2-year programs,
while other 4-year programs em­
phasize additional technical train­
Because of the variety of educa­
tional institutions and the differ­
ences in the kind and level of edu­
cation and training, persons seeking
a technical education should use
more than ordinary care in selecting
a school. Information should be se­
cured about the fields of technology
in which training is offered, accredi­
tation, the length of time the school
has been in operation, instructional
transferability of credits toward the
bachelor’s degree, and the type of
work obtained by the school’s grad­
Briefly discussed here are some
of the types of post-secondary edu­
cational institutions and other
sources where young people can ob­
tain training as technicians.
T e c h n ic a l In stitu te s. Technical
institutes offer training designed to
qualify the graduate for a specific
job or cluster of jobs immediately
upon graduation with only a mini­
mum of on-the-job training. In
general, the student receives inten­
sive technical training but less theo­
retical and general education than is
provided in curriculums leading to a
bachelor’s degree in engineering
and liberal arts colleges. A few

technical institutes and community
colleges offer cooperative programs
in which a student spends part of
his time in school and part in paid
employment related to the occupa­
tion for which he is preparing him­
Some technical institutes are op­
erated as regular or extension divi­
sions of colleges and universities.
Others are separate institutions op­
erated by States or municipalities,
privately endowed institutions, and
proprietary schools.
J u n io r C o lle g e s a n d C o m m u n ity

Many junior and com­
munity colleges offer the necessary
training to prepare students for
technician occupations. Some of
these schools offer curriculums that
are similar to those given in the
freshman and sophomore years of
4-year colleges. Graduates can
transfer after the junior college into
a 4-year college or qualify for some
technician jobs. Most large com­
munity colleges offer 2-year techni­
cal programs, and many employers
express a preference for graduates
having this more specialized train­
ing. Junior college courses in tech­
nical fields are often planned
around the employment needs of
the industries in their locality.
C o lle g e s.

A rea
S c h o o ls.

V o c a tio n a l-T e c h n ic a l

Area vocational-technical
schools are post-secondary public
institutions that are established in
central locations to serve students
from several surrounding areas. In
general, the admission requirements
of vocational-technical schools are
as rigid as those of other schools of­
fering post-secondary technician
training. Area school curriculums
are usually designed to train the
types of technicians most needed in
the area.
O th e r T ra in in g . Some large cor­
porations conduct training programs
to meet their need for technically



trained personnel. This type of
training is primarily technical and
rarely includes any general studies.
Training for some occupations in
the technician category— tool de­
signer and electronic technican, for
example— may be obtained through
a formal apprenticeship.
Some training also is available in
special purpose institutions that spe­
cialize in a single field, such as elec­
Correspondence schools also pro­
vide technician training for those
who wish to learn more about their
Technician training is offered by
all branches of the Armed Forces.
Many of the technicians trained by
the military utilize their training in
civilian employment, especially in
the field of electronics, after they
leave the Armed Forces.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
engineering and science technicians
are expected to be very good
through the 1970’s. The demand
will be strongest for graduates of
post-secondary school technician
training programs.
Am ong the factors underlying the
increase in demand for technicians
are the anticipated expansion of in­
dustry and the increasing complex­
ity of modern technology. A s prod­
ucts and the methods by which they
are manufactured become more
complex, more technicians will
probably be required to assist engi­
neers. They may be needed in such
activities as production planning,
and maintaining liaison between
production and engineering depart­
ments, and in technical sales work.
Furthermore, as the employment of

scientists and engineers continues to
grow, increasing numbers of techni­
cians will be needed to assist them.
The trend toward automation of in­
dustrial processes will probably also
add to the demand for technical
personnel; so will the growth of new
areas of work, such as those related
to space and oceanographic explo­
ration, atomic engery, environmen­
tal control, or urban development.
In addition to the technicians
needed to fill new positions, thou­
sands will be needed each year
through the 1970’s to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to other
Another factor supporting the ex­
pected increase in demand for engi­
neering and science technicians is
the growth anticipated in research
and development (R&D) expendi­
tures. During the 1970 decade,
R&D expenditures of Government
and industry are expected to in­
crease, although at a slower rate
than during the 1960’s. The antici­
pated slowdown in Federal R&D
spending basically reflects antici­
pated reductions in the relative im­
portance of the space and defense
components of R&D expenditures.
These trends were evidenced in the
late 1960’s and in 1970.
Expenditures for defense and
space programs also affect the de­
mand for technical personnel, be­
cause a large number are engaged
in activities related to the defense
and space programs. The above
outlook for technicians is based on
the assumption that defense activity
as measured by expenditures will be
somewhat higher than the level be­
fore the Vietnam buildup, approxi­
mating the level of the early 1960’s.
If defense activity should differ sub­
stantially from that level, the de­
mand for technicians would be af­
fected accordingly.
Well-qualified women technicians

should continue to find favorable
employment opportunities, chiefly
in designing jobs, in chemical and
other laboratory work, and in com­
putation and other work requiring
the application of mathematics.
Over the long run, it is likely that
more women will be trained and
will find employment in these and
other technician occupations.

In general, a technician’s earn­
ings depend upon his education arid
technical specialty, as well as his
ability and work experience. Other
important factors which influence
his earnings are the type of firm for
which he works, his specific duties,
and the geographic location of his
In Federal Government agencies
in 1970, beginning engineering and
science technicians were offered
$5,212, $5,853 or $6,548, depend­
ing upon the type of job vacancy
and the applicant’s education and
other qualifications. Some Federal
Government agencies hire high
school graduates and train them for
technician jobs. Beginning salaries
for these jobs were $4,621 a year.
Starting salaries in private indus­
try in 1970, for technicians holding
associate degrees, ranged from
about $6,500 to $8,300 a year; the
average was about $7,400.
Most technicians can look for­
ward to an increase in earnings as
they move to higher positions. In
1970 annual salaries of workers in
responsible technician positions in
private industry averaged almost
$11,000 and approximately onefourth of the workers had annual sal­
aries above $11,900, according to a
Bureau of Labor Statistics survey.



Sources of Additional Information


General information on careers
for engineering and science techni­
cians may be obtained from :

(D.O.T. 001. through 019.)

American Society for Engineering
Education, Suite 400, 1 Dupont
Circle, Washington, D.C. 20036.

Nature of the Work

Engineers’ Council for Professional
Development, 345 East 47th St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.
National Council of Technical
Schools, 1835 K. Street, NW.,
Room 907, Washington, D.C.

Information on training oppor­
tunities may also be obtained from
the Engineers’ Council for Profes­
sional Development, a nationally
recognized accrediting agency for
engineering technology programs;
the National Council of Technical
Schools; and the U.S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, Division of
Higher Education and/or Division
of Vocational and Technical Educa­
tion, Washington, D.C. 20202.
State departments of education at
each State capital also have infor­
mation about approved technical in­
stitutes, junior colleges, and other
educational institutions within the
State offering post-high school train­
ing for specific technical occupa­
tions. Other sources include:
American Association of Junior Col­
leges, Suite 410, 1 Dupont Circle,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Home Study Council, 1601
18th St. NW., Washington, D.C.

In making a space capsule or an
electric iron, a nuclear submarine or
a television set, a bridge or a type­
writer, detailed drawings are needed
that give the exact physical dimen­
sions and specifications of the en­
tire object and each of its parts. The
workers who draw these plans are
Draftsmen translate the ideas,
rough sketches, specifications, and
calculations of engineers, architects,
and designers into working plans
which are used in making a product.
strength, reliability, and cost of ma­
terials. In their drawings and speci­
fications, they describe exactly what
materials and workers are to use on
a particular job. To prepare their
drawings, draftsmen use instruments
such as compasses, dividers, pro­
tractors, templates and triangles, as
well as machines that combine the
functions of several devices. They
also may use engineering hand­
books, tables, and slide rules to as­
sist in solving technical problems.
Draftsmen are often classified ac­
cording to the type of work they do
or their level of responsibility. S e n ­
io r d ra ftsm e n use the preliminary
information provided by engineers
and architects to prepare design
“layouts” (drawings made to scale
of the object to be built). D e ta ile r s
make drawings of each part shown
on the layout, giving dimensions,
material, and any other information
necessary to make the detailed
drawing clear and complete. C h e c k ­
e r s carefully examine drawings for
errors in computing or in recording
dimensions and specifications. Un­

der the supervision of draftsmen,
tra c e rs make minor corrections and
prepare drawings for reproduction
by tracing them on transparent
cloth, paper, or plastic film.
Draftsmen also may specialize in
a particular field of work, such as
mechanical, electrical, electronic,
aeronautical, structural, or architec­
tural drafting.

Places of Employment
An estimated 3 1 0 ,000 draftsmen
were employed in 1970; almost 4
percent were women. About 9 out
of 10 draftsmen are employed in



industries that employ large num­
bers are those making machinery,
electrical equipment, transportation
equipment and fabricated metal
products. Nonmanufacturing indus­
tries employing large numbers are
engineering and architectural con­
sulting firms, construction compa­
nies, and public utilities.
Over 20,000 draftsmen worked
for Federal, State, and local govern­
ments in 1970. Of those employed
by the Federal Government, the
large majority worked for the D e­
partments of the Army, Navy, and
Air Force. Draftsmen employed by
State and local governments worked
chiefly for highway and public
works departments. Several thou­
sand draftsmen were employed by
colleges and universities and by
nonprofit organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Young persons interested in be­
coming draftsmen can acquire the
necessary training from a number of
sources, including technical insti­
tutes, junior and community col­
leges, extension divisions of uni­
versities, vocational and technical
high schools, and correspondence
schools. Others may qualify for
draftsmen jobs through on-the-job
training programs combined with
part-time schooling or through 3- or
4-year apprenticeship programs.
training, whether obtained in high
school or post-high school drafting
programs, should include courses
in mathematics and physical sci­
ences, as well as in mechanical
drawing and drafting. The study of
shop practices and the learning of
some shop skills also are helpful,
since many higher level drafting

jobs require knowledge of manufac­
turing or construction methods.
Many technical schools offer courses
in structural design, strength of ma­
terials, and physical metallurgy.
Young people having only high
school drafting training usually start
out as tracers. Those having some
formal post-high school technical
training can often qualify as junior
draftsmen. As draftsmen gain skill
and experience, they may advance
to higher level positions as check­
ers, detailers, senior draftsmen, or
supervisors of other draftsmen.
Some may become independent de­
courses in engineering and mathe­
matics are sometimes able to trans­
fer to engineering positions.
Qualifications for success as a
draftsman may include the ability to
visualize objects in three dimen­
sions as well as the ability to do
freehand drawing. Although such
artistic ability is not generally re­
quired, it may be very helpful in
some specialized fields.
Drafting work also requires good
eyesight (corrected or uncorrected),
eye-hand coordination, and manual

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
draftsmen are expected to be favor­
able through the 1970’s. Prospects
will be best for those having posthigh school drafting training. Wellqualified high school graduates who
have had only high school drafting,
however, also will be in demand for
some types of jobs.
Employment of draftsmen is ex­
pected to rise rapidly as a result of
the increasing complex design prob­
lems of modern products and proc­
esses. In addition, as engineering
and scientific occupations continue

to grow, more draftsmen will be
needed as supporting personnel. On
the other hand, photoreproduction
of drawings and expanding use of
electronic drafting equipment and
computers are eliminating some
routine tasks done by draftsmen.
This development will probably
bring about a reduction in the need
for some less skilled draftsmen.
In addition to draftsmen needed
to fill new positions, many will be
required each year to replace those
who retire, die, or move into other
fields of work.

In private industry, persons in
beginning drafting positions earned
an average of about $470 a month
in 1970, according to a Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey. As they
gain experience, draftsmen may
move up to higher level positions
with a substantial increase in earn­
ings. For example, the earnings of
senior draftsmen averaged about
$850 a month. Most earned about
$700 per month.
In the Federal Civil Service in
1970, the entrance salary for high
school graduates without work ex­
perience who were employed in
about $380 a month. For those hav­
ing post-high school education or
some experience in drafting, en­
trance salaries were higher. The
majority of experienced draftsmen
working for the Federal Govern­
ment earned between $600 and
$740 a month.

Sources of Additional Information
General information on careers
for draftsmen may be obtained


American Institute for Design and
Drafting, Post Office Box 2955,
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74101.

American Federation of Technical
Engineers, 1126 16th Street, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

See also section on Sources of
Additional Information in the state­
ment on Engineering and Science


(D.O.T. 132.268)

Nature of the Work
Newspaper reporters gather in­
formation on current events and use
it to write stories for publication in
daily or weekly newspapers. In cov­
ering events, they may interview
people, review public records, attend
news happenings, and do research.
As a rule, reporters take notes or
use electronic recording devices
while collecting the facts, and write
their stories upon return to the
office. Sometimes, to meet dead­
lines, they telephone their stories to
other staff members known as “re­
write men,” who write the stories
for them.

Large dailies frequently assign
some reporters to “beats,” such as
police stations or the courts, to
cover news originating in these
places. Other local news, such as a

story about a lost child or an obit­
uary of a community leader, is han­
dled by general assignment re­
porters. Specialized reporters, who
are well-versed in a subject-matter
field as well as in writing, increas­
ingly are interpreting and analyzing
the news in fields such as medicine,
politics, science, education, busi­
ness, labor, and religion. Reporters
on small newspapers get broad ex­
perience; they not only cover all as­
pects of local news, but also may
take photographs, write headlines,
lay out inside pages, and even write
editorials. On the smallest weeklies,
they also may solicit advertise­
ments, sell subscriptions, and per­
form general office work.

Places of Employment
A n estimated 39,000 newspaper
reporters were employed in the
United States in 1970; more than
35 percent were women. The ma­
jority of reporters work for daily
newspapers; others work for weekly
papers, press services, and newspa­
per syndicates.
Reporters work in cities and
towns of all sizes throughout the
country. Of the 1,760 daily and
9 ,0 0 0 weekly newspapers, the great
majority are in medium-size towns.
Large numbers of reporters, how­
ever, are in cities, since big city
dailies employ many reporters,
whereas a small-town paper gener­
ally employs only a few.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
M ost newspapers will consider
only applicants having a college ed­
ucation. Graduate work is increas­

ingly important. Some editors prefer
graduates who have a degree in
journalism, which usually involves a
liberal arts education as well as pro­
fessional training. Other editors
consider a degree in liberal arts
equally desirable. Although talented
writers having little or no academic
training beyond high school some­
times become reporters on city news­
papers, most reporters without col­
lege training begin— and usually
remain— on rural, small-town or
suburban papers.
Professional studies leading to a
bachelor’s degree in journalism can
be obtained in nearly 200 colleges;
about two-thirds of these have sepa­
rate departments or schools of jour­
nalism. The typical undergraduate
journalism curriculum is offered
during the junior and senior years
of college, and is divided about
equally between cultural and pro­
fessional subjects. Am ong the pro­
fessional courses are reporting,
copyreading, editing, feature writ­
ing, and the history of journalism.
Over 250 junior colleges offer
journalism programs. Credit se­
cured in most is transferable to the
4-year college programs in journal­
ism. In addition, some junior col­
leges offer programs especially de­
signed to prepare the student di­
rectly for employment as a general
assignment reporter on weekly and
small daily newspapers.
The master’s degree in journal­
ism is awarded by 52 schools; 20 of
them offer the doctor’s degree in
mass communications.
Young people who wish to pre­
pare for newspaper work through a
liberal arts curriculum should take
English courses that include writing,
as well as subjects such as sociol­
ogy, political science, economics,
history, psychology, and speech.
Ability to read and speak in a for­
eign language and some familiarity
with mathematics also are desirable.
Those who look forward to becom­

ing technical writers, or reporters
in a special field such as science,
should concentrate on course work
in their subject matter areas as
much as possible. (See statement on
Technical Writers.)
The Armed Forces also provide
some training in journalism. The
Department of Defense maintains a
Defense Information School at Fort
Benjamin Harrison, Indianapolis,
Summer internships on newspa­
pers, providing college students an
opportunity to learn the rudiments
of reporting or editing, are available
from the Newspaper Fund and indi­
vidual newspapers. Moreover, in
addition to many loan programs,
more than 2 ,8 0 0 journalism schol­
arships, fellowships, and assistantships were offered in 1970 by uni­
versities, newspapers, and profes­
sional organizations.
Important personal characteris­
tics include a “nose for news,” curi­
osity, persistence, initiative, re­
sourcefulness, an accurate memory,
and the physical stamina necessary
for an active and often fast-paced
life. Skill in typing generally is re­
quired since reporters usually must
type their own news stories. On
small papers, a knowledge of news
photography also is valuable.
Some who compete for regular
positions, find it is helpful to have
had experience as a “stringer”— one
who covers the news in a particular
area of the community for a news­
paper and is paid on the basis of the
stories printed. Experience on a
high school or college newspaper
also may be helpful in obtaining
Many beginners work on weekly
or on small daily newspapers. Some
college graduates are hired as gen­
eral assignment reporters; others
start on large city papers as copy
editors. Beginning reporters usually


are assigned to news events such as
reporting on civic and club meet­
ings, summarizing speeches, writing
obituaries, interviewing important
visitors to the community, and cov­
ering police court proceedings. As
they gain experience, they may re­
port more important developments,
cover an assigned “beat,” or spe­
cialize in a particular field of knowl­
Newspapermen also may advance
to reporting for larger papers or for
press services and newspaper syndi­
cates. Some experienced reporters
becom e columnists, correspondents,
editors, top executives, or publish­
ers; these positions represent the
top of the field and competition for
them is keen. Other reporters trans­
fer to related fields such as writing
for magazines, or preparing copy
for radio and television news re­

Employment Outlook
Well-qualified beginners with ex­
ceptional writing talent will find fa­
vorable employment opportunities
through the 1970’s. In 1970, editors
of large newspapers were seeking
young reporters with exceptional
talent. Other beginners, however,
were facing competition for jobs,
especially on large city dailies, and
probably will continue to do so. In
addition to seeking young reporters
with exceptional talent, editors also
were looking for reporters who
were qualified to handle news about
highly specialized or technical sub­
Weekly or daily newspapers lo­
cated in small towns and suburban
areas will continue to offer the most
opportunities for beginners entering
arise on these papers as young peo­

ple gain experience and transfer to
reporting jobs on larger newspapers
or to other types of work. Prefer­
ence in employment on small papers
is likely to be given to beginning re­
porters who are able to help with
photography and other specialized
aspects of newspaper work and are
acquainted with the community.
Large city dailies will provide
some openings for the inexperi­
enced with good educational back­
grounds and a flair for writing to
enter as reporter trainees. Some op­
portunities may continue to be
available for young people who
enter as copy boys and advance to
reporting jobs.
In addition to jobs in newspaper
reporting, new college graduates
who have journalism training may
enter related fields such as advertis­
ing, public relations, trade and tech­
nical publishing, radio, and televi­
sion. Some job opportunities also
will be found in teaching journal­
The broad field of mass commun­
ication, which has grown rapidly in
recent years, will continue to ex­
pand in the future. Factors contrib­
uting to this continuing expansion
include rising levels of education and
income; increasing expenditures for
newspaper, radio, and television ad­
vertising; and a growing number of
trade and technical journals and
various types of company publica­
tions. As newspapers share in this
growth, employment of reporters is
expected to increase slowly. The
greatest number of job openings,
more than a thousand each year,
will continue to arise from the need
to replace reporters who are pro­
moted to editorial or other positions,
transfer to other fields of work, re­
tire, or leave the profession for
other reasons.



Earnings and Working Conditions
Many daily newspapers have ne­
gotiated, with the American N ew s­
paper Guild, contracts which set
minimum wages based on experi­
ence and provide for annual salary
increases. In 1970, the minimum
starting salaries on most daily news­
papers with Guild contracts ranged
between $100 and $135 a week for
reporters having no previous experi­
ence. On a few small dailies, the
Guild minimum starting salaries
were less than $90 a week; on a few
large dailies, Guild minimum rates
for beginning reporters exceeded
$140 a week. Young persons work­
ing as copy boys earn less than new
reporters; minimum Guild rates for
copy boys with some experience
ranged from about $65 to $120 a
On most dailies, minimum Guild
rates for reporters who have some
experience (usually for those with 4
to 6 years) ranged from $170 to
$230 a week in 1970. Contract minimums for experienced reporters on
a few small dailies were less than
$160 a week; on a few large dailies,
they were over $250 a week. Papers
under Guild contracts often pay sal­
aries higher than the minimum rates
called for in their contracts. Particu­
larly successful, experienced re­
porters on city dailies may earn
over $300 a week.
Newspaper reporters on big city
papers frequently work 7 to 7 Vi
hours a day, 5 days a week; most
other reporters generally work an
8 -hour day, 40-hour week. M ost of
those employed by morning papers
start work in the afternoon and
finish about midnight. Many news­
papers pay overtime rates for work
performed after the regularly sched­
uled workday, or for more than 40
hours of work a week; they often
provide various employee benefits

such as paid vacations, group insur­
ance, and pension plans.

(D.O.T. 139.288)

Sources of Additional Information
Information about opportunities
with daily newspapers may be ob­
tained from:
American Newspaper Publishers As­
sociation, 750 Third Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.

Information on opportunities in
the newspaper field, as well as a list
of scholarships, fellowships, assistantships, and loans available at col­
leges and universities, may be ob­
tained from:
The Newspaper Fund, Inc., Box
300, Princeton, N J. 08540.

Information on union wage rates
is available from:
American Newspaper Guild, Re­
search Department, 1126 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

General information on journal­
ism opportunities may be obtained
American Council on Education for
Journalism, School of Journalism,
University of Missouri, Columbia,
Mo. 65201.
Association for Education In Jour­
nalism, 425 Henry Mall, Uni­
versity of Wisconsin, Madison,
Wis. 53706.
Sigma Delta Chi, 35 East Wacker
Drive, Chicago, 111. 60601.

Names and locations of daily
newspapers and a list of depart­
ments and schools of journalism are
published in the E d ito r a n d P u b ­
lish e r

In te r n a tio n a l

Y earbook,

available in most large newspaper
offices and public libraries.

Nature of the Work
The many technical and scientific
developments of recent years have
created a growing demand for writ­
ers skilled in interpreting these de­
velopments. The technical writer
organizes, writes, and edits material
about science and technology so
that it is in a form most useful to
those who need to use it— be it a
technician or repairman, a scientist
or engineer, an executive, or a
housewife. When writing for the
nonspecialist, he must present his
material in a simple, clear, and fac­
tual manner; for the specialist, he
must include technical detail, using
a highly specialized vocabulary. R e­
gardless of what kind of writing he
does, the technical writer serves to
establish easy communication be­
tween scientists, engineers, and other
technical specialists, and the users
of their information.
The technical writer’s product
takes many forms, such as a public­
ity release on a company’s scientific
or technical achievement or a manu­
facturer’s contract proposal to the
Federal Government. It may be a
manual that explains how to oper­
ate, assemble, disassemble, main­
tain, or overhaul components of a
missile system or a home appliance.
Technical writers also write for sci­
entific and engineering periodicals
and for popular magazines.
Technical writers, as defined in
this statement, include only those
people primarily employed to inter­
pret, write about, or edit technical
or scientific subject matter. It ex­
cludes those primarily employed as
scientists, engineers, or other techni-



fense and Agriculture, the Atomic
Energy Commission, and the N a­
tional Aeronautics and Space A d­
ministration. Some work in firms
that specialize in technical writing.
Others are in business for them­
selves as freelance technical writers.
Technical writers are employed
all over the country, but primarily
in the Northeastern States, Texas,
and California. They are concen­
trated in the Washington, D.C., Los
Angeles-Long Beach, Houston, Fort
Worth-Dallas, Chicago, New York,
Boston, St. Louis, Kansas City,
Denver, and Philadelphia metropol­
itan areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

Technical writer discusses project with engineer.

cal specialists who also do a consid­
erable amount of writing.
Before starting a writing assign­
ment, a technical writer usually
must research his subject. This proc­
ess involves studying reports, read­
ing technical journals, and consult­
ing with the engineers, scientists,
and other technical personnel who
have worked on the project. Then
he prepares a rough draft that may
be revised several times before it is
in final form. Technical writers usu­
ally arrange for the preparation of
tables, charts, illustrations, and

other artwork, and in so doing may
work with technical illustrators,
draftsmen, or photographers.

Places of Employment
An estimated 20,000 technical
writers and editors were employed
in 1970. Most technical writers are
employed in the electronics and
aerospace industries. Many work
for research and development firms
or for the Federal Government—
mainly in the Departments of D e­

The bachelor’s degree is the de­
sirable minimum entrance require­
ment for work in this field, although
talented and experienced writers
having less academic training may
qualify. Employers do not agree on
the most appropriate kind of college
training needed by technical writers,
but graduates usually must have a
combination of courses in writing
and scientific and technical subjects.
Some employers prefer applicants
who have degrees in engineering or
science who have had courses in
writing. Others seek graduates who
majored in English or journalism
and have taken some courses in sci­
entific and technical subjects. R e­
gardless of the college training they
prefer, all employers place great
emphasis on writing skills.
An increasing number of schools
offer formal undergraduate pro­
grams leading to a bachelor’s degree
in technical writing or technical
journalism. Some schools now offer
graduate work and degrees in the
field. In addition, about 170 col­
leges and universities provide pro-


fe ssio n a l

ed u ca tio n

b a c h e lo r ’s
m o st o f

d egree
th ese

lea d in g



Employment Outlook


d e fe n se

jou rn alism ;
at le a st o n e

W ell-q u a lified

an d

e x p er ie n c ed

co m p o n e n ts




p en d itu res. T h e se trend s w ere e v i­
d e n ced in th e la te 1 9 6 0 ’s and in

c o u rse in tec h n ica l w ritin g or te c h ­
n ica l jou rn alism as part o f th e regu ­

tec h n ica l w riters are e x p e c te d to
find g o o d e m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n itie s

lar cu rriculu m . L ib eral arts c o lle g e s

th ro u g h the 1 9 7 0 ’s. B e g in n e rs w h o

T e c h n ic a l w riters w h o h a v e train ­
in g in jo u rn a lism also w ill find o p ­

an d so m e en g in eerin g sc h o o ls offer

h a v e g o o d w ritin g ab ility and ap p ro ­

p o rtu n ities in o th er fields that e m ­

E n g lish
sh arp en

p riate

and oth er co u rses that
w riting sk ills. M a n y c o l­

ed u ca tio n

a lso

sh o u ld



p lo y

w riters,

su ch


a d v ertisin g ,

trad e

p u b lish in g ,

m a n y o p p o rtu n ities; th o se w h o h a v e

p u b lic

and rad io and te le v isio n b ro a d ca st­

sh ort-term su m m er w ork sh o p s and

m in im u m q u a lifica tio n s w ill find stiff
c o m p e titio n fo r jo b s, h o w e v er . T h e

sem in ars for tech n ica l w riters.

g rea test d em a n d p ro b a b ly w ill b e

ties resu ltin g from grow th ex p e c te d

fo r

in this p r o fe ssio n , h u n d red s o f te c h ­

le g es


u n iversities


W h en still in h igh sc h o o l y o u n g

te c h n ic a l

w riters

w ith

b ack ­

rela tio n s,

ing. In ad d itio n to n e w o p p o r tu n i­

p e o p le w h o p lan to b e c o m e tec h n i­

gro u n d s in e lec tr o n ic s and c o m m u ­

n ica l w riters w ill b e n e ed ed ea ch

c a l w riters sh o u ld su p p lem e n t th e

n ica tio n s to w o rk in th e a er o sp a ce

y ea r to rep la ce th o se w h o retire, d ie,
or tran sfer to o th er o cc u p a tio n s.

m a th em a tics

an d related in d u stries, p articu larly

c o u rses w ith as m an y e lec tiv e
c o u rses in gram m ar and c o m p o si­

in resea rch and d e v e lo p m e n t a ctiv i­

req u ired sc ie n c e

an d

tio n as p o ssib le. T h ey also m a y gain
h elp fu l ex p er ie n c e b y w o rk in g


ed itors or w riters for th eir sc h o o l
p a p ers.
In a d d ition to th e ab ility to w rite
w e ll, tech n ica l w riters m u st b e ab le
to thin k lo g ic a lly , an d sh o u ld a lso
lik e to d o d etailed accu rate w ork .
T h ey sh o u ld b e able to w o rk and
c o m m u n ica te w ell w ith oth ers, sin ce
th ey o fte n w ork as part o f a tea m .
A t oth er tim es, h o w ev er , tec h n ica l
w riters m u st w ork a lon e w ith little
o r n o su p ervision .
B eg in n ers o fte n assist e x p er i­
e n c e d tech n ica l w riters b y d o in g li­
b rary research , b y ed itin g , an d b y
p rep arin g drafts o f p o rtio n s o f re­
p orts. E x p er ie n c ed w riters in o rg a n ­
iz a tio n s that h a v e large tec h n ica l
w ritin g staffs m ay a d v a n ce to p o s i­
tio n s o f tech n ica l ed itors o r p rogress
to su p ervisory and ad m in istrative
p o sitio n s. A fter ga in in g ex p e r ie n c e
an d co n ta cts, a few m ay o p e n their
o w n jo b sh op s.


e m p lo y m e n t


tec h n ica l

Earnings and Working Conditions

w riters is ex p e c te d to in cr ea se m o d ­
erately d u rin g the 1 9 7 0 ’s, b e c a u se o f

In 1 9 7 0 , in e x p er ien ce d tec h n ica l

th e n e e d to p u t the in cr ea sin g v o l­
u m e o f scien tific and te c h n ic a l in ­

w riters h a v in g b a c h e lo r ’s d eg rees
w ere hired in p rivate in d u stry at

fo rm a tio n in to la n g u a g e that ca n b e

startin g

u n d er sto o d by m a n a g e m e n t for d e­

$ 6 ,0 0 0 to $ 8 ,0 0 0 a year; th o se w h o

c isio n m ak in g and b y tec h n icia n s for
o p era tin g an d m a in ta in in g c o m p li­


m o d e ra te

fro m

$ 8 ,0 0 0

ca te d

in d u strial

eq u ip m en t.

A lso ,

sin ce m a n y p ro d u cts w ill co n tin u e

h ig h ly

sa la ries

ran gin g


e x p e r ie n c e

earn ed

$ 1 2 ,0 0 0

a year;


ex p e r ie n c e d

w riters

earn ed

fro m $ 1 2 ,0 0 0 to $ 1 6 ,0 0 0 ; and th o se

to b e a sse m b le d from co m p o n e n ts

in su p erv iso ry and m a n a g e m e n t p o ­

m a n u fa ctu red by d ifferen t c o m p a ­

sitio n s, up to $ 2 0 ,0 0 0 or m o re. D if­

n ies, tec h n ica l w riters w ill b e in d e ­

fer en ces in the earn in gs o f e x p e r i­

m an d to d escrib e, in sim p le term s,

e n ce d w riters d ep en d e d n ot o n ly on

th e in terrela tio n sh ip s o f th e se c o m ­
p o n e n ts. T h e grow th in th is o c c u p a ­
tio n w ill b e a cc eler a te d a lso by the
n e e d fo r im p r o v ed an d sim p lified
o p era tin g an d m a in ten a n ce in stru c­
tio n s fo r n e w co n su m e r p ro d u cts.
T h e d em a n d for tec h n ica l w riters
w ill co n tin u e to b e rela ted to re­
sea rch and d e v e lo p m e n t e x p e n d i­

th eir ab ility and p rev io u s e x p er i­
en c e , b u t a lso on factors su ch as the
ty p e, size, and lo c a tio n o f th eir e m ­
p lo y in g firm s. E a rn in g s o f fre ela n ce
tec h n ica l w riters vary greatly and
are rela ted to th e w riter’s rep u tation
in th e field.
In th e F ed er a l G o v e rn m e n t in
late 1 9 7 0 , in ex p er ien ce d tec h n ica l

tures. D u r in g th e 1 9 7 0 - 8 0 d eca d e

w riters w ith a b a c h e lo r ’s d eg ree and

research and d e v e lo p m e n t e x p e n d i­
tures o f G o v e rn m e n t and industry

cred it for a b o u t five sc ie n c e co u rses
c o u ld start at eith er $ 6 ,5 4 8 or
$ 8 ,0 9 8 a year, d ep en d in g o n their

It a lso is p o ssib le to a d v a n ce b y

are e x p e c te d to in cr ea se , alth o u g h

b e c o m in g a sp ecia list in a p articu lar

at a slo w e r rate than d uring th e
1 9 6 0 ’s. T h e an ticip a ted slo w d o w n

c o lle g e record s. T h o se w h o h a v e 2

sc ien tific or tech n ica l su b ject. T h e se

y e a r s’ e x p er ie n c e

c o u ld

w riters

sy n d i­

in F ed er a l R & D sp en d in g b a sica lly

$ 9 ,8 8 1

3 y e a r s’ e x p er i­

ca te d n ew sp a p er co lu m n s or articles

reflects a n ticip a ted re d u ctio n s in the
rela tiv e im p o rta n ce o f th e sp a c e and

en c e , $ 1 1 ,9 0 5 .
T e c h n ic a l w riters

so m etim es

p rep are

fo r p o p u la r m a g a zin es.

an d w ith

b eg in

u su a lly


w o rk


th e stand ard 4 0 -h o u r w e e k . T h e y
m a y w o rk u n d er co n sid er a b le p res­
sure, freq u en tly w o rk in g o v er tim e
w h e n a d ea d lin e h as to b e m e t o n a
p u b lic a tio n o r report.

Sources of Additional Information
A d d itio n a l
o c c u p a tio n ,

in fo r m a tio n
in clu d in g




sc h o o ls offerin g a cc ep ted c o u rses o f
stu d y an d sp ecific train in g p rogram s

in a cc re d ite d c o lle g e s an d u n iv e rsi­
ties, m a y b e o b ta in ed f r o m :

Society for Technical Communica­
tions, Inc., Suite 421, 1010 Ver­
mont Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20005.


firm s w h ich offer d isp a tc h in g serv ­
ic es to sm a ll airlin es.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement


D isp a tc h e rs are required to h a v e

(D.O.T. 912.168)

an F A A

d isp a tch er certificate. T o

q u a lify , an a p p lica n t h as to w ork at

Nature of the Work and
Places of Employment
D isp a tc h e rs

(so m e tim e s

su p e rin ten d e n ts)


le a st a year u n d er th e su p erv isio n o f
a certified d isp a tch er or co m p le te
F A A -a p p r o v e d
d isp a tc h e r’s
ca lled

co u rse

at a sc h o o l




em ­

train in g cen ter. If an a p p lica n t h as

p lo y e d by th e airlin es to co o r d in a te
sch ed u les
o p era tio n s

n eith er sc h o o lin g n or e x p e r ie n c e , he
a lso m a y q u a lify if he h as sp en t 2 o f
the p rev io u s 3 y ea rs in air traffic

w ith in an assig n ed area; th ey also
m a k e sure that all F ed er a l A v ia tio n
A d m in istra tio n

(F A A )


c o n tro l w ork , or in airlin e jo b s su ch

com ­

as d isp a tch clerk , a ssista n t d is­
p atch er, or rad io op era to r, or in
sim ilar w ork in m ilitary serv ice.

p a n y flight and safety reg u la tio n s
ob served .
A fter
ex a m in in g
w ea th er co n d itio n s, the d isp atch er


a p p lica n t for an F A A

d is­

m ak es a prelim inary d ec isio n as to

p a tch er certificate m u st p a ss a w rit­

w h eth er a flight m ay b e u n d ertak en
sa fely . H e freq u en tly m u st arrange

ten e x a m in a tio n o n su b jects su ch
as F ed er a l a v ia tio n reg u la tio n s,

to n o tify the p assen g ers and crew if
th ere is an y ch a n g e from th e sc h e d ­

w ea th e r a n a ly sis, a ir-n a v ig a tio n fa ­
Airline dispatcher assists pilot in
pre-flight planning.

u led d ep arture tim e. T h e d isp a tch er
co n fers w ith th e cap tain a b o u t the

and the altern ate fields th at m a y be
u sed if la n d in g at the sc h e d u le d air­
p o rt is h azard ou s. T h e d isp a tch er
and th e ca p ta in m u st agree o n all
d eta ils o f the flight b efo r e th e p la n e
le a v e s th e airport. In so m e in ­
sta n c es, the d isp atch er is a lso re­
sp o n sib le for k eep in g reco rd s and
c h e c k in g m atters su ch as th e a v a ila ­
b ility o f aircraft and eq u ip m en t, the

as rep o rted at regular in terv a ls by
th e ca p ta in o n th e rad io, and k eep s
th e ca p ta in in fo rm ed o f ch a n g in g
w ea th e r an d o th er c o n d itio n s that
m ig h t affect h is flight.
T h e a ssista n t d isp a tch er h elp s the
d isp a tch er p lo t th e p ro g ress o f
fligh ts, secu re w ea th e r in fo rm a tio n ,

h a n d le

c o m m u n ic a tio n s

w ith



o n ly ab o u t

1 ,2 0 0 d is­

th e a m o u n t o f tim e flow n b y ea ch

p a tch ers and assista n ts w ere e m ­
p lo y e d in sc h e d u led d o m e stic and

w eig h t an d b a la n ce o f lo a d e d ca rg o ,
aircraft, and th e n u m b er o f h ours

in tern a tio n a l

flow n b y ea ch crew m em b er b a sed


at his station.

S tates.

A fte r the flight h as b eg u n , the
d isp a tch er p lo ts the p la n e ’s p rogress

p ort an d airw ay traffic p ro ced u res.
In an oral test, h e a lso h as to d em ­

q u an tity o f fu el n eed ed , th e b est
ro u te and altitu d e at w h ich the
p la n e w ill fly, th e total flyin g tim e,

c ilities, rad io p ro ced u res, and air­


o p era tio n s,





prim arily

th e

U n ite d

o n stra te h is ab ility to in terpret
w ea th e r in fo rm a tio n , h is k n o w le d g e
o f la n d in g an d cru isin g sp ee d s and
o th er aircraft o p era tio n a l ch a ra cter­
istics, an d h is fam iliarity w ith airline
ro u tes and n a v ig a tio n a l fa cilities. A
lic e n se d d isp a tch er is ch e c k e d p eri­
o d ic a lly by h is e m p lo y er to m a k e
su re that h e is m a in ta in in g the
sk ills requ ired b y F ed er a l regu la­
tio n s. A ll q u alified d isp atch ers are
g iv en a d d itio n a l in stru ctio n b y their
airlin es at sp ec ia l training cen ters so
that th ey m ay b e c o m e fam iliar w ith
n ew flight p ro ced u res and w ith
ch a ra cteristics o f n ew aircraft. E a c h
yea r, h e a lso is requ ired to “ fly the

sm aller

n u m b e r 1 lin e ” as an o b ser v er o v er th e p o r­
w o rk ed for large certifica ted su p p le­ tion o f the sy stem w h ich h e serv ices,
m en ta l airlin es, an d fo r p rivate to m a in ta in h is first h an d fam iliarity



w ith airlin e rou tes and flight o p e r a ­

Earnings and Working Conditions

tion s.

W h en


a rch itect


c o m m is­

ab le to m a k e in d e p e n d e n t d e c isio n s.

B e g in n in g d isp a tch ers ea rn ed b e ­
tw e en $ 8 6 0 to $ 1 ,1 4 0 a m o n th in

sio n e d to d esig n a b u ild in g , h e d is­
cu sse s w ith th e c lie n t th e p u r p o se,
req u irem en ts, an d c o s t lim ita tio n s,

O ral sk ills are essen tia l b e c a u se d is­
p a tc h e rs’ in stru ctio n s m u st b e c o n ­

1 9 7 0 . D isp a tc h e rs h a v in g 10 y e a r s’

as w ell as p refe ren ce s as to sty le

se rv ice earn ed b e tw e e n $ 1 ,1 8 5 and

an d p la n . S u b seq u e n tly , th e archi­

$ 1 ,6 7 0 a m o n th . A ssista n t d isp a tc h ­

te c t

jo b s,

ers ea rn ed $ 5 7 2 an d o v e r a m o n th

and co n sid er s n o t o n ly th e requ ire­

w h ich m ay n o t requ ire certifica tio n ,

to b eg in and up to $ 9 5 0 a m o n th
after 3 yea rs. A ssista n t d isp a tch ers

m en ts o f th e b u ild in g , b u t a lso lo ca l

lea st 2 years o f c o lle g e or w h o h a v e

w ho

m ay

la w s, fire reg u la tio n s, an d o th er or­

w o rk ed an e q u iv a len t a m o u n t o f
tim e in so m e p h a se o f air tra n sp o r­

earn $ 2 5 a m o n th extra. M o st d is­
p a tch ers are m em b ers o f th e A ir-

d in a n ce s. F o r e x a m p le , in p la n n in g
a sc h o o l, th e a rch itect m u st d ecid e

tation ,

co m m u n ica tio n s.

L in e D isp a tc h e rs A sso c ia tio n . O th ­

th e a m o u n t o f corrid or and stairw ay

P referen ce is giv en to c o lle g e grad ­

ers are rep resen ted b y th e T ra n s­
p ort W o rk ers U n io n o f A m e rica

sp a ce w h ich stu d en ts n e e d to m o v e



d isp a tch e r

m u st

cise an d ea sily u n d ersto o d .
F o r a ssista n t d isp a tc h e r
airlin es

p refer

su ch

m en


w ho




u ates w h o h a v e h ad co u rses in
m a th em a tics, p h y sics, and rela ted
su b jects. S o m e ex p er ie n c e in flyin g,
m eteo r o lo g y , or b u sin ess a d m in is­
tration is a lso h elp fu l.
M e n w h o h a v e w ork ed in grou n d
o p era tio n s as d isp atch clerk s, m e ­
te o r o lo g ists, or rad io op era to rs are
p referred w h e n a ssista n t d isp a tch er
p o sitio n s are filled. A few jo b s are
filled b y form er p ilo ts.



certifica tes

an d th e In tern a tio n a l A sso c ia tio n o f
M a c h in ists an d A e r o sp a c e W ork ers.

Sources of Additional Information
Air Line Dispatchers Association,
929 West Broad St., Falls Church,
Va. 22130.
( S e e in tro d u cto ry se c tio n fo r ad ­
d itio n a l so u rces o f in fo r m a tio n and
fo r g en era l in fo r m a tio n o n su p p le­

an d

m akes

S tate

h u n d red s

b u ild in g

o f d ecisio n s

c o d e s,

zo n in g

e a sily from o n e c la ss to an oth er; the
ty p e and arra n g em en t o f sto ra ge
sp a ce , an d th e lo c a tio n , siz e, and in ­
terio r o f c la ssr o o m s, la b o ra to ries,
lu n c h r o o m , g y m n a siu m , an d a d m in ­
istrative offices.
T h e a rc h ite ct m a k es p relim in ary
d raw in gs o f th e stru cture and m eets
w ith th e c lie n t to d e v e lo p a final d e­
sign .

T h is

d esig n

in clu d es


p la n s an d th e in terior a n d exterior
d eta ils o f th e b u ild in g . T h e final d e­

m en tary b en efits and w o rk in g c o n ­
d itio n s.)

Employment Outlook

sign th en is tran slated in to w o rk in g
d raw in gs, sh o w in g th e e x a c t d im en ­
sio n s o f e v e ry p art o f th e structure

T h e n u m b er o f w o rk ers in this
very sm a ll o cc u p a tio n is n o t e x ­
p ecte d to ch a n g e m u c h d u rin g th e
1 9 7 0 ’s. M o s t n ew w o rk ers w ill b e
h ired as assistan t d isp a tch ers o r d is­
p atch clerk s.
T h e n eed for so m e a d d itio n a l d is­
p atch ers w ill resu lt from th e in ­
crea se in air traffic, th e a d d itio n and

an d th e lo c a tio n o f th e p lu m b in g,
h ea tin g , elec tr ica l, a ir-co n d itio n in g ,
a n d o th er eq u ip m en t. C o n su ltin g
en g in ee rs u su a lly p rep are d eta iled
d raw in gs o f th e stru ctural, p lu m b ­
in g , h ea tin g , and elec tr ica l w ork .
E n g in e e r s’ d raw in gs are co o rd in a ted
w ith th e a rc h ite ct’s w o rk in g d raw ­

(D.O.T. 001.081)

in gs, and sp ec ifica tio n s are prep ared

ex te n sio n o f ro u tes, an d th e extra
d ifficulties in d isp a tch in g jet air­

listin g th e co n stru ctio n m aterials to

craft. H o w e v e r , th ese fa cto rs w ill b e
largely o ffset b y im p ro v ed ra d io and
tele p h o n e
w h ich

term in als


d isp atch ers
d isp a tch

fa cilities

A r c h ite cts p lan and d esig n b u ild ­

at m ajor

co m m u n ica tio n

a llo w

b e u sed , th e eq u ip m en t, an d ,
so m e c a se s, th e furn ish in gs.

Nature of the Work

in gs and o th e r stru ctures th at are



sa fe, u sefu l, an d p le a sa n t in a p p ea r­


arch itect

th en

a ssists


c lien t in se le c tin g a b u ild in g c o n ­
tractor an d in n eg o tia tin g the c o n ­

w ith

tract b e tw e e n clien t and co n tractor,
an d h e acts as th e c lie n t’s ad v isor

w h ich fly b etw e en o v e r se a s p o in ts

o th er p ro fessio n a ls, su ch as en g i­
n eer s, urb an p la n n ers, an d la n d ­

an d cities in th e U n ite d S tates, a lso

sca p e a rch itects, to d esig n cities and

an d rep resen ta tiv e in d ea lin g s w ith
th e co n tra cto r. A s co n stru ctio n p ro­

w ill p ro v id e a few job o p p o r tu n itie s

to w n s an d p la n and im p ro v e o v era ll

ce e d s, th e a rch itect m a k es p erio d ic

for d isp atch ers.

p h y sica l en v iro n m en ts.

v isits to th e co n stru ctio n site to see

oth er airports an d o v er large g e o ­
grap h ic areas. F o re ig n -fla g airlin es,

a n ce.

A rc h ite cts

a lso

w o rk



if th e d esign is b ein g fo llo w e d , and

tio n w ritin g, o r c o n stru ctio n

con ­

esta te

that th e m aterials sp ecified in the

tract ad m in istration (in su r in g that a

n e sse s

co n tra ct are b ein g used . T h e arch i­

stru ctu re is b u ilt a cc o rd in g to p lan s

p rogram s. O th ers are em p lo y ed b y

te c t’s w ork is n o t co m p leted u n til

and sp e c ific a tio n s).

the p roject is finished, all requ ired

g o v er n m e n t a g en cies, o fte n in fields
su ch as city and co m m u n ity p la n ­

tests are m ad e, and gu a ra n tees are

n in g

receiv ed from the con tractor.

A b o u t 1 ,5 0 0 o f th ese are em p lo y ed

M o st

se lf-e m p lo y ed

Places of Employment

structures, ranging from h o m e s to
ch u rch es, h o sp ita ls, office b u ild in g s,
and airports. T h ey a lso p lan an d d e ­

m ultib u ild in g


ren ew al

co m p le x e s

p rojects,


co lle g e


estim a ted

3 3 ,0 0 0

an d

h a v in g


fo r



o th e r b u si­
co n stru ctio n

re d e v elo p m en t.

b y th e F ed er a l G o v ern m en t.

arch itects

p la n an d d esign a w id e va riety o f

firm s,


(lic e n s e d ) arch itects w ere em p lo y ed
in th e U n ite d S tates in la te 1 9 7 0 . In
a d d itio n , m a n y o th er arch itectu ral
sc h o o l grad u ates w h o are u n licen se d
w ere w o rk in g in p o sitio n s requ iring

ca m p u ses, in dustrial parks, and n ew

a k n o w le d g e o f a rch itectu re. A b o u t
4 p erc en t o f all a rch itects are

to w n s. S o m e architects sp ec ia liz e in

A rc h ite cts

are e m p lo y e d



parts o f th e cou n try. H o w e v e r , th ey

co n ce n tr a te d

w ith

la rg e


th o se

m etro p o lita n

S tates

N e a r ly h a lf o f all a rch itects are e m ­
p lo y e d



S tates— C a lifo rn ia ,

N e w Y o rk , Illin o is, T e x a s, P e n n sy l­
v a n ia , and O h io .

w om en.

o n e particu lar typ e o f structure or
p roject.

W h en

tw o -fifth s



arch itects are se lf-e m p lo y e d , eith er

sca le p rojects or for large a rc h ite c­

p ra ctic in g in d iv id u a lly o r as p art­


freq u en tly

arch itectu ral firm s. S o m e a rch itects

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

ners. M o st o f th e o th ers w o rk for

sp ec ia liz e in o n e p h ase o f th e w ork ,



A p p r o x im a te ly


firm s,

w ork in g

su ch as d esign , drafting, sp ec ifica ­

w ork fo r en g in eers, b u ild ers, real

A lic e n se fo r th e p ra ctic e o f ar­
ch itectu re is req u ired b y la w in all
S tates an d th e D istr ic t o f C o lu m b ia ,
m a in ly to in su re that arch itectu ral
w o rk w h ich m ay affect th e sa fety o f
life , h ea lth , o r p ro p erty is d o n e b y
q u alified

arch itects.

R eq u irem e n ts

fo r a d m issio n to th e lic e n sin g e x a m ­
in a tio n are set by th e in d iv id u a l
S tates.

T h ese

g en er a lly

in clu d e

gra d u a tio n from an a ccred ited p ro ­
fe ssio n a l sc h o o l fo llo w e d b y 3 years
o f p ractical ex p e r ie n c e in an arch i­
te c t’s office. A s a su b stitu te fo r fo r­
m a l training, m o st S tates a cc ep t
lo n g e r p erio d s o f p ra ctica l ex p er i­
e n c e (u su a lly 10 to 12 y e a r s) fo r
a d m issio n to th e lic en sin g e x a m in a ­
tion .
In 1 9 7 0 . p ro fessio n a l train in g in
arch itectu re w a s offered b y 8 5 c o l­
le g e s and u n iv ersities in th e U n ite d
S ta tes, 6 7 o f w h ich w ere a ccred ited
b y th e N a tio n a l A rch itectu ra l A c ­
cred itin g B o a rd . M o st o f th e se
sc h o o ls offered a 5 -y ea r cu rricu lu m
le a d in g to th e b a ch elo r o f a rch itec­

d egree.

M any

arch itectural

sc h o o ls a lso offered grad u ate ed u ca ­
tio n le a d in g to th e m a ste r’s d eg ree,



an d a fe w sc h o o ls offered th e P h. D .

ev e r, th e a rc h ite ct’s g o a l is to esta b ­

m in istra tio n in th e b u ild in g in d u stry

d eg ree. G ra d u a te train in g is n o t e s ­
se n tia l fo r th e p ra ctice o f a rc h ite c­

lish h is o w n p ra ctice.

and d o n o t en ter th e p ro fessio n .
T h u s, th o se w h o c h o o s e to en ter the
field an d b e c o m e reg istered sh o u ld

tu re, b u t is o fte n d esira b le fo r re­
search an d tea c h in g p o sitio n s.
M o s t sc h o o ls
a rch itectu re
a d m it q u alified h ig h sc h o o l grad u ­

h a v e g o o d e m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n i­

Employment Outlook

o u tlo o k

ates w h o m e e t th e en tra n ce req u ire­

rap id

m en ts o f th e c o lle g e o r u n iv ersity

th rou gh

grow th
th e


fo r
th e

1 9 7 0 ’s.

ties th ro u g h th e 1 9 7 0 ’s.

co n tin u ed
p r o fessio n

E m p lo y m e n t

Earnings and Working Conditions

w ith w h ic h th e sc h o o l is a sso c ia ted .

o p p o r tu n itie s are e x p e c te d to b e fa ­

S o m e sc h o o ls req u ire 1 o r 2 y ea rs

v o ra b le b o th fo r ex p e r ie n c e d archi­

S tartin g sa la ries o f a rch itectu ral

o f c o lle g e e d u ca tio n b e fo r e ad m it­
tin g th e stu d en t to a 3 - o r 4 -y e a r ar­

tec ts an d fo r n e w g rad u ates.
A m a jo r fa cto r co n trib u tin g to

s c h o o l g ra d u a tes e m p lo y e d in p ri­
v a te in d u stry w er e g en er a lly b e ­

ch itectu ra l

this fa v o ra b le

tw e en $ 1 2 0 an d $ 1 6 0 a w e e k in

train in g

program .


o u tlo o k

is th e


p ecte d grow th in th e v o lu m e o f n o n -

1 9 7 0 , a cc o rd in g to a v a ila b le in fo r­

in clu d e

resid en tia l c o n stru ctio n — th e m ajor

m a tio n . D r a ftsm e n h a v in g 3 y ea r s’

m a th em a tics, sc ien ce , so c ia l stu d ie s,

area o f w o rk fo r a rch itects. M o r e ­

e x p e r ie n c e o r m o re ea rn ed b etw e e n
$ 1 3 5 an d $ 1 8 0 a w ee k ; job c a p ­

gen eral, architectural sc h o o ls p refer
th a t stu d en ts’ p rep aratio n

la n g u a g e, and art. A ty p ic a l cu rricu ­

o v er, th e in cr ea sin g siz e an d c o m ­

lu m

p lex ity

n o n r esid en ta l

tain s,

sp ec ifica tio n

m a th em a tics,

b u ild in g s, as w e ll as th e h o m e o w n ­

o th e r

se n io r

p h y sic s, ch em istry , s o c io lo g y , e c o ­


in clu d es arch itectu ra l c o u rses
w e ll


E n g lish ,


m odem

w riters,

e m p lo y e e s


u su a lly

ers’ g ro w in g a w a ren ess o f th e v a lu e

ea rn ed fro m $ 1 5 0 to $ 2 5 0 a w ee k .

n o m ic s, an d a fo reig n lan g u a g e.
P er so n s p la n n in g a ca reer in ar­

o f a rc h ite cts’ se rv ic es, are lik ely to
b rin g a b o u t a greater d em a n d fo r

S en io r

y ea r ly b o n u se s in a d d itio n to their

ch itectu re sh o u ld h a v e a c a p a city to

arch itectu ral se rv ic es. U rb a n re d e v ­


m a ster tech n ica l p ro b lem s, a g ift fo r

e lo p m e n t an d city an d co m m u n ity

e m p lo y e e s

o fte n

re ce iv e

A r c h ite c ts w e ll e sta b lish ed in p ri­

artistic crea tio n , and a flair fo r b u si­

p la n n in g

gro w in g

v a te p ra ctic e g en er a lly earn m u ch

n ess an d for h u m an rela tio n s. S tu­

areas o f e m p lo y m e n t fo r a rch itects,

m o re th an h ig h -p a id sa la ried e m ­
p lo y e e s o f arch itectu ra l firm s. T h e

p ro jects,

o th er

d en ts are freq u en tly en co u ra g e d to

a lso are e x p e c te d to in cr ea se c o n ­

w o rk fo r arch itects or fo r b u ild in g
co n tra cto rs d uring su m m ers to gain

sid era b ly in th e y ea rs ah ead . (S e e

ra n g e in th eir in c o m e s is v ery w id e,

sta te m e n t o n U rb a n P la n n e r s.) In
a d d itio n , e x p a n d in g c o lle g e e n ro ll­
m en ts w ill crea te a n e e d fo r a d d i­
tio n a l a rch itects to tea c h a rc h ite c­

h o w e v er . S o m e a rch itects th a t h a v e

k n o w le d g e o f p ractical p ro b lem s.
N e w grad u ates u su a lly b e g in as
ju n ior d raftsm en in arch itectu ral
firm s w h ere th ey m a k e d raw in gs and
m o d e ls o f b u ild in g p rojects o r draft
d eta ils in th e w o rk in g d raw in gs. A s
th ey g ain ex p e r ie n c e , th ey are g iv e n
m o re c o m p le x w ork . A fte r sev era l
y ea rs, th ey m a y p rogress to c h ie f or
sen io r d raftsm an , w ith resp o n sib ility
fo r a ll th e m ajor d eta ils o f a se t o f

m a n y y ea rs o f e x p e r ie n c e an d g o o d
re p u ta tio n s earn w e ll o v er $ 2 5 ,0 0 0
a yea r. Y o u n g a rch itects starting
th eir o w n p ra ctic es m a y g o throu gh
a p erio d w h e n their e x p e n se s are
greater than th eir in co m e.
D e p e n d in g o n th eir c o lle g e r e c­

tural co u rses.
B e sid e s th o se n e e d e d to fill n ew
p o sitio n s d u e to grow th , d ea th s and
retirem en ts w ill a c c o u n t fo r a b o u t
1 ,0 0 0 n e w o p e n in g s ev ery year.
A lo n g w ith th e a n ticip a ted rise in

ord s, a rch itects h a v in g b a c h e lo r ’s d e ­
grees an d n o ex p e r ie n c e c o u ld start

d em a n d fo r a rch itects, an in cr ea se

in th e F ed er a l G o v e rn m e n t in 1 9 7 0

is e x p e c te d in th e n u m b er o f arch i­

at eith er $ 8 ,5 1 0 o r $ 1 0 ,5 2 8 a year.

w o rk in g d raw in gs an d fo r th e su p er­

tectu ra l g rad u ates. If this field fo l­

A r c h ite c ts w h o h ad c o m p le te d all

v isio n

lo w s th e tren d e x p e c te d in all c o l­
le g e g ra d u a tio n s, th e n u m b er o f ar­

req u irem en ts fo r th e m a ste r’s d e ­

a rch itects m a y w o rk as d esig n ers,
co n stru ctio n co n tra ct ad m in istrators,

ch itec tu ra l

o r sp ecifica tio n w riters. A n e m p lo y e e

d eg ree

w h o is p articu larly v a lu ed b y h is firm

y ea r d u rin g th e 1 9 7 0 ’s sh o u ld b e
c o n sid er a b ly greater th an th e e sti­

m a y b e d esig n a ted an a sso c ia te an d
m a y re ce iv e , in ad d itio n to h is salary,

m a ted 4 9 0 0 a w a rd ed in 1 9 7 0 . H o w ­
ev e r, m a n y a rch itectu ral grad u ates

M o s t a rch itects w o rk in w e lllig h ted , w e ll-e q u ip p e d o ffices an d

a sh a re o f th e p rofits. U su a lly , h o w ­

w o rk in field s su ch as sa le s an d a d ­

sp en d


o th er

d raftsm en .

O th er

d eg re es

a w a rd ed

ea c h

g ree c o u ld start at $ 1 0 ,5 2 8 or
$ 1 1 ,8 5 5 ; th o se h a v in g th e P h . D .
c o u ld

b eg in


eith er

$ 1 3 ,4 9 3 o r $ 1 4 ,6 6 5 a year.

lo n g h o u rs

at the d raw in g

b oard . H o w ev e r, their ro u tin e o fte n


T h e city m a n a g er is a p p o in te d b y

is varied b y in terv iew in g clien ts or

th e

con tracto rs or d iscu ssin g th e d esig n ,

and is d irectly r e sp o n sib le to th e ap ­
p o in tin g b o d y . T h e city m a n a g e r’s

co n stru ctio n p roced u res, or b u ild in g

co m m u n ity ’s

e le c te d

o fficials

C ity m a n a g ers k e e p in c lo se c o m ­
m u n ica tio n

w ith th e p la n n in g d e ­

p a rtm en t to c o o r d in a te th e in tro­
d u c tio n o f n ew p rogram s w ith the

m aterials o f a p roject w ith o th er ar­

d u ties vary b y city size, b u t g e n e r ­

o p era tio n s

c h itec ts or en gin eers. A rc h ite cts in ­

ally in clu d e a p p o in tin g d ep a rtm en t

sm a ller cities w h ich h a v e n o p erm a ­


e x istin g

o n e s.


v o lv e d in co n stru ctio n co n tra c t a d ­

h ea d s and their staffs; co o r d in a tin g

n en t p la n n in g staff, th at d uty m ay

m in istration freq u en tly w o rk o u t o f

and a d m in isterin g th e a ctiv ities o f
th e o p era tin g d ep a rtm en ts su ch as

b e a ssu m e d en tirely b y th e m a n ­

tax c o lle c tio n an d d isb u rsem en t, law
en fo rc em en t, an d p u b lic w ork s; and

S u p p ort p e rso n n el, su ch as the
a ssista n t city m a n a g er, a d m in istra­

p rep arin g th e a n n u al b u d g et for the

tiv e a ssista n ts, an d d ep a rtm en t h ead

c o u n c il’s ap p ro v a l. T h e y a lso study
p ro b lem areas su ch as u n io n iz a tio n

assista n ts, o p era te u n d er d irectio n
o f th e city m a n a g er. A ssista n t city

o f g o v er n m e n t e m p lo y e e s an d urban
ren ew a l and rep ort their fin d in gs to

m a n a g ers re lie v e th e city m a n ager
o f ro u tin e d u ties an d a ct fo r him in

d o o rs during in sp e ctio n s
stru ction sites.


con ­

Sources of Additional Information
G en era l

in fo rm a tio n



reers in architecture is in clu d ed in a
n u m b er o f p u b lica tio n s o f th e
A m e rica n In stitu te o f A rc h ite cts; a
c a ta lo g o f p u b lica tio n s is a v a ila b le,
as w ell as tw o free p u b lic a tio n s,
“D e sig n in g a B e tte r T o m o r r o w ”
a n d “Y o u r B u ild in g , Y o u r A r c h i­
te c t.” T h ey ca n b e ob ta in ed from :

The American Institute of Archi­
tects, 1785 Massachusetts Ave.,
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

th e co u n c il, id en tify in g altern ate s o ­

h is a b sen ce . In a d d itio n , th ey m ay

lu tio n s. C ity m a n a g ers p la n fo r fu ­
ture d e v e lo p m e n t o f c ities an d the
su rrou n d in g areas to p ro v id e for

a ssu m e resp o n sib ility fo r so m e p roj­

p o p u la tio n grow th and e x p a n sio n o f
p u b lic

se rv ic es.

T h ey

a lso


q u en tly ap p ear at c iv ic m ee tin g s to
a d v o ca te p ro p o se d p rogram s or to
in fo rm citizen s o f cu rren t g o v er n ­
m en t o p era tio n s.

ec ts, su ch as d e v e lo p in g a p relim i­

an n u al

h ea d

a ssistan ts

b u d g et.

p erso n n el, fin an ce, or la w , b u t a lso
trative assista n ts, a lso ca lle d e x e c u ­
tiv e a ssistan ts or a ssista n ts to the

Nature of the Work
T h e co u n tr y ’s g ro w in g p o p u la tio n
and ex p a n d in g in du stry are p la cin g
in crea sed p ressu res o n th e h o u sin g ,
tran sp ortation ,
recrea tio n a l,
o th er fa cilities o f ou r N a tio n ’s c it­
ies. O ther p ro b lem s a sso c ia ted w ith
g ro w in g m od ern co m m u n ities su ch
as air and w a ter p o llu tio n , an d ris­
in g crim e rates a lso d em a n d a tte n ­
tio n . C o p in g w ith th ese p ro b lem s e f­
requ ires

so p h istic a ted

tech n iq u es.

T h u s,

c o m m u n ities are turnin g to a sp e ­
cia list h a v in g su ch sk ills— th e city
m anager.


m a y a ssist in o th er areas. A d m in is­

(D.O.T. 188.118)

m a n a g em en t


sp o n sib le for o n e a ctiv ity , su ch as


fe c tiv e ly

D ep a rtm e n t

g en er a lly

City manager discusses urban renewal project with staff.


city m anager, u su a lly p erfo rm ad ­

tio n in p o litic a l sc ie n c e or p u b lic ad ­

d erstan d and w o rk w ell w ith p e o p le .

m in istrative and staff w o rk . T h e e f­

m in istra tio n .

T h e city m a n a g er, b e c a u se h e is th e

forts o f ad m in istrative a ssista n ts are

d eg ree in p u b lic or m u n icip a l ad ­

m o st

n o t co n cen tra ted in o n e area, b u t

m in istra tio n is p referred.

o fficia ls, m u st b e ab le to sa tisfa c ­

are u tilized in all d ep artm en ts at the
d irectio n o f the city m a n a g er. F o r

H ow ever,

a m a ste r’s

In 1 9 7 0 , a b o u t 2 0 0 c o lle g e s and

a c c e ssib le


g o v er n m e n t

torily d ea l w ith c itiz e n ’s co m p la in ts

in stan ce, th ey m ay c o m p ile o p era t­
in g statistics, review and a n a ly ze

u n iv e rsitie s offered a m a ste r’s d e ­
gree p rogram in p u b lic or m u n icip a l
a d m in istra tio n .
D egree
req u ire­

w ork p ro ced u res, and an sw er p u b lic

m en ts in so m e sc h o o ls in clu d e su c ­

in qu iries.

c e ssfu l c o m p le tio n o f an in tern sh ip
p rogram in a city m a n a g e r’s office.

m en t, tact, se lf-c o n fid e n c e , and the

D u rin g this in tern sh ip p erio d , w h ich

ab ility to p erform w ell u nd er stress.

m ay la st from 6 m o n th s to a year,

T h e city m a n a g er m a y b e ca lled

Places of Employment

and m a in ta in

to fo u r th o u sa n d p erso n s w ere e m ­
p lo y e d as su p p ort p erso n n el. A b o u t

O th er

fo u r-fifth s




m a n a g ers

g en cy

lo r ’s o r m a ste r’s d egree p rogram s
en ter the o c c u p a tio n b y ta k in g m a n ­

w o rk ed in cities w h ich h a v e a c o u n ­
c il-m a n a g er form o f g o v ern m en t.
M o st o f the rem ain d er w ere e m ­
p lo y ed in m u n icip a lities w h ich h a v e

as in tern s or lo w er le v el a ssista n ts in


in clu d e:

at an y tim e to so lv e em er­
situ a tio n s

an d h e

m u st b e

ab le to q u ic k ly iso la te th e p ro b lem

id en tify

th e

u n d erly in g

ca u se s, and p ro v id e altern ate so lu ­
tio n s.

so m e n ew gra d u a tes d esire p o sitio n s

a n oth er form o f g o v ern m e n t su ch as
m a y o r-co u n c il g o v ern m e n t in w h ich

d esira b le

ager p o sitio n s in sm a ll to w n s and
th ey

rela ­

c o m m u n ic a tio n sk ills, so u n d ju d g­

ern m en t o p era tio n s an d p erfo rm s
resea rch w o rk und er d irect su p erv i­
sio n o f th e city m an ager.
S o m e n ew grad u ates from b a c h e ­

w o rk in g

tio n sh ip s w ith h is fe llo w officials.

the d eg ree ca n d id a te o b ser v es g o v ­
A n estim a ted 2 ,6 0 0 city m a n a g ­
ers w ere em p lo y e d in th e U n ite d
S tates in 1 9 7 0 . A n ad d itio n a l three


th e city m an ager is a p p o in ted b y th e
m a y o r, and ca lled “ ad m in istrative

th en se ek p o sitio n s in large cities as
g a in

ex p e r ie n c e .

H ow ever,

large cities. L arger cities offer
greater o p p o r tu n itie s fo r e x p er ie n c e
in a w id er ran ge o f p r o b le m -so lv in g

a ssista n t.” A sm all n um b er o f m a n ­ areas su ch as freew a y p lan n in g,
agers are e m p lo y ed b y m etro p o lita n urb an ren ew a l, and crim e co n tro l.
or reg io n a l p la n n in g o rg a n iz a tio n s.
A s th e y o u n g p r o fe ssio n a l gain s
O v er o n e -h a lf o f the cities w h ich a d d itio n a l sk ills and c o m p e te n c e , he
h ad a p o p u la tio n o f 1 0 ,0 0 0 to m ay a d v a n ce to a p o sitio n o f greater
5 0 0 ,0 0 0 h ad a city m a n a g er. S o m e re sp o n sib ility su ch as d ep a rtm en t
city m an agers a lso w o rk ed for h ea d a ssista n t. In this p o sitio n , he
co u n ty g o v ern m en ts. A lth o u g h city m a y gain the su p erv iso ry and p la n ­
m an agers are em p lo y ed in 4 8 o f the n in g sk ills n ecessa ry to o v e r se e an
5 0 S tates, n early 4 5 p erc en t are lo ­

en tire

d ep a rtm en t.

ca ted in C a lifo rn ia , M a in e , M ic h i­

ex p e r ie n c e

gan, P en n sy lv a n ia , and T e x a s.

fin an ce,


p u b lic


A d m in istra tiv e
d ep a rtm en ts

w o rk s,



p u b lic

p la n n in g a lso m ay p ro v id e the n e c ­
essa ry sk ills and e x p er ie n c e for ad ­
v a n cem e n t to m an ager.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

E m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n itie s for
city m a n a g ers are e x p e c te d to b e
e x c e lle n t th rou gh th e 1 9 7 0 ’s, e s p e ­
cia lly fo r p erso n s h a v in g a m a ster’s
d eg ree in p u b lic or m u n icip a l ad ­
m in istra tio n . In a d d itio n to o p en in g s
resu ltin g from the n eed to fill n ew
p o sitio n s, m a n y o p en in g s w ill arise
ea c h y ea r from the n eed to rep la ce
city m a n a g ers w h o retire, d ie, or
tran sfer to o th er fields o f w ork .
T h e em p lo y m e n t o f city m a n a g ­
ers is e x p e c te d to in cr ea se very
rap id ly th rough th e 1 9 7 0 ’s as m eth ­
o d s for d ea lin g w ith the p ro b lem s o f
ou r g ro w in g cities b e c o m e
c o m p le x . E x a m p le s o f this

m o re
com ­

p lex ity are co m p u ter ize d d ata c o l­
le ctio n o f p o lic e in fo rm a tio n , ad ­
v a n c e s in te c h n o lo g y o f traffic c o n ­

C ertain p erso n a l q u a lifica tio n s or
traits en h a n c e the city m a n a g e r’s
c h a n ces o f su cc ess. H e m u st b e d e d ­

trol, an d th e a p p lica tio n o f sy stem s
a n a ly sis to urb an p ro b lem s.
T h e n eed for city m a n a g ers is e x ­

sin ce he

p e c te d to in cr ea se as cities co n v ert

g rou n d n eed ed fo r en tra n ce in to this
p ro fessio n is a b a c h e lo r ’s d eg ree,

o fte n m u st p u t in lo n g hard h ou rs in
tim es o f crises. A n o th e r im p ortan t

to th e co u n cil-m a n a g e r fo rm o f g o v ­
ern m en t, cu rren tly the fa ste st g ro w ­

p referab ly w ith a m ajor c o n c e n tr a ­

p erso n a l q u ality is the ab ility to u n ­

in g form o f lo c a l g o v ern m en t. G ity

T h e m in im u m e d u ca tio n a l b a c k ­

ic a te d to p u b lic serv ice,

Employment Outlook


m an agers

a lso w ill b e

need ed


Sources of Additional Information

ern m en t.

E lec te d




p ected to rely in creasin gly u p o n th e
city m an ager’s sk ills to co p e w ith
th e d a y -to -d a y o p era tio n s o f g o v ­

M a n y a sse m b le and m a in ta in a li­
brary o f ca reer g u id a n ce in fo r m a ­

p la ces h a v in g other form s o f g o v ­

International City Management As­
sociation, 1140 Connecticut Ave.
NW. Washington, D.C. 20036.

tio n an d recru itm en t literature from
p u b lic an d p rivate so u r c e s fo r th e
u se o f stu d en ts and alu m n i. S uch
m a teria l

in clu d es

in fo r m a tio n


v a rio u s o c c u p a tio n s, to g eth e r w ith

ern m en t.

d ata o n current o p p o r tu n itie s, ed u ­

Earnings and Working Conditions



m an a g ers



ca tio n a l req u irem en ts, ea rn in g s, ad -

(D.O.T. 166.268)

th eir assistan ts vary a ccord in g to the
a m ou n t and type o f ed u ca tio n and
e x p erien ce as w ell as job r e sp o n si­
b ility and size o f city. T h e average

Nature of the Work

salary earned b y p erso n s in b e g in ­
n in g p o sitio n s w as ab ou t $ 7 ,5 0 0 in

C areer p la n n in g


p la ce m e n t

1 9 7 0 a ccord in g to the In tern a tio n a l
C ity M a n a g em en t A sso c ia tio n . T h is

c o u n se lo r s, so m e tim e s ca lled co lle g e

figure is so m ew h a t lo w er than start­

o f se rv ic es to c o lle g e stu d en ts and

in g salaries in b u sin ess an d indu stry,
a cco rd in g to su rvey reports. S a la ­
ries, h o w ev er, g en erally ten d to be
lo w er


g overn m en t,

e sp e c ia lly

lo c a l govern m en t.
In 1 9 7 0 , the m ed ia n salary for

m an agers

T h ey

are c o n c e r n e d

w ith

stu d y in g

h im self,

ex p lo r in g


c h o o sin g
o c c u p a tio n a l
m a k in g a d e c isio n eith er to p u rsu e

ab o u t

grad u ate stu d y or to en ter th e lab or
m ark et. T h e y a lso aid stu d en ts in
o b ta in in g p a rt-tim e an d su m m er p o ­

$ 3 4 ,0 0 0 in cities w ith 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 in ­

sitio n s to m ee t an e c o n o m ic n eed or
to a ssist in career ex p lo r a tio n .

h ab itan ts

in cities o f
in h ab itan ts,
or m ore.


alu m n i.

th e a sp ects o f a stu d en t’s d e v e lo p ­
m en t in v o lv in g h is ca reer se lec tio n :

1 0 ,0 0 0 to
ab o u t

$ 1 7 ,0 0 0
2 5 ,0 0 0


p la c e m e n t officers, p ro v id e a variety

A ssista n t


m an agers earned m ed ia n sa la ries o f
o v e r $ 1 4 ,0 0 0 a year.
A w o rk w eek o f lo n g er th an 4 0
h ou rs is c o m m o n for m o st city m a n ­
agers. T h is m ay in clu d e w o rk on
w ee k e n d s and ev en in g s to settle
e m erg en cy p ro b lem s that m a y arise.
M eetin g s w ith in d ivid u a ls an d c iti­
z e n ’s grou p s co n su m e a d d itio n a l

T h e y arrange fo r e m p lo y e r rep re­
se n ta tiv es to v isit th e ca m p u s to d is­
cu ss their firm s’ p erso n n el n eed s
an d to in terv iew q u alified ap p li­
can ts. C areer p la n n in g and p la c e ­
m en t co u n selo r s p ro v id e in fo r m a ­
tio n ab o u t stu d en ts to e m p lo y e r rep ­
resen ta tiv es and a ssist in ap p raisin g
th e q u a lifica tio n s o f stu d en ts. T h e y

College career planning and placement
counselor and student discuss em­
ployment offers.

a lso m a k e n ew co n ta c ts w ith e m ­

v a n c e m e n t, an d th e lo n g -ter m o u t­

in clu d e

p lo y er s to d e v e lo p a d d itio n a l em ­

lo o k .

h ea lth and life in su ran ce p rogram s,
p e n sio n p lan s, sick le a v e , v a ca tio n

p lo y m e n t o p p o rtu n ities. In ad d ition ,
th ey m a y su g g est im p r o v em en ts in

P la c e m e n t co u n selo r s m a y sp e ­
cia liz e in areas su ch as la w and

b en efits, and o fte n the ava ila b ility

e m p lo y er recru itm en t literature and

o f a car fo r official b u sin ess. M a n a g ­

in form

the c o lle g e fa cu lty o f any

p a rt-tim e an d su m m er w ork . H o w ­
ev e r, th e ex te n t o f sp ec ia liz a tio n

ers g en erally are reim bu rsed for e x ­
p e n se s incurred w h ile atten d in g

ch a n g e in job req u irem en ts that
m ig h t w arrant ad ju stm en t in cu rric­

u su a lly d ep en d s u p o n th e siz e an d
ty p e o f the c o lle g e , as w e ll as th e

p ro fessio n a l m eetin g s and sem in ars.

u lum .

size o f th e p la ce m e n t staff.

tim e.
F rin g e

b en efits

u su a lly


im p o rta n t fo r ca reer c o u n se lin g and

Places of Employment

p la c e m e n t
N ea r ly all c o lle g e s an d u n iv e rsi­

w ork ers.

G rad u ate

grad u ates
tio n s.

se e k in g

b eg in n in g

p o s i­

ties offer career p la n n in g and p la c e ­

co u rses th at are co n sid er ed h elp fu l
in clu d e c o u n se lin g th eo ry and te c h ­

m en t serv ices. L a rg e c o lle g e s m a y
e m p lo y sev era l co u n se lo r s w o rk in g

n iq u es, v o c a tio n a l testin g, th eo ry o f

fo r

grou p d y n a m ics, and o c c u p a tio n a l

p la c e m e n t

cr ea sin g n u m b e r o f c o lle g e stu d en ts;

a c o m b in a tio n o f p la ce m e n t fu n c ­

resea rch and e m p lo y m e n t trends.
S o m e p erso n s en ter th e career
p la n n in g and p la c e m e n t field after

tion s is p erfo rm ed b y o n e d irector
and h is clerica l staff. In so m e c o l­

p e rien ce in b u sin ess, in d u stry, g o v ­

le g es, esp e cia lly th e sm a ller o n e s, th e

ern m en t, o r ed u ca tio n a l o rg a n iz a ­

fu n ctio n s o f c o u n selo r s m a y b e p er­

tio n s. A ls o h elp fu l is an in tern sh ip
in a career p la n n in g and p la ce m e n t

u n d er a d irector o f p la ce m e n t a c tiv ­
ities; in m an y in stitu tio n s, h o w e v er ,

fo rm ed



p art-tim e

b a sis


m em b ers o f the fa cu lty o r a d m in is­

g a in in g a b ro a d b a ck g ro u n d o f e x ­


A m o n g th e fa cto rs e x p e c te d to
co n trib u te to th e fa v o ra b le o u tlo o k
c o lle g e

ca reer

p la n n in g

c o u n se lo r s


th e

an d
in ­

a g ro w in g n u m b er o f m in o rity grou p
stu d en ts an d stu d en ts from lo w -in c o m e fa m ilies w h o requ ire sp ecia l
c o u n se lin g an d a ssista n ce in o b ta in ­
in g p a rt-tim e jo b s to h elp fin a n ce
th eir ed u ca tio n ; th e e x p a n sio n o f
c o u n se lin g and p la c e m e n t p rogram s
on m a n y ca m p u se s as greater re c o g ­

P er so n s w h o w o u ld lik e to en ter

n itio n is g iv e n to th e n eed fo r su ch

m ajor b ran ch or ca m p u s. In m o st

th e career p la n n in g and p la ce m e n t
field sh o u ld h a v e an in terest in p e o ­

p rogram s; an d th e in crea sin g n u m ­
b er o f tw o -y e a r in stitu tio n s and the

u n iv ersities, there is a cen tral office

p le. T h e y m u st b e ab le to c o m m u n i­

e sta b lish m en t o f ca reer c o u n se lin g

w h ich co o rd in a tes th e w o rk o f all

ca te w ith an d gain th e c o n fid e n c e o f
stu d en ts, fa cu lty , and em p lo y ers.

an d p la c e m e n t o ffices o n th e se c a m ­
p u ses.

trative staff. U n iv ersities freq u en tly

p la ce m e n t



p la n n in g



ea ch

p la ce m e n t

T h e a b ility to d e v e lo p a k een in sig h t

R e g io n a l c o lle g e p la c e m e n t a sso ­
c ia tio n s and th eir co o r d in a tin g o r­

A n estim a ted 2 ,8 0 0 ca r ee r p la n ­

in to th e e m p lo y m e n t p ro b lem s o f
b o th em p lo y er s and stu d en ts an d to

n in g an d p la c e m e n t c o u n se lo r s w ere

m a in ta in

co n fid en tia l

C o u n c il, fo ste r a ctiv itie s to u p grad e

e m p lo y ed in 4 -y e a r c o lle g e s and
u n iv ersities in 1 9 7 0 , m o st o f th em

c o m m u n ic a tio n s a lso is im p o rta n t in
c o lle g e p la c e m e n t w ork . T h e y m u st
b e en er g etic and a b le to w o rk u n d er

an d ex p a n d e x istin g ca reer p la n n in g

p ressu re an d to o rg a n ize and ad ­

m en t se r v ic e s w h ere n o n e p resen tly
ex ist. T h e resu lts o f th eir efforts
sh o u ld crea te a d d itio n a l job o p p o r­

c o u n selo r s;


so m e,

ea c h

w ork s as a sep arate unit.

o n a fu ll-tim e b a sis. O f this to ta l
n u m b er, ab ou t o n e-fo u rth w ere
w o m e n . In ad d itio n , an in crea sin g
n u m b er o f p la ce m e n t officers are
e m p lo y ed fu ll-tim e or p a rt-tim e in
2 -y e a r co lleg e s.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

h o n e st

an d

m in ister a w id e va riety o f tasks.
A d v a n c e m e n t for ca reer p la n n in g
an d p la c e m e n t p r o fe ssio n a ls u su a lly
is th rou gh p ro m o tio n to an a ssista n t
o r a sso c ia te p o sitio n , p la ce m e n t
d irector, d irector o f stu d en t p erso n ­
n el se rv ic es, o r to so m e o th er h igher
le v e l a d m in istra tiv e p o sitio n . H o w ­
ever, th e e x te n t o f su ch o p p o rtu n ity

p rogram

c o lle g e o r u n iversity an d th e siz e o f

P la c e m e n t

an d p la c e m e n t p ro g ra m s and e n ­
c o u ra g e th e esta b lish m en t o f p la c e ­

tu n ities fo r p ro fe ssio n a l p erso n n el
in th is field.
S o m e o p e n in g s a lso w ill o cc u r
ea c h y ea r as p la c e m e n t officers
tran sfer to o th e r p o sitio n s, retire, or
le a v e th e field fo r o th e r rea so n s.

u su a lly d ep en d s u p o n th e ty p e o f

e x ists to prep are p erso n s fo r c o lle g e
ca reer p la n n in g
an d
p la ce m e n t

g a n iza tio n , th e C o lle g e


w ork .

sp ecific

e d u ca tio n

H ow ever,

a b a c h e lo r ’s

d e­

In 1 9 7 0 , a n n u a l ea rn in g s o f
p la c e m e n t o ffice d irecto rs ran ged

gree, p referab ly in o n e o f th e b e ­
h a v io ra l sc ien ce s, is co n sid er ed th e
m in im u m req u irem en t for entry in to
th e field.
In 1 9 7 0 , m ore than 1 0 0 c o lle g e s
an d

u n iv ersities


p rogram s

Employment Outlook

fro m le ss th an $ 5 ,0 0 0 to a h ig h o f
o v e r $ 2 7 ,5 0 0 , w ith th e m ed ia n sa l­

T h e n u m b er o f job o p p o rtu n ities
in th e c o lle g e career p la n n in g and
p la c e m e n t field is e x p e c te d to rise
very rap id ly th ro u g h th e 1 9 7 0 ’s. In

le a d in g to a grad u ate d eg ree in c o l­
le g e stu d en t p erso n n el w ork . G ra d ­

gen era l, e m p lo y m e n t p ro sp ec ts w ill

u a te stu d y is b e c o m in g in cr ea sin g ly

b e g o o d fo r n ew o r re ce n t co lle g e

Earnings and Working Conditions

th e staff.

ary a b o u t $ 1 2 ,2 5 0 , a cc o rd in g to a
N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A sso c ia tio n sur­
v e y o f p u b lic an d p rivate c o lle g e s
an d u n iv ersities. T h e su rv ey reports
that a n n u a l ea rn in g s o f d ea n s o f
testin g and c o u n se lin g in 1 9 7 0



ranged from under $6,500 to more
than $29,500 with a median salary
of $13,800. In general, the larger
institutions paid the highest salaries.
Career planning and placement
professionals frequently work more
than a 40-hour week; irregular
hours and overtime often are neces­
sary, particularly during the “re­
cruiting season.” Most placement
personnel are employed on a 12month basis. They are paid for hol­
idays and vacations, and receive the
same benefits as other professional
personnel employed by colleges and

Sources of Additional Information
The College Placement Council,
Inc., P.O. Box 2263, Bethelem,
Pa. 18001.

(D.O.T. 096.128)

Nature of the Work
Extension Service workers are
engaged in educational work in ag­
riculture, home economics, youth
activities, and community resource
development. They are employed
jointly by State landgrant universi­
ties and the U.S. Department of A g­
riculture. Extension workers must
be proficient in both subject matter
and teaching methods.
Extension workers help people
analyze and solve their farm and
home problems and aid in commun­
ity improvement. Much of this edu­
cational work is carried on in
groups, through meetings, tours,
demonstrations, and local voluntary

leaders. Individual assistance is
given on problems that cannot be
solved satisfactorily by group meth­
ods. Extension workers rely heavily
on mass communication media such
as newspaper, radio, and television.
County extension workers help
farmers produce higher quality
crops and livestock more efficiently
and assists them in developing new
market outlets and in planning
production to meet market de­
mands, including quality standards
and varieties. This also helps com­
munity leaders to improve the com­
munity and to plan and provide for
economic development, recreation,
and more adequate public facilities
such as schools, water supply and
sewer systems, and libraries. They
assist homemakers to provide more
family enjoyment from existing re­
sources, a higher level of nutrition,
and a more pleasant home environ­
ment. Some extension workers help
youth to become more useful citi­
zens and gain more personal satis­
faction through programs in career
selection, recreation, health, and
leadership. The essence of exten­
sion work is to help people help
themselves to achieve the goals they
think are important.
County extension workers are
supported by State Extension Spe­
cialists. Their job is to keep abreast
of the latest research in their par­
ticular field of interest, interpret this
for use in extension programs, and
assist county extension workers in
developing educational programs,
activities and events to demonstrate
use of this new knowledge.
Cooperative Extension Services
employ persons with a wide range
of skills. Extension staffs include
people skilled in all phases of crop
and livestock production, conserva­
tion, environmental improvement,
farm management and marketing,
family living, human development,

nutrition, home management, child
development, sociology, psychology,
veterinary medicine, engineering,
textiles and clothing, resource eco­
nomics, and business and public ad­

Places of Employment
Extension workers are located in
county offices, area offices serving
multi-county units, and State offices
which are usually located on the
campus of the land-grant college or
Agents are located in nearly
every county in the 50 States,
Puerto Rico, and the District of
Columbia. The county staffs range
in size from one agent serving a
wide variety of clientele interests to
staffs of a dozen or more specialized
agents in counties with high-density
population and great diversity of in­
terests. Staffs are located in coun­
tries ranging from the most rural to
the most urban.

Training and Other Qualifications
Cooperative Extension agents as­
signed to counties are required to be
proficient in a discipline related to
the needs and programs of the
clientele with whom they work.
They must have a B.S. degree in
their subject-matter, and some
training in educatical techniques is
Often they receive training in ex­
tension techniques in a pre-induc­
tion training program and are up­
graded through regular in-service
training programs in both educa­
tional techniques and the subjectmatter for which they are responsi­
ble. In addition to subject-matter
proficiency and extension tech­
niques, successful extension workers



must like to work with and to help
In most States, specialists and
agents assigned to multicounty and
State staff jobs are required to have
at least one advanced degree and
many must have the Ph. D.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information may be
obtained from county extension
offices, the State Director of the Co­
operation Extension Service located
at each land-grant university; or the
Extension Service, U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

Employment Outlook
Extension services employ more
than 15,000 professional people.
The demand for additional work­
especially in depressed rural areas.
As agricultural technology becomes
more complicated, and as farm peo­
ple become more aware of the need
for organized activity, more help
will be sought from trained Exten­
sion Service personnel. The Exten­
sion Service also is being extended
to new segments of the population,
as residents recognize the value of
their assistance, particularly in help­
ing the disadvantaged.
Counterparts of the Cooperative
Extension Service are being estab­
lished in many countries, and E x­
tension Service personnel often are
recruited to help initiate and orga­
nize these programs.

Earnings and Working Conditions
The salaries of extension workers
vary from State to State and county
to county. In the main, however,
they are fully competitive with simi­
lar jobs in industry and government.
Generally speaking, the career lad­
der for extension workers proceeds
from assistant county agent to more
responsible jobs within that county,
or in another county in the State, to
assignments on the State extension

(D.O.T. 375.168)

Nature of the Work

T o perform their duties, Special
Agents may interview people, ob­
serve the activities of suspects, and
participate in raids; their duties may
involve extensive travel. Because of
the highly confidential nature of the
F B I’s work, Special Agents may not
disclose any of the information
which they gather in the course of
their official duties to unauthorized
persons, including members of their
families. Special Agents may have
to testify in court about cases that
they investigate, but they do not
make recommendations pertaining
to prosecution, express opinions
concerning the guilt or innocence of
suspects, nor issue “clearances” of
any kind.
In most assignments, Special
Agents work alone but must main­
tain continued contact with their su­
periors by radio or telephone. For
potentially dangerous duties, such
as arrests and raids, two agents or
more are assigned to work together.

Federal Bureau of Investigation
(F B I) Special Agents investigate
many types of violations of Federal
laws, such as bank robberies, kid­
nappings, frauds against the Gov­
ernment, thefts of Government
property, espionage, and sabotage.
The FBI, which is part of the U.S
Department of Justice, has jurisdic­
tion over more than 185 Federal in­
Places of Employment
vestigative matters. Special Agents
may be assigned to any type of case,
Most of the more than 7,900
but those having specialized training Special Agents employed in 1970
in accounting are likely to be as­ were assigned to the FB I’s 59 field
signed chiefly to cases involving offices located throughout the N a­
complex financial records; for ex­ tion and in Puerto Rico. These
ample, frauds involving Federal R e­ agents work either in the city where
serve Bank records.
the field office headquarters is lo­
The FBI is a fact-gathering and cated or in resident agencies (sub­
fact-reporting agency, and its Spe­ offices) established under the su­
cial Agents function strictly as in­ pervision of the field office to pro­
vestigators. (Its authority does not vide prompt and economic handling
include affording personal protec­ of investigative matters arising
tion to individuals nor does it in­ throughout the field office territory.
clude police functions to assure that Some agents are assigned to the Bu­
the law is obeyed. Such matters are reau headquarters staff in Washing­
within the purview of local and ton, D .C., which supervises all FBI
State law enforcement agencies.)


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
To be eligible for appointment as
an FBI Special Agent, an applicant
must have graduated from a Stateaccredited resident law school or a
4-year resident college with a major
in accounting. The law school train­
ing must have been preceded by at
least 2 years of resident undergrad­
uate college work. Accounting grad­
uates also must have had at least 3
years of experience in accounting or
auditing or a combination of both.

Applicants for the position of
FBI Special Agent must be male
citizens of the United States, at least
23 and not more than 40 years of
age, and willing to serve anywhere
in the United States or Puerto Rico.
They must be at least 5 feet 7
inches tall and capable of strenuous
physical exertion; they must have
excellent hearing and vision, normal
color perception, and no physical
defects which would prevent their
using firearms or participating in
dangerous assignments. Each appli­
cant must pass a rigid physical ex­


amination, as well as written and
oral examinations testing his knowl­
edge of law or accounting and his
aptitude for meeting the public and
conducting investigations. A ll of the
tests except the physical examina­
tions are given by the FBI at its fa­
cilities. Exhaustive background and
character investigations are made of
all applicants. Appointments are
made on a probationary basis and
become permanent after 1 year of
satisfactory service.
Each newly appointed Special
Agent is given approximately 14
weeks of training before he is as­
signed to a field office. He receives
most of this training at FBI head­
quarters at Washington, D.C., and
the rest at the FBI Academy at the
U.S. Marine Corps Base in Quantico, Va. During this period, he re­
ceives intensive training in defensive
tactics and firearms. In addition, he
is also thoroughly schooled in Fed­
eral criminal law and procedures,
FBI rules and regulations, finger­
printing, and investigative work.
After assignment to a field office,
the new agent usually works closely
with an experienced agent for a
period of about 2 weeks before
handling any assignments independ­
All administrative and supervi­
sory positions are filled from within
the ranks by selecting those FBI
Special Agents who have demon­
strated the ability to assume more
responsible positions.

Employment Outlook
The FBI has experienced a sub­
stantial expansion in its jurisdiction
over the years. Although it is im­
possible to forecast Special Agent
personnel requirements, employ­


ment may be expected to increase
with growing FBI responsibilities.
The FBI provides a career serv­
ice and its rate of personnel turn­
over is traditionally low. Neverthe­
less, the FBI is always interested in
applications from qualified men who
would like to be considered for the
position of Special Agent.

Earnings and Working Conditions
The entrance salary for FBI Spe­
cial Agents in 1970 was $10,869 a
year. FBI Special Agents are not
appointed under Federal Civil Serv­
ice regulations, but, like other Fed­
eral employees, they receive peri­
odic within-grade salary raises if
their work performance is satisfac­
tory, and they can advance in grade
as they gain experience. The top sal­
ary for regular field Special Agents
in 1970 was about $23,000. Agents
in supervisory and administrative
positions received higher salaries.
Special Agents are subject to call
24 hours a day and must be availa­
ble for assignment at all times and
places. They frequently work longer
than the customary 40-hour week
and, under certain specified condi­
tions, receive over-time pay up to a
maximum of $ 2,870 a year. They
are granted paid vacations, sick
leave, and annuities on retirement.

Sources of Additional Information
The Federal Bureau of Investiga­
tion, U.S. Department of Justice,
Washington, D.C. 20535.


(D.O.T. 621.281)

Nature of the Work and
Places of Employment
The flight engineer monitors the
operation of the different mechani­
cal and electrical devices aboard the
airplane. Before takeoffs, he may in­
spect the tires and other outside
parts of the plane and make sure that
the plane’s fuel tanks have been
filled properly. Inside the plane, he
assists the pilot and copilot in mak­
ing preflight checks of instruments
and equipment. Once the plane is
airborne, the flight engineer watches
and operates many instruments and
devices to check the performance of
the engines and the air-conditioning,
pressurizing, and electrical systems.
In addition, he keeps records of en­
gine performance and fuel con­
sumption. He reports any mechani­
cal difficulties to the pilot and, if
possible, makes emergency repairs.
Upon landing, he makes certain that
mechanical troubles that may have
developed are repaired by a me­
chanic. Flight engineers employed
by smaller airlines may have to
make minor repairs at those few air­
ports where mechanics are not sta­
officers are required by the Federal
Aviation Administration (F A A ), to
be on almost all three- and fourengine aircraft and some two-engine
jet aircraft. An evaluation of the
aircraft and the functions to be per­
formed by the crew determines the
need for a flight engineer. In 1970
about 8,500 workers were em­
ployed to perform flight engineers’
duties, mostly by major airlines.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
All flight engineers must be li­
censed by the F A A . A man can
qualify for a flight engineer’s certifi­
cate if he has had 2 years of training
or 3 years of work experience in the
maintenance, repair, and overhaul
of aircraft and engines, including a
minimum of 6 months’ training or a
year of experience on four-engine
piston and jet planes. He also may
qualify with at least 200 hours of
flight time as a captain of a four-en­
gine piston or jet plane, or 100
hours of experience as a flight engi­
neer in the Armed Forces. The
most common method of qualifying
is to complete a course of ground
and flight instruction approved by
the FA A .
In addition to such experience or
training, an applicant for a license
must pass a written test on flight
theory, engine and aircraft perform­
ance, fuel requirements, weather as
it affects engine operation, and
maintenance procedures. In a prac­
tical flight test on a four-engine
plane, he must demonstrate his skill



in performing preflight duties and
normal and emergency in-flight du­
ties and procedures. He also must
pass a rigid physical examination
every year. Most scheduled airlines
now require applicants for flight en­
gineer positions to have a commer­
cial pilot’s license.

engineers without pilot qualifica­
tions can advance from less desir­
able to more desirable routes and
schedules as they gain seniority.

Young men can acquire the
knowledge and skills necessary to
qualify as airline flight engineers
through military training as aircraft
pilots, mechanics, or flight engi­
neers. They also may attend a civil­
ian ground school and then gain ex­
perience as an airplane mechanic.

Employment of flight engineers is
expected to increase very rapidly
during the 1970’s as the number of
heavier jet-powered aircraft, requir­
ing flight engineers, increases. This
development will contribute to em­
ployment growth in this field, since,
in most cases, the third required
crew member will be a qualified
pilot serving as a flight engineer
until his promotion to copilot. (See
also the H a n d b o o k statement for
Pilots and Copilots.)

For flight engineers, airlines gen­
erally prefer men who are 21 to 35
years of age, from 5 feet 6 inches to
6 feet 4 inches tall, and in excellent
physical condition. Good eyesight
(including color-vision) and eyehand co-ordination are essential. All
the major carriers require a high
school education but prefer at least
2 years of college. They prefer to
hire young men who already have
a flight engineer certificate and a
commercial pilot’s license, although
they may train applicants who have
only a commercial pilot’s license. A
young person considering a career
as a flight engineer must be able to
cope with the pressures and respon­
sibilities that are part of the occupa­
tion, and he must be concerned with
details. He also must be able to
function as part of a team and
quickly learn to operate new equip­
Advancement opportunities usu­
ally depend on qualifications and
seniority provisions established by
airline union-management agree­
ments. The flight engineer with pilot
qualifications, generally called the
second officer, advances on the basis
of his seniority to copilot, and then
follows the regular line of advance­
ment open to other copilots. Flight

Employment Outlook

month, 300 hours every 90 days, or
350 hours every 90 days, depending
on the size of the flight crew.
Most flight engineers who are not
qualified pilots belong to the Flight
Engineers’ International Association
or the International Association of
Machinists and Aerospace Workers.
Those who are qualified pilots (Sec­
ond Officers) are represented by
the Air Line Pilots Association, In­

Sources of Additional Information
Flight Engineers’ International As­
sociation, 100 Indiana Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20001.

(See the introductory section for
additional sources of information
and for general information on sup­
plementary benefits and working

Earnings and Working Conditions
Flight engineers earned from
$1,277 a month for new employees
to approximately $2,465 for experi­
enced flight engineers on jet aircraft
on international flights. Many flight
engineers earned between $1,590
and $2,020 a month. Average
monthly earnings for all flight engi­
neers in domestic operations was
nearly $1,702. Those employed on
international flights averaged nearly
$1,920. The earnings of flight engi­
neers depend upon size, speed, and
type of plane; hours and miles
flown; length of service; and the
type of flight (such as night or inter­
national). Engineers are guaranteed
minimum monthly earnings, which
represent a substantial proportion of
their total earnings. Their flight
time is restricted, under the Federal
Aviation Act, to 85 hours a month.
Flight engineers in international op­
erations are limited to 100 hours a

(D.O.T. 096.128)

Nature of the Work
Improving products, services, and
practices that affect the comfort and
well-being of the family is the pri­
mary function of home economists.
These professional workers have a
broad knowledge of the home eco­
nomics field or are specialists in a
particular area, such as food, cloth­
ing and textiles, housing, home
furnishings and equipment, child
development, household manage­
ment, or family economics.
Teachers make up the largest
group of home economists. Second­
ary school teachers instruct classes



in food, nutrition, clothing, textiles,
child development, family relations,
home furnishings, home manage­
ment, and consumer education. In
addition, they may sponsor local
chapters of Future Homemakers of
America and conduct related activi­
ties. Other work done by home eco­
nomics teachers is similar to that
described in the statement on Sec­
ondary School Teachers, elsewhere
in this H a n d b o o k . Teachers in adult
education programs help homemak­
ers to increase their understanding
of family relations and to improve
their homemaking skills. They also
train those who wish to prepare for
jobs in home economics. College
teachers may combine teaching and
research, and often specialize in one
particular area of home economics.
Private business firms and trade
associations employ home econo­
mists to promote the development,
use, and care of specific home prod­
ucts. These home economists may

do research; test products; prepare
advertisements and booklets with
instructional materials; plan, pre­
pare, and present programs for
radio and television; serve as con­
sultants; give lectures and demon­
strations before the public; and con­
duct classes for such workers as
salesmen and appliance servicemen.
They also may study consumer
needs and help manufacturers trans­
late these needs into useful prod­
H om e economists employed by
food manufacturers often work in
test kitchens or laboratories to im­
prove products or help create new
products. They may also publicize
the nutritional value of specific
foods. Those employed by utility
companies describe the operation
and benefits of appliances and serv­
ices and often give advice on
household problems. Home econo­
mists employed by manufacturers of
kitchen and laundry equipment may
work with engineers on product de­

velopment. Those engaged in com ­
munications work for magazines,
newspapers, radio and television
stations, advertising and public rela­
tions agencies, trade associations,
and other organizations. They usu­
ally prepare articles, advertise­
ments, and speeches about home
products and services. Their work
may include product testing and
analysis, and the study of consumer
buying habits. Still other home
economists work for dress-pattern
companies, department stores, inte­
rior design studios, and other busi­
ness firms that design, manufacture,
and sell products for the home. A
small number of home economists
are employed in financial institu­
tions, giving customers advice on
spending, saving, and budgeting.
Some home economists are en­
gaged in research for the Federal
Government, State agricultural ex­
periment stations, colleges, universi­
ties, and private organizations. The
U.S. Department of Agriculture em­
ploys the largest group of these
workers, some of whom study the
buying and spending habits of farm
families, and then develop budget
guides. A few in other Federal
agencies are engaged in research on
space travel, working on such prob­
lems as food needs in outer space.
Cooperative Extension Service
home economists conduct adult ed­
ucation programs for women and
4-H Club programs for girls in such
areas as home management, con­
sumer education, family relations,
and nutrition.
Home economists employed on
social-welfare programs by Federal,
State, county, city, and private wel­
fare agencies may act as advisers
and consultants on household budg­
ets and improved homemaking. They
help handicapped homemakers and
their families adjust to physical limi­
tations by changing the arrange­



ments in the home and revising
methods of work. Other home econ­
omists in welfare agencies super­
vise or train workers who provide
temporary or part-time help to
households disrupted by illness.
Places of Employment
About 105,000 persons were em­
ployed in home economics occupa­
tions in 1970. This figure includes
an estimated 30,000 dietitians and
approximately 5,200 extension work­
ers who are discussed in separate
statements on Dietitians and Co­
operative Extension Service Work­
ers in the H a n d b o o k . About 65,000
home economists were teachers. A p­
proximately 45,000 were secondary
school teachers. About 13,500 were
adult education instructors, some of
whom also taught part-time in sec­
ondary schools. In addition, there
were about 4,000 college and uni­
versity teachers. The remainder
taught in elementary schools, kinder­
gartens, nursery schools, recreation
centers, and other institutions. More
than 5,000 home economists were in
private business firms and associa­
tions. Several hundred were govern­
ment research workers, and some
worked in social welfare programs. A
few were self-employed.
Although home economics is gen­
erally considered a woman’s field, a
growing number of men are em­
ployed in home economics posi­
tions. Most men specialize in foods
and institution management, though
some are in the family relations and
child development field, applied
arts, and other areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Approximately 4 0 0 colleges and
universities offer training leading to

a bachelor’s degree in home eco­
nomics, which qualifies graduates
for most entry positions in the field.
A master’s or doctor’s degree is re­
quired for college teaching, for cer­
tain research and supervisory posi­
tions, for work as an extension spe­
cialist or supervisor, and for some
jobs in the nutrition field.
The undergraduate curriculum in
home economics gives students a
strong background in science and
liberal arts and also includes
courses in each of the areas of home
ecoi omics. Students majoring in
home economics may specialize in
various subject-matter areas. A d­
vanced courses in chemistry and nu­
trition are important for work in
foods and nutrition; science and sta­
tistics for research work; and jour­
nalism for advertising, public rela­
tions work, and all other work in
the communications field. To teach
home economics in a high school, a
student must complete the profes­
sional education courses and other
State requirements for a teacher’s
Scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships are available for under­
graduate and graduate study. A l­
though colleges and universities
offer most of these financial grants,
foundations, businesses, and the
American Home Economics A sso­
ciation Foundation provide addi­
tional funds.
Home economists must be able to
work with people of various living
standards and backgrounds and
should have a capacity for leader­
ship, including an ability to inspire
cooperation. Good grooming, poise,
and an interest in people also are
essential, particularly when dealing
with the public. The ability to com ­
municate effectively is also impor­

Employment Outlook
Home economists are expected to
have good employment opportuni­
ties through the 1970’s. The great­
est demand will stem from the need
to fill teaching positions in second­
ary schools and in colleges and uni­
versities. Many business establish­
ments also are becoming increas­
ingly aware of the contributions that
can be made by professionally
trained home economists and prob­
ably will hire more of them to
promote home products and to act
as consultants to customers. In­
creased national focus on the needs
of low-income families may also in­
crease the demand for home econo­
mists. In addition, the need for
more home economists in research
is expected to increase because of
the continued interest in improving
home products and services.
Many home economists will be
needed to replace those who die, re­
tire, or leave the field because of
family responsibilities or other rea­
sons through the 1970’s. Opportuni­
ties for those who leave the profes­
sion but later wish to return will be
good, especially as part-time teach­
ers in adult education programs.

Earnings and Working Conditions
Home economics teachers in
public schools generally receive the
same salaries as other teachers, as
most school districts have a single­
salary schedule, based on education
and experience. In school districts
of 100,000 pupils or more, the me­
dian salary of beginning teachers
who have a bachelor’s degree was
$7,200 for the school year 1 9 7 0 -7 1 ,
according to a National Education
Association survey; in districts of
50,000 to 99,999 enrollment, the


median starting salary was $6,800;
and in districts of 2 5,000 to 49,999
enrollment, $6,850. The median sal­
ary of home economics instructors
teaching in colleges and universities
was about $ 8,360 a year in 1 9 6 9 70.
In 1970, average annual salaries
received in the Cooperative Exten­
sion Service were as follows: inexpe­
rienced county extension home econ­
omists, $7,000; experienced county
extension home economists, $9,600;
and State specialists, $13,400.
The Federal Government paid in­
experienced workers who have a
bachelor’s degree in home econom ­
ics $6,548 or $8,098 in late 1970,
depending on their scholastic rec­
ords. For those having additional
education and experience, salaries
generally ranged from $9,881 to
$16,760 a year, depending upon the
type of position and level of respon­
Many home economists work a
regular 40-hour week or less. Those
in teaching and extension positions,
however, frequently work longer
hours as they are expected to be
available for evening lectures, dem­
onstrations, and other work. Most
home economists receive fringe
benefits, such as paid vacation, sick
leave, retirement pay, and insurance

home economic majors offered in
each school granting degrees in
home economics, and graduate
scholarships may be obtained from:
American Home Economics Asso­
ciation, 2010 Massachusetts Ave­
nue, NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 019.081)

Nature of the Work

Everyone enjoys walking through
an attractively designed park or
driving along a scenic road. Land­
scape architects plan, design, and

supervise the arrangement of these
outdoor areas for people to use and
enjoy. The attractiveness of parks,
highways, housing projects, cam­
puses, and country clubs reflects the
skill of these architects in design­
ing useful and pleasing landscapes.
Their knowledge of site planning al­
lows landscape architects to serve
many types of clients, from a real
estate firm embarking on a new sub­
urban development to a city prepar­
ing to build an airport.
Landscape architects may plan
the entire arrangement of a site and
supervise the grading, construction,
and planting required to carry out
the plan. Whether they perform all
or only part of these services on a
particular project, however, de­
pends on the client’s wishes and the
available funds.
To plan a site, landscape archi­
tects first study the nature and pur-

Sources of Additional Information
A list of schools granting degrees
in home economics is available
Home Economics Education, Bureau
of Adult, Vocational, and Tech­
nical Education, Division of Vo­
cational and Technical Education,
U.S. Department of Health, Edu­
cation, and Welfare, Washington,
D.C. 20202.

Additional information about ca­
reers in this profession, the types of

Landscape architect plans site design.


pose of the client’s project, and the
various types of structures needed.
N ext, they study the site itself, ob­
serving and mapping features such
as the slope of the land and the po­
sition of existing buildings and trees.
They also consider the parts of the
site that will be sunny or shaded at
different times of the day, the struc­
ture of the soil, existing utilities, and
many other factors. Then, after con­
sultation with the architect and en­
gineer working on the project, they
draw up preliminary plans for the
development of the site. After the
client approves the preliminary
plans, working drawings are made
which show all existing and pro­
posed features such as buildings,
roads, walks, terraces, grading, and
drainage structures in planted areas.
Landscape architects outline in de­
tail the methods of constructing fea­
tures such as walks and terraces
and draw up lists of materials to be
used. Landscape contractors then
are invited to submit bids for the
Firms of landscape architects
usually handle a wide variety of as­
signments. Some, however, special­
ize in projects such as parks and
playgrounds, campuses, hotels and
resorts, shopping centers, roads, or
public housing.

Places of Employment
An estimated 10,000 landscape
architects were employed in 1970.
The majority were self-employed or
worked for other landscape archi­
tects in private firms. About onethird of all landscape architects
were employed by government
agencies concerned with public
housing, city planning, urban re­
newal, highways, and parks and rec­
reational areas. Some were on the
staffs of engineering firms; others

were employed by landscape con­
tractors and a few taught in colleges
and universities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
A bachelor’s degree in landscape
architecture is usually the minimum
requirement for entering the profes­
sion. This training is offered in at
least 64 colleges and universities, of
which 24 have been accredited by
the American Society of Landscape
Architects. Another 40 schools offer
courses in landscape architecture
but not a complete 4-year program.
The curriculum for the bachelor’s
degree requires 4 to 5 years of
study, depending on the institution.
Fifteen universities also offer mas­
ter’s degrees in landscape architec­
Entrance requirements for the
landscape architecture course are
usually the same as those for admis­
sion to the liberal arts college of the
same university. Some schools also
require completion of a high school
course in mechanical or geometrical
drawing, and most schools advise
high school students to take courses
in art and more mathematics than
the minimum required for college
Courses in design, including ar­
chitecture and drawing as well as
landscape design, constitute over
half of the typical curriculum in
landscape architecture. Other major
fields of study are civil engineering
courses in English, science, the so­
cial sciences, and mathematics usu­
ally are required. A bachelor’s de­
gree in landscape
provides a good background for
graduate work in city planning.
Young people who plan to be­
come landscape architects should be

interested in both art and nature,
for the profession demands a talent
for design and an understanding of
plant life, as well as technical abil­
ity. Successful practice as an inde­
pendent landscape architect also re­
quires a good business sense and the
ability to deal with people.
Working for landscape architects
or landscape contractors during
summer vacations will help the stu­
dent to discover the phases of land­
scape architecture that interest him
most and may better qualify him for
employment upon graduation.
New graduates usually begin as
junior draftsmen, or designers trac­
ing drawings and doing other simple
drafting work. As their skill in­
creases, they progress to more re­
sponsible work. After 2 or 3 years,
they usually become registered as
landscape architects and are quali­
fied to carry a design through all
stages, from preliminary sketches to
finished working drawings. Experi­
enced draftsmen often handle other
aspects of landscape architects’
work also, such as preparing specifi­
cations and detailing methods of
construction. Employees who dem­
onstrate ability for all phases of
work may become associates of the
firm; landscape architects who pro­
gress this far often open their own
A license is required for the inde­
pendent practice of landscape archi­
tecture in 20 States— Arizona, Cali­
fornia, Colorado, Connecticut, Flor­
ida, Georgia, Hawaii, Kansas, Loui­
siana, Massachusetts, Michigan, N e­
braska, New York, North Carolina,
Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas,
Utah and Washington. Candidates
for the licensing examination are
usually required to have 6 to 8
years’ experience, or a degree from
an accredited school of landscape



architecture plus 2 to 4 years’ expe­
Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
graduates that have professional
training in landscape architecture
are expected to be favorable
throughout the 1970’s. The profes­
sion probably will continue to ex­
pand in the years ahead as a result
of the continued growth of metro­
politan areas with their needs for
parks and recreational areas, the
growing population’s requirements
for outdoor recreational facilities,
the continued increase in public
construction (including public hous­
in g ), and the rising interest in city
and regional planning. The ex­
pected increase in homeownership,
coupled with rising per capita in­
comes and living standards, also will
spur the demand for landscape ar­
Women represent between 10
and 15 percent of all landscape ar­
chitects. Well-trained and compe­
tent women landscape architects
can look forward to interesting and
worthwhile careers in the profes­
sion, particularly as specialists in
garden and planting design.

Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1970, starting salaries in pri­
vate offices for new graduates hav­
ing bachelors’ degrees in landscape
architecture ranged from about
$7,000 to $9,000 annually; holders
of master’s degrees generally earned
starting salaries between $12,000
and $15,000. Experienced persons
employed by private firms typically
earned from about $15,000 to
$20,000 a year, although it was not
unusual for especially well-qualified

people to receive annual salaries of
more than $25,000.
Landscape architects in independ­
ent practice often earn more than
salaried employees with considera­
ble experience, but their earnings
may vary widely and may fluctuate
from year to year.
In the Federal Civil Service in
1970, newly graduated landscape
architects were paid annual en­
trance salaries of either $8,510 or
$10,528 depending on their qualifi­
cations. Others with advanced de­
grees earned between $11,855 and
$13,493. The salary schedule also
provides for periodic increases
above this amount.
Salaried employees both in the
government and in landscape archi­
tectural firms usually work regular
hours. Self-employed persons often
work long hours, especially during
the latter stages of a project. Sala­
ried employees in private firms may
also work overtime during seasonal
rush periods.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information on the
profession and a list of colleges and
courses of study in landscape archi­
tecture may be obtained from :
American Society of Landscape
Architects, Inc., 2013 I St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20006.

For information on a career as a
landscape architect in the Forest
Service, write to:
U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Forest Service, Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 110.108, .118 and 119.168)

Nature of the Work
When people need legal help they
retain lawyers, who advise them of
their rights and obligations and,
when necessary, represent them in
courts of law. In addition, lawyers
(also called a tto r n e y s ) negotiate
settlements out of court and repre­
sent clients before quasi-judicial and
administrative agencies of the gov­
ernment, such as the Internal Reve­
nue Service and the Social Security
Administration. They may act as
trustees, guardians, or executors.
Government attorneys play a large
part in developing and administering
Federal and State laws and pro­
grams; they prepare drafts of pro­
posed legislation, establish law en­
forcement procedures, and argue
Most lawyers are engaged in gen­
eral practice, handling all kinds of
legal work for clients. However, a
significant number specialize in one
branch of law, such as corporation,
criminal, labor, patent, real estate,
tax, or international law. Some attor­
neys devote themselves entirely to
trying cases in the courts. Others
never appear in court but instead
spend all their time drawing up
wills, trusts, contracts, mortgages,
and other legal documents; conduct­
ing out-of-court negotiations; and
doing the investigative and other
legal work necessary to prepare for
trials. Still others are primarily en­
gaged in teaching, research, writing,
or administrative activities.
Many people who have legal
training are not employed as law­
yers but are in other occupations
where they can use their knowledge


of law. They may, for example, be
insurance adjusters, tax collectors,
probation officers, credit investiga­
tors, or claims examiners. A legal
background also is a valuable asset
to people seeking or holding public

M ost of the remainder teach in law
schools. Some lawyers in salaried
legal positions also have an inde­
pendent practice; others do legal
work on a part-time basis working
primarily in another occupation.
Most lawyers work in cities and in
the more populous States.

Places of Employment

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement

About 2 8 0,000 lawyers were em­
ployed in 1970, the great majority
working full time. Of the total num­
ber almost three-fourths were in
private practice. About half of the
private practitioners were in prac­
tice by themselves; the other half
were in partnership or working for
other lawyers or law firms.
Government agencies employ the
greatest number of salaried attor­
neys. In 1970, about 10,000 attor­
neys worked for the Federal Gov­
ernment, chiefly in the Justice, D e­
fense and Treasury Departments,
and the Veterans Administration.
About twice as many attorneys were
employed by State and local govern­
ment. Other salaried lawyers are
employed by private companies,
such as large manufacturing firms,
banks, and insurance companies.

Before a person can practice law
in the courts of any State, he must
be admitted to its bar. In all States,
applicants for bar admission must
pass a written examination; how­
ever, a few States waive this re­
quirement for graduates of their
own law schools. Other usual re­
quirements are U.S. citizenship and
good moral character. A lawyer
who has been admitted to the bar in
one State can usually be admitted in
another without taking an examina­
tion, provided he meets that State’s
standards of good moral character
and has a specified period of legal
experience. The special rules of
each court or agency control the
right to practice before Federal
courts and agencies.
To qualify for the bar examina­


tions in the majority of States, an
applicant must have completed a
minimum of 3 years of college work
and, in addition, must be a graduate
of a law school approved by the
American Bar Association or the
proper State authorities. A few
States will accept as qualification
study of the law wholly in a law
office or in combination with study
in a law school. Only one State will
accept study of the law by corre­
spondence. A number of States re­
quire registration and approval by
the State Board of Examiners be­
fore students enter law school or
during the early years of legal study.
In a few States, candidates must
complete a period of clerkship in a
law office before they are admitted to
the bar.
As a rule, 7 years of full-time
study after high school is necessary
to complete the required college
and law school work. The most
usual preparation for becoming a
lawyer is 4 years of college study
followed by 3 years in law school.
However, many law schools admit
students after only 3 years of col­
lege work. A few schools may ac­
cept students after 2 years of col­
lege work. On the other hand, an
increasing number of law schools
are requiring applicants to have a
college degree. Law schools seldom
specify the college subjects which
must be included in students’ prelegal education. However, English,
history, economics and other social
sciences, logic, and public speaking
are all important for prospective
lawyers. In general, their college
background should be broad enough
to give them an understanding of
society and its institutions. Students
interested in a particular aspect of
the law may find it helpful to take
related courses; for example, engi­
neering and science courses for the
prospective patent attorney, and ac­


counting for the future tax lawyer.
Prospective lawyers should also
enjoy working with people and be
capable of winning their confidence.
Acceptance by most law schools
is dependent upon the applicant’s
ability to demonstrate an aptitude
for the study of law, usually through
the “Law School Admissions Test.”
Of the 173 law schools in exist­
ence in 1970, 148 were approved
by the American Bar Association
the others— chiefly night
schools— were approved by State
authorities only. A substantial num­
ber of full-time law schools have
night divisions designed to meet the
needs of part-time students; some
law schools have only night classes.
Four years of part-time study are
usually required to complete the
night-school curriculum. In 1969,
almost a quarter of all law students
in A B A approved schools were en­
rolled in evening classes.
The first 2 years of law school
are generally devoted to fundamen­
tal courses such as contracts, crimi­
nal law, property law, and judicial
procedure. In the third year, stu­
dents may elect courses in special­
ized fields such as tax, labor, or cor­
poration law. Practical experience is
often obtained by participating in
school-sponsored legal aid activities,
in the school’s practice court where
students conduct trials under the su­
pervision of experienced lawyers, as
well as by writing on legal issues for
the school’s law journal. Graduates
receive the degree of juris doctor
(J .D .) from many schools, although
other schools confer the bachelor of
laws (L L .B .) as the first profes­
sional degree. Advanced study is
often desirable for those planning to
specialize or to engage in research
and law-school teaching.
Most beginning lawyers start in
salaried positions, although some go
into independent practice immedi­


ately after passing the bar examina­
tion. Young salaried attorneys usu­
ally act as assistants (law clerks) to
experienced lawyers or judges. Ini­
tially, their work is limited to re­
search, such as checking points of
law; they rarely see a client or argue
a case in court. After several years
of progressively responsible salaried
employment, many lawyers go into
practice for themselves. Some law­
yers, after years of practice, become
Employment Outlook
Graduates from highly regarded
law schools, as well as those who
rank high in their classes, will have
good employment prospects through
the 1970’s. They should find oppor­
tunities for salaried positions with
well-known law firms, on the legal
staffs of corporations and govern­
ment agencies, and as law clerks to
judges. Graduates of the less promi­
nent schools and those who gradu­
ate with lower scholastic ratings
may experience some difficulty in
finding salaried positions as lawyers.
However, numerous opportunities
will be available for law school
graduates to enter a variety of other
types of salaried positions requiring
a knowledge of law.
Prospects for establishing a new
practice will probably continue to
be best in small towns and expand­
ing suburban areas. In such com ­
munities, competition is likely to be
less than in big cities, and rent and
other business costs somewhat
lower. Also, young lawyers may find
it easier to become known to poten­
tial clients. On the other hand, sala­
ried employment will be limited
largely to metropolitan areas where
the chief employers of legal talent
— government agencies, law firms
and big corporations— are concen­
trated. For many able and well-

qualified lawyers, opportunities to
advance will be available in both
salaried employment and private
Although the majority of employ­
ment opportunities for new lawyers
will arise from the need to replace
those who retire, die, or otherwise
leave the field, the total number of
lawyers is expected to grow moder­
ately over the long run. Most of the
growth will result from continuing
expansion of business activity and
population, and the increased use of
legal services by low- and middleincome groups. For example, ex­
pansion of legal services for lowincome groups has come about
through the Community Action
Programs authorized under the Ec­
onomic Opportunity Act of 1964.
In addition, the growing complexity
of business and government activi­
ties is expected to create a steadily
expanding demand for lawyers who
have extensive experience in corpo­
ration, patent, administrative, labor,
and international law. However,
continuing a recent trend, the num­
ber of lawyers in independent prac­
tice may remain stable or decline

Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1970, law firms in several
States offered annual starting sala­
ries as high as $15,000 to law
school graduates from widely recog­
nized schools or those having high
academic standing. For lawyers em­
ployed by manufacturing and other
business firms the average starting
salary was over $11,500 a year in
1970; with 1 year’s experience, over
$13,000; and with a few years’ ex­
perience, an average of $16,800. In
the Federal Government, annual
starting salaries for attorneys pass­
ing the bar were either $9,881 or


$11,905 in 1970, depending upon
their academic and personal qualifi­
cations. Those with a few years’ ex­
perience earned $16,760 a year.
Some exceptional government law­
yers earned more than $35,000 an­
Beginning lawyers engaged in
legal aid work usually receive the
lowest starting salaries. New lawyers
starting their own practices may
earn little more than expenses dur­
ing the first few years and may work
part time in another occupation.
Lawyers’ earnings generally in­
crease with experience. Those on a
salaried basis receive increases as
they assume greater responsibilities.
In 1970, the average annual salary
in private industry for those in
charge of legal staffs was more than
$33,000. Incomes of lawyers in pri­
vate practice usually grow as their
practice develops. Private practition­
ers who are partners in law firms
generally have greater average in­
comes than those who practice
Lawyers often work long hours
and are under considerable pressure
when a case is being tried. In addi­
tion, they must keep abreast of the
latest laws and court decisions.
However, since lawyers in private
practice are able to determine their
own hours and workload, many stay
in practice until well past the usual
retirement age.

Sources of Additional Information
The specific requirements for ad­
mission to the bar in a particular
State may be obtained from the
clerk of the Supreme Court or the
secretary of the Board of Bar E x­
aminers at that State capital. Infor­
mation on law schools and on law as
a career is available from:

Information Service, The American
Bar Association, 1155 East 60th
St., Chicago, 111. 60637.
Association of American Law
Schools, Suite 370, 1 Dupont
Circle, NW., Washington, D.C.

(D.O.T. 100.118 through .388)

Nature of the Work
Making information available is
the job of librarians. Librarians se­


lect and organize collections of
books, pamphlets, manuscripts, pe­
riodicals, clippings, and reports, and
assist readers in their use. In many
libraries, they also may make avail­
able phonograph records, maps,
slides, pictures, tapes, films, paint­
ings, braille and talking books, mi­
crofilms, and computer tapes and
programs. In addition to classifying
and cataloging books and other loan
items, they publicize library serv­
ices, study the reading interests of
people served by the library, and
provide a research and a reference
service to various groups. Librari­
ans also may review and abstract

published materials and prepare
In small libraries, librarians per­
form a great variety of tasks. In a
large library, each librarian may
perform only a single function, such
as cataloging, publicizing library
services, or providing reference serv­
ice, or he may specialize in a sub­
ject area such as science, business,
the arts, or medicine.
Librarians are generally classified
by the type of library in which they
school media center, college or uni­
versity library, or special library.
There are two principal kinds of li­
brary work— reader services and
technical services. Those who per­
form reader services— for example,
reference librarians and children’s
librarians— work directly with the
public. Librarians who perform
technical services, such as catalog­
e d or acquisition librarians, deal
less frequently with the public.
P u b lic lib ra ria n s serve all kinds
readers— children,
teachers, research workers, and oth­
ers. Increasingly, librarians are pro­
viding special materials and services
to culturally and educationally de­
prived persons and to physically
handicapped persons unable to use
conventional print. The professional
staff of a large public library system
may include the chief librarian, an
assistant chief, and several division
heads who plan and coordinate the
work of the entire library system.
This system also may include librar­
ians who supervise branch libraries,
and other librarians who are spe­
cialists in certain areas. The duties
of some of these specialists are
briefly described as follows:
A c q u is itio n lib ra ria n s purchase
books and other library materials
recommended by staff members, or
requested by patrons, keep a wellbalanced library in quantity and


quality, make sure that the library
receives what it orders, and main­
tain close contact with book jobbers
and publishers. C a ta lo g e rs classify
books under various subjects and
otherwise describe them so they
may be located through catalogs on
cards or in other forms. R e fe r e n c e
lib ra ria n s aid readers in their search
for information— answering specific
questions or suggesting sources of
information. This work requires a
thorough understanding of biblio­
graphic material and a general
knowledge of library materials in
various subject fields. C h ild r e n 's li­
b ra ria n s plan and direct special pro­
grams for young people. Their du­
ties include helping children find
books they will enjoy, instructing
them in the use and content of the
library, giving talks on books, con­
ducting film programs, and main­
taining contact with schools and
community organizations. Often,
they conduct regular story hours at
libraries, playgrounds and day care
centers, and sometimes on radio or
television. A d u lt s e r v ic e s lib ra ria n s
may select materials for adult read­
ers and advise them. They are often
asked to suggest reading materials,
and to cooperate in or plan and
conduct educational programs on
such topics of adult interest as com ­
munity development, public affairs,
creative arts, problems of the aging,
or home and family life. Y o u n g
a d u lt s e r v ic e s lib ra ria n s may select
books and other materials for young
people of junior Jhigh school and
high school age and gitide them in
the use of these materials. They
may arrange book or film discussion
groups, concerts of recorded popu­
lar and classical music, and other
programs related to the interests of
young adults. They also may help to
coordinate the services of the school
libraries and the local public library.
B o o k m o b ile lib ra ria n s take library

materials into areas where public li­
brary services are nonexistent or in­
adequate, in inner city neighbor­
hoods, migrant camps, and institu­
tions such as hospitals and homes
for the aged and others.
S c h o o l m e d ia s p e c ia lis ts (school
librarians) instruct students in the
use of the library and visit class­
rooms to familiarize students with
print and nonprint materials relating
to the subjects being taught. They
also work with teachers and school
supervisors in planning and devel­
oping units of study and independ­
ent study programs and participate
in team teaching. They prepare lists
of printed and nonprinted materials
on certain subjects; meet with fac­
ulty members to select materials for
school programs; and select, order,
and organize library materials.
Many school media specialists are
employed by school district central
offices as supervisors to plan and
coordinate library services for the
entire school system, as catalogers
and as librarians to administer pro­
fessional libraries for teachers and
administrators. Very large high
schools may employ several media
specialists, each responsible for a
special function of the library pro­
gram or for special subject mate­
C o lle g e a n d u n iv e rs ity lib ra ria n s

work with students, faculty mem­
bers, and research workers in gen­
eral reference work or in a particu­
lar field of interest, such as law,
medicine, economics, or music. In
addition, they may teach one or
more classes in the use of the li­
brary. A few librarians who are em­
ployed in university research proj­
ects operate documentation cen­
ters. Computers and other modern
devices are being increasingly used
to record and retrieve specialized
S p e c ia l lib ra ria n s work in librar­


ies maintained by commercial and
industrial firms, such as pharmaceu­
tical companies, banks, advertising
agencies, and research laboratories;
professional and trade associations;
government agencies; and other
types of organizations such as hos­
pitals and museums. They plan, ac­
quire, organize, catalog, and re­
trieve information from collections
designed to provide intensive cover­
age of information resources about
subjects of special interest to the or­
ganization. Special librarians utilize
their extensive knowledge of the
subject matter, as well as of library
science, in building library re­
sources, advising and assisting li­
brary users, abstracting, and routing
available materials. They must be
able to evaluate the importance of
new information to their organiza­
tion. Literature searching and the
preparation of summaries, transla­
tions, bibliographies, and special re­
ports are among the major duties of
special librarians. These operations
may involve the use of electronic
data processing equipment.

In fo rm a tio n

sc ie n c e

sp e c ia lists,

like special librarians, work in tech­
nical libraries maintained by com ­
mercial and industrial firms. H ow ­
ever, they must possess a more ex­
tensive technical and scientific back­
ground than special librarians. They
not only perform many of the duties
of special librarians, but they also
develop coding and programing
techniques for using electronic and
electromechanical information stor­
age devices and abstract compli­
cated information into short, reada­
ble form, and interpret and analyze
data for a highly specialized clien­
Information on library techni­
cians, is found in a separate state­
ment in the H a n d b o o k .

Places of Employment
In 1970, about 125,000 persons
were employed as professional li­
brarians. Most of them worked full
time. School librarians accounted
for more than two-fifths of all li­
brarians; public librarians repre­
sented nearly one-fourth; librarians
in colleges and universities ac­
counted for one-fifth; and those em­
ployed in special libraries (includ­
ing libraries in government agen­
cies), one out of seven. Some
librarians were employed in correc­
tional institutions, hospitals, and
State institutions. A small number
of librarians were employed as
teachers and administrators in
schools of library science.
More than 85 percent of all li­
brarians are women. Men are more
frequently employed than women in
executive and administrative posi­
tions in large library systems and in
special libraries concerned with sci­
ence and technology.
Most librarians work in cities and
towns. Those attached to bookmo­
bile units serve widely scattered
population groups, mostly in subur­
ban or rural areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
To qualify as a professional li­
brarian, one must ordinarily have
completed a 1-year master’s degree
program in library science. A Ph.
D. degree is an advantage to those
who plan a teaching career in li­
brary schools or who aspire to a top
administrative post, particularly in a
college or university library or in a
large school library system. For
those who are interested in the spe­
cial libraries field, a master’s degree
or doctorate in the subject of the li­


brary’s specialization also is highly
In 1970, 46 library schools in the
United States were accredited by
the American Library Association.
Many other colleges offer courses
within their 4-year undergraduate
programs, as well as at the graduate
level, which prepare students for
some types of library work.
Entrance requirements to most
graduate schools of library science
include ( 1 ) graduation from an ac­
credited 4-year college or univer­
sity, (2 ) a good undergraduate rec­
ord, and ( 3 ) a reading knowledge
of at least one foreign language.
Some schools also require introduc­
tory undergraduate courses in li­
brary science. Most library schools
prefer a liberal arts background and
majors in areas such as social sci­
ences, physical and biological sci­
ences, the arts, or comparative liter­
ature. Some schools require en­
trance examinations.
Special librarians and science in­
formation specialists must have ex­
tensive knowledge of their subject
matter as well as training in library
science. In libraries devoted to sci­
entific information, librarians should
be proficient in one foreign lan­
guage or more. They also must be
well informed about new equip­
ment, methods, and techniques used
in storing and recalling technical in­
Many students attend library
schools under cooperative workstudy programs, combining their ac­
ademic program with practical work
experience in a library. Most library
schools make every effort to arrange
the student’s schedule to permit him
to take the necessary courses while
working part-time. Scholarships for
training in library science are avail­
able under certain State and Federal
programs and from library schools,



as well as from a number of the
large libraries and library associa­
tions. Loans, assistantships, and fi­
nancial aids also are available.
School librarians must be certi­
fied in most States as having met the
requirements for both librarians and
teachers. Sometimes local, county,
or State authorities establish other
requirements, that are based on dif­
ferent combinations of education
and experience. In the Federal Gov­
ernment, beginning positions re­
quire completion of a 4-year college
course and all the work required for
a master’s degree in library science
or the equivalent in experience and
In addition to an appropriate ed­
ucational background, a person in­
terested in becoming a librarian
should have an interest in people,
intellectual curiosity, an ability to
express himself clearly, a desire to
search for recorded materials and
use them, and an ability to work
with others.
Experienced librarians may ad­
vance to administrative positions or
to specialized work. However, pro­
motion to these positions is limited
primarily to those who have com­
pleted graduate training in a library
school, or to those who have had
specialized training.

Employment Outlook
The employment outlook for
trained librarians is expected to be
good through the 1970’s. The best
opportunities probably will be in
school and college and university li­
braries, especially in research, sub­
ject specialties, and some languages.
Some librarians will probably con­
tinue to find opportunities for em­
ployment in the Armed Forces and
the U.S. Information Agency over­

Persons who have only a bache­
lor’s degree with a major in library
science, probably will encounter
stiff competition in finding profes­
sional level jobs. Many part-time
positions also will be available for
persons trained in library work.
The demand for qualified librari­
ans to meet the requirements of a
growing and increasingly well-edu­
cated population will be intensified
by the vast and continuing expan­
sion in the volume and variety of
materials which must be processed
for reader use. Because of the
high-level executives in business
and industry, management will rely
more heavily on the services of spe­
cial librarians and science informa­
tion specialists to keep abreast of
new developments. Expanding use
of computers to store and retrieve
information also will contribute to
increased demands for science in­
formation specialists. The increase
of Federal grant assistance through
the Library Services and Construc­
tion Act, the Medical Assistance
Act, the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act, and the Higher Ed­
ucation Act may further increase
the demand for librarians. Im­
proved standards for school media
centers and college libraries and the
expanding student population also
will contribute to the demand for li­
brarians. Additional librarians will
be needed to provide services to in­
mates and patients in correctional
institutions and to residents in
schools for the blind, deaf, and
handicapped people who cannot use
conventional materials.
In addition to openings resulting
from growth of the occupation,
many librarians also will be needed
each year to fill positions vacated by
young women who leave their jobs
to care for their families, and to re­

place librarians who transfer to
other types of work, retire, or leave
the field for other reasons. Oppor­
tunities for women wishing to reen­
ter the field also will be favorable.

Earnings and Working Conditions
The annual starting salary of new
library school graduates averaged
about $8,700 in 1970. The degree
of responsibility and technical skill
required, as well as geographic loca­
tion, size, and type of library, are
important factors determining indi­
vidual salaries. The higher paying
positions generally are found in col­
lege, school, and special libraries.
College and university libraries of­
fered an average beginning salary of
about $8,700 in 1970. New gradu­
ates employed in special libraries
received about $8,400; those em­
ployed in public libraries averaged
about $8,100. Librarians having ex­
tensive experience and information
specialists having a Ph. D. degree in
a subject matter field generally
$15,000 a year.
Qualified special librarians can
usually expect to earn salaries in ex­
cess of those paid to public and
school librarians because of their
additional specialized subject train­
ing. The annual salary for all special
librarians was $11,800 in 1970, but
head librarians reported an average
salary of $13,600, with a few mak­
ing over $20,000 a year. Informa­
tion science specialists received an
average of $ 1 2 ,0 0 0 a year in 1970.
In the Federal Government, the
annual entrance salary for librarians
having a master’s degree in library
science was $9,881 in 1970. Expe­
rienced librarians generally earned
from $10,200 to $19,800.


The typical workweek for librari­
ans is 5 days, ranging from 35 to 40
hours. The work schedule of public
and college librarians may include
some Saturday, Sunday, and eve­
ning work. School librarians gener­
ally have the same workday sched­
ule as classroom teachers. A 40hour week during normal business
hours is common for government
and other special librarians.
The usual paid vacation after a
year’s service is 3 to 4 weeks. V aca­
tions may be longer in school librar­
ies, and somewhat shorter in those
operated by business and industry.
Many librarians are covered by sick
leave; life, health, and accident in­
surance; and pension plans.

Information on information sci­
ence specialists may be obtained
American Society for Information
Science, 1140 Connecticut Ave­
nue, NW., Washington, D.C.

Individual State library agencies
can furnish information on scholar­
ships available through their offices,
on requirements for certification
aqd general information about ca­
reer prospects in their regions. State
boards of education can furnish in­
formation on certification require­
ments and job opportunities for
school librarians.

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information, particu­
larly on accredited programs, and
scholarships or loans may be ob­
tained from:
American Library Association, 50
East Huron St., Chicago, 111.

Information on requirements of
special librarians may be obtained
Special Libraries Association, 235
Park Ave., South, New York,
N.Y. 10003.

Information on Federal assist­
ance for library training under the
Higher Education A ct of 1965 may
be obtained from:
Division of Library and Educational
Facilities, Bureau of Libraries and
Educational Technology, Office of
Education, U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare,
Washington, D.C. 20202.

Those interested in a career in
Federal libraries should write to :
Secretariat Federal Library Com­
mittee, Room 310, Library of


Nature of the Work
The Coast Guard licenses ship’s
professional and supervisory per­
sonnel consisting of deck, engine,
and radio officers. In command of
every ocean-going vessel is the c a p ­
ta in (D .O .T . 197.168) or m a ste r
who is the shipowner’s sole repre­
sentative. H e has complete author­
ity and responsibility for the opera­
tion of the ship, including discipline
and order, and the safety of the
crew, passengers, cargo, and vessel.
While in port, the captain may
function as the agent for the ship
owners by conferring with custom
officials. In some cases, he may act
as paymaster for the ship. Although
not technically a member of a spe­
cific department, he generally is as­
sociated with the deck department,
from whose ranks he was promoted.

D e c k D e p a r tm e n t. Acting under
supervision of the captain, deck of­
ficers or “mates” as they are tradi­
tionally called, direct the navigation
and piloting of the ship and the
maintenance of the deck and hull.
American vessels are equipped with
modern navigational devices, such
as radar, sonar, and radio direc­
tional finders. Deck officers must be
familiar with these and other instru­
ments to operate ships safely and
While on duty, the deck officer
maintains the authorized speed and
course; plots the vessel’s position at
frequent intervals; posts lookouts
when required; records his watch in
the ship’s “log” of the voyage; and
immediately notifies the captain of
any unusual occurrences.
Besides acting as watch officer,
each deck officer performs other
duties. The c h ie f m a te (D .O .T .
1 9 7 .1 3 3 ) , or first mate or chief
officer, as he is also known, is the
captain’s key assistant in assigning
duties to the deck crew and main­
taining order and discipline. He also
plans and carries out the loading,
unloading, and stowing of cargo,
and assists the captain in taking the
ship in and out of port. On some
ships he also may be in charge of
first aid treatment.

By tradition, the s e c o n d m a te
(D .O .T . 197.133) is the naviga­
ting officer. He sees that the ship is
provided with the necessary naviga­
tion charts and that navigating
equipment is maintained properly.
th ird
m a te
(D .O .T.
1 9 7 .1 3 3 ) , the most junior-rated
deck officer, is responsible for the
care and the maintenance of the
navigating bridge and the chartroom. He acts as the signal officer
and is in charge of all signaling
equipment and assists in the super­
vision of cargo loading and unload-



Chief mate directs speed and course of cargo ship.

ing operations. Third mates fre­
quently inspect life boats and other
lifesaving equipment to be sure they
are ready for use in fire, shipwreck,
or other emergencies.
E n g in e D e p a r tm e n t. Marine engi­
neers operate and maintain all en­
gines and machinery aboard the
ship. The c h ie f en g in e e r (D .O .T.
197.130 ) supervises the engine de­
partment, and is responsible for the
operating efficiency of engines and
other mechanical equipment. He
oversees the operation of the main
power plant and auxiliary equip­
ment while the vessel is underway
and is responsible for the log of

equipment performance and fuel
a ssista n t
e n g in e e r
(D .O .T . 1 9 7.130) supervises en­
gine room personnel and directs op­
erations such as starting, stopping,
and controlling the speed of the
main engines. He oversees and in­
spects the lubrication of engines,
pumps, electric motors, generators,
and other machinery, and with the
aid of the chief engineer, directs all
types of repairs.
A s with the deck department, the
engineroom is operated on a 24hour basis. Second and third as­
sistant engineers are assigned watch

periods during which they are re­
sponsible for the operation of the
ship’s propulsion plant and auxiliary
machinery and the supervision of
engine department personnel. Ma­
rine engineers on watch must notify
the chief engineer of any unusual
occurrence and keep a record of
equipment performance.
Each member of the engineering
staff performs specific duties. The
s e c o n d a ssista n t e n g in e e r (D .O .T.
197.130) has charge of the boiler
and associated equipment such as
the water-feed system and pumps.
He is responsible for the mainte­
nance of proper steam pressure and
oil and water temperatures. He su­
pervises the cleaning of the boilers
and is usually responsible for their
operation and the operation of the
steam generator.
th ird
a ssista n t
en g in ee r
(D .O .T . 197.130) supervises the
operation and maintenance of the
lubrication system and engineroom
auxiliaries. At least one third assist­
ant engineer is employed as a day
man (nonwatchstander) and is re­
sponsible for the electrical and re­
frigeration systems aboard ship.
O th e r o fficers. A ship maintains
contact with shore and other vessels
through its r a d io o fficer (D .O .T.
1 9 3 .2 8 2 ), who also maintains radio
equipment. A passenger ship car­
ries three to six radio officers; the
average cargo vessel employs one.
The officer sends and receives mes­
sages by voice or Morse code. He
periodically receives and records
time signals, weather reports, posi­
tion reports, and other navigation
and technical data. The radio officer
may also maintain depth recording
equipment and electronic navigation
Some cargo and tanker vessels
and all passenger vessels carry p u rs­
ers (D .O .T . 1 9 7 .1 6 8 ). The purser
or staff officer performs the exten-


Marine engineer controls running speed of main engine.

sive paperwork required to enter
and clear a ship in each port, pre­
pare payrolls, and assist passengers
as required. In recent years, the
Staff Officers Association has es­
tablished a program to train pursers
to act also as pharmacist mates.
This instruction is designed to im­
prove the medical care aboard
freighters and tankers and facilitate
Public Health clearance when a ship
arrives in port. All passenger ships
must carry licensed doctors and

vessels during m id-1970. Deck
officers and engineering officers ac­
counted for more than four-fifths
of total employment, and radio
officers made up most of the re­
About 70 percent of the officers
were aboard dry cargo vessels and
27 percent were aboard tankers.
The remaining 3 percent manned
passenger vessels.

Places of Employment

Persons applying for the first time
for an officer’s license in the deck
and engineering departments of
oceangoing vessels must meet cer­

Nearly 11,000 officers were em­
ployed aboard U.S. Flag oceangoing

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement


tain legal requirements. Captains,
chief and second mates, and chief
and first assistant engineers must be
at least 21 years of age. The mini­
mum age for third mates, third as­
sistant engineers, and radio opera­
tors is 19. In addition, applicants
must present documentary proof of
U.S. citizenship and obtain a U.S.
Public Health Service certificate at­
testing to their vision, color percep­
tion, and general physical condition.
In addition to legal and medical
requirements, candidates for deck
officer rating must pass Coast
Guard examinations that require ex­
tensive knowledge of seamanship,
navigation, cargo handling, and the
operations of the deck department.
Marine engineering officer candi­
dates must demonstrate in-depth
knowledge of propulsion systems,
electricity, plumbing and steam fit­
ting, metal shaping and assembly,
and ship structure. To advance to
higher ratings, officers must pass
progressively more difficult exami­
For a Coast Guard license as a
radio officer, applicants must have a
first or second-class radiotelegraph
operator’s license issued by the
Federal Communications Commis­
sion. For a license to serve as the
sole radio operator aboard a cargo
vessel, the Coast Guard also re­
quires 6 months of radio experience
at sea.
Unlike most professions, no edu­
cation requirements have been es­
tablished for officers. A seaman
who has served for 3 years in the
deck or engine department may
apply for either a third mate’s li­
cense or for a third assistant engi­
neer’s license. However, because of
the complex machinery, naviga­
tional, and electronic equipment on
modern ships, formal training usu­
ally is needed to pass the Coast



Guard’s examination for these licen­
The fastest and surest way to be­
come a well-trained officer is
through an established training pro­
gram. Such programs are available
at the U.S. Merchant Marine Acad­
emy at Kings Point, N .Y . and at five
State merchant marine academies:
California Maritime Academy, Val­
lejo, Calif.; M aine Maritime A cad­
emy, Castine, Maine; Massachusetts
Mass.; Texas Maritime Academy,
Galveston, Tex.; and New York
Maritime College, Fort Schuyler,
New York, N .Y . Approximately
600 students graduate each year
from the six schools; about one-half
are trained as deck officers and
one-half as marine engineers. En­
trance requirements for each of the
academies are very high. Admission
to the Federal academy is through
nomination by a member of Con­
gress, whereas entrance to the other
academies is made through written
application directly to the school.
Each of the academies offers 3or 4-year courses in nautical science
or marine engineering, as well as
practical experience at sea. Subjects
include navigation, mathematics,
electronics, seamanship, propulsion
systems, electrical engineering, lan­
guages, history, and shipping man­
agement. Each student receives a
subsistence allowance and a bache­
lor of science degree upon gradua­
tion. After Coast Guard examina­
tions are passed, licenses are issued
for either third mate or third assist­
ant engineer. In addition, graduates
may receive commissions as ensigns
in the U.S. Naval Reserve.
grounding in theory and its practical
application, academy graduates are
in the best position to move up to
master and chief engineer ratings.
Their well-rounded education also

helps qualify them -for shoreside
jobs such as marine superintendent,
operating manager, or shipping ex­
A number of trade unions in the
maritime industry provide officer
training. These unions include the
International Organization of Mas­
ters, Mates and Pilots; the Seafar­
Brotherhood of Marine Officers;
and the National Marine Engineers’
Beneficial Association. Most union
programs are designed to upgrade
experienced seamen to officer rat­
ings, although some programs ac­
cept inexperienced young men. For
example, the National Marine Engi­
(M E B A ) operates the Calhoon
M EBA Engineering School in Balti­
more, Md., which offers high school
graduates a 3-year apprenticeship
training program in preparation for
a third assistant engineer’s license.
The program consists of both class­
room instruction and sea experience
and provides free room, board,
medical care, and text books in ad­
dition to a monthly grant. Trainees
must agree to serve at least 3 years
in the U.S. Merchant Marine after
the 3-year training period.
Advancement for deck and en­
gine officers is along well-defined
lines and depends primarily upon
specified sea experience, passing a
Coast Guard examination, and
leadership ability. Deck officers
start as third mates. After 1 year’s
service they are eligible to take a
second mate examination. A second
mate may apply for a chief mate’s
license after 1 year of service, and a
chief mate may apply for a captain’s
license after 1 year of service. An
officer in the engine department
starts as third assistant engineer.
After 1 year of service, he may
apply for a second assistant’s li­
cense. After further experience, he

may apply for first assistant’s license
and finally a chief engineer’s li­
Whether an officer’s best pros­
pects lie in the deck or the engi­
neering department is a question
among the unions representing these
workers. It seems clear, however,
that the present sharp craft line
drawn between deck and engineer­
ing jobs will become blurred. The
emphasis will be on job function;
the newest automated equipment
will cut across departmental lines,
union jurisdictions, and present
work specialties. Some jobs will be
entirely new, and both officers and
seamen will require a new inventory
of skills to hold them. For example,
gained by standing
watch in an engineroom of a con­
ventional vessel may be secondary
compared with basic courses in
In anticipation of this trend, the
U.S. Merchant Marine Academy
now selects 10 percent of the ap­
proximately 300 men who enter the
academy each year to be trained as
“omnicompetent” officers. They are
taught both navigational and techni­
cal skills so they can work in either

Employment Outlook
Employment of ship officers is
expected to decline moderately dur­
ing the 1970’s. However, some jobs
will arise each year from the need
to replace experienced officers who
retire, die, or take shoreside em­
The primary factors responsible
for the expected employment de­
cline are the continued decrease in
the size of the fleet and the smaller
crews on new vessels which result
from mechanization. Future em-


ployment requirements in the final
analysis will depend upon govern­
ment policy with respect to the level
of U.S. flag participation in water­
borne foreign commerce. (See in­
troductory statement on Merchant
Marine Occupations for additional
information on employment out­

Earnings and Working Conditions
Earnings of officers depend upon
rank and the size and type of ship.
Wages are highest on large ships.
The accompanying tabulation shows
monthly base wages for officers
aboard an average freighter. Addi­
tional payments for overtime, sup­
plemental pay and “penalty pay”
generally average about 50 percent
of base pay. A monthly sum in lieu
of overtime is paid to captains, chief
mates, chief engineers and first and
third assistant engineers who do not
stand watch. The officer’s rank and
the type of ship determine the
monthly sum, which ranged from
$218 to $700 in 1970.
Base pay1

Captain .......................................... $2,305
First m a te............................. 1,271
Second m ate.........................
Third mate ...........................
Radio officer.........................
Purser ................................... 2 743
Chief engineer .................... 2,126
First assistant engineer........ 1,271
Second assistant engineer....
Third assistant engineer......
1 East Coast wages in August 1970 aboard a
12,000-17,000 power ton single screw ship.
2 Purser/pharmacist mate, $806.

Officers and their dependents
enjoy substantial benefits from non­
contributory pension and welfare
plans. For example, deck officers
are eligible for a monthly pension of
$325 after 20 years of service, and
up to one-half their monthly rate


after 25 years of service. Men scales and other particulars can be
forced to retire prematurely due to obtained from local maritime un­
a permanent disability receive par­ ions. If no seafaring union is listed
tial pensions. Comprehensive medi­ in a local telephone directory, infor­
cal care and hospitalization are pro­ mation may be obtained from the
vided for officers and their families' following:
through union programs.
International Organization of Mas­
Aboard ship, each officer has a
ters, Mates and Pilots, 39 Broad­
way, New York, N.Y. 10006.
private room with hot and cold run­
ning water, and his room is cleaned
National Marine Engineers’ Benefi­
cial Association, 17 Battery Place,
daily by a steward. Officers eat in a
New York, N.Y. 10004.
dining salon separate from the
messhall in which seamen eat.
A number of labor organizations
M A N U FA C T U R E R S '
represent merchant marine officers.
The two largest are the Interna­
tional Organization of Masters,
(D.O.T. 260. through 289.458)
Mates and Pilots representing deck
officers and the National Marine
Engineers’ Beneficial Association
Nature of the Work
representing engineering officers.
Unions for Officers may require
Practically all manufacturers—
initiation fees as high as $1,000.
whether they make electronic com ­
The Brotherhood of Marine
puters or can openers— employ
Officers represents deck and engine
salesmen. Manufacturers’ salesmen
officers on about 30 vessels. The
sell mainly to other businesses— fac­
Staff Officers Association represents
tories, railroads, banks, wholesalers,
pursers on all Atlantic and Gulf
and retailers. They also sell to hos­
Coast passenger vessels and certain
pitals, schools, and other institu­
freighters. Radio officers are repre­
sented by the American Radio A s­
Most manufacturers’ salesmen
sociation and the Radio Officers
sell nontechnical products. Sales­
Union. In addition, a number of in­
men in this kind of work must be
dependent unions represent officers
well informed about their firms’
on tankers.
products and also about the special
(See introductory statement on
requirements of their customers.
Merchant Marine Occupations for
When a salesman visits firms in his
more information on earnings and
territory, he uses an approach
working conditions.)
adapted to his particular line of
merchandise. Thus, a salesman of
Sources of Additional Information
crackers or cookies emphasizes the
General information about jobs wholesomeness of his products,
in the merchant marine may be ob­ their attractive packaging, and the
variety. Sometimes salesmen pro­
tained from:
mote their products by displays in
Office of Maritime Manpower, Mari­
hotels and conferences with whole­
time Administration, U.S. De­
salers and other customers.
partment of Commerce, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20235.

Information about job openings,
qualifications for employment, wage

A salesman of highly technical
products, such as electronic equip­
ment, often is called a sa le s e n g i­

n e e r or an in d u stria l sa le sm a n . In

addition to having a thorough
knowledge of his firm’s products, he
must be able to help prospective
buyers with technical problems. For
example, he may spend days or
weeks analyzing a firm’s manufac­
turing problems to determine the
kinds of equipment and materials
best suited to its operation. He then
presents his solution to company of­
ficials and tries to negotiate the sale.
Often, sales engineers work with the
research and development depart­
ments of their own companies in de­
vising ways to adapt products to a
customer’s specialized needs. Sales­
men of technical products som e­
times train their customers’ em­
ployees in the operation and main­
tenance of new equipment, and
make frequent return visits to be
certain that it is giving the desired
Although manufacturers’ sales­
men spend most of their time visit­


ing prospective customers, they also
do some paperwork including re­
ports on sales prospects in their ter­
ritories or customers’ credit ratings.
In addition they must plan their
work schedules, compile lists of
prospects, make appointments, con­
duct some sales correspondence,
and study literature relating to their

Places of Employment
Over 500,000
salesmen were employed in 1970;
about 4 5 ,0 0 0 were sales engineers.
work out of home offices, often lo­
cated at manufacturing plants. The
majority, however, work out of
branch offices, usually in big cities
near prospective customers.
More salesmen work for compa­
nies that produce food products
than for any other industry. Other
industries that employ large num­
bers of salesmen include printing
and publishing, chemicals, fabri­
cated metal products, and electrical
and other machinery. The largest
employers of sales engineers pro­
duce heavy machinery, transporta­
tion equipment, fabricated metal
products, and professional and sci­
entific instruments. About 10 per­
cent of all manufacturers’ sales­
people are women, most of whom
are employed in industries produc­
ing food products.

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
Although high school graduates
can be successful manufacturers’
salesmen, college graduates increas­
ingly are preferred as trainees.
Manufacturers of nontechnical

products often prefer college gradu­
ates who have a degree in liberal
arts or business administration.
Training at a college of pharmacy
usually is required for jobs as drug
salesmen. A salesman of compli­
cated equipment needs a technical
education. For example, manufac­
turers of electrical equipment,
heavy machinery, and some types of
chemicals prefer to hire collegetrained engineers or chemists. (In­
formation on chemists, engineers,
and other professionally trained
workers who may be employed as
manufacturers’ salesmen is pre­
sented elsewhere in the H a n d b o o k .)
Although many prospective sales­
men are hired at the sales offices of
manufacturing concerns, represent­
atives of manufacturers sometimes
recruit college seniors who are well
qualified academically and have
participated in extra-curricular ac­
tivities. A pleasing personality and
appearance and the ability to meet
and get along well with many types
of people are important. Since
salesmen may have to walk or stand
for long periods of time or carry
product samples, physical stamina is
necessary. As in most selling jobs,
arithmetic skills are an asset.
Beginning salesmen are given
specialized training before they start
on the job. Some companies, espe­
cially those manufacturing complex
technical products, have formal
training programs lasting 2 years or
longer. In some of these programs,
trainees are rotated among jobs in
several departments of the plant
and office to learn all phases of
production, installation, and distri­
bution of the product. Other train­
ees receive formal class instruction
at the plant, followed by intensive
on-the-job training in a branch
office under the supervision of field
sales managers.
Sales representatives who have


good sales records and leadership
ability may advance to sales super­
visors, branch managers, or district
managers. Those having managerial
skill eventually may advance to
sales manager or other executive
positions; many top executive jobs
in industry are filled by men who
started as salesmen.
Because of frequent contact with
businessmen in other firms, sales­
men often transfer to better jobs.
Some salesmen go into business for
themselves as manufacturers’ agents
selling similar products of several
manufacturers. Experienced sales­
men often find opportunities in ad­
vertising, market research, and
other fields related to selling.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
manufacturers’ salesmen are ex­
pected to be favorable during the
1970’s. Several thousand openings
will occur annually as employment
in this occupation rises and as exist­
ing jobs become vacant because of
retirements or deaths. Still other va­
cancies will occur as salesmen leave
their jobs to enter other types of
The number of manufacturers’
salesmen is expected to rise moder­
ately due to general economic
growth and the greater emphasis
manufacturers will be placing on
their sales activities. The devel­
opment of new products and im­
proved marketing techniques proba­
bly will heighten competition among
the manufacturers. Because of the
increase in the volume of business
transacted with some customers—
modern industrial complexes, chain
store organizations, and large insti­
tutions of many kinds— competition
among the manufacturers supplying
these organizations will intensify the

need for effective sales organiza­
tions. Despite the filling of thou­
sands of sales jobs each year, manu­
facturers are expected to be selec­
tive in hiring. They will look for
ambitious young people who are
both well trained and temperamen­
tally suited for their jobs. As mar­
kets for technical products expand,
demand for trained salesmen is
likely to be particularly strong.

Earnings and Working Conditions
According to limited data, start­
ing salaries for beginning salesmen
averaged about $8,500 a year in
1970. By including commissions
and bonuses most salesmen earned
more than this amount annually.
The highest starting salaries gener­
ally were paid by manufacturers of
electrical and electronic equipment,
construction materials, hardware
and tools, and scientific and preci­
sion instruments.
Some manufacturing concerns
pay experienced salesmen a straight
commission, based on their dollar
amount of sales; others pay a fixed
salary. The majority, however, use a
combination plan: salary and com ­
mission, salary and bonus, or
salary-commission and bonus. Com­
missions vary according to the sales­
man’s efforts and ability, the com ­
mission rate, location of his sales
territory, and the type of product
sold. Bonus payments may be con­
tingent upon the individual sales­
man’s performance, that of all sales­
men in his group or district, or upon
the company’s sales performance.
Some firms pay annual bonuses;
others offer them as incentive pay­
ments on a quarterly or monthly
basis. In 1970, many experienced
salesmen earned between $16,000
and $32,000 annually; some earned
considerably more.

Some manufacturers’ salesmen
have large territories and do consid­
erable traveling. Others usually
work in the neighborhood of their
“home base.” For example, a sales­
man of heavy industrial equipment
may be assigned a territory covering
several States and often may be
away from home for days or weeks
at a time. On the other hand, a
salesman of food products may
work in a small area and commute
from home.
When on business trips, salesmen
are reimbursed for expenses such as
transportation and hotels. Some
companies provide a car or pay a
mileage allowance to salesmen who
use their own cars.
Salesmen call at the time most
convenient to customers and may
have to travel at night or on week­
ends. Frequently, they spend eve­
nings writing reports and planning
itineraries. However, some sales­
men plan their schedules for time
off when they want it. Most sales­
men who are not paid a straight
commission receive 2 to 4 weeks’
paid vacation, depending on their
length of service. They usually
share in company benefits, including
life insurance, pensions, and hospi­
tal, surgical, and medical benefits.

Sources of Additional Information
For more information on the oc­
cupation of manufacturers’ sales­
man, write to:
Sales and Marketing Executives In­
ternational, Student Education
Division, 630 Third Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10017.



(D.O.T. 033.187, 012.168, 020.081 and

Nature of the Work
Systems analysts plan, schedule,
and coordinate the activities neces­
sary to develop systems which proc­
ess data to solve business, scien­
tific, or engineering problems. Indi­
vidual parts of a problem are
viewed within the context of the
overall problem. Although a system
can be developed to process data
manually, mechanically, or with
electronic computers, most systems
analysts develop methods for com­
puter usage. (This statement dis­
cusses only the work of systems
analysts who devise systems using
electronic computers to process data
and solve problems.)
Business firms employ systems
analysts to solve accounting, inven­
tory, and other problems. With the
assistance of managers or subject
matter specialists, they determine
the exact nature of the data-processing problem. Then systems analysts
define, analyze, and structure the
problem logically. They identify all
of the data needed and define ex­
actly the way it is to be processed.
They prepare charts, tables, and
diagrams to describe the processing
system and the steps necessary to its
operation. Systems analysts use var­
ious techniques as tools of analysis;
these may include cost accounting,
sampling, and mathematical meth­
ods. After analyzing the problem and
devising a system for processing
data, systems analysts recommend
the equipment to be used and pre­
pare instructions for programers.
They also interpret and translate
final results into terms that are un­

derstandable to management, subject
matter specialists, or customers.
Data processing problems are
vast and solutions so varied and
complex that many systems analysts
specialize in a particular area. For
example, systems analysts who work
for scientific or engineering organi­
zations may determine the flight of
a space vehicle. Other analysts may
develop systems to plan and forecast
sales or conduct marketing research.
Some analysts improve systems
already in use to handle additional
or different types of data. Others do
research, described as advanced
systems design, to devise new meth­
ods of systems analysis. Analysts
engaged in this type of activity
usually have mathematical, scientific,
or engineering backgrounds.
Systems analysts, who are manag­
ers or administrators and responsi­
ble for overall systems design, as­
sign analysts to various phases of a

project. They also
ize, and control
throughout the
which they work

may plan, organ­
systems analysis
organization in
and prepare re­

Places of Employment
More than 100,000 persons were
estimated to be employed as sys­
tems analysts in 1970. They work
mainly for insurance companies,
manufacturing concerns,
wholesale and retail businesses, and
the Federal Government. A growing
number of systems analysts are em­
ployed by universities and independ­
ent service organizations that fur­
nish computer services to business
firms and other organizations on a
fee basis. Systems analysts work
chiefly in large cities.


Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
There is no universally accepta­
ble way of preparing for work in sys­
tems analysis. Some employers pre­
fer that candidates have a bache­
lor’s degree and experience in
mathematics, science, engineering,
accounting, or business. Other em­
ployers stress a graduate degree.
Educational preparation and ex­
perience often determine the kind
of job opportunities available. For
example, employers are likely to
seek an analyst having a back­
ground in business administration to
work in finance or similar areas;
those having an engineering back­
ground are sought for engineering
or scientifically oriented systems.
Applicants also may qualify on the
basis of professional experience in
scientific, technical, or managerial
occupations, or practical experience
in data processing jobs such as com­
puter operator or programer.
M ost employers prefer to hire
people who have had some experi­
ence in computer programing. A
young person can learn to use elec­
tronic data-processing equipment on
the job or can take special courses
offered by his employer, computer
manufacturers, or colleges. In the
Federal Government, for example,
systems analysts usually begin their
careers as programers. After gain­
ing some experience, they may be
promoted to systems analyst trainees
and later qualify as systems analysts.
In large electronic data-processing departments, a person who be­
gins as a junior systems analyst and
gains experience may be promoted
to senior or lead systems analyst.
Systems analysts having proven
leadership ability also can advance
to positions as manager of systems
analysis or an electronic data-proc­
essing department.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
systems analysts should be excellent
through the 1970’s. Systems analyst
has ranked among the fastest grow­
ing professional occupations in re­
cent years. However, because peo­
ple having a systems analysis or
similar background work in fields
such as mathematics and science,
employers have had difficulty re­
cruiting these workers.
A growing demand for systems
analysts will result from the rapid
expansion of electronic data-proc­
essing systems in business and gov­
ernment. Greater emphasis will be
placed on developing computer sys­
tems that will retrieve information
more efficiently; solve complex
business, scientific, and engineering
problems; and monitor industrial
processes. These developments and
others, such as the extension of
computer technology to small busi­
ness, the use of systems analysis to
determine plant and store location,
and the growth of computer centers
to serve individual clients for a fee,
signify a rapid rise in employment.
In addition to opportunities due
to growth, some openings will occur
as systems analysts advance to more
responsible positions or leave their
jobs to enter other employment. Be­
cause many of the workers are
young, relatively few positions will
result from retirement or death.


of experienced systems analysts av­
eraged $14,300 annually, and in
some cases they were paid $25,000
or more a year.
Systems analysts usually work
about 40 hours a week— the same
as other professional and office
workers. Unlike many console oper­
ators who work on two or three
shifts, systems analysts generally
work only during the day. Occasion­
ally, evening or weekend work may
be necessary to complete emergency

Sources of Additional Information
Additional information about the
occupation of systems analyst may
be obtained from the following
American Federation of Informa­
tion Processing Societies, 210
Summit Avenue, Montvale, N.J.
Data Processing Management As­
sociation, 505 Busse Highway,
Park Ridge, 111. 60068.

A list of reading materials on ca­
reer opportunities in the data proc­
essing field may be obtained from:
Association for Computing Ma­
chinery, 1133 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, N.Y.

Earnings and Working Conditions
In 1970, beginning salaries of
systems analysts averaged between
$ 8 ,9 5 0 and $12,700 a year, accord­
ing to a private survey which cov­
ered more than 80,000 workers in
business, government, and educa­
tional data-processing installations
in all parts of the country. Earnings

(D.O.T. 196.168, .228, .268, and .283)

Nature of the Work
The men who have the responsi­
bility for flying a multimillion dollar
plane and safely transporting pas­
sengers are the pilot and copilot.
The pilot (called “captain” by the


airlines) operates the controls and
performs other tasks necessary for
flying a plane, keeping it on course,
and landing it safely. He supervises
the copilot, flight engineer, and
flight attendants. The copilot is sec­
ond in command. He assists the
captain in air-to-ground communi­
cations, monitoring flight and engine
instruments, and in operating the
controls of the plane.
Both captain and copilot must do
a great deal of planning before their
plane may take off. They confer
with the company meteorologist
about weather conditions and, in
cooperation with the airline dis­
patcher, they prepare a flight plan
along a route and at altitudes which
offer the best weather and wind
conditions so that a safe, fast, and
smooth flight may be possible. This
flight plan must be approved by Fed­
(F A A ) air traffic control personnel.
The copilot plots the course to be
flown and computes the flying time
between various points. Before
takeoff, both men check the opera­
tion of each engine and the func­
tioning of the plane’s many instru­
ments, controls, and electronic and
mechanical systems.
During the flight, the captain or
copilot reports by radio to ground
control stations regarding their alti­
tude, air speed, weather conditions,
and other flight details. The captain
also supervises the navigation of the
flight and keeps close watch on the
many instruments which indicate
the plane’s fuel load and the condi­
tion of the engines, controls, elec­
tronic equipment, and landing gear.
The copilot assists in these duties.
Before landing, the captain or the
copilot recheck the operation of the
landing gear and request landing
clearance from air traffic control
personnel. If visibility is limited
when a landing approach is being


made, the captain may have to rely
primarily on instruments such as the
altimeter, air speed indicator, artifi­
cial horizon, and gyro compass and
instrument landing system. Both
men must complete a flight report
and file trip records in the airline
office when the flight is ended.
Some pilots, employed by airlines
as “check pilots,” make at least two
flights a year with each captain to
observe his proficiency and adher­
ence to F A A flight regulations and
company policies. Airlines employ
some pilots to fly planes leased to
private corporations. Airlines also
employ pilots as instructors to train
both new and experienced pilots in
the use of new equipment.
Although pilots employed in gen­
eral aviation usually fly planes
smaller than those used by the
scheduled airlines, their preflight
and flight duties are similar to those
of airline pilots. These pilots seldom
have the assistance of flight crews.
In addition to flying, they may per­
form minor maintenance and repair
work on their planes. In some cases,
such as in business flying, they may
mingle with and act as host to their
passengers. Pilots who are self-em­
ployed, such as airtaxi operators, in

addition to flying and doing some
maintenance work, have duties sim­
ilar to those of other small business­

Places of Employment
The scheduled airlines employed
over 27,000 pilots and copilots in
1970. In addition, approximately
1,600 pilots were employed by the
certificated supplemental airlines
(airlines that provide charter and
nonscheduled service).
A n estimated 18,000 pilots and
copilots were employed full-time in
general aviation in 1970. Several
thousand worked in business flying
and air-taxi operations. About 1,600
pilots were employed in aerial ap­
plication flying. The Federal Gov­
ernment employed approximately
2,500 pilots (about one-fifth in the
F A A ) to perform a variety of serv­
ices such as examining applicants
for pilots’ licenses, inspecting navi­
gation facilities along Federal air­
ways, testing planes that are newly
designed or have major modifica­
tions, enforcing game laws, fighting
forest fires, and patrolling national
boundaries. In addition, State and


local governments employed about
800 pilots. Several thousand pilots
were employed by companies to in­
spect pipelines and installations for
oil companies, and to provide other
aerial services such as private flight
instruction, and flights for sightsee­
ing and aerial photography. A small
number worked for aircraft manu­
facturers as test pilots. In addition,
thousands of pilots were employed
on a part-time basis. These workers
were distributed among all the vari­
ous general aviation activities.
Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
To do any type of commercial
flying, pilots or copilots must be li­
censed by the FA A . Airline cap­
tains must have an “airline trans­
port pilot’s” license. Copilots, and
most pilots employed in general avi­
ation, must have a “commercial air­
plane pilot’s” license. In addition,
pilots who are subject to F A A in­
strument flight regulations or who
anticipate flying on instruments
when the weather is bad, must have
an “instrument rating.” Pilots and
copilots also must have a rating for
the class of plane they can fly (sin­
gle-engine, multi-engine, or sea­
p lane), and for the specific type of
plane they can fly, such as DC-9 or
Boeing 747.
To qualify for a license as a com ­
mercial pilot, applicants must be at
least 18 years old and have at least
200 hours of flight experience. To
obtain an instrument rating, appli­
cants must have at least 40 hours of
instrument time, 20 hours of which
must be in actual flight. Applicants
for an airline transport pilot’s li­
cense must be at least 23 years old
and have a total of 1,500 hours of
flight time during the previous 8
years, including night flying and in­
strument flying time.

Before a person may receive any
license or rating, he must pass a
physical examination and a written
test given by the F A A covering sub­
jects such as principles of safe flight
operations, Federal Aviation Regu­
lations, navigation principles, radio
operation, and meterology. He also
must submit proof that he has com ­
pleted the minimum flighttime re­
quirements and, in a practical test,
demonstrate flying skill and techni­
cal competence. His certification as
a professional pilot remains in effect
as long as he can pass an annual
physical examination and the peri­
odic tests of his flying skills required
by Government regulation. An air­
line transport pilot’s license expires
when the pilot reaches his 60th
A young man may obtain the
knowledge, skills, and flight experi­
ence necessary to become a pilot
through military service or from a
private flying school. Graduation
from flying schools approved by
the F A A satisfies the flight experi­
ence requirements for licensing.
Applicants who have appropriate
military flight training and experi­
ence are required to pass only the
Federal Aviation Regulations exam­
ination if they apply for a license
within a year after leaving the serv­
ice. Those trained in the armed
services have the added opportunity
to gain experience and accumulate
flying time on large aircraft similar
to those used by the airlines.
As a rule, applicants for a copilot
job with the airlines must be be­
tween 20 and 35 years old, although
preference is given to applicants
who are between ages 21 and 28.
They must be 5 feet 6 inches to 6
feet 4 inches tall and weigh be­
tween 140 and 210 pounds. All ap­
plicants must be high school gradu­
ates; some airlines require 2 years
of college and prefer to hire college


graduates. Physical requirements
for pilots, especially in scheduled
airline employment, are very high.
They must have at least 2 0 /1 0 0
vision corrected to 2 0 /2 0 , good
hearing, outstanding physical stam­
ina, and no physical handicaps that
would prevent quick reactions.
Since flying large aircraft places
great responsibilities upon a pilot,
the airlines use psychological tests
to determine an applicant’s alert­
ness, emotional stability and matu­
rity, and his ability to assume re­
sponsibility, command respect, and
make quick decisions and accurate
judgments under pressure.
Men hired by the scheduled air­
lines (and by some of the larger
supplemental airlines) usually start
as flight engineers, although they
may begin as copilots. An applicant
for a flight crew member job with a
scheduled airline often must have
more than the FA A minimum quali­
fications for commercial pilot licens­
ing. For example, although the
FA A requires only 200 flying hours
to qualify for such a license, the air­
lines generally require from 500 to
1,000 flying hours. Airlines also re­
quire a “restricted” radio-telephone
operator permit, issued by the Fed­
eral Communications Commission,
which allows the holder to operate
the plane’s radio.
Pilots employed in business flying
are required to have a commercial
pilot’s license. In addition, some
employers require their pilots to
have instrument ratings, and some
require pilot applicants to have air
transport pilot ratings. Because of
the close relationship between pilots
and their passengers, employers
look for job applicants who have
pleasant personalities.
All newly hired airline copilots
go through company orientation
courses. In addition, some airlines
give beginning copilots or flight en­


gineers from 3 to 10 weeks of train­ become dispatchers for an airli