View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

o cc u p atio n a l
employment
s ta tis tic s
1960-66

5s*S|ilr™E T
N
OF L A 0 O “
uabo

RU ° a T ’s T 'CS
s




occupational
em ploym ent
statistics
1960-66
B u lletin 1 5 7 9
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
W illa rd W irtz, S e c re ta ry
BUR EA U OF LABOR S TA TIS TIC S
Arthur M. Ross, C o m m is s io n e r

JANUARY

1968

 the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 2 0 4 0 2 - Price 25 cents
For sole by








Preface

This bulletin is the second in a series.
The first,
Occupational Employment Statistics, Sources and Data,
[Report 305, June 1966), presented information on occupational employment for the Nation and for selected indus­
tries through 1964 and when available, for 1965.
The
present bulletin has two objectives.
F irst, statistics
thought to be of continuing importance are updated and
whenever possible include the year 1966.
Second, new
occupational employment data of potential interest to r e ­
searchers and students of the social sciences are presented.

This bulletin was prepared by Arthur J. Gartaganis.

Contents
Page
Chapters:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Introduction--------------------------------------------Occupational data based on monthly household surveys of the labor fo r c e _________
Employment data for selected professional occupations ____________________________
Employment of teachers and librarians-----------------------------------------------------------------------Occupational employment data for regulated interstate industries_________________
Employment in engineering, scientific, and technical occupations in
private industry________________________________________________________________________
Employment of engineers, scientists, and technicians by universities and
colleges, and by scientific and research nonprofit organizations _________________
Occupational employment in Federal, State, and local governments________________

T ables:
1.
Average annual employment, 14 years of age and older, by occupational group,
from the monthly household survey of the labor force, 1957— 6 __________________
6
2.
Average annual employment, 14 years of age and older, by occupational group,
from the monthly household survey of the labor force, 1947—5 6 __________________
3.
Average annual employment, 16 years of age and older, by occupational
group, from the monthly household survey of the labor force, 1958— 6 __________
6
4.
The standard error of the annual average of the monthly estimates
from the household survey, 1950-51, 1955-56, and 1967 _________________________
5.
The standard error of the annual average as a percent of estimated
annual average employment, 1950-51, 1955-56, and 1967 ___________________ _____
6.
Employment in numerically important occupations, 1962—6 6 _______________________
7.
Occupational employment data available from professional associations,
1960-66 _________________________________________________________________________________
8.
Employment of teachers and librarians, in fall of school year, 1959—
60
through 1965— 6 ____________________________________________________
6
9.
Employment in selected occupations, regulated interstate industries,
1 9 6 0 -6 5 _________________________________________________________________________________
10. Employment of engineers, by industry, as of January 1, 1961— 6 _________________
6
11. Employment of scientists, by industry, as of January 1, 1961— 6 _________________
6
12. Employment of technicians, by industry, as of January 1, 1961— 6 _______________
6
13. Employment of scientists, by occupation and industry, as of January 1, 1966____
14. Employment of technicians, by occupation and industry, as of
January 1, 1966________________________________________________
15. Minimum employment size of establishments, by industry, covered by
the 1961—
66 surveys ___________________________________________________________________
16. Relative standard errors for scientists and engineers, and for technicians,
by industry, January I960 ____________________________________________________________
17. Relative standard errors for scientists, engineers, and technicians,
all industries, January I960 __________________________________________________
18. Employment of engineers and scientists, by universities and colleges,
March 1961_____________________________________________________________________________
19. Employment of engineers and scientists, by universities and colleges,
January 1965___________________________________________________________________________
20. Employment of technicians, by universities andcolleges January 1965____________
21. Employment of engineers, scientists, and technicians by
independent nonprofit institutions, January 1965
_______________________________
22. Federal employment in white -collar occupations, 1964-66 __________________________
23. Employment in selected Post Office occupations,1960— 6 _____________________________
6
24. Employment of scientific, professional, and technical personnel by
State and local governm ents__________________________________________________________




ii

1
3
9
11
12
14
23
27

5
6
6
7
7
8
9
11
13
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
22
24
25
26
26
28
31
32

Occupational Employment Statistics I960—66
Chapter 1. Introduction

Significant changes in occupational em ­
ployment patterns have occurred since World
War II. Professional and technical employ­
ment has more than doubled; employment
in clerical and service occupations has in­
creased more than 60 percent; blue-collar
workers have increased only 15 percent; and
employment in the agricultural sector has
d r o p p e d one-half.
Within each of these
groups the detailed occupations exhibit di­
verse m o v e m e n t s .
These changes affe.ct
future employment opportunities and concern
government officials and educators interested
in reducing u n e m p l o y m e n t and preparing
workers for the acquisition of skills required
in the future.
The manpower analyst is confronted with
two problems:
What are the p r e s e n t , and
what will be the future occupational patterns?
This bulletin may be helpful in coping with
these problem s.
It presents a substantial
body of data on occupational employment by
detailed industry and for the nationaT econ­
omy.
Special emphasis is p l a c e d on the
more important and fast-growing white-collar
occupations s u c h as scientists, engineers,
technicians, teachers, and health workers.
Previously published data have been updated,
and newly published or previously unpublished
m aterial appear for the first time.
Knowl­
edge of past trends is of great importance
in attempting to forecast future occupational
employment patterns. Historical employment
series are shown, and sources of additional
historical information a r e cited.
Finally,
mention is made of the results of occupational
employment studies due to be published in
the near future.
Tables 1 through 6 of this bulletin p re­
sent occupational employment data based on
statistics collected from a nationwide sample
of households in the monthly survey of the
labor force and indicate t h e i r reliability.
The occupational data from the survey are
comprehensive and include self-em ployed and
agricultural workers as well as those on pay­
rolls.
Workers who have two jobs or more
are counted only in their primary occupation.
The monthly estimates from the survey of
total employment and unemployment are c rit­
ical m e a s u r e s of the performance of the




1

economy.
Total e m p l o y m e n t distributed
among a number of occupational groups is
shown for 1947—66 in tables 1 and 2. Sim i­
lar data for 1958—66, which conform to the
new definition of the labor force established
in 1967 (excluding 14- and 1 5-y ea r-o ld s), are
presented in table 3.
Table 6 presents the
first published detailed occupational employ­
ment data based on the labor force survey
of households.
Because of sampling error,
(tables 4 and 5) estimates of employment in
numerically sm aller occupations are not as
reliable as estimates for occupations which
have high employment. Response error also
is likely to be significant for some occupa­
tions.
Consequently, data for 1962—66 are
shown for about 60 occupations each employ­
ing at least 200,000 at some time during
this period.
Data developed from licensing statistics
and from membership records and estimates
of professional societies provide employment
information for the nine professional occupa­
tions shown in table 7.
Most of the statis­
tics in this table are not subject to sampling
error, and response errors are generally
sm all.
A lso , data are presented for some
occupations having fewer than 200,000 work­
ers which, if based on the monthly household
survey, would be subject to relatively high
sampling e r r o r .
Although not included in
this report, licensing records may also pro­
vide information on the geographical d istri­
bution of workers in some occupations.
Tables 8 through 14 and 18 through 24
present data on employment by occupation
collected from i n d u s t r y establishments.
These include both sample surveys of em ­
ployers and almost complete counts of em ­
ployment in a limited number of industries.
Table 8 presents statistics on teachers and
librarians collected from school systems by
the Office of Education. Employment by o c­
cupation in regulated interstate
industries
such as railroads, airlines, and telephone
communications, is d e s c r i b e d in table 9.
Employment figures for engineers, scientists,
and technicians in industry and occupational
detail during 1961—66 are presented in tables
10 through 14. Tables 18 through 21 show em ­
ployment in these professional occupations

2
by universities and other research organiza­
tions in 1961 and 1965. W hite-collar occupa­
tional employment through 1966 in Federal
Government is presented in detail in tables
22—23. State government employment in 1964
and local government employment in 1963 are
shown in table 24.
The data from employers provide infor­
mation on the industrial distribution of some
occupations, and, conversely, partial or com ­
plete occupational patterns for some indus­
tries.
I n f o r m a t i o n of the latter type is
particularly useful in estimating future occu­
pational employment requirements, since pro­
jections of output and total employment by
industry are made periodically.
Expansion




of the Bureau’ s program to collect occupa­
tional information f r o m employers is ex­
pected to yield additional information on the
occupational composition of i n d u s t r y em ­
ployment.
Data in this bulletin compiled from em ­
ployer reports and those based on licensing
statistics and membership records of pro­
fessional societies are considered more ac­
curate than estimates for the same occupa­
tions obtained through the monthly labor force
survey, because of the size of the sampling
error in the latter survey and because occu­
pational data from employers probably has
less response error than occupational infor­
mation supplied by households.

Chapter 2. Occupational Data Based on Monthly Household Surveys of the Labor Force

Occupational statistics based on nation­
wide s u r v e y s of households are collected
m onthly1 by the Bureau of Census for the
Bureau of L a b o r Statistics.
Occupational
employment estimates based upon these data
are published monthly in the Department of
Labor publication Employment and Earnings
and M o n t h l y Report on the Labor F o rce.
These figures include farm workers and the
self-em ployed and are the o n l y com pre­
hensive estimates of occupational employment
in the United States between decennial years.
Tables 1— and 6 present annual aver­
4
ages of these monthly data. Employment in
the United States from 1947—56 for 11 occu­
pational groupings is presented in table 2.
During 1947—53 this information was obtained
by interviewing 21,000 households in 68 sam ­
ple areas distributed throughout the conti­
nental United States.
In February 1954 the
number of sample areas was increased to
230, and in May 1956 these estimates were
further improved when the sample was ex­
panded to include 35,000 interviewed house­
holds l o c a t e d in 330 sample areas.
In
January I960 Alaska and Hawaii were added
to the sample, and in December 1961 the
number of sample areas was i n c r e a s e d
slightly to 357. 1 The expansion in coverage
2
permitted a breakdown into 23 different occu­
pational groupings. The 1957—66 occupational
employment series in table 1 reflect these
changes and improvements.
Commencing with January 1967 two revi­
sions influence these occupational employ­
ment series. 3 F irst, there has been another
improvement in th e employment estimates
since the sample size has been increased to
52,500 interview households distributed over
449 sample areas.
Second, the lower age
limit f o r official statistics on employment
and other manpower concepts has been raised
from 14 to 16 years of age. Employment of
14- and 15-y ea r-o ld s is not very large and
is concentrated prim arily in certain occupa­
tional groupings.
They are n o w excluded
from these occupational groupings. However,
separate series for e m p l o y m e n t of these
youngsters, by major occupation, are now
being published.
For purposes of com pari­
son, table 3 presents employment excluding
14- and 15-year-olds for selected occupational
groupings from 1958—66.




Annual averages of these data for 1967
will appear in the January 1968 issue of the
Employment and Earnings and Monthly Report
on the Labor Force.
This monthly publica­
tion appears about the middle of each month
and contains occupational group and industry
data as of the previous month. L ess detailed
employment i n f o r m a t i o n may be obtained
somewhat earlier from the U .S . Department
of Labor monthly news release, The Em ploy­
ment S i t u a t i o n .
This publication appears
about the 10th of each month and contains
employment and unemployment data for broad
occupational groupings, industry employment
data, and analysis of current l a b o r force
trends.
The monthly occupational estimates are
subject to response and to sampling errors.
Response errors arise because the respond­
ent, frequently a housewife, does not have
sufficient information about the job title or
job duties of working family m em bers, or
because occupational upgrading occurs.
In
the latter case for example, m achine-tool
operators are identified as machinists and
engineering aids as engineers. 4
Continued improvements in survey tech­
niques and sampling characteristics during
the last 20 years have reduced the sampling
error as i l l u s t r a t e d in tables 4 and 5.
These tables present two aspects of the im ­
proving reliability.
As size of the occupa­
tional category increases, the standard error
will tend to increase absolutely but to decrease
as a percent of the estim ates. Further, the
reliability of the larger estimates has im ­
proved faster than that of the sm aller e sti­
mates.
1 Previous to 1958, occupational data were collected on
a quarterly basis.
2 A description of the methodology of these surveys is con­
tained in BLS Report 313 and Current Population Reports, Series
P-23, No. 22, Concepts and Methods Used in Manpower Statistics
from the Current Population Survey, June 1967.
3 Employment and Earnings and Monthly Report on the
Labor Force, February 1967, pp. 3—13, U. S. Department of Labor,
>
Bureau of Labor Statistics contains a detailed analysis of the extent
and effect of these revisions.
4 Additional discussion of this topic is contained in Occu­
pational Employment Statistics, Sources and Data, Report 305
U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1966,
pp. 15 and 24-29.
^ These tables provide information on the sampling error
for the average of the 12 monthly estimates. Sampling error for
monthly estimates is available in the Technical Note sections of
Employment and Earnings and Monthly Report on the Labor Force.

3

4
Commencing in 1962, a n n u a l average
employment information from the monthly
h o u s e h o l d survey has been tabulated into
about 300 occupations or occupational group­
ings.
The sm aller occupations are subject




to considerable sampling variability. Conse­
quently, only about 60 occupations and occu­
pational categories which employed at least
200,000 in any year from 1962—66 are pre­
sented in table 6.

5
Table 1.

Average Annual Employment, 14 Years of Age and Older, by Occupational Group,
From the Monthly Household Survey of the Labor Force, 1957-66
(In thousands)

Occupational group
T o t a l ----------------- --------------------------1
W h ite -co lla r w orkers -----------------------P ro fession a l, technical, and
kindred w o rk e rs-------------------------M edical and other health
w orkers ----------------------------------T each ers, except co lle g e ------Other p rofession al and
technical----------------------------------M anagers, officia ls, and p ro ­
p rie to rs, except f a r m ---------------Salaried w orkers --------------------S elf-em p loyed w orkers in
retail tr a d e ----------------------------S elf-em ployed w ork ers, e x­
cept retail trad e---------------------

1966

1965

1964

1963

1962

1961

I960

1959

1958

1957

7 4,065

72,179

70,357

68,809

6 7,846

66,796

66,681

65,581

63,966

65,016

33,332

32,104

31,125

30,182

29,901

2 9,124

28,726

27,798

27,056

26,451

9,323

8,883

8 ,55 0

8,263

8 ,04 0

7,705

7,475

7,143

6,961

6,468

1,506
2,020

1,486
1,881

1,405
1,878

1,351
1,817

1,353
1,713

1,328
1,642

1,299
1,620

1,240
1,500

1,247
1,494

1,156
1,347

5,797

5,516

5,267

5,095

4 ,97 4

4 ,73 5

4,555

4 ,40 4

4,221

3,968

7,40 4
4,685

7,340
4,427

7,452
4,296

7,293
4,148

7,408
. 4,053

7,119
3,750

7,067
3,52 4

6,93 5
3,416

6,785
3,259

6,703
3,04 4

1,263

1,389

1,474

1,441

1,583

1,66 4

1,767

1,736

1,770

1,834

1,456

1,524

1,682

1,704

1,773

1,705

1,776

1,783

1,756

1,824

C lerical w orkers --------------------------Stenographers, ty p ists, and
s e c r e ta r ie s ----------------------------Other c le ric a l w orkers ----------

11,846

11,166

10,667

10,270

10,107

9,861

9,783

9,326

9,137

9,15 2

3,086
8,76 0

2,880
8,286

2,708
7,959

2,631
7,639

2,511
7,596

2,405
7,456

2,386
7,397

2,320
7,006

2,241
6,89 5

2,162
6,99 0

S alesw orkers -------------------------------Retail trade-------------------------------Other salesw ork ers ----------------

4,7 59
2,866
1,893

4,71 5
2,877
1,838

4,456
2,635
1,821

4,356
2,582
1,774

4,346
2,529
1,817

4,439
2,586
1,853

4,401
2,591
1,810

4 ,39 4
2,579
1,815

4,173
2,468
1,705

4,128
2,488
1,640

B lu e -co lla r w o r k e r s -------------------------Craftsm en and fo r e m e n ---------------Carpenters -------------------------------Construction craftsm en ,
except ca rp e n te rs-----------------M echanics and r e p a i r m e n ----M etal craftsm en , except
m ech a n ics------------------------------Other craftsm en and kin­
dred w o rk e rs--------------------------F orem en , not elsew here
cla ssifie d --------------------— -------

27,167
9,598
853

26,466
9,221
850

2 5,534
8,98 6
820

24,982
8 ,92 4
814

24,278
8,678
812

23,862
8,62 3
815

24,211
8 ,56 0
832

24,162
8,561
846

23,510
8,469
854

24,8 7 4
8 ,66 4
900

1,978
2,393

1,839
2,337

1,793
2,226

1,796
2,206

1,705
2,145

1,691
2,122

1,722
2,017

1,726
2,047

1,621
2,076

1,675
2,031

1,180

1,112

1,091

1,079

1,046

1,021

1,090

1,082

1,048

1,182

1,849

1,818

1,831

1,786

1,751

1,825

1,762

1,738

1,710

1,709

1,345

1,265

1,225

1,243

1,218

1,149

1,137

1,122

1,159

1,168

Operatives -------------------------------------D rivers and d e liv e r y m e n ------Other operatives --------------------Durable goods m anufac­
turing—
Nondurable goods manu­
facturing—
Nonmanufacturing
in d u s tr ie s ---------------------------

13,879
2,580
11,299

13,390
2,505
10,885

12,924
2,511
10,413

12,507
2,446
10,061

12,041
2,352
9,689

11,762
2,351
9,411

11,986
2,375
9,611

11,858
2,378
9,479

11,441
2,255
9 ,18 5

12,530
2,330
10,200

4,645

4,298

3,966

3,862

3,611

3, 356

3,477

3,48 4

3,203

3,802

3,779

3,700

3,573

3,462

3,314

3 ,31 4

3 ,34 4

3,215

3,206

3,451

2,875

2,887

2,87 4

2,737

2,764

2,741

2,790

2,780

2,776

2,947

Nonfarm la b o r e r s --------------------------C o n stru c tio n ----------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------Other in d u stries------------------------

3,690
724
1,098
1,868

3,855
805
1,091
1,959

3,62 4
787
1,027
1,810

3,551
730
1,003
1,818

3,559
747
1,017
1,796

3,477
750
986
1,741

3,665
797
1,137
1,730

3,743
837
1,178
1,727

3,600
806
1,079
1,715

Service w o rk e rs----------------------------------Private household w o rk e rs---------Other serv ice w ork ers ---------------P rotective serv ice
w orkers ----------------------------------W aiters, cooks, and barten ­
ders—
Other serv ice w ork ers ----------

9,689
2,249
7,440

9,342
2,251
7,091

9,25 6
2,322
6 ,93 4

9,032
2,306
6,726

8,802
2,341
6,461

8 ,64 0
2,317
6,323

8,349
2,216
6,133

8 ,04 0
2,197
5,843

7,809
2,20 4
5,605

3,680
n
n
(M
7,632
2,098
5,53 4

886

874

891

846

805

775

766

760

741

742

2,007
4,547

1,958
4,259

1,911
4,13 2

1,866
4,014

1,774
3,882

1,715
3,833

1,676
3,690

1,631
3,451

1,539
3,32 4

1,589
3 ,20 4

F arm w o r k e r s ------------------ -— -------------F arm ers and farm m a n a g e r s ----Farm laborers and fo r e m e n -------Paid w o rk e rs ----------------------------Unpaid fam ily w ork ers ----------

3,876
2,095
1,781
1,104
677

4,26 5
2,24 4
2,021
1,249
772

4 ,4 4 4
2,320
2,124
1,324
800

4,615
2,396
2,219
1,397
822

4,866
2,595
2,271
1,382
889

5,17 0
2,711
2,459
1,489
970

5,395
2,780
2,615
1,572
1,043

5,582
3,019
2,563
1,454
1,109

5,591
3,083
2,508
1,439
1,069

6,059
3,329
2,730
1,489
1,242

1 Not available.
N O TE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual item s may not equal totals,




6
Table 2.

Average Annual Employment, 14 Years of Age and Older, by Occupational Group,
From the Monthly Household Survey of the Labor Force, 1947-56 1
(In thousands)
1955

1954

1953

1952

1951

1950

1949

1948

1947

T otal------------------------------------------------ 64,928

62,998

61,160

61,778

60,989

60,854

59,648

58,489

59,307

57,843

W hite-collar w o r k e r s ------- ---------------------- 2 5 ,5 9 7
P ro fe ssion a l, technical, and
kindred w o rk e rs------------------------------- 6,096
M an agers, o ffic ia ls, and
6,552
p ro p rie tors, except fa r m -------------8,838
C le rica l and kindred w o r k e r s --------S alesw o rk ers--------------------------------------- 4,111

24,553

23,891

23,614

23,070

22,413

22,373

21,636

21,400

20,185

5,782

5,588

5,448

5,092

4 ,78 8

4,49 0

4 ,02 8

3,977

3,795

6,442
8,359
3,970

6,201
8,168
3,934

6,396
7,991
3,779

6,182
8,122
3,674

6,220
7,655
3 ,7 5 0

6,429
7,632
3,822

6,433
7,438
3,737

6,344
7,438
3, 641

5 ,7 9 5
7,200
3,395

B lu e-collar w o rk e rs-------------------------------- 25,179
C raftsm en , forem en , and
kindred w o rk e rs------------------------------- 8,693
Operatives and kindred w o rk e rs----- 12,816
L ab ore rs, except farm and m in e—
3,670

24,729

24,167

24,991

24,802

2 5,009

23,336

22,770

23,988

2 3,554

8,315
12,740
3,67 4

8,311
12,253
3,603

8,588
12,747
3,656

8,743
12,352
3,707

8,43 4
12,623
3,952

7,670
12,146
3,520

7,625
11,780
3,365

8,119
12,396
3 ,4 7 3

7,754
12,274
3,526

Occupational group

1956

Service w ork e rs--------------------------------------P rivate household w o rk e rs-------------Other serv ice w o r k e r s ---------------------

7,609
2,124
5,485

7,101
1,946
5,155

6,755
1,760
4,995

6,949
1,850
5,099

6,488
1,805
4,683

6,533
1,869
4 ,6 6 4

6,535
1,883
4,652

6,266
1,757
4 ,50 9

6,040
1,754
4 ,2 8 6

5,987
1,731
4 ,25 6

F arm w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------F a rm e rs and farm m a n a g e r s --------F arm labo rers and fo r e m e n ------------

6,544
3,655
2,889

6,616
3,782
2,834

6,348
3,853
2,495

6,224
3,842
2,382

6,632
3,963
2,669

6,900
4,02 5
2,875

7,408
4,393
3,015

7,819
4,703
3,116

7,881
4 ,66 8
3,213

8,120
4,995
3,125

1 Data for 1947-56
ment adopted in January
one-quarter m illion as a
pact on any occupational
N O TE :

have not been adjusted to reflect changes in the definitions of employment and unemploy­
1957.
On the average, total employment declined and unemployment increased by about
result of the change.
The change m ainly affected nonagricultural industries, but its im ­
category would be relatively sm a ll.

B ecause of rounding,

Table 3.

sums of individual item s m ay not equal to ta ls.

A verage Annual Em ploym ent, 16 Y ears of A ge and O ld er, by Occupational Group,
F ro m the Monthly Household Survey of the Labor F o r c e , 1 9 5 8 -6 6
(In thousands)
1966

Occupational group

1965

1964

1963

1962

1961

I960

1959

1958

T otal------------------------------------------------

7 2 ,8 9 8

7 1 ,0 8 8

69,305

67,762

66,702

65,746

65,778

64,630

63,036

W hite-collar w o r k e r s ----------------------------P ro fession a l and te ch n ica l-------------M an agers, o fficia ls, and
p r o p r ie to r s --------------------------------------C le rica l w ork e rs-------------------------------S ale sw o rk ers---------------------------------------

3 3 ,0 6 8
9 ,3 0 9

3 1 ,8 4 9
8, 883

30,866
8,550

29,943
8,263

29,632
8,040

28,884
7,705

28,516
7,474

27,574
7,143

2 6 ,8 2 7
6,961

7 ,4 0 6
1 1,8 1 2
4, 541

7, 340
1 1 ,1 2 9
4 ,4 9 7

7,451
10,629
4,23 7

7,293
10,237
4,150

7,408
10,065
4,11 8

7,119
9,828
4,23 2

7,067
9,759
4,21 6

6,935
9,297
4,19 9

6,785
9 ,10 4
3,977

B lu e-co lla r w ork e rs-------------------------------C raftsm en and fo r e m e n -------------------O p e ra tiv e s------------------------------------------Nonfarm la b o re rs -------------------------------

2 6 ,9 5 0
9, 585
13,831
3, 534

26, 246
9, 222
1 3 ,3 3 6
3, 688

25,331
8,986
12,866
3,479

24,778
8,925
12,456
3,397

24,048
8,678
11,979
3,391

23,683
8,623
11,712
3,348

24,067
8,560
11,950
3,557

2 4 ,0 0 9
8, 561
11,813
3,635

23,356
8,469
11,392
3,495

Service w ork e rs--------------------------------------Private household w o rk e rs-------------Other serv ice w o r k e r s ---------------------

9, 211
1 ,9 0 4
7, 307

8, 936
1 ,9 5 7
6, 980

8,890
2,040
6,851

8,670
2,029
6,641

8,383
2,023
6,360

8,261
2,036
6,226

8,031
1,980
6,051

7,720
1,966
5,75 4

7,515
1,99 1
5,524

F arm w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------F a rm e rs and farm m a n agers---------F arm laborers and fo r e m e n ------------

3, 670
2, 094
1 ,5 7 6

4 , 057
2, 244
1 ,8 1 4

4,219
2,320
1,899

4,372
2,396
1,976

4,63 9
2,595
2,045

4 ,91 7
2,711
2,206

5,163
2,781
2,383

5,327
3,019
2,309

5,338
3,083
2,255

N O TE:

Because of rounding,




sums of individual item s m ay not equal totals.

7
Table 4.

The Standard E r r o r 1 of the Annual A verage of the Monthly E stim ates
F rom the Household Survey, 1 9 5 0 -5 1 , 1 9 5 5 -5 6 , and 1967
(in thousands)

Annual average employment

10
5 0 ________ ________ ______________________________
100 ..........................................................................................
250 ___ ____________________________________________
500 ____________________________ ____________________
1,-000 .............................................. ......................................
2, 500
_
_ _______
__ _
5, 000 ______________________ _______________________
10, 000 ____________________________ _______________ _
2 0 ,0 0 0 _______________________________________ _______
3 0 ,0 0 0 ______________________________________________
4 0 ,0 0 0 ______________________________________________

1950

1951

1955

4
12
17
(2)
33
43
64
107
170
241
376
(2)
572

5
13
17
(2)
30
39
54
85
121
165
224
(2)
277

3
6
8
13
(2)
19
27
40
58
76
103
116
125

1956

2
5
7
11
(2)
15
21
34
45
63
80
94
98

1967

2
4
5
9
(2)
13
18
27
38
51
67
76
80

1 The standard e rro r is a m easu re of sam pling variability, that is , the variations that might occur by
chance because only a sam ple of the population is surveyed.
The chances are about 2 out of 3 that an estim ate
from the sam ple would differ from a complete census by le ss than the standard e rr o r.
The chances are 19 out
of 20 that the difference would be le s s than twice the standard e rr o r.
2 Not available in source report.
SOURCE:
1 9 5 0 -5 6 from the U .S . Department of C om m erce publications Current Population R eports, Annual
Report on the Labor F o r c e , S eries P -5 0 , No. 31, 1950; ibid. , No. 4 0 , 1951; ibid. , No. 67, 1955; ibid. , No. 72, 1956.
1967 from U.S. Department of Labor Em ploym ent and Earnings and Monthly Report on the Labor F o r c e , February 1967.

Table 5.

The Standard E rr o r of the Annual A verage as a P ercent of E stim ated
Annual A verage Em ploym ent, 1 9 5 0 -5 1 , 1 9 5 5 -5 6 , and 1967
(in thousands)

Annual average employment

1 0 ____________________________________________________
Rf)

100 _________ ________________________________________
250 ____________________________________________ _____
300 __________________________________________________
500 _______________________ __________________- ______ 1, 000 _______________________________________________
2, 500 _______________________________ __________
5, 000 ______________________________________________ _
10, 000 ___________________________ ___________________
3 0 ,0 0 0 ______________________________________________
4 0 ,0 0 0 ____ ____ _____________________________________

1 Not available in source report.
SOURCE:

See table 4.




1950

1951

1955

40. 0
24. 0
17. 0
(*)
11. 0
8. 6
6 .4
4. 3
3 .4
2 .4
1. 9

50. 0
26. 0
17. 0
(M
10. 0
7. 8
5 .4
3 .4
2 .4
1. 7
1. 1
(*)
. 7

30. 0
12. 0
8. 0
5. 2
(M
3. 8
2. 7
1. 6
1. 2
.8
C
•D
.4
.3

(l )

1 .4

1956

20. 0
10. 0
7. 0
4 .4
(M
3. 0
2. 1
1 .4
. 9
. 6
A
. *±
.3
.2

1967

20. 0
8. 0
5. 0
3. 6
(M
2. 6
1. 8
1. 1
. 9
. 5
O
. J
. 3
. 2

8
Table 6.

Employment in Numerically Important Occupations, 1962-66
(In thousands)

Occupation

1966

P ro fession a l w orkers:
E n gin eers, technical, total _______________ _________
E n gin eers, e lectrical _
E n gin eers, m e c h a n ic a l__________________________
E n gin eers, other __ __ __________________________
Natural s c ie n tis ts ____________________________________
D r a fts m e n _____________________________________________
Technicians, other engineering and
physical scien ce
___________________ ____________
N u r se s, p rofession al
_____ ____________ ________
P hysicians and s u r g e o n s ___ _____ __ _____ _____
T echnicians, m edical and dental __________________
College presid en ts, p r o fe s s o r s , and
in stru ctors, not elsew here c l a s s i fie d ___________
T e ach e rs, elem entary schools
T e ach e rs, secondary schools
___
____________
Accountants and auditors
Clergym en ____________________________________________
L aw yers and judges _______________
C le rica l w orkers:
S e c re ta rie s, stenograph ers, and typists _
S ecreta ries ________________________________________
S te n o g ra p h e rs__________ ___________________________
Typists
O ffice-m achine operators
Bookkeepers and accounting clerks
_ _
C ash iers _ ________ __________________________________
M ail c a rr ie r s ______________________________ ________
P ostal clerk s
______
Shipping and receiving clerk s ____________ __________
Telephone operators _________________________________
C raftsm en , forem en , and kindred w orkers:
C a r p e n te r s _________________________
________________
B rick m ason s, stonem ason s, and tile setters
E lectrician s
E xcavating, grading, and road
m achinery o p e r a to r s _______________________________
P ain ters, construction and m a in ten an ce________
P lum bers and pipefitters _____________ ____________
F orem en , not elsew here classifie d _
_______
M achinists
T oo lm ak ers, d iem ak ers, and die setters
Linem en and s e rv ice m en , telephone, telegraph,
and power
M echanics and repairm en __________________________
M ech an ics, m otor v e h ic le _______________________
Stationary engineers _________________________________
Operatives and kindred w ork ers:
Truck and tractor d rivers ___________________________
D eliverym en and ro u te m e n _________ ______________
W eld ers and f la m e -c u t t e r s _______ ______________
Attendants, auto serv ice and p a r k in g ____________
Laundry and drycleaning o p e r a tiv e s _______________
Meat cu tters, except slaughter and
packinghouse
_ _
_____
Mine operatives and la b o re rs , not
elsew here cla ssifie d
A s s e m b le r s
Inspectors _ _______
_________________ __ _______
Sew ers and stitch ers, manufacturing
___________
Service w ork ers, except private household:
G uards, watchmen, and doorkeepers _____________
P olicem en and d e t e c tiv e s ____________________ _____
Cooks, except private h o u seh o ld __________________
Counter and fountain w orkers ______________________
W aiters and w aitresses _____________________________
Attendants, hospital and other institutions
Charwomen and cleaners
__
Janitors and sextons ___________ ___________________
P ra ctical nurses
_______ ____
SOURCE:
Monthly Household
resu lts not published.




1965

1964

1963

1962

1, 117
279
215
623
193
270

1, 055
266
204
585
206
264

1 ,0 5 9
272
206
581
192
240

1, 041
255
201
585
188
260

1 ,0 0 4
248
210
546
180
266

261
637
277
224

237
644
252
206

227
594
24 7
189

220
558
248
171

229
591
238
171

266
1, 148
739
606
187
260

256
1, 034
697
574
194
269

232
1 ,0 6 9
678
573
199
260

189
1, 058
649
564
219
239

172
977
597
518
220
24 7

3, 072
2, 159
207
706
470
1, 204
688
239
257
352
373

2, 875
2, 024
208
643
437
1, 160
657
219
242
327
346

2, 717
1, 845
230
64 2
417
1, 149
604
201
226
356
351

2, 630
1, 760
249
621
410
1, 100
551
208
230
336
319

2, 500
1 ,6 5 5
24 5
600
399
1 ,0 9 4
544
206
244
331
328

860
193
439

851
207
391

830
195
370

811
183
385

819
191
388

304
474
334
1 ,3 4 9
459
207

273
455
301
1, 292
430
185

273
428
305
1, 241
414
201

285
435
295
1, 251
418
192

24 8
395
280
1 ,2 2 7
402
175

372
2 ,4 0 3
784
184

337
2, 331
791
189

350
2, 234
761
181

322
2, 213
734
200

312
2, 155
676
181

1, 635
579
507
394
408

1, 582
577
464
391
417

1 ,5 7 1
601
423
416
391

1, 568
538
408
390
392

1 ,5 4 4
492
366
390
399

173

194

198

203

196

179
784
573
872

204
712
543
819

208
657
538
797

202
635
534
764

201
596
518
707

315
316
64 7
237
953
663
289
856
270

287
330
657
206
940
605
259
794
285

314
319
604
204
939
558
24 8
762
287

295
303
615
173
938
532
246
725
273

300
281
571
163
913
509
216
677
254

Survey of the Labor F orce

conducted

by the Bureau

of Labor S tatistics.

Survey

Chapter 3.

Employment Data for Selected Proffessional Occupations

Professional societies compile occupa­
tional statistics from Stat^ licensure data,
membership lists, and other sources.
These
estimates are adjusted to correct problems
such as overcounting due to multiple licen s­
ing (in various States, for example), non­
m em bers, and retirees who may be leaving
or entering the active ranks.
Although not
all societies compile data on a systematic
or regular basis, reliable estimates are
available for a number of professions. Cur­
rent sources and descriptions of the occupa­
tions presented in table 7 are given below.

Nurses
Facts About Nursing, various editions, an
annual report of the American N urses’ A s s o ­
ciation.
The interagency C o n f e r e n c e on
Nursing Statistics, including representatives
of The Am erican Nursing Association, the
National League for Nursing, and the U. S.
Public Health Serivce, meets biennially to
prepare a joint estimate based on their data
and on records, registration data, and em ­
ployment data obtained from the American
Hospital Association, Am erican Osteopathic
Association, State Boards of Nursing, A m e r­
ican Red C ro ss, National Student N urses’
Association, National Federation of Licensed
P r a c t i c a l N urses, and Bureau of Labor
Statistics.

Dentists
Distribution of Dentists in the United
States, by State, Region, D istrict, and County,
various editions, an annual report of the
American Dental Association based on a count
of licensed dentists listed in the Am erican
Dental Directory. The employment estimate
in table 7 excludes m ilitary and retired p e r­
sonnel to conform to a civilian labor force
concept.

Table 7.

A Statistical Study of the Osteopathic
P rofessional, an annual report oi The A m erican Osteopathic Association. Data in table 7

Occupational Employment Data Available From Professional Associations, 1960-66
(In thousands)

Occupation

1966

1965

1964

1963

1962

90
582
11
118
255
8
21

89

(3)

89
550
11
117
239
8
21

(3)
(3)

27
20

Health professions:*
Dentists-----------------------------------------------------------Nurses— professional-----------------------------------------Osteopaths--------------------------------------------------------Pharmacists------------------------------------------------------Physicians--------------------------------------------------------Podiatrists--------------------------------------------------------Veterinarians---------------------------------------------------

( 2)
621
(2)
121
272
(2)
23

91
(3)
11
118
265
8

Other professions:
Architects— registered--------------------------------------Foresters-----------------------------------------------------------

32
23

32

30

(3 )

(3)

(3)

(3)

11
117
248
8

1961

88
( 3)
12
117
231

(3)

1960

87
504
12
117
224

(3)

(3)

20

(3)

26
(3)

18

1 For a detailed and comprehensive presentation of employment and other characteristics of health professions and occupations see
Health Resource Statistics, Health, Manpower, 1965, 1966, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service.
2 Not yet available.
3 No estimates made.




9

10

are a count of licensed osteopaths and exclude
the retired and those for whom status was
not reported.
N o t e : Approximately 2, 200 osteopaths
in California were awarded M. D. degrees in
1962, thus decreasing the number of Doctors
of Osteopathy in that year.

Association: March 1965; "1964 Survey of the
Podiatry Profession: The Podiatrist; D istri­
bution Education, Organizational Relation­
s h ip s ," by Lloyd E. Blauch.
Estimate for
1965 furnished by the American Podiatry
As sociation.
Veterinarians

Pharmacists
N. A. B .P . Bulletin, National Association
of Boards of Pharmacy. Employment statis­
tics have been compiled annually in the winter
edition. They represent a count of registered
pharmacists engaged in p r a c t i c e obtained
from N. A. B. P. census and licensing data.

Physicians
A. M. A. Directory Reports Service, a
quarterly report of the American Medical
Association. Data in table 7 refer to licensed
physicians as of the end of each year shown,
except for 1966 which are midyear estim ates,
and exclude m ilitary and retired M. D. 's and
M . D . ' s other than those in Federal employ­
ment who have a temporary foreign address.

Podiatrists
American Podiatry Association reports
based on State licensing:
Podiatry as a
C areer, by Wilfred E. Belleau revised 196"5
edition for 1962 data; Numbers and the Podia­
try P rofession s, by Lloyd E. Blauch, for 1963
data, and Journal of the American Podiatry




A. V. M. A. D irectory, a biennial publica­
tion of the American Veterinary Medical A s ­
sociation. Data in table 7 refer to licensed
v e t e r i n a r i a n s , excluding those who are
retired.

Architects
Data are an unduplicated count of archi­
tects registered in each State compiled by the
National Council of Architecture Registration
Boards, Architectural Institute of A m erica.
Some retired registered architects may be
included.

F oresters
Datum for 1961 is from a survey of
alumni by colleges granting degrees in fo r­
estry plus a count of the nondegree members
of the Society of American F oresters.
It
was published in an article "How Many F o r­
e ste rs" by F. H. Eyre in th e Journal of
Forestry, 1962.
The 1962 and 1966 data are
estimates made by the Society.
They are
based upon the 1961 figure and have been
adjusted to include recent entrants (degree
recipients) and exclude retired personnel.

Chapter 4. Employment of Teachers and Librarians

The Office of E d u c a t i o n in the U. S.
Department of Health, Education, and W el­
fare compiles and publishes statistics r e ­
lating to the educational s y s t e m .
Recent
editions of Projections of Educational Sta­
tistics furnished information on the supply

Table 8.

and demand of teachers o v e r the next 10
years.
The Digest of Educational Statistics
provides d a t a on librarians.
The number
of employed teachers and librarians from
1959—66 is presented in table 8.

Employment of Teachers and Librarians, in Fall of School Year, 1959-60 Through 1965-66
(In thousands)

Occupation

1965-66

1964-65

Elementary and secondary *-------------------------------------Elementary school teachers---- ---------------------Public-----------------------------------------------------------Nonpublic----------------------------------------------------Secondary school teachers--------------------------------Public------------------------ -----------------------------------Nonpublic-----------------------------------------------------

1,942
1,120
968
152
823
749
74

1,872
1,090
940
150
782
708
74

College instructional staff -------------------------------------Instructors or above-------------------------------------------Full tim e ------------------------------------------------------Part tim e ------------------------------------------------------Junior instructional staff-------------------------------------

432
367
245
122
65

Librarians 3---------------------------------------------------------------Public elementary and secondary---------------------Nonpublic elementary and secondary----------------College and university----------------------------------------Public library----------------------------------------------------Special library---------------------------------------------------

81
28
5
14
22
13

1963-64

1962-63

1961-62

1960-61

1959-60

1,797
1,053
908
145
743
669
74

1,717
1,026
886
140
690
621
69

1,657
1,002
869
133
655
592
63

1,594
984
858
126
610
550
60

1,531
952
832
120
580
524
56

389
331
221
110
58

358
305
205
101
53

336
287
192
95
49

313
267
179
88
46

296
254
170
84
42

283
245
164
81
39

77
27
5
12
21
12

73
25
4
12
21
12

69
23
4
11
20
10

66
22
4
10
20
10

63
20
3
10
20
10

62
20
3
9
20
10

1 Projections of Educational Statistics to 1975-76, 1966 ed. , U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of
Education, publication No. OE-10030-66, table 22. Data for 1964-65 were revised. Data for 1965-66 are preliminary.
2 Ibid. , table 27. Data cover only faculty for resident instruction in degree-credit courses. They do not include professional
staff for general administration, student personnel services, or organized research; faculty for resident instruction in other than degreecredit courses; extension staff; professional library staff; instructional staff for elementary or secondary instruction; and other faculty.
Data for 1960-61, 1962-63, and 1965-66 are estimates.
3 Digest of Educational Statistics, 1965 ed. , U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, publi­
cation No. OE-10024-65, table 128.
Ibid., 1966 ed. , No. OE-10024-66, table 138.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




11

Chapter 5. Occupational Employment Data for Regulated Interstate Industries

Railroad, pipeline, airline, telephone,
and telegraph companies which are engaged
in interstate com m erce file reports with Fed­
eral regulatory agencies which include data
on employment by occupation.
Industry cov­
erage is very comprehensive, since almost
all business units in t h e s e industries are
involved in interstate activities.
Selected
employment data from these reports are pre­
sented in table 9.
The sources are described
below.

Scheduled Airlines
Air Transport Facts and Figures, 1966,
1967 Air Transport Association of Am erica.
This Association obtained the data from a ir ­
lines industry information filed with the Civil
Aeronautics B o a r d .
The Federal Aviation
Agency also obtains and publishes, in great
detail, employment and other scheduled a ir ­
lines information in its a n n u a l publication
FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation.
These
data account for over 80 percent of the a ir ­
line industry employment.

Class I Railroads

Telephones

Railroad companies which h a v e annual
operating revenues of $5 million or more
are classified as Class I railroads.
These
companies, which include over 95 percent of
the railroad industry1s employment, submit
annual reports to the ICC which summarizes
them in Statement No. M -300, Wage Statis­
tics of Class I Railroads in U. S.
In these
reports employment is divided into 128 occu­
pational categories.
A few of these cate­
gories are groupings of not entirely related
occupations.
Only a limited number of divi­
sions which do not c o n t a i n a mixture of
occupations a r e presented in this bulletin.

Industry Wage Survey: Communications,
published annually by the U. S. Department of
Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The data
are compiled from annual reports filed with
the Federal Communications Commission by
telephone carriers which had annual revenues
exceeding $1 million in 1965 and $ 2 5 0 ,0 0 0
previously.
The Annual Statistical Volum e,
published by the U. S. I n d e p e n d e n t T ele­
phone Association, presents employment data
compiled from an annual survey of independ­
ent telephone companies.
The data in table 9
represent an unduplicated combination of the
two studies.
Except for some officials and
managerial assistants employed by the Bell.
System, these data represent, substantially,
the whole industry.

Railway Express Agency
Annual issues of Transport Statistics in
U. S. , Part 3, The Railway Express Agency
Inc. , Interstate Commerce Commission, Bu­
reau of Transport Economics and Statistics.

Telegraph
Industry Wage Survey:
Communications,
published annually by the U. S. Department of
Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The data
are compiled from annual reports filed with
the Federal Communications Commission by
all companies in the telegraph industry hav­
ing a n n u a l r e v e n u e s exceeding $50, 000.
These represent about 90 percent of industry
employment.

Pullman Company
Ibid. ,

Part 2,

The Pullman Co.

Oil Pipelines
Ibid. , Part 6, Oil Pipelines, the data in
this report account for more than 85 percent
of industry employment.




12

13
Table 9.

Employment in Selected Occupations, Regulated Interstate Industries, 1960-65
(In thousands)

Occupation 1

1965

1963
680.
37.
6.
3.
8.
2.
6.

0
1
0
5
6
3
1

1962
700.
37.
6.
3.
9.
2.
6.

1
0
3
5
0
4
3

C la ss I railroads (lin e -h a u l)-------------- ------------Conductors, railroad _________________________
O ffice-m achine o p e r a to r s ____________________
S e c r e t a r ie s _____________________________________
Stenographers and t y p i s t s __________ _____ ___
Telephone operators _________________________
C a r p e n te r s ________ __ ________________ _____
Linem en and servicem en (Telephone
and T e le g r a p h )-------------------- __ __ ------------B lacksm ith s, forgem en, and
ham m erm en __________________________________
B o ilerm ak ers _______________ ________________
Stationary engineers _________________________
L ocom otive engineers __ ___________________
L ocom otive f ir e m e n ____________ ___ _______
D rivers and d e liv e r y m e n ___________________

640.
38.
6.
3.
8.
2.
5.

1.
1.
.
35.
21.
5.

8
8
7
1
8
9

1. 8
1. 9
. 8
34. 3
30.-0
5. 8

1.
2.
.
33.
35.
5.

8
0
8
9
9
8

1.
2.
.
34.
36.
5.

Railway E xp ress A gency, Inc ----------------- -------D rivers and d e liv e r y m e n ___________________
Train m e ssen ge rs ___ ____________ ________
W arehouse and platform l a b o r e r s __________

32.
10.
.
5.

1
4
9
9

31.
10.
1.
5.

30.
9.
1.
5.

4
6
1
3

30. 4
9 .4
1. 2
5. 2

5. 9
. 6
2. 2

6. 4
. 6
2. 5

The Pullman C om pan y___________________________
C<"»r>diictnrs _______ ____
___ ™ ,—
_™
P orters __ _______________________ __________

0
0
1
4
0
0
7

1964

2. 2

5. 3
. 5
2. 1

665.
37.
6.
3.
8.
2.
6.

0
4
0
4
3
1
0

2. 3

4
0
1
7

5. 5
. 5
2. 2

2. 3

2. 3
8
0
9
2
5
8

1961
717.
36.
6.
3.
9.
2.
6.

5
9
6
6
5
5
5

2. 4

1960
780.
39.
7.
3.
10.
2.
7.

5
0
0
8
4
8
1

2. 5

1. 7
2. 1
9
34. 1
36. 6
5. 7

2.
2.
1.
36.
38.
5.

0
3
0
2
8
9

30.
9.
1.
5.

30.
9.
1.
5.

8
0
5
5

4
2
3
3

6. 7
6
2. 6

21.
3.
3.
2.
.
1.

3
3
6
3
8
1

166.
13.
10.
3.
4.
34.
43.
35.
21.

1
5
6
8
2
2
3
4
1

Oil p ip e lin e s __________ _____________________ ___
Station engineers and pumpers ____________
G a ger-d elivery m en and oil re ce iv ers -----Pipeline r e p a ir m e n ----------------------------------------Other m echanics _______________________ _____
L ab orers -----------------------------------------------------------

16.
2.
2.
1.
.
1.

9
3
9
5
7
1

17.
2.
2.
1.
.
1.

1
5
9
7
7
1

18.
2.
3.
1.
.
1.

2
5
1
8
7
2

19.
2.
3.
2.
.
1.

2
8
2
0
7
2

3
0
4
1
7
* 1. 1

Scheduled airlin es ________________________________
A irlin e pilots and copilots __________
___
A irlin e stew ard esses and p u r s e r s ------------Other flight personnel ________________________
Communications p e r s o n n e l__________________
M echanics and maintenance personnel ___
A ir c r a ft and traffic serv ice personnel ----Office e m p lo y e e s ______________________________
A ll other e m p lo y e e s __________________________

205.
16.
17.
4.
3.
40.
56.
42.
24.

9
3
1
8
2
7
3
9
7

191.
15.
14.
4.
3.
39.
51.
40.
23.

8
1
5
4
2
4
9
3
0

178.
14.
13.
4.
3.
34.
49.
37.
22.

9
3
1
0
7
5
1
9
4

172.
13.
12.
4.
3.
34.
46.
37.
20.

8
8
2
2
4
9
7
0
7

169.
13.
11.
4.
3.
34.
44.
36.
20.

Telephone industry ______ _____ ___ __________
P ro fe ssion a l and sem ip ro fession a l
p e r s o n n e l_________________________
________
B usiness office and sale s em ployees _____
C le rica l e m p lo y e e s ___________________________
Telephone operators --------------------------------------F orem en , telephone craftsm en _____________
Central office c r a fts m e n _____________________
Installation and exchange repair
c r a f t s m e n __ ____________ _____________________
L ine, cable, and conduit craftsm en ________
Building, supplies, and m otor
vehicle em ployees __________________________
L ab orers _______________________________________
Other em p loyees, not elsew here
c l a s s i f ie d _____________________________________

722. 5

699. 9

678. 7

669. 6

672. 5

694. 9

67.
54.
152.
199.
28.
69.

64.
52.
147.
193.
27.
65.

0
7
9
1
2
9

60. 9
5 1 .4
142. 5
189. 2
26. 1
63. 1

53.
52.
142.
188.
25.
62.

52.
51.
142.
196.
25.
59.

50.
49.
144.
216.
26.
58.

79- 6
39. 2

77. 7
38. 3

75. 1
37. 0

73. 2
38. 1

72. 0
38. 8

71. 2
43. 0

24. 9
.4

25. 4
.4

26. 0
.4

27. 2
. 5

27. 9
5

28. 8
. 5

2. 7

2. 3

2. 4

1 .4

1. 5

1. 7

Telegraph industry _______________________________
P ro fession a l and se m ip ro fe ssion a l
p e r s o n n e l________________ _____ ____________
Office su p erin ten d en ts________________________
Sales e m p lo y e e s _________ ___________________
C le rica l em ployees ____________________ _____
Telegraph operators __________________________
Telephone operators -------------------------------------Construction, installation, and
repair em ployees ___________________________
Building serv ice e m p lo y e e s _________________
M e s s e n g e r s ___________________________ _________

30. 9

31. 6

32. 8

34. 9

36. 5

37. 6

1 .4
2. 6
. 5
7. 2
6. 1
1. 3

1.
2.
.
7.
6.
1.

1.
2.
.
7.
7.
1.

1.
2.
.
8.
7.
1.

6. 9
. 6
4. 3

6. 9
. 6
4. 5

5
3
2
1
9
0

1 Industry totals include data not shown separately.
SOURCE:

See text,

p. 12.




2
6
5
3
3
3

2
8
5
7
0
5

6. 5
. 7
5. 0

4
0
9
5
9
0

20.
3.
3.
2.

7. 3
. 7
2. 9

9
9
9
2
7
1
6
6
9

0
6
6
8
5
1

5
8
9
3
0
0

4
9
6
1
4
6

1. 4
3. 0
6
8. 5
8. 0
1. 8

1.
3.
.
8.
8.
1.

7. 1
. 8
5. 1

6. 9
9
5. 6

6. 6
. 9
5. 9

4
1
6
7
7
9

Chapter 6. Employment in Engineering, Scientific, and Technical Occupations
in Private Industry

estimates of engineering employment.
A l­
though the wholesale and retail trade and the
finance, insurance, and real estate industries
include large numbers of sm aller establish­
ments, employment of scientific and technical
personnel is not important in these sectors.
Some understatement of engineers and scien­
tists who are self-em ployed also appears to
exist in a few of the service industries. 1
1

Beginning in the middle of the past dec­
ade, the Bureau of Labor Statistics conducted
a series of employment surveys of scientists,
engineers, and technicians in private indus­
try. The National Science Foundation6 spon­
sored the early surveys and presented infor­
mation on e m p l o y m e n t of scientists and
engineers, the number in research and de­
velopment, and the costs of research and
development. 7
Employment data were
requested on persons working in each occu­
pation regardless of their educational back­
ground.

Significant changes have been made in the
industry and occupational detail presented.
By 1964 the Am erican economy had been sub­
divided into about 60 i n d u s t r y categories.

Some of the results of the 1961 through
1966 surveys are presented in this report.
Tables 10 through 14 include occupational
employment of engineers, nine scientific oc­
cupations, and seven technician occupations
by i n d u s t r y . 8
The later occupationalindustry series are not exactly comparable
to their pre-1961 counterparts, as a number
of revisions and improvements have been
made.
Data by size of establishment and
information about the numbers employed in
sales, research, and other employment func­
tions were obtained also but not shown in
this report.

8 National Science Foundation reports: Science and Engi­
neering in American Industry, Final Report on a 1953—
54 Survey
(October 1956), and 1956 Survey (November 1956); Scientific and
Technical Personnel in Industry, 1960 (1961); S c i e n t i f i c and
Technical Personnel in American Industry, Report on a 1959
Survey (1962); and U. S. Department of Labor's Employment of
Scientific and Technical Personnel in Industry, 1962, BLS Bulletin
1418 (1964).
7 The Foundation's activities which gather information about
expenditures for research and development have been expanded
greatly and now constitute the subject of separate publications.
For example, see Federal Funds for Research, Development, and
Other Scientific Activities, Fiscal Years 1965, 1966, and 1967
vol. X V , July 1966.
Since expenditure decisions are made for
forthcoming fiscal years, this may serve as a helpful guide to
employment forecasting.
The Foundation also has been compiling and publishing in­
formation upon the educational background, employment charac­
teristics, present and e x p e c t e d supply and demand, and the
general status of scientific and technical personnel in the national
economic and social context. The latest in a series of publica­
tions containing a broad range of information is Scientific and
Technical Manpower Resources, Summary Information on Employ­
ment, Characteristics, Supply, and Training, November 1964.
8 A publication containing the 1961— data is in prepara­
66
tion. It will contain slightly more detailed industry and occupa­
tional patterns than are included in tables 10 through 14.
Results
of the 1967 survey have been received and are being tabulated.
9 See table 15 for a presentation of these cutoff points
by industry.
10 The basic list of establishments is comprised of those
reporting to State employment security agencies and of interstate
railroads and related companies.
These number over 2 million
and include about four-fifths of the Nation's employed. From
this list, all establishments below a minimum size which varies
from industry to industry are excluded. Also excluded are those
industries which employ negligible numbers of scientists, e. g. ,
farms; or which pose unusual sampling problems, e. g. , nonprofit
institutions; or which are the subject of separate exhaustive studies,
e. g. , education and hospitals.
The remaining establishments—
or sample frame— then are stratified by region, industry, and size
of establishment. The surveyed establishments then are selected
randomly from the sample frame.
11 These surveys account for about 95 percent of the engi­
neers, technicians, and scientists employment in private industry,
where the latter is defined as the total excluding government,
educational institutions, and nonprofit organizations.

Sampling Procedures
Prior to 1961 the sampling unit was a
company.
Companies not meeting the m ini­
mum e m p l o y m e n t specified— or "c u t-o ff"
point— which varied from industry to industry
were excluded from the survey.
Beginning
in 1961, because of many technical problems
the individual establishment, rather than the
company, was chosen as the sampling unit. 9
By 1962, the sample frame was increased to
350, 000 establishments from which emerged
a sample of 15, 000. 1 1
0
For 1965 and later surveys the sample
frame was increased to about 530, 000, the
number of sampled establishments to 24, 000,
and minor modifications were made in cut­
off points.
The influence of excluded establishments
is very strong in certain industries which
include large numbers of very sm a ll-size
establishments. In the contract construction
industry this exclusion biases downward the




14

15
Starting with the 1965 survey, more than 80
industry categories were tabulated. In all
cases the Bureau of the Budget's standard
industrial classification (SIC) system is used.
Except for engineers, greater occupational
detail is now available. Data for seven engi­
neering occupations were obtained in the first
survey, but now there exists only an "a ll
engineers" occupational category. A survey
in 1963 to explore the possibility of separate
reporting by major branch of engineering
revealed that many establishments would find
it difficult to provide this information without
a major increase in their work load. The
number of s c i e n t i f i c occupations was in­
creased from 8 to 13, and the number of
technician occupations from 1 "c a tc h -a ll" to
8 groupings.




The magnitude of the sampling variabil­
ity, or relative standard error, of these
occupational estimates has not been a sc e r­
tained in the 1961 and later surveys. How­
ever, estimates of the sampling variability
in the January I960 data have been calculated
and are presented in tables 16 and 17. 12 A l ­
though these refer to company data, they are
thought to be close approximations for most
industries to corresponding standard errors
which can be obtained from the data, com ­
mencing in 1961, based upon establishment
information.

12
See Scientific and Technical Personnel in Industry, 1960,
1961, National Science Foundation, Appendixes B andC for detailed
presentation of the survey problems involved.

16
Table 10.

Employment of Engineers, by Industry, as of January 1, 1961-66
(in thousands)

SIC
code

Industry
A ll industries ---------------------------------

1966

1965

1964

1963

1962

1961

775. 9

749. 1

720. 3

7 1 1 .7

671. 2

643. 2

0 7 -0 9

A gricu ltu re, fo r e s tr y , and fis h e r ie s -----

(*)

(M

(M

1 0 -1 4

Mining ----------------------------------------------------------

17. 1

17. 3

17. 5

1 5 -1 7

Contract construction -------------------------------

46. 7

42. 0

M anufacturing--------------------------------------------Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s -----------------Food and kindred p ro d u c ts ----------------T extile m ill p ro d u c ts --------------------------A pparel and other finished produ ctsL um ber and wood products ---------------Furniture and fixtures -----------------------P aper and allied p ro d u c ts -----------------Printing and publishing ----------------------Chem icals and allied products----------P etroleu m refining and related
in d u s tr ie s-------------------------------------------Rubber and m iscellan eou s plastics
products ----------------------------------------------Leather and leather products -----------Stone, clay , and g la ss p ro d u c ts ------P rim a ry m etal industries ----------------Fabricated m eta l products ---------------M achinery, except ele ctric a l ---------E le ctric a l m ach in ery, equipment,
and supplies --------------------------------------Transportation equipm ent-----------------P ro fe ssio n a l, scie n tific, and
controlling instrum ents; photo­
graphic and optical goods; watches
and clo c k s-------------------------------------------Other manufacturing in d u stries1
2--------

536. 0
5 1 .5
4 .9
3. 1
.6
. .8
1 .4
9. 7
1. 1
40. 6

519. 7
50. 6
4. 8
2 .9
. 5
.7
1. 3
9. 6
1. 1
38. 6

19
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

39

40
4 1 -4 7
48
49

5 0 -5 9
6 0 -6 7

7 0 -7 9

807
891

T ransportation, com m unications,
and utilities ---------------------------------------------Railroad transportation-----------------------Other transportation se rv ice s ---------C om m unication------------------------------------E le c tric , g a s, and sanitary
se rv ice s -----------------------------------------------

9 .9
7. 8
. 5
8. 9
20. 5
2 7 .9
75. 1

(M

n

17. 9

16. 5

17. 2

38. 8

38. 8

37. 5

36. 2

502. 4
47. 4
4. 8

502. 6
46. 2
5. 6

472. 1
41. 1
5. 5

450. 4
36. 2
5. 8

2. 9

(l )

2. 7

L. D

3' 3
1 8
1 ,8
9. 3
.9
39. 3

T D
1•A

i. A
1 0

1. A
1 0

9. 5
.9
34. 6

9. 5
.9
33. 2

9.0
.8
32. 2

10. 1

10. 5

10. 3

10. 1

10. 0

7.
.
8.
20.
26.
73.

6.
.
8.
19.
24.
69.

6.
.
8.
20.
24.
69.

5.
.
8.
21.
23.
65.

8
4
4
1
9
3

5. 8
.4
8. 1
20. 5
2 3 .9
62. 3

5
l
]

2
5
4
0
2
5

6
4
3
4
8
3

1
4
5
3
7
6

135. 6
103. 4

132. 2
100. 5

129. 5
96. 7

133. 9
97. 3

122. 7
90. 5

117. 7
85. 9

t
29. 6
3. 2

2 7 .9
3. 1

26. 7
3. 4

26. 8
3. 8

25. 9
3. 5

24. 3
3. 3

51.
4.
4.
17.

50.
4.
4.
16.

4 6 .6

44. 8

44. 7

8#8

8. 3

8. 7

8. 8

13. 7

12. 9

12. 8

12. 5

6
1
3
1

8
1
4
8

j-

.

43. 2

26. 1

25. 5

24. 1

23. 6

23. 2

2 1 .9

W holesale and retail t r a d e ----------------------

23. 0

21. 6

20. 6

19. 2

18. 4

17. 7

Finan ce, insurance, and real e s ta t e -----

4. 2

4. 0

3. 5

3. 1

3. 1

2. 5

S ervices ------------------------------------------------------H otel, p erson al, b u sin e ss, repair,
am usem ent, recreation and
legal -------------------------------- ----------------M edical and dental la b o r a to r ie s ------Engineering and architectural
se rv ice s -----------------------------------------------

97. 3

9 3 .7

9 0 .9

85. 3

78. 9

75. 7

36. 1
0)

35. 2

36. 8
. 1

35. 4
. 1

0

n

(3 )

(3 )

61. 2

58. 5

54. 0

49. 8

(3 )

(3)

1 L e ss than 50.
2 Includes SIC 21 tobacco m anufactures.
3 Not available.
NO TE :

Because of rounding, sums of individual item s may not equal totals.

SOURCE: P re lim in ary data from sam ple surveys conducted by the U .S . Departm ent of L ab or, Bureau of Labor
S tatistics.
Establishm ents below a minimum specified s iz e , determ ined separately for each m ajor industry group,
w ere excluded from the su rvey. This exclusion does not significantly affect the above data.
G overnm ents, uni­
v e r s itie s , and nonprofit organizations w ere not surveyed.




17

Table 11.

Employment of Scientists, by Industry, as of January 1, 1961-66
(In thousands

SIC
code

Industry

1966

1 0 -1 4

Mining

1 5 -1 7

Contract construction

39

M an u factru in g---------------------------------------------Ordnance and a c c e sso r ie s -----------------Food and kindred p ro d u c ts-----------------Textile m ill p ro d u cts---------------------------Apparel and other finished products —
Lumber and wood p r o d u c ts ----------------Furniture and fixtures ------------------------Paper and allied p ro d u c ts-------------------Printing and p u b lish in g -----------------------Chem icals and allied p ro d u c ts-----------Petroleum refining and related
in d u strie s------------------------------------------- —
Rubber and m iscellan eou s p lastics
p ro d u c ts-----------------------------------------------Leather and leather products ------------Stone, clay, and glass p ro d u c ts--------P rim a ry m etal in d u str ie s-------------------Fabricated m etal p ro d u c ts-----------------M achinery, except
e le c t r ic a l ----------------------------- ---------------E le ctric a l m achinery, equipment
and su p p lie s---------------------------------------- Transportation equipm ent-------------------P ro fe ssio n a l, scien tific, and
controlling instrum ents; photo­
graphic and optical goods; watches
and clocks -------------------------------------------Other manufacturing in d u strie s1 -------2

40
4 1 -4 7
48
49

Transportation, communication, and
u tilit ie s ------------------------------------------------------Railroad tran sp ortation-----------------------Other transportation s e r v i c e s -----------Com m unication----------------------------------- —
E le ctric , ga s, and sanitary

19
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

1962

1961

169. 7

164. 9

159. 5

155. 3

150. 8

0. 4

0. 4

0. 4

0. 4

0. 4

0. 4

11. 6

10. 9

10. 8

10. 8

10. 8

.4

A gricu ltu re, fo re str y , and f i s h e r i e s -----

1963

12. 0

0 7 -0 9

1964

178. 6

A ll industries

1965

.4

.3

. 3

. 2

o2

122. 3
7. 1
7. 2

119. 9
6. 6
7. 5

117. 8
5 .9
7. 0

116. 1
4. 4
7. 2

1. 3

1. 3

1. 3

130.
8.
6.
2.
.
.

1
3
9
1
3
2

124.
7.
7.
2.
.
.

6
7
2
0
3
2

}

(M

(M

. 2

. 2

3. 8
. 2
53. 3

*2
4. 0
.4
51. 8

. 2

4. 1
. 2
57. 1

3. 8
. 3
49. 9

3. 8
. 2
49. 9

3. 6
. 2
50. 2

4. 0

4. 0

4. 3

4. 3

4. 2

4. 2

3. 3
. 2
1. 7
7. 3
2 .4

3.
.
1.
7.
2.

3.
.
1.
7.
2.

3.
.
1.
8.
2.

2.
.
1.
9.
2.

2.
.
1.
9.
2.

6. 5

}

0
1
6
2
6

0
1
6
8
5

0
2
6
5
3

6
2
t
>
2
1

6
2
5
8
1

37
38

6. 5

5. 5

5. 7

5. 2

4. 9

9 .2
8 .9

9. 2
8. 7

10. 0
9. 1

10. 3
8. 8

9 .4
8. 7

9. 0
9 .4

6. 0
1. 3

5 .4
1. 3

4. 8
1. 2

4. 6
1. 0

4. 5
1. 0

4. 2
1. 1

1.
.
.
.

8
4
1
2

1. 8
.4

2. 0

1. 7

1. 6

1 .6

.5

.5

. 1

- 6
. 2

„5
. 1

. 1

. 1

1. 2

36

1. 2

1. 2

1. 1

1. 0

1. 0

}

5 0 -5 9

W holesale and retail tr a d e ------------------------

8. 6

7. 9

6. 8

6. 7

6. 1

5. 6

6 0 -6 7

Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te ------

4. 8

4. 4

3. 8

3. 2

3. 2

2. 9

r v i c e s ------ ----------------------------------------------H otel, p erson al, b u sin ess, rep air,
am usem ent, recreation and
le g a l--------------------------------------------------M edical and dental la b o r a to r ie s----Engineering and architectural
s e r v i c e s ---------------------------------------------

20. 5

18. 6

1 8 .4

16. 5

15. 2

13. 2

16. 2
1. 4

15. 0
1. 3

140 1
1. 2

13. 1
1. 1

(3 *
)
(3 )

(3 )
(3 )

2 .9

2. 2

3. 1

2. 3

(3 )

(3 )

7 0 -7 9
81
807
891

1 L ess than 5 0 o
2 Includes SIC 21 tobacco m anufactures.
3 Not available„
N O TE :

Because of rounding,

sums of individual item s m ay not equal totals.

SOURCE: P relim in ary data from sam ple surveys conducted by the U. S. Department of L abor, Bureau of Labor
S tatistics. E stablishm ents below a m inim um specified siz e , determined separately for each m a jo r industry group,
were excluded from the survey.
This exclusion does not significantly affect the above data.
Governm ents, uni­
v e r sitie s , and nonprofit organizations were not surveyed.




Table 12.

Employment of Technicians, by Industry, as of January 1, 1961-66
(In thousands)

SIC
code

1966

1965

1964

1963

1962

1961

A ll industries -----------------------------------

673. 2

645. 3

638. 7

623. 8

594. 6

555. 1

0 7 -0 9 A gricu ltu re, fo re str y , and fis h e r ie s------

1 .0

1 .0

1 .5

2. 0

2. 1

1 .8

10-14 M ining------------------------------------------------------------

10. 2

10. 2

11. 3

1 1 .2

11. 2

11. 1

1 5-17 Contract construction---------------------------------

30. 2

25. 7

28. 8

27. 8

26. 2

26. 0

380. 2
19. 0
4. 2
2. 4
. 1
. 7
1 .5
6. 0
. 7
38. 3

366. 9
19. 1
4. 1
2. 2
. 1
.6
1 .4
6. 0
. 6
36. 7

369. 4
19. 2
4. 7
2. 5
.2
.9
1 .8
6. 3
1 .0
3 7 .9

370. 1
19. 3
4. 0
2. 6
.2
1 .0
1 .4
6. 3
.8
36. 9

355. 4
18. 2
3. 9

329. 2
16. 9
3. 2

|

2 .8

2. 5

1
/

2 4
*4
6. 2
.8
35. 5

5. 6
.9
35. 6

5. 8

5. 7

4. 6

4. 7

5. 8

5. 4

5 4

5. 4

19
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

39

Industry

Manufacturing----------------------------------------------Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ------------------Food and kindred products-------------------Textile m ill p ro d u c ts---------------------------A pparel and other finished produ cts-Lumber and wood products-----------------Furniture and fixtu re s-------------------------Paper and allied p ro d u c ts-------------------Printing and publishing------------------------Chem ical and allied products-------------Petroleum refining and related
in d u str ie s--------------------------------------------Rubber and m iscellan eou s plastics
p ro d u c ts-----------------------------------------------Leather and leather p roducts-------------Stone, clay, and glass p ro d u c ts--------P rim a ry m etal in d u s tr ie s -------------------Fabricated m etal p ro d u c ts-----------------M achinery, except e le c tric a l-------------E lectrical m achinery, equipment,
and su p p lie s ----------------------------------------Transportation equipm ent-------------------P ro fe ssion a l, scien tific, and
controlling instrum ents; photo­
graphs and optical goods; watches
and clock s---------------------------------------------Other manufacturing industries

Transportation, communication, and
u tilitie s ------------------------------------------------------40
Railroad tran sp ortation -----------------------4 1 -4 7
Other transportation s e r v ic e s ------------48
C om m unication--------------------------------------E le ctric , ga s, and sanitary
49
s e r v ic e s ------------------------------------------------

4 .9
.3
5. 6
17. 6
24. 7
67. 4

5.
.
5.
17.
24.
65.

0
3
6
4
7
5

4. 7
.4
5. 8
17. 3
2 5 .4
64. 9

4 .9
.3
5. 7
16. 5
25. 3
6 1 .7

9 9 .5
5 8 .4

9 2 .9
5 6 .9

9 3 .4
55. 9

20. 2
3. 0

19. 3
2. 9

5 8 .4
4. 7
2. 1
31. 7

56.
4.
2.
30.

1
i

2. 0

5 .4
18. 1
25. 8
57. 9

5.
15.
23.
53.

1
9
3
8

98. 8
55. 3

92. 6
51. 2

84. 1
47. 8

18. 7
3. 8

20. 6
3. 8

20. 0
3. 4

18. 5
3. 2

9
5
1
6

57. 9

55. 6

54. 3

52. 3

6. 5

6. 0

6. 0

6. 2

3 1 .3

30. 7

30. 4

29. 8

19. 8

19. 6

20. 1

18. 9

1 7 .9

16. 3

50-59 W holesale and retail trade ----------------------

31. 2

28. 9

25. 8

23. 2

21. 6

22. 9

6 0 -6 7 Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te ------

5. 8

5. 2

4. 6

4. 6

4. 4

4. 2

Services -------------------------------------------------------Hotel, p erson al, b u sin e ss, rep air,
am usem ent, recreation , and
le g a l------------------------------------------------------M edical and dental la b o r a to r ie s --------Engineering and architectural
serv ices ------------------------------------------------

156. 2

150. 5

139. 7

129. 2

1 1 9 .4

107. 6

3 9 .9
18. 5

39. 6
18. 6

4 0. 3
18. 7

39. 7
16. 2

0
(1
2)

(?)
(2)

97. 8

9 2 .3

80. 6

73. 2

(2)

(2 )

70-79,
81
807
891

1 Includes SIC 21 tobacco m anufactures.
2 Not available.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual item s may not equal totals.

SOURCE: P relim in ary data from sam ple surveys conducted by the U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
S tatistics.
Establishm ents below a minim um specified siz e , determined separately for each m ajor industry group,
were excluded from the survey.
This exclusion does not significantly affect the above data.
Governm ents, uni­
v e r s itie s , and nonprofit organizations were not surveyed.




19
Table 13.

SIC
code

Employment of Scientists, by Occupation and Industry, as of January 1, 1966
(in thousands)
A g r i­
M athe­
B io lo­ C hem ­ G e o lo ­
Total cult­
m a ti­
ical
gists
gists
ural
cal

Industry

178. 7

4. 9

9. 1

___

0 .4

0. 4

(*)

(1
2)

10-14 M in in g ___________________________________

12. 0

. 1

(M

0. 8

A ll industries ___________________
0 7 -0 9 A gricu ltu re, fo re str y ,
and fis h e r ie s _____________________

.4

1 5-17 Contract co n stru ctio n _________________
19
20
21
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

39

M an u factu rin g______________ ________
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ____ _____
Food and kindred products ________
Textile m ill products ------- ---------Apparel and other finished
products _____________________ ______
Lumber and wood p r o d u c ts_______
Furniture and f ix t u r e s _____________
Paper and allied products ________
Printing and p u b lish in g____________
Chem icals and allied products ___
P etroleum refining and
related in d u s tr ie s _______ - --- .------Rubber and m iscellan eou s
p la stics p ro d u c ts _________________
Leather and leather p r o d u c ts _____
Stone, clay, and g la ss p r o d u c ts ___
P rim a ry m etal in d u s tr ie s _______
Fabricated m etal products _______
M achinery, except e le c t r ic a l ------E le ctric a l m achinery,
equipment, and s u p p lie s _________
Transportation equipment ________
P ro fe ssion a l, scien tific, and
controlling instrum ents; photo­
graphic and optical goods;
watches and clocks _______________
Other manufacturing in d u stries3

(M

(2)

130. 1
8 .4
6. 9
2. 1

3. 0
n
1. 2
( 2)

7 .4
.2
.7
(M

.3
. 2
(J)
4. 1
. 2
57. 1

( 2)
. 1
(2)
.6
(*)
1. 0

(?)
1
( 2)
( )
( 2)
6. 2

4. 0

(*)

3. 3
. 2
1. 7
7. 3
2. 4
6. 5

i 1)

1
5
3
7

. 3
. 1

10. 9

27. 3

4. 3

(2)

(l )

(2)

(2)

(2)

10. 5

0. 2

(2)

0. 3

(*)

(2)

(*)
9. 9
. 5
(*)
(2)

. 1
.8
. 2
(?)

.3
15.
3.
.
.

3
1
1
3

2. 9
(?)
( )
(*)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(?)

15. 1

8. 8
n
0. 1

(')

(2)

10. 9
2. 4
(?)
(*)

6. 7
.4
.6
. 1

(?)
( )
(2)
. 1
(! )
2. 0

(*)
. 1
(2)
.4
(M
2. 8

(M
2. 6
. 2
40. 2

. 3
. 1
1. 3

2. 6

(2)
( )
(?)
(?)
(l )
. 7

(*)

3. 3

. i

. 2

(2)

(M

.2

. 1

(?)
()
()
(*)
. i

C)
( 2)
(?)
(*)
( ')
. 1

2.
.
1.
2.
.
1.

(l )
(2)
. i
. i

(*)
(2)
(2)
( )
( )
( ')

(M
(M
. i
4. 5
. 6
1. 1

. 1
(2)
. 1
( ')
. 2
.7

.3
(2)
. 1
. 1
.2
. 1

9. 2
8. 9

(?)
(*)

. 6
1. 6

2. 5
1 .4

.8
.3

6. 0
1. 3
1. 8
.4
. 1
. 2

(?)
(l )

9
1
2
2
8
7

(*)
i1)

(?)
(M
. i
. 3
. 5
2. 7

. 1
. 1

2. 6
2. 2

(?)
(*)

2. 5
3. 3

(?)
(*)

(?)
(*)

. 1
(‘ )

4. 1
1. 1

0
( 2)

. 2
. 1

(*)

. 1
( ')

1. 0
. 1

. 2
(*)
( 2)
( 2)

(?)
(*)
( 2)
( 2)

. 5
. 1
(M
. i

0
( )
0
(2)

( ')
(*)
( 2)
(M

(*)
( )

( ')

( ')

( ')

(M

1. 2

. 1

5 0 -5 9 W h olesale and retail trade ___________

8. 6

. 6

S ervices -------------------------------------------------Hotel, p erson al, bu sin ess,
7 0 -7 9 ,
am usem ent, recreation ,
81
and legal ___________________________
M edical and dental la b o ra to r ie s __
807
Engineering and architectural
891
se rv ice s ___________________________

(M
73.
1.
4.
1.

13. 8

M e ta l­
P h y si­
lu rg i­
Other
cal
cal

(?)
1
(?)
(?)
t1)
. i

Transportation, com m unication,
and utilities ____________________________
Railroad transportation ___________
40
Other transportation s e r v i c e s ____
4 1 -4 7
Communication _____________________
48
E le c tric , g a s, and sanitary
49
se rv ice s ___________________________

6 0 -6 7 Finance, insurance, and
real estate ____________________________

84. 5

M e d i­
cal

.3

. 6
. 1
(?)
(M

.4
(?)
(*)
(2)

. 5

.3

. 2

4. 0

.2

1. 8

. 1

. 1

. l

(*)

. 1
(2)
(M
i 1)

. 2

1. 2
(J)

4. 8

. 1

(M

(*)

. 1

(2)

( 2)

. 6

1. 3

6. 0

(*)
2. 0

4. 6

20. 5

4. 5

1. 1

. 5

4. 0

16. 2
1 .4

. 6
(2)

.3
.9

5. 2
. 3

1. 3
(2)

3. 7
n

1. 0
. 1

.4
(2)

3. 3
(2)

2. 9

(*)

. 1

.4

.6

. 8

. 1

.6

(*)

.3
i 1)

. 6

.3
(l )

.3

1 L e ss than 50.
2 Not available.
3 Includes SIC 21 tobacco m anufactures.
NO TE:

Because of rounding, sum s of individual item s may not equal totals.

SOURCE: P relim in ary data from sam ple surveys conducted by the U. S. Departm ent of L ab or,
Bureau of Labor
S tatistics. Establishm ents below a m inim um specified size determined separately for each m a jo r industry group,
were excluded from the survey. This exclusion does not significantly affect the above data. G overnm ents, univer­
sitie s , and nonprofit organizations w ere not surveyed.




20
T a b le

14.

E m ploym en t of T ech n ician s,

by O c cu p a tio n and Ind ustry,

a s o f J a n u a r y 1,

1 966

(in t hous an ds)
SIC
code

Total

Industry

A ll industries _________________
0 7 -0 9
10- 14

M in in g ________________________

_______

Contract co n stru ctio n ----------

673. 2

A gricu ltu re, fo re stry , and
f i s h e r i e s _________ — ---------------------

----------

1 5-17

M an u factu rin g_________________________
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ---------Food and kindred products ______
Textile m ill products ____________
Apparel and other finished
products _________________________
Lumber and wood p ro d u c ts ______
Furniture and fixtures ___________
Paper and allied products ______
Printing and p u b lish in g__________
C hem icals and allied products —
P etroleum refining and
related in d u s tr ie s _______________
Rubber and m iscellan eou s
p lastics products ----------------------Leather and leather p r o d u c ts ----Stone, clay, and glass
products _________________________
P rim a ry m etal in d u s tr ie s ______
F abricated m etal products ______
M achinery, except e le c t r ic a l----E le ctric a l m achinery,
equipment, and supplies ______
Transportation equipment _______
P ro fe ssion a l, scien tific, and
controlling instrum ents;
photographic and optical goods;
watches and clocks -------------------Other manufacturing
industries 3 ----------------------------------

19
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

39

40
4 1 -4 7
48
49

Finance, insurance, and
real estate _____________________

7 0 -7 9 ,
81
807
891

26. 6

Other
E le c ­
trical engineer­
ing and
and
physical
e le c ­
science
tronic
150, 3

B ioiogM edical Other
ical and
and
life
a g ric u l­
dental
s cienc e
tural

149. 5

6. 3

22. 1

73. 7

1. 0

l 1)

(1
2)

(M

(2)

0. 6

(*)

.4

3. 7

1. 6

1. 0

2. 0

(’ )

(*)

1. 8

18. 3

3. 1

30. 2
380.
19.
4.
2.

2
0
2
4

.
.
1.
6.
.
38.

W holesale and retail trade _________

6 0 -6 7

244. 6

Survey­
ors

10. 2

Transportation, communication,
and u t i lit ie s _____________ __________
Railroad transportation _________
Other transportation s e r v i c e s __
Communication ___________________
E le c tric , g a s, and sanitary
se rv ice s _________________________

5 0 -5 9

D r a fts­
men

i! )
1.1
(*)
(*)
(2)

(M

(M
n
i1)
.4
. 1
1. 3

(M
. 1
. 1
3. 2
. 1
23. 1

(0
(*)
(2)
. 1
( ')
3. 2

(2)
(2)
(2)
(')
(*)
.4

.
1.
.
6.

. 7

(M

. 3

3. 2

T

(M

1. 6

1. 3
. 1

(2)
(2)

. 2
(2)

2. 5
. 2

(*)
( ')

(M
(2)

i 1)

7
2
4
1

T
(h
(M
. i

C)
. i

46. 6
9. 7

16. 1
23. 9

. i
( ')

. i
. i

8 .4
4, 2

i 1)

5. 6

4. 4

. i

. 2

3. 8

.4

1. 2

. i

(2)

.3

3
8
1
5

(*)
(2)
(2)
(2)

(*)
(! )
(’ )
(2)

6. 0
. 6
.4
2. 9

1
7
5
0
7
3

( 2)
.4
1. 3
1. 2
. 3
3. 7

(M
. i
(2)
. i

5. 8
4. 9
. 3

(M
. 3
. 1
. 2

99. 5
5 8 .4

27. 6
20. 5

. 6
. 1

20. 2

6. 0

3. 0

1. 0

(2)

9.
1.
.
1.

2.
.
.
.

4
7
1
7

2.
4.
16.
35.

i 1)

4
7
6
6

58.
4.
2.
31.

3. 2

(2)

1. 6
(M
(M
(2)

6
6
7
4

1. 0

4. 7
. 2
. 7
( ')

5
2
6
3

5.
17.
24.
67.

4. 6

4
9
2
8

128.
4.
.
.

7
8
3
1

7
8
4
2

88.
8.
.
.

.
1.
.
11.

26.
.
.
19.

7
7
3
3

4
8
9
6

5
7
9
1

112.
4.
1.
.

1.
7.
5.
13.

13.
.
.
8.

(*)
(M

4 3.
1.
1.
1.

3
0
4
0

. 1
(')

1
0
2
5

.9

1.
3.
1.
6.

0
6
5
8

19. 8

6. 4

1. 4

5. 9

3. 9

(*)

n

2. 2

31. 2

5. 0

l 1)

15. 2

3. 1

(*)

4. 2

3. 6

___

5. 8

.4

(2)

. 2

. 9

(2)

. 1

4. 2

S ervices _______________ _____ _______
Hotel, person al, bu sin ess,
am usem ent, recreation,
and l e g a l _________________________
M edical and dental
laboratories _____________________
Engineering and architectural
serv ices _________________________

156. 2

78. 9

17. 6

14. 2

16. 8

1. 0

16. 7

11. 2

39. 9

10. 7

. 8

10. 2

12. 2

. 8

C)

5. 2

18. 5

i 1)

(2)

(M

n

. 1

16. 7

1. 7

97. 8

68. 1

16. 8

4. 0

4. 5

. 1

(M

4. 3

1 L e s s than 50.
2 Not a v a i l a b l e .
3 I n c lu d e s SIC 21
NOTE:

to b a c c o m anufactures.

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

su m s of in d iv id u al i t e m s m a y not eq u al t o ta ls .

SOURCE:
P r e l i m i n a r y data f r o m s a m p l e s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d by the U. S. D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , B u r e a u o f L a b o r
Sta tistics.
E sta b lish m en ts b elow a m in im u m sp e c ifie d s iz e , d eterm in ed s e p a ra te ly for each m a jo r industry group,
w e r e e x c lu d e d f r o m the s u r v e y .
T his e x c l u s i o n d o e s not s i g n i f i c a n t ly a f f e c t the a b o v e data. G o v e r n m e n t s , u n i v e r ­
s i t i e s , and n o n p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e not s u r v e y e d .




21
Table 15.

Minimum E m p lo ym en t1 Size of Establishm ents, by Industry, Covered
by the 1 96 1 -6 6 Surveys

SIC
code

1 9 6 1 -6 4

1 9 6 5 -6 6

fo re stry , and fish erie s --------

50

10

Anthracite, bituminous, and lig n ite ----Crude petroleum and natural g a s ----------Nonm etallic m in era ls, except f u e l s ------

10
10
1
10

10
10
4
10

10

4

1
10
10
50
10
50
50
10

4
10
50
50
100
50
50
10
100
4
10

Industry

A griculture,

0 7 -0 9
1010

14 Mining:

11-

12

13
14
1 5-17

Contract construction

39

M anufacturing:
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s --------------------------------------------Food and kindred p ro d u c ts--------------------------------------------Tobacco m anufactures------- -------------------------------------------Textile m ill products------------------------------------------------------Apparel and other finished p roducts---------------------------Lumber and wood products-------------------------------------------Furniture and fix tu re s----------------------------------------------------Paper and allied products---------------------------------------*
-------Printing and publishing -------------------------------------------------Chem icals and allied products--------------------------------------P etroleum refining and related ind u stries-----------------Rubber and m iscellan eou s p la stics products -----------Leather and leather products --------------------------------------Stone, clay, and g la ss products------------------------------------P rim a ry m etal in d u stries--------------------------------------------Fabricated m etal p ro d u c ts--------------------------------------------M achinery, except e le c t r i c a l --------------------------------------E le ctric a l m achinery, equipment, and su p p lie s------Transportation equipment --------------------------------------------P ro fession a l, scien tific, and controlling instru­
m ents; photographic and optical goods; watches
and c lo c k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------M iscellan eou s manufacturing in d u str ie s---------------------

40
4 1 -4 7
48
49

Transportation, communication, and utilities:
Railroad tran sp ortation -------------------------------------------------------Other transportation s e r v ic e s ---------------------------------------------Communication ---------------------------------------------------------------------E le ctric , gas, and sanitary s e r v ic e s --------------------------------

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

10

1
1

10

10

1
1
1

50
4
4
4
1
4
4

1
10

4
10

100
1
1
1

50
50
4
4

10
10
1
1

5 0 -5 9

W h olesale and retail t r a d e -----------------

50

10

6 0 -6 7

Finan ce, in surance, and real estate-

50

50

1
1
1

1
1
1

739
807
891
7 0 -7 9
(excl.
739),
81

S e r v ic e s :
C o m m ercial labo ra tories; bu siness and management
consulting s e r v ic e s ---------------------------------------------------------M edical and dental laboratories--------------------------------------Engineering and architectural serv ices-------------------------

50

Other serv ices

100

1 Slightly different m inim um employment siz e s may apply to som e secto rs within m ajor
industry groups.
SOURCE: 1 9 6 1 -6 4 Em ploym ent
Bulletin 1418, p. 7 3 .




of Scientific and Technical P ersonnel in Industry, 1 9 6 2 , BLS

1 9 6 5 -6 6 Bureau of Labor S ta tistic s, unpublished data.

22




T a b le 16.

R e la t iv e S ta nd ar d E r r o r s f o r S c ie n t is t s and E n g i n e e r s , and f o r T e c h n i c i a n s ,
by I n d u s tr y , J a n u a ry I960
( In p e r c e n t )
S c i e n t is t s and
engineer s

Technicians

C o n s t r u c t i o n -----------

1Z

26

F o o d and k in d r e d p r o d u c t s ----------- ----------------------- ------- —
T e x t i l e m i l l p r o d u c t s and a p p a r e l ------- ------------------- —
P a p e r and a l l i e d p r o d u c t s ------------------------— —-------------C h e m i c a l s and a l l i e d p r o d u c t s ------- — -----------------------—
P e t r o l e u m p r o d u c t s and e x t r a c t i o n — — —--------------- -Stone, c la y , and g l a s s p r o d u c t s ----------------------------- -—
P r i m a r y m e t a l i n d u s t r i e s ---------------------------- —— — ~~—
F a b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s a n d /o r o r d n a n c e ---------M a c h i n e r y , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l — ----------- ------- —-----------E l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t --------- -— ■ —
----------M o t o r v e h i c l e s and e q u i p m e n t ———- -------------- ---------—
—
A i r c r a f t and p a r t s ------------------------------------- —------------- —
P r o f e s s io n a l and s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s —-----------------Other m a n u fa c t u r in g i n d u s t r i e s —
—— —— ---- ■ ——

8
17
7
2
5
8
3
13
3
5
1
1
8
7

14
22
15
4
8
11
3
16
4
5
1
1
13

T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and other p u b lic u t ilit ie s

5

18

Other n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g i n d u s t r i e s —

6

10

I nd ustr y

A ll industries

S O U R C E : S c i e n t if i c and T e c h n i c a l P e r s o n n e l in I nd ustr y
da tio n, p. 45.

I960,

21

1961,

National S c i e n c e

T a b le 17. R e l a t i v e Sta nd ard E r r o r s f o r E n g i n e e r s ,
S c i e n t i s t s , and T e c h n i c i a n s , A l l I n d u s t r i e s ,
J a n u a r v I960
O c c u p a t io n
E ngineers
S cien tis ts:
C h e m i s t s -------------------- ------- ----P h y s i c i s t s ------------------ ----- —
Me ta llur g i s t s — ----------- —— — G e o l o g i s t s and g e o p h y s i c is t s M a t h e m a t i c i a n s -— — -------------M e d i c a l s c i e n t i s t s ------ —------A g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s - ---------B i o l o g i c a l s c i e n t i s t s -----------—
Other s c i e n t i s t s ---- ----------------T e c h n i c i a n s ---------------------— —— ------ ------ --------------D r a f t s m e n ---------- ------—-------------- — -------- —--------E n g i n e e r i n g and p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e ------- ----------M e d i c a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , and b i o l o g i c a l ---------A l l o t h e r ------- —----- ---------------------- -----— —------------

P ercent
2

3
4

6
7
5
8
9
7
9
3
3
3
8
6

SO U R C E : S c i e n t if i c and T ech nical. P e r s o n n e l in I n d u s t r y ,
I 9 6 0 , 1961, Nat ion al S c i e n c e F oun dation, p. 46.

Foun­

Chapter 7. Employment of Engineers, Scientists, and Technicians by Universities and Colleges,
and by Scientific and Research Nonprofit Organizations

The National Science Foundation has con­
ducted two surveys in which e m p l o y m e n t
information for scientific and technical p er­
sonnel was r e q u e s t e d from almost 2, 000
institutions of higher education.
These in­
cluded universities,
colleges, agricultural
experiment stations,
medical schools, and
Federally Funded Research and Development
Centers.
These centers are research and
development organizations administered on a
contractual basis by educational institutions
but financed exclusively or substantially by
the Federal Government.
Estimates were
made for nonrespondents who generally had
sm all science and engineering programs so
that these surveys represent, substantially,
the national total. Some of the results appear
in tables 18 through 20 which present employ­
ment by universities and colleges of engineers
and scientists in 1961 and 1965 and of tech­
nicians in 1965.
In a recent publication, 13 the Foundation
has evaluated the supply and demand factors
which influence the number of scientists and
engineers engaged in teaching and research
in institutions of higher education and has
estimated their annual staffing requirements
through 197 5.




23

A survey of scientists, engineers, and
technicians in independent nonprofit institu­
tions also has been made by the National
Science Foundation. 14
This survey included organizations financ­
ing or performing research and development
or disseminating scientific and technical in­
formation.
These groups are characterized
by a large number of small units and pose
special sampling problems.
Employment of
engineers, scientists, and technicians by these
institutions in 1965 is presented in table 21.
Excluded from the survey were voluntary non­
profit hospitals and health agencies.

13 Science and Engineering Staff in Universities and Colleges,
1965—
75, May 1967, National Science Foundation.
14 Scientific Activities of Nonprofit Institutions— 1964 Ex­
penditures and January 1965 Manpower, 1967.
National Science
Foundation.

24
Table 18.

Employment of Engineers and Scientists, by Universities and Colleges, March 1961
(In thousands)
P a rt-tim e

F u ll-tim e
F ield of employment
Total

Faculty 1

Other 1
2

Total 3

Faculty 1

Other 3

E n g in e e rs ---------------------------------------------Aeronautical and astronautical —
A gricu ltu ral ----------------------------------Chem ical ----------------------------------------Civil ------------------------------------------------E le c t r ic a l----------------------------------------M echanical -------------------------------------M etallu rgical----------------------------------Other engineers ------------------------------

18.
.
.
1.
2.
5.
4.
.
3.

6
9
7
3
6
3
3
6
0

12.
.
.
.
2.
2.
2.
.
2.

6
4
6
9
2
8
7
4
5

6.
.
.
.
.
2.
1.
.
.

0
4
1
4
3
5
6
2
5

8.
.
.
1.
1.
2.
1.
.
1.

7
4
1
1
3
1
7
4
6

3. 0
. 1
( 45
)
8
7
6
. 1
.4
. 9
. 7
. 1
. 7

5.
.
.
1.
.
1.
1.
.
.

7
3
1
0
9
3
0
4
9

P hysical s c ie n tis ts -----------------------------Chem ists ----------------------------------------Earth s c ie n tis ts -----------------------------P h ysicists and a s t r o n o m e r s -------M athematicians -----------------------------Other physical s c ie n tis ts --------------

30.
9.
2.
8.
9.
.

0
3
3
3
5
6

22.
6.
1.
5.
8.
.

1
7
8
1
2
4

7.
2.
.
3.
1.
.

9
6
5
2
4
2

19.
6.
1.
5.
5.
.

1
5
6
4
3
3

4. 6
•9
. 2
1. 1
2. 3
. 1

14.
5.
1.
4.
3.
.

5
6
4
3
0
2

Life s c ie n tis ts -------------------------------------A gricu ltu ral scien tists 5 -------------B iological scien tists 6 ------------------M edical scien tists 7 ----------------------

42.
6.
21.
14.

6
5
3
8

30.
5.
16.
8.

0
3
3
4

12.
1.
5.
6.

6
2
0
4

20.
2.
9.
8.

6
3
8
6

8.
.
2.
5.

12.
2.
7.
2.

5
1
6
8

P sych ologists -------------------------------------Social sc ie n tis ts----------------------------------E c o n o m is ts-------------------------------------S ociolog ists-------------------------------------P olitical s c ie n tis ts -----------------------Other social scien tists 8 --------------

5. 3
18.
5.
3.
2.
7.

5
5
1
6
3

4. 8
17.
5.
2.
2.
7.

7
2
9
5
0

1
2
2
8

.4

3. 9

1. 6

2. 3

.
.
.
.
.

8.
2.
1.
1.
3.

3.
1.
.
.
1.

4.
1.
.
.
1.

8
3
1
1
3

4
7
5
2
1

6
1
8
5
3

8
6
7
7
8

1 P rim a rily in teaching.
2 P rim a rily in re se a rch and development, adm inistrative, and other nonteaching functions.
Includes all
fu ll-tim e graduate students.
They are not separated by function.
3 Includes a ll p a rt-tim e graduate students.
They are not separated by function.
4 L e ss then 50.
5 Includes com m odity related agricultural scientists.
6 Includes anatom ists, bioch em ists, m ic ro b io lo g ists, pathologists, p harm acologists, p hysiologists, biologists,
botanists, entom ologists, zoo lo gists, and other life scien tists.
7 Includes clin ical m edical scientists and other clinical scien tists.
8 Includes geograph ers, historians, and other social scien tists.
N O TE:
SOURCE:

Because of rounding,

sums of individual item s may not equal totals.

Scientists and Engineers in C olleges and U n iversities, 1961, D ecem ber 1961, National Science Foundation.




25
T a b l e 19-

E m p lo y m e n t of E n g in e e r s and S c ie n tis ts,

by U n iv e r s it ie s and C o ll e g e s ,

J a n u a r y 1965 1

(In thousands)
F u ll-tim e

P a rt-tim e 1
2

Field of employment
Total

Teaching

Other 3

Total

T eaching

Other 4

Engineer s ---------------------------------------------------------------A e r o n a u tic a l----------------■----- ------------------------------Chemical ---------------------------------------------------- ------Civil ---------------- -—----------------------------------------------E le c t r ic a l----------------------------------------------------------M e c h a n ic a l----------- ------------ -------------------------------In d u s tria l----------- ----------------------------------------------Other e n g in e e rs------------------------------------------------

22.
1.
1.
2.
6.
4.
1.
4.

9
1
6
8
7
7
0
9

13.
.
1.
2.
3.
2.
.
2.

2
6
0
2
2
9
8
6

9.
.
.
.
3.
1.
.
2.

7
6
6
6
5
8
3
3

14.
.
1.
2.
3.
2.
.
3.

5
9
6
0
7
4
6
3

7.
.
.
.
2.
1.
.
1.

1
4
7
9
1
5
4
2

7.
.
1.
1.
1.
.
.
2.

4
6
0
0
6
9
1
1

Physical s c ie n tis ts --------------------- -— ---------------------Chem ists ----------------------------------------------------------Earth s c ie n tis ts ---------------------------------------------------------------P h y s ic is ts ----------------------------------------- *
Mathematicians — ------------- -— -------------------------Other phy sical s c ie n tis ts --------------------------------

38. 7
J 1. 0
3. 7
10. 4
1 1 .9
1. 8

26.
7.
2.
6.
10.
.

6
3
7
0
0
7

12.
3.
1.
4.
1.
1.

1
7
0
4
9
1

29.
9.
2.
8.
7.
1.

4
9
8
1
7
0

18.
5.
1.
4.
6.
.

2
8
6
1
4
3

11.
4.
1.
4.
1.
.

2
2
1
0
3
7

Life s c ie n tis ts -------------------- -----------------------------------A gricu ltu ral scientists ----------------------------------B iological s c ie n tis ts ---------------------------------------M edical Scientists ------------------------- ---------------- -

63.
13.
21.
29.

4
4
0
0

29. 3
2 .9
12. 7
13. 7

34.
10.
8.
15.

1
5
3
3

38.
5.
12.
20.

0
0
4
6

20. 2
1 .0
6. 7
12. 5

17.
4.
5.
8.

8
0
7
1

7. 1

5. 7

5. 7

3. 7

P sychologists -------------------------------------------------------Social s cie n tists----------- —--------------------------------------E c o n o m is ts -------------------------------------------------------Sociologists ------- --------- ------------------------------------P olitical s c ie n tis ts ------------------------------------------Other social scien tists ----------------------------------Other scien tists™ n ot s p e c ifie d ------- —-------------—

26.
6.
4.
4.
10.

6
4
9
9
4

.9

22.
5.
4.
4.
9.

9
1
3
5
0

. 5

1. 3
3.
1.
.
.
1.

6
3
5
4
4

. 4

14.
3.
3.
2.
5.

3
7
0
3
3

. 2

10.
2.
2.
1.
4.

8
6
2
9
2

. 1

2. 1
3.
1.
.
.
1.

4
1
8
4
1

. 1

1 Includes employment in F ed era lly Funded R esearch and Development Centers adm inistered by u n iver­
sities and co lle g e s.
These centers accounted for alm ost 5 percent of em ploym ent and w ere alm o st exclusively
involved in re se arch and development.
2 Graduate students accounted for slightly m ore than one-half of all p a rt-tim e em ployees and w ere concen­
trated in the physical scien ces occupations.
Other p a rt-tim e em ployees were concentrated in the life sciences
occupations.
3 Includes adm inistrative and other functions.
Over 70 percent w ere involved with re se a rch and development
functions.
L e ss than 20 percent w ere employed in the F ederally Funded R esearch and Development Centers.
4 Includes adm inistrative and other functions.
A lm o st all w ere employed by the universities and co lle g e s,
and over 85 percent w ere involved with re se a rch and development functions.
N O TE :
SOURCE:

Because of rounding,

sums of individual item s may not equal totals.

Unpublished survey data com piled by the National Science Foundation.




26
Table 20.

Employment of Technicians, by Universities and Colleges, January 1965
(In thousands)
Total

Field of employment

Total --------------------------------------------------Engineering and physical science ---------Life science -----------------------------------------------Social science --------------------------------------------Other --------------------------------------------------------------

R esearch and
development

Other
activities

47. 0

36. 2

10. 8

16.
26.
1.
3.

14.
19.
1.
2.

0
1
2
7

1
0
0
1

1.
7.
.
1.

9
1
2
6

1 Includes employment in F ed era lly Funded R esearch and Development Centers m an­
aged e xclu siv ely or p rim a rily by universities and c o lle g e s.
T hese Centers accounted for
le s s than 20 percent of employment and were engaged alm ost exclusively in re se arch and
development.
SOURCE:




Unpublished survey data com piled by the National Science Foundation.

Table 21.

Em ploym ent of E n g in e e rs, S cientists, and
Technicians by Independent Nonprofit
Institutions, January 1965^
(In thousands)

Field of employment

Em ploym ent 2

E n g in e e rs ------- ---------------------------------------------P hysical s c ie n tis ts ------------------------------------M athematicians ------------------------------------------Life s c ie n tis ts --------------------------------------------P sych ologists --------------------------------------------Social s c ie n tists------------------------------------------

4.
4.
1.
5.
.
1.

8
0
6
0
8
8

Technicians 3------------------------------------------------

6. 9

1 Includes independent research institutes and op e r­
ating foundations, F ederally Funded R esea rch and D evelop­
ment Centers adm inistered bynonprofit institutions, private
philanthropic foundations, p rofession al and technical s o c i­
e tie s, academ ies of scien ce, science m u se u m s, botanical
garden s, zoological parks, and other nonprofit organiza­
tions .
2 F u ll-tim e plus p art-tim e w ork ers.
A lm o st 90
percent were involved in research and development.
3 Includes
engineering and physical scien ce, life
scien ce, psychology, social scien ce, and other science
technicians.
SOURCE:
Scientific A ctiv ities of Nonprofit Institutions—
1964
Expenditures and January 1965 M anp ow er, 1967
National Science Foundation.

Chapter 8. Occupational Employment in Federal, State, and Local Governments

Federal Government

State and Local Governments

Relatively current Federal Government
occupational employment data are presented
in the Civil Service C om m ission^ publication Current Federal Work Force Data. 1
5
This semiannual publication contains total
governments employment excluding the Post
O ffice,16 the Central Intelligence Agency, and
the National Security Agency, as of June 30,
and of December 31.
However, no detailed
information is reported on occupational and
other employment characteristics by agency.
The end-of-year figures are population data
and represent an actual count of all Federal
employees.
The midyear data are estimates
obtained from a 10-percent sample of each
occupation series' employment.
Table 22
shows data for 157 occupational series, each
employing at least 1,000 persons during D ec­
ember 31, 1964, t h r o u g h June 30, 1966.
Based on current and expected trends in
Federal agency program s, 4-y ea r projections
of employment in these 157 occupations are
presented in the Com m ission's annual publi­
cation Federal Work Force Outlook. 1
7
Comprehensive o c c u p a t i o n a l data, by
Federal agency, are collected and tabulated
annually.
In the Com m ission's latest publi­
cation containing information on professional,
technical, clerical, and related workers.
Q ccupations of Federal W hite-Collar W orkers,
October 31, 1961, statistics are presented
for over 500 occupational series for each of
21 agencies (including one catch-all cate­
gory). 18
Unpublished white-collar worker
data are available for 1962, 1964, and 1966.
Information is presented for almost 900 cate­
gories of craftsmen, operatives, laborers,
and related w orkers for each of 19 agencies
( i n c l u d i n g one catch-all category) in the
Com m ission's p u b l i c a t i o n Occupations of
Federal Blue-Collar Workers, October 31,
I960. 1
9 Unpublished blue-collar worker data
for 1961, 1962, 1965, and 1966 are available.




27

Employment of scientific, professional,
and technical personnel by State governments
in January 1964 and by local governments in
October 1963 was obtained from sample sur­
veys conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics and is shown in table 19.
State data
are for the 50 States and exclude State edu­
cational institutions.
S i m i l a r surveys of
State governments employment were made for
1959 and 1962. 2
0
Local governments data
exclude all governmental administration units
of less than 25, 000 population (except certain
special districts) and all educational insti­
tutions.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics presently
is conducting a survey of State governments
occupational employment in 1967 and is con­
sidering a future study of local governments
occupational employment.

15 Current Federal Work Force Data as of June, 1966, March
1967, U. S. Civil Service Commission.
Data for December 1964
and June 1965 appear in the September 1966 publication.
Data
for June 1964 are in the August 1965 publication.
16 Employment in selected postal occupations during 1960-66
is presented in table 23.
17 The third report in this series, covering the fiscal years
1967—70, was published in May 1967.
18 Earlier data are contained in similarly titled publications
dated Aug. 31, 1954; Feb. 28, 1957; Oct. 31, 1958; Oct. 31,
1959; and Oct. 31, 1960.
Data for 1947 and 1951 are in the
BLS Bulletin 1117, which was published in cooperation with the
Civil Service Commission.
19 Earlier data are contained in similarly titled publica­
tions dated Feb. 28, 1957; Oct. 31, 1958; Oct. 31, I960; and
Oct. 31, 1961.
20 Employment of Scientific and Technical Personnel in
State Government Agencies, Report on a 1959 Survey, 1961,
National Science Foundation.
This survey was sponsored by the
National Science Foundation and conducted by the U. S. Depart­
ment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Employment of Scientific and Technical Personnel in State
Government Agencies, 1962, Bulletin 1412, U. S. Department of
Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

28
Table 22.

Federal Employment in White-Collar Occupations, 1964-66
June 30,
1966'

De ce mb er 31,
1965 2

De ce mb er 31,
1964 2

1 ,190,250

1 ,14 3 ,05 5

1 ,07 4 ,69 7

P ro fessiona l oc cupations---------------------------------------------------

2 2 6 ,1 8 5

2 2 4 ,9 3 7

2 1 4 ,2 3 7

0110
0180
0185

Social sc ie nce ----------------------------------------------------------------------------E c o n o m i c s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Psychology----------------------------------------------------------------------------Social w o r k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

9, 533
5 ,4 4 3
1 ,8 6 3
2, 227

8, 693
4, 533
1 ,8 1 7
2, 343

7, 633
3 ,6 4 1
1,8 4 3
2, 149

0401
0457
0460
0470
0475

Agricultural s c i e n c e -------------------------------------- ------------------------Biology----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Soil conservation-----------------------------------------------------------------F o r e s t r y --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Soil scie nce --------------------------------------------------------------------------F a r m management l o a n -----------------------------------------------------

1 7 ,3 0 7
1 ,2 4 3
4, 856
6, 094
1 ,8 93
3, 221

1 6 ,7 3 4
1 ,0 5 9
4, 742
6, 184
1 ,8 7 3
2, 876

1 6,2 6 3
1 ,0 2 7
4, 780
5 ,97 4
1 ,9 0 3
2, 579

0510
0512

Acco un tin g---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Acco un tin g----------------------------------------------------------------------------Internal revenue agent--------------------------------------------------------

3 1 ,2 1 9
1 8 ,2 3 6
1 2,9 8 3

3 1 ,5 4 0
1 8 ,6 7 7
1 2,8 6 3

3 1 ,0 3 8
1 8 ,2 6 5
1 2,7 7 3

0602
0610
0630

M e d i c a l ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Med ical o f f i c e r -------------------------------------------------------------------N u r s e -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dietitian---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3 8 ,0 3 3
1 2,511
2 4 ,4 6 2
1 ,0 6 0

37,738
1 2 ,8 8 6
2 3,807
1 ,0 4 5

35,344
1 1,6 1 3
2 2 ,5 7 0
1, 161

0701

V e t e r in a r y -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2, 352

2 ,447

2, 285

0801
0808
0810
0811
0812
0813
0820
0830
0850
0855
0861
0871
0893
0896

Engineering--------------------------------------------------------------------------------General engineering-----------------------------------------------------------Architectur e-------------------------------------------------------------------------Civil engineering-----------------------------------------------------------------Construction engineering--------------------------------------------------Structural engineering-------------------------------------------------------Hydraulic engineering-------------------------------------------------------Highway engine ering----------------------------------------------------------Mechanical engine ering-----------------------------------------------------Electric al engineering-------------------------------------------------------Electronic engineering------------------------------------------------------A eros p ac e engine ering------------------------------------------------------Naval architecture--------------------------------------------------------------Chemical engineering---------------------------------------------------------Industrial engineering--------------------------------------------------------

72,136
1 1,741
1,49 1
3 1 8 , 5 16

2 , 007

7 1 ,1 9 5
1 1,2 1 5
1 ,4 5 5
13,9 01
1 ,8 3 5
590
936
1 ,2 6 8
8, 660
4, 314
1 4 ,4 6 5
8, 090
1 ,0 5 5
1, 342
2, 069

6 7 ,9 7 6
1 0 ,3 5 9
1 ,3 8 3
8 ,4 6 1
3 ,4 5 1
1 ,2 8 6
2, 178
1 ,9 3 8
8, 376
4, 370
1 3 ,7 7 6
7, 970
1, 100
1 ,2 9 0
2, 038

0905

A tto r n e y --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9, 378

9, 264

9, 057

1224

Patent examining-----------------------------------------------------------------------

1 ,1 1 6

1 ,0 6 6

1, 106

1301
1310
1320
1340
1350
1370

Physical s c i e n c e ----------------------------------------------------------------------General physical s c i e n c e --------------------------------------------------P h y s i c s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ch em is tr y-----------------------------------------------------------------------------M e t e o r o l o g y -------------------------------------------------------------------------G e o l o g y ------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------Cartograph y--------------------------------------------------------------------------

2 7 ,0 0 7
6, 309
5, 339
8, 150
2, 261
1 ,9 3 3
3, 015

2 6 ,4 6 0
6, 388
5, 127
7, 831
2, 220
1 ,9 4 9
2, 945

2 6 ,0 1 8
6,466
5,02 6
7, 716
2, 190
1 ,9 6 5
2, 655

1520
1529

Mathe ma tic s------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mathe ma tic s-------------------------------------------------------------------------Mathematical s t a t i s t i c s -----------------------------------------------------

3, 924
3 ,432
492

3, 721
3, 308
413

3,512
3 ,0 8 9
423

1710

E duc ati on-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 4,1 8 0

1 6 ,0 7 9

1 4 ,0 0 5

Administrati ve-technical (general) occupations-----------------

3 1 6 ,3 9 2

2 9 7 ,7 5 8

2 8 2 ,2 6 6

3, 882
1 ,5 7 9
2, 303

3, 772
1 ,5 7 9
2, 193

3 ,5 3 3
1 ,4 2 0
2, 113

eries
code

Series
All white-co lla r occupations--------

0016
0080

Safety, security
Safety management —
Security----------------------

-

8, 709
4, 181
1 4 ,5 6 6
8, 599
1 ,0 4 6
1 ,2 8 0

0132

Intelligence-------------- -

3, 015

2, 952

2, 776

0188

R e cre atio n ----------------

1 ,9 4 4

1 ,8 2 9

1 ,8 11

See footnotes at end of table,




29

Table 22.

Federal Employment in White-Collar Occupations, 1964-66— Continued
June 30,
1966 1

D ece mbe r 31,
1965 2

0212
0221
0235

P e r s o n n e l ---------------------------------------------P e r s o n n e l a d m in is t r a tio n -------------Staffing---------------------------------------------C la ssif ic a tio n ---------------------------------Employee d ev elopm ent------------------

1 6 ,3 3 7
8 ,2 6 8
3 ,7 8 1
2 ,4 5 2
1 ,8 3 6

1 5 ,4 1 9
8,03 6
3 ,2 6 3
2, 385
1 ,7 3 5

1 4 ,9 8 7
7, 959
2 ,9 4 9
2 ,4 3 3
1 ,6 4 6

0330
0331
0332
0334
0341
0342
0343
0344
0362

Computer and management serv ices
Systems ad ministration---------------Digital computer pro gra m e r ----Systems opera tio n-------------------------Systems an alysis----------------------------Administrative offic er------------------Office s e r v i c e s ------------------------------Management a n a l y s i s --------------------Management technician-----------------EAM project pla nning-------------------

4 2,819
1 ,3 3 6
4 , 624
5 ,0 1 1
6, 845
9,445
2,029
8, 731
3,79 2
1 ,0 0 6

40,645
1 ,3 4 9
6, 251
4 ,459
3 ,8 8 2
9 ,445
1 ,8 7 6
8,59 2
3,539
1 ,2 5 2

38,486
1, 107
5 ,438
3 ,7 2 8
3 ,354
9, 500
2 ,0 0 8
8 ,3 1 3
3 ,5 2 9
1 ,5 0 9

0403
0404
0458

Agricultural su ppo rt---------------------------M ic ro b io lo g y -----------------------------------Biology laboratory technician-----Soil conservation aid -------------------

8, 675
1 ,4 8 5
4 ,09 4
3 ,096

7 ,2 7 6
1 ,4 0 8
2, 716
3, 152

6,329
1 ,2 1 5
2, 237
2,877

0501
0525
0570

Accounting, finance sup po rt-------------General accounting, budget---------Accounting technician--------------------Financial institution e x a m i n e r ----

2 6 ,5 5 5
1 0 ,5 2 4
1 2 ,7 9 9
3,232

2 6 ,5 9 4
1 0 ,6 3 8
1 2 ,9 4 7
3 ,009

2 6 ,8 0 5
1 1,0 7 3
1 2 ,9 9 0
2, 742

0645
0647

M e d i c a l --------------------------------------------------Medical technician-------------------------Radiology technician----------------------

4, 687
3 ,052
1 ,6 3 5

4, 274
2,735
1 ,5 3 9

4, 114
2, 639
1 ,4 7 5

0802
0809
0817
0818
0856

Engineering SupportEngineering technician —
Construction inspectio nSurveying technicianEngineering d ra ftingElectronic technician-

5 7 ,7 6 5
2 6 ,7 0 6
2,956
5,500
3,99 4
1 8 ,6 0 9

5 3 ,2 0 5
2 3 ,6 7 3
2 ,9 8 5
4,99 2
3, 974
17,5 81

49,883
2 1 ,7 8 5
2, 772
4, 597
3, 893
1 6 ,8 3 6

102 0
1060
1081
1082

Fine a r t s ------------------------------------------Illustrating----------------------------------Photography-------------------------------Public information--------------------Writing and editing---------------------

9, 129
2 ,4 7 5
2,897
1 ,8 9 0
1 ,8 6 7

8 ,532
2,405
2 ,4 7 9
1 ,8 2 7
1,821

8,31 9
2, 369
2, 500
1,7 3 1
1 ,7 1 9

1102
1104
1150
1152
1165
1170
1171

Business and in dus tr y-------------------General business and industry
Contract p ro c u re m e n t-------------P r o p e r t y d is p o s a l ----------------------Industrial sp ec ia lis t-----------------Production control--------------------Loan s p e c i a l i s t --------------------------R e a l ty ------------------------------------------Appraising, a s s e s s in g --------------

3 9 ,3 4 8
2 ,8 4 5
1 6 ,6 7 4
1 ,3 1 5
4 ,48 6
6, 168
2 ,2 5 5
2 ,9 9 1
2, 614

37,2 5 7
2, 294
1 5 ,4 4 0
1 ,3 6 8
4 ,0 1 1
6 ,3 4 5
2 ,3 0 3
2, 882
2,61 4

36, 068
1 ,9 4 2
14,9 71
1 ,3 3 6
3 ,802
6, 531
2, 179
2, 751
2, 556

1311
1341
1371

Physical science su p po rt -------------Physical science technician----M eterolog ical technician---------Cartographic a i d e s --------------------

9 ,828
3 ,566
2, 678
3 ,58 4

9, 085
3,20 7
2 ,597
3 ,2 8 1

8,039
2 ,898
2, 607
2, 534

1410

Librarian-------------------------------------------

3 ,7 5 1

3,56 9

3, 387

1530

Statistician-

2 ,73 6

2, 688

2 ,337

1640
1670

Equipment and construction—
Construction maintenance Equipment sp ec ia lis t----------

1 5 ,7 9 4
2, 783
13,011

1 4 ,4 5 5
2, 701
1 1 ,7 5 4

1 3 ,7 0 4
2 ,5 6 8
1 1 ,1 3 6

1712

Instruction -

9,25 2

8,283

6, 622

1810
1825

Investigation-----------------------General investigation —
Aviation safety of fic er-

4, 661
2, 739
1 ,9 2 2

4, 614
2,749
1 ,8 6 5

4 ,373
2 ,8 2 1
1 ,5 5 2

Series
code

0 20 1

1101

Series

See footnotes at end of table.




De ce mbe r
1 96 4 2

30
Table 22.

Federal Employment in White-Collar Occupations, 1964-66— Continued

eries
code

S'

Series

June 30,
1966 1

De ce mbe r 3 i ,
1965 2

De ce mbe r 31,
1964 2

1 3 ,3 6 8

12,1 21

9, 543

1903
1936
1940
1942
1950

Inspection and quality co n tr o l ----------------------------General commodity quality control and
insp ectio n-------------------------------------------------------Quality control and inspection management
Electronic equipment--------------------------------------Mechanical equipment------------------------------------A ir c raft quality control and insp ectio n------M is s il e quality control and inspectio n---------

2 ,5 1 5
2,36 6
3 ,059
2, 100
2,238
1 ,0 9 0

2 ,3 7 0
2,048
2, 690
1 ,6 7 0
2, 090
1 ,2 5 3

2, 123
1 ,5 5 0
2,368
1 ,4 0 4
1 ,0 0 8
1 ,0 9 0

2001
2010
2030
2050
2090

Supply-----------------------------General supply---------Supply requirements
Storage management
Cataloging-----------------Publication-----------------

31,587
10,1 41
1 4 ,9 7 0
1, 127
3 ,8 6 5
1 ,4 8 4

3 0 ,5 6 5
1 0 ,4 7 7
1 3 ,7 0 4
1,081
3 ,8 6 5
1 ,4 3 8

3 1 ,2 9 9
1 1,7 8 5
1 3 ,0 3 3
1, 172
3 ,91 7
1 ,3 9 2

2101
2130
2131
2132
2134
2181

Transportation-------------------------General transportatio n----Traffic ma nagement----------Freight r a t e ------------------------T ra ve l----------------------------------Shipment------------------------------A irc raft op era tio n--------------

1 1 ,2 5 9
1 ,6 2 9
1 ,7 3 4
2, 202
1 ,4 2 6
2,41 4
1 ,8 5 4

1 0,6 2 3
1 ,6 7 5
1 ,5 2 8
2, 255
1 ,3 0 7
2, 348
1 ,5 1 0

9 ,8 5 1
1 ,7 9 4
1 ,4 8 6
2, 263
1,401
1 ,8 9 4
1 ,0 1 3

A dm in is tr ati ve -t e chnic al-------------------------(Government) occupations -----------------

94,808

91,294

8 7 ,4 5 9

1901

0007

Correctional institution administration'

2 ,934

2 ,9 1 5

2, 905

0105

Social insurance ad ministration-------------

1 0 ,2 1 8

9, 703

8, 503

0526
0560
0592

Acco un tin g--------------------------------------Tax technician--------------------------Budget-----------------------------------------Tax accounting---------------------------

1 7 ,8 2 7
2, 808
6, 112
8,90 7

1 6,1 91
2, 798
6 ,0 3 5
7 ,3 5 8

1 5 ,1 4 5
2, 798
5 ,9 5 8
6, 389

0685

Public health pro gr am specialist-

1 ,8 9 8

1 ,8 4 5

1 ,6 4 6

1 1 ,2 4 7
1 ,2 01
1,941
5,70 2
2 ,4 0 3

1 0 ,5 6 4
1 ,1 1 0
1 ,8 9 4
5 ,683
1 ,8 7 7

9,885
1, 168
1 ,8 9 4
5, 071
1 ,7 5 2

6, 200

6, 241

6 ,4 2 2

2 4 ,6 5 3
12,941
1 ,2 5 5
1 ,2 4 7
1, 178
3 ,9 5 2
2,82 6
1 ,2 5 4

2 3 ,4 8 8
1 2,2 4 9
1, 139
1 ,2 2 9
1 ,0 9 0
3 ,8 4 5
2, 711
1 ,2 2 5

2 2 ,4 2 8
1 1,2 5 8
1, 162
1, 159
1, 149
3 ,7 2 3
2, 667
1 ,3 1 0

0962
0963
0993
0996
1169

Claim s examining---------------------Contract rep resentative-----Legal institution examining
Social security c l a i m s -------V e te r a n s c la im s e x a m in in g
Collection officer

1811
1813
1816
1854
1863
189 0
1896

Investigation---------------------------------------Criminal investigation----------------Wage and hour law enforcement
Immigration inspection--------------Alcoho l, tobacco t a x ------------------Food inspection----------------------------Customs insp ectio n--------------------Immigration p a t r o l ----------------------

1980

Agricultural grading

2, 600

2 ,9 4 0

2, 923

2152

A ir traffic control —

17,2 31

1 7 ,4 0 7

1 7 ,6 0 2

44,937

42,595

4 1,496

0621
0636
0681
0699

Medical su p port -----------------------Nursing a s s i s t a n t --------------Physical therapy assistant
Dental a s s i s t a n t -----------------Medical a i d --------------------------

42,990
3 8 ,3 7 8
1,01 1
1 ,6 4 7
1 ,9 5 4

40,809
3 6 ,6 1 7
1 ,0 2 9
1 ,3 9 5
1 ,7 6 8

3 9 ,9 0 3
3 5 ,9 5 5
1 ,0 4 7
1, 308
1 ,5 9 3

1411

Libr ar y assistant

1 ,9 4 7

1 ,7 8 6

1 ,5 9 3

1 07 ,0 33

1 0 1 ,0 4 9

9 0 ,3 8 2

1 4 ,6 9 2
7, 165
7 ,5 2 7

1 2 ,7 3 4
6, 699
6, 035

1 2 ,0 5 0
6, 081
5,969

A id -a ssis t a n t occupations

Cle rica l (specialized) occupations

0203
0204

Per sonnel c l e r ic a l --------------------Personnel cl e r ic a l --------------Military personnel cle rical

See footnotes at end of table.




31
Table 22.

Federal Employment in White-Collar Occupations,

Series
code

Series

June 30,
1966 1

0309

Correspondence c l e r k — ----------------------------------------------------

1 96 4 -6 6 — Continued
De ce mbe r 31,
1965 2

D ece mbe r 31,
19 64 2

1 ,7 4 2

1 ,7 1 6

1 ,7 2 9

0520
0540
0544
0545
0590

Accounting c l e r ic a l ------------------------------------------------------------------Accounts maintenanc e-------------------------------------------------------Voucher examining-------------------------------------------------------------T im e , leave , and p a y r o l l -------------------------------------------------Military pay ------------------------------------------------------------------------T im e, l e a v e - --------------------------------------------- ---------------------------

2 9,0 5 1
1 2,4 7 5
5 ,553
4,57 6
4, 307
2, 140

2 7 ,9 4 1
1 2 ,0 1 9
5,495
4,43 9
3,94 7
2 ,0 4 1

2 7 ,0 8 0
11,6 2 6
5 ,44 7
4, 355
3 ,598
2 ,054

0998

Claim s c l e r ic a l ----------------------------- ---------------------------------------

1 0,0 2 5

9,41 2

2, 873

1531

Statistical c le ric a l------------------------------------------------ --------------

6 ,8 8 8

6 ,8 9 8

7 ,0 1 9

2020
2040
2091

Supply c l e ric a l--------------------------------------------------------------------------Purchasing----------------------------------------------------------------------------- .
Stock co n tr o l------------------------------------------------------------------------Sales sto re — -------------------------------------------------------------------------

44,635
8,83 7
32,896
2,902

42,348
8 ,4 9 1
31, 137
2, 720

3 9 ,6 3 1
8, 186
28,994
2 ,4 5 1

2 7 7 ,4 0 0

259, 117

2 4 1 ,6 1 6

Cl erical (general) oc cupations-----------------------------------------

0302
0305
0312
0316
0318
0322
0350
0356
0359
0382
0385

Office oc cupations--------------------------------------------------------------------M e s s e n g e r ----------------------------------------------------------------------------File, m a il ----------------------------------------- •
-----------------------------------C l e r k -s te n o g r a p h e r ------------------------------------------------------------ Clerk-dictating m a c h in e ---------------------------------------------------S ec re ta ry ------------------------------------------------------------------------------C l e r k - t y p i s t -------------------------------------------------------------------------Office machine operations-------------------------------------------------Card punch----------------------------------------------------------------------------EAM o p e ra ti o n s ------------- -----------------------------------------------------Telephone operation------------------------------------------------------------T e le ty p i s t------------------ ------------------ ----------------- ----------------------

2 7 4 ,1 7 8
1 ,6 2 0
27,224
5 2,7 7 1
6, 620
5 8 ,5 4 4
95,426
1,561
1 6,1 3 9
5, 132
7, 071
2 ,0 7 0

2 5 5 ,7 91
1 ,5 7 8
2 5 ,3 7 9
51,726
6 ,5 2 2
56,028
8 4 ,6 9 5
1 ,4 7 8
1 4 ,2 2 9
5, 113
7 ,0 4 1
2 ,002

2 3 8 ,3 0 0
1 ,7 0 2
2 3 ,9 6 7
51,859
6 ,4 9 3
54,935
7 0 ,6 4 7
1 ,4 8 7
1 2 ,2 7 6
5 ,83 6
6, 756
2, 342

0530

Cash c l e r ic a l -------------------------------------------------------------------------

3,222

3 ,326

3,31 6

Other occupations-----------------------------------------------------------------

1 23 ,4 95

1 2 6 ,3 05

117 ,2 41

0081
0083
0085

M is ce ll aneo us----------------------------------------------------------------------------F i r e ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P o l i c e ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Guard--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2 8 ,5 3 1
1 1 ,8 1 4
2, 774
1 3,9 4 3

2 7 ,5 6 9
1 1 ,2 7 7
2 ,8 4 0
1 3 ,4 5 2

2 7 ,0 8 5
1 1 ,4 0 6
2,554
13, 125

0301

General cl eri cal and administrative--------------------------------

94,964

98,736

90,156

1 Based upon a 10 percent sam ple.
2 T o ta l p o p u la tio n .
3 Coverage of 0810 expanded to include se ries 0811,

0812,

0813 and 0820 which were discontinued in 1966.

SOURCE: Data for 1964 and 1965 are from Current Fe de ra l Workforce Data,
Commission.
Data for 1966, ibid. , March 1967.

Table 23.

September 1966,

Employment in Selected Post Office Occupations,

U. S.

Civil Service

1 96 0 -6 6

(In thousands)
1966

1965

1964

1963

1962

1961

I960

A ll oc cupation s-----------------------

692

610

593

590

585

580

568

P ost m ast e rs 1 -----------------------------------Supervi sors ---------------------------------------Postal c l e r k s -------------------------------------Mail carr iers 2----------------------------------Special delivery c a r r i e r s ---------------Mail h a n d le rs ------------------------------------

33
33
300
225
5
44

33
32
250
207
4
32

34
32
240
202
4
32

34
32
239
200
4
31

35
31
239
198
4
31

35
31
239
195
4
30

35
30
234
190
5
29

Occupation

1 Does not include assistant p ostm aste r s.
2 Includes p ar t- tim e ca rr ie rs on a full-tim e equivalent ba sis.
NO TE:
SOURCE:

Data are as of October.

Post O f f i c e Department.




Bureau

of Finance

and Administration

Paid Employees

Report , F o r m

1988.

32




Table 24.

Employment of Scientific, Professional, and Technical Personnel
by State and Local Governments
(In thousands)
State government
January 1964

Occupation

A ll occupations

Local g o ve rn m en t1
October 1963

.56. 8

2 134. 4

E n g i n e e r s ------------------------Civil engineers -------Ele ct rical engineers ■
Mechanical engineers
Traffic e n g in e e r s ----Sanitary engineers —
Other e n g in e e r s --------

34. 5
31. 0
( 3)
( 3)
( 3)
1. 2
2. 3

22. 3
17. 1
2. 3
1. 3
. 7
( 3)
.8

Scientists ---Chemists
Geologists and geophysicists
Other physical s c i e n t i s t s ------Agr icultural scientists --------Biomedical scientists --------Other life scientists --------------M a th e m a tic ia n s ----------------------S t a t i s t i c i a n s ---------------------------E c o n o m i s t s ------------------------------Sociologists and anthropologists
Other social scientists-----------------Clinical p s y c h o l o g i s t s -----------------Social p s y c h o l o g i s t s --------------------Other psychologists ---------------------

16.
1.
1.
.
3.
2.
2.
.
1.
.
.
.
2.

7
4
0
1
3
0
9
3
6
7
2
5
0

.4

5. 9
1. 2
(4)
. 1
. 9
1. 8
. 3
. 1
.4
. 2
( 5)
.4
(6)
( 6)
. 7

9. 2

( 7)

1

Social w o r k e r s Selected health pro fessio ns 8-------Public health officers (M. D. ) ■
Psychiatrists (M. D . )
A ll other physicians (M. D. and D O. )
~
Dentists (D. D. S. or D. D. M. ) ---------------Pro fessiona l nurses (R. N. ) -----------------Veterinarians (D. V. M. ) -----------------------Sanitarians ------------------------------------------------

36.
.
3.
4.
1.
21.
1.
3.

2
8
8
4
0
6
1
4

73.
1.
.
10.
1.
51.
.
7.

Technicians —
D r a ft s m e n Surveyors Engineering technicians---------Physical science technicians-Agr icultural technicians ------Biological technicians ■
Medical and dental technicians
Other tech nici an s------------------------

60.
7.
12.
30.
1.
2.
1.
3.
.

2
9
0
5
5
0
8
7
8

32. 3
7. 9
5. 5
7. 2
1. 1
. 5
(9 )
9. 2
.9

9
9
8
8
0
6
4
3

1 Data are only for city, county, and township governments which have a population
for the governmental unit of 25, 000 or mo re, and for certain districts which were sampled
with certainty probability.
2 Excludes social workers.
See footnote 7.
3 Included with civil engineers.
4 Included with other physical scientists.
5 Included with other social scientists.
6 Included with other psychologists.
7 Data not collected.
8 The relevant occupations do not include physicians and dentists dealing with patients.
9 Included with agricultural technicians.
NO TE :

Because of rounding,

sums of individual items may not equal totals.

SOURCE: Local data— Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished sample
survey p rel iminary data.
State data— Employment, of Scientific, Pro fessiona l, and Techni­
cal Personnel in State Governments, January 19^>4.
BLS Bulletin 1557, (1967). ★

★ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1988 0 - 2 9 1 - 0 2 8

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES

New England
J ohn F . K en n edy F e d e r a l B uild in g
G o v e r n m e n t C e n t e r , R o o m 1 6 0 3 -B
B o s to n , M a s s . 0 22 03
T e l . : 2 2 3 -6 7 6 2

Mid*Atlantic
341 N inth A v en u e
N ew Y o r k , N. Y . 10001
T e l . : 9 7 1 -5 4 0 5




Southern
1371 P e a c h t r e e S t r e e t , N E .
A tla n ta , G a . 30309
T e l . : 5 2 6 -5 4 1 8

North Central
219 South D e a r b o r n S tre e t
C h ic a g o , 111. 6 0604
T e l . : 3 5 3 -7 2 3 0

P a cific
450 G o ld e n G ate A v en u e
B o x 36017
San F r a n c i s c o , C a lif. 9 4102
T e l . : 5 5 6 -4 6 7 8

M ountain-Plains
F e d e r a l O ffic e B u ild in g , T h ir d F lo o r
911 W alnut S tre e t
K a n s a s C ity , M o . 64106
T e l . : 3 7 4 -2 4 8 1


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102