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A Stu dy Sp o n so re d by th e M a n p o w e r Ad m in is tr at io n

SOUTHWEST MISSOURI STATt
COLLEGE LIBRARY
U. S. DEPOSITORY COPY
FEB 1 4 1969
 U.S. DEPARTMENTOF


LABOR /

Bureau of Labor Statistics /

B u l l e t i n No. 1 5 9 9

OCCUPATIONAL
EMPLOYMENT
PATTERNS
FOR
I9 6 0 AND 1975
A Study Sponsored
by

the

MANPOWER

ADMINISTRATION

December 1958
Bulletin

No.

1599

U.S. DE PA RTM ENT OF LABOR
Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU
Ben

OF

LABOR

B u r det s ky, A c t i n g

STATISTICS

Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $2.25










Preface
T h e e s t i m a t e s p r e s e n t e d h e r e o n the fu t u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l
c o m p o s i t i o n of e m p l o y m e n t f o r i n d u s t r i e s and f o r the e n t i r e
U nited S t a t e s a r e p a r t of the con tin u in g w o r k of the B u r e a u
of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s on e v a lu a t io n of the c o u n t r y ' s m a n p o w e r
n e e d s and r e s o u r c e s . E s t i m a t e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s a r e b e i n g m a d e by a g e n c i e s in m a n y l o c a l a r e a s .
The r e s u l t s of su c h s t u d i e s a r e u s e d to p la n l o c a l m a n ­
p o w e r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . S in c e the V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n
A c t o f 1963, S ta te g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s h av e b e e n i n ­
c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e r n e d w ith p r o j e c t i o n s of o c c u p a t i o n a l e m ­
p lo y m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r u s e in p la n n in g s t a t e w i d e t r a i n ­
ing a n d e d u c a t io n p r o g r a m s . The p r o j e c t i o n s of e m p l o y ­
m e n t c o m p o s i t i o n by o c c u p a t io n of th is r e p o r t a r e f o r the
N a tio n a s a w h ole.
It i s h op ed th a t the n a t i o n a l p r o j e c ­
ti o n s d e v e l o p e d in t h is r e p o r t w i ll a s s i s t S t a t e an d l o c a l
m an p ow er a n a ly s t s , a s w ell a s p ro v id e in fo rm atio n for
n a t io n a l m a n p o w e r p o l i c y and p la n n in g .
The r a t i o s d e ­
v e l o p e d f o r t h is r e p o r t w i ll a l s o b e in c lu d e d in T o m o r ­
r o w 1s M a n p o w e r N e e d s :
N a t io n a l M a n p o w e r P r o j e c t i o n s
and a G uid e to T h e i r U s e a s a T o o l in D e v e lo p in g S ta te
and A r e a M a n p o w e r P r o j e c t i o n s .
T he l a t t e r p u b l ic a t i o n
i s e x p e c t e d to b e p u b l i s h e d l a t e r t h i s y e a r o r e a r l y in
1969.
It w i l l c o n ta in m u c h i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l to S ta te
and a r e a m a n p o w e r p l a n n e r s .
T h e stu d y w a s c o n d u c te d with m a j o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t
by the M a n p o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U. S. D e p a r t m e n t of
Labor.
The r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u ' s O ffic e
of M a n p o w e r and E m p l o y m e n t S t a t i s t i c s . T he m a j o r p a r t
of the a n a l y s i s w a s c a r r i e d out in the D i v i s i o n of O c c u ­
p a t i o n a l E m p l o y m e n t S t a t i s t i c s u n d er the s u p e r v i s i o n of
H arry G reenspan.
I m p o r t a n t a s s i s t a n c e w a s p r o v i d e d by
the s t a f f of the D i v i s i o n of M a n p o w e r an d O c c u p a t i o n a l
O utlook.
M a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the r e p o r t w e r e m a d e
by R i c h a r d D e m p s e y , S a n d r a R o b in s o n , N o r m a n R oot,
J a m e s P. M e t c a l f , J o s e p h J . K i l g a l l o n , C h e s t e r S c h i m m e l ,
R o s e N a s s i s , A r t h u r G a r t a g a n i s and C l a r a B e l a i r .

iii




Contents
Page
I n t r o d u c t i o n ------------------------------T h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h _______________________________________
O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t f a c t o r s ___________________________________________________________
T h e B L S i n d u s t r y - o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t t a b l e ________________________________________
S o u r c e s o f d a ta ________________________________________________________________________________
P r o j e c t i o n of o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t p a t t e r n s f o r
e a c h i n d u s t r y . ----- ----------------I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s ___________________________________________________
P r o c e d u r e s f o r p r o j e c t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ----------------

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S u m m a r y o f c h a n g e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s ________________________________________________
P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s ------ ---M a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , a n d p r o p r i e t o r s _____________________________________________________
C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s _____________________________________________________________________________
S a l e s w o r k e r s __________________________
C r a f t s m e n _____________________________________________________________________________________
O p e r a t i v e s _____________________________________________________________________________________
L a b o r e r s ______________________________________
S e r v i c e w o r k e r s _______________________________________________________________________________

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C h a n g e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s ______
A g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , a n d f i s h e r i e s _______________________
M in in g o f s o l i d m a t e r i a l s _______________________ ____ _______
C r u d e p e t r o l e u m a n d n a t u r a l g a s __________________________
C o n s t r u c t i o n ___________________________________________________
L o g g i n g c a m p s a n d l o g g i n g c o n t r a c t o r s ____ _______ _____
S a w m i l l s , p la n in g m i l l s , m i l l w o r k , a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s
w o o d p r o d u c t s ______________________________________________
F u r n i t u r e a n d f i x t u r e s _______________________________ _____ _
S t o n e , c l a y , a n d g l a s s _______________________________________
P r i m a r y m e t a l s ______________________________________________
F a b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s , in c l u d in g o r d n a n c e ___________
O ffic e , c o m p u tin g , and a c c o u n tin g m a c h in e s i n d u s t r ie s _
N o n e l e c t r ic a l m a c h in e r y , e x c e p t o ffic e , c o m p u tin g , and
a c c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s _____________ ______ _________ ________
E l e c t r i c a l m a c h i n e r y , e q u i p m e n t , a n d s u p p l i e s __________
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t ___________________________________
P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s ___________________
M i s c e l l a n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s __________________
F o o d p r o d u c t s ________________________________________________
T o b a c c o p r o d u c t s ____________________________________________
T e x t i l e m i l l p r o d u c t s ________________________________________
A p p a r e l a n d r e l a t e d p r o d u c t s _______________________________
P a p e r a n d a l l i e d p r o d u c t s ___________________________________
P r i n t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g ______________________________________
C h e m i c a l s a n d a l l i e d p r o d u c t s ______________________________
P e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g a n d r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s _________________
R u b b e r a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s p l a s t i c s p r o d u c t s _____________
L e a t h e r a n d l e a t h e r p r o d u c t s -----------------------------------------R a i l r o a d s ----------------------------------------------------------------------L o c a l and su b u rb a n t r a n s i t and in te r u r b a n
p a s s e n g e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n __________________________________

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Contents— Continued
Page

C h a n g e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s — C o n t in u e d
T r u c k i n g a n d w a r e h o u s i n g ___________________________________________________________________
A i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n __________________________________________
O t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n __________________________________________________________________________
C o m m u n i c a t i o n s _______________________________________________________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s _____________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________________________________________
B u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , h a r d w a r e , a n d f a r m e q u i p m e n t ______________________________________
L i m i t e d p r i c e v a r i e t y s t o r e s ________________________________________________________________
G e n e r a l m e r c h a n d i s e r e t a i l i n g , e x c e p t l i m i t e d p r i c e v a r i e t y __________________________
F o o d a n d d a i r y p r o d u c t s s t o r e s ______________________________________________________________
M o t o r v e h i c l e s a n d a c c e s s o r i e s r e t a i l i n g _________________________________________________
G a s o l i n e s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s ____________________________________________________________________
A p p a r e l a n d a c c e s s o r i e s r e t a i l i n g ___________________________________________________________
F u r n i t u r e , h o m e f u r n i s h i n g s , a n d e q u i p m e n t r e t a i l i n g ___________________
E a t i n g a n d d r i n k i n g p l a c e s ___________________________________________________________________
D r u g s t o r e s ___________________________________________________________________________________
M i s c e l l a n e o u s r e t a i l s t o r e s __________________________________________________________________
B a n k s a n d c r e d i t a g e n c i e s ___________________________________________________________________
S t o c k b r o k e r s a n d i n v e s t m e n t c o m p a n i e s __________________________________________________
I n s u a n c e ________________________________________________________________________________________
R e a l e s t a t e ____________________________________________________________________________________
H o t e l s a n d o t h e r l o d g i n g p l a c e s __________________ __________ ________ ____ ________ _________
L a u n d r i e s and c le a n in g , and p r e s s i n g , a l t e r a t io n , and
r e p a i r s h o p s _________________________________________________________________________________
A l l o t h e r p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s _________________________________________________________________
M i s c e l l a n e o u s b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ___________________________________________________________
A u t o m o b i l e r e p a i r s e r v i c e s a n d g a r a g e ____________________________________________________
M i s c e l l a n e o u s r e p a i r s e r v i c e s _____________________________________________________________
E n t e r t a i n m e n t a n d r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s ____________________________________________________
M e d i c a l a n d h e a l t h s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y ________________________________________________________
L e g a l s e r v i c e s ________________________________________________________________________________
E d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s _________________________________________________________________________
W e lfa r e , r e l i g i o u s , an d n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h i p
o r g a n i z a t i o n s ________________________________________________________________________________
P r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d s ___________________________________________________________________________
E n g i n e e r i n g a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ____________________________________________________
A c c o u n t i n g , a u d i t i n g , a n d b o o k k e e p i n g s e r v i c e s _________________________________________
O t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s ___________________________________________________
P o s t a l s e r v i c e _________________________________________________________________________________
F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t p u b lic a d m in is t r a t io n , e x c e p t
p o s t a l s e r v i c e _______________________________________________________________________________
S t a t e a n d l o c a l p u b l ic a d m i n i s t r a t i o n _______________________________________________________
T ab les:
1. C h a n g e in e m p l o y m e n t b y b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p , 195 0 — 5 ______________________
6
2. D i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y m e n t , 14 y e a r s of a g e a n d o l d e r , b y
b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , I 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 7 5 ___________________________________________
3. D i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y m e n t , 16 y e a r s o f a g e a n d o l d e r , by
b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , I 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 7 5 ___________________________________________
4. E s t i m a t e d e m p lo y m e n t of w h i t e - c o l l a r , b l u e - c o l l a r , s e r v i c e , and
f a r m w o r k e r s , b y b r o a d i n d u s t r y s e c t o r s , I 9 6 0 a n d 1975 _________________________




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C o ntents--- Continued
Page
C harts:
1.
2.

P e r c e n t c h a n g e in e m p l o y m e n t f o r th e 20 l a r g e s t n o n f a r m
o c c u p a t i o n s , 1950 to I 9 6 0 ______________________ _____________________________________
I n d e x e s o f ou tp u t a n d e m p l o y m e n t in m i n i n g a n d
m a n u f a c t u r i n g , 1950 to 1 9 6 5 _________________________________________________________

2
14

A p p en d ixes:
A.
B.
C.
D.

C o m p a r a b i l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s in B L S t a b l e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l
c o m p o s i t i o n o f i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t w ith C e n s u s o c c u p a t i o n a l
c a t e g o r i e s __________________________________________________________
E s t i m a t e d n u m b e r of p r iv a te w ag e and s a l a r y w o r k e r s and p r i m a r y
j o b s o f a l l e m p l o y e d p e r s o n s in e a c h i n d u s t r y , I 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 7 5 _____________ _____ _
R a t i o s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n of i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t ,
I 9 6 0 a n d p r o j e c t e d f o r 1975 __________________________________________________________
P r o je c te d o ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n of in d u stry em p lo y m en t
f o r 19 7 5 , a n d d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s a n d i n d u s t r i e s b y
n u m b e r a n d p e r c e n t _____________________________________________________________________




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Occupational Employment Patterns, I960 and 1975
Introduction
T h i s r e p o r t p r e s e n t s e s t i m a t e s o f the
o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f e m p l o y m e n t by
i n d u s t r y f o r I 9 6 0 , the y e a r of the f i r s t p u b ­
l i s h e d m a t r i x , a n d p r o j e c t i o n s f o r 1975.
O c­
c u p a t i o n a l p r o f i l e s w e r e p r e p a r e d f o r 116 i n ­
d u s t r i e s w h ic h i n c l u d e a l l t y p e s o f e c o n o m i c
activ ity .
The p e r c e n t of to ta l e m p lo y m e n t
in e a c h i n d u s t r y w a s d e v e l o p e d f o r a b o u t 160
o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s c l a s s i f i e d in 10 b r o a d
o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s w h ic h c o m p r i s e a l l t y p e s
of w o r k .
In d u stry -o ccu p atio n al r a tio s p r o ­
j e c t e d to 1975 w e r e u s e d to d e t e r m i n e f u t u r e
o ccu p atio n al em plo y m en t r e q u ir e m e n ts by a p ­
p ly i n g t h e m to p r o j e c t i o n s of t o t a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t in e a c h i n d u s t r y f o r 1975.

It i s n e c e s s a r y to a n t i c i p a t e th e n u m b e r
l i k e l y to b e r e q u i r e d in i m p o r t a n t o c c u p a ­
t i o n s in o r d e r to p l a n t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s a n d
e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a a n d to d e t e r m i n e m a n ­
pow er p o lic ie s.
To av oid m a jo r d if f e r e n c e s
in the r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d s u p p l y of w o r k e r s
f o r p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s , it i s d e s i r a b l e to
d e v e l o p l o n g - t e r m p r o j e c t i o n s of th e n u m b e r
o f w o r k e r s t h a t w i l l b e n e e d e d f o r u s e w ith
i n f o r m a t i o n on th e c u r r e n t s u p p l y a n d f u t u r e
a t t r i t i o n to d e r i v e the n u m b e r t h a t s h o u l d
be train ed .
T h e o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s w h i c h a r e the
p r i m a r y f o c u s of t h i s s tu d y p r o v i d e the m e a n s
of t r a n s l a t i n g p r o j e c t i o n s o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
in e a c h i n d u s t r y , in to o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t b y i n d u s t r y , a n d f o r th e e n t i r e e c o n o m y .

In fo rm atio n o n t h e n u m b e r s c u r r e n tly
e m p l o y e d in s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s a n d e s t i ­
m a t e s of fu tu re e m p lo y m e n t r e q u ir e m e n t s by
o c c u p a t i o n a r e of i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n to e d u ­
c a t o r s , e c o n o m ists, and g o v ern m en t o ffic ia ls.
If the N a tio n i s to m a i n t a i n a h ig h r a t e of
e c o n o m ic grow th and a p p r o a c h n atio n al o b ­
j e c t i v e s fo r ed u catio n , h ealth , im p r o v e m e n t
of u r b a n life, a n d e lim in a tio n of p o v e rty ,
w o r k e r s m u st be em p loy ed a t in c r e a s in g ly
p ro d u ctiv e jo b s.
In o r d e r to a v o i d h u m a n
w a s t e a n d d e c a y , t h o s e w ho w i s h to w o r k
m u s t b e a b l e to fin d j o b s t h a t t e s t t h e i r a b i l i ­
ties.
To ach ieve th ese a im s, a re a so n a b le
b a l a n c e i s n e c e s s a r y b e t w e e n the s k i l l r e ­
q u i r e m e n t s of a r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g t e c h n o l o g ­
i c a l l y a d v a n c e d e c o n o m y a n d the s k i l l s p o s ­
s e s s e d b y the l a b o r f o r c e .
Both s e r i o u s s k ill
s h o r t a g e s a n d h ig h u n e m p l o y m e n t m u s t b e
av oid ed .

A forth co m in g c o r o lla r y re p o rt, T o m o r ­
r o w 1s M a n p o w e r N e e d s , f o u r v o l u m e s b y the
B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s (B L S ), p r e s e n t s
p r o je c t io n s of n atio n al m an p o w er r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s a n d a b r i e f g u id e to t h e i r u s e a s a
f r a m e w o r k fo r d ev elo p in g S tate and a r e a m a n ­
pow er p ro je c tio n s.
T h e V a r i a b i l i t y of O c c u p a t i o n a l
E m p l o y m e n t G r o w th
T h e e x p a n s i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f the
U. S. e c o n o m y g e n e r a t e s a m u c h g r e a t e r
g r o w t h in s o m e o c c u p a t i o n s t h a n in o t h e r s
and d e sp ite i n c r e a s i n g to tal em ploym en t,
s o m e o c c u p a t i o n s d e c l i n e in i m p o r t a n c e a n d
b e c o m e o b so le te a s can be seen m o s t c le a r ly
in a c o m p a r i s i o n o f th e o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a f r o m
the d e c e n n i a l c e n s u s e s .
( C h a r t 1. ) A m o n g
the 20 l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n s r e p o r t e d in bo th
th e 19 5 0 a n d I 9 6 0 c e n s u s e s ,
1 m o r e th an
d o u b l e d in e m p l o y m e n t d u r i n g the 1 9 5 0 * s , 3
i n c r e a s e d m o r e th an 60 p e r c e n t , a n d 3 o t h e r s
h a d s m a l l e r e m p l o y m e n t in I 9 6 0 th a n in 1950.
T h e a v e r a g e g r o w t h sh o w n b y t h e c e n s u s
f o r a l l n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l e m p l o y m e n t w a s 22
percen t.

To an e v e r g r e a t e r extent e m p lo y m en t
o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e r e l a t e d to s k i l l s w h ic h a r e
a c q u ir e d by s p e c ia liz e d train in g or e x te n siv e
g e n e r a l e d u catio n .
F o r a h ig h p r o p o r t i o n of
w o r k it i s no t p o s s i b l e f o r a w o r k e r to o b ­
t a i n e m p l o y m e n t o r to m o v e f r o m a n o c c u p a ­
ti o n in w h ic h e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s h a v e
d i m i n i s h e d , to a n o t h e r f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s an
i n s u f f i c i e n t s u p p l y o f w o r k e r s , w ith o u t t a k i n g
s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g o r m o v i n g i n i t i a l l y to
l o w - s k i l l e d a n d l o w - p a i d w o r k . H o w e v e r , not
a l l o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e lo n g t r a i n i n g o r
f o r m a l ed u catio n o ffe r eq u ally good e m p lo y ­
m ent opportu n ities.




N o r d o e s th e r a t e o f g r o w t h in i n d i v i d u a l
o c c u p a t i o n s in one d e c a d e p r o v i d e a r e l i a b l e
i n d i c a t o r of t h e i r g r o w t h in th e s u c c e e d i n g
decade.
F o r e x a m p l e , th e n u m b e r o f t e l e ­
p h o n e o p e r a t o r s g r e w a l m o s t 80 p e r c e n t in
the 10 y e a r s e n d in g in 1950 b u t w a s no g r e a t e r

1

2

Chart 1. Percent Change in Employment for the
20 Largest Nonfarm Occupations,
1950 to 1960
-20
Cashiers

0

+20

+40

+60

+80

I
!

Attendants, hospitals and other institutions
Engineers
Elementary and secondary school teachers!
Nurses, professional
Secretaries, stenographers and typists

I

Welders and flame cutters
Insurance agents, brokers and underwriter^
Janitors and sextons
Cooks, except private household
Bookkeepers
Accountants
Waiters and waitresses
All nonfarm workers
Sewers and stitchers, manufacturing
Drivers and deliverymen
Private household workers
(not elsewhere classified)
Auto mechanics
Machinists

I
Painters, construction and maintenance
Carpenters

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, U .S. C e n su s o f Population 1960, United
S ta te s Summary, D e tailed C h a r a c te r istic s, PC(1) 1D.U.S., Table 202.

Source:




+100

+120

3

a t th e end o f a n o t h e r 10 y e a r s .
The n u m b e r
o f a u to s e r v i c e an d p a r k i n g
attendants in ­
c r e a s e d o n l y 8 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n 1940 and
1 9 5 0 , but g r e w a l m o s t 50 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n
1950 and I 9 6 0 .
E l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y
s c h o o l t e a c h e r s w e r e o n ly 11 p e r c e n t m o r e
n u m e r o u s in 1950 th a n in 1 9 4 0 , but i n c r e a s e d
a l m o s t 50 p e r c e n t in th e f o l l o w i n g 10 y e a r s .
B etw een d e c e n n ia l c e n s u s e s re lia b le in ­
f o r m a t i o n on e m p l o y m e n t i s a v a i l a b l e o n ly
fo r a s m a l l n u m b e r of in d iv id u a l o c c u p a tio n s.
S in ce 1947, h o w e v e r, annual a v e r a g e e m p lo y ­
m ent e s tim a t e s have been d eveloped fo r all
b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s b a s e d on a s a m p l e
s u r v e y of h o u s e h o l d s . 1
N o n f a r m e m p l o y m e n t i n c r e a s e d a b o u t 30
p e r c e n t b e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1 9 6 5 .
The n um ber
o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s in 1965
w a s a b o u t d o u b l e the n u m b e r in 1 9 5 0 . C l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s and s e r v i c e w o r k e r s e x c e p t p r i v a t e
h o u se h o ld w o r k e r s a l s o g r e w r e la t i v e ly r a p id
and c o n s i s t e n t l y (4 6 an d 52 p e r c e n t ) .
Em ­
p lo y m e n t of m a n a g e r s ,
salesw o rk ers, a n d

T a b l e 1.

p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d w o r k e r s g r e w a t a b o u t the
s a m e r a t e a s to ta l e m p lo y m e n t but m o r e
s l o w l y t h a n th e t o t a l f o r n o n f a r m w o r k e r s .
E m p lo y m e n t of n o n fa rm b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s
(the c r a f t s m e n , o p e r a t i v e s , an d l a b o r e r s
g r o u p s ) i n c r e a s e d a t l e s s t h a n h a l f the r a t e
f o r a l l o f n o n f a r m e m p l o y m e n t a n d th u s d e ­
c lin e d r e l a t i v e l y .
F a r m w o r k e r s w e r e the
o n ly b r o a d g r o u p to d e c l i n e a b s o l u t e l y a s w e l l
as relatively .
T h e l o n g - t e r m d e c l i n e in f a r m
w o r k e r s a p p e a r s to h a v e a c c e l e r a t e d s i n c e
the end of W o r ld W a r II.
The f a r m w ork
f o r c e o f 196 5 n u m b e r e d no t m u c h m o r e th an
t h r e e - fift h s that of 1950.
(See tab le 1 .)

1
Before February 1966, occupational data from the monthly
survey o f households were published regularly by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics in The Monthly Report on the Labor Force and
in Employment and Earnings. Beginning in February 1966, both
publications were combined to form the Employment and Earnings
and Monthly Report on the L a b o r F o r c e . Before July 1959,
the data were published by the Bureau o f the Census in Current
Population Reports, Series P250, Annual Report on the Labor Force.

C h a n g e in E m p l o y m e n t b y B r o a d O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p , 1950—65

O ccu p ation al group

E m p lo y m e n t
grow th
(in m i l l i o n s )

P ercent
change
1950-65

T o t a l --------------------------------------------------

12. 5

21

T o t a l l e s s f a r m w o r k e r s -------------------------

15. 7

30

W h i t e - c o l l a r -----------------------------------------------P r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , an d k i n d r e d
w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------------M a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , and p r o p r i e t o r s ----C l e r i c a l and k i n d r e d w o r k e r s ----------------S a l e s w o r k e r s ------------------------------------------

9. 7

43

4.
.
3.
.

4
9
5
9

98
14
46
23

B l u e - c o l l a r ------------------------------------------------C r a f t s m e n , f o r e m e n , and k i n d r e d
w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------O p e r a t i v e s ---------------------------------------------L a b o r e r s ------------------------------------------------

3. 1

13

1. 6
1. 2
. 3

20
10
10

S e r v i c e w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------P r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d w o r k e r s --------------------O t h e r s e r v i c e w o r k e r s ---------------------------

2. 8
.4
2. 4

43
20
52

F a r m w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------F a r m o w n e r s a n d m a n a g e r s -------------------F a r m l a b o r e r s an d f o r e m e n -------------------

-3. 1
-2. 1
-1 .0

NOTE:

Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.




-42
-49
-33

4

H ow ever, em ploym en t tren d s fo r b ro ad
o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s a r e no t a r e l i a b l e i n d i c a ­
t o r o f the t r e n d s f o r i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n s
w ith in e a c h g r o u p .
F o r e x a m p l e , the p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l an d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s w e r e th e f a s t e s t
g r o w i n g g r o u p , i n c r e a s i n g 47 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n
the 1950 an d I 9 6 0 c e n s u s .
N o n e o f the t r a ­
d i t i o n a l " l e a r n e d " p r o f e s s i o n s e q u a l e d the
g r o w t h f o r th e g r o u p --- c l e r g y m e n , l a w y e r s ,
an d d o c t o r s e a c h i n c r e a s i n g l e s s th a n 20 p e r ­
c e n t in n u m b e r s e m p l o y e d .
S erv ice w ork ers
(e x ce p t p r iv a t e h o u se h o ld w o r k e r s ) in c r e a s e d
27 p e r c e n t , b u t o f the 28 c e n s u s d e t a i l e d
o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s w h ic h m a k e up t h i s
g r o u p , a l l b u t 10 h a d r a t e s o f g r o w t h w h ich
w e r e l e s s th a n 5 p e r c e n t o r g r e a t e r th a n 50
p ercen t.
B e c a u s e o f th e s c a r c i t y o f c u r r e n t d a t a
on e m p l o y m e n t in d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s b e ­
t w e e n c e n s u s e s , th e v a r i a b i l i t y o f e m p l o y ­
m e n t g r o w t h a m o n g o c c u p a t i o n s f r o m on e
d e c a d e to th e n e x t , an d the d i f f e r e n t r a t e s o f
g r o w t h f o r d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s w ith in a b r o a d
o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p , it i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b ­
lish p r e d ic tiv e r e la tio n s h ip s betw een o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t an d th e f a c t o r s t h a t g e n ­
e r a te o ccu p atio n al em ploy m en t re q u ir e m e n ts.
O ccu p atio n al E m p lo y m e n t F a c t o r s
T h e d e m a n d f o r w o r k e r s — in t o t a l and
d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b y s k i l l — r e s t s up on th e d e m a n d
f o r g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s an d the t e c h n o l o g i c a l ,
e c o n o m i c , an d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o d u c ­
tio n .
F o r e x a m p l e , the d e m a n d f o r a u t o m o ­
b i l e s t r a n s l a t e s in to t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f a
v a r ie t y of auto p la n t w o r k e r s , s t e e l w o r k e r s ,
i r o n o r e m i n e r s , a u to s a l e s m e n , a u t o m e ­
c h a n i c s , an d g a s s t a t i o n a t t e n d a n t s .
O ther
p a t t e r n s of e m p lo y m e n t could be t r a c e d f r o m
th e d e m a n d f o r f o o d , c l o t h i n g , s h e l t e r , e d u ­
c a t i o n , a m u s e m e n t , an d o t h e r n e e d s an d d e ­
s i r e s o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y e d u c a t e d , m o b i l e ,
w ealth y p op u latio n .
E a c h i n d u s t r y e m p l o y s l a b o r in a u n iq u e
c o m b in atio n of o c c u p a tio n a l s k i ll s to g e th e r
w ith o t h e r f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n to a c h i e v e the
l e a s t c o s t f o r i t s o u tp u t.
That is , m a n a g e rs
o f e n t e r p r i s e s in a p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y in
t h e i r e f f o r t s to m a x i m i z e p r o f i t s m u s t c o m ­
p a r e , t h r o u g h e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d i e s o r in a l e s s
f o r m a l m a n n e r , th e r e l a t i v e c o s t o f v a r i o u s
c o m b in a tio n s of eq u ip m en t and w o r k e r s that
c a n b e u s e d to p r o d u c e th e g o o d s o r s e r v i c e s
o f th e i n d u s t r y .
A s c h a n g e s o c c u r in th e d e m a n d f o r the
p r o d u c t s o f e a c h i n d u s t r y , in th e t e c h n o l o g i c a l



a r r a n g e m e n t s fo r p ro d u c tio n that a r e p o s ­
s i b l e , an d in th e s u p p l y ( c o s t ) o f v a r i o u s t y p e s
o f l a b o r a n d o t h e r f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n , th e
e m p l o y m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r w o r k e r s who
have d ifferen t s k ills a ls o change.
One a p p r o a c h to e x a m i n i n g th e f u t u r e d e ­
m an d fo r la b o r su b d iv id e d by s k i l l o r o c c u ­
p a t i o n i s to c o n s i d e r :
(a)

The fu tu re to tal em p loy m en t re q u ire d
in e a c h i n d u s t r y , a n d

(b)

The o c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o sitio n of to tal
e m p l o y m e n t in e a c h i n d u s t r y an d the
c h a n g e s in c o m p o s i t i o n l i k e l y to r e ­
s u l t f r o m c h a n g e s in th e t e c h n o l o g ­
i c a l , e c o n o m i c , an d s o c i a l b a s i s f o r
p ro d u c tio n .

T h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f the f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l
r a t i o s to th e p r o j e c t e d i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t
to tal y ie ld s e stim a te d em p lo y m en t by o c c u ­
p a t i o n f o r th e i n d u s t r y .
If a l l i n d u s t r i e s a r e
i n c l u d e d , th e p r o c e d u r e p r o v i d e s a s y s t e m a t i c
an d c o m p l e t e a n a l y s i s o f f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r th e e n t i r e e c o n o m y . 2
The B L S In d u stry -O c c u p a tio n a l
E m p lo y m e n t T ab le
A s p a r t o f i t s w o r k on o c c u p a t i o n a l i n ­
f o r m a t i o n an d a s a s t e p in a c o m p l e t e s y s t e m
f o r p r o j e c t i o n o f e m p l o y m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s by
o c c u p a t i o n , th e B u r e a u h a s p r e p a r e d a t a b l e
sh o w i n g the o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f i n ­
d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t in I 9 6 0 .
In cludin g r e s i d ­
u a l s , th e b a s e - p e r i o d m a t r i x f o r I 9 6 0 s h o w s
th e c r o s s r e l a t i o n o f e m p l o y m e n t f o r 173 o c ­
c u p a t i o n s and 1 2 4 i n d u s t r i e s .
The b a s ic s o u r c e fo r re la tiv e ly d etailed
an d c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n on th e o c c u p a t i o n a l
c o m p o s i t i o n o f i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t f o r the
U. S . e c o n o m y i s th e U. S . C e n s u s B u r e a u ’ s
O c c u p a t i o n b y I n d u s t r y r e p o r t b a s e d on th e
I960 c e n su s.
The B L S o c c u p a tio n by i n ­
d u s t r y t a b l e d e p e n d s on b u t d i f f e r s f r o m the
census rep ort.
The m a jo r d iffe re n ce s a r e
(1) the B L S t a b l e h a s b e e n m a d e c o n s i s t e n t
w ith d a t a w h ic h a r e a v a i l a b l e a n n u a l l y an d

2 O ccupational em ploym ent requirements can be and are
projected also in other ways. For a number o f occupations em ­
ployment requirements can be related more directly to significant
variables. For exam ple, the number o f teachers needed can be
estim ated from projections of the number o f students and an a c ­
ceptable student-teacher ratio.
Estimates developed in this way
can be incorporated into the system o f industry-occupational ratios
as explained later.
3 U. S. Bureau o f the Census, U. S, Census of Population:
1960, Subject Reports, O ccupation by Industry, Final Report
PC(2)-7C, 1963.

5

w h ic h a r e the b a s i s f o r p r o j e c t i o n s o f t o t a l
U. S . e m p l o y m e n t an d e m p l o y m e n t by i n d u s ­
t r y ; an d (2) the B L S t a b l e u s e s o c c u p a t i o n a l
e m p lo y m e n t d a ta fr o m a n u m b e r of o th e r
s o u r c e s a s w e l l a s f r o m th e c e n s u s .
A m ore
d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the B L S i n d u s t r y o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t t a b l e i s g i v e n in the
p a r a g r a p h s below .

T h e d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s in t h e B L S
in d u s t r y - o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t tab le in ­
c l u d e t h o s e w h ic h r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e f o r m a l
e d u c a t i o n , o r o t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g , and
o t h e r s w hich e m p lo y l a r g e n u m b e r s of p e o p le .
B e c a u s e o f the i n t e r e s t in o c c u p a t i o n s w h ich
r e q u i r e a lo n g t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , m a n y of the
d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s in the t a b l e a r e in the
p r o fe s s io n a l, te c h n ica l, o r c r a fts m e n g ro u p s.
T h e o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s in the t a b l e a r e g e n ­
e r a l l y s i m i l a r to t h o s e u s e d b y the C e n s u s
B u r e a u in i t s t a b u l a t i o n s o f C e n s u s o f P o p u ­
l a t i o n d a t a . 4 T h e t a b l e a l s o f o l l o w s the c e n ­
su s s y s t e m of c la s s ify in g d e taile d o ccu p atio n s
in to b r o a d s o c i o e c o n o m i c g r o u p s s u c h a s p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l an d t e c h n i c a l , m a n a g e r i a l , c l e r i c a l ,
l a b o r e r , etc.
R e s i d u a l s a r e sh o w n f o r e a c h
s o c i o e c o n o m i c g r o u p , s o th a t the o c c u p a t i o n a l
l is t is ex h au stiv e fo r a ll em ploym en t.
The
o c c u p a t i o n s a r e l i s t e d in a p p e n d i x A w h e r e
d i f f e r e n c e s in d e f i n i t i o n w ith p u b l i s h e d c e n s u s
title s a r e in dicated.

C r i t e r ia fo r s e p a r a t e id en tificatio n of in ­
d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s in the i n d u s t r y - o c c u p a t i o n a l
t a b l e w e r e th a t the i n d u s t r y e m p l o y a n a p p r e ­
c i a b l e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s in the d e t a i l e d o c ­
cu p atio n s s h o w n ,
and th a t the p r o d u c t i o n
p r o c e s s e s a n d t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e an o c c u p a ­
tio n al s t r u c t u r e d iffe r in g fr o m that of o th e r
in d u strie s.
I n d u s t r i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u b j e c t to
t e c h n o lo g ic a l ch an ge o r ra p id grow th sh ou ld
a l s o be t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y .
S i n c e c h a n g e s in
in d u stry em plo y m en t a r e in d icativ e of c h an ges
in e m p l o y m e n t f o r th e o c c u p a t i o n s fou n d in
the i n d u s t r y , it i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the i n d u s ­
t r i e s in th e t a b l e be t h o s e f o r w h ic h c u r r e n t
and h i s t o r i c a l d a t a on e m p l o y m e n t ,
ou tp u t
and p r o d u c t i v i t y , o r o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , p r o ­
v i d e a b a s i s o f p r o j e c t i n g the g r o w t h o r d e ­
c l i n e in e m p l o y m e n t t h a t i s e x p e c t e d b e t w e e n
the b a s e y e a r an d th e p r o j e c t e d y e a r .
The
i n d u s t r y l i s t f o r th e i n d u s t r y - o c c u p a t i o n a l
m a t r i x i s a l s o e x h a u s t i v e and c a n b e s u m ­
m a r i z e d to tw o - d ig i t a n d o n e - d ig i t S t a n d a r d I n ­
d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a l (S IC ) l e v e l s .
The
o c c u p a t i o n a l m a t r i x i n d u s t r i e s , i d e n t i f i e d by
c o d e s f r o m the S I C , a r e sh o w n in a p p e n d i x
B a l o n g w ith e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s f o r I 9 6 0
and 1975.



T h e I 9 6 0 t a b l e w o u ld b e m o r e u s e f u l if
g r e a t e r d e t a i l th an now s h o w n w e r e i n c o r p o ­
r a t e d in a n u m b e r o f a r e a s .
M o s t o f the o c ­
cu p a tio n al p a tte r n s a r e fo r th r e e - d ig it o r a
c o m b i n a t i o n o f the t h r e e - d i g i t S I C i n d u s t r i e s
in m a n u f a c t u r i n g , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , p u b l i c
u t i l i t i e s , an d w h o l e s a l e t r a d e .
The p a tte rn s
a r e g e n e r a l l y a t the t w o - d i g i t S I C l e v e l f o r
oth er in d u s t r ie s .
O n ly a s i n g l e o c c u p a t i o n a l
p a t t e r n i s s h o w n f o r th e e n t i r e c o n s t r u c t i o n
in d u stry .
The o c c u p atio n al m ix re q u ire d fo r
h i g h w a y and b r i d g e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s u n l ik e the
o cc u p a tio n a l m ix re q u ire d fo r h ousing c o n ­
stru ction .
If an a t t e m p t w e r e m a d e to a s s e s s
th e o c c u p a t i o n a l i m p a c t o f a s h a r p c h a n g e in
h i g h w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y , the c u r r e n t
t a b l e w o u ld not b e s u f f i c i e n t l y s p e c i f i c .
The
p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f the i n d u s t r y - o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l m a t r i x w o u ld be i m p r o v e d i f g r e a t e r
i n d u s t r y d e t a i l th an now i n c l u d e d w e r e sh o w n
f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n and s o m e o t h e r i n d u s t r y
s e c t o r s , p a r tic u la r ly those in d u strie s a s s o ­
c i a t e d w ith d e f e n s e , s o c i a l w e l f a r e , and s p a c e
program s.
The s t a t is t i c s a v a ila b le fo r p r e ­
p a r i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s f o r th e a r e a s
m o s t in n e e d o f r e f i n e m e n t a r e l e s s c o m p l e t e
in o c c u p a t i o n a l d e t a i l an d m a y b e p o o r e r in
o t h e r a s p e c t s t h a n the d a t a now in th e m a t r i x .
H ow ever, a tte m p ts t o d evelop o ccu p atio n al
p a t t e r n s in g r e a t e r i n d u s t r y d e t a i l w i l l b e
m a d e w h en t i m e p e r m i t s .
S ign ifican t i m ­
p r o v e m e n t s in th e t a b l e a r e e x p e c t e d a s a
r e s u l t o f the n e w p r o g r a m b e i n g l a u n c h e d by
B L S to c o l l e c t o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a d i r e c t l y f r o m
e m p l o y e r s . U n d e r the new p r o g r a m , r e g u l a r
s u r v e y s w i l l b e m a d e of the c u r r e n t o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s w h ich
e m p l o y s i g n i f i c a n t n u m b e r s of w o r k e r s in o c ­
c u p a t i o n s w h ic h r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g .

S o u r c e s of D a ta
In s e a r c h i n g f o r d a t a , a n i m p o r t a n t o b ­
j e c t i v e w a s to l o c a t e s o u r c e s w h ic h p r o v i d e
o c c u p a t i o n an d i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s
a n n u a l l y o r m o r e o ft e n , s o t h a t the c h a n g e s in
o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s b y i n d u s t r y , and f o r the
e c o n o m y , could be e x a m in e d c lo s e ly fo r th e ir
r e l a t i o n to t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e , m o r e r a p i d
g r o w t h o f s o m e i n d u s t r i e s th a n f o r o t h e r s ,
etc.
H o w e v e r , the d a t a w h ic h s h o w e m p l o y ­
m e n t b y o c c u p a t i o n w ith in d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s
on an a n n u a l b a s i s a r e n o t v e r y e x t e n s i v e

4

In the Census system , the composition o f each occupational
category is shown by a listing o f the occupational titles which
are included in the category. See 1960 Census of Population,
C lassified Index of Occupations and Industries. U. S. Bureau of the
Census, 1960.

6

a n d m a j o r r e l i a n c e w a s p l a c e d on c e n s u s d a t a
w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e o n ly e v e r y 10 y e a r s . B e ­
c a u s e o f th e in t e n d e d u s e o f th e m a t r i x to
p r o j e c t o c c u p a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , it w a s
e s s e n t i a l to d e v e l o p d a t a w h ic h w e r e c o n ­
s i s t e n t w ith a n d r e l a t e d a s c l o s e l y a s p o s s i b l e
to d a t a w h ic h a r e th e b a s i s f o r p r o j e c t i o n s
o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t an d e m p l o y m e n t b y i n ­
d u stry.

T otal E m p lo y m e n t.
D ata co lle cte d each
m on th th ro u gh a n ation w id e s u r v e y of h o u s e ­
h o l d s an d p u b l i s h e d in E m p l o y m e n t an d E a r n ­
i n g s a n d M o n th ly R e p o r t on the L a b o r F o r c e
( E E M R L F ) a r e r e c o g n i z e d a s the a u t h o r i t a t i v e
e s t i m a t e s o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t f o r the U . S .
econom y.
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e b a s e d on d a t a
g a t h e r e d f o r th e B L S b y th e B u r e a u o f the
C e n su s by c a r e fu lly tra in e d in te r v ie w e r s fro m
a sa m p le of 5 2 ,5 0 0 h o u se h o ld s.
A ll c l a s s e s
o f w o r k e r s a r e i n c l u d e d — the s e l f - e m p l o y e d
an d u n p a i d f a m i l y w o r k e r s a s w e l l a s w a g e
an d s a l a r y w o r k e r s .
The h ou seh o ld s u r v e y
d a t a on t r e n d s in l a b o r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n
r a t e s b y a g e a n d s e x a r e th e b a s i s f o r p r o ­
j e c t i o n s o f th e t o t a l s i z e o f the l a b o r f o r c e
and of to ta l e m p lo y m e n t un d er v a r io u s a s ­
su m e d le v e ls of u n em ploy m en t.
The annual
a v e r a g e o f th e m o n t h l y e s t i m a t e s w a s u s e d
a s th e e s t i m a t e o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in the
I960 in d u str y - o c c u p a tio n a l em p loy m en t tab le.
A t p r e s e n t , th e e s t i m a t e s r e f e r o n ly to the
p r i m a r y j o b o f e a c h p e r s o n an d
ex c lu d e
th e a d d i t i o n a l j o b s o f t h o s e who h a v e m o r e
th an o n e .
O ccu p ation al G roup T o t a l s .
The h o u se ­
h o ld s u r v e y a l s o d e v e l o p s e s t i m a t e s o f e m ­
p l o y m e n t f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , an d a fe w
d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s w h ic h e m p l o y s i g n i f i c a n t
n u m b e rs o f p eo p le. 5
In a h o u s e h o l d - t y p e
su r v e y th e re a r e p r o b le m s of o c cu p atio n al
u p g r a d i n g a n d l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e b y th e h o u s e ­
h o l d e r r e s p o n d e n t a s to th e c o r r e c t t i t l e o r
d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e w o r k e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n , a s
w ell a s sa m p lin g e r r o r .
N e v e r t h e l e s s , if
b e t t e r e s t i m a t e s f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s w e r e not
a v a i l a b l e , r e l i a n c e w a s p l a c e d on the h o u s e ­
h o ld s u r v e y . T h e h o u s e h o l d s u r v e y e s t i m a t e s
f o r c e r t a i n l a r g e b l o c s of w o r k e r s a r e c o n ­
s i d e r e d to b e th e b e s t a v a i l a b l e a t t h i s t i m e .
E x c e p t f o r m i n o r v a r i a t i o n s , the e s t i m a t e s
f o r I 9 6 0 f o r th e f o l l o w i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s
w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a s c o n t r o l t o t a l s f o r the d e ­
t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s i n c l u d e d in e a c h g r o u p .

Professional and technical workers

Drivers and deliverym en

M anagers, o fficials, and proprietors

Other operatives

Stenographers, typists, and secretaries

Nonfarm laborers

Other clerical workers
Salesworkers
Carpenters
Construction craftsm en, except
carpenters
M echanics and repairm en
M etal craftsm en, except m echanics
Foremen, not elsewhere classified
Other craftsm en and kindred workers

Private household workers
Other service workers
Farm workers

T o t a l E m p l o y m e n t in E a c h I n d u s t r y . E s ­
ti m a t e s of to ta l e m p lo y m e n t fo r e a c h m a t r i x
i n d u s t r y w e r e d e v e l o p e d to i n c l u d e a l l c l a s s e s
o f w o r k e r s --- th e s e l f - e m p l o y e d a n d u n p a i d
f a m i l y w o r k e r s , a s w e l l a s t h o s e who w o r k
for w ages or s a la r ie s .
W o r k e r s h o l d in g two
j o b s o r m o r e w e r e c o u n t e d o n ly in the i n d u s ­
try of th e ir p r im a r y jo b .
E m p lo y m e n t by
F e d e r a l , S t a t e , an d l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s w a s
s e p a r a t e d in to p u b l i c an d n o n p u b li c a d m i n i s ­
tra tio n a c tiv it ie s such a s ed u catio n , h o sp ita l
o p e r a t io n , h igh w ay c o n s t r u c t io n , w a te r s u p ­
p l y , an d o t h e r u t i l i t y o p e r a t i o n .
G overnm ent
e m p l o y m e n t in th e l a t t e r a c t i v i t i e s w a s c o m ­
b in e d w ith e s t i m a t e s o f e m p l o y m e n t in the
p r i v a t e s e c t o r f o r th e s a m e a c t i v i t i e s to
a r r i v e a t t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t f o r e a c h t y p e of
a c t i v i t y b e c a u s e f o r m o s t i n d u s t r i e s th e o c c u ­
p a tio n a l p a t t e r n s a v a ila b le f r o m p o p u latio n
c e n s u s t a b u l a t i o n s w e r e on t h i s b a s i s .
No sin g le s o u r c e at p r e s e n t p r o v id e s e m ­
p lo y m e n t in fo r m a tio n an n u ally o r at o th e r
freq u en t in t e r v a l s , fo r a ll c l a s s e s of w o r k e r s ,
in the i n d u s t r y d e t a i l d e s i r e d f o r the m a t r i x ,
H o w e v e r , d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r y e s t i m a t e s f o r the
g r e a t b u l k o f e m p l o y m e n t --- the p r i v a t e w a g e
an d s a l a r y w o r k e r s --- a r e d e v e l o p e d m o n t h l y
an d a n n u a l l y in th e B L S I n d u s t r y E m p l o y m e n t
S t a t i s t i c s s e r i e s . E x c l u d i n g w o r k e r s in a g r i ­
c u l t u r e , p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d s , an d g o v e r n m e n t ,
th e B L S e s t i m a t e s o f p r i v a t e w a g e an d s a l a r y
w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 85 p e r c e n t of
t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in I 9 6 0 . 6 In m o s t o f the
d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s in m i n i n g , m a n u f a c t u r i n g ,
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and c o m m u n ic a tio n p r i v a t e
w a g e an d s a l a r y w o r k e r s m a k e up 95 p e r c e n t
of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t o r m o r e .
In o t h e r i n ­
d u s t r i e s , i n f o r m a t i o n on th e n u m b e r o f g o v ­
e r n m e n t w o r k e r s , o b t a i n e d f r o m the S u r v e y

k In 1960 the BLS industry survey estim ate of private wage
and salary workers was 69 percent of the household survey estim ate
5
Data are co llected by the Bureau of the Census through of total U .S . em ploym ent ( a ll industries, all classes of workers).
the Current Population Survey. The occupational classification
The latter survey also estim ates separate em ploym ent in agricu l­
ture and private households.
system is the sam e as that used for the decennial censuses.




7

of G o v e rn m e n ts, fro m u n em ploy m en t i n s u r ­
a n c e s t a t i s t i c s , an d f r o m the U. S . C i v i l S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n , w h en a d d e d to d a t a on p r i ­
vate w age and s a l a r y w o r k e r s , co m e c lo se
to t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t .
On the o t h e r h a n d , in
a g r i c u lt u r e , c o n s tr u c tio n , r e t a i l t r a d e , and
m a n y o f the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , s u c h a s b a r ­
b e r and b e a u ty s h o p s , r e p a i r s e r v i c e , le g a l
s e r v i c e s , an d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s o t h e r th an
h o sp ita ls, se lf-e m p lo y e d or u n p a i d fam ily
w o r k e r s c o n s t i t u t e an a p p r e c i a b l e p o r t i o n o f
em plo y m en t.
S t a t i s t i c s f r o m the p o p u l a t i o n
c e n s u s , the m o n t h l y h o u s e h o l d s u r v e y o f the
la b o r f o r c e , and oth er s o u r c e s p ro v id e i n f o r ­
m a t i o n on the n u m b e r o f s e l f - e m p l o y e d and
u n p a i d f a m i l y w o r k e r s in e a c h i n d u s t r y g r o u p .

U s i n g the B L S e s t i m a t e s o f w a g e a n d
s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in e a c h i n d u s t r y a s a b a s e ,
e s t i m a t e s f o r the o t h e r c l a s s e s o f w o r k e r s
d e v e l o p e d f r o m the s o u r c e s m e n t i o n e d w e r e
a d d e d ( a n d an e s t i m a t e o f the n u m b e r o f d u a l
j o b h o l d e r s s u b t r a c t e d ) , and the s u m o f the
t o t a l s f o r d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s w a s f o r c e d to
a g r e e w ith the e s t i m a t e o f t o t a l U. S . e m p l o y ­
m e n t f r o m the h o u s e h o l d s u r v e y . 7 T h i s p r o ­
c e d u r e p r o v i d e s a b r i d g e b e t w e e n the B L S
i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t s t a t i s t i c s (w a g e a n d s a l ­
a r y w o r k e r s o n ly ), a n d the t o t a l n u m b e r o f
w o r k e r s c o n c e p t u s e d b y the C e n s u s B u r e a u
in the o c c u p a t i o n b y i n d u s t r y d a t a f r o m p o p u ­
l a t i o n c e n s u s a n d a l s o u s e d f o r the m o n t h l y
h o u s e h o l d s u r v e y o f the l a b o r f o r c e .

su ses.
T h e c e n s u s d a t a a r e the e s s e n t i a l ,
b a s i c s o u r c e f o r m u c h m a n p o w e r a n a l y s i s an d
p o lic y d evelop m en t.
H ow ever, c en su s d ata d iffer fro m in d u s­
t r y an d o c c u p a t i o n a l e s t i m a t e s
in o t h e r
s o u r c e s w hich a r e c o n s i d e r e d m o r e r e l ia b le ,
an d s o m e o f the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e a p p r e c i a b l e .
a . O c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w a s no t
a v a i l a b l e f r o m the c e n s u s f o r a b o u t
4 .7 m illio n w o r k e r s , o r 7 p e r c e n t
o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e r e p o r t e d b y the
m on th ly h o u se h o ld s u r v e y .
The total
w a s c o m p o s e d o f 3. 2 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s
w ho d id n o t r e p o r t t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s ,
and a 1 .5 m illio n u n d er count o f e m ­
p l o y m e n t c o m p a r e d w ith the e s t i ­
m a t e s o f the m o n t h l y h o u s e h o l d s u r ­
v ey . A v a ila b le e v id e n c e in d ic a t e s that
the u n d e r c o u n t i s n o t r e l a t e d in a s i m ­
p l e p r o p o r t i o n a t e m a n n e r to the s i z e
o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t w h i c h the c e n s u s
r e p o r t e d in e a c h o c c u p a t i o n . 9
b . O t h e r s o u r c e s a r e b e l i e v e d to p r o v i d e
m o re re lia b le data for se le c te d o c c u ­
p a tio n s , o r o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s than
do c e n s u s s t a t i s t i c s .
T hese so u rc e s
acco u n te d fo r about th re e - fifth s of all
p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s an d
about o n e -fifth of a ll n o n a g r ic u ltu r a l
e m p l o y m e n t . 10
c. C en su s d ata a re
e v e r y 10 y e a r s .

T h u s the i n d u s t r y e s t i m a t e s a r e r e l a t e d
in a s p e c i f i e d m a n n e r to the l a r g e m a s s o f
fre q u e n tly a v ailab le in d u stry em p loy m en t d ata
(w a g e a n d s a l a r y w o r k e r s ) w h i c h a r e the b a s i s
f o r d e t a i l e d p r o j e c t i o n s of i n d u s t r y e m p l o y ­
m en t.
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e a l s o the s a m e in
ty p e o f w o r k e r s i n c l u d e d a n d e x c l u d e d a s the
b a s i c o c c u p a t i o n b y i n d u s t r y d a t a o f the p o p u ­
lation c e n s u s .
F in a lly , total em p lo y m e n t h as
b e e n m a d e e q u a l to t o t a l n a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t
d e v e l o p e d f r o m the m o n t h l y h o u s e h o l d s u r ­
v e y , w h i c h i s u s e d in p r o j e c t i o n s of the t o t a l
n u m b er of e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s .
D e ta iled O ccu p atio n s— T o tal E m p lo y m e n t
an d N u m b e r in E a c h I n d u s t r y . T h e o n ly c o m ­
p l e t e s e t o f d a t a w h i c h sh o w the s i m u l t a n e o u s
d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in the U n i t e d
S t a t e s to a r a t h e r d e t a i l e d s e t o f o c c u p a t i o n s
a n d i n d u s t r i e s , i s b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n c o l ­
l e c t e d d u r i n g the d e c e n n i a l c e n s u s e s .
For
I 9 6 0 , the c e n s u s p u b l i c a t i o n s h o w s the d i s t r i ­
b u t i o n o f 297 o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s to 149
in d u s t r ie s . 8 S im ila r ta b le s w e re p u b lish ed
a f t e r the 1950 c e n s u s , a n d t a b l e s sh o w i n g
l e s s d e tail w ere p u b lish ed a fte r oth er c e n ­



av ailab le

o n ly

once

d. C e n s u s e s t i m a t e s d i f f e r f r o m d a t a
w h i c h a r e u s e d to p r o j e c t t o t a l U. S .
e m p l o y m e n t ( m o n t h ly h o u s e h o l d s u r v e y
d a t a published i n EEMRLF).
They
a lso d i f f e r fro m cu rre n t e stim a te s
w h i c h a r e the b a s i s f o r p r o j e c t i o n s o f
e m p l o y m e n t in d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s (the
B L S in d u stry em plo y m en t s e r i e s ) .

7
The forcing procedure was in steps by industry group. None
of the differences between the initial estim ates and the final
estim ates was larger than 2. 5 percent.
8 U. S. Bureau of the Census, U. S. Census of Population:
1960 Subject Reports Occupations by Industry, 1963.
9 See U. S. Bureau of the Census— Evaluation and Research
Program of the U. S. Censuses of Population and Housing, I960.
The Employer Record Check; and Evaluation and Research Program
of the U. S. Censuses of Population and Housing, I960. A ccuracy
of Data on Population Characteristics as Measured by C PS-Census
Match.
1° For a description of sources and characteristics of occu pa­
tional statistics, see O ccupational Employment Statistics: Sources
and D ata, Report 305, U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of
Labor Statistics, 1966.

8

The B L S e s t i m a t e s of e m p lo y m e n t fo r
d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s in d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s
w e r e o b t a i n e d in tw o g e n e r a l w a y s .
For
a n u m b e r of o c c u p a tio n s, e s t im a t e s fro m
s o u r c e s c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e , w h ic h p r o v i d e
d a t a a n n u a l l y o r e v e r y fe w y e a r s , w e r e u s e d .
In a d d i t i o n to b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p e s t i ­
m a t e s f r o m the m o n t h l y h o u s e h o l d s u r v e y ,
th e f o l l o w i n g d a t a w e r e c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r a b l e
to c e n s u s s t a t i s t i c s :
E m p lo y m e n t of s c i e n ­
t i s t s and e n g i n e e r s b y i n d u s t r y b a s e d on B L S
s u r v e y s of e m p l o y e r s ; e m p lo y m e n t of t e a c h ­
e r s a n d l i b r a r i a n s b a s e d on d a t a c o l l e c t e d
by the O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n ; e m p l o y m e n t by
o c c u p a tio n d a ta c o lle c te d by r e g u la t o r y a g e n ­
c ie s fo r in t e r s t a t e in d u s t r ie s in clu d in g r a i l ­
r o a d s , a i r l i n e s , telep h o n e and te le g r a p h c o m ­
m u n i c a t i o n s , an d p i p e l i n e s ; e m p l o y m e n t d a t a
c o lle c te d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y
m e d i c a l an d h e a l t h o c c u p a t i o n s ; s e l e c t e d d a t a
f r o m B L S in d u s t r y and co m m u n ity w ag e s u r ­
v e y s ; i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m th e P o s t O f f i c e D e ­
p a r t m e n t on e m p l o y m e n t b y o c c u p a t i o n in the
P o s t O f f i c e ; an d F e d e r a l C i v i l S e r v i c e C o m ­
m i s s i o n s t a t i s t i c s on e m p l o y m e n t b y o c c u p a ­
ti o n in o t h e r F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . 11
The se c o n d g e n e r a l m eth od w as u se d fo r
o c c u p a t i o n s f o r w h ic h e m p l o y m e n t d a t a w e r e
no t a v a i l a b l e a n n u a l l y , o r a t s o m e o t h e r r e l a ­
tively sh o rt in te rv a l.
F o r th ese o ccu p atio n s,
d a t a f r o m th e I 9 6 0 P o p u l a t i o n C e n s u s O c c u ­
p ation by In d u stry , ta b le s w ere a d ju ste d fo r
u n d e r c o u n t an d o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s w ith d a t a
fro m p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s , such as annual a v ­
e r a g e s f r o m the m o n t h l y h o u s e h o l d s u r v e y
an d the B L S i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s .
T h e d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e o n ly a t v a r i o u s
su m m ary lev els.
A d j u s t m e n t of the d e t a i l e d
o c c u p a t i o n s in d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s w a s a c c o m ­
p lish e d by fo rc in g c e n su s e s t im a t e s a l t e r ­
n a t e l y to i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t t o t a l s , and
to o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p t o t a l s ,
o b tain ed a s
d e sc rib e d above.
The a lte rn a te fo rcin g w as
r e p e a t e d u n t i l th e d a t a in th e i n t e r n a l c e l l s
w e r e c o n s i s t e n t w ith b o th s e t s o f m a r g i n a l
co n tro ls.
A lt h o u g h m a n y o f the e s t i m a t e s in
th e t a b l e d e p e n d on c e n s u s d a t a , fe w , i f a n y ,
a r e i d e n t i c a l an d a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f
the i n t e r n a l c e l l s o f th e t a b l e w h ic h a r e not
z e r o a r e f i l l e d b y r e f e r e n c e to s o u r c e s o t h e r
th a n the c e n s u s .
S i n c e d a t a in t h e I 9 6 0 m a t r i x w e r e
b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r f r o m m a n y s o u r c e s , no s i m ­
p le e x p r e s s io n is p o s s i b le of m a th e m a tic a l
m e a s u r e s of r e lia b ility su ch a s sa m p lin g
error.
H o w e v e r , the p r o c e d u r e s a d a p t e d a r e
b e l i e v e d to p r o v i d e a u s e f u l s e t o f d a t a f o r
e s t i m a t e s o f e m p l o y m e n t by o c c u p a t i o n in



e a c h i n d u s t r y in I 9 6 0 , a n d f o r u s e a s a b a s e
fo r p ro je c tio n of em plo y m en t r e q u ire m e n ts
to f u t u r e y e a r s .
P r o je c tio n of O ccu p atio n al E m p lo y m e n t P a t ­
te rn s for E a c h In d u stry
The m a j o r p u r p o s e of th is stu d y h a s b een
to d e v e l o p o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s f o r e a c h i n d u s ­
t r y to be u s e d a s a t o o l in p r o j e c t i n g o c c u p a ­
tion al em ploy m en t r e q u ir e m e n ts .
P ro jectio n
o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f e a c h i n d u s t r y
w a s b a s e d on e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l s t a ­
t i s t i c s and e v a lu a tio n of o th e r in fo r m a tio n ,
s u c h a s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f n e w m a c h i n e r y and
m e th o d s , new ra w m a t e r i a l s , and o th e r f a c ­
t o r s t h a t m i g h t h e l p to e x p l a i n c h a n g e s in
o ccu p atio n al s tr u c tu r e .
I n i t i a l l y , th e a v a i l a b l e h i s t o r i c a l s t a t i s ­
t i c s on the c h a n g i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n
of d e ta ile d in d u s t r ie s w e re p r o je c te d by s i m ­
p le tim e tren d .
D a t a on e m p l o y m e n t in e a c h
o c c u p a t i o n in e a c h i n d u s t r y w e r e a v a i l a b l e
f r o m the p o p u l a t i o n c e n s u s e s o f 1950 a n d
I960.
F o r som e in d u strie s, d ata w ere also
a v a ila b le fro m oth er s o u r c e s .
The o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t l e v e l s w e r e c o n v e r t e d to
r a t i o s o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in e a c h i n d u s t r y . 1 2
The tren d fo r each o c c u p a tio n a l ra tio ,
w h e t h e r f r o m the c e n s u s d a t a o r a n o t h e r
s o u r c e w a s e x t e n d e d to 1 9 7 5 , an d th e i n d i ­
c a t e d c h a n g e f r o m th e I 9 6 0 l e v e l w a s a d d e d
to the a p p r o p r i a t e r a t i o in th e b a s e p e r i o d
(1 9 6 0 ) i n d u s t r y - o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t t a b l e
w h ic h i s d e s c r i b e d in th e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n o f
th is r e p o r t.
In th e m i n i n g an d m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s ­
t r i e s , m o n t h l y an d a n n u a l d a t a w e r e a v a i l a b l e
t h r o u g h 1 9 6 5 on th e n u m b e r o f p r o d u c t i o n
w o r k e r s , a s w e l l a s on t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ,
f r o m the B L S i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t s t a t i s t i c s .
T h e s e d a t a a r e b a s e d on th e c o l l e c t i o n o f
to ta l e m p lo y m e n t and p ro d u c tio n w o r k e r e m ­
p l o y m e n t f r o m b u s i n e s s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . 13
T h e i n d u s t r y s t a t i s t i c s on th e p r o p o r t i o n o f
to ta l e m p lo y m e n t fo r p ro d u c tio n and n o n p r o ­
d u ction w o r k e r s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r a b l e

11 Ibid.
12 Some adjustm ents to the published census statistics were
m ade for greater com parability between 1950 and 1960 as the
industry classification of 1960 differed from that of 1950.
For a description of the sources and procedures for co m ­
piling the industry payroll em ploym ent estim ates, see chap. 2
of BLS Handbook of Methods for Surveys and Studies, Bulletin
1458, U. S. Department o f Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1966.

9

to c e n s u s d a t a , f o r t h e s e v e r y b r o a d o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l g r o u p s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e b a s e d on e m ­
p l o y e r r e p o r t s , r a t h e r th a n r e p o r t s o f h o u s e ­
h o ld r e s p o n d e n t s , a n d b e c a u s e m o r e o b s e r v a ­
t i o n s and m o r e r e c e n t d a t a w e r e a v a i l a b l e
th an f r o m the c e n s u s . C h a n g e s in the p r o d u c ­
tio n w o r k e r r a t i o t h r o u g h 1 9 6 5 w e r e p l o t t e d
and e x a m i n e d .
T ren d lin e s w e re c a lc u la te d
(by l e a s t s q u a r e s p r o c e d u r e s ) f o r the r a t i o
o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s to t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
o v e r t i m e f o r e a c h m i n i n g and m a n u f a c t u r i n g
in d u stry .
T h e p r o d u c t i o n and n o n p r o d u c t i o n
w o r k e r t r e n d s w e r e u s e d to m o d i f y the c e n s u s
t r e n d s f o r the d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s w h ich
m a k e up e a c h o f the b r o a d g r o u p s .
A v a r ie ty of oth er s t a t is t i c s c o v e r i n g
v a r y i n g s p a n s o f t i m e w a s g a t h e r e d an d a r ­
r a n g e d to r e v e a l e v i d e n c e o f t r e n d s in e m ­
p lo y m en t by o c c u p atio n fo r p a r t i c u l a r in d u s ­
Recent
t r i e s o r f o r the e n t i r e e c o n o m y .
y e a r s 1 d a t a w e r e a v a i l a b l e on e m p l o y m e n t by
o c c u p a t i o n in th e P o s t O f f i c e D e p a r t m e n t and
o t h e r a g e n c i e s o f the F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t .
A l s o e x a m i n e d w e r e s t a t i s t i c s on e m p l o y m e n t
by o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p fo r a lim ite d n u m b e r
o f d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n s in r a i l r o a d s , a i r l i n e s ,
p i p e l i n e s , and t e l e p h o n e and t e l e g r a p h c o m ­
m u n ic atio n s.
S t a t i s t i c s p u b l i s h e d b y the B L S
on th e e m p l o y m e n t o f s c i e n t i s t s , e n g i n e e r s ,
an d t e c h n i c i a n s ; b y th e O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n
f o r t e a c h e r s and l i b r a r i a n s ; an d b y the P u b l i c
H e a l t h S e r v i c e f o r o c c u p a t i o n s in m e d i c a l and
h ealth w o rk w e r e r e v ie w e d . U n p u b lish ed d a ta
on o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t f r o m t h e B u ­
r e a u ’ s w a g e s u r v e y s and f r o m the m o n t h l y
h o u s e h o l d s u r v e y o f the p o p u l a t i o n w e r e a l s o
a r r a n g e d in t i m e s e r i e s an d e x a m i n e d f o r
e v i d e n c e o f c h a n g e in p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m p l o y ­
m en t. 14

the t o t a l e c o n o m y b a s e d on a d i r e c t q u a n t i t a ­
t i v e r e l a t i o n to th e s i g n i f i c a n t d e m a n d v a r i ­
a b l e . F o r e x a m p l e , a u to an d t r u c k m e c h a n i c s
a r e foun d in m a n y i n d u s t r i e s .
In a d d i t i o n to
t h o s e e m p l o y e d b y g a r a g e s an d a u to s a l e s
a g e n c ie s , o th e rs a r e em p loy ed by g a so lin e
s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s a n d t r u c k i n g an d t a x i c o m ­
p an ies.
S m a l l n u m b e r s a r e fo u n d a l s o in
m a n y i n d u s t r i e s w h ic h u s e f l e e t s o f t r u c k s
or au tos.
A n a t i o n a l e s t i m a t e o f th e n u m b e r
o f a u to an d t r u c k m e c h a n i c s r e q u i r e d in 1975
w a s d e v e l o p e d b a s e d on e s t i m a t e s o f the f u ­
t u r e n u m b e r o f c a r s and t r u c k s b y a g e g r o u p ,
fr e q u e n c y of r e p a i r r a t e s , and o th e r f a c t o r s .
T h e r a t i o s f o r a u to m e c h a n i c s i n i t i a l l y d e ­
velop ed fo r each in d u stry w e re a d ju ste d so
t h a t w hen a p p l i e d to the i n d u s t r y e s t i m a t e s
u s e d w ith t h i s s t u d y th e f i n a l r a t i o s w e r e
c o n s i s t e n t w ith the e s t i m a t e o f t o t a l r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s d e v e l o p e d f o r a u to m e c h a n i c s .
U n l e s s b a s e s w e r e fo u n d f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n ,
the p a s t e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l an d t e c h n o l o g i c a l
t r e n d s in th e p o s t - W o r l d W a r II p e r i o d on
i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t and o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o ­
s i t i o n w e r e a s s u m e d to p e r s i s t to 1 9 7 5 . T h u s
f o r m an y occu p atio n al r a t io s , p a r tic u la r ly
th ose of s m a ll s iz e ,
the i n i t i a l p r o j e c t i o n —
a continu ation of p a s t tr e n d s— w as a c c e p te d .
On the o t h e r h a n d , p r o j e c t i o n s o f r a t i o s o f
l a r g e s i z e a r e often m o d ific a tio n s of p a s t
t r e n d s b a s e d on a n a n a l y s i s o f u n d e r l y i n g
facto rs.
A s an i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e in the
p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m p l o y m e n t f o r on e o c c u p a t i o n
in a p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y r e q u i r e s o f f s e t t i n g
c h a n g e s in o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s in the i n d u s t r y ,
fe w o f the f i n a l o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s w h ic h a r e
a s la r g e a s 1 p e rc e n t, a r e e x ac t exten sion s
of p a s t tre n d s ex cep t by ch an ce.
I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the O c c u p a t i o n a l R a t i o s

A f t e r th e a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c s on the o c ­
c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n d u s t r i e s in th e p o s t ­
w a r p e r i o d w e r e a r r a n g e d in t i m e s e r i e s ,
e f f o r t s w e r e d i r e c t e d to fin d in g the c a u s e o f
the p a s t c h a n g e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e --i. e. , b e t w e e n 1950 an d I 9 6 0 c e n s u s e s , o r f o r
oth er p o stw a r p e r io d s if d a ta w e re a v a ila b le
f r o m s o u r c e s o t h e r th an the c e n s u s e s .
An
a t t e m p t w a s m a d e to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r the
f a c t o r s o f the r e c e n t p a s t w e r e l i k e l y to c o n ­
tin u e to a f f e c t o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e in the
p e r i o d a h e a d to a s i m i l a r , g r e a t e r , o r l e s s e r
extent.
E f f o r t s w e r e m a d e a l s o to u n c o v e r
e m e r g i n g f a c t o r s , w h ic h a l t h o u g h u n i m p o r t a n t
b e fo r e I 9 6 0 , m a y be s ig n ific a n t b etw een I960
an d 1 9 7 5 .
R a tio s fo r s o m e o ccu p atio n s w e re a d ­
j u s t e d a l s o to a g r e e w ith e s t i m a t e s m a d e f o r



T h e i n d u s t r y - o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s f o r 1975
a r e i n t e n d e d to r e f l e c t th e s k i l l p a t t e r n s th a t
w i l l b e r e q u i r e d b y the t e c h n o l o g y o f p r o d u c ­
tio n in e a c h i n d u s t r y in 1 9 7 5 .
In d e v e l o p i n g
the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r e a c h i n d u s t r y ,
no s p e c i f i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n w a s g i v e n to the
a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w o r k e r s who h a v e the r e q u i r e d
s k i l l s . Y e t , m a n y o f the i n d u s t r y - o c c u p a t i o n a l
r a t i o s f o r 197 5 ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f s m a l l
s i z e ) a r e an e x t e n s i o n o f th e c h a n g e s in r a t i o
w h ic h w e r e fou n d f o r 1947—65.
R a t io s of th is
ty p e e m b o d y a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f u n i d e n t i f i e d
p a s t a d j u s t m e n t s to s h o r t a g e s ( o r i n c r e a s i n g
r e l a t i v e c o s t s ) f o r s o m e o f the o c c u p a t i o n s .
14 See O ccupational Employment Statistics, Sources a n d
D ata, U. S. Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor Statistics,
1966, for a discussion o f availab le occupational em ploym ent data.

10

If th e o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s o f t h i s r e p o r t
a r e m u l t i p l i e d b y e s t i m a t e s of t o t a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t in e a c h i n d u s t r y in 1 9 7 5 , th e y y i e l d the
o c c u p a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i m p l i e d by a p a r ­
tic u la r m ix of in d u stry em p loy m en t e s t i m a t e s .
H o w e v e r , the o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s w e r e d e ­
v e l o p e d in r e l a t i o n to p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l s o f
i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t — t h o s e g i v e n in a p p e n d i x
B . E s t i m a t e s o f i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t w h ic h
d i f f e r a p p r e c i a b l y f r o m t h o s e sh o w n in a p p e n ­
d i x B , m a y i m p l y a d i f f e r e n c e in s c a l e o f o p ­
e r a t io n s o r m o d ific a tio n of p ro d u ctio n m e th o d s
a n d t h e r e f o r e a c h a n g e in the o c c u p a t i o n a l
s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r e d b y the i n d u s t r y .

The in d u s t r y - o c c u p a t io n a l p a t t e r n s of th is
r e p o r t r e p r e s e n t n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e s o f the o c ­
c u p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e s of in d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in e a c h i n d u s t r y .
T h e c u r r e n t and
h i s t o r i c a l d a t a an d a l s o the p r o j e c t e d o c c u ­
p ation al ra tio s th e re fo re re fle c t d ata for e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h a r e o b s o l e s c e n t a s w e l l a s
f o r t h o s e w h ic h a r e a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y .
T h e y i n c l u d e d a t a f o r bo th l a r g e a n d s m a l l
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s an d f o r t h o s e w h ic h p r o d u c e
a n u m b e r o f p r o d u c t s , s o m e o f w h ic h m a y
b e o u t s i d e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s s i g n e d to the
p la n t on th e b a s i s o f th e m a j o r p o r t i o n o f i t s
o u tp u t.
The u s e f u l n e s s of n ation al in d u stry o c c u p a tio n a l r a tio s fo r a n a ly s is of o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s in s u b n a t i o n a l a r e a s , s u c h
a s S t a t e s , d e p e n d s on th e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n
the S t a t e an d the N a t i o n in t e c h n o l o g y , s i z e
o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , a n d th e p r o d u c t m i x f o r
the i n d u s t r i e s fo u n d in th e S t a t e .
O b viou sly ,
the o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n f o r a n e n t i r e U. S.
in d u stry m a y be in ad eq u a te for e stim a tin g
o c c u p a tio n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s fo r a s in g le p la n t
in the U n ite d S t a t e s o r a b r o a d .
I n t e r p o l a t i o n o f th e o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s
b e t w e e n I 9 6 0 an d 19 7 5 s h o u l d be d o n e w ith
caution.
F o r e x a m p l e , in th e d u r a b l e g o o d s
m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the
l o n g - t e r m d e c l i n e in the p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m ­
p l o y m e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s and e s p e c i a l l y
o f l a b o r e r s an d o p e r a t i v e s , s u c h a s a s s e m ­
b l e r s an d m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , w a s p r o j e c t e d .
H o w e v e r , in the h ig h g r o w t h p e r i o d o f 196 3—
6 6 , p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m p l o y m e n t of p r o d u c t i o n
w o r k e r s i n c r e a s e d an d w a s a b o u t th e s a m e
l e v e l in 19 6 6 a s in I 9 6 0 .
A sim p le in t e r ­
p o l a t i o n o f the I 9 6 0 an d 1975 r a t i o s w o u ld
in d icate r a t io s below th o se a c tu a lly p r e v a ilin g
in 1966 f o r the m e n t i o n e d o c c u p a t i o n s .
Alth
sh o w n to
done fo r
sen se as

o u g h the o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s a r e
a h u ndredth of a p e r c e n t, th is is
p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s and not in an y
an in d ic a tio n of p r e c i s i o n .
M any




o c c u p a tio n s a r e so w idely d i s p e r s e d am on g
i n d u s t r i e s t h a t o n ly a f r a c t i o n o f 1 p e r c e n t
i s fou n d in m a n y i n d u s t r i e s , an d c h a n g e s c a n
b e r e f l e c t e d o n ly b y g o i n g to th e f i n e r l e v e l
of d etail.
The p r o je c tio n s of in d u str y - o c c u p a tio n a l
s t r u c t u r e s t h a t r e s u l t f r o m th e a n a l y s i s d e ­
s c r i b e d in t h i s r e p o r t m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d
t e n t a t i v e an d s u b j e c t to r e v i s i o n .
R e liab le
h i s t o r i c a l d a t a on th e d e t a i l e d o c c u p a t i o n a l
stru c tu re of in d u strie s a re scan ty.
M uch i n ­
f o r m a t i o n on th e o c c u p a t i o n a l i m p a c t o f t e c h ­
n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e , s h i f t i n g p r o d u c t m i x , and
sh o rt su p p ly fo r s o m e o c c u p a tio n s, i s nonq u an titative o r e s t i m a t e d in v e r y b ro a d
ran ges.
T h e s e f a c t o r s l i m i t th e a b i l i t y to
e v a l u a t e th e c a u s e s o f th e c h a n g e s o f the
p ast.
An ad d itio n al d im e n sio n of u n certain ty
i s a d d e d w h en the s c a n t y d a t a m u s t b e u s e d
a s a fou n dation f o r p r o je c t io n s .
In p r e p a r i n g
s t u d i e s f o r a s e t o f i n d u s t r i e s w h ic h c o m p r i s e
a ll eco n o m ic a c tiv ity , p r o je c tio n s of o c c u p a ­
tion al str u c tu r e w e re m ad e for so m e in d u s ­
t r i e s b a s e d on d a t a f r o m th e 1950 a n d I 9 6 0
c e n s u s e s , e v e n th o u g h t h e r e w a s l i t t l e i n f o r ­
m a t i o n f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s w h ic h h e l p e d to
e x p l a i n th e t r e n d s s h o w n b y the c e n s u s .
If
i n f o r m a t i o n w a s not fo u n d w h ic h e i t h e r v a l i ­
d ated o r p r o v i d e d a b a s i s fo r m o d ify in g
t r e n d s , the t r e n d w a s g e n e r a l l y e x t e n d e d .
H o w e v e r , l a r g e c h a n g e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o
b e t w e e n 1950 and I 9 6 0 w h ic h c o u l d not b e
e x p l a i n e d w e r e m o d i f i e d in the p r o j e c t i o n s .
T h e B u r e a u i s l a u n c h in g a p r o g r a m to
c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m e m p l o y e r s on the
o cc u p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e of d e ta ile d in d u s t r ie s .
T h e n e w d a t a , t o g e t h e r w ith g r e a t e r e x p e r i ­
e n c e an d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n on the p a r t o f p e r s o n s
w o r k i n g w ith th e d a t a , s h o u l d i m p r o v e f u t u r e
p ro je c tio n s.
Procedures f o r
R eq u irem en ts

P ro je ctio n

of

O ccu p ation al

The o c c u p a tio n a l r a t i o s of th is
report
h a v e b e e n a p p l i e d to a s e t o f i n d u s t r y e m ­
p lo y m e n t p r o je c t io n s d e v e lo p e d a s d e s c r ib e d
in the p a r a g r a p h s w h ic h f o l l o w .
T h is w as
d o n e p r i m a r i l y f o r i l l u s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s and
the o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s c a n b e u s e d w ith o t h e r
s e t s of in d u str y e m p lo y m e n t p r o je c t io n s fo r
1975 s u b j e c t to the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w h ic h h a v e
b e e n i n d i c a t e d and o t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w h ich
m a y a p p l y in the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f a p a r t i c u ­
l a r study. The illu s t r a t i v e p r o je c t io n s depend
on o t h e r w o r k o f th e B L S i n c l u d i n g p r o j e c t i o n s
o f the l a b o r f o r c e , e s t i m a t e s o f the f u t u r e
d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y m e n t a m o n g i n d u s t r i e s ,

11

a g r e a t d e a l of w o r k on the e m p l o y m e n t o u t ­
l o o k f o r i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n s , an d s t u d i e s
of p ro d u c tiv ity and te c h n o lo g ic a l change fo r
p a r t i c u l a r in d u s t r ie s and p r o c e s s e s .
T o e s t a b l i s h the b o u n d a r i e s f o r the e m ­
p lo y m e n t p r o j e c t i o n s , t w o con d ition s w e re
sp ec ified :
An u n em ploy m en t r a te of 3 p e r ­
c e n t and A r m e d F o r c e s o f 2. 7 m i l l i o n m e n —
a b o u t the s a m e l e v e l a s in th e p e r i o d b e f o r e
the V i e t n a m b u ild u p o f 1965—66.
The s p e c i ­
f i e d s i z e o f the A r m e d F o r c e s i s r e l a t e d to
an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e n s i o n s w i ll
p e r s i s t t h r o u g h 1975 b u t th a t t h e r e w i ll b e no
w a r an d t h a t n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y e x p e n d i t u r e s
w i l l b e a b o u t the l e v e l of 1 9 6 4 .
O b v io u sly
a n y m a j o r d e p a r t u r e f r o m the a s s u m e d c o l d
w a r s i t u a t i o n w o u ld g r e a t l y a f f e c t the c o m ­
p o s i t i o n o f th e d e m a n d f o r g o o d s an d s e r v i c e s
a n d t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the
econom y.
L a b o r F o r c e and T o ta l E m p lo y m e n t . P r o ­
j e c t i o n o f the l a b o r f o r c e w a s b a s e d on an
e x a m i n a t i o n o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p o p u ­
l a t i o n 14 y e a r s of a g e and o l d e r b y a g e - s e x
g r o u p in the p r o j e c t i o n y e a r , and a n a l y s i s of
th e l a b o r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e f o r e a c h
a g e - s e x g r o u p . 15 T o t a l e m p l o y m e n t w a s d e ­
riv e d by ap p ly in g a 3 - p e r c e n t u n e m p lo y m e n t
r a t e to the p r o j e c t e d l a b o r f o r c e .
T h e 3p e r c e n t r a t e r e s u l t s in a s o m e w h a t l a r g e r
la b o r f o r c e , a s w ell a s h ig h e r e m p lo y m e n t
th an a 4 - o r 5 - p e r c e n t u n e m p l o y m e n t r a t e ,
b e c a u s e m o r e p e r s o n s a r e e n c o u r a g e d to
e n t e r the l a b o r f o r c e w h en j o b s a r e r e l a t i v e l y
e a s y to fin d .
G r o s s N atio n al P r o d u c t . G r o s s n atio n al
p r o d u c t (GNP) was estimated to reach $970
b i l l i o n (in I 9 6 0 p r i c e s ) b y 197 5 b a s e d on p r o ­
je c t io n s of to ta l e m p lo y m e n t, a v e r a g e ann ual
h o u r s o f w o r k , an d c o n t i n u a t i o n o f th e p o s t w a r
r a te of p ro d u c tiv ity im p r o v e m e n t. T h is fig u r e
i s a n i n c r e a s e o f a b o u t 90 p e r c e n t f o r the
15 y e a r s .
In d ustry E m p lo y m e n t. In d ustry e m p lo y ­
m e n t e s t i m a t e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d to b e c o n s i s t ­
ent with the p r o j e c t e d t o t a l f o r the e m p l o y e d

labor fo rce.
A s in the b a s e p e r i o d t a b l e f o r
I 9 6 0 , the t o t a l f o r e a c h i n d u s t r y i n c l u d e s a l l
c l a s s e s o f w o r k e r s --- th e s e l f - e m p l o y e d and
u n p a i d f a m i l y w o r k e r s , a s w e l l a s th e g r e a t
b u l k of e m p l o y m e n t — t h o s e who w o r k f o r
w a g e s an d s a l a r i e s .
G overnm ent w ork ers
in a c t i v i t i e s s i m i l a r to t h o s e in the p r i v a t e
ec o n o m y a r e a l s o in clu d e d , and s e c o n d a r y
j o b s o f w o r k e r s who h a v e two j o b s o r m o r e
a r e e x clu d e d .
The e s tim a t e s o f total em ploym en t in
e a c h i n d u s t r y in 197 5 d e p e n d on c o m b i n i n g
the r e s u l t s o f t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s to p r o j e c t i n g
in d u stry em plo y m en t.
In o n e , G N P i s d i s ­
t r i b u t e d to f i n a l d e m a n d s e c t o r s .
T h e o u tp u t
o f e a c h i n d u s t r y th e n i s d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h
i n p u t - o u t p u t r e l a t i o n s w h ic h s h o w th e v a l u e
a d d e d to ou tp u t in the i n d u s t r y o f f i n a l d e m a n d
and in a l l s u p p l y i n g i n d u s t r i e s p e r d o l l a r o f
o u tp u t in e a c h i n d u s t r y o f f i n a l d e m a n d . P r o ­
d u c t i v i t y in e a c h i n d u s t r y a l s o i s p r o j e c t e d
to d e r i v e l a b o r r e q u i r e d p e r u n it o f o u tp u t.
T o t a l ou tp u t an d l a b o r r e q u i r e d p e r u n it d e t e r ­
m i n e t o t a l l a b o r r e q u i r e m e n t s . 16
In a n o t h e r
a p p r o a c h , e m p lo y m e n t w a s p r o je c t e d th ro ugh
a s y s t e m o f e q u a t i o n s w h ic h r e l a t e t o t a l e m ­
p l o y m e n t in e a c h i n d u s t r y to s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i ­
a b l e s , s u c h a s G N P , p o p u l a t i o n , the u n e m ­
p l o y m e n t r a t e , the s i z e o f th e A r m e d F o r c e s ,
and t i m e , an d e s t i m a t e s o r a s s u m p t i o n s c o n ­
c e r n i n g th e l e v e l o f s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s in the
p r o j e c t i o n y e a r . In d e p e n d e n t i n t e n s i v e s t u d i e s
of so m e in d u s t r ie s a ls o w e re a v a ila b le . The
r e s u lt s of in d u stry em plo y m en t p r o je c tio n s
a r i s i n g f r o m th e t h r e e p r o c e d u r e s w e r e c o m ­
p a r e d and e v a l u a t e d to a r r i v e a t th e e s t i m a t e s
w h ic h w e r e a d o p t e d . F i n a l a d j u s t m e n t s m a d e
the e s t i m a t e s c o n s i s t e n t w ith the p r o j e c t i o n
of total em ploym en t.

For a discussion of procedures used in projection of the
labor force, see Sophia Cooper and Denis F. Johnston, "Labor
Force Projections for 1970-80, " Monthly Labor Review , February
1965; also chap. 6 of BLS Handbook of Methods for Surveys and
Studies. Bulletin 1458, op. cit.
to For a more thorough discussion of the use of input-output
techniques to develop industry employment, see Projections, 1970,
BLS Bulletin 1536. U. S. Department of Labor, 1966.

S u m m a ry o f C h a n g e s in O c c u p a tio n a l P a tte r n s
In 197 5 an a v e r a g e o f a b o u t 89 m i l l i o n
p e r s o n s i s e x p e c t e d to b e a t w o r k if th e u n ­
e m p l o y m e n t r a t e i s c l o s e to 3 p e r c e n t .
The
p r o j e c t e d e m p l o y m e n t i s o n e - t h i r d h i g h e r th an
the 67 m i l l i o n e m p l o y e d in I 9 6 0 , the b a s e



p e r i o d f o r th e i n d u s t r y - o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s o f
t h i s r e p o r t , a n d 23 p e r c e n t a b o v e the a v e r a g e
e m p l o y m e n t o f 72 m i l l i o n in 1 9 6 5 . T h e i n d i ­
c a t e d r a t e o f e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h i s a b o u t 50
p e r c e n t a b o v e the r a t e o f 195 0 — 5 . A net
6

12

in c r e a s e of 16. 5 m illio n jo b s is p r o je c te d b e ­
t w e e n 19 6 5 —
75 c o m p a r e d w ith an i n c r e a s e o f
9 . 2 m i l l i o n b e t w e e n 1955— 5 .
6
The g r e a t e r grow th of to tal e m p lo y m e n t
f o r the p e r i o d a h e a d , c o m p a r e d w ith the p a s t ,
i s r e l a t e d in l a r g e p a r t to a s i n g l e f a c t o r —
the h i g h e r b i r t h r a t e s o f the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g
W o r l d W a r II c o m p a r e d w ith t h o s e o f the
1 9 3 0 ' s a n d e a r l y 1 9 4 0 ' s , a n d the b a s i c c o n d i ­
tio n o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t a l l b u t 3 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e
who s e e k w o r k w i l l fin d j o b s . M o s t o f t h o s e
w ho l o o k e d f o r t h e i r f i r s t j o b in 1 9 5 0 — w e r e
65
p e r s o n s b o r n in the 1 9 3 0 's an d d u r i n g W o r ld
W a r II. T h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f the new j o b ­
s e e k e r s in 1965—75 w i l l b e t h o s e b o r n in 1947—
57.
T w e n ty -se v e n m illio n p e r s o n s re a c h e d
18 y e a r s o f a g e in 1955—65.
T h irty -eigh t
m i l l i o n w i l l r e a c h 18 in 1965—75. N e t a d d i t i o n
to the l a b o r f o r c e f r o m the f i r s t g r o u p w a s
19 m i l l i o n in 1965.
T h o s e r e a c h i n g 18 b e ­
t w e e n 1965—75 a r e p r o j e c t e d to a d d 28 m i l l i o n
to the l a b o r f o r c e b y 1975.
The la b o r fo r c e
o f 1975 w i l l h a v e a m u c h l a r g e r c o m p o n e n t
of young p e r s o n s .
How w i l l the r a p i d g r o w t h p r o j e c t e d f o r
total em ploy m en t be d istrib u te d am ong o c c u ­
p a t i o n s a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s i f the o c c u ­

T a b l e 2.

p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n p r o j e c t i o n s of t h i s r e p o r t a r e
a p p l i e d to i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t p r o j e c t i o n s ?
(T h e p r o j e c t i o n s o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in e a c h
i n d u s t r y a r e sh o w n in a p p e n d i x e s B a n d D. )
E m p lo y m e n t r e q u ire m e n ts for a ll nona g r i c u l t u r a l o c c u p a t i o n s a r e p r o j e c t e d to i n ­
c r e a s e 39 p e r c e n t u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s o f 3p e r c e n t u n em ploy m en t. W h ite -c o lla r w o r k e r s
w i l l c o n tin u e t h e i r l o n g - t e r m h i g h r a t e o f
g r o w t h to i n c l u d e a l m o s t h a l f o f a l l e m p l o y e d
w o r k e r s in 19 7 5 .
T h e ir p e r c e n t of to tal is
p r o j e c t e d to r i s e f r o m 43 to 48 p e r c e n t .
A m ong w h ite-co llar w o rk e rs, req u irem en ts
f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l g r o u p w i l l
r i s e e s p e c i a l l y r a p i d an d p r o j e c t i o n s to 1975
i n d i c a t e t h a t 1 in 7 o f the e m p l o y e d w i l l b e a
p r o fe s s io n a l or a tech n ical w o rk e r.
R e q u ire ­
m e n ts fo r c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s w ill a l s o in c r e a s e
m o r e th an the a v e r a g e to m a k e t h i s g r o u p
on e o f the two l a r g e s t b y 19 7 5 .
R e q u ire ­
m e n t s f o r the r e m a i n i n g w h i t e - c o l l a r g r o u p s —
m a n a g e r s and s a l e s w o r k e r s — w ill g r o w at
a p p r o x i m a t e l y the s a m e r a t e a s t o t a l e m ­
p l o y m e n t ( t a b l e 1).
The n u m ber of b lu e - c o lla r jo b s is p r o ­
j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e , b u t the s h a r e f o r t h i s
g r o u p w i l l f a l l to a b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f t o t a l e m ­
p lo y m e n t.
O n ly the s k i l l e d c r a f t s m e n g r o u p

D i s t r i b u t i o n of E m p l o y m e n t , 14 Y e a r s of A g e a n d O l d e r , b y B r o a d
O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s , I 9 6 0 and 1975
Num ber
(in m i l l i o n s )

O ccu p ation al grou p

P ercent

I960

1975

I960

1975

66. 7

88. 7

100. 0

100. 0

W h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s ___ ________
P r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n ic a l
M a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , and
p r o p r i e t o r s __ _____________ ____
C le ric al w o rk ers
___________ _
S a l e s w o r k e r s ________________ __

28. 7
7. 5

42. 6
12. 9

43. 1
11. 2

48. 1
14. 6

7. 1
9. 8
4. 4

9. 1
14. 8
5. 9

10. 6
14. 7
6. 6

10. 2
16. 7
6. 7

B l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s ___ ___ __ __ __
C r a f t s m e n a n d f o r e m e n __
O p e ra tiv e s.
__
________
N o n f a r m l a b o r e r s . _ _ _ _ _ ___ __

24.
8.
12.
3.

2
6
0
7

2 9. 9
11. 4
14. 8
3. 8

36.
12.
18.
5.

33.
12.
16.
4.

8. 3
5. 4

12. 7
3. 4

12. 5
8. 1

A ll o c c u p a tio n s

S e r v i c e w o r k e r s ___
F a r m w o r k e r s ___ _

NOTE:

_ __

..

__ _ ______ _ __
____ ____ __

Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.




3
8
0
5

8
8
7
2

14. 4
3. 8

13

i s p r o j e c t e d to g r o w a s f a s t
m en t.
A lth o u g h o p e r a t i v e
se m isk ille d ) are expected
m i l l i o n , th e s h a r e f o r t h i s
d ro p . L a b o r e r s w ill r e m a in
in l e v e l o f e m p l o y m e n t a n d
p r o p o r tio n of to tal.

as total e m p lo y ­
j o b s (g e n e rally
to i n c r e a s e 2. 8
l a r g e g r o u p w i ll
re lativ e ly stab le
th u s d e c l i n e a s a

The s e r v i c e w o r k e r s ' g r o u p , w h ich i n ­
c lu d e s o ccu p atio n s such a s w a i t r e s s e s , p r i ­
v ate h o u seh o ld w o r k e r s , ja n i t o r s , ch arw o m en ,
c o o k s , a n d p o l i c e m e n , i s e x p e c t e d to r e q u i r e
m o r e than 4 m illio n ad d itio n a l w o r k e r s . The
e m p l o y m e n t i n c r e a s e o f a b o u t 50 p e r c e n t w i ll
a g a i n r a i s e the p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m p l o y m e n t f o r
th is g ro u p w h ich h a s show n lo n g - t e r m r e l a ­
tive grow th .
R e q u ir e m e n ts fo r f a r m e r s and f a r m l a ­
b o r e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e to d e c l i n e —
m o r e th a n 37 p e r c e n t in the 15 y e a r s a f t e r
I960 a s a r e s u l t of g r e a t e r fa r m m e c h a n iz a ­
ti o n ,
f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n s in the n u m b e r of
s m a l l s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m s , the u s e o f i m p r o v e d
s e e d s , the r a i s i n g o f h y b r i d m e a t a n i m a l s ,
a n d the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l c h e m i c a l s
fo r g row th of p la n ts and fo r c o n tr o l of i n ­
sects.
The s h a r e of total em p lo y m e n t fo r

T a b l e 3.

f a r m e r s a n d f a r m w o r k e r s w i l l b e c u t in h a l f ,
f r o m 8 p e r c e n t in I 9 6 0 to 4 p e r c e n t in 1975.
The o c c u p a tio n a l e s t i m a t e s of th is r e p o r t
h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d in r e l a t i o n to a l a b o r
f o r c e d e fin itio n w h ich in c lu d e s a ll w o r k e r s
14 y e a r s o f a g e a n d o l d e r .
T hus d ata are
c o n s i s t e n t w ith the d e f i n i t i o n u s e d in the I 9 6 0
C e n s u s of P o p u la tio n and that u s e d th ro u gh
1966 f o r e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s b a s e d on the
m o n t h l y s u r v e y o f h o u s e h o l d s . B e g i n n i n g w ith
d a t a f o r 1967 c h a n g e s in the d e f i n i t i o n o f e m ­
p l o y m e n t u s e d in the h o u s e h o l d s u r v e y r a i s e d
the l o w e r a g e l i m i t f r o m 14 to 16 y e a r s o f
a g e . E s t i m a t e s of e m p lo y m en t by b r o a d o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l g r o u p s in I 9 6 0 a n d p r e l i m i n a r y p r o ­
j e c t i o n s to 1975 f o r w o r k e r s 16 y e a r s o f a g e
an d o l d e r a r e p r e s e n t e d in t a b l e 3. E x c l u d i n g
t h o s e 14 a n d 15 y e a r s o f a g e r e d u c e s the p r o ­
j e c t e d e m p l o y m e n t f o r 1975 b y 1. 5 m i l l i o n .
A b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f the d i f f e r e n c e i s in a
s m a l l e r e s t i m a t e fo r p r iv a t e h o u se h o ld w o r k ­
e r s . E m p lo y m e n t of oth er s e r v ic e w o r k e r s ,
s a l e s w o r k e r s , l a b o r e r s , and f a r m w o r k e r s
a l s o a r e r e d u c e d 2 0 0 , 000 o r m o r e in p r o ­
j e c t i o n s to 1975.
Two lo n g -te rm fa c to rs are of m a jo r i m ­
p o r t a n c e in s h a p i n g the f u t u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l
c o m p o s i t i o n o f the w o r k f o r c e .
One i s the

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E m p l o y m e n t , 16 Y e a r s o f A g e a n d O l d e r , b y B r o a d
O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s , I 9 6 0 a n d 1975
Num ber
(in m i l l i o n s )

O ccu p ation al group

P ercent

I960

1975

I960

1975

65. 8

87. 2

100. 0

100. 0

W h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s _________ ____
P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l ____
M a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , and
p r o p r i e t o r s --------------------------C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s ------------------S a l e s w o r k e r s ______________

28. 5
7. 5

42. 4
12. 9

43. 4
11. 4

48. 6
14. 8

7. 1
9. 8
4. 2

9. 1
14. 8
5. 6

10. 7
14. 8
6 .4

10. 4
17. 0
6. 4

B lu e -c o llar w ork ers
_ ......... .
_
C r a f t s m e n and f o r e m e n
O p e r a t i v e s ______________________
N o n farm la b o r e r s

24.
8.
12.
3.

1
6
0
6

29. 7
11. 4
14. 7
3. 6

36.
13.
18.
5.

6
0
2
4

34. 1
13. 1
16. 9
4 .1

8. 0
5. 2

12. 0
3. 2

12. 2
7. 8

13. 8
3. 7

A l l o c c u p a t i o n s ____________

S e r v i c e w o r k e r s ____________ ______
F a r m w o r k e r s ______________________
NOTE:

Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.




14

Chart 2. Indexes of Output and Employment in
Mining and Manufacturing, 1950 to 1965
MINING

MANUFACTURING

Index (1950 = 100)

1950

1965

1950

Sources: Output data are from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics,
Survey of Current Business, April 1967. Employment data are from the U.S. Department
of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Back-up data - 1965 Indexes. 1950 =100
Mining
Output
= 138
Production Workers
= 61
Nonproduction Workers = 162




Manufacturing
Output
= 179
Production Workers
= 107
Nonproduction Workers = 170

1965

15

s o m e w h a t g r e a t e r g r o w t h in d e m a n d f o r s e r v ­
i c e s th a n f o r g o o d s . 17
T h e s e c o n d i s the
m u c h g r e a t e r i m p a c t .of t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e
in r e d u c i n g the r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r un it o f o u t ­
put of f a r m and of b l u e - c o l l a r p ro d u c tio n
w o r k e r s in th e g o o d s - p r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r i e s ,
th a n of w h i t e - c o l l a r a n d s e r v i c e w o r k e r s in
e i t h e r the g o o d s p r o d u c i n g o r the s e r v i c e
in d u stries.
M o s t o f the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s s u c h a s
telep h on e c o m m u n ic a tio n s , t r a d e , fin an ce, in ­
s u r a n c e , e d u catio n , h ealth , l e g a l s e r v i c e s ,
a n d g o v e r n m e n t , te n d to u s e r e l a t i v e l y h ig h
p ro p o rtio n s of w h ite - c o lla r and s e r v ic e w o r k ­
e r s a n d low p r o p o r t i o n s o f b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k ­
e r s . In c o n t r a s t , the g o o d s - p r o d u c i n g i n d u s ­
t r i e s of m i n i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d m a n u f a c ­
t u r i n g e m p l o y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s of b l u e - c o l l a r
w orkers.
Thus
th e g r e a t e r d e m a n d f o r
s e r v i c e s g e n e r a t e s a m o r e r a p i d g r o w t h in
r e q u ir e m e n t s fo r w h ite - c o lla r and s e r v i c e
w o r k e r s th a n f o r b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s .
S i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c ­
t u r e a r e e x p e c t e d in m a n y i n d u s t r i e s .
In
m a n u f a c t u r i n g , a 7 9 - p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in o u t ­
p u t o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1965; t h e r e
w a s o n ly a 7 - p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e of th e m o s t l y
b lu e - c o lla r p ro d u ctio n w o rk e r group.
The
w h i t e - c o l l a r n o n p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g i n c r e a s e d 70 p e r c e n t .
In m in i n g ,
ou tp u t i n c r e a s e d 38 p e r c e n t , w h i t e - c o l l a r n o n ­
p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s i n c r e a s e d m o r e th a n 60
p e r c e n t; and b l u e - c o l l a r p ro d u c tio n w o r k e r s
d e c l i n e d a l m o s t 40 p e r c e n t o v e r the 1 9 5 0 —
65
p e r i o d ( c h a r t 2).
T h e m a j o r f a c t o r in t h i s c h a n g e h a s b e e n
th e m e c h a n i z a t i o n a n d a u t o m a t i o n o f l a r g e l y
m a n u a l jo b s done by b l u e - c o l l a r p ro d u c tio n
w orkers.
The p r i m a r y lo n g -te rm im p ac t
h a s b e e n to r e d u c e s h a r p l y the e m p l o y m e n t
s h a r e f o r l a b o r e r s in the g o o d s - p r o d u c i n g
in d u stries.
T h e e f f e c t s on the c r a f t s m e n a n d
o p e r a t iv e s g r o u p s v a r y by o c c u p atio n and in ­
du stry.
I n c r e a s e d s h a r e s a r e e x p ected for
o c c u p a tio n s su ch a s f o r e m e n , m e c h a n i c s , and
w e ld e r s. R ed uced s h a r e s a r e p ro je c te d for
m in i n g , s o m e c o n s t r u c t i o n , m e t a l w o r k i n g , a n d
p r i n t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s , a n d f o r th e o p e r a t i v e
r e s i d u a l g r o u p in a n u m b e r of m a n u f a c t u r i n g
in d u strie s.
The l a s t c a te g o r y in clu d e s o p ­
e r a t o r s and te n d e r s of s p e c ia liz e d m a c h in e s
in fo o d a n d o t h e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s .
T h e lo n g h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s of r e d u c e d
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r f a r m l a b o r i s c o n ti n u i n g
b e c a u s e of m ech an izatio n .
In c o n j u n c t i o n
w ith o t h e r f a c t o r s , m e c h a n i z a t i o n i s p r o j e c t e d
to r e d u c e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r f a r m w o r k e r s a n
a v e r a g e o f 135, 000 w o r k e r s a y e a r o v e r th e
next decad e.




A lt h o u g h m e c h a n i z a t i o n a n d a u t o m a t i o n
h a v e h a d t h e i r g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on th e l a r g e l y
m a n u a l a n d b l u e - c o l l a r ty p e o f w o r k , the d e ­
v elo p m e n t of e le c tr o n ic c o m p u te r s c r e a t e s
th e p o s s i b i l i t y of r e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a n g e s f o r
m any w h ite-co llar w o rk e rs.
C o m p u te rs have
a p o ten tial fo r g r e a tly re d u cin g r e q u ir e m e n ts
fo r w o r k e r s such a s accou n tin g c le r k s , b i l l ­
in g , b o o k k e e p i n g , a n d c a l c u l a t i n g m a c h i n e o p ­
e r a t o r s ; v o u c h e r and file c l e r k s ; and o th e r s.
C o m p u t e r s a r e b e g i n n i n g to b e u s e d to r e ­
t r i e v e l e g a l a n d m e d i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a n d th u s
i n c r e a s e the o u tp u t p e r p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r
in t h e s e a n d o t h e r f i e l d s . T h e y a l s o a r e u s e d
in s e t t i n g ty p e a n d in o t h e r p r o d u c t i o n o p e r a ­
t i o n s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d s o a f f e c t the r e ­
q u ire m e n ts fo r b lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s a s w ell
a s w h ite-co llar.
C om pu ters a ls o gen erate
re q u ire m e n ts for v a rio u s sk ills.
B ecause
th e y c u t c o s t s a n d t i m e f o r d a t a p r o c e s s i n g
a n d i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r e i v a l th e y r e i n f o r c e the
dem and fo r data p r o c e ssin g by r e s e a r c h e r s
a n d m a n a g e r s in i n d u s t r y , g o v e r n m e n t , a n d
u n iv e rsitie s.
H u n d r e d s of t h o u s a n d s o f j o b s
fo r com pu ter p r o g r a m e r s , s y s t e m s a n a ly s ts,
c o m p u te r o p e r a t o r s , keypunch o p e r a t o r s , and
p e r s o n s to a n a l y z e th e i n c r e a s e d fl o w o f i n ­
fo rm a tio n a r e bein g c r e a te d .
In r e t a i l t r a d e th e s h i f t to s e l f - s e r v i c e
h a s b e e n s i g n i f i c a n t in r e d u c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s
f o r s a l e s c l e r k s a n d i n c r e a s i n g the n e e d f o r
c a s h i e r s at c e n tra l checkout c o u n te r s. S e lfs e r v i c e i s m o s t w i d e s p r e a d in fo o d s t o r e s
b u t i s b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y a d o p t e d in d r u g
s t o r e s , l i m i t e d p r i c e v a r i e t y s t o r e s (th e old
5 a n d 10 c e n t s s t o r e s ) , d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s ,
and other ty p e s of r e t a i l o u tle ts.
A noth er im p o rta n t lo n g - te r m tren d e s ­
p e c i a l l y in th e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m a n a g e r s i s
the c o n t i n u i n g s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r a n d g r e a t e r
sp e c ializ atio n .
F o r e x a m p l e , in the r e t a i l
t r a d e i n d u s t r ie s , in clu d in g r e s t a u r a n t s , a
g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f e m p l o y m e n t i s in the
la r g e r siz e estab lish m e n ts.
In c o n t r a s t to

17

Data on GNP by industry for 1947-65 are availab le in the
April 1967 issue of the Survey o f Current Business. For the service
industries (including transportation, com m unication, trade, educa­
tion, health, government, and other service industries) the average
annual rate o f growth o f a line fitted by least squares is 3 .7
percent.
For goods-producing industries other than agriculture
(mining, construction, and m anufacturing) the growth was 3. 1
percent from 1947-65. For agriculture the average annual growth
was 1. 4 percent. Unpublished work o f the Division o f Economic
Growth o f the BLS also indicates a greater growth o f service in­
dustry output in the 1960's. In the BLS work, gross duplicated
output o f the service industries is projected to increase at a rate
about 10 percent above the rate for the goods-producing industries
other than farms, over 1962-70.

16

b l u e - c o l l a r a n d f a r m w o r k e r s in g o o d s - p r o ­
d u c i n g s e c t o r s , r e s u l t s in a p r o j e c t i o n o f e m ­
p lo y m e n t w h ich a d d s s u b s t a n t ia ll y l a r g e r
n u m b e r s o f w o r k e r s to the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s
t h a n to the g o o d s - p r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r i e s . B e ­
t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 7 5 , the g a i n in e m p l o y m e n t
in the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s i s p r o j e c t e d a t 19
m i l l i o n v e r s u s 5 m i l l i o n in g o o d s - p r o d u c i n g
in d u s t r ie s o th e r than a g r i c u l t u r e .
The rate
of em p lo y m en t grow th for s e r v i c e s is p r o ­
j e c t e d a t 4 8 p e r c e n t — t w i c e t h a t o f the g o o d s p ro d u cin g in d u s t r ie s .
E m p l o y m e n t in a g r i ­
c u l t u r e i s p r o j e c t e d to d e c l i n e 2 m i l l i o n w o r k ­
ers.
(See tab le 4 .)

s m a lle r s iz e , freq u en tly o w n e r-o p e ra te d e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s , in w h i c h the m a n a g e r m a y s p e n d
a g r e a t d e a l o f h i s t i m e in n o n m a n a g e r i a l
d u ties su c h a s s a l e s o r c a s h i e r , m a n a g e r s
in l a r g e r r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t e n d to l i m i t
t h e i r d u t i e s m o r e to m a n a g e m e n t f u n c t i o n s
and s u p e r v i s e a g r e a t e r n u m b e r of e m p lo y e e s .
T h i s c h a n g e t e n d s to r e d u c e the p r o p o r t i o n
of m a n a g e r s to t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t .
The co m b in atio n of a m o d e r a te ly g r e a t e r
grow th o f r e q u i r e m e n t s fo r s e r v i c e s than fo r
g o o d s, and a m u ch g r e a t e r im p a c t of te c h n o ­
l o g i c a l c h a n g e in r e d u c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
T a b l e 4.

E s t i m a t e d E m p l o y m e n t of W h i t e - C o l l a r , B l u e - C o l l a r , S e r v i c e , a n d
F a r m W o r k e r s , b y B r o a d I n d u s t r y S e c t o r s , I 9 6 0 a n d 1975
A ll
in d u strie s

Type of w o rk er

I960

O ther g o o d s p ro d u cin g
in d u strie s 1

1975

I960

1975

Serv ice
in d u strie s 2

I960

A g ric u ltu re

I960

1975

1975

In m i l l i o n s
A ll w o r k e r s

.. _ _

. _

W h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s _ _________
B l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s ______________
S e r v i c e w o r k e r s ______ ____________
F a r m w o r k e r s , ___ ______________

66. 7

88. 7

5. 7

3. 7

22. 2

27. 1

38. 8

57. 8

28. 7
24. 2
8. 3
5 .4

42. 6
29. 9
12. 7
3 .4

0. 1
. 2
(3 )
5. 4

0. 1
. 3
(3 )
3. 4

6. 3
15. 6
.4

8. 5
18. 2
.4

22. 4
8. 4
8. 0
“

34. 0
11. 5
12. 4

P e r c e n t of in d u stry total
A ll w o r k e r s

.............. . ....

W h ite -c o lla r w o rk e rs..
B lu e -c o llar w ork ers
Serv ice w ork ers
F a rm w orkers

_
_

.........

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

43.
36.
12.
8.

48.
33.
14.
3.

1.
3.
.
94.

3.
6.
.
89.

1
3
5
1

1
7
4
8

7
8
2
3

2
9
3
5

1 00. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 00. 0

28. 2
70. 2
1. 6
-

31. 5
67. 1
1 .4
“

57. 7
21. 7
20. 6
“

58. 8
19. 9
2 1 .4
-

P e r c e n t of o c c u p a tio n a l to tal
A ll w o r k e r s
W h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s ..................
B lu e -c o llar w ork ers
Serv ice w ork ers
F a rm w orkers
........

1
2
and
3

100. 0

100. 0

1 00.
100.
100.
100.

100.
100.
100.
100.

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

8. 6
0.
.
.
100.

3
9
1
0

4. 2
0.
.
.
100.

3
9
1
0

33. 3

30. 5

58. 1

65. 2

21. 8
64. 3
4. 3

20. 0
60. 7
2. 9

7 7. 9
34. 7
95. 5

79. 7
3 8 .4
97. 0

F o r e str y , fish ery ,
m in in g, c o n str u c tio n , and m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s t r ie s .
T r a n s p o r ta tio n , co m m u n ic a tio n , u t ilit ie s , t r a d e , fin a n c e , ed u catio n , h ealth , g o v e rn m e n t,
oth er s e r v ic e in d u s t r ie s .
F e w e r than 50, 000.

NOTE:

Detail may not add to total because of rounding.




17

The g e n e r a l m o v e m e n ts fo r v e r y l a r g e
b l o c s o f i n d u s t r i e s an d o c c u p a t i o n s c o n c e a l
w id ely v a ry in g c h a n g e s fo r m o re d e taile d
p arts.
Not a ll s e r v ic e in d u st r ie s a re e x ­
p e c t e d to e x p e r i e n c e r a p i d g r o w t h in e m p l o y ­
m e n t a n d no t a l l g o o d s - p r o d u c i n g i n d u s t r i e s
w i l l h a v e s m a l l i n c r e a s e s in e m p l o y m e n t .
S i m i l a r l y , the g r o w t h in e m p l o y m e n t r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s w i l l v a r y f o r o c c u p a t i o n s w ith in the
w h i t e - c o l l a r , b l u e - c o l l a r , and s e r v i c e w o r k e r
groups.
H i g h l i g h t s o f the e f f e c t s o f s h i f t i n g
d e m a n d , t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t io n , a n d o t h e r
f a c t o r s on e m p l o y m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m o r e
d e ta ile d o ccu p atio n s o r o ccu p atio n al g ro u p s
a r e d i s c u s s e d in the i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r y s t a t e ­
m e n ts follow ing.
P r o f e s s i o n a l an d T e c h n i c a l W o r k e r s
P r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s a r e
e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e to be the f a s t e s t g r o w i n g
b ro a d occu p atio n al group. R e q u ire m e n ts are
p r o j e c t e d to r e a c h a l m o s t 13 m i l l i o n in 1 9 7 5 ,
up 45 p e r c e n t f r o m th e a l m o s t 9 m i l l i o n w ho
w e r e w o r k i n g in t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s in 1965
a n d 73 p e r c e n t a b o v e the I 9 6 0 l e v e l .
The
a d d e d n u m b e r o f j o b s w i l l b e l a r g e r , b u t the
r a te of gro w th p r o je c t e d fo r th is g ro u p is
s o m e w h a t l e s s r a p i d th a n o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n
1950 a n d 1965 d e s p i t e the m o r e r a p i d g r o w t h
in the t o t a l l a b o r f o r c e in the p e r i o d a h e a d .
B etw een I9 6 0 and 1975, p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h ­
n i c a l w o r k e r s a r e p r o j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e t h e i r
s h a r e o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t f r o m 1 1 . 2 to 1 4 . 6
percent.
S u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n s in the r a t e s o f
grow th of re q u ir e m e n ts a r e p r o je c te d for
p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s w ith in the p r o f e s s i o n a l
a n d t e c h n i c a l g r o u p . A m o n g the m o s t r a p i d l y
g r o w i n g a r e the n a t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s , e n g i n e e r s ,
and r e la te d te c h n ic ia n s o c c u p a tio n s. B etw een
1950 a n d I 9 6 0 , e m p l o y m e n t in t h e s e o c c u p a ­
t i o n s t a k e n t o g e t h e r i n c r e a s e d a t m o r e th a n
t h r e e t i m e s the r a t e o f t o t a l n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l
e m p l o y m e n t a c c o r d i n g to s t a t i s t i c s g a t h e r e d
d u r i n g the p o p u l a t i o n c e n s u s e s . In the 1960—75
p e rio d , em ploym en t r e q u ire m e n ts fo r th e se
o c c u p a t i o n s a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a t a b o u t
t w i c e the r a t e f o r a l l n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s .
M o r e r a p i d g r o w t h in t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
f o r s o m e i n d u s t r i e s th an f o r o t h e r s e x p l a i n s
o n ly a s m a l l p a r t o f the g r e a t e r th a n a v e r a g e
grow th fo r th e se o c c u p atio n s.
Som e in d u s­
t r i e s w h ich e m p lo y l a r g e n u m b e r s of th e se
w o r k e r s su c h a s e n g in e e rin g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l
s e r v i c e s a n d the m a n u f a c t u r e o f d r u g s , c o m ­
p u t in g m a c h i n e r y , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e q u i p m e n t ,
a n d e l e c t r o n i c c o m p o n e n t s , a r e p r o j e c t e d to
h ave an e m p lo y m e n t i n c r e a s e a t a m o r e r a p id
r a t e th a n f o r a l l n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l e m p l o y m e n t .



O th er in d u s t r ie s w h ich e m p lo y l a r g e n u m b e r s
of s c ie n t is t s , e n g in e e r s , and te c h n ic ia n s, su ch
a s the m a n u f a c t u r e o f a i r c r a f t a n d a u t o s
w i l l sh o w s m a l l e r t h a n a v e r a g e e m p l o y m e n t
g r o w t h (not n e c e s s a r i l y s m a l l e r g r o w t h in
o u tp u t).
T e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e i s e x p e c t e d to r e ­
s u l t in a g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e in r e q u i r e m e n t s
f o r s c i e n t i s t s , e n g i n e e r s , a n d t e c h n i c i a n s th an
f o r m o s t o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s . In the m a n u f a c ­
t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s w h e r e a b o u t h a l f the s c i e n ­
tists,
e n g i n e e r s , and te c h n ic ia n s a r e e m ­
p l o y e d , a n d a l s o in m i n i n g a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s w h i c h i n c r e a s e o u tp u t
p e r w o r k e r te n d to r e d u c e the r e q u i r e m e n t s
f o r b l u e - c o l l a r p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s a n d th u s
i n c r e a s e the p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m p l o y m e n t o f
s c i e n t i s t s , e n g i n e e r s , and te c h n ic ia n s .
In
s o m e c a s e s , t e c h n o lo g ic a l c h a n g e s w hich r e ­
s u l t in m o r e c o m p l e x p r o d u c t s o r p r o d u c t i o n
p r o c e s s e s m a y i n c r e a s e the n e e d s o f t h e s e
w o r k e r s fo r d e s ig n and in s ta lla tio n of p r o d u c ­
ti o n e q u i p m e n t , s u p e r v i s i o n o f o u tp u t, t e c h ­
n ic a l s a l e s , and fie ld m ain ten an ce of e q u ip ­
m ent.
T h e m a j o r s t i m u l u s to the g r o w i n g e m ­
p l o y m e n t o f s c i e n t i s t s a n d e n g i n e e r s a n d to
th e ir in c r e a s in g p r o p o r tio n of to ta l e m p l o y ­
m e n t in m a n y i n d u s t r i e s h a s b e e n r a p i d i n ­
c r e a s e s in f u n d s s p e n t f o r r e s e a r c h a n d d e ­
v e l o p m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y b y the F e d e r a l G o v e r n ­
m en t.
F u n d s f o r r e s e a r c h an d d e v e l o p m e n t
p e rfo rm a n c e by i n d u s t r y in c r e a se d from
$ 4 b i l l i o n in 19 5 4 to $ 1 3 b i l l i o n in 1964. 18
M o r e th a n t h r e e - f i f t h s o f the i n c r e a s e d fu n d s
w ere from
F e d e r a l G overnm ent con tracts.
( A d d i t i o n a l F e d e r a l fu n d s s u p p o r t e d r e s e a r c h
a n d d e v e l o p m e n t in g o v e r n m e n t l a b o r a t o r i e s ,
u n iv e rsitie s,
a n d n o n p rofit o r g a n iz a t i o n s .)
C o m p a r a b l e d a t a f o r 1954 a n d 1964 sh o w th a t
a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f the i n c r e a s e d e m p l o y m e n t
o f s c i e n t i s t s a n d e n g i n e e r s in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y
d u rin g that p e r io d w a s fo r r e s e a r c h and d e ­
v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s ; the m i n o r p a r t o f the
g r o w t h w a s due to a l l o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s s u c h
a s p r o d u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , m a n a g e m e n t , and
s a l e s . 19

18 National Science Foundation, Review o f Data on Science
Resources No. 7, 1966, p. 6.
Based on unpublished data from surveys m ade by the BLS
in 1954 and 1964. Fhiblished data for 1954 (National Science
Foundation, Science a n d Engineering a n d A m erican Industry,
Report on a 1953-54 Survey, NSF 56-16) were adjusted to dis­
tribute administrators and m anagers as in the 1964 survey. Data
for 1964(to be published) were adjusted to elim inate industry sectors
em ploying about 12 percent o f both total and research and de­
velopm ent scientists and engineers because these sectors were not
covered in the earlier survey.

18

In 19 6 4 a b o u t 85 p e r c e n t o f the r e s e a r c h
a n d d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y
w a s in the i n d u s t r i e s m a n u f a c t u r i n g a i r c r a f t ,
m i s s i l e s , s p a c e c r a f t , e l e c t r ic a l and e l e c ­
tro n ic eq u ip m en t, c h e m i c a l s , m o to r v e h ic le s
and o th er t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u ip m en t, and m a ­
c h i n e r y a n d i n s t r u m e n t s . 20 I n c r e a s i n g r a t i o s
a r e p r o je c t e d fo r s c i e n t i s t s , e n g i n e e r s , and
t e c h n i c i a n s in t h e s e an d a n u m b e r o f o t h e r
in d u strie s.
T h e p r o j e c t e d g r o w t h in e m p l o y m e n t r e ­
q u irem en ts f o r s c ie n tis ts ,
e n g i n e e r s , and
r e l a t e d t e c h n i c i a n s i s b a s e d in p a r t on a n
e x p e c t a t i o n o f c o n t i n u e d b u t s l o w e r g r o w t h of
th e r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t in the
n a tu ra l s c ie n c e s and e n g in e e rin g . Both g o v ­
e r n m e n t a n d p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y fu n d s f o r r e ­
s e a r c h and d e v e lo p m e n t h ave been in c r e a s in g
a t h i g h r a t e s ; th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t m a d e
up m o r e t h a n t h r e e - f i f t h s of t o t a l e x p a n d i t u r e s
in the e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s .
P r i v a t e i n d u s t r y fu n d s
fo r r e s e a r c h and d e v e lo p m e n t i n c r e a s e d fr o m
$ 2 . 3 b i l l i o n in 1954 to $ 4 . 4 b i l l i o n in I 9 6 0 ,
a n d to an e s t i m a t e d $ 6 . 4 b i l l i o n in 1965.
Federal
e x p e n d i t u r e s w e r e $ 3. 1 b i l l i o n in
1 9 5 4 , $ 7 . 7 b i l l i o n in I 9 6 0 , and $ 15. 4 b i l l i o n
in 1 9 6 5 .
In 1965 m o s t o f the F e d e r a l fu n d s
w e r e f r o m tw o a g e n c i e s — the D e p a r t m e n t o f
D e f e n s e ( $ 7 . 2 b i l l i o n ) a n d the N a t i o n a l A e r o ­
n a u t ic s and S p a c e A g e n c y
( $ 5 . 0 b illio n ).
G r o w t h o f p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y fu n d s f o r r e s e a r c h
an d d e v e l o p m e n t m a y r e a s o n a b l y b e e x p e c t e d
to c o n t i n u e .
If, h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a s h a r p
s l o w d o w n in the g r o w t h o f F e d e r a l f u n d s , o r
a s h i f t f r o m the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s a n d e n g i ­
n e e r i n g to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , r e q u i r e m e n t s
in 1975 f o r t h e s e h i g h l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l
m a y be l e s s than p r o je c t e d .
R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e l e m e n t a r y an d s e c o n d ­
a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e
to o v e r 2. 3 m i l l i o n in 1975— m o r e th an 47
p e r c e n t a b o v e the I 9 6 0 l e v e l , b u t o n ly 23 p e r ­
c e n t a b o v e the 1965 l e v e l . T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s
a r e r e l a t e d to e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e s in the n u m ­
b e r o f s t u d e n t s a n d p r o j e c t e d d e c l i n e s in
the n u m b e r o f p u p i l s p e r t e a c h e r a s s h o w n
b e l o w . 21

Number of pupils
per teacher
F all of
year
1955------I9 6 0 ------1965------1970------1975-------

T eachers
Enrollment
(in m illions) (in m illions)
1 .3
1 .6
1 .9
2 .2
2 .3




3 5 .3
4 2 .2
4 8 .7
5 2 .3
5 3 .6

Elementary
school
3 0 .2
2 8 .4
2 7 .3
2 6 .2
2 5 .0

Secondary
school
2 0 .9
2 1.7
2 1 .0
2 1 .4
2 1 .4

A lt h o u g h the 4 7 - p e r c e n t g r o w t h p r o j e c t e d
f o r t h i s g r o u p i s w e l l a b o v e the a v e r a g e f o r
a l l n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s , it i s a s l o w e r
r a t e t h a n in the e a r l i e r p e r i o d — a n a v e r a g e
a n n u a l i n c r e a s e o f 2. 6 p e r c e n t c o m p a r e d w ith
3. 9 p e r c e n t in the 195 0 —
60 p e r i o d .
D esp ite
d e c lin in g p u p il- t e a c h e r r a t i o s , fe w e r a d d i­
t i o n a l t e a c h e r s w i l l b e n e e d e d in 1966—75
( a b o u t 4 0 0 , 000) th a n w e r e a d d e d in 1956—
65
(6 5 0 ,0 0 0 ). The slow dow n i n g r o w t h r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts fo r e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y sc h o o l
t e a c h e r s i s due to a r e d u c t i o n in b i r t h s , b e ­
g in n in g in the l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s , f r o m the h i g h b i r t h
r a t e s w h i c h p r e v a i l e d in the f i r s t d e c a d e a f t e r
W o r l d W a r II.
E x c e p t f o r the E l e m e n t a r y
an d S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1 9 6 5 , w h i c h
w ill h elp fin a n c e s m a l l e r s i z e c l a s s e s , e s t i ­
m a t e d r e q u i r e m e n t s w o u l d b e a b o u t 5 0 , 000
f e w e r t e a c h e r s th a n p r o j e c t e d .
C o l l e g e t e a c h e r s w i l l b e on e o f the m o s t
ra p id ly g r o w i n g o ccu p atio n al g r o u p s, in ­
c r e a s i n g f r o m a b o u t 2 0 0 , 000 in I 9 6 0 to a b o u t
4 5 0 , 0 0 0 in 1 9 7 5 . 22 C o l l e g e e n r o l l m e n t s a r e
e x p e c t e d to b o o m f r o m 3. 6 m i l l i o n in I 9 6 0
to 9. 0 m i l l i o n in 1 9 7 5 , 23 b a s e d on b o th a
m u c h g r e a t e r flo w o f h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s
and on i n c r e a s i n g te n d e n c y of high s c h o o l
g r a d u a t e s to g o on to c o l l e g e .
The n u m b e r
o f c o lle g e t e a c h e r s r e q u i r e d w ould be e v e n
h i g h e r e x c e p t f o r the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the
a v e r a g e n u m b er o f stu d en ts p e r te a c h e r w ill
i n c r e a s e in the p e r i o d a h e a d .
M any p a rtt i m e t e a c h e r s n o t i n c l u d e d in the e s t i m a t e s
above w ill a l s o be e m p lo y e d b y c o l le g e s and
u n iv e rsitie s.
In a d d i t i o n to t e a c h e r s in e l e m e n t a r y an d
s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a n d in c o l l e g e s , o t h e r
t e a c h e r s a r e e m p l o y e d in p r i v a t e l y o p e r a t e d
c o m m e r c i a l and te c h n ic a l s c h o o l s , m i l i t a r y
train in g p r o g r a m s , p o v e rty p r o g r a m s , c o r p o ­
r a t e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , a n d in o t h e r a c t i v i ­
t i e s . E m p l o y m e n t o f t e a c h e r s in t h e s e a c t i v i ­
t i e s a l s o i s p r o j e c t e d to g r o w f a s t e r t h a n
total em plo y m en t.

20 N ational Science Foundation, Review of Data on Science
Resources NSF 66-6. 1966. p. 8.
21 H istorical statistics are from U. S. Department o f H ealth,
Education, a n d W elfare, O ffice o f Education, Projections o f
Educational Statistics to 1975-76. 1966, tables 2, 22, and 23.
The projections to 1975 are based on unpublished estim ates of
the O ffice o f Education related to Series B population projections.
22 Includes fu ll-tim e instructors or above and junior instruc­
tional staff. Excludes part-tim e instructors or above who are
assumed to have another job as their primary job.
2^ Op. c i t . , footnote 21, tables 4 and 28.

19

T e a c h e r s o f a l l t y p e s a r e p r o j e c t e d to
i n c r e a s e f r o m 2. 9 to 3. 5 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l
em ploym en t.
E m p lo y m e n t r e q u ire m e n ts f o r p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l an d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s in m e d i c a l an d
h e a l t h o c c u p a t i o n s a r e p r o j e c t e d to r e a c h 2. 2
m i l l i o n in 19 7 5 , a n i n c r e a s e o f t w o - t h i r d s
a b o v e the e m p l o y m e n t o f 1 . 3 m i l l i o n in I 9 6 0 .
T h e r e l a t e d r a t i o s to t o t a l U . S . e m p l o y m e n t
f o r the g r o u p a r e 2. 0 p e r c e n t in I 9 6 0 an d
2. 5 p e r c e n t in 1975. L a r g e s t i n c r e a s e s w i l l
b e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l n u r s e s — 8 6 0 , 000 in 1975,
c o m p a r e d w ith e m p l o y m e n t o f 4 9 5 , 0 0 0 in I960,
a n d f o r m e d i c a l an d d e n t a l t e c h n i c i a n s w h o s e
p r o j e c t e d r e q u i r e m e n t o f a b o u t 3 9 0 , 000 in
1975 i s m o r e t h a n 2l/z t i m e s the e s t i m a t e d
e m p l o y m e n t in I 9 6 0 .
The i n c r e a s e d r e q u ir e m e n t s fo r h e alth
w o r k e r s — m u c h s h a r p e r th an the p o p u l a t i o n
i n c r e a s e — a r e p r e m i s e d on the n e e d f o r
c a t c h i n g up the s h o r t a g e s o f w o r k e r s w h ic h
e x i s t e d in the e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s , m e e t i n g a g r e a t e r
p e r c ap ita d em an d su p p o rted by
in c r e a se d
fu n d s, a n d sta ffin g ex p an d in g m e d i c a l r e ­
se a r c h p r o g r a m s . A som ew h at g r e a te r p r o ­
p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n in the o v e r 65 y e a r s
o f a g e g r o u p in 1975 than in e a r l i e r y e a r s
a l s o w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the d e m a n d f o r h e a l t h
p e r s o n n e l sin c e th is g ro u p is above a v e r a g e
in i t s u s e o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . T h e s e f a c t o r s
a r e e x p e c t e d to r e q u i r e l a r g e e m p l o y m e n t i n ­
c r e a s e s in the e n t i r e m e d i c a l a n d h e a l t h s e r v ­
i c e s i n d u s t r y a n d f o r the e n t i r e g a m u t o f
o ccu p atio n s— p r o fe s s io n a l, te ch n ica l, c le r ic a l,
a n d s e r v i c e ; — i n c l u d e d in the i n d u s t r y .
In 1 9 6 2 , the S u r g e o n G e n e r a l ' s C o n s u l ­
t a n t G r o u p on N u r s i n g foun d a s e v e r e s h o r t a g e
o f n u r s e s in the U n i t e d S t a t e s . D e m a n d s f o r
n u rsin g s e r v ic e had b een in c r e a s in g f a s t e r
th a n the g r o w i n g n u m b e r o f e m p l o y e d n u r s e s .
F o u r s t u d i e s o f v a r y i n g s c o p e m a d e in 1960—
62
s h o w e d 20 to 50 p e r c e n t of the p r o f e s s i o n a l
n u r s i n g p o s i t i o n s in s u r v e y e d h o s p i t a l s to be
v a c a n t . 24 P r e l i m i n a r y d a t a f r o m a 1966 s u r ­
v e y o f h o s p i t a l m a n p o w e r e m p l o y m e n t an d
n e e d s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 57, 000 a d d i t i o n a l p r o f e s ­
s io n a l n u r s e s w e r e u r g e n tly n e e d e d and 8 3 ,0 0 0
w e r e n e e d e d f o r o p t i m u m c a r e . 25 T h e p r e ­
lim in a r y s u r v e y d ata a lso in dicate r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s f o r 9, 100 m e d i c a l t e c h n o l o g i s t s , 3, 900
r a d i o l o g i c t e c h n o l o g i s t s , 3, 8 0 0 s u r g i c a l t e c h ­
n ic ia n s , and 2 , 8 0 0 p h y s ic a l t h e r a p i s t s .

The 1959 r e p o r t of the S u r g e o n G e n e r a l ' s
C o n su lta n t G ro u p on M e d ic a l E d u c a t io n found
s e r i o u s s h o r t a g e s of d e n t is t s .
The r a t io of
d e n t is t s to p o p u la tio n h as con tin u ed to d e clin e
s in c e 1959.



In 1964 h o s p i t a l s r e p o r t e d a l m o s t 10, 000
in te rn sh ip and r e s i d e n c y v a c a n c ie s . V a rio u s
s o u r c e s r e p o r te d s h o r t a g e s of fa m ily d o c to r s
a n d s p e c i a l i s t s in a n u m b e r o f f i e l d s o f m e d i ­
c in e.
In a d d i t i o n to e x i s t i n g s h o r t a g e s o f
p e r s o n n e l th e re is e v i d e n c e that m e d i c a l
d e v e lo p m e n ts a r e p la c in g an i n c r e a s in g d e ­
m a n d on the s e r v i c e s o f s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l
and te c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l fo r e a c h h o sp ita l
ad m issio n .
On the o t h e r h a n d , v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t s
a r e h e l p i n g to r e d u c e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m e d ­
ic a l and h ealth w o r k e r s . A n tib io tic s g r e a t l y
s h o r t e n the l e n g t h o f i l l n e s s e s . T r a n q u i l i z e r s
and o th e r d r u g s a r e b rin g in g b e tte r c o n tro l
of m a n y m e n t a l i l l n e s s e s , an d t o g e t h e r w ith
a new p h i l o s o p h y in t r e a t m e n t a r e r e s u l t i n g
in a b r e a k in the l o n g - t e r m g r o w t h in the
n u m b e r o f h o s p i t a l i z e d m e n t a l p a t i e n t s . N ew
ty p e s of e q u ip m e n t a r e a u to m a tin g routin e
t e s t s o f b l o o d a n d o t h e r b o d y f l u i d s an d m o r e
e f f i c i e n t m e t h o d s a r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d to
s c r e e n l a r g e n u m b e r s o f p e r s o n s to d e t e c t
certain ab n o rm alities.
E x p an sio n of p re p a id m e d ic a l in su ran c e ,
M e d ic a r e , M e d ic a id , grow in g p e r - c a p i t a i n ­
c o m e s , g r e a t e r u r b a n iz a tio n , and i n c r e a s in g
a w a r e n e s s o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f h e a l t h c a r e
a r e e x p e c t e d to c r e a t e a g r o w t h in the d e m a n d
f o r h e a l t h s e r v i c e s t h a t w i l l be f a s t e r th an
p op u latio n grow th .
B e t w e e n 1950 an d 1965
g o v e r n m e n t an d p r i v a t e
e x p e n d itu re s for
m e d i c a l and h ealth s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e d fr o m
a b o u t $ 9 to $ 2 8 b i l l i o n , a n d f r o m u n d e r 4 to
o v e r 5 p e r c e n t o f G N P . 26 T h i s t r e n d i s e x ­
p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e .
E x p e n d itu r e s of th r e e - q u a r t e r s of a b i l ­
l io n d o l l a r s in I 9 6 0 f o r m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h a r e
p r o j e c t e d to r e a c h $ 3 b i l l i o n in 1970, and
the n u m b e r o f r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s r e q u i r e d
a r e e x p e c t e d to d o u b l e --- f r o m a b o u t 4 0 , 000 to
8 0 , 0 0 0 . 27

24 U. S. Department o f Health, Education, a n d Welfare,
Public H ealth Service, Toward Quality
in Nursing, Needs and
Goals, Report o f t h e Surgeon G eneral's Consultant Group on
Nursing, 1963, pp. 3 and 15.
25 Ib id ., Press R elease HEW-N82 o f November 13, 1966.
26 Data for 1950 are from The Statistical Abstract of the
United States, 1966, pp. 280, 320, and 324. Data f o r 1965
are from The Survey of Current Business,November 1966.
27 U. S. Public Health Service, Manpower for M edical R e ­
search, Requirements a n d Resources. 1965-70, 1963, p. 14.
For more extensive treatm ent of manpower needs for health serv­
ice?, see U. S. Department of Labor, Technology and Manpower
in t h e H ealth Service Industry, 1967, and H ealth Manpower
1966-75, A Study of Requirements and Supply, 1967.

20

I n c l u d e d in the p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l
r e s i d u a l g ro u p a r e c o m p u te r p r o g r a m e r s and
sy ste m s a n a ly sts.
A t the b e g i n n i n g o f the
d e c a d e a b o u t 4 , 5 0 0 c o m p u t e r s w e r e in u s e .
E x c l u d i n g d e s k t y p e s , 2 5 , 000 e l e c t r o n i c c o m ­
p u t e r s w e r e i n s t a l l e d in m i d - 1966 a n d o v e r
1 3 , 0 0 0 w e r e on o r d e r . 28
D e p e n d in g on i t s
s i z e , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and u s e s , e a c h c o m ­
p u ter in sta lla tio n m a y be s e r v ic e d by fro m
I to m o r e th a n 50 p e r s o n s w ho a r e p r i m a r i l y
e n g a g e d in p r o g r a m i n g o r s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s .
E s t i m a t e d e m p l o y m e n t o f o v e r 2 0 0 , 000 c o m ­
p u t e r p r o g r a m e r s a n d s y s t e m s a n a l y s t s in
1966 i s e x p e c t e d to m o r e t h a n d o u b le b y 1 9 7 5 .
A r a p i d g r o w t h o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s i d u a l
g r o u p i s b a s e d in p a r t on the p r o j e c t e d n e e d
f o r p r o g r a m e r s a n d s y s t e m s a n a l y s t s in i n ­
d u s t r i e s t h a t a r e m a k i n g i n c r e a s i n g u s e of
e lectro n ic co m p u te rs fo r b u sin e ss d ata p r o c ­
e s s i n g and fo r r e s e a r c h .

M an agers,

O fficia ls,

and P r o p r i e t o r s

The n u m b e r of m a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , and
p r o p r i e t o r s i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a b o u t 28
p e r c e n t — f r o m 7. 1 to 9. 1 m i l l i o n — b e t w e e n
I960 and 1975.
The r a te o f grow th w ill be
a b o u t the s a m e a s t h a t f o r t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ,
b u t s l o w e r th a n the r a t e (39 p e r c e n t ) f o r t o t a l
n o n f a r m e m p l o y m e n t d u r i n g the s a m e p e r i o d .
The a n tic ip a te d r e l a t i v e s t a b ilit y of th is
g r o u p i s in l in e w ith the h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d .
F r o m 1947 to 1 9 6 5 , the r a t i o f o r t h i s o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l g r o u p h a s f l u c t u a t e d b e t w e e n 10 a n d
II p e r c e n t. The r e la tiv e s ta b ility w a s m a i n ­
ta in e d d u rin g p e r io d s of h igh u n e m p lo y m e n t
( 6 . 8 p e r c e n t ) an d l o w u n e m p l o y m e n t ( 2 . 7
percen t).
H o w e v e r , the o v e r a l l s t a b l e p r o p o r t i o n
o f m a n a g e r s to t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t i s m a d e up
o f o f f s e t t i n g m o v e m e n t s w i th in m a j o r i n d u s ­
t r i e s . T h e n u m b e r in the r e t a i l t r a d e i n d u s ­
t r y in w h i c h m o r e t h a n 35 p e r c e n t o f a l l
m a n a g e r s a r e e m p l o y e d h a s b e e n d e c l i n i n g in
the 1 9 6 0 ' s e v e n t h o u g h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in
the i n d u s t r y h a s b e e n i n c r e a s i n g . T h e m a j o r
f a c t o r i s the r e p l a c e m e n t o f s m a l l r e t a i l
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , m a n y of w h ich a r e o w n e r o p e r a te d , by la r g e s iz e , freq u en tly ch ain o p e r a t e d s t o r e s in w h i c h m a n a g e r s te n d to
l i m i t t h e i r d u t i e s to the m a n a g e m e n t fu n c t i o n
and s u p e r v is e a g r e a t e r n u m b e r of e m p lo y e e s .
T h i s t r e n d h a s b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e in fo o d
reta ilin g ,
and is a l s o tru e fo r e a tin g and
d rin k in g p l a c e s and o th e r r e t a i l b u s i n e s s e s .
S m a l l e r s i z e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the p e r s o n a l
serv ice i n d u s t r i e s ,
in c l u d i n g b a r b e r a n d
b e a u t y s h o p s a n d l a u n d r y an d d r y c l e a n i n g
s t o r e s , a l s o a p p e a r to b e d e c l i n i n g p r o p o r ­



tio n ally .
On the o t h e r h a n d , m a n a g e r s a r e
i n c r e a s i n g a s a p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l in m a n u ­
fa c tu r in g , fin a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and s o m e oth e r
in d u strie s a s te ch n o lo g ical change re d u c e s
r e q u ir e m e n t s fo r b l u e - c o l l a r and c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s w i th o u t r e d u c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
m a n a g e r s to the s a m e e x t e n t .
C le ric a l W orkers

A lm o s t 5 m illio n ad d itio n a l c l e r i c a l jo b s
a r e p r o j e c t e d f o r 1975 i f the u n e m p l o y m e n t
r a te is about 3 p e r c e n t . T h is e x p a n sio n w ill
b e a 5 0 - p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e o v e r the 9. 8 m i l l i o n
e m p l o y e d in I 9 6 0 . T h e g r e a t e r - t h a n - a v e r a g e
i n c r e a s e p r o j e c t e d f o r t h i s g r o u p d e p e n d s in
p a r t on the e x p e c t e d g r e a t e r g r o w t h o f e m ­
p l o y m e n t in the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s ( in c l u d i n g
tr a d e ) w h e re about 3 out o f 4 of th e se w o r k e r s
w e r e e m p l o y e d in I 9 6 0 , a n d a l s o on t h e i r
i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n in i n d u s t r i e s s u c h a s
w h o le s a le and r e t a i l t r a d e , e d u c a tio n , and
o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s — i n d u s t r i e s in
w h i c h the c h a n g i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w o r k i s
i n c r e a s i n g the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c l e r i c a l o c ­
cu patio n s su ch a s c a s h i e r , sto c k c le r k , t e a c h ­
e r ' s a id e , b o o k k e e p e r , and s e c r e t a r y .

E le c tr o n ic c o m p u te r s w ill be a m a jo r
fa c to r d eterm in in g e m p lo y m en t r e q u ire m e n ts
fo r so m e c le r ic a l o c c u p atio n s.
The n u m b e r
in sta lle d , th eir in form ation s to r a g e c ap ac ity ,
a n d the s p e e d o f the m a c h i n e s a r e g r o w i n g
rapidly. Many accounting, recordkeeping, and

d a t a p r o c e s s i n g c l e r i c a l j o b s in the F e d e r a l
G o vern m en t, b a n k s ,
in su ran ce c o m p a n ie s,
a n d a w id e v a r i e t y o f o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s a r e
being e lim in a te d .
C o m p a n ie s w h ose v o lu m e
o f d a t a p r o c e s s i n g d o e s n o t j u s t i f y the p u r ­
c h a s e o r d i r e c t r e n t a l o f a m a c h in e c a n ob tain
u s e of s m a l l b l o c s o f c o m p u t e r t i m e t h r o u g h
num erous se rv ic e c e n te rs.
C o m p u t e r s w ill
t a k e the p l a c e o f m a n y a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s ,
b illin g and b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
in v en to ry c o n tr o l c l e r k s , and v o u c h e r c l e r k s .
A d d itio n al keypunch o p e r a t o r s w ill be n eed ed .
C o m p u t e r s a r e b r in g in g about f a s t e r and
ch eap er r e tr ie v a l of data. A s a re su lt, m a n ­
a g e m e n t d e m a n d s m o r e a n a ly t ic a l r e p o r t s and
c l e r i c a l h e l p i s n e e d e d to p r e p a r e d a t a f o r
th ese r e p o r t s .
T h is develop m en t o ffs e t s
the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f w o r k e r s c a u s e d b y the
g r e a te r e fficie n c y of c o m p u te rs.

A utom atic Data Processing Newsletter, vol. XI, No. 6,
Aug. 22, 1966.

21

D e s p i t e the t r e m e n d o u s s p e e d u p o f d a t a
p r o c e s s i n g a n d r e c o r d k e e p i n g th a t h a s alre a d y o c c u rre d a s a re su lt of com puter in s ta lla ­
t i o n s , the n u m b e r o f c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s h a s
c o n t i n u e d to g r o w a t a h i g h r a t e .
Im p o rtan t c le r i c a l o ccu p atio n s su ch a s
s e c r e t a r ie s , ste n o g rap h e rs, ty p ists, c a s h ie r s ,
bank t e l l e r s , m a il c a r r i e r s , p o s ta l c le r k s , and
t e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r s a r e n o t e x p e c t e d to be
h e a v i l y a f f e c t e d b y the u s e o f c o m p u t e r s , a l ­
th o u g h t h e i r e m p l o y m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l
be a ffe c te d by oth er te ch n o lo g ical c h a n g e s.
O t h e r s , su c h a s b o o k k e e p e r s and acco u n tin g
c le r k s , o f f i c e m ach in e o p e r a t o r s , p a y r o ll
c l e r k s , and s t o c k c l e r k s , w hich a r e a ffe c te d
b y c o m p u t e r s , c o n t i n u e d to sh o w g o o d r a t e s
o f e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h in the e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s .

T e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e , s u c h a s the g r e a t l y
in c r e a s in g u s e of e a s i l y
o p e r a t e d cop y in g
m a c h i n e s , new v a r i e t i e s o f d i c t a t i n g e q u i p ­
m e n t, and im p r o v e d t y p e w r i t e r s , d o e s not
a p p e a r to h a v e s l o w e d the g r o w t h in e m p l o y ­
m e n t o f the s e c r e t a r y , s t e n o g r a p h e r , a n d
ty p ist grou p.
E m p lo y m e n t re q u ir e m e n ts for
t h i s g r o u p a r e p r o j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e m o r e th an
t h r e e - f i f t h s b e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1975.
The
g r o w t h i s e x p e c t e d to b e g r e a t e r f o r s e c r e ­
t a r i e s , who g e n e r a l l y h a v e a b r o a d e r r a n g e
o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s th a n f o r t y p i s t s o r s t e n o g ­
raph ers.
A b o u t h a l f the g r o w t h w i l l be in
the f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , r e a l e s t a t e , e d u c a ­
t io n , h e a l t h , a n d g o v e r n m e n t s e c t o r s , w h ic h
u se l a r g e n u m b e r s o f th e se w o r k e r s and w hich
a r e p r o j e c t e d to g r o w r a p i d l y . T h e s h a r e o f
t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t f o r the g r o u p i s e x p e c t e d to
i n c r e a s e in m o s t i n d u s t r i e s to s u p p o r t the
g r e a t e r n u m b er of p r o f e s s i o n a l, te ch n ica l,
and managerial workers, and s a l e s w o r k e r s
in i n d u s t r i e s o t h e r th a n r e t a i l t r a d e .
C a s h i e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to d o u b le in e m ­
p l o y m e n t b e t w e e n I 9 6 0 and 1975.
The i n ­
c r e a s e w i l l o c c u r a l m o s t e n t i r e l y in the r e ­
tail trad e
in d u s t r y w hich w ill a c c o u n t fo r
t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the c a s h i e r s e m p l o y e d in
1975.
T h e s h i f t to s e l f - s e r v i c e o p e r a t i o n s
in f o o d s t o r e s , l i m i t e d p r i c e v a r i e t y s t o r e s ,
d r u g s t o r e s , and oth e r ty p e s of r e t a i l o u tle ts
h a s m e a n t that ch eck ou t c a s h i e r jo b s have
b e e n c r e a t e d in p l a c e o f the s a l e s w o r k e r s
jo b s that p r e v io u s m eth o d s of o p e r a t i o n
req u ired .
S ale sw o rk e rs
R eq u irem en ts for s a le s w o r k e r s are p r o ­
j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a b o u t a s f a s t a s t o t a l e m ­
p lo y m e n t.
( L e s s r a p i d l y th an t o t a l n o n a g r i ­



c u l t u r a l e m p l o y m e n t . ) M o r e t h a n 70 p e r c e n t
o f t h e s e w o r k e r s a r e e m p l o y e d in r e t a i l an d
w h olesale trad e .
A lt h o u g h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
in t r a d e i s p r o j e c t e d to g r o w 4 0 p e r c e n t ,
s a l e s w o r k e r s w i l l n o t i n c r e a s e a t the s a m e
r a t e b e c a u s e a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the c h a n g e to
s e l f - s e r v i c e s t o r e s in m a n y l i n e s o f r e t a i l i n g
w i l l r e d u c e the n u m b e r o f s a l e s w o r k e r s in
r e l a t i o n to v o l u m e o f s a l e s .
In m o s t of
the m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , w h e r e a b o u t
1 s a l e s w o r k e r in 8 i s e m p l o y e d , t h e y a r e
p r o j e c t e d to b e an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f
total em ploy m en t.
C raftsm en
T h e c r a f t s m e n g r o u p , the m o s t s k i l l e d
b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p a m o n g the n o n f a r m
m a n u a l w o r k e r s , i s e x p e c t e d to g r o w a b o u t
a s f a s t a s t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t b u t to b e a
s m a l l e r pe rc e n t of to tal n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l
e m p l o y m e n t in 1975 th a n in I 9 6 0 . D i f f e r e n c e s
in the r a t e o f c h a n g e in e m p l o y m e n t r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s f o r s o m e o f the s u b g r o u p s o f c r a f t s m e n
a r e d i s c u s s e d in the f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s .

T h e n u m b e r o f m e c h a n i c s an d r e p a i r m e n
i s p r o j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a t a m u c h f a s t e r
r a t e th a n the t o t a l e c o n o m y b e t w e e n I 9 6 0 an d
1975. T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n c r e a s e w i l l t a k e
p l a c e in the r e s i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n " o t h e r m e ­
c h a n ic s and r e p a i r m e n " w hich in c lu d e s a i r con d ition in g , r e f r i g e r a t i o n , e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i ­
ance, in d u stria l m ach in ery , i n s t r u m e n t ,
d i e s e l e n g i n e , v e n d i n g m a c h i n e , an d o t h e r
t y p e s o f r e p a i r m e n a n d s e r v i c e m e n . B y 19 7 5 ,
th ese w ill con stitu te w ell o v er o n e -h a lf of all
m e c h a n ic s and r e p a i r m e n and w ill a c c o u n t
f o r t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the c h a n g e in e m p l o y m e n t
f o r the g r o u p .
R is in g p e r c a p ita in c o m e s w ill be t r a n s ­
l a t e d in to i m p r o v e d s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g in
p a r t th ro ugh g r e a t e r u se of e l e c t r i c a l a p p li­
a n c e s , w hich w ill n e e d r e p a i r a s th ey a g e .
A ir - c o n d itio n in g and r e f r i g e r a t i o n units a r e
b e i n g i n s t a l l e d in m o s t new l a r g e b u i l d i n g s
an d m a n y new h o m e s . A s th e d e g r e e o f m e c h ­
a n iza tio n and au to m a tio n of in d u str ia l p r o c ­
e s s e s c o n t i n u e s , i n d u s t r i a l m a c h i n e r y an d
i n s t r u m e n t s e r v i c e m e n w i l l be r e q u i r e d in
i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s . D i e s e l en gin e s e r v i c e ­
m e n w i l l be n e e d e d to s e r v i c e the g r o w i n g
n u m b e r o f d i e s e l p o w e re d t r u c k s and a l s o
d ie se l pow ered p le a su re b o ats.
The tren d
to w a r d s g r e a t e r u se of ven din g m a c h in e s fo r
e n t e r t a i n m e n t , f o r fo o d s e r v i c e , a n d f o r o t h e r
i t e m s i s i n c r e a s i n g the n e e d f o r t h i s ty p e of
serv icem en .

22

A n i n c r e a s e o f 40 p e r c e n t i s p r o j e c t e d
in r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m o t o r v e h i c l e m e c h a n i c s
and r e p a i r m e n . The N a tio n 's g ro w in g a f f l u ­
e n c e i s r e s u l t i n g in o w n e r s h i p o f two c a r s
o r m o r e b y m a n y f a m i l i e s . The a v e r a g e a g e
o f c a r o w n e r s h i p i s d r o p p i n g , a n d the l o w e r
a g e g r o u p in the p o p u l a t i o n who w i l l b e c a r
b u y e r s a re b e c o m in g r e la tiv e ly m o r e i m ­
p o r t a n t . T h e c o n t i n u e d s t r o n g g r o w t h o f the
t r u c k i n g i n d u s t r y i s i n c r e a s i n g the r e q u i r e ­
m en ts for tru ck re p a irm e n .
A lth o u g h the
q u ality of v e h ic le s is im p r o v in g , th is d e c r e a s e
in s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s i s b e i n g o f f s e t b y
the i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f the v e h i c l e s an d
the a d d i t i o n o f a c c e s s o r i e s .
The b i g g e s t r e la t iv e in c r e a s e is e x p e c te d
in o f f i c e m a c h i n e s e r v i c e m e n who w i l l m o r e
th a n d o u b le b y 19 7 5 . T h e i n c r e a s i n g n e e d f o r
in fo rm a tio n and its p r o c e s s i n g i s of c o u r s e
g r e a t l y e x p a n d i n g the u s e o f o f f i c e m a c h i n e r y .
R ad io and t e l e v i s io n r e p a i r m e n a l s o w ill be
n e e d e d to s e r v i c e the g r o w i n g v o l u m e o f t h e s e
c o n s u m e r d u r a b le s . The tren d to w ard t r a n ­
s i s t o r i z e d c o m p o n e n t s h a s s l o w e d the i n ­
c r e a s e in e m p l o y m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e s e
rep airm en .
A i r p l a n e m e c h a n i c s w i l l not i n c r e a s e a s
f a s t a s the t o t a l e c o n o m y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d .
P isto n - e n g in e p la n e s a r e being su p p lan ted by
j e t a i r c r a f t , w hich r e q u ir e l e s s m e c h a n ic a l
m a in te n a n c e . R a i l r o a d and c a r sh op r e p a i r ­
m e n w i l l sh o w o n ly a m o d e s t i n c r e a s e d u r i n g
th is p e r io d .
T he m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n g r o u p i s
p r o j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e f r o m 3. 0 p e r c e n t in
I 9 6 0 to 3 . 6 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in
1975.
D a t a f r o m the p o p u l a t i o n c e n s u s e s sh ow
e m p l o y m e n t o f a b o u t 1. 1 m i l l i o n m e t a l w o r k i n g
c r a f t s m e n in b o th 1950 a n d I 9 6 0 .
Betw een
I 9 6 0 a n d 1975 e m p l o y m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
the g r o u p a r e p r o j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e o v e r
100, 000 w o r k e r s o r 10 p e r c e n t . In I 9 6 0 a b o u t
70 p e r c e n t o f a l l m e t a l w o r k i n g c r a f t s m e n
w e r e in the i n d u s t r i e s p r o d u c i n g p r i m a r y a n d
fa b ric a te d m e ta ls, m ach in ery , e l e c t r i c a l
e q u ip m e n t, a u to m o b ile , and a i r c r a f t .
E xten ­
sio n of m e c h a n iz a tio n , a u to m a tio n , and c o m ­
p u t e r c o n t r o l o f p r o d u c t i o n in t h e s e i n d u s ­
t r i e s a r e e x p e c t e d to k e e p r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
th is g ro u p fr o m g ro w in g as f a s t a s total
em plo y m en t.
O p era tiv es
O p e r a t i v e s h a v e b e e n the m o s t n u m e r o u s
b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s i n c e 1940 w h e n th e y



s u r p a s s e d f a r m w o r k e r s in n u m b e r e m p l o y e d .
T w e l v e m i l l i o n w e r e e m p l o y e d in I 9 6 0 .
In­
clu d in g d e li v e r y m e n and
routem en , a b o u t
2 . 5 m illio n w ere d r iv e r s of tr u c k s , b u s e s ,
o r t a x i s . A b o u t 6 0 0 , 000 e a c h o f s e w e r s a n d
s t i t c h e r s and m e ta lw o r k in g a s s e m b l e r s a r e
in t h i s g r o u p . L a r g e n u m b e r s a l s o a r e e m ­
p l o y e d a s c h e c k e r s a n d i n s p e c t o r s in m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g , p a c k e r s a n d w r a p p e r s , l a u n d r y an d
d r y c le a n in g w o r k e r s , w e l d e r s , and g a s s ta tio n
a t t e n d a n t s . S i x m i l l i o n w o r k e r s in t h i s g r o u p ,
o n e - h a l f the t o t a l , a r e i n c l u d e d in the r e s i d ­
u al " o p e r a t iv e s not e lse w h e re c l a s s i f i e d "
g r o u p , a n d t h u s n o t i d e n t i f i e d w ith a s p e c i f i c
task .
A b o u t 80 p e r c e n t o f t h i s l a t t e r g r o u p
a r e e m p l o y e d in the m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s
w h ere m an y a re o p e ratin g s p e c ia liz e d m a ­
c h i n e r y in m e t a l w o r k i n g i n d u s t r i e s , f o o d
p r o c e s s i n g , t e x t i l e p r o d u c t i o n , an d a p p a r e l
m an u factu re s .
A b o u t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the 9. 6 m i l l i o n o p ­
e r a t i v e s who a r e n o t d r i v e r s w e r e e m p l o y e d
in the m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s in I 9 6 0 . T h e
h i g h g r o w t h r a t e o f the U. S . e c o n o m y f r o m
1962 to 1965 w a s m a r k e d b y s h a r p i n c r e a s e s
in the d e m a n d f o r m a n u f a c t u r e d g o o d s , e s p e ­
c ia ll y c a p it a l e q u ip m e n t and c o n s u m e r s ' d u r ­
a b l e s . T h e m o s t n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t on o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w a s a s h a r p u p s w i n g in the
n u m b e r and p r o p o r tio n a te e m p lo y m e n t o f o p ­
e r a t i v e s who h a d b e e n a d e c l i n i n g s h a r e o f
t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in the 1 9 5 0 's a f t e r s t e a d y
i n c r e a s e s in s h a r e o f t o t a l in p r i o r d e c a d e s .
In c o n t r a s t to the r e c e n t i n c r e a s e s in s h a r e
o f total employment in the e c o n o m y a n d in
m a n u f a c t u r i n g f o r o p e r a t i v e s , the p r o j e c t i o n s
of this r e p o r t a s s u m e th at t e c h n o l o g i c a l
c h a n g e w i l l b e the m a j o r l o n g - t e r m f a c t o r
in r e s t r a i n i n g the g r o w t h in r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
th is g ro u p .
D e s p i t e the l a r g e g r o w t h in r e q u i r e m e n t s
o f 2 . 8 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s , th e s h a r e o f t o t a l
U. S. e m p l o y m e n t f o r t h i s g r o u p i s p r o j e c t e d
to d r o p f r o m 18. 0 to a b o u t 16. 7 p e r c e n t b e ­
t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1975.
R e q u ir e m e n t s fo r d r i v e r s and d e li v e r y m e n w i l l i n c r e a s e s o m e w h a t l e s s r a p i d l y th an
total n o n a g ric u ltu ra l em ploy m en t.
N eed for
t h e s e w o r k e r s i s r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y to the
v o l u m e o f g o o d s to b e m o v e d .
C om p etitio n
fr o m r a i lr o a d s th ro ugh p ig g y b a ck in g of t r a i l ­
e r s i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e .
P ro du ctivity
i m p r o v e m e n t s a r e b e i n g m a d e b y u s e of
la r g e r , m o re p ow erfu l tru c k s, m e c h a n ic a l
lo ad in g and u n lo ad in g , and b e tte r h ig h w ay s.
N e v e r t h e l e s s the h i g h v o l u m e o f o u tp u t o f

23

g o o d s e x p e c t e d in 1975 w i l l g e n e r a t e a h ig h
le v e l of r e q u ir e m e n t s fo r th e se w o r k e r s .
T h e ir s h a r e of total e m p lo y m en t is p r o je c te d
to i n c r e a s e in a l m o s t a l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n ­
d u s t r i e s b u t r e m a i n a t 57 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l in
the t r u c k i n g i n d u s t r y . E m p l o y m e n t o f d r i v e r s
a n d d e l i v e r y m e n i s p r o j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e f r o m
2 . 4 m i l l i o n in I 9 6 0 to 3 . 2 m i l l i o n in 1975.

Laborers
M o r e th a n h a l f o f the l a b o r e r s a r e e m ­
p l o y e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n .
T h e y a r e e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e to b e the g r o u p
( o t h e r th a n f a r m w o r k e r s ) m o s t a f f e c t e d b y
m e c h a n iz a tio n and au to m a tio n of p ro d u c tio n
o p e ratio n s.
T h is g ro u p of w o r k e r s is p r o ­
j e c t e d to d e c l i n e f r o m a b o u t 5. 5 to 4. 2 p e r ­
c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t b e t w e e n I 9 6 0 an d
1975.
S erv ice W orkers
The s e r v i c e w o r k e r g rou p i n c l u d e d
8. 3 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s in I 9 6 0 .
R e q u ire m e n ts
f o r 1975 a r e p r o j e c t e d to r e a c h 12. 7 m i l l i o n
f o r a n i n c r e a s e o f a b o u t 50 p e r c e n t . I n c l u d e d
in the g r o u p in I 9 6 0 w e r e :
2 . 2 m illio n p r iv a te h ou seh o ld w o r k e r s
2. 1 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s w e r e in m a j o r fo o d
s e r v i c e o ccu p atio n s su ch a s w a it ­
r e s s e s , c o o k s , c o u n t e r , f o u n t a in , an d
k i t c h e n w o r k e r s , b u t no t i n c l u d i n g
b u s b o y s and so m e o th e r s fo r whom
d a ta a r e not a v a ila b le s e p a r a t e ly
1 . 5 m i l l i o n in b u i l d i n g o r h o t e l s e r v i c e
o ccu p atio n s su ch as ja n i t o r s , c h a r ­
w o m en , m a i d s , h o u s e k e e p e r s , and e l e ­
vator o p e rato rs

0. 8 m i l l i o n p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e w o r k e r s —
p o l i c e m e n , f i r e m e n , an d g u a r d s
. 7 m i l l i o n in h e a l t h s e r v i c e w o r k — h o s ­
p ita l a tten d a n ts and p r a c t i c a l n u r s e s
, 5 m illio n b a r b e r s and b e a u ty o p e r a t o r s
. 5 m i l l i o n in m i s c e l l a n e o u s o c c u p a t i o n s
such as p o r t e r s , b u sb o y s, re c re a tio n
a tte n d a n ts, and a ir lin e s t e w a r d e s s e s .
R e q u i r e m e n t s a r e p r o j e c t e d to g r o w f a s t ­
e s t fo r h ealth s e r v i c e w o r k e r s su c h a s h o s ­
p ita l atten dan ts and p r a c t i c a l n u r s e s .
To­
g e t h e r t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d to m o r e th a n d o u b le
in e m p l o y m e n t to a b o u t 1 . 6 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s
b y 1975 a s h o s p i t a l s an d n u r s i n g h o m e s e m ­
p l o y t h e m to a s s i s t d o c t o r s , n u r s e s , a n d
oth er h igh e r p a id p r o f e s s i o n a l s .
B u i l d i n g a n d lo d g i n g s e r v i c e w o r k e r s s u c h
a s ch arw o m en , m a id s , ja n it o r s , and h o u s e ­
k e e p e r s ( o t h e r th a n p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d ) a r e
e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a b o u t t h r e e - f i f t h s b y
1975.
T h e s e w o r k e r s a r e n e e d e d in m a n y
r a p id ly e x p an d in g a c t iv it ie s su c h a s h o s p i t a l s ,
s c h o o l s , h o te ls , and o ffic e b u ild in g s.
T h e l i s t e d f o o d s e r v i c e w o r k e r s w i ll n u m ­
b e r o v e r 2. 5 m i l l i o n in 19 7 5 . T h e p r o j e c t e d
i n c r e a s e f o r t h i s g r o u p of a b o u t 50 p e r c e n t ,
w h ic h i s f a s t e r th an f o r bo th l a b o r f o r c e a n d
pop u latio n g r o w t h , c o n tin u e s r e c e n t t r e n d s
a n d a l s o r e f l e c t s the e x p e c t e d e f f e c t s o f i n ­
c r e a s in g u rb an izatio n , m o r e m a r r ie d wom en
w o r k i n g o u t s i d e th e h o m e , a n d h i g h e r i n c o m e s .
T h e s e f a c t o r s a r e a l s o the b a s i s f o r p r o j e c t i o n
of a b o u t a n o n e - f o u r t h i n c r e a s e in the r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts fo r p r iv a te h o u se h o ld w o r k e r s .
P ro te c tiv e s e r v ic e w o rk e rs are p ro je c te d
to r e a c h 1 . 2 m i l l i o n ; the g r e a t e s t g r o w t h i s
e x p e c te d for p o lic e m e n .

C h a n g e s in O c c u p a tio n a l P a t t e r n s , D e ta ile d I n d u s t r ie s
T h e s t a t e m e n t s on the c h a n g e o f o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e in t h i s s e c t i o n o f the r e p o r t
a re co n d en sa tio n s of lo n ger te c h n ica l m e m o ­
ra n d a p r e p a r e d fo r e a c h in d u stry .
E a c h of
the 116 d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s w a s s t u d i e d i n d i ­
v i d u a l l y . In a n u m b e r o f i n s t a n c e s a s i n g l e
s t a t e m e n t r e f e r r i n g to two r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s



o r m o r e w a s p r e p a r e d fo r th is r e p o r t .
T he
u n d e r l y i n g a n a l y s i s a t t e m p t e d to d e t e r m i n e
the f a c t o r s w h i c h c a u s e d the c h a n g e s in the
p a s t , a s w e l l a s to e v a l u a t e t h e i r in f lu e n c e
in the f u t u r e .
H o w e v e r , t h i s r e p o r t f o r the
m o s t p a r t d i s c u s s e s o n ly the f u t u r e e f f e c t s o f
m a j o r f a c t o r s in e a c h i n d u s t r y a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y

24

m e n t i o n s c a u s e s o f c h a n g e o n ly f o r o c c u p a ­
t i o n s w h i c h i n c l u d e d an a p p r e c i a b l e p e r c e n t
o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a n d w h ic h h a d a s i z a b l e
c h a n g e in r a t i o to t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t . 29
F o r c o n v e n i e n c e o f the r e a d e r , e a c h
s t a t e m e n t b e g i n s w ith a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n of
the g o o d s p r o d u c e d o r the s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d
b y the i n d u s t r y , s i n c e t h e s e m a y no t b e e v i ­
d e n t a l w a y s f r o m the i n d u s t r y t i t l e . T h e i n ­
d u str y d e s c r ip tio n s a r e c o n d en sa tio n s o r e x ­
c e r p t s o f d e f i n i t i o n s a p p e a r i n g in the S t a n d a r d
I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l ( S I C ) . 30 T h e
S IC a l s o i s p r o v i d e d f o r t h o s e w ho m a y w i s h
to r e l a t e the d a t a to o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n .
A
b r ie f d is c u s s io n of em plo y m en t tre n d s p r e ­
c e d e s the s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l
s t r u c t u r e an d e x p e c t e d c h a n g e s in s t r u c t u r e .
P a i r s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s f o r I 9 6 0 a n d 1975
f o r e a c h i n d u s t r y a r e fo u n d in a p p e n d i x C .
The o c c u p a tio n a l l i s t fo r a p a r t i c u l a r
i n d u s t r y m a y c o n t a i n one o r a few o c c u p a t i o n s
t h a t a p p e a r to b e ou t o f p l a c e .
T h is can
o c c u r t h r o u g h i n c o r r e c t r e p o r t i n g to the c e n ­
s u s , o r an e r r o r in c o d i n g .
F o r e x am p le ,
the c e n s u s s t a t i s t i c s sh o w r a i l r o a d b r a k e m e n
in the l a u n d r y a n d d r y c l e a n i n g i n d u s t r y . An
e f f o r t w a s m a d e to e l i m i n a t e the m o s t u n l i k e l y
c a s e s but s o m e m a y have b een m i s s e d and
o t h e r s w e r e l e f t in the l i s t s b e c a u s e o f u n ­
c e r t a i n t y a b o u t the p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n s in the
o r g a n i z a t i o n of b u sin e ss e sta b lish m e n ts.
N eith er th ose e lim in a te d nor th ose r e m a in ­
in g w h i c h m i g h t h a v e b e e n e l i m i n a t e d a r e
t h o u g h t to i n c l u d e s i g n i f i c a n t n u m b e r s o f
worke r s .

A g ricu ltu re , F o r e s t r y ,
( S I C D i v i s i o n A)

and F i s h e r i e s

O ccu p ation al p atte rn s are av ailab le for
a g r i c u l t u r e (SIC 01—0 7 ), w h i c h i n c l u d e s , in
a d d i t i o n to f a r m s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s , s u c h a g r i ­
c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s a s c o t t o n g in n in g , g r i s t
milling,
v e t e r i n a r y s e r v i c e s , an d p o u l t r y
h a t c h e r i e s ; f o r e s t r y (S IC 0 8 ), w h i c h i n c l u d e s
the o p e r a t i o n o f t i m b e r t r a c t s f o r s a l e o f
s t a n d i n g t i m b e r , f o r e s t n u r s e r i e s , an d the
gath erin g of m isc e lla n e o u s fo r e s t p rod u cts
such as g u m s, b a r k s , b a lsa m n e e d le s, e t c .;
a n d f i s h e r i e s (SIC 09), w h i c h i n c l u d e s n o t o n ly
the c a t c h i n g o f f i n f i s h a n d s h e l l f i s h a n d o t h e r
m a r in e p r o d u c ts , but a ls o f i s h e r y s e r v i c e s
s u c h a s the o p e r a t i o n o f f i s h h a t c h e r i e s .
E m p lo y m e n t
D eclin in g e m p lo y m e n t h as b een c h a r a c ­
t e r i s t i c o f the a g r i c u l t u r e a n d f i s h e r i e s d i v i ­
sio n fo r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s.
E m p l o y m e n t in
a g r i c u l t u r e h a s d e c l i n e d a t an a v e r a g e r a t e



of n e a rly 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 w o rk e rs p e r y e a r, fro m
7 .5
m i l l i o n in 1950 to 4 . 6 m i l l i o n in 1 9 6 5 ,
a n d i s e x p e c t e d to b e o n ly 3. 7 m i l l i o n in
1 9 7 5 . 31
A lth o u g h e m p l o y m e n t in a c t i v i t i e s
p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s (e. g. , v e t e r ­
in a r y s e r v i c e s , a i r d u stin g , and m a c h in e r y
r e p a i r ) c o n t i n u e s to g r o w , t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s
a c c o u n t f o r o n ly a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f t h i s d i v i ­
s io n 's e m p lo y m e n t and have a n e g lig ib le e f ­
f e c t on e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s .
E m p l o y m e n t in
f i s h e r i e s w a s l o w e r in I 9 6 0 th a n it w a s in
1950, a c c o r d i n g to the d e c e n n i a l c e n s u s e s , b u t
i s e x p e c t e d to r e m a i n r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e a t
a b o u t 6 0 , 000 d u r i n g the d e c a d e a h e a d .
B e t w e e n the 1950 a n d I 9 6 0 c e n s u s e s , e m ­
p l o y m e n t in f o r e s t r y i n c r e a s e d a b o u t 10 p e r ­
c e n t — f r o m 4 4 , 000 to 4 8 , 0 0 0 . In I 9 6 0 , m o r e
th an h a l f o f the w o r k e r s in f o r e s t r y w e r e
governm ent e m p lo y ees.
F u ll-tim e e m p lo y ­
m e n t in the U. S . F o r e s t S e r v i c e a l m o s t
d o u b l e d b e t w e e n 1950 a n d I 9 6 0 .

O ccu p ation al co m p o sitio n and tre n d s
A g r ic u lt u r e . F a r m e r s and fa r m w o r k e r s
m a d e up 94 p e r c e n t o f a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l e m ­
p l o y m e n t in I 9 6 0 .
C h a n g i n g t e c h n o l o g y in
a g r i c u lu t r e h a s b e e n c a u s in g a high r a t e of
d i s p l a c e m e n t of u n sk illed fa r m w o r k e r s .
S t e a d y p r o g r e s s in the a d a p t a t i o n o f m a c h i n ­
e r y to m o r e f a r m o p e r a t i o n s a n d to a w i d e r
v a r i e t y o f c r o p s c o n t i n u e s to b e a m a j o r f a c ­
t o r in the p e r s i s t e n t d e c l i n e o f f a r m e m p l o y ­
m en t.
The in c r e a s e d u se of h e r b i c i d e s ,
p e s t i c i d e s , a n d f e r t i l i z e r , in c o n j u n c t i o n w ith
b ette r s e e d s , h as been a sign ifican t fa c to r
in r a i s i n g o u tp u t p e r m a n - h o u r . B e t t e r f a r m
m a n a g e m e n t a n d the e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h o u s a n d s
o f m a r g i n a l f a r m s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d a l s o to
d e clin in g a g r i c u lt u r a l e m p lo y m e n t. S o m e r e ­
d u c t io n in the f a r m l a b o r f o r c e h a s o c c u r r e d
a l s o a s a r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e s in a g r i c u l t u r a l
s e r v i c e s p e r f o r m e d b y p e r s o n s h a v in g s p e ­
c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g who l i v e o f f the f a r m .
M ost
o c c u p a t i o n s , o t h e r th a n f a r m e r s a n d f a r m

29 Additional information about technological changes in
40 industries can be found in BLS Bulletin 1474 (1966), Technolog­
ical Trends in Major A m erican Industries.
30 U. S. Bureau o f the Budget, Standard Industrial C lassifi­
cation, 1957.
31 Estimates for em ploym ent in agriculture are from the
monthly household survey. They are reported in Employment and
Earnings and Monthly Report on the Labor Force, February 1966,
p. 33.

25

w o r k e r s , a r e i n c r e a s i n g in r e l a t i v e i m p o r ­
t a n c e . S t e a d y g r o w t h o f the d e m a n d f o r a g r i ­
c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e s w i l l r e s u l t in i n c r e a s e s in
the n u m b e r o f v e t e r i n a r i a n s ( in c l u d i n g t h o s e
w ho c a r e f o r n o n f a r m a n i m a l s ) a n d t e c h n i c i a n s
su c h a s h e r d t e s t e r s and m e c h a n ic s .
F orestry .
N e a r l y o n e - h a l f (46 p e r c e n t )
o f the w o r k e r s in f o r e s t r y w e r e in the p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , an d r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l
group.
M o st of th ese w o r k e r s w ere a g r i ­
c u l t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s o r in the p r o f e s s i o n a l an d
t e c h n i c a l n . e . c . g r o u p w h ic h i n c l u d e s f i r e
w a r d e n s , p a r k r a n g e r s , f o r e s t a i d e s , and
o t h e r c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s an d f o r e s t e r s n o t c l a s ­
s if ie d h e re a s a g r i c u lt u r a l s c i e n t i s t s ; anoth er
25 p e r c e n t w e r e l a b o r e r s . O t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t
o c cu p atio n s w ere s t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e c r e t a r i e s ,
a n d t y p i s t s (4 p e r c e n t ) , an d t r u c k d r i v e r s
(3 p e r c e n t ) .
D u r i n g the p o s t w a r p e r i o d , p u b l i c c o n ­
c e r n o v e r f u t u r e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s l e d to i n ­
c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n to r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m s t h a t
h a v e r e s u l t e d in new a n d s u p e r i o r h y b r i d
t r e e s , t r e a t e d s e e d s to r e p e l b i r d s a n d r o ­
d e n t s , an d
c h e m i c a l c o n tr o l of b r u s h and
w e e d t r e e s . R e s e a r c h in f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t
h a s l e d to u s e o f s p e c i a l e q u i p m e n t f o r c o n ­
str u c tio n and m a in te n a n c e of f o r e s t r o a d s
and t r a i l s , s p e c i a l e q u ip m en t fo r s p r a y in g
and d i r e c t
s e e d i n g w ith a i r c r a f t , a n d f o r
p l a n t i n g s e e d s w ith g r o u n d m a c h i n e s .
M ore
a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n to o b t a i n i n g a d e q u a t e
tim b e r in v e n to rie s th ro u gh e le c tr o n ic m ach in e
c o m p u ta tio n and a e r i a l p h o to g r a p h s. G r e a t e r
e m p h a s i s i s b e i n g p l a c e d on b e t t e r f i r e p r o ­
te c tio n s y s t e m s , and m o r e e ffic ie n t h a r v e s t ­
in g e q u i p m e n t .
R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l an d t e c h ­
n i c a l p e r s o n n e l i n c r e a s e d s h a r p l y d u r i n g the
1 9 5 0 's a s c o n c e r n fo r f o r e s t
con serv atio n
s t i m u l a t e d r a p i d e x p a n s i o n in r e s e a r c h a n d
m anagem ent p r o g r a m s .
E m p h a s is on r e ­
s e a r c h and c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o g r a m s is e x p e c te d
to r e m a i n h ig h a n d to r e s u l t in c o n t i n u e d b u t
s l o w e r g r o w t h in the p r o p o r t i o n s o f a g r i c u l ­
t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s d u r i n g 1960— 5 .
7
The p r o ­
p o r t i o n o f l a b o r e r s w i l l c o n tin u e to d e c l i n e ,
but at a s lo w e r p a c e a s in c r e a s in g e m p h a s is
i s p l a c e d on d e v e l o p i n g an d m a i n t a i n i n g a
l a r g e r r o a d s y s t e m w i th in the N a t i o n ' s f o r e s t s .
F i s h e r i e s . F i s h e r m e n an d o y s t e r m e n i n ­
c l u d e d in the l a b o r e r s g r o u p , a c c o u n t e d f o r
75 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s in the i n d u s t r y
in I 9 6 0 .
O ther sig n ifica n t o ccu p atio n s w ere
s h i p o f f i c e r s , p i l o t s , a n d e n g i n e e r s (3 p e r ­
c e n t ) , a n d m a n a g e r s and o f f i c i a l s
n.e.c.
(5 p e r c e n t ) .



T h e s m a l l s i z e o f f i s h i n g f i r m s a n d the
h ig h c o s t s o f d o m e s t i c a l l y b u i lt f i s h i n g v e s s e l s
have r e s t r i c t e d s e v e r e l y
te ch n ological im ­
p r o v e m e n t s in the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y .
W here
m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f the f l e e t i s f e a s i b l e , h o w ­
e v e r , the n e w e r v e s s e l s a r e l a r g e r , f a s t e r ,
a n d b e t t e r e q u i p p e d . New e q u i p m e n t i n c l u d e s
r e fin e d h y d r a u lic , e l e c t r o n i c , and a c o u s t i c a l
d e v i c e s , w h ich s ig n if ic a n t ly im p r o v e n a v i g a ­
ti o n a n d f i s h d e t e c t i o n .
T w in e , n e t , a n d
c a b le that a r e m a d e of ligh tw eigh t and high s t r e n g t h f i b e r a n d p o w e r b l o c k s f o r h a u l in g
l a r g e n e t s c o n t r i b u t e to m o r e e f f e c t i v e h a n ­
d li n g o f the n e t s .
D u r i n g 1960— 5 , the n u m b e r o f l a r g e
7
f i s h i n g f i r m s i s e x p e c t e d to g r o w in r e l a t i v e
im p o r t a n c e . The p r o p o r tio n of f i s h e r m e n and
o y s t e r m e n , e s p e c i a l l y the s e l f - e m p l o y e d , i s
e x p e c t e d to d e c r e a s e ; the p r o p o r t i o n s o f o c c u ­
p a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w ith l a r g e r f i s h i n g f i r m s ,
su c h a s m a n a g e r s , sh ip o f f i c e r s , c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s , m e c h a n i c s , t r u c k d r i v e r s , and c o o k s ,
w ill in c r e a s e .
M ining of S o lid M a t e r i a l s

(SIC 10—12, a n d 14)

T h is m a jo r in d u stry grou p in g is c o m ­
p o s e d o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in
the e x t r a c t i o n of s o l i d m i n e r a l s s u c h a s m e ­
t a l l i c o r e s (S IC 10), c o a l (S IC 1 1 - 1 2 ) , 32 and
n o n m e t a l l i c o r e s , e x c e p t f u e l (SIC 14).
A lso
i n c l u d e d a r e o r e d r e s s i n g an d b e n e f i c i a t i n g
o p e r a t i o n s a n d o t h e r p r e p a r a t i o n n e e d e d to
r e n d e r the m a t e r i a l m a r k e t a b l e , w h e t h e r p e r ­
f o r m e d in c o n j u n c t i o n w ith m i n e s s e r v e d o r
at m i l l s o p e r a t e d s e p a r a t e ly .
The in d u str y
g r o u p i n g a l s o i n c l u d e s e x p l o r a t i o n an d d e v e l ­
o p m e n t o f m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s , an d s t r i p p i n g
a n d other services performed b y m i n i n g c o m ­
p a n i e s , b y o p e r a t o r s o f the p r o p e r t i e s , o r
b y o t h e r s on a c o n t r a c t , f e e , o r o t h e r b a s i s .
S e p a ra te o ccu p atio n al p a tte rn s a re av ailab le
f o r e a c h o f the t h r e e g r o u p i n g s l i s t e d a b o v e .
E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t d e c l i n e d a b o u t 36 p e r c e n t
b e t w e e n 1950 an d I 9 6 0 , an d a n o t h e r 14 p e r ­
c e n t b y 19 6 5 , to 3 5 8 , 0 0 0 w o r k e r s . 33
T he
l a r g e s t d e c r e a s e w a s in c o a l m i n i n g , w h e r e

32 For more information, see BLS Bulletin 1305, 1961, Tech­
n o lo g ic a l Change and Productivity in the Bituminous Coal Industry,

1920-60.
33 Private wage and salary workers accounted for more than
97 percent of total em ploym ent in this m ajor industry grouping;
most o f the remainder were self-em ployed workers.

26

by 1965 the w ork f o r c e h a d d i m i n i s h e d to o n e third of its 1950 l e v e l .
T h is d eclin e w a s
p r im a r ily the d ire c t r e s u l t o f i n t e n s i v e
m e c h a n i z a t i o n , since ou tp u t in the s a m e
p erio d w as down only 7 p e r c e n t .
During
1950— 5 , e m p l o y m e n t in the m e t a l m i n i n g
6
m a jo r group d e cre a se d 15 p e r c e n t , m o s t l y
in the la s t 5 y e a r s . T h e s h a r p l o s s e s in c o a l
and m e ta l mining w e r e o f f s e t p a r t i a l l y b y a n
e a rly em ploym en t i n c r e a s e in n o n m e t a l m i n ­
ing, but em ploym ent in t h i s g r o u p h a s t e n d e d
to le v e l o f f in re c e n t y e a r s .
D e s p i t e the
sharp em p loym en t d e c l i n e o v e r the p a s t 15
y e a r s , co al m ining a c c o u n t e d f o r 41 p e r c e n t
of em ploym en t in this m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g
in 1965.

O ccupational c o m p o s i t i o n an d t r e n d s
In I9 6 0 , the m ine o p e r a t i v e s a n d l a b o r e r s
group accounted fo r 54 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y ­
m ent in co al m ining, 41 p e r c e n t in m e t a l
m ining, and 35 p ercen t in n o n m e t a l m in i n g .
T his group included w o rk e rs w ho d id g e n e r a l
labor and operated a w i d e v a r i e t y o f m i n i n g
m a ch in ery and equipm ent s u c h a s c u ttin g m a ­
ch in es, c r u s h e r s , g r a d e r s , a n d c o n v e y o r s .
It a ls o included h elp ers a n d a s s i s t a n t s to
jou rn ey m en in v ariou s c r a f t s ( p l u m b e r s , e l e c ­
tr ic ia n s, m e ch a n ic s, etc. ), a n d m a n y o t h e r
kinds of se m isk ille d w orker s d i r e c t l y in v o l v e d
in the m ining o peration s.
T r u c k and t r a c t o r
d r iv e r s ; cra n em en and h e a v y e q u i p m e n t o p ­
e r a to r s ; fo re m e n ; m ech an ics a n d r e p a i r m e n ;
and e le c tric ia n s w ere o t h e r b l u e - c o l l a r o c ­

c u p a tio n s w h ich h a v e sig n ific a n t

p rop ortion s
in d u s­

of em p loym en t throughout t h i s m a j o r
try grouping.

W h ite -c o lla r w o rk e rs w e r e on ly 10 p e r ­
cent of a ll em ploym en t in c o a l m i n i n g , 17 p e r ­
cent in m e ta l m ining, a n d 21 p e r c e n t in n o n m e ta l m in in g.
Managers,
o f f i c ia l s , and
p r o p r ie to r s, who m ade up o v e r 4 p e r c e n t of
total em p loym en t in co al a n d in m e t a l m i n i n g ,
and 10 p e rce n t in nonm etal m i n i n g w e r e the
most
sign ifican t w h ite -c o lla r o c c u p a t i o n a l
group.
C on sid erab le change in the o c c u p a t i o n a l
stru ctu re of this m a jo r g r o u p i n g i s e x p e c t e d
during 1960—
75.
In r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e r e h a s
been exten sive capital i n v e s t m e n t in a l l s e g ­
m en ts of mining to r e d u c e c o s t s .
The m e ta l
m ining com ponent found it n e c e s s a r y to o v e r ­
com e p ro b le m s inherent in r e c o v e r i n g m e t a l s
fr o m o re s of low er grade w h i l e c o m p e t i n g in
a w orld m a rk et w here m o s t m e t a l p r i c e s h a v e
been fa llin g , and co al p r o d u c e r s e n d e a v o r e d
to regain m a rk ets lo s t to c o m p e t i t i v e f u e l s .
Som e of the m o re significant c h a n g e s in o c c u ­



p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s th a t a r e e x p e c t e d a s th e r e ­
s u lt of m a j o r t e c h n o lo g ic a l in n o v a tio n s and
o t h e r f a c t o r s , a r e m e n t i o n e d in th e f o l l o w i n g
paragraph.
T h e p r o p o r t i o n of m i n e o p e r a t i v e s a n d
l a b o r e r s i s e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e s u b s t a n t i a l l y
in a l l t h r e e g r o u p i n g s ( a l t h o u g h a t a s l o w e r
r a t e th a n d u r i n g the 1 9 5 0 ' s ) , p r i m a r i l y b e ­
c a u s e of the i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f m o r e a d v a n c e d
m in in g e q u ip m e n t and m e th o d s . F o r e x a m p le ,
c o n t i n u o u s m i n i n g m a c h i n e s a r e c a p a b l e of
m i n i n g 8 t o n s of c o a l p e r m i n u t e .
In I 9 6 0 ,
a l i t t l e o v e r a q u a r t e r of t o t a l u n d e r g r o u n d
c o a l p ro d u ctio n w a s m in ed by th e se m a c h in e s;
b y 1 9 6 4 th e f i g u r e w a s n e a r l y 40 p e r c e n t ,
an d it i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t the c o n t i n u o u s m i n e r
w i l l a c c o u n t f o r h a l f of the u n d e r g r o u n d p r o ­
d u c t io n in 1 9 7 0 .
L o n g w a ll m in in g , an even
n e w e r d e v e l o p m e n t in the U n i te d S t a t e s i s
p u r p o r t e d to a c h i e v e a 33 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r
s a v i n g in l a b o r c o s t s o v e r c o n t i n u o u s m in i n g .
U s e o f t h i s s y s t e m i s e x p e c t e d to b e c o m e
m o r e p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g th e n e x t d e c a d e , d e ­
c r e a s i n g s t i l l f u r t h e r th e n e e d f o r t i m b e r m e n ,
r o o f b o l t e r s , and m in in g m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s .
The r a t io s fo r e n g in e e r s , fo r e m e n , m e ­
c h a n i c s , a n d t r u c k d r i v e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to
c o n ti n u e to r i s e d u r i n g 196 0 —75.
The u tili­
z a t i o n of g i a n t e a r t h - m o v i n g e q u i p m e n t h a s
e x t e n d e d g r e a t l y the s c o p e o f s e r v i c e m i n i n g
in r e c e n t y e a r s . V i r t u a l l y a l l s o l i d m i n e r a l s
ex cep t c o al a r e r e c o v e r e d la r g e ly by s u r f a c e
m eth od s.
In I 9 6 0 , the l a r g e s t s h o v e l h a d a
c a p a c i t y o f 85 c u b i c y a r d s ; o n e o f 200 c u b i c
y a r d s i s s o o n to g o in to o p e r a t i o n .
T rucks
w h ic h h a v e c a p a c i t i e s o f 120 t o n s a r e in u s e ,
a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a 2 4 0 - t o n t r u c k w h ic h c a n
b e d r i v e n f r o m e i t h e r end i s n e a r l y c o m ­
p le te d .
S u c h d e v e l o p m e n t s h a v e l e d to the
r a p id grow th of s u r f a c e s t r i p m in in g of c o a l
a n d the c o n v e r s i o n f r o m r a i l to t r u c k h a u l i n g ;
t h e s e a d v a n c e s c o n t r i b u t e bo th to the d o w n ­
w a r d t r e n d in the p r o p o r t i o n o f m i n e o p e r ­
a t i v e s a n d the r i s e in th e p e r c e n t a g e o f t r u c k d riv e rs.
L e s s t h a n 10 p e r c e n t o f c o a l ou tp u t
c a m e f r o m s t r i p m i n e s in 19 4 0 ; b y 1950 a n d
I 9 6 0 , the p e r c e n t a g e r o s e to 24 p e r c e n t a n d
c l o s e to 30 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
About
15 p e r c e n t o f th e c o a l m i n i n g w o r k f o r c e w a s
e m p l o y e d in s u r f a c e m i n e s in 1962 c o m p a r e d
w ith 6 p e r c e n t in 19 4 5 .
In r e c e n t y e a r s ,
h o w ev er, th e re h a s b e e n e v id e n c e of s o m e
s l a c k e n i n g in th e r e l a t i v e g r o w t h of s u r f a c e
c o a l m i n i n g . On the o t h e r h an d , the p h e n o m ­
e n a l r a t e o f g r o w t h in th e p r o d u c t i o n o f s a n d ,
g r a v e l , a n d c r u s h e d s t o n e to m e e t the n e e d s
of high w ay and b u ild in g c o n s t r u c t io n is e x ­
p e c t e d to c o n ti n u e , a n d w i l l r e s u l t in f u r t h e r
i n c r e a s e s in th e p r o p o r t i o n s o f w o r k e r s in
s u r f a c e m in in g o c c u p a tio n s .

27

I n c r e a s in g e x p lo ita tio n of l o w - g r a d e c o p ­
p e r and iro n o r e s a l s o w ill exp an d r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts fo r o p e r a t o r s of e a r t h - m o v in g e q u ip ­
m ent, fo r e m e n , and t r u c k d r i v e r s .
In 1963,
it b e c a m e p o s s i b l e to m i n e m i l l i o n s of to n s
of lo w - g r a d e c o p p e r not p r e v i o u s l y e c o n o m ­
i c a l to p r o c e s s , w h en th e m o s t h i g h l y a u t o ­
m a t e d f l o t a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t o r in the w o r l d
s t a r t e d o p e r a t i o n s w ith o n e m a n u s i n g e l e c ­
t r o n i c c o n t r o l s to o p e r a t e 12 g r i n d i n g m i l l s .
N ew p e l l e t i z i n g p l a n t s now b e i n g b u i l t f o r
b e n e fic ia tio n of lo w - g r a d e iro n o r e s a r e e x ­
p e c t e d to r e s u l t in s h a r p p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e s
in the m i n i n g o f t a c o n i t e a n d j a s p e r .
S u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s in the p r o p o r t i o n s
of m e c h a n ic s and r e p a i r m e n a r e a n tic ip a te d
to e n s u r e m a x i m u m u t i l i z a t i o n o f th e c o m ­
p l e x e q u i p m e n t , w h ic h r e p r e s e n t s an e n o r ­
m o u s c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t , a n d f o r the p r e ­
v e n t i v e m a i n t e n a n c e of t r u c k s a n d o t h e r
m o b ile eq u ip m en t.
I n c r e a s e d u se of c o m p u te r s is ex p ected
to r e s u l t in th e g r o w t h o f w h i t e - c o l l a r o c c u ­
p atio n s such a s e n g in e e r s and p r o g r a m in g
sp e c ialists.
C o m p u ters a r e u sefu l for c o st
c o n t r o l , o r e e s t i m a t i o n a n d p la n n i n g , a n d
s c h e d u l i n g a n d c o n t r o l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s in l a r g e
m in in g o p e r a t io n s .

C rude

P e tro le u m

and

N atu ral

G a s (SIC

13)

T h is m a jo r grou p in clu d es e s ta b lish m e n ts
p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in e x p l o r a t i o n ,
d rillin g ,
o il and g a s w e ll o p e ra tio n and m a in te n a n c e ,
the o p e r a t i o n o f n a t u r a l g a s o l i n e a n d c y c l e
p l a n t s , a n d the m i n i n g a n d e x t r a c t i o n o f o i l
f r o m o i l sands and shale. A l s o i n c l u d e d a r e
a c t i v it ie s su ch a s e m u lsio n b re a k in g and d es i l t i n g o f c r u d e p e t r o l e u m to r e n d e r the o il
m ark e tab le .
E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y r o s e to a
p e a k of m o r e t h a n 350, 000 in 1957, b u t th en
d e c l i n e d 18 p e r c e n t to a b o u t 300, 000 w o r k e r s
in 19 6 5 . 34 T e c h n o l o g i c a l l a b o r s a v i n g i n n o v a ­
tio n s and i n c r e a s in g im p o r t s h ave c o n trib u ted
to th e e m p l o y m e n t d e c l i n e , d e s p i t e c o n t i n ­
u ou sly r is in g dem an d fo r p e tro le u m p ro d u c ts.
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 1975, e m p l o y m e n t i s e x ­
p e c t e d to r e m a i n r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e .
A n tici­
p a t e d e m p l o y m e n t i n c r e a s e s in o f f - s h o r e w e l l
d r i l l i n g , in the m i n i n g of s h a l e o il, a n d in
the n u m b e r of n a t u r a l g a s o l i n e p l a n t s a r e
e x p e c t e d to o f f s e t c o n tin u in g i m p r o v e m e n t s
in ou tp u t p e r w o r k e r .



O c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n and trends
In I 9 6 0 , w h i t e - c o l l a r w o rk e rs m ade up
a b o u t 42 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l em ploym ent— an un­
u s u a l l y h ig h p r o p o r t i o n com p ared with the
o t h e r m in in g in d u s t r ie s .
R elatively la rg e
n u m b e r s o f e n g i n e e r s , sc ie n tis ts , and tech n i­
c i a n s f o r r e s e a r c h a n d developm ent, and e x ­
p l o r a t i o n w e r e n e e d e d in p etroleu m a c tiv itie s .
T h e l a r g e r a t i o o f m a n a g e r s , o ffic ia ls , and
p r o p r i e t o r s (13 p e r c e n t ) included a ctive own­
e r s of g a s a n d o i l w e l l s , and con tract s e r v ic e
a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s w e l l cleaning and m a in te ­
n a n c e . C l e r i c a l a n d k i n d r e d w o rk e rs (1 4 p e r ­
c e n t) w e r e r e q u i r e d in significant n um bers
t h r o u g h o u t t h i s i n d u s t r y . C raftsm en and op­
e r a t i v e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 57 percent of a ll e m ­
p lo y e e s.
S i g n i f i c a n t cra ftsm e n occupations
i n c l u d e d s t a t i o n a r y engin eers (included in
c r a f t s m e n n. e. c. ) ( 1 0 percen t), f o r e m e n
(6 p e r c e n t ) , a n d m ech an ics and rep airm en
(3 p e r c e n t ) .
M in e operatives and la b o r e r s
m a d e up a l m o s t o n e - t h i r d of the w ork fo r c e ,
a n d i n c l u d e d o c c u p a t i o n s such a s o il g a g e r s,
c a b l e d r i l l e r s , r o t a r y d r i l l e r s , d e r r ic k w o rk ­
e r s , and r i g g e r s .
T h r o u g h 1975, the occupational c o m p o s i­
tio n o f t h i s i n d u s t r y w i l l r e fle c t a growing
p r o p o r t i o n o f w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s, p a r tic u ­
l a r l y p r o f e s s i o n a l , technical, and k i n d r e d
w o r k e r s ; a n d a d e c l i n i n g p roportion of b lu e c o l l a r w o r k e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y m ine operatives
and l a b o r e r s .
T h e changing occupational
c o m p o s i t i o n i s e x p e c t e d p r im a r ily a s the r e ­
s u l t o f c o n ti n u i n g tech nological innovation.
T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t tech nological d e v e l­
o p m e n t in o i l a n d g a s field production a re
L A C T ( l e a s e d a u t o m a t i c custody tra n sfe r) s y s ­
t e m s , w h i c h a u t o m a t i c a l l y m eter and tra n sfe r
crude p e t r o l e u m
f r o m w e ll to pipeline.
G r e a t e r u s e of L A C T s y ste m s in the future
w i l l r e s u l t in r e d u c e d demand fo r stationary
e n g i n e e r s , a s w e l l a s for m ine o peratives
a n d l a b o r e r s , in c l u d in g w o rk ers who gage and
s w i t c h o i l t a n k s . R equ irem ents a re expected
to i n c r e a s e f o r f o r e m e n to su p erv ise w o rk e rs
u s i n g L A C T s y s t e m s a n d for sk illed m ech an ­
i c s to m a i n t a i n an d rep air L A C T s y ste m s
and other in stru m e n ta tio n .
Other autom atic
c o n t r o l s a l s o w i l l r e d u c e the need for m ine
o p e r a t iv e s and la b o r e r s .

34 Private wage and salary workers accounted for more than
95 percent of total employment in this m ajor indvBtry group; the
rem ainder were mostly self-em ployed workers.

28

In cre ase d re lativ e req u irem en ts a r e p r o ­
je c te d for sc ie n tists,
such a s g e o p h y sic ists
a n d e n g i n e e r s , an d o t h e r t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s
t r a i n e d to u s e , o p e r a t e , a n d m a i n t a i n c o m p l e x
te c h n iq u e s and e q u ip m e n t.
T h e s e in clu d e :
A i r b o r n e e q u i p m e n t , s u c h a s c a m e r a s an d
g r a v it y m e t e r s , w h ich e n a b le s g e o l o g i c a l s u r ­
v e y s to b e m a d e m o r e q u i c k l y an d e x t e n s i v e l y ;
loggin g te c h n iq u e s, su ch a s e le c t r ic ,
so u n d
v elocity , and n u c le a r m a g n e tism l o g g i n g ,
w h ic h r e v e a l g r e a t e r d e t a i l a b o u t the s u b ­
s t r a t a ; a n d c o m p u t e r s t h a t a r e b e i n g u s e d to
a n a l y z e a n d c o r r e l a t e d a t a f r o m c u r r e n t an d
p ast seism ic tests.

E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in c o n s t r u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d
a b o u t 35 p e r c e n t to a b o u t 4. 5 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s
b e t w e e n 195 0 a n d 1965. 35
C on stru ction a c ­
tivity ,
w h ic h i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y d u r i n g the
s a m e p e r io d , in clu d ed highw ay, s e w e r , and
w a t e r s y s t e m s ; new c o m m e r c i a l a n d r e s i d e n ­
t ia l b u ild in g s; and u rb a n r e n e w a l p r o g r a m s .
B y 1975, e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r d i v i s i o n
i s e x p e c t e d to r e a c h 5. 7 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s , a s
c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y c o n t i n u e s to r i s e .

O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In d r i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s , s t r o n g e r m a t e r i a l s
a n d m o r e p o w e r on the r i g s e n a b l e the e q u i p ­
m e n t to g o d e e p e r f a s t e r , a n d to l a s t l o n g e r .
I n s t r u m e n t s r e c o r d the d i r e c t i o n a n d d e p t h of
d r i l l p ip e.
T e le v isio n -g u id e d rob ots p e r fo r m
" r o u g h n e c k " d u ties s e v e r a l hundred fe e t
u n d e r w a t e r in o f f s h o r e o p e r a t i o n s .
Tiny,
d o w n h o le t e l e v i s i o n c a m e r a s e n a b l e the d r i l l e r
to " s e e " in to the d e p t h s . A s t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s
b e c o m e m o r e a u to m a tic , th e re w ill be a d e ­
c l i n e in th e e m p l o y m e n t o f m in e o p e r a t i v e s ,
s u c h a s r o u g h n e c k s who p e r f o r m u n s k i l l e d
d u t i e s in d r i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s .
H ow ever, in ­
c r e a s e d d rillin g activity ,
p articu larly off­
shore,
i s e x p e c t e d to o f f s e t p a r t i a l l y the
a d v e r s e e m p l o y m e n t e f f e c t s of a d v a n c i n g
t e c h n o l o g y , a n d a s a r e s u l t , the s h a r e of t o t a l
e m p l o y m e n t f o r o p e r a t i v e s i s e x p e c t e d to d e ­
clin e slow ly.
Proportionate employment for managers

a n d o f f i c i a l s i s no t e x p e c t e d to c h a n g e a p p r e ­
cia b ly . M any r e la tiv e ly s m a ll c o n tra c t s e r v ­
i c e c o m p a n i e s e x p l o r e a n d d r i l l f o r o il. H o w ­
e v e r , a s o p e r a t i n g c o s t s c o n tin u e to r i s e ,
m a n y o f the s m a l l e r f i r m s w i l l m e r g e o r g o
out of b u s i n e s s .
T h u s, m o r e e x p lo rin g and
d rillin g w ill be p e r fo r m e d by few er but l a r g e r
co m p a n ies,
r e q u ir in g fe w e r m a n a g e r s and
o fficials.

C o n s t r u c t i o n ( D i v i s i o n C)
T h is in d u stry d iv isio n in clu d e s p r iv a te
and g o v e r n m e n t c o n str u c tio n of b u i l d i n g s ,
h igh w ays,
s t r e e t s , and su bw ay and se w a g e
sy stem s.
A l s o i n c l u d e d a r e c o n t r a c t o r s in
s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s su ch a s p lu m b in g , c a r ­
p en try , e l e c t r i c a l w ork , and w a te r w ell d r i l l ­
in g . N o t i n c l u d e d a r e m a n u f a c t u r e r s of p r e ­
f a b r i c a t e d b u i l d i n g e q u i p m e n t an d m a t e r i a l s ,
or fo rc e accou n t co n stru c tio n w o r k e r s e m ­
p lo y e d by e s t a b li s h m e n t s , su c h a s m a n u f a c ­
t u r i n g p l a n t s , w h ic h a r e not c l a s s i f i e d in the
c o n str u c tio n in d u stry .



In I 9 6 0 , c r a f t s m e n , f o r e m e n , a n d k i n ­
d r e d w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r m o r e th an o n e h a l f o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in c o n s t r u c t i o n — a
p r o p o r t i o n m o r e th an t h r e e t i m e s g r e a t e r
th a n t h a t f o r c o m p a r a b l e w o r k e r s in a l l n o n a g r ic u ltu r a l in d u strie s.
T h e h ig h p r o p o r t i o n
o f c r a f t s m e n r e f l e c t e d th e c o m p l e x n a t u r e o f
c o n str u c tio n activ ity , n am e ly , a m u ltip licity
of o p e r a t io n s r e q u ir in g m a n y s k ille d w o r k e r s
such a s c a r p e n te r s , b r ic k la y e r s , e le c tr ic ia n s,
p a in te rs, p la s t e r e r s , p lu m b e rs, p ip e fitte rs,
and e x c a v a tin g and g r a d in g m a c h in e o p e r a ­
tors.
L a b o r e r s , who m a d e up a b o u t 18 p e r ­
c e n t o f th e w o r k f o r c e , w e r e n e e d e d to a s ­
s i s t c r a f t s m e n a n d to do r e l a t i v e l y u n s k i l l e d
w ork.
N e a r l y h a l f of the o p e r a t i v e g r o u p ,
w h ic h m a d e up a b o u t 8 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m ­
p lo y m en t, w e r e t r u c k and t r a c t o r d r i v e r s .
M a n a g e r s , o f f i c ia l s , and p r o p r i e t o r s (12 p e r ­
c e n t) a c c o u n t e d f o r m o r e th a n o n e - h a l f o f th e
w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , d u e in p a r t to th e l a r g e
n u m b e r o f s m a l l c o n t r a c t i n g f i r m s in t h i s
in d u stry .
B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1975, the m o s t s i g n i f ­
i c a n t c h a n g e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s a r e
e x p e c t e d to r e s u l t f r o m g r e a t e r a c t i v i t y in
m u ltisto r y c o n str u c tio n and in c r e a s in g p e n e ­
t r a t i o n o f new t e c h n o l o g y . M o r e o f f s i t e p r e f a b r i c a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d u s e o f new m a t e r i a l s ,
su ch a s p r e c a s t c o n c r e te and p l a s t i c s , and
th e g r e a t e r a p p l i c a t i o n of m e c h a n i c a l an d
e le c t r ic a l la b o r sa v in g d e v ic e s a r e expected.
For e x a m p l e ,
th e p r o p o r t i o n o f c a r ­
p e n t e r s i s e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e b e c a u s e o f the
r o w i n g u s e of p r e f a b r i c a t e d c o m p o n e n t s
such a s ro o f t r u s s e s and w a ll p a n e ls) and
new h a n d t o o l s ( s u c h a s p o w e r t o o l s to d r i v e
n a ils), and b e c a u s e m u lt is t o r y c o n str u c tio n

35 Private w age and s a l a r y workers accounted for about
70 percent o f total em ploym ent in this industry division. The
rem ainder was m ade up about equally by government and selfem ployed workers.

29
d e m a n d s o t h e r s k i l l s . T h e r a t i o of p a i n t e r s i s
e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e a s a r e s u l t o f the e x p a n d ­
in g u s e o f m a t e r i a l s s u c h a s a l u m i n u m a n d
p l a s t i c s , w h ic h d o n o t r e q u i r e p a i n t i n g a n d
the i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f e q u i p m e n t s u c h a s r o l l ­
e r s , w h ic h i n c r e a s e ou tp u t p e r w o r k e r .
The
p ro p o rtio n of l a b o r e r s w ill be a ffe c te d a d ­
v e r s e l y by m e ch a n iz atio n , p a r t ic u la r ly m a t e ­
r i a l s h a n d l i n g eq u ip m e n t su c h a s fo r k lift
tru c k s, pow er w h eelb arro w s, conveyor b e lts,
and au to m a tic lifts.
On the o t h e r h an d , the
r a t io of e x c a v a tin g , g ra d in g , and r o a d m a ­
c h in e ry o p e r a t o r s sh ould i n c r e a s e ,
m ain ly
b e c a u s e of r i s i n g h i g h w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n .
As
a r e s u l t o f th e i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f r o a d a n d
o t h e r t y p e s o f m a c h i n e r y , the p r o p o r t i o n of
m e c h a n i c s a l s o i s e x p e c t e d to r i s e .
The
r a t i o s of s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l w o r k e r s and w e l d e r s
w i l l b e a f f e c t e d f a v o r a b l y b y th e i n c r e a s e d
u s e o f s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l in s m a l l e r b u i l d i n g s ,
a s w e l l a s b y the i n c r e a s i n g e m p h a s i s on
m u lt i s t o r y b u ild in g.
In t h i s i n d u s t r y , t e c h ­
n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e w i l l b e m o r e e f f e c t i v e in
red u cin g r e q u ir e m e n ts fo r b lu e - c o lla r w o r k ­
e r s th a n f o r w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , a n d the
s h a r e o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to r i s e
fo r p r o f e s s i o n a l , te c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l e m ­
p lo y e e s.
In a d d i t i o n , e n g i n e e r s a n d o th e r
t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s w i l l i n c r e a s e in r e s p o n s e
to r i s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r w o r k e r s to d e s i g n
and s u p e r v i s e c o m p le x c o n str u c tio n p r o j e c t s
such a s h ig h - r is e a p a rtm e n ts, i n d u s t r i a l
plants,
and u rb a n r a p i d - t r a n s i t s y s t e m s .
L o g g in g C a m p s and L o g g in g
C o n t r a c t o r s ( S I C 241)
T h is i n d u s t r y g ro u p in c lu d e s loggin g
c a m p s and lo g g in g c o n t r a c t o r s p r i m a r i l y e n ­
g a g e d in c u ttin g t i m b e r a n d in p r o d u c i n g
r o u g h , hewn, o r p r i m a r y f o r e s t o r w o o d r a w
m a te ria ls.
E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p h a s
b e e n d e c l i n i n g s l o w l y , a n d w a s dow n to
126, 000 w o r k e r s in 19 6 5 . 36 A d r o p in the d e ­
m a n d f o r l u m b e r , d u e to s u b s t i t u t i o n of o th e r
m a t e r i a l s in c o n s t r u c t i o n , an d f o r c o n t a i n e r s
w as a m ajo r facto r.
T h e d e c l i n e in e m p l o y ­
m e n t w o u ld h a v e b e e n g r e a t e r e x c e p t f o r the
i n c r e a s e in w o o d c u ttin g f o r p u lp w o o d r e s u l t ­
ing f r o m the r i s i n g c o n s u m p t i o n o f p a p e r a n d
p a p e r b o a r d p r o d u c t s . E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n ­
d u s t r y g r o u p i s e x p e c t e d to d r o p f u r t h e r in
the c o m i n g d e c a d e a s ou tp u t p e r m a n - h o u r
g r o w s an d the s h i f t t o w a r d s the u s e of l u m ­
b e r su b stitu te s con tin u es.
T h e d e c l i n e in
e m p l o y m e n t w i l l b e m o d i f i e d s o m e w h a t b y the
c o n ti n u e d i n c r e a s e in d e m a n d f o r p u lp w o o d
by the p a p e r p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r i e s .



O ccu p ation al co m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , t w o - t h i r d s o f the w o r k e r s in t h i s
i n d u s t r y w e r e l u m b e r m e n ( i n c l u d e d w ith l a b o r ­
ers).
T h e o n ly o t h e r i m p o r t a n t o c c u p a t i o n s
w e r e t r u c k a n d t r a c t o r d r i v e r s (12 p e r c e n t ) ,
and m a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s ,
and p r o p r i e t o r s
(7 p e r c e n t ) .
D u r i n g 1960—75, th e l e a d i n g f a c t o r s a f ­
f e c t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e w i l l b e the i n ­
c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f p u lp w o o d ,
m o s t of
w h i c h i s l o g g e d in the s o u t h e r n r e g i o n s of the
cou ntry, and te c h n o lo g ic a l c h a n g e s that w ill
i n c r e a s e the p r o d u c t i v i t y of the l a b o r e r g r o u p .
C o m p a r e d w ith th e N o r t h w e s t , l o g g i n g in the
S o u th h a s a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of s m a l l a n d
m e d i u m - s i z e d e s t a b li s h m e n t s , and s m a l l and
sca tte re d tim b er tra c ts.
The p r o p o r tio n of
m a n a g e r s a n d p r o p r i e t o r s i s e x p e c t e d to r i s e
b e c a u s e a g r e a t e r s h a r e of the i n d u s t r y e m ­
p l o y m e n t w i l l b e e n g a g e d in p u lp w o o d c u ttin g
in the South. T h e s m a l l e r m o r e w i d e l y s c a t ­
t e r e d t i m b e r t r a c t s of th e S o u th w i l l r a i s e
the p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t r u c k a n d
tracto r d riv e rs.
O ffsettin g th e s e i n c r e a s e s
w i l l b e a d e c l i n e in the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e
of l u m b e r m e n ( l a b o r e r s ) .
T e ch n o lo g ical
c h a n g e s in c l u d in g b e t t e r f e l l i n g an d l o g h a n ­
d li n g e q u i p m e n t f o r s m a l l o p e r a t o r s , a n d the
d e v e lo p m e n t by l a r g e wood u sin g c o r p o r a t io n s
of f a s t g r o w i n g v a r i e t i e s o f t r e e s ; u n i f o r m
p l a n t i n g on the l a r g e t r a c t s ; s p e c i a l i z e d m o ­
b i l e e q u i p m e n t t h a t f e l l s , t r i m s , c u t s to
le n g th , a n d s t a c k s p u lp w o o d s i z e l o g s a l s o
w i l l r e d u c e the n e e d f o r l u m b e r m e n an d i n ­
c r e a s e r e q u ir e m e n ts fo r s p e c ia liz e d eq u ip ­
m en t o p e r a t o r s and t r u c k d r i v e r s .

Sawmills, Planing Mills, Millwork, and Mis-

c e l l a n e o u s Wood P r o d u c t s ( S I C 242—249)
T h is in d u stry grou p in g in clu d e s s a w m ills ,
p l a n i n g m i l l s , p ly w o o d m i l l s , a n d v e n e e r
m i l l s e n g a g e d in p r o d u c i n g l u m b e r a n d w o o d
m ate rials.
It a l s o i n c l u d e s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
m an u factu rin g fin ish ed a r t i c l e s m a d e e n tire ly
or m a in ly of w ood and w ood s u b s titu te s su ch
a s w ooden c o n ta in e r s and p a r t i c l e b o a rd .
E m p lo y m e n t
E m p l o y m e n t h a s d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y in t h i s
i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the 1 9 5 0 ' s a n d e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s
to a low of a b o u t 550, 000 w o r k e r s in 1965.

3^ Private wage and salary workers accounted for slightly over
two-thirds o f total employment in logging and logging camps;
most o f the rem aining workers were self-em ployed.

30

T h e d e c r e a s e s w e r e l a r g e s t in the s a w m i l l
a n d p l a n i n g m i l l , a n d the w o o d e n c o n t a i n e r
i n d u s t r y g r o u p s w h e r e the d e m a n d f o r l u m b e r
and w ooden p ro d u c ts w a s a ffe c te d a d v e r s e ly
by a sh ift to w a rd s w ood s u b s titu te s and p a p e r
and p la s tic c o n ta in e rs.
B e t w e e n 195 0 an d
I960, p ro d u ctio n of lu m b e r d rop p ed f r o m
38 to 33 b i l l i o n b o a r d f e e t .
E m p l o y m e n t in
the p ly w o o d , v e n e e r , a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s w o o d
p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g s i n c r e a s e d a s the
r e s u l t o f the g r o w i n g m a r k e t f o r w o o d p a n ­
e l i n g a n d p ly w o o d p r o d u c t s .
E m p lo y m en t is
e x p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e to d e c l i n e but a t a s l o w e r
p a c e d u r i n g 1965—7 5.
A d d itio n al grow th is
e x p e c t e d in th e p ly w o o d a n d v e n e e r i n d u s t r y ;
s a w m i l l e m p l o y m e n t w i l l c o n t i n u e to d e c r e a s e ,
d e s p i t e th e i n c r e a s i n g d e m a n d f o r l u m b e r
g e n e r a t e d b y the e x p e c t e d r i s e in c o n s t r u c ­
ti o n a c t i v i t y . A f u r t h e r d e c l i n e a l s o i s p r o ­
j e c t e d f o r th e w o o d e n c o n t a i n e r g r o u p .

F u r n i t u r e a n d F i x t u r e s ( S I C 25)
T h is m a jo r in d u stry grou p in clu d e s e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g h o u s e ­
h o ld , o f f i c e , p u b l i c b u i ld i n g , a n d r e s t a u r a n t
fu r n itu r e , and o ffic e and s t o r e f i x t u r e s .
E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
h a s b e e n i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y s i n c e 1950 a n d
r e a c h e d 4 4 7 , 100 w o r k e r s in 1 9 6 5 . C o n t in u e d
e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h i s e x p e c t e d t h r o u g h 1975,
a s a r e s u l t of i n c r e a s i n g d e m a n d w h i c h w i l l
be g e n e r a te d by s u s ta in e d p o p u latio n grow th,
in c r e a sin g fam ily fo rm a tio n s,
risin g con ­
stru c tio n activ ity ,
and i n c r e a s i n g p e r s o n a l
co n su m p tio n e x p e n d itu re s.
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s

O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s m a d e up
84 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y
groupin g.
M o st of th e se w e re eith er s e m i ­
s k i l l e d o p e r a t i v e s (43 p e r c e n t ) o r l a b o r e r s
(25 p e r c e n t ) .
The o p e ra tiv e r e s id u a l group,
w h ich in clu d e d s a w y e r s , p l a n e r s , f e e d e r s ,
p r e s s o p e r a t o r s , and m o s t o t h e r sa w m ill
e q u i p m e n t o p e r a t o r s , m a d e up 38 p e r c e n t of
th e w o r k f o r c e . O t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t o c c u p a t i o n s
in clu d e d :
M a n a g e r s , o ffic ia ls , and p r o p r i e ­
t o r s (7 p e r c e n t ) , t r u c k d r i v e r s (5 p e r c e n t ) ,
f o r e m e n (3 p e r c e n t ) , l o g a n d l u m b e r i n s p e c ­
t o r s (3 p e r c e n t ) , a n d c a r p e n t e r s (2 p e r c e n t ) .
B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1975, the p r o p o r t i o n
o f l a b o r e r s i s e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e , a s new
m e c h a n i z e d m e t h o d s o f m a t e r i a l h a n d l in g a r e
in tro d u ced .
T h i s d e c r e a s e i s e x p e c t e d to
b e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t in l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
w h e r e th e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m e c h a n i z a t i o n a r e
greatest.
T h e a v e r a g e s i z e of f i r m s h a s b e e n
i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y , a n d w i l l c o n tin u e to c o n ­
t r i b u t e to c h a n g e s in th e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c ­
t u r e of t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g . T h e p r o p o r ­
tio n s of o c c u p a tio n s (su c h a s c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s ,
fo r e m e n , and in s p e c t o r s ) that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ­
a l l y m a k e up a g r e a t e r s h a r e o f the w o r k
f o r c e in l a r g e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i l l g r o w .
S i m i l a r l y , th e p r o p o r t i o n of m a n a g e r s , o f f i ­
c i a l s , and p r o p r i e t o r s , o c c u p a tio n s that a r e
u s u a l l y m o r e i m p o r t a n t in s m a l l f i r m s , w i l l
decrease.
P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s a l e s w o r k e r s,
alth ou gh r e l a t i v e l y u n im p o rta n t, a r e e x p e c te d
to g r o w s h a r p l y d u r i n g 1960—7 5 a s the i n d u s t r y
a t t e m p t s to d e v e l o p a n d s e l l the new p r o d u c t s
n e e d e d to c o m p e t e on th e m a r k e t w ith the
g r o w i n g v a r i e t y of w o o d s u b s t i t u t e s .



In I 9 6 0 , b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s m a d e up
m o r e th an t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f th e e m p l o y m e n t in
th is m a jo r in d u str y g ro u p . Im p o rta n t sk ille d
w o r k e r s w e r e c a b i n e t m a k e r s (6 p e r c e n t ) ,
f o r e m e n (4 p e r c e n t ) , a n d u p h o l s t e r e r s (5 p e r ­
cent). S e p a r a t e o c c u p a tio n a l r a t i o s w e r e not
a v a ila b le fo r s e m is k ille d p ro d u ctio n o p e r a ­
tiv e s such a s p r e s s o p e r a to r s, fitte r s , ch air
and ta b le m a k e r s , and s p r in g m a k in g m a c h in e
operators.
T h e se w o r k e r s w e r e co m b in ed
in to th e o p e r a t i v e r e s i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n a n d
a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r 40 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m ­
p lo y m en t.
O ther im p o r ta n t o c c u p a tio n s in ­
c l u d e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s (1 0 p e r c e n t ) , m a n a g ­
e r s , o f f i c i a l s , a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (7 p e r c e n t ) ,
a n d l a b o r e r s (5 p e r c e n t ) .

E x c e p t f o r a fe w o c c u p a t i o n s ,
little
c h a n g e in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s
m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i s e x p e c t e d by 1975.
T e c h n o lo g ic a l d e v e lo p m e n ts w ill h av e th e ir
g r e a t e s t i m p a c t on f u r n i t u r e a s s e m b l y an d
m a te r ia ls h a n d l i n g o p eratio n s.
A u tom atic
s t a c k e r s , c o n v e y o r s , and h o p p e rs a r e r e ­
p l a c i n g l a b o r e r s to t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l b e t w e e n
m ach in es or p r o c e s s e s .
P n eu m atic pow er
c l a m p s a n d a s s e m b l y m a c h i n e s now r e q u i r e
f e w e r p r o d u c t i o n a n d s k i l l e d w o r k e r s to a s ­
se m b le f r a m e s ,
c a s e ends,
d r a w e r s , and
ch airs.
P o w e r - d r i v e n f a s te n in g e q u ip m e n t
is red u c in g r e q u ir e m e n ts fo r u p h o l s t e r e r s .
The p r o p o r tio n of c a b i n e t m a k e r s a l s o is e x ­
p e c t e d to d e c l i n e a s m o r e s p e c i a l i z e d p o w e r
to o ls su c h a s a u to m a tic f i l e r s and r o u t e r s
a r e used.
When p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s b e ­
c o m e m o r e m e c h a n i z e d , th e r a t i o o f f o r e m e n
to w o r k e r s w i l l i n c r e a s e .
L ittle change is
e x p e c t e d in the p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m p l o y m e n t f o r
the r e m a i n i n g m a j o r o c c u p a t i o n s .

31

S to n e ,

C l a y , a n d G l a s s ( S I C 32)

T h is m a jo r in d u stry group in clu d es e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g f l a t
g l a s s and oth er g l a s s p r o d u c t s ,
cem en t,
s tr u c t u r a l cla y p r o d u c ts, p o tte ry , co n c re te
and g y p su m p r o d u c ts , cut ston e p r o d u c ts , and
a b r a s i v e s and a s b e s t o s p ro d u c ts, fr o m m a t e ­
r i a l s t a k e n p r i n c i p a l l y f r o m the e a r t h a s
sto n e, c la y , and san d. S e p a r a t e o c c u p a tio n a l
p a tte r n s a r e a v a ila b le fo r g l a s s and g l a s s
p r o d u c t s ( S I C 321— 3 ), c e m e n t , c o n c r e t e ,
32
g y p s u m , a n d p l a s t e r ( S I C 324 a n d 327), s t r u c ­
t u r a l c l a y p r o d u c t s ( S I C 3 25), p o t t e r y a n d
r e l a t e d p r o d u c t s ( S I C 32 6 ), a n d m i s c e l l a n e ­
o u s n o n m e t a l l i c m i n e r a l s a n d s t o n e ( S I C 3 28
a n d 329).
E m p lo y m en t
P r i v a t e w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in
t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y i n c r e a s e d a b o u t 15 p e r ­
c e n t to a b o u t 627, 000 b e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1965.
D u r i n g 1960— 5 , l i t t l e c h a n g e o c c u r r e d in the
6
p r o p o r t i o n s o f e m p l o y m e n t a t t r i b u t a b l e to the
com ponent in d u stry g ro u p s.
C em ent, c o n ­
crete,
gypsum ,
a n d p l a s t e r p r o d u c t s , the
l a r g e s t g r o u p i n g , a c c o u n t e d f o r o n e - t h i r d of
a ll w o r k e r s ; g l a s s and g l a s s p ro d u c ts for
about on e-fou rth ; m is c e lla n e o u s n o n m e t a l
m i n e r a l s and ston e fo r ab ou t o n e -fifth ; and
s t r u c t u r a l c la y and p o tte ry p r o d u c ts co m b in ed
a c c o u n te d fo r ab o u t o n e -fifth p e r c e n t of to tal
m a jo r in d u stry group em ploym en t.
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 1975, e m p l o y m e n t i s
e x p e c t e d to g r o w m o d e r a t e l y in t h i s m a j o r
g r o u p . D e s p i t e the i n c r e a s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n of
t e c h n o lo g ic a l in n o v a tio n s, e m p lo y m e n t g a in s
a r e f o r e c a s t in g l a s s p r o d u c t s , c e m e n t , c o n ­
c re te , gypsum ,
and p l a s t e r p r o d u c ts; and
m i s c e l l a n e o u s n o n m e ta llic m i n e r a l s and ston e
i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , b a s e d on p r o j e c t e d i n c r e a s e s
in d e m a n d f o r t h e s e p r o d u c t s b y th e c o n s t r u c ­
tio n a n d m o t o r v e h i c l e i n d u s t r i e s . H o w e v e r ,
e m p l o y m e n t i n c r e a s e s in t h e s e g r o u p s a r e
e x p e c t e d to b e p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t b y m i n o r d e ­
c l i n e s in r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r w o r k e r s in the
p o ttery and r e la te d p ro d u c ts grou p a s a r e ­
su lt of c o n s u m e r p r e f e r e n c e fo r p l a s t i c d ish w a r e a n d k i t c h e n w a r e , an d of g r o w i n g c o m ­
p e t i t i o n f r o m i m p o r t s , an d in the s t r u c t u r a l
c l a y p r o d u c t s g r o u p a s a r e s u l t of t e c h n o l o g ­
i c a l in n ov atio n s su ch a s a u to m a tic in s tr u m e n t
c o n tro ls.

O ccu pation al co m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , 45 p e r c e n t o f a l l w o r k e r s in t h i s
m a jo r in d u stry group w e re o p e r a t iv e s .
In
i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , the p r o p o r t i o n of



o p e r a t i v e s r a n g e d f r o m a h ig h of 60 p e r c e n t
in p o t t e r y to a low of 36 p e r c e n t in s t r u c ­
tu ra l c la y p ro d u c ts.
T h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of
o p e r a t i v e s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 p e r c e n t in the
m a jo r in d u stry group, w e r e c la s s i f i e d a s o p ­
e ra tiv e s
n. e. c. , a c a t e g o r y w h i c h in c l u d e d
m a n y s p e c i a l i z e d o c c u p a tio n s su ch a s b o ttle
m ach in e o p e r a t o r s , g l a s s g r in d e r s and p o l­
is h e r s , ce m e n t and c o n c re te m a k e r s , cin d er
b lock m a k e r s ,
b r ic k m o ld e r s and b a k e r s ,
m o r t a r m ix e r s , cla y m o ld e r s , d e c o r a t o r s ,
a s b e s t o s s p in n e r s , ston e p la n e r s , and other
s e m isk ille d w o r k e r s. T r u c k d r iv e r s accoun ted
f o r 7 p e r c e n t of the w o r k e r s in the m a j o r
i n d u s t r y g r o u p . T h e l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of
t h e s e e m p l o y e e s w a s in the c o n c r e t e , c e m e n t ,
gy p su m , and p la s t e r in d u stry g ro u p w h ere
m o r e t h a n 1 w o r k e r in 6 w a s a t r u c k d r i v e r .
F o r e m e n , and m e c h a n ic s and r e p a ir m e n w e re
m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t in the c r a f t s m e n g r o u p a n d
a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 14 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l m a j o r
in d u stry grou p em ploym en t. L a b o r e r s m ad e
up a b o u t o n e - s e v e n t h of a l l e m p l o y e e s in the
m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p . In the s t r u c t u r a l c l a y
p ro d u c ts group, how ever, la b o r e r s accounted
f o r a b o u t 1 out o f 3 w o r k e r s .
W h ite-collar w o r k e r s ac c o u n te d fo r n e a r ly
1 out of 4 e m p l o y e e s in I 9 6 0 .
The l a r g e s t
w h i t e - c o l l a r gro u p , c l e r i c a l and k in d r e d w o r k ­
e r s , e m p l o y e d 7 of e v e r y 10 w o r k e r s in the
m a jo r in d u stry group.
M a n ag ers, o fficials,
and p r o p r i e t o r s a c c o u n te d fo r 8 p e r c e n t of
m a j o r g r o u p e m p l o y m e n t o r a b o u t d o u b l e the
s h a r e fo r p r o f e s s io n a l and te ch n ica l w o r k e r s .
B y 1975, s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s a r e a n t i c i ­
p a t e d in s o m e o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n s
w ith in th e m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
C o n tin u e d
a d v a n c e s in a u t o m a t e d e q u i p m e n t a n d the d e ­
v e l o p m e n t of o t h e r new t e c h n i q u e s a r e e x ­
p e c t e d to r e s u l t in s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n in
the r a t i o s o f s o m e s e m i s k i l l e d a n d u n s k i l l e d
jo b h o ld e rs.
The g r e a t e s t p ro p o rtio n a te d e ­
c l i n e i s e x p e c t e d to o c c u r in the u n s k i l l e d
g r o u p ; m o r e th an 1 o r e v e r y 3 j o b s h e ld b y
l a b o r e r s in I 9 6 0 m a y b e e l i m i n a t e d b y 1975,
m a in ly a s a r e s u l t of m e c h a n iz a tio n of m a ­
t e r i a l s h a n d l in g a n d p a c k i n g .
The follow in g
s u m m a r y i n d i c a t e s s o m e o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l
d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t a r e e x p e c t e d to r e d u c e the
p r o p o r t i o n s of o p e r a t i v e s in s o m e s e g m e n t s ,
a n d of l a b o r e r s in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
In the m a n u f a c t u r i n g of f l a t g l a s s , the
" f l o a t " p r o c e s s e lim in a te s g rin d in g and p o l ­
ish in g o p e r a tio n s.
In the g l a s s c o n t a i n e r
in d u stry , e le c t r o s t a t ic im p rin tin g tech n iq u es
a r e re p la c in g d e c o r a to r s , and au to m atic in ­
sp e c tio n d e v i c e s and p ac k in g m a c h in e r y a r e
d isp la c in g in s p e c to r s and p ack in g o p e r a t o r s .

32
C o l o r i n g g l a s s b e f o r e i t g o e s to th e b o t t l e
f o r m e r s s a v e s long,
c o s t l y p r o c e d u r e s of
t e a r i n g d ow n a n d c l e a n i n g f u r n a c e s b e t w e e n
c o lo r b a tc h e s and r e d u c e s m an p o w e r r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts fo r m ain te n an ce .
In the m a n u f a c t u r e
o f c o n c r e t e b l o c k , new p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s
i n c l u d e a u t o m a t i c c o n v e y i n g a n d s t e e r i n g of
raw m a t e r i a ls , m o n ito rin g by c lo s e d - c ir c u it
t e l e v i s i o n ; c o m p u t e r c o n t r o l of k i l n b u r n e r s ,
g r i n d e r s , c r u s h e r s , a n d b l e n d in g t a n k s ; a n d
a u to m a tic b lo ck l o a d e r s and u n lo a d e rs.
M u c h o f th e d e c l i n e o f th e m i s c e l l a n e o u s
o p e r a t iv e s c a t e g o r y w ill be c o u n te r b a la n c e d
b y a n i n c r e a s e in the p r o p o r t i o n o f t r u c k d r i v e r s , w ho a r e e x p e c t e d to a c c o u n t f o r 1 out
of e v e r y 10 w o r k e r s in t h i s i n d u s t r y b y 1975.
A l l s e g m e n t s o f th e m a j o r i n d u s t r y a r e e x ­
p e c t e d to h a v e i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n s of t r u c k d r i v e r s , b u t th e g r e a t e s t g r o w t h w i l l o c c u r
in th e c o n c r e t e , c e m e n t , g y p s u m , a n d p l a s t e r
groupin g.
It i s e x p e c t e d t h a t o v e r 1 out of
5 w o r k e r s in t h i s g r o u p i n g w i l l b e a t r u c k d r i v e r b y 1975.
In th e e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s , t r u c k
s u r p a s s e d r a i l a s th e d o m i n a n t m e t h o d of
t r a n s p o r t i n g c o n c r e t e a n d c e m e n t , a n d the
t r e n d i s e x p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e . A m o n g c r a f t s ­
m e n in the s t o n e , c l a y , a n d g l a s s p r o d u c t s
in d u stry , in c r e a s e d r e q u ir e m e n ts a r e a n t ic i­
p a t e d f o r the s k i l l s o f f o r e m e n a n d o t h e r
m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n , to c o n t r o l a n d
s e r v i c e th e m o r e c o m p l e x , h ig h ly a u t o m a t e d
e q u ip m e n t.
W h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s w i l l c o n tin u e to a c ­
count fo r a p p r o x i m a t e ly 1 out of e v e r y 4 e m ­
p l o y e e s in the m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
P r i m a r y M e t a l s ( S I C 33)
T h is m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p c o v e r s e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in th e p r o d u c t i o n o f f e r r o u s
a n d n o n f e r r o u s m e t a l s f r o m o r e , p ig , a n d
s c r a p ; a n d th e m a n u f a c t u r e o f s e m i f i n i s h e d
p ro d u cts such a s b ille ts,
sh e e ts and b a r s ,
and fin ish e d p ro d u c ts such a s tu bes, n a ils,
and in su la te d cab le.
It a l s o i n c l u d e s f o u n d ­
r i e s , th e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o k e , an d the m a n u ­
f a c t u r e of f o r g i n g s .
O ccu p ation al p a tte rn s
a r e a v a ila b le for b la s t fu rn a c e s, ste e l w o rk s,
a n d r o l l i n g m i l l s ( S I C 3 3 1 2 a n d 3 3 1 3 ), f o u n d ­
r i e s , fo r g e sh o p s, and oth er p r i m a r y iro n
a n d s t e e l ( 3 3 1 5 - 3 3 1 7 , 3 3 9 9 , 332 a n d 3 3 9 1 ),
a n d p r i m a r y n o n f e r r o u s m e t a l s ( 3 3 3 —336 a n d
3 3 9 2 ).

in d u stry gro u p have re m a in e d r e la tiv e ly sta b le
a t a b o u t 1. 2 m i l l i o n d u r i n g 1950—
65.
T otal
e m p l o y m e n t in the m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i s
e x p e c t e d to fo l l o w the s a m e f l u c t u a t i n g p a t ­
t e r n b e t w e e n 1965 a n d 197 5. T h e v a r i e d i n ­
d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h r a t e s o f th e p a s t
a l s o a r e e x p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e , i. e. , f l u c t u ­
a t i n g e m p l o y m e n t l e v e l s in the b l a s t f u r n a c e s ,
s t e e l w o r k s , a n d r o l l i n g m i l l s g r o u p i n g (w h ic h
acco u n te d fo r n e a r ly o n e -h a lf of to tal e m p lo y ­
m e n t in 1 9 6 5 ); m o d e r a t e e m p l o y m e p t g r o w t h
in the p r i m a r y n o n f e r r o u s m e t a l s g r o u p i n g ;
a n d a m o d e r a t e d e c l i n e in th e o t h e r p r i m a r y
ir o n and s t e e l g ro u p in g .

O ccu p ation al co m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s m a d e up
a b o u t 80 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s
m a jo r in d u stry grou p. The o p e r a t iv e s grou p ,
w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y 33 p e r c e n t of the
w ork f o r c e ,
in c l u d e d s e v e r a l o c c u p a t i o n s
w h ich h av e s ig n if ic a n t s h a r e s of to ta l e m p lo y ­
m e n t su ch a s fu r n a c e m e n , s m e l t e r e r s , and
p o u r e r s ; and w e ld e r s and fla m e c u tte r s. O c ­
c u p a t i o n s h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s of
t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in the c r a f t s m e n g r o u p s
w e r e : F o r e m e n (5 p e r c e n t ) ; c r a n e m e n , d e r r i c k m e n , a n d h o i s t m e n (4 p e r c e n t ) ; m e c h a n i c s
a n d r e p a i r m e n a n d m e t a l m o l d e r s (3 p e r c e n t ) ;
r o l l e r s a n d r o l l h a n d s a n d e l e c t r i c i a n s (2 p e r ­
cent); and m illw r ig h t s ( l p e r c e n t) . L a b o r e r s
a c c o u n te d fo r a l a r g e p r o p o r t io n (15 p e r c e n t)
of to ta l e m p lo y m e n t.
M o r e th a n o n e - h a l f o f the w h i t e - c o l l a r
w o r k e r s w e r e in c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , a n d
a b o u t o n e - f o u r t h w e r e in the p r o f e s s i o n a l ,
te c h n ica l, and k in d re d w o r k e r s gro u p .
A l­
th o u g h the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s o f th e t h r e e
m a j o r g r o u p i n g s in t h i s i n d u s t r y w e r e s o m e ­
w h a t s i m i l a r , th e p r o p o r t i o n of o p e r a t i v e s to
t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in the p r i m a r y n o n f e r r o u s
m e t a l s g r o u p i n g ( 4 0 p e r c e n t ) w a s h i g h e r th an
the m a j o r i n d u s t r y a v e r a g e (33 p e r c e n t ) , a n d
the p r o p o r t i o n o f l a b o r e r s (8 p e r c e n t ) w a s
c o n s id e r a b ly low er.
B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1975, the b l u e - c o l l a r
r a t i o i s e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e o n ly s l i g h t l y in
th is m a jo r in d u stry gro u p .
H ow ever, s e v ­
e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s a r e e x p e c t e d to o c c u r
w ith in o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , p r i m a r i l y a s the
r e s u l t of te c h n o lo g ic a l d e v e lo p m e n ts.

E m p lo y m en t
E x c e p t fo r sh o rtru n flu ctu atio n s, r e f l e c t ­
in g c h a n g e s in b u s i n e s s c o n d i t i o n s , p r i v a t e
w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r



The l a b o r e r s ' s h a r e of to ta l e m p lo y m e n t
i s e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e a l m o s t o n e - t h i r d a s
the r e s u l t o f the e x p a n d e d u s e of the c o n t i n u o u s

33
c a s tin g p r o c e s s and a u to m a tic b ille t c o n d i­
t io n e r s , w h ich w ill r e d u c e in t e r m e d ia t e o p ­
e r a t i o n s a n d h a n d l i n g of m a t e r i a l s .
The
r a tio s o f m o ld e r s and m a c h in is ts a r e ex p ected
to d e c l i n e a s the r e s u l t of t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e ­
v e lo p m e n ts su ch a s m e c h a n iz e d m o ld in g and
c lo s e to le ra n c e forgin g tech n iqu es.
S im i­
l a r l y , e m p lo y m e n t of o p e r a t iv e s and i n s p e c ­
t o r s w ill be a ffe c te d by other d e v e lo p m e n ts
s u c h a s the b a s i c o x y g e n f u r n a c e , h i g h - s p e e d
w ir e m ak in g m a c h in e s , X - r a y m e ta l a n a l y s i s ,
and in sp e c tio n m a c h in e s.
On the o t h e r h an d , the p r o p o r t i o n a t e
s h a r e s of e m p lo y m e n t fo r m e c h a n ic s and r e ­
p a ir m e n , fo r e m e n , and m illw r ig h ts a r e e x ­
p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a s a r e s u l t o f the r i s i n g
n e e d f o r m o r e s u p e r v i s i o n a n d o f the e x p a n d ­
in g m a i n t e n a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s .
A m ong w h ite-co llar w o rk e rs, en gin eers
( p a r t i c u l a r l y m e t a l l u r g i c a l ) , t e c h n i c i a n s , an d
s a l e s w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e s i g n i f ­
ic a n tly b e c a u s e of i n c r e a s in g r e s e a r c h and
d ev e lo p m e n t a c t i v it ie s , and a n tic ip a te d r i s in g
in tr a - and in te r in d u s tr y c o m p e titio n am o n g
d o m e stic and fo r e ig n p r o d u c e r s .
F a b r i c a t e d M e ta l P r o d u c t s , Including
n a n c e ( S I C 34 a n d 19, E x c e p t 194)

Qrd-

T h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g i s c o m p o s e d of
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in the f a b r i c a t i o n of
f e r r o u s and n o n fe r r o u s p r o d u c ts su ch a s h a r d ­
w are,
p lu m bing f i x t u r e s ,
stru c tu ra l steel,
s c r e w m a c h i n e p r o d u c t s , an d m e t a l s t a m p i n g s
a n d th e f i n i s h i n g ( f o r e x a m p l e , e l e c t r o p l a t i n g )
o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s , a n d in the m a n u f a c t u r e of
o r d n a n c e in clu d in g m i s s i l e s and s p a c e c r a f t s ,
and a c c e s s o r i e s .
T h e p r o d u c t i o n of o r d n a n c e
s i g h t i n g a n d f i r e c o n t r o l e q u i p m e n t ( S I C 194)
i s e x clu d e d .
E m p lo y m e n t
P r i v a t e w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in
th is in d u st r y g ro u p in g r o s e u n ev en ly d u rin g
the p a s t d e c a d e a n d a h a l f , to n e a r l y 1. 5 m i l ­
l io n w o r k e r s in 1965. 37 T h r o u g h o u t m o s t of
the 1 9 5 0 ' s a n d e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s , e m p l o y m e n t in
the f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s i n d u s t r y g r o u p f l u c t u ­
a t e d a r o u n d 1. 1 m i l l i o n ; the n u m b e r of w o r k ­
e r s e m p l o y e d in the o r d n a n c e s e g m e n t i n ­
c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y a s the r e s u l t o f s h a r p l y
e x p a n d e d ou tp u t o f m i s s i l e s , s p a c e c r a f t s , a n d
r e l a t e d e q u i p m e n t . F r o m 1963 to 1965, e m ­
p l o y m e n t d e c l i n e d in the o r d n a n c e s e g m e n t
a n d i n c r e a s e d m o d e r a t e l y in the f a b r i c a t e d
m e t a ls group. The la tte r tr e n d s a r e ex p e c te d
to p e r s i s t t h r o u g h the m i d - 1 9 7 0 ' s ; e m p l o y ­
m e n t w i l l c o n t i n u e to r i s e m o d e r a t e l y f o r the
total in d u stry groupin g.



O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , m o r e th a n t w o - t h i r d s o f th e t o t a l
w o r k f o r c e in th e i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g w e r e
b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s . M o st of th e s e w o r k e r s
( a l m o s t 37 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ) w e r e
in the o p e r a t i v e
g r o u p , w hich in clu d e d
m a c h in e too l o p e r a t o r s , a s s e m b l e r s , and in ­
sp ectors.
S i g n i f i c a n t o c c u p a t i o n s a m o n g the
c r a f t s m e n g r o u p (w h ic h a c c o u n t e d f o r a l m o s t
1 out o f 4 w o r k e r s ) in c l u d e d f o r e m e n , m a ­
c h in ists, too l and d ie m a k e r s , and m e c h a n ic s .

C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s w e r e th e m o s t s i g n i f ­
ican t group am on g w h ite -c o lla r o ccu p atio n s,
a n d a c c o u n t e d f o r m o r e th a n 14 p e r c e n t o f
t o t a l w o r k f o r c e . In the p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h ­
n i c a l , a n d k i n d r e d w o r k e r s g r o u p (w h ic h m a d e
up n e a r l y 10 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ) ,
7 out o f 10 w o r k e r s w e r e e n g i n e e r s a n d t e c h ­
n i c i a n s ( in c l u d i n g d r a f t s m e n ) .
B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 197 5 t h i s i n d u s t r y
g r o u p i n g i s e x p e c t e d to u s e a g r e a t e r p r o ­
p o rtio n of s c ie n t is t s , e n g in e e rs, and re la te d
tech n ician s.
T h i s g r o w t h w i l l b e l a r g e l y in
t h o s e p a r t s o f i n d u s t r y c o n c e r n e d w ith s p a c e ­
c r a ft, m i s s i l e s , and a c c e s s o r i e s .
The a d o p ­
tio n o f e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g s h o u l d r e ­
d u c e the p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r
c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s a n d c o n t r i b u t e to i n c r e a s e d
r e q u ir e m e n t s fo r c o m p u te r p r o g r a m e r s and
sy ste m s an a ly sts.
( T h e l a t t e r a r e in c l u d e d
in th e p r o f e s s i o n a l n. e. c. c a t e g o r y . )
The im p a c t of a u to m a tic t r a n s f e r e q u ip ­
m e n t h a s b e e n g r e a t e r in t h i s i n d u s t r y th an
in a n y m e t a l w o r k i n g i n d u s t r y e x c e p t th e m a n ­
u f a c t u r e of m o t o r v e h i c l e s a n d p a r t s .
In
1963, a b o u t 5, 000 t r a n s f e r m a c h i n e s — m o r e
t h a n o n e - f o u r t h of a l l s u c h m a c h i n e s in u s e --w e r e i n s t a l l e d in the f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s a n d
o r d n a n c e i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g a n d n e a r l y 60 p e r ­
c e n t w e r e l e s s th an 10 y e a r s old.
Of t h i s
t o t a l , a b o u t 2, 100 w e r e u s e d in m e t a l c u ttin g
op eratio n s,
1, 300 f o r a s s e m b l y o p e r a t i o n s ,
a n d 1, 600 in m e t a l f o r m i n g d e p a r t m e n t s . T h e
t r a n s f e r lin e t e c h n i q u e h a s b e e n u s e d w ith a
h i g h d e g r e e of s u c c e s s in a d d i t i o n a l o p e r a ­
tio n s su ch a s p la tin g .

Government workers accounted for about 3 percent of em ­
ployment in this industry grouping, nearly all o f them in the ord­
nance segm ent; the rem ainder were prim arily private wage and
salary workers.

34

The exp an d ed u s e of th e se and other t e c h ­
n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s s u c h a s n u m e r ic a l l y co n tro lle d m a c h in e s and m e ch a n iz e d m a t e ­
r i a l s h a n d l in g e q u i p m e n t w i l l a f f e c t a d v e r s e l y
ad d itio n a l b lu e - c o lla r o ccu p atio n s s u c h a s
l a b o r e r s and sh e e t m e t a l w o r k e r s .
Among
th e o p e r a t i v e s , e m p l o y m e n t of a s s e m b l e r s ,
i n s p e c t o r s , e l e c t r o p l a t e r s and h e l p e r s , and
m a c h i n e t o o l o p e r a t o r s i s e x p e c t e d to b e a f ­
f e c t e d a d v e r s e l y b y th e i n c r e a s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n
of te c h n o lo g ic a l in n o v a tio n s su ch a s a u t o m a t ic
t r a n s f e r e q u ip m e n t.
On the o t h e r h a n d , s o m e b l u e - c o l l a r o c ­
c u p a t i o n s a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e . F o r e x ­
a m p l e , th e r a t i o s o f f o r e m e n , a n d m e c h a n i c s
a n d r e p a i r m e n a r e e x p e c t e d to r i s e a s th e r e ­
s u l t o f th e n e e d f o r m o r e s k i l l e d s u p e r v i s i o n
an d m a in te n a n c e of m e c h a n ic a l eq u ip m en t.

O ffic e , C om p u tin g, an d A cco u n tin g M a c h in e s
I n d u s t r i e s ( S I C 357)
T h is in d u stry g ro u p in clu d e s e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s e n g a g e d in th e p r o d u c t i o n of c o m p u t e r s
and a c c o u n tin g m a c h in e s and th eir p e r i p h e r a l
e q u ip m e n t; c a s h r e g i s t e r s ; a d d r e s s i n g and
d i c t a t i n g m a c h in e s ; t y p e w r i t e r s and tim e
c l o c k s ; a n d w e i g h t i n g m a c h i n e s an d a p p a r a t u s ,
excep t th o se u sed fo r sc ien tific e x p erim en tal
purposes.
E m p lo y m en t
B e t w e e n 195 0 a n d 1965,
th is in d u stry
m o r e th a n d o u b l e d in s i z e to n e a r l y 190, 000
p r iv a te w ag e and s a l a r y w o r k e r s .
T h is in ­
c r e a s e r e s u l t e d p r i m a r i l y f r o m th e s h a r p
j u m p in d e m a n d f o r e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u t e r s a n d
p e r i p h e r a l eq u ip m en t.
The n u m b e r of c o m ­
p u t e r s i n c r e a s e d f r o m a fe w e x p e r i m e n t a l
u n i t s b e f o r e 1950 to o v e r 30, 000 i n s t a l l a t i o n s
b y th e end of 1965. T h e r e w a s l i t t l e c h a n g e ,
h o w e v e r , in the o u tp u t o f a d d in g m a c h i n e s ,
c a lc u la t in g m a c h in e s , and c a s h r e g i s t e r s d u r ­
in g t h i s p e r i o d , b e c a u s e i m p o r t s i n c r e a s e d
m o r e th a n 500 p e r c e n t a n d in 1965 w e r e e q u a l
to a b o u t o n e - h a l f o f d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t i o n .
D u r i n g 1950—1965, f o r e i g n c o m p e t i t i o n a l s o
c a u s e d a d r o p in e m p l o y m e n t a n d ou tp u t
a m o n g e sta b lish m e n ts m an u factu rin g ty p e­
w r i t e r s , a n d s c a l e s a n d b a l a n c e s ; b y 1965,
im p o rted ty p e w rite rs ex c eed ed d o m estic p r o ­
d u c t io n .
B e t w e e n 19 6 5 a n d 19 7 5 , e m p l o y m e n t in
t h i s i n d u s t r y i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e n e a r l y
50 p e r c e n t , m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f the a n t i c i p a t e d
con tin u ed r i s i n g d e m a n d fo r c o m p u t e r s and
r e l a t e d e q u ip m e n t.



O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , a b o u t 54 p e r c e n t o f t h i s i n d u s t r y
g r o u p 's em p lo y m e n t c o n s is te d of b lu e - c o lla r
w o r k e r s --- a low r a t i o f o r a m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n ­
du stry.
A s s e m b le r s a c c o u n t e d fo r about
10 p e r c e n t o f th e w o r k f o r c e , a n d i n s p e c t o r s
and m a c h in e too l o p e r a t o r s
c o m b in ed , an
ad d itio n a l 6 p e rc e n t. M e ch a n ic s and r e p a i r ­
m e n m a d e up 6 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
a n d a b o u t 1 out o f 3 c r a f t s m e n .
Other s i g ­
n i f i c a n t o c c u p a t i o n s in t h i s l a t t e r g r o u p i n ­
clu d e d fo r e m e n ,
tool and d i e m a k e r s ,
and
m ach in ists.

P ro fe ssio n al,
tech n ica l, and k i n d r e d
w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r o n e - f i f t h of th e
w o r k e r s in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p --- n e a r l y 73
p e r c e n t w e r e e n g in e e r s and te c h n ic ia n s, in ­
c lu d in g d r a f t s m e n .
The m is c e lla n e o u s p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s gro u p , w h ich in clu d e d c o m ­
p u te r p r o g r a m e r s and s y s t e m s a n a ly s t s , w a s
e s t i m a t e d to h a v e 2 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y ­
m en t. C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , s t e n o g r a p h e r s , ty p ­
i s t s , and s e c r e t a r i e s m a d e up a l m o s t 5 p e r ­
c e n t o f th e w o r k f o r c e . M a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s ,
and p r o p r i e t o r s , and s a l e s w o r k e r s , a l s o had
s i g n i f i c a n t r a t i o s (6 a n d 4 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c ­
tively ).
T h is in d u stry h a s b een sh ap ed by ra p id
g r o w t h in d e m a n d f o r c o m p u t e r s a n d b y t e c h ­
n o lo g ic a l d e v e lo p m e n ts that h ave a ffe c te d in ­
n o v a t i o n s in c o m p u t e r p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s
a n d p r o d u c t c h a n g e s . C o m p u t e r s h a v e fo u n d
i n c r e a s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n in g o v e r n m e n t ,
re­
s e a r c h l a b o r a t o r i e s , e d u catio n , b u s i n e s s , and
in d u s t r ia l p ro d u c tio n .
They have e v o l v e d
fro m m am m oth , v acu u m -tu b e m ac h in es r e ­
q u irin g e x te n siv e hand a s s e m b l y by sk ille d
t e c h n i c i a n s a n d e n g i n e e r s to c o m p a c t s o l i d s t a t e e q u i p m e n t a s s e m b l e d in p a r t b y m a s s p ro d u ctio n te ch n iq u e s. S ig n ifican t te c h n o lo g ­
i c a l in n o v a tio n s in clu d e c o m p u t e r - c o n t r o lle d
w ire -w ra p p in g m ac h in es, com puter d esign ed
c ir c u itr y , m o d u la r and m ic r o m in ia tu r iz a t io n
of c o m p o n e n try , and n u m e r ic a l l y c o n tr o lle d
m e ta l stam p in g and d rillin g m a c h in e s.

B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1975, t h e r e w i l l b e a
s h a r p c h a n g e in th e o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n
of th is in d u str y g ro u p . W h ite - c o lla r w o r k e r s
a r e e x p e c t e d to a c c o u n t f o r m o r e th a n 50 p e r ­
c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ; m o r e th an o n e f o u r t h o f th e w o r k f o r c e w i l l b e in the p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l , te c h n ic a l, and k in d r e d g ro u p . The
p r o p o r t io n s of e n g i n e e r s , s c i e n t i s t s , and
t e c h n i c i a n s a r e e x p e c t e d to r i s e s h a r p l y in
r e s p o n s e to th e n e e d f o r t h e s e w o r k e r s in

35
r e s e a r c h a n d in d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s to i m ­
p ro v e p ro d u c tio n p r o c e s s e s , a d v a n c e m ac h in e
c a p a b i l i t i e s , a n d to b r o a d e n the a p p l i c a t i o n
of c o m p u t e r s . A m o n g c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , the
r i s in g p r o p o r tio n of s t e n o g r a p h e r s , t y p is t s ,
a n d s e c r e t a r i e s i s e x p e c t e d to m o r e th an o f f ­
s e t the a n t i c i p a t e d d e c l i n e s in th e p r o p o r t i o n s
o f o t h e r c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s s u c h a s h an d b o o k ­
keepers.
M o s t o f th e s i g n i f i c a n t o c c u p a t i o n s in the
b l u e - c o l l a r g r o u p a r e e x p e c t e d to b e a f f e c t e d
a d v e r s e l y by te c h n o lo g ic a l in n o v atio n s.
For
e x a m p l e , the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of i n s p e c ­
t o r s w ill d e c lin e a s e le c t r o n ic in sp e c tin g and
t e s t i n g d e v i c e s a r e u t i l i z e d i n c r e a s i n g l y in
p ro d u ctio n p r o c e s s e s .
M a c h i n e to o l o p e r a ­
t o r s , m a c h in i s t s , and too l and d ie m a k e r s a r e
e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e a s the u s e o f n u m e r i c a l l y
c o n tr o lle d m ach in e to o ls and a u to m a tic t r a n s ­
f e r eq u ip m e n t r i s e s .
N o n e le c tr ic a l M ach in ery , E x c e p t O ffice ,
C o m p u t in g , a n d A c c o u n t i n g M a c h i n e s
(SIC 3 5 1 - 3 5 6 , 358, a n d 359)
T h is in d u stry grou p in g in c lu d e s e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g e n g i n e s
and t u r b in e s ; f a r m m a c h in e r y and eq u ip m en t;
c o n s t r u c t i o n , m in i n g , a n d m a t e r i a l s h a n d l in g
eq u ip m en t; m e ta lw o r k in g m a c h in e r y , s p e c i a l
p ro d u c tio n m a c h in e s fo r in d u s t r ie s (su ch a s
fo o d p r o d u c t s , t e x t i l e s , p a p e r , w o o d w o r k in g ,
and p rin tin g ); g e n e r a l in d u s t r ia l m a c h in e r y
(su ch a s p u m p s, c o m p r e s s o r s , b a ll b e a r in g s,
b lo w e r s , and in d u s t r ia l p r o c e s s fu r n a c e s ) ;
and s e r v i c e in d u str y m a c h in e s (su c h a s a u t o ­
m a tic ven din g m a c h in e s and c o m m e r i c a l r e ­
f r i g e r a t i o n ) ; and a l s o in clu d ed a r e m a c h in e
sh o p s th at do jo b b in g and r e p a i r w o rk . S e p ­
a r a t e o c c u p atio n p a tte r n s a r e a v a ila b le for
f a r m m a c h i n e r y ( S I C 352) a n d f o r a l l o th e r
m a c h i n e r y ( S I C 351, 353—
356, 358, a n d 359).
E m p lo y m en t
P r i v a t e w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in
t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g r o s e m o r e th a n f o u r t e n t h s to 1. 5 m i l l i o n , b e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1965,
p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e of r a p i d e m p l o y m e n t i n ­
c r e a s e s t h a t o c c u r r e d in the m e t a l w o r k i n g
machinery
and m i s c e l l a n e o u s m a c h in e r y
g r o u p s a s the r e s u l t o f g r o w i n g d e m a n d f o r
p ro d u cts such a s au to m atic tr a n s fe r e q u ip ­
m en t, n u m e r ic a lly c o n tr o lle d m a c h in e s , and
m o to r v eh icle p a r ts .
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 1975, t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
in the a l l o t h e r a n d f a r m m a c h i n e r y i n d u s t r y
g r o u p i n g i s e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e i n c r e a s i n g
b u t a t a m u c h s l o w e r r a t e th a n t h a t in 1950—
65.



O ccu p atio n al c o m p o stio n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s m a d e up
a b o u t 69 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s
in d u stry grou p in g.
The o p e r a t iv e s grou p,
w h ic h a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r 35 p e r c e n t o f a l l
w o r k e r s , in clu d ed l a r g e n u m b e r s of m a c h in e
tool o p e r a t o r s ,
a s s e m b l e r s , and w e ld e r s .
A m o n g the s k i l l e d c r a f t s m e n g r o u p , f o r e m e n ,
m a c h i n i s t s , m e c h a n ic s and r e p a i r m e n , and
to o l a n d d i e m a k e r s , a l s o h a d s i g n i f i c a n t p r o ­
p o rtio n s of total em p loy m en t.
C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s ( o f w h o m m o r e th a n
o n e-fou rth w e re s e c r e t a r i e s ,
ty p ists,
and
s t e n o g r a p h e r s ) a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 13 p e r c e n t
o f the t o t a l w o r k f o r c e .
P r o f e s s i o n a l and
te c h n ica l w o r k e r s , m o s t of w hom w e r e e n g i­
neers, d r a f t s m e n ,
and te c h n icia n s, w e re
9 p e r c e n t of to tal e m p lo y m e n t; and m a n a g e r s ,
o f f ic ia ls , and p r o p r i e t o r s a c c o u n te d fo r ab ou t
7 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e .
B e t w e e n i 9 6 0 a n d 19 7 5 , t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n ­
n o v a t i o n s w i l l h a v e d i v e r s e e f f e c t s on the
in d iv id u a l b l u e - c o l l a r o c c u p a tio n s . A u to m a tic
t r a n s f e r e q u i p m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to e f f e c t d e ­
c l i n e s in the r a t i o s o f m a c h i n e t o o l o p e r a t o r s ,
a s s e m b l e r s , in s p e c to r s , and la b o r e r s .
Nu­
m e r i c a l l y c o n tr o lle d m a c h in e to o ls a l s o w ill
a ffe c t a d v e r s e l y m a c h in e too l o p e r a t o r s and
c r a f t s m e n su ch a s m a c h in i s t s , and too l and
d iem ak ers.
O ffsettin g th e s e d e c lin e s s o m e ­
w h a t w i l l b e r a p i d g r o w t h in tw o o t h e r o c c u ­
p a tio n s h av in g s ig n ific a n t p r o p o r t io n s of to ta l
em p loy m en t. The fo r e m e n r a tio is ex p e c te d
to i n c r e a s e a s the n e e d r i s e s f o r m o r e s k i l l e d
su p erv isio n .
T h e r a t i o of w e l d e r s w i l l r i s e
b e c a u s e r e q u i r e m e n t s fo r jo in in g o p e r a t io n s
in t h i s i n d u s t r y a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e v e r y
r a p i d l y t h r o u g h the m id- 197 0 ' s .
In th e w h i t e - c o l l a r g r o u p , r e q u i r e m e n t s
fo r m e c h a n ic a l en g in eers, c o m p u t e r p ro g r a m e r s , and n u m e r ic a lly c o n tr o lle d m a c h in e
t o o l p a r t s p r o g r a m e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to i n ­
c r e a s e r a p i d l y b e c a u s e o f the a n t i c i p a t e d
r a p i d r i s e in the p r o d u c t i o n a n d u s e o f n u ­
m e r i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d m a c h i n e t o o l s a n d the
grow in g u se of e le c tr o n ic d ata p r o c e s s i n g
eq u ip m en t.
T h e d e c l i n e in c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s
a ffe c te d by e le c tro n ic d ata p r o c e s s in g is e x ­
p e c t e d to b e p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t b y a n i n c r e a s e
in the r a t i o s o f s e c r e t a r i e s , t y p i s t s , a n d
sten ograph ers.
E l e c t r i c a l M ach in ery , E q u ip m e n t,
a n d S u p p l i e s ( S I C 36~)
T h is m a jo r in d u stry grou p in clu d e s e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g m o ­
t o r s , g e n e r a to r s , sw itc h g e a r s , w irin g d e v ic e s ,

36

e le ctro n ic com pon en ts, c o m m u n i c a t i o n s
eq u ip m en t, and oth e r m a c h in e r y , a p p a r a t u s ,
a n d s u p p l i e s f o r the g e n e r a t i o n ,
storage,
t r a n s m i s s i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , an d u t i l i z a t i o n
of e l e c t r i c a l e n e rg y .
T h e m a n u f a c t u r e of
h o u seh o ld a p p li a n c e s and r a d io and te le v is io n
s e t s i s i n c l u d e d in t h i s g r o u p , b u t i n d u s t r i a l
m a c h in e r y and e q u ip m e n t p o w e r e d by b u iltin o r d e t a c h a b l e e l e c t r i c m o t o r s a r e not
in c l u d e d .
E m p lo y m e n t
P r i v a t e w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in
t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p r o s e a b o u t 67 p e r ­
c e n t, b e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1965, to a b o u t 1.7 m i l ­
lio n , a r a t e o f i n c r e a s e n e a r l y f o u r t i m e s
th at of a l l m a n u fa c tu r in g e m p lo y m e n t d u rin g
th e s a m e p e r i o d .
S i n c e 1958, e m p l o y m e n t
in the i n d u s t r y g r o u p s p r i m a r i l y m a n u f a c ­
t u r i n g e l e c t r o n i c p r o d u c t s 38 ( c o m m u n i c a t i o n s
eq u ip m e n t, r a d io and t e l e v i s io n r e c e i v e r s ,
and e le c tr o n ic com po n en ts) in c r e a s e d m o re
th a n t w i c e a s f a s t a s e m p l o y m e n t in the r e ­
m a i n i n g f i v e g r o u p s , w h ic h p r i m a r i l y m a n u ­
factu red e le c tric a l p rod u cts.
M uch of th is
e m p l o y m e n t i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d in the c o m ­
m u n i c a t i o n s i n d u s t r y ( S I C 3 6 6 2 ), w h i c h a l s o
m a n u fa c tu re d m ilita r y and sp a c e e le c t r o n ic s
p r o d u c ts su ch a s r a d a r and c o m m u n ic a tio n s
s y s t e m s . M a n y o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s w e r e h ig h ly
c o m p l i c a t e d a n d s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n d no t r e a d i l y
a d a p t a b l e to m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n m e t h o d s .
On
the o t h e r h a n d , m a n y o f the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c ­
e s s e s in the e l e c t r i c a l p r o d u c t s s e g m e n t s i n ­
v o l v e d the f a b r i c a t i o n o f m e t a l o r p l a s t i c s
p a r t s , w h ich w e r e u s u a lly m a s s - p r o d u c e d .
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 1 9 7 5 , e m p l o y m e n t in
e l e c t r i c a l m a c h in e r y , e q u ip m e n t, and s u p p lie s
i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a b o u t 20 p e r c e n t — a
s l o w e r r a t e th a n in the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d .
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s m a d e up
61 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t .
O p e ra tiv e s
a c c o u n t e d f o r m o r e th a n t w o - t h i r d s of t h e s e
w o r k e r s and in clu d ed l a r g e n u m b e r s of a s ­
s e m b l e r s , in s p e c t o r s , and m a c h in e too l o p ­
e r a t o r s . In th e c r a f t s m e n a n d f o r e m e n g r o u p ,
f o r e m e n w e r e 4 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ,
and s ig n ific a n t n u m b e r s of m e c h a n ic s and r e ­
p a i r m e n , s ta t io n a r y e n g i n e e r s , and to o l and
d ie m a k e r s a l s o w e re em ployed .
P ro fessio n al, t e c h n i c a l ,
and k in d r e d
w o r k e r s m a d e up the s e c o n d l a r g e s t o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l g r o u p in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
(18 p e r c e n t ) . E n g i n e e r s a n d t e c h n i c i a n s ( i n ­
c l u d i n g d r a f t s m e n ) a c c o u n t e d f o r m o r e th an
3 out o f 4 w o r k e r s in t h i s g r o u p --- 14 p e r c e n t



of a l l e m p lo y m e n t and a high r a t i o fo r a m a n ­
u fa c tu rin g in d u stry .
C le ric al w ork ers m ade
up 15 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t — n e a r l y
o n e -th ird w e r e s t e n o g r a p h e r s , t y p is t s , and
se cre tarie s.
The o c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n , h o w e v e r,
v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a m o n g th e i n d i v i d u a l e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
In 1 9 6 2 , f o r e x a m p l e , e n g i n e e r s a n d o t h e r
tec h n ica l w o r k e r s accoun ted fo r about onet h i r d o f the t o t a l w o r k f o r c e in s o m e e s t a b ­
lish m e n ts m an u factu rin g m ilit a r y and sp a c e
e le c tr o n ic s p ro d u c ts; o p e r a t iv e s m ad e up l e s s
th an o n e - f o u r t h .
A t the o t h e r e x t r e m e , in
e sta b lish m e n ts m an u factu rin g c o n su m e r e l e c ­
tro n ic s p ro d u c ts (such a s ra d io and te le v isio n
r e c e i v i n g s e t s ) , the o p e r a t i v e g r o u p a c c o u n t e d
f o r 60 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e --- m o r e th an
f i v e t i m e s l a r g e r th an the c o m b i n e d g r o u p o f
e n g i n e e r s an d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s .
P r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s a r e
e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e th e f a s t e s t a m o n g a l l
o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y
group.
A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f b o th g o v e r n m e n t
and p r iv a t e e x p e n d itu r e s fo r r e s e a r c h and d e ­
v e l o p m e n t i s m a d e in t h i s i n d u s t r y .
As a
r e s u lt , e n g in e e r s , s c ie n t is t s , and te c h n ic ia n s
w ill b e n eed ed fo r r e s e a r c h and d e v e lo p m e n t
of in c r e a s in g l y c o m p lic a te d e l e c t r o n i c s e q u ip ­
m ent.
T h e r a t i o of d r a f t s m e n , h o w e v e r , i s
e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e b e c a u s e of th e i n c r e a s i n g
a p p lic a tio n of c o m p u t e r s and oth er l a b o r s a v i n g d r a f t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in the
d e s i g n of e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t r y .
C le ric a l w o rk ­
e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e a s a p r o p o r t i o n
of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t b e c a u s e of the g r o w i n g
u s e of c o m p u t e r s f o r d a t a p r o c e s s i n g a n d the
tren d tow ard c e n tra liz a tio n of m any c l e r i c a l
fu n ction s. P a r t ia lly offsettin g th e se d e c lin e s
w i l l b e i n c r e a s e s in the n u m b e r of s e c r e ­
t a r i e s , t y p i s t s , an d s t e n o g r a p h e r s to w o r k
w ith th e i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n s o f p r o f e s ­
sio n al and te c h n ica l w o r k e r s , and office m a ­
c h in e o p e r a t o r s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d
w ith a u t o m a t i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g e q u i p m e n t .
O p e ra tiv e s, a s a p ro p o rtio n of to tal e m ­
p l o y m e n t , a r e e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e b u t s t i l l
r e m a i n th e l a r g e s t m a j o r o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p
of w o r k e r s . W ithin the o p e r a t i v e g r o u p , a s ­
s e m b l e r s , i n s p e c t o r s , and m a c h in e too l o p ­
e r a t o r s a r e e x p e c t e d to b e a f f e c t e d a d v e r s e l y
b y the i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f a u t o m a t e d a s s e m b l y

Additional inform ation about the industry manufacturing
electronics products can be found in BLS Bulletin 1363, Employ­
ment Outlook and Changing O ccupational Structure in Electronics
Manufacturing (October 1963).

37

lin e s , a u to m a tic t r a n s f e r eq u ip m en t, and n u ­
m e r ic a l ly co n tro lle d m ach in e to o ls. The in ­
c r e a s i n g u s e of t r a n s i s t o r s , p rin te d c i r c u i t s ,
a n d m i c r o c i r c u i t s in p l a c e o f t u b e s a n d w i r e d
c i r c u i t s i s a l s o e x p e c t e d to r e d u c e the p r o ­
p o rtio n a te r e q u ir e m e n ts for a s s e m b l e r s and
i n c r e a s e the n e e d f o r c h e m i c a l a n d m e t a l l u r ­
g ical p r o c e s s w o rk ers.
In the c r a f t s m e n
g ro u p , fo r e m e n and m e c h a n ic s and r e p a i r ­
m e n a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e r a p i d l y a n d r e ­
f l e c t the a n t i c i p a t e d d e m a n d f o r m o r e s k i l l e d
s u p e r v i s i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e a s s o c i a t e d w ith
th e g r o w i n g u t i l i z a t i o n of a u t o m a t e d a n d p r o c ­
e s s c o n t r o l e q u ip m e n t .
T r a n s p o r ta tio n E q u ip m en t (SIC 37)
T h is m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p c o m p r i s e s e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in the m a n u f a c t u r e of
t r a n s p o r t a t io n eq u ip m en t.
O ccu p ation al p a t ­
t e r n s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r e a c h of the f o l l o w i n g :
M o t o r v e h i c l e s ( S I C 37 1 ), a i r c r a f t a n d p a r t s
( S I C 3 72), s h i p a n d b o a t b u i l d i n g a n d r e p a i r
( S I C 3 73), a n d r a i l r o a d a n d o t h e r t r a n s p o r ­
tatio n e q u ip m e n t su ch a s b i c y c l e s , m o t o r ­
c y c l e s , a n d t r a i l e r c o a c h e s ( S IC 374—3 7 9 ).
E m p lo y m e n t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y h a s f l u c t u ­
a t e d s i n c e 1950 in r e s p o n s e to g e n e r a l b u s i ­
n e s s a c tiv ity and te c h n o lo g ic a l c h an g e s. The
e m p lo y m en t p eak — about 2 m illio n p r iv a te
w a g e a n d s a l a r y w o r k e r s — w a s r e a c h e d in
1953; in 1965 the e m p l o y m e n t l e v e l s t o o d a t
a b o u t 1. 7 m i l l i o n . E m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s v a r i e d
a m o n g the . i n d u s t r y g r o u p s .
P riv ate w age
a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in th e l a r g e s t g r o u p ,
m o to r v e h i c le s and eq u ip m en t, r e a c h e d a p e a k
l e v e l o f m o r e th an 9 0 0 , 000 w o r k e r s in 1953;
f l u c t u a t e d d o w n w a r d to a low o f l e s s th an
6 1 0 , 0 0 0 w o r k e r s in 1 9 5 8 ; a n d th e n c l i m b e d
to m o r e th a n 8 4 3 , 000 w o r k e r s in 1965.
P ri­
v a t e w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in the a i r ­
c r a f t g r o u p i n c r e a s e d f r o m f e w e r th a n 3 0 0 , 0 0 0
in 1950 to n e a r l y 9 0 0 , 000 in 1957; b y 1965,
h o w e v e r , t h i s e m p l o y m e n t h a d d e c l i n e d to
6 2 5 , 000. T h e c o n v e r s i o n f r o m p i s t o n - d r i v e n
to j e t - p o w e r e d c o m m e r c i a l p l a n e s , i n v o l v e ­
m e n t of a i r c r a f t c o m p a n i e s w ith s p a c e - p r o b e
p r o g r a m s , r e s e a r c h and d ev elo p m en t p r o ­
g r a m s , a n d th e t e n s i o n s of th e i n t e r n a t i o n a l
s c e n e w e r e m a j o r f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to e m ­
p l o y m e n t c h a n g e s in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
P r i v a t e w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in
the s h i p a n d b o a t b u i l d i n g a n d r e p a i r g r o u p
i n c r e a s e d m o r e th a n 8 0 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n 1950
a n d 1965.
In 1965, e m p l o y m e n t in g o v e r n ­
m e n t s h i p y a r d s ( a s a p r o p o r t i o n o f the to t a l)
w a s 35 p e r c e n t . T h e t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t l e v e l
of a b o u t 244, 000 w o r k e r s in 1965 w a s on ly



a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of the m o r e th an 1 m i l l i o n
e m p l o y e d in s h i p b u i l d i n g d u r i n g th e p e a k
W o r ld W ar II y e a r s . S h ip b u i ld i n g a n d r e p a i r
a c t i v i t y in th e U n ite d S t a t e s h a v e b e e n a f f e c t e d
a d v e r s e l y b y a r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e in d e m a n d
fo r m ilita r y v e s s e l s and stro n g in tern atio n al
c o m p e titio n fo r b u ild in g of c o m m e r c i a l s h ip s .
H o w e v e r , e m p l o y m e n t in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
b u ild in g an d r e p a i r i n g b o a t s h a s gro w n s t e a d ­
ily a s d e m a n d fo r s m a l l c r a f t , p a r t i c u l a r l y
f o r f a m i l y u s e , h a s r i s e n s h a r p l y in the p a s t
decade.
The p r iv a t e w ag e and s a l a r y e m p lo y m e n t
t r e n d in th e r a i l r o a d e q u i p m e n t i n d u s t r y g r o u p
w a s s i m i l a r to the e m p l o y m e n t p a t t e r n f o r
the m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p d u r i n g 1960—
65.
P r iv a t e w ag e and s a l a r y e m plo y m en t p eak ed
in 1953 a t a b o u t 80, 000; d ip p e d , a n d th en r e ­
c o v e r e d s o m e w h a t t h r o u g h 1957 a t 63, 000;
d e c l i n e d r a p i d l y to a b o u t 35, 0 0 0 in 1961; a n d
th en r o s e s t e a d i l y to a b o u t 55, 000 in 1965.
T h e c o u r s e of e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y
g r o u p c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d p r i m a r i l y to the c o n ­
v e r s i o n f r o m s t e a m to d i e s e l l o c o m o t i v e s
a m o n g th e r a i l r o a d c o m p a n i e s , w h i c h w a s v i r ­
t u a l l y c o m p l e t e d b y 1958.
B e c a u s e of the
d u r a b ility of d i e s e l u n its, few r e p la c e m e n t s
h a v e b e e n p u r c h a s e d . H o w e v e r , p u r c h a s e of
r e p l a c e m e n t l o c o m o t i v e s m a y i n c r e a s e now
b e c a u s e of the d e m a n d f o r b i g g e r a n d m o r e
p o w e r f u l u n i t s , a n d the a p p r o a c h i n g o b s o l e s ­
c e n s e of e x i s t i n g u n i t s .
P r i v a t e w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in
the m i s c e l l a n e o u s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t
g r o u p h a s i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y s i n c e 1958 to
m o r e th an 54, 000 in 1965, p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e
of the r i s i n g d e m a n d f o r t r a i l e r c o a c h e s .
T o ta l m a jo r in d u stry g rou p em p lo y m en t
i s e x p e c t e d to b e a b o u t the s a m e in 197 5 a s
in 1965, a s a n t i c i p a t e d d e c l i n e in the a i r c r a f t
and m o to r v e h ic le in d u stry g r o u p s o ffse t m o d ­
e r a t e e m p l o y m e n t i n c r e a s e s a m o n g the o th e r
in d u stry g ro u p s.
O ccu p ation al co m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d
f o r 71 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s
in d u stry .
O p e r a t i v e s m a d e up a b o u t 2 out
of 5 w o r k e r s and c r a f t s m e n ,
3 out of 10.
A m o n g th e w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 1 out o f 8 w o r k ­
e r s , and e n g in e e r s and te c h n ic ia n s c o m b in ed ,
1 out o f 12.
T h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n s to e m ­
p l o y m e n t a m o n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r y g r o u p ­
in g s, h ow ev er, d iffe r e d w idely . W h ite -c o llar
w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 43 p e r c e n t o f a l l

38

a ir c r a ft em ploym ent.
The ratio of p r o fe s ­
sion al, tech nical, and kindred w o rk e rs was
about three tim e s higher in the a ir c r a ft group
than in each of the other industry groupings.
E n gin eers and technicians made up 15 p e r ­
cent of the a ir c r a ft w ork fo r c e . The c le r ic a l
w orker ratio (18 percent) a lso w as sig n ifi­
cantly higher than in the other industry grou p ­
in gs. A m ong b lu e -c o lla r w o rk ers in the a i r ­
cra ft group, the ra tio s of m e c h a n i c s and
re p a irm e n (8 percent) and m achine tool op ­
e ra to rs (3 percent) w ere higher than in a ll
other industry groupin gs; the la b o r e r s ratio,
on the other hand, w as considerab ly low er
( l p ercen t).
M o re than 1 out o f 5 w o r k e r s in th e i n ­
dustry groupin gs, e x c e p t a i r c r a f t , w e r e in
w h ite -c o lla r occupations, a n d n e a r l y o n e - h a l f
of them w ere c le r ic a l w o r k e r s .
O ver 80 p ercen t o f the w o r k e r s in the
m o to r v e h icle industry w e r e in b l u e - c o l l a r
occup ations; a lm o s t t w o - t h i r d s o f the b l u e c o lla r w o rk e rs w ere o p e r a t i v e s .
A ssem ­
b le r s , by fa r the l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n , a c ­
counted fo r about 18 p e r c e n t o f th e m o t o r
v e h icle w ork fo r c e . O t h e r b l u e - c o l l a r o c c u ­
pations with sign ifican t r a t i o s in t h i s i n d u s ­
try w e re la b o r e r s and w e l d e r s (4 p e r c e n t
each), in sp e cto rs ( 5 p e r c e n t ) , m e c h a n i c s a n d
r e p a i r m e n (6 p e rc e n t), a n d m a c h i n e t o o l
o p e ra to rs (8 p ercen t).
B lu e -c o lla r w o rk e rs
accounted fo r a lm o s t 8 o u t o f 10 w o r k e r s in
the shipbuilding industry g r o u p an d m o r e th an
62 p ercen t w ere in th e c r a f t s m e n , f o r e m e n ,
and kindred w o rk e rs g r o u p . T h e p r o p o r t i o n s
of c a rp e n te rs, e l e c t r i c i a n s , p a i n t e r s ,
m a­
c h in ists, and sheet m e t a l w o r k e r s w e r e c o n ­
sid e ra b ly higher in the s h i p b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y
group than in each of the o t h e r i n d u s t r y
g ro u p s. Although the p r o p o r t i o n o f o p e r a t i v e s
in this group (21 p e r c e n t ) w a s th e l o w e s t
am ong the tran sportation i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g s ,
w e ld e rs accounted f o r o v e r 8 p e r c e n t o f the
shipbuilding and rep air w o r k f o r c e . T h e o c ­
cupational com p osition o f the r a i l r o a d a n d
other tran sportation e q u i p m e n t g r o u p s r e ­
sem b led som ew hat the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e
of the shipbuilding g r o u p ; s i g n i f i c a n t w e r e
ra tio s of c ra ftsm e n , w e l d e r s , a n d l a b o r e r s ,
and re la tiv e ly low w e r e p r o p o r t i o n s o f p r o ­
fe s s io n a l and technical w o r k e r s . D e s p i t e the
d iffe re n c e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , the
p roportion of fo re m e n to t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in
each industry grouping w a s a b o u t 4 p e r c e n t .
Betw een I9 6 0 and 19 7 5 , the risin g p r o ­
portion o f w h ite -c o lla r w o r k e r s w i l l r e f l e c t ,
p r im a r ily , the in creased d e m a n d f o r en gi­
n e e rs and technicians in th e r e s e a r c h a n d
developm ent a ctiv itie s o f m o t o r v e h i c l e , s h i p ­



b u ild in g , and a i r c r a f t m a n u fa c tu r in g . T e c h ­
n o lo g ic a l in n o v atio n s su c h a s n u m e r ic a l l y
c o n tro lle d m ach in e to o ls, a u to m a tic t r a n s f e r
e q u ip m e n t, c o n v e y o r s y s t e m s ,
and other
m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e n o t new to
th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p , p a r ­
t i c u l a r l y the m o t o r v e h i c l e i n d u s t r y .
H ow­
e v e r , a s th e y a r e u t i l i z e d e v e n m o r e , s i g n i f ­
i c a n t d e c l i n e s w i l l b e e f f e c t e d in o c c u p a t i o n s
su ch a s m a c h in e too l o p e r a t o r s , m a c h in is t s ,
a s s e m b l e r s , and l a b o r e r s .
P r o f e s s io n a l and S c ie n tific In stru m e n ts
( S I C 38 a n d 194)
T h is in d u stry grou p in g in clu d e s e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in the m a n u f a c t u r e of s c i ­
en tific, m e d ic a l, p h o to g ra p h ic , o p tic a l, and
r e l a t e d in s t r u m e n t s , e q u ip m e n t and s u p p lie s ,
watches
and c lo c k d e v i c e s ; and sig h tin g
and fi r e c o n tro l eq u ip m en t.
It e x c l u d e s i n ­
s t r u m e n t s w h ich a n a ly z e e l e c t r i c a l c h a r a c ­
t e r i s t ic s . S e p a r a te occu p atio n al p a tte rn s a r e
a v a i l a b l e f o r th e w a t c h e s a n d c l o c k s ( S I C 387)
and fo r in s tr u m e n ts and f i r e c o n tr o l e q u ip ­
m e n t ( S I C 38 e x c e p t 387 a n d 194).
E m p lo y m en t
P r i v a t e w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in
t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g i n c r e a s e d a b o u t 60 p e r ­
c e n t to a b o u t 4 0 0 , 000 b e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1965;
h o w e v e r , e m p l o y m e n t in s i g h t i n g a n d f i r e
c o n t r o l e q u i p m e n t ( S I C 194) h a s d e c r e a s e d
a b o u t 70 p e r c e n t s i n c e 1958.
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 19 7 5 , t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
i s e x p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e to r i s e r a p i d l y in r e ­
s p o n s e to i n c r e a s i n g d e m a n d f o r i n s t r u m e n t s
in r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s , a n d
f o r a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l s in th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g
p r o c e s s of m an y in d u s t r ie s .
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d
f o r a b o u t 45 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in
th is in d u stry grou p in g. E n g in e e r s and te c h ­
n i c i a n s m a d e up m o r e th an 13 p e r c e n t o f the
total w ork fo rc e .
A s i s the c a s e in a l l i n ­
d u s t r i e s w h i c h h a v e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s of p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s , th e c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r r a t i o w a s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y h ig h ( o v e r
17 p e r c e n t ) .
M a n a g e rs accounted fo r about
7 p e r c e n t of total em p loy m en t.
A m o n g the o p e r a t i v e s g r o u p , a s s e m b l e r s
w a s th e l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n (8 p e r c e n t ) , f o l ­
low ed by i n s p e c t o r s and m a c h in e to o l o p e r a ­
t o r s . F o r e m e n m a d e up th e l a r g e s t o c c u p a ­
tio n ( m o r e th a n 4 p e r c e n t ) in th e c r a f t s m e n
group.
O ther c r a f t s m e n h av in g s ig n if ic a n t

39
r a t i o s , in c l u d e d m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n ,
o p tic ia n s, s ta t io n a r y e n g i n e e r s , tool and d ie m a k e r s , and m a c h in i s t s .
S erv ice w ork ers
a n d l a b o r e r s c o m b i n e d , m a d e up a b o u t 3 p e r ­
c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t .
T h e o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i o s in the w a t c h e s
a n d c l o c k s i n d u s t r y ( w h ic h a c c o u n t e d f o r l e s s
th a n 10 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in 1965)
d i f f e r e d m a r k e d l y f r o m t h o s e in the i n s t r u ­
m e n ts in d u s t r y w h ich e x c lu d e s c lo c k s . B lu e c o lla r w o rk e rs, p a rtic u la rly o p e rativ e s, a c ­
c o u n t e d f o r o v e r 70 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e .
P r o f e s s i o n a l , te c h n ic a l, and k in d r e d w o r k e r s
m a d e up a b o u t 5 p e r c e n t .
The in str u m e n ts grou p in g in d u stry is
c o m p o s e d of m a n y s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ,
m an y p ro d u cin g c u sto m - d e sig n e d d e v ic e s fo r
s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n to p r o d u c t d i ­
v e r s i t y a n d c o m p l e x i t y , th e f a s t - m o v i n g p a c e
of te c h n o lo g ic a l ch an ge h a s t e n s p ro d u c t o b s o ­
l e s c e n c e . A s a r e s u l t , the u s e o f a u t o m a t i c
p ro d u c tio n tec h n iq u es i s so m ew h at r e s t r i c t e d .
N e v e r t h e l e s s , the i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f l a b o r d is p l a c e m e n t e q u ip m e n t w h e re p o s s i b l e w ill
a ffe c t so m e o ccu p atio n al ch an g e s am on g o p ­
e r a t iv e s and m a t e r i a ls h a n d le rs.
A lt h o u g h the b l u e - c o l l a r a n d w h i t e - c o l l a r
w o r k e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l c h a n g e o n ly s l i g h t l y
in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g b y 1975, s i g n i f i c a n t
c h a n g e s a r e e x p e c t e d a m o n g the o c c u p a t i o n s .
The m o s t r a p id grow th w ill be am o n g p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s , w ho a r e e x ­
p e c t e d to a c c o u n t f o r o n e - f o u r t h of t o t a l e m ­
p l o y m e n t , m a i n l y in r e s p o n s e to i n c r e a s i n g
r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s , a n d the
grow in g co m p le x ity of p ro d u ctio n p r o c e s s e s
in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g .
A m o n g the p l a n t
w o r k e r s , m o s t r e l a t e d m e t a l w o r k i n g an d m a ­
t e r i a l s h a n d l in g o c c u p a t i o n s a r e e x p e c t e d to
b e a f f e c t e d a d v e r s e l y b y t e c h n o l o g i c a l in n o ­
v a tio n s such a s n u m e r ic a lly co n tro lle d m a ­
c h in e t o o l s , a u t o m a t i c t r a n s f e r e q u i p m e n t ,
and oth er c o n v e y o r iz e d s y s t e m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y
in th e l a r g e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .

M isc e lla n e o u s M an u factu rin g In d u strie s
(SIC 39)
T h is m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p in clu d e s e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in th e m a n u f a c t u r e of
je w e lry , silv e r w a r e ,
m u s ic a l in stru m e n ts,
toy s, ath letic go o ds, office s u p p lie s, c o stu m e
je w e lr y and n o tion s, m o r t i c i a n s ' g o o d s, b a r ­
b e r s h o p eq u ip m en t, and oth e r m a n u f a c t u r e s
not e l s e w h e r e c l a s s i f i e d .



E m p lo y m e n t
B e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1965, em p loym en t r o s e
v e r y r a p i d l y in the t o y s , a m u se m e n ts, sp o r t­
ing a n d a t h l e t i c g o o d s group (which accounted
f o r a b o u t o n e - f o u r t h o f total em p loym en t in
t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y group in 1965); e m p lo y ­
m e n t d e c l i n e d s o m e w h a t in the "o t h e r " m i s ­
c e l l a n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g groups (which a c ­
c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 40 p ercen t of total industry
e m p l o y m e n t in 1965).
T otal m a jo r group
e m p l o y m e n t w a s a b o u t 44 5 , 000 in 1965, of
w h o m 4 2 1 , 000 w e r e p rivate w age and sa la ry
w ork ers.
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 1975, em p loym en t is
e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e m o d era tely despite the
i n c r e a s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n of lab orsavin g tech n ol­
o g y a n d f o r e i g n com petition.
O ccu p atio n al co m p o sitio n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , b l u e - c o l l a r w o rk e rs accounted
f o r m o r e th a n 7 out of 10 w o rk e rs in this
m a jo r in du stry group.
About 36 p ercen t of
th e w o r k f o r c e w e r e operatives n. e .c ., which
i n c l u d e d a r t i f i c i a l p e a r l m a k e r s , m u s ic a l in ­
s t r u m e n t m a k e r s , d o l l m a k e r s , b ow lin g-p in
r e f i n i s h e r s , b u tto n b r e a k e r s , and bobbypin
m a k e r s . T h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s r e fle c t the m any
a n d d i v e r s e p r o d u c t s m anufactured in this
m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p . A s s e m b le r s accounted
f o r a b o u t 1 out o f 8 o p e ra tiv e s. Am on g the
s k i l l e d w o r k e r g r o u p , fo re m e n , m ech an ics
a n d r e p a i r m e n , j e w e l e r s , and p attern m ak ers
h ad s i g n i f i c a n t r a t i o s . C le r ic a l w o rk e rs a c ­
c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y o n e - h a l f of the w h ite -c o lla r
w o r k e r s ; m a n a g e r s , o ffic ia ls , and p ro p rie to rs
m a d e up a b o u t 9 p e r c e n t of the total w ork
force.
T h i s m a j o r industry group is c h a r a c te r ­
i z e d b y m a n y s m a l l e sta b lish m en ts. In 1964,
a b o u t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the m o re than 13, 000
r e p o r t i n g u n i t s h a d f e w e r than 20 e m p lo y e e s.
A s a r e s u l t , the r a t e o f tech nological change
i s e x p e c t e d to b e som ew hat slow er in this
m a j o r g r o u p th an in m o s t other m anu fac­
tu rin g in d u s t r ie s .
B y 197 5, the occupational com position
in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y group is expected to
c h a n g e o n ly s l i g h t l y ; b lu e -c o lla r w o rk e rs w ill
s t i l l a c c o u n t f o r a b o u t 7 out of 10 w o rk e rs.
T h e o p e r a t i v e s r a t i o i s expected to decline
b e c a u s e of t e c h n o l o g i c a l innovations, such a s
p l a s t i c b l o w m o l d i n g a n d spray painting te c h ­
n i q u e s , w h ic h w i l l a f f e c t a d v e rse ly this o ccu ­
p a t i o n a l g r o u p in the t o y s industry group.
S i m i l a r l y , the i n c r e a s i n g application of m e c h ­
a n i z e d m a t e r i a l s h a n d l i n g equipment s u c h

40

a s con v eyor s y s t e m s w ill a ffe c t a d v e r s e l y
l a b o r e r s . On th e o t h e r h a n d , the p r o p o r t i o n
of c r a f t s m e n a n d f o r e m e n i s e x p e c t e d to i n ­
c r e a s e in r e s p o n s e to the g r o w i n g d e m a n d f o r
m o r e sk ille d w o r k e r s such a s p a tte r n m a k ­
e r s to p r o d u c e a n t i c i p a t e d e x p a n d in g outp ut.
A m o n g w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , i n c r e a s e s in
p r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l w o r k ­
e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to m o r e t h a n o f f s e t the a n ­
t i c i p a t e d r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e in m a n a g e r s , o f f i ­
c ia ls , and p r o p r ie t o r s .
F o o d P r o d u c t s ( S I C 20)
T h is m a j o r in d u str y g ro u p c o n s i s t s of
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in the p r o c e s s i n g of
m e a t s , m i l k , s u g a r , a n d g r a i n an d t h e i r c o n ­
v e r s i o n in to fo o d p r o d u c t s .
It a l s o i n c l u d e s
th e m a n u f a c t u r e o f c o n f e c t i o n e r y p r o d u c t s ,
a lc o h o lic and n o n a lc o h o lic b e v e r a g e s , and m i s ­
c e lla n e o u s p r o d u c t s su c h a s ed ib le and in ­
e d i b l e f a t a n d o il, i c e , a n d a n i m a l f e e d s .
O ccu p ation al p a tte rn s a r e a v a ila b le fo r m e at
p r o d u c t s ( S I C 20 1 ), d a i r y p r o d u c t s ( S I C 202),
canned and p r e s e r v e d fo o d s,
except m eat
( S I C 20 3 ), g r a i n m i l l p r o d u c t s ( S I C 204), b a k ­
e r y p r o d u c t s ( S I C 2 0 5 ), b e v e r a g e s ( S I C 208),
a n d a l l o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s f o o d s ( S I C 206,
207, a n d 209).
E m p lo y m en t
D e sp ite a 5 - p e r c e n t e m p lo y m en t d eclin e
s i n c e 1956, fo o d p r o d u c t s r e m a i n e d on e of
th e l a r g e s t m a j o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g g r o u p s in
1965, e m p l o y i n g n e a r l y 1 . 8 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s .
The slow d e c lin e or r e l a t i v e l y c o n sta n t le v e ls
of e m p l o y m e n t a m o n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r y
g r o u p s m a i n l y r e f l e c t e d the i m p a c t o f l a b o r s a v i n g t e c h n o l o g y , w h ic h o f f s e t s t e a d i l y r i s ­
in g p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l s in t h i s i n d u s t r y d u r i n g
1956—
65. In 1965, the t h r e e l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y
g r o u p s , m e a t, d a ir y , and b a k e r y p r o d u c ts ,
a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 50 p e r c e n t o f the m a j o r
in d u stry grou p em ploym en t.
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 19 7 5 , e m p l o y m e n t in
t h i s m a j o r g r o u p i s e x p e c t e d to r e m a i n r e l ­
ativ e ly stab le , a s rap id em ploy m en t grow th
in the c a n n i n g , p r e s e r v i n g , a n d f r e e z i n g ( e x ­
cep t m eat) in d u stry grou p o ffs e t s a con tin u ­
a t i o n of the s l o w l y d e c l i n i n g t r e n d a m o n g the
re m a in in g in d u stry g ro u p s.

m a k e r , c h e e se cu tter, a p p le p e e le r ,
bean
sn app er, a lfa lfa d eh yd rator, b re a d catch e r,
b rea d m old er, b re a d s lic e r ,
b eer co o ler,
b e e r ru n n e r , and c a n d y m a k e r .
They w e re
c la s s ifie d a s o p e rativ e s
n. e. c. , a n d a c ­
c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t o n e - t h i r d of the t o t a l m a j o r
in d u stry g r o u p em plo y m en t.
D r i v e r s and
d e liv e ry m e n w ere t w o oth er o p e ra tiv e o c ­
c u p a tio n s h av in g s ig n ific a n t r a t i o s .
Among
the c r a f t s m e n g r o u p , f o r e m e n , a n d m e c h a n ­
i c s and r e p a i r m e n h ad s ig n ific a n t s h a r e s of
e m p l o y m e n t in a l l the i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , a n d
r e f l e c t e d the o v e r a l l n e e d s f o r s k i l l e d s u ­
p e r v is io n and fo r m ain te n an ce of m a c h in e ry ,
m a t e r i a l s h a n d l in g e q u i p m e n t , a n d m o t o r v e ­
h i c l e s , u s e d in t h i s m a j o r g r o u p . T h e s i g n i f ­
i c a n t r a t i o f o r b a k e r s m i r r o r e d the l a r g e
e m p l o y m e n t of t h e s e w o r k e r s , p r i m a r i l y in
the b a k e r y p r o d u c t s g r o u p .
Laborers a c ­
counted fo r o v e r 9 p e r c e n t of to ta l e m p l o y ­
m en t, a c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r r a t i o c o m p a r e d
w ith the a v e r a g e r a t i o f o r l a b o r e r s a m o n g a l l
n o n d u rab le m an u fac tu rin g in d u s t r ie s .
Con­
v e r s e l y , p r o fe s s io n a l, te ch n ica l, and k in d red
w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r l e s s th a n 3 p e r c e n t o f
the w o r k f o r c e , a b o u t o n e - h a l f th e n o n d u r a b l e
a v e r a g e f o r the s a m e w o r k e r s .
M anagers,
o ffic ia ls , and p r o p r ie t o r s ; and s a l e s w o r k e r s
accounted for la rg e r-th a n - a v e ra g e p ro p o rtio n s
o f e m p l o y m e n t , a n d r e f l e c t e d the l a r g e n u m ­
b e r of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d s t r o n g c o m p e t i t i o n
in t h i s c o n s u m e r - o r i e n t e d m a j o r i n d u s t r y
group.
A m o n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r y g r o u p s in
I960, o c c u p a tio n a l p a t t e r n s v a r ie d w idely.
F o r e x a m p l e , in the b a k e r y p r o d u c t s g r o u p ,
e a c h of the f o l l o w i n g o c c u p a t i o n s — b a k e r s ,
d e liv e r y m e n and r o u t e m e n ,
or o p e ra tiv e s
n. e. c. — a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 1 out o f 5 w o r k ­
e r s ; the l a b o r e r s r a t i o f o r t h i s g r o u p w a s
l e s s th an o n e - h a l f of the r a t i o f o r l a b o r e r s
in the m a j o r g r o u p --- fo o d an d k i n d r e d p r o d ­
ucts.
In the m e a t p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y g r o u p ,
o p e r a t i v e s n. e. c. , a c c o u n t e d f o r m o r e th a n
o n e - h a l f of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t .
In the c a n ­
ning, p r e s e r v i n g and f r e e z in g , and b e v e r a g e
g r o u p s , a l m o s t 12 p e r c e n t of the w o r k f o r c e
w e r e l a b o r e r s . In th e d a i r y p r o d u c t s g r o u p ,
d e l i v e r y m e n a n d r o u t e m e n , the l a r g e s t o c ­
c u p a t i o n , a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r 24 p e r c e n t o f
em p loy m en t.

O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , m o r e th an 7 o u t of 10 w o r k e r s
w e r e in b l u e - c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s , o f w h i c h o p ­
e r a t i v e s a c c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s . In
g e n e ra l, m o st o p e rativ e s p e rfo rm e d s p e c ia l­
i z e d a c t i v i t i e s p e c u l i a r to t h e i r i n d u s t r y , s u c h
a s bacon s lic e r , bon er, b e e f k ille r, b e e f sk in ­
n e r, b o lo g n a m a k e r , ch ic k en d r e s s e r , b u tte r 


D e s p i t e i n c r e a s e s in p o p u l a t i o n a n d p e r ­
s o n a l i n c o m e ( f a c t o r s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the
d e m a n d f o r f o o d p r o d u c t s ) , e m p l o y m e n t in
th is m a jo r in d u stry g rou p h a s d ec lin e d b e ­
c a u s e of i n d u s t r y e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r t e c h n o l o g ­
i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s t h a t h a v e i n c r e a s e d ou tp u t
per w orker.
T h e s e in n o v a tio n s, w hich h ave
a ffe c te d o ccu p atio n al s t r u c t u r e s a s w ell a s

41

e m p lo y m e n t, in clu d e :
C om p u ters fo r au to ­
m a t i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g a n d c o n t r o l of p r o d u c ­
tio n p r o c e s s e s in m i l k p r o c e s s i n g a n d r e n ­
d e rin g of a n im a l fat; h igh ly au to m a te d b a k e ry ,
b r e w e r y , and c h o c o la te candy p la n ts; p n e u ­
m a t i c ( a i r ) c o n v e y o r s y s t e m s f o r h a n d l in g
bulk g r a i n s and flo u r; a u to m a tic b a c o n s l i c e r
and con tin uous w e in e r m a c h in e s ; a n im a l d e ­
h id in g a n d d e - h a i r i n g m a c h i n e s ; b e t t e r d e ­
s i g n e d p l a n t l a y o u t to f a c i l i t a t e m o v e m e n t o f
m a t e r i a l s ; a n d l a r g e m u l t i p r o d u c t p l a n t s th a t
c a n t a k e a d v a n t a g e of th e e c o n o m i c s o f l a r g e s c a l e p ro d u c tio n . E x p e n d itu r e s fo r p la n t and
e q u i p m e n t in the fo o d a n d r e l a t e d p r o d u c t s
m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p a r e e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e
i n c r e a s i n g t h r o u g h th e m i d - 1 9 7 0 ' s . F o r e x ­
a m p l e , it i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t th e 1966 a n n u a l
r a t e of e x p e n d itu r e s fo r p la n t and e q u ip m en t
in t h i s m a j o r g r o u p w i l l h a v e r i s e n 45 p e r ­
c e n t a b o v e the 1962 a n n u a l r a t e o f n e a r l y
$1 b i l l i o n . A s a r e s u l t , the a n t i c i p a t e d r i s i n g
d em a n d fo r p r o d u c ts of th is m a j o r g ro u p w ill
c o n tin u e to b e m e t b y i n c r e a s e d ou tp u t p e r
w orker.
B y 1975, the o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n of
t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p w i l l r e f l e c t the
s u s t a i n e d i m p a c t of t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s .
W h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to a c c o u n t
f o r a b o u t 3 out of 10 o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a s
g r o w t h in a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s in t h i s c a t e ­
g o r y c o n t r i b u t e to the i n c r e a s e .
A m o n g the
b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , th e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t d e ­
c r e a s e s w i l l b e in the p r o p o r t i o n s of l a b o r e r s ,
o p e r a t i v e s n. e. c. , a n d b a k e r s ,
a s th ese
o c c u p a t i o n s a p p e a r to b e p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r ­
a b l e to the l a b o r - d i s p l a c e m e n t e f f e c t s of
m ech a n iz atio n .
S o m e b lu e-co llar occu pa­
t i o n s , h o w e v e r , a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a s
p r o p o r tio n s of to tal e m p lo y m e n t.
For ex­
a m p l e , f o r e m e n , a n d m e c h a n i c s an d r e p a i r ­
m e n , a r e e x p e c t e d to g r o w in r e s p o n s e to
the d e m a n d f o r m o r e s k i l l e d s u p e r v i s i o n a n d
m ain ten an ce r e q u ir e m e n ts .
In a d d it i o n , d e ­
liv e r y m e n and r o u te m e n w ill i n c r e a s e a s s u b ­
u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s a n d the c o n c o m i t a n t d e m a n d
fo r hom e d e liv e ry s e r v i c e s r i s e .
T o b a c c o P r o d u c t s ( S I C 21)
T h is in d u stry g ro u p in clu d es a ll e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in the p r o c e s s i n g ( s t e m ­
m in g a n d r e d r y i n g ) o f t o b a c c o , a n d in the
m a n u f a c t u r e of c i g a r e t t e s , c i g a r s , a n d o t h e r
t o b a c c o p r o d u c t s s u c h a s c h e w in g t o b a c c o ,
s m o k i n g t o b a c c o , a n d sn u ff.
E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
h as been d e c r e a s in g a l m o s t u n in te rru p te d ly
s i n c e W o r ld W ar II, a n d in 1965, e m p l o y m e n t



w a s a b o u t 87, 000 w o r k e r s .
M o s t of the d e ­
c l i n e o c c u r r e d in the c i g a r m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n ­
d u stry group w h ere em plo y m en t drop p ed over
o n e - h a l f d u r i n g th e p o s t - w a r p e r i o d .
O ccu p ation al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
O v e r 57 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s in t h i s
m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p a r e in the m i s c e l l a n e o u s
o p e r a t iv e s o ccu p atio n al group.
I n c l u d e d in
th is h e te r o g e n e o u s g ro u p a r e m ac h in e o p e r a ­
t o r s and te n d e r s, c ig a r m a k e r s ,
ch eckers,
w r a p p e r s , r o l l e r s , and m o s t oth e r w o r k e r s
d i r e c t l y in v o l v e d in the m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c ­
e s s . O u t s i d e th e o p e r a t i v e s g r o u p , i m p o r t a n t
s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s a r e f o r e m e n (5 p e r c e n t )
a n d m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n (3 p e r c e n t ) .
F o r s o m e t i m e th e p r o d u c t i o n o f c i g a r e t t e s
h a s b e e n one o f th e m o s t h i g h l y m e c h a n i z e d
of a ll m a n u fa c tu rin g p r o c e s s e s .
In tegrated
m a c h i n e s w r a p , c u t, i n s p e c t , a n d p a c k a g e
c i g a r e t t e s in a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s . B e c a u s e
o f the a l r e a d y h ig h d e g r e e of m e c h a n i z a t i o n ,
t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s f o r the m o s t p a r t w i l l
a i m to i m p r o v e e x i s t i n g m a c h i n e s .
Labor s a v i n g s in c i g a r e t t e m a n u f a c t u r i n g a r e e x ­
p e c t e d to u s e f a s t e r e q u i p m e n t , e l e c t r o n i c
q u ality c o n tr o l and in s p e c tio n d e v i c e s , and
im p ro v e d conveyor s y s t e m s .
T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s in t e c h n o l ­
o g y a r e o c c u r r i n g in c i g a r m a k i n g .
The r e ­
c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t of a r e c o n s t i t u t e d t o b a c c o
s h e e t of u n i f o r m s i z e a n d t e x t u r e now m a k e s
it p o s s i b l e to p r o d u c e c i g a r s a t a m u c h f a s t e r
r a t e in a c o n t i n u o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s .
T h e p r o c e s s e d s h e e t s a r e u s e d to b in d a n d
w r a p c i g a r s w h i c h e l i m i n a t e s m u c h of the
h an d l a b o r p r e v i o u s l y n e e d e d .
A fu lly in t e ­
g ra te d p ro d u ctio n p r o c e s s — m ak in g, w r a p ­
p in g , b a n d i n g , a n d p a c k i n g — a l r e a d y h a s b e e n
i n t r o d u c e d in s o m e l a r g e p l a n t s , a n d i s e x ­
p e c t e d to s p r e a d r a p i d l y .
D u r i n g 1960— 5, the p r o p o r t i o n o f o p e r ­
7
a t i v e s to t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to c o n ­
tin u e to d e c l i n e .
I n c r e a s e d s p e e d s of c i g ­
a r e t t e m a n u f a c t u r i n g m a c h i n e s , t o g e t h e r w ith
the a d o p t i o n o f c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s p r o d u c t i o n
m e t h o d s in c i g a r m a k i n g , w i l l c u t s h a r p l y in to
the d e m a n d f o r t h e s e w o r k e r s . R e q u i r e m e n t s
fo r l a b o r e r s w ill d e c r e a s e a s c o n v e y o r s and
o t h e r m e c h a n i c a l m e t h o d s r e p l a c e the m a n u a l
m o v e m e n t of m a t e r i a l . A d d i t i o n a l n e e d s f o r
m e c h a n ic s and r e p a i r m e n , and te c h n ic ia n s
w i l l r e s u l t f r o m th e a d o p t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g l y
c o m p le x m a c h in e ry , and e le c tro n ic con trol
and in s p e c tio n d e v i c e s .
The co m p etitiv e
n a tu re of th is m a j o r i n d u s t r y g ro u p w ill
e f f e c t f u r t h e r g r o w t h in th e p r o p o r t i o n of

42

salesw o rk ers.
The other w h it e - c o lla r o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l g r o u p s --- c l e r i c a l a n d m a n a g e r s — w i l l
g r o w in r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e , o f f s e t t i n g th e d e ­
e r e a s e s e x p e c t e d in the b l u e - c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s .
T e x t i l e M i l l P r o d u c t s ( S I C 22)
The te x tile m ill p r o d u c ts m a jo r in d u stry
g r o u p i s c o m p r i s e d of y a r n , t h r e a d , a n d f a b r i c
m i l l s ; k n i t t in g m i l l s ; d y e i n g a n d f i n i s h i n g
p l a n t s ; m a n u f a c t u r e r s of f l o o r c o v e r i n g s s u c h
a s r u g s a n d c a r p e t s ; a n d the m a n u f a c t u r e of
m is c e lla n e o u s te x tile m ill p ro d u c ts.
E m p lo y m e n t
B e t w e e n 19 50 a n d 19 6 5 , e m p l o y m e n t in
th is m a jo r in d u stry grou p flu ctu ated dow n­
w a r d to a b o u t 9 2 5 , 000 w o r k e r s .
M o r e th an
o n e - h a l f o f t h e s e w o r k e r s w e r e in the y a r n ,
th rea d , and fa b r ic m i l ls in d u stry g ro u p s,
w h i c h h a d the m o s t r a p i d e m p l o y m e n t d e c l i n e s
in th e m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
B e t w e e n 1965
a n d 197 5, e m p l o y m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to c o n ­
tin u e d e c l i n i n g b e c a u s e o f a n t i c i p a t e d r a p i d
i n c r e a s e s in ou tp u t p e r w o r k e r r e s u l t i n g
f r o m th e i n c r e a s i n g u s e of t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n ­
n o vation s.
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , s i g n i f i c a n t o c c u p a t i o n s in t h i s
m a j o r in d u str y g ro u p in clu d ed :
S e w e r s and
s t i t c h e r s (7 p e r c e n t ) , s p i n n e r s (5 p e r c e n t ) ,
w e a v e r s (6 p e r c e n t ) , a n d k n i t t e r s , l o o p e r s
a n d t o p p e r s (5 p e r c e n t ) .
M o s t of the r e ­
m ain in g p r o c e s s w o r k e r s , such a s d o ffe r s ,
c o lo rists, d ry in g-fram e o p e r a t o r s ,
loom
th r e a d e r s , sp o o l w in d e rs, and y a r n s o r t e r s ,
w e r e i n c l u d e d in the r e s i d u a l o p e r a t i v e g r o u p ,
w h ich a c c o u n te d fo r a l m o s t 44 p e r c e n t of to ta l
em ploym en t.
O th e r i m p o r t a n t o c c u p a t i o n s
w e r e l a b o r e r s (5 p e r c e n t ) , f o r e m e n (4 p e r ­
c e n t ) , c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s n. e. c. (4 p e r c e n t ) ,
m e c h a n ic s and r e p a i r m e n , and lo o m f i x e r s
e a c h (3 p e r c e n t ) .
C h a n g e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of
th is m a jo r in d u stry grou p r e s u lt p r im a r ily
f r o m the m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f p l a n t a n d e q u i p ­
m ent.
S o m e a c c e l e r a t i o n in th e a d o p t i o n of
n e w t e c h n o l o g y i s e x p e c t e d in the y e a r s a h e a d
a s l a r g e f i r m s w hich h av e g r e a t e r in v e s tm e n t
c a p a b i l i t i e s g r o w in i m p o r t a n c e a n d s m a l l
m a r g i n a l c o m p a n ie s a r e d is p l a c e d . The r a te
of i n v e s t m e n t in r e c e n t y e a r s , a l t h o u g h r e l ­
a t i v e l y low c o m p a r e d w ith m o s t m a n u f a c t u r ­
in g i n d u s t r i e s , h a s b e e n i n c r e a s i n g . T e x t i l e
p la n ts a r e in stallin g h igh er sp eed , la r g e r c a ­
p a c i t y c a r d i n g , d r a w i n g , s p in n in g , k n i ttin g ,
a n d w e a v i n g m a c h i n e r y . S p i n d l e a n d w in d in g
s p e e d s h a v e a l m o s t d o u b l e d in the p a s t d e c a d e



and fu r th e r i n c r e a s e s a r e e x p e c te d .
T h ese
i n n o v a t i o n s w i l l te n d to d e c r e a s e th e r a t i o of
s p i n n e r s a n d w e a v e r s in th e m a j o r g r o u p .
The p r o p o r tio n of k n it t e r s , h o w e v e r, w ill not
c h a n g e s i g n i f i c a n t l y , s i n c e th e r e d u c e d l a b o r
re q u ire m e n ts resu ltin g fro m in c r e a se d m a ­
c h in e s p e e d s w i l l b e o f f s e t b y the c o n t i n u e d
g r o w t h o f d e m a n d f o r k n i t g o o d s , in w h i c h
m a n p o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t s r e m a i n h ig h .
C h a n g e s a r e o c c u r r i n g a l s o in th e p r o ­
d u c t io n o f o t h e r t e x t i l e p r o d u c t s .
O ver 8 5
p e r c e n t of c a r p e t y a r d a g e i s now p r o d u c e d
u s i n g the m e c h a n i c a l tu f t i n g p r o c e s s , c o m ­
p a r e d w ith o n ly 8 p e r c e n t in 19 5 1 . T h i s t r e n d
h a s re d u c e d r e q u ir e m e n t s fo r w e a v e r s , but
w i l l n o t h a v e m u c h e f f e c t in th e f u t u r e b e ­
c a u s e o f the h ig h p r o p o r t i o n o f m i l l s a l r e a d y
u s i n g the tu ftin g p r o c e s s .
New a u to m a tic
e q u i p m e n t f o r d y e in g a n d f i n i s h i n g i s b e i n g
d e v e l o p e d a n d w i l l r e d u c e th e n e e d f o r s o m e
s e m is k ille d p r o c e s s w o r k e r s . The red u ctio n
in s h a r e f o r o p e r a t i v e s d u e to th e a c c e l e r a ­
tio n a n d m e c h a n i z a t i o n w i l l r a i s e th e r a t i o
of m a c h in e m a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s . L a b o r e r s ,
e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e w ho m o v e m a t e r i a l , w i l l d e ­
c lin e a s a p r o p o r tio n of to ta l e m p lo y m e n t,
b e c a u s e of m o r e e f f i c i e n t p l a n t l a y o u t s a n d
im p ro v e d conveyor s y s t e m s .
E xp an d in g r e ­
s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s in l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d
the i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f c o m p u t e r s w i l l r a i s e
r e q u ir e m e n ts fo r p r o fe s s io n a l w o r k e r s , such
a s e n g in e e r s and p r o g r a m e r s .
A p p a r e l a n d R e l a t e d P r o d u c t s ( S I C 23)
T h is m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p in clu d e s f i r m s
p r o d u c i n g c lo t h in g a n d f a b r i c a t e d p r o d u c t s b y
c u ttin g a n d s e w i n g p u r c h a s e d w o v e n o r k n i t
te x tile f a b r i c s and r e la te d m a t e r i a l s su c h a s
le ath e r,
ru b b e r iz e d f a b r ic s , p la s t ic s , and
f u r s . A l s o i n c l u d e d a r e a p p a r e l j o b b e r s , w ho
p e r f o r m a l l e n t r e p r e n e u r ia l fu n c tio n s of a
m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o m p a n y , e x c e p t th e m a k i n g
of the a p p a r e l , f o r w h i c h th e y e m p l o y c o n ­
tract fac to ries.
E m p lo y m e n t
B e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1965, e m p l o y m e n t in
t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n c r e a s e d 13 p e r ­
c e n t , to a b o u t 1. 4 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s .
Dem and
fo r a p p a r e l and r e la te d p r o d u c ts is a s s o c i a t e d
c l o s e l y w ith p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l s , a g e c h a r a c t e r ­
i s t i c s , a n d p e r s o n a l i n c o m e , a l l of w h i c h a r e
e x p e c t e d to c h a n g e f a s t e r d u r i n g th e d e c a d e
a h e a d th a n in th e p a s t . A s a r e s u l t , e m p l o y ­
m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a t a f a s t e r r a t e
b e t w e e n 19 6 5 a n d 197 5 t h a n d u r i n g th e p a s t
d ecad e, d e sp ite tech n o lo g ical d evelop m en ts.

43

O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , s e w i n g m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s a n d
f i n i s h e r s a n d the r e s i d u a l g r o u p o p e r a t i v e s
n. e . c . , w h i c h i n c l u d e d o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h a s
t h r e a d t r i m m e r s , f o r m m a k e r s , c lo t h in g c u t ­
t e r s , an d h a n d p r e s s e r s , e a c h a c c o u n t e d f o r
o v e r 38 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t . W hite c o l l a r w o r k e r s , m a i n l y c l e r i c a l (8 p e r c e n t )
an d m a n a g e r s a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (5 p e r c e n t ) ,
m a d e up l e s s t h a n 16 p e r c e n t o f the g r o u p ' s
em ploym en t.
T e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t in the a p p a r e l
i n d u s t r y h a s b e e n h a m p e r e d b y c h a n g i n g an d
v a rie d con su m er s t y l e p re fe re n c e s, sm a ll
s i z e o f w o r k l o t s , the l a r g e n u m b e r o f r e l ­
a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e p l a n t s , the l a r g e n u m b e r
o f o p e r a t i o n s in m a k i n g a g a r m e n t , a n d the
m u l t i p l i c i t y an d c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f f a b r i c s .
Som e lin e s, such a s sp o rtsw e a r, p a ja m a s ,
s l i p s , an d p o l o s h i r t s , h a v e b e e n a d a p t a b l e to
m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n and m e c h a n iz a tio n of so m e
o p e r a t i o n s , e . g . , c u t t in g an d p r e s s i n g , b u t
f o r the m o s t p a r t , ou tp u t h a s b e e n d e p e n d e n t
l a r g e l y u p o n m a n u a l s k i l l s . I m p r o v e m e n t s in
sew in g m a c h in e s su ch a s h igh e r s p e e d s and
s p e c i a l a t t a c h m e n t s w i l l c o n tin u e to b e i n ­
troduced.
N e v e r t h e l e s s , s e w e r s an d s t i t c h ­
e r s a p p e a r to be i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r s h a r e o f
t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ; t h e y a r e p r o j e c t e d to r e a c h
44 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l b y 19 7 5 , a n d to o f f s e t a
r e d u c e d s h a r e f o r t h e o p e r a t i v e n. e . c .
g ro u p . M a n a g e r s and p r o p r i e t o r s , a s a p r o ­
portion of to tal em p lo y m e n t, a r e e x p e c te d
to d e c l i n e a s the n u m b e r o f s m a l l e r f i r m s
c o n t i n u e s to d r o p .
The g ro w in g v o lu m e of
b u s i n e s s a n d the i n c r e a s e in l a r g e r s i z e e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s s h o u l d r e s u l t in an i n c r e a s e d
p r o p o r tio n of c l e r i c a l p e r s o n n e l. In n o vation s
in m a t e r i a l s h a n d l in g e q u i p m e n t a r e e x p e c t e d
to r e d u c e the p r o p o r t i o n o f l a b o r e r s .
A d d i t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s in
th is m a j o r in d u s t r y g ro u p in clu d e :
A d h esives
i n s t e a d o f s e w i n g to b i n d m a t e r i a l s , d i s p o s ­
ab le m a t e r i a l s su c h a s p a p e r fo r u n ifo r m s
and d r e s s e s , and so m e h o u se h o ld fu r n is h in g s ,
e . g . , b ed s h e e t s , and nonw oven f a b r i c s . At
p r e s e n t , t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e p r i m a r i l y in
e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g e s a n d it i s d i f f i c u l t to e v a l ­
u a t e t h e i r i m p a c t u p o n the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c ­
tu re of this in d u s t r y .
P a p e r a n d A l l i e d P r o d u c t s (SIC 26) 39
T h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n c l u d e s the
m a n u f a c t u r e o f p u l p s f r o m r a g s a n d w o o d an d
o t h e r c e l l u l o s e f i b e r s ; an d the m a n u f a c t u r e
o f p a p e r an d p a p e r b o a r d into c o n v e r t e d p r o d ­
u c t s s u c h a s p a p e r c o a t e d o f f the p a p e r m a ­
c h in e, p a p e r b a g s , p a p e r b o x e s , and e n v e ­



lo p es.
S e p a ra te o ccu p atio n al p atte rn s a r e
a v a i l a b l e f o r t h r e e i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g s — p u lp ,
p a p e r , a n d p a p e r b o a r d (S IC 2 6 1 , 2 6 3 , a n d
2 6 6 ) , p a p e r b o a r d c o n t a i n e r s (S IC 2 6 5 ) , a n d
o t h e r p a p e r p r o d u c t s ( S I C 2 6 4 ).

E m p lo y m e n t
In 1 9 6 5 , a b o u t 6 4 0 , 0 0 0 , a 32 p e r c e n t i n ­
c r e a s e o v e r 1950 e m p l o y m e n t l e v e l s , w e r e
e m p l o y e d in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p . E m ­
p l o y m e n t g r o w t h , h o w e v e r , v a r i e d a m o n g the
three b ro ad g r o u p i n g s .
E m p lo y m e n t in ­
c r e a s e d v e r y r a p i d l y in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s m a n u ­
fa c tu rin g c o n v e rte d p a p e r and p a p e r b o a r d
p r o d u c t s , a n d r e f l e c t e d the a d d i t i o n s o f p l a n t s
a n d w o r k e r s n e e d e d to m e e t the r i s i n g d e ­
m an d for th ese p ro d u c ts. E m p lo y m e n t grew
f a i r l y r a p i d in the p a p e r b o a r d c o n t a i n e r s a n d
b o x e s g r o u p a l s o a s the r e s u l t o f p r o d u c t
dem and, p a r tic u la r ly by in d u stria l u s e r s for
s u c h p r o d u c t s a s c o r r u g a t e d b o x e s , p a d s , an d
p a r t i t io n s , and s a n i t a r y food c o n ta in e r s .
E m p l o y m e n t in the p u lp , p a p e r , a n d p a p e r b o a r d m a n u f a c t u r i n g g r o u p s (w h ic h a c c o u n t e d
f o r m o r e th a n 40 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l m a j o r i n ­
d u s t r y g r o u p e m p l o y m e n t in 1 9 6 5 ), h o w e v e r ,
rem ain ed re la tiv e ly unchanged b e c a u se p r o ­
d u c t io n i n c r e a s e s w e r e o f f s e t b y i n c r e a s e s
i n ou tp u t p e r w o r k e r t h a t m a i n l y r e s u l t e d
f r o m the g r o w i n g a p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l
in n o v a tio n s.
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 1 9 7 5 , d e s p i t e a n t i c i ­
p a t e d i n c r e a s e s in t e c h n o l o g i c a l l a b o r s a v i n g
i n n o v a t i o n s , e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s ­
t r y g r o u p i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e f a i r l y r a p ­
i d l y in r e s p o n s e to r i s i n g p e r c a p i t a c o n ­
s u m p t i o n of p a p e r p r o d u c t s .
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d
f o r o v e r t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in
th is m a j o r in d u str y g ro u p , c o n s id e r a b ly above
the a v e r a g e f o r a l l n o n d u r a b l e i n d u s t r i e s .
A b o u t o n e - h a l f o f the t o t a l w o r k f o r c e w e r e
o p e r a t iv e s , m o s t ly s p e c ia liz e d m ach in e o p e r ­
a t o r s ; they a ls o in clu d ed t r u c k d r iv e r s , p a c k ­
e r s , w ra p p e rs, c h e c k e rs, a n d in sp e cto rs.
T h e r a t i o s f o r c r a f t s m e n (16 p e r c e n t ) an d
l a b o r e r s (8 p e r c e n t ) w e r e r e l a t i v e l y h ig h f o r
n o n du rable goo d s m an u fa c tu rin g .
The o c c u p a tio n a l s t r u c tu r e d iffe r e d s o m e ­
w h a t a m o n g the t h r e e g r o u p i n g s o f t h i s m a j o r
in d u stry group.
The r a tio s of p r o f e s s io n a l

39 For additional information see BLS Bulletin 1347 (1962),
Im pact o f T echnological Change and Automation in the Pulp and
Paper Industry.

44

and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s , c r a f t s m e n , and l a b o r ­
e r s w e r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r in the m a n u ­
f a c t u r e o f p u l p , p a p e r , a n d p a p e r b o a r d th a n
in the o t h e r two g r o u p s .
T he p r o d u c t i o n of
p u lp , p a p e r , a n d p a p e r b o a r d i s a c o m p l i c a t e d
p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g the u s e o f c o m p l e x h e a v y
e q u ip m e n t and m a n y in s t r u m e n t s and c o n t r o ls .
N o t o n ly w e r e e n g i n e e r s , c h e m i s t s , a n d o t h e r
t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s n e e d e d in p r o d u c t i o n o p ­
e r a t i o n s , but m a n y m a in te n a n c e and r e p a i r
w o r k e r s w e r e n e c e s s a r y to k e e p the e q u i p ­
m e n t in g o o d o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t io n . A l s o , the
m o v e m e n t a n d s t o r a g e of p a p e r , p a p e r b o a r d ,
a n d o t h e r m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d a r e l a t i v e l y h ig h
p ro p o rtio n of la b o r e r s .
The p r o p o r tio n of
o p e r a t i v e s w a s h i g h e s t in p l a n t s m a n u f a c t u r ­
in g p a p e r b o a r d c o n t a i n e r s an d b o x e s b e c a u s e
o f the m a n y s e p a r a t e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o p e r a ­
t i o n s , m a n y o f w h i c h w e r e done b y h a n d o r b y
m a c h i n e s t h a t p e r f o r m e d o n l y one o p e r a t i o n .
T h e o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the p a p e r
and a llie d p ro d u c ts m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p is
e x p e c t e d to c h a n g e s u b s t a n t i a l l y b y 1975. T he
m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s a r e e x p e c t e d in the
r a t i o s of p r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s
and l a b o r e r s . The p r o p o r tio n of p r o f e s s i o n a l
a n d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s i s e x p e c t e d to r i s e
m a in ly b e c a u s e of in c r e a s in g r e q u ir e m e n ts
f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s i n r e s e a r c h and
d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s a n d in m o d e r n i z a t i o n
and e x p a n sio n of p ro d u ctio n f a c i li t ie s .
The
g r o w i n g u s e o f m o r e e f f i c i e n t , o fte n m o r e
c o m p le x , p r o d u c tio n m a c h in e r y ; and ex p an d in g
u se of in str u m e n ts and oth er au to m a tic con trol
d e v i c e s , in clu d in g c o m p u t e r s , a l s o w ill i n ­
c r e a s e re q u ire m e n ts fo r tech n ical p e rso n n e l.
O t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s who w i ll i n c r e a s e
in r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e in c l u d e d e s i g n e r s a n d
a r t i s t s — w o r k e r s w ho d e t e r m i n e th e c o n s t r u c ­
t i o n an d a p p e a r a n c e o f p a p e r p r o d u c t s , s u c h
a s b o x e s , s ta t io n a r y , n a p k in s, and w rap p in g
paper.
A s h a r p d r o p in the p r o p o r t i o n o f
l a b o r e r s i s e x p e c t e d a s a r e s u l t o f the i n ­
c r e a s i n g u s e o f i m p r o v e d m a t e r i a l s h a n d l in g
a n d p a c k i n g m e t h o d s an d e q u i p m e n t .
O ther
p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s a l s o a r e e x p e c t e d to d e ­
c r e a s e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y b e c a u s e o f the g r e a t e r
u se of m o r e e ffic ie n t p ro d u c tio n e q u ip m en t,
in clu d in g m u lt io p e r a t io n m a c h in e s that g u m ,
p rin t, cu t, p e r f o r a t e , fold , ban d, and count
e n v e lo p e s ; fu lly a u to m a tic p ac k in g m a c h in e s ;
l a r g e r , h igh e r sp e e d c o rru g a tin g m a c h in e s;
i m p r o v e d p r i n t i n g e q u i p m e n t ; c o m p u t e r s to
c o l le c t and a n a ly z e p r o d u c tio n d a ta and c o n ­
t r o l p a p e r m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s ; an d c o n t i n u o u s
d i g e s t e r s f o r p u lp m a k i n g .
A lt h o u g h the u s e o f m o r e e f f i c i e n t p r o ­
d u c t i o n e q u i p m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to r e d u c e r e ­
q u i r e m e n t s f o r o p e r a t i v e s , it i s l i k e l y to
i n c r e a s e the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r f o r e m e n a n d
s k ille d m ain ten an ce w o r k e r s .



P r i n t i n g a n d P u b l i s h i n g (SIC 2 7 )
The p rin tin g , p u b lish in g , and a l l ie d i n ­
d u s t r ie s m a jo r g ro u p in clu d es e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e n g a g e d in p r i n t i n g b y one o f the c o m m o n
p rin tin g m e th o d s o r m o r e , su c h a s l e t t e r p r e s s , g ra v u re , o ffset, or sc re e n .
It a l s o
i n c l u d e s f i r m s t h a t p e r f o r m s e r v i c e s f o r the
p rin tin g tra d e su ch a s ty p e se ttin g , p h o to en ­
g r a v in g , e le c t r o ty p in g and s t e r e o t y p in g , and
b o ok b in d in g a n d o t h e r b in d in g o p e r a t io n s .
The m a j o r in d u s t r y g ro u p a l s o in c lu d e s e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in p u b l i s h i n g b o o k s ,
n e w s p a p e r s , a n d p e r i o d i c a l s , w h e t h e r o r no t
the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s do t h e i r ow n p r i n t i n g .
E m p lo y m e n t
P r i v a t e w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in
the p r i n t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g m a j o r i n d u s t r y
g r o u p i n c r e a s e d a b o u t 31 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n
195 0 a n d 1 9 6 5 , to 9 8 1 , 0 0 0 w o r k e r s . 40
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 1 9 7 5 , the s a m e f a c t o r s
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p a s t g r o w t h s h o u l d c o n ti n u e
to c o n t r i b u t e to f u t u r e r i s i n g e m p l o y m e n t
le v e ls. T h ese fa c to rs a r e : In creasin g school
e n r o l l m e n t , F e d e r a l a i d to e d u c a t i o n , p e r ­
s o n a l i n c o m e , an d d e m a n d f o r a l l t y p e s o f
p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l b y c o m m e r c i a l an d i n d u s ­
tria l e sta b lish m e n ts.
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , m o r e t h a n h a l f the w o r k e r s in
t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p w e r e in w h i t e - c o l l a r
o c c u p a t i o n s --- a c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n
th a n the a v e r a g e in n o n d u r a b l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g
in d u strie s.
M o r e th a n 1 o u t o f 6 w o r k e r s
in the i n d u s t r y w a s a s a l e s w o r k e r ( in c l u d i n g
n e w s b o y s of 14 y e a r s of a g e o r m o r e ) a n d
a l m o s t 1 out of 5 w as a c l e r i c a l w o r k e r (in ­
clu d in g t y p i s t s , c o p y m e n , m e s s e n g e r s , and
c l a s s i f i e d ad, s u b s c r i p t i o n , and c ir c u la t io n
c l e r k s ) . M a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , and p r o p r i e t o r s
m a d e up a b o u t 1 o u t o f 11 w o r k e r s , a n d e d i ­
to r s and r e p o r t e r s acco u n te d fo r about 6 p e r ­
cent of to tal em p lo y m e n t.
C r a f t s m e n , f o r e m e n , and k in d r e d w o r k ­
e r s m a d e up the l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p
in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p (29 p e r c e n t ) —
—
d o u b le the a v e r a g e r a t i o f o r t h e s e w o r k e r s in
n o n d u r a b l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g . A l m o s t 23 p e r c e n t
o f the w o r k f o r c e w e r e p r i n t i n g c r a f t s m e n .

About 80 percent o f total em ploym ent in this m ajor in­
dustry group was accounted for by private wage and salary workers;
about 15 percent by self-em plo yed workers; and about 5 percent
by government workers.

45

T h ey in clu d ed w o r k e r s su ch a s c o m p o s ito r s
an d t y p e s e t t e r s (14 p e r c e n t ) , p r e s s m e n a n d
p l a t e p r i n t e r s (6 p e r c e n t ) , a n d p h o t o e n g r a v e r s
a n d l i t h o g r a p h e r s (2 p e r c e n t ) .
The o p e r a ­
t i v e s n . e . c . g r o u p , w h i c h m a d e up 11 p e r ­
c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e , i n c l u d e d o c c u p a t i o n s
such as p r in t e r 's a s s is ta n t , b in d ery w o rk er,
p la te s e t t e r , p rin tin g p r e s s f e e d e r , and p r o o f
p r e s s and t h e r m o g r a p h o p e r a t o r s .
B e t w e e n I9 6 0 a n d 1975, s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s
in the o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n w i l l o c c u r a m o n g
s a l e s w o r k e r s and p rin tin g tr a d e c r a f t s m e n .
S a l e s w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a s a
p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t , b e c a u s e the
i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e o f the p r i n t i n g
and p u b lish in g m a j o r in d u s t r y g ro u p is e x ­
p e c t e d to p l a c e a p r e m i u m on s a l e s m a n s h i p .
T h e c o n t i n u i n g s h i f t o f p o p u l a t i o n to u r b a n
a n d s u b u r b a n a r e a s w i l l i n c r e a s e the n e e d
fo r hom e d e liv e ry n ew sb oy s.
On the o t h e r h a n d , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f
c r a f t s m e n and k in d re d w o r k e r s is e x p e c te d
to d e c r e a s e , m a i n l y b e c a u s e the i n c r e a s i n g
m e c h a n iz a tio n of p rin tin g o p e ra tio n s ( p a r ­
tic u la r ly ty p e se ttin g ) w ill a ffe c t a d v e r s e l y
e m p lo y m e n t o f p rin tin g c r a f t s m e n , p r i m a r ­
ily c o m p o s it o r s and t y p e s e t t e r s . T h e se t e c h ­
n o lo gic al d ev elo p m en ts i n c l u d e :
Im prove­
m e n t s in t y p e c o m p o s i t i o n a n d p l a t e m a k i n g ,
c o m p u te r-c o n tro lle d typ esettin g o p e ra tio n s,
a u to m a tic e q u ip m e n t fo r e x p o sin g and d e v e l ­
o p in g o f f s e t p l a t e s , a n d w e b o f f s e t p r e s s e s
t h a t o p e r a t e m u c h f a s t e r th a n e a r l i e r p r e s s e s .
T h e g r o w i n g u s e o f p h o to c o m p o s i t i o n a n d
lith o g rap h ic p rin tin g , h o w ev er, is e x p e c te d
to e f f e c t i n c r e a s e s in the p r o p o r t i o n o f p h o t o ­
e n g r a v e r s and lit h o g r a p h e r s , d e sp ite t e c h ­
n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s t h a t d e c r e a s e u n it r e ­
q u i r e m e n t s . T h e g r o w i n g v o l u m e of p r i n t i n g
a c t i v i t y i s e x p e c t e d a l s o to o f f s e t the a d v e r s e
e m p l o y m e n t e f f e c t s o f l a b o r s a v i n g d e v i c e s on
p r e s s m e n and p la te p r i n t e r s .
C h e m i c a l s a n d A l l i e d P r o d u c t s (SIC 28)
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s c l a s s i f i e d in t h i s m a j o r
grou p m a n u fa c tu re th ree g e n e r a l c l a s s e s of
p ro d u c ts: (l) B a s ic c h e m ic a ls su ch a s a c id s,
a l k a l i e s , s a l t s , an d o r g a n i c c h e m i c a l s ;
(2) c h e m i c a l p r o d u c t s to b e u s e d in f u r t h e r
m a n u fa c tu re su c h a s syn th etic f i b e r s , p l a s t i c s
m a t e r i a l s , d r y c o l o r s , and p ig m e n t s ; and
(3) f i n i s h e d c h e m i c a l p r o d u c t s to b e u s e f o r
u ltim ate c o n su m p tio n su c h a s d r u g s , c o s m e t ­
i c s , a n d s o a p s ; o r to b e u s e d a s m a t e r i a l s
o r s u p p l i e s in o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s s u c h a s p a i n t s ,
f e r t i l i z e r s , and e x p lo s iv e s . O c c u p a tio n a l p a t ­
t e r n s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r s y n t h e t i c f i b e r s (SIC
2 8 2 3 a n d 2 8 2 4 ) , d r u g s a n d m e d i c i n e s (S IC 2 8 3 ) ,
p a i n t s a n d v a r n i s h e s (S IC 2 8 4 ) , a n d m i s c e l ­
l a n e o u s c h e m i c a l s (SIC 2 8 1 , 2 8 2 1 , 2 8 2 2 , 2 8 4 ,
286, 287, and 289).



Employment
P r i v a t e w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in
th is m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p in c r e a s e d about
42 p e r c e n t to m o r e t h a n 9 0 0 , 000 w o r k e r s
b e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1 9 6 5 .
D u rin g th is s a m e
p e r i o d , th e F e d e r a l R e s e r v e B o a r d p r o d u c t i o n
i n d e x f o r t h i s i n d u s t r y m o r e th an t r i p l e d .
The s lo w e r e m p lo y m e n t grow th p r i m a r i l y r e ­
f l e c t e d the i m p a c t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p ­
m e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in the i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i ­
c a l s (SIC 2 8 1 ) i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
T h e s p e c t a c u l a r g r o w t h in p r o d u c t i o n in
the c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y h a s c o m e f r o m two
d ire ctio n s.
F i r s t , the n e e d f o r c h e m i c a l s
h a s b e e n m u ltip lie d by ad van cin g te c h n o lo g y
in o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s ; a n d s e c o n d , m a s s i v e e x ­
p e n d itu re s fo r c h e m ic a l r e s e a r c h and d e v e l ­
o p m e n t h a v e c o n t i n u a l l y l e d to new a n d b e t t e r
p r o d u c t s a s w e l l a s i m p r o v e m e n t s in e x i s t i n g
o n e s . T h e e x p a n s i o n of c h e m i c a l p r o d u c t i o n
in r e c e n t y e a r s h a s s t e m m e d l a r g e l y f r o m
d e m a n d f o r r e l a t i v e l y new p r o d u c t s , e . g . ,
p l a s t i c s and r e s i n s , m a n m a d e f i b e r s and r u b ­
b e r s , and d e t e r g e n t s . H o w ev er, b a s i c h e av y ton nage p r o d u c ts su c h a s su lp h u r ic a c id , a m ­
m o n ia , and c h lo rin e have a l s o p r o v id e d s t e a d y
and s u b s t a n t ia l su p p o r t fo r th is in d u s t r y 's
grow th.
In 1 9 6 5 , m o r e t h a n h a l f o f t o t a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t w a s c o n c e n t r a t e d in the two l a r g e s t i n ­
d u s t r y g r o u p s — i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i c a l s (32 p e r ­
c e n t) a n d p l a s t i c s and s y n t h e t i c s (19 p e r c e n t ) .
A lth o u g h e m p l o y m e n t r o s e g e n e r a l l y t h r o u g h ­
ou t the v a r i o u s i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , th e i n d u s ­
t r i a l c h e m i c a l s ' s h a r e of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
h a s b e e n d e c l i n i n g s l o w l y in r e c e n t y e a r s .
B e t w e e n 1958 a n d 19 6 5 , e m p l o y m e n t r o s e o n ly
s l i g h t l y in t h i s l a r g e i n d u s t r y g r o u p a s c o n ­
t i n u o u s flo w p r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y s i g n i f i c a n t l y
i n c r e a s e d v e r y r a p i d l y in the s y n t h e t i c f i b e r s
i n d u s t r i e s a s a r e s u l t o f e x p a n d e d o u tp u t in
t e x t i l e s a n d o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s in w h i c h c o n ­
s u m e r d e m a n d h a s b e e n s u s t a i n e d a t h ig h
le v e ls.
R a p i d g r o w t h a l s o o c c u r r e d in the
p ro d u ctio n of s o a p s , c l e a n e r s ,
and to ile t
go o d s (another c o n s u m e r - o r ie n t e d in d u stry )
an d in a g r i c u l t u r a l c h e m i c a l s , a n d r e f l e c t e d
the t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n in f a r m i n g , in
w h ich w i d e s p r e a d u s e of c h e m i c a l s su c h a s
f e r t i l i z e r s and p e s t i c i d e s have p la y e d an i m ­
portan t ro le .
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 1 9 7 5 , e m p l o y m e n t in
the c h e m i c a l m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i s e x ­
p e c t e d to g r o w r a p i d l y , a s the e m p l o y m e n t s t i m u l a t i n g f a c t o r s o f the r e c e n t y e a r s c o n ­
tin u e t h r o u g h 1 9 7 5 .

46
O c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n an d t r e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s in t h i s
m a jo r in d u stry grou p acco u n te d fo r a lm o s t
45 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t — a b o u t on e h a l f h i g h e r t h a n the a v e r a g e f o r n o n d u r a b l e
goods m an u fac tu rin g in d u s t r ie s . The p r o p o r ­
tio n of p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , a n d k i n d r e d
w o r k e r s in t h i s i n d u s t r y (17 p e r c e n t ) w a s
m o r e t h a n t h r e e t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n the a v e r ­
age for a ll n o n d u rab le s.
A m o n g the b l u e c o l l a r w o r k e r s , the o p e r a t i v e g r o u p a c c o u n t e d
f o r a b o u t 30 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e , c o n ­
s i d e r a b l y b e l o w the a v e r a g e . N e a r l y 90 p e r ­
c e n t o f the o p e r a t i v e s w e r e in the m i s c e l l a n e ­
ous o p e r a t iv e g r o u p , w h ich in clu d e d o c c u p a ­
tion s su c h a s a c id lo a d e r , sp o o lw in d e r, s ilk
h a n g e r, p ill m a k e r , tab let c o a te r , c o sm e tic
m a k e r , and b r in e p lan t o p e r a t o r .
In I 9 6 0 , the o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s a m o n g
the i n d u s t r y g r o u p s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y b y
o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p and o c c u p a tio n .
P ro fes­
sio n a l, te c h n ica l, and k in d red w o r k e r s m a d e
up 28 p e r c e n t o f the d r u g i n d u s t r y w o r k f o r c e
c o m p a r e d w ith 14 p e r c e n t in s y n t h e t i c f i b e r s .
M anagers, o f f i c i a l s ,
and p r o p r i e t o r s a c ­
c o u n t e d f o r 12 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y m e n t in the
p a i n t i n d u s t r y , b u t o n ly 2 p e r c e n t in the s y n ­
th etic f i b e r s in d u stry . The r a t io s of c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s in the s a m e two i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g s
w e r e 21 a n d 8 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
The
r a t i o o f s a l e s w o r k e r s in the p a i n t an d v a r ­
n ish e s in d u stry grou p (about 7 p e rc e n t), w as
o v e r 15 t i m e s h i g h e r t h a n the r a t i o f o r t h e s e
w o r k e r s in s y n t h e t i c f i b e r s .
On the o t h e r
h a n d , the e m p l o y m e n t r a t i o s o f the c r a f t s m e n ,
f o r e m e n , a n d k i n d r e d w o r k e r s g r o u p (21 p e r ­
c e n t ) a n d the o p e r a t i v e g r o u p (47 p e r c e n t )
w e r e c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r in s y n t h e t i c f i b e r s
t h a n in the o t h e r c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y g r o u p ,
and ab ou t tw ice a s l a r g e a s th e ir o c c u p a tio n a l
c o u n t e r p a r t s in the d r u g s a n d m e d i c i n e g r o u p .
B y 1975, w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a r e e x ­
p e c t e d to a c c o u n t f o r a b o u t o n e - h a l f o f the
w o r k f o r c e in the c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y ; o v e r
o n e - h a l f o f t h e m w i l l b e in the p r o f e s s i o n a l ,
te c h n ic a l, and k in d r e d w o r k e r s g ro u p . T e c h ­
n i c i a n s a r e e x p e c t e d to r i s e the f a s t e s t a m o n g
a l l o c c u p a t i o n s in t h i s c a t e g o r y p r i m a r i l y to
s u p p o r t the l a r g e a n d g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n s of
s c i e n t i s t s a n d e n g i n e e r s e m p l o y e d in t h is
m a jo r in d u stry group, p a r tic u la r ly for r e ­
s e a r c h and d e v e lo p m e n t a c t iv it ie s .
The e x ­
te n t o f the c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y ' s s c i e n t i f i c
e f f o r t i s i n d i c a t e d b y the f a c t t h a t t h e i r e x ­
p e n d itu r e s fo r r e s e a r c h and d e v e lo p m e n t
t o t a l e d $ 1 . 2 5 b i l l i o n in 1963— n e a r l y d o u b le
the a m o u n t s p e n t b y the c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y in
19 5 6 . It i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e i r e x p e n d i t u r e s
f o r r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l c o n tin u e
to r i s e .



M a n ag ers, c le r ic a l w ork ers , sten o grap h ­
e r s , t y p i s t s , s e c r e t a r i e s , and o ffice m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s a s p r o p o r t i o n s of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
a r e e x p e c t e d to sh o w r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e c h a n g e
by 1975.
S o m e d e c l i n e s in c l e r i c a l o c c u p a ­
tio n s su c h a s filin g and b illin g c l e r k s w ill be
effected by ele ctro n ic d ata p r o c e s s in g e q u ip ­
m en t.
The in c r e a s in g im p o rta n c e of s a l e s ­
w o r k e r s w i l l r e f l e c t p r i m a r i l y the s i g n i f i c a n t
g r o w t h o f t h e s e w o r k e r s in the c o n s u m e r o r i e n t e d d r u g s a n d p a i n t i n d u s t r y g r o u p s in
w h i c h c o m p e t i t i o n i s e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e
in c re a sin g .
A m o n g b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , the m o s t
s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i s a n t i c i p a t e d in the l a b o r ­
e r s r a t i o , w h i c h i s e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e s h a r p l y
m a i n l y a s a r e s u l t o f the c o n t i n u i n g m e c h ­
a n iz a tio n of m a t e r i a l s h an dlin g a c t i v i t i e s .
F o r e x a m p le , p ro d u c ts a re bein g tr a n s p o r te d
b y m e c h a n ic a l and p n e u m a tic c o n v e y o r s y s ­
te m s ; a u t o m a t i c p a lle tizin g m ac h in e s a r e
e lim in a tin g h a n d - s ta c k in g of c a r t o n s ; and
c o m p u t e r s a r e b e i n g u s e d to c o n t r o l a n d e x ­
p e d ite w a r e h o u s in g and sh ip p in g a c t i v i t i e s .
T h e r a t i o o f o p e r a t i v e s in t h i s i n d u s t r y i s e x ­
p e c t e d to r e m a i n r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e b e c a u s e
o f d i v e r g e n t t r e n d s a m o n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n ­
d u s t r y g r o u p s . F o r e x a m p l e , c o n t i n u o u s flow
p r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y h a s lo n g b e e n a p a r t o f
the i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r i e s , an d t h i s
t e c h n i q u e h a s b e e n r e f l e c t e d in a r e l a t i v e l y
low p r o p o r t i o n o f o p e r a t i v e s c o m p a r e d w ith
m o s t oth er m an u fa c tu rin g in d u s t r ie s .
H ow­
e v e r , new t e c h n o l o g y i s e x p e c t e d to r e d u c e
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r l a b o r e r s m o r e th an f o r
oth er o c c u p a tio n s.
On the o t h e r h a n d , in
the d r u g s a n d p a i n t i n d u s t r i e s w h e r e " b a t c h "
p ro d u ctio n m e th o d s have b een p r e v a le n t, r e ­
cen t te c h n o lo g ic a l in n o v atio n s h ave b e e n d e ­
s i g n e d to i n c r e a s e o u tp u t p e r w o r k e r a m o n g
o p e r a t o r s of th e se p r o c e s s e s . F o r e x a m p le ,
e le ctro n ic c o n t r o l s a u to m a tic ally m e a s u r e
t e m p e r a t u r e a n d p r e s s u r e , a n d the u s e o f
t e l e v i s i o n c a m e r a s e n a b l e s one o p e r a t o r to
o b s e r v e m o r e t h a n on e " b a t c h . " A s a r e s u l t ,
in t h e s e two i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , the p r o p o r t i o n s
o f o p e r a t i v e s a r e e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e .
The
s p r e a d of a u to m a tic in s t r u m e n t a t io n , w h ich
h a s b e e n the m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l
d e v e l o p m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y , w i l l c o n ti n u e to
r a i s e r e q u ir e m e n t s fo r f o r e m e n , and m e ­
c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n in r e s p o n s e to the n e e d
fo r m o r e s k ille d s u p e r v i s io n and m a in te n a n c e
p e rso n n e l.
P e t r o le u m R e fin in g and R e la te d
I n d u s t r i e s (SIC 29T
T h is m a jo r in d u str y g ro u p in clu d es e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in p e t r o l e u m
r e fin in g , m a n u f a c t u r in g p a v in g and roo fin g

47

m a t e r i a l s , and com po u n d in g lu b r ic a t in g o ils
and g r e a s e s fr o m p u r c h a s e d m a t e r i a l s . O c ­
cu patio n al p a tte rn s a r e a v a ila b le fo r p e t r o ­
l e u m r e f i n i n g (SIC 2 9 1 ) an d o t h e r p e t r o l e u m
a n d c o a l p r o d u c t s (SIC 295 an d 2 9 9 ) .
E m plo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
d e c l i n e d 25 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n 1953 a n d 1965 to
a b o u t 184, 000 w o r k e r s .
The d e clin e w as
m o r e r a p i d in the p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g g r o u p ,
w h i c h h i s t o r i c a l l y h a d b e t w e e n 80 an d 90 p e r ­
cent of total m a jo r in d u stry group e m p lo y ­
m e n t . E m p l o y m e n t in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s m a n u ­
fa c tu r in g o th e r p e tr o le u m and c o a l p r o d u c ts
r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e d u r i n g 1958— 5 .
6
On the o t h e r h a n d , t o t a l m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
o u tp u t n e a r l y d o u b l e d d u r i n g 1950— 5 .
6
T h is
t r e n d r e f l e c t e d the h i g h d e g r e e o f a u t o m a t i o n
th at is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of this m a j o r g ro u p ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y in p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g .
B e t w e e n 1965 an d 1975, e m p l o y m e n t i s
e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e a t a s l o w e r r a t e th an d u r ­
in g 1953— 5 , b e c a u s e m a n y o f the l a b o r s a v i n g
6
au to m a ted tech n iq u es (su ch a s au to m a tic c o n ­
t r o l an d c o n t i n u o u s flow p r o c e s s i n g ) h a v e b e e n
i n c o r p o r a t e d a l r e a d y into the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c ­
e s s e s o f the p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g i n d u s t r y
grou p . A p o s s ib le tren d aw ay fro m m a in t e ­
n a n c e b y the r e f i n i n g w o r k f o r c e a n d t o w a r d
c o n t r a c t i n g f o r m a i n t e n a n c e i s a f a c t o r th a t
m a y h a v e an a d d i t i o n a l i m p a c t up on f u t u r e
m a jo r group em plo y m en t.
In 19 6 2 , a b o u t
5 , 5 0 0 c o n t r a c t s e r v i c e w o r k e r s ( m a n y o f th e m
s k ille d c r a f t s m e n su c h a s b o i l e r m a k e r s , and
p lu m b e r s and p ip e fit te r s ) w ere p e r fo r m in g
m a i n t e n a n c e in p e t r o l e u m
r e f i n e r i e s , and
w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d in the m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
e m p l o y m e n t c o u n t.
O c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n an d t r e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d
f o r a b o u t 43 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ,
c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n the a v e r a g e f o r a l l
n o n du rable m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s t r ie s .
A b ou t
f o u r - f i f t h s o f t h e s e w o r k e r s w e r e in two o c ­
cu p a tio n al g r o u p s — p r o f e s s i o n a l, te c h n ic a l,
a n d k i n d r e d w o r k e r s (16 p e r c e n t ) a n d c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s (18 p e r c e n t ) . E n g i n e e r s a n d t e c h n i ­
c i a n s m a d e up a b o u t o n e - h a l f o f the p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s g r o u p , w h ic h
a ls o in clu d ed o th e r sig n ific a n t o c c u p atio n s
su c h a s a c c o u n ta n ts, a u d it o r s , and c h e m i s t s .
A b o u t 30 p e r c e n t o f the c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s
w e r e s e c r e t a r i e s , t y p i s t s , an d s t e n o g r a p h e r s .
Managers,
o f f i c i a l s , an d p r o p r i e t o r s a c ­
c o u n te d f o r o v e r 7 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l w o r k
f o r c e a n d s a l e s w o r k e r s s l i g h t l y m o r e th an
2 percent.



P r o c e s s o p e r a t o r s , who m a d e up a b o u t
20 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p e m ­
p l o y m e n t , a c c o u n t e d f o r a l m o s t 4 o u t o f 10
b lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s . L a b o r e r s accou n te d for
8 p e rc e n t of total em plo y m en t. C r a ft s sk ills
t h a t w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n c l u d e d f o r e m e n (5 p e r ­
c e n t ) , m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n (4 p e r c e n t ) ,
a n d s t a t i o n a r y e n g i n e e r s (3 p e r c e n t ) .
B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 7 5 , the o c c u p a t i o n a l
s t r u c t u r e i s e x p e c t e d to c h a n g e c o n s i d e r a b l y .
W h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to a c c o u n t
f o r o v e r 52 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t . A
r a p i d i n c r e a s e i s e x p e c t e d in the r a t i o s o f
p r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s .
Tech­
n ic ia n s , c h e m ic a l e n g in e e r s , and c h e m is ts
w i l l b e n e e d e d to e x p a n d r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l ­
o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s a n d to s u p e r v i s e the h i g h l y
au to m a ted p ro d u ctio n p r o c e s s e s .
M o st b lu e - c o lla r o ccu p atio n s a re e x ­
p e c t e d to d e c l i n e a s p r o p o r t i o n s o f t o t a l e m ­
p lo y m e n t.
The r a tio of p r o c e s s o p e r a t o r s
w ill d e c lin e b e c a u s e p ro d u c tio n p r o c e s s e s
a u t o m a t i c a l l y w i l l be c o n t r o l l e d to a g r e a t e r
d e g r e e th a n a t p r e s e n t .
T h e p r o p o r t i o n of
l a b o r e r s w i l l d e c l i n e a s the r e s u l t o f c o n ­
t in u in g m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s h a n d l in g
an d m a i n t e n a n c e o p e r a t i o n s .
S k i l l e d c r a f t s m e n in t h i s i n d u s t r y m a i n ­
t a i n the m a n y b o i l e r s a n d the e x t e n s i v e p i p in g
a s s o c i a t e d w ith c o n t i n u o u s flo w t e c h n o l o g y .
N ew er,
stronger,
and m o r e c o r r o s io n r e s i s t a n t m a t e r i a l s fo r p ip e s and b o i l e r s a r e
m o d e ra tin g m ain ten an ce r e q u ir e m e n ts .
As
a r e s u l t , the p r o p o r t i o n s o f m o s t c r a f t s k i l l s ,
su c h a s c a r p e n t e r s , p lu m b e r s and p ip e f it t e r s ,
a n d b o i l e r m a k e r s , a r e e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e .
On the o t h e r h a n d , the e x t e n s i v e u s e s o f a u t o ­
m a t e d e q u i p m e n t , c o n t r o l i n s t r u m e n t s , an d
e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e m s a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e
the r e l a t i v e d e m a n d f o r m e c h a n i c s an d r e ­
p airm en .
R u b b e r and M i s c e ll a n e o u s P l a s t i c s
P r o d u c t s (SIC 3 0 )
T h is m a j o r in d u stry g ro u p in clu d e s e s ­
tab lish m e n ts m an u factu rin g ru b b er p rod u cts
such a s t i r e s , ru b b er foo tw ear, m ech an ical
r u b b e r g o o d s , h e e l s an d s o l e s , f l o o r i n g , an d
rubber su n d rie s.
A ls o in clu d e d a r e e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in m o l d i n g p r i m a r y p l a s ­
t i c s and m a n u fa c tu r in g m i s c e ll a n e o u s fin ish e d
p la s t ic s p ro d u c ts. O ccu pation al p atte rn s are
a v a i l a b l e f o r r u b b e r p r o d u c t s (SIC 301~303,
a n d 306) a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s p l a s t i c s p r o d u c t s
(SIC 3 0 7 ).

48
Employment
B e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1 9 6 5 , t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n c r e a s e d o v e r
50 p e r c e n t to 4 7 6 , 000 w o r k e r s .
R ap id e m ­
p l o y m e n t g r o w t h in th e m i s c e l l a n e o u s p l a s t i c s
p r o d u c t s a n d the o t h e r r u b b e r p r o d u c t s g r o u p s
m o r e th a n o f f s e t the s l o w e m p l o y m e n t d e c l i n e
in the t i r e a n d i n n e r tu b e i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
A lt h o u g h d e m a n d f o r t i r e s an d i n n e r t u b e s
r o s e s t e a d i ly th ro u gh o u t th is p e r io d , m a n y
l a b o r s a v i n g i n n o v a t i o n s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d th a t
i n c r e a s e d o u tp u t p e r w o r k e r .
On the o t h e r
hand, a s a r e s u l t of r a p id ly r is in g d em an d
for p ro d u c ts su ch a s ru b b e r h osin g, s u r g ic a l
g l o v e s , p l a s t i c t o y s , and oth er m o ld e d p l a s ­
t i c p a r t s , the n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in
th is m a j o r in d u s t r y g ro u p in c r e a s e d ra p id ly ,
p a r t i c u l a r l y in the m i s c e l l a n e o u s p l a s t i c s
prod ucts segm en t.
B e t w e e n 1959 a n d 1964,
the n u m b e r o f m i s c e l l a n e o u s p l a s t i c s p r o d ­
u c t s p l a n t s r o s e a b o u t o n e - t h i r d , a n d in 1964
a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 80 p e r c e n t o f a l l e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s in the m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p . M o r e
th a n t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the p l a s t i c s e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s h a d f e w e r t h a n 50 e m p l o y e e s .
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
i s e x p e c t e d to c o n ti n u e i n c r e a s i n g t h r o u g h
1975.
M u c h o f the e x p a n s i o n w i l l b e in the
p l a s t i c s in d u stry g ro u p a s c u r r e n t and future
r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t p r o v i d e the b a s i s
f o r e x t e n s i v e g r o w t h b y d i s c o v e r i n g new a n d
d i f f e r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p l a s t i c s in a r e a s
such a s co n struction , tran sp o rtatio n , a p p li­
a n c e s , p a c k a g in g , and c o n su m e r p r o d u c ts .
T e c h n o lo g ic a l l a b o r s a v i n g d e v e lo p m e n ts w ill
a f f e c t the p l a s t i c s a n d o t h e r r u b b e r p r o d u c t s
g r o u p , b u t n o t e n o u g h to o f f s e t the r i s e in
em p loy m en t re su ltin g fro m in c r e a sin g d e ­
m a n d f o r the p r o d u c t s o f t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s .
E m p l o y m e n t in the t i r e s a n d t u b e s i n d u s t r y
g r o u p , in c o n t r a s t , w i l l b e r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e
th ro u gh o u t th is p e r io d , d e sp ite r i s in g d em an d ,
b e c a u s e o f a n t ic ip a te d con tin u ed d e v e lo p m e n ts
in a u t o m a t e d p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s .
O c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t io n a n d t r e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , m o r e th a n o n e - h a l f o f the w o r k ­
e r s in t h i s i n d u s t r y w e r e c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r
the g e n e r a l
h e a d i n g o p e r a t i v e s n. e. c . , f o r
w h i c h no s e p a r a t e r a t i o s w e r e a v a i l a b l e . I n ­
c l u d e d in t h i s g r o u p w e r e i n j e c t i o n - m o l d i n g
m ach in e o p e r a t o r s , c o m p r e s s io n - m o ld in g
m ac h in e o p e r a t o r s , e x t r u s i o n - p r e s s o p e r a ­
t o r s , a n d o p e r a t o r s in p r o c e s s e s s u c h a s t i r e
b u ild in g and c u r in g .
C le ric a l w o rk e rs, in ­
c lu d in g s t e n o g r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s , s e c r e t a r i e s ,
sh ip p in g and r e c e iv in g c l e r k s , and m i s c e l l a ­
n e o u s c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , a c c o u n t e d f o r 13 p e r ­
c e n t , a s d i d the c r a f t s m e n g r o u p w h i c h i n ­
c lu d e d f o r e m e n , m e c h a n ic s and r e p a i r m e n .



M a n a g e r s and p r o p r ie t o r s c o n stitu ted 6 p e r ­
c e n t; l a b o r e r s , in clu d in g m a t e r i a l s h an d lin g ,
m a d e up a n o t h e r 6 p e r c e n t .
S e v e r a l im p o rta n t ch an ges are e x p e c te d
in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s m a j o r
i n d u s t r y g r o u p b y 1 9 7 5 . It i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t
the p r o p o r t i o n o f o p e r a t i v e s w i l l d e c l i n e ,
m a i n l y in the p l a s t i c s p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y g r o u p
a s m o r e and m o r e p ro d u c tio n p r o c e s s e s a r e
autom ated.
M a jo r t e c h n o lo g ic a l in n ov atio n s
a l r e a d y h a v e b e e n a p p l i e d to the t i r e s an d
i n n e r t u b e s i n d u s t r y g r o u p a n d o n ly m i n o r
o ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n ch an g e s a re f o r e ­
seen.
The p r o p o r tio n of l a b o r e r s w ill d e ­
c l i n e t h r o u g h o u t the m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
b e c a u s e of w i d e s p r e a d a u t o m a t i o n in m a t e ­
r i a l s h a n d l i n g . A s the m a j o r g r o u p b e c o m e s
i n c r e a s i n g l y m e c h a n i z e d , the
relativ e im ­
p o r t a n c e o f m e c h a n i c s i s e x p e c t e d to g r o w ,
s i n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s w i ll r i s e f o r m e c h a n i c a l
m ain ten an ce.
L e a t h e r a n d L e a t h e r P r o d u c t s (S IC 3 1 )
T h is m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p in clu d es e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in t a n n in g a n d f i n i s h i n g
h i d e s a n d s k i n s , a n d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g f i n i s h e d
l e a th e r and a r t i f i c i a l l e a t h e r p r o d u c ts and
so m e s im i la r p ro d u c ts m a d e of oth er m a t e ­
r i a l s . A lso in clu d ed a r e le a th e r c o n v e r t e r s ,
who b u y h i d e s a n d s k i n s b u t h a v e the p r o c ­
e s s i n g d on e b y o t h e r f i r m s on a c o n t r a c t
b a sis.
S e p a r a te o ccu p atio n al r a tio s a re a v ailab le
f o r l e a t h e r t a n n in g a n d f i n i s h i n g (SIC 3 1 1 ) ;
f o o t w e a r , e x c e p t r u b b e r (S IC 3 1 4 ) ; a n d o t h e r
l e a t h e r p r o d u c t s (S IC 3 1 2 , 3 1 3 , 315—3 1 7 , a n d
3 1 9 ).
E m p lo y m e n t
Sin ce 1950, p r iv a te w age and s a l a r y e m ­
p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p d e ­
c l i n e d s l i g h t l y m o r e th a n 10 p e r c e n t , to a p ­
p r o x i m a t e l y 3 5 0 , 0 0 0 w o r k e r s in 1 9 6 5 . A b o u t
t w o - t h i r d s o f the w o r k e r s w e r e e m p l o y e d in
the f o o t w e a r i n d u s t r y g r o u p , in w h i c h e m ­
p l o y m e n t h a s d e c l i n e d s i n c e 19 5 0 a s the r e ­
su lt of m e c h a n iz a tio n of p ro d u c tio n p r o c e s s e s ,
and of r i s in g c o m p e titio n fr o m fo r e ig n p r o ­
ducers.
E m p l o y m e n t a l s o d e c l i n e d in the
l e a t h e r t a n n in g i n d u s t r y g r o u p , b u t r o s e m o d ­
e r a t e l y in the o t h e r l e a t h e r p r o d u c t s g r o u p s
b e c a u s e of in c r e a s in g d em an d for goods su ch
a s g l o v e s , h a n d b a g s, p u r s e s , and b illfo ld s ,
w h i c h a r e m a d e f r o m b o t h l e a t h e r an d l e a t h e r
su b stitu tes.
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 1 9 7 5 , e m p l o y m e n t in
the m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i s e x p e c t e d to r e ­
m a in r e la tiv e ly sta b le d e sp ite d iv erg en t e m ­
p l o y m e n t t r e n d s a m o n g the v a r i o u s i n d u s t r y

49

g r o u p s . E m p l o y m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e
to d e c l i n e in th e l e a t h e r ta n n in g b e c a u s e of
in c r e a s in g r e lia n c e upon le ath e r su b stitu te s.
O f f s e t t i n g i n c r e a s e s a r e a n t i c i p a t e d in the
m i s c e l l a n e o u s l e a t h e r g o o d s g r o u p s , d u e to
c o n ti n u e d r i s i n g d e m a n d f o r t h e i r p r o d u c t s ,
w h i c h a r e b e i n g m a d e i n c r e a s i n g l y w ith l e a t h ­
er su b stitu te s. L ittle em p loy m en t ch ange is
e x p e c t e d in the f o o t w e a r i n d u s t r y g r o u p , s i n c e
a n t i c i p a t e d i n c r e a s e s in ou tp u t p e r w o r k e r
w i l l o f f s e t the g r o w i n g d e m a n d f o r s h o e s .
O ccu p ation al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , o v e r 7 2 p e r c e n t of th e w o r k e r s
in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p w e r e in s e m i ­
sk ille d o p e ra tiv e o ccu p atio n s such a s stitc h e r,
la s t in g m a c h in e o p e r a t o r , v a m p e r , fitte r , and
trim m er.
Other m a j o r
o ccu p atio n s w e re
c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s (9 p e r c e n t ) , m a n a g e r s a n d
p r o p r i e t o r s a n d f o r e m e n e a c h (4 p e r c e n t ) .
L a b o r e r s m a d e up o v e r 14 p e r c e n t o f the
w o r k f o r c e in the ta n n in g a n d f i n i s h i n g g r o u p ,
c o m p a r e d w ith on ly 4 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t in the m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
T e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s a r e e x p e c t e d to
r e d u c e the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s e m i s k i l l e d p r o ­
d u c t io n w o r k e r s . T h i s d e c r e a s e w i l l b e m o s t
s i g n i f i c a n t in th e f o o t w e a r i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
T h e i n c r e a s i n g u s e of m a n - m a d e l e a t h e r s u b ­
s t i t u t e s , w h ic h c a n b e m a d e w ith c o n s i s t e n t
q u a l i t y and s t a n d a r d i z e d d im e n s io n s , w ill
m a k e p o s s i b l e th e f u r t h e r m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f a
n u m b e r of p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s , h e r e t o f o r e
h i n d e r e d b y the l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y o f l e a t h e r .
The r a tio of l a b o r e r s a l s o w ill d e c lin e a s a
r e s u l t o f th e i n c r e a s i n g u s e o f c o n v e y o r s a n d
o th e r m a t e r i a l s h an dlin g eq u ip m en t.

R a i l r o a d s ( S I C 40)
The m a jo r in d u stry grou p in clu d e s c o m ­
p a n ie s fu rn ish in g tr a n sp o r ta tio n by lin e-h au l
r a i lr o a d and s e r v i c e s such a s sle e p in g and
d in in g c a r s , the r a i l w a y e x p r e s s , a n d s w i t c h ­
in g a n d t e r m i n a l c o m p a n i e s .
C om p an ies
se rv in g a sin g le m u n icip ality , con tigu ou s m u ­
n i c i p a l it i e s , or a m u n ic ip a lity and its s u b ­
u rb a n a r e a s a r e ex c lu d e d .
E m p lo y m en t
B e t w e e n 19 5 0 a n d 1965, p r i v a t e w a g e a n d
s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t d e c l i n e d a b o u t 47 p e r c e n t
to 7 3 5 , 000. B e g i n n i n g in the 1 9 5 0 ' s t e c h n o ­
l o g i c a l c h a n g e s s u c h a s the r e p l a c e m e n t of
s t e a m lo c o m o tiv e s by d i e s e l - e l e c t r i c s , m e c h ­
a n iz a tio n of ro a d w a y m ain te n an c e , and c e n ­
tr a liz a tio n of tr a ffic c o n tr o ls, a s w ell a s d e ­
c r e a s e s in p a s s e n g e r t r a f f i c , w e r e p r i m a r i l y



r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e s h a r p d o w n t u r n in e m ­
p l o y m e n t . M o d e r a t e d e c l i n e s in e m p l o y m e n t
d u r i n g th e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s d e c a d e a l s o a r e
a n t i c i p a t e d a s a r e s u l t of th e c u r r e n t t r e n d
t o w a r d r a i l r o a d m e r g e r s . A n u p t u r n in e m ­
p l o y m e n t i s p r e d i c t e d a f t e r 197 0.
Im prove­
m e n t s in the e f f i c i e n c y of f r e i g h t o p e r a t i o n s
a r e e x p e c t e d to d e c r e a s e c o s t s a n d to i n ­
c r e a s e the v o l u m e of f r e i g h t t r a f f i c .
O ccu p ation al co m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , o v e r t w o - t h i r d s o f t h i s m a j o r
i n d u s t r y g r o u p ' s e m p l o y m e n t w a s in th e b l u e c o lla r o ccu p atio n s.
A l m o s t 1 w o r k e r in 8
w a s a l a b o r e r . O ther s ig n ific a n t b l u e - c o l l a r
o c c u p a tio n s w e r e b r a k e m e n and sw itch m e n
(11 p e r c e n t ) ; the r e s i d u a l o p e r a t i v e s g r o u p
w h ic h i n c l u d e s o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h a s o i l e r s a n d
g r e a s e r s , s ta t io n a r y f i r e m e n , sig n a lm e n and
p l a t f o r m t r u c k e r s (6 p e r c e n t ) ; l o c o m o t i v e e n ­
g i n e e r s a n d f i r e m e n e a c h (5 p e r c e n t ) ; f o r e ­
m e n , r a i l r o a d a n d c a r sh o p m e c h a n i c s a n d
r e p a i r m e n , a n d i n s p e c t o r s e a c h (4 p e r c e n t ) ;
a n d e l e c t r i c i a n s (2 p e r c e n t ) . C l e r i c a l w o r k ­
e r s , the l a r g e s t w h i t e - c o l l a r g r o u p , w e r e
p r i m a r i l y in th e r e s i d u a l c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n
group.
T h i s d i v i s i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r 1 out of
e v e r y 6 w o r k e r s and in clu d ed tic k e t a g e n t s ,
railw ay e x p r e s s ag en ts,
b a g g a g e m e n , an d
railw ay m a il c le r k s. S te n o g ra p h e rs, ty p ists,
a n d s e c r e t a r i e s (2 p e r c e n t ) m a d e up m o s t o f
the r e m a i n i n g c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s .
The other
sig n ific a n t w h ite -c o lla r o ccu p atio n al group,
m a n a g e r s , o f f i c ia l s , and p r o p r i e t o r s (10 p e r ­
c e n t) , w a s a b o u t e q u a l l y d i v i d e d b e t w e e n r a i l ­
r o a d c o n d u c to r s and oth er m a n a g e r s and
o fficials.
D u r i n g 1960— 5, new t e c h n o l o g y an d m e t h ­
7
o d s o f o p e r a t i o n a n d the f o r e c a s t e d i n c r e a s e s
in f r e i g h t v o l u m e w i l l c h a n g e s u b s t a n t i a l l y
the o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e r a i l r o a d
tran sp o rtatio n in d u stries.
In th e b l u e - c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s , l o c o m o ­
tiv e e n g in e e r s , b r a k e m e n , and sw itch m e n w ill
i n c r e a s e in i m p o r t a n c e to m e e t the n e e d s of
expanded r a i l fre ig h t activ ity .
The p r o p o r ­
t i o n s of m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n , i n s p e c ­
t o r s , m a c h in is t s , and e l e c t r ic ia n s w ill e x ­
p a n d a s the i n c r e a s e in n u m b e r , s i z e , a n d
c o m p le x ity of lo c o m o tiv e s r a i s e s m ain ten an c e
r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e g r o w i n g u s e of e l e c t r o n ­
ic a lly o p e r a t e d co n tro l m e c h a n is m s w ill a l s o
i n c r e a s e the n e e d f o r t e c h n i c a l a n d m a i n t e ­
nance w o r k e r s.
B y 1975, the p r o p o r t i o n o f
l o c o m o t i v e f i r e m e n i s e x p e c t e d to d r o p s h a r p ­
ly a s a r e s u l t of the r e c e n t a r b i t r a t i o n d e ­
c i s i o n w h ic h e l i m i n a t e s t h e m f r o m y a r d a n d
freig h t train cre w s.

50

The p r o p o r tio n of l a b o r e r s w ill d e c r e a s e
b e c a u s e of fu r th e r m e c h a n iz a tio n of r o a d ­
w a y m a i n t e n a n c e an d i n c r e a s e d u s e o f m a t e ­
r i a l s h a n d l in g e q u i p m e n t a n d b u l k l o a d i n g .
T h e g r o w t h in r a i l w a y e x p r e s s a n d in p i g g y ­
b a c k i n g s e r v i c e s w i l l i n c r e a s e the n e e d f o r
tru c k d riv e rs.
I m p o r t a n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a n g e s in the
w h ite - c o lla r o c c u p atio n s a r e a lso e x p e c te d .
Som e ty p e s of c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s w ill d e c r e a s e
p r im a r ily b e c a u se e le ctro n ic data c o m p u te rs,
i n i t i a l l y i n t r o d u c e d in the l a t e
1 9 5 0 's a n d
e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s , w i l l c o n ti n u e to r e p l a c e m a n y
ty p es of rou tin e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s .
Among
th ose a ffe c te d a d v e r s e l y w ill be accou n tin g,
r a te and b illin g , and file c le r k s ( c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s n. e . c . ). O t h e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l ­
o p m e n ts a ffe c tin g c l e r i c a l e m p lo y m e n t in clu d e
m i c r o f i l m e d d o c u m e n ts , s t o r a g e and r e t r i e v a l
s y s t e m s , and im p ro v e d co m m u n ic atio n s e q u ip ­
m en t.
R a i l r o a d c o m p a n y m e r g e r s w i l l te n d
to d e c r e a s e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c l e r i c a l p e r ­
so n n e l by c e n t r a liz in g o ffic e fu n ction s and
elim in a tin g d u plicate s e r v i c e s . P a r t ia ll y o f f ­
s e t t i n g t h e s e l o s s e s w i l l b e an i n c r e a s e in
the p r o p o r t i o n o f o f f i c e m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s .
M o s t o f t h i s g r o w t h w i l l b e c e n t e r e d in the
o c c u p a t i o n s r e l a t e d to c o m p u t e r o p e r a t i o n ,
su c h a s c o m p u te r c o n so le o p e r a t o r s and k e y ­
punch o p e r a t o r s .
T h e i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f the m a n ­
a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , an d p r o p r i e t o r s g r o u p w i l l
r e s u l t f r o m the a n t i c i p a t e d r i s e in d e m a n d
fo r r a ilr o a d co n d u cto rs.
T he r e q u i r e m e n t s
f o r c o n d u c t o r s n e e d e d to s u p e r v i s e a n d c o o r ­
d in a t e t r a i n c r e w a c t i v i t i e s w i l l g r o w in r e ­
s p o n s e to the p r o j e c t e d i n c r e a s e in the v o l u m e
of fre ig h t t r a f fic .
The p r o p o r t i o n of s e r v i c e w o r k e r s w ill
decrease.
F e w e r g u a r d s and w a tc h m e n w ill
be r e q u i r e d a s a d d i t i o n a l a u t o m a t i c w a r n i n g
d e v i c e s a r e in s t a l le d at r a ilw a y c r o s s i n g s .
The n e e d fo r c o o k s , w a i t e r s , p o r t e r s , and
oth e r s e r v i c e w o r k e r s w ill d e clin e a s t r a v e l
b y long d ista n c e c o a c h and p u llm a n t r a i n s
a ttra c ts still few er p a s s e n g e r s .
L o c a l and S u b u rb a n T r a n s i t and In te ru rb a n
P a s s e n g e r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (SIC 4 1 )
T h is m a jo r in d u str y grou p c o n s i s t s of
c o m p a n i e s , b o th p u b l i c l y a n d p r i v a t e l y o w n e d ,
a n d i n d i v i d u a l s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in f u r n i s h ­
in g l o c a l an d s u b u r b a n p a s s e n g e r t r a n s p o r ­
tatio n , in t e r c it y and r u r a l high w ay p a s s e n g e r
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d c h a r t e r an d s i g h t s e e i n g
serv ices.
C o m p a n ie s fu rn ish in g p a s s e n g e r
t e r m i n a l o r m a i n t e n a n c e f a c i l i t i e s f o r the u s e
of o th e rs a r e in clu d ed a ls o .



Employment
E m p l o y m e n t in the m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
h a s b e e n d e c l i n i n g s t e a d i l y , an d b y 1965 h a d
d r o p p e d to an a l l - t i m e low o f 3 5 8 , 000 w o r k ­
e r s . 41 E m p l o y m e n t d e c l i n e d m o s t r a p i d l y in
the s u r f a c e r a i l w a y , t r o l l e y c o a c h , a n d t a x i ­
c a b i n d u s t r i e s . A lth o u g h m o d e r a t e d e c r e a s e s
in e m p l o y m e n t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the 1 9 5 0 ' s in
the r a p i d t r a n s i t a n d l o c a l b u s s e g m e n t s , e m ­
p l o y m e n t in b o th s e g m e n t s h a s r e m a i n e d r e l ­
a tiv e ly sta b le sin ce I960.
E m p l o y m e n t in
the i n t e r c i t y b u s i n d u s t r y d id n o t c h a n g e s i g ­
n i f i c a n t l y d u r i n g 1955— 5 .
6
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
T a x ic a b s.
In I 9 6 0 ,
d r i v e r s m a d e up
m o r e th a n 8 out o f e v e r y 10 w o r k e r s in t h i s
in d u stry .
O ther im p o r ta n t o c c u p a tio n s w e re
c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s (9 p e r c e n t ) ; m a n a g e r s a n d
p roprietors
(6 p e r c e n t ) ; d i s p a t c h e r s a n d
s t a r t e r s (5 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d m e c h a n i c s a n d r e ­
p a i r m e n (2 p e r c e n t ) .
T h e r e w a s l i t t l e c h a n g e b e t w e e n 1950 a n d
I 9 6 0 in the d r i v e r s ' s h a r e o f i n d u s t r y e m ­
p lo y m e n t, and little ch an ge is e x p e c te d d u r ­
in g the p e r i o d a h e a d . T h e s h a r p d r o p in the
p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m p l o y m e n t o f m a n a g e r s in the
1950— 0 d e c a d e w a s e n t i r e l y a m o n g the s e l f 6
e m p lo y e d o w n e r - o p e r a t o r s and r e f l e c t e d a
tren d tow ard la r g e r f i r m s .
B e tw een I960
a n d 1975, the p r o p o r t i o n o f m a n a g e r s i s e x ­
p e c t e d to c o n tin u e d e c l i n i n g b u t a t a s l o w e r
r a t e t h a n d u r i n g 1950— 0. O f f s e t t i n g the r e ­
6
d u ction of m a n a g e r s w ill be con tin u ed in ­
c r e a s e s in the p r o p o r t i o n o f d i s p a t c h e r s , r a ­
d io o p e r a t o r s , a n d a u to m e c h a n i c s a s the
tren d tow ard l a r g e r f ir m s con tin u es.
O ther l o c a l and in te r u r b a n t r a n s it . D r i v ­
e r s d o m i n a t e d e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y
g r o u p i n g , m a k i n g up n e a r l y 51 p e r c e n t o f a l l
w o r k e r s in I 9 6 0 .
O ther sig n ifica n t o c c u p a ­
t i o n s w e r e m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n (10 p e r ­
c e n t ) ; o t h e r c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s (11 p e r c e n t ) ;
m a n a g e r s a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (5 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d
o t h e r o p e r a t i v e s (6 p e r c e n t ) , l a r g e l y s t r e e t
ra ilw a y m o to rm e n and co n d u c to rs.
T h e m a r k e d i n c r e a s e in the n u m b e r o f
a u t o m o b i l e s in u s e in the p a s t d e c a d e h a s
a f f e c t e d a d v e r s e l y the l o c a l - t r a n s i t i n d u s t r y .
N inety p e r c e n t of t o d a y 's p a s s e n g e r tr a v e l
w i t h in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s i s b y a u t o m o b i l e .

41 Private wage and salary workers m ade up 73 percent of
this work force; government workers accounted for about 20 per­
cent; and self-em plo yed and unpaid fam ily workers, 7 percent.

51

T h i s s p r e a d i n g a u to o w n e r s h i p , w h i c h h a s
a c c o m p a n ie d h ig h e r liv in g s ta n d a r d s a s w ell
a s the m o v e m e n t o f u r b a n d w e l l e r s to the
s u b u r b s , h a s r e d u c e d the d e m a n d f o r p u b l i c
tran sp o rtatio n .
G e n e rally ,
tran sit sy ste m s
o p e r a t e d u n d e r low p r o f i t m a r g i n s t h a t h i n ­
d e re d l a r g e - s c a l e c a p ita l in v e stm e n t.
H ow­
e v e r , fin an cial a s s is t a n c e for con stru ctio n
and im p r o v e m e n t of m a s s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a ­
c i l i t i e s , a s p r o v i d e d b y the U r b a n M a s s
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t o f 19 6 4 , i s e x p e c t e d to
s t i m u l a t e the d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e
tr a n s it im p ro v e m e n t p r o g r a m s .
T h e c h a n g e f r o m s t r e e t c a r s to b u s e s h a s
b e e n the m a j o r f a c t o r in f l u e n c i n g the o c c u p a ­
tio n a l s t r u c t u r e of th is in d u stry . The g r a d u a l
e l i m i n a t i o n o f s t r e e t c a r s i s due to the g r e a t e r
s p e e d a n d i n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y o f r o u t i n g an d
sc h e d u lin g b u s e s .
T h e e x p a n d e d n e t w o r k o f new h i g h w a y s
h a s p r o v i d e d the i m p e t u s f o r i n c r e a s e d i n t e r ­
c i t y b u s t r a v e l . D e v e l o p m e n t o f the v a s t i n ­
t e r s t a t e high w ay s y s t e m h as en a b le d c o m p a ­
n i e s to e m p h a s i z e s c h e d u l i n g m o r e e x p r e s s
bu s t r ip s betw een la r g e c it ie s .
A g g re ssiv e
a d v e r t is in g , im p r o v e d s e r v i c e s , and a l l e v i ­
ation of p a s s e n g e r d is c o m f o r t throu gh n ew er
m o r e c o m fo r ta b le b u s e s w h i c h have r e s t
r o o m s a n d f a c i l i t i e s f o r fo o d a l s o h a v e c o n ­
t r i b u t e d to m o r e i n t e r c i t y b u s t r a v e l .
T h e i n c r e a s e s in the d r i v i n g o c c u p a t i o n
r a tio s w ill r e s u lt p r i m a r i l y fro m so m e f u r ­
t h e r e x p a n s i o n in the i n t e r c i t y b u s t r a n s p o r t .
The r e p la c e m e n t o f s t r e e t r a i lw a y s b y m o to r
b u s e s i s now n e a r l y c o m p l e t e , an d the a n ­
ticip a te d grow th of ra p id t r a n s it r a il s y s t e m s
w i l l te n d to s l o w the r a p i d i n c r e a s e in the
p r o p o r t i o n of d r i v e r s , e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g the
1 9 5 0 ' s . A s s t r e e t c a r t r a c k s an d t h e i r u p k e e p
a r e e l i m i n a t e d , the r a t i o o f l a b o r e r s w i l l
c o n tin u e to d e c l i n e .
T r u c k i n g a n d W a r e h o u s i n g (SIC 4 2 )
I n c l u d e d in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p a r e
a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ose p r im a r y ac tiv ity is
p r o v id in g l o c a l o r long d i s t a n c e
tru c k in g
s e r v i c e and p u b lic w a re h o u sin g .
T h is c l a s ­
s i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d e s a l l f o r - h i r e c a r r i e r s , bo th
c o n tr a c t and c o m m o n . E x c lu d e d a r e p r iv a te
c a r r i e r s such a s m a n u fa c tu re rs, f a r m e r s ,
an d o t h e r s h i p p e r s o f g o o d s w h o s e p r i m a r y
a c t i v i t y i s o u t s i d e the t r u c k i n g i n d u s t r y , an d
w areh o u ses op erated by b u sin e ss con cern s
f o r t h e i r own u s e .
Inclu ded a r e c o m p a n ie s
p ro v id in g t e r m in a l o r c o m b in e d t e r m in a l and
m ain te n an ce fa c ilit ie s for v e h ic le s o p e ra te d



by oth ers.
O ccu p ation al p atte rn s a r e a v a il ­
ab le fo r t r u c k in g , w h ich in c lu d e s t e r m in a l
f a c i l i t i e s (SIC 4 2 1 , 4 2 3 ) a n d p u b l i c w a r e h o u s ­
in g (SIC 4 2 2 ) .

E m p l o y m e n t h a s b e e n r i s i n g r a p i d l y in
t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p a n d r e a c h e d a h ig h
o f 1 . 1 m i l l i o n in 19 6 5 , 42 d e s p i t e a r e c e n t
d e c l i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d in the p u b l i c
w are h o u sin g s e c t o r .
E m p l o y m e n t in the
m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i s e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e
g r o w i n g in the c o m i n g d e c a d e a s m o t o r t r a n s ­
p o r t r e q u i r e m e n t s g r o w in r e s p o n s e to i n ­
c r e a s e s in g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y .
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o sitio n and tr e n d s
T r u c k i n g , l o c a l a n d lo n g d i s t a n c e .
In
I 9 6 0 , o v e r 80 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s in t h i s
i n d u s t r y g r o u p w e r e in one o f the " b l u e c o l la r " b r o a d o c c u p atio n al g r o u p s.
T r u c k d r i v e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r 56 p e r ­
c e n t o f the w o r k e r s in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p ;
l a b o r e r s m a d e up 11 p e r c e n t ; a n d m e c h a n i c s
and r e p a i r m e n 4 p e r c e n t.
M an ag ers, o ffi­
c i a l s , an d p r o p r i e t o r s (9 p e r c e n t ) a n d c l e r ­
i c a l w o r k e r s (12 p e r c e n t ) , a c c o u n t e d f o r
n e a r l y a l l o f the w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s b e ­
c a u s e fe w p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s a l e s p e r s o n n e l
w e r e r e q u i r e d in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
N ew t e c h n o l o g y i s e n t e r i n g n e a r l y e v e r y
p h a s e o f the t r u c k i n g i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
H ow­
e v e r, b e c a u se there are m any s m a ll fir m s ,
the i n d u s t r y i s d i v i d e d in i t s a b i l i t y to a d o p t
the m o r e c o s t l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s . In the
y e a r s a h e a d the r a t e a t w h i c h t h e s e c h a n g e s
a r e in tro d u c e d w ill i n c r e a s e b e c a u s e l a r g e
f i r m s , w h ich h ave g r e a t e r c a p a b i li t i e s fo r
c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t , a r e e x p e c t e d to g r o w in
im p o rta n c e .
The l a r g e s t and m o s t s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a ­
tio n o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n h a s b e e n in f r e i g h t
h a n d l in g e q u i p m e n t . E q u i p m e n t s u c h a s c o n ­
v e y o r s , fo r k lift t r u c k s , and flo o r c a b l e s have
m a d e s i g n i f i c a n t i n r o a d s in to l a b o r r e q u i r e ­
m en ts by m in im izin g m an u al m a t e r ia ls h an ­
d lin g .
E x p a n d e d u se of su c h eq u ip m en t is
e x p e c t e d in the c o m i n g d e c a d e an d w i l l r e ­
s u l t in a f u r t h e r d e c l i n e in the r e l a t i v e i m ­
p ortan ce of l a b o r e r s .

42 Private wage and salary workers m ade up about 90 per­
cent o f this work force in this m ajor industry group; self-em ployed
workers accounted for nearly all the remainder.

52
T h e g r e a t e r g r o w t h e x p e c t e d f o r the
l a r g e r c a r r i e r s th an f o r th e s m a l l s i z e f i r m s
a l s o w i l l h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the f u ­
t u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . C o m p a r e d w ith
s m a ll tru ck in g c o m p a n ie s, la r g e c a r r i e r s
h ave h igh er p r o p o r tio n s of s te n o g r a p h e r s,
t y p is t s , and s e c r e t a r i e s ; oth er c l e r i c a l w o r k ­
e r s ; m e c h a n ic s and r e p a ir m e n ; s e r v ic e w o r k ­
e rs; sa le sw o rk e rs; an d fo rem en . T h ese w ork ­
e r s a r e a l l e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e to i n c r e a s e
t h e i r s h a r e o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in r e s p o n s e
to the f a s t e r g r o w t h o f l a r g e f i r m s . T h e i n ­
c r e a s i n g u s e o f c o m p u t e r s an d o t h e r o f f i c e
m a c h i n e s w i l l te n d to m o d e r a t e the g r o w t h
r a t e s in s e l e c t e d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h a s
b o o k k e e p e rs and accou n tin g c le r k s .
C u sto m arily , m a n a g e r s m ak e u p a g r e a te r
p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y m e n t in s m a l l c a r r i e r s
s i n c e th e y o fte n c a r r y out m a n y f u n c t i o n s
t h a t a r e a s s i g n e d to o t h e r p e r s o n n e l in the
larg e r firm s.
A s s m a l l c a r r i e r s d e c lin e ,
r e l a t i v e l y , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f m a n a g e r s a l s o
i s e x p e c t e d to d e c r e a s e .

D uring 1960—
75, a s lig h t d e c r e a s e i s e x ­
p e c t e d in the r a t i o of t r u c k d r i v e r s . The m o r e
im p o r t a n t l a b o r s a v i n g c h a n g e s a r e o c c u r r i n g
in the n o n d riv in g a r e a s and w ill tend to r a i s e
r e q u i r e m e n t s fo r d r i v e r s .
T h is tr e n d w ill
be o f f s e t , h o w e v e r, by the continued g row th
of l a r g e f i r m s in w hich d r i v e r s m a k e up a
s m a l l p a r t of the w o r k f o r c e , and by other
d e v e lo p m e n t s su ch a s the v a s t new i n t e r s t a t e
highw ay s y s t e m and the i n c r e a s i n g c a p a c it y
an d p e r f o r m a n c e of t r a i l e r s and power units
w h ich w ill r e d u c e d r iv in g r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r
ton of fr e ig h t.
P u b lic w a re h o u sin g .
Im portan t sp e c ific
o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e t r u c k d r i v e r s (9 p e r c e n t ) ,
m e a t c u t t e r s (3 p e r c e n t ) , b o o k k e e p e r s (4 p e r ­
c e n t ) , a n d f o r e m e n (3 p e r c e n t ) .
T h e s m a l l s i z e of f i r m s a n d the l a c k of
u n i f o r m i t y in the g o o d s s t o r e d w i l l c o n tin u e
to h i n d e r r a p i d m e c h a n i z a t i o n in p u b l i c w a r e ­
h o u s i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , g r e a t e r u s e of b a t c h
h a n d l in g ,
c o n ta in e riza tio n ,
c o n v e y o r s, and
p o w e r t r u c k s w ill r e d u c e r e q u ir e m e n t s for
m a t e r i a l s h a n d l i n g l a b o r e r s , w h ile i n c r e a s i n g
th e n e e d f o r e q u i p m e n t o p e r a t o r s ( o p e r a t i v e s
n. e. c. ). T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t r u c k d r i v e r s a n d
p a c k e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n v o l v e d in m o v i n g
h o m e f u r n i s h i n g s , w i l l g r o w in r e s p o n s e to
the i n c r e a s i n g m o b i l i t y of A m e r i c a n f a m i l i e s .
The sp re a d in g ow n ersh ip of hom e f r e e z e r s
w i l l c o n tin u e to a f f e c t a d v e r s e l y the u s e of
p u b l i c f r o z e n fo o d l o c k e r s a n d w i l l c a u s e a
c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c r e a s e in the p r o p o r t i o n of
m eat cu tters.



T h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f th e r e m a i n i n g m a j o r
o c c u p a tio n s— m a n a g e r s and o f f i c ia l s , c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s , a n d c r a f t s m e n — a r e e x p e c t e d to r e ­
m a i n r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e d u r i n g 1960—7 5.
A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( S I C 45) 43
T h is m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p in clu d e s c o m ­
p a n ie s fu rn ish in g d o m e s t ic and fo r e i g n a i r
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of p a s s e n g e r s and fr e ig h t, o p ­
e r a t in g a i r p o r t s , and su p ply in g t e r m i n a l
s e r v i c e s such a s a i r c r a f t
s t o r a g e , and r e ­
p a i r . It e x c l u d e s c o m p a n i e s e n g a g e d in a e r i a l
p h o to g r a p h y and oth er s e r v i c e s w h ich m a y
u se a i r p la n e s in cid en tally.
E m p lo y m e n t
B e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1965, e m p l o y m e n t in
t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p m o r e th a n t r i p l e d ,
r e a c h i n g a h ig h o f 238, 000 w o r k e r s . 44 M o s t
of th e i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d in c e r t i f i e d c a r r i e r s
in w h ic h o v e r f i v e - s i x t h s of th e w o r k f o r c e
w as con cen trated . N o n certified c a r r i e r s , a ir
fie ld o p e r a t io n s , and t e r m in a l s e r v i c e s , w h ich
e m p l o y e d o n ly a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the w o r k ­
e r s , e x p e r i e n c e d th e s h a r p e s t r a t e o f i n ­
crease.
C o n tin u e d r a p i d g r o w t h in e m p l o y ­
m e n t i s e x p e c t e d d u r i n g 1965— 5 to m e e t the
7
a n t i c i p a t e d e x p a n d i n g d e m a n d f o r b o th p a s ­
se n g e r and c a r g o a ir tr a n sp o r ta tio n s e r v i c e s ,
re su ltin g fr o m r is in g b u s i n e s s activ ity , p e r ­
so n a l d is p o s a b le in co m e , and l e i s u r e tim e .
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s m a d e up
o v e r o n e - h a l f o f th e e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r
in du stry group.
A l m o s t 31 p e r c e n t w e r e in
the c l e r i c a l g r o u p a n d c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f
s te n o g r a p h e r s , t y p is t s , and s e c r e t a r i e s
(5 p e rc e n t), and w o r k e r s su ch a s tick e t
agents,
re se rv a tio n c le rk s,
air m ovem ent
and c r e w s c h e d u le r s , file c l e r k s , and other
c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s no t s e p a r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d ,
t h a t w e r e g r o u p e d in to th e c l e r i c a l r e s i d u a l
o c c u p a t i o n (2 3 p e r c e n t ) .
Other s ig n ific a n t
o ccu p atio n s w e re a ir p la n e m e c h a n ic s and r e ­
p a i r m e n (18 p e r c e n t ) ; a i r p l a n e p i l o t s a n d c o ­
p i l o t s (9 p e r c e n t ) ; s t e w a r d s a n d s t e w a r d e s s e s

Additional information about this industry can be found
in BLS Bulletin 1367, Employment Requirements and Changing
O ccupational Structure in Civil A viation, 1964.
44 Government workers m ade up about 8 percent of this
work force; the rem ainder were nearly all private wage and
salary workers.

53
(6 p e r c e n t ) ; m a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s ,
and p r o ­
p r i e t o r s (8 p e r c e n t ) ; o p e r a t i v e s n . e . c . , m o s t l y
a i r c r a f t s e r v i c i n g p e r s o n n e l (4 p e r c e n t ) ;
s e r v i c e w o r k e r s n . e .c . , p r i m a r i l y p o r t e r s and
a t t e n d a n t s (3 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d l a b o r e r s (3 p e r c e n t ) .
A n u m b e r of i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s in the
o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y
g r o u p a r e e x p e c t e d d u r i n g 1960— 5.
7
The
n u m b e r o f p a s s e n g e r s c a r r i e d b y the a i r l i n e s
w ill expand r a p id ly .
C o rresp o n d in g ly , r e ­
q u ire m e n ts fo r w o r k e r s w hose a c tiv it ie s a r e
d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to p a s s e n g e r s , in c l u d in g r e s ­
erv atio n c le r k s , tick et ag en ts, s t e w a r d e s s e s ,
a n d s e r v i c e w o r k e r s w i l l i n c r e a s e , d e s p i t e the
g r o w i n g u s e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t io n s u c h
a s c o m p u t e r s fo r b a g g a g e c o n tro l and d i s t r i ­
b u tio n , r e s e r v a t i o n s , r e c o r d k e e p i n g , b i l l i n g ,
and n u m e ro u s rou tin e c l e r i c a l o p e ra tio n s.
O c c u p a t i o n s d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d w ith a i r ­
c r a f t o p e r a tio n su ch a s p ilo ts , s t e w a r d s , and
s t e w a r d e s s e s w i l l i n c r e a s e in i m p o r t a n c e .
A r a p i d g r o w t h in a i r t a x i s e r v i c e i s e x p e c t e d
to a d d to the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p i l o t s .
The
r e q u i r e m e n t s fo r p ilo t s w ill be m o d e r a t e d
b y the c o n s t a n t l y r i s i n g s p e e d a n d p a s s e n g e r
c a r r y i n g c a p a c it y of a i r c r a f t w hich is m a k in g
it p o s s i b l e to t r a n s p o r t th e g r o w i n g p a s s e n g e r
t r a f f i c w ith o u t c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e s in the
n u m b e r of a i r c r a f t .
M e c h a n i c s an d r e p a i r ­
m e n w i l l i n c r e a s e s u b s t a n t i a l l y in n u m b e r s
b u t d e c l i n e in p r o p o r t i o n b e c a u s e j e t a i r c r a f t
a r e e x p e c t e d to r e q u i r e l e s s m a i n t e n a n c e
th a n the p i s t o n t y p e s t h a t th e y r e p l a c e .
The in c r e a s in g u tiliz a tio n of e le c t r o n ic
eq u ip m en t w ill a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t r e q u ir e m e n t s
fo r r a d io o p e r a t o r s and flig h t d i s p a t c h e r s .
O t h e r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( S I C 44, 46, 47)
T h is m a jo r in d u stry groupin g in clu d es
w ate r tr a n sp o r ta tio n (fre ig h t and p a s s e n g e r ,
S I C 44), p i p e l i n e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( c r u d e a n d
r e f i n e d p e t r o l e u m , S I C 46), an d t r a n s p o r t a ­
tio n s e r v i c e s ( f r e i g h t f o r w a r d i n g , a r r a n g e ­
m en t of t r a n s p o r ta tio n ,
sto ck y a rd s, ren tal
of r a i l r o a d c a r s , e t c . , S I C 47). O c c u p a t i o n a l
r a t i o s a r e a v a il a b le fo r each of th e s e m a jo r
in du stry g ro u p s.
E m p lo y m en t
In 1965, n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s of the 344, 000
w o r k e r s 45 in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g
w e r e e m p l o y e d in the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
g r o u p ; a b o u t a n o t h e r t h r e e - t e n t h s w e r e in
t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s ; a n d the r e m a i n i n g
w o r k e r s w e r e e m p l o y e d in the p i p e l i n e g r o u p .



E m p l o y m e n t in the w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n g r o u p
d e c l i n e d p r i m a r i l y a s th e r e s u l t of the s h a r p
d r o p (8 0 p e r c e n t ) in th e n u m b e r o f o c e a n g o i n g
s h i p s in the U. S. m e r c h a n t f l e e t d u r i n g the
p o s t — o r ld W ar II p e r i o d . B e t w e e n 1965 a n d
W
197 5, e m p l o y m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to r e a c h a
p l a t e a u in th e w a t e r a n d p i p e l i n e m a j o r g r o u p s ,
b u t to i n c r e a s e s h a r p l y in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v ­
i c e s , p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e of continued e x p a n sio n
o f t r a v e l a g e n c i e s to m e e t i n c r e a s i n g d e m a n d s
fo r t r a v e l and v a c a t io n s .
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
W ater t r a n s p o r t a t io n .
In I 9 6 0 ,
m ore
th a n o n e - h a l f the w o r k e r s w e r e in t h r e e o c ­
cu p a tio n al g r o u p s : L o n g sh o r e m e n and s t e v e ­
d o r e s (28 p e r c e n t ) ; s h i p o f f i c e r s ,
p ilo ts,
p u r s e r s a n d e n g i n e e r s (12 p e r c e n t ) ; an d
s a i l o r s a n d d e c k h a n d s (12 p e r c e n t ) . (In t h i s
in d u stry , c a r p e n t e r s , c r a n e m e n , and oth er
c r a f t s m e n g e n e ra lly a r e c o n sid e re d lo n g­
shorem en.
H o w e v e r , f o r t h i s r e p o r t th e y
h ave b een c la s s if i e d by th eir s p e c ia l o c c u ­
pation s. )
M a n p o w e r r e q u i r e m e n t s on in la n d w a t e r ­
w ay and o c e a n v e s s e l s w ill be a d v e r s e l y a f ­
f e c t e d t h r o u g h the m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f v e s s e l s .
M o s t o f the a c t i v e m e r c h a n t m a r i n e f l e e t i s
a p p r o a c h i n g o b s o l e s c e n c e a n d w i l l h a v e to b e
re p la c e d .
H ow ever,
r e p la c e m e n t of th e se
o l d e r s h i p s i s o c c u r r i n g in s h i p l i n e s u n d e r
a g o v e r n m e n t s u b s i d y p r o g r a m t h a t o n ly c o v ­
e r s a b o u t o n e - t h i r d of the m e r c h a n t f l e e t .
E m p h a s i s in d e s i g n i n g new s h i p s i s o n a u t o ­
m a t i o n o f the e n g i n e e r i n g r o o m a n d c a r g o
h a n d l in g o p e r a t i o n s ; in a d d i t i o n , m a n y c r a f t
now a r e e q u i p p e d w ith e l e c t r o n i c s t e e r i n g
a n d d e p th f i n d e r s . T h e s e t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d to l i m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s
fo r sh ip b o a rd o ffic e r s , a s w ell a s fo r f i r e ­
m en , o i l e r s , s a i l o r s , and d e c k h a n d s.
U n ion -m an agem en t a g r e e m e n ts a r e p e r ­
m i t t i n g a u t o m a t i o n on the d o c k s , w h ic h r e ­
d u c e s the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r l o n g s h o r e m e n a n d
stevedo res.
T h e r a t i o s of f o r k l i f t , c r a n e ,
an d t r a c t o r o p e r a t o r s a r e e x p e c t e d to r i s e
a s m o r e u n itiz ed f r e ig h t or c o n ta in e r iz a tio n
i s u s e d , i. e. , c o m b i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s
in to s t a n d a r d i z e d u n i t s w h i c h c a n b e h a n d l e d
m e ch an ically .

Private wage and salary workers accounted for about 88
percent o f this total em ploym ent in this m ajor industry grouping;
government workers m ade up 9 percent o f em ploym ent; and the
self-em ployed about 3 percent.

54
P ipelines.
C r a f t s m e n and o p e r a t iv e s
m a d e up 63 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in
th e p i p e l i n e i n d u s t r y in I 9 6 0 .
About th reee i g h t h s of the c r a f t s m e n w e r e s t a t i o n a r y e n ­
g i n e e r s a n d m o s t of the o p e r a t i v e s w e r e g a g ­
e r s ( c l a s s i f i e d in o p e r a t i v e s n. e. c. ).
Over
t h r e e - f o u r t h s of th e p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l
w o r k e r s (who a c c o u n t e d f o r 9 p e r c e n t o f the
w o rk fo r c e ) w e r e e n g i n e e r s and te c h n ic ia n s.
T e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s w i l l a f f e c t the o c ­
c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e p i p e l i n e i n d u s ­
t r i e s d u r i n g the n e x t d e c a d e .
F o r e x am p le,
m a j o r i n c r e a s e s in th e m o v e m e n t o f o i l p r o d ­
u c ts a r e e x p e c te d th ro u gh l a r g e r and lo n g e r
p i p e l i n e s . G r e a t e r u s e w i l l b e m a d e of a i r ­
p l a n e s a n d a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y to d e t e r m i n e
the c o u r s e o f new p i p e l i n e s , a n d to p a t r o l
e x i s t i n g l i n e s to d e t e c t l e a k s . A m a j o r t r e n d
i s e x p e c t e d t o w a r d s the w i d e r a p p l i c a t i o n of
a u t o m a t i c e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l s , in c l u d in g r e ­
m o te c o n tr o l v a lv e opening and c lo s in g , a u t o ­
m a tic con trol c o m p u te rs, e le ctro n ic c a lc u la ­
t i o n s to s e n d v a r i e d p r o d u c t l o t s , a n d c e n ­
t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l of p u m p i n g s t a t i o n s .
A uto­
m a t i o n of p u m p i n g s t a t i o n s w i l l r e q u i r e f e w e r
statio n e n g in e e rs,
p u m p e r s , fir e m e n , and
o ile rs.
A u t o m a t i c m e a s u r e m e n t of o i l w i l l
r e d u c e th e n e e d f o r g a g e r s .
In creasin g use
of e le c t r o n ic c o n t r o l and c o m m u n ic a tio n s
eq u ip m en t is c r e a tin g a g r e a t e r n eed fo r p r o ­
f e s s io n a l e n g in e e rs, electro n ic tech n ician s,
p r o g r a m e r s , s y s t e m s d e s ig n p e r s o n n e l, and
m a i n t e n a n c e e l e c t r i c i a n s . T h e p r o p o r t i o n of
f o r e m e n i s e x p e c t e d to r i s e a s d u t i e s b e c o m e
m o r e s p e c i a l i z e d an d th e r a t i o o f f o r e m e n
to e m p l o y e e s i n c r e a s e s .
T ran sp o rta tio n s e r v i c e s . C le ric a l w o rk ­
e r s m a d e up a l m o s t o n e - h a l f o f th e w o r k e r s
in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p in I 9 6 0 . P r i n ­
c ip al am ong t h e m w e re :
Sten ograph ers,
t y p i s t s , a n d s e c r e t a r i e s (8 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d the
r e s i d u a l c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n (26 p e r c e n t ) , c o n ­
s i s t i n g of s u c h w o r k e r s a s r a t e c l e r k s , r e s ­
e r v a tio n c l e r k s , s c a l e c l e r k s , and telep h on e
c le rk s.
O t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t o c c u p a t i o n s in c l u d e d
m a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (16 p e r ­
c e n t) , s e r v i c e w o r k e r s (8 p e r c e n t ) , l a b o r e r s
(9 p e r c e n t ) , a n d c r a f t s m e n a n d o p e r a t i v e s
e a c h (7 p e r c e n t ) .
T h e c o n t i n u e d r a p i d g r o w t h e x p e c t e d in
t r a v e l a g e n c i e s w i l l r e s u l t in f u r t h e r s h a r p
r a t i o i n c r e a s e s f o r c ^ r i c a l w o r k e r s who
a r r a n g e to u r s , p la c e r e s e r v a t io n s , and is s u e
t i c k e t s . T h e p r o p o r t i o n of c a s h i e r s a l s o w i l l
i n c r e a s e s ig n ific a n tly a s a d d itio n a l toll h ig h ­
w a y s a r e o p e n e d , b u t new a u t o m a t i c c o l l e c t i o n
e q u i p m e n t w i l l te n d to m o d i f y t h e i r g r o w t h r a t e .



The o p e r a t io n s of fr e ig h t fo r w a r d in g w ill
b e c o m e m o r e f l e x i b l e t h r o u g h th e i n c r e a s i n g
u s e of u n i t i z e d f r e i g h t a n d p i g g y b a c k i n g t e c h ­
n iq u e s. The s t o r a g e and m a t e r i a l s m o v e m e n t
p r o b l e m s of the f r e i g h t f o r w a r d e r a r e b e i n g
a l l e v i a t e d t h r o u g h n ew t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s
such a s c o n v ey o rized fre ig h t m ovem en t, d r a g ­
lin e s, e ffic ie n t so r tin g m e t h o d s , u n itized
lo a d s , and m e c h a n iz e d lo ad in g and u n load in g
tech n iqu es.
T h e s e te c h n o lo g ic a l in n o v a tio n s
a r e e x p e c t e d to e f f e c t a s h a r p d e c r e a s e in the
im p o rta n c e of m a t e r i a ls m o v e m e n t la b o r e r s .
C o m m u n i c a t i o n s (SIC 48)
I n c l u d e d in t h i s i n d u s t r y a r e t h o s e c o m ­
p a n ie s fu r n is h in g poin t-to-poin t c o m m u n ic a tio n
s e r v i c e s , w h e t h e r by w i r e o r r a d i o , a n d
w h e t h e r in t e n d e d to b e r e c e i v e d a u r a l l y o r
v is u a lly ; and r a d io b r o a d c a s t in g and te le v is io n .
S e r v i c e s f o r th e e x c h a n g e o r r e c o r d i n g of
m e s s a g e s a l s o a r e in c l u d e d .
Separate o c ­
c u p a tio n al p a t t e r n s a r e a v a ila b le fo r telep h on e
(SIC 481), t e le g r a p h and c o m m u n ic a tio n s e r v ­
i c e s n. e. c. ( S I C 4 8 2 a n d 4 8 9 ) , a n d r a d i o
a n d t e l e v i s i o n ( S I C 4 8 3 ).
E m p lo y m en t
T o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y
g r o u p i n c r e a s e d m o d e r a t e l y to a b o u t 8 5 0 , 000
w o r k e r s in 1965. 46 E m p l o y m e n t in r a d i o
a n d t e l e v i s i o n g r e w v e r y r a p i d l y , m o r e th an
o f f s e t t i n g th e d e c l i n i n g e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d in
th e t e l e g r a p h i n d u s t r y .
E m p l o y m e n t in the
telep h on e in d u s t r y , w h ich a c c o u n te d fo r o v e r
80 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y m e n t in th e m a j o r g r o u p
in 1965 i n c r e a s e d o n ly s l i g h t l y .
With the
con tin u ed in s t a lla t io n of d ia l p h o n e s, a l a r g e
i n c r e a s e in the n u m b e r o f p h on e c a l l s w a s
h a n d l e d w ith f e w e r t e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r s . T o t a l
e m p l o y m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to c o n ti n u e u p w a r d ,
w ith a r e s u m p t i o n o f e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h in
teleph one c o m m u n ic a tio n s se g m e n t.
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and t r e n d s
T e l e p h o n e . In I 9 6 0 , t e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r s
a c c o u n t e d f o r m o r e th a n 30 p e r c e n t o f the
w o r k e r s in t h i s i n d u s t r y . T h e r e s i d u a l c l e r ­
i c a l w o r k e r s g ro u p , w h ich m a in ly in clu d e d
p ay -statio n c o lle c to rs, se rv ic e o rd er c le rk s,
s e r v ic e r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s , and to ll-tick et c le r k s ,
m a d e up 18 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t .
M o r e th a n o n e - f o u r t h of the w o r k e r s w e r e
lin e m e n an d s e r v i c e m e n , w h ich a l s o in clu d e d
cab le s p l i c e r s , in s t a lle r s , and r e p a irm e n .

N early all em ploym ent in this m ajor industry group was
m ade up o f private wage and salary workers.

55
T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e in the o c ­
c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the i n d u s t r y w i l l b e
th e d e c l i n e in s h a r e of t o t a l f o r t e l e p h o n e
o p e r a t o r s w hich w ill r e s u l t f r o m exp an d ed
c o v e r a g e o f d i r e c t d i a l i n g o f lo n g d i s t a n c e
c a l l s a n d f r o m i n c r e a s e d i n s t a l l a t i o n o f new
t r a f f ic s e r v i c e p o s itio n eq u ip m en t. The r a t io
of the r e s i d u a l c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s g r o u p a l s o
w ill d eclin e a s c o m p u te r s a r e u se d i n c r e a s ­
i n g ly in c l e r i c a l a c t i v i t i e s .
The p ro p o rtio n
of lin e m e n and s e r v i c e m e n w ill i n c r e a s e a s
s e r v i c e s a r e e x p a n d e d to m e e t th e n e e d s of
a g ro w in g p o p u la tio n .
T e le g r a p h and c o m m u n ic a tio n s e r v i c e s
n. e. c. C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s m a d e up 65 p e r c e n t
of i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t in I 9 6 0 .
The m o s t
sig n ific a n t occu p atio n , te le g r a p h o p e r a t o r s ,
m a d e up the g r e a t e s t p o r t i o n o f th e r e s i d u a l
c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s ' r a t i o , w h i c h w a s 44 p e r c e n t .
M u ltip le x o p e r a t o r s and t e l e p r i n t e r s w e r e
c l a s s i f i e d in the s t e n o g r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s , a n d
s e c r e t a r i e s oc c u p a tio n , w hich a c c o u n te d fo r
a b o u t 11 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t . L i n e ­
m e n a n d s e r v i c e m e n ( w h ic h i n c l u d e d c a b l e
s p l i c e r s , i n s t a l l e r s and r e p a ir m e n ) and m a n ­
a g e r s a n d o f f i c i a l s e a c h m a d e up a b o u t 9 p e r ­
c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e .
A s u b s t a n t i a l d e c r e a s e in the p r o p o r t i o n
o f c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s i s e x p e c t e d a s the r e ­
s u l t of a n a n t i c i p a t e d d e c l i n e in the p u b l i c
m e s s a g e load ,
d e v e l o p m e n t o f h ig h s p e e d
e le c t r o n ic sw itch in g s y s t e m s , and m o r e e f ­
ficie n t m o d e r n d isp a tc h in g c e n t e r s . The r a tio
of l i n e m e n a n d s e r v i c e m e n i s e x p e c t e d to i n ­
c r e a s e b e c a u s e o f s u s t a i n e d g r o w t h in the u s e
of new d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n s y s t e m s , w h i c h w i l l
r e q u ir e a d d itio n a l in sta lla tio n and m ain te n an c e .
R a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g an d t e l e v i s i o n .
In
I960, w h ite -c o lla r w o r k e r s acco u n ted fo r a l ­
m o s t 92 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n ­
dustry.
T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e s e w o r k e r s
w a s a s fo llo w s:
P r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n ic a l
(49 p e r c e n t ) ; m a n a g e r s a n d o f f i c i a l s , i n c l u d ­
in g p r o g r a m d i r e c t o r s a n d p r o d u c e r s (2 2 p e r ­
c e n t ) ; c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s (15 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d
s a l e s w o r k e r s (5 p e r c e n t ) .
S ig n ifican t p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a tio n s w e re :
W o r k e r s in th e a r t s s u c h a s m u s i c i a n s a n d
e n t e r t a i n e r s (6 p e r c e n t ) ; e d i t o r s a n d r e p o r t e r s
(3 p e r c e n t ) ; e l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r s (3 p e r c e n t ) ;
r a d i o o p e r a t o r s (2 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d o t h e r t e c h ­
n ic ia n s , w h ich in clu d e d c a m e r a m e n , b r o a d ­
c a s t e n g in e e r s and t e c h n ic ia n s, p r o j e c t i o n i s t s ,
so u n d m e n , a n d c o n t r o l r o o m m e n (1 5 p e r ­
c e n t) .
A n n o u n cers, n e w s w r ite r s and n e w s ­
c a s t e r s , r e s e a r c h s t a f f , an d c o n t i n u i t y w r i t ­
e r s m a d e up th e g r e a t e s t p o r t i o n o f the
r e s i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p (17 p e r c e n t ) .



G e n e r a l l y , the r a t i o s of p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d
t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s w i l l d e c l i n e b e c a u s e of
sev eral facto rs,
in clu d in g :
(1) I n c r e a s i n g
a u to m a tio n of r a d io b r o a d c a s t in g p r o c e s s e s
a n d th e u s e o f f i l m a n d v i d e o t a p e m a t e r i a l s
in t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g ; a n d (2) the s m a l l
s i z e o f n ew s t a t i o n s . T h e r a t i o s of m a n a g e r s
and o f f i c ia l s , and c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s w ill in ­
c r e a s e a s new s t a t i o n s c o m e in to o p e r a t i o n .

P u b lic U t i l i t i e s 47 (S IC 49)
T h is m a jo r in du stry grou p in clu d es c o m ­
p a n i e s e n g a g e d in the g e n e r a t i o n , t r a n s m i s ­
s io n , a n d / o r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e l e c t r i c i t y , g a s ,
or s t e a m , and w a te r and ir r i g a t i o n s y s t e m s .
A l s o in clu d e d a r e s a n it a r y s y s t e m s e n g a g e d
in the c o l l e c t i o n a n d d i s p o s a l o f g a r b a g e ,
s e w a g e , an d o t h e r w a s t e s b y m e a n s of d e ­
stro y in g or p r o c e s s in g m a t e r i a ls .
G overn­
m e n t a l a g e n c i e s e n g a g e d in t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s
a r e a l s o in clu ded. S e p a r a t e o c c u p a tio n a l p a t ­
t e r n s a r e a v a i l a b l e fo r e l e c t r i c ligh t and
p o w er, g a s , and s t e a m (SIC 491-493, and 496),
w a t e r s u p p l y a n d i r r i g a t i o n ( S I C 4 9 4 , 4 9 7 ) , an d
s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e ( S I C 49 5 ).
E m p lo y m e n t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
i n c r e a s e d at a slow p a c e d u rin g r e c e n t y e a r s
a n d r e a c h e d n e a r l y 1 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s in
1965. 48 A b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f th e w o r k e r s in
t h i s m a j o r g r o u p w e r e l o c a t e d in the e l e c t r i c
l ig h t, p o w e r , g a s , a n d s t e a m i n d u s t r i e s w h e r e
e m p l o y m e n t r e m a i n e d f a i r l y s t a b l e s i n c e the
l a t e 1 9 5 0 ’ s, d e s p i t e a s u b s t a n t i a l r i s e in o u t ­
put. In th e s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e g r o u p , e m p l o y ­
m en t in c r e a s e d v e r y ra p id ly a s u rb a n iz atio n
of the p o p u l a t i o n s h a r p l y r a i s e d th e d e m a n d
for th ese s e r v ic e s .
The th ird grou p , w a te r
supply, e x p e r ie n c e d a ste a d y but m o d e r a t e
em ploym en t in c r e a s e .
L i t t l e c h a n g e in the
e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s i s e x p e c t e d d u r i n g 1965—75.
T h e e m p l o y m e n t l e v e l in e l e c t r i c p o w e r a n d
g a s i s e x p e c t e d to r e m a i n f a i r l y s t a b l e a s
t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s m a k e it p o s s i b l e to
s u p p l y th e r i s i n g d e m a n d f o r p o w e r w ith o u t
c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e s in e m p l o y m e n t . E m ­
p l o y m e n t in b o th w a t e r s u p p l y a n d s a n i t a r y
s e r v i c e s w i l l c o n t i n u e to g r o w ; the l a t t e r i n ­
d u s t r y g r o u p w i l l e x p e r i e n c e the s h a r p e s t
in crease.

^ For additional information, see BLS Report 293, (1965),
Manpower Planning to Adapt to New Technology at an Electric
and Gas U tility.
38 Government workers accounted for more than 33 percent
o f em ploym ent in public utilities; slightly more than 60 percent
were private wage and salary workers; and about 2 percent were
self-em ployed.

56

O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
S e p a r a t e d i s c u s s i o n s f o r e a c h o f the t h r e e
s e c t o r s t h a t m a k e up t h i s m a j o r in dustrygroup a re p r e se n te d a s follo w s:
E l e c t r i c ligh t, p o w e r , g a s , and s t e a m .
In I 9 6 0 , n e a r l y o n e - h a l f o f the w o r k e r s in
t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g w e r e in the
sk ille d o r s e m is k i lle d o c cu p atio n al g ro u p s.
S i g n i f i c a n t o c c u p a t i o n s w ith in t h e s e g r o u p s
w e r e l i n e m e n a n d s e r v i c e m e n (11 p e r c e n t ) ;
m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n (10 p e r c e n t ) ; f o r e ­
m e n (6 p e r c e n t ) ; e l e c t r i c i a n s
(3 p e r c e n t ) ;
p o w e r s t a t i o n o p e r a t o r s (2 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d t r u c k d r i v e r s (2 p e r c e n t ) . C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s m a d e
up n e a r l y o n e - f o u r t h o f the w o r k f o r c e . P r i n ­
c i p a l o c c u p a t i o n s w i th in t h i s g r o u p w e r e s t e ­
n o g r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s , an d s e c r e t a r i e s (4 p e r ­
c e n t ) ; a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s (2 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d the
r e s i d u a l gro u p , c o n sistin g m a in ly of m e te r
r e a d e r s , (14 p e r c e n t ) . E n g i n e e r s (4 p e r c e n t )
a n d t e c h n i c i a n s (3 p e r c e n t ) w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t
w h ite -c o lla r o c c u p atio n s.
A n u m b e r o f c h a n g e s a r e e x p e c t e d in the
o c c u p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e by 1975. The p r o p o r ­
tio n s o f e n g i n e e r s , te c h n ic ia n s , and p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l a s s o c i a t e d w ith e l e c t r o n i c
d a ta p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t w ill i n c r e a s e a s
a r e s u l t o f the g r o w i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f p o w e r
s y s t e m s , the i n c r e a s i n g e m p h a s i s on r e s e a r c h
a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d the r a p i d r i s e in the
u se of c o m p u te rs.
The ratio of m e t e r r e a d e r s
(clerical
w o r k e r s n. e . c . ) w i l l d e c l i n e a s m o r e c o m ­
p a n i e s s c h e d u l e m e t e r r e a d i n g on a b im o n th ly ,
q u a r t e r l y , an d e v e n s e m i a n n u a l b a s i s . P a r ­
t i a l l y o f f s e t t i n g the d e c r e a s i n g n e e d f o r c l e r ­
i c a l p e r s o n n e l w i l l b e the g r o w i n g n e e d f o r
s p e c i a l i z e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s to o p e r a t e c o m ­
p u t e r - r e l a t e d eq u ip m en t.
D i v e r s e t r e n d s a r e e x p e c t e d w ith in the
c r a ft s m e n occu p atio n al grou p .
The grow in g
c o m p le x it y and s iz e of g e n e ra tin g eq u ip m en t
an d the g r o w i n g u s e o f e l e c t r o n i c i n s t r u m e n ­
t a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l e q u i p m e n t w i l l i n c r e a s e the
n e e d fo r h igh ly s k ille d m ain te n an c e w o r k e r s
a n d t e c h n i c i a n s . A s new t e c h n o l o g y i n c r e a s e s
the o u tp u t a n d e f f i c i e n c y o f g e n e r a t i n g u n i t s ,
th e p r o p o r t i o n o f the l e s s h i g h l y s k i l l e d p o w e r
sta tio n o p e r a t o r s w ill d e c l i n e .
H ow ever,
a d d i t i o n a l l i n e m e n w i l l b e r e q u i r e d to i n s t a l l
a n d m a i n t a i n the g r o w i n g e l e c t r i c d i s t r i b u t i o n
s y s t e m n e e d e d to m e e t the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g
dem and for pow er.
The p r o p o r tio n of l a b o r e r s , e s p e c ia l l y
t h o s e i n v o l v e d in g r o u n d c r e w a c t i v i t i e s , w i l l
d e c r e a s e a s m a n y f u n c t i o n s w i l l be m e c h a ­
n ized .
The r a tio of fo r e m e n w ill i n c r e a s e ,



b e c a u s e the r i s i n g s k i l l l e v e l o f m a i n t e n a n c e
and o p e r a t in g p e r s o n n e l w ill r e q u i r e m o r e
su p e rv isio n .
W ater su p p ly and ir r ig a t i o n .
In I 9 6 0 ,
b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s m a d e up o v e r 63 p e r c e n t
o f the w o r k e r s in t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s .
S ig n ifi­
can t b lu e - c o lla r o ccu p atio n s w e r e l a b o r e r s
(14 p e r c e n t ) ; m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n (13
p e r c e n t ) ; a n d o p e r a t i v e s n. e . c . (13 p e r c e n t ) ,
m a in ly w a t e r and f i lt r a t io n p la n t o p e r a t o r s .
C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s (21 p e r c e n t ) a c c o u n t e d f o r
a l m o s t t h r e e - f i f t h s o f the w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k ­
e r s . O ther sig n ific a n t m a jo r w h ite -c o lla r o c ­
cu p a tio n s w e r e m a n a g e r s , o f f i c ia l s , and p r o ­
p r i e t o r s (lO p e r c e n t) and e n g in e e r s ( 3 p e r c e n t ).
B y 1975, s ig n ific a n t c h an g e s a r e e x p e c te d
to o c c u r in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s
in d u stry g ro u p in g . The r is in g le v e l of a u t o ­
m a t i o n in w a t e r t r e a t m e n t a n d p u m p i n g p l a n t s ,
a n d the g r o w i n g u s e o f m e c h a n i c a l e q u i p m e n t
in the i n s t a l l a t i o n a n d u p k e e p o f w a t e r p i p e ­
l i n e s w i l l r e d u c e the p r o p o r t i o n of l a b o r e r s
an d c a u s e a s l i g h t d e c l i n e in the p r o p o r t i o n s
of o p e r a t i v e s . M a n y c o m m u n it ie s w h ich p r e ­
v i o u s l y o p e r a t e d on a f i x e d b a s i s a r e now
in s ta llin g m e t e r e d s y s t e m s . T h is tr e n d w ill
r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l w o r k e r s in c l u d i n g m e t e r
i n s t a l l e r s and r e p a i r m e n (oth er m e c h a n ic s
a n d r e p a i r m e n n. e . c . ), m e t e r r e a d e r s , a n d
c l e r i c a l p e rso n n e l n eed ed for r e c o rd k e e p in g ,
b i l l i n g , a n d o t h e r t a s k s r e l a t e d to t h i s m o r e
c o m p lex rate s y ste m .
S a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s . In I 9 6 0 , b l u e - c o l l a r
w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r a l m o s t 92 p e r c e n t o f
e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
Over
o n e - h a l f o f the w o r k e r s w e r e l a b o r e r s s u c h
a s s t r e e t c l e a n e r s , t r a s h and g a r b a g e c o l ­
l e c t o r s , and s e w e r c l e a n e r s . O ther s i g n i f i ­
c a n t o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e t r u c k d r i v e r s (22 p e r ­
cen t), w hich in c lu d e d o p e r a t o r s of s t r e e t
c l e a n i n g e q u i p m e n t ; o p e r a t i v e n . e . c . (8 p e r ­
c e n t ) , who w e r e m a i n l y w o r k e r s a s s o c i a t e d
w ith i n c i n e r a t o r a n d s e w e r a g e d i s p o s a l p l a n t
o p e r a t io n s ; and m a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , and p r o ­
p r i e t o r s (3 p e r c e n t ) , an d f o r e m e n (3 p e r c e n t ) .
The g ro w in g m e c h a n iz a tio n of s a n i t a r y
s e r v i c e o p e r a t i o n s i s e x p e c t e d to r e s u l t in
s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c ­
tu re of th is in d u str y g ro u p .
The ra tio of
l a b o r e r s w ill d e c lin e s h a r p ly a s im p r o v e d
sa n ita tio n tr u c k s , grow in g u se of m o to r iz e d
s t r e e t s w e e p e r s , and in c r e a s i n g m e c h a n iz a tio n
of in cin e ra to r o p eratio n s reduce re q u ire m e n ts
for th ese w o r k e r s.
The r is in g d em an d fo r
s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s b y the r a p i d l y g r o w i n g
u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n w i l l r e s u l t in a s u b s t a n t i a l
i n c r e a s e in r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r d r i v e r s o f s a n i ­
tatio n t r u c k s and r o a d c le a n in g e q u ip m e n t,
a n d f o r p e r s o n n e l n e c e s s a r y to m a i n t a i n the
eq u ip m en t.

57

W h o l e s a l e T r a d e (SIC 5 0 )
T h is m a j o r in d u str y grou p in c lu d e s s e v ­
e r a l typ es of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s :
M erchant
w h o l e s a l e r s ; s a l e s b r a n c h e s and s a l e s o f f i c e s ;
ag en ts, m e rc h a n d ise o r com m odity b r o k e r s ,
and c o m m i s s io n m e r c h a n t s ; p e tr o le u m bu lk
s t a t io n s ; and a s s e m b l e r s , b u y e r s , and a s s o ­
c i a t i o n s e n g a g e d in the c o o p e r a t i v e m a r k e t i n g
of fa r m p r o d u c ts . O ccu p atio n al p a tte rn s a re
a v a i l a b l e f o r m o t o r v e h i c l e s an d e q u i p m e n t
(SIC 5 0 1 ) ; d r u g s , c h e m i c a l s , a n d a l l i e d p r o d ­
u c t s (SIC 5 0 2 ) ; d r y g o o d s a n d a p p a r e l (SIC
5 0 3 ) ; fo o d a n d r e l a t e d p r o d u c t s (SIC 5 0 4 ) ;
e l e c t r i c a l g o o d s , h a r d w a r e , and p lu m b in g
(S IC 506 a n d 5 0 7 ) ; m a c h i n e r y a n d e q u i p m e n t
(SIC 5 0 8 ) ; a n d o t h e r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e (SIC 505
and 509).
E m p lo y m en t
B e t w e e n 19 5 0 a n d 1 9 6 5 , e m p l o y m e n t in
t h i s i n d u s t r y s u b d i v i s i o n g r e w a l m o s t 32 p e r ­
c e n t to 3 . 5 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s . 49
T he f a s t e s t
g r o w i n g i n d u s t r y g r o u p s w e r e in the w h o l e ­
sa lin g of d u r a b le s: M otor v e h ic le s; e le c t r ic a l
g o o d s , h a r d w a r e and p lu m b in g ; and m a c h in e r y
and eq u ip m en t.
C on tin u ed e m p lo y m e n t i n ­
c r e a s e s a r e e x p e c t e d in e a c h o f the g r o u p s
d u r i n g the n e x t d e c a d e .
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , m a n a g e r s a n d p r o p r i e t o r s , c l e r ­
ic a l w o r k e r s , and s a l e s w o r k e r s w ere g e n e r ­
a l l y the l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s t h r o u g h ­
o u t the w h o l e s a l e t r a d e i n d u s t r i e s ; t h e y m a d e
up o v e r 70 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s in 5 o f
the 7 i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g s .
M o r e th a n t w o f i f t h s o f the c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , s u c h a s i n ­
v e n to ry and s t o c k c l e r k s , c h e c k o u t m en ,
a u t h o r iz e r s , r o u t e r s , e t c ., w e re not id e n tifie d
s e p a r a t e l y b u t w e r e c l a s s i f i e d in the r e s i d u a l
c le r ic a l group.
A b o u t h a l f the c r a f t s m e n
w e re m e c h a n ic s and r e p a i r m e n and m o s t of
t h e m w e r e in the m a c h i n e r y a n d e q u i p m e n t
group.
A lt h o u g h o p e r a t i v e s a c c o u n t e d f o r
o n ly 19 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y m e n t in the i n d u s t r y
s u b d i v i s i o n , t h e y m a d e up n e a r l y 38 p e r c e n t
o f the w o r k e r s in the f o o d w h o l e s a l e g r o u p ,
in w h i c h r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r w o r k e r s s u c h a s
d r i v e r s an d d e l i v e r y m e n , m e a t c u t t e r s , a n d
w r a p p e r s a n d p a c k e r s w e r e h ig h . G e n e r a l l y ,
the p r o p o r t i o n s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l ,
te ch n ica l,
a n d k i n d r e d w o r k e r s ; s e r v i c e w o r k e r s ; an d
l a b o r e r s w e r e low t h r o u g h o u t the i n d u s t r y
groups.
In o n ly tw o g r o u p s — fo o d an d o t h e r
w h o l e s a l e t r a d e — d id the c o m b i n e d p r o p o r ­
t i o n s o f the l a t t e r t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s
e x c e e d 12 p e r c e n t ; in b o th c a s e s , l a b o r e r s
a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 10 p e r c e p t o f the w o r k



f o r c e . T h e h i g h e s t r a t i o s in the i n d u s t r y s u b ­
d iv isio n fo r p r o f e s s io n a l and r e la te d w o r k e r s
( a b o u t 4 p e r c e n t ) o c c u r r e d in two g r o u p s —
d r u g s a n d c h e m i c a l s , a n d m a c h i n e r y an d
eq u ip m en t w h o le sa lin g .
B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1 9 7 5 , c h a n g e s in the
o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f the w h o l e s a l e t r a d e
i n d u s t r i e s w i l l r e s u l t f r o m i m p r o v e m e n t s in
w a r e h o u s i n g a c t i v i t i e s a n d th e c o n ti n u i n g
a d a p t a t i o n o f e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g to
w h o l e s a l i n g o p e r a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , the e f f e c t s
of th e se im p r o v e m e n ts w ill be s m a ll , sin ce
the a d o p t i o n o f c o s t l y a u t o m a t i c s y s t e m s a n d
m o d e r n e q u ip m e n t g e n e r a ll y w ill be r e s t r i c t e d
to l a r g e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t o n ly
a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l . In 1 9 6 3 , l e s s
th a n 5 p e r c e n t o f the f i r m s in w h o l e s a l e t r a d e
e m p l o y e d o v e r 50 w o r k e r s .
A u t o m a t i o n in the w a r e h o u s e i s b e s t
s u i t e d to f i r m s s p e c i a l i z i n g in s t a p l e s s u c h
a s fo o d a n d d r u g s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r h i g h t u r n ­
o v e r , s t a n d a r d u n its, l a c k of bu lk, and l a c k
of ch an gin g sty le of fash io n . W h o le sa le r s of
th e se p ro d u c ts a re in stallin g a u to m a tic a lly
c o n t r o lle d c o n v e y o r s y s t e m s w hich s o r t g o o d s
a n d m o v e t h e m in to s t o r a g e a n d s e l e c t f a s t m ovin g it e m s f r o m s to r a g e for sh ipm en t.
T h e s e c o n v e y o r s r e d u c e the n e e d f o r s o r t e r s ,
o r d e r p i c k e r s , sh ip p in g and r e c e iv in g c l e r k s ,
and l a b o r e r s .
W h e r e a u t o m a t i o n in w a r e ­
h o u se s is not fe a s ib le , oth er m e c h a n ic a l m a ­
t e r i a l s h a n d l in g e q u i p m e n t , ' s u c h a s f o r k l i f t
t r u c k s , p a l l e t s , and p o w e r e d c o n v e y o r s , w ill
p la y an i n c r e a s i n g l y im p o r ta n t r o le and s i m ­
ila r ly redu ce re q u ire m e n ts for m a t e r i a l
m ovem ent la b o re rs.
E ffe c tiv e ap p licatio n of e le c tro n ic c o m ­
p u t e r s to a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s s h o u l d r e d u c e
th e n e e d f o r s o m e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s .
H ow­
e v e r , t h r o u g h the m i d - 1 9 6 0 ' s , c l e r i c a l w o r k ­
e r s a p p e a r e d to h a v e r e m a i n e d a f a i r l y s t a b l e
s h a r e of to tal em plo y m en t.
C o n t in u e d g r o w t h i s e x p e c t e d a l s o in the
u se of ven ding m a c h in e s o p e r a t e d b y w h o le ­
s a l e r s a n d t h i s p r a c t i c e w i l l i n c r e a s e the
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r w o r k e r s n e e d e d to s t o c k ,
s e r v i c e , a n d r e p a i r the m a c h i n e s .
A rapid
p r o p o r tio n a te g row th of m e c h a n ic s and r e ­
p a i r m e n , e s p e c i a l l y in the w h o l e s a l e m a c h i n ­
e r y and e q u ip m en t in d u str y s e c t o r , is e x ­
p e c t e d b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s i n g e m p h a s i s on
s e r v i c in g of e q u ip m en t d istr ib u te d by t h i s
m a jo r in d u stry group.

49 More than 10 percent o f total em ploym ent in wholesale
trade was m ade up o f self-em ployed workers; private wage and
salary workers accounted for nearly all o f the rem ainder.

58

B u ild in g M a t e r ia ls ,
E q u i p m e n t (S IC 52)

H ardw are,

and

F arm

T h is m a jo r in d u stry group c o n s is t s of
r e t a i l e s t a b li s h m e n t s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in
s e llin g lu m b e r , bu ild in g m a t e r i a l s , b a s i c
lin e s of h a r d w a r e , and oth er eq u ip m en t and
su p p lie s fo r all typ es of co n stru ctio n .
A lso
in clu d ed a r e r e t a i l f a r m eq u ip m en t d e a l e r s .
E m p lo y m e n t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
h a s s h o w n l i t t l e c h a n g e in r e c e n t y e a r s ; it
s t o o d a t 6 5 0 , 0 0 0 w o r k e r s in 1965. 50 A s l i g h t
r i s e i s e x p e c t e d f r o m 1965— 5 , a s a n t i c i p a t e d
7
m o d e r a t e i n c r e a s e s in b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s a n d
f a r m e q u ip m en t r e ta ilin g w ill be o ffs e t s o m e ­
w h a t b y d e c r e a s e s in the o t h e r r e t a i l i n g s u c h
a s p a in t, g l a s s , and w a llp a p e r s t o r e s .
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s it io n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , m a n a g e r s a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (28
p e r c e n t ) a n d s a l e s w o r k e r s (22 p e r c e n t ) m a d e
up o n e - h a l f o f the e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r
in d u stry g ro u p . O ther sig n ific a n t o c cu p atio n s
w e r e d r i v e r s a n d d e l i v e r y m e n (9 p e r c e n t ) ,
l a b o r e r s (8 p e r c e n t ) , m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r ­
m e n (6 p e r c e n t ) , a n d b o o k k e e p e r s a n d a c ­
c o u n t i n g c l e r k s (7 p e r c e n t ) .
S e v e r a l c h a n g e s a r e e x p e c t e d in th e o c ­
c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d u r i n g 1960— 5 .
7
T h ese
c h a n g e s w i l l r e s u l t p r i m a r i l y f r o m th e g e n ­
e r a l tren d tow ard s la r g e r , m o re c o m p e ti­
t i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d th e e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e
in t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f the b u i l d i n g
m a t e r i a l and f a r m e q u ip m en t in d u s t r ie s . A l ­
t h o u g h t h e y w i l l c o n t i n u e a s the l a r g e s t o c ­
c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , the p r o p o r t i o n s o f m a n ­
a g e r s and p r o p r i e t o r s , and s a l e s w o r k e r s w ill
d e c r e a s e a s l a r g e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s g r o w in
im p o rtan ce.
D r i v e r s and d e liv e ry m e n w ill
i n c r e a s e a s a r e s u l t o f the g r o w t h e x p e c t e d
in the b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l i n d u s t r y in w h i c h d e ­
l i v e r i e s a r e an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f th e s a l e s
se rv ice .
The p r o p o r tio n o f m e c h a n ic s and
r e p a i r m e n a l s o w ill i n c r e a s e a s a r e s u l t o f
th e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f the f a r m m a c h i n ­
e r y re ta ilin g w here th ese w o rk e rs a re c o n ­
cen trated.

E m p lo y m e n t
S i n c e the e n d o f W o r l d W a r II p r i v a t e
w a g e a n d s a l a r y e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y
h a s d e c l i n e d m o d e r a t e l y to a b o u t 3 1 4 , 0 0 0
w o r k e r s in 1 9 6 5 . 51
The m a jo r fa c to r in flu ­
e n c i n g e m p l o y m e n t h a s b e e n the e x p a n d e d i n ­
sta lla tio n of s e l f - s e r v i c e o p e r a t io n s , p a r t i c ­
u l a r l y the w i d e r a d o p t i o n o f c e n t r a l c h e c k o u t
sy stem s.
A s a r e s u l t o f t h e s e c h a n g e s in
se llin g , em ploy m en t h a s been d e c l i n i n g
s l i g h t l y e v e n t h o u g h the n u m b e r o f s t o r e s h a s
been in cre a sin g .
H ow ever, em plo y m en t i s
e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e in the f u t u r e a s t h e s e
s t o r e s g a i n a l a r g e r s h a r e o f the g r o w i n g
reta il trad e.
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and t r e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , a l m o s t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f a l l e m ­
p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y w a s in two o c c u p a ­
tio n s:
S a l e s w o r k e r s (53 p e r c e n t ) a n d m a n ­
a g e r s (21 p e r c e n t ) .
C a s h i e r s and w a i t e r s
and w a i t r e s s e s w e r e e a c h 4 p e r c e n t, and
l a b o r e r s w e r e 3 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e .
S a l e s c l e r k s w i l l m a k e up a s m a l l e r p r o ­
p o r t i o n o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in the f u t u r e a s
m o r e s t o r e s c o n v e r t to c u s t o m e r s e l f - s e r v i c e
o p e r a t io n s . A l a r g e r p ro p o rtio n of c a s h i e r s
w ill be e m p lo y e d a s c e n t r a l ch eck ou t c o u n te r s
becom e even m o re p rev alen t. M ore la b o r e r s
w ill b e n e e d e d t o r e c e iv e g o o d s and s t o c k
s h e l v e s . S o m e f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n in the p r o ­
p o rtio n of m a n a g e r s is e x p e c te d a s l a r g e r
c h a i n s t o r e s r e p l a c e the s m a l l o w n e r - o p e r a t e d
sto res.
B e c a u s e the l a r g e r s t o r e s u s u a l l y
h a v e l u n c h c o u n t e r s , the p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m ­
p lo y m e n t of foo d s e r v i c e w o r k e r s su c h a s
w a i t r e s s e s , c o o k s , and c o u n te r and fou n tain
w o r k e r s w ill i n c r e a s e .
G e n e r a l M e r c h a n d is e R e ta ilin g (SIC 5 3 1 .
5 3 2 , 5 3 4 , 5 3 5 . a n d 53 9 ). E x c e p t
L i m i t e d P r i c e V a r i e t y (S IC 5 3 3 )
T h is in d u stry grou p in g c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i ly
o f r e t a i l s t o r e s w h ic h s e l l a n u m b e r o f m e r ­
c h a n d i s e l i n e s , a n d a r e g e n e r a l l y know n a s
d e p a rtm e n t s t o r e s and g e n e r a l s t o r e s . A lso
in clu d ed a r e m a il - o r d e r h o u s e s , d ir e c t se llin g
o r g a n iz a t i o n s , and m e r c h a n d is e v en din g m a ­
c h in e o p e r a t o r s .

L i m i t e d P r i c e V a r i e t y S t o r e s (S IC 5 3 3 )
T h is in d u stry c o n s is t s of r e t a il s t o r e s
t h a t a r e c o m m o n l y r e f e r r e d to a s f i v e a n d
ten ce n t s t o r e s , alth ou gh m e r c h a n d i s e i s a l s o
s o ld o u tsid e th at p r i c e r a n g e . S a l e s u s u a l l y
a r e m ad e o n a c a s h - a n d - c a r r y b a s i s ; and
c u s to m e r s s e le c t fro m open d isp la y s.



50 Nearly 17 percent o f these were self-em plo yed and un­
paid fam ily workers; most o f the rem ainder were private wage
and salary workers.
Private wage and salary workers accounted for about 95
percent o f total em ploym ent in lim ited price variety stores; the
rem ainder were self-em plo yed and unpaid fam ily workers.

59

E m p lo y m en t
In 1 9 6 5 , o v e r 1. 6 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s 52 w e r e
e m p lo y e d i n this in d u s t r y g ro u p in g .
About
t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the e m p l o y m e n t w a s c o n c e n ­
t r a t e d in d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s . D u r i n g the e a r l y
p o stw ar p erio d , departm en t s t o r e e m p lo y ­
m e n t sh o w ed little grow th , and s a l e s d e c lin e d
a s the r e s u l t o f c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m d i s c o u n t
h o u s e s , e x p a n s i o n o f o t h e r s t o r e s in to d e p a r t ­
m e n t s t o r e l i n e s o f m e r c h a n d i s e , a n d the
s h i f t i n g o f l a r g e s e g m e n t s o f the p o p u l a t i o n
to the s u b u r b s . In the l a t e f i f t i e s a n d e a r l y
s i x t i e s , the o p e n i n g o f s u b u r b a n b r a n c h s t o r e s
a n d the r e m o d e l i n g o f dow ntow n s t o r e s c r e ­
a t e d an u p s u r g e in b o th s a l e s a n d e m p l o y m e n t .
C o n t in u e d e x p a n s i o n w i l l o c c u r d u r i n g 1965—
7 5 ; the m o s t r a p i d g r o w t h i s e x p e c t e d in the
d e p a r tm e n t s t o r e s and ven ding m a c h in e in ­
d u strie s.
O c c u p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , a l m o s t t w o - t h i r d s o f the w o r k
f o r c e in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p w a s in two
o c c u p a t i o n s — s a l e s w o r k e r s (44 p e r c e n t ) ; an d
m a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (20 p e r ­
cen t).
T e n p e r c e n t o f the e m p l o y m e n t w a s
g r o u p e d in to the c l e r i c a l r e s i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n ,
w hich in clu d e d s t o c k c l e r k s , b illin g c l e r k s ,
file c l e r k s , m e s s e n g e r s , m a i l - o r d e r c l e r k s ,
an d c r e d i t i n t e r v i e w e r s . O t h e r i m p o r t a n t o c ­
c u p a t i o n s w e r e s e r v i c e w o r k e r s n . e . c . (3 p e r ­
cen t) in clu d in g b e a u t ic ia n s , p o r t e r s , and a t ­
t e n d a n t s ; o p e r a t i v e s n . e . c . (3 p e r c e n t ) , m a i n l y
d r e s s m a k e r s an d s e a m s t r e s s e s , a n d p a c k e r s
an d w r a p p e r s ; c a s h i e r s (2 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d l a ­
b o r e r s (2 p e r c e n t ) .

F ood and D a iry P roducts Stores (SIC 54)
T his m a jo r in dustry group is m ade up of
r e ta il sto r e s p r im a r ily engaged in se llin g food
for hom e p reparation and consum ption. S p e­
c ia lty food sto r e s s u c h as m ea t m a r k e ts ,
b a k e r ie s , and poultry s to r e s are included as
w e ll as g r o c e r y s to r e s .
E m p loym en t
T his is one of the la r g e s t of the re ta il
trade m a j o r industry g ro u p s; it em p loyed
about 1 .9 m illio n w o rk ers in 19 6 5 . 53
M o re
than 80 p ercen t w ere concentrated in the g r o ­
c e r y sto re in d u stry ; the rem ain der w as d i s ­
tributed among the variou s sp e c ia lty s to r e s .
Sales have expanded sh arp ly during the past
two d e ca d e s. The rapid adoption of the s e l f s e r v ic e and c en tral checkout m ethod of m e r ­
chandising, and the shift of b u sin e ss fro m
s m a ll neighborhood s to r e s to su perm ark ets
have m o d era ted em p loym en t in c r e a s e s . D u r ­
ing t h e com ing d ecad e, em p loym en t is e x ­
pected to grow at a sligh tly a c c e le ra te d rate
as food sto r e s further d iv e r s ify the lines of
m erch an d ise h a n d l e d to capture a la r g e r
sh are o f the r e ta il m a rk et.
A ls o , the sharp
gains o f the recen t p ast in output per w o rk e r,
due to the shift to s e lf -s e r v i c e o p eration s,
cannot be continued as m o st food retailing is
now on a s e lf -s e r v i c e b a s is .
O ccupational com p osition and trends
M an agers
and p r o p r ie to r s , and s a le s ­
w o rk e rs are by far the la r g e s t occupations,
accounting for about 28 p ercen t and 25 p e r ­
cen t, re sp e c tiv ely , o f the m a jo r i n d u s t r y
groups w o rk e rs in I9 6 0 .
Other im portant
occupations were cashiers (12 percent), meat-

C h a n g e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f
t h i s i n d u s t r y c a n b e e x p e c t e d d u r i n g 196 0 —
75.
R u r a l g e n e r a l s t o r e s and s m a l l e r , l e s s c o m ­
p e t i t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s w i l l c o n tin u e to
d e c l i n e in i m p o r t a n c e an d c a u s e f u r t h e r d e ­
c r e a s e s in the p r o p o r t i o n of m a n a g e r s , o f f i ­
c i a l s , and p r o p r i e t o r s . The p o rtio n of s a l a ­
r ie d s a l e s w o r k e r s w ill grow a s l a r g e r s t o r e s ,
w h e r e t h e s e w o r k e r s m a k e up a g r e a t e r s h a r e
of em plo y m en t, r e p la c e s m a lle r s t o r e s . S e lfs e r v i c e and c e n t r a l ch eck o u t o p e r a t io n s , a l ­
th o u g h n o t w i d e l y u s e d in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p ­
in g , a r e e x p e c t e d to b e c o m e m o r e i m p o r t a n t
a n d to r e s u l t in a d d i t i o n a l c a s h i e r s .
The
adoption of m o d e r n e s c a l a t o r s y s t e m s and
s e l f - o p e r a t e d e l e v a t o r s w i l l c o n tin u e to a f f e c t
a d v e r s e l y the i m p o r t a n c e o f e l e v a t o r o p e r a ­
tors (serv ice w ork ers n . e . c . ) .
The grow th
of la r g e s t o r e s , w h ere re q u ir e m e n ts fo r s t o r ­
age and w a r e h o u s in g a r e h ig h e r , w ill r e s u l t
in an i n c r e a s e in l a b o r e r s .



cu tters (9 p e rc e n t), and la b o r e r s

(8 p ercen t).

During 1960—7 5 , the proportion s of m o s t
o f the im portant occupations are expected to
change. The shift tow ards la rg e s e lf -s e r v i c e
s to r e s at the expense of the s m a ll n eigh b or­
hood g r o c e r ie s w ill continue, although at a
slo w e r pace than the 1 9 5 0 's . A s the industry
converts further to this m ethod of m e r c h a n ­
d isin g , the proportion of c a s h ie r s w ill in ­
c r e a s e and s a le s c le rk s d e c r e a s e . The ratio
o f m a n a g ers and p ro p rie to rs (e sp e c ia lly s e l f em p loyed ) w ill d e c re a se as s m a ll g r o c e r ie s

Private w age and salary workers accounted for nearly 95
percent o f total em ploym ent in these stores. Most o f the re­
m ainder were self-em plo yed workers.
^ Self-em ployed and unpaid fam ily workers accounted for
nearly one-fourth o f the total em ploym ent in food and dairy stores.

60
a n d s p e c i a l t y s h o p s , w h e r e th ey a c c o u n t f o r
a m u c h h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the w o r k e r s ,
d e c l i n e in r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e . R e q u i r e m e n t s
fo r l a b o r e r s n e e d e d fo r load in g, sto ck in g ,
a n d s t o r a g e a c t i v i t i e s of l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
w ill grow .
T h e p r o p o r t i o n of m e a t c u t t e r s
w i l l d e c l i n e s l i g h t l y a s m o r e m e a t c u ttin g i s
p e r f o r m e d a t c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s a n d a s o th e r
p e r s o n n e l a r e u s e d to w e i g h , p r i c e , a n d w r a p
m eats.
T h is tren d w ill be m o d e ra te d , b e ­
c a u s e m e a t p r o d u c t s a r e e x p e c t e d to a c c o u n t
f o r a g r o w i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l fo o d e x p e n ­
d itu res.
M otor V e h ic le s and A c c e s s o r i e s R e ta ilin g
( S I C 5 5 1 - 5 5 3 a n d 559)
T h is in d u stry groupin g in clu d e s r e ta il
d e a l e r s s e l l i n g new a n d u s e d a u t o m o b i l e s a n d
t r u c k s , new p a r t s , a n d a c c e s s o r i e s ; a n d a i r ­
c r a f t and m a r in e d e a l e r s .
A u to m o b ile r e ­
p a ir sh o p s m ain tain ed by e sta b lis h m e n ts e n ­
g a g e d in th e s a l e of new a u t o m o b i l e s a l s o a r e
in clu d ed .

The ra tio of m o to r v e h ic le m e c h a n ic s and
r e p a i r m e n i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e .
An in ­
c r e a s i n g s h a r e of a u t o m o b i l e m a i n t e n a n c e a n d
s e r v i c i n g a c t i v i t y i s s h i f t i n g to new c a r d e a l ­
e r s h i p s a s a r e s u l t of the g r o w i n g e m p h a s i s
b e i n g p l a c e d on l o n g - t e r m new c a r w a r r a n ­
t i e s . The i n c r e a s e d u se of p o w er and s p e c i a l
p u r p o s e to o ls and e le c tr o n ic t e s t eq u ip m en t
w i l l te n d to m o d i f y e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h .
G a s o l i n e S e r v i c e S t a t i o n s ( S I C 554)
T h is in d u stry g ro u p in clu d e s e s t a b li s h ­
m e n t s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in s e l l i n g g a s o l i n e
and lu b r ic a tin g o i ls .
T h ese e stab lish m e n ts
m a y a l s o s e l l o th er m e r c h a n d is e and p e r f o r m
m in o r r e p a i r w ork .
E m p lo y m e n t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p h a s
b e e n g r o w i n g s t e a d i l y a n d b y 19 6 5 r e a c h e d
7 4 1 , 0 0 0 w o r k e r s . 55 F u r t h e r e m p l o y m e n t i n ­
c r e a s e s a r e e x p e c t e d in th e d e c a d e a h e a d a s
m o t o r v e h i c l e s e x p a n d in u s e .

E m p lo y m en t
E m p lo y m en t h a s b een in c r e a sin g ste a d ily
a n d in 1965 t o t a l e d n e a r l y 1 m i l l i o n . 54 A s
th e s a l e a n d u s e o f m o t o r v e h i c l e s c o n tin u e
to i n c r e a s e in the c o m i n g d e c a d e , e m p l o y ­
m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y a l s o i s e x p e c t e d to c o n ­
tin u e to g r o w .
Occupational composition and trends

M o t o r v e h i c l e m e c h a n i c s (27 p e r c e n t ) ,
m a n a g e r s a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (2 5 p e r c e n t ) , a n d
s a l e s w o r k e r s (2 2 p e r c e n t ) c o n s t i t u t e d a b o u t
t h r e e - f o u r t h s of a l l e m p l o y m e n t in I 9 6 0 .
E l e v e n p e r c e n t of the w o r k e r s w e r e c l e r i c a l
p e r s o n n e l, n e a r ly o n e -h a lf of whom w e re
b o o k k e e p e r s (5 p e r c e n t ) .
L a b o r e r s , m o stly
g a r a g e l a b o r e r s , c a r w a s h e r s , and g r e a s ­
e r s , m a d e up a n a d d i t i o n a l 5 p e r c e n t o f e m ­
p lo y m e n t.
L a r g e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d to
b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t in t h i s i n d u s ­
try.
G r o w i n g e m p h a s i s i s b e i n g p l a c e d on
p a r t s , s e r v i c e , and m a in te n a n c e f a c i l i t i e s o f­
f e r e d by l a r g e r d e a l e r s .
M any s m a ll m a r ­
g in al d e a l e r s a r e bein g elim in a ted ; a s a r e ­
s u l t the p r o p o r t i o n o f m a n a g e r s , e s p e c i a l l y
s e l f - e m p l o y e d m a n a g e r s , i s e x p e c t e d to d e ­
c lin e.
R e q u ir e m e n t s fo r s a l e s w o r k e r s w ill
d e c l i n e b e c a u s e th e y a l s o m a k e up a r e l a ­
t i v e l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the w o r k f o r c e in
larg e d e a le rsh ip s.



O ccu p ation al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
N i n e - t e n t h s o f a l l e m p l o y m e n t in I 9 6 0
w a s c o n c e n t r a t e d in o n ly t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s :
A u to s e r v i c e a t t e n d a n t s ( 5 0 p e r c e n t ) , m a n ­
a g e r s an d p r o p r i e t o r s (33 p e r c e n t ) , a n d m o t o r
v e h i c l e m e c h a n i c s (9 p e r c e n t ) .
T h e occupational structure o f the i n d u s ­
tr y w ill be a ffe c t e d by con tin u ed g row th of
la r g e r s e r v ic e statio n s.
The p r o p o r tio n of
the s e l f - e m p l o y e d
m an agers, e s p e c i a l l y
o w n e r - o p e r a t o r s , i s e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e , b u t
the p r o p o r t i o n o f s a l a r i e d a t t e n d a n t s w i l l
grow . A u to m o b ile m e c h a n ic s and r e p a i r m e n
w ill in c r e a s e sh a rp ly a s la r g e sta tio n s expand
th eir r e p a ir a c t iv it ie s .
T h e g r o w t h in the
p r o p o r tio n of m e c h a n ic s w ill b e m o d e r a t e d
b e c a u s e o f new a n d i m p r o v e d t o o l s a n d t e s t i n g
eq u ip m en t.
The n eed fo r l a b o r e r s w ill d ro p fu rth e r
a s m o d e rn c a r w ash in g e sta b lish m e n ts c o n ­
tin u e to a t t r a c t a l a r g e r s h a r e of t h i s b u s i ­
n e s s aw ay fro m g a so lin e s e r v ic e statio n s.

^4 Self-em ployed and unpaid fam ily workers accounted for
about 13 percent o f the work force in motor vehicle and acces­
sories retailing.
Self-em ployed and unpaid fam ily workers accounted for
nearly 33 percent of the work force in gasoline service stations.

61
A p p a r e l a n d A c c e s s o r i e s R e t a i l i n g ( S I C 56)
T h is m a jo r in d u stry group is c o m p r is e d
of r e t a i l s t o r e s s p e c i a l i z i n g in s e l l i n g c l o t h ­
in g, s h o e s , a n d r e l a t e d a r t i c l e s f o r p e r s o n a l
w e a r and ad o rn m e n t.

d r e s s m a k e r s , and s e a m s t r e s s e s (o p e r a tiv e s
n. e. c .) a r e e x p e c t e d a s e m p l o y m e n t c o n t i n u e s
to d e c l i n e in th e s t o r e s e m p l o y i n g t h e s e
w ork ers.
F u r n itu r e , H om e F u r n i s h in g s , and
E q u i p m e n t R e t a i l i n g ( S I C 57)

E m p lo y m en t
B e t w e e n 195 0 a n d 1965, e m p l o y m e n t i n ­
c r e a s e d a t a s l o w p a c e to a b o u t 7 2 8 , 0 0 0 w o r k ­
e r s in 1965. 56 M o d e r a t e e m p l o y m e n t i n ­
c r e a s e s o c c u r r e d in m e n 1s a n d b o y s 8 c lo t h in g ,
f a m i l y c lo t h in g , a n d s h o e s t o r e s ; s h a r p d e ­
c r e a s e s o c c u r r e d in c u s t o m t a i l o r i n g , a n d
f u r r i e r s , and fu r s t o r e s .
T h ese em p lo y ­
m e n t t r e n d s a r e e x p e c t e d to c o n ti n u e d u r i n g
1965-75.
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , m o r e t h a n 70 p e r c e n t o f the
m a j o r g r o u p e m p l o y m e n t w a s in tw o o c c u ­
p a tio n a l g r o u p s — m a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , and
p r o p r i e t o r s (27 p e r c e n t ) a n d s a l e s w o r k e r s
(44 p e r c e n t). C r a f t s m e n a c c o u n te d fo r 4 p e r ­
c e n t of the w o r k f o r c e a n d m a i n l y c o n s i s t e d
of f u r r i e r s a n d t a i l o r s . T h e o p e r a t i v e g r o u p
(7 p e r c e n t ) in c l u d e d m i l l i n e r s , d r e s s m a k e r s ,
and s e a m s t r e s s e s .
The follow ing c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s h a d s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s of t o t a l
e m p l o y m e n t : C a s h i e r s (3 p e r c e n t ) , b o o k k e e p ­
e r s a n d a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s (3 p e r c e n t ) , a n d
r e s i d u a l c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s (4 p e r c e n t ) .
About
2 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e w a s in s e r v i c e
o c c u p a tio n s in clu d in g p o r t e r s , e le v a t o r o p ­
e r a t o r s , m o d e ls , and atten dan ts.
B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1975, s e v e r a l c h a n g e s
a r e e x p e c t e d in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of
th is m a jo r in d u str y grou p .
The m o s t s i g ­

T h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i s m a d e up
of s t o r e s se llin g go o ds u se d fo r fu rn ish in g
th e h o m e , s u c h a s f u r n i t u r e , f l o o r c o v e r i n g s ,
d r a p e r i e s , g l a s s and c h in a w a re , s t o v e s , r e ­
f r i g e r a t o r s , f r e e z e r s , and other e l e c t r i c a l
and g a s a p p lia n c e s .
E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p
h a s r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e in r e c e n t y e a r s
a t a b o u t 534, 000 w o r k e r s . 57 B e t w e e n 1965
a n d 1975, e m p l o y m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e
slow ly, b e c a u s e fu rn itu re and hom e e q u ip ­
m e n t s a l e s a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e d e s p i t e
stro n g s a l e s c o m p e titio n fr o m other r e t a i l
i n d u s t r i e s , e . g. , d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s .
O ccu p ation al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , s a l e s w o r k e r s , a n d m a n a g e r s an d
p r o p r i e t o r s a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r o n e - h a l f o f the
w o r k f o r c e in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
M e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n (9 p e r c e n t ) , a n d
d r i v e r s a n d d e l i v e r y m e n (6 p e r c e n t ) a l s o m a d e
up s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s of e m p l o y m e n t .
O th e r o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t r a ­
tio s in clu d ed :
B o o k k e e p e r s and accou n tin g
c l e r k s (4 p e r c e n t ) ; r e s i d u a l c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s
(5 p e r c e n t ) , s u c h a s s t o c k c l e r k s , t i c k e t e r s ,
a n d m a r k e r s ; c a b i n e t m a k e r s (2 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d
u p h o lste r e r s (l p ercen t).
M inor

changes

in

th is

m ajo r

in d u stry

nificant changes will resultfrom the continued

group* s occupational structure are expected

m ovem en t aw ay fro m sm a ll ow n er-o p erated
s t o r e s to w a rd s la r g e r , m o re co m p e titiv e e s ­
tab lish m e n ts.
T h i s t r e n d w i l l r e s u l t in a
f u r t h e r d e c l i n e in th e r a t i o o f m a n a g e r s , o f ­
f i c i a l s , a n d p r o p r i e t o r s a n d a n i n c r e a s e in
th e r a t i o o f s a l a r i e d s a l e s w o r k e r s . T h e p r o ­
p o r t i o n of b o o k k e e p e r s a n d a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s
a l s o w ill i n c r e a s e a s e s t a b lis h m e n t s i z e
g r o w s . In s m a l l f i r m s , t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s u s u ­
a l l y a r e p e r f o r m e d b y the m a n a g e r s o r a n
ou tside s e r v ic e firm , w h e re a s la r g e e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y t h e i r own c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s .

b e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 197 5.
O v erall e sta b lish ­
m en t s i z e w ill i n c r e a s e slo w ly a s s o m e s m a l l
m a rg in a l ow n er-op erated sto r e s are e lim i­
n ated by l a r g e r and m o r e c o m p e titiv e e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s a n d d i s c o u n t h o u s e s . T h e r a t i o of
m a n a g e r s a n d p r o p r i e t o r s , w ho m a k e up a
l a r g e r s h a r e o f th e e m p l o y m e n t in s m a l l
s t o r e s , w ill d e c r e a s e a s e s ta b lish m e n t s iz e
in c re a se s.
C o n v e rse ly , o ccu p atio n s su ch a s
c le ric a l w ork ers,
so m e r e p a ir m e n , up h ol­
s t e r e r s , and d e liv e r y m e n , w hich h av e h ig h e r
r a t i o s in l a r g e r s t o r e s , w i l l i n c r e a s e a s p r o ­
p o rtio n s of to tal em ploym en t.

The r e q u ir e m e n t fo r c a s h i e r s w ill in ­
c r e a s e a s s h o e s t o r e s , w h e r e m o s t of t h e s e
w o r k e r s a r e c u r r e n tly e m p lo y e d , and d i s ­
c o u n t ( r a c k ty p e ) c lo t h in g s t o r e s c o n ti n u e to
g r o w in i m p o r t a n c e .
D e c r e a s e s in the p r o ­
p o r tio n s of f u r r i e r s and t a i l o r s and t a i l o r e s s e s ( c r a f t s m e n n. e. c. ), a n d m i l l i n e r s ,



^ Private wage and salary workers accounted for about 85
percent o f total em ploym ent. Most o f the remainder were selfem ployed and unpaid fam ily workers.
57 Self-em ployed and unpaid fam ily workers accounted for
more than 25 percent of total em ploym ent in 1965.

62

E a t i n g a n d D r i n k i n g P l a c e s ( S I C 58)
T h is m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p in clu d e s r e ­
t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s e l l i n g p r e p a r e d fo o d a n d
d r i n k s f o r c o n s u m p t i o n on the p r e m i s e s .
A l s o i n c l u d e d a r e lu n c h c o u n t e r s a n d r e f r e s h ­
m ent stan ds, except th ose operated a s a su b ­
o r d i n a t e s e r v i c e f a c i l i t y b y a n o t h e r ty p e of
b u s in e s s e stab lish m e n t.
E m p lo y m e n t
E m p lo y m en t h as b een in c r e a sin g m o d e r ­
a t e l y a n d b y 19 6 5 s t o o d a t o v e r 2. 2 m i l l i o n
w o r k e r s . 58 T h e i n c r e a s e h a s b e e n o c c u r r i n g
in th e e a t i n g p l a c e s i n d u s t r y ; e m p l o y m e n t h a s
b e e n d e c l i n i n g in d r i n k i n g p l a c e s .
D urin g
1965—75, e m p l o y m e n t in e a t i n g p l a c e s i s e x ­
p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e i t s r a p i d g r o w t h b e c a u s e
of i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , r i s i n g d i s p o s a b l e
in co m e, and m o r e l e is u r e tim e.
E m p lo y ­
m e n t in d r i n k i n g p l a c e s i s e x p e c t e d to l e v e l
o ff a n d r e m a i n n e a r i t s p r e s e n t l e v e l .
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , s e r v i c e w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r
m o r e th a n 7 out o f 10 w o r k e r s in t h i s m a j o r
in d u stry group.
The l a r g e s t s e r v ic e o c c u ­
p a t i o n s w e r e w a i t e r s a n d w a i t r e s s e s (3 2 p e r ­
c e n t ) , c o o k s ( 1 5 p e r c e n t ) , b a r t e n d e r s (7 p e r ­
c e n t ) , a n d c o u n t e r a n d f o u n t a i n w o r k e r s (3
percent).
A n a d d i t i o n a l 14 p e r c e n t ( m a i n l y
k itch en h e lp e r s and d is h w a s h e r s ) w e re c o m ­
b i n e d in to the s e r v i c e w o r k e r s r e s i d u a l o c c u ­
pation .
O ther im p o r ta n t o c c u p a tio n s w e re
m a n a g e r s a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (21 p e r c e n t ) , a n d
c a s h i e r s (2 p e r c e n t ) .
D u r i n g 19 6 0 —
75, the p r o p o r t i o n o f m a n ­
a g e r s and p r o p r i e t o r s w ill d e c lin e a s l a r g e
e a tin g p l a c e s and m u ltiu n it e s t a b li s h m e n t s
(in w h i c h t h e y m a k e up a s m a l l e r s h a r e of
th e w o r k f o r c e ) g r o w in i m p o r t a n c e .
Be­
t w e e n th e 1950 a n d I 9 6 0 c e n s u s e s , w a i t e r s
a n d w a i t r e s s e s i n c r e a s e d in s h a r e o f t o t a l
em ploy m en t.
However,
th e r a p i d g r o w t h
t h r o u g h th e f i r s t h a l f o f the 1 9 6 0 ' s of f r a n ­
c h is e d d r iv e - i n and c a r r y - o u t and other s p e ­
c ia liz e d ty p e s of r e s t a u r a n t s a p p a re n tly h as
c r e a t e d a g r e a t e r d em a n d fo r coun ter w o r k ­
ers.
T h e l a t t e r a r e p r o j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e
a s a s h a r e o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ; w a i t e r s an d
w a i t r e s s e s , a l t h o u g h e x p e c t e d to sh o w a l a r g e
i n c r e a s e in n u m b e r , a r e p r o j e c t e d to d e c l i n e
a s a p r o p o r tio n . A u to m a tic d ish w a sh in g and
food p r e p a r a t i o n eq u ip m en t w ill a f f e c t a d ­
v e r s e l y the p r o p o r t i o n o f k i t c h e n h e l p e r s a n d
d i s h w a s h e r s ; h o w e v e r , the i m p a c t of t h e s e
d e v e l o p m e n t s w i l l b e m o d i f i e d b y th e t r e n d
t o w a r d s l a r g e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in w h ic h m o r e
w o r k e r s w h o s e d u t i e s a r e l i m i t e d to t h e s e



f u n c t i o n s a r e fo u n d . T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f b a r ­
t e n d e r s w i l l d e c r e a s e a s th e d e m a n d f o r out
o f th e h o m e l i q u o r s e r v i c e g r o w s l e s s r a p i d l y
t h a n th e d e m a n d f o r fo o d s e r v i c e .
D r u g S t o r e s ( S I C 591)
T h is in d u stry c o n s i s t s of e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e n g a g e d in the r e t a i l s a l e o f p r e s c r i p t i o n
d ru g and p aten t m e d ic in e s . M o st d ru g s t o r e s
c a r r y a n u m b e r of r e l a t e d lin e s of m e r c h a n ­
d ise.
T h e y a r e i n c l u d e d in the i n d u s t r y on
the b a s i s o f t h e i r u s u a l t r a d e d e s i g n a t i o n
r a t h e r th a n on the m o r e s t r i c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
of c o m m o d i t i e s h a n d l e d .
E m p lo y m en t
E m p lo y m e n t h as b een grow in g ste a d ily
in t h i s i n d u s t r y an d s t o o d a t 4 5 0 , 000 w o r k ­
e r s in 1965. 59 T h e r i s e in e m p l o y m e n t r e ­
f l e c t e d th e t r e n d t o w a r d l a r g e r n e w d r u g
s t o r e s h i r i n g m o r e e m p l o y e e s t h a n the s m a l l
s e r v i c e ty p e s t o r e .
The in c r e a sin g n um ber
o f h i g h - t r a f f i c s h o p p in g c e n t e r s in the s u b u r b s
h a s e n c o u r a g e d th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l a r g e
d ru g s t o r e s th at h an dle a d d itio n a l lin e s of
m erch a n d ise.
F u rth e r e m p lo y m en t grow th is ex p e cte d
d u r i n g th e n e x t d e c a d e , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s the
n u m b e r o f l a r g e r s t o r e s , in s u b u r b a n s h o p ­
p in g c e n t e r s a n d u r b a n r e n e w a l d e v e l o p m e n t s ,
c o n t i n u e s to e x p a n d .
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , a b o u t 34 p e r c e n t o f a l l w o r k e r s
in d r u g s t o r e s w e r e s a l e s c l e r k s . A n a d d i ­
t i o n a l o n e - f o u r t h o f the w o r k e r s w e r e p h a r ­
m a c i s t s . O ther o c c u p a tio n s w hich h av e s i g ­
n ific a n t s h a r e s of to tal e m p lo y m e n t w e r e
m a n a g e r s ( 1 0 p e r c e n t ) , d e l i v e r y m e n (4 p e r ­
c e n t ) , a n d c a s h i e r s (3 p e r c e n t ) .
The c o n t i n u i n g sh ifts fro m re la tiv e ly
s m a l l s i z e d ru g s t o r e s — e a c h of w hich m u s t
h a v e a p h a r m a c i s t on d u ty — to l a r g e r s t o r e s
w i l l r e s u l t in a d r o p in the p h a r m a c i s t s '
s h a r e of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t , b u t n o t in the
a c tu a l n um ber em ployed.
In s m a l l s t o r e s ,
p h a r m a c is t s freq u en tly p e r fo r m m a n a g e r ia l

Private wage and salary workers accounted for more than
85 percent o f total em ploym ent.
Most o f the rem ainder were
self-em plo yed and unpaid fam ily workers.
®9 Private wage and salary workers accounted for nearly 90
percent o f total em ploym ent in drug stores. Most o f the re­
m ainder were self-em plo yed workers.

63
and sa le sw o rk , a s w ell a s d isp e n se p r e s c r i p ­
tion s.
In h i g h t r a f f i c s t o r e s , t h e i r w o r k i s
m o r e l i k e l y to b e c o n f i n e d to d i s p e n s i n g d r u g s .
T h e i n c r e a s e d f o r m u l a t i o n of p r e s c r i p t i o n ty p e d r u g s b y th e m a n u f a c t u r e r a l s o w i l l r e ­
duce re q u ir e m e n ts fo r p h a r m a c is t s .
C a s h i e r s w i l l c o n t i n u e to i n c r e a s e a s a
p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a s t r e n d s t o ­
w a r d s e l f - s e r v i c e an d th e u s e of t h e c h e c k ­
ou t s y s t e m c o n ti n u e .
T h e r a t i o of s a l e s w o r k e r s i s e x p e c t e d to
r e m a i n a b o u t the s a m e a s the i n c r e a s e in the
r e q u ir e m e n t s fo r th e se w o r k e r s . The g r o w ­
in g n u m b e r of l a r g e s t o r e s i s o f f s e t b y s e l f s e r v ic e and c e n tr a l checkout o p e ra tio n s.

T h e i n c r e a s e in s a l e s w o r k e r s w i l l c o n t i n u e
a s s t o r e s em ployin g la r g e p ro p o rtio n of th e se
w o r k e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y liq u o r s t o r e s , sp o rtin g
g o o d s and b ic y c le sh o p s, and f l o r i s t s grow
in i m p o r t a n c e .
T h e d e c r e a s e in th e p r o p o r t i o n o f m a n ­
a g e r s , o ffic ia ls , and p r o p r ie t o r s a l s o is e x ­
p e c t e d to c o n ti n u e b e c a u s e o f a s h a r p d e c r e a s e
in th e n u m b e r o f s m a l l o w n e r - o p e r a t e d s t o r e s .
The p r o p o r tio n of t r u c k d r i v e r s and d e ­
liv e r y m e n w ill r e m a in s ta b le . The i n c r e a s ­
in g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r d e l i v e r y m e n in l i q u o r
s t o r e s a n d f l o r i s t s h o p s w i l l o f f s e t th e d e c l i n e
f o r s u c h w o r k e r s in f u e l a n d i c e d e a l e r s h i p s .
B a n k s a n d C r e d i t A g e n c i e s 61
( S I C 60 a n d 61)

M isc e llan e o u s R e tail S to re s
( S I C 59 E x c e p t 5 9 1)
T h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g i s c o m p o s e d of
r e t a i l s t o r e s n o t e l s e w h e r e c l a s s i f i e d . It i n ­
c lu d e s liq u o r s t o r e s ; an tiq u e and se c o n d h an d
s t o r e s ; bo ok and s ta t io n e r y s t o r e s ; sp o rtin g
g o o d s s t o r e s and b ic y c l e sh o p s; f a r m and
g a rd e n supply s t o r e s ; fu el and ice d e a l e r s ;
a n d o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r e s n. e. c.
E m p lo y m e n t
S i n c e 1950, e m p l o y m e n t h a s i n c r e a s e d
s t e a d i l y to a l m o s t 1 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s in 1965. 60
M o r e th a n 40 p e r c e n t of the w o r k e r s in t h i s
in d u stry g ro u p in g w e r e em p lo y e d by liq u o r
s t o r e s , fu e l and ic e d e a l e r s , and f a r m and
g a rd e n s t o r e s . The f a s t e s t grow in g s e g m e n ts
have b e e n o p tic a l g o o d s s t o r e s , liq u o r s t o r e s ,
s p o r t i n g g o o d s s t o r e s , an d a n t i q u e a n d s e c ­
ondhand stores. On the other h an d , e m p l o y ­
m e n t h a s b e e n d e c l i n i n g in b o o k a n d s t a t i o n e r y
sh o p s; je w e lry sh op s; m isc e lla n e o u s r e ta il
n. e. c . ; a n d f u e l a n d i c e d e a l e r s .
D esp ite
th e d i v e r g e n t t r e n d s , a d d i t i o n a l g r o w t h i s e x ­
p e c t e d d u r i n g the n e x t d e c a d e in r e s p o n s e to
i n c r e a s in g p o p u la tio n and d i s p o s a b l e in co m e .
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , m o r e th an t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f e m ­
p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g w a s in f i v e
o c c u p a t i o n s — s a l e s w o r k e r s (31 p e r c e n t ) ; m a n ­
a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (32 p e r c e n t ) ;
t r u c k d r i v e r s a n d d e l i v e r y m e n (8 p e r c e n t ) ; a c ­
c o u n tin g c l e r k s a n d b o o k k e e p e r s (4 p e r c e n t ) ;
a n d l a b o r e r s (4 p e r c e n t ) .
The o ccu p atio n al s tr u c tu r e c h an g e s e x ­
p e c t e d d u r i n g 1960— 5 w i l l r e s u l t p r i m a r i l y
7
f r o m c h a n g e s in the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of
th e s e v e r a l s e g m e n t s o f the i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g .



T h e s e m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p s in clu d e
i n s t i t u t i o n s e n g a g e d in d e p o s i t b a n k i n g o r
c l o s e l y r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s , in c l u d in g f i d u c i a r y
ac tiv itie s.
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in e x ­
t e n d i n g c r e d i t in th e f o r m of l o a n s b u t no t
e n g a g e d in d e p o s i t b a n k in g a r e i n c l u d e d a l s o .
E m p lo y m en t
S i n c e 19 5 0 , t h e s e m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p s
h av e b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v e r y r a p id e m ­
p lo y m e n t g row th and h ave r e a c h e d a high of
1. 1 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s in 1 9 6 5 . 62 B e t w e e n 1965
a n d 19 7 5 , e m p l o y m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e
fu rth e r a s dem an d fo r fin an c ia l s e r v i c e s con ­
t i n u e s r i s i n g . T h e r a t e o f e x p a n s i o n in e m ­
p l o y m e n t w i l l b e s l i g h t l y s l o w e r th a n t h a t in
the 1 9 5 0 ‘ s a s the i n c r e a s e d u t i l i z a t i o n o f c o m ­
p u t e r s a n d o t h e r i n n o v a t i o n s i s e x p e c t e d to
m o d e r a te e m p lo y m e n t grow th.
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , m a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , a n d p r o ­
p r ie t o r s , and c le r ic a l w o r k e r s acco u n te d fo r
90 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r
in d u stry grou p in g. S ig n ifican t d e ta ile d o c c u ­
p a t i o n s w e r e b a n k t e l l e r s (1 3 p e r c e n t ) ; a c ­
c o u n ti n g c l e r k s a n d h an d b o o k k e e p e r s (14 p e r ­
cent); s t e n o g r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s , a n d s e c r e t a r i e s

Self-em ployed and unpaid fam ily workers accounted for
about 33 percent o f total em ploym ent.
Most o f the rem ainder
were private wage and salary workers.
61 For additional information see "Changing Manpower R e­
quirements in Banking" Monthly Labor Review , Septem ber 1962,
pp. 989-995.
62 Private w age and salary workers made up about 98 percent
o f em ploym ent; government workers accounted for nearly a ll of
the remainder.

64

(11 p e r c e n t ) ; o f f i c e m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s (5 p e r ­
c e n t ) ; c a s h i e r s (2 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d a c c o u n t a n t s
a n d a u d i t o r s (2 p e r c e n t ) .
The c l e r i c a l r e ­
s id u a l oc c u p a tio n , w h ich in c lu d e s su c h w o r k ­
e r s a s c r e d it a d ju s t o r s and a n a ly s t s , ch eck
e x am in e rs, s o r t e r s ,
and file c l e r k s
ac­
c o u n t e d f o r a n a d d i t i o n a l 19 p e r c e n t o f the
w orkers.
T h e w i d e s p r e a d u t i l i z a t i o n of c o m p u t e r s ,
m a g n e t i c in k c h a r a c t e r r e c o g n i t i o n s y s t e m s ,
a n d e l e c t r o n i c t r a n s m i s s i o n of d a t a a n d c h e c k
f a c s i m i l e s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to a n u m b e r o f s i g ­
n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e
d u r i n g 1960—7 5.
The p r o p o r tio n of c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s i s e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e .
The d e ­
c r e a s e s w i l l b e e s p e c i a l l y s h a r p in s u c h o c ­
c u p a tio n s a s c h e c k tab u la tio n , so r tin g , and
c l e a r a n c e ; a c c o u n t m a in te n a n c e and sta t e m e n t
p r e p a r a t i o n ; and oth e r ro u tin e b an k in g fu n c ­
t i o n s f o r w h i c h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the new
e le c t r o n ic d a ta p r o c e s s i n g eq u ip m en t is m o s t
s u i t e d . On th e o t h e r h a n d , r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e
e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e f o r c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s
su ch a s c o n so le and keypunch o p e r a t o r s . A s
a r e s u l t o f th e i n c r e a s e s in the n u m b e r of
b a n k s a n d b r a n c h o f f i c e s a n d in th e s e r v i c e s
p r o v i d e d , the p r o p o r t i o n s o f b a n k m a n a g e r s
and o f f i c e r s , bank t e l l e r s , and c a s h i e r s a r e
e x p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e g r o w i n g .
Stock B r o k e r s and In v estm en t C o m p an ies
(S I C 62 a n d 67)
T h e s e m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p s in c l u d e e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in the u n d e r w r i t i n g ,
p u r c h a s e , s a l e o r b r o k e r a g e of s e c u r i t i e s ,
a n d o t h e r f i n a n c i a l c o n t r a c t s on t h e i r own
a c c o u n t o r f o r the a c c o u n t of o t h e r s ; s t o c k
a n d c o m m o d i t y e x c h a n g e s ; h o l d in g c o m p a n i e s ,
in v e stm e n t c o m p a n ie s su ch a s m u tu al funds,
t r u s t s ; and m is c e lla n e o u s in v e stm e n t in s t i­
tu tion s.
E m p lo y m en t
B e t w e e n 1950 a n d 19 6 5 , t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g i n c r e a s e d
r a p i d l y to a b o u t 1 7 2 , 0 0 0 w o r k e r s . 63
The
g r e a t e s t p a r t o f the g r o w t h o c c u r r e d a m o n g
s to c k and c o m m o d ity b r o k e r s and flo tatio n
c o m p a n ie s such a s in v estm en t ban ks.
Em ­
p l o y m e n t d e c l i n e d o n ly in h o l d in g c o m p a n i e s .
T h e i n c r e a s e d e m p l o y m e n t in th e i n d u s t r y
r e f l e c t e d th e e x p a n s i o n o f b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y ;
the c o n s e q u e n t n e e d f o r c a p i t a l an d the f l o t a ­
tio n o f new s e c u r i t i e s ; h i g h e r p e r s o n a l i n ­
c o m e s , w h ic h p e r m i t t e d w i d e s p r e a d p a r t i c i ­
p a t i o n in the s t o c k m a r k e t b y i n d i v i d u a l s ; a n d
p r o m o tio n a l e f f o r t s by b r o k e r s and e x c h a n g e s,
w h i c h p r o d u c e d g r e a t e r p u b l i c i n t e r e s t in
in vestm en t.



T h e a n t i c i p a t e d e x p a n s i o n o f the e c o n o m y
a n d th e s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r p e r c a p i t a l i n ­
c o m e s p r o j e c t e d f o r 197 5 a r e e x p e c t e d to
g e n e r a t e e m p l o y m e n t i n c r e a s e s in m o s t i n ­
s t i t u t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d in t h e s e i n d u s t r y g r o u p s .
H o w e v e r , d e v e l o p m e n t s in m o r e e f f i c i e n t d a t a
r e t r i e v a l a n d p r o c e s s i n g , w h i c h b e g a n in I 9 6 0 ,
w i l l te n d to s l o w e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h in the
e x c h a n g e s and e x c h an g e s e r v i c e s i n d u s t r ie s .
O ccu p ation al co m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , a b o u t 90 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t in t h e s e m a j o r g r o u p s w a s a c c o u n t e d
f o r b y c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s (41 p e r c e n t ) ; m a n ­
a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (33 p e r c e n t ) ;
a n d s a l e s w o r k e r s (16 p e r c e n t ) . S e c r e t a r i e s ,
s t e n o g r a p h e r s , and t y p is t s a lo n e a c c o u n te d
f o r a b o u t 13 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t .
P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s m a d e up
a b o u t 7 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e a n d a l l
b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s m a d e up 3 p e r c e n t .
S e v e r a l sig n ifican t occu p atio n s,
w h ich
a r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d in th e r e g u l a r
s e t of o c c u p a t i o n s u s e d in t h i s r e p o r t , a r e
c o n c e n t r a t e d in t h i s i n d u s t r y . S t o c k a n d b o n d
s a l e s m e n , in clu d in g " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , " a r e
c l a s s i f i e d in th e s a l e s g r o u p ; b r o k e r s a n d
b r o k e r a g e h o u s e f l o o r m e n a r e in th e m a n ­
a g e r i a l g r o u p ; i n v e s t m e n t a n a l y s t s in the p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l ; and telep h on e q u otation c l e r k s and
s t o c k t r a n s f e r c l e r k s a r e i n c l u d e d in th e c l e r ­
ic a l w o rk e rs* group.
D u r i n g 1960—75, a n u m b e r o f s i g n i f i c a n t
c h a n g e s a r e e x p e c t e d to r e s u l t f r o m the i n ­
c r e a s i n g a p p lic a tio n of c o m p u t e r s ,
w hich
s p e e d up c o l l e c t i o n of f l o o r t r a d i n g d a t a , a n ­
s w e r telep h on ed r e q u e s t s fo r in fo rm atio n ,
c o n t r o l d a t a d i s p l a y s on s t o c k q u o t a t i o n
b o a r d s , a n d p r e p a r e c u r r e n t a n d en d o f d a y
s u m m a r y r e p o r t s . The u se of th is e q u ip m en t
w ill a ffe c t a d v e r s e l y a v a r ie ty of c l e r i c a l
o ccu p atio n s.
It w i l l e l i m i n a t e a n u m b e r of
telep h on e q u otation c l e r k s , m e s s e n g e r s , flo o r
t r a d e r s , b o a r d o p e r a t o r s , and p n e u m a tic tubem e n — m o s t l y o c c u p a t i o n s i n c l u d e d in " o t h e r
c le r ic a l."
C o m p u t e r s a r e , , b e i n g u s e d to
v e r ify and c le a r tr a n s a c t io n s . A c e n tr a l c e r ­
t ific a te s e r v i c e , w h ich r e c o r d s e a c h f i r m ' s
s e c u r it i e s b a la n c e s , w ill e l i m i n a t e m o s t
t r a n s f e r c le r k p o s it io n s . A u to m a tic telep h on e
quotation s e r v i c e w ill e lim in a te telep h on e
q u o t a t i o n s c l e r k s a t the e x c h a n g e .
C en tral­
iz e d e le c tr o n ic b o o k k eep in g s e r v i c e r e d u c e s
r e q u ir e m e n ts fo r accou n tin g c le r k s , b o o k ­
k eep in g m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , and oth er c l e r ­
ic a l p erso n n el.

63
Private wage and salary workers m ade up about 90 percent
of em ploym ent in this m ajor industry grouping; self-em ployed
workers accounted for nearly all the rem ainder.

65
In c re a se d cap ita l re q u ire m e n ts for t r a d ­
in g o p e r a t i o n s a n d the n e e d to b u y e x p e n s i v e
e le c tr o n ic eq u ip m en t fo r e ffic ie n t d ata p r o c ­
e s s i n g h a v e l e d to a n u m b e r o f m e r g e r s an d
c o n s o l i d a t i o n s o f b r o k e r s . T h e m o v e m e n t to
f e w e r an d l a r g e r f i r m s w i l l r e d u c e r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s f o r c l e r i c a l an d m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n n e l
by c o n so lid a tin g s t a f f s and e lim in a tin g d u p li­
cation .
I n c r e a s e d e m p h a s is is bein g p la c e d
on the i m p o r t a n c e o f r e s e a r c h in a l l f i e l d s
o f i n v e s t m e n t , an d w i l l r e s u l t in a s h a r p i n ­
c r e a s e in the i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l
w o r k e r s su c h a s in v e stm e n t a n a ly s t s and c o m ­
p u t e r d a t a p r o c e s s i n g p l a n n e r s (both i n c l u d e d
in p r o f e s s i o n a l n. e . c . ) d u r i n g 1960— 5.
7
Insurance

(SIC 63 a n d 64)

T h ese m a jo r in du stry grou p s c o m p rise
in su ra n c e c a r r i e r s of a ll ty p e s, as w ell as
a g e n t s an d b r o k e r s d e a l i n g in i n s u r a n c e a n d
o r g a n i z a t i o n r e n d e r i n g s e r v i c e s to i n s u r a n c e
c a r r i e r s o r p o lic y h o ld ers.
E m p lo y m e n t
E m p lo y m en t h as been ste a d ily in c r e a sin g
at a m o d e r a t e r a t e , and r e a c h e d 1 .2 m illio n
w o r k e r s in 1965. 64 A d d i t i o n a l g r o w t h i s e x ­
p e c t e d d u r i n g 1965—7 5 , b u t w i l l b e m o d i f i e d
b y the i n c r e a s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n o f a u t o m a t i c
d ata p r o c e s s i n g tech n ology.
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , o v e r 47 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g w a s
m a d e up o f c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s s u c h a s s t e n o g ­
r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s , a n d s e c r e t a r i e s (18 p e r c e n t ) ,
and o th e r c l e r k s , w h ich in clu d e d in s u r a n c e
a d j u s t e r s , e x a m i n e r s and i n v e s t i g a t o r s , b ill
a n d a c c o u n t c o l l e c t o r s , an d a m o r t i z a t i o n
c l e r k s (23 p e r c e n t ) .
I n su ra n c e a g e n ts and
b r o k e r s a c c o u n te d fo r n e a r ly o n e - th ir d of
to tal e m p lo y m e n t; and m a n a g e r s and p r o p r i e ­
tors
(13 p e r c e n t ) .
B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1975, the e x p a n d i n g u s e
o f a u t o m a t i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g w i l l r e s u l t in
m o d e r a t e c h a n g e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l c o m ­
p o sitio n of th is m a jo r i n d u s t r y grou p in g.
C om p u ters in c r e a sin g ly are p e rfo rm in g m any
o f the r e c o r d k e e p i n g a n d o t h e r r o u t i n e c l e r ­
i c a l f u n c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w ith the c o l l e c t i o n
an d d i s b u r s e m e n t o f i n s u r a n c e f u n d s . 65 O c ­
cu p a tio n s a f f e c t e d a d v e r s e l y by this e q u ip m e n t
w ill be ac c o u n tin g c le r k s and b o o k k e e p e r s ,
an d the c l e r i c a l r e s i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n in w h ic h
m o s t o f the s p e c i a l i z e d i n s u r a n c e c l e r i c a l
w orkers are c la ssifie d .
T h ese d e c r e a se s
w ill be o f f s e t b y p a r t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts fo r o p e r a t o r s of o ffice m a c h in e s and
p e r ip h e r a l c o m p u te r eq u ip m en t.



R eal E state

(SIC 65 a n d 6 6 ) 66

T h e s e m a j o r in d u s t r y g r o u p s in clu d e r e a l
e s t a t e o p e r a t o r s ; a g e n t s , b r o k e r s an d m a n ­
a g e r s ; s u b d iv id e r s and d e v e l o p e r s . A ls o in ­
c l u d e d a r e t i t l e a b s t r a c t c o m p a n i e s an d e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s e n g a g e d in a n y c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e a l
e s t a t e , i n s u r a n c e , l o a n s , o r the p r a c t i c e o f
l a w , in w h i c h a n y one a c t i v i t y d o e s n o t p r e ­
d o m in a te.
E m p lo y m e n t
T o ta l em p lo y m e n t h a s b een grow in g m o d ­
e r a t e l y , r e a c h i n g a p e a k o f a b o u t 7 4 1 , 0 0 0 in
1965. D e sp ite a n tic ip a te d gro w in g r e a l e s t a t e
activ ity , e m p lo y m e n t w ill grow at a slo w e r
p a c e d u r i n g 1965—7 5 , p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e o f
g r e a t e r u tilizatio n of c o n tr a c t s e r v i c e s fo r
m a i n t e n a n c e in m u l t i u n i t b u i l d i n g s .
O c c u p a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n an d t r e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s a n d b r o k e r s ;
and m a n a g e r s ,
o f f ic ia ls , and p r o p r ie t o r s
m a d e up h a l f o f the w o r k f o r c e . O t h e r s i g ­
n ific an t o c c u p a tio n s w e r e s t e n o g r a p h e r s , ty p ­
i s t s , a n d s e c r e t a r i e s (7 p e r c e n t ) ; j a n i t o r s a n d
s e x t o n s (8 p e r c e n t ) ; s e r v i c e w o r k e r s n . e . c . ,
w h ich in c lu d e d e le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , d o o r m e n ,
c h a m b e r m a i d s an d p o r t e r s (9 p e r c e n t ) ; l a b o r ­
e r s (6 p e r c e n t ) ; c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s n . e . c . , s u c h
a s g e n e r a l o ffic e c l e r k s , file c l e r k s , a p p r a i s ­
e r s , a n d t i t l e s e a r c h e r s (6 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d b o o k ­
k e e p e r s an d a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s (2 p e r c e n t ) .
S e v e r a l c h a n g e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c tu re of th is m a j o r in d u stry g ro u p in g a r e e x ­
p e c te d by 1975.
The g ro w in g d em a n d for
r e s i d e n t ia l h ou sin g and c o m m e r c i a l b u ild in g s,
w h i c h i s g e n e r a t e d b y the r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n
and e x p an d in g b u s i n e s s a c tiv ity , w ill r e s u l t
in c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h f o r r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t s
a n d b r o k e r s ( i n c l u d e d in s a l e s w o r k e r s ). T h e
g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e in the p o p u l a t i o n o f the
20 to 30 a n d o v e r 60 a g e g r o u p s w i l l s t i m u ­
la te a h igh le v e l of d e m a n d fo r a p a r t m e n t
h o u s i n g w ith a c o n c o m i t a n t r i s e in r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s fo r a p a r t m e n t and b u ild in g m a n a g e r s .

64 Private w age and salary workers constituted about 95 per­
cent o f total em ploym ent. Most o f the remainder were selfem ployed workers.
65 For more information see BLS Bulletin 1468 (1965), Im pact
of O ffice Autom ation in the Insurance Industry.
66 Nearly 25 percent o f the workers in real estate were either
self-em ployed or unpaid fam ily workers; about 5 percent were in
government; and the rem ainder were private wage and salary
workers.

66
A g r o w i n g t r e n d t o w a r d s c o n t r a c t i n g out
a v a r i e t y of m a i n t e n a n c e a n d s e r v i c e a c t i v i ­
t i e s in a p a r t m e n t a n d c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g s
w i l l c o n t i n u e d u r i n g 1960—7 5.
The r e q u ir e ­
m e n t s in th e r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y f o r w o r k e r s
su c h a s eq u ip m en t r e p a i r m e n , j a n i t o r s , c h a r ­
w om en, and g u a r d s w ill d ro p sh a rp ly a s a
r e s u l t of th is p r a c t i c e . The r a tio of e le v a to r
o p e r a t o r s w ill d e c lin e s t i l l fu r th e r b etw een
1 9 6 0 — a s t h e s e w o r k e r s a r e r e p l a c e d b y new
75
au to m a tic s e l f - s e r v ic e e le v a to r s.

H o t e l s a n d O t h e r L o d g i n g P l a c e s ( S I C 70)
T h is m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p in clu d e s c o m ­
m e r c i a l e s t a b li s h m e n t s and in stitu tio n s e n ­
g a g e d in f u r n i s h i n g l o d g i n g , o r l o d g i n g a n d
m e a l s , a n d c a m p i n g s p a c e a n d f a c i l i t i e s , on
a fee b a s is .

s u c h a s a i r c o n d i t io n in g a n d s w i m m i n g p o o l s
now b e i n g o f f e r e d b y h o t e l s a n d m o t e l s . On
th e o t h e r h an d , r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s o m e s e r v ­
i c e w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e ; f o r e x ­
a m p le , m an u ally o p e ra te d e le v a to r s a r e bein g
in c r e a s in g ly r e p la c e d by s e l f - s e r v i c e un its.
L a u n d r ie s and C lean in g (SIC 7 2 1 ),and
P r e s s i n g , A lte r a tio n , and
R e p a i r S h o p s ( S I C 727)
T h i s i n d u s t r y c o n s i s t s of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
e n g a g e d in p r o v i d i n g f a m i l y a n d c o m m e r c i a l
la u n d ry ; c l e a n i n g and d y ein g s e r v i c e ; and
d i a p e r , lin e n , a n d i n d u s t r i a l l a u n d r y s u p p l y ;
and s e l f - s e r v i c e la u n d r ie s .
A ls o in clu d ed
a r e b u s i n e s s e s e n g a g e d in p r e s s i n g , r e p a i r ­
in g a n d a l t e r i n g c l o t h i n g , a n d in the c l e a n i n g ,
r e p a i r in g , and sto r in g of f u r s .
E m p lo y m e n t

E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r g r o u p i n ­
c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y to a n e s t i m a t e d 7 66, 000
w o r k e r s in 1965. 67 T h e l a r g e s t e m p l o y m e n t
i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d in m o t e l s a s the r e s u l t of
th e c o n t i n u e d r i s e in a u t o m o b i l e t r a v e l , w h ic h
c o n t r i b u t e d to the r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f m o t e l s .
H o te l e m p l o y m e n t g r e w a t a s l o w e r p a c e ;
e m p l o y m e n t in o t h e r l o d g i n g p l a c e s s l o w l y
d eclin ed . T h e se e m p lo y m en t tre n d s a r e e x ­
p e c t e d to c o n tin u e d u r i n g 1965—75.
R isin g
p e r s o n a l in c o m e , exp an d in g b u s i n e s s a c tiv ity ,
s u s t a i n e d a u t o m o b i l e t r a v e l , an d i n c r e a s i n g
l e i s u r e tim e w ill s tim u la te fu rth e r e m p lo y ­
m e n t g r o w t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y in m o t e l s .
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , s e r v i c e w o r k e r s m a d e up o v e r
61 p e r c e n t of the e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r
s e r v i c e in d u stry group. The m o st sig n ifica n t
s e r v i c e o c c u p a tio n s fo r w hich s e p a r a t e o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l d a t a w e r e a v a i l a b l e , in c l u d e d w a i t e r s
a n d w a i t r e s s e s (8 p e r c e n t ) , c o o k s (4 p e r c e n t ) ,
a n d c h a r w o m e n a n d c l e a n e r s (2 p e r c e n t ) . T h e
m i s c e l l a n e o u s s e r v i c e w o r k e r s g r o u p , w h ic h
in clu d ed w o r k e r s su ch a s d o o rm e n , e le v a to r
o p e r a to r s , m a id s, p o r t e r s , and h o u se k e e p e rs,
m a d e up a l m o s t 44 p e r c e n t of t o t a l e m p l o y ­
m en t. The se c o n d l a r g e s t o c c u p a tio n a l grou p
w a s m a n a g e r s and p r o p r i e t o r s (20 p e r c e n t).
B e t w e e n 1 9 6 0 a n d 19 7 5 , o n ly a fe w c h a n g e s
a r e e x p e c t e d in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of
th is m a jo r in d u stry g ro u p .
M e c h a n i c s an d
r e p a i r m e n a r e e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e to g r o w
in n u m b e r a n d r e f l e c t the i n c r e a s i n g m a i n ­
t e n a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s of m o d e r n f a c i l i t i e s



E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y h a s d e c l i n e d
s l i g h t l y s i n c e 1950, to a b o u t 6 7 8 , 0 0 0 w o r k e r s
in 1965. 68
M o st of th is d e c r e a s e o c c u r r e d
in the p o w e r l a u n d r y i n d u s t r y b e c a u s e o f the
in c r e a s in g u s e of s e l f - s e r v i c e la u n d r ie s and
h o u s e h o l d w a s h i n g m a c h i n e s . M o r e o v e r , the
g r o w i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f w a s h - a n d - w e a r c lo t h in g
a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d e m p l o y m e n t . ‘ In r e c e n t
y e a r s , so m e em ploy m en t d e c r e a s e s have o c ­
c u r r e d a l s o in the d r y c l e a n i n g i n d u s t r y a s a
r e s u l t of th e g r o w i n g p o p u l a r i t y o f s e l f s e r v i c e d r y c l e a n i n g m a c h i n e s . On th e o t h e r
h an d , s e l f - s e r v i c e l a u n d r i e s a n d i n d u s t r i a l
lau n d ries have ex p erien ced stead y em p lo y ­
m e n t g r o w t h . D u r i n g 1965—75, t o t a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e m o d e r a t e l y a s
e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h in s e l f - s e r v i c e a n d i n d u s ­
t r i a l l a u n d r i e s m o r e th a n o f f s e t s the d e c l i n ­
in g t r e n d s .
O ccu p ation al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , f o u r o c c u p a t i o n s a c c o u n t e d f o r
n e a r l y 90 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s .
They
w ere:
O p e r a t o r s of s p e c ia l iz e d lau n d ry and
d r y c l e a n i n g e q u i p m e n t w ho a r e g r o u p e d u n d e r
the g e n e r a l t i t l e of l a u n d r y a n d d r y c l e a n i n g
o p e r a t i v e s (51 p e r c e n t ) ; m a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s ,
a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (18 p e r c e n t ) ; m i s c e l l a n e o u s
c le r ic a l w o r k e r s such a s , c o u n t e r c le r k s ,
la u n d ry a tt e n d a n ts , and b r a n c h m a n a g e r s (10
p e r c e n t ) ; a n d d e l i v e r y m e n (6 p e r c e n t ) .
6 7
Private w age and salary workers accounted for about 85
percent o f em ploym ent in hotels and other lodging places; the
rem ainder were mostly self-em ployed workers.
Private wage and salary workers accounted for about 85
percent o f em ploym ent in this industry grouping; self-em ployed
and unpaid fam ily workers made up the remainder.

67

B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 19 7 5 , the p r o p o r t i o n
of la u n d r y and d r y c le a n in g o p e r a t i v e s w ill
d e c r e a s e a s p o w e r l a u n d r i e s c o n tin u e to d e ­
c l i n e in i m p o r t a n c e . T h e g r o w i n g u t i l i z a t i o n
of s e lf - s e r v ic e ,
c o in -o p e ra te d d ry cle a n in g
m a c h i n e s an d the i n c r e a s i n g m e c h a n i z a t i o n
o f i n d u s t r i a l l a u n d r i e s a l s o w i l l r e d u c e the
re q u ire m e n ts for th ese w o r k e r s.
The r a tio
of c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s w ill i n c r e a s e , e s p e c i a l l y
a t t e n d a n t s a s s o c i a t e d w ith the o p e r a t i o n o f
c o in - o p e r a t e d , s e l f - s e r v i c e l a u n d r i e s and
d r y c le a n in g e s t a b li s h m e n t s , and l a r g e i n d u s ­
t r i a l l a u n d r ie s . The p r o p o r tio n of d e liv e r y m e n a n d r o u t e m e n i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e
as d eliv ery se rv ic e b e c o m e s m o re w id e­
sp re a d , p a r tic u la r ly for in d u strial lau n d rie s.
H o w e v e r , the i n c r e a s e w i l l b e m o d e r a t e d b y
a n a n t i c i p a t e d d e c l i n e f o r d e l i v e r y s e r v i c e in
the c l e a n i n g a n d d y e in g i n d u s t r y , w h i c h w i l l
c o n tin u e to b e a f f e c t e d a d v e r s e l y b y s e l f se rv ic e e stab lish m e n ts.
A ll O th er P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e s
~ (SIC 7 2 2 - 7 2 6 a n d 729)
T h is in d u stry in clu d es b a r b e r , b eau ty,
sh oe r e p a i r , and hat cle an in g s h o p s ; p h o to ­
g r a p h ic s t u d io s ; fu n e r a l p a r l o r s and c r e m a ­
t o r i e s ; and s t e a m b a th s.
E m p lo y m en t
S in c e 1950, e m p lo y m e n t h a s i n c r e a s e d
s t e a d i l y in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g to 8 4 9 , 000 69
in 1965. T h e l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i e s w e r e b a r b e r
and b e a u ty s h o p s , w h ich to g e th e r e m p lo y e d
a l m o s t 70 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s in t h i s i n ­
d u s t r y g r o u p i n g in I 9 6 0 .
A lth o u g h e m p l o y ­
m e n t i s d e c l i n i n g in s h o e r e p a i r a n d d r e s s ­
m a k i n g , it i s e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e g r o w i n g in
a l l o t h e r s e r v i c e s in t h i s g r o u p b e t w e e n 1965
a n d 1 9 7 5 , a s the r e s u l t o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s
and r is in g p e r s o n a l in c o m e s.
O c c u p a tio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , s e r v i c e w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d f o r
m o r e th a n 3 out of 4 e m p l o y e e s in t h i s i n ­
d u stry grou pin g.
M o r e th a n 90 p e r c e n t o f
the s e r v i c e w o r k e r s w e r e b a r b e r s , h a i r ­
d r e s s e r s , and c o s m e t o l o g i s t s .
P ro fe ssio n al
an d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s m a d e up 8 p e r c e n t o f
a l l e m p l o y m e n t — the m o s t i m p o r t a n t o c c u p a ­
tion s w e r e p h o to g r a p h e r s and fu n e r a l d i r e c ­
t o r s a n d e m b a l m e r s . A ll o t h e r w h i t e - c o l l a r
w o r k e r s m a d e up 6 p e r c e n t o f i n d u s t r y e m ­
p lo y m e n t.
S h o e m a k e r s and r e p a i r e r s w e re
c l a s s i f i e d in the c r a f t s m e n n. e. c. g r o u p ,
w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 3 p e r c e n t o f the



w o r k f o r c e . D r e s s m a k e r s and s e a m s t r e s s e s
w e r e c l a s s i f i e d in the o p e r a t i v e n. e . c . g r o u p ,
w h i c h m a d e up a b o u t 6 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m ­
p lo y m en t.
S e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s in the o c c u ­
p atio n al str u c tu r e of th is in d u stry groupin g
a r e e x p e c te d . The p ro p o r tio n of h a i r d r e s s e r s
and c o s m e t o l o g i s t s (beau ty o p e r a t o r s ) w i l l
in c r e a s e sig n ifica n tly . E m p lo y m en t of beauty
o p e r a t o r s i s e x p e c t e d to g r o w m o r e r a p i d l y
t h a n the f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n b e c a u s e o f the
g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f w o m e n in the w o r k f o r c e
and i n c r e a s e d p e r s o n a l c o n su m p tio n e x p e n ­
d itu re s.
The d eclin in g p r o p o r tio n s of s h o e m a k e r s
and r e p a i r e r s , and d r e s s m a k e r s and s e a m ­
s t r e s s e s w i l l c o n ti n u e a s a r e s u l t o f the d e ­
c r e a s i n g d e m a n d f o r the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d
b y t h e s e s e g m e n t s o f the i n d u s t r y . T h e r e l ­
a tiv e d e c lin e of m o s t oth e r o c c u p a tio n s w ill
r e f l e c t m a i n l y the r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d g r o w t h o f
beauty o p e r a to r s.

M i s c e l l a n e o u s B u s i n e s s S e r v i c e s (SIC 7 3 )
T h is m a j o r in d u stry g ro u p in clu d e s e s ­
ta b lish m e n ts o f f e r i n g a d v e rtisin g s e r v i c e s
(SIC 7 3 1 ) a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u p p l y i n g o t h e r
m i s c e l l a n e o u s b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s (SIC 732—736
and 739). The l a t t e r su b g ro u p in clu d e s c o n ­
su ltin g and m a n a g e m e n t f i r m s , r e s e a r c h l a b ­
o r a t o r i e s , f i r m s su p p ly in g ste n o g r a p h ic and
m a ilin g s e r v i c e s , em plo y m en t a g e n c ie s, e s ­
t a b li s h m e n t s fu r n ish in g b u ild in g m a in te n a n c e
s e r v i c e s , d ata p r o c e s s i n g s e r v i c e s , d etec tiv e
a g e n c i e s , c r e d i t a g e n c i e s , and o t h e r b u s i n e s s
s e r v ic e a c tiv it ie s . O ccu p ation al p atte rn s are
av ailab le for e ac h su bgro u p.
E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r g r o u p i n c r e a s e d
s h a r p l y a f t e r 1950 to m o r e th a n 1. 2 m i l l i o n
w o r k e r s in 1965. 70
T h i s e x p a n s i o n i s due
to the o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s
su b g r o u p , w hich a l m o s t q u a d ru p le d i n s iz e
d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a n d in 1965 a c c o u n t e d f o r
a b o u t 90 p e r c e n t o f t h i s i n d u s t r y ' s e m p l o y ­
m en t.
I n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to
c o n ti n u e to g r o w b e c a u s e o f the s t e a d i l y i n ­
c r e a s i n g d e m a n d f o r b u ild in g m a in te n a n c e

69 In 1960 em ploym ent was about equally divided between
w age and salary and self-em ployed workers.
About 11 percent o f total em ploym ent in this industry was
accounted for by self-em ployed and unpaid fam ily workers; pri­
vate wage and salary workers m ade up nearly all the rem ainder.

68
s e r v ic e s , protective s e r v ic e s , data p r o c e s s ­
in g a n d c o n s u l t i n g , a n d r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l ­
opm ent s e r v ic e s .
C o n t in u i n g p a s t t r e n d s ,
m o d e st em ploym en t grow th is e x p ec ted for
th ose f i r m s su p p ly in g a d v e r t isin g , c r e d it r e ­
p o rtin g and c o lle c tio n , m a c h in e r e n t a l s , t e l e ­
p h o n e a n s w e r i n g s e r v i c e s , and f o r e m p l o y ­
m ent ag en cies.
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
A d v e r t i s i n g : In I 9 6 0 , w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k ­
e r s m a d e up 88 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y m e n t . T h e
m o s t im p o rta n t occu p atio n s w e re :
M anagers
a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (31 p e r c e n t ) ; s t e n o g r a p h e r s ,
t y p i s t s , a n d s e c r e t a r i e s (12 p e r c e n t ) ; o t h e r
c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s w h i c h i n c l u d e s l e a s e m e n (of
tim e o r s p a c e ) and a d v e r tisin g m e d ia c le r k s
(10 p e r c e n t ) ; s a l e s w o r k e r s (10 p e r c e n t ) ; an d
e d i t o r s a n d r e p o r t e r s (5 p e r c e n t ) .
W h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to i n ­
c r e a s e s o m e w h a t in r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e b e ­
tw een I9 6 0 and 1975. T h ey a r e h e a v ily c o n ­
c e n t r a t e d in a g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d w ith r a d i o ,
te le v is io n , n e w s p a p e r , and p e r io d i c a l a d v e r ­
tisin g w hose em ploym en t h as been in c r e a sin g
m o d erately .
M o d est advan ces are expected
in the o c c u p a t i o n s o f e d i t o r s an d r e p o r t e r s ,
a n d in the o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p " o t h e r p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s n. e . c . , " w h i c h
in c lu d e s a d v e r t is i n g a g e n t s , a n a l y s t s , and
c o u n s e lo r s . B lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s , in clu d ­
in g c a r p e n t e r s , p a i n t e r s , f o r e m e n , a n d o p ­
e r a t i v e s , a r e e x p e c t e d to d r o p in r e l a t i v e
im p o rta n c e a fte r I960.
They are concen­
t r a t e d in o u t d o o r a d v e r t i s i n g a g e n c i e s s u c h
a s t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w ith b i l l b o a r d s , a e r i a l
a d v e r t is i n g , and h an d b ill d istr ib u tio n w h ose
e m p lo y m e n t r e c e n t l y h a s b een d e c lin in g .
O utdoor a d v e rtisin g is b e i n g affe c te d a d ­
v e r s e l y b y a n tib illb o a rd le g is la tio n and c o m ­
p etitio n fr o m oth e r m e t h o d s .
A sm a lle r
em ploy m en t sh a re fo r
s a l e s w o r k e r s an d a
l a r g e r on e f o r m a n a g e r s a p p e a r s to be due
to a n i n c r e a s e in the n u m b e r o f s m a l l e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts and fe w e r in te rm e d ia te s iz e e s t a b ­
lish m en ts.
In the s m a l l e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
s a l e s w o r k i s m o r e l i k e l y to b e p e r f o r m e d b y
m a n a g e r ia l p e rso n n e l.

O ther M isc e lla n e o u s B u s in e s s S e r v ic e s :
In I 9 6 0 , a l m o s t t w o - t h i r d s o f the e m p l o y e e s
in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p w e r e w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k ­
ers.
Im p o rtan t o ccu p atio n s w ere m a n a g e r s ,
o f f i c i a l s , a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (20 p e r c e n t ) ;
ste­
n o g r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s , a n d s e c r e t a r i e s (10 p e r ­
c en t); and e n g i n e e r s and s a l e s w o r k e r s (each
4 p ercen t).
A b o u t 1 p e r s o n in 6 w a s in the
r e s id u a l g ro u p , oth er c le r ic a l w o r k e r s n . e . c .



Im p o rtan t b lu e - c o lla r o ccu p atio n s w e re g u a r d s
a n d w a t c h m e n (4 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d m e c h a n i c s an d
r e p a i r m e n (3 p e r c e n t ) .
The c u sto d ia l o c c u ­
p a tio n s su c h a s c h a r w o m e n and ja n i t o r s i n ­
c l u d e d 7 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s . M o r e th a n
7 p e r c e n t w e r e in the r e s i d u a l g r o u p , o t h e r
o p e r a t i v e s n . e . c . In t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p the
d e t a i l e d s e c t o r s e n g a g e d in b u s i n e s s c o n ­
su ltin g ; r e s e a r c h , d e v e lo p m e n t, and te s t in g ;
b u ild in g m a in te n a n c e s e r v i c e s ; an d d e te c tiv e
a g e n c ie s and p r o te c tiv e s e r v i c e s have b een
g r o w i n g m o r e r a p i d l y in e m p l o y m e n t in r e ­
c e n t y e a r s th e n c r e d i t a g e n c i e s , m a i l i n g an d
d u p lic a tio n f i r m s , e q u ip m e n t r e n ta l, and o th e r
m i s c e l l a n e o u s b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s . 71 D a t a a r e
no t a v a i l a b l e s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r d a t a p r o c e s s i n g
s e r v i c e b u r e a u s , but th e se o rg a n iz a tio n s a l s o
a r e b e l i e v e d to b e g r o w i n g r a p i d l y . A s s u m i n g
t h a t the d i f f e r e n t i a l g r o w t h p a t t e r n s f o r p a r t s
o f t h i s i n d u s t r y w i l l p e r s i s t i n * the
p erio d
a h e a d , it i s e x p e c t e d t h a t e n g i n e e r s , t e c h ­
n i c i a n s , c o m p u t e r s y s t e m s a n a l y s t s , a nd
o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s ;
b u ild in g m a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s s u c h a s c a r ­
p e n t e r s , e l e c t r ic ia n s , and ja n i t o r s w ill be a
l a r g e r s h a r e o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in 1975
th a n in I 9 6 0 .

A u to m o b ile R e p a i r S e r v i c e s
G a r a g e (SIC 75)

and

T h is m a j o r in d u str y g ro u p in clu d e s e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in f u r n i s h i n g
au to m o b ile r e p a i r , c a r re n ta l, p a rk in g f a c i l i ­
t i e s , c a r w a s h i n g , a n d s t o r a g e s e r v i c e s to the
g e n e r a l p u b lic.
E m p lo y m en t
T o t a l e m p l o y m e n t e x p a n d e d r a p i d l y in
t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p to a b o u t 5 0 1 , 000
w o r k e r s in 1 9 6 5 . 72 M o s t o f the g r o w t h o c ­
c u r r e d in a u t o m o b i l e r e p a i r s h o p s in w h ic h
t w o - t h i r d s o f the m a j o r g r o u p ' s w o r k e r s w e r e
c o n c e n t r a t e d . In r e c e n t y e a r s , h o w e v e r , the
s m a l l e r i n d u s t r i e s , au to m o b ile r e n ta l and
c a r w a s h i n g , h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d th e * f a s t e s t
grow th r a t e s .
F u r th e r e m p lo y m en t grow th
i s e x p e c t e d d u r i n g 1 9 6 5 - 7 5 a s the n u m b e r o f
a u t o m o b i l e s in u s e a n d the c o n c o m i t a n t n e e d
for r e p a ir s in c r e a s e s .
In a d d i t i o n , the d e ­
m a n d fo r au to m o b ile r e n ta l and w a sh in g s e r v ­
i c e s w i l l c o n ti n u e to r i s e s h a r p l y .

71

Comparisons for these very d etailed sectors are based on
data in the U. S. Census of Business for 1958 and 1963.
72 Self-em ployed and unpaid fam ily workers m ade up about
35 percent o f the work force; private wage and salary workers
m ade up the remainder.

69
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s

O ccu p ation al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s

In I 9 6 0 , m o r e th a n h a l f o f th e w o r k e r s
in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p w e r e m o t o r
v e h ic le m e c h a n ic s . O ther s ig n ific a n t o c c u p a ­
t i o n s w e r e m a n a g e r s a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (16 p e r ­
c e n t) , l a b o r e r s (7 p e r c e n t ) , a n d a u t o s e r v i c e
a n d p a r k i n g a t t e n d a n t s (5 p e r c e n t ) .

In I 9 6 0 , a l m o s t 79 p e r c e n t of e m p l o y ­
m e n t in t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p w a s a c ­
counted fo r by b lu e - c o lla r w o r k e r s , a la r g e
m a jo r i t y of w hom w e r e c r a f t s m e n , fo r e m e n ,
a n d k i n d r e d w o r k e r s (59 p e r c e n t ) . I m p o r t a n t
s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e e l e c t r i c i a n s (2 p e r ­
c e n t ) , b l a c k s m i t h s (2 p e r c e n t ) , j e w e l e r s a n d
w a t c h m a k e r s (3 p e r c e n t ) , u p h o l s t e r e r s (6 p e r ­
cent), r a d io and te l e v i s io n m e c h a n ic s and
r e p a i r m e n (18 p e r c e n t ) , a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s
m e c h a n ic s and r e p a ir m e n such a s a p p lia n c e
r e p a ir m e n , air-co n d itio n in g r e p a ir m e n , m u s i ­
c a l in stru m e n t r e p a ir m e n , and f a r m eq u ip ­
m e n t r e p a i r m e n (19 p e r c e n t ) . O t h e r s i g n i f i ­
c a n t o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e th e o p e r a t i v e s a n d
k i n d r e d w o r k e r s g r o u p (17 p e r c e n t ) , o f w h o m
o n e -h alf w e re w e ld e r s and f la m e - c u t t e r s ;
m a n a g e r s , o f f ic ia ls , and p r o p r i e t o r s (14 p e r ­
c e n t ) ; a n d b o o k k e e p e r s (2 p e r c e n t ) .

S e v e r a l c h a n g e s in th e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c ­
t u r e of t h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p a r e e x p e c t e d
b y 1975.
M otor v e h ic le m e c h a n ic s and r e ­
p a i r m e n a r e e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e m o d e r a t e l y
a s a p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t .
The
g r o w i n g p r a c t i c e of o f f e r i n g e x t e n d e d new c a r
w a r r a n t i e s w i l l r e s u l t in a n i n c r e a s i n g s h i f t
of a u to m o b ile r e p a i r in g fr o m th is m a j o r g ro u p
to new c a r d e a l e r s h i p s . T h i s t r e n d w i l l s l o w
the g r o w t h in the a u t o m o b i l e r e p a i r i n d u s t r y
g r o u p w h e r e th e m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n
a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d . In a d d i t i o n , the i n c r e a s i n g
u s e of p o w e r t o o l s a n d c o m p l e x t e s t e q u i p ­
m e n t s u c h a s d y n a m o m e t e r s a n d e n g in e a n a ­
l y z e r s w i l l i n c r e a s e ou tp u t p e r w o r k e r a n d
fu rth er red u ce re q u ire m e n ts fo r m e ch a n ic s.
I n c r e a s e s w i l l o c c u r in m o s t o f the c l e r i c a l
o c c u p a t i o n s b e c a u s e o f the r a p i d g r o w t h in
c a r r e n t a l s e r v i c e s a n d the g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e
in l a r g e r s i z e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , w h i c h n o r m a l l y
e m p lo y h ig h e r p r o p o r tio n s of w h it e - c o lla r
w orkers.
M i s c e l l a n e o u s R e p a i r S e r v i c e s ( S I C 76)
T h i s m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p c o n s i s t s of
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in v a r i o u s
rep air se rv ic e s.
Included a r e r a d io , t e l e ­
v isio n , and other e l e c t r i c a l r e p a i r sh o p s;
w atch , clo ck , and je w e l r y r e p a i r sh o p s; r e ­
u p h o lste ry and fu rn itu re r e p a ir sh o p s. A lso
in clu d ed a r e m i s c e ll a n e o u s r e p a i r s e r v i c e s
such a s b icy cle r e p a ir , leath er goods r e p a ir ,
lo c k s m ith and g u n sm ith sh o p s, m u s i c a l in ­
stru m ent r e p a i r ,
and a r m a t u r e rew in d in g
sh ops.
E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s m a j o r g r o u p h a s b e e n
r i s i n g m o d e r a t e l y a n d r e a c h e d 3 1 2 , 0 0 0 in
19 6 5 . 73 It i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t e m p l o y m e n t
w i l l c o n ti n u e to i n c r e a s e a t the s a m e p a c e
t h r o u g h the c o m i n g d e c a d e .
The p ro je c te d
e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h w i l l b e r e l a t e d to e x p a n d ­
in g d e m a n d f o r e l e c t r o n i c p r o d u c t s f o r h o m e
e n te rta in m e n t, c o m m e r c i a l u s e s , and m e d ic a l
a p p l i c a t i o n . A l s o , the n u m b e r of a p p l i a n c e s
in u s e i s e x p e c t e d to b e m u c h g r e a t e r in the
fu tu re.
T h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e e x p e c t e d to
g e n e r a t e the d e m a n d f o r a d d i t i o n a l r e p a i r
serv ices.




A lt h o u g h the r a t i o o f th e t o t a l c r a f t s m e n ,
and k i n d r e d w o r k e r s g ro u p w ill d e c r e a s e
slig h tly , sig n ific a n t c h a n g e s a r e an tic ip a te d
f o r i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n s w ith in t h i s g r o u p
b y 197 5.
The p r o p o r tio n fo r m e c h a n ic s and
r e p a i r m e n n. e. c. w i l l r i s e in r e s p o n s e to the
g ro w in g u s e of h o u seh o ld a p p lia n c e s and h o m e
and b u s i n e s s a ir - c o n d itio n in g .
O ffsettin g
th e se i n c r e a s e s a r e a n ticip ate d d e c lin e s fo r
c r a fts m e n such a s c a r p e n te r s, e le c tr ic ia n s,
b la c k s m ith s , and m o to r v e h ic le m e c h a n ic s,
m ain ly b e c a u s e of changing c o n s u m e r p r e f ­
e re n c e s for v a rio u s p rod u cts.
The tren d tow ard l a r g e r e sta b lis h m e n ts
i s e x p e c t e d to e f f e c t d i v e r s e c h a n g e s a m o n g
w h ite-collar w o r k e r s .
T h e p r o p o r t i o n of
m a n a g e r s , o f f i c i a l s , and p r o p r i e t o r s w ill
d e c l i n e a s th e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s r a t i o i n ­
crease.

E n t e r ta in m e n t and R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s
(S I C 78 a n d 79)
S e p a r a te o ccu p atio n al r a t i o s a r e a v a i l ­
a b le fo r m otio n p ic t u r e s , th e a t e r s , o r c h e s ­
t r a s , an d e n t e r t a i n e r s ( S I C 78 a n d 7 92) a n d
fo r m is c e lla n e o u s en te rtain m e n t and r e c r e a ­
tio n s e r v i c e s , w h ic h i n c l u d e s d a n c e s t u d i o s ,
b o w li n g a l l e y s , c o m m e r c i a l s p o r t s , a n d g o l f
c lu b s (SIC 791, 793, an d 794).

73
Self-em ployed and unpaid fam ily workers m ade up more
than 55 percent o f the work force in m iscellaneous repair services;
private wage and salary workers accounted for nearly all the rest.

70
E m p l o y m ent
B e t w e e n 1950 a n d 1 9 6 5 , 74 e m p l o y m e n t
d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y in t h i s m a j o r s e r v i c e i n ­
d u s t r y g r o u p i n g m a i n l y a s the r e s u l t o f th e
v e r y s h a r p e m p l o y m e n t d e c l i n e in t h e a t e r s
a n d m o t i o n p i c t u r e s , w h i c h b o r e th e b r u n t o f
th e c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m t e l e v i s i o n .
In m o t i o n
p ic tu r e th e a t e r s , p a y r o ll em p lo y m en t d e clin e d
f r o m 187, 0 0 0 in N o v e m b e r 1948 to 113, 0 0 0 in
N o v e m b e r 1963. 75
D u r i n g th e n e x t d e c a d e ,
h o w e v e r , th e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d i s e x p e c t e d
to t a k e a n u p w a r d t u r n p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e o f
continued m o r e ra p id e m p lo y m e n t i n c r e a s e s
in m i s c e l l a n e o u s e n t e r t a i n m e n t a n d r e c r e a t i o n
s e r v i c e e s ta b lish m e n ts, such a s golf c o u r s e s ,
sw im m in g c lu b s, p r o f e s s i o n a l ath letic clu b s,
a n d r a c e t r a c k s . In a d d i t i o n , th e e m p l o y m e n t
t r e n d in m o t i o n p i c t u r e s a n d t h e a t e r s a l s o
i s e x p e c t e d to t u r n s l i g h t l y u p w a r d , a s the
m a j o r a d v e r s e e f f e c t s o f t e l e v i s i o n on t h e a t e r
a t t e n d a n c e a p p e a r to h a v e b e e n a b s o r b e d , a n d
b e c a u s e th e d e m a n d f o r m o v i e s m a d e f o r t e l e ­
v i s i o n i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e .
O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and t r e n d s
M o t io n p i c t u r e , t h e a t e r s , o r c h e s t r a s , a n d
e n t e r t a i n e r s . In I 9 6 0 m o r e th a n h a l f o f t o t a l
i n d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t w a s in f i v e o c c u p a t i o n s --m a n a g e r s (17 p e r c e n t ) , m u s i c i a n s ( 1 4 p e r ­
c e n t ) , c a s h i e r s (8 p e r c e n t ) , m o t i o n p i c t u r e
p r o j e c t i o n i s t s (8 p e r c e n t i n c l u d e d in c r a f t s ­
m e n n. e. c . ), a n d u s h e r s (7 p e r c e n t i n c l u d e d
in s e r v i c e w o r k e r s n. e. c . ). A c t o r s a n d a c ­
t r e s s e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 3 p e r c e n t o f th e i n d u s ­
try to tal. ( A c to r s, a r t i s t s , au th o rs, d a n c e r s ,
a n d m u s i c i a n s a r e a l l i n c l u d e d in th e o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l c a t e g o r y , w o r k e r s a n d t e a c h e r s in th e
a r t s and e n tertain m en t. )
T h e s h a r p d r o p in th e n u m b e r o f m o v i e
t h e a t e r s , w h i c h o c c u r r e d d u r i n g th e 1 9 5 0 ’ s
a s t e le v is io n b e c a m e e sta b lis h e d i s not e x ­
p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e d u r i n g 1960— 5.
7
A ctors
a n d a c t r e s s e s d e c l i n e d in r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e
in th e 1 9 5 0 ’ s , m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f th e s h a r p
d r o p in m o t i o n p i c t u r e p r o d u c t i o n . H o w e v e r ,
d u r i n g 1 9 6 0 — 5, t h e s e w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c t e d
7
to i n c r e a s e a s p r o p o r t i o n s o f t o t a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t b e c a u s e o f th e b r i g h t e r o u t l o o k f o r the
m o t i o n p i c t u r e i n d u s t r y a n d the e x p e c t e d r i s e
of y e a r - r o u n d p r o f e s s i o n a l a c tin g c o m p a n ie s
in m o r e c i t i e s , w h i c h o f f e r p e r m a n e n t e m ­
p lo y m en t.
The r e la tiv e im p o rta n c e of m u s ic ia n s
d e c l i n e d d u r i n g th e 1 9 5 0 ’ s a s r e c o r d e d m u s i c
r e p l a c e d l i v e m u s i c . B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1975,
th e p r o p o r t i o n o f m u s i c i a n s i s e x p e c t e d to r e ­
su m e an u p w ard tre n d , b e c a u s e of a n tic ip a te d
g r o w i n g d e m a n d f o r l i v e m u s i c in b a r s , r e s ­
t a u r a n t s , night c lu b s , and p r iv a t e g a t h e r in g s .



M isc e llan e o u s R e c re a tio n S e r v i c e s .
In
I960, th re e o ccu p atio n al g ro u p s— p r o f e s s i o n a l
a n d t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s (1 7 p e r c e n t ) , m a n a g e r s ,
o f f i c i a l s , a n d p r o p r i e t o r s (1 7 p e r c e n t ) , a n d
s e r v i c e w o r k e r s (41 p e r c e n t ) , a c c o u n t e d f o r
n e a r l y t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s
in d u stry groupin g. D a n c e r s and d an ce t e a c h ­
e r s , and s p o r ts in s t r u c t o r s and o ffic ia ls w e re
th e tw o l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n s in the p r o f e s s i o n a l
and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s g ro u p .
The m a jo r i t y
o f the s e r v i c e w o r k e r s w e r e in th e m i s c e l ­
la n e o u s s e r v i c e w o r k e r s c a t e g o r y , w hich in ­
clu d ed c a d d i e s , ti c k e t c o l l e c t o r s , c o n c e s s i o n
a tte n d a n ts, and o p e r a t o r s of v a r i o u s a m u s e ­
m ent p a rk rid e s.
The o c c u p atio n al str u c tu r e w a s a ffe c te d
b y tw o d i v e r s e t r e n d s b e t w e e n 1948 an d
1963. 76 T h e 194 8 —58 p e r i o d w a s c h a r a c t e r ­
i z e d b y a d e c l i n e in e m p l o y m e n t in b o w li n g
a l l e y s , b a s e b a l l and fo o tb a ll c lu b s, and s p o r t s
p rom oters.
D e s p i t e a n i n c r e a s e o f o v e r 50
p e r c e n t in th e n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , e m ­
p l o y m e n t in b o w li n g a l l e y s d r o p p e d f r o m 40
to 28 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in m i s c e l ­
la n e o u s e n te rta in m e n t and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v ­
i c e s , d u e p r i m a r i l y to the a d v e r s e e f f e c t s of
a u t o m a t i c p i n s e t t e r s on th e e m p l o y m e n t of
p i n b o y s . E m p l o y m e n t in b a s e b a l l a n d f o o t b a l l
c lu b s and s p o r t s p r o m o t e r s d e c lin e d b e c a u s e
o f the i n c r e a s i n g c o v e r a g e o f s p o r t s b y t e l e ­
v i s i o n , w h i c h r e s u l t e d in th e d e m i s e o f m a n y
m in o r le a g u e t e a m s and s m a l l bo xin g c lu b s.
E m p l o y m e n t in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
"o th e r a m u s e m e n t and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s "
s h o w e d th e g r e a t e s t r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e . M o s t
of th e s e e s t a b li s h m e n t s , su c h a s sw im m in g
p o o l s a n d a m u s e m e n t p a r k s , c a t e r e d to th e
y o u n g , a n d b e t w e e n 1948 a n d 1958 th e p r o ­
p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n u n d e r a g e 20 r o s e
m o r e th an 4 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s .
T h e 1958— p e r i o d w a s m a r k e d b y e i t h e r
63
m o d i f i c a t i o n o r r e v e r s a l o f the t r e n d s of th e
p re v io u s p erio d .
E m p l o y m e n t in b o w l i n g
a l l e y s g r e w a s th e s p o r t b e c a m e i n c r e a s i n g l y
p o p u l a r . E m p l o y m e n t in b a s e b a l l a n d f o o t b a l l
c lu b s, s p o r t s p r o m o t e r s , and b i l l i a r d and
pool h a lls w as r e la tiv e ly stab le .
The i m ­
p o r t a n c e of " o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l a m u s e m e n t
and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s " con tin ued u p w a rd ,
but a t a slo w e r r a t e b e c a u s e of a slo w e r r a t e
o f i n c r e a s e in the u n d e r 20 a g e g r o u p . It i s
a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t th e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s of
1958—
63 w i l l c o n ti n u e d u r i n g th e n e x t d e c a d e .
74 In 1965, the distribution o f em ploym ent by class o f worker
was about as follows: Private wage and salary workers (80 per­
cent), self-em plo yed and unpaid fam ily workers (15 percent), and
government workers (5 percent).
75 u . S. Department o f C om m erce, Bureau o f the Census,
Censuses of Business, 1948 and 1963.
76 Ibid; 1948, 1958, and 1963.

71

The p r o p o r tio n of m a n a g e r s is e x p e c te d
to d e c l i n e a s the s i z e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t e n d s
to i n c r e a s e .
C o n t in u e d i n c r e a s e in the u s e
of m e c h a n ic a l d e v ic e s su ch a s p in settin g d e ­
v i c e s , w i l l c a u s e a c o n t i n u e d i n c r e a s e in the
r e la tiv e im p o rta n c e of m e c h a n ic s . The total
s e r v i c e w o r k e r s g r o u p i s e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e
a s fo o d s e r v i c e o p e r a t i o n s in b o w li n g a l l e y s ,
g o lf c lu b s , and o th er a m u s e m e n t p l a c e s b e ­
com e a g r e a t e r p a r t of total em ploym en t.
S o m e in d iv id u a l s e r v i c e o c c u p a tio n s su c h a s
c o n c e s s i o n and rid e atte n d a n ts w ill d e clin e
a s p ro p o rtio n s of total em p loy m en t.

The a n t i c i p a t e d r a p i d r i s e in d e m a n d f o r
hospital s e r v i c e s w i l l b e m e t b y b u i l d i n g
m ore h o s p i t a l s , b y i n c r e a s i n g the n u m b e r o f
beds a v a i l a b l e f o r p a t i e n t s in e x i s t i n g h o s ­
p itals, a n d b y i m p r o v e d t r e a t m e n t s t h a t w i l l
shorten the d u r a t i o n o f i n - h o s p i t a l c a r e .
Employment g r o w t h w i l l b e t e m p e r e d b y t e c h ­
nological i n n o v a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g c o m p u t e r s ,
disposable m a t e r i a l s , a n d e l e c t r o n i c m o n i ­
to rs, t h a t w i l l i n c r e a s e the e f f i c i e n c y o f s u p ­
porting w o r k e r s , s u c h a s c l e r i c a l a n d s e r v i c e
w o rk ers, a n d e x p a n d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o ­
fessio n al w o r k e r s , s u c h a s n u r s e s , who m a y
be in s h o r t s u p p l y .

M e d i c a l a n d H e a l t h S e r v i c e I n d u s t r y (SIC 80)
S e p a r a te o ccu p atio n al p a tte rn s a r e a v a il ­
a b l e f o r (1) h o s p i t a l s , in c l u d in g c l i n i c s a n d
o t h e r s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s , an d (Z) f o r a l l o t h e r
m e d i c a l and h e a lth f a c i l i t i e s in clu d in g o f f ic e s
of m e d i c a l and h ealth p r a c t i t i o n e r s , l a b o r a ­
t o r i e s , and o th e r in s titu tio n s , w hich fu r n is h
m e d i c a l, d en tal, c o n v a le s c e n t, and o th e r r e ­
lated s e r v ic e s .
E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in a l l m e d i c a l a n d h e a l t h
s e r v i c e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y d o u b l e d b e t w e e n 1950
a n d 1965 to i n c l u d e o v e r 3. 3 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s
a t the e n d o f t h i s p e r i o d . 77 E m p l o y m e n t in
h o s p i t a l s a c c o u n t e d f o r 65 p e r c e n t o f a l l
w o r k e r s in t h i s m a j o r g r o u p . In 1 9 6 5 , a b o u t
1 o u t o f 3 w o r k e r s in the m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s
in du stry w as a F e d e r a l, State, or lo c al g o v ­
e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e a n d 87 p e r c e n t o f th e m
w e r e e m p l o y e d in h o s p i t a l s .
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 1975, e m p l o y m e n t in
t h i s m a j o r s e r v i c e g r o u p i s e x p e c t e d to i n ­
c r e a s e m o r e th a n 60 p e r c e n t b e c a u s e the d e ­
m a n d fo r m e d i c a l and h ealth s e r v i c e s is e x ­
p e c t e d to b e s u p p o r t e d b y i n c r e a s i n g F e d e r a l
and p r iv a te m e d i c a l in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m s , and
h igh er le v e ls of p e r s o n a l in co m e.
E m p l o y m e n t i s e x p e c t e d to g r o w m o r e
r a p i d l y in the o t h e r m e d i c a l a n d h e a l t h s e r v ­
i c e s s e g m e n t th a n in the h o s p i t a l s s e g m e n t
b e c a u s e m o r e a t t e n t i o n w i l l be g i v e n to p r e ­
v e n t i v e m e d i c i n e , the i n c r e a s i n g u s e of s a n a t o r i u m s a n d c o n v a l e s c e n t h o m e s , an d o u t ­
p a t i e n t treatm en t.
P a r e n t s w ill be m o r e
c o n c e r n e d w ith e a r l y p r e v e n t i v e a n d c o r r e c ­
tive m e d i c a l and d e n tal m e a s u r e s fo r th e ir
ch ild re n — i m m u n i t y in je c tio n s, orthodontic
p r o c e d u r e s , e y e g l a s s e s , w eigh t c o n tr o l, e tc .
O l d e r p e o p l e a n d o t h e r s w i l l b e a b le to a f f o r d
e x t e n s i v e n u r s i n g c a r e in c o n v a l e s c e n t a n d
re st hom es.
In a d d it i o n , the e x p a n s i o n o f
t e c h n i c a l f a c i l i t i e s w i l l l e a d to g r e a t e r u t i l i ­
z a t i o n o f in d e p e n d e n t m e d i c a l l a b o r a t o r i e s to
a i d in the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f d i s e a s e s .



O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
In I960, p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , a n d k i n ­
dred w orkers m a d e up 4Z p e r c e n t o f t o t a l
employment in m e d i c a l a n d h e a l t h s e r v i c e s .
Occupations w h i c h h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r ­
tions of total e m p l o y m e n t w e r e :
N urses
(17 percent), p h y s i c i a n s a n d s u r g e o n s (8 p e r ­
cent), m edical a n d d e n t a l t e c h n i c i a n s (5 p e r ­
cent), and dentists (3 p e r c e n t ) . S e r v i c e w o r k ­
e r s accounted f o r m o r e t h a n 1 out o f 3 in
the work force a n d n e a r l y h a l f o f t h e m w e r e
attendants. A b o u t o n e - f o u r t h w e r e in the r e ­
sidual se rv ice w o r k e r s g r o u p , w h i c h i n c l u d e d
kitchen w o r k e r s ,
p orters,
an d barbers.
P ra c tic a l n u r s e s a l s o a c c o u n t e d f o r a s i g n i f ­
icant proportion o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t (6 p e r ­
cent). C le rical w o r k e r s m a d e up a b o u t 16
percent of the w o r k f o r c e .
About o n e -th ird
of the c le ric a l w o r k e r s w e r e s t e n o g r a p h e r s ,
ty p ists, and s e c r e t a r i e s .
In m edical a n d h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ( e x c e p t
hospitals), t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l ,
technical, and kindred workers was over 50
percent higher t h a n in the h o s p i t a l s s e g m e n t ,
prim arily b e c a u s e m o s t p h y s i c i a n s , d e n t i s t s ,
optom etrists, a n d o s t e o p a t h s a r e in p r i v a t e
p ractice. T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s
also w as m u c h l a r g e r in the o t h e r m e d i c a l
and health s e r v i c e s s e g m e n t t h a n in h o s p i t a l s ,
because of the m a n y s m a l l s i z e d e s t a b l i s h ­
m ents. On the o t h e r h a n d , the r a t i o s o f
craftsm en ( s u c h a s m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n ) ,
operatives ( s u c h a s l a u n d r y o p e r a t o r s ) an d
serv ice w o r k e r s ( s u c h a s c o o k s , w a i t e r s an d
w a itre sse s, h o s p i t a l a t t e n d a n t s , a n d o t h e r
se rv ice w orkers — e . g . , k i t c h e n w o r k e r s ) in
hospitals were m o r e th an d o u b le the r a t i o s
for these o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s in the o t h e r
health serv ice i n d u s t r y g r o u p .
77

The distribution of em ploym ent by class of worker in
m ed ical and health services was about as follows: Private wage
and salary (60 percent), g o v e r n m e n t (29 percent), and se lfem ployed (11 percent).

72

B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1975, o v e r a l l m a n p o w e r
r e q u i r e m e n t s in the e n t i r e m e d i c a l a n d o t h e r
h e a l t h s e r v i c e s i n d u s t r y a r e e x p e c t e d to i n ­
c r e a s e rap id ly .
D e s p i t e d e c l i n e s in t h e i r
p ro p o rtio n a te sh a r e of em ploym en t, r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s w i l l b e p a r t i c u l a r l y h ig h f o r p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , a n d k i n d r e d w o r k e r s to p r o ­
vid e r e a s o n a b l e n u r s e and d o c to r - to - p a tie n t
r a t i o s a n d to c o p e w ith the i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m ­
p l e x t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s (e. g . , a r t i f i c i a l
h e a r t s ) t h a t a r e a p p e a r i n g in m e d i c a l an d
h ealth f a c i li t ie s .
T h e d e m a n d f o r a l l w o r k e r s in t h i s s e r v ­
i c e i n d u s t r y w i l l b e i n f l u e n c e d b y the c h a n g i n g
n a tu re and c o m p o s itio n of m e d i c a l and h ealth
c a r e , s u c h a s i m p r o v e m e n t s in d r u g t h e r a p y ,
w h ich m a y p e r m i t t r e a t m e n t of s o m e i l l n e s s e s
in the h o m e ; the g r o w i n g t r e n d t o w a r d the
u s e o f n u r s i n g h o m e ; an d the i n c r e a s e in o u t ­
p a t i e n t t r e a t m e n t . A s e c o n d in f l u e n c i n g f a c ­
t o r w i l l b e i n c r e a s e s in p r o d u c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g
f r o m t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s , a s s e e n in
the f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s :
(1) New t e s t i n g e q u i p ­
m e n t in the c l i n i c a l l a b o r a t o r y th a t i n c r e a s e s
o u tp u t p e r t e c h n i c i a n ; (2) d i s p o s a b l e m a t e r i a l s
fo r it e m s su c h a s b ed lin e n s, g o w n s, and
h y p o d e r m ic s y r i n g e s that re d u c e m a n p o w e r
n eed s fo r so m e typ es of se r v ic e w o r k e r s;
a n d (3) e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g s y s t e m s
t h a t w i l l k e e p the s h a r e o f e l e c t r i c a l w o r k e r s
f r o m i n c r e a s i n g . 78
B e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 19 7 5 , n e a r l y e v e r y o c ­
c u p a t i o n a m o n g the p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l ,
a n d k i n d r e d w o r k e r s g r o u p in t h i s s e r v i c e
i n d u s t r y i s e x p e c t e d to d e c l i n e a s a p r o p o r ­
tion of to ta l e m p lo y m e n t p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e
of in c r e a s in g r e lia n c e upon n o n p r o fe ssio n a l
p e r s o n n e l to s u p p o r t d o c t o r s a n d n u r s e s , a n d
to p e r f o r m r o u t i n e n o n t e c h n i c a l d u t i e s , s u c h
as c le r ic a l activ itie s.
A m a jo r excep tio n ,
m e d i c a l and d en tal te c h n ic ia n s , w ill m o r e
th a n d o u b le in n u m b e r a s a r e s u l t o f the e x ­
p a n d in g u s e o f l a b o r a t o r i e s , i n s t r u m e n t s , a n d
X - r a y t e c h n i q u e s f o r d i a g n o s i s and t r e a t m e n t .

I n c r e a s e s a m o n g c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s w ill
b e p r i m a r i l y a t t r i b u t e d to r i s i n g d e m a n d f o r
t h e s e w o r k e r s in the m o r e r a p i d l y g r o w i n g
o th e r m e d i c a l and h ealth s e r v i c e s g ro u p in g ,
w hich is c o m p o s e d of s m a l l e r e s t a b li s h m e n t s
a n d t h e r e f o r e l e s s l i k e l y to h a v e e l e c t r o n i c
d ata p r o c e s s in g s y s t e m s .
T e ch n o lo g ical in ­
n o v a t i o n s in s u c h a r e a s a s h o u s e k e e p i n g (e. g . ,
c h a n g i n g b e d l i n e n s ) , m a i n t e n a n c e , a n d fo o d
c a r e a r e e x p e c t e d to a f f e c t a d v e r s e l y e m p l o y ­
m en t am ong so m e s e r v ic e o c cu p atio n s. H ow ­
e v e r , the b a s i c n a t u r e o f h e a l t h a n d m e d i c a l
c a r e s e r v i c e s w i l l c o n ti n u e to e m p h a s i z e p e r ­
s o n a l atten tio n .
As a r e s u l t ,
an ticip ate d



sh a rp em ploym en t grow th am ong p r a c t ic a l
n u r s e s , a i d e s , and o th er atten d a n ts i s e x ­
p e c t e d to m o r e th a n o f f s e t the d e c l i n e s a m o n g
the o t h e r s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s .
L e g a l S e r v i c e s (SIC 81)
T h i s i n d u s t r y c o n s i s t s o f in d e p e n d e n t la w
o f f i c e s o f f e r i n g l e g a l s e r v i c e s on a f e e b a s i s .
The r e q u ir e m e n t s fo r l e g a l s e r v i c e s and fo r
e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y a r e e x p e c t e d to
i n c r e a s e m o r e r a p id ly than to ta l e m p lo y m e n t
a s p e r c a p i t a i n c o m e s g r o w a n d the p o p u l a ­
tion b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y u r b a n iz e d — f a c t o r s
w h i c h in the p a s t h a v e b e e n r e l a t e d to g r e a t e r
th a n a v e r a g e u s e o f l e g a l s e r v i c e s . I n c r e a s e d
b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y a n d new l a w s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s
a l s o w i l l g e n e r a t e m o r e l e g a l w o r k . In 1 9 6 5 ,
e m p l o y m e n t o f p e r s o n s w ith a p r i m a r y j o b
in t h i s i n d u s t r y w a s e s t i m a t e d a t 3 4 5 , 0 0 0 . 79
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , a b o u t 55 p e r c e n t
in t h i s i n d u s t r y w e r e l a w y e r s .
f o u r t h s o f a l l p e r s o n s w ho h a d
a s j u d g e o r l a w y e r w e r e in
The o th e r o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p
p o r t a n c e w a s the s e c r e t a r y ,
an d t y p i s t g r o u p (36 p e r c e n t ) .

of a l l w o r k e r s
(N early th r e e a p r i m a r y job
th is in d u stry .)
of m a j o r i m ­
sten o grap h er,

The in c r e a s e d d em an d fo r le g a l s e r v i c e s
w i l l n o t b e t r a n s l a t e d in to a f u l l y p r o p o r t i o n ­
a te i n c r e a s e d r e q u i r e m e n t f o r l a w y e r s .
S e a r c h fo r l e g a l p r e c e d e n ts w ill be aid e d by
c o m p u te r iz e d in fo rm a tio n r e t r i e v a l s e r v i c e s .
S e c r e t a r i a l a s s i s t a n c e to l a w y e r s w i l l b e i n ­
c r e a s e d . In 19 5 0 , t h e r e w e r e 54 s e c r e t a r i a l
w o r k e r s f o r e a c h 100 l a w y e r s in t h i s i n d u s ­
try.
B y I 9 6 0 , the p r o p o r t i o n h a d g r o w n to
65 f o r e a c h 100 l a w y e r s . T h i s t r e n d to m o r e
s e c r e t a r i a l s e r v ic e fo r e a c h law y er is e x ­
p e c t e d to c o n ti n u e a s the u s e o f the p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l k n o w le d g e a n d a b i l i t i e s o f l a w y e r s i s
m a x i m i z e d , a n d a s f i r m s c o n tin u e to g r o w
in s i z e .
E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s (SIC 82 a n d 8 4 )
T h ese m a jo r
in d u stry g ro u p s in clu d es
p u b lic and p r iv a t e e s t a b li s h m e n t s fu r n ish in g
fo r m a l a c a d e m ic or tech n ical c o u r s e s , c o r ­
re sp o n d e n c e s c h o o ls , c o m m e r c ia l and tra d e

78 For a discussion of changing technology in health services,
see U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, T ech ­
nology and Manpower in the H ealth Service Industry, 1965-1975.
79 Self-em ployed workers accounted for nearly 50 percent of
all employment in le g a l services; except for a very sm all propor­
tion of government workers, the rem ainder were private w age and
salary workers.

73

s c h o o l s , and l i b r a r i e s .
A lso in clu d ed a re
m u s e u m s , a r t g a l l e r i e s , an d b o t a n i c a l an d
zo o lo g ic al g a r d e n s.
B a r b e r s c o l l e g e s an d
s c h o o l s f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n o f b e a u t y p a r l o r
o p e r a t o r s a r e not in clu d ed .
E m p lo y m en t
S i n c e W o r l d W a r II, e m p l o y m e n t in t h e s e
m a j o r g r o u p s h a s g r o w n r a p i d l y , a n d b y 1965
h a d c l i m b e d to o v e r 4. 7 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s . 80
T h e m a j o r f a c t o r u n d e r l y i n g the s t e a d y i n ­
c r e a s e in e m p l o y m e n t w a s the g r o w t h o f the
sc h o o l age p o p u la tio n .
A t the b e g i n n i n g o f
the 1964—65 s c h o o l y e a r , a b o u t 53 m i l l i o n
p e o p l e — m o r e t h a n o n e - f o u r t h o f the c o u n t r y ' s
t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n — w e r e e n r o l l e d in s c h o o l s a n d
c o l l e g e s . T h e h i g h b i r t h r a t e s o f the 1 9 4 0 's
b r o u g h t u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n c r e a s e s in e l e m e n ­
t a r y s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t s in the e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s .
In the l a t e 1 9 5 0 's a n d e a r l y 1 9 6 0 ' s , h igh
s c h o o l s a n d c o l l e g e s w e r e f e e l i n g the i m p a c t
o f the g r o w i n g s c h o o l a g e p o p u l a t i o n . M o r e ­
o v e r , the p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u n g p e o p l e o f h ig h
s c h o o l a n d c o l l e g e a g e who w e r e a t t e n d i n g
s c h o o l w a s i n c r e a s i n g , a s the i m p o r t a n c e o f
h igh er e d u catio n al attain m en ts
b e c am e in ­
c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t to y o u n g p e o p l e . In a d ­
d it i o n , f i n a n c i a l b a r r i e r s to h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n
w ere being su rm o u n te d by r is in g fa m ily in ­
co m e, in c r e a sin g av ailab ility of sc h o la rsh ip s,
an d F e d e r a l fu n d s f o r e d u c a t i o n .
B e t w e e n 1965 and 1975, e m p l o y m e n t in
e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i s e x p e c t e d to c o n tin u e
i n c r e a s i n g , a l t h o u g h no t a s r a p i d l y a s in the
fiftie s.
T h e t r e n d t o w a r d s m a l l e r p u p i l to
t e a c h e r r a t i o s a n d the u s e o f t e a c h e r ' s a i d e s
w i l l be o f f s e t s o m e w h a t b y t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n ­
novations such as teaching machines,

lan­

g u ag e l a b o r a t o r i e s , and t e le v is io n fo r m a s s
in stru c tio n .
T o tal em p lo y m en t is e x p e c te d
to r e a c h 6 . 8 m i l l i o n in 1975.
E m p l o y m e n t in the m u s e u m s , a r t g a l ­
l e r i e s , an d b o t a n i c a l an d z o o l o g i c a l g a r d e n s
m a j o r g r o u p , w h ic h h a s b e e n l e s s th an 1 p e r ­
cent of total in d u stry grouping em plo y m en t,
w i l l no t a f f e c t f u t u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s s i g ­
n ific an tly .

O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I 9 6 0 , m o r e th an o n e - h a l f o f the w o r k ­
e r s in t h e s e m a j o r s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y g r o u p s
w e re t e a c h e r s , in clu d in g:
E lem e n tary school
t e a c h e r s (27 p e r c e n t ) ; s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h ­
e r s (17 p e r c e n t ) ; c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t s , p r o f e s ­
s o r s , an d i n s t r u c t o r s n . e . c . (6 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d
o t h e r t e a c h e r s , e . g . , t e a c h e r s in c o m m e r c i a l



a n d a r t s c h o o l s (4 p e r c e n t ) .
Sten ograph ers,
t y p i s t s , a n d s e c r e t a r i e s m a d e up o v e r o n e h a l f o f the c l e r i c a l w o r k e r g r o u p , w h i c h a c ­
c o u n t e d f o r 9 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e .
M o r e th a n o n e - t h i r d o f the c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s
w e r e c l a s s i f i e d in the m i s c e l l a n e o u s c l e r i c a l
g ro u p , w h ich c o n s i s t e d m a in ly of l i b r a r y
atten d a n ts and a s s i s t a n t s .
Serv ice w o rk ers,
who m a d e up 14 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ,
i n c l u d e d j a n i t o r s an d s e x t o n s (5 p e r c e n t ) , c o o k s
(3 p e r c e n t ) , a n d o t h e r s e r v i c e w o r k e r s s u c h
a s n u r s e r y s c h o o l a t t e n d a n t s (4 p e r c e n t ) .
B e t w e e n 1965 a n d 19 7 5 , the m o s t s i g ­
n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e
o f t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g w i l l b e in the t e a c h ­
in g o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e r a t i o o f c o l l e g e t e a c h ­
e r s i s e x p e c t e d to g r o w a s the p r o p o r t i o n o f
y o u n g p e o p l e a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e r i s e s due to
g r e a te r dem and for c o lle g e - tra in e d p erso n n el
an d the i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y to p a y f o r h i g h e r
e d u c a t i o n . A lt h o u g h e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d ­
a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e
in n u m b e r , t h e y w i l l d e c l i n e a s a p r o p o r t i o n
of to tal e m p lo y m en t.
The r e la t i v e d eclin e
o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s w i l l r e s u l t f r o m an e x p e c t e d
s l o w - d o w n in the r a t e o f i n c r e a s e in e n r o l l ­
m e n t a t b o th the e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y
l e v e l s a n d the u s e o f t e a c h e r ' s a i d e s to p e r ­
f o r m m a n y c l e r i c a l an d n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l
d u t i e s p r e v i o u s l y a s s i g n e d to t e a c h e r s . T h e
p r o p o r t i o n o f t e a c h e r ' s a i d e s ( i n c l u d e d in the
"o th er c le r ic a l w o r k e r s " group) is exp ected
to r i s e r a p i d l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h 1970,
a s the r e s u l t o f l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d in 1965 th a t
m a k e s a v a i l a b l e F e d e r a l fu n d s f o r e m p l o y ­
m ent of te a c h e r 's a id e s.
The g ro w in g p r o p o r t i o n of c o o k s w ill r e ­
s u l t f r o m the e x p a n s i o n o f lu n c h p r o g r a m s
in m o s t s c h o o l s y s t e m s .
The p r o p o r tio n of
m a n a g e r s a n d o f f i c i a l s a l s o i s e x p e c t e d to
r i s e a s the r e s u l t o f the i n c r e a s i n g s i z e o f
sc h o o l s y s t e m s and n u m b e r of p h y s ic a l fa c ilitie s .
W e lfa r e , R e lig io u s , and N o n p ro fit M e m b e r s h i p O r g a n i z a t i o n s (SIC 86)
S e p a r a te o ccu p atio n al p a tte rn s a re a v a i l ­
a b l e f o r w e l f a r e an d r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s
(SIC 866 a n d 8 6 7 ) , a n d o t h e r n o n p r o f i t m e m ­
b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s (SIC 861—8 6 5 , a n d 8 6 9 ),
w hich in c lu d e s t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s , p r o f e s ­
sio n al m e m b e r s h i p
o rg a n iz atio n s, labor
u n i o n s , c i v i c , s o c i a l , an d f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a ­
tion s .
80
Government workers accounted for about 79 percent of
total em ploym ent; private wage and s a l a r y workers for about
17 percent; and self-em ployed, 3 percent.

74

E m p lo y m en t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s r o s e
v e r y r a p i d l y b e t w e e n th e 19 5 0 a n d I 9 6 0 c e n ­
s u s e s . In 1965, e m p l o y m e n t w a s e s t i m a t e d to
b e a b o u t 1. 1 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s . 81
In I 9 6 0 ,
w e lfa r e and r e lig io u s o r g a n iz a tio n s acco u n te d
f o r a b o u t 70 p e r c e n t o f a l l w o r k e r s in t h i s
m a jo r group.
R isin g church m e m b e rsh ip ,
w h ich h a s b e e n i n c r e a s in g a s a p e r c e n t a g e
o f th e g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n , 82 a n d e x p a n d i n g
s o c i a l w e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s f o r the u n e m p l o y e d ,
the a g e d , a n d o t h e r s h a v e b e e n m a j o r c o n ­
t r i b u t o r s to p a s t e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h .
D ur­
in g 1965—75, t h e s e s a m e f a c t o r s w i l l c o n tin u e
to c o n t r i b u t e to e m p l o y m e n t g r o w t h b u t a t a
s o m e w h a t r e d u c e d r a t e th a n t h a t in the p a s t .
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tr e n d s
W e l f a r e a n d r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In
I960, p r o fe s s io n a l and t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s
m a d e up a l m o s t o n e - h a l f o f a l l e m p l o y m e n t
in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g ; th e l a r g e s t p r o f e s ­
sio n a l oc c u p atio n s, c le rg y m e n , acco u n te d for
31 p e r c e n t .
A m o n g c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s (who
m a d e up 15 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ) the
m o s t im p o rta n t c le r i c a l o ccu p atio n al group
w a s s t e n o g r a p h e r s , t y p is t s , and s e c r e t a r i e s
( 1 0 p e r c e n t ) . O v e r o n e - f o u r t h of th e w o r k e r s
in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g w e r e s e r v i c e w o r k ­
e r s , w h ich in clu d e d j a n i t o r s and s e x to n s
(10 p e r c e n t).
C le r g y m e n w ill d e c lin e slig h tly a s a p r o ­
p o r t i o n of t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t , p r i m a r i l y b e ­
c a u s e w e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s a n d the d e m a n d f o r
w e l f a r e w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e a t
a fa ste r rate. C le ric al w o rk ers, m ore sp e ­
c ific a lly s te n o g r a p h e r s , ty p ists, and s e c r e ­
t a r i e s w i l l c o n ti n u e to b e c o m e m o r e i m p o r ­
ta n t.
A s e m p l o y m e n t a n d th e s e r v i c e s of
th is s e r v i c e in d u stry g ro u p in g expand, p a p e r ­
w o r k w ill b e c o m e m o r e v o lu m in o u s and w ill
r e q u i r e m o r e c l e r i c a l h elp.
Other n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a ­
t i o n s . In I 9 6 0 , a l m o s t 23 p e r c e n t o f the
w o r k e r s in t h i s s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g
w e r e m a n a g e r s and o f f i c ia l s .
(T h is c l a s s i ­
fica tio n in clu d e s o ffic ia ls of lo d g e s, s o c ie t ie s ,
u n i o n s , e t c . ) O v e r o n e - t h i r d of th e w o r k e r s
w e r e in c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h a s s t e n o g ­
r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s , a n d s e c r e t a r i e s (18 p e r c e n t )
a n d m i s c e l l a n e o u s c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s (11 p e r ­
cent).
P r o f e s s io n a l and te c h n ica l w o r k e r s
( w h ic h i n c l u d e d B o y S c o u t a n d Y M C A l e a d e r s )
m a d e up 11 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t .
O v e r o n e - f o u r t h o f the w o r k e r s w e r e s e r v i c e
w o r k e r s ; w a i t e r s a n d w a i t r e s s e s (5 p e r c e n t ) ;
ja n i t o r s and s e x to n s (4 p e r c e n t); and oth er



s e r v i c e w o r k e r s (1 0 p e r c e n t ) .
Few sh arp
c h a n g e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a r e e x ­
pected.
T h e g r o w t h in e m p l o y m e n t f o r the
p r o f e s s i o n a l n. e. c. c a t e g o r y r e p r e s e n t s p r i ­
m a r i l y e m p l o y m e n t of r e c r e a t i o n a n d g r o u p
w o r k e r s a n d c o n t i n u e s th e t r e n d o f th e 1 9 5 0 rs .
P r iv a te H ou seh old s (SIC 88)
M o s t p a i d e m p l o y m e n t in p r i v a t e h o u s e ­
h o l d s (87 p e r c e n t in I 9 6 0 ) c o n s i s t o f w o r k e r s
such a s m a id s , clea n in g w om en, b a b y s it t e r s
a n d h o u s e k e e p e r s — a l l i n c l u d e d u n d e r the t i t l e
o f " P r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d w o r k e r . " In a d d i t i o n ,
a p p re c ia b le n u m b ers of p r a c t i c a l n u r se s,
g a r d e n e r s , and g e n e r a l l a b o r e r s a r e e m ­
p lo y e d by p r iv a t e h o u se h o ld s.
R e q u ir e m e n t s fo r p r iv a t e h o u se h o ld w o r k ­
e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to g r o w a s m o r e m a r r i e d
w o m e n w ith h o u s e s to m a i n t a i n r e t u r n to th e
la b o r f o r c e a fte r th eir ch ild re n h ave e n te re d
sch o o l or left hom e.
H o w ev er, b e c a u s e of
good b u s i n e s s con d ition s and o p p o rtu n itie s fo r
e m p l o y m e n t in s t o r e s a n d f a c t o r i e s , th e s u p ­
p l y of w o r k e r s f o r p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d s m a y
n o t m e e t the d e m a n d , a t th e p r e s e n t r e l a t i v e
w ag e r a t e s fo r h o u se h o ld w o rk and fo r oth er
jo b s.

E n g in e e r in g and A r c h i t e c t u r a l
S e r v i c e s (S IC 891)
T h is in d u str y is c o m p o s e d of e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n ts w h ich p r o v id e p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i t e c ­
t u r a l a n d e n g i n e e r i n g s e r v i c e s . In the 1 9 5 8 — 5
6
p e r io d p r iv a te w age and s a l a r y e m p lo y m en t
i n c r e a s e d 40 p e r c e n t . 83 A 5 0 - p e r c e n t i n ­
c r e a s e in e m p l o y m e n t i s p r o j e c t e d f o r 19 6 5 —
75.
R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the s e r v i c e s of th e i n d u s t r y
a r e r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y to th e l e v e l o f n o n r e s id e n tia l c o n s tr u c tio n ac tiv ity , alth ough r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s f o r r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t in the
p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s a r e p r o b a b l y of i n c r e a s i n g
im p o rta n c e .
G r e a t e r d e m a n d f o r b o th c o n ­
stru c tio n and r e s e a r c h and d e v e lo p m e n t is
e x p e c t e d to s u p p o r t the f u t u r e r a p i d e m p l o y ­
m en t g row th of th is in d u stry .

In w elfare and religious organizations, about 90 percent
o f all em ployees are private w age and salary workers. The re­
mainder are about evenly divided between government workers
and self-em plo yed workers according to the 1960 population cen­
sus. Almost all em ployees o f nonprofit membership organizations
are private w age and salary workers.
82 Source: The 1965 Yearbook o f A m erican Churches.
®3 About 80 percent o f the workers in this industry are pri­
vate wage and salary workers; most o f the rem ainder are selfem ployed workers.

75

O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s itio n and tr e n d s
O v e r t w o - t h i r d s of a l l e m p l o y e e s in the
e n g in e e rin g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s in d u s ­
t r y w e r e in th e ^p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l
w o r k e r s g r o u p . A b o u t 1 w o r k e r in 5 w a s a n
e n g in e e r and c iv il e n g in e e rs alon e w e re 8 p e r cen t of total e m p lo y m e n t.
A rc h ite c ts w ere
10 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t , a n d o v e r
fo u r-fifth s of all em plo y ed a rc h ite c ts w ere
in t h i s i n d u s t r y in I 9 6 0 .
Im portan t te c h ­
n i c i a n o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e d r a f t s m e n (16 p e r ­
c e n t ) , a n d s u r v e y o r s (6 p e r c e n t ) .
C le ric al
w o rk ers— m o stly s e c r e ta r ie s , sten o g rap h ers,
a n d t y p i s t s — w e r e 17 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l , an d
m a n a g e r s m a d e up a n o t h e r 6 p e r c e n t .
C h a n g e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e p r o ­
j e c t e d f o r t h i s i n d u s t r y in c l u d e a s i g n i f i c a n t
i n c r e a s e f o r e n g i n e e r s p r e m i s e d on a r e l a ­
tiv e ly r a p i d g row th of r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p ­
m e n t w o r k in t h i s i n d u s t r y .
A sh a rp drop
in p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m p l o y m e n t o f a r c h i t e c t s
b e t w e e n 1950 a n d I 9 6 0 w a s sh o w n b y the
c e n s u s e s for th ose y e a r s .
T h is tre n d w a s
m o d i f i e d to sh o w a s m a l l e r r a t e o f d e c l i n e
in p r o j e c t i n g f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s .
D e sp ite
the d e c l i n i n g p r o p o r t i o n , the n u m b e r o f a r c h i ­
t e c t s r e q u i r e d i s p r o j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e .
A cco u n tin g , A u d itin g, and B o o k k e e p in g
S e r v i c e s (SIC 8 93)
E m p lo y m e n t h a s b e e n g ro w in g r a p id ly and
i s e x p e c t e d to r e a c h a b o u t 3 0 5 , 000 in 19 7 5 .
A h ig h l e v e l o f b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y , t a x , a n d
oth er g o v e rn m e n t re p o rtin g r e q u ir e m e n ts , and
the g r e a t e r u s e o f a c c o u n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r
e ffe c tiv e b u s i n e s s m a n a g e m e n t a r e e x p an d in g
the d e m a n d f o r a c c o u n t i n g s e r v i c e s . 4
A c c o u n t a n t s an d a u d i t o r s c o n s t i t u t e d a l ­
m o s t 58 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in the
a c c o u n tin g , au d itin g , and b o o k k eep in g s e r v ­
i c e s i n d u s t r y in I 9 6 0 . O t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s h a v ­
in g l a r g e s h a r e s o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t w e r e
b o o k k e e p e r s (17 p e r c e n t ) ; s e c r e t a r i e s , s t e ­
n o g r a p h e r s , a n d t y p i s t s (15 p e r c e n t ) ; an d
m i s c e l l a n e o u s c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s (5 p e r c e n t ) .
B e t w e e n the 1950 a n d I 9 6 0 c e n s u s e s the c l e r ­
i c a l w o r k e r r a t i o to t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t i n ­
c r e a s e d s h a r p l y an d the r a t i o f o r a c c o u n t a n t s
and a u d it o r s d e c lin e d .
A fte r I960, c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s w ill i n c r e a s e
o v e r 80 p e r c e n t in n u m b e r , b u t d e c r e a s e in
p r o p o r t i o n b e c a u s e o f the u s e o f c o m p u t e r s
an d o t h e r i m p r o v e d o f f i c e e q u i p m e n t .
O ther



o c cu p atio n al p a tte rn s w ill re m a in r e la tiv e ly
s t a b l e e x c e p t f o r a m o d e r a t e i n c r e a s e in the
p ro p o rtio n of a cco u n ta n ts and a u d ito rs.
O th er P r o f e s s io n a l and R e la te d S e r v ic e s
(S IC 892 a n d 8 9 9 )
T h is in d u stry grou p in g c o n s i s t s of n o n ­
p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s e n g a g e d in r e s e a r c h o r
the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p u b l i c
w e l f a r e (S IC 8 9 2 ) a n d o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o f ­
f e r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s no t e l s e w h e r e
c l a s s i f i e d , in clu d in g a r t i s t s ' s t u d io s , a u t h o r s ,
s o n g w r i t e r s , w e a th e r f o r e c a s t e r s , and ra d io
c o m m e n t a t o r s (SIC 8 9 9 ) .
E m p lo y m e n t
E m p l o y m e n t in t h i s i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g
i n c r e a s e d m o r e th a n 55 p e r c e n t b e t w e e n 1950
a n d I 9 6 0 . 85 H o w e v e r , b y 1975, e m p l o y m e n t
i s e x p e c t e d to p r a c t i c a l l y d o u b le an d in c l u d e
about 240, 000 w o r k e r s .
T h is i n c r e a s e w ill
p r im a r i ly be c a u se d b y expan ded em ploym en t
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d in r e ­
s e a r c h and in fo rm a tio n d isse m in a tio n .
O ccu p atio n c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
A b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l e m p l o y e e s in t h i s
i n d u s t r y w e r e in the p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l ,
and k in d red w o r k e r s b r o a d o c c u p atio n al grou p .
M o r e th a n o n e - f i f t h w e r e a r t i s t s o r a r t t e a c h ­
e r s , and on e-tenth w e re a u th o rs or w r it e r s .
S c ie n t is t s , e n g in e e r s , and r e la te d te ch n ician s
w e r e 13 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l . S t e n o g r a p h e r s ,
t y p is t s , and s e c r e t a r i e s acco u n te d fo r 9 p e r ­
c e n t o f the w o r k f o r c e .
The r e s id u a l o c ­
c u p a tio n a l g ro u p , c l e r i c a l and k in d re d w o r k ­
e r s not e ls e w h e r e c l a s s i f i e d , in clu d e d m o r e
th a n 6 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t .
B y 1975, w o r k e r s su c h a s te c h n ic ia n s and
c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s a r e p r o j e c t e d to i n c r e a s e in
re la tiv e im p o rta n c e and a r t i s t s , a th le te s, a u ­
t h o r s , a n d e n t e r t a i n e r s to d e c l i n e a s a s h a r e
o f t o t a l — e v e n t h o u g h t h e y w i l l i n c r e a s e in
n u m b e r s . T h e s e c h a n g e s a r e e x p e c t e d to r e ­
s u l t f r o m the m o r e r a p i d g r o w t h o f n o n p r o f i t
and s c ie n t if ic in fo r m a tio n d is s e m in a t io n o r ­
g a n i z a t i o n s th a n o f the o t h e r t y p e s of a c t i v ­
i t i e s in t h i s i n d u s t r y .
84

In 1965 about 60 percent o f the workers in this industry
were private wage and salary em ployees. Almost all the re­
m ainder were self-em ployed.
88 More than 66 percent o f the workers were wages and salary
em ployees. Most o f the rem ainder were self-em ployed .

76
P o s t a l S e r v i c e (SIC 9190)
T h is in d u stry
D epartm en t.

is

th e

U. S.

Post

O f f ic e

E m p lo y m en t
P o s ta l s e r v i c e em ploy m en t h as b een in ­
c r e a s i n g slo w ly but s te a d ily , r e a c h in g 595,0 0 0
w o r k e r s in 1965.
C o n t i n u e d em ploym en t
grow th is e x p e c te d a s m an p ow er r e q u ir e m e n ts
e x p a n d to m e e t th e n e e d s o f p r o c e s s i n g the
r i s i n g v o l u m e of m a i l .

O c c u p a tio n a l c o m p o s i t i o n and t r e n d s
In I 9 6 0 , w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s a c c o u n t e d
f o r a l m o s t 92 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y m e n t in the
P o sta l S erv ice.
Two o c cu p atio n s, m a il c a r ­
rie rs
a n d p o s t a l c l e r k s , m a d e up a l m o s t
79 p e r c e n t of th e w o r k f o r c e .
O ther m a jo r
o c c u p a tio n s a r e p o s t m a s t e r s and a s s i s t a n t
p o s t m a s t e r s (7 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d l a b o r e r s , p r i ­
m a r i l y m a i l h a n d le r s (4 p e r c e n t).
S e v e r a l te c h n o lo g ic a l ch an g e s ad op ted by
th e U. S. P o s t O f f i c e D e p a r t m e n t s i n c e the
l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s a r e e x p e c t e d to h a v e a g r e a t e r
o c c u p a t i o n a l i m p a c t in th e l a t e 1 9 6 0 ‘ s a n d
e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ‘ s th an in th e p a s t .
A sm a ll d e ­
c l i n e in th e i m p o r t a n c e o f p o s t a l c l e r k s , e s ­
p e c ia l l y th o se who s o r t and c a n c e l m a il, is
e x p e c t e d to r e s u l t f r o m th e i n c r e a s e d u s e of
the " Z I P " c o d e s y s t e m .
The need fo r m a il c a r r i e r s is ex p ected
to i n c r e a s e d u r i n g the n e x t d e c a d e a s p o p u ­
l a t i o n g r o w s a n d c i t y d w e l l e r s m o v e in to s u b ­
urban a r e a s .
H ow ever, th is grow th w ill be
m o d e rate d a s m o re efficien t v e h i c l e s a r e
u s e d in h o m e m a i l d e l i v e r y a n d m o r e e f f i ­
c i e n t m e t h o d s a r e d e v i s e d to d e l i v e r m a i l to
office and a p a rtm e n t b u ild in g s.
M a il c a r r i ­
e r s w i l l i n c r e a s e in n u m b e r b u t d r o p s l i g h t l y
in p r o p o r t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d .
F u r t h e r d e c l i n e s in the p r o p o r t i o n of
p o s t m a s t e r s and a s s i s t a n t p o s t m a s t e r s a r e
e x p e c t e d a s a r e s u l t o f th e a n t i c i p a t e d c l o s i n g
of m a n y s m a l l p o s t o f f i c e s .
The sh arp in ­
c r e a s e in th e n u m b e r a n d s h a r e f o r m a i l
h a n d l e r s ( l a b o r e r s ) b e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 1966 h a s
b e e n m o d i f i e d to sh o w a s m a l l e r g r o w t h in
th e p r o j e c t i o n to 1975.

a r e a l l f u n c t i o n s u n iq u e to g o v e r n m e n t s u c h
a s le g is la t iv e and ju d ic ia l a c t iv it ie s , and r e g ­
u latory a g e n c ie s. E xclu ded a r e w o r k e r s e m ­
p l o y e d b y th e G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,
n aval sh ipy ards, v e te ra n s h o sp itals, a rm y
o rd n an ce p la n ts, T e n n e s s e e V alle y A u th ority,
P u b lic H ealth S e r v ic e , and m an y oth er a g e n ­
c i e s o r p a r t s o f a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d in a c t i v i ­
t i e s w h i c h h a v e c o u n t e r p a r t s in p r i v a t e i n ­
dustry.
T h e s e w o r k e r s a r e i n c l u d e d in th e
e m p l o y m e n t of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r i v a t e i n d u s ­
t r y g r o u p s . A l s o e x c l u d e d i s th e U. S. P o s t a l
S e r v i c e f o r w h ic h s e p a r a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l p r o ­
je c tio n s have been p re p a re d .
E m p lo y m en t
S i n c e 19 5 0 , e m p l o y m e n t f o r F e d e r a l p u b ­
lic a d m in is tr a tio n h a s g row n ab ou t 3 5 p e r c e n t
to a h ig h o f 1. 3 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s in 1965.
M o s t o f t h i s i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d in th e D e p a r t ­
m e n t of D e fe n se , w h e re n e a r ly 6 out of e v e r y
10 w o r k e r s a r e e m p l o y e d , a n d w h i c h i s e x ­
p e c t e d to c o n t i n u e a s the m a j o r e m p l o y e r
d u r i n g th e d e c a d e a h e a d .
In r e c e n t y e a r s
th e f a s t e s t g r o w i n g a g e n c i e s w e r e th e N a t i o n a l
A e r o n a u tic s and S p a c e A d m in istra tio n , D e ­
p a r t m e n t o f H e a lth , E d u c a t i o n a n d W e l f a r e ,
F e d e r a l A v ia tio n A gen cy, D e p a rtm e n t of In ­
t e r i o r , a n d th e G e n e r a l S e r v i c e s A d m i n i s ­
tratio n .
O ccu p atio n al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
B e c a u s e of th e b r o a d r a n g e of i t s a c t i v i ­
t i e s , th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t r e q u i r e s a w i d e
v a r i e t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s . In I 9 6 0 , w h i t e c o l l a r w o r k e r s m a d e up o v e r 71 p e r c e n t o f
the w o r k f o r c e . C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , the l a r g ­
e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p , c o n s t i t u t e d o v e r 43
p e r c e n t o f th e i n d u s t r y ' s w o r k e r s .
M o s t of
th em w e re s t e n o g r a p h e r s , ty p ists, and s e c r e ­
t a r i e s (11 p e r c e n t ) ; o r w e r e in th e r e s i d u a l
c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s g r o u p , w h ic h c o n s i s t e d o f
m any d iv e r s e occu p atio n s, such a s p a y r o ll
c le rk , sto ck c le r k , m e s s e n g e r , file c le rk ,
c o r r e sp o n d e n c e c le r k , and p o s t i n g c le r k
(27 p e r c e n t ) .
O th e r m a j o r w h i t e - c o l l a r o c ­
c u p a t i o n s w e r e m a n a g e r s a n d o f f i c i a l s (8 p e r ­
cent), t e c h n ic ia n s (4 p e r c e n t), e n g i n e e r s
(3 p e r c e n t ) ,
and a c c o u n ta n ts and a u d it o r s
(3 p e r c e n t ) .
M o s t o f th e w o r k e r s in th e c r a f t s m e n ,
o p e rativ e ,
and l a b o r e r o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p
w e r e e m p l o y e d b y th e D e p a r t m e n t of D e f e n s e
a n d w e r e e n g a g e d in o p e r a t i n g a n d m a i n t a i n i n g

F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t P u b lic A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,
E x c e p t P o s t a l S e r v i c e 86 (S IC 9190)
T h i s i n d u s t r y i n c l u d e s o n ly t h o s e F e d e r a l
G o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s i n v o l v e d in p e r f o r m a n c e
of p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s .
Included




88 A dditional inform ation about the effects o f technological
change can be found in BLS Bulletin 1364 (1963), Im pact o f Office
Autom ation in the Internal Revenue Service. (Presently out of
print, but availab le in libraries. )

77
the N a t i o n ' s v a s t c o m p l e x d e f e n s e s y s t e m .
In I 9 6 0 , i m p o r t a n t b l u e - c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s
w e r e m e c h a n i c s a n d r e p a i r m e n (6 p e r c e n t ) ;
l a b o r e r s (4 p e r c e n t ) ; a n d o p e r a t i v e s n. e. c. ,
w h ic h in c l u d e d w o r k e r s s u c h a s f o r k l i f t a n d
tow t r u c k o p e r a t o r s , p a c k e r s , a n d s t a t i o n a r y
f i r e m e n (4 p e r c e n t ) .
S e rv ic e w o r k e r s, in ­
c lu d i n g i n v e s t i g a t o r s s u c h a s F B I a n d T r e a s ­
u r y a g e n t s , and b u ild in g g u a r d s and w a tc h m e n
m a d e up 5 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y m e n t in t h i s
group.
A lth o u g h n u m e r o u s new p r o g r a m s a r e
b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n b y th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t ,
on ly m i n o r c h a n g e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c ­
t u r e a r e e x p e c t e d to r e s u l t f r o m t h e m . T w o
f a c t o r s te n d to m i n i m i z e the e f f e c t s o f new
p r o g r a m s . T h e p r e s e n t h ig h l e v e l o f e m p l o y ­
m e n t , t o g e t h e r w ith th e o c c u p a t i o n a l d i v e r s i t y
o f the w o r k f o r c e , g e n e r a l l y a b s o r b s e v e n
l a r g e c h a n g e s in p r o g r a m e m p h a s i s w ith o u t
t r a n s l a t i n g t h e m in to m a j o r s h i f t s in the g o v ­
e r n m e n t's o ccu p atio n al str u c tu r e .
Second,
in m a n y i n s t a n c e s , th e e m p l o y m e n t r e q u i r e d
to c a r r y out the n ew p r o g r a m i s g e n e r a t e d
in o u t s i d e i n d u s t r i e s . E x a m p l e o f t h e s e a r e
the " W a r on P o v e r t y " a n d " M e d i c a r e " p r o ­
gram s.
T h e " W a r on P o v e r t y " w i l l c a u s e
s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s in e m p l o y m e n t in S t a t e
and lo c a l g o v e r n m e n ts , e d u c a tio n a l s e r v i c e s ,
a n d p r i v a t e n o n p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; th e m a j o r
i m p a c t o f " M e d i c a r e " w i l l b e c o n c e n t r a t e d in
h o s p it a ls and other m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s .
One p r o g r a m , h o w e v e r , th a t i s e x p e c t e d
to c a u s e s t r u c t u r e c h a n g e s d u r i n g 1960—7 5,
is sp a c e e x p lo ratio n .
A lth o u g h it m a k e s up
l e s s th an 3 . .p e r c e n t of ^the g o v e r n m e n t 1s w o r k
f o r c e , the N A S A p p r o g r a m r e q u i r e s a. v e r y
h ig h p r o p o r t i o n <5f ^ s p e c i a l i z e d ^ e n g in e e r s a n d
tech n ician s.
The r a p id e x p a n sio n of s p a c e
e x p l o r a t i o n d u r i n g the 1 9 6 0 's , t o g e t h e r w ith
the g r o w i n g e m p h a s i s b e i n g p l a c e d on r e ­
s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h o u t the F e d ­
e r a l G o v e r n m e n t , w i l l r e s u l t in a n i n c r e a s e
in the p r o p o r t i o n s of s c i e n t i s t s , e n g i n e e r s ,
and te c h n icia n s.
A d d itio n al s i g n i f i c a n t
c h a n g e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a r e e x ­
p e c t e d to r e s u l t f r o m r a p i d e x p a n s i o n in the
u s e 6i e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g e q u i p m e n t
d u r i n g the 1960 's arid 1970 ' s . C u r r e n t l y the
F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t i s the l a r g e s t s i n g l e u s e r
of c o m p u t e r s ; it o p e r a t e d o v e r 2 4 0 0 u n i t s in
1966. A lt h o u g h d e c r e a s i n g in n u m b e r s , c a r d
punch u n its a r e a l s o u s e d w idely . The c o m ­
p u t e r s p e r f o r m a b r o a d r a n g e of t a s k s s u c h
a s p ay ro ll p rep aratio n ,
in v e n to ry co n tro l,
in co m e ta x re tu r n p r o c e s s in g , m i s s i l e t r a c k ­
in g , p e n s i o n a n d d i s a b i l i t y p a y m e n t p r e p a r a ­
t i o n , r e c o r d k e e p i n g , the n u m e r i c a l a n a l y s i s
o f s c i e n t i f i c an d e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s , a n d



m an y oth er rou tin e tab u latin g and d a ta c o l ­
lectin g o p e r a t io n s .
T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f the
w o r k e r s o p e ratin g c o m p u te r s and th eir r e ­
la te d eq u ip m en t,
such a s p r o g r a m e r s and
s y s t e m s a n a l y s t s ( p r o f e s s i o n a l n. e . c. ), a n d
c o n so le o p e r a t o r s (o ffice m ac h in e o p e r a t o r s )
w i l l r i s e s h a r p l y b e t w e e n I 9 6 0 a n d 19 7 5 . T h e
g r o w t h in th e p r o p o r t i o n o f k e y p u n c h o p e r a ­
t o r s w i l l b e m o d e r a t e d b y th e d e c l i n e in the
o l d e r p u n c h c a r d s y s t e m s , in w h i c h t h e i r
r e q u ir e m e n ts a r e r e la tiv e ly h igh er, and by
the a n t i c i p a t e d g r o w i n g u s e o f o p t i c a l s c a n ­
n in g d e v i c e s .
The r a tio of office m ach in e
o p e r a t o r s a s a g r o u p w i l l d e c r e a s e a s the
u s e of c o m p u t e r s e l i m i n a t e s the n e e d f o r
m an y c a lc u la tin g , tab u latin g , and oth er d e s k
office m a c h in e s.
A lth o u g h the n u m b e r o f a i r t r a f f i c c o n ­
t r o l l e r s w i l l i n c r e a s e s u b s t a n t i a l l y in the i m ­
m e d iate fu tu re, th eir p ro p o rtio n is exp ected
to d e c l i n e b y 1975.
N ew e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l
e q u i p m e n t w i ll m a k e it p o s s i b l e to h a n d l e the
g r o w t h in a i r c r a f t t r a f f i c w ith o u t p r o p o r t i o n ­
a t e i n c r e a s e s in the n u m b e r of t h e s e w o r k e r s .
The r e q u ir e m e n t s of m a n a g e r s and o f f i­
c i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w ith c o m ­
puter s y s te m s a d m in istratio n , budget a d m in ­
istration ,
f in a n c ia l in stitu tio n e x a m in a tio n ,
a n d fo o d i n s p e c t i o n a r e e x p e c t e d to g r o w a s
the b r o a d e n i n g s c o p e a n d i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x ­
ity of F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t a c t i v i t i e s c r e a t e
a g r e a te r need for m an agem en t p erso n n el.
Am ong b lu e-co llar w o r k e r s ,
d iv e rse
tre n d s a r e exp ected. R e q u ire m e n ts for n e a rly
a l l the h i g h l y s k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e a n d r e p a i r
o c c u p a t i o n s w i l l i n c r e a s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y in the
D e p a r t m e n t of D e f e n s e , to i n s t a l l a n d m a i n ­
t a i n th e w i d e v a r i e t y of e q u i p m e n t n e e d e d in
the n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e s y s t e m .
H o w e v e r , the
p r o p o r t i o n of a u t o m o b i l e m e c h a n i c s i s e x ­
p e c t e d to d e c l i n e b e c a u s e o f th e g r o w i n g p r a c ­
t i c e o f c o n t r a c t i n g ou t m a j o r a u t o m o b i l e r e ­
p a i r w o r k to p r i v a t e f i r m s .
S i m i l a r l y , the
p ro p o rtio n of s e r v ic e w o r k e r s , such a s j a n i ­
t o r s , ch arw o m en , and c le a n e r s , i s ex p e c te d
to d e c r e a s e , a s a r e s u l t o f th e t r e n d t o w a r d s
c o n tr a c tin g fo r b u ild in g m a in te n a n c e s e r v i c e s .

O p e r a t i v e s a n d l a b o r e r s w i l l m a k e up a
s m a l l e r p a r t o f the w o r k f o r c e .
T h is te n d ­
ency w ill r e s u l t la r g e ly fr o m im p ro v e m e n ts
in m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t e q u i p m e n t , i n c r e a s i n g
u s e of c o m p u t e r i n v e n t o r y c o n t r o l s y s t e m s ,
a n d th e p r o p o s e d d e a c t i v a t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l
m ilita r y b a s e s w h ere m an y of th e se w o r k e r s
a r e em ployed .

78

State and L o c a l P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
(SIC 9 2 9 0 a n d 9 3 9 0 )

t o g e t h e r w e r e 4 p e r c e n t . One p e r s o n in f i v e
w a s in th e r e s i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n c l e r i c a l a n d
k i n d r e d w o r k e r s n. e. c.

T h i s m a j o r g r o u p i n g i n c l u d e s o n ly t h o s e
State and l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s in v o l v e d
in the p e r f o r m a n c e o f p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
a c tiv itie s.
I n c l u d e d a r e f u n c t i o n s u n iq u e to
governm ent, s u c h a s th e l e g i s l a t i v e a n d j u d i ­
c ia l a c t i v i t i e s , f i r e a n d p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n ,
public a s s i s t a n c e a n d w e l f a r e p r o g r a m s ,
m otor v e h i c l e r e g u l a t i o n , an d f i n a n c i a l a d ­
m in istra tio n . E x c l u d e d a r e w o r k e r s in v o l v e d
in industry t y p e a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s w a t e r a n d
sanitary d e p a r t m e n t s , l o c a l t r a n s i t , h ig h w a y
construction a n d m a i n t e n a n c e , a n d e d u c a t i o n a l
s e r v ic e s ; a n d a l l o t h e r s p e r f o r m i n g a c t i v i t i e s
which h a v e c o u n t e r p a r t s in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y .
T hese w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d in t h e i r r e s p e c ­
tive p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y g r o u p s .

E m p lo y m en t
In 19 6 5 , a b o u t 1. 2 m i l l i o n p e r s o n s w e r e
em ployed in l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c a d m i n ­
istra tio n a n d 561, 000 in S t a t e g o v e r n m e n t
public a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
E m p l o y m e n t in b o th
State and l o c a l p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a s b e e n
risin g r a p i d l y in r e s p o n s e to i n c r e a s i n g p o p u ­
lation a n d e x p a n d i n g g o v e r n m e n t p r o g r a m s .
Betw een 1965 a n d 1975, t h e s e t r e n d s a r e e x ­
pected to c o n t i n u e , a n d a s a r e s u l t e m p l o y ­
m ent in S t a t e a n d l o c a l p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
w ill c o n ti n u e to g r o w r a p i d l y .

O ccu p ation al c o m p o sitio n and tre n d s
In I9 6 0 , w h i t e - c o l l a r a n d s e r v i c e w o r k ­
e r s m ade up o v e r 88 p e r c e n t o f the e m p l o y ­
m ent in S t a t e a n d l o c a l p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
In State g o v e r n m e n t , the m o s t i m p o r t a n t o c ­
cupations w e r e s t e n o g r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s , a n d
se c r e ta r ie s (13 p e r c e n t ) ; m a n a g e r s a n d o f f i ­
c ia ls (12 p e r c e n t ) ; g u a r d s a n d w a t c h m e n
(7 p ercen t); p o l i c e m e n a n d d e t e c t i v e s (6 p e r ­
cent); and s o c i a l a n d w e l f a r e w o r k e r s (5 p e r ­
cent). A c c o u n t a n t s a n d a u d i t o r s , l i b r a r i a n s ,
and p erson n el a n d l a b o r r e l a t i o n s w o r k e r s




In l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t , a l m o s t 45 p e r c e n t
w ere se rv ice w o rk ers.
O v er o n e - h a lf of
th e se w e r e p o lic e m e n and d e te c tiv e s and m o r e
than t h r e e - te n th s w e r e fir e m e n .
O ther i m ­
p o rta n t o ccu p atio n s w e r e m a n a g e r s and o ffi­
c i a l s (11 p e r c e n t ) ; s t e n o g r a p h e r s ,
ty p ists,
a n d s e c r e t a r i e s (7 p e r c e n t ) ; l a b o r e r s (5 p e r ­
c e n t ) ; a n d s o c i a l a n d w e l f a r e w o r k e r s (4 p e r ­
c e n t ) . One p e r s o n in n in e w a s in the r e s i d ­
u a l g r o u p c l e r i c a l a n d k i n d r e d w o r k e r s n. e. c.
T h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s in S t a t e a n d
lo c a l p u b lic a d m in i s t r a t i o n w ill not c h an g e
r a p i d l y d u r i n g 1960—75.
C om p u ters a r e e x ­
p e c t e d to p l a y a n i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e
in the p e r f o r m a n c e of m a n y g o v e r n m e n t a l
fu n ctio n s su ch a s m o to r v e h ic le r e g i s t r a t i o n
an d l i c e n s i n g , p a y r o l l p r e p a r a t i o n , p e n s i o n
a n d w e l f a r e p a y m e n t s , an d t a x c o l l e c t i o n a n d
fin a n c ia l a d m in istr a tio n . T h is tren d w ill r e ­
s u l t in s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s in c o m p u t e r r e la te d o ccu p atio n s,
such a s p r o g r a m e r s ,
s y s t e m s a n a l y s t s , keyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s , and
office m ach in e o p e r a t o r s .
C o n v e r s e l y , th e
p r o p o r t i o n s of c e r t a i n c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s ,
su c h a s acco u n tin g , bo ok k eep in g or rou tin e
c l e r i c a l f u n c t i o n s in c l u d in g p o s t i n g a n d f i l i n g ,
w ill d eclin e a s c o m p u t e r s p e r f o r m th e se
a c tiv itie s.
E m p lo y m e n t of s o c i a l and w e l f a r e w o r k ­
e r s ( e . g. , c o u n s e l o r s , c a s e w o r k e r s , a n d
p a r o le and p ro b a tio n o ffic e r s ) w ill grow a s
a d d e d e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d up on w e l f a r e , t r a i n ­
in g , g u i d a n c e , a n d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m s .
The r e q u ir e m e n t s fo r p o l i c e m e n and
o t h e r la w e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r s a r e e x p e c t e d
to g r o w c o n s i d e r a b l y a s t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n
p r o b l e m s a n d th e v o l u m e of c r i m e c o n t i n u e
to i n c r e a s e w ith p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h a n d g r e a t e r
u rb a n iz atio n .
L ittle change is expected
of th e o t h e r m a j o r o c c u p a t i o n s .

in th e r a t i o s

Appendix A
C o m p a r a b ility of O c c u p a tio n a l T i t l e s in B L S T a b le s o f O c c u p a tio n a l
C o m p o sitio n o f In d u s try E m p lo y m e n t w ith
C e n s u s O c c u p a tio n a l C a t e g o r i e s

Occupational Titles in BLS Tables
Professional, technical, and kindred
Engineers, aeronautical
Engineers, chemical
Engineers, civil
Engineers, electrical
Engineers, industrial
Engineers, mechanical
Engineers, metallurgical, etc.
Engineers, mining
Other engineers, technical
Chemists
Agricultural scientists
Biological scientists
Geologists and geophysicists
Mathematicians
Physicists
Other natural scientists
Draftsmen
Surveyors
Air traffic controllers
Radio operators
Technicians, other
Dentists
Dietitians and nutritionists
Nurses, professional
Optometrists
Osteopaths
Pharmacists
Physicians and surgeons
Psychologists
Technicians, medical, and dental
Veterinarians
Other medical, health workers
Teachers, college
Teachers, elementary
Teachers, secondary
Teachers, other
Economists
Statisticians and actuaries
Other social scientists
Accountants and auditors

Comparable Census Occupational Categories
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Sales engineers, plus engineers, not elsewhere classified.
Same
Agricultural scientists plus part of foresters and con­
servationists.
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Radio operator
Technicians, electrical and electronic, technicians, other
engineering, and physical science and technicians, other.
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Chiropractors, therapists, and nurses, student professionaL
Part of college presidents, professors, and instructors
(not elsewhere classified).
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Miscellaneous social scientists
Same

A ir p la n e p ilo t s and n a v ig a t o r s

Architects
W
orkers in the arts and entertainment

Clergymen
Designers, except design draftsmen
Editors and reporters ■
Lawyers and judges
Librarians
Personnel and labor relations workers
Photographers
Social and welfare workers
Professional and technical workers,
not elsewhere classified




Sam e

Same
Includes actors, actresses, artists, and art teachers;
athletes; authors; dancers and dance teachers; entertainers,
not elsewhere classified; musicians and music teachers;
and sports instructors and officials.
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Includes part of college teachers, farm and hom man­
e
agement advisors; part of foresters and conservationists;
funeral directors and embalmers; public relations and
publicity writers; recreation and group workers; religious
workers; and professional, technical, and kindred, not
elsewhere classified.

79

80
C o m p a r a b ility o f O c c u p a tio n a l T i t le s in B L S T a b le s o f O c c u p a tio n a l
C o m p o sitio n of In d u s try E m p lo y m e n t w ith
C e n s u s O c c u p a tio n a l C a t e g o r i e s — C o n tin u ed
—

Occupational Titles in BLS Tables
Managers, officials, and proprietors
Conductors, railroad
Credit men
Officers, pilots, engineers, ship
Postmasters and assistant postmasters
Purchasing agents
Managers, officials, and proprietors,
not elsewhere classified

Clerical and kindred workers
Stenographer, typists, and secretaries
Office machine operators
Accounting clerks
Bookkeepers, hand
Bank tellers
Cashiers
Mail carriers
Postal clerks
Shipping and receiving clerks
Telephone operators
Clerical and kindred workers, not
elsewhere classified

Sales workers
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers
Carpenters
Brickmasons and tile setters
Cement and concrete finishers
Electricians
Excavating, grading machinery operators
Painters and paperhangers
Plasterers
Plumbers and pipefitters
Roofers and slaters
Structural metalworkers
Foremen, not elsewhere classified
Machinists and related occupations
Blacksmiths, forge, hammermen
Boilermakers
Heat treaters, annealers
Millwrights
Molders, metal (except coremakers)
Patternmakers, metal and w
ood
Rollers and roll hand
Sheet metal workers
Toolmakers and diemakers
Compositors and typesetters
Electrotypers and stereotypers
Engravers, except photoengraver&
Photoengravers and lithographers
Pressmen and plate printers
Linemen and servicemen
Locomotive engineers
Locomotive firemen
Airplane mechanics and repairmen
M
otor vehicle mechanics
Office machine mechanics




Comparable Census Occupational Categories
Same
Same
Same
Officers, pilots, pursers and engineers, ship.
Same
Purchasing agents and buyers, not elsewhere classified.
Includes buyers and department heads, store; buyers and
shippers, farm products; floor men and floor managers,
store; inspectors, public administration; managers and
superintendents, building; officials and administrators,
not elsewhere classified, public administration; officials,
lodge, society, union, etc. ; and managers, officials, and
proprietors, not elsewhere classified.
Same
Stenographers; typists; and secretaries (three titles).
Same
Part of bookkeepers.
Part of bookkeepers.
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Includes agents not elsewhere classified; attendants, phy­
sician's and dentist's office; baggagemen, transportation;
collectors, bill and account; dispatchers and starters, ve­
hicles; express messengers and railway mail clerks; file
clerks; insurance adjusters, examiners and investigators;
messengers and office boys; payroll and timekeeping clerks;
receptionists; stock clerks and storekeepers; telegraph
messengers; telegraph operators; ticket, station, and ex­
press agents; and clerical and kindred, not elsewhere
classified.
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Painters, construction and maintenance; and paperhangers
(tw titles).
o
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Machinists; and job setters, metal (tw titles).
o
Blacksmiths; and forgemen and hammermen (tw titles).
o
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Tinsmiths, coppersmiths, and sheet metal workers.
Toolmakers, and diemakers and setters.
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same

81
C o m p a r a b ilit y o f O c c u p a tio n a l T i t l e s in B L S T a b l e s o f O c c u p a tio n a l
C o m p o s itio n o f In d u s try E m p lo y m e n t w ith
C e n s u s O c c u p a tio n a l C a t e g o r i e s ---- C o n tin u ed

O
ccupational Titles in BLS Tables
--Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers
C
ontinued
Radio and television mechanics
Railroad and car shop mechanics
Other mechanics and repairmen
Bakers
Cabinetmaker s
Cranemen, derrickmen, hoistmen
Glaziers
Jewelers and watchmakers
Loom fixers
Opticians, lens grinders
Inspectors, log and lumber
Inspectors, other
Upholsterers
Craftsmen and kindred workers, not
elsewhere classified

Operatives and kindred workers
Drivers, bus, truck, tractor
Deliverymen and routemen
Brakemen and switchmen, railroad
Power station operators
Sailors and deck hands
Furnacemen, smelterers, pourers
Heaters, metal
W
elders and flame cutters
Assemblers, metalworking, class A
Assemblers, metalworking, class B
Inspectors, metalworking, class B
M
achine tool operators, class B
Electroplaters
Electroplater s' helpers
Knitters, loopers and toppers
Spinners, textile
Weavers, textile
Sewers and stitchers, manufacturing
Asbestos, insulation workers
Attendants, auto service, parking
Blasters and powdermen
Laundry, drycleaning operatives
Meat cutters, except meat packing
M
ine operatives, laborers, not elsewhere
classified
Other operatives and kindred workers not
elsewhere classified

Service workers
Private household workers
Firemen
Guards, watchmen, and
doorkeepers




Comparable Census Occupational Categories
Same
Same
Same
Air-conditioning, heating and refrigeration mechanics; and
mechanics and repairmen, not elsewhere classified (tw
o
titles).
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Bookbinders; furriers; decorators and w
indow dressers;
millers; motion picture projectionists; piano and organ
tuners and repairmen; shoemakers and repairers, except
factory; stationary engineers, stone cutters and stone
carvers; and craftsmen and kindred workers, not elsewhere
classified.
Same
Busdrivers; and truck and tractor drivers (tw titles).
o
Deliverymen and routemen; and taxicab drivers and chauffeurs
(tw titles).
o
Brakemen and switchmen (tw titles).
o
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Part of assemblers.
Same
Part of assemblers.
Part of checkers, examiners, and inspectors, manufacturing.
Part of operatives, not elsewhere classified.
Part of operatives, not elsewhere classified.
Part of operatives, not elsewhere classified.
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Same
Includes apprentices; part of assemblers; boatmen, canalmen, and lock keepers; chainmen, rodmen, and axmen,
surveying; part of checkers, examiners, and inspectors,
manufacturing; conductors, bus and street railway; dress­
makers and seamstresses, except factory; dyers; filers,
grinders and polishers, metal; fruit, nut, and vegetable
graders and packers, except factory; graders and sorters;
manufacturing; milliners; motormen, mine, factory, log­
ging camp, etc.; motormen, street, subway, and elevated
railway; oilers and greasers, except auto; packers and
wrappers, not elsewhere classified; painters, except con­
struction and maintenance; photographic process workers;
sawyers; stationary firemen; and part of operatives and
kindred workers, (not elsewhere classified).
Same
Same
Firemen, fire protection
Guards, watchmen, and doorkeepers; and watchmen (cross­
ing) and bridge tenders.

82
C o m p a r a b ilit y o f O c c u p a tio n a l T i t l e s in B L S T a b l e s o f O c c u p a tio n a l
C o m p o s itio n o f In d u s tr y E m p lo y m e n t w ith
C e n s u s O c c u p a tio n a l C a t e g o r i e s — C o n tin u e d

Occupational Titles in BLS Tables
Service workers—Continued
Policemen and other law enforcement
officials
Bartenders
Cooks, except private household
Counter and fountain workers
Waiters and waitresses
Airline stewards and stewardesses
Attendants, hospital, and other institutions
Charwomen and cleaners
Janitors and sextons
Practical nurses
Other service workers, not elsewhere
classified

Laborers, except farm
Farm ers and farm workers




Comparable Census Occupational Categories
Marshals and constables; policemen and detectives; and
sheriffs and bailiffs.
Same
Same
Same
Same
Part of housekeepers and stewards, except private house­
hold.
Same
Same
Same
Same
Attendants, professional and personal services, not else­
where classified; attendants, recreation and amusement;
barbers; boarding and lodging housekeepers; bootblacks;
chambermaids and maids, except private household; ele­
vator operators; hairdressers and cosmetologists; part of
housekeepers and stewards, except private household;
kitchenworkers, not elsewhere classified, except house­
hold; midwives; porters; ushers, recreation and amuse­
ment; and service workers, except private household, not
elsewhere classified.
Same
Farmers and farm managers, and farm laborers, and
foremen.

Appendix B
E s t i m a t e d N u m b e r o f P r i v a t e W age an d S a l a r y W o r k e r s an d P r i m a r y J o b s
o f a ll E m p lo y e d P e r s o n s in E a c h In d u s tr y , I9 6 0 an d 1975

Industry

SIC codes

W
age and salary
workers 1
(in thousands)
1960
(3)

All industries—
____________________
_________
01-07
Agriculture___________________________________________
08
Forestry______________________________________________
Fisheries ____________________________________________
0
9
M
ining________________________
_______________ _ _ 10-14
__
Metal mining
___________________________ _ _
_______ _ 1
0
____
_
Coal mining_____________________________ _ _ 11,12
13
Crude petroluem and natural gas ----------------------4
Nonmetallic minerals, except fuels
______________ 1
15-17
Construction
-------------------------------------------------------

1975

(!)
(!)
(3)
712
94
186
309
123
2, 885

Durable good manufacturing
_________________________
19,24, 25,32-39 9,462
Lumber and w
ood products, except furniture _ 2
627
___ 4
_
41
Logging camps and logging contractors
---------- 2
91
Sawmills, millwork and miscellaneous
536
w
ood products-------------------------------------------242-249
383
------------------------------------2
5
Furniture and fixtures
2
605
__________________3
Stone, clay, and glass products
3
157
Glass and glass products-----------------------------21-323
Cement, concrete, gypsum, and plaster
324,327
products
-----------------------------------------------203
3
76
Structural clay products
-------------------------------25
326
47
Pottery and related products------------------------122
Miscellaneous nonmetallic products
--------------- 328,329
1,232
3
Primary metal industries_ _______ ____________ 3
_
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling
3312,3313
592
mills--------------------------------------------------------3315-3317, 332,
Other primary iron and steel__________________
318
3391,3399
322
Primary nonferrous metals
__________ _ ___ 333-336,3392
__
4,
1,298
Fabricated metal products and ordnance
------------ 3 19 exc. 194
42
135
Cutlery, hand tools, and general hardware _ 3
_
_
44
Fabricated structural metal products
_________ 3
340
Miscellaneous fabricated metal products
______ 1 exc. 194 341,
9
823
343, 345-349
Machinery, except electrical_____________________
35
1,479
_______________3
52
Farm machinery and equipment
112
Office, computing and accounting machines___
357
147
All other machinery
___________________________
351,353-356,
358,359
1,220
_
_
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies 3
6
1,467
Transportation equipment _____________ _ ___ 3
_ __
_
7
1, 587
M
otor vehicles and equipment
_________________3
71
724
Aircraft and parts______________ ______________
372
646
Ship and boatbuilding and repair
______________ 3
73
141
Railroad and other transportation equipment 374-379
_
_
76
Instruments and fire control equipment_ _ _ _ 194,381-387
_ ____
_
394
Instruments and fire control equipment_ _ _ 194,381-386
_ __
_
366
W
atches and clocks_____________________________
387
28
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
__________ 3
390
9
Nondurable goods manufacturing
____________
_______ 20-23,26-31
________________
______ 2
0
Food and kindred products
Meat products_______
_________________
______ 2
01
02
Dairy products _______________________
_
______ 2
Canning and preserving
________________________03
2
Grain-mill products _ ______________________ 04
_
2
Bakery products_______________________
______ 2
05
Beverage industries-----------------------------------2
08
All other food products
________________________06,207,209
2
Tobacco manufactures_ ________________________
_
2
1
Textile mill products---------------------------------------22
See footnotes at end of table.




83

7, 336
1,790
322
316
246
131
301
217
257
94
924

Primary jobs of all
employed persons 2
(in thousands)
I960

1975

(3)

66,681

88,6 6 0

(!)
( )
(3)
620
85
110
280
145
4, 190

5, 723
48
45
723
94
186
318
125
4, 068

3,745
70
60
640
85
110
295
150
5 ,675

11,480
550
75

9,749
688
128

1 1 ,995
615
110

475
510
655
175

560
395
614
157

505
535
675
180

235
70
45
130
1,290

209
77
47
124
1,230

245
70
45
135
1, 310

575

589

585

350
365
1,700
160
405

318
323
1, 362
136
348

355
370
1,8 3 0
165
420

1, 135
2, 050
155
270

878
1,499
113
147

1 ,245
2, 110
160
275

1,625
2, 000
1,730
790
585
230
125
520
480
40
475

1,239
1,465
1,684
723
645
240
76
403
374
29
409

1,6 7 5
2 ,0 3 5
1,840
805
595
315
125
540
500
40
505

8, 240
1,665
280
260
300
110
240
220
255
80
880

7, 558
1,813
324
319
246
132
314
219
259
93
919

8 ,6 3 0
1,7 1 0
285
265
305
110
260

225
260
80

890

84
E s t i m a t e d N u m b e r o f P r i v a t e W age an d S a l a r y W o r k e r s an d P r i m a r y J o b s
o f a l l E m p lo y e d P e r s o n s in E a c h In d u s tr y , I9 6 0 an d 1975— C o n tin u e d

Industry

SIC codes

W
age and salary
workers 1
(in thousands)
1960

1975

1,233
601
292
132
177
911
828
71
109
63

Primary jobs of all
employed persons 2
(in thousands)
1960

1975

1,525
775
300
215
260
1, 100
1, 125
120
175
85

1,241
597
289
132
176
1, 114
833
70
108
63

1, 550
790
305
220
265
1,365
1, 140
120
175
85

585
212
177
35
379
258
121
364
34
260
70

745
160
130
30
580
310
270
350
20
240
90

592
210
176
34
377
255
122
361
33
257
71

760
160
130
30
590
315
275
355
20
245
90

4, 004
885
1,665
164
121
771
85
235
191
23
75
839
706
41
92
615

4, 580
810
2, 125
170
105
1, 080
75
215
325
20
135
1, 020
865
35
120
625

4, 538
869
1,907
238
143
889
93
223
206
24
91
832
697
42
93
930

5, 390
790
2, 385
255
120
1, 180
80
220
355
20
155
1, 010
855
35
120
1,205

583
11
21

570
20
35

643
119
168

680
165
360

50
W
holesale trade____________________________________
5
01
M
otor vehicles and automotive equipment
______
Drugs, chemicals, and allied products
_________
5
02
Dry goods and apparel_
_
5
03
5
04
Groceries and related products
_________________
Electrical goods, hardware, plumbing and
heating equipment____________________________506,507
08
Machinery, equipment and supplies
____________ 5
Raw farm products and miscellaneous
wholesalers ____________________ _ _ _ _ _
_ ____
_
505,509

3, 004
215
180
130
494

4, 135
370
250
170
515

3, 199
229
183
138
523

4,405
395
260
180
545

357
480

530
825

367
508

550
875

1, 148

1,475

1,251

1,600

Retail trade
________________________________________2-59
5
Building materials, hardware, and farm
52
equipment ____________________________________
Limited price variety stores__________________ 5
_
33
Other general merchandise
_____________________ 5 exc.533
3
Food-----------------------------------------------------------54

8, 388

11,980

10,166

14,050

553
328
1,240
1, 356

585
330
2, 280
1,875

662
338
1, 275
1,790

700
345
2, 390
2, 255

Nondurable goods Continued
--Apparel and related products
___________________ 2
3
Paper and allied products
______________________ 2
6
Pulp, paper and paperboard mills _ _ _ _
_ ____
_
261-263,266
2
64
Converted paper and paperboard products
___
2
65
Paperboard containers and boxes
___________
Printing, publishing, and allied products_______ 27
_________________ 2
8
Chemicals and allied products
Synthetic fibers _____________________________2823,2824
_
Drugs
________________________
______________ 2
83
Paints, varnishes, and allied products
______
2
85
Miscellaneous chemicals
____________________ 281,2821,2822
284,286,287,
289
Petroleum refining and related industries
______
2
9
Petroleum refining_________________________ 2
_
91
Other petroleum coal products
______________ 295,299
_
_
3
0
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products_
Rubber products_ _ _______________________ 301-303,306
__
Miscellaneous plastics products
_____________ 3
07
Leather and leather products
___________________ 3
1
Leather tanning and finishing
________________ 3
11
Footwear, except rubber
____________________ 313,314
Other leather products312, 315-319
Transportation, communications, and public
utilities ------------------------------------------------------40-49
Railroad transportation_________________________
40
Other transportation____________________________
41-47
Local and suburban transit
_________________ 411,413-417
_____________________________________
412
Taxicabs
M
otor freight transportation
________________ 421,423
422
W
arehousing________________________________
_
W
ater transportation_________________________
44
Transportation by air
________________________ 4
5
Pipeline transportation
_____________________ 4
6
Transportation services____________________ 4
_
7
Communications_________________________________
48
Telephone____________________________________
481
Telegraph and communication services_ _
_ _
_
482,489
Radio broadcasting and television _ _ _ _
_ ___
_
483
Other public utilities
____________________________4
9
Electric, gas and steam companies and
systems _________________________________ 491,493,496
W
ater supply and irrigation system
_________
494,497
Sanitary services _ _ _ _ _ ______________ 4
______
95

See footnotes at end of table.




85
E s t i m a t e d N u m b e r o f P r i v a t e W age and S a l a r y W o r k e r s and P r i m a r y J o b s
o f a l l E m p lo y e d P e r s o n s in E a c h I n d u s tr y , I9 6 0 and 1975— C o n tin u ed

Industry

SIC codes

W
age and salary
workers 1
(in thousands)
1960

Retail trade—Continued
_
Gasoline service stations _____________________
Automotive dealers
________________________ _
_
_
_
Apparel and accessories_______________________
Furniture, hom furnishings, and equipment
e
___
Eating and drinking places
_____________________
Drug stores and proprietary stores— _ ___
_
Other miscellaneous retail stores______________

5
54
5 exc.554
5
5
6
5
7
5
8
5
91
59 exc.591

Finance, insurance, and real estate_____________ 60-67
_
Banking and credit agencies.
___________________ 60,61
Brokers and investment companies
_____________ 62,67
Insurance _ _ ______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _
__
___
__
__
63, 64
65,
Real estate
--------------------------------------------------- 66
Private household services
________________________ 8
8
Other service industries.
_
_
_
__
_
70-86,88
Hotels and lodging places______________
___
7
0
Laundries, cleaning, dyeing and garment
repair _____________________________________ 721,727
_
Other personal services_______________________ 722-726,729
_
Advertising_______ _____________________________
731
Other business services
73 exc. 731
Automobile repairs, services, and garages
75
Miscellaneous repair services
_________________ 7
6
Theaters, motion pictures, and producers _ _
_ _
_
78, 792
Other amusement and recreation services..
79 exc.792
Hospitals________________________________________
806
Other medical and health services______________ 80 exc.806
Legal services
__________________________________ 1
8
Educational services and museums _ _ _
_ __
_
82, 84
Nonprofit membership organizations_ _ _ _
_ ____
_
861-865,869
Religious and charitable organizations
_________
866,867
Engineering and architectural services _ _ _
_ ___
_
8
91
Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping
services
893
Miscellaneous professional services
___________
892,899
Public administration.
91-93
Post office _ _ _
_ _ _ _ ______ _ _ .. _ _
__
__
910
Other Federal
91 exc.910
State_ _
_ _________________________________________
92
Local____________________________________________
93
1 Establishment data.
2 Adjusted household data.
3 Not available.




1975

461
807
619
400
1,654
368
602
2,670
934
135
1,028
573

Primary jobs of all
employed persons 2
(in thousands)
1960

1975

625
1, 120
710
455
2,600
530
870

665
883
712
514
2, 014
417
896

865
1,210
795
605
2, 960
585
1, 340

3, 725
1, 570
205
1,245
705

2, 852
944
145
1,083
680

3, 980
1,595
220
1, 320
845

(3)

2, 554

3, 175

6, 917
565

12, 170
820

12,240
681

21,705
1,020

549
345
109
649
259
136
228
301
1, 131
518
144
747
311
568
190

605
520
125
1,640
400
205
245
590
2, 200
1,200
265
1,435
400
825
350

664
743
119
750
404
282
197
307
1,808
969
292
3, 580
304
640
243

735
1, 125
135
1,905
580
375
230
605
3, 375
1,975
455
6, 835
390
970
450

98
69

185
160

160
97

305
240

3, 218
570
1,260

5, 140
810
1,540

(3)

_
-

X
-

-

.

-

-

"

417

971

910

1,880

Ap d C
p en ix
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f I n d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, 1960 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975
TOTAL
ALL
INDUSTRIES

OCCUPATION

60

RATIO

75

AGRICULTURE
F O R E S T R Y AND
FISHERIES
TOTAL

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

11.21

14.56

1.01

1.21

1.64

.02

.07
.22
.26
.12
.23
.03
.02
.20

.06
.07
.28
.36
.19
•2y
.04
.02
.31

.35
.14
.04
.04
.03
.03
.04
.03

TECHNICIANS,EXC MEC1CAL.DENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C C N T f L L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHMCIANS.CTFER

AGRICULTURE

60

RATIO

75

FORESTRY

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

FISHERIES

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2.39

.61

1.44

46.11

51.67

3.46

4.29

.06

.01

.01

1.44

2.41

.13

.11

.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.03
1.06
.03
.03
.05
.00
.03
.21

.00
.07
1.98
.01
.05
.05
.00
.03
.21

.00
.00
.13
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OC

.00
.00
.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.52
.20
.06
.07
.03
.06
.07
.04

.18
.02
.13
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00

.44
.03
.35
.07
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.01
.03
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.12
.02
.08
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

13.16
.06
12.24
.60
.01
.04
.01
.19

15.66
.14
14.87
.69
.01
.04
.01
.09

1.89
.01
.06
1.82
.00
.00
.00
.00

2.36
.02
.17
2.19
.00
.00

1.10
.35
.07
.02
.03
.64

1.60
.42
.09
.02
.03
1.04

.10
.00
.01
.00
.00
.05

.36
.01
.02
.00
.00
.32

.08
.00
.00
.00
.00
.08

.29
.00
.00
.00
.00
.29

2.51
.34
.79
.00
.09
1.30

4.29
.74
1.31
.00
.09
2.15

.01
.00
.OC
.00
.00
.01

.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.09

MEDICAL,OTHER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
D I E T IT I A N S , N U T R I T I O N I S T S
NORSES.PROFESSIONAL
OPTOMETRISTS
CSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS
P 5 Y C H 0 L C G 1S T S
TECHNIC IANS.MtCI CAL,DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
CTHER MEDICAL,HEALTH WRKRS

1-98
.13
.04
.74
.03
.02
.17
.33
.03
.21
.03
.26

2.53
. 14
.04
.97
.02
.02
.14
.42
.05
.44
.03
.25

.26
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.25
.00

.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.50

.00

.26
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.26
.00

.52
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.52
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS.SECCMARY
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
T E A C H E R S ,OTHER

2.92
1.47
.90
.31
.24

3.45
1-39
1.24
.51
.31

.00
.00
.00
.00
•OC

.00
.00
.GO
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.03
.03
.01

.09
.03
.04
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00

.13
.09
.04
.00

.13
.08
.05
.00

.04
.00
.04
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

3.58
.64
.04
.05
.70
.30
.1C
.15
.34
.12
.15
.06
.16
.75

4.75
.74
.06
.05
.67
.27
.13
.14
.36
.15
.22
.06
.25
1.44

.45
.02
.03
.00
•0 6
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.31

1.03
.04
.06
.00
.15
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.70

.20
.01
.03
.00
.06
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07

.49
.03
.08
.00
.15
.00
.03
.00
.00

28.99
.67
.35
.16
.11
.00
.41
.04
.23
.21
.13
.00
.00
26.66

1.39
.08
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.20

28.86
.48
.17
.08
.09
.00
.18
.04
.18
.13
.09
.00
.00
27.42

.00
.00
.00
1.31

1.69
.14
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.56

M A N A G E R S , O F F 1C 1 A L S , P P C P R 1 E T G R S

10.60

10.19

.54

.98

.44

.79

5.64

4.55

7.59

8.45

CONDUCTORS,RA IIRCAD
C r EOITMEN
OFFICERS,FILOTS.ENGRS,SHIP
P C S T M A S T E R S ANC AS S I S T A N T S
PURCHASING AGENTS
M A N A G E R S , O F F I C E , F R C P . NEC

.06
.07
.05
.06
.17
10.17

.05
. 10
.04
.04
.19
9.78

.00
.00
.02
.00
.01
.50

.00
.00
.06
.00
.01
.92

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.43

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.79

.00
.00
.11
.00
.34
5.19

.00
.00
.15
.00
.28
4.12

.00
.00
2.98
.00
.05
4.55

.00
.00
3.46
.00
.04
4.94

INCLSTRY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

If C H M C A 1 . K I N D R E D

ENGINEERS,! EChNIIAL
ENGINEERS,AERONAUTICAL
ENGINEERS,CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS,CIVIL
ENGINEERS,ELE(TRI(AL
ENGINEERS,INDIS1RIAL
ENGINEERS .NECEtAMCAL
ENGINEERS,NETALLURG.ETC
ENGINEERS,PINING
CThER E N G I N E E R S . T E C H N I C A L
NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGISTS,GEL PHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS * ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
OT H E R P R O F , T E C H AND K I N C H E D
ACCOUNTANTS ANC AUDITORS
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
NRKRS IN A R 1 S , E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC DESIGN CRAFT
EDITORS AND REFCRTERS
LAWYERS ANC JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L A N D L A B R E L Wl{*S
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL AND WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,KINDRED,NEC




.06

.00

.00

.00

.00
.00

87
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f I n d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 a n d P r o je c t e d f o r 1 9 7 S —C o n tin u ed

TOTAL
ALL
INDUSTRIES
60

CLERICAL
STEALS*
OFFICE

ANC

KINOREC

WORKERS

TYPISTS.SECRETARIES
MACHINE

OPERATORS

RATIO

60

RATIC

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

FORESTRY

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

FISHERIES

RATIO

60

RATIC

75

RATIO

14.67

16.65

.57

.56

.49

.75

9.44

10.22

1.46

3.06

3.58

4.40

.16

.30

.12

.22

3.91

4.06

.37

.65

.56

.79

.01

.01

10.53
.57
1.00
.19
.72
.31
.36
.45
.53
6.35

11.46
.53
1.01
.30
1.10
.33
.38
.41
.51
6.89

.41
.02
.14
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.23

.65
.04
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.60

.36
.02
.14
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.19

.00

.15

.27

.04

.13

.53
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.49

5.35
.08
.55
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04

5.89
.04
.52
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
5.30

1.05
.03
.18
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.84

2.26
.05
.19
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
2.00

00
4

SALES

6.60

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

75

AGRICULTURE

+

OTHER CLERICAL,KINCRED WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BOOKKEEPERS,HANC
HANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
CLERICAL ANC K1NCREC,NEC

RATIO

AGRICULTURE
F O R E S T R Y ANC
FISHERIES
TOTAL

o
o

OCCUPATION

ANC

KINCRED

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
BRICKMASCNS ANC TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG,GRACNG MACH OPER
PAINTERS ANC PAPERHANGERS
PLASTERERS
PLUMBERS ANC F 1PEF1TTERS
ROOFERS AND SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

6.66

.15

.25

.14

.23

.29

.19

.76

1.41

12.84

12.81

.48

1.35

.42

1.20

6.50

7.96

1.94

2.96

3.83
1.25
.28
.07
.54
.37
.62
.07
.46
.07
.10

3.50
1.02
.26
.08
.51
.38
.51
.07
.48
.08
.12

.14
.07
.00
.00
.00
.04
.01
.00
.OC
.00
.00

.36
.22
.03
.00
.00
.06
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00

.12
.07
.00
.00
.00
.03
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.34
.21
.03
.00
.00
.05
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.19
.32
.00
.00
.09
.74
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.19
.32
.00
.00
.10
.73
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00

.53
.34
.00
.00
.7)4
.00
.11
.00
.04
.00
.00

.59
.37
.00
.00
.05
.00
.08
.00
.09
.00
.00

1.71

1.86

.10

.30

.03

.26

1.98

2.37

.34

.53

MET A L W K N G CRA F I S EXC MECH
M A C H I N I S T S ANC R E L A T E C CCC
BLKSMITHS,FCRGMN,HAMMERMEN
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
MOLOERS,METAL,EXC COREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL.WCOO
ROLLERS AND RCLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
T O O L M A K E R S ANC C I E M A K E K S

1.62
.74
.05
.04
.03
.10
.08
.06
.05
.20
.27

1.36
.57
.03
.03
.02
.10
.06
.06
.04
.21
.25

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.GO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.25
.21
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00

.23
.16
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
.00

.04
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

PRINTING TRAOES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITORS,TYPESETTERS
ELECTKOTYPERS.STERECTYPERS
E N G R A V E R S EXC PHC T O E N G R V E R
PHOTOENGRVRS.lITHCGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.45
.27
.01
.02
.04
.11

.37
. 17
.01
.02
.06
.11

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TRANSPORT AND PUP UTIL CRAFT
LINEMEN AND SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LCCOMOT1VE FIREMEN

.56
.43
.07
.06

.52
.45
.06
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.08
.08
.00
.00

.13
.13
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

MECHANICS ANC REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH ANC REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RAOIO ANC TV MECHANICS
RR AND CA R SHOP M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

3 .02
.17
1.02
.08
.15
.06
1.55

3. 5 8
.16
1.06
.12
.16
.05
2.04

.1 5
.01
.0 2
.0 0
.00
.00
.17

.58
.03
.05
.00
.01
.00
.50

.17
.01
.02
.00
.00
.00
.15

.53
.03
.05
.00
.00
.00
.45

2 .24
-O O
.25
.00
.21
.00
1.78

2 .87
.00
.17
.00
.30
.00
2.40

.5 8
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.53

1 .12
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.12

FOREMEN

NEC




88
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f I n d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, 1960 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed
AGRICULTURE
FORE S T R Y ANC
FISHERIES
1GTAL

TOTAL
ALL
INDUSTRIES

OCCUPATION

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RAT IU

75

RATIO

1.64
.15
.10
.19
.0 2
.06
.04
.03
.03
.14
•OS
.80

1.62
.11
.08
.19
.03
.04
.03
.03
.03
. 16
.09
.82

.05
.OC
.00
•O C
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
•CC
.03

.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.03
.CO
.06

1 7 . Sb

16.70

1.7E

3.56
2.66
.SC

3.58
2.62
.95

1.12
1 .0 ?
.05

T R A N S P ANC FUE LT1L O P E R A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N PR
POWER STATION CFERATURS
SAILORS AND DECKP/NCS

.23
.15
.03
.05

• lo
.12
.03
.03

S E M I S K I L L E D M E T A L W O R K I N G OCC
F U R N A C E M N . S M E L T RMN « POU R ERS
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS AND FLAME-CUTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS.MTIWKK,CLASS B
INSPECTCRS.MTLWRK.CLASS B
MACHINE TOOL E P E R . C L A S S H
ELECTROFLA1ERS
ELECTMOPLATERS HELPERS

2.18
.08
.01
.53
.15
.70
.27
.39
.02
.03

SEMISKILLEC TEXTILE CCCUP
KNITTERS,LOUPERS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS.TEXTILE
SFWEk S ANC STJTCEERS,MEG

FORESTRY

AGRICULTURE

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.02

.08
.CO
.0 0
.00
.CO
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.05

.76
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.42
.00
.00
.34

3. 15

1.7 3

3.00

1.96
1.87
.08

1.11
1.07
.05

1.94
l.Efc
•C8

•CO
.00
.OC
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

2.06
.06
.01
.65
.16
.ol
.24
.29
.02
• C3

.01
.00
.OC
.01
.00
.CC
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
•CO
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.17
.07
-G7
.05
.54

1.C6
.05
.03
.03
.S3

.OC
.00
.00
.00
.00

KINCREC

10.63

S. 82

ASBESTOS, 1NSUIATICN WRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERVICE,PAKKNG
BLASTERS ANC PCWCERMEN
LAUNDRY,CRY CLEANING CPER
MEAT CUTTE R S , E X C MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATVS,LA E C R E R S , N E C
O P E R A T I V E S ANC K I N C R E C . N E C

.03
.67
.01
. 35
.28
.42
8.93

.03
.59
.01
.51
.25
.23
8.21

12.52
3.32

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GLARDS.WATCPMEN.CCORKEEPRS
P O L I C E , CTP LAW ENFORCE OFF

75

FISHERIES

RATIO

60

RA1IG

75

RATIO
.68
.00
.00
. 13
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.10
.00
.45

1.17
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.68
.00
.00
.48

.45
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.38

5.54

7.56

3.96

7.64

2.74
2.74
.00

3.41
3.41
.00

.59
.53
.06

1.30
1.09
.21

-CO
.CO
.00
.0 0

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.09
.00
.00
.09

.11
.00
.00
.11

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.CO
.00
.CC
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.CC
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.CG

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.65

1.17

.61

1.03

2.76

4.17

3.30

6.22

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.65

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.17

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.61

.CC
.CC
.00
.CO
.00
.00
1.C3

.00
.03
.03
.00
.00
.00
2.70

.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
4.14

.00
.00
.00
.GO
.00
.00
3.30

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
6.22

14.37

.23

.38

.21

.34

1.36

1.47

1.00

1.61

3.05

.cu

.CC

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

1.15
.22
.30
.43

1.33
.28
.47
.58

.04
.00
.04
.00

.05
.00
.04
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00

.73
.05
.64
.00

.72
.24
.49
.00

.04
.00
.04
.00

.04
.00
.04
.00

FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
EARTENDEPS
COOKS,EXC PRIV HOUSEHOLDS
C O U N T E R AND F O U N T A I N KKRS
WAITERS ANC WAITRESSES

2.60
.26
.84
.24
1.27

2.98
.20
.97
.36
1. 38

•D o
.OC
.06
•CC
• ou

.09
.00
.09
.CO
.00

.05
.00
.05
.00
.00

•C7
.CO
.07
.00
.00

.40
.00
.36
.00
.04

.24
.00
.20
.00
.04

.75
.00
.75
.00
.00

1.23
.00
1.23
.00
.00

CTEER SERVICE WCRKEPS
AIRLINE STEWARCS.STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , F C S P , O T H E R INSf
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
J A N I T O R S ANC. S E X T O N S
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WCRKEPS,NEC

5.44
.02
.67
.30
.94
.34
3.17

7.01
.04
1.22
.42
1.11
.52
3.71

.12
.00
.06
.00
.01
.00
.04

.24
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.23

.12
.00
.07
.00
.01
.00
.04

.23
.00
.00
.00
.CO
-CO
.23

.22
.00
.00
.04
.09
.00
.09

.51
.00
.00
.07
.23
.00
.22

.21
.00
.00
.00
.04
.OC
.17

.15
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.11

5.50

4.26

2.45

4.04

1.69

2.74

25.13

16.36

7 9 . 7S

70.79

8.09

3. 78

92.76

86.50

54.27

89.51

.00

.00

.00

.00

OTHER CRA F T S M E N ANC KINCHED
BAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE.DERRICK,ECIST MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWELERS A M
WATCEMAKERS
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,ICNS GRINDERS
INSPECTORS.LOC- A M
LUMBER
INSPECTORS.CTEER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC KINDRED NEC

OPERATIVES

ANC

KINCREC

WORKERS

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
DRIVERS.ELS,TRUCK,TRACTOR
D E L I V E R Y M E N ANC R C U T E M E N

OTHER

SERVICF

OPERATIVES

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HOUSEPCLL

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

ANC

AND

FARM

FARM

WORKERS

ANC

WORKERS




MINE

89
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
—
TOTAL
MINING

o c c u p a t i o n

60
INDUSTRY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

TE l H M C A L , K I N O P E G

ENGINEERS,TfCENlCAl

KAEiU

75

ME T M

R A 1 10

100.00

loo.oo

£.3 3

11.33

2.70

3.71
.DO
.33
.30
.23
.35
.27
.07

6C

RATIO
100.00

MINING

75

RATIO

GCAL

oO

RATIO

CRUDE

PETROLEUM
AND
NATURAL GAS

MINING

75

PATIO

6C

RATIO

75

RATIO

NGMLTALLIC
MINING ARC
OUARRYING
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

1 D O .00

lOG.OO

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

6.97

8.74

1.83

3.24

14.62

19.37

3.29

4.87

2.55

3.15

.73

1.43

4.40

5.66

1.42

1.37

.00
.08
.13
.19
.34
.30
.41
1.67
.04

.00
.01
.05
.04
.03
.06
.00
.49
.01

.GO
.04
.14
.06
.25
.12
.00
.76
.06

.00
.51
.26
.26
.25
.26
.00
2.46
.39

.00
.56
.38
.34
.46
.34
.00
3.14
.43

.00
.18
.24
.10
.1C
.20
.04
.42
.15

.00
.25
.34
.15
.22
.22
.07
.35
.24

.27

.GO
•G6
.14
.12
.15
.25
.2 5
1.50
.06

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEGLCGIST S,GECPEYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NA1LRAL SC1INTISIS

1.71
.17
.OC
.00
1.45
.02
.02
.00

2.34
.23
.01
.CU
2.04
• 03
.03
.00

1.21
.oS
.01
.00
.30
.00
.01
.00

1.64
.48
.01
•C O
1.13
.00
.02
.00

.16
.11
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00

.25
.20
.00
.00
.05
.CO
.00
.DO

3.34
.17
.01
.00
3.08
.04
.04
.00

4.37
.22
.01
.00
4.00
.07
.06
.00

.22
.11
.00
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00

.30
.14
.oo
.00
.16
.00
.00
.00

TECHNICIANS,E>C MECICAL.DENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C C N T F C I L E R S
RADIO OPEEATCRS
TECHNICIANS,LIFER

2. IE
. 78
.23
.00
.02
1.14

2. £ 4
. 65
.26
.00
• OS
1.69

1.41
.30
•2 E
.00
.02
.81

1.56
.30
.38
.00
.04
1.24

.42
.14
.13
.00
.00
.15

.65
.13
.18
.00
.00
.23

3.56
1.53
.34
.00
.04
2.03

4.65
1.62
•32
.00
.09
2.62

.84
.18
.09
.00
.00
.57

1.36
.14
.13
.00
.00
1.10

MEDICAL,CTFER ELALTE WORKERS
DENTISTS
OltriTIANS.NUTRniCNlSTS
NURSES,PRCFtSSICNAL
C F T O M E T R I ST S
OSTEOPATHS
PFARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS A M
SURGEONS
PSYCHOLCGISTS
TE C E R I C I A N S . M L C I C A l , D E N T A L
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MEL ICAl,FEAlTF RRKKS

.04
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.01
.00
.00

.05
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.Cl
.00
.00

.21
.00
.d o
.08
•O C
.00
.00
.09
.00
.04
.00
.00

.32
.00
.00
.11
.00
.CO
.00
.14
.00
.07
.00
.CO

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.Cl
.00
.00
.Cl
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.GG

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.OC
.OC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.oc

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHHRS.SfCLNEAEY
T E A C H E R S , C C LL E C £
TEACHERS,CTFER

.0 1
.00
.00
.00
.01

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.0 2
.OC
.00
.00
.03

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.GO
.01

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.GO

SO C I A L SC IENT ISIS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
C T H E R S C C IA L S C U M I S T S

.04
.01
.03
.oc

. 06
.02
.03
.01

.11
.00
•ce
.04

.20
.00
.12
.07

.01
.00
.01
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

.05
.03
.02
.00

.06
.04
.02
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

OTHER PROF,TECH A M
KINDRED
ACCOUNTANTS A M
ALUIICRS
AIRPLANE FILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
W R K K S IN A R T S . E M E r T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CES1GN CRAFT
E D I T O R S AND H EFOR TERS
L A W Y E R S A N D JLLC-ES
L lEiRARl A N S
P E R S O N N E L AND LAE REL W RKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL AND WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,KINtPEL,NEC

l.es
1.01
.06
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.IS
.00
.13
.01
.00

2.31
1.40
.09
.00
-uO
.00
.03
• oo
. 16
.01
.21
.02
.00
.39

1.05
.73
.03
.00
.00
.GO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.16
.00
.00
. 14

1.47
.78
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
•CO
.00
.00
.21
.00
.00
.43

.48
.26
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.07
.00
.00
.04

.86
.51
.04
.00
.CO
.00
.CO
.00
.06
.00
.11
.00
.00
.14

2.84
1.78
.10
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.38
.01
.18
.03
.00
.34

3.60
2.36
.16
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.30
.02
.28
.04
.00
.38

.80
.33
.02
.00
.00
.GC
.02
.00
.05
.CO
.08
.00
.00
.29

1.30
.52
.01
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.05
.00
.14
.00
.00
.55

MANAGERS,OFFICIALS,PR OPRIETOKS

S.42

9.93

4.45

3.69

4.35

4.54

13.35

1 2 . 8S

10.70

11.60

CONDUCTORS,RAIERCAD
CRFDITMEN
OFFICERS,PILOTS,tNGRS,SHIP
PCSTMASTERS A M
ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
M A N A G E R S , C E E I C E , P R O F - NEC

.00
.02
.10
.00
.23
S. 0 6

.00
.02
.12
.00
.28
9. Pi

.02
.00
.00
.00
.33
4 . OS

.02
.00
.00
.00
.33
3.34

.00
.00
.00
.00
.14
4.21

.00
.CO
.00
.00
.21
4.33

.00
.05
.19
.00
.26
12.84

.00
.05
.21
.00
.28
12.35

.00
.00
.11
.00
.18
10.40

.00
.00
.09
.00
.30
11.20

ENGINEEHS.AERLNALTICAL
ENGINEERS,CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS,CIVIL
ENGINFERS,ELEfTRIfAL
ENGINEERS,iNClSTRlAL
ENGINE ER S . M IL EAN U A L
ENGINFERS,REIALLLEG,ETC
ENGINEERS,FINING
CTFER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL




.00
.27
.18
•16
. 16
. lc
.
.04
1.46
.21

l. 69

.00

90
Ratios of Occupational Composition of Industry Employment, I960 and Projected for 197 5— Continued

O C CU PA TI ON

TOTAL
MINING

METAL MINING

COAL MI NI NG

CRUDE P E TR OL EU M
AND
NA TU RA L GAS

N0 ME T A L L 1 C
MINING AND
Q U AR RY IN G

60 PA TI O
CL ER I C A L A N D KI ND RE D WORKERS
STENOS, T Y P I S T S. SE CR ET AR IE S
OF FI CE M A CF IN E CPERATCRS
CTHFR C L E R I C A L , K I N C R E D WRKRS
A C C O UN TI NG CLERKS
BO OK KE EP ER S «FIA NC
BANK TE LL ER S
C A SH IE RS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CL ER KS
S H I P P I NG ,R EC EI VI NG CLERKS
T E LE PH ON E OP ER AT OR S
CL ERICAL ANC KI NC RE D, NE C

75 PAT 10

60 RA T I U

75 RATIO

60 RA TI U

75 RATIO

60 RA TI O

75 RATIO

60 RA T I O

75 RATIO

8.91

10.58

6.11

6.66

3.75

6.31

13.60

15.68

6.76

7.89

2.95

3.90

1.75

2.03

.69

.57

5.63

7. 06

1.17

1.26

.15

.52

.22

.65

.03

.10

.26

.86

.06

.18

5.81
.63
.69
.00
.01
.00
.00
.1C
.10
6.68

6.17
.65
.72
.00
.00
.00
.00
. 16
.09
6.75

6.10
.22
.30
.00
.02
.00
.00
.08
.16
3.32

3.98
.17
.23
.00
.01
.00
.00
.05
.17
3.36

3.23
.27
.36
.00
.02
.00
.00
.10
.03
2.66

3.66
.36
.60
.00
.02
.00
.00
.11
.05
2.70

7.93
.58
.98
.00
.01
.00
.00
.06
.16
6. 17

7.58
.61
1.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.09
.12
5.72

5.52
.63
.73
.00
.00
.00
.00
.28
.02
6.06

6.67
.33
.55
.00
.00
.00
.00
.39
.02
5.16

.63

.57

.06

.06

.36

.63

.66

.60

.72

.77

26.26

26.69

29 .8 0

33.05

23.78

30.89

22.13

19.23

26.13

25.27

CO NSTRUCT ION CRAF TS ME N
CARPENTERS
B R I C KM AS ON S AN C 1 ILE SETRS
C E ME NT ,C ON CR ET E FI NISHERS
EL EC TR IC IA NS
EX CA V A T N G . G R A C K G MACH OPER
PA INTERS ANC FAPEPH AN GE RS
PL AS TE RE RS
PLUM BE RS ANC PIPE FI TT ER S
RO OF ER S ANC SLATERS
ST RU CT UR AL METALW OR KE RS

6.15
.50
.05
.00
1.52
3.60
.16
.00
.25
.00
.03

5.80
.38
. 10
.00
1.36
3.66
.10
.00
• 3o
.00
.06

9.18
1.21
.11
.00
2.76
6.12
.26
.00
.76
.00
.00

9.38
.56
.08
.00
2.65
6.52
.07
.00
1.07
.00
.00

9.29
.53
.20
.00
3.20
5. 16
.02
.00
.18
.01
.01

10.32
.38
.23
.00
3.73
5.66
.01
.00
.31
.01
.01

1.28
.16
.02
.00
.31
.38
.21
.00
.17
.00
.06

1.13
.10
.06
.00
.30
.32
.05
.00
.21
.00
.07

11.57
.82
.12
.00
1.15
9.09
.19
.00
.20
.00
.00

9.66
.62
.15
.00
.97
7.38
.21
.00
.30
.00
.02

SALES WORKERS
C R A F T S M E N , F O R E M E N ANC KINDRED

F O RE ME N NEC

5.65

6.51

7.36

8.86

6. 67

9.22

5.57

6.70

2.11

2.82

M E TA LW KN G CRAFTS EXC MECH
M A C H I N I S T S ANC RE LA TE D OCC
BL KS MI T H S . F C P G M N . H A M M E R M E N
BL ILERMAKERS
HEAT TR EA T E R S , A N N E A L E R S
MI LL WR IG HT S
M U LD ER S, ME TA L, EX C CCRE MK RS
PA TT ER NM A K E R S . M E T A L . W O O D
ROLLERS ANC ROLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
TO OL M A K E R S ANC ClEMAKERS

1.39
.53
.67
.08
.00
.06
.00
.00
.01
.02
.03

.92
.67
.26
.06
.02
.06
.00
.00
.01
.03
.06

2.31
1.08
.66
.65
.00
.10
.00
.00
.06
.07
.07

1.66
.88
.26
.25
.00
.05
.00
.00
.10
.05
.07

.88
.69
.17
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.07
.56
.12
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.52
.20
1.23
.03
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.06

.55
.08
.36
.02
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.05

1.10
.68
.16
.01
.00
.26
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02

1.01
.66
.09
.00
.00
.26
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02

PRIN TI NG TR AD ES CRAFTSMEN
CC M P O S I T O R S , T Y P E S E T T E R S
EL EC TR OT YP E R S , S T E R E O T Y P E R S
EN GR AV ER S EXC PF G1 0ENGRVER
PH OT OF NG RV R S . l I T H C G R A P H E R S
P R E S S M EN ,P LA TE PRINTERS

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.01
.00
.00
.CO
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.OG
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.0.0
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00

.06
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.CO

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

T R AN SP OR T AND POE UTIL CRAFT
LI NE ME N ANC SERV IC EM EN
LCCCMOT IVE ENGINEERS
L O C O MO TI VE FIREMEN

.19
.01
.16
.02

.15
.01
.17
.01

1.03
.00
.50
.13

.51
.00
.66
.07

.11
.00
.09
.01

.16
.00
.13
.01

.02
.02
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00

.12
.00
.12
.00

.16
.00
.16
.00

M E CH AN IC S ANC REPA IR ME N
A I RP LA NE MECH ANC REPA IR MN
MOTOR V E H I C L E ME CHANICS
OF FI CE MACHINE ME CHANICS
RADIO AN C TV ME CHANICS
RR AN D CAP SHOP MECHANICS
OTHER M E C H A N I C S AND RE PAIR

6.19
.01
.18
.00
.01
.01
3.98

5.69
.03
.25
.00
.06
.01
5.37

5.73
.00
.39
.00
.00
.07
5.28

7.70
.00
.62
.00
.00
.06
7.22

6.70
.00
.09
.00
.02
.00
6. 59

8.18
.00
.17
.00
.06
.00
7.97

3.09
.02
.10
.00
.01
.00
2.96

3.82
.06
.11
.00
.06
.00
3.61

5.10
.02
.38
.00
.02
.00
6.68

6.60
.03
.67
.00
.06
.00
5.86




91
Ratios of Occupational Composition of Industry Employment, 1960 and Projected for 197 5-- Continued

OC CUPATION

TOTAL
MINING

METAL MINING

CRUDE P E TR OL EU M
AND
N A TU RA L GAS

COAL MINING

NC ME TA LL IC
MINING AND
QU ARRYING

60 RATIO

75 RATIO

60 RA TI O

75 RATIO

60 RA T I O

75 RATIO

60 RATIO

75 RATIO

60 RATIO

75 RATIO

6.82
.01
.00
.85
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.36
.00
5.55

5.37
.02
.00
.92
.00
.00
.00
.01
.Cl
.30
.00
4.10

4.18
.00
.00
1.92
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.54
.00
1.72

4.53
.00
.00
2.23
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.59
.00
1.72

2.13
.00
.00
.54
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.59
.00
1.00

1.57
.00
.00
.55
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.32
.00
1.10

10.62
.01
.00
.14
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.19
.00
10.27

6.95
.04
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.28
.00
6.51

6.12
.00
.00
2.34
.03
.00
.00
.02
.00
.29
.00
3.45

5.24
.00
.00
2.07
.01
.00
.00
.04
.00
.19
.00
2.93

47.46

41.73

50.27

45.12

65.11

55.49

35.12

32.54

50.51

47.80

4.59
4.53
.06

6.17
6.04
.12

3.98
3.94
.04

5.76
5.74
.02

3.98
3.96
.02

6.28
6.26
.02

2.60
2.54
.06

2.87
2.71
.15

11.02
10.67
.15

12.81
12.61
.20

TRANSP ANC FUE LTIL CP ERATVS
ER AKEMEN ANC SWITCHMEN RR
POWER S T AT IO N OPERATORS
SAILORS ANC DECKHANDS

.06
.03
.01
.04

.08
.02
.00
. C6

.11
.10
.01
.00

.06
.06
.00
.00

.03
.02
.00
.01

.05
.05
.00
.00

.06
.01
.00
.05

.13
.00
.00
.13

.15
.03
.07
.05

.02
• 02
.00
.00

SEMI SK IL LE D ME TA LW CP KI NG OCC
F L R N A C E M N . SM EL TR MN .P OL RER S
HE AT ER S, ME TA L
WELDERS ANC FL AM E-CUTTERS
A S S E M B L E RS ,M TL WP K, CL AS S A
A S S E MB LE RS ,M TL WR K, CL AS S B
I N SP EC TO RS ,M TL WP K, CL AS S 6
MACHINE TOOL OP ER ,C LA SS B
ELEC TR OP LA TE RS
E L E C TR OP LA TE RS HELPERS

1.07
.03
.00
1.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1. fco
.06
.00
1.62
.00
.00
.00
• CO
.00
.00

2.45
.19
.00
2.26
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

3.74
.43
.00
3.30
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.96
.00
.00
.98
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

2.07
.00
.00
2.07
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.57
.00
.00
.57
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.76
.00
.00
.76
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.46
.00
.00
1.46
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

2.01
.00
.00
2.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

OTHER OP ER A T I V E S ANC KINOREO

41.72

33.61

43.73

35.56

60.12

47.08

31.69

28. 7S

37.85

32.96

ASBESTOS, INSULATION WRKS
A T TE ND .A LT O SERV IC E, PA RK NG
BLASTERS ANC FCWCERMEN
L A UN DR Y. DR Y CL CANINE OPER
MEAT CU T1 ER S, EX C ME ATPCKNG
MINE O P E R A T V S ,L AB OR ER S, NE C
OPERAT IV ES ANC KINC RE C, NE C

.00
.00
.44
.00
.02
36.86
2.35

.00
.00
.39
.00
.02
31.24
2.15

.01
.00
.45
.OG
.04
40.76
2.43

.01
.00
.80
.00
.04
32.46
2.26

.01
.00
.84
.00
.05
54.19
5.04

.00
.00
.52
.00
.05
40.13
5.S6

.00
.01
.21
.00
.00
30.89
.78

.00
.00
.05
.00
.01
28.51
.22

.00
.00
.38
.00
.01
34.90
2.55

.00
.00
.45
.00
.01
29.41
3.09
1.79

OTHER CR A F T S M E N AND KINDRED
EAKERS
C A B I NE TM AK ER S
C R AN E. OE RR IC K, HC IS T MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWE LE RS ANC WATCHMAKERS
LECM FIXERS
C P I I CI AN S. LE NS GRINOEPS
IN SP ECTCRS.LOG ANC LUMBER
IN SPECTORS,OTHER
UPHOLSTEfitRS
C R AF TS ME N AN O KINCREO NEC
O P ER AT IV ES ANC KINCREC WORKERS
DRIVERS A N £ DE LIVERYMEN
DR IVERS,EL S. TR UC K, TR AC TO R
DE LI VE RY ME N ANC RCUT EM EN

SE MI SK IL LE C I E X U L E CCCUP
K N I T T E R S , L OO PE RS .T CF PE KS
SP IN NE RS ,T EX TI LE
WEAVERS. TE XT IL E
SFWERS ANC ST I TCP HRS,MEG

SE RV IC E WORKERS

1.21

1.37

2.73

2.92

.86

.90

.70

.88

1.91

PRIVATE HCLS EH CL l WORKERS

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.CO

.00

.00

.00

.00

PR OTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GU AR DS ,W AT CH ME N. DO CR KE EPR S
POLICE,C1F LAW ENFORCE OFF

.55
.01
.56
.02

.41
.01
.38
.02

1.37
.05
1.21
.11

1.20
.08
1.01
.11

.57
.00
.55
.02

.45
.CO
.42
.03

.13
.00
.13
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00

1.20
.00
1.20
.00

.67
.00
.67
.00

FOOD SE RV IC E WCRKtRS
FARTENDERS
COCK S. EX C PRIV HOUSEH OL DS
COUNTER ANO FOUNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES

.11
.00
.10
.00
.01

.15
.00
. 14
.00
.00

.05
.00
.04
.02
.02

.07
.00
.03
.02
.01

.02
.00
.01
.00
.01

.03
.00
.01
.00
.02

,17
.00
.17
.00
.00

.23
.00
.23
.00
.00

.08
.00
.06
.00
.00

.11
.00
.11
.00
.00

OTHER S E RV IC E WORKERS
AIRLINE S T E W AR DS ,S TW RC SS ES
A T T E N D A N TS .H OS P. OT FE R INST
CHAR WO ME N ANC CLEANERS
JA NITORS ANC SEXTONS
NL RS FS .P RA CT IC AL
SERVICE WO RK ER S, NE C

.52
.00
.00
.05
.30
.01
.17

.61
.00
.00
.08
.41
.00
.31

1.26
.00
.00
.12
.52
.05
.15

1.65
.00
.00
.24
1.15
.04
.23

.27
.00
.00
.03
.14
.00
.09

.42
.00
.00
.04
.22
.00
.17

.40
.00
.00
.03
.19
.00
.19

.61
.00
.00
.06
.24
.00
.31

.63
.00
.00
.07
.36
.00
.20

1.01
.00
.00
.08
.46
.00
.47

L A BO RE RS ,E XC EP T FARM ANC MINE

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

FA RM ER S AND FARM WORKERS

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00




92
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed
C O N S T R U C T 1UN

60
INDUSTRY

TUTAL

RATIO
100.00

75

RATIO
100.00

TOTAL
DURABLE GOODS
MANUFACTURING

TOTAL
MANUFACTURING

OCCLPAIIUN

60

RATIO

75

PATIO

100.00

1C0.C0

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

LUMBER
AND
WOOL) P R O D U C T S
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

LOGGING CAMPS
AND
CONTRACTORS
60

RATIO

7b

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

5.55

7.20

7.85

11.24

9.70

13.60

1.19

2.41

.53

1.51

2.12

2.67

2.79

3.88

4.25

5.66

.16

.23

.08

.10

.00
.01
1.86
.06
.02
.05
.00
.00
.07

.CO
.01
2.39
.07
.02
.10
.00
.00
.08

.23
.19
.08
.65
.39
.66
.10
.01
.46

.22
.24
.09
.53
.64
.51
.14
.01
.71

.41
.09
.10
1.13
.59
1.06
.17
.00
.69

.37
.10
.11
1.56
.91
1.39
.23
.00
1.C1

.00
.01
.02
.01
.03
.01
.00
.00
.07

.00
.02
.02
.01
.05
.02
.00
.00
.12

.00
.00
.08
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

•04
.01
.00
.00
.01
.Cl
.00
.00

.04
.01
.00
.00
.01
.02
.00
.00

.7 2
.37
.03
.04
.01
.05
.06
-05

.51
.55
.04
.C6
.02
.05
.09
.06

.39
.17
.01
.00
.01
.09
.10
.03

.52
.19
.01
.01
.02
.14
.13
.03

.13
.03
-09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.27
.11
.16
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TECHNICIANS,E>C MEDICAL,DENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR TRAFFIC CCNTRCLLERS
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS,CTFtR

2.25
.65
.33
.00
.01
1.27

2. 56
. 73
.52
.00
.01
1.70

1.52
.74
.00
.00
.00
1.17

2.57
.50
.00
.00
.00
2.06

2.68
1.2 i
.00
.00
.01
1.47

3.90
1.41
.Cl
.00
.01
2.46

.34
.23
.03
.00
.01
.08

.50
.33
.05
.00
.02
.11

.09
.03
.02
.00
.00
.04

.09
.03
.01
.00
.00
.04

MEDICAL.OTHER HEALTH WORKERS
CHNTISTS
DIETITIANS,NUTRITIONISTS
NERSES.PRCFESSIONAL
OPTOMETRISTS
CSTEC, P A T H S
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS AND SLRGEONS
P S Y C H O L O G ISIS
TECHNICIANS,METICAL .DENTAL
VEIFRINARIANS
OTHER MEC ICAL,HEALTH RRKRS

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.GO
.00
.GC
.00
.00

.00
.00
•Co
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.10
.00
.00
.05
.00
.CC
.01
.01
.00
.02
•O C
.0 0

.11
.CO
.00
.06
.00
.GO
.01
.01
•CO
.02
.00
.0 0

.10
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.03
.00
.00

.12
.00
.00
.07
.00
.00
.CO
.Cl
.00
.03
.00
• CO

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.CC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMEMARY
TEACHERS,StCCNEARY
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEACFERS.CIEER

.01
.00
.00
.CO
.01

.0 0
.oo
.00
.00
.u o

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.C3
.CO
.00
.00
.03

.02
.00
.0 0
.00
.02

.03
.00
.00
.CO
.03

.00
.00
.00
.00
•C O

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
•CC

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECLN0MIS1S
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
CIHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.0 1
.0 0
.01
.00

.0 1
.0 0
.01
.00

.0 6
.03
.03
.00

.0 7
.0 3
.03
.01

.0 7
.03
.04
.00

.0 7
.03
.04
.00

.0 1
.0 0
.01
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

OTHER P R O F ,TECH AND KINDRED
A C C O U N T A N T S ANE A U DITORS
AIRPLANE PILOTS.NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
RRKRS IN A R I S . E M E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC DESIGN DRAFT
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
LAWYERS AND JICGES
LIERARIANS
PER S O N N E L AND LAB REL WRKS
PEOTOGRAPEtRS
SOCIAL AND WELFARE WORKERS
FREE,TFCE.KINERED,NEC

1.11
.27
.01
.03
.02
.00
.09
.00
.03
.00
.03
.00
.00
.63

1.52
.38
.01
.03
.02
.00
.13
.00
.03
.00
.08
.00
.00
.85

2.35
.65
.01
.01
.26
.00
•2 1
.43
.04
.01
.20
•C 5
.00
.45

3.29
.67
.02
.01
.27
.00
.27
.42
.03
.02
.26
.11
.00
1.20

2.18
.71
.02
.01
.25
.00
.24
.04
.04
.01
.24
.09
.00
.58

3.26
.73
.02
.01
.25
.00
.26
.05
.03
.02
.25
.04
.00
1.55

.53
.23
.01
.01
.01
.00
.04
.00
.01
.00
.06
.00
.00
.16

1.35
.29
.01
.04
.03
.00
.09
.00
.01
.00
.10
.00
.00
.75

.76
.14
.01
.00
.CG
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.60

1.30
.19
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.03
.00
1.03

MANAGERS,OFFICIALS»P6CPkIETCRS

11.55

11.29

6.16

6.20

5.72

5.57

7.35

7.15

6.86

9.53

CCNOUCTCRS,RAILROAD
CREOITMEN
OFFICERS,PILOTS,ENG6S,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING A G E M S
MANAGERS,OFFICE,PROP. NEC

.00
.00
.03
.00
.03
11.53

.00
.CO
.03
.00
.03
1 1.23

.00
.05
.01
.00
.35
5.73

.CO
.06
.01
.CO
.44
5.63

.01
.03
.01
.00
.47
5.20

.CO
.05
.Cl
.00
.56
5.35

.01
.00
.00
.00
.31
7.03

.00
.00
.00
.00
.36
6.79

.02
.00
.00
.00
.51
6.33

.00
.00
.00
.00
.69
6.84

PROFESSIONAL

1 E C H N J C A l ,K I N D R E O

ENGINEERS.TECHNICAL
ENG I N F E R S ,A E R C N A L T I C A L
ENGINEERS.CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS.CIVIL
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAL
ENG I N F E R S , I N C L S T R I A L
ENGINEERS.MECHANICAL
ENGINEERS.METALLURG.ETC
ENGINEERS,MINING
O T HER EN G I N F E R S , 1 E C E N ICAL
NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
eiOLGGICAL SCIENTISTS
C-ELLOGISTS, G E O P H Y S I C I S T S
MATHEMATICIANS
PhYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS




93
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C o n tin u ed
TOTAL
MANUFACTURING

60
CLERICAL
STENUS,
OFEICE

ANC

K1NCRIC

WORKERS

TYP 1STS , S E CRETARIES
M A C E IKE

CFERATGRS

CTLER CLERICAL.K1NCREC WKKRS
A C C O U N T IRC- C L E R K S
BCCKKEEPERS.HANC
LANK T E L LERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SLIPPING,RECEIVING CLtRKS
TELEPHONE OFERATCRS
CLE R I C A L ANC K I N C P E C . N E C

SALES

AND

KINCHED

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CAKPtNTERS
E R I C K M A S O N S A N C T I L E St IRS
CEMENT,CCNCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.C-HALNG MACH OPER
P A I N T E R S A N C f A P E RE.A N G E R S
PLASTERERS
PLUMPERS ANC PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS ANt SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS
FOREMEN

75

RATIO

60

R a TIL

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

4.31

6.05

12.37

12.07

1.26

1.79

3.12

3.38

3.28

.04

.08

.57

.78

.52

3.01
.52
.66
•0 0
.01
•G O
•C O
.02
.04
1.75

9.18
.69
.63
.00
.01
.GO
.00
.01
.09
2.60

8.68
.51
.56
.00
.06
.00
.CC
1.18
.16
6.20

7.51
.91
.97
.00
.05
.00
.00
1.C 7
.15
5.76

8.67
.95
.93
.00
.09
.00
.00
1.06
.19
6.59

12.96

75

RATIO
11.72

WOLD
60

LUMBER
AND
PRODUCTS

RATIO

75

RATIO

LOGGING CAMPS
ANO
CONTRACTORS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

5.05

5. 8 0

.97

.92

3.52

1.07

1.50

.17

.21

.79

.19

.18

.05

.09

7.96
.38
.37
.00
.03
.00
.00
.51
.13
5.69

3.89
.29
.72
.00
.01
.00
.00
.50
.03
2.33

9.12
.22
.71
.00
.02
.00
.00
.55
.02
2.60

.79
.16
.19
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.92

.07
.10
.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.92

.30

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

K A Till

TOTAL
CURABLE GOODS
MANUFACTURING

o
CD

CONSTRUCTION
o c c u p a t i o n

NEC

.37

3.23

3.59

1.85

2.10

1.56

.26

.38

51.80

9 8.56

18.55

19.93

22.99

22.50

12.06

15.74

5.77

8.03

99.36
16.19
9.00
1.11
3.38
9.59
7.35
1. 17
9.61
1.15
.92

38.69
11.89
3.98
1.30
3.61
9.76
5. 71
.99
9.67
1.11
1.11

1.56
.95
.08
.00
.70
.07
.15
.00
.36
.01
.15

1.53
.92
.07
.00
.63
.06
.11
.00
.93
.01
.19

2.68
.65
.12
.00
.92
.09
.23
.00
.39
.01
.26

2.57
.62
.10
.00
.60
.07
.17
.00
.47
.00
.32

2.33
1.61
.01
.01
.20
.38
.06
.00
.05
.01
.00

2.73
1.94
.01
.01
.22
.47
.05
.00
.03
.01
.00

1.26
.11
.00
.00
.03
1.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.56
.09
.00
.00
.03
1.44
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

2.23

3.12

9.12

9.63

9.25

4.75

3.16

4.10

1.89

2.58

M E T A L W K N G C R A E I S EXC M E C H
MACHINISTS ANC RELATEC OCC
BLKSMIThS.FCRGMN.EAMMERMEN
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGhTS
MOLOERS,METAL,EXC CCREMKr S
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WLUU
ROLLERS AND RCLL LANDS
SLEET METAL WORKERS
T O O L M A K E R S ANC C I E M A K I K S

1.17
.07
.03
.10
.00
. 12
.00
.00
.00
.69
.01

1.96
.06
.09
. 13
.ou
.19
.00
.00
.00
1.09
.00

5.38
2.59
.10
.08
.12
.36
.31
.22
.18
.96
1.01

9.56
2.19
.07
.07
.10
.36
.27
.21
.16
.96
1.06

8.90
9.21
.17
.11
.20
.94
.55
.38
.32
.78
1.73

7.51
3.50
.12
.10
.18
.44
.46
.35
.28
.75
1.74

1.05
.16
.02
.00
.00
.77
.00
.04
.00
.04
.02

1.42
.33
.02
.00
.00
.98
.00
.03
.00
.04
.02

.15
.05
.01
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.GO
.00

.24
.06
.00
.00
.00
.18
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
CCMPUSITORS,TYPESETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS,STEREOTYPERS
E N G R A V E R S E X C PFC TCfcNGRVER
PHLTUENC-RVPS.l IIECGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,FLAIE PRINTERS

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.69
.58
.05
.05
.13
.92

1.97
.67
.02
.07
.26
.95

.13
.05
.00
.04
.02
.02

. 13
.04
.00
.04
.02
.03

.03
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.oo
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

T R A N S P O R T ANC POE LTI L C R AFT
LINEMEN AND SERVI C E M E N
E C C C M O T IVE E N G I N E E R S
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.18
.18
.00
.00

.39
.39
.00
.00

.05
.09
.01
.00

.09
.07
.02
.00

.09
.06
.02
.00

.14
. 12
.02
.00

.02
.00
.01
.00

.02
.00
.01
.01

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

MECHANICS ANC REPAIRMEN
A IRPLANE MECF AND R E P A I R M N
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
R A C I O A N C TV M E C H A N I C S
RR A N D CAP SHI P M E C H A N I C S
OIHER MECHANICS ANC REPAIR

2.03
.00
.19
.00
.02
.00
1.E7

2.66
.00
. 19
.00
.02
.00
2.50

2.92
.23
.26
.09
.09
.01
2.35

3.61
.16
.21
.05
.06
•G1
3.13

3.38
.40
.37
.06
.07
.01
2.47

3.64
.27
.26
.06
.10
.01
3.05

1.28
.00
.11
.00
.00
.01
1.16

2.22
.00
.10
.00
.00
.01
2.11

.63
.00
.15
.00
.00
.00
.64

1.34
.00
.24
.00
.00
.00
1.11




94
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 a n d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C o n tin u ed

CONSTRUE. H O N

TOTAL
MANUFACTUR1NG

OCCUPATION

60
C T H E R C R A F T S M E N ANC K I N CktC
EAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
C R A N E,UERRICK,HC]ST MEN
GLAZIERS
J E W E L E R S ANE W A T C H M A K E R S
LLLM FIXERS
CPTICIAN5,LENS GRINDERS
1 N S P E C T C R S . L C G ANC LUM6ER
INSPECTORS,CTHER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC NINC8E0 NEC

K A1II3

73

: A l 10
<
2.75
.00
. 14
.35
.21
.00
.00
.00
.00

7.86

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

PAI10

WOOD
60

LUMBER
ANC
PRODUCTS

RATIO

75

RATIO

LOGGING CAMPS
ANC
CONTRACTORS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.01
1.26

2.87
.40
.21
.45
.02
.06
.14
.05
.10
.07
. It
1.16

2.75
.24
.16
.52
.02
.05
.12
.04
. 10
.07
. 15
1.2B

3.07
.00
.36
.80
.03
.10
.00
.09
.16
.11
.27
1.12

3.17
.CC
.27
.82
.04
.05
.00
.07
.15
.10
.24
1.38

4.19
.01
.75
.60
.15
.00
.00
.00
2.25
.01
.02
.41

5.21
.02
.65
1.00
.11
.00
.00
.00
2.55
.01
.01
.47

1.60
.00
.01
.77
.00
.00
.00
.00
•6 0
.00
.00
.23

2.29
.00
.01
1.27
.00
.00
.00
.00
.77
.00
.00
.24

42.72

4 2 . CO

38.24

38. C3

37.96

41.40

13.91

20.85

*».oO
4.54
.06

2.81
1.74
1.07

2.88
1.75
1.13

1.74
1.62
.12

1.E3
1.65
.14

6.38
6.27
.10

7.06
6.88
.18

11.85
11.81
.04

17.20
17.13
.07

T R A N S P A N C PUE LTIL C F E R A T V S
F P A K t M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
PCWER STATICN CFERATORS
SAILORS AND CECKEANCS

.06
•D C
.01
•O S

•0 6

.06
.03
.03
.00

•C7
.03
•C4
.01

.07
.05
.02
.00

.07
.04
.02
.Cl

.06
.02
.04
.01

.05
.02
.07
.01

.02
.02
.00
.GC

.02
.02
.00
.00

S E M I S K I L L E D M E TA L W C P K I N G L C C
FOKNACEMN,SMELTRMN,PGCRERS
FEATERS.METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-CUTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLEPS.MTLWRK.CLASS 8
INSPECTCRS.MTIWRK,CLASS B
MACHINE TELL CPER,CLASS 8
ELECCROPLATEHS
ELECTROPlATERS HELPERS

.76
.00
.00
.76
.00
.00
.00
.00
•C O
.00

1.20
•00
.00
1.20
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00

7.62
.30
.04
1 .48
• 5b
2.70
1.03
1.50
.0 7
.12

8.01
.27
.04
1.53
.68
2.64
1 .02
1.24
.07
.11

13.71
.53
.07
2.45
1.04
4.80
1.84
2.66
.12
.21

13.57
.46
.07
3.13
1.17
4.54
1.75
2.13
.12
.19

.18
.00
.00
.18
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.34
.00
.00
.34
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLEC TEXTILE OCCCP
K M T T E R S . L O C F EPS, TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
S EWERS ANC S T I T C H E R S , M E G

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00

4.50
.25
.25
.35
3.61

4.55
.21
.15
. 15
4.00

.30
.00
.00
.00
.25

.28
.00
.CC
.00
.27

.08
.00
.00
.00
.08

.08
.00
.00
.00
.08

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

KINDRED

3.47

5.52

27.53

2 6 . 4S

22 . 4 3

22.25

31.26

33.83

2.04

3.59

ASBESTOS, INSULA1ICN WRKS
ATIENC.AITC S t P V K E . P A R K N G
B LASTERS ANC PCWCERMEN
LAUNDRY,CRY CLEANING CPER
M E A I C U T T E R S , E X C M E A T PC K N G
MINE O P E R A T V S.LAECRERS.NEC
O P E R A LIVES ANC K I N C P E C . N E C

.28
.01
.G 3
.CC
.00
.00
3.15

.31
.01
.04
.00
.00
•0 0
5.56

.04
.01
.00
.02
.01
.00
27.45

.05
.01
.00
.01
.01
.00
26.42

.04
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
22.36

.06
.01
.01
.CO
.GO
.00
22.21

.03
.01
.03
.00
.00
.00
31.15

.04
.01
.07
.00
.00
.00
3 3 . 71

.00
.00
.14
.00
.00
.00
1.90

.00
.00
.28
.00
.00
.00
3.31

.50

.52

1.91

1.62

1 .80

1.52

1.42

1.39

.25

.33

.00

.00

.00

.CO

.00

.CO

.00

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
F IREMEN
GUARDS,WATCHMEN.CEORKEEPRS
P O L I C E , C T F LAV E N F O R C E OFF

.18
.00
.16
.01

.00
.00
.09
.00

.68
.01
.64
.02

.47
.02
.44
.02

.75
.02
.74
.03

.57
.C 3
.52
• C2

.96
.00
.95
.01

.61
.00
.81
.01

.18
.00
.18
.00

.22
.00
.22
.00

FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
EARTENOEfS
CCcKS.EXC PRIV HCLSEHOLDS
C C O N T E R ANC FCLNTAIN WKRS
WAITtRS ANC W A I T R E S S E S

.05
.00
.03
.01
.01

. 04
.00
.02
.01
.01

.12
.00
.04
.04
.04

.10
.00
.04
.04
.03

.05
.00
.03
.04
.02

.CO
•C3
•C4
•C2

.03
.00
.03
.00
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00
.00

.04
.00
.03
.00
.01

.04
.00
.03
.00
.01

CTHER SERVICE wERKERS
AIRLINE STEWARCS.STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , h C S F , C T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLtANERS
J A N I T O R S ANC SEXTLNS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WCRKERS.NEC

.27
.00
.00
.06
.11
.00
.10

.39
.00
.00
.10
.17
.00
.13

1.11
.00
.00
.15
.53
.00
.42

1.05
.00
.00
.15
.48
.00
.42

.92
.00
.00
.12
.48
.00
.31

.87
.00
.00
.13
.41
•GO
.33

.42
.00
.00
.06
.26
.00
.10

.55
.00
.00
.10
.30
.00
.15

.07
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.06

.07
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.06

1S.CS

1 3 . Ii3

6.74

3.85

7.74

4.55

33.90

24.55

71.02

56.45

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

OPERATIVES

ANC

KI N C R E C

WORKER S

URIVERS ANC CEL1VERYMEN
DPIVERS,ELS,TRUCK,TRACTCR
C E L I V E R Y M E N ANC KtU T E M E N

OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HCLSEFCLC

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

ANC

AND

FARM.

FARM

WCRKERS

ANC

WORKERS




MINt

.00
.01
.05

o
o

11.78

3.57
3 . SI
.Oo

o
o

1.82
.00
.15
.41
. 12
.00
.00
•00
.00
.32
.01
. 7S

TOTAL
CURABLE GOODS
MANUFACTURING

-ce

95
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed
FUR N I T U R E AND
FIXTURE S

SAWMILLS
MILLWiORK
MI SC W O O D
60

H47IO

75

K A 1 10

60

KATIC

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

RATIO

8.00

2.91

4.18

.97

1.39

.11
.05
.14
.45
.50
.02
.00
.76

.00
.06
.29
.08
.11
.13
.00
.02
.28

.00
.03
.45
.12
.16
.15
.00
.04
.45

.20
.20
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.28
.28
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.46
.44
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00

.53
.51
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00

1.41
.35
.02
.00
.01
1.C4

.79
.27
.00
.00
.01
.51

1.81
.45
.00
.00
.03
1.34

.54
.15
.02
.00
.00
.36

.76
.28
.05
.00
.00
.43

.06
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.08
.00
.00
.08
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.09
.00
.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.01
.01
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.03
.01
.02
.00

.04
.Cl
.03
.00

.06
.03
.05
.00

.11
.02
.07
.01

.01
.01
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.84
.32
.00
.01
.04
.00
.2 1
.01
.01
.00
.11
.00
.00
.14

1.14
.31
.00
.01
.06
.00
.16
.02
.02
.00
.13
.00
.00
.41

1.65
.64
.00
.01
.34
.00
.11
.01
.03
.00
.17
.01
.00
.33

2.37
.79
.00
.01
.23
.00
.07
.01
.02
.00
.20
.01
..CO
1.02

2.64
.74
.01
.01
.83
.00
.14
.02
.06
.00
.26
.01
.01
.53

3.66
.91
.01
.01
.56
.00
.06
.03
.07
.00
.33
.01
.01
1.67

.91
.56
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.GO
.01
.00
.12
.00
.00
.18

1.45
.74
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.01
.00
.09
.00
.00
.58

6.77

6.90

7.85

8.53

4.66

5.22

11.64

13.15

.00
.07
.00
.00
.27
6.42

.00
.10
.00
.CO
.27
6.53

.00
.06
.01
.00
.30
7.47

.00
•C4
.02
.00
.33
8.14

.00
.05
.00
.00
.24
4.38

.00
.08
.00
.00
.28
4.86

.00
.09
.03
.00
.33
11.19

.00
.04
.05
.00
.43
12.62

2.60

1.81

2.65

.18

.2o

.40

.60

.00
.02
.01
.01
.04
.02
.00
.00
.08

.00
.03
.00
.01
.00
.02
.00
.00
.14

.00
.00
.02
.00
.15
.06
.00
.00
.17

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEoLDGI STS,CECPHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATLRAL SCIENTISTS

.16
.04
.12
.00
.GC
.00
.00
.00

.33
. 13
.20
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

T E C H N I C I A N S , E X C M.EC 1 C A L . D E N T
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C C N T R C L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNIC IANS,OTHER

.40
.27
.08
.00
.01
.09

MEDICAL.OTHER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
DIETITIANS,NOTRIT1CNISTS
NURSES, PRCFESSICNAL
OPTOMETRISIS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
P H Y S I C I A N S A N C SLRC-EONS
P S Y C H O L C G ISTS
TECHNIC IANS.MECICAL,DENTAL
VETFRINARIANS
OTHER MECIC/L,HEALTH WRKRS

100.00

4.18

6.13

1.30

1.E2

.00
.00
.02
.00
.24
.06
.00
.00
.28

.00
.22
.13
.07
.19
.24
.02
.02
.42

.00
.14
.19
.11
.29
.31
.02
.02
.74

.00
.12
.06
.09
.28
.30
.02
.00
.33

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.34
.29
.00
.00
.01
.01
.04
.00

.40
.34
.00
.00
.Cl
.01
.04
.00

.59
.39
.06
.00
.02
.12

.52
.48
.00
.00
.00
.05

.87
.77
.00
.00
.00
.10

.79
.24
.01
.00
.00
.54

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS.SECCMARY
TEACHERS,CCLLECE
TEACHERS,CTHER

.00
.00
.00
.00
.cc

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS ♦ ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.01
.00
.01
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00

O T H E R P R O F , T E C H ANC K I N D R E D
ACCOUNTANTS A M
AUDITORS
AIRPLANE FILG1S.NAVIGATDRS
ARCHITECTS
W R K R S IN A R T S , E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
D E S I G N E R S , E X C DESIGN Ck AFI
EDITORS ANC REPORTERS
LAWYERS ANC JUCCES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND LAE REL W RKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PROF.TFCH.K1NDREC,NEC

.46
.26
.00
.02
.02
.00
.05
.00
.Cl
.00
.07
.00
.00
.06

1.37
.31
.00
.05
.03
.00
.11
.00
.01
.00
.12
.00
.00
.73

MANAGERS.OFFICIALS,PROPRIETORS

7.46

6.63

CONDUCTORS,RAILROAD
CRECITMEK
OFFICERS,PILOTS,ENGRS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
MANAGERS,CFFICE,PROP. NEC

.01
.00
.01
.00
.26
7.19

.00
.00
.00
.00
.29
6.35




75

2.04

1-24

LOO.CO

ENGINEERS,AERCNALTICAL
ENGINEERS,CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS.CIVIL
FNGINtERS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS,INDUSTRIAL
ENGINEERS.MECHANICAL
ENGINEERS.METALLURG,ETC
ENGINEERS,MINING
OTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL

RA11C

1.20

100.00

TE ( K M C A l , K I N D R t D

60

4.99

100.00

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL

RATIO

100.00

100.00

PROFESSIONAL

75

1CO.OG

100.00

TOTAL

CEMENT, CONCRETE
AND
PLASTER

100.00

100.00

INDUSTRY

GLASS AND GLASS
PRODUCTS

STONE,CLAY
AND
PRODUCTS

GLASS

o
o

OCCUPATION

96
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C o n tin u ed

SAWMILLS
MILLWQRK
MISC WU JD

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL

WORKERS

RATIO

75

CEMENT, CONCRETE
ANC
PLASTER

GLASS AND GLASS
PRODUCTS

RATIO

60

RATIO

7b

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

6. 8 7

9.90

5.88

10.23

10.29

10.63

9.52

9.33

10.03

1.27

1.78

2.39

2.67

2.55

2.45

2 .6 8

2.57

2.17

2 .11

.16

.2 1

.42

.50

.37

.56

.29

.45

.33

.34

4.55
.26
• 66
.00
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.61
.04
2.76

4.87
.25
. 84
.0 0
.0 2
.0 0
.00
.66
.03
3.08

7.08
.31
.85
.00
.0 1
.00
.00
1.76
.08
4.04

6.70
.2 2
.67
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0
1.78
.07
3.55

7.31
.44
.89
.00
.04
.00
.00
.98
.14
4.82

7.25
.42
1.04
.00
•C 4
.00
.0 0
.84
.15
4.61

7.66
.62
.13
.0 0
.08
.00
.00
1.24
.18
5.40

6.46
.47
.1 0
.00
.08
.0 0
.0 0
I . 01
.16
4.63

6.83
.46
1.71
.00
.03
.0 0
.0 0
.31
.14
4.18

7.58
.55
2 .12
.0 0
.03
.00
.0 0
.26
.17
4.45

1.26

1.81

3.27

3.69

2.69

3.66

1.82

1 .8 6

3.18

4.78

13.50

17.41

21.75

20.55

14.37

15.59

13.32

16.29

15.54

16.13

CONSTRUCTION CRAETSPEN
CARPENTERS
E R I C K M A S C N S ANC TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNC- PACH LPER
PAINTERS ANC PAPERHANGERS
PLASTERERS
PLUMBERS ANC PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS AND SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

2.56
1.96
.01
.01
.24
.2 2
.08
.0 0
.06
.0 1
.00

2.99
2.34
.0 1
.0 1
.26
.26
.06
.00
.03
.01
.0 0

2.44
2.16
.00
.0 0
.14
.0 1
.1 0
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.00

3.05
2.52
.00
.0 0
.07
.0 1
.05
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

2.49
.41
.38
.03
.83
.58
.06
.0 1
.17
.01
.01

2.26
.45
.27
.0 2
.76
.48
.04
.02
.18
.03
.02

1.49
.41
.08
.0 0
.62
.03
.02
.00
.32
.01
.0 1

1.42
.50
.05
.0 0
.43
.02
.01
.0 0
.39
.01
.01

3.64
.55
.23
.05
1.25
1.13
.10
.0 1
.13
.03
.03

3.00
.70
.1 1
.03
1.06
.82
.08
.00
.10
.05
.03

FOREMEN

OFFICE

KINCREC

STONE,CLAY
AND
PRODUCTS

GLASS

5.5 6

STEALS,

ANC

FURNITURE AND
FIXTURES

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

OPERATORS

O T H E R C L E R I C A L , K I N D F EC W R K R S
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
ECGKKEEPERS.HANC
EANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
PAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SKIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATERS
CLERICAL A M
K1NCRE0.NEC

SALES

WORKERS

C R A F T S E E N , F O R EPE N

ANC

KINDRED

3.45

4.43

4.30

5.42

4.53

4.56

4.70

5.72

4.02

3.83

P F T A L W K N G G RATIS EXC PECH
MACHINISTS ANC RELATED CCC
BLKSMITHS.FORGMN,HAMMERMEN
f.ILERMAKERS
FEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
M U L D E R S , M E T A L , EXC C C R E M K R S
PAT T E R N M A K E R S , M E T A L , W O O D
ROLLERS AND RILL HANDS
SHEET PETAL WORKERS
T O O L M A K E R S ANL C I E M A K E R S

NEC

1.25
.16
.03
.00
.0 0
.93
.0 0
.05
.00
.05
.0 2

1 .68
.39
.02
.0 0
.0 0
1.15
.0 0
.04
.0 0
.05
.02

1 .08
.15
.02
.0 0
.0 0
.1 1
.CO
.1 2
.00
.33
.31

.64
.13
.0 0
.00
.00
.06
.00
.09
.00
.24
.31

1.52
.75
.06
.0 1
.0 0
.27
.03
.07
.02
.10
.2 1

1.53
.75
.0 1
.01
.0 0
.28
.04
.07
.03
.05
.30

1.60
.89
.04
.0 1
.0 0
.31
.04
.09
.0 0
.1 0
.13

1.81
1 .01
.0 1
.01
.00
.43
.05
.04
.0 0
.07
.14

.90
.44
.08
.0 1
.0 0
.18
.00
.05
.0 0
.1 2
.03

.6 8
.40
.01
.00
.0 0
.14
.0 0
.05
.00
.04
.03

PRINTING TRADES CRAFTSMEN
CCPPOSITORS,TYPESETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS,STERECTYPERS
E N G R A V E R S EXC PF.CTOENGRVEK
PHCTOENGRVRS.LIThCGRAPEERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE FRINTERS

.04
.04
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00

.04
.04
.0 0
.0 0
.oo
.00

.04
.03
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 1

.05
.04
.0 0
.0 0
•C O
.01

.05
.01
.00
.04
.00
.0 1

.05
.00
.CO
.04
.GC
.0 1

.14
.0 0
.0 0
.12
.00
.0 2

.13
.0 0
.0 0
.1 0
.00
.03

.02
.00
.0 0
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0

.05
.0 0
.00
.05
.00
.00

T R A N S P O R T ANC PUE C TIL CRAFT
LINEMEN AND S E R V I C E M E N
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.02
.0 0
.0 1
.01

.0 2
.00
.0 1
.0 1

.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.0 2
.00
.02
.0 0

.02
.0 0
.01
.00

.02
.0 0
.02
.00

.02
.0 0
.02
.0 0

.03
.GO
.03
.01

.01
.0 0
.0 0
.01

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECF ANC REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV MECHANICS
PR A N U C AR SHO P M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

1.38
.0 0
• 05
.00
.0 0
.01
1.28

2.41
.00
.08
.0 0
.00
.0 1
2.33

1.60
.00
.0 2
.0 0
.01
.00
1.57

2.24
.00
.03
.0 0
.01
.00
2 .21

3.47
.00
.26
.0 0
.0 1
.00
3.20

4.87
.00
.30
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
4.56

3.17
.00
.15
.00
.0 0
.00
3.01

4.61
.0 0
.15
.00
.0 0
.00
4.46

4.67
.00
.51
.0 0
.00
.00
4.16

6.15
.00
.56
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
5.59




97
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C o n tin u ed

FU R N I T U R E AND
FIXTURES

SAWMILLS
MILLWCRK
MISC WOOD

OCCUPATION

60
O T H E R C R AT T S M E N A N C K I N C H E D
EAKtPS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,HCIST MEN
GLAZIERS
J E W E L F R S ANC W A T C HMAKERS
L O C H FI A F P S
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
INSPECTORS,LOG ANC LUMBER
I N S P E C T O R S , CTEiER
UPHOLSTERERS
CRA F T S M E N AN D KINDRED NEC

RATIO

75

STONE,CLAY
ANC
PRODUCTS

GLASS AND GLASS
PRODUCTS

CEMENT,, C O N C R E T E
ANC
PLASTER

GLASS

RATIO

60

RA1IL

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

tO

RATIO

75

RATIO

4.78
.01
.91
• 56
.16
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
2.63
.01
.0 2
.46

5.85
.0 2
.79
.94
.14
.0 0
.00
.00
3.42
.0 1
.0 1
.52

12.33
.03
6.40
.05
.02
.00
.0 0
.00
.07
.0 0
5.44
.33

9.36
.05
4.42
.08
.02
.0 0
.00
.00
.03
.00
4.46
.30

2.29
.0 1
.0 1
.74
.16
.0 0
.01
.0 2
.00
.02
.0 0
1.33

2.30
.0 1
.01
.91
.24
.00
.01
.03
.Cl
«C2
.00
1.06

2 .21
.0 2
.00
.40
.61
.0 0
.0 0
.08
.0 1
.0 2
.0 0
1.08

2.59
.0 2
.00
.55
.90
.00
.00
.10
.01
.0 1
.00
1 .00

2.26
.0 0
.04
1.36
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.03
.0 0
.83

43.46

45.88

49.42

51.02

44.52

45.40

53.23

51.87

40.18

41.34

5.13
5.01
.1 2

4.65
4.65
.2 0

2 .01
1.81
.19

3.07
e .6 8
.39

7.55
7.39
.16

1 0 .0 0
9.78
.21

1.4S
1.43
.07

1.59
1.54
.05

17.36
17.07
.28

22.05
21.60
.45

TRANSP A N D POE ITIL O PEKAIVS
8R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N R R
POWER STA1ICN CPERA10PS
SAILORS AND CICKFANCS

.08
.02
.05
.Cl

. 11
.0 2
.08
.0 1

.0 1
.00
.01
.0 0

.02
.00
.0 2
.0 0

.06
.02
.02
.02

.01
.02
.03
.03

.04
.00
.04
.0 0

.05
.00
.05
.00

.06
.03
.02
.04

.09
.01
.0 2
.06

S E M I S K I L L E D M E T A L W O R K I N G CCC
FUKNACEMN.SMELTRMN.POORERS
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC EL A M E - C L T T E R S
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRk.CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWfiK,CLASS B
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS 8
MACHINE TLCL CPER,CtASS B
ELECTRQPlATERS
tLECTROPlATERS EELPERS

.2 2
.0 0
.00
.22
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.41
.00
.0 0
.41
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0

1.41
.0 0
.0 0
1.41
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00

1.68
.0 0
.00
1 .88
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.88
.06
.00
.81
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.15
.12
.0 0
1.03
.00
,CC
.CO
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.47
.04
.00
.43
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

.48
.08
.0 0
.39
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.CO
.0 0

1.50
.00
.0 0
1.50
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.oc
.0 0

1.97
.00
.0 0
1.97
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CCCUP
KNITTERS,LOEPERS,TOPPERS
SEINNERS,TEXTILE
w e a v e r s ,i e x t i l e
S E W E R S A N C SI I I C E I R S , M F G

.10
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.10

.1 0
.0 0
.CO
.00
.10

2.92
.00
.0 0
.0 1
2.91

2.75
.00
.0 0
.00
2.75

.09
.00
.00
.0 1
.08

,C4
.00
.0 0
.Cl
.04

.1 2
.0 0
.0 0
.01
.12

.13
.00
.00
.01
.1 2

.01
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 1

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

KINDRED

3 7.94

40.42

43.07

43.29

35.94

34.15

51.09

49.62

21.23

17.22

ASBESTOS,INSOLATION xRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERV1CE,PARKNG
8L A S T F R S A N C P C W C E R M E N
L A U N D R Y , C R Y C L E A N I N G CPER
MEAT COTT E R S , E X C MEAT P C K n G
MINE O P E R A T V S,LAELRERS,NEC
OPERATIVES AND KINDRED,NEC

.03
.01
.01
.00
.0 0
.00
3 7.89

.05
.02
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.0 0
40.33

.02
•Cl
•CO
.00
.00
.00
43.04

.0 1
.01
.00
.CO
.0 0
.00
43.26

.1 2
.01
.03
.00
.00
.0 0
35.77

.13
.0 0
.06
.00
.01
.CO
33.94

.0 0
.01
.UO
.01
.0 0
.0 0
51.07

.0 0
.02
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
49.60

.02
.02
.06
.00
.0 1
.0 0
2 1 .1 2

.0 1
.0 0
.09
.00
.00
.0 0
17.12

1 .66

1.63

1.58

1.54

1.73

1.55

2.29

2.08

1 .22

1.04

.0 0

.00

.00

.CO

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.0 0

.59
.03
.57
.00

.69
.0 1
.67
.01

.53
.0 2
.50
.0 2

.83
.0 0
.83
.0 0

.6 8
.00
.6 6
.0 0

.53
.00
.53
.00

.31
.00
.31
.00

OPERATIVES

A M

KINCREO

WORKERS

DRIVERS ANC CEl 1VERYMEN
DRIVERS,80S,TRUCK.TKACTCR
DELIVERYMEN ANC RCUTEMEN

Cl H E R

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HOOSEHOLD

WCRKERS

2.41
.00
.04
1.61
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 2
.06
.0 0
.68

.01

.68
.01
.67
•O C

FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
EARTENOERS
COOKS,EXC PRIV HOUSEHOLDS
COUN T E R AND F O UNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS ANC WA I T R E S S E S

.03
-OC
.03
.0 0
.00

.03
• 00
.03
.00
.0 0

.02
.0 0
.01
.01
.0 0

.01
.00
.00
.0 1
.00

.09
.0 0
.03
.04
.0 2

.09
.0 0
.03
• C3
.03

.2 1
.00
.04
.1 0
.06

.17
.0 0
.02
.06
.08

.0 1
.00
.01
.0 0
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00
.0 0

OTFER SERVICE WCRKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWKDSSES
A T T E N D A N T S . H O S P , O T F E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTONS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WCRKERS,NEC

.51
.00
.00
.06
.32
.00
.11

.6 6
• 00
• 00
.12
.36
.00
.17

.8 6
.0 0
.01
.1 1
.51
.01
.25

.93
.0 0
.0 1
.16
.64
.0 0
.1 2

.95
.00
.00
.19
.50
.00
.25

.93
.00
.CO
.24
.47
.00
.23

1.25
.00
.00
.2 2
.64
.0 0
.39

1.24
.0 0
.0 0
.18
.62
.0 0
.43

.67
.00
.00
.13
.36
.00
.18

.70
.00
.00
.24
.26
.00
.20

25.41

17.16

5.47

3.37

14.44

8.44

9.06

5.15

16.01

9.35

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

o
o

.00

.0 0

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

ANC

WCRKERS




MINE

.0 0
.93

O
o

1.14
.0 0
1.13
.0 1

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WAICFMEN.OCORKEEPRS
P O L I C E , O I F LAW ENFORCE OFF

.00

98
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 a n d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C o n tin u ed

STRUCTURAL
CLAY PRODUCTS

OCCUPATION

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

PCTTERY
AND
RELATEO PRODUCTS
60

RATIO

7b

RATIO

MISCELLANEOUS
NGNHETALLIC AND
STGNE
60

RATIO

I C O . 00

100.00

1 0 0.00

100.00

100.00

2.76

4.12

3.88

4.92

1.13

1.33

1.08

.00
.60
.02
.00
.08
.11
.0 0
.0 2
.30

.0 0
.41
.0 1
.0 0
.17
.1 1
.00
.04
.59

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGISTS,GEOPHYSICIST S
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
ETHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

.10
.10
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

TECHNICIANS,EAC MECICAL.DENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C C N T R L L I E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS,OTHER

75

RATIO

PRIMARY
METAL
INDUSTRIES
60

RATIO

75

BLAST FURNACE
AND
STEEL WORKS

RATIO

1 0 0.0 0

1 0 0.0 0

1 0 0.0 0

6.26

8.64

5.30

1.58

2.15

2.62

2.28

.0 0
.52
.03
.07
.10
.14
.0 0
.00
.2 1

.0 0
.38
.06
.15
.20
.28
.00
.00
.52

.0 1
.26
.04
.05
.33
•46
.06
.03
.91

.0 2
.18
.03
.07
.39
.44
.07
.03
1.39

. 12
.12
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.60
.37
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.04
.20
.0 0

.57
.09
.0 0
.00
.00
.38

.78
.08
.0 0
.00
.00
.71

.76
.17
.00
.00
.00
.59

1.49
.44
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
1.05

M E D 1 C A L , O T H E R HEALTH. W O R K E R S
DENTISTS
OIETITIANS.NUT RITIGNIST S
NERSES,PROFESSIONAL
C P I O M E T R I STS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS ANC SURGEONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNIC IANS.MECICAL.DENTa L
VETERINARIANS
CTHER MELICAL,HEALTH WRKRS

.01
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.01
.00
.0 0
.01
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.CO
.0 0
.00

.06
.00
.00
.06
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS.SECCNEARY
TEACHERS.Ct LLEGE
T EACHERS *CTEER

.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS ■ ACTUARIES
»
CTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.00
.00
.00
.0 0

CTHER PRO F , T E C H AND KINORED
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC A UDITORS
AIRPLANE PILOTS.NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
WRKRS IN A R TS,ENT ERTA1NMNT
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC DESIGN DRAFT
EDITORS ANC REFGRTERS
LAWYERS AND JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND LAB REL W RKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,KINCREC,NEC

INDLSTRY

TOTAL

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

10 0.0 0

7.23

5.20

7.29

3.01

2.18

2.94

.00
.06
.12
.12
.54
.40
.75
.01
.26

.0 0
.06
.1 0
.17
.83
.46
.98
.0 1
.39

.00
.04
.16
.1 0
.62
.37
.76
.0 1
.12

.0 0
.05
.12
.14
.99
.42
1.05
.01
.16

.62
.35
.01
.CO
.00
.04
.22
.00

.32
.24
.0 1
.0 0
.0 1
.02
.03
.0 1

.39
.28
.01
.0 0
.03
.03
.03
.0 1

.35
.25
.01
.0 0
.01
.03
.03
.02

.43
.29
.02
.0 0
.01
.06
.03
.0 2

1.41
.47
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.94

2.36
.45
.00
.00
.0 0
1.50

1.13
.38
.0 0
.00
.00
.76

1.74
.39
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
1.35

1.09
.34
.00
.OG
.00
.75

1.78
.35
.00
.00
.00
1.43

.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.14
.00
.00
.1 1
.00
.00
.00
.0 2
.00
.00
.00
.0 2

.15
.00
.0 0
.12
.0 0
.00
.00
.02
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1

.10
.00
.00
.07
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0

.14
.0 0
.0 0
.09
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2
.00
.02
.0 0
.0 0

.09
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.0 0
.02
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.00

.1 2
.00
.0 0
.08
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.03
.00
.0 1
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.0 0
.00
.03

.08
.0 0
.GO
.0 0
.08

.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.01

.02
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 2

.02
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.02

.04
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.04

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.00
.00
.00
.0 0

• Ot>
.02
.03
.00

.05
.0 2
.03
.CO

.06
.0 2
.04
.01

.1 0
.02
.07
.01

.07
.03
.03
.01

.10
.04
.05
.0 1

1.06
.51
.0 0
.0 0
.11
.00
.1 2
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.16
.0 0
.00
.16

1 .88
.64
.0 0
.0 0
.09
.0 0
.1 2
.00
.0 0
.00
.25
.00
.0 0
.78

1.59
.31
.00
.00
1.25
.00
.33
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.04
.00
.00
.04

1.82
.47
.0 0
.00
.8 6
.0 0
.2 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.05
.00
.0 0
.23

1.87
.83
.00
.0 2
.1 1
.0 0
.1 1
.00
.04
.0 1
.19
.02
.00
.54

2.76
.92
.00
.03
.05
.00
.06
.00
.0 2
.02
.27
.02
.00
1.36

1.40
.70
.0 1
.00
.03
.00
.04
.0 1
.0 2
.0 1
.24
.02
.0 1
.30

1.84
.78
.0 1
.01
.04
.0 0
.06
.01
.02
.0 1
.26
.03
.00
.58

1.41
.75
.01
.0 0
.04
.00
.04
.0 1
.04
.0 1
.18
.03
.00
.29

1 .88
.83
.0 1
.0 0
.06
.0 0
.07
.01
.04
.0 2
.19
.04
.0 0
.61

M A N A G E R S , O F F 1C l A L S . P R C P R I E T C R S

6.32

7.53

4.49

5.18

7.72

6 .21

3.51

3.41

2.27

2.21

CONDUCTORS,RAILROAD
CREOITMEN
OEEICERS,PILOTS,ENGRS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
M A N AGERS,OFFICE,PROP. NEC

.0 0
.04
.02
.00
.19
6.07

.00
.00
.04
.00
.30
7.19

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.31
4.16

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.47
4.72

.00
.06
.00
.00
.41
7.25

.0 0
.03
.0 0
.00
. 1$
5.99

.04
.02
.0 1
.0 0
.27
3.17

.0 2
.0 2
.01
.00
.26
3.05

.07
.0 2
.02
.00
.2 0
1.96

.04
.0 2
.03
.0 0
.19
1.92

PROFESSIONAL

TECHNICAL,KINORED

ENGINEERS.!tCFNICAL
E N G I N E E R S . A E R C N A L T ICAL
ENGINEERS,CLERICAL
ENGINEERS,CIVIl
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS,INDUSTRIAL
ENGINEERS,ME C L A M C A L
ENGINEERS.METALLURG.ETC
ENGINEERS,MINING
OTHER FNGINEEPS,TECHNICAL




99
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1975

60
CLERICAL
STENOS,
OFFICE

POTTERY
AND
RELATED PRODUCTS

STRUCTURAL
CLAY 1 RODUCTS
P

OCCUPATION

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

TYFISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

OPERATORS

OTHER CLERICAL,KINDRED WRKRS
A C C O U N T INC- C L E R K S
ECOKKEE FERS,HANC
BANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
CLERICAL ANC KINCHFC,NEC

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

RATIO

75

RATIO

BLAST FURNACE
AND
STEEL WORKS

PRIMARY
METAL
INDUSTRIES

M1SCELLANE0LS
N O N M E T A L L I C AND
STONE
60

C o n tin u ed

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

7.32

8.52

8.92

1 1 .2 2

13.55

12.40

10.67

10.36

10.80

10.82

1.97

2.34

1 .88

1.52

3.66

3.12

2.27

2.47

1.83

1.91

.56

.93

.06

.2 0

.53

.56

.42

.60

.35

.52

4 . SO
.41
.46
.00
.03
.00
.0 0
.73
.12
3.05

5.25
.35
.43
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.53
.14
3.79

6.99

9.10
.17
.20
.0 0
.03
.00
.00
3.21
.23
5.26

9.35
.27
.98
.00
.03
.0 0
.00
1.41
.08
6.59

8.31
.24
.50
.0 0
.01
.00
.00
1 .02
.07
6.C7

7.98
.49
.04
.00
.03
.0 0
.0 0
1.08
.15
6.18

7.29
.34
.03
.0 0
.03
.0 0
.00
.94
.14
5.81

8.62
.41
.00
.00
.04
.00
.0 0
.82
.10
7.26

8.39
.30
.0 0
.00
.04
.0 0
.00
.67
.08
7.30

.24
.24
.00
.05
.00
.00
2.32
.19
3.95

2.37

3.90

1.55

2.18

3.59

4.37

1.25

1.82

.81

1 .21

11.14

12.27

9.70

12.82

17.51

18.32

28.83

31.68

30.95

34.86

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
ERICKMASONS AND TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNG MACH UPER
PAI N T E R S ANC PAPERHA N G E R S
PLASTERERS
PLUMBERS ANC PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS AND SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

2.75
.25
1.34
.02
.26
.67
.0 0
.05
.15
.0 1
.00

2.75
.19
1.50
.06
.14
.43
.0 0
.15
.23
.04
.00

1.09
.08
.00
.03
.6 8
.03
.19
.0 0
.08
.0 0
.00

1.27
.04
.0 0
.0 1
.93
.06
. 12
.0 0
.1 0
.0 0
.00

2.19
.32
.52
.00
.73
.51
.0 0
.00
.10
.00
.0 0

2 .11
.21
.29
.0 0
.93
.64
.00
.CO
.05
.0 0
.00

3.92
.44
.60
.00
1.62
.14
.2 1
.00
.75
.01
.16

4.03
.41
.58
.00
1.60
.1 2
.13
.0 0
1 .00
.0 0
.19

5.26
.55
.97
.0 0
2.08
.16
.30
.00
.96
.0 1
.2 2

5.43
.54
.93
.00
1.98
.16
.23
.00
1.31
.0 1
.27

FOREMEN

SALES

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

AND

KINDRED

4.48

5.18

5.00

5.96

5.04

5.52

5.25

6.07

5.03

5.93

M E T A L W K N G C R A F T S tX( M E C H
M A C H I N I S T S ANC RE L A T E D OCC
BLKSMITHS.FCKC-MN, HAMMER MEN
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS.ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
HOLDERS,METAL,EXC COREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WOOD
R O L LERS AND ROLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
TOOLMAKERS A M
CIEMAKERS

.92
.35
.0 1
.0 1
.0 0
.16
.00
.07
.00
.01
.29

1.06
.24
.0 0
.04
.00
.19
.0 0
.0 2
.0 0
.01
.56

1.27
.72
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.14
.0 0
.03
.0 0
.08
.30

2.31
1.46
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.08
.00
.0 1
.00
.06
.69

2.93
1.34
.11
.00
.00
.49
.10
.11
.09
.13
.57

2.69
1 .10
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.43
.05
.17
.15
.06
.71

1 0 .6 8
2.03
.55
.19
.56
1.41
2.62
.35
2.03
.18
.76

10.25
1.80
.51
.14
.66
1.65
2.29
.31
1.86
.14
.87

8.48
1-45
.34
.30
.39
1.94
.38
.08
3.30
.16
.15

7.92
1.26
.23
.25
.40
2.14
.23
.03
3.09
.1 1
.17

PRINTING TRADES CRAFTSMEN
C O M P O S IT O R S , T Y P E S E T T E R S
ELECTROTYPERS,STEP EOTYPERS
ENGRAVERS EXC PHOTOENGRVER
PHOTOENGRVRS,LITHOGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN.PLATE PRINTERS

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.03
.03
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

.0 1
.01
.0 0
.CO
.0 0
.0 0

.03
.03
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0

.0 1
.01
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.04
.02
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1

.03
.02
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0

.04
.0 2
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.01

.03
.01
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.01

TRANSPORT ANC PUe LTll CRAFT
LINEMEN AND SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LGCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.04
.00
.04
.0 0

.07
.00
.07
.00

.OC
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.00
.00
.00
.00

.15
.0 1
.13
.01

.18
.0 2
.16
.00

.28
.0 1
.25
.02

.34
.0 1
.32
.0 1

MECHANICS ANC REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH AND REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO A N C TV M E C H ANICS
RR A N D C A R SHO P M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

2.44
.00
. 16
.OC
.00
.0 0
2.28

2.85
.00
.17
.00
.00
.0 0
2.67

1.89
.00
.04
.0 0
.00
.00
1.84

2.69
.00
.08
.00
.0 0
.0 0
2.61

3.05
.00
.11
.0 0
.03
.0 0
2.90

4.67
.0 0
.14
.00
.06
.0 0
4.46

3.06
.0 0
.08
.00
.00
.04
2.93

4.43
.00
.09
.0 2
.0 0
.06
4.25

3.44
.00
.10
.0 1
.0 0
.08
3.24

5.40
.0 0
.13
.03
.00
.1 1
5.13

NEC




100
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
STRUCTURAL
CLAY PRODUCTS

OCCUPATION

60
O T H E R C R A M S M E N A N D KINDRfcD
BAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE.DERRICK,ECIST MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWELERS AND WATCHMAKERS
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
INSPECTCRS.LOG A M
LUMBER
INSPECTORS,CTEER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N AND KINDRED NEC

OPERATIVES

AND

KINCEEC

WORKERS

RATIO

75

RATIO

POTTERY
AND
RELATED PRODUCTS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

MISCELLANEOUS
NONMETALLIC ANC
STONE
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

PRIMARY
METAL
INDUSTRIES
60

RATIO

75

BLAST FURNACE
ANC
STEEL WORKS

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.91
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.39

.58
.CO
.00
.Cl
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.57

4.26
.00
.00
.77
.0 0
.01
.03
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.0 1
3.44

3.32
.GO
.00
.85
.CO
•Cl
.03
.00
.CO
.CO
.Cl
2.42

5.72
.00
.0 1
3.62
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.64
.0 0
1.24

6.65
.00
.0 1
4.32
.0 1
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.61
.00
1.74

8.44
.00
.02
5.61
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.OC
1 .20
.0 0
1.60

S. 81
.00
.01
fc.43
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
1.18
.0 0
2.18

35.83

38.63

55.55

56.66

40.49

43.92

32.69

33.60

27.56

27.07

1.48
1.39
.05

1.64
1.52
.1 2

1.42
1.35
.07

1.64
1.52
.12

5.14
5.00
. 13

6.95
6.83
. 12

1 .0 0
.95
.04

1.34
1 .21
.13

2.65
2.53
.1 2

3.79
3.70
.09

T R A N S P ANC PUB LTIl CPE R A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N PR
POWER STATICN OPERATORS
SAILORS AND D E C KHANDS

.0 1
.0 1
.00
.00

.02
.0 2
.00
.00

.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.0 0
.00
.00
.CO

.09
.04
.02
.0 2

.14
.05
.05
.04

.37
.32
.05
.00

.41
.33
.07
.00

.66
.59
.07
.01

.75
.65
.09
.01

SEMISKILLtC METALWORKING CCC
F L R N A C E M N . S M E I TRMN.PLILREKS
HEATERS.METAL
WELDERS AND FLAME-CUTTERS
ASSEM8LERS,MTLWPK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS.MTLWRK.CLASS H
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS 6
MACHINE TOOL CPER,CLASS B
ELECTROPLATERS
FLECTROPLATERS HELPERS

.62
.04
.00
.56
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00

.77
.03
.00
.73
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
• CO
.00

.35
.1 2
.0 0
.r?
.0 0
.OC
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.53
.18
.00
.35
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.68
.19
.00
.49
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.94
.40
.0 0
.54
.00
.00
.0 0
.CO
.CO
.00

8.16
3.23
.45
2.31
.07
.34
1 .10
.61
.0 2
.03

6.59
3.16
.55
2.64
.08
.36
1.14
.61
.02
.03

7.14
3.43
.64
2.54
.0 2
.11
.40
.0 0
.0 0
.00

7.88
3.67
.70
2.96
.0 2
.1 1
.43
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE LCCUP
K M TIERS,LOOPEPS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
SEWERS AND STITCHERS,MFG

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.CO

.03
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.03

.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.27
.0 0
.01
.05
.2 1

.Cl
.00
.CO
.Cl
.00

.0 2
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.02

.0 1
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.00

.01
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.01

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

KINDRED

30.06

30.89

58.14

54.79

36.80

39.05

2 2 .6 6

22.96

18.33

16. 79

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERVICE,PAKKNG
BLASTERS AND PLWLERMEN
L A U N D R Y , C R Y C L E A N I N G CPER
MEAT C U T 1 E R S . E X 0 M E A T P C K N G
MINE OPfRATVS.lAECRERS.NEC
O P E R A T I V E S ANC K I N C R E C ,NEC

.00
.00
.08
.0 0
.0 0
.00
29.99

.oo
.0 0
.2 2
.0 0
.00
.0 0
30.67

.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
5 b . 14

.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
54.79

.58
.01
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.00
36.21

.65
.00
.00
.CO
.04
.CO
3e.35

.01
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.01
.00
22.63

.0 1
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
22.94

.02
.0 1
.00
.00
.0 1
.00
18.29

.0 2
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
16.78

.44

1.60

1.81

2.34

2 .01

1.47

2.31

1.85

2.46

2.04

.00

.0 0

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.00

o
o

.36
.0 0
.0 0
.09
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
• 27

O
o

.51
.0 0
.0 0
.15
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.36

.0 0

.0 0

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
EI R E M E N
G L A R D S , W A T C h M E N . C C O K K E E PRS
POLI C E , C T H LAW ENFORCE OFF

.80
.0 0
.80
.0 0

.90
.0 0
.90
.00

.55
.00
.55
.0 0

.75
.00
.75
.0 0

.75
.05
.65
.Oo

.45
.08
.29
.08

1.09
.0 1
1 .02
.06

.8 6
.0 2
.81
.03

1.07
.02
.96
.09

.88
.03
.82
.03

FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
BARTENDERS
C O C K S , E X C P R IV H C L S E H C L D S
COUNTER AND FOLNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES

.05
.00
.02
.02
.00

.09
.0 0
.03
.0 6
.00

.04
.0 0
.04
.00
.0 0

.0 2
.00
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0

.12
.0 0
.06
.05
.0 2

.12
.0 0
.05
.06
.0 2

.08
.00
.03
.03
.03

.09
.00
.03
.03
.03

.10
.00
.02
.04
.04

.1 1
.0 0
.03
.04
.05

OTHER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARCS.STWRDSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , H O S f . O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTONS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

.59
.00
.0 0
.14
.36
.0 0
.09

.61
.00
.00
.23
.35
.00
.03

1 .21
.0 0
.00
.35
.65
.0 0
.17

1.58
.00
.00
.50
.6 8
.0 0
.19

1.13
.00
.00
.23
.56
.00
.32

.69
.DC
.CO
.2 2
.55
.00
.13

1.14
.0 0
.0 0
.09
.39
.0 1
.65

.91
.0 0
.01
.09
.32
.0 1
.48

1.29
.00
.01
.0 2
.13
.01
1.13

1.05
.00
.0 1
.0 2
.13
.0 0
.89

32.80

23.44

1 0 .1 0

4.69

8.87

4.67

15.42

10.04

19.94

14.50

.0 0

.00

.00

.0 0

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.0 0

DRIVERS AND DELIVERYMEN
DR IV E R S , E L S , T R U C K . T R A C T O R
DELIVERYMEN AND RCUTEMEN

OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HCLSEHGLD

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

ANC

AND

FARM

FARM

WORKERS

AND

WORKERS




MINE

101
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
PRIMARY
NONFERROUS
METAL

OTHER
PRIMARY METAL
INDUSTRIES

OCCUPATION

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

73

MACHINERY
EXCEPT
ELECTRICAL

FABRICATED
METAL PRODUCTS
NEC

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

1 0 0.00

1 0 0.0 0

6.36

9.70

12.48

10.34

3.41

4.20

5.31

4.38

.0 1
.08
.1 0
.26
.66
.64
1.07
.0 1
.58

.25
.11
.2 0
•66
.58
1.43
.22
.0 0
.75

.2 1
.13
.2 1
.69
.94
1.92
.32
.00
.88

.43
.33
.00
.00
.03
.0 1
.06
.00

.50
.36
.0 0
.00
.07
.0 1
.05
.0 0

.40
.14
.OU
.0 1
.00
.10
.11
.04

1.44
.33
.00
.0 0
.00
1.06

1.48
.44
.0 0
.00
.00
1.03

1.98
.47
.00
.00
.00
1.50

.12
.00
.00
.08
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.01
.0 0
.03
.0 0
.0 0

. 18
.00
.0 0
.1 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 2
.00
.06
.0 0
.00

.11
.00
.00
.09

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHER S.SECCNEARY
TEACHERS.COLLEGE
TEACHERS,OTHER

.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS 4 ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

INDUSTRY

TOTAL

6.42

11.40

3.88

5.01

.01
.05
.06
.43
.61
2 .01
.10
.0 1
1.11

.0 1
.04
.03
.73
.87
2.34
.1 0
.0 0
1.59

.0 0
.00
.05
.09
.6 6
2 .01
.28
.0 0
.79

.00
.00
.05
.1 1
.91
2.80
.30
.00
.85

.61
.16
.0 0
.03
.0 0
.2 0
• IS
.04

.28
.08
.00
.0 0
.00
.10
.06
.04

.40
.09
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.17
.09
.04

.24
.04
.02
.00
.0 0
.02
.00
.17

.55
.04
.06
.0 0
.0 0
.02
.25
.17

2.71
1.53
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
1.18

3.10
1.93
.00
.CO
.0 1
1.16

3.42
1.92
.0 0
.00
.00
1.49

4.66
2.26
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
2.40

1.67
.97
.00
.00
.00
.70

2.D8
1.17
.00
.0 0
.00
.92

.00
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.01
.00
.00

.12
.00
.0 0
. 10
.00
.0 0
.00
.01
.0 0
.01
.00
-CO

.09
.00
.00
.06
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.01
.0 0
.0 0

.11
.0 0
.00
.09
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.01
•C2
.00
.0 0

.09
.0 0
.0 0
.07
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0

.13
.0 0
.0 1
.09
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.01
.01
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0

.10
.00
.01
.07
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.02
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.12
.00
.01
.08
.00
.0 0
.00
.03
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2

.03
.00
.0 0
.00
•C3

.02
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 2

.02
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 2

.0 2
.00
.00
.00
.02

.03
.0 0
.00
.00
.03

.05
.00
.04
.01

.03
.0 0
.07
.0 1

.08
.0 0
.0 1
.00

.1 1
.00
.09
.0 1

.07
.02
.05
.0 0

.08
.02
.06
.CO

.06
.04
.0 2
.0 0

.05
.03
.0 2
.0 0

.06
.03
.03
.0 0

.03
.03
.00
.00

2.26
.98
.0 2
.02
.04
.00
.04
.0 1
.02
.00
.38
.03
.0 1
.71

2 .21
.65
.0 1
.01
.28
.00
.19
.05
.03
.01
.27
.06
.00
.6 6

3.24
.67
.0 2
.01
.28
.00
.25
.04
.02
.02
.38
.03
1.50

2.08
.79
.02
.00
.14
.0 0
.28
.04
.02
.0 1
.2 0
.05
.0 0
.53

3.69
.89
.03
.0 0
.19
.0 0
.26
.06
.02
.0 2
.25
.05
.00
1.91

2.45
1.07
.00
.00
.17
.0 0
.31
.07
.00
.00
.2 1
.03
.00
.58

3.58
1.04
.00
.0 0
.2 0
.00
.35
.1 2
.00
.00
.25
.03
.00
1.58

5.95

6.92

1.72

2.71

3.02

.DO
.03
.06
.07
.41
.26
.61
.0 1
.37

.00
.06
.07
. 12
.75
.36
.79
.0 1
.55

.01
.1 2
.10
.23
.54
.58
.96
.0 1
.48

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
G E O L O G I S T S , C-EC P H Y S I C I S T S
M A T H E M A T IC 1A N S
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

.14
.12
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.01
.00
.0 0

.2 0
.19
.00
.00
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0

TECHNICIANS,EXC MECICAL.UENI
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C O N T R O L L E R S
RACIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS,CTHER

.86
.38
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.48

MEDICAL,OTHER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
DIETITIANS.NUTRITIONISTS
NURSES.PROFESSIONAC
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNICIANS.MECICAL.DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
O T H E R M E D I C A L , H E A L T H V .RKRS

ENG I N F E R S , A EEC S A L T ICAL
ENGINEERS,CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS.CIVIL
E N G I N E E R S . E L E C T R I CAL
ENGINEERS,INGISTRIAL
ENGINEERS,MECHANICAL
E N G I N F E R S , M E TALL L E G , E T C
ENGINEERS,MIN1NCOTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL

OTHER P R O F , T E C H AND K I N DRED
A C C O U N T A N T S ANE A U D I T O R S
AIRPLANE

PILOT i * NA V I G A T O K S

RATIO

5.69

3.84

T F C H M f A L ,K I N C R E D

75

14.65

1 0 0.00

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL

RATIO

10 0.0 0

1 0 0.0 0

PROFESSIONAL

60

1 0 0 .0 C

1 0 0.00

.00

.97
.44

1.35
. 48

• OO

.OO

.00
.0 1

1.80
.87
.0 2
.0 1
.04
.00
.05
.0 1
.02
.00
.33
.02
.0 1
.43

I C O . 00

FARM
MAC H I N E R Y AND
EQUIPMENT

ARCHITECTS
WRKRS IN ARTS,ENTERTAINMNT
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CESIGN DRAFT
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
LAWYERS ANC JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND LAE REL W RKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,KINDRED,NEC

.05
.01
.00
.00
.27
.0 1
.01
.18

.00
.02
.00
.09
.0 2
.00
.00
.34
.0 1
.0 1
.38

MANAGERS,OFFICIALS.FRCPRIETGRS

4.04

3.75

5.26

4.97

6.99

7.31

6.57

7.88

6.14

6.92

CONDUCTCRS,PA1LRCAD
CREDITMEN
OFFICERS,PILOTS.ENGRS,SHIP
P O S T M A S T E R S ANC AS S I S T A N T S
PURCHASING AGENTS
MANAGERS,CFEICE,PROP. NEC

.00
.0 1
.01
.0 0
-29
3.74

.00
.01
.00
.00
.27
3-47

.0 1
.03
.00
.00
.37
4.84

.0 1
.03
.00
.0 0
.36
4.57

.00
.03
.0 0
.00
.57
6.38

.0 0
.0 2
.0 0
.CO
.64
6.64

.00
.06
.00
.0 0
.54
5.97

.0 0
.08
.0 0
.0 0
.63
7.17

.00
.14
.00
.00
.53
5.47

.0 0
.19
.0 0
.00
.69
6.04




.oo

.00

102
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 a n d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
OTHER
PRIMARY METAL
INDUSTRIES

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
STENOS,
OFFICE

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

IPERATCRS

OT H E R C L E R K A l ,K I N D R E D W RKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
PCCKKEEPEPS.HANC
EANK T E L LERS
CASHIERS
MAIL CARRI E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SE I P P I N C - , R E C E I V I N G C L E R K S
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
C L E R I C A L ANC KIND E E D , N E C

SALES

75

RAIIO

60

RATIO

75

FABRICATED
METAL PRODUCTS
NEC

RATIO

60

RAIIO

75

RATIO

MACHINERY
EXCEPT
ELECTRICAL
6C

RATIO

75

FARM
M A C H I N E R Y AND
EQUIPMENT

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIG

5.02

•3.27

12.04

10.69

14.13

13.11

13.32

12.57

15.17

13.02

1.54

2.34

3.4C

3.48

3.78

3.81

3.52

3.93

3.78

4.12

.38

.33

.59

.87

.54

.72

.71

.90

.82

1 .12

fc. 7 1
•6 5
.00
.00
.03
.00
.0 0
1.19
.16
A . 68

6.47
.48
.0 0
• CO
.03
.0 0
.0 0
1.07
.13
4 . 71

8.05
.50
.17
.uo
.03
.0 0
.00
1.47
.21
5.87

6.34
.29
.09
.00
.03
.00
.00
1.25
.18
4.51

9.82
.53
.51
.00
.04
.0 0
.00
1.47
.16
7.11

8.58
.43
.30
.0 0
.04
.0 0
.00
1.23
.17
6.42

9.09
.53
.45
.0 0
.04
.00
.0 0
1.13
.12
6.83

7.74
.36
.36
.0 0
.02
.00
.0 0
.94
.1 2
5.95

10.57
•3S
.65
.00
.06
.0 0
.00
1.36
.1 2
7.97

7.78
.28
.50
.00
.03
.00
.00
1.37
.14
5.47

1.10

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

RATIO

PRIMARY
NCNFERROUS
METAL

ANC

KINDRED

C O N S T R U C T O R CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
E R 1 C K M A S I NS ANC TILE S E T R S
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNC- MACH OPER
P A I N T E R S ANC F A P E H H A N G E K S
PI A S T E R E F S
PLUMBERS ANC PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

1.59

2 .21

3.00

2 .21

2.35

2.28

2.34

2.33

2.77

30.43

34.21

23.38

24.25

23.07

23.57

27.90

25.14

22.23

21.67

2.45
.25
.26
.0 0
1 .00
.14
.2 0
.00
.40
.OG
.17

2.55
.21
.31
.0 0
1. 19
. 10
.07
.CO
.48
.0 0
. 19

2.92
.42
.24
.00
1.36
.10
.05
.0 1
.69
.0 0
.03

3.23
.40
.30
.00
1.40
.07
.0 2
.0 1
.99
.00
.04

2.25
.28
.0 6
.0 0
.61
.03
.51
.0 0
.34
.0 2
.41

1.95
.23
.03
.0 0
.47
.0 1
.40
.0 0
.33
.0 1
.45

1.20
.2 2
.03
.0 0
.59
.0 2
.05
.01
.25
.0 0
.04

.98
. 12
.03
.0 0
.50
.01
.04
.01
.24
.00
.04

1.30
.21
.07
.01
.63
.06
.11
.00
.16
.01
.0 0

1.03
.14
.09
.0 1
.51
.07
.06
.0 0
.13
.0 1
.00

5.06

6 .06

5.84

6.32

4.54

5.13

3.77

4.52

4.75

5.23

M E T A L W K N G C R A F T S EXC M E C H
MACHINISTS ANC RELATED OCC
BIKSMIThS.FORC-MN,HAMMERMEN
P C I L E R M AK E R S
FEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
HOLDERS,METAL,EXC CCREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WOOD
ROLLERS ANC RCIL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
TOOLMAKERS AND CItMAKERS

16.62
2.52
1.23
.13
1.01
.98
7.58
1 .01
.98
.13
1.06

16.41
2.22
1.27
.07
1.30
1.40
6.59
.90
1 .22
.13
1.31

6.65
2.61
.27
.07
.44
•67
1.82
.2 0
.75
.25
1.57

6.01
2.25
.22
.05
.46
1 .12
1.45
.17
.55
.18
1.57

11.33
5.05
.24
.34
.27
.31
.48
.25
.34
2.13
1.92

1C.32
4.39
.14
.24
.14
.32
.42
.19
.40
1.77
2.30

17.42
11.13
.16
.03
.33
.25
.57
.37
.04
.60
3.94

13.56
7.93
. 10
.02
.29
.22
.49
.30
.04
.49
3.69

10.64
6 .10
.32
.0 0
.33
.33
1.03
.49
.01
.49
1.54

5.30
5.43
.24
.00
.23
.24
.74
.62
.01
.35
1.45

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
CCMPOSITCRS,TYPE SETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS,STERECTYPERS
ENGRAVERS EXC FHOTOENGRVER
P H G T O E N G R V R 5, L IT H I 6 R A P F 1E R S
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.04
.04
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00

.04
.04
.0 0
.CO
.0 0
.0 0

.04
.0 2
.0 0
.02
.0 0
.0 0

.03
.0 2
.0 0
.0 2
.00
.0 0

.23
.05
.00
.07
.07
,04

.17
.03
.0 0
.04
.05
.05

.1 2
.04
.01
.04
.01
.0 2

.11
.03
.01
.03
.0 2
.02

.05
.01
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.04

.06
.01
.0 0
.0 0
.02
.04

T R A N S P O R T ANC PUE U TIL CR A F T
LINEMEN ANC SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.05
.01
.04
.0 0

.08
.03
.05
.00

.0 2
.02
.0 0
.0 0

.0 2
.0 2
.00
.00

.0 1
.0 0
.01
.0 0

.Cl
.00
.0 1
.CO

.02
.0 1
.00
.00

.02
.02
.0 1
.00

.04
.04
.0 0
.0 0

.05
.05
.0 0
.00

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN
A I R P L A N E MECH ANC REPA I R M N
MOTOR VEHICLE MECEANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
R A D I O A N L IV M E C H A N I C S
RR A N D C A R S H I P M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

2.63
.00
.07
.00
.GO
.0 1
2.55

4.01
.0 0
.08
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
3.92

2.82
.0 1
.07
.01
.0 0
.01
2.73

3.31
.0 1
.06
.03
.00
.0 1
3.19

2.97
.1 0
.08
.01
.05
.0 0
2.73

3.66
.07
.07
.03
.09
• 00
3.40

3.58
.02
.17
.36
.00
.01
3.02

3.60
.02
.1 2
.36
.00
.01
3.08

4.29
.00
.83
.02
.00
.00
3.44

4.37
.0 0
.78
.03
.00
.0 0
3.56

FOREMEN

NEC




103
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed

CTHtR
P R I M A R Y MfcTAL
INDUSTRIES

OCCUPATION

60

RATIG

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

MACHINERY
EXCEPT
ELECTRICAL
60

RATIO

75

FARM
MACHINERY AND
EQUIPMENT

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

3.57
.0 0
.01
2.64
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.IB
.0 0
.72

5.05
.0 0
.01
3.39
.0 0
.00
.01
.00
.00
.25
.00
1.39

2.89
.00
.00
1.72
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.06
.0 0
1 .10

3.32
.00
.00
1.89
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
1.39

1.74
.0 0
.02
.57
.05
.0 1
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.04
.02
1.02

2.34
.00
.00
.70
.06
.02
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.03
.0 2
1.48

1.79
.00
.03
.44
.00
.0 1
.00
.00
.00
.02
.06
1.23

2.35
.00
.00
.42
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.05
1.64

1.15
.00
.0 0
.36
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.04
.00
.75

1.63
.00
.00
.24
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.04
.00
1.36

35.12

35.88

39.66

41.74

36.95

36.53

35.12

34.34

38.76

39.86

1.57
1.47
.11

1.83
1.68
.15

1.46
1.37
.1 1

1.46
1.35
.11

1.16
1.05
.12

1.23
1.16
.07

.69
.60
.05

.66
.55
.1 1

1.44
1.30
.14

1.89
1.66
.23

TRANSP ANC PUE LTIL G P E h ATVS
E R A K E M E K A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER ST ATICN OPERATORS
S A I L O R S A N C CECKF.ANCS

.12
.09
.03
.0 0

.15
.11
.05
.0 0

.05
.05
.04
.00

.11
.05
.06
.0 0

.0 2
.0 1
.00
.0 0

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.0 2
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0

.0 2
.01
.0 1
.00

.02
.00
.02
.0 0

.03
.0 0
.03
.00

SEMISKILLEC METALWORKING OCC
F U R N A C E M N ,S M E L T R M N , POU R EKS
HEATERS,METAl
WELDERS ANC FLAME-CUTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,M.TLWRK,CLASS B
INSPECTORS,MTlWRK,CLASS 8
M A C H I N E T COL C F E R , C L A S S B
El E C T R O P L A T E R S
ELECTROPLAIERS FELPERS

5.58
2.76
.49
2.87
.09
.42
1.60
1.35
.0 0
.0 1

5.67
2.45
. 74
3.33
.10
.43
1.52
1.31
.00
.00

8.62
3.34
.05
1.32
.15
.65
1.87
1 .01
.06
.1 0

8.47
3.03
.12
1.47
.17
.70
1.89
.52
.07
.1 0

15.41
.34
.03
4.33
.62
3.09
2 .12
3.44
.53
.92

15.17
.32
.02
5.15
.73
2.64
2.04
3.06
.45
.73

le.os
.2 0
.0 2
3.32
2 .12
4.76
1.44
6.13
.04
.06

17.12
.17
.02
4.48
2.27
4.90
1.25
3.96
.02
.05

16.60
.31
.0 1
5.40
.71
3.72
1.68
4.78
.0 0
.00

17.11
. 18
.01
7.14
.79
3.46
1.48
4.06
.0 0
.0 0

.05
.00
.02
.0 1
.02

.03
.0 0
.0 2
.0 1
.0 0

.03
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.03

.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.07
.00
.00
.01
.06

.0 1
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.0 0

.04
.00
.00
.01
.04

.0 1
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.00

.06
.00
.00
.00
.06

.05
.0 0
.00
.00
.05

KINDREO

23.78

23.99

29.44

31.71

20.30

2 0 .1 2

16.28

16.53

20.64

20.78

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WRKS
ATTEND,ALTC SERVICE,PARKNG
BLASTERS ANC POWCERMEN
LAUNDRY,CRY CLEANING CPER
MEAT CUTT E R S , E X C MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATES,LAECRERS,NEC
O P E R A T I V E S ANC K I N C R E D , N E C

.00
.00
.00
.0 1
.01
.00
23.76

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.01
.00
.0 1
23.57

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.00
29.43

.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.00
31.70

.02
.01
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
20.26

.03
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.CO
20.08

.01
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.01
.00
16.26

.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
16.52

.00
.03
.00
.0 2
.00
.0 0
20.60

.0 0
.0 2
.00
.02
.00
.0 0
20.74

2.23

1.80

2.13

1.60

1.85

1.45

1.58

1.28

1.76

1.41

.0 0

.00

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.CO

.0 0

o
o

.0 0

o
o

OTHER C R A FTSMEN AND KINDRED
BAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,FOIST MEN
GLAZIERS
JFWELERS AND WATCHMAKERS
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
I N S P E C TORS.LOG ANC LUMBER
INSPECTORS,CTFER
UPHOLSTERERS
CRAFTSMEN AND KINCRED NEC

FABRICATED
METAL PRODUCTS
NEC

PRIMARY
NONFERRCUS
METAL

1.13
.01
1.06
.04

.8 6
.0 1
.83
.0 2

1 .10
.01
1.06
.03

.82
.0 1
.75
.0 2

.85
.03
.79
.02

.58
.05
.49
.04

.60
.00
.59
.01

.36
.00
.36
.01

.75
.00
.72
.03

.51
.00
.47
.04

.07
.00
.03
.01
.0 2

.09
.0 0
.03
.02
.04

.08
.00
.0 2
.03
.0 2

.05
.0 0
.0 2
.0 2
.0 1

.07
.00
.03
.03
.02

.09
.00
.04
.04
.01

.07
.0 0
.03
.02
.02

.06
.00
.02
.03
.0 2

.04
.00
.0 1
.0 1
.0 1

.03
.00
.0 1
.0 1
.0 1

1.04
.0 0
.0 0
.20
.65
.0 0
.19

.85
.0 0
.0 0
.23
.48
.00
.15

.55
.00
.01
.11
.60
.03
.2 1

.73
.00
.0 1
.09
.47
.0 1
.15

.93
.00
.0 0
.13
.56
.0 1
.23

.78
.00
.0 0
.15
.39
.00
.24

.91
.0 0
.0 0
.15
.53
.0 0
.2 1

.85
.0 0
.01
.16
.43
.0 0
.24

.95
.0 0
.00
.13
.72
.00
.14

.88
.00
.00
.08
.70
.00
.09

14.20

7.55

8.40

5.38

5.09

3.20

2.85

1.60

5.18

2.95

.00

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.00

.00

OPERATIVES

ANC

KINCREC

WORKERS

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
CRIVER5,£IS,1RUCK.TRACTOR
DELIVERYMEN ANC RCLTEMEN

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CLCUP
KNITTERS,LOOPERS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVE RS,TEXTILE
SEWERS ANC STITCHERS.MFG
OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HGU5EHCTC

WORKERS

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WATCFMEN.DCCRKEEPRS
P O L I C E , O T H LAW ENFORCE OFF
FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
BARTENDERS
COOKS.EXC PRIV HOUSEHOLDS
COUNTER AND FOUNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES
OTHER SERVICE WCRKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S . H C S P , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTCNS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

ANC

WCRKERS




MINE

104
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C o n tin u ed
OFFICE
MACHINERY

OCCUPATION

60
INDUSTRY

TOTAL

RATIO

75

MISCELLANEOUS
MACHINERY

RATIO

75

PATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

1 0 0.0 0

100.00

100.00

28.61

5.24

12.63

17.80

24.05

1 2 .2 0

10.82

3.99

4.51

8.41

10.34

5.57

.0 0
.09
.00
3.09
1.24
1.94
.08
.0 0
1.62

.0 0
. 13
.0 0
4 . 19
1.65
2.28
.12
.0 0
2.44

.0 1
.05
.07
.15
.53
2.01
.08
.0 1
1.08

.01
.03
.03
.2 2
.74
2.30
.08
.00
1.52

.03
.14
.06
4.86
1.01
1 .12
.09
.01
1 .10

.03
.15
.06
6 .CC
1.35
1.28
.15
.01
1.27

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
B1ULUGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGISTS,GEOPHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

1.34
.31
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.63
.32
.06

1.67
.38
.0 0
.0 0
.00
1.05
•36
.08

.16
.06
.00
.0 0
.00
.04
.03
.02

.15
.05
.0 0
.0 1
.01
.04
.03
.02

.57
-15
.00
.00
.01
.15
.24
.03

T E C H N I C I A N S . E X C N E C I C A L ,D E N T
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIK TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS,OTHER

7.29
2 .00
.00
.00
.00
5.29

9.50
2.35
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
7.15

3.12
2 .00
.00
.00
.00
1 .12

4.11
2.35
.00
.0 0
.00
1.77

MEDICAL,OTHER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
D I E T I T I A N S , N O T R I T I O N I ST S
NURSES,PROFESSIONAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEUPAThS
PHARMACISTS
PhVSICIANS AND SURGEONS
P S Y C H U L O G ISTS
TECHNICIANS,MEDICAL.CENTAL
VETERINARIANS
OTHER M E C I C A L , H E A L T H WRKRS

.09
.00
.00
.05
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.03
.0 1
.00
.0 0

. 15
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.05
.0 2
.0 0
.00

.05
.00
.0 1
.07
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 1
.00
.00

TEAChERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECONDARY
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEACHERS,OTHER

.12
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.1 2

. 13
.0 0
.0 0
.00
. 13

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS ♦ ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.1 0
.0 2
.07
• oo

O T HFR P R O F , T E C H AND KINDRED
ACCOUNTANTS A M
AUDITORS
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
WRKRS IN A R T S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CESIGN DRAFT
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
LAWYERS AND JLCGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND LAE REL WRKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL AND WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,KINCREC.NEC

4.05
1 .01
.02
.00
.40
.0 0
.65
.12
.04
.0 1
.24
.06
.0 0
1.53

MANAGERS,OFFICIALS,PROPRIETORS
CONDUCTORS,RAILROAD
CRECITMEN
0EEICERS,PILC1S,ENGRS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENT S
M A N A G E R S , O F F I C E , P R O P . NEC

ENGINEERS,AERONAUTICAL
ENGINEERS,CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS,CIVIL
ENGINEERS,ELECTRI CAL
ENGINEERS,INCLSTRIAL
ENGINEERS,MECHANICAL
ENGINEERS,METALLliRG,ETC
ENGINEERS,MININCCTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL




8.07

RATIO

1 0 0.00

T E C H M C A l ,KI N D R E D

2 1 .1 0

60

1 0 0.0 0

ENGINEERS,!ICENICAL

100.00

TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT

100.00

PROF E SSIONA L

1GC.00

ELECTRICAL
MACHINERY

MOTOR

VEHICLES
AND
EQUIPMENT

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

1 00.00

15.34

6.25

5. 18

7.18

2.24

3.38

2 .12
.07
.16
.70
.64
1.45
.10
.0 0
.33

2.13
.08
.22
.91
1.13
2.05
.15
.00
.52

.0 1
.03
.03
.1 1
.48
1.18
.1 0
.00
.29

.0 1
.03
.03
.15
.71
1.76
.1 0
.0 0
.58

.71
.21
.0 0
.CO
.0 1
.19
.27
.03

.47
.17
.0 0
.0 1
.01
.14
.1 1
.03

.51
.14
.00
.01
.0 1
.22
.10
.03

.1 0
.06
.00
.00
.0 0
.03
.01
.0 0

.2 0
.1 0
.00
.00
.00
.06
.04
.0 0

5.54
2.08
.00
.00
.0 2
3.45

8.35
1.98
.0 0
.CO
.02
6.25

2 . 8o
1.18
.0 1
.0 0
.01
1.67

3.35
1.17
.0 1
.0 0
.0 1
2.17

1.47
.74
.00
.00
.00
.73

2 .2 0
.85
.00
.0 0
.00
1.35

.13
.00
.01
.10
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0

.08
.00
.01
.06
.0 0
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00

.12
.0 0
.01
.08
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.01
.00
.0 1
.0 0
.00

.10
.0 0
.00
.07
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0

.1 0
.00
.0 0
.06
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.0 1
.00
.00

.10
.00
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.09
.0 0
.00
.06
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

.01
.OG
.0 0
.00
.0 1

.

.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.05
.0 0
.oo
.00
.05

.05
.0 0
.CO
.0 0
.05

.03
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.03

.03
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.03

.01
.00
.00
.00
.0 1

.0 1
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 1

15

.05

.04
.11
.0 0

.04
.0 1
.00

.04
.03
.0 1
.0 0

.12
.08
.04
.0 0

.11
.07
.04
.00

.09
.03
.06
.0 0

.10
.02
.07
.0 0

.05
.05
.04
.0 0

.09
.04
.05
.00

6 .2 0
.97
.03
.00
.40
.0 0
.56
. 15
.04
.04
.31
.07
.0 0
3.23

1.81
.74
.02
.00
.11
.00
.23
.03
.0 2
.01
.20
.05
.00
.41

3.29
.8 6
.03
.00
.15
.00
.16
.04
.0 2
.02
.24
.05
.0 0
1.72

3.01
.93
.01
.0 0
.30
.00
.42
.07
.07
.0 2
.34
.05
.0 0
.80

4.38
.87
.02
.CO
.23
.0 0
.40
.05
.05
.05
.31
.07
.00
2.29

3.08
.8 8
.06
.02
.48
.00
.2 0
.0 6
.06
.01
.28
.07
.00
.95

4.07
.81
.05
.03
.50
.0 0
.29
.07
.06
.02
.35
.05
.00
1.85

2.27
l.OC
.0 1
.00
.16
.00
.23
.0 2
.05
.00
.26
.0 2
.00
.52

3.21
.92
.0 1
.00
.23
.00
.24
.03
.05
.00
.36
.0 2
.00
1.35

5.88

7.41

6.69

8.05

5.10

4.11

3.36

4.04

2.75

4.21

.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.44
5.44

.0 0
.01
.0 0
.00
.57
6.83

.00
.05
.00
.00
.55
6.08

.00
.08

.0 0
.03
.00
.00
.60
4.47

.0 0
.06
.00
.CO
.71
3.33

.00
.02
.02
.0 0
.55
2.76

.00
.03
.03
.00
.66
3.33

.00
.02
.0 0
.00
.31
2.42

.00
.0 2
.0 0
.00
.50
3.69

.08

.0 0
.0 0
.63
7.34

105
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
OFFICE
MACHINERY

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
STENOS,
OFFICE

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

OPERATORS

OTHER CLERICAL,RIRCREU WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BOOKKEEPERS,HANt
BANK T E L LERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
CLERICAL ANC KINDRED,NEC

SALES

ELECTRICAL
MACHINERY

TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT

MOTOR

VEHICLES
AND
EQUIPMENT

RATIO

RATIO

14. B6

14.29

12.97

12.24

14.57

12.14

1 2 .8 8

11.27

9.84

8.97

4.BS

5.50

3.34

3.65

4.47

4.66

3.28

3.03

2.24

2.31

RATIO

75

RAT1U

.64

.79

9.32
.34
.36
.00
.06
.0 0
.0 0
. 70
.11
7.75

8 .00
• 28
.2 1
.0 0
.06
.00
.00
.48
.10
6 .88

60

RATIO

.71
8.93
.56
.44
.00
.03
.00
.00
1.15
.12
6 .6 1

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

75

RATIO

.90

.71

1.18

.50

.61

.53

.73

7.70
.38
.37
.0 0
.01
.00
.0 0
.97
.13
5.85

9.38
.50
.30
.0 0
.06
.00
.00
1.00
.20
7.33

6 .10
.48
.28
.00
.05
.0 0
.00
.77
.13
4.39

9.10
.40
.11
.0 0
.04
.00
.00
.60
.13
7.81

7.62
.37
.1 0
.00
.04
.00
.0 0
.41
.09
6.61

7.07
.47
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.65
.1 1
5.75

5.93
.41
.00
.00
.05
.0 0
.0 0
.43
.08
4.97

4.41

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

MISCELLANEOUS
MACHINERY

ANC

KINDRED

C O N S T R U C T I O N C R A El S E E N
CARPENTERS
BRICKMASONS AND TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNC- MACH OPEK
P A INTERS ANC F A P ERHANGERS
PLASTERERS
PLUMBERS AND PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS AND SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

3.61

2 .0 2

2.09

1.65

1.68

.65

.70

.76

.75

18.65

15.04

29.52

27.14

15.76

16.55

28.18

26.22

22.63

19.45

.45
.05
.0 0
.0 0
.26
.0 0
.02
.0 0
.11
.00
.00

.38
.08
.0 0
.0 0
. 16
.00
.02
.0 0
.1 2
.0 0
.00

1.27
.24
.0 2
.00
.63
.0 1
.05
.0 1
.27
.00
.04

1.07
.1 2
.03
.00
.56
.0 0
.04
.0 1
.27
.0 0
.04

1 .20
.16
.02
.00
.79
.0 1
.05
.00
.1 6
.0 0
.02

.87
.12
.02
.0 0
.57
.00
.03
.0 0
.09
.00
•04

5.67
1.41
.04
.00
1.75
.03
.48
.00
.92
.0 1
.97

6.53
1.48
.05
.0 0
1.72
.0 2
.38
.01
1.44
.0 1
1.43

1.75
.21
.03
.0 0
1 .02
.0 0
.09
.00
.38
.0 0
.01

1.62
.22
.03
.0 0
.83
.00
.05
.00
.48
.00
.0 1

2.56

2.45

3.63

4.79

4.19

4.60

4.09

3.98

3.93

3.60

M E T A L W K N G C R A F T S EXt M E C H
M A C H I N I S T S ANC R E L A T E D OCC
B L K S M I T H S ,FCR G M N , H A M M E R M E N
BOILERMAKERS
hEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
MULDERS,METAL,EXC CDREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WOOD
ROLLERS AND BELL HANOS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
T O OLMAKERS ANC G I E M AKEKS

7.21
3.78
.02
.0 0
.14
.07
.10
.45
.06
.11
2.47

5.59
2.57
.0 0
.0 0
.06
.04
.04
.53
.08
.05
2 .21

I S . 25
12.46
.17
.03
.35
.2 6
.55
.35
.03
.67
4.33

15.28
9.05
.1 1
.0 2
.33
.25
.53
.23
.03
.58
4.14

5.72
2.98
.04
.01
.07
.2 0
.23
.33
.03
.44
1.40

5.35
2.59
.02
.01
.04
.16
.24
.40
.03
.65
1 .20

1 0 .2 0
4.67
.15
.19
.19
.40
.15
.53
.03
1.43
2.46

8.46
3.50
.11
.25
.15
.42
.1 1
.32
.02
1.42
2.17

9.02
3.11
.14
.0 0
.20
.72
.16
.50
.04
.40
3.73

7.80
2.62
.1 2
.0 0
.14
.75
.07
.38
.03
.42
3.28

PRINTING TRADES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOS IICRS,TYPESETTERS
ELECTRO TYPERS,STEREOTYPERS
ENGRAVERS EXC PHCTOENGRVER
P H O T O E N G R VR S , L I T H C G R A P H E R S
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.30
.14
.0 0
.1 2
.02
.03

.17
.07
.00
.05
.04
.0 2

.11
.04
.0 1
.04
.01
.02

.1 1
.0 2
.01
.04
.0 2
.0 2

.1 1
.06
.00
.03
.0 1
.0 2

.12
.06
.00
.03
.0 1
.03

.06
.03
.0 0
.0 1
.01
.02

.07
.0 2
.0 0
.01
.0 1
.02

.02
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 1

.0 2
.01
.00
.00
.00
.0 1

TRANSPORT AND POE UTIL CRAFT
LINEMEN AND SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.0 1
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0

.02
.02
.CO
.0 0

.0 2
.0 1
.01
.00

.02
.01
.0 1
.00

.39
.38
.00
.0 0

.64
.64
.00
.0 0

.0 2
.0 1
.0 1
.00

.03
.0 2
.01
.00

.0 2
.01
.01
.00

.03
.02
.01
.00

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN
AIRP L A N E MECH ANC REPA I R M N
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MAChINE MECHANICS
R ADIO AN C TV M E C H A N I C S
RR A N D C A R S H C F M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

6.41
.00
.04
3.63
.0 0
.0 0
2.74

4.92
.00
.03
2.77
.0 0
.0 0
2.12

3.18
.02
.12
.00
.00
.01
3.02

3.31
.03
.08
.0 0
.00
.0 1
3.19

2.75
.03
.02
.0 2
.24
.0 0
2.44

3.67
.06
.02
.03
.30
.0 0
3.26

6.06
2.16
1.69
.0 0
.14
.03
2.04

5.30
1.60
1.39
.00
.2 0
.04
2.06

5.84
.02
3.77
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
2.03

5.09
.02
3.07
.00
.03
.0 0
1.97

FOREMEN

NEC




106
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, 1960 an d P r o je c t e d xor 1975--- C o n tin u ed
OFFICE
MACHINERY

OCCUPATION

60
OTHER CRA F T S M E N ANC KINDRED
EAKEKS
CABINETMAKERS
C R A NE,DERRICK,HOIST MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWELERS ANC WATCHMAKERS
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
INSPECTORS,LOG ANC LUMBER
INSPECTORS,OTHER
UPHOLSTFRERS
C R A F T S M E N A N D K1NCRFD NEC

RATIO

75

MISCELLANEOUS
MACHINERY

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

ELECTRICAL
MACHINERY

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT

MOTOR

VEHICLES
ANO
EQUIPMENT

RATIO

6C RATIO

1.67
.00
.04
.01
.0 1
.04
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.02
.00
1.56

1.50
.00
.04
.0 0
.01
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00
.01
.0 0
1.44

1 .B6
.0 0
.03
.50
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00
.02
.07
1.24

2.55
.00
.0 0
.51
.00
.01
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.07
1.S6

1.41
.00
.0 2
.13
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.02
.01
1 .20

1.71
.CO
.02
.05
.00
.0 1
.CO
.Cl
.00
.02
.CO
1.60

2.07
.0 0
.13
.36
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
.16
1.33

1. S 6
.00
.15
.34
.03
.00
.00
.00
.01
. 15
.11
1.07

2.04
.0 0
.01
.39
.03
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.03
.2 0
1.38

1.31
.00
.01
.34
.04
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.03
.12
.77

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

32.76

2 9 . 72

35.06

34.58

41.13

36.32

37.36

37.82

51.76

51.87

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
DRIVERS,BIS,TRUCK,TRACTOR
DELIVERYMEN ANC RCUTEMEN

.19
.14
.06

. 16
. 13
.03

.68
.59
.09

.63
.51
.12

.46
.40
.06

.43
.37
.06

.88
.72
.16

.94
.77
.17

1.24
.98
.27

1.18
.95
.24

T RANSP AN D PUE LTIL C F ERATVS
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATION CPEFATORS
SAILORS ANC CFCKHANCS

.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.0 2
.01
.0 1
.0 0

.02
.0 1
.0 1
.00

.01
.00
.00
.0 0

.0 0
.00
.DC
.00

.05
.01
.0 2
.0 1

.07
.0 2
.03
.02

.06
.02
.04
.00

.07
.0 2
.06
.0 0

S E M I S K I L L E D M E T A L W O R K I N G CCC
FURNACEMN,SNELTRMN,PQORERS
FtATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-CUTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,KTLWRK.CLASS B
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS B
MACHINE TOOL CPER,CLASS 8
ELECTROFLATERS
ELECTROPLATERS HELPERS

16.91
.06
.0 0
.62
.82
9.05
1.97
3.6B
.19
.33

17.00
.04
.00
.43
1.42
11.17
1.73
2.05
.05
.09

I B . 36
.2 1
.0 2
3.45
2.41
4.35
1.36
6.52
.0 2
.04

17.15
.19
.02
4.69
2.56
4.01
1.15
4.27
.0 2
.04

18.96
.1 0
.00
1.57
1.97
9.91
3.44
1.65
.1 1
.20

17.20
• C7
.00
1.73
1.96
E. 75
2 .SS
1.37
.1 2
.18

22.23
.13
.04
3.73
•9 8
9.56
2.96
4.62
.08
.14

21.37
.1 1
.04
4.93
.90
8.58
2 .88
3.70
.08
.14

34.66
.21
.06
3.96
.2 1
17.62
4.62
7.58
.14
.24

33.25
.19
.05
5.03
.33
15.92
4.76
6.58
.15
.24

.0 2
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 2

.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.04
.0 0
.0 0
.01
.04

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00

.05
.00
.00
.00
.05

.05
.0 0
.CO
.0 0
.05

.24
.00
.0 0
.00
.23

.23
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.23

.39
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.39

.37
.00
.0 0
.00
.37

KINOREO

15.65

12.56

15.96

16.77

21.64

20.64

13.97

15.21

15.41

16.99

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERVICE,PAKKNG
B L A S T E R S A NC FOWDERM.EN
LAUNDRY,DRY CLEANING OPER
MEAT CUTTERS,EXC MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATVS,LA B O R E R S , N E C
OPERATIVES ANC KINDRcC,NEC

.02
.00
.00
.0 0
-CC
.0 0
15.63

.0 2
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
12.54

.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00
.01
.00
15.94

.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
16.77

.04
.03
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
21.57

.06
.03
.00
.0 0
.CO
.0 0
20.56

.1 1
.03
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
13.82

.19
.02
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
15.00

.0 1
.04
.OC
.0 0
.00
.00
15.35

.0 1
.03
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
16.96

1.35

.89

1.59

1.33

1.61

1.48

2 .11

1.82

2.16

1.81

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.CO

.00

.0 0

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WATCHMEN,CCORKEEFRS
P O L I C E , C T H LAW E N F ORCE OFF

.53
.00
.52
.01

.17
.0 0
.14
.0 2

.60
.00
.58
.0 1

.38
.0 0
.38
.00

.63
.0 1
.60
.03

.40
.0 1
.38
.0 2

.97
.06
.8 6
.04

.78
.08
.67
.03

.64
.0 2
.81
.0 1

.69
.02
.6 6
.01

FCOD SERVICE WORKERS
BARTENDERS
COOKS,EXC PRIV HOLSEHCLDS
COUNTER ANC FOUNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES

.1 1
.00
.0 2
.08
.0 1

.16
.0 0
.03
.12
.02

.07
.0 0
.03
.0 2
.0 2

.05
.0 0
.0 2
.0 2
.02

.1 0
.00
.03
.04
.02

•C6
.00
.0 2
.C5
.0 1

.13
.00
.03
.07
.03

.1 0
.00
.03
.05
.0 2

.12
.00
.03
.06
.03

.11
.0 0
.03
.05
.03

OTHER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRDSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , F O S F , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTONS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

.72
.00
.0 0
.04
.36
.0 0
.31

.56
.00
.0 0
.04
.37
.0 0
.15

.93
.00
.0 1
.17
• 54
.00
.2 1

.89
.0 0
.01
.19
.42
.0 0
.27

.8 8
.00
.0 0
.08
.43
.00
.37

.99
.00
.00
.08
.34
.00
.57

1.01
.00
.01
.15
.58
.00
.26

.93
.0 0
.00
.16
.46
.0 0
.31

1 .21
.0 0
.00
.27
.67
.0 0
.26

1 .01
.0 0
.0 0
.24
.43
.0 0
.35

.98

.23

2.91

1.95

2.38

1.27

3.28

2.79

3.61

3.76

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

.00

.00

.0 0

.0 0

OPERATIVES

ANC

KINCREC

WORKERS

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CCCUP
KNITTERS, LOOP ERS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
SEWERS ANC STITCHERS,MFG
OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HOUSEHOLD

LABCRERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

AND

FARM

FARM

WORKERS

ANC

WORKERS




MINE

107
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 a n d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C o n tin u ed
AIR

CRAFT
AND
tNbINtS

OCCUPATION

60
INOLSTRY

TOTAL

RA1I0

7b

SHIP AND
BOATBUILDING
AND REPAIR

RATIO

1 0 0.00

100.00

21.15
10.67

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

1 00.00

1 0 0.0 0

28.05

7.69

10.36

15.25

2.82

3.57

5.50
.15
.30
1.50
.97
1.79
. 15
.00
.32

6.55
.21
.56
2.29
2.16
2.73
.29
.0 0
.58

.05
.02
.16
.59
.25
1.53
.05
.0 0
.39

.05
.0 2
.15
.57
.50
1 .86
.05
.0 0
.39

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
G E O L O G I S T S , C-ECPHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

1.05
.35
.00
.0 2
.0 2
.33
.26
.07

1.23
.27
.0 0
.0 2
.05
.59
.25
.07

.16
.08
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2
.05
.03

TECHNICIANS,EXC MECICAL.OENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS,OTHER

5.56
1.37
.0 1
.00
.0 2
3.17

5.17
1.26
.01
.0 0
.01
3.89

M E D I C A L , O T H ER H E A L T H W O R K E R S
DENTISTS
D I E T I T I A N S , N U T R I T I ONI STS
NORSES.PROFESSIONAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISIS
PHYSICIANS ANC SURGEONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNICIANS.MECICAL,DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
OTHER ME C I C A L . H E A L T H WRKRS

.10
.00
.0 0
.07
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.0 1
.02
.0 0
.0 0

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS.SECCNCARY
TEACHERS.COLLEGE
TEACHERS.OTHER
SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

RAILROAD ANC OTHER
TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

INSTRUMENTS
EXCEPT
CLOCKS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

1 0 0.0 0

1 0 0.00

100.00

1 0 0.0 0

1 00.00

6.80

7.16

18.38

25.33

19.40

26.69

2.62

2.64

8.12

11.14

6.59

11.75

.05
.0 0
.05
.30
.46
1.19
.0 2
.0 0
.57

.04
.0 0
.04
.30
.48
1.14
.02
.00
.62

.09
.23
.04
2.33
1.29
1.48
.04
.00
2.62

.13
.23
-04
3.10
1.94
1 .68
.05
.0 0
3.98

.09
.24
.04
2.49
1.33
1.56
.05
.00
2.78

.13
.25
.04
3.32
2 .00
1.77
.06
.00
4.18

.13
.03
.00
.00
.0 0
.05
.05
.02

.0 2
.0 2
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.01
.01
.00
.00
.0 0
.GO
.0 0
.00

1.27
.58
.0 0
.02
.03
.15
.36
.12

1.54
.72
.0 2
.0 1
.19
.15
.37
.08

1.35
.62
.00
.02
.04
.16
.38
.13

1.64
.77
.02
.01
.2 0
.16
.39
.09

2.69
1.77
.02
.00
.03
.89

3.30
1.59
.01
.0 0
.03
1.77

2.15
1.82
.02
.0 0
.0 0
.29

2.25
1.54
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.29

5.04
1.94
.01
.00
.0 0
3.09

7.40
2.04
.01
.0 0
.01
5.34

5.29
2 .01
.01
.0 0
.00
3.27

7.76
2 .10
.0 1
.00
.00
5.65

.12
.00
.00
.07
.00
.0 0
.00
.02
.0 1
.0 2
.00
.00

.11
.00
.00
.07
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.01
.00
.03
.0 0
.0 0

.09
.0 0
.0 0
.05
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.00
.03
.00
.0 0

.1 0
.00
.0 2
.06
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.02
.0 0
.00

.10
.00
.0 2
.06
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0

.63
.00
.0 1
.04
.02
.00
.03
.03
.01
.50
.00
.0 0

.57
.0 0
.01
.02
.0 0
.00
.02
.0 2
.0 1
.48
.00
.0 0

.6 8
.0 0
.01
.03
.02
.00
.04
.03
.0 1
.53
.0 0
.0 0

.61
.0 0
.01
.02
.0 0
.00
.03
.0 2
.0 1
.52
.00
.0 0

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.03
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.03

.09
.0 0
.00
.00
.09

.12
.0 0
.00
.00
.12

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.04
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.04

.06
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.06

.04
.0 0
.00
.00
.04

.05
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.05

. 15
.0 2
.1 2
.00

. 17
.0 2
.15
.00

.0 1
.0 1
.01
.0 0

.02
.0 1
.0 1
.00

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.09
.03
.06
.01

.10
.02
.08
.0 1

.10
.03
.06
.0 1

.1 1
.01
.08
.0 1

OTHER P R O F , T E C H ANC K I N DRED
ACCOUNTANTS ANC AUDITORS
AIRPLANE PILGTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
WRKRS IN A R T S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CESIGN DRAFT
EDITORS ANC REPORTERS
LAWYERS AND JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L ANC LAE REL WRKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,KINCPEC,NEC

5.61
.93
- 15
.0 0
1.05
.00
.09
.1 2
.08
.03
.31
.15
.0 1
1.69

6.07
.90
. 13
.00
1 .21
.0 0
. 10
. 15
.08
.05
.33
.11
.0 1
3.00

1.80
.39
.00
.15
.03
.00
.52
.03
.03
.0 0
.29
.05
.00
.55

3.25
.35
.00
.15
.03
.0 0
.87
.03
.0 2
.00
.38
.03
.00
1.38

1.92
.90
.02
.00
.07
.0 0
.08
.06
.1 1
.00
.24
.05
.0 0
.39

2.16
.78
.0 2
.0 0
.07
.CO
.05
.05
.09
.0 0
.32
.03
.00
.74

3.18
.77
.0 2
.0 1
.39
.0 0
.47
.1 0
.1 0
.00
.31
.07
.0 0
.95

4.53
.61
.03
.01
.37
.0 0
.56
.12
.08
.00
.39
.06
.00
2.31

3.35
.81
.03
.01
.42
.00
.49
.1 1
.1 1
.00
.32
.07
.0 0
1 .00

4.77
.65
.03
.01
.40
.0 0
.58
.13
.08
.00
.40
.07
.00
2.42

MANAGERS,OFFICIALS,PRCFRIETORS

3.77

3.96

3.54

3.02

5.05

5.91

6.52

5.86

6.45

5.95

CONDUCTORS,RAILRCAC
CRECITMEN
O F F I C E R S , P I L O T S , E N G R S . S H IP
P O S T M A S T E R S ANC AS S I S T A N T S
PURCHASING AGENTS
M A N A G E R S , C F F I C E . P R O P . NEC

.0 0
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.92
2.84

.0 0
.01
.00
.0 0
1.09
2 . 86

.01
.0 0
.13
.0 0
.33
3.07

.0 1
.00
.16
.0 0
.40
2.45

.0 0
.13
.00
.00
.46
4.47

.00
.20
.00
.00
.23
5.48

.00
.0 1
.00
.00
.58
5.92

.00
.02
.00
.0 0
.93
4.91

.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.58
5.86

.00
.01
.00
.00
.94
4.99

PROFESSIONAL

TECHNICAL,KINDREO

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
ENGINEERS,AERCHALTICAL
ENGINEERS,CHENICAL
ENGINEERS,CIVIL
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS.INDLSTRIAL
ENGINEERS.MECHANICAL
ENGINEERS.METALLLRG,ETC
ENGINEERS,MINING
OTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL




1 0 0.0 0

PROFESSIONAL
SCIENTIFIC
INSTRUMENTS

108
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975

AIR

CRAFT
AND
ENGINES

O C C U P A T ION

60

STENCS,
OFFICE

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

OPERATORS

CTFiFR C L E R I C A L , K I N C R E U W R K R S
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BOOKKEEPERS,HAND
PARK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R RIERS
POSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
CLER I C A L ANC KINDR E D , N E C

SALES

17. 55

75

R A T 10

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

RAILROAD AND OTHER
TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

PROFESSIONAL
SCIENTIFIC
INSTRUMENTS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

INSTRUMENTS
EXCEPT
CLOCKS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

5.78

8.64

11.59

11.03

17.37

15.46

17.60

15.52
4.89

4.85

4.56

2.23

2.13

2.92

2.72

5.14

4.87

5.23

.54

.62

.28

.37

.46

.46

.54

1.05

.53

1.03

12.15
.30
.18
.00
.04
.00

10.65
.28
.16

6.14
.39
.11
.00
.04
.00
.00
.29
.09
5.22

8.21
.56
.39
.00
.09
.00
.00
.55
.13
6.08

7.E5
.52
.31
.00
,C9
.00
.CO
.52
.12
5 . EE

11.69
.34
.71
.00
.03
.00
.00
1.05
.20
9.31

9.55
.26
.54
.00
.02
.00
.00
.77
.15
7.81

11.83
.35
.68
.00
.03
.00
.00
1.17
.20
5.40

9.61
.27
.51
.00
.02
.00
.00
.82
.14
7.85

.04

7.2 7
.41
.12
.00
.04

.00

.00
.00

.00
.00

.60
.14
10.65

.33
.09
9.73

.22
.17
6.31

.00

.54

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

RATIO

CO

CLERICAL

SHIP ANC
EOATBUILOING
AND REPAIR

C ontinued

AND

KINDRED

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
PRICKMASONS ANC TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRADNG MACH OPER
P A I N T E R S A NC PAPEPhANC-ERS
PLASTERERS
PLUMPERS ANC PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

.53

.34

.43

1.34

1.82

2.44

1.97

2.45

1.87

26.74

23.27

49.05

49.17

27.12

2 6 . C3

19.15

17.46

15.25

17.24

2.52
.27
.01
.00
1.76
.03
.05
.Cl
.31
.00
.04

2.06
. 11
.01
.00
2.05
.02
.05
.01
.34
.00
.07

25.34
7.51
.10
.0 1
4.33
.08
2.68
.01
4.16
.00
6.46

26.20
6.44
.10
.02
3.59
.06
1.60
.01
6.18
.00
8.00

7.51
3.28
.25
.00
1.47
.00
.67
.00
1.03
.11
.69

7.C7
3.57
.24
.00
1.24
.00
.52
.00
.56
.08
.46

1.07
.15
.01
.00
.55
.01
.06
.00
.28
.00
.00

1.08
.13
.00
.00
.66
.01
.02
.00
.25
.00
.00

1.11
.15
.00
.00
.58
.01
.06
.00
.30
.00
.00

1.13
.13
.00
.00
.70
.01
.02
.00
.27
.00
.00

4.42

4 . 70

3.60

3.59

4.37

3.57

4.33

4.35

4.34

4.34

M E T A L W K N G CR A F T S EXC MECH
MACHINISTS ANC RELATED OCC
BLKSMITHS,FORGMN,HAMMERMEN
eoiLERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
HOLDERS,METAL,EXC CCREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WOOD
ROLLERS AND RCLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
T O O L M A K E R S ANC D 1 ( M AKERS

11.10
5.64
.12
.00
.25
.17
.05
.63
.02
2.05
2.10

6.46
3.67
.04
.00
.25
. 16
.03
.32
.02
1. 88
2.09

11.95
6.83
.15
1.27
.01
.03
.22
.44
.00
2.76
.19

10.51
5.34
.14
1.43
.01
.03
.29
.21
.00
2.88
.13

8.32
4.47
.47
.09
.07
.44
.38
.26
.04
1.44
.66

7.49
3.70
.30
.06
.06
.46
.33
.17
.02
1.57
.42

6.98
4.80
.01
.00
.01
.12
.02
.21
.00
.44
1.35

5.80
3.99
.01
.00
.01
.12
.01
.35
.00
.43
.68

6.93
4.85
.01
.00
.01
.13
.03
.20
.00
.46
1.23

5.64
4.01
.01
.00
.01
.12
.01
.32
.00
.45
.71

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITORS,TYPESETTERS
EL E C T R O T Y P E R S , S T E R E C T Y P E R S
ENGRAVERS EXC PHOTOENGRVER
PHOTOENGRVRS,LITHOGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.12
.05
.00
.02
.02
.04

. 17
.05
.00
.03
.03
.Oo

.06
.04
.00
.00
.02
.00

.04
.03
.00
.00
.02
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.33
.18
.00
.09
.01
.04

.18
.08
.00
.04
.02
.04

.35
.20
.00
.10
.02
.04

.20
.09
.00
.04
.02
.05

T R A N S P O R T AND PUB UTIL CR A F T
LINEMEN ANO SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.03
.02
.00

.05
.03
.02
.00

.05
.00
.05
.00

.05
.00
.05
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH ANC REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV MECHANICS
RR A N D C A R S H O P M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

7.67
5.59
.12
.01
.16
.00
1.79

6.57
4.90
.06
.01
.12
.00
1.49

3.32
.03
.13
.00
.50
.03
2.64

3.52
.02
.11
.00
.85
.03
2.92

3.14
.13
.11
.00
.03
.61
2.27

4.02
.13
.16
.00
.05
.53
3.13

2.62
.05
.00
.00
.02
.00
2.54

2.99
.05
.00
.01
.03
.00
2.90

2.55
.05
.00
.01
.03
.00
2.51

2.81
.05
.00
.01
.04
.00
2.72

FOREMEN

NEC




109
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C o n tin u ed
—
AIR

CRAFT

SHIP ANC
BOATBUILDING
AND REPAIR

AND

OCCUPATION

ENGINES
60
CTHER CKAF1SMEN AKC KINDRED
EAKERS
CABINET MAKERS
CRANE.DEPRICK,HOIST HEN
GLAZIERS
J E W E L E R S ANC W A T C F M A K EKS
LCOM FIXERS
CPTICIANS.LENS GRINDERS
INSPECTC'RS, L OG ANC L U H B E R
INSPECTORS,CTFER
UPHOLSTERERS
CRAFTSMEN AND KINDRED NEC

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

RAILROAD AND OTHER
TRANSPORTATION
EQUIPMENT
60

RA11C

75

RATIO

P R O F E S S ICNAL
SCIENTIFIC
INSTRUMENTS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

INSTRUMENTS
EXCEPT
CLOCKS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.90
•00
• 04
.10
.00
.00
.00
•0 0
.00
.02
.16
.59

.70
.00
.01
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.15
.45

4.77
.00
.15
.83
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01
.34
.06
3.37

4.85
.00
.10
.70
.00
.01
.00
.00
.04
.68
.07
3.24

3.72
.01
1.95
.80
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.15
.01
.70

3.43
-Cl
1.E1
.73
.15
.00
.00
.00
.00
.15
.01
.57

3.83
.00
.08
.02
.00
.11
.00
2.18
.00
.02
.01
1.42

3.06
.00
.12
.01
.00
.08
.00
1.48
.00
.00
.05
1.31

3.93
.00
• C6
.02
.OU
.01
.00
2.34
.00
.01
.01
1.45

3.12
.00
.13
.01
.00
.01
.00
1.59
.00
.00
.05
1.32

27.23

26.26

20.73

22.29

38.75

41.52

33.22

31.87

31.86

30.65

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
DUVFRS,ElS,TRUCK,TFACTOR
DELIVERYMEN ANC ROUTEHEN

.48
.42
.07

.65
.50
. 15

.68
.54
.13

.66
.58
.08

1.43
1.32
.12

1.50
1.40
.10

.40
.29
.11

.40
.28
.12

.41
.31
.10

.40
.29
.11

T RANSP ANC PUE LTIL CFER A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATION OPERATORS
SAILORS AND CECKFANCS

.00
.CO
.00
.oo

.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.00
.00
.07

.14
.00
.00
.14

.12
.10
.02
.00

.13
.11
.02
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED METALWCRKING OCC
BURNACEMN.SMELTRMN,POURERS
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-CUTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,HTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWKK,CLASS 8
INSPECTORS,HTLWRK,CLASS B
MACHINE TOOL CPER.CLASS B
ELECTROPLATERS
ELECTROPLATERS HELPERS

13.64
.06
.02
1.32
2.04
4.59
2.32
3.16
.05
.08

11.28
.04
.02
1.14
1.85
4.01
2.10
1.98
.05
.08

9.71
.07
.02
8. 1 6
.26
.58
.22
.40
.00
.00

10.91
.02
.01
9.47
.29
.59
.23
.31
.00
.00

16.38
.14
.10
7.74
1.51
3.38
1.16
2.21
.05
.09

19.23
.13
.14
10.86
1.61
3.27
1.17
1.91
.06
.05

12.24
.01
.00
.42
3.62
4.46
1.92
1.62
.07
.12

11. 86
.02
.00
.50
3.81
4.17
1.77
1.40
.07
.12

11.94
.02
.00
.43
3.47
4.27
1.92
1.66
.06
.11

11.57
.02
.00
.50
3.68
4.00
1.77
1.43
.06
.11

.11
.00
.00
.00
.11

.09
.00
.00
.00
.09

.07
.00
.00
.01
.06

.08
.00
.00
.01
.06

.37
.00
.00
.00
.37

.34
.00
.CO
.00
.34

.28
.00
.00
.00
.28

.27
.00
.00
.00
.27

.25
.00
.00
.00
.29

.28
.00
.00
.00
.28

KINDREO

12.99

14.23

10.20

10.50

20.44

20.31

20.30

19.34

19.22

18.39

ASBESTOS,INSULATIGN WRKS
ATTEND,AUTO SERVICE,PARKNG
B L ASTERS ANC PCW C E R M E N
LAUNDRY,CRY CLEANING OPER
MEAI C U T T E R S , E X C M E A T P C K N G
MINE OPERATVS,LABORERS,NEC
OPERATIVES AND KINDRED,NEC

.02
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
12. 94

.04
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
1 4 . 17

.68
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
5.51

1.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
9.48

.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
20.40

.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
20.27

.01
-02
.00
.00
.01
.00
20.27

.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
19.33

.01
.02
.00
.00
.01
.00
19.16

.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
18.37

2.03

1.70

2.05

1.68

2.24

2.24

1.50

1.22

1.54

1.25

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

1.02
.05
. 50
.07

.76
.11
.61
.04

1.25
.26
.90
.08

1.03
.23
.75
.05

.95
.00
.94
.04

.88
.00
.83
.04

.51
.00
.50
.01

.49
.00
.48
.01

.51
.00
.51
.01

.51
.00
.49
.02

FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
BARTENDERS
COOKS,EXC PRIV HOUSEHOLDS
COUNTER AND FCLNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES

.16
.00
.03
.10
.02

.13
.00
.03
.08
.02

.09
.00
.04
.02
.04

.05
.00
.03
.01
.02

.08
.00
.06
.02
.00

.04
.00
.03
.02
.00

.18
.00
.03
.13
.02

.10
.00
.02
.07
.02

.19
.00
.03
.14
.02

.11
.00
.02
.08
.02

OTHER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , H O S P . O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN AND CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTONS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

.86
.00
.00
.03
.53
.00
.29

.81
.00
.00
.03
.48
.00
.29

.75
.00
.03
.10
.41
.03
.17

.81
.00
.03
.18
.40
.01
.18

1.17
.00
.00
.14
.70
.00
.33

1.33
.00
.00
.16
.65
.00
.47

.82
.00
.00
.03
.37
.01
.41

.62
.00
.00
.05
.34
.00
.23

.84
.00
.00
.03
.35
.01
.41

.63
.00
.00
.05
.36
.00
.22

.95

.42

6.74

4.20

7.11

4.29

1.41

.83

1.46

.84

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

OPERATIVES

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE OCCUP
KNITTERS,LOOPERS,TOPPERS
SPINNFRS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
SEWERS ANC STITCHERS,MFG
OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HOLSEHCLC

WORKERS

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
G U A R D S . W A T C H M E N , C C O R K EE PRS
P O L I C E , C T H LAW ENFORCE OFF

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

ANC

WORKERS




MINE

110
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, 1960 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinued
WATCHES
AND
DEVICES

OCCUPATION

MISCELLANEOUS
MANUFACTURING

TOTAL
NCN CUR ABLE GCODS
MANUFACTURING

CLOCK
60
INDUSTRY

TOTAL

RATIO
100.00

75

KAIIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RAIIG

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

75

RATIO

FOOD AND
KINDRED
PRODUCTS
60

RATIO

75

MEAT

RATIO

60

RATIO

PRODUCTS

75

RATIO

1 0 0 . CO

100.00

100.00

I CO.00

100.00

2.98

5.21

8.91

2.65

9.05

5.57

7.56

2.72

3.83

1.82

2.01

3.99

.67

.86

.91

1.37

.33

.53

.35

.55

.09
.00
.00
.17
.75
.92
.00
.00
.58

. 16
.00
.00
.27
1.10
.56
.00
.00
1.36

.00
.01
.00
.09
.19
.11
.01
.00
.36

.00
.01
.00
.06
.17
.19
.01
.00
.97

.00
.32
.05
.09
.19
.16
.01
.01
.16

.CO
.93
.06
•G6
.25
.26
.02
.Cl
.28

.00
.02
.02
.02
.07
.11
.00
.00
.09

.00
.03
.09
.03
.19
.19
.00
.00
.15

.00
.02
.01
.00
.19
.10
.00
.00
.08

.00
.02
.01
.00
.29
.12
.00
.00
.17

.26
.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.19
.00

.31
. 16
.00
.00
.00
.00
.19
.00

.19
. 13
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.15
.15
.00
.00
.00
.02
.02
.00

.90
.63
.06
.10
.01
.02
.02
.07

1.96
1.06
.ce
.19
.02
.03
.03
.11

.92
.22
.19
.03
.00
.01
.00
.02

.56
.31
.18
.09
.00
.01
.00
.02

.22
.05
.11
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.30
.19
.19
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

TECHNICIANS,EXC MECICAL.DENT
DRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR TRAF F I C CCNTROLLERS
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNIC IANS,OTHER

1.77
1.03
.00
.00
.07
.67

2.86
1.28
.00
.00
.15
1.99

.10
.05
.00
.00
.00
.05

.27
.05
.00
.00
.00
.22

.93
.15
.00
.00
.00
.73

1.66
.20
.00
.00
.00
1.98

.88
.06
.00
.GO
.00
.81

1.21
.07
.01
.00
.00
1.13

.31
.09
.00
.00
.00
.27

.95
.09
.00
.00
.00
.90

MEDICAL.OTHER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
C I E T 1 T I A N S . N U T R I T I C N I STS
NURSES,PROFESSIONAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS ANC SURGEONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TFCHNICIANS,MECICAL,DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MECICAL,HEALTH WRKRS

.06
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.09
.00
.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.09
.00
.00
.09
.00
.00
.02
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00

.10
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.02
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00

.05
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.06
.00
.01
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00

.09
.00
.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.09
.00
.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

T EAChERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECCNCARY
TEACHERS.CCLLEGE
TEACHERS.OTHER

.08
.00
.00
.00
.06

.19
.00
.00
.00
. 19

.02
.OC
.00
.OC
.02

.03
.00
.00
.CO
.03

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.02
.CO
•CO
.CO
.02

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

•06
.06
.00
.00

.09
.09
.00
.00

.01
.01
.01
.00

.02
.01
.01
.00

.06
.03
.03
.00

.06
.02
.02
.01

.03
.01
.02
.00

.02
.01
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

OTHER P R O F , T E C H AND K I N C R E D
ACCOUNTANTS ANC AUDITORS
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
WRKRS IN ARTS,ENT ERTA1NMNT
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CES1GN CRAFT
EDITORS ANC REFCRTERS
LAWYERS ANC JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S ONNEL AND LAB REL WRKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL AND WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH.KINCREC,NEC

.98
.31
.00
.00
.00
.00
.22
.00
.00
.00
.15
.00
.00
.30

1.56
.21
.00
.00
.00
.00
.22
.00
.00
.00
. 19
.00
.00
.99

1.91
-90
.00
.00
.92
.00
•6 3
.03
.02
.01
.17
.03
.01
.21

2.67
.32
.00
.00
.92
.00
.83
.09
.02
.01
.29
.02
.01
.71

2.66
.57
.01
.00
.27
.00
.19
.92
.03
.01
.15
.19
.00
.37

3.27
.59
.01
.00
.31
.00
.25
.52
.03
.01
.22
.21
.00
.71

1.01
.56
.01
.00
.03
.00
.01
.01
.02
.00
.15
.00
.00
.23

1.99
.68
.01
.00
.03
.00
.01
.01
.02
.00
.22
.01
.00
.95

.50
.59
.00
.00
.03
.00
.01
.00
.03
.00
.12
.00
.00
.16

1.13
.59
.00
.00
.03
.00
.02
.00
.02
.00
.19
.00
.00
.28

M A N A G E R S , O F F 1C l A L S . P R C P P I E T C R S

7.38

9.73

9.18

8.60

6.78

6.51

8.65

8.92

6.62

6.29

CONDUCTCKS,RAILRCAD
CKECITMEN
OFFICERS,PILOTS,ENGRS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
MANAGERS,CfFICE,PROF. NEC

.00
.06
.00
.00
.58
£.79

.00
.09
.00
.00
.80
3.83

.00
.06
.00
.00
.28
8.89

.00
.08
.00
.00
.30
8.22

.00
.07
.01
.00
.29
6.91

.00
.05
.01
.00
.27
6.19

.00
.08
.01
.00
.99
8.13

.00
.11
.01
.00
.95
7.81

.00
.11
.00
.00
1.10
5.90

.00
.11
.00
.00
1.18
7.00

PROFESSIONAL

TECPNICAL,KINDRED

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
E N G I N E E R S , A E R O N A U T ICAL
ENGINEERS,CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS,CIV1L
ENGINEERS.ELECTRICAl
ENGINEERS,INULSTRIAL
ENGINEERS,MECHANICAL
ENGINFERS,METALLUR6,ETC
ENGINEERS,MINING
OTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGISTS,GEOPHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS




111
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
WATCHtS
AND
DEVICES

OCCUPATION

MISCELLANEOUS
MANDFACTUR1NG

60
CLERICAL
STENCS.
OFFICE

ANC

KINDRED

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIG

75

MEAT

RATIO

60

RATIO

PRODUCTS

75

RATIO

OPERATORS

OTHER CLERICAL,KINDRED WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BOOKKEEPERS,HAND
SANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
NAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
CLERICAL ANC KINCH EC,NEC

14. *5

14.71

13.43

13.61

12.26

12.57

11.61

12.30

10.16

10.80

3.49

4.65

3.23

3.13

2.92

3.20

2.43

2.67

1.43

1.51

.59

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHNE

RATIO

FOOD AND
KINDRED
PRODUCIS

TOTAL
NONDURABLE GOODS
MANUFACTURING

CLOCK

1.29

.49

.00

.63

.84

.89

1.15

1.06

1.35

9.68
.23
1.06
.00
.OS
.CO
.00
.08
.30
8.12

S . 77
.19
.92
.oo
.10
.00
.00
.08
.27
7.22

9.71
.45
1.28
.00
.01
.00
.00
1.90
.16
5.85

10.48
.40
1.18
.00
.01
.00
.00
1.80
.16
6.93

8.71
.59
.73
.00
.09
.00
.00
1.34
.19
5.78

8.53
.45
.61
.00
.07
.00
.00
1.25
.16
5.52

8.29
.72
1.04
.00
.22
.00
.00
1.21
.14
4.95

8.44
.60
.96
.00
.24
.00
.00
.97
.14
5.53

7.67
.67
.60
.00
.12
.00
.00
1.54
.13
4.60

7.94
.66
.61
.00
.05
.00
.00
1.07
.12
5.44

2.34

3. 16

4.55

4 . 74

5.01

5.66

5.11

5.32

3.89

4.63

17.91

20.24

16.01

16.59

14.39

15.16

13.72

14.31

7.35

7.83

.52
.13
.04
.00
.22
• OC
.04
.00
.04
.04
.00

.42
.14
.04
.CO
.20
.00
-Cl
.00
.01
.02
.00

1.36
.36
.02
.00
.39
.00
.47
.00
.10
.00
.02

1.34
.40
.01
.00
.35
.00
.37
.00
.17
.00
.04

1.08
.21
.03
.00
.42
.04
.05
.00
.33
.01
.00

1.04
.14
.02
.00
.40
.05
.03
.CO
.38
.01
.Cl

.77
.20
.03
.00
.33
.03
.05
.00
.14
.00
.00

.84
.20
.04
.00
.34
.03
.04
.00
.20
.00
.00

.71
.17
.02
.00
.30
.01
.01
.00
.21
.00
.00

.74
.18
.02
.00
.20
.01
.01
.00
.31
.00
.00

4.24

4.53

4.14

4.43

3.94

4.48

4.06

4.48

3.68

3.74

8LKSMITHS,FCRC-M.N,hAMMERMEN
PO I L E R M A K E R S
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
H O L D E R S , M E T AL , E X C C C ' R E M K R S
PATTERN MAKERS,METAL,WCOD
ROLLERS AND RCLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
TOOLMAKERS ANC CIEMAKERS

7.64
A . 20
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.36
.00
.13
2.90

7.73
3. 7 7
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.70
.00
.23
3.02

3.91
.32
.05
.00
.05
.08
.05
1.65
.01
.4 2
1.03

4.10
.31
.02
.00
.03
.06
.09
2.22
.01
.42
.54

.85
.39
.01
.04
.00
.24
.00
.02
.00
.05
.09

.66
.38
.01
.03
.00
.24
.00
.02
.00
.04
.12

.53
.29
.01
.01
.00
.15
.00
.00
.00
.07
.01

.50
.31
.01
.01
.00
.11
.00
.00
.00
.04
.01

.53
.25
.02
.00
.00
.16
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00

.48
.30
.02
.00
.00
.15
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

PRINTING TRADES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITORS,TYPESETTERS
ELECTRO TYPERS,SIEREOTYPERS
ENGRAVERS EXC PHGTOENGRVER
PHOTCENGRVRS,LITHOGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.6 5
.29
.00
.31
.02
.07

.70
.20
.00
.37
.02
.11

3.59
2.18
.12
.07
.28
.93

3.33
1.55
.05
.10
.60
1.03

.06
.05
.00
.00
.00
.01

.06
.05
.00
.00
.00
.01

.03
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01

.03
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01

TRANSPORT AND PUE CTIL CRAFT
LINEMEN AND S E R V I C E M E N
LCCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.01
.01
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECF ANC REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO A N D TV MECHANICS
RR A N D C A R S H O P M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS ANC REPAIR

3.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
3.01

5.24
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
5.24

2.11
.00
.02
.01
.00
.00
2.07

2.55
.00
.01
.03
.00
.00
2.51

2.32
.00
.11
.00
.00
.00
2.20

3.28
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
3.18

2.91
.00
.32
.00
.00
.00
2.57

4.02
.01
.36
.00
.00
.00
3.64

1.65
.00
.18
.00
.01
.00
1.50

2.04
.00
.18
.00
.02
.00
1.84

SALES

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

ANC

K1NCRE0

C O N S T R U C T ION C R A F T S M E N
CARPENTERS
PR I C K M A S C N S A N C T I L E S E T R S
CtNENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
FXCAVATNG.GRACNG MACH UPER
PAIN T E R S AND PAP E R F A N C E R S
PLASTERERS
PLUMBERS AND PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS AND SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS
FCREMEN

NEC

METALWKNG

CRAFTS

m a c h i n i s t s

a n d

EXC

MECH

r e l a t e d




o c c

112
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
MATCHES
AND
CEV1CES

o c c u p a i i o n

M1SCELLANECUS
MANUFACTUR1NG

TOTAL
NONDURABLE GOODS
MANUFACTURING

CLOCK
60
OTHER CRA F T S M E N AND KINDRED
BAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,HOIST MEN
GIAZIERS
JEWELcR s anc w a j c e m a k e r s
LCCM FIXERS
DPIICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
I N S P E C T O R S . L O G ANC LU M B E R
INSPECTORS,GTFER
UPHOLSTERERS
CRAFTSMEN AND KINDRED NEC

RATIC

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

2.33
.oo
.04
.00
.00
1.03
.00
.06
.00
.07
.00
1.14

3.77
.00
.33
.03
.00
2.27
.00
.00
.01
.03
.23
.87

3.48
.00
.25
.03
.00
1.91
.00
.00
.01
.05
.12
1.10

2.61
.92
.01
.08
.00
.00
.33
.00
.01
.03
.02
1.21

2.15
.57
• G1
.09
.00
.00
.28
.00
.02
.03
.02
1.14

5.36
3.84
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
1.44

4.41
2.85
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
1.46

.75
.11
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.oc
.03
.00
.60

.82
.12
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.65

47.17

49.25

48.94

48.49

47.51

46.10

47.68

56.81

57.51

.30
.11
.15

.40
.15
.24

.91
.65
.26

1.19
.72
.47

4.20
1.90
2.30

4.34
1.83
2.51

13.76
4.90
8.85

17.11
5.74
11.37

5.64
4.54
1.09

6.80
4.93
1.88

T R A N S P ANC FUE LTIl O F E R A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N D S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATIEN OPERATORS
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS

.DC
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.oo
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

.05
.01
.04
.00

•C 7
.CO
• C6
.01

.01
.00
.01
.00

.02
.00
.01
.00

.02
.01
.01
.00

.02
.00
• 02
.00

S E M I S K I L L E D M E T A L W O R K I N G OCC
FURNACEMN,SMELTRM,N,PCURERS
FEATERS,METAL
WELDERS AND FLAME-CLTTERS
ASSEMBLERS.MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSFMHLERS,MlLWRK,CLASS B
INSPECTORS.MTIWPK,CLASS a
MACHINE TLOL CPER.CLASS B
FLECTROPLATERS
ElECTRCPLATERS HELPERS

16.16
.00
.00
.36
5.54
6.82
1.89
1.11
.17
.28

15.47
.DO
.00
.44
5.31
6.21
i. n
l . n
. 18
.26

10.14
.03
.00
.76
.00
6.4C
1.74
.96
.10
.15

9.81
.09
.00
.93
.00
5.93
1.61
.97
.11
.16

.21
.00
.00
.21
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.27
.CO
.00
.26
.CO
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00

.13
.00
.00
.13
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.15
.00
.00
.15
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.15
.00
.00
.15
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.17
.00
.00
.17
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.08
.00
.00
.00
.08

.09
.00
.00
.00
.09

2.09
.00
.00
.01
2.06

2.06
.00
.00
.01
2.05

9.93
.58
.66
.79
7.89

10.48
.50
.35
.45
9.17

.06
.00
.00
.00
.08

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.00
.00
.00
.05

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

KINDRED

34.23

31.22

36.10

35.85

34.10

32.34

32.13

30.61

50.94

50.52

ASBESTOS.INSULATICN WRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERVICE.PAPKNG
BLAS T E R S ANC P C W CERMEN
L A U N D R Y , C R Y C L E A N I N G CPER
MEAT CUTTERS.EXC MEATPCKNG
MINE OPER A T V S . L A E C R E R S . N E C
O P E R A T I V E S ANC K I N D R E D , N E C

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
24.23

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
31.22

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
36.06

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
35.83

.03
.01
.00
.04
.01
.00
34.00

.04
.Cl
.00
.02
.01
.00
32.26

.00
.01
.00
.03
.03
.00
32.05

.00
.01
.00
.03
.05
.00
30.51

.00
.00
.00
.08
.00
.00
50.86

.00
.00
.00
.08
.00
.00
50.44

1.08

.89

1.54

1.39

2.05

1.77

2.69

2.51

2.32

2.26

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.CO

.00

.00

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WAICEMEN.CCOPKEEPRS
POLICE,CTH LAW ENFORCE OFF

.43
.00
.43
.00

.35
.00
.35
.00

.39
.00
.39
.00

.32
.00
.32
.00

.53
.01
.51
.02

.34
.Cl
.31
.02

.52
.00
.50
.02

.40
.01
.33
.06

.55
.01
.47
.07

.44
.01
.06
.36

FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
BARTENDERS
COOKS,EXC PRIV HOISEHCLDS
C O U NTER AND FOUNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.08
.00
.04
.03
.01

.05
.00
.03
.02
.01

.17
.00
.06
.04
.06

.14
.00
.06
.04
.04

.43
.00
.17
.09
.16

.34
.00
.17
.06
.11

.26
.00
.17
.06
.03

.29
.00
.20
.07
.02

OTHER SERVICE WCRKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , H O S E , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTCNS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

.6 5
.00
.00
.06
.15
.CC
.43

. 54
.00
.00
.05
.10
.00
.39

1.06
.00
.00
.12
.53
.00
.42

1.02
.00
.00
.13
.55
.00
.34

1.35
.00
.00
.19
.60
.00
.55

1.29
.00
.00
.16
.58
.00
.54

1.74
.00
.01
.17
.66
.01
.88

1.77
.00
.00
.16
.76
.00
.83

1.51
.00
.00
.17
.68
.01
.65

1.54
.00
.00
.20
.69
.00
.65

.86

.69

3.15

2.08

5.45

2.66

9.39

5.44

11.00

6.17

•O C

.00

.00

.00

S E M ISKILLEC TEXTILE CCCLP
KNITTERS,LOOPERS,TOPEERS
SPINNERS, TEXTILE
WEAVERS.!FXTILE
SEWERS AND STITCEERS.MFG
OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HCUSEECID

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

AND

FARM

WORKERS

AND

EARM, W C R K E R S




MINE

o
o

5C.77

DRIVERS AND DELIVERYMEN
DR IV E R S , e L S , T R U C K , T R A C TOR
DELIVERYMEN AND RCUTEMEN

o
o

WORKERS

6C

Z.50
.00
.04
.00
.00
1.34
.00
.04
.00
.04
.00
1.04

o
o

KINDRED

R A 1 IU

PRODUCTS

O
o

AND

75

MEAT

o
o

OPERATIVES

RATIO

FOOD AND
KINDRED
PRODUCTS

.00

113
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, 1960 a n d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C ontinued
DAIRY

PRODUCTS

CANNING,
PRESERVING
AND FREEZING

OCCUPATION

60
INDUSTRY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

TEC F A K A L , K I N D R E D

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
E N G I N E E R S ,A E R t N A L T I C A L
ENGINEERS,CLERICAL
ENGINEERS,CIVIL
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS,1NOLSTRIAL
ENGINEERS,HECFAMCAL
ENGINEERS,HETALLURG,ETC
ENGINEERS,PINING
OTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGISTS,GEL PHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

GRAIN
HILL
PRODUCTS
6C

RATIO

75

BAKERY
PRODUCTS

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

BEVERAGE
INDUSTRIES

RATIO

60

RATID

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2.66

3. 5 4

3.32

4.71

5.44

6.16

.74

.86

2.94

3.57

.17

.32

.35

.24

.40

•38

.62

.57

1.11

.13

.00
.00
.01
.02
• 04
.12
.00
.00
.06

.00
.00
.03
• 02
.09
. 14
.00
.00
. 11

.00
.00
.05
.03
.05
.16
.00
.00
.09

.00
.00
.10
.08
.11
.20
.00
.00
.14

.00
.09
.04
.01
.16
.14
.00
.00
.13

.00
.14
.07
.01
.35
.20
.00
.00
.34

.00
.01
.01
.01
.01
.04
.00
.00
.06

.00
.01
.01
.01
.02
.04
.00
.00
.08

.00
.03
.02
.03
.05
.13
.00
.06

.00
.03
.02
.05
.08
.10
.00
.00
.07

.20
.07
.06
.06
.00
.00
.00
.02

.24
.11
.03
.00
.00
. 00
.00

.51
.17
.28
.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.59
.24
.30
.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

1.12
.76
.13
.11
.00
.07
.00
.04

1.62
1.06
.18
.13
.00
.18
.CO
.06

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.46
.40
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.01

.53
.47
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.01

1.65
.04
.00
.00
.00
1.61

.9 1

.05
.01
.GO
.00
.8 5

1.36
.06
.02
.00
.00
1.26

1.68
.20
.00
.00
.01
1.47

2.68
.27

.18
.03
.00
.00
.00
.15

.22
.03
.00
.00
.00
.18

.71
.09
.00
.00
.01
.62

.81
.10
.00
.00
.01
.70

.02
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.00
.01
.07
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.09
.00
.01
.07
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.10
.00
.04
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.00

.07
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.01
.00

.03
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.07
.00
.00
.03
.00
.oc
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00

.07
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.0 0

.09
.04
.05
.00

.09
.04
.05
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.02
.03
.00

.04
.02
.02
.00

.24

.03
.00
.01
.01
.04
.00
.26
.00
.00
.31

2.00
.94
.00
.00
.03
.00
.02
.01
.03
.00
.37
.00
.00
.61

1.66
.66
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.01
.03
.00
.30
.01
.00
.61

2.52
.65
.CO
.00
.05
.00
.00
.01
.02
.00
.42
.03
.00
1.14

.36
.25
.01
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.06
.00
.01
.03

.42
.27
.01
.01
.01
.00
.00
.02
.01
.00
.06
.01
.01
.01

1.33
•60
.05
.01
.06
.00
.01
.00
.04
.00
.15
.02
.00
.37

1.77
.58
.08
.01
.06
.00
.01
.00
.03
.00
.21
.03
.00
.74

TECHNICIANS,EKC PECICAL.DENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
A I R T R A F F I C CC N T R C L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS,CTEER

1.57
.04

MEDICAL,OTHER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
DIETITIANS,NUTRITIONISIS
NURSES,PROFESSIONAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
P H Y S I C I A N S A N D SLRC-EONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
T E C H N I C I A N S , M F C It A L , D E N T A L
VETERINARIANS
O T H E R M E E IC.AL . H E A L T H W K K R S

.02
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECONCARY
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEACHERS,OTHER

.01
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0

.00
1.53

.0 0

.01
.00
.00

.0 0

.01

.0 6

.0 9

.04
.00
.00
.00
.04

.01
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.01

.02
.01
.01

.03
.01
.02

1. 16
.74

1.40
.75
.00

.0 0

.0 0

.CO
.01
2.41
.13
.0 0

.00

.0 0

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.00
.00
.00

OTHER PROF,TECH AND KINCRED
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC A L C I T C R S
AIRPLANF PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
W R K R S IN A R T S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC LESIGN DRAFT
E D I T O R S A N C R E F O R T t PS
LAWYERS AND JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND LAe REL WRKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,KINDRED,NEC

.63
.57
.00
.01
.00
.01
.01
.01
.00
.10
.00
.00
.13

MANAGERS,OFFICIALS.PRCPRiETCRS

10.15

9.97

7.35

6.82

11.64

11.20

7.32

5.23

10.84

10.41

CCNDUCTCRS,RAILROAD
CREDITMEN
OFFICERS,PILOTS.EKGRS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENIS
M A N A G E R S , O F F I C E , P R O P . NEC

.00
.11
.00
.00
.23
9.82

.00
.23
.00
.00
.30
9.45

.00
.03
.04
.00
.50
6.78

.00
.03
.06
.00
.53
6.20

.00
.20
.00
.00
.60
10.85

.00
.29
.00
.00
.51
10.40

.00
.02
.00
.00
.12
7.18

.00
.05
.00
.00
.12
5.07

.00
.01
.01
.00
.15
10.68

.00
.01
.02
.00
.11
10.27




.0 0

.0 0

.0 0
.0 0

.01
.00
.03
.0 1

.01
.0 0

. 14
.00
.0 0

. o c

.0 0

114
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C o n tin u ed
DAIRY

PRODUCTS

CANNING.
PRESERVING
AND FREEZING

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
STENOS,
OFFICE

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

TYPIS1S,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

CPERATCRS

OTHER CLERICAL.KINDRED WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BOOKKEEPERS.HAND
BANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL CARRIERS
POSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
CLERICAL ANC KINCREC.NEC

SALES

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

BAKERY
PRODUCTS

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

BEVERAGE
INDUSTRIES

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

R A T 1U

12.15

15.25

14.15

13.63

12.81

10.97

9.21

8.84

11.37

10.40

1.46

L.60

6.11

5.68

3.31

3.26

.85

.76

2.66

2.48

1.17

1.96

.35

.74

.79

.75

.88

.83

.83

.94

5.52
.84
2. OB
.00
.27
.00
.00
.80
.16
5.37

11.69
.78
2.01
.00
.29
.00
.00
.76
.17
7.08

7.6 8
.4 1
1.01
.00
.03
.00
.00
.90
.11
5.23

7.22
.40
1.03
.00
.03
.00
.00
.67
.14
4.95

8.71
1.19
1.43
.00
.10
.00
.00
.70
.16
5.13

6.52
.70
1.01
.00
.05
.00
.00
.51
.15
4.51

7.48
.69
.25
.00
.49
.00
.00
1.73
.07
4.25

7.23
.46
.21
.00
.71
.00
.00
1.48
.06
4.32

7.87
.79
1.23
.00
.20
.00
.00
.66
.15
4.65

6.98
.64
.95
.00
.14
.00
.00
.48
.14
4.63

5.49

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN.FOREMEN

RATIO

GRAIN
MILL
PRODUCTS

ANC

KINDRED

C C N S T R U C T I C N CRAFT SEEN
CARPENTERS
P R I C K M A S C N S ANC TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNG MACH OPER
PAI N T E R S ANC F A P F R H A N G E R S
PLASTERERS
FLUM8ERS ANC PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

5.23

2.11

2.56

4.86

5.51

7.63

8.04

7.12

6.32

E. 5 4

8.39

10.79

12.56

15.96

18.02

28.48

25.36

13.04

16.52

.31
.11
.02
.00
.08
.01
.10
.00
.00
.oo
.00

.22
.06
.04
.00
.07
.01
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00

.99
.27
.03
.00
.45
.04
.04
.00
.11
.00
.00

1.08
.26
.03
.00
.55
.04
.03
.00
.16
.00
.00

1.09
.19
.03
.00
.57
.02
.00
.00
.28
.00
.00

1.35
.13
.04
.00
.67
.01
.00
.00
.50
.00
.00

.25
.06
.03
.00
.12
.00
.02
.00
.02
.00
.00

.25
.04
.04
.00
.13
.00
.02
.00
.02
.00
.00

1.04
.25
.02
.00
.43
.00
.16
.00
.13
.00
.00

1.09
.30
.02
.00
.48
.00
.13
.00
.15
.00
.00

3.91

3.68

4.76

5 . 18

4.21

5.42

3.33

3.29

4.22

5.32

M E T A L M K N G C R A F T S EXC M ECH
M A C H I N I S T S ANC R E L A T E D OCC
BLKSMITHS.FORGMN. HAMMERMEN
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
MOLDERS,METAL,EXC COREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WCGD
ROLLERS AND ROLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
TOOLMAKERS ANC CIEMAKERS

.09
.03
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.04
.01

.04
.03
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.42
.26
.02
.01
.00
.08
.00
.00
.00
.04
.02

.34
.22
.02
.01
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.02
.02

1.55
.39
.00
.02
.00
.90
.00
.00
.00
.25
.00

1.23
.40
.00
.02
.00
.56
.00
.00
.00
.25
.00

.30
.26
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.28
.27
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.87
.68
.00
.01
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.09
.00

.88
.72
.00
.01
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.09
.00

PRINTING TRADES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITORS.TYPESETTERS
ELECTRO!YPERS,ST ERECTYPERS
ENGRAVERS EXC PHCTCENGRVER
PHOTUENGRVRS, LITHOGRAPHERS
PRES S M E N . P L ATE PRINTERS

.04
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00

.14
.11
.00
.00
.00
.03

.16
.12
.00
.CO
.00
.04

.10
.07
.00
.01
.00
.01

.08
.04
.00
.03
.00
.01

.04
.03
.00
.00
.00
.01

.04
.03
.00
.00
.00
.01

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00

TRANSPORT AND PUB UTIL CRAFT
LINEMEN ANC SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.CO
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

MECHANICS ANC REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH AND REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV MECHANICS
RR A N D C A R SHOP M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

3.24
.01
.66
.00
.00
.00
2-57

3.39
.01
.67
.00
.00
.00
2.71

3.71
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
3.64

5.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
4.94

2.84
.00
.11
.00
.00
.00
2.74

4.89
.00
.12
.00
.00
.00
4.76

2.31
.00
.47
.00
.00
.00
1.64

2.71
.00
.48
.00
.00
.00
2.23

3.53
.03
.25
.00
.00
.00
3.21

5.46
.06
.35
.00
.00
.00
5.04

FOREMEN

NEC




115
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, 1960 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1935—-C o n tin ued
DAIRY

PRODUCTS

60
OTHER CRAFTSMEN ANC KINDRED
BAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE.DERRICK,HCIST MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWELERS ANC WATCHMAKERS
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
I N S P E C TORS,IOC ANC LUMBER
INSPECTORS,OTHER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC KI N D R E D NEC

RATIO
.94
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.92

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

BAKERY
PRODUCTS

GRAIN
MILL
PRODUCTS

C A N N I N G '*
PRESERVING
AND FREEZING

OCCUPATION

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

BEVERAGE
INDUSTRIES

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

1.02
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
l.oo

.76
.04
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.63

.80
.05
.00
.14
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.61

6.16
.06
.01
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.01
6.02

5.05
.07
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.01
4.52

22.25
21.80
.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.40

18.80
18.30
.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.43

3.36
.04
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.02
.00
3.27

3.75
.03
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.02
.00
3.65

51.92

53.47

47.67

50.07

32.97

35.54

39.40

46.20

40.73

43.16

31.26
6.B7
24.38

40.57
8.67
31.70

3.03
2.61
.42

4.55
3.42
1.13

7.18
6.64
.54

9.40
8.30
1.10

20.22
2.55
17.27

29.48
3.79
25.69

16.67
7.89
8.78

19.33
7.20
12.13

TRANSP ANC PUB LTIl OPER A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER ST A T I O N O P E R A T O R S
S A I L O R S A N D GECKF.ANCS

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.01
.01
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

SEMISKILLED METALWORKING OCC
F U R N A C E M N , S M E L T R M N , F O U R ER S
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS AND FIAME-CLTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS.MTIWRK,CLASS b
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS B
MACHINE TCCL DPER,CLASS B
ELECTROFLATERS
ELECTROPLATERS HELPERS

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
. 02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.13
.00
.00
.13
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.12
.00
.00
.12
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.13
.00
.00
.13
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.17
.00
.00
.17
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.10
.00
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.12
.00
.00
.12
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CCCUP
KNITTERS,LOCPERS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
S E W E R S A N D S I I TC.F E B S , M E G

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.00
.00
.00
.06

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.45
.00
.00
.00
.45

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

KINDRED

20.64

12.88

44.43

45.38

25.20

25.58

19.17

16.69

23.53

23.69

ASBESTOS,1NSULATICN WRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERVICE,PARKNG
BLASTERS ANC PCWCERMEN
L A U N D R Y , C R Y C L E A N I N G CPER
MEAT C U T T E R S , E X C MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATVS,LAECRERS,NEC
OPERATIVES ANC KINCHED,NEC

.00
.03
.00
.03
.01
.00
2C.57

.00
.03
.00
.02
.01
.00
12.83

.00
.00
.00
.02
.12
.00
44.29

.00
.00
.00
.02
.15
.00
45.20

.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
25.16

.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
25.52

.01
.02
.00
.01
.02
.00
19.11

.01
.02
.00
.01
.02
.00
16.64

.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
23.91

.00
.03
.00
.03
.00
.00
23.63

1.76

1.28

2.81

3.01

2.17

1.65

3.65

3.10

2.15

2.09

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS.WATCHMEN,CCCRKEEPRS
P O L I C E , C T H LAW E N F O R C E OFF

.19
.00
.19
.00

.07
.00
.07
.00

.82
.00
.80
.02

.60
.00
.59
.02

.53
.00
.53
.00

.26
.00
.26
.00

.12
.00
.12
.00

.10
.00
.10
.00

.77
.01
.75
.01

.45
.01
.43
.01

FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
EARTENDERS
COOKS,EXC PRIV HOUSEHOLDS
COUNTER AND FOLNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS ANC WAITRESSES

.68
.00
.06
.15
.41

.36
.00
.06
.07
.23

.48
.00
.31
.06
.11

.45
.00
.25
.06
.13

.10
.00
.07
■.02
.01

.15
.00
.06
.03
.04

.56
.00
.17
.07
.32

.39
.00
.13
.04
.22

.13
.03
.05
.04
.01

.12
.02
.06
.03
.01

OTHER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRCSSES
ATTENDANTS,HOSE,OTHER INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
J A N I T O R S ANC SEXTONS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

.85
.00
.01
.07
.47
.00
.34

.84
. OO
.00
.04
.59
.00
.22

1.51
.00
.02
.10
.76
.04
.58

1.97
.00
.02
.09
1.09
.02
.75

1.54
.00
.00
.51
.52
.02
.49

1.24
.00
.00
.38
.48
.01
.37

2.97
.00
.00
.21
1.01
.00
1.74

2.61
.00
.00
.19
.93
.00
1.49

1.25
.00
.00
.15
.54
.00
.56

1.52
.00
.00
.23
.57
.00
.72

7.13

2.87

11.80

6.63

14.15

8.56

3.56

2.37

11.81

7.52

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

OPERATIVES

ANC

K I N C R EC

WORKERS

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
DRIVERS,ELS,TRUCK,TRACTOR
DELIVERYMEN ANC RCUTEMEN

OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HCUSEHCLC

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

ANC

ANO

FARM

FARM

WORKERS

AND

WORKERS




MINE

116
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975--- C ontinu ed
OTHER
FOOD
PRODUCTS

OCCUPATION

60

RATIO

73

IC6ACCG
MANUFACTURES

R A T IU

60

RATIG

75

TEXTILE
HILL
PRODUCTS

RA110

60

RA1IG

75

APPAREL AND
ACCESSORIES
AND MISC.

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

PAPER
AND ALLIED
PRODUCTS

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1 0 0 . OC

100.00

3.93

5.52

1.83

3.81

1.52

2.56

1.12

1.46

5.15

7.33

.51

. 78

.17

.29

.24

.51

.08

.11

1.57

2.07

.GO
• C6
.02
.03
.09
.15
.00
.00
.16

.00
.07
.02
.04
.20
.17
.00
.CO
.25

.00
.06
.02
.00
.04
.04
.00
.00
.02

.00

.11
.04
.00
.08
•C4
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.01
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.01
.00
.00
.03

.00
.22
.06
.10
.32
.42
.00
.00
.47

.17
.06
.10
.51
.48
.00
.00
.76

.95
.47
.42
.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

1.25
.62
.30
.0/
.00
.00
.00
.05

.27
.25

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.60
.45
.07
.01
.00
.02
.01
.00

.78
.58
.13
.00
.00
.05
.01
.00

TECHNICIANS,EXC PECICAL.OENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C CONTROLLERS
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNIC IANS,OTHER

1.27
.09
.01
.00
.00
1 .17

2 . 13
. iO
.01

.06
.02
.00
.00
.00
.04

.87
.32
.01
.00
.01
.53

1.71
.38
.01
.00
.01
1.32

MEDICAL,OTHER HEALTH PORKERS
DENTISTS
D I E T I T I A N S , M T R I I I C M ST S
N U R S E S , P R O F E S S If N A l
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
P H Y S I C I A N S ANC S U R G E O N S
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNIC IANS,MEEICAL,DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MELICAt .HEALTH kRKRS

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

TF C H M C A L ,KI N D R E D

ENGINEERS,T FCFNItA L
ENGINEERSlAERCNALTICAL
ENGINEERS.CLERICAL
ENGINEERS.CIV1L
ENGINEERS.EIFCTRICAL
ENGINEERS,INDUSTRIAL
ENGINEERS, H I C F A M C A l
ENGINEERS.HETALLURG,ETC
ENGINEERS,PINING
OTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL

o
o

100.00

INDUSTRY

.00
.02
.00
.01

.11
.05
.00
.00
.06

.04
.CO
.Cl
.24
.04
.00

.CO
.19

.oo

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.54
.49
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.03

.13
.12
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.00
2.02

.46
.04
.00
.00
.00
.42

1.27
.06
.00
.00
.00
1.22

.21
.04
.00
.00
.00
.17

• CO
.00
.55

.05
.02
.00
.00
.00
.03

.06
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00

.11
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.01
.04
.01
.00
.CO

.07
.00
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.12
.00
.00
.12
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.00
.00
.C4
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.11
.00
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00

.09
.00
.00
.08
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECCNCARY
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEACHERS,OTEER

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.04
.00
.00
.00
.04

.09
.00
.00
.OC
.05

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS - ACTUARIES
•
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.06
.01
.05
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.01

.02
.02
.00
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.02
.00
.01
.00

.01

.01
.00
.00

.01
.00

.05
.04
.05
.01

.09
.04
.05
.01

CTHFR PRO F , T E C H ANC KINDRED
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC A UDITORS
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
KR K R S IN A R T S , E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CESIGN CRAFT
E D I T O R S ANC R E F C R T E R S
L A W Y E R S A N C JILC-ES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND LAE REL RRKS
PHOTOGRAFEERS
SOCIAL ANC k E L FARE M jRKFRS
PROF,TECH.KINCREC,NEC

1.07
• 58
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.01
.01
.00
.15
.00
.00
.26

1.04
.82
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.02
.01
.00
.21
.00
.00
.55

.84
.43
.00
.00
.02
.00
.02
.02
.00
.01
.10
.00
.00
.24

1.56
.68
.00
.00
.04
.00
.04
.03
.00
.02
.21
.00
.00
.54

.87
.27
.00
.00
.03
.00
.22
.01
.00
.00
.12
.00
.00
.20

1.53
.33
.00
.00
. C2
.00
.49
.01
.01
.00
.18
.00
.00
.45

.92
.10
.00
.00
.03
.00
.65
.01
.01
.00
.05
.00
.00
.07

1.13
.10
.00
.00
.02
.00
.63
.01
.02
.00
. 14
.00
.00
.21

1.95
.74
.02
.01
.19
.00
.21
.01
.00
.00
.26
.02
.00
.49

2.58
.82
.02
.02
.26
.00
.34
.02
.02
.00
.33
.02
.00
.75

MANAGERS.OFFICIALS,PROPRIETORS

8.62

9. lo

4.53

6.41

3.51

4.00

4.89

3 . 75

5.37

4.78

CONDUCTORS.RAILRCAC
CREOITMEN
OFFICERS.PILOTS,ENGRS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
M A N A GERS,OFFICE,FRGP. NEC

.01
.11
.01
.00
.35
8.35

.01
. 14
.01
.00
. 54
8.46

.00
.09
.00
.00
.67
3.57

.00
.14
.00
.00
1.18
5.09

.00
.02
.00
.00
.13
3.36

.CO
.02
• CO
.00
.12
3.66

.00
.05
.00
.00
.17
4.67

.00
.05
.00
.00
.12
3.55

.00
.04
.00
.00
.25
5.04

.00
.04
.00
.00
.20
4.53

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
G E O L O G I S T S , ! E C P H Y S I C I SIS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
ETHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS




.co

.OU

.26
.27
.00
.00

100.00

.00
.01
.CO
.00
.60
.01

.00

.oo

117
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1 9 7 5 ■ C o n tin u ed
OTHER
FOOD
PROOUCTS

OCCUPATION

60

STENUS,
OEEICE

ANC

KI N CR EC

WORKERS

TYPIS1S,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

C F E R A TOR S

OTHER CLERICAL,KINCREC WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BOOKKEEPERS,HAND
BANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL CARRIERS
POSTAL CIERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OFERATORS
C L E R I C A L ANC K I N C R E C . N t C

RATIO
JO
JO

CLERICAL

75

TOBACCO
MANUEACTURES

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

APPAREL AND
ACCESSORIES
A N D MI S C .

TEXTILE
HILL
PRODUCTS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

PAPER
AND ALLIED
PRODUCTS

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

15.02

8.24

10.41

8.12

8.53

7.72

8.10

11.55

11.67

2.66

3.33

1.81

2.67

1.67

2.09

1.16

1.29

2.80

3.10

.98

1.47

.43

.74

.34

.51

.40

.53

.45

.65

9.24
.69
.92
.00
.24
.00
.00
1.55
.21
5.64

10.21
.65
.92
.00
.32
.00
.00
1.52
.23
6. 5 6

6.00
.56
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.82
.05
4.47

7.00
.35
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.53
.05
5.78

6.10
.24
.48
.00
.01
.00
.00
1.15
.10
4.12

6.23
.24
.48
.00
.01
.CO
.00
1.32
.10
4.18

6.16
.29
.88
.00
.02
.00
.00
1.68
.07
3.21

6.27
.21
.76
.00
.02
.00
.00
1.75
.10
3.43

8.26
.52
.25
.00
.02
.00
.00
1.66
.25
5.54

7.91
.28
.16
.00
.02
.00
.00
1.51
.24
5.70

4.41

5.56

3.36

5.48

.94

1.39

1.90

2.07

2.30

3.02

12.31

14.95

11.07

16.79

11.41

13.14

4.68

5.45

16.46

20.58

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
ERICK M A S C N S ANC TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CCNCFETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG,GRACNG MACH OPER
P A I N T E R S ANC F A P E R H A N G E R S
PLASTERERS
PLUMBERS ANC P I P E F I T T E R S
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALRCRKERS

1.45
-37
.06
.00
.55
.14
.03
.00
.30
.00
.00

1.47
.39
.06
.00
.47
.10
.02
.00
.43
.00
.00

1.03
.35
.00
.00
.36
.00
.03
.00
.26
.03
.00

1.47
.38
.CO
.00
.45
.00
.03
.00
.59
.03
.00

.76
.23
.02
.00
.35
.01
.02
.00
.12
.01
.00

.56
.12
.01
.00
.34
.01
.01
.00
• C7
.01
.00

.05
.03
.00
.00
.03
.01
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00

.08
.03
.00
.00
.02
.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01

2.35
.36
.05
.01
1.08
.09
.06
.00
.68
.01
.00

2.49
.29
.04
.01
1.04
.10
.04
.01
.95
.01
.00

FOREMEN

SALES

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

ANC

KINDRED

4.85

5.37

4.66

5.51

4.28

4.66

2.90

3.05

4.77

6.20

M E T A L W K N G C R A F T S EXC M E C H
M A C H I N I S T S ANC R E L A T E D OCC
BLKSMITHS.FCRC-MN. HAMMERMEN
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
HOLDERS,METAL.EXC CCREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WOOD
ROLLERS ANC ROLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
T O O L M A K E R S ANC C I I M A K E R S

•66
.25
.04
.03
.00
.22
.00
.01
.00
.09
.01

.75
.33
.05
.04
.00
.23
.00
.01
.00
.07
.01

1.25
.95
.00
.00
.00
.12
.00
.01
.00
.12
.05

2.06
1.59
.00
.00
.00
.19
.00
.04
.00
.19
.05

.56
.40
.01
.01
.00
.09
.00
.02
.00
.03
.02

.35
.28
.00
.Cl
.CO
.03
.00
.02
.00
.01
.00

.08
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.03
.00
.00
.03

.12
.04
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.04
.00
.00
.03

2.73
.86
.03
.03
.00
1.44
.00
.03
.00
.08
.27

2.74
.81
.02
.02
.00
1.46
.00
.03
.00
.08
.31

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
C O M P O S I T O R S , T Y P E S ITT E P S
ELECTROTYPEPS,STEPEOTYPERS
ENGRAVERS EXC FHCTOENGKVER
PFOTUENGRVKS, LITHOGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN.PLATE PRINTERS

.10
.08
.00
.00
.00
.02

.06
.04
.00
.00
.00
.02

.07
.06
.00
.00
.00
.01

.10
.00
.06
.00
.00
.04

.11
.06
.00
.04
.00
.01

.06
.02
.00
.03
.00
.01

.08
.06
.00
.01
.00
.01

.07
.05
.00
.01
.00
.01

1.84
1.23
.01
.06
.04
.51

2.07
1.19
.01
.07
.06
.74

T R A N SPORT AND POE LTIL CRAFT
L I N E M E N ANC S E R V I C E M E N
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.01
.00
.00

.03
.03
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.02
• CO

.02
.00
.02
.00

MECHANICS ANC REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH ANC REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV M E C H ANICS
RR A N D C AR SHO P M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

3.48
.00
.28
.00
.00
.01
3.19

5.36
.00
.56
.00
.00
.01
4 . 79

3.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
3.04

5.37
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
5.37

2.67
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
2.65

4.34
.00
.01
.00
.cc
.00
4.32

.70
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.69

1.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.00

3.26
.01
.07
.00
.00
.01
3.19

5.46
.00
.06
.01
.00
.00
5.38

NEC




118
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, 1960 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C o n tin u ed
TCBACCC
MANUFACTURES

OTHER
FOOD
PRODUCT S
60

RATIC
1.76
.20
.00
.21
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.01
.02
.01
1.31

RATIO
1.91
.22
.00
.16
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.03
.00
1-48

60

RAI1C

73

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

A P P A R E L AND
ACCESSORIES
A N U Ml SC.

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

PAPER
ANC ALLIED
PROOUCT S

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

1.02
.00
.00
.00
.OG
.00
.00
.02
.00
.67
.03
.30

1.88
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.CO
1.31
.02
.54

3.01
.00
.01
.02
.00
.00
2.66
.00
.00
.01
.05
.27

2.35
.CO
.02
.03
.00
.00
2.6 2
.CO
.00
.01
.06
.21

.84
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.06
.74

1.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.03
.99

1.47
.00
.01
.37
.00
.00
.00
.00
.14
.02
.00
.92

1.60
.00
.01
.42
.00
.00
.00
.00
.18
.01
.02
.96

58.07

64.50

77.42

77.31

48.60

46.89

5.60
4.07
1.53

1.03
.64
.39

.59
.55
.04

.68
.65
.03

.31
.19
.13

.48
.22
.26

2.10
1.99
.11

2.06
1.92
.14

TfiANSP A N C P U E L T I L O P E R A T V S
E P A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
PCWFR STATICN OPERATORS
SAILORS AND DECKFANCS

.03
.02
.01
.00

.03
.02
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.CO

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.08
.00
.08
.00

.19
.00
.18
.01

.09
.02
.07
.00

.08
.02
.06
.00

S E M I S K I L L E D M E T A L W O R K I N G OCC
FURNACEMN,SMELTRNN,F01RERS
F E A T E R S , M E T AL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-COTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS U
INSPECTCRS,MTLWRK,CLASS B
MACHINE TELL CPER,CLASS B
ELECTRDPLATERS
BLECTKOPLATERS HELPERS

.39
.00
.00
.39
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

-43
.00
.GO
.43
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.GO

.10
.00
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.23
.00
.00
.23
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.11
.00
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.13
.00
.00
.13
.00
•CO
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.47
.00
.00
.47
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.55
.00
.00
.55
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISK1LLEC TEXTILE CCCUP
K M T T E R S . L O C P E R S , TOPPERS
SPINNERS.TEXTILE
WEAVERS,!EXTILE
S E W E R S AM. S T I T C F E R S . M F G

.20
.00
.00
.00
.20

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.09
.00
.00
.00
.09

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

23.01
4.79
5.25
6.44
6.53

19.41
4.E9
3.16
4.27
7.07

36.50
.00
.01
.05
38.45

43.91
.00
.01
.04
43.86

.42
.00
.01
.00
.41

.20
.00
.01
.00
.19

KlNUKED

37.22

31.37

57.09

45.25

43.78

44.26

38.50

32.67

45.72

ASBESTOS,1NSULATICK WRKS
ATTENO.AETC SERVICE,PARKNG
BLASTERS ANC FCWDERMEN
LAUNDRY,ERY CLEANING CPER
MEAT COTTERS,L-XC MEA T P C K N G
MINE O P E R A T V S,LAECRERS,NEC
O P E R A T I V E S ANC K I N D R E D , N E C

.00
.01
.00
.03
.06
.00
3 7.12

.00
•C2
.00
.G3
.10
.00
31.22

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.cc
57.09

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
45.25

.00
.00
.00
.04
.02
.00
43.73

.00
.00
.00
.02
.02
.00
44.23

.00
.00
.00
.17
.00
.00
38.33

.00
.00
.00
.08
.00
.00
32.59

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
45.69

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
43.98

3.71

3 • 36

3.94

4.33

2.12

1 .67

1.13

1. 17

2.11

2.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.CC

.00

.00

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS. W A ICEMEN,CCOFKEFPRS
P O L I C E , C T E LAW EKFORCF OFF

.68
.01
.87
.00

.78
.03
. 73
.00

.69
.00
.69
.00

.59
.00
.59
.00

.61
.00
.56
.05

.38
.00
.36
.02

.22
.00
.22
.00

.17
.00
.17
.00

.72
.01
.70
.01

.54
.02
.52
.00

EC C D

.54
.00
.34
.13
.07

.46
.00
.30
. 12
.03

.12
.00
.06
.02
.02

.26
.00
.16
.04
.06

.05
.00
.02
.01
.03

.05
.00
.01
.01
.04

.06
.00
.01
.02
.03

.05
.00
.01
.02
.02

.12
.00
.06
.03
.03

.09
.00
.05
.02
.03

2.29
.00
.02
. 15
.62
.00
1.51

2.32
.00
.00
.16
.73
.00
1-41

3.13
.00
.00
1.00
.83
.00
1.31

3.48
.00
.00
1.25
1.11
.00
1.13

1.45
.00
.00
.65
.49
.00
.30

1.24
.00
.00
.39
.49
.00
.26

.84
.00
.00
•O S
.29
.00
.47

.95
.00
.00
.13
.38
.00
.44

1.26
.00
.00
.13
.74
.00
.35

1.37
.00
.00
.13
.89
.00
.35

1C. 50

5.78

8.36

6.27

4.89

3.39

1.15

.71

8.21

3.74

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

KINDRED

WORKERS

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
DRIVERS,ELS,TRUCK,TRACTOR
DELIVERYMEN A M
REUTEMEN

OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

ANE

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HOUSEHOLD

SERVICE

WCRKERS

WORKERS

EXTENDERS
C O O K S . E X C PR IV H C I S E h O L D S
C O U N T E R AFC ELEN T A I N WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES
OTHER SERVICE WEPKEFS
AIRLINE STEWARCS.STWRDSSES
A I T t N D A N T S . F C S P , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
j a n i t o r s

anc

s e x t c n s

NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NFC

LABORERS.EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

ANC

WCRKERS




MINE

o
o

67.50

.19
.61
.16

ANC

C

46.51

a . 21
5.78
2.45

OPERATIVES

43.43

79

TEXTILE
MILL
PRODUCTS

•*
e
*

OTHER C R A E 1SMEN AND KINDKtO
BAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,F.CIST MEN
GLAZIERS
J E W E L E R S ANE WATC H M A K E R S
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
I N S P E C T O R S , L O G ANE L U MBER
INSPECTORS,CTFER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC K I N C R E D NEC

4"
.
C

OCCUPATION

119
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I 9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C o n tin u ed
P U L P * PAPhR
AND
eOARO MILLS

OCCUPATION

60
INOLSTRY

TOTAL

T E C H M I A L .KI N U R E D

RATIO

75 R A T I O

100.00

100.00

60

RATIO
100.00

75

ALL
PAPER

RATIO

60

RATIO

100.00

100.00

OTHER
PRG0UC1S

75

RATIO

PRINTING
AND
PUBLISHING
EO

RATIO

75

CHEMICALS
ANC
PRODUCTS

ALLIED

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

6.31

9. 0 5

6.C6

4.26

6.50

10.05

10.50

17.36

25.30

i.es

2.26

1.27

1.84

1.28

2.10

.11

.15

4.0C

5.46

.00
.39
.09
. 15
.29
.51
.00
.00
.47

.00
.39
.06
.15
.39
.57
.00
.00
.69

.00
.03
.05
.02
.32
.39
.00
.00
.46

.00
.01
.08
.02
.45
.55
.00
.00
.73

.00
.09
.02
.09
.37
.25
.00
.00
.47

.00
.04
.02
.15
.76
.26
.00
.GO
.88

.00
.00
.00
.02
.04
.02
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.00
.02
.07
.02
.00
.00
.04

.00
2.05
.16
.16
.39
.72
.05
.01
.38

.01
2.50
.22
.23
.60
1.06
.15
.01
.67

.94
.75
.15
.02
.00
.00
.01
.00

1.30
. 96
-33
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.lb
.17
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.21
.21
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.44
.34
.00
.00
.00
.10
.01
.00

.74
.51
.CO
.CO
.00
.18
.05
.00

.03
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

5.73
3.94
.16
.78
.03
.08
.14
.61

6.44
6.08
.23
.57
.04
.17
.13
.77

T E C H N I C I A N S , E X C MEI. I C A L . D E N T
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C CLNT R C L L E R S
RAOIO OPERATORS
TECHNIC TANS,CTEER

1.24
.31
.02
.00
.01
.90

2.72
.34
.03
.00
.02
2.32

.53
.36
.00
.00
.00
.16

1.07
.47
.00
.00
.00
.60

.52
.29
.00
.00
.01
.22

1.11
.31
.CO
.00
.01
.75

.18
.12
.00
.00
.00
.06

.40
.18
.00
.00
.00
.23

3.95
.46
.01
.00
.00
3.47

6.88
.57
.01
.00
.00
6.30

MEDICAL.OTHER HEALTH RORKERS
DENTISTS
DIETITIANS,NUTRITIONISTS
NURSES.PRCEESSICNAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS ANC SURGEONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNIC IANS.MEC1CAL.CENTAL
VFTERINARIANS
OTHER MEC1CAL,HEALTH kRKRS

.18
.00
.00
.16
.00
.00
.00
.01
.02
.00
.00
.00

.19
.00
.00
.io
.00
.00
.00
.01
.02
.00
.00
.00

.04
.00
.00
•C4
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.00
.00
.04
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.CO
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.41
.00
.01
.06
.00
.00
.21
.05
.01
.04
.01
.00

.41
.00
.01
.12
.00
.00
.14
.05
.01
.05
.03
.01

TIACHEKS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SFCCMAFY
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEACHERS.CTEER

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

SECTAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS - ACTUARIES
*
CThER SOCIAL S C I E M 1 S T S

.10
.04
.05
.00

.10
. 05
.05
.00

.09
.02
.06
.02

.09
.02
.05
.02

.09
.05
.03
.00

.10
.05
.05
.CO

.08
.02
.04
.02

• OS
.01
.00
.08

.15
.10
.05
.00

.13
.06
.06
.01

O T H E R P R O F , T E C H ANC KI N D R E D
A C C O U N T A M S ANC AUDITORS
AIRPLANE PILOT S.NAVIGATCRS
ARCHITEC15
k RKRS IN A R 1 S . E M E R I A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
CESIGNERS.EXC CESIGN CRAFT
EDITORS ANC RtFORTERS
LAWYERS ANC JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S ONNEL AND LAe REL WRKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC kELFARE kORKERS
FROE.TECH.KINCREC.NEC

1.95
.78
.01
.00
.06
.00
.07
.02
.00
.00
.27
.02
.00
.73

2.49
.81
.01
.00
.Oo
.00
.06
.03
.00
.00
.30
.02
.00
1.20

1.96
.69
.03
.01
.16
.00
.50
.00
.01
.00
.28
.01
.00
.25

2.82
.89
.03
.01
.15
.00
.82
.00
.02
.00
.38
.02
.00
.45

1.91
.72
.02
.02
.51
.00
.12
.01
.00
.00
.22
.02
.00
.27

2.42
.75
.02
.04
.65
.00
.14
.02
.03
.00
.31
.02
.00
.43

9.62
.46
.00
.01
1.49
.01
.08
6.15
.03
.02
.08
.90
.00
.35

5.80
.40
.00
.01
1.55
.00
.11
5.69
.02
.02
.10
1.22
.00
.67

3.10
1.14
.02
.00
.10
.00
.06
.06
.05
.04
.33
.05
.00
1.20

3.96
1.15
.03
.01
.18
.00
.09
.09
.06
.05
.40
.07
.00
1.83

M A N A G E R S . O F F IC l A L S . P P C P R I E T C R S

4.45

4.91

5.78

4.34

6.86

5.11

9.25

9.87

8.10

7.00

CONDUCTORS,RAILROAD
CREDITMEN
OEEICERS.PILCTS.ENGPS.SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
M A N A G E R S . O F F I C E , P R O F . NEC

.00
.01
• GI
.00
.35
4.05

.00
.Cl
.00
.00
.30
4.60

.00
.05
.00
.00
.22
5.46

.00
.09
.00
.00
.13
4.12

.00
.03
.00
.00
.25
6.58

.00
.03
.00
.00
.15
4.93

.00
.08
.00
.00
.09
9.06

.00
.08
.00
.00
.06
9.72

.00
.12
.00
.00
.50
7.48

.00
.11
.00
.00
.47
6.42

ENGINEERS.TECHNICAL
E N G I N E E R S . A E R C NAL TICAL
ENGINEERS.CHERICAL
E N G I N E E R S .C 1 V I L
ENGINEERS.ElECTRICAl
ENGINEERS.INDLSTRIAL
E N G I N E E R S . M l C H A M CAL
ENGINEERS.METALLLRG.EIC
ENGINEERS.MINING
OTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
eiOLGGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGISTS,GEOPHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS




O

PROFESSIONAL

PAPERBUARO
CONTAINERS
ANL BOXES

120
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed
PULP, PAPER
AND
BOARD MILLS

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
STENCS*
OFFICE

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

TVPISIS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

OPERATORS

CTHER CLERICAL,KINDRED WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BOOKKEEPERS,HAND
BANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL CARRIERS
PCSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
CLERICAL ANC K1NLREC,NEC

RATIO

75

PAPERBOARO
CONTAINERS
AND BOXES

R A T 10

60

RATIO

75

ALL
PAPER

RATIO

60

RATIO

CTHER
PROOUCTS

75

RATIO

CHEMICALS
AND
PRODUCTS

PRINTING
AND
PUBLISHING
60

RATIO

75

ALLIED

RATIO

60

RATIC

75

RATIO

9.B5

9.76

12.04

12.07

14.62

13.82

19.39

19.04

15.91

14.07

2.68

3.17

2.70

2.94

3.22

3.20

4.82

5.07

5.43

5.19

.39

.50

.47

.61

.74

.92

.62

.76

.80

1.14

6.79
.53
.00
.DO
.01
.00
.00
1.23
.20
4.81

6.09
.26
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.96
. 19
4. o7

a . 86
.49
.51
.00
.02
.00
.00
2.04
.29
5.51

8.52
.33
.26
.00
.02
.00
.00
1.86
.27
5.77

10.66
.52
.46
.00
.03
.00
.00
2.16
.28
7.21

9.70
.24
.25
.00
.03
.00
.00
1.E6
.26
7.06

13.96
.85
.99
.00
.09
.00
.00
.84
.36
10.82

13.22
.55
.70
.00
.05
.00
.00
.76
.34
10.81

9.69
.95
.30
.00
.06
.00
.00
1.56
.30
6.53

7.73
.70
.26
.00
.04
.00
.00
1.12
.20
5.42

1.35

1.86

3.23

3.35

3.15

4.24

17.36

19.42

3.22

3.28

18.61

2 4.56

13.86

17.50

15.23

ie.76

28.73

25.55

15.72

16.20

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
ERICKMASONS ANC TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNG MACH UPER
P A I N T E R S ANC P A P E P H A N G E R S
PLASTERERS
PLUMBERS AND PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

3.86
.53
.09
.00
1.71
.18
.08
.01
1.27
.00
.01

4.86
.51
.08
.00
1. 8 0
.24
.06
.01
2 . 15
.00
.01

.71
.14
.00
.01
.43
.02
.04
.00
.06
.01
.00

.70
.07
.00
.01
.49
.02
.02
.00
.07
.01
.00

1.22
.26
.02
.02
.59
.02
.06
.00
.24
.02
.00

1.37
.25
.02
.02
.65
.01
.04
.GO
.36
.02
.00

.29
.05
.01
.00
.12
.01
.04
.01
.04
.00
.00

.19
.02
.01
.00
.09
.01
.02
.01
.02
.00
.00

3.04
.45
.07
.01
1.07
.17
.12
.00
1.13
.01
.01

2.67
.20
.06
.02
.91
.18
.05
.00
1.21
.02
.01

FOREMEN

SALES

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

ANC

KINDRED

4.74

6.20

4.85

6.44

4.71

5.90

2.13

2.44

5.30

5.67

M E T A L W K N G C R A F T S EXC M E C H
MACHINISTS AND RELATED OCC
B L K S M I T H S , F O R C-MN, H A M M E R M E N
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
MOLDERS,METAL,EXC COREMKRS
P A T T E R N M A K E R S , M FT A L . W O O D
ROLLERS AND POLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
TOOLMAKERS ANC CIEMAKERS

4.02
1.01
.07
.04
.00
2.66
.00
.03
.00
.14
.07

4.71
1.05
.05
.04
.00
3.29
.00
.03
.00
. 18
.07

1.47
.58
.00
.00
.00
.15
.00
.02
.00
.01
.71

1.51
.58
.00
.00
.00
.15
.00
.02
.00
.01
.74

1.58
.88
.01
.03
.00
.49
.00
.03
.00
.02
.13

1.48
.74
.02
.03
.00
.50
.00
.04
.00
.02
.13

.34
-29
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.04

.38
.32
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.04

1.60
.63
.05
.12
.00
.56
.00
.02
.00
.16
.06

1.28
.50
.05
.11
.00
.45
.00
.02
.00
.12
.04

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITORS,TYPESETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS,STEP EOTYPERS
E N G R A V E R S EXC P H U T O E N G R V E R
PHOTOFNGRVRS,LITHOGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,FLATE FRINTERS

.44
.30
.00
.02
.02
.10

.29
. 16
.00
.01
.02
.10

3.05
1.93
.02
.03
.08
.99

2.99
1.68
.02
.02
.08
1.20

3.32
2.31
.02
.19
.05
.75

3.41
2.C2
.02
.21
.08
1.09

22.81
13.76
.78
.41
1.90
5.96

19.43
8.81
.33
.55
3.74
6.01

.15
.13
.00
.00
.00
.02

.11
.08
.00
.00
.01
.03

TRANSPORT ANC PUE UTIL CRAFT
LINEMEN ANC SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.03
.00
.03
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.03
.01
.02
.00

.03
.01
.02
.00

MECHANICS ANC REPAIRMEN
A I R P L A N E MECH ANC R F P A I R M N
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MAChINE MECHANICS
R A D I O AN C TV M E C H A N I C S
RR AND CAR SHOP MEC H A N I C S
CTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

3.22
.01
.08
.00
.00
.02
3.10

5.46
.01
.07
.00
.00
.01
5.37

3.13
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
3.06

5.06
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
5.00

3.64
.00
.05
.02
.00
.00
3.57

5.94
.00
.05
.04
.00
.00
5.84

.87
.00
.02
.02
.00
.00
.83

1.09
.00
.01
.02
.00
.00
1.07

3.93
.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
3.84

5.20
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
5.13

NEC




121
R a tio s_ o f O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I 9 6 0 .an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975 - C ontinu ed
PULP,

PAPfcR

PAPtRBGARO
CGMAINEKS
AND BOXES

&NO

OCCUPATION

BOARD
RATIO

75

R A i 10

60

RATIO

75

ALL
PAPER

RATIO

60

RATIO

OTHER
PRODUCTS

75

RATIO

PRINTING
ANC
PUBLISHING
6C

RATIO

75

CHEMICALS
ANC
PRODUCTS

ALLIED

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.79
.00
.01
.20
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.59

.73
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.66

.63
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.52

2.27
.00
.03
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
2.21

2.01
.00
.03
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.96

1.66
.00
.01
.20
.02
.00
.01
.00
.00
.06
.00
1.36

1.24
.00
.01
.17
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
.00
.96

46.35

42.80

52.44

51.08

49.21

47.51

12.34

13.23

29.95

30.01

2.20
2.14
.06

2.07
2.06
.01

2.57
2.35
.22

2.94
2.60
.34

1.26
1.19
.06

.97
.91
.06

1.46
.77
.69

1.59
.71
.88

1.90
1.73
.17

1.72
1.46
.26

T R A N S P ANC PUP L U l
GFERATVS
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N HR
PCWER STATICN CREMATORS
SAILORS AND CECKHAKCS

.15
.05
.10
.00

. 15
.05
. 10
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.07
.00
.07
.00

.06
.00
.06
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.12
.01
.10
.oc

.11
.01
.10
.01

S E M I S K I L L E D H E T A L W C R K I N G CCC
ELRNACEMN ,SMELTRMN,POLRERS
H E A T E R S . M E TAL
WELDERS ANC ELAME- C I T T E R S
ASSEMBLERS,MTLKRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS.MTLWRK.CLASS 6
INSPECTCRS.MTLWRK.CLASS b
MACHINE TCCL CPER,CLASS B
E L E C T R O P l A T ERS
ELECTROFLATERS HELPERS

.80
.00
.GO
.80
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.12
.00
.00
1.12
.oo
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.11
.00
.00
.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.12
.00
.00
.12
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00

.26
.00
.00
.26
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.29
.00
.00
.29
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.67
.02
.00
.66
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.81
.01
.00
.80
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLEC TEXTILE CCCUP
KNITTERS.LOCPI PS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS.TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
SEWERS ANC STITCH E R S . M F G

.15
.00
.02
.00
.13

.01
.00
.01
.00
.00

.40
.00
.00
.00
.40

.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00

1.03
.00
.00
.00
1.03

.70
.00
.00
.00
.70

.14
.00
.00
.00
.14

.05
.00
.00
.00
.05

.26
.00
.17
.01
.05

.18
.00
.16
.02
.00

KINDRED

43.10

39.45

49.35

48.01

46.60

45.49

10.72

11.57

26.98

27.19

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WPKS
ATTEND,ALTC StPVICE,PARKNG
BLASTERS ANC PCWCERMEN
L A U N D R Y , C R Y C L EANING CPER
MEAT CUTTERS.EXC MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATVS,LABORERS,NEC
OPERATIVES ANC KINCREC,NEC

.03
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
43.06

.03
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
39.41

.01
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
49.32

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
47.99

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
46.60

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
45.45

.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
10.71

.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
11.56

.12
.00
.02
.01
.00
.00
26.82

.14
.00
.02
.01
.01
.00
27.02

2.43

2.37

1.74

1.74

1.89

1.79

1.44

1.30

2.78

1.96

.00

.00

.00

.00

O
O

o
o

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WCRKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WATCHMEN,CCORKEEPRS
P C L I C E . C T H LAW ENFORCE CFF

.96
.01
.93
.01

.75
.01
.73
. 01

.35
.01
.34
.00

.28
.02
.26
.00

.70
.02
.68
.00

.55
.02
.53
.00

.21
.00
.20
.01

.11
.00
.10
.01

1.13
.02
1.08
.03

.54
.01
.50
.02

FCCO SERVICE WCRKERS
BARTENDERS
CCOKS,EXC PPIV HCISEHCLCS
COUNTER AND FOUNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES

.20
.00
.11
.04
.05

.17
.00
.09
.02
.05

.03
.00
.02
.01
.00

.04
.00
.02
.02
.00

.08
.00
.02
.03
.03

.05
.00
.01
.02
.02

.04
.00
.01
.01
.01

.03
.00
.01
.01
.01

.17
.00
.04
.09
.05

.21
.00
.05
.10
.07

1.27
.00
.00
.17
.71
.00
.39

1.45
.00
.00
.23
.85
.00
.37

1.36
.00
.00
.08
.83
.00
.45

1.42
.00
.00
.08
.92
.00
.42

1.12
.00
.00
.09
.70
.00
.33

1.19
.00
.00
.06
.90
.00
.23

1.19
.00
.00
.11
.57
.00
.50

1.16
.00
.00
.11
.49
.00
.56

1.48
.00
.00
.12
.85
.00
.51

L. 2 0
.00
.00
. 15
.50
.00
.55

10.62

4.70

6.84

4.78

2.26

1.43

1.11

6.94

2.18

.00

•00

.0 0

O
o

.00

.00

.00

.00

OPERATIVES

ANC

KINCREC

WORKERS

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
D R I V E R S , B L S , T R U C K ,T R A C TCR
D E L I V E R Y M E N ANC RCLT E M E N

OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HCUSEHCIC

WCRKERS

OTHER SERVICE WCRKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRDSSES
A T T E N D A N T S . H C S F , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SIXTLNS
NORSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WCRKERS,NEC

LABORERS,EXCEPT

ANC

FARM

AND

WCRKERS




MINE

.00

o
o

FARMERS

FARM

o
o

.64
.00
.03
.12
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.45

o
o

3.00
.00
.01
.90
.00
.00
.01
.00
.47
.02
.00
1.59

OTHER C R A F T S M E N AND KINDRED
EAKEKS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,HOIST MEN
GLAZIERS
J E W E L E R S ARC W A I C E M A K E R S
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
INSPECTGRS.LOG ANC LUMBER
INSPECTORS,OTHER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC K I N D R E D NEC

o
o

2-30
.00
.01
.67
.00
.00
.01
.00
.28
.02
.00
1.30

00
O'

60

MILLS

122
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C ontinu ed
SYNTHETIC

FIBERS

DRUGS
AND
MEDICINE

OCCUPATION

60
INOISTRY

TOTAL

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

PAINTS AND
VARNISHES
ANO RELATED

RATIO

60

RA1IG

75

OTHER

RATIO

tC

RATIO

CHEMICALS

75

RATIO

PETROLEUM REPINING
AND
COAL PRODUCTS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

14.41

21.41

27.76

35.52

14.07

18.67

1 6 . 17

24.30

15.57

24.61

A . 57

6.77

1.43

1.50

1.62

1.51

4.66

6.47

4.72

7.07

.00
1.11
.05
. 16
.90
1.55
-00
.00
.75

.00
1.23
• 08
.20
1.32
2.23
-CO
.00
1.49

.00
.50
.07
.05
.28
.34
.00
.00
.15

.00
.63
.05
.06
.46
.40
.00
.00
.30

.00
.95
.05
.00
.15
.05
.00
.00
.42

.00
1.06
.05
.00
.20
.05
.00
.00
.56

.01
2.57
.23
.23
.37
.76
.13
.01
.36

.01
3.29
.31
.31
.54
1.14
.23
.01
.64

.00
1.91
.54
.14
.28
.82
.02
.49
.52

.00
3.25
.70
.34
.42
1.14
.02
.43
.77

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEM1STS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGISTS,GEOPHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
CTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

4.07
2.19
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
1. til

5.22
3.20
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 11
1.90

12.80
4.42
.42
4.47
.00
.10
.02
3.36

16.54
7.24
.51
5.04
.00
.20
.03
3.52

6.60
6.55
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00

5.47
5.40
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
.00

4.55
3.77
.15
.29
.04
.10
.18
.03

6.57
5.50
.22
.30
.07
.20
.24
.04

2.41
1.84
.01
.02
.36
.05
.08
.01

4.15
2.87
.01
.02
.94
.19
.12
.01

TECHNICIANS,EXC MECICAL.DENT
CRAFTSMEN
SUk VEYURS
AIR T R A F E 1 C C C N T R C L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TtCHNICIANS.OTHER

3.31
.27
.00
.00
.00
3.04

5.52
.29
.00
.00
.00
5.23

6.10
.27
.00
.00
.00
5.83

8.77
.29
.00
.00
.00
8.48

4.02
.11
.03
.00
.00
3.88

5.35
.12
.03
.00
.00
5.15

3.62
.56
.01
.00
.00
3.04

6.83
.72
.01
.00
.00
6.09

3.41
.48
.04
.00
.00
2.65

6.03
.52
.01
.00
.00
5.50

MEDICAL,OILER HEALTH MURKER S
DENTISTS
DIETITIANS.NUTRITICMSTS
N U R S E S , P R O F E S S II N A L
ORIOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS ANC SURGEONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNICIANS.MECICAL.DENTAL
VF T E R I N A F I A N S
OTHER MECICAL,HEALTH MRKRS

.22
.00
.00
.15
.00
.OG
.00
.03
.00
.04
.00
.00

- 18
.00
.00
.13
.00
.00
.00
.02
• 00
.03
-00
.00

1.99
.00
.00
.08
.00
.00
1.53
.20
.00
.10
.08
.00

1.53
.00
.00
.13
.00
.00
.90
.22
.00
.10
.18
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.CO
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00

.19
.00
.01
.09
.00
.00
.01
.03
.01
.03
.00
.01

.24
.00
.01
.13
.00
.00
.00
.02
.01
.05
.00
.02

.14
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.04
.01
.03
.00
.00

.17
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.05
.01
.03
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHER'.ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECCNCARY
TEAChERS,COLLEGE
TEACHERS,OTHER

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS H ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.09
.05
.04
.00

.03
.02
.02
• 00

.34
.15
.16
.03

.35
.12
.17
.06

.08
.02
.06
.00

.07
.02
.06
.00

.14
.10
.03
.00

.11
.06
.05
.00

.34
.21
.12
.02

.42
.25
.11
.02

CTHER PRO F , T E C H ANC KINDRED
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC A U C I T C R S
AIRPLANE F1L0TS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
WRKRS IN A R T S , E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC DESIGN CRAFT
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
L A W Y E R S A N C JUCC-ES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L A ND LAE REL M RKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL AND WELEARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,K1NCREC,NEC

2.16
.46
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.14
.15
.00
.35
.00
.00
1.01

3.68
.45
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.17
.09
.00
.45
.00
•00
2.52

5.10
1.31
.00
.00
.22
.00
-Ot
.24
.17
.04
.39
.02
.00
2.65

6.44
1.26
.00
.00
.35
.00
.10
.38
.14
.03
.44
.04
.00
3.68

1.70
1.24
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.03
.03
.02
.10
.00
.00
.26

1.83
1.21
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.03
.02
.02
.15
.GC
.00
.35

2.99
1.18
.02
.01
.09
.00
.08
.03
.07
.04
.34
.07
.00
1.07

3.68
1.23
.05
.01
.18
.00
.11
.02
.05
.07
.40
.10
.00
1.46

4.56
2.83
.07
.00
.05
.00
.06
.05
.33
.02
.44
.04
.01
.65

6.76
2.74
.16
.00
.10
.00
.05
.06
.27
.04
.53
.03
.01
2.76

MANAGERS,OFFICIALS,FRCPRIETCRS

1.55

1.55

9.47

8.73

12.03

11.87

8.16

6.52

7.27

6.72

C O N DUCTORS,RA llRCAD
CREDITMEN
OFFICERS,PHOTS,ENGRS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
P U R C H A S I N G AC-EKTS
M A N A G E R S , C F E I C E , P R O P . NEC

.00
.00
.00
.00
.12
1.83

.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
1.48

.00
.12
.00
.00
.46
8.90

.00
.14
.00
.00
.28
8.31

.00
.40
.00
.00
.44
11.19

.00
.42
.00
.00
.52
10.54

.00
.10
.00
.00
.56
7.50

.00
.09
.00
.00
.57
6.26

.00
.24
.14
.00
.38
6.51

.00
.28
.18
.00
.33
5.94

PROFESSIONAL

T E C F M C A L , KI N D R E D

E N G I N E E R S * ! L C FN iCAL
ENGINEERS.AERCNALTICAL
ENGINEERS,CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS,CIVIL
ENGINFERS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS,INCLSTRIAL
E N G I N E E R S , M l C H A M CAL
ENGINEERS.METALLURG,£TC
E N G I N E E R S , M I N INCOTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL




123
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— o n tin u e d
-C
SYNTHETIC

DRUGS
AND
MEDICINE

FIBERS

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
STENOS,
OFFICE

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

OPERATORS

OTHER CLERICAL, K I N D R E D RRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BCCKKEEF£PS,HANC
RANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
CLERICAL ANC KINDRED,NEC

SALES

ANC

KINDRED

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
6 R I C K M A S C NS A N C TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG,GRACNG MACH OPER
P A I N T E R S ANC PA P E R H A N G E R S
PLASTERERS
P L U M B E R S ANC P I P E F I T T E R S
ROOF E R S ANC SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS
FOREMEN

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

OTHER

RATIO

60

RATIO

CHEMICALS

75

RATIO

PETROLEUM REFINING
AND
CCAL PRODUCTS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

7.58

6.72

21. 4 9

18.08

20.69

16.75

15.38

13.78

18.05

18.55

2.35

2.06

8.21

9.08

5.40

5.14

5.29

4.79

5.46

6.05

.45

.60

1.21

1.63

1.82

2.38

.66

.98

1.06

1.66

4.76
.55
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.41
.17
3.60

4.06
• 48
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.31
.10
3.13

12.07
1.13
.22
.00
.06
.00
.00
2.10
.22
8.34

7.36
.76
.16
.00
.04
.00
.00
1.73
.17
4.50

13.46
1.38
.98
.00
.11
.00
.00
3.15
.53
7.30

11.23
1.26
.90
.00
.14
.00
.00
3.02
.49
5.44

9.43
.91
.28
.00
.06
.00
.00
1.43
.30
6.46

8.01
.66
.25
.00
.03
.00
.00
.89
.19
5.99

11.53
.97
.87
.00
.09
.00
.00
.47
.35
8.79

10. 6 4
1.05
.90
.00
.10
.00
.00
.48
.29
8.03

.44

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

RATIO

PAINTS AND
VARNISHES
AND RELATED

NEC

.61

2.50

4.60

6.57

6.41

3.32

2.82

2.08

2.30

20.75

2 2 . 19

9.12

10.04

8.00

7.97

17.16

17.50

20.66

20.03

3.8C
.81
.00
.00
1.51
.05
.19
.00
1.20
.04
.00

2.49
.37
.00
.00
1.16
.03
.03
.00
.69
.01
.00

1.57
.15
.05
.00
.73
.02
.13
.00
.48
.00
.00

1.57
.13
.05
.00
.75
.02
.10
.00
.53
.00
.00

.90
.13
.00
.00
.28
.06
.18
.00
.26
.00
.00

.76
.09
.00
.00
.24
.04
.10
.00
.30
.00
.00

3.45
.50
.09
.01
1.17
.22
.11
.00
1.34
.01
.01

3.16
.20
.08
.03
.99
.26
.04
.00
1.53
.03
.01

4.60
.77
.12
.01
1.11
.17
.17
.00
2.33
.09
.04

4.52
.59
.08
.01
1.07
.21
.09
.00
2.26
.17
.04

6.91

7.48

3.81

4.01

4.07

3.76

5.51

5.98

5.02

5.09

M E T A L W K N G C R A F T S EXC M E C H
M A C H I N I S T S ANC RELATED OCC
ELKSMITHS.FCRGMN.HAMMERMEN
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALEPS
MILLWRIGHTS
H O L D E R S , M E T A L , EXC C C R E M K R S
PATTERNMAKERS.METAL.WCOD
ROLLERS ANC RCLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
TOOLMAKERS AND CIEMAKERS

2.52
.70
.04
.04
.00
1.29
.00
.00
.00
.44
.00

2.26
.64
.02
.04
.00
1.14
.00
.00
.00
.42
.00

.21
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.16
.02

.28
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.OG
.00
.00
.26
.00

.42
.07
.00
.00
.00
.28
.00
.00
.00
.03
.03

.32
.07
.00
.00
.CO
.20
.00
.00
.00
•02
.03

1.87
.80
.06
.16
.00
.60
.00
.03
.00
.14
.06

1.46
.65
.07
.15
.00
.47
.00
.03
.00
.05
.05

2.40
1.21
.03
.90
.00
.14
.00
.00
.00
.06
.06

1.87
.94
.04
.70
.00
.15
.00
.00
.00
.02
.02

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
C O M P O S IT O R S , T Y P E S E T T E R S
ELECTROTYPERS,STERECTYPERS
E N G R A V E R S EXC FFCTOEN G R V E R
P H U T O E N G R VR S , L I T H C G R A P H E R S
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.40
.33
.00
.00
.00
.07

.37
.30
.00
.00
.00
.07

.25
.22
.00
.00
.03
.00

.17
.09
.00
.00
.06
.00

.12
.10
.00
.00
.00
.02

.06
.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.11
.03
.00
.01
.02
.06

.13
.01
.00
.03
.02
.07

T R A N S P O R T ANC PUE L T I L C R AFT
LINEMEN ANO SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.01
.03
.00

.04
.01
.03
.00

.04
.03
.01
.00

.03
.01
.02
.00

M E C H A N I C S AND R E P A I R M E N
A I R P L A N E MECH ANC R E P A I R M N
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV MECHANICS
RR A N D C AR SHC P M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

5.26
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
5.21

8.24
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
8.17

2.58
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
2.53

3.23
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
3.17

1.64
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
1.58

1.96
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
1.93

4.27
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
4.16

5.54
.00
.08
.00
.00
.00
5.46

4.20
.03
.44
.00
.01
.01
3.71

5.01
.04
.38
.00
.02
.01
4.56




124
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed
—
S Y M H t T IC

CHUGS
A NO
MEDICINE

FIBERS

OCCUPATION

60
CTH E R C R A F I S M E N AND KINDRED
EAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
C R A N E , D E R R I C K , E C 1S T M E N
GLAZIERS
JEWELERS A M
WATCHMAKERS
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINCEPS
INSPECTORS,LOG ANC LUMBER
INSPECTORS,OTHER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC K I N D R E D NEC

RATIO

75

R A I 10

oO

RATIO

75

PAINTS ANC
VARNISHES
AND RELATED

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

CTHER

R A I 10

60

RATIO

CHEMICALS

75

RATIO

PETROLEUM REFINING
ANC
COAL PRODUCTS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

2.26
.00
.00
.12
.00
.00
.07
.00
.00
.02
.00
2.06

2.32
.00
.00
.11
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
2. 16

.54
.00
.00
.OG
.00
.CD
.GO
.00
.00
.02
.00
.5 3

.58
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.GO
.00
.00
.04
.00
.54

.72
.00
.00
.03
.25
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.41

.99
.00
.00
.02
.36
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.56

1.90
.00
.01
.26
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.07
.00
1.53

1.25
.00
.01
.24
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.10
.00
.91

4.29
.01
.01
.34
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.13
.00
3.80

3.38
.01
.00
.40
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
2.92

46.65

4 2 . 15

23.58

18.7e

25.81

27.80

29.08

30.93

25.81

22.81

DRIVERS ANC D E L I VERYMEN
D R l V E R S , e i S , T R U C K ,TRACI OR
DELIVERYMEN ANC RCUTEMEN

.51
.48
.03

. 73
. 70
.03

.75
• 5c
.15

.81
.57
.24

1.33
1.22
.11

1.31
1.12
.20

2.34
2.15
.19

2.13
1.83
.31

3.90
3.46
.44

4.03
3.54
.49

TRANSP AN C PUE CTIl C E E K A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATIEN OPERATORS
SAILORS AND CECKEANCS

.43
.00
.43
.GO

. 36
.00
. 36
.CO

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.11
.02
.09
.01

.11
.01
.09
.01

.25
.04
.05
.16

.33
.04
.10
.19

S E M I S K I L L E D MET AIWORKING GDC
FURNACEMN.SMEnKMN.PCLRERS
HEATERS,METAL
W E L D E R S A N D EL A M E - C L T T E R S
ASSEM3LERS,MTLNRK,CLASS a
ASSEMBLERS,MTIWRK.CIASS B
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS 8
MACHINE TCGL CFER,CLASS R
ELECTROPLATERS
ELECTR0P1ATERS FELPEkS

. 71
.00
.00
. 71
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

• .•
*
.00
. oo
• 46
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00

. 13
.00
.00
.12
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.17
.00
.00
.17
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.09
.00
.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.83
.02
.00
.81
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.02
.02
.00
l.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.21
.00
.00
1.21
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.15
.00
.00
1.15
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

OPERATIVES

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

1. 70
.oo
1.56
. 15
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.0 2

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.00
.00
.00
.06

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.13
.00
.01
.00
.12

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.CG
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

KINDRED

42.88

38.40

23.08

1 7 .8 0

28.33

26.42

25.67

27.67

20.44

17.29

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WRKS
ATTEND,ACTU SERVICE,PARKNG
B L ASTERS ANC F C W D E R M E N
LAUNDRY,CRY CLEANING GPER
MEAT CUTT E R S , E X C MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATVS,LAECRERS,NEC
OPERATIVES AND KINDRED,NEC

.23
.00
.00
.07
.00
.00
42.55

.2 6
.00
.00
.07
.00
.00
30.05

.08
.01
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
22.58

.11
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
17.67

.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
28.29

.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
26.40

.12
.00
.03
.01
.01
.00
25.50

. 13
.00
.02
.01
.01
.00
27.50

.53
.07
.02
.0 0
.00
.00
15.81

.65
.01
.02
.00
.00
.00
16.61

3. 1 6

2.69

3.04

2.74

2.14

1.52

2.76

1. 71

2.09

1.36

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.CO

.00

.00

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WATCHM EN.CCDRKEEPRS
F E L I C E , O T H LAW ENFORCE OFF

.50
.00
.83
.07

.75
.00
.08
.07

.75
.00
.76
.00

.67
.00
.67
.00

.96
.00
.96
.00

.68
.00
.68
.00

1.24
.03
1.18
.03

.46
.02
.41
.02

.90
.10
.75
.01

.46
.09
.36
.01

FCGD SERVICE WORKERS
BARTENDERS
C O C K S , E X C P R IV H O I S E H C L C S
C O U N T E R AN D F C L N T A I N WKRS
WAITERS ANC WAITRESSES

.37
.00
.03
.27
.07

.23
.00
• C2
.15
.06

.25
.00
.06
.16
.04

.17
.00
.04
.10
.04

.05
.00
.00
.05
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00

.15
.00
.04
.05
.05

.24
.00
.06
. 10
.08

.14
.00
.11
.00
.02

.16
.00
.13
.00
.03

1.85
.00
.00
.11
1.17
.00
.61

1.71
.00
.00
.09
.95
.00
.67

2.03
.00
.00
.10
.88
.00
1.05

1.89
.00
.00
.12
.78
.00
1.00

1.12
.00
.00
.13
.51
.00
.49

.61
.CO
.00
.12
.34
.00
.34

1.37
.00
.00
.12
.84
.00
.40

1.01
.00
.00
.16
.39
.00
.46

1.05
.00
.00
.04
.61
.00
.41

.74
.00
.00
.01
.30
.00
.44

5.07

2.06

2.6 5

1.51

6.69

5.01

7.58

2.04

8.27

3.62

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

CTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HODSEECIC

WORKERS

CTHER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARCS,STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , H C S F , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTCNS
NORSFS.PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

ANC

WORKERS




MINE

o
o

2.12
.00
1.59
. 12
.0 0

SEMISKILLEC TEXIILE CCCLP
KMTTERS.IOCPERS.TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
S E W E R S A NC ST I T C E E R S . M E G

.00

125
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinued
PETROLEUM
REFINING

OCCUPATION

OTHER
COAL

60
INDUSTRY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

T E C H M C A l »K1 N D R E C

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
ENGINEERS,AERONAUTICAL
ENGINEERS,CFERICAl
ENGINFERS,CIVIL
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAL
E N G I N E E R S ,INCEST RIAL
ENGINEERS ,MECHAMCAL
ENGINEERS,METALLURG,ETC
ENGINEERS,FINING
OTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL

RATIO

75

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

5.77

7.64

4.93

1.34

2.06

1.39

.00
.38
.11
.CO
.11
.27
.05
.00
.42

.00
.54
.18
.00
.16
.40
.08
.00
.70

4 . 75
3. 19
.01
.02
1.15
.22
. 15
.01

1.23
1.12
.00
.00
.03
.02
.06
.00

7.08

100.00

17.47

28.52

5.37

8.22

.00

.00
3.88
.82
.42
.47
1.31
.01
.52
.79

.63
.16
.31
.92
.01
.59
.54

RATIC

100.00

100.00

2.2 0

60

RUBBER AND
MISCELLANEOUS
PLASTIC PRODUCTS

PETROLEUM
AND
PRODUCTS

RUBBER

60

RATIO

75

MISCELLANEOUS
PLASTIC PRODUCTS

PRODUCTS

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO
100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

6.23

5.22

6.94

4.32

5.42

1.79

1.39

1.91

1.40

1.67

.00
.23
.01
.06
.33
.19
.00
.00
.56

.00
.25
.02
.08
.53
.20
.02
.00
.70

.00
.20
.02
.06
.37
.17
.01
.00
.56

.00
.20
.02
.07
.72
.17
.03
.OC
.71

.00
.29
.01
.07
.24
.22
.OC
.00
.56

.00
.31
.01
.10
.31
.23
.00
.00
.70

1.57
1.48
.00
.00
.04
.02
.03
.00

.55
.51
.00
.00
.00
.01
.03
.01

.64
.58
.00
.00
.00
.02
.03
.01

.66
.62
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.01

.82
.78
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.01

.34
.25
.00
.00
.00
.02
.03
.00

.43
.35
.00
.00
.00
.04
.04
.00

.96
.26
.00
.00
.00
.6 6

1.50
.32
.00
.00
.00
1.18

1.05
.32
.00
.00
.00
.72

1.53
.40
.00
.00
.00
1.13

1.12
.33
.00
.00
.00
.76

1.74
.39
.00
.00
.00
1.35

.90
.30
.00
.00
.00
.60

1.29
.41
.00
.00
.00
.88

.05

.05
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.08
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00

.07
.00
.DC
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00

.09
.00
.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OC
.00
.00
.00

.06
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

100.00

TECHNICIANS,EXC MEDICAL,OEM
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C C N T R C L L t R S
RADIO OPFRATURS
TECHNICIANS,OTHER

3.86
.52
.04
.00
.00
3.31

.01
.00
.00
6.50

M E D I C A L . O T F ER H E A L T H M A R K E R S
DENTISTS
D I E T IT I A N S , N O T R I T I C N I S T S
NURSES,FRCFESSICNAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
P H Y S I C I A N S AND S URGEONS
PSYCHOLCGISIS
T E C H N I C I A N S , M E D I C A L .DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MEC ICAL,HEALTH WRKKS

. 16
.00
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
.05
.01
.03
.00
.00

.20
.00
.00
. 10
.00
.00
.00
.06
.01
.03
.00
.00

.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.CO

.09
.00
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECCNCARY
TEACHERS ,COLLEGE
TEACHERS,OTHER

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
. 00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.02
.00
.OC
.00
.02

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.38
.23
.12
.02

. 48
.35
.11
.02

.18
.10
.08
.00

.15
.07
.08
.00

.04
.03
.02
.00

.03
.02
.01
.00

.05
.02
.03
.00

.03
.01
.02
.00

.04
.04
.00
.00

.03
.03
.00
.00

OTHER P R O F,TECH AND KINDRED
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC A U D I T O R S
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
WRKRS IN A K 1 S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS.EXC CESIGN CRAFT
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
L A W Y E R S A N C JLCC-ES
LIBRARIANS
PERSONNEL AND LAF REL WRKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,KINDREC,NEC

5.05
3.13
.08
.00
.06
.OU
.05
.06
.38
.02
.50
.05
.0 1
.70

7. 79
3.07
.20
.00
. 12
.00
.03
.07
.32
.06
.62
.04
.01
3.25

2.01
1.28
.00
.00
.00
.00
.13
.00
.05
.00
.14
.00
.00
.38

2.31
1.33
.00
.00
.00
.00
.13
.00
.07
.00
.15
.00
.00
.62

1.79
.73
.02
.00
.07
.00
.16
.01
.03
.00
.22
.02
.01
.52

2.15
.74
.02
.00
.06
.00
.22
.02
.02
.00
.27
.02
.00
.78

1.91
.84
.03
.00
.08
.00
.06
.01
.04
.00
.19
.02
.01
.63

2.36
.83
.04
.00
.08
.00
.02
.02
.02
.00
.21
.02
.01
1.11

1.54
.50
.00
.00
.04
.00
.36
.01
.02
.00
.28
.02
.00
.30

1.91
.62
.00
.00
.04
.00
.46
.02
.02
.00
.34
.02
.00
.40

M A N A G E R S , O F F 1C I A L S , P F C P R I E T C R S

6.86

6.30

9.41

8.57

6.41

6.59

5.49

5.37

8.34

7.98

CONDUCTORS,RAIIRCAO
CREOITHEN
OFFICERS,FHOTS,ENGPS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
MANAGERS,OFFICE,PROF. NEC

.00
.23
.15
.00
.35
6.12

.00
.25
.21
.00
.28
5.55

.00
.26
.05
.00
.53
8.56

.00
.39
.05
.00
.51
7.62

.00
.13
.00
.00
.26
6.00

.00
.15
.00
.00
.28
6.16

.00
.16
.00
.00
.29
5.03

.00
.21
.00
.00
.28

.00
.06
.00
.00
.25
8.03

.00
.08
.00
.00
.28
7.63




.02
.43
.11
.08
.01

.51

.00

CO
CO

2.64
1.96
.01

'T

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGIST S,GEOPHYSICISTS
MA T H E M A 1 I C I A N S
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

126
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed
PETROLEUM
REFINING

OCCUPATION

OTHER
COAL

60
CLERICAL
STENCS,
OFFICE

ANt

KINDRED

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACF1NE

CPERATGRS

OTHER CLERICAL,K1NCRED WRKHS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
ECCKKEEFERS*HANC
EANK TEllERS
CASHIERS
M A I L C A R R IERS
POSTAL CLERKS
SLIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OFERAIORS
CLERICAL ANC KINOREC.NEC

SALES

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

RUBBER AND
MISCELLANEOUS
PLASTIC PRODUCTS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

RUBBER

60

PRODUCTS

RATIO

75

RAIIO

MISCELLANEOUS
PLASTIC PRCCUCTS

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

17.68

17.45

19.95

23.35

12.95

13.44

13.19

12.46

12.44

14.56

5.20

5.59

6.79

8.05

3.29

3.37

3.22

3.14

3.44

3.62

1.14

1.72

.69

1.42

.70

.62

.83

1.09

.42

.50

11.35
1.01
.87
.00
.OS
.00
.00
.25
.37
E.76

1 0. 14
1.06
.69
.00
.09
.00
.00
. la
.31
7.62

12.47
.71
• B5
.00
.07
.00
.00
1.63
.21
8 . St

13.69
1.01
.98
.00
.14
.00
.00
1.78
.18
9.80

8.96
.51
.45
.00
.07
.00
.00
2.09
.13
5.72

9.25
.49
.53
.00
.04
.00
.00
2.16
.11
5.93

9.15
.51
.22
.00
.10
.00
.00
1.96
.14
6.21

B.22
.48
.20
.00
.07
.00
.00
1.39
.13
5.96

8.5b
.52
.91
.00
.00
.00
.00
2.36
.10
4.68

10.44
.51
.91
.00
.00
.00
.00
3.04
.09
5.89

1.64

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

RATIO

PETROLEUM
AND
PRODUCTS

ANC

K INURED

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
BRICKMASCNS A M
TILE SETRS
CFMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
E X C A V A T N G . G R A C N G MtACH O P E R
PAIN T E R S ANt FAFF R R A N G E R S
PLASTERERS
PLUMBERS ANC PIPEFITTERS
R O O FERS ANC S L A TERS
STRUCTURAL METALWCRKFRS

1.95

4.32

3.83

1.97

2.2b

2.03

2.43

1.66

2.12

22.07

21.06

1 4 . e2

15.54

13.41

15.45

12.88

14.31

14.51

16.75

5.17
.86
.13
.01
1.11
.13
.17
.00
2.72
.00
.04

4 . 79
.66
.06
.01
1.C4
. 17
.08
.00
2.69
.00
.05

2.52
.31
.08
.00
1.11
.38
.1?
.00
.34
.53
.00

3.38
.29
.08
.00
1.20
.37
.13
.00
.40
.90
.00

1.29
.17
.01
.01
.56
.00
.05
.01
.48
.00
.01

1.27
.16
.02
.01
.51
.00
.05
.01
.48
.00
.02

1.49
.15
.00
.01
.61
.00
.03
.00
.67
.00
.01

1.56
.13
.00
.03
.53
.00
.02
.00
.82
.00
.03

.65
.21
.03
.00
.46
.00
.08
.02
.06
.00
.00

.94
.21
.05
.00
.49
.00
.08
.03
.09
.00
.00

5.19

5.29

4.14

4.22

5.84

6.62

5.47

5.69

6.63

7.89

M E T A L W K N G C R A F T S EXC M E C H
MACHINISTS ANC REIATED OCC
BLKSMITFS.FCRC-MN.FAMMERMEN
6CILERM AKERS
FEAT T R E A T E R S,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
MLLDEKS,METAL,EXC COREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WIOU
ROLLERS AND RCLL LANDS
S h E E T M E T A L W C R K E PS
T O O L H A K E K S ANC CIEM.AKERS

2.61
1.37
.04
1.04
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.08
.05

2 . 06
1.11
.04
• 65
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00

1.33
.39
.00
.17
.00
.71
.00
.00
.00
.00
.12

1.03
.20
.00
.07
.00
.64
.00
.00
.00
.00
.12

2.03
.79
.01
.01
.00
.27
.02
.06
.00
.10
.77

2.26
.84
.01
.01
.00
.25
.04
.07
.00
.10
.94

1.57
.67
.01
.01
.00
.32
.02
.05
.00
.15
.33

1.53
.65
.01
.01
.00
.30
.02
.03
.00
.19
.32

3.01
1.05
.00
.00
.00
.16
.03
.09
.00
.00
1.66

3.09
1.06
.00
.00
.00
.20
.05
.12
.00
.00
1.65

PRINTING TRADES CRAFTSMEN
CCMPOSITORS,TYPE SETTERS
ELECTRO 1YPERS,STEP EOTYPERS
ENGRAVERS EXC PHCTCENGRVER
PHCTOENGRVRS.lITHCGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,PLATL PRINTERS

.10
.03
.00
.01
.01
.05

.12
.01
.00
.04
.01
.07

.15
.04
.00
.00
.04
.07

.15
.04
.00
.00
.04
.08

.28
.21
.00
.04
.00
.03

.27
.18
.00
.05
.00
.04

.17
.14
.00
.02
.00
.02

.10
.07
.00
.01
.00
.02

.50
.36
.00
.08
.00
.07

.47
.31
.00
.09
.00
.07

TRANSPORT AND PLE L1IL CRAFT
LINEMEN AND SERVICEMEN
LCCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.04
.03
.01
.00

.03
.01
.02
.oo

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00

M E C H A N I C S AND REPAIRMEN
A I R P L A N E MECH ANC REPA I R M N
MOTOR VEHICLE M E C E A M C S
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV MECHANICS
RR AND CAR SHEF M E C H A N I C S
OTHER M E C E A M C S AND REPAIR

4.2C
.03
.50
.00
.01
.01
3.64

4.69
.05
.43
.00
.03
.01
4.38

4.21
.00
. 12
.00
.00
.00
4.09

5.51
.00
.16
.00
.00
.00
5.35

3.06
.01
.03
.00
.00
.00
3.02

3.69
.Cl
.02
.00
.00
.00
3.66

3.29
.02
.05
.00
.00
.00
3.23

4.36
.02
.04
.00
.00
.00
4.30

2.60
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
2.60

3.35
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
3.35

FCREHFN

NEC




127
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, 1960 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C ontinu ed
PETROLEUM
REFINING

OCCUPATION

OTHER

60

RATIO

75

PEIROLEUM

RUBBER AND
MISCELLANEOUS
PLASTIC PRODUCTS

a no

COAL
RATIO

60

RATIO

PRODUCTS
75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

RUBBER

60

PRODUCTS

RATIO

75

RATIO

MISCELLANEOUS
PLASTIC PRODUCTS

60

RA1I0

75

RATIO

1.87
.00
.00
.47
.00
.00
.00
.OC
.00
.07
.00
1.34

1.25
.00
.00
.33
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
.00
.85

.39
.00
.02
.05
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01
.01
.80

.92
.00
.03
.05
.00
.00
.01
.00
.CO
.01
.01
.80

.85
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.31

.86
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.80

.90
.00
.06
.03
.00
.GO
.02
.00
.00
.02
.02
.76

.97
.00
.07
.04
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.02
.02
.80

2 5 . 12

21.01

29.42

30.64

52.58

50.30

52.07

51.44

53.66

49.00

3.67
3.19
.48

3.44
2.93
.51

5.09
4.89
.21

6.59
6.17
.42

.98
.84
.14

.37
.32
.05

1.20
1.03
.18

. 13
.13
.00

.51
.45
.06

.66
.55
.11

TRANSP ANC PUB LTIl O E E R A T V S
E R A K H M E N A N D S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATICN OPERATORS
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS

.27
.03
.07
. 18

.37
.03
.12
.22

.14
.0 7
.00
.07

.14
.07
.00
.07

.03
.00
.03
.00

.04
.00
.04
.00

.04
.00
.04
.00

.07
.00
.07
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED METALWORKING CCC
F U R N A C E M N ,S M E L T R M N , P O U R ER S
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS AND FLAME-CUTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS B
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS B
MACHINE TELL EFER,CLASS B
ELECTRO PLATERS
ELECTROPLATERS HELPERS

1.35
.00
.00
1.35
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.24
.00
.00
1.24
.00
.00
• CO
.00
.00
.00

.52
.00
.00
.52
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.75
.00
.00
.75
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00

.35
.00
.01
.35
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.43
.00
.01
.43
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.39
.00
.01
.38
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.52
.00
.01
.51
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.28
.00
.00
.28
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.33
.00
.00
.33
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
•CO
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.08
.00
.00
.00
.08

.07
.00
.00
.00
.07

1.06
.00
.01
.02
1.04

.35
.00
.01
.03
.31

1.15
.00
.00
.02
1.13

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00

.87
.00
.02
.02
.83

.71
.00
.03
.03
.65

KINDRED

19.83

15.95

23.59

23.09

50.17

49.11

49.29

50.69

52.00

47.30

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WRKS
A t t e n d , a l t o s e r v i c e ,p a r k n g
B L ASTERS ANC FCWDERMEN
L A U N D R Y , L R Y C L E A N I N G CPER
MEAT C U T TERS,EXC MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATVS.LAECRERS.NEC
O P E R A T I V E S ANC K I N D RED,NEC

.63
.09
.01
.00
.00
.00
19.10

. 80
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
1 5 . 13

.00
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
23.52

.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
23.03

.03
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
50.12

.06
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
49.04

.04
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
49.22

.09
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
50.58

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
51.99

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
47.28

2.01

.97

2.49

3.03

2.03

1.78

2.29

1.66

1.46

1.69

.00

.00

.00

o
o

.00

o
o

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS.WAICHMEN.CCORKEFPRS
P O L I C E , C T H LAW ENFORCE CRF

.83
.10
.73
.01

.27
.05
.21
.01

1.25
.14
1.11
.00

1.29
.23
1.01
.00

.56
.00
.52
.05

.35
.00
.33
.03

.66
.00
.60
.06

.32
.00
.29
.03

.36
.00
.34
.02

.39
.00
.37
.02

POOD SERVICF WOKKFPS
EARTENDERS
COCKS,EXC PRIV HOUSEHOLDS
C O U NTER AKD F O U N T A I N WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES

.15
.00
. 14
.00
.01

. 18
.00
.16
.00
.02

.07
.00
.00
.00
.07

.06
.00
.00
.00
.06

.08
.00
.03
.04
.01

«G8
.00
.04
.04
.01

.11
.00
.05
.05
.01

. 15
.00
.07
.06
.01

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00

1.03
.00
.00
.04
.62
.00
.37

.52
.00
.00
.01
.23
.00
.29

1.16
.00
.00
.00
.55
.00
.61

1.68
.00
.00
.00
.59
.00
1.09

1.38
.00
.01
.07
.94
.00
.37

1.35
.00
.00
.06
.60
.00
.48

1.52
.00
.01
.07
1.06
.00
.38

1.39
.00
.00
.05
.67
.00
.68

1.10
.00
.00
.06
.69
.00
.36

1.30
.00
.00
.08
.96
.00
.26

7.16

2.75

14.03

7.39

5.72

3.93

6.84

5.19

3.39

2.48

.00

•00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.CO

.00

OPERATIVES

ANL

KINCREC

WORKERS

DRIVERS ANC CEL1VERYMEN
DRIVERS,ELS,TRUCK,TRACTOR
DELIVERYMEN ANC RCUIEMEN

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CCCUP
KNITTFRS,LOUP EPS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVEkS,TEXTILE
SEWERS ANC S T I T C EERS,MEG
OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

m

PRIVATE

ANC

GRKERS
HOUSEHOLD

WCRKERS

OTHER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , E O S F , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTONS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WCRKERS,NEC

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

E/PM

ANC

WCRKERS




MINE

o
c

3.87
.01
.00
.42
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.05
.00
3.40

O
o

A . 75
-OL
.01
.31
.00
.OG
.00
.00
.00
.14
.00
A . 28

O T H E R C R A F T S M E N AN D K INCHED
BAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE.DERRICK,HOIST MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWELERS ANC WATCHMAKERS
LOOM HIKERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
I N S P E C T O R S , L O G ANl LUMBER
INSPECTORS,OTHER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC KINDRED NEC

128
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
LEATHER

PKUUUCTS

60
INDIS1HY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

TECHNICAL,KINDRED

EOOTUEAR
EXCEPT
RUBBER

LEATHER
TANNING AM)
FINISHING

OCCUPATION

RATIO

lb R A T I O

I O C . 00

100.00

100.00

100.00

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

60

RATIO

75

ALL C T h E R
LEATHER
PRODUCTS

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

TRANSPORTATION
COMMUNICATIONS AND
PUBLIC UTILITIES

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

.82

i.ll

1.48

2.26

.63

.82

1.21

1.66

5.32

6.58

.15

.20

.33

.50

.09

.10

.26

.36

1.14

1.35

.00
.00
.00
.01
.08
.01
.00
.00
.04

.00
.00
.00
.01
.10
.02
.00
.00
.07

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.40
.00
.00
.00
. 10

.00
.00
.01
.01
•O o
.01
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.01
.00
.00
.03

.00
.00
.00
.03
.10
.03
.00
.00
-10

.00
.00
.00
.05
.14
.04
.00
.00
.15

.01
.01
.23
.55
.05
.14
.01
.01
.10

.01
.01
.26
.73
.06
.14
.01
.00
.13

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CF EM I ST S
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
G E O L U G IS T S . G E L P H * S I C I S T S
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
LTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

.05
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

• 05
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
. 00
.00

.2 6

.25
.29
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.09
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.02
.01
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00

.07
.04
.01
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00

TECHNICIANS.EXC NECICAL,OEN T
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C I M E C L I E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS,OTHER

.10
.01
.00
.00

.20
.02
.00
.00
.GO
.18

.34
.00
.00
.00

.76
.00
.00

.06

.0 0

.0 0

.34

.76

.14
.00
.00
.00
.00
.14

.13
.06
.00
.00
.00
.07

.24
.07
.00
.00
.00
.17

1.17
.20
.06
.00
.17
.72

1.45
.24
.05
.00
.17
.95

.01
.00

.05
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00

.04
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.00
.00
.00
.04

.05
.00
.00
.00
.05

ENGINEERS,! fC E M C A L
ENGINEERS.AERCNALTICAL
ENGINEERS,CLERICAL
ENGINEERS,CIV1L
ENGINEERS,ElECTPIUAl
ENGINEERS,INDISTRIAL
ENGINEERS.MECEANICAl
E N G I N F E R S , ME TAILUEC-, E T C
ENGINEERS,FINING
GThER ENC-INFERS,TECHNICAL

MEDICAL,OTHER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
DIETITIANS.NOTRITICMSTS
NURSES.PRLFESSICNAL
C F T O M E T R I ST S
GSIEGPATHS
P H A R M A C ISTS
P H Y S I C I A N S ANC S U R G E O N S
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNIC IANS,MEDICAL,DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
CTHER MECICAC.EEAITF WRKRS

.0 0
.0 5

.0^

.2 6

.00
.00
.GO
.05

.2 6

.00
.00
.00
.00
.oo

.00

.0 0

.02
.00

.0 0

.00

.0 0

.0 0

•00

.o o

.0 2

.06
.00

.00
.06

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0

.0 6

.0 6

.0 0

.00

• 00
.00
.00
.00

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

. o o

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.00

.00
.00

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.00

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS 4 ACTUARIES
CTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.0 0
.0 0

.0 0
.o o

.00
.00

.00
-00

C7HEF P R O F , T E C H ANC KINDRED
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC AUDI T O R S
AIRPLANE FILCTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
W R K R S IN A R T S , E N T E R T A I N H N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CESIGN DRAFT
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
L A W Y E R S A N C JICC-ES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND UAE REL W R K S
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL AND WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,KINCREC,NEC

.51
.17
.00
.00
.01
.00
.19
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.05

.64
.15
.00
.00
.01
.00
.20
.00
.00
.00
.09
.00
.20

.0 0

MANAGERS.OFFICIALS.PRCPRIETORS

4.44

CONDUCTORS,RA1URCAD
CRECITMEN
OFFICERS,PHOTS,ENGRS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
MANAGERS,GFFICE,PROP. NEC

.00
.04
.00
.00
.23
4.17

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECCNCARY
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEAChERS,OTHER




.0 0
.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.00

.oo

.00
.00
.00
.06
.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.00

.0 0

.Cl
.0 0

.00
.00
.0 0

.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.0 0

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.0 0

.00

•O O
.00
.00

.0 0

.00
.00
.00

.o o

.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.03
.06
.00

.09
.03
.06
.00

.46
.32
.00
.00

.05

.65
.35
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.20
.00
.00
.11

.46
.17
.00
.00
.00
.00
.17
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.08

.54
.15
.00
.00
.00
.00
.16
•CO
.00
.00
•C 7
.00
.00
.15

.69
.10
.00
.00
.04
.00
.34
.00
.00
.00
.07
.00
.00
.15

.90
.10
.00
.00
.04
.00
.30
.00
.00
.00
.11
.00
.00
.34

2.61
.70
.43
.00
.16
.00
.03
.10
.06
.01
.16
.02
.00
1.13

3.53
.77
.73
.00
.14
.00
.03
.11
.05
.01
.20
.02
.00
1.47

4.80

6.15

9.28

3.32

3.6 3

7.69

7.01

6.25

7.91

.00
.05
.00
.00
.32
4.43

.00
.00
.00
.00
.36
5.82

.00
.00
.00
.00
.52
8.76

.00
.05
.00
.00
.22
3.05

.00
.06
.00
.00
.33
3.23

.00
.00
.00
.00
.23
7.46

.00
.00
.00
.00
.27
6.74

.53
.02
.63
.00
.10
6.62

.81
.02
.51
.00
.05
6.48

.0 0

.o c

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.11
.00

.0 0

.00
.0 0

129
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
LEATHER

PRUJUCTS

6C
CLERICAL
STENCS,
OFFICE

AND

KINDFEC

WORKERS

1YF I S I S , S E C R E T A R I E S
MACHINE

CPERATCRS

OTHER CLERICAL,KINCFEL WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLIRKS
BOOKKEEPERS,HANE
BANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
FCSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE CPERATCRS
C L E R I C A L ANC K 1 N C R E C . N E C

SALES

75

RATIO

60

RAIIC

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

TRANSPORTATION
COMMUNICATIONS AND
PUBLIC UTILITIES

ALL OTHER
LEATHER
PRODUCTS

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

R A 1 10

60

RATIO
2A.2A

75

RATIO

5.29

11.25

7.20

7.15

9.35

11.25

10.05

12.13

23.97

1.60

2.07

1.15

1.27

I .A8

1.E2

2.26

2.92

2.85.

3.23

.39

.BA

.25

L.OA

.37

.66

.52

.73

.61

1.1A

7.30
.27
.65
.00
.02
.00
.00
1.56
.13
A. 6 3

3.3 A
.25
.60
.00
.05
.00
.00
1.92
. 11
5.A1

5 . BO
.15
.67
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.56
.33
3.0A

4.85
.07
.29
.00
.00
.00
.00
.61
.31
3.58

7.50
.20
.62
.00
.03
.00
.00
1.3A
.09
5.22

6.57
.16
.AS
.00
.07
.00
.00
1.77
.08
6.00

7.27
.55
.97
.00
.00
.00
.00
2.32
.17
3.26

8. A8
.53
.96
.00
.00
.00
.00
2.62
.16
A . 22

20.56
1.02
.36
.00
.61
.00
.00
.22
5.05
13.27

19.61
.78
.33
.00
.78
.00
.00
.23
A . 67
12.82

1.55

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FUREMEN

RATIO

FOOTWEAR
EXCEPT
RUBBER

LtATHER
TANNING AND
FINISHING

OCCUPATION

ANC

KINDREO

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
C A R PENT EPS
ERIC K M A S C N S ANC TILt SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
F L F C T R I C IANS
FXCAVATNG.GRACNG MACH OPER
PAI N T E R S ANC F A F E R H A N G E R S
FLASTERFRS
P L UMBERS ANC P IPEFITTERS
R O O F E R S ANC S L A T E F S
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

1.47

1.19

1.60

1.34

1.61

1.96

1.06

.89

1.17

6.19

8.38

9.74

12.87

5.54

7.89

6.88

8.72

21.27

21.45

.23
.09
.00
.00
. 10
.00
.01
.00
.03
.00
.01

.23
.06
.00
.CO
. 10
.00
.01
.00
.03
.00
.01

.81
.29
.00
.00
.17
-CO
.00
.00
.35
.00
.00

.19
.04
.00
.00
.12
.00
.02
.00
.01
.00
.00

.18
.04
.CO
.00
.12
.CO
.01
.00
.Cl
.00
.00

.20
.15
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04

.21
.15
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06

2.04
.30
.01
.00
.85
.17
.21
.00
.47
.00
.03

1.82
.20
.01
.00
.75
.20
.16
.00
.48
.00
.02

.65
.31
.00
.CO
.13
.00
.00
.00
.< 1
.00
.00

V. 2 5

5.27

5.31

6.76

3.95

4.77

4.81

6.32

2.70

2.82

M E T A L W K N G C F A E T S E X C M.ECH
M A C H I N I S T S ANC RELATEC OCC
BLKSMITH5,ECRGMN,HAMMERMEN
BOILERMAKERS
EEAI TREATERS .ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
MOLOERS,METAL,EXC CCREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WCOD
ROLLERS ANC PCLL HANDS
SHEFT MFTAL WLPKERS
T O O L M A K E R S ANC C I E M A K E R S

.26
.06
.01
.01
.00
.02
.00
.04
.00
.01
. 12

.30
.Od
.Cl
.01
.00
.01
.00
.06
.00
.01
. 13

.56
.12
.07
.07
.00
.23
.00
.00
.00
.03
.07

.59
.13
.09
.16
.00
. 16
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00

.19
.06
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.01
.07

.24
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
.00
.Cl
.07

.36
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.33

'. 4 0
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.34

.97
.67
.06
.08
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.13
.02

.83
.57
.03
.05
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.15
.01

P R I M I N G TRACES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITORS,TYPESETTERS
EEECTROTYPERS.STERECTYPEKS
E N G R A V E R S EXC P F C T C E N G R V E R
PHGTOENGR VRS.lITEC GRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.03
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
•CO
.00

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

T R A N S P O R T A N C P L E 1 1 IL C R A F T
LINEMEN ANC SERVICEMEN
LECOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.02
.02
.00
.00

.03
.03
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.CO
.00
.00
.00

.10
.10
.00
.00

.12
.12
.00
.00

7.75
5.91
.94
.91

7.60
6.64
.84
.12

MECHANICS ANC REPAIRMEN
A IRPLANE MECE ANC R E PAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OEFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV M E C H A N I C S
RR A N C CAR SEL F M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

1.15
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
1.15

2.26
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
2.24

2.60
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
2.60

4.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
4.00

.99
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.98

2.47
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
2.45

1.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OG
1.05

1.25
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.29

5.51
.83
1.25
.01
.08
.83
2.52

6.05
1.00
1.41
.01
.07
.72
2.83

FOREMEN

NEC




130
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed
LEATHER

PRUOUCTS

LEATHER
TANNING AND
FINISHING

OCCUPATION

60
CTHFR C R A F TSMEN ANC KINDRED
FAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,FOIST MEN
GLAZIERS
J E W E L E R S ANC WATCP M A K E K S
LCOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
I N S P E C T O R S , L O G ANC LUMBER
INSPECTORS,CTFER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N AND KINDRED NEC

OPERATIVES

ANC

KINCREC

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

ALL OTHER
LEATHER
PRODUCTS

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

TRANSPORTATION
C O M M UNICATIONS AND
PUBLIC UTILITIES

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.24
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.22

.2o
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.24

.59
.00
.00
.GO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OG
.55

.72
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.72

.19
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.17

.19
.00
.01
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.16

.27
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.27

.34
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.34

2.28
.00
.01
.17
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.03
.02
1.05

2.32
.00
.00
.20
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.05
.01
1.05

c.9.03

57.90

54.32

76.15

71.60

67.88

65.32

26.26

27.04

.38
.30
.OE

.45
.37
.12

1.07
.65
.22

1.08
.72
.37

.28
.23
.05

.46
.27
.05

.40
.30
.10

.45
.30
.15

18.56
15.48
3.0E

20.27
17.70
2.57

T R A N S P ANC PUE ITIl C P E P A T V S
E F A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATION OPERATORS
SAILORS AND CECKFANDS

.03
.00
.03
.00

.05
.00
.05
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.00
.04
.00

.05
.00
.05
.00

.04
.00
.04
.00

.05
.00
.05
.00

3.1C
2.15
.34
.61

2.59
1.95
.26
.38

S E M I SKILLED METALWORKING CCC
FURNACEMN.SMEITRMN.POURERS
FEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-CUTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,MT1WRK,CLASS B
I N S P E C T O R S , M T L W R K ,C L A S S B
MACHINE TOOL OPEN,CLASS B
E L E C T R C jR L A T E R S

.03
.DC
,0C
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.OG
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.33
.00
.00
.33
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.38
.00
.00
.37
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CCCUP
KNITTERS.LOCPFRS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
S E W E R S A N C ST ITCFERS, MEG

13.66
.00
.01
.02
13.63

12.62
.00
.03
.04
1 2. 5 6

. 79
.00
.00
.00
.79

.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00

16.29
.00
.01
.01
16.27

15.05
.00
.04
.03
14.98

10.11
.00
.00
.04
10.07

8.82
.00
.00
.07
8.75

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

OTFEH

KINDRED

58.75

5 6 . 85

56.04

53.24

59.51

56.02

57.26

55.95

4.27

3.80

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WRKS
ATTEND,AUTO SERVICE,PARKNG
BLASTERS ANC POWCERMEN
L A U N D R Y , C R Y C L E A N I N G CPER
MEAT CUTTERS,EXC MEATPCKNG
MINE UPERATVS.LABORERS,NEC
O P E R A T I V E S ANC KIND R E D , N E C

.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
58.74

.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
55.83

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
56.04

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
53.24

.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
55.49

.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
56.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
57.26

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
55.95

.01
.04
.00
.00
.06
.00
4.16

.01
.03
.00
.00
.04
.00
3.73

1.36

1.33

2. 19

2.44

1.31

1.22

1.23

1.37

3.29

2.97

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS.KAICEMEN,CCORKEEPRS
F E L I C E , O T F LAW ENFORCE OFF

.47
.00
.47
.00

.38
.00
.38
.00

1.09
.00
1.09
.00

1.13
.00
1.13
.00

.44
.00
.44
.00

.37
.00
.37
.00

.27
.00
.27
.00

.23
.CO
.23
.00

.73
.01
.56
.14

.47
.01
.29
.16

FCOC SERVICE WORKERS
BARTENDERS
C O O K S , F X C P R IV H O U S E H O L D S
C O U N T E R AND F O U N T A I N WKRS
WA I T E R S AND WAITRE S S E S

.03
.00
.02
.01
.01

.03
.00
.02
.01
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.01
.00
.01

.02
.00
.01
.00
.01

.10
.00
.06
.03
.00

.06
.00
.05
.02
.00

.44
.01
.24
.02
.18

.28
.00
.15
.02
.10

OTHER SERVICE WCRKEFS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWROSSES
ATT E N O A M S . F C S P . U T h E R IN S T
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTCNS
NLRSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

.68
.00
.00
.10
.35
.01
.41

.92
.00
.00
.11
.36
.00
.45

1.10
.00
.00
.00
.62
.00
.48

1.31
.00
.00
.00
.78
.00
.54

.85
.00
.00
.09
.36
.01
.38

.83
.00
.00
.08
.39
.CC
.36

.86
.00
.00
.19
.18
.00
.49

1.06
.00
.00
.20
.19
.00
.67

2.11
.28
.00
.15
.53
.00
1.15

2.22
.59
.00
.20
.51
.00
.92

3.58

2.63

14.12

10.09

2.36

1.98

3.09

2.73

10.44

8.90

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HOUSEHOLD

LABCREKS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

e e l p e r s

AND

FARM

FARM

WORKERS

ANC

WORKERS




MINE

o
o

72.85

O P 1V E R S A N C D E L I V E R Y M E N
DRIVERS,BIS,TRUCK,TRACTCR
D E L I V E R Y M E N ANC ROUTE MEN

e l e c t r o p l a t e r s

WORKERS

RATIO

FOOTWEAR
EXCEPT
RUBBER

131
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinued

60
INDUSTRY

TOTAl

PROFESSIONAL

RAILROADS

TCTAL
T R ANSPORT A TION

OCCUPATION

TE C F M C A l , XI N D R E O

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL

LGCAL AND
INT ERUR BAN P A S S E N G E R
TRANSPORTATION

TAXIS

LOCAL AND
INTERURBAN
EXCEPT TAXIS

RATIO

lb R A T I O

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

7.53

3.50

2.47

3.62

.95

1.26

.58

1.13

1.01

1.52

.33

.04

.05
.00
.00
.00
.03
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.34

.40

60

KA1IC

.54

75

RATIO

.63

60

RATIO

.24

75

RATIO

.24

60

RATIO

.36

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.02
.00
. 14
•Co
.04
.09
.00
.00
.04

.00
.00
-2S
.07
.04
.11
.00
.00
.03

.00
.00
.41
.13
.06
.17
.00
.00
.06

.00
.00
.10
.06
.02
.03
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.11
.07
.02
.03
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.16
.11
.02
.04
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.16
.09
.02
.04
.00
.00
.02

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
G E O L O G I S T S , C-ECFHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
CTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.02
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00

.06
.04
.00
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TECHNICIANS,EXC MEDICAL,DENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C C N T R C L L F R S
RADIO OPERATORS
T E C H N I C I A N S , C IFEP

.37
.07
.04
.00
• Lc
. 10

.44
.08
.04
.00
.17
.14

.25
.16
.07
.00
.00
.06

.48
.25
.10
.00
.00
.14

.32
.01
.00
.00
.30
.01

.43
.03
.00
.00
.35
.01

.05
.02
.00
.00
.02
.02

.11
.05
.00
.00
.04
.02

.76
.00
.00
.00
.76
.00

1.13
.00
.00
.00
1.13
.00

MEDICAL,OTHER HEALTH RORKERS
DENTISTS
D I E T I T I A N S , N L T R I T I O N ISIS
NURSES,PROFESSIONAL
C F T O M E T RI STS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS ANC SURGEONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNIC IANS.MECICAL,DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MEDICAL,HEALTH: RKKRS

.02
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.OG
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.Cl
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00

.05
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.02
.00
.00

.04
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.02
.00
.00

.07
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.03
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECCNCARY
TEACHERS, COLLEGE
TEACHERS,CTHER

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.05
.00
.00
.00
.05

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.04
.00
.00
.00
.04

.04
.00
.00
.00
.04

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.05
.01
.04
.00

.06
.01
.05
.GO

.10
.01
-OS
.00

.12
.02
.11

.03
.00
.03
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00

.04
.00
.04
.00

.04
.00
.04
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

CTHER P R O F , T E C H ANC KINDRED
ACCO U N T A N T S ANC AlCITCRS
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
W R K K S IN A R T S , E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC DESIGN DRAFT
E D I TORS AND R E P O RTERS
LAWYERS AND JLDGES
LIBRARIANS
PER S O N N E L AND LAB REL WRKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC NELFABE ROPKERS
PROF,TECH,KINCREC,NEC

1.70
.54
.65
.00
.02
.00
.01
.03
.05
.00
.08
.01
.00
.26

2.51
.67
1.22
,00
.02
.00
.01
.03
.05
.00
. 10
.01
.00
.40

1.47
.60
.00
.00
.01
.00
.02
.04
.05
.01
.10
.01
.00
.55

2.10
.79
.00
.00
.01
.00
.03
.05
.10
.01
.13
.01
.00
.57

.35
.20
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.04
.01
.00
.05

.48
.27
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.04
.01
.00
.11

.45
.27
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
.03
.02
.00
.05

.55
.32
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.03
.02
.00
.13

.20
.05
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.05

.33
.16
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
.00
.00
.08

MANAGERS.OFFICIALS.PRCPRIETCRS

10.06

9.35

9.74

10.60

5.51

4.19

5.43

4.37

5.64

3.82

CONDUCTORS,RAILRCAD
CREDITMEN
OFFICERS,PILCTS,ENGPS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS AND ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
M A N A G E R S , O F F I C E , P R O P . NEC

1.52
.01
1.02
.00
.10
7.41

1.38
.02
.87
.00
.07
7.02

4.85
.01
.10
.00
.05
4.73

5.55
.02
.06
.00
.04
4.93

.02
.00
.01
.00
.08
5.40

.01
.00
.01
.00
.05
4.13

.04
.00
.01
.00
.11
5.27

.01
.00
.01
.00
.07
4.28

.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
5.63

.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
3.80




o

ENGINEERS,AERCKALTICAl
ENGINEERS,CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS,C1V11
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINFERS.INDLSTRIAl
ENGINE£RS,MECEAMCAL
ENGINEERS.MEIALLURG.ETC
ENGINEERS,PINING
CTEtER E N G J N E E R S , T E C H N I C A L

C1

.01
.01
.13
.05
.03
.OE
.00
.01
.03

.00
.00
.00
.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

132
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C ontinued
TOTAL
TRANSPORTATION

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
STENCS,
CRRICE

ANC

K 1 NC R EC

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

OPERATORS

ETHER CLERItAl.KINDRED WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
6 C C K K E E EE R S . H A N D
RANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
PCSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
CLERICAL A M
KINCREC, NEC

RATIO

75

R A T IU

RAILROADS

60

RATIO

75

LOCAL AND
INTERUREAN
EXCEPT TAXIS

LOCAL AND
INTERUREAN PASSENGER
TRANSPORTATION

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

7b

RATIO

TAXIS

60

RATIC

75

RATIO

17.48

19.71

19.86

19.90

11.09

9.70

12.11

9.29

9.40

10.58

2.28

2.80

1.75

2.11

.91

•86

1.30

1.14

.25

.34

.60

1.05

.78

1.60

.20

.31

.30

.38

.05

.14

14.60
.74
.32

15.86
.61
.31
•CO

17.25
.44

16.19
.30
• 00
•00
.43
.00
.00
• 26
.19
15.02

9.98
.32

6.51
.24
.48
.00
.56
.00
.00
.14
.37
6.73

10.51
.47
.26
.00
.a o
.00
.00
.08
.08
6.83

7.77
.30
.23
.00
.82
.00
.00
.07
.04
6.30

9.11
.07
.75
.00
.00
.00
.00
.24
1.12
6.93

10.10
.10
1.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.29
1.07
7.64

.00
.00

.86
.00

.00
.33
.25
12.36

.00
.36
.24
13.47

.56

•0 0
.00
.30

.00
.00
.20
.34
16.01

.00
.50
.00
.00
.14
.47
8.11

.71

1.07

.22

.36

.15

.17

.22

.25

.02

.00

16.48

15.33

31.30

30.76

9.91

6.61

14.48

11.50

2.30

2.45

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
E R I C K M A S C N S ANC TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CCNCRE1E E1NISEERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GPACNC- MACH OPER
P A I N T F R S ANC F A P E P H A N G E R S
PIASTER EPS
F l U M B E R S A N C F I F E f ITT E P S
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

1.75
.40
.01
.00
.72
.09
.26
.00
.24
.00
.03

1.55
.26
.01
.00
. 74
.08
.19
.00
. 25
. 00
.02

3.87
.67
.02
.00
1.66
.11
.48
.00
.67
.00
.07

4.22
.52
.01
.00
2.21
.13
.35
.00
.94
.00
.06

.85
.14
.03
.01
.38
.01
.20
.00
.05
.01
.02

.66
.14
.04
.01
.25
.00
.15
.00
.03
.Cl
•C4

1.31
.23
.05
.01
.61
.01
.28
.00
.07
.01
.03

.95
.21
.05
.02
.36
.00
.19
.00
.05
.01
.06

.08
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.02
.00

.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00

FOREMEN

SALES

WORKERS

CKAEISMEN,FOREMEN

ANC

KINCREO

2.47

2. 50

4.39

4.85

.82

.88

1.21

1.22

.18

.17

M E T A L N K N G C R A F T S EXC M E C H
M A C H I N I S I S ANE R E L A T E D O CC
ELKSHITHS.ECRCMN.HAMMERMe N
BOILERMAKERS
FEAT TREATERS.ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
HOLDERS.METAL,EXC CCREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WCCD
PCLLERS ANC PLLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WCPKERS
T O O L M A K E R S ANC CIEMAKcRS

1.39

1.26
. 89
.04
.03
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.25
.01

3.92
3.02
.24
.29
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.34
.08

4.17
3.44
.11
.16
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.42
.02

.25
.16
.03
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.03
.01

.24
.14
.02
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
•G 4
.01

.39
.24
.04
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.05
.02

.34
.19
.02
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.05
.02

.03
.03
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
CCMPOSITCRS,TYPESETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS.STERECTYPERS
E N G R A V E R S EXC PFC T O E N G R V E R
P H O T O E N C - R V k S . l ITECC-R'APFEKS
PRESSMEN.FLATE PRINTERS

.02
.01
.00
.00

.0 3
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00

.00

.02
.01
• CO
.00
.CO
.00

.00
.cc

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TRANSPORT AND PCE OTIC CRAFT
LINEMEN ANC SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

3.13
.13
1.51
1.48

1.77
. 15
1.42
.20

9.65
.30
4.82
9.72

6.94
.46
5.67
.80

.15
.13
.03
.00

.14
.09
.05
.00

.24
.19
.04
.00

.20
.12
.07
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

M E C H A N I C S ANC R E P A IRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH ANC REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
GFEICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV MECHANICS
PR A N O C AR SHC P M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

5.69
1.36
1.81
.00
.07
1.35
1.09

6.37
1.70
2.09
.00
.07
1.23
1.27

4.75
.00
.03
.01
.03
4.03
.64

5.67
.00
.04
.02
.06
4.72
.63

7.21
.02
4.96
.00
.01
.61
1.61

6.22
.02
4.2C
.00
.01
.41
1.57

10.39
.02
6.96
.00
.01
.97
2.42

8.13
.02
5.29
.00
.01
.60
2.21

1.93
.03
1.63
.00
.01
.00
.26

2.15
.03
1.90
.00
.01
.00
.22

NEC




.49
.08
.09
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.19
.02

.00

.00

.

133
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
TOTAL
TRANSPORTATION

OCCUPATION

60
C ThER C RAP ISHIN ANC K I N LREU
BAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,HOIST MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWELERS a n d w a t c h m a k e r s
LCOM PIKERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINCERS
INSPECTORS.LOG anc l u m b e r
INSPECTORS,CTPER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N AND KINCREO NEC

RATIO
2.05
.01
.01
.19
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
1.2£
.03
.52

75

RATIU

LOCAL AND
I N T E R U R E A N PASSENGfcR
TRANSPORTATION

RAILROADS

60

RATIO

75

RATIU

1.86
.00
.01
. 18
.00
.00
.uo
.00
.00
1.20
.02
.54

4.45
.00
.03
.31
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
3.60
.07
.4 7

4.90
.00
.02
.23
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
4.05
.05
.45

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

LOCAL AND
INTERURBAN
EXCEPT TAXIS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.61
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.41
.03
.17

.45
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.32
.03
.11

.94
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.65
.04
.25

.65
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.47
.04
.14

TAXIS

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.05

.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.03

22.67

67.42

71.61

55.19

67.10

81.11

81.19

1.82
1.53
.29

2.63
2.26
.37

62.62
31.98
30.64

67.46
40.66
26.80

52.15
50.65
1.50

61.47
55.62
1.86

80.04
.51
75.13

80.19
.38
75.82

TRANSP AND PLE LT1L C F ERATVS
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATIEN OPERATORS
SAILORS AND CECKHANCS

4.50
3.48
.02
1 .DO

3.96
3.30
.02
.64

11.07
10.55
.02
.10

13.27
13.15
.02
.10

.34
.27
.06
.02

.19
.14
.03
.02

.50
.38
.09
.03

.28
.20
.04
.03

.09
.05
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.OG

SEMISKILLED METALWORKING CCC
EL’ N A C E M N , S M E l T R M N , P O U R ER S
P
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC ELAME-CLTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS 8
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS B
MACHINE TCCL CPER.CLASS 8
EL E C T R C PL A 1 E R S
ELECTROFLATERS EELPERS

.32
.00
.00
.32
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.39
.00
.00
.39
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00

.65
.0 1
.00
.68
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.C8
.01
.00
£.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.10
.00
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.08
.00
.00
.08
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.14
.00
.00
.14
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.11
.00
.00
.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.OG
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED TEX11LE CCCLP
KNITTERS,LCCPEPS.IOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS.TEXTIIE
SEWERS ANC ST I T C E E R S . M F G

.00
.00
.00
.d o
.00

.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

KINDRED

4.18

3.59

6.12

5.70

4.36

3.68

6.40

5.24

.56

.98

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WRKS
A T T E N D , A L T O S I R V 1C E , P A R K N G
B I A S T E R S ANC F C W D E R M E N
LAUNDRY,CRY CLEANING LPER
MEAT C U T T E R S , £ X C MEAT PCKNG
MINE 0PERA1VS,IAP£RERS,NEC
OPERATIVES ANC KINCREC,NEC

.00
.03
.00
.00
.10
.00
4.04

.00
.03
.00
.00
.06
.00
3.49

.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.00
6.10

.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.00
5.68

.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
.00
4.29

.00
.05
.00
.00
.CO
.00
3.83

.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
6.37

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
5.24

.00
.14
.00
.00
.00
.00
.83

.00
.14
.00
.00
.00
.00
.64

4.06

3.80

5.07

3.46

3.16

3.24

4.92

4.68

.23

.18

.00

.UO

.00

.00

.00

.00

.59
.01
.75
.23

.65
.01
.35

1.4 1
.01
.52

.88
.02
.30

.38
.00
.18

.29

.47

.56

.46
.00
.30
.16

.62
.01
.34
.01
.26

.39
.01
.23
.01
.14

.54
.02
.47
.00
.45

.51
.01
.26
.00
.24

.35
.00
.12
.01
.22

2.44
.47
.00
.13
.32
.00
1.53

2.76
1.01
.00
.19
.31
.00
1.25

2.73
.00
.00
.26
.43
.00
2.04

2.07
.00
.00
.49
.35
.00
1.23

11.50

8.85

11.65

.00

.00

.00

OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HCLSEHCID

WCRKERS

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WATCHMEN,CICRKEEPRS
POLICE,OTH

LAW

ENFORCE

OFF

FOOD SFKVICE WORKERS
EARTENOEPS
COCKS,EXC PRIV HCLSEHELDS
C O U N T E R ANC F E L N T A 1 N WKKS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES
OTHER SERVICE WCRKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , H O S P , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN AND CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTCNS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

LABCRERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

ANC

WCRKERS




MINE

.00

.20

.73
.00
.47
.26

.55
.00
.25
.30

.02
.GO
.02
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

.26
.00
• C7
.01
.21

.54
.00
.18
.01
.34

.40
.00
.10
.01
.29

.03
.00
.02
.00
.02

.04
.00
.02
.00
.02

2.35
.00
.00
.08
.31
.01
1.95

2.58
.00
.00
.09
.33
.00
2.16

3.66
.00
.01
.13
.48
.01
3.03

3.73
.00
.00
.13
.48
.00
3.12

.IE
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.16

.12
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.11

8.63

1.78

1.22

2.67

1.68

.25

.26

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

o
o

WORKERS

o
o

19.70

KINCREC

o
o

38.39
30.45
26.28
4 . 18

A M

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
OR I V E R S , E L S , T R U C K , T P A C T O R
DELIVERYMEN ANC RCUTEMEN

O
o

27.16
28.17
23.25
4.66

OPERATIVES

134
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C o n tin u ed
TRUCKING

TRUCKING
AND
WAREHOUSING

OCCUPATION

6C

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

r a t i o

60

RATIO

75

AIR
TRANSPORTATION

WATER
TRANSPORTATION

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

L O O . 00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

.63

• 80

.54

.71

1.48

2.21

2.22

3.29

14.38

15.02

.10

.12

.06

.09

.51

• 66

.18

. 18

.56

.54

.00
.00
.01
.00
.02
.05
-00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.03
.00
-02
.05
.00
.00
.03

.00
.00
.02
.00
.02
.01
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.03
.00
.02
.02
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.41
.00
.00
.08

.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.48
.00
.00
.16

.00
.00
.06
.03
.03
.04
.00
.00
.03

.00
.00
.06
.03
.03
.03
.00
.00
.02

.20
.00
.04
.10
.11
.08
.01
.CO
.03

.20
.00
.03
.05
.12
.08
.01
.00
.03

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
G E O L O G I S T S , E E C P H Y S I C ISIS
M A T H E M A T I C IANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATLRAt SCIENTISTS

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

•0 0
•00
•0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

•CO
.CO
.00
.00
.CG
.00
.00
•C C

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.OC
.00
.00
.00

.05
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.02

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

TECHNICIANS,EXC MEDICAL.OEM
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AI R T R A F F I C CC M R ! L E E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNIC IANS,OTHER

.02
.UG
.00
.00
-02
.00

.03
-00
.00
.00
.03
.00

.02
•00
.00
.00
.02
.00

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02

.79
.04
.21
.00
.44
.10

1.14
.07
.25
.00
.61
.22

1.71
.05
.01
.00
1.04
.61

1.14
.02
.01
.00
.60
.51

MEDICAL,DTELR LfALIL WORKERS
DENTISTS
OItTITIANS.NLTRITICMSTS
NURSES,PROFESSIONAL
CRIOMETR1STS
CSTLDPATLS
PHARMACISIS
P H Y S I C I A N S ANC S U R G E O N S
PSYCHOLCGISIS
TECHNIC IANS.MECICAL,DUNIAL
VETERINARIANS
UIHER MECICAL,HEALTH WRKRS

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
•C O
.00
• CO
.00

.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.UO
• 00
.00
•00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
•G O
•0 0
•0 0

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.CO
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
,CU
.00

.03
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.00
.01
.02
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.12
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.03
.00
.00

.10
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.02
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS.ELEMfNTAFY
TEACHERS,SECCNCARY
TEACHERS,CCLLEGE
TEACHERS,CTHER

• 01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
• 00
.00
.CO
.00

.01
.OC
•0 0
•0 0
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.04
.00
.GO
.00
.04

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.OC
.00
.00
.00
.00

.33
.00
.00
.00
.33

.37
.00
.00
.00
.37

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECCNUMIST S
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

•00
.00
• 00
.00

• 00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.CC
.00

.05
.01
.04
.00

.06
.01
.05
.00

.12
.03
.05
.00

.11
.02
.08
.00

C T H E R P R O F , T E C H ANC KI N C R E D
ACCOUNT A M S
ANC A U D I T O R S
AIRPLANE RILG1S.N/V1GATCRS
ARCHITECTS
W R K R S IN A P T S . E N T E R 1 A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC DESIGN DRAFT
E D I T O R S ANC R E F C R T E R S
LAWYERS AND JLCCES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L A NC LAE REL W R K S
P H O T G G R APE ERS
SOCIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECF,KIMREC,NEC

. 5C
.39
-OC
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.02
.00
.05
.00
.00
.04

.65
• 46
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.00
.07
.CO
.00
.09

.45
.34
•0 0
.00
.00
•0 0
.00
.00
.01
.GO
.05
.00
.00
•04

.59
-41
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.00
.07
.00
.00
.05

.94
.80
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.06
.00
.00
.05

1.46
1.22
.03
.00
.CC
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.08
.00
.00
.12

1.17
.76
.00
.01
.04
.00
.01
.01
.03
.00
.16
.02
.00
.13

1.85
1.19
.02
.01
.02
.00
.01
.00
.03
.00
.20
.02
.00
.34

11.49
1.21
9.30
.00
.11
.00
.01
.08
.06
.00
.22
.07
.00
.41

12.74
.90
10.85
.00
.09
.00
.01
.07
.05
.00
.21
.07
.00
.49

M A N A G E R S , O F f I C I A L S ,P R C P R I E T O K S

10.03

8.25

5.23

7.67

17.66

16.82

19.14

22.36

8.28

6.24

.00
.02
.01
.00
.07
5.94

.00
.02
.00
.00
.04
8.19

•OC
.02
.00
.00
.04
9.16

.00
.02
.00
.00
.02
7.63

.00
.01
.01
.00
.30
17.33

.00
.02
.02
.00
.33
16.46

.00
.00
12.17
.00
.18
6.79

.00
.00
12.01
.00
.11
10.24

.00
.02
.06
.00
.21
7.98

.00
.02
.07
.00
.09
6.06

INDUSTRY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

U C H N It A L , K I N O R E O

ENGINEERS.TECHNICAL
E N G I N E E R S .AERONAUT ICAL
ENGINEERS,CFENICAL
ENGINEERS.C1V1L
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS,INDUSTRIAL
ENGINEERS,KECEAMCAl
ENGINEERS.METALLURG.ETC
ENGINEERS,FINING
OTHER E NGINEERS,1 ECHNICAL

CONDUCTOR S.RAILRCAD
CREDITMEN
OFFICERS,PILOTS,ENGPS,SHIP
PGSTMASIERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
MANAGERS.OFFICE,PRCP. NEC




100.00

WAREHOUSING

135
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n of I n d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 a n d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed

TRUCKING
AND
WAREHOUSING

STENCS.
OFFICE

ANL

KINCREC

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

CPERATLRS

OTHER CLERICAL,KINCREC NRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BOOKKEEPERS,HANC
BANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
NAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SLIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATCRS
CLERICAL ANC KINCREC,NEC

SALES

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

75

RAIIU

60

RATIO

75

WAREHOUSING

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

WATER
TRANSPORTATION

AIR
TRANSPORTATION

RATIO

6 C RATIO

13 . 2 5

14.73

12.47

14.20

20.71

22.54

13.29

16.13

30.51

32.77

2 .0 7

2.27

1.95

2.17

3.22

3.62

2.65

2.98

4.92

4.64

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.53

.93

.56

.94

.25

.75

.40

.71

.59

.74

1 0 .6 6
.87
.67
.0 0
.25
.0 0
.00
.36
.17
6.30

11.53
.72
.52
.CO
.35
.0 0
.00
.26
.13
5.50

9.9 7
.51
.35
.0 0
.31
.00
.00
.15
.17

11.08
.75
.25
.0 0
.37
.00
.0 0
.15
.19
5.29

17.24
.46
3.79
.00
.06
.00
.0 0
1.92
.17
10.84

l b . 17
.40
3.61
.0 0
.03
.0 0
.0 0
1.26
.1 1
12.53

10.23
.8 6
.0 0
.0 0
.16
.0 0
.0 0
.76
.18
8.27

12.43
.6 8
.00
.00
.14
.0 0
.00
1.06
.09
10.47

25.00
1 .11
.00
.00
.14
.00
.00
.22
.36
23.18

27.39
.59
.00
.00
.17
.0 0
.0 0
.17
.35
26.11

1 .20
ANC

KINDRED

CONSTROCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
P R I C K M A S C NS A N C 1 ILE S E T R S
CEMENT,CCNCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
E X C A V A T N G . G R A C N G EACH uPER
PAINTERS ANC FAPERHANGERS
PLASTERERS
PLU M B E R S ANC PIPEF I T T E R S
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
S T R U C T U R A L ME 1 AL W O R K E R S
FOREMEN

RATIO

C

60
CLERICAL

TRUCKING

CD

OCCUPATION

NEC

l-f>0

1 .12

1.46

1.95

2 .11

.38

. 60

.74

.58

6.41

7.43

6.30

7.42

7.46

7.E1

5.83

7.26

26.92

23.64

.29
.05
.0 0
.0 0
.03
.08
.07
.00
.0 1
.0 0
.01

.25
.07
.00
.00
.03
• Ob
.Ob
.0 0
.0 2
.00
.01

.25
.06
.00
.00
.02
.06
.07
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 1

.2 1
.05
.00
.0 0
.02
.Oo
.06
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.01

.72
.35
.0 0
.00
.13
.08
.07
.00
.08
.00
.00

.62
.41
.00
.00
.15
.08
.04
.0 0
.13
.0 0
.00

1.67
.74
.0 0
.0 0
.42
.14
.26
.00
.06
.01
.0 2

1.57
.86
.0 0
.0 0
.33
.15
.21
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.01

1.56
.1 2
.0 0
.00
1 .01
.01
.37
.OG
.05
.00
.0 0

1.37
.10
.0 0
.00
.87
.01
.36
.00
.03
.0 0
.00

1.70

1 .86

1.52

1.74

3.46

3.59

1.22

1.70

1.91

1.65

M E 1 A L W K N G C R A F T S EXC M E C H
M A C H I N I S T S ANC R E l A T t C OCC
BLKSMITHS .FCRCMN,HAMMERMEN
B C I L E R M A K ERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
HOLDERS,METAL,EXC CCREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAl,WCUD
ROLLERS ANC RCLL HANOS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
T O O L M A K E R S ANC C I E MAKERS

.05
.01
.01
.01
.00
.01
.0 0
.00
.00
.01
.0 1

-06
• 00
.0 1
.0 2
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00
.01
• GO

.04
.0 0
.0 1
.0 1
.00
.01
.0 0
.00
.00
.01
.0 1

.05
.00
.0 1
.02
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.oo

.12
.04
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.04
.0 0
.00
.00
.02
.02

.11
.04
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.04
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2
.00

.13
.06
.02
.01
.00
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.00
.01
.00

.13
.04
.0 2
.01
.0 0
.04
.0 0
.00
.00
.01
.GO

1 .21
.13
.0 1
.0 0
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
1.01
.02

1.34
.05
.0 1
.0 0
.00
.04
.0 0
.0 0
.00
1.20
.0 0

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITORS,TYPE SETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS,STEFECTYPERS
E N G R A V E R S EXC P H C T C E N G R V E R
PHOTOENGRVRS.LITHtGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,PLAT! FRINTERS

.0 1
.0 1
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 1
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.0 1
.01
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.0 1
.01
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.01
.0 1
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.0 1
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00

.05
.03
.00
.0 2
.00
.0 0

.06
.03
.00
.04
.00
.00

T R A N S P O R T A N D P O E L I II C R A F T
LINEMEN AND SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LGCOMUTIVE FIREMEN

.0 1
.0 1
.00
.0 0

• 00
• 00
.0 0
.0 0

.01
.01
.00
.00

.GO
.00
.0 0
.00

.02
.0 2
.0 0
.DO

.03
.03
.0 0
.00

.0 1
.0 1
.0 0
.00

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.04
.04
.0 0
.0 0

.07
.07
.00
.00

MECHANICS ANC REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH ANC REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE KECEANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV MECHANICS
RK AN O CAR SHCF M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

3. 76
.01
3.06
.00
.00
.00
.70

4. 6 6
.01
3.51
.00
.0 0
• 00
. 74

4.01
.01
3.37
.0 0
.0 0
.oo
.63

4.67
.0 1
4.15
.00
.00
.00
.70

1.65
.02
.28
.00
.0 0
.00
1.35

1.64
.02
.28
.00
.00
.00
1.34

1 .2 0
.08
.06
.00
.02
.00
1.04

1.82
.11
.06
.00
.01
.0 0
1.62

21.63
18.07
.2 2
.0 0
.81
.0 0
2.54

18.45
15.06
.17
.00
.47
.00
2.75




136
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinued
TRUCKING
AND
WAREHOUSING

OCCUPATION

60
OTH E R CRA F T SHIN AND K I N OREO
BAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
C R A N E , D ERRICK,HCIST MEN
C-LAZIERS
J E W E L E R S AND W A T C HMAKERS
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
I N S P E C T O R S , L O G ANC LUMBER
INSPECTCRS,CTHER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N A NC K I N C R E D NEC

RATIO
-67
.00
.0 1
.06
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.GC
.0 0
.17
.00
.33

75

TRUCKING

RATIO
.b I
.00
.01
.06
-00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.^ 6
.0 0
• 2.9

60

RATIC

7b

WATER
TRANSPORTATION

WAREHOUSING

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

6C

RATIC

75

RATIC

AIR
TRANSPORTATION

60

RATIC

75

RATIO

.47
.00
.0 0
.06
•00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.17
.0 0
.25

.54
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.GO
.26
.0 0
.24

1.50
.0 2
.09
.10
.0 0
.00
.oo
.0 0
.0 0
.21
.0 2
1 .07

1.62
.03
.08
.13
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.28
.0 2
1.08

1.60
.07
.0 0
.82
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.09
.01
.61

2.04
.04
.00
1.37
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.07
.0 1
.54

.52
.01
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.07
.03
.39

.65
.01
.00
.01
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.1 1
.03
.49

55.44

56.43

58.31

56.22

23.24

30.03

18.07

15.28

4.27

5.44

53.12
51.60
1.52

54.42
52.21
2.21

57.68
56.03
1.64

5 7.11
54.77
2.34

9.60
9.23
.31

14.72
14.46
.26

.6 8
.64
.04

1.13
1.08
.04

.83
.46
.37

.62
.36
.27

T R A N S P ANC PUE LTIL C F E R A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N D S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATICN OPERATORS
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS

.04
.03
.00
.CO

•C4
.04
• 00
.0 0

.04
.04
.0 0
.0 0

.04
.04
.00
.0 0

.03
.0 0
.00
.03

.04
.0 0
.0 0
.04

1 2 .0 2
.02
.09
11.91

8.92
.02
.14
8 . 76

.03
.0 0
.0 0
.03

.0 1
.00
.00
.01

SEMISKILLED

. 14
.00
.00
.14
.UO
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0

. 15
.0 0
.00
.15
.00
• 00
• 00
.0 0
.00
.00

.14
.0 0
.0 0
.14
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.15
.0 0
.00
.15
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.04
.00
.0 0
.04
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.04
.0 0
.0 0
.04
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.2 0
.00
.00
.2 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00

.25
.00
.00
.25
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0

.2 1
.0 0
.00
.21
.0 0
.CO
.oc
.00
.00
.00

.27
.0 0
.00
.27
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.00
.0 0
.00
.00
• 00

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.GC

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00

.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.oc
.00
.00
.00
.GO

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

KINDRED

2.15

1-62

.95

.51

13.57

15.22

5.17

4.94

3.20

4. 54

ASPESTOS.INSULATILN WRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERVICE,PAKKNG
BLASTERS ANC FCWCERMtN
L A U N D R Y , C R Y CLEA N I N G CPER
MEAT C U T T E R S , E X C MEA T P C K N G
MINE O P E R A T E S,LAECKERS,NEC
UPEKATIVES ANC KINCREC,NEC

.0 0
.04
.00
.0 0
.27
1.83

.00
.04
.00
.0 0
.14
.00
1.65

.00
.04
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.51

.00
.04
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.6 8

.00
.03
.00
.01
2 .86
.0 0
1 0 .6 8

.0 0
.03
.0 0
.01
2.13
.0 0
13.05

.00
.0 2
.0 0
.0 1
.04
.00
5-10

.00
.04
.0 0
.01
.04
.0 0
4.65

.0 0
.04
.00
.OC
.01
.00
3.15

.0 0
.03
.00
.00
.01
.0 0
4.51

.80

.70

.56

.58

3.04

2.46

7.55

5.86

11.71

13.96

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.00

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WATCFMEN.CCORKEEPRS
P C L I C E . C T R LAW ENFORCE OFF

.30
.00
.30
.0 1

. 17
.0 0
.16
.0 1

.17
.0 0
.17
.00

.09
.0 0
.08
.Cl

1.56
.0 0
1.53
.03

1.24
.0 0
1.21
.03

1.47
.0 0
1.35
.1 2

.56
.00
.77
.15

.45
.10
.30
.06

.26
.06
.11
.10

ECOC SERVICE WORKERS
EARTENDEPS
COCKS,EXC PRIV hCISEHOLDS
C O U N T E R AND F L C N T A I N WKRS
WAITERS ANC WAITRESSES

.0 2
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.0 0

.0 1
.00
.01
.00
.00

.0 1
.0 0
.0 1
.00
•o o

.01
.0 0
.01
.0 0
.0 0

.08
.00
.06
.00
.0 0

.06
.0 0
.06
.CO
.0 0

2.97
.06
1.91
.01
.99

2.53
.04
1 .68
.0 1
.79

.46
.00
.28
.06
.12

.39
.0 0
.28
.09
.02

OTHER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARCS.STWKCSSES
AT T E N D A K T S , H O S P , C TH E R I N S T
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
J A N I T O R S ANC SEXTCNS
NORSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WCRKERS.NEC

.48
.00
.00
.06
.19
.0 0
.23

.52
.CO
.00
. 10
.23
.00
. 19

.36
.00
.00
.06
.16
.00
.17

.48
.0 0
.GO
.1 0
.22
.0 0
.16

1.40
.0 0
.0 0
.1 2
.48
.0 0
.79

1.15
.0 0
.oc
.17
.41
.0 0
.57

3.10
.00
.0 0
.06
.13
.0 1
2.90

2.37
.00
.00
.1 0
.18
.00
2.05

10.74
6.27
.00
.1 1
.76
.00
3.60

13.31
9.01
.0 0
.1 0
.64
.00
3.55

12.24

10.14

10.96

5.75

24.45

16.03

33.53

29.23

3.20

2.34

.00

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.00

.00

OPERATIVES

ANC

KINCRED

WORKERS

CPIVFRS ANC DELIVERYMEN
OR I V E R S , E L S , T R U C K , T R A C T O k
D E L I V E R Y M E N ANC P C O T E M c N

MET A L WOE K I N C C C C
,sm. l t r m n ,p u u k e k s
e
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-COTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS B
INSPECTORS,MILWRK,CLASS B
M A C HINE TCCl CP E R , C L A S S e
ELECTROPLAICRS
E L E C T R O P l AT B B S F E L P E R S
f u r n a c e r n

S E M I S K I L L E D T E X T I L E ClCCUP
KNITTERS.LLCPERS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
S E W E R S A N C ST I T C F E K S , M F G
OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HCLSEHCLC

LABORERS,EXCEFT

FARMERS

ANC

ANO

FARM

FARM

WORKERS

ANC

WCRKERS




MINE

.o o

.o o

137
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C o n tin u ed
PIPELINES

TRANSPORTATION
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

60
INOCSTRY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

TtChNICAL,KINOREU

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

TOTAL
COMMUNICATIONS ANC
PUBLIC UTILITIES

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

TELEPHONE

COMMUNICATIONS

6C

RATIO

75

RATIO

1 0 0.00

1 0 0.0 0

10 0.0 0

1 0 0.0 0

100.00

1 00.00

1 0 0.0 0

100.00

60

RAIIC
1 0 0.0 0

75

RATIO
1 0 0.00

f .50

1 1. 5 8

2.45

3.20

9.72

10.55

11.81

13.50

7.26

5.24

3.90

5.12

.33

.24

2.41

2.72

1.51

2 .12

1.41

2.19

.00
.55
.62
.47
.24
1.25
.0 0
.55
.23

.0 0
.68
.80
.65
.34
1.66
.00
.65
.35

.0 0
.0 0
.15
.06
.0 0
.06
.0 0
.0 0
.06

.00
-CO
.1 0
.05
.00
.05
.0 0
.CO
.04

.0 0
.03
.39
1.45
.08
.23
.02
.0 0
.20

•CO
.C2
.44
1 .68
.05
.2 0
.03
.0 0
.26

.0 0
.0 0
.04
1.32
.03
.03
.00
.00
.08

.OG
.00
.07
1.68
.05
.02
.0 0
.0 0
.1 1

.00
.OC
.05
1.23
.03
.0 2
.00
.00
.08

.0 0
.00
.08
1.94
.04
.02
.0 0
.0 0
.1 1

•Of
.04
.0 0
.00
.02
.0 1
.00
.0 0

.Oo
. 06
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.10
.05
.02
.0 0
.02
.01
.00
.0 0

.15
.09
.0 1
.CO
.0 2
.0 2
.CO
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 2
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 1
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.02
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 1
.0 1
.0 0

TECHNICIANS.EXC MECICAL.OENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIK T R A F F I C C O N T R O L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS.CIEER

2 .66
.38
.06
.00
.00
2 .22

3.66
.49
. 12

.36
.12
.03
.00
.08
.13

.56
.14
.0 2
.00
.1 2
.27

2.43
.42
.13
.00
.18
1.70

2.89
.47
.16
.00
.16
2.11

2.82
.1 1
.0 0
.0 0
.32
2.39

2.90
.1 1
.0 0
.00
.29
2.50

.87
.12
.00
.00
.03
.71

1.18
.1 1
.00
.0 0
.03
1.04

MEOICAL,OTHER FIALIF WOk KFRS
DENTISTS
DIETITIANS,NUTRITICNISTS
MRSES,PROFESSIONAL
OPTOMETRISIS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS A M
SORGEONS
P S Y C H O L C € ISIS
TECHNIC IANS,MELICAL,DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MEOICAL, H E A L T H WRKKS

.0 0
.00
.05
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.04
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2
.0 0
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.0 0
.0 0

.05
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.0 0
.01
.0 0
.00

.04
.0 0
.00
.02
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 1
.00
.00

.06
.0 0
.00
.03
.00
.CO
.0 1
.0 1
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0

.05
.0 0
.00
.03
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.0 0
.01
.00
.0 0

.06
.00
.0 0
.03
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.0 1
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS.ELEMENTARY
TEACHFRS,SECONDARY
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEACHERS,OTHER

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.06
.0 0
.00
.00
.06

.11
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.1 1

.04
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.04

.05
.00
.00
.0 0
.05

.07
.00
.0 0
.00
.07

.10
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.10

.06
.00
.00
.00
.06

.08
.00
.00
.00
.08

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0

.00
.00
.0 0

.1 0
.04
.06
.00

.15
.04
.1 1
.0 0

.14
.06
.08
.0 1

.14
.06
.08
.0 0

.1 0
.04
.06
.0 0

.05
.03
.06
.00

.11
.04
.07
.00

.1 0
.03
.07
.0 0

1.63
.87
.00
.00
.15
.00
.00
.1 2
.10
.0 0
.03
.00
.00
.35

2.15
1.18
.00
.15
.0 0
.0 0
.13
.14
.00
.03
.00
.0 0
.51

4.56
.55
.01
.0 1
.39
.00
.05
.21
.07
.01
.28
.05
.0 1
2.51

4.55
.51
.02
.01
.31
.00
.07
.23
.06
.0 1
.33
.04
.0 0
3.00

7.27
.71
.00
.0 0
.77
.00
.03
.41
.05
.0 2
.40
.07
.01
4.78

8 .2 2
.76
.00
.0 1
.66
.00
.03
.47
.04
.0 1
.51
.07
.0 1
5.64

4.76
.72
.0 0
.01
.07
.00
.0 2
.03
.04
.0 1
.46
.0 0
.01
3.35

5.61
.76
.0 0
.01
.07
.00
.02
.02
.03
.0 1
.59
.00
.0 1
4.08

E N G I N E E R S , ! fC E N K A L
E N G I N F E R S , A ERE N A U T I C A L
ENGINEERS. CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS,CIV1L
E N G I N E E R S . E l E C T R I E AL
ENGINEERS.INOLSTRIAL
ENGINEERS.MECEAMCAL
ENGINEERS,METALLURG.E1C
ENGINEERS,PINING
OTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEOL U G I S T S , C-EGPHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
O T H E R N A T O R Al S C I E N T I S T S

O T H E R P R O F , T E C H ANC K I N C R E D
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC A U D I T O R S

.CO

.CO

ARCHITECTS
W K K R S IN A R T S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CES1GN DRAFT
EDITORS ANC REPORTERS
LAWYERS ANC JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
PERSONNEL AND LAe KEL *KKS
PhOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PRCF.TECE.KINCREC.NEC

. 13
.00
.06
.00
.00
.06

2.75
2.32
. 12
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
. 16
.00
.04
.0 0
.00
. 12

M A N AG E R S , O F F I C I A L S , P P C P R I E r L ’ S
R

4.83

5.89

15.74

13.52

5.51

5.65

5.26

6.34

2.76

3.73

C O N D U C T O R S,RA ILRCAD
CREDITMEN
OFFICERS,FI LOTS,ENGRS,SHIP
P O S T M A S T E R S ANC A S S I S T A N T S
P U R C H A S I N G AC-ENTS
M A N A G E R S , O F F I C E , P R O F . NEC

.0 0
.00
.05
.00
.10
4.67

.00
.00
.01
.00
.27
5.61

.0 0
.04
.17
.00
.4/
15.07

.00
.02
.19
.00
.34
12.57

.00
.04
.00
.0 0
.09
5.38

.0 0
.02
.00
.00
.11
5.72

.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.02
5.24

.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.02
6.32

.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.01
2.74

.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 1
3.73

AIRPLANE

FILCTS,NAVIGATORS




1.87
1.57
.06

.UO

.0 0
3.05

.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00

.0 0

.0 0

138
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinued
PIPELINES

TRANSPORTATION
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

RATIO
CLERICAL
STENOS,
GEPICE

ANC

KIRDPEC

kURKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
H A C K IRE

OPERATORS

OTHER CLER 1CAL,KINCRED kRKRS
A C C O U N T IRC- C L E R K S
BOOKKEEPERS,HARE
BANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
RAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SLIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
CLERICAL ANC K IRCREC,NEC

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

TOTAL
C O M M U N I C A T I O N S ANC
PUBLIC UTILITIES

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

COMMUNICATIONS

60

RA T I C t

75

RATIO

TELEPHONE

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

17.03

2 0 .1 1

46.12

58.53

34.89

30.07

52.03

46.62

56.16

50.47

4.05

5.05

7.77

10.45

3.75

3.84

4.18

4.54

3.42

3.76

.70

1.33

1.62

2.13

1.14

1.26

1.25

1.62

1.40

1.82

12.28
4.15
.00
.00
.12
.00
.00
.00
.33
7.66

13.74
3.29
.00
.00
.17
.00
.00
.0 0
.23
10.06

38.53
1 .86
.73
.00
8.17
.00
.0 0
1.52
.42
25.83

45.95
1.77
1 .01
.0 0
10.71
.0 0
.0 0
1.74
.72
30.00

30.00
1.48
.41
.00
.70
.00
.00
.04
12.65
14.71

24.97
1. C 2
.37
.00
.65
.0 0
.0 0
.04
1 1 .0 2
11.87

46.60
1.54
.18
.00
.60
.0 0
.00
.04
26.35
17.89

40.45
1.14
.14
.0 0
.58
.0 0
.0 0
.04
23.96
14.59

51.36
1 .68
.0 0
.0 0
.66
.0 0
.00
.04
30.93
18.04

44.89
1 .22
.00
.00
.64
.0 0
.00
.05
26.07
14.90

.39

.15

3.47

5.20

1.16

1.33

1.52

2.04

1.04

1.53

42.12

39.70

7.01

6.24

28.81

30.23

24.94

27.76

2 8 . 5C

31.41

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSRER
CARPENTERS
ERICKMASCRS ANC TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
E X C A V A T N G . G R A C N C - M A C H LtPER
P A I N T E R S ANC PAP E P H A N G E R S
PLASTERERS
PLUMBERS ANC PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS ARC SLATERS
S T R U C T U R A L ME 1A L k C R K E R S

2.95
.16
.00
.00
1.36
.72
.17
.00
.53
.0 0
.0 0

3.36
. 14
.00
.00
2.12
.53
.1 1
.0 0
.47
.00
.0 0

1.24
.34
.0 0
.00
.42
.24
.21
.0 0
.03
.00
.0 0

.85
.22
.0 0
.0 0
.32
.18
.1 1
.00
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0

2.51
.14
.0 2
.00
1.05
.30
.13
.00
.84
.00
.0 2

2 .21
.11
.0 2
.0 0
.76
.38
.1 1
.00
.80
.0 0
• C2

.19
.05
.00
.00
.1 1
.0 0
.03
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.19
.05
.00
.0 0
.1 1
.0 0
.03
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.13
.03
.0 0
.0 0
.08
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.12
.03
.00
.00
.07
.0 0
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

FOREMEN

SALES

kORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

ARC

KINDRED

E.25

9.51

2 .01

1.70

3.05

3.27

.45

.56

.43

.58

M E T A L W K N G C R A M S EXC M E C H
MACHINISTS AND RELATED CCC
BLKSMITFS,FORGMR,HAMMERMEN
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT T R E A TERS,ANNEALERS
MILLkRIGETS
MOLDERS,METAL,EXC COREMKRS
PATTEKNRAKERS,METAL,kCOD
R O L LERS ARC RCLL HARDS
SHEET METAL kCRKERS
TO O L M A K E R S ANC C1 E M A K E R S

1.74
1.30
.CO
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.44
.00

1.78
1 .21
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.58
.0 0

.06
.0 0
.03
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.03

.0 2
.0 0
.02
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.29
.03
.06
.0 0
.01
.00
.00
.00
.0 2
.02

.21
.11
.0 2
.05
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.Cl

.0 1
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 1

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.0 1
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.01

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.OG
.00
.00
.00
.00

PRINTING TRADES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITORS,TYPESETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS.STEREOTYPERS
ENGRAVERS EXC FHCTOENGRVER
P H O T U E N G R V R S , L ITHCC-RAPHERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
•OO

.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0

.0 0
.oo
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.03
.02
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.0 2
.0 1
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0

.03
.0 2
.0 1
.00
.00
.00

.0 2
.0 1
.01
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 2
.0 1
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00

.01
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00

TRANSPORT AND PUB UTIL CRAFT
LINEMEN AND SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.97
.97
.00
.0 0

1.07
1.07
.00
.0 0

.23
.2 1
.03
.0 0

.26
.25
.01
.0 0

15.04
15.01
.03
.0 0

15.56
15.53
.0 2
.0 0

22.90
22.87
.03
.0 0

25.40
25.38
.03
.0 0

26.77
26.74
.03
.0 0

29.27
29.24
.03
.00

MECHANICS ARC REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH ANC REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV MECHANICS
RR A N D C A P S H O P M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS ANC REPAIR

11.49
.0 2
.35
.00
.08
.00
11.03

1 2 .0 2
.30
.28
.0 0
. 13
.0 0
11.31

2.33
.04
.23
.0 0
.0 2
.22
1.81

2 .2 2
.03
.13
.00
.02
.08
1.96

5.23
.0 0
.35
.0 1
.09
.00
4.77

5.55
.0 0
.44
.0 2
.06

.74
.00
.09
.0 2
.14
.00
.49

.93
.0 1
.10
.03
.1 2
.00
.68

.66
.01
.10
.02
.06
.0 0
.47

.94
.01
.1 1
.03
.08
.0 0
.70

NEC




.16

.00
5.C6

139
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1975
TRANSPORTATION
SERVICES

PIPELINES

OC CU PA TI ON
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

TOTAL
C O M M U N I C A T I O N S ANC
PUBLIC UTILITIES

RATIO

6C

RATIO

75

RATIO

C ontinu ed

COMMUNICATIONS

60

RATIO

75

TELEPHONE

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

16.66
.00
.0 0
.22
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.46
.0 0
16.00

11.98
.0 0
.0 0
.BO
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
11.78

1.15
.oc
.0 0
.13
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
• 5S
.00
.42

1.19
.00
.0 0
.14
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.52
.0 0
.53

2 .6 6
.00
.0 0
.14
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.63
.0 0
1.89

2.96
.00
.0 0
.23
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.82
.0 1
1.53

.62
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.19
.0 1
.42

.67
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.21
.01
.44

.46
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.15
.0 1
.26

.50
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.2 2
.0 1
.28

2 0 .8 8

18.76

5.62

2.34

9.08

10.77

1.25

1.04

1.03

.63

2.30
2.25
.05

2.16
2.11
.05

2.38
2 .00
.38

1.51
1.35
.16

3.42
3.18
.24

5.67
5.41
.27

.39
.2 0
.18

.39
.2 0
.19

.37
.23
.14

.39
.2 2
.17

T R A N S P ANC PUf LIIL O F E R a TVS
B R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N FR
POWER STATION CFEFATOPS
SAILORS AND DECKHANDS

.25
.00
.15
.10

.22
.00
.14
.08

.07
.00
.00
.0 7

.03
.0 0
.00
.03

.89
.04
.83
.01

.62
.0 0
.61
.01

.08
.08
.0 0
.00

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.05
.05
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

S E M I SKILLED M E T A L W O R K I N G LCC
F U R N A C E M N , S M E L TR M N , P O L K ER S
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS AND FIAME-CLTTERS
ASSEMBLEPS.MTLWRK.CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS.KTLWRK.CLASS 8
INSPECTORS,MUWRK,CLASS 8
MA C H I N E TCCL L P E R , C L A S S B
ELECTROPLATERS
ELECTROPLATFRS HELPERS

1.48
.00
.0 0
1.48
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00

1.05
.0 0
.00
1.05
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.34
.00
.00
.34
.00
.oo
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00

.35
.00
.00
.35
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.CO

.0 1
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.01
.0 0
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.00
.00
.0 0
.OG
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

KINDRED

16.85

15.35

3.17

.80

4.42

4.12

.78

.64

.57

.43

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WRKS
A T T E N D , A L T O S E P V I C E ,PAR K N G
BLASTERS AND POWCERMEN
L A U N D R Y , C R Y CLEA N I N G t PER
MEAT CUTTERS.EXC MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATVS.LAECRERS.NEC
O P E R A T I V E S ANC K I N D RED,NEC

.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
16.82

.00
.04
.00
.oo
.0 0
.00
15.31

.0 0
•0 5
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
3.08

.0 0
.03
.CO
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.77

.0 2
.05
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
4.36

.01
.04
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
4.06

.0 0
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.76

.00
.02
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.62

.00
.02
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.55

.00
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.42

1.18

.90

8 .22

6.32

2.07

1.78

2.36

2 .12

2.36

2.19

.00

.00

.0 0

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GLAROS, WATCEMEN.CCORKEEPRS
PO L I C E , O T E LAW ENFORCE OFF

.35
.15
.25
.OO

.34
.20
. 15
.00

6.85
.00
5.62
1.22

4.65
.0 0
2.65
2 .00

.31
.00
.30
.0 1

.2 1
.00
.15
.0 2

.09
.0 0
.09
.01

.07
.0 0
.06
.01

.05
.00
.04
.01

.04
.00
.03
.01

FCOD SERVICE WCRKERS
EARTENDEPS
COCKS.EXC PRIV hCLSEHCLDS
C O U NTER AND E C LNTAIN WKRS
WAIT E R S ANC WA I T R E S S E S

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00

.05
.0 0
.05
.0 0
.0 0

.06
.00
.06
.0 0
.00

.16
.00
.06
.05
.05

.13
.0 0
.05
.04
.04

.30
.0 0
.1 2
.1 0
.09

.26
.0 0
.10
.08
.09

.35
.00
.13
.11
.11

.30
.00
.1 1
.09
.1 0

CTEER SERVICE WCRKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , H C S P , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
J A N I T O R S ANC SEXTCNS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

.75
.00
.00
.0 0
.24
.0 0
.55

• 5t>
.00
.00
.0 0
.16
.0 0
.40

1.32
.00
.00
.00
.18
.00
1.13

1.62
.00
.00
.00
.14
.00
1.48

1.60
.0 0
.00
.18
.86
.00
.55

1.44
.00
.0 0
.20
.79
.00
.44

1.96
.0 0
.0 0
.27
.96
.0 0
.74

1.78
.0 0
.0 0
.28
.97
.00
.53

1.97
.0 0
.0 0
.29
1 .00
.00
.6 8

1.84
.00
.00
.29
1.08
.00
.47

OTHER CRA E T S M E N AND KINDRED
EAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,HOIST MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWELERS ANC MATCHMAKERS
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
INSPECTCRS.LOG ANC LUMBER
INSPECTORS,OTHER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N AND K1NCRE0 NEC

OPERATIVES

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
CRIVERS,ELS,TRUCK,TRACTLR
D E L I V E R Y M E N ANC RCLTEMEN

SEMISKILLED TEX1ILE CCCLP
KNITTERS,10CPERS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
S E W E R S A N C ST ITCH E R S , M E G
OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HGISEEOLC

WCRKERS




MINE

5.08

2.92

9.34

4.65

8.75

8.58

.83

.58

.87

.60

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

o
o

FARM

ANC

◦
o

AND

FARM

WCRKERS

o
o

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

ANC

140
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 a n d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975- ■ C ontinu ed
TELfcGKAPH

HAOIO
AND
TELEVISION

OCCUPATION

60
INCLSTRY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

T E C H N I C A L ,KI N D R E D

ENGINEERS.TECHNICAL
E N G I N E E R S , A ERL N A U T I C A L
ENGINEERS,CLERICAL
ENGINEERS.CIVIL
ENGINEERS.ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS,INCLSTRIAL
ENGINEERS.MECEAMCAL
ENGINEER S.METALLURG.ETC
ENGINEERS.MINING
CTElER E N G I N E E R S , T E C H N I C A L
NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CLEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEGLOGISTS.GECPHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
CTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

PUBLIC
UTILITIES

kATIO

60

KATIO

75

ELECTRIC,
GAS AND
STEAM

KATIO

1 0 0.0 0

1 00.00

1 0 0.0 0

I C O . 00

1 00.00

1 0 0.0 0

4.12

5.31

49.37

46.28

7.86

.48

.68

2 .6 8

2.09

3.21

.00
.00
.0 0
.29
.07
.04
.0 0
.0 0
.07

.00
.0 0
.00
.37
.13
.05
.00
.0 0
. 14

.00
.0 0
.01
2.50
.04
.04
.0 0
.0 0
.09

.00
.00
.01
1.91
.04
.03
.00
.0 0
.10

.00,
.00
.0 0
.CG
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.oo

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0

60

RATIO

75

MATER
AND
IRRIGATION

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

1 0 0.0 0

100.00

8 .88

9.81

12.78

5.69

7.54

3.22

3.91

4.54

2 .68

2.99

.0 0
.05
.69
1.57
.1 2
.41
.05
.01
.32

.00
.04
.75
1.52
.1 2
.36
.05
.01
.39

.00
.06
.48
2 .20
.17
.52
.07
.01
.39

.00
.05
.47
2.60
.19
.53
.09
.01
.60

.00
.0 1
1.81
.30
.03
.21
.0 0
.00
.33

.00
.0 1
2.04
.34
.06
.20
.00
.00
.35

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0

.19
.09
.03
.0 0
.04
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0

.26
.16
.0 2
.0 0
.05
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0

.13
.05
.02
.0 0
.03
.0 2
.0 0
.00

.17
.09
.01
.0 0
.04
.03
.00
.00

.50
.18
.13
.0 0
.14
.03
.0 1
.01

.59
.24
.13
.00
.15
.04
.01
.0 1

TECHNICIANS,EXC MECICAL.DENT
DRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C C N T R C L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS,C1FER

2.37
.14
.00
.00
.46
1.77

3. 1 8
.26
.0 0
.0 0
.42
2.50

17.66
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
2.45
15.19

15.05
.02
.0 0
.00
2 .11
12.92

2.08
.70
.25
.0 0
.05
1.09

2 .8 8
.77
.29
.0 0
.04
1.78

2.53
.92
.28
.0 0
.06
1.27

3.98
1 .20
.36
.00
.06
2.36

1.71
.36
.34
.0 0
.06
.96

2.83
.47
.52
.0 0
.09
1.75

MEDICAL.OTHER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
DIETITIANS,NUTRITIGNIS!S
NURSES.PROFESSIONAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
T E C H N I C IA N S , M E D I C A L , D E N T A L
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MEDICAL.HEALTH WRKRS

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

.0 0
.do
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.CO
.0 0

.05
.0 0
.0 0
.01
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.02
.0 2

.04
.0 0
.00
.01
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2
.0 1

.04
.00
.00
.02
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.00
.01
.0 0
.0 0

.04
.0 0
.00
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.00

.06
.0 0
.00
.03
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.01
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0

.06
.00
.00
.03
.0 0
.GO
.0 0
.01
.0 1
.0 1
.00
.00

.0 0
.GC
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECONDARY
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEACHERS,OTHER

.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.18
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.18

.24
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.24

.01
.00
.00
.00
.0 1

.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.01

.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2

.01
.0 0
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS ♦ ACTUARIES
CTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.04
.00
.04
.0 0

.0 2
.00
.0 2
.0 0

.0 1
.01
.0 0
.00

.0 2
.02
.0 0
.0 0

.18
.08
.09
.0 1

.19
.09
.09
.01

.25
.1 2
.13
.01

.33
.15
.16
.01

.01
.01
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.0 0

CTHER P R O F , T E C H AND KINDRED
A C C O U N T A N T S AND ALDITCRS
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
W R K R S IN A R T S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CES1GN CRAFT
FDITORS AND REPORTERS
LAWYERS AND JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND LAB REL WRKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL AND WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,KINDRED,NEC

1.24
.30
.00
.00
.04
.00
.04
.04
.04
.00
.04
.04
.00
.71

1.43
.2 0
.0 0
.00
.06
.00
.04
.04
.03
.00
.0 2
.0 1
.00
1.04

28.78
.82
.00
.0 0
6.36
.02
.11
3.48
.14
.09
.1 1
.63
.00
17.03

28.85
.95
.0 0
.00
5.02
.02
.10
3.82
.11
.04
.1 2
.55
.0 0
18.11

2.13
1.17
.03
.01
.04
.00
.07
.04
.09
.0 1
.18
.0 2
.00
.47

2.29
1.04
.04
.01
.02
.00
.1 0
.02
.07
.0 1
.17
.0 2
.00
.79

2.90
1.57
.04
.02
.06
.00
.10
.05
.13
.0 1
.26
.0 2
.0 0
.65

3.69
1.56
.06
.0 2
.03
.0 0
. 18
.04
.12
.0 2
.30
.03
.00
1.33

.78
.56
.00
.00
.02
.00
.0 2
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 2
.02
.00
.13

1.12
.92
.00
.00
.01
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00
.03
.02
.00
.14

MANAGERS,OFFICIALSfcPECPRIETORS

9.31

9.65

22.24

23.94

5.73

5.44

5.60

6.28

9.57

8 .66

CONDUCTOR S,RA ILROAD
CREDITMEN
OFEICERS,RILCTS,E NGRS,SHIP
PCSTMASTERS AND ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGEN1S
MANAGERS,CFEICE,PROP. NEC

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
9.31

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
9.65

.00
.03
.00
.00
.05
22.15

.00
.08
.00
.00
.07
23.79

.00
.06
.00
.00
.16
5.50

.00
.03
.CO
.00
.20
5.22

.00
.09
.00
.00
.20
5.31

.00
.03
.00
.00
.29
5.97

.00
.02
.GO
.0 0
.14
9.41

.00
.05
.00
.00
.20
8.43




7

141
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t. 1960 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
TELEGRAPH

RADIO
AND
TELEVISION

OCCUPATION
60
CLERICAL
STENCS,
OFFICE

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECFETARIES
MACFINE

CPER/TCRS

OTHER CLERICAL,KINDRED RKKKS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BOOKKEEPERS,HAND
BANK TtLLERS
CASHIERS
HAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATCRS
C L E R I C A L ANC K I N D R E D , N E C

SALES

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

ELECTRIC,
GAS AND
STEAM

PUBLIC
UTILITIES

RATIO

60

RA1I0

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATER
AND
IRRIGATION

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

65.34

57.26

14.87

16.08

19.56

16.21

23.62

2 1 .2 1

21.15

23.65

10.64

10.37

6.93

6.37

3.38

3.26

4.07

4.40

3.34

3.98

.69

.73

.38

.51

1.04

.96

1.32

1.35

.94

1.46

54.01
.74
.BO
.0 0
.85
.0 0
.00
.0 0
7.35
44.26

4 6 . 16
.73
.79
.0 0
.85
.00
.00
.0 0
4.26
39.53

7.57
.90
1 .21
.0 0
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.59
4.84

7.19
.6 8
.96
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.43
5.12

15.15
1.42
.62
.00
.79
.00
.0 0
.05
.40
11.87

11.99
.91
.56
.0 0
.71
.0 0
.00
.04
.17
9.59

18.22
1.71
.72
.00
.97
.00
.0 0
.07
.53
14.22

15.46
1.06
.6 8
.00
1.04
.00
.0 0
.07
.27
12.34

16.87
1.51
.63
.00
.91
.00
.00
.02
.16
13.44

18.42
1.74
.99
.00
.84
.00
.00
.0 1
.06
14.77

1.45

RORKERS

CRAFTSMEN.FOREMEN

ANC

KINDRED

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
B R I C K M A S C N S ANC TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACRG MACH OPER
P A INTERS ANC EAPERHA N G E R S
PI A S T E R E R S
P L U M B E R S ANC P I P E F I T T E R S
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
S T R U C T U R A L M E T AL R C R K E R S

2.06

5.10

5.66

.65

.73

1.16

1.23

.10

.07

12.58

20.90

3.89

3.76

32.27

32.30

38.21

41.76

31.44

34.92

.20
.05
.0 0
.0 0
.1 0
.0 0
.05
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00

. 17
.07
.00
.00
.08
.00
.02
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.65
.16
.0 2
.00
.35
.0 0
.12
.00
.00
.0 0
.00

.70
.17
.03
.00
.36
.0 0
.12
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0

4.57
.2 2
.03
.0 1
1.90
.57
.2 2
.00
1.58
.00
.04

3.90
.16
.04
.00
1.31
.70
.18
.00
1.47
.00
.04

5.49
.26
.03
.0 0
2.64
.42
.27
.0 0
1.81
.0 0
.06

5. 14
.2 0
.04
.0 0
2 .21
.38
.27
.0 0
1.97
.00
.07

4.20
.25
.06
.0 2
.34
1.07
.17
.0 0
2.29
.00
.00

4.07
.19
.06
.03
.19
1 .22
.1 1
.0 0
2.27
.00
.00

1.46

1.73

.13

.1 0

5.39

5.54

6 .0 2

6.41

5.12

5.81

M E T A L W K N G C R A F T S EXC M E C H
MACHINISTS AND RELATED OCC
BLKSMITHS ,FCKC-MN,HAMMERMEN
ECILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
HOLDERS,METAL,EXC CCKEMKR S
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WOOD
ROLLERS ANC RILL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
TOOLMAKERS A M
DIEMAKERS

.01
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 1
.01
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.54
.29
.05
.1 1
.00
.02
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.04
.03

.39
.2 0
.03
.05
.0 0
.01
.00
.0 0
.00
.02
.0 2

.67
.34
.04
.16
.0 0
.0 2
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.05
.04

.54
.26
.02
.17
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.04
.04

.35
.27
.10
.0 0
.00
.02
.00
.00
.GO
.0 0
.0 0

.29
.18
.09
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

PRINTING TRALES CRAFTSMEN
CCMPOSITCRS,TYPESETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS.STERECTYPERS
E N G R AVERS EXC FFCTOEN G R V E R
P H O T O E N G R VR S , l I T E C G R A P h E R S
PRESSMEN,FLATE PRINTERS

.10
.08
.02
.00
.0 0
.00

.09
.07
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.04
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.00
.02

.05
.03
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.03

.04
.03
.00
.00
.00
.0 1

.0 2
.02
.00
.00
.01
.00

.05
.03
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.0 1

.04
.03
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.0 0

.0 2
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

TRANSPORT AND PUE L1IL CRAFT
LINEMEN AND SE R V I C E M E N
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

E.82
6.82
.00
.00

16.45
16.45
.0 0
.00

.23
.23
.00
.0 0

.45
.45
.0 0
.00

8 .00
7.98
.0 2
.00

6.04
8 .02
.0 2
.0 1

11.52
11.49
.03
.0 1

14.14
14.10
.03
.0 1

.27
.27
.00
.00

.44
.44
.0 0
.0 0

MECHANICS

1.00

.98

.0 0
.04
.0 0
.25
.00
.69

1.23
.00
.00
.00
.73
.00
.50

• 66

.00
.1 0
.00
.19
.0 0
.72

5.24
.00
.59
.01
.04
.00
8.61

5.45
.0 0
.73
.0 0
.0 2
.0 0
8.73

10.33
.0 0
.64
.01
.05
.0 0
9.63

11.00
.00
.65
.0 1
.0 2
.0 0
10.32

12.57
.00
.25
.00
.0 2
.00
12.30

14.99
.00
.35
.00
.04
.00
14.60

FOREMEN

NEC

AND

REPAIRMEN

AIR P L A N E MECH AND REPA I R M N
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RACIO ANC TV M E C HANICS
RR AN D C AP SHOP M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS ANC REPAIR




.0 0
.00
.0 0
.33
.00
.53

142
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C o n tin u ed
TELEGRAPH

RADIO
AND
TELEVISION

OCCUPATION

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

PUBLIC
UTILITIES

RATIO

60

RATIO

.99
.CO
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.00
.55
.0 0
.42

1.47
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.0 0
.00
.79
.0 0
.65

1.60
.0 0
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2
.00
1.56

1.60
.0 0
.03
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.03
1.54

4.49
.00
.00
.25
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
1 .02
.0 0
3.21

4.54

3.15

1.40

1.94

1.34
.09
1.25

1.24
.05
1.19

.10
.06
.0 2

.1 1
.07
.04

TRANSP ANC POE LTIL CFERATVS
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATICN OPERATORS
SAILORS AND CECKFANCS

.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.00
.00
.0 0
.00

SEMISKILLED METALWORKING OCC
FURNACEMN.SMELTRMN,FOURERS
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS AND FLAME-CUTTERS
ASSEMBLERS.MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS.MTLWRK,CLASS 8
INSPECTORS.MTLWRK,CLASS B
MACHINE TLCL LFER,CLASS e
ELFCTROPLATERS
ELECTROFLATERS HELPERS

.07
.00
.00
.07
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

.36
.00
.0 0
. 36
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CCCUP
KNITTERS,LOCPERS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS.TEXTILE
S E W E R S A N C ST I T C h E R S , M F G

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

KINDRED

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERV ICE.PARKNG
PLASTERS A M
FCWCERMEN
L A U N D R Y , C R Y CLEA N I N G OPER
MEAT CUTTERS.EXC MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATVS.LAECRERS.NEC
OPERATIVES AND KINCRED.NEC

CTHER CRAFT SMEN AND KINDRED
FAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,HCIST MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWELERS AND WATCHMAKERS
LOOM FIXERS
CFIICIANS.LENS GRINDERS
INSPECTORS,LOC- ANC LUMBER
INSPtCTCRS.DTFER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC K I N CRED NEC

75

ELECTRIC,
GAS AND
STEAM

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

WATER
AND
IRRIGATION

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO
9.30
.0 0
.00
.32
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
1.99
.0 0
6.99

16.08

18.52

12.40

10.40

15.93

14.98

6.14
5.85
.29

1 0 .1 0
S.77
.33

2.48
2.26
.23

2 .66
2.34
.32

2.63
2.36
.27

2 .66
2.46
.20

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

1.61
.0 2
1.58
.02

1.15
.0 0
1 .12
.0 2

2.27
.02
2.24
.0 1

1.91
.00
1.90
.01

.2 2
.0 0
.22
.0 0

.35
.0 0
.35
.0 0

.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00

.65
.00
.00
.65
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

.63
.0 0
.00
.63
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.8 8
.00
.0 0
.8 8
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

1.06
.0 0
.0 0
1.06
.0 0
.00
.00
.OG
.0 0
.0 0

.14
.00
.00
.14
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.12
.00
.0 0
.12
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00

.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.CO
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

3.13

1.55

1.29

1.83

7.68

7.04

6.76

4.78

12.95

11.84

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
3.13

.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
1.55

.00
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
1.27

.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
1.83

.03
.08
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
7.57

.03
.06
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
6.95

.05
.1 1
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
6.59

.05
.1 1
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
4.62

.OG
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
12.S2

.00
.02
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
11.83

2.03

1.57

2.50

1.80

1.81

1.49

2 .1 0

1.93

1.66

1.27

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.0 0

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GOAROS,WATCHMEN,CCGRKEEPRS
P L L I C E , C T H LAW ENFORCE OFF

.55
.00
.55
.0 0

.51
.oo
.51
. 00

.26
.00
.24
.0 2

.16
.00
.1 2
.04

FCOO SERVICE WORKERS
FARTENDERS
C O O K S , E X C PR IV H O U S E H O L D S
COUNTER AND HCUNTAIN WKKS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES

.06
.00
.06
.00
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00
.0 0

.06
.0 0
.06
.00
.0 0

1.42
.0 0
.00
.1 2
.56
.0 0
.74

1.03
.00
.00
.15
.44
.00
.45

.63

CTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HLUSEHCLC

WCFKERS

OTHER SERVICE WLRKEFS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRDSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , H C S P , C T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN AND CLEANERS
J A N I T O R S ANC S E X TCNS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

FARM

WORKERS




MINE

.33
.0 0
.30
.03

.47
.00
.44
.02

.29
.00
.28
.0 2

.77
.0 0
.77
.00

.42
.00
.42
.00

.03
.0 0
.03
.00
.00

.03
.0 0
.02
.01
.01

.0 1
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.01

.04
.00
.03
.0 1
.0 1

.02
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.0 1

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0

2.18
.00
.00
.17
.79
.0 0
1 .21

1.61
.0 0
.0 0
.27
.37
.0 0
.97

1.28
.0 0
.0 0
.11
.78
.0 0
.38

1.15
.0 0
.0 0
.14
.64
.0 0
.37

1.59
.00
.00
.13
.99
.00
.47

1.62
.0 0
.0 0
.17
.96
.0 0
.49

.89
.00
.0 0
.12
.51
.00
.26

.85
.00
.0 0
.22
.44
.00
.19

.09

.64

.54

16.02

7.10

4.37

14.46

8 .68

•00

.00

.00

.0 0

o
o

AND

ANC

.51
.00
.49
.02

00

FARMERS

FARM

.0 0

L\
f

LABORERS,EXCEPT

.CO

o
o

WORKERS

O
o

KINDRED

o
o

ANC

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
CFIVERS,ELS.TRLCK.TRACTOR
D E L I V E R Y M E N ANC R C U T E M E N

O
o

OPERATIVES

c
o

8.B6
.0 0
.00
.21
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.85
.OG
6.80

o
o

4.52
.0 0
.0 0
.25
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
1 .01
.0 0
3.26

O
O

4.13
.00
.0 0
.2 2
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.79
.0 0
3.12

o
O

4.93
.00
.00
.42
.00
.0 0
.00
.GC
.0 0
1.33
.0 0
3.17

.00

143
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975—-C o n tin u ed
SANITARY
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

60
INDUSTRY

TOTAL

RATIO

75

WHOLESALE
AND
RETAIL TRADE

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

WHOLESALE

60

RATIO

75

TRADE

RATIO

MOTOR

VEHICLES
AND
EQUIPMENT

60

RATIO

75

DRUGS
AND
CHEMICALS

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

L O O . 00

1 0 0.00

1 0 0.00

1 00.00

1 0 0.00

1 00.00

1 0 0.00

100.00

1 00.00

1 0 0.00

1.51

2.13

1.92

2.16

2.37

3.45

1.17

1.55

4.22

5.49

.93

.84

.1 1

.17

.38

.65

.16

.24

.31

.6 6

.0 0
.0 2
.73
.05
.0 1
.1 0
.0 0
.01
.0 1

.00
.0 1
.67
.0 2
.0 1
.11
.0 0
.0 1
.0 1

.0 0
.00
.0 1
.01
.01
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.07

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.0 1
.00
.00
.14

.00
.01
.0 2
.03
.01
.04
.0 0
.01
.26

.0 0
.0 1
.01
.05
.01
.03
.00
.00
.53

.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.14

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.23

.00
.1 2
.0 1
.00
.01
.03
.0 1
.0 0
.13

.00
.14
.0 0
.00
.04
.06
.00
.00
.43

N A T U R A L SCI ENT ISIS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
G E O L O G I S T S , C-ECPHYS ICI ST S
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

.2 0
.19
.0 0
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.29
.27
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0

.02
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.01
.0 0
.0 0

.03
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.02
.0 0
.00

.06
.03
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.02
.00
.00

.1 0
.03
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.07
.0 0
.0 0

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.33
.26
.00
.02
.00
.0 0
.00
.04

.2 0
.17
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.03

TECHNICIANS,EXC MECICAL.DENT
DRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C CONTR O L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS,OTHER

.62
.1 0
.06
.00
.0 0
.46

.82
.08
.03
.00
.00
.70

.16
.04
.00
.0 0
.00
.11

.2 2
.05
.00
.00
.00
.17

.47
.09
.0 1
.0 0
.0 1
.37

.75
.14
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.55

.15
.01
.03
.0 0
.00
.1 1

.23
.00
.03
.0 0
.00
.19

.96
.05
.00
.00
.00
.85

1.37
.2 1
.00
.0 0
.00
1.16

M E D I C A L , O T H E R Ft ALT H W O R K E R S
DENTISTS
D I E T I T I A N S , N U T R I T I O N ! STS
NORSES,PROFESSICNAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS
PSYCHOLCGISIS
TECHNIC IANS.MttICAL,DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MECICAL,HEALTH WRKRS

.03
.0 0
.01
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.01
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.01
.0 0
.01
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.83
.0 0
.0 1
.0 1
.02
.0 0
.78
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.63
.00
.01
.01
.0 0
.0 0
.60
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.04
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.00
.0 2
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0

.04
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.00
.00
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0

.0 1
.00
.0 0
.01
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.43
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.39
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.32
.00
.00
.01
.00
.0 0
.27
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TtACHERS,ELEMENT ARY
TEACHER S . S t C C M A R Y
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEACHERS,OTHER

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.04
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.04

.08
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.08

.04
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.04

.09
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.09

.05
.00
.00
.00
.05

.09
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.05

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.02
.0 0
.0 0
.02

.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.02
.0 1
.0 1
.00

.03
.01
.02
.0 0

.06
.04
.02
.00

.09
.05
.03
.0 0

.07
.03
.03
.0 0

.05
.03
.02
.0 0

.15
.11
.04
.00

.15
.11
.04
.0 0

OTH E R P R O F , T E C H AND KINDRED
ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
WRKRS IN A R T S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC DESIGN CRAFT
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
LAWYERS AND JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L A N D LAE REL W R K S
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,KINDRED,NEC

.11
.05
.oc
.0 0
.01
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.04

.17
.1 0
.00
.0 0
.01
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.05

.74
.36
.00
.00
.13
.00
.04
.0 1
.0 1
.00
.06
.0 1
.0 0
.1 1

1.01
.37
.01
.0 0
.16
.0 0
.06
.03
.01
.00
.1 0
.01
.00
.25

1.31
.67
.0 1
.00
.03
.00
.06
.01
.03
.0 0
.07
.0 1
.00
.22

1.74
.54
.0 2
.0 0
.0 2
.00
.07
.02
.03
.00
.1 0
.0 1
.00
.52

.74
.53
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.0 0
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.16

.93
.54
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.03
.0 0
.00
.34

2 .02
1 .12
.0 0
.00
.02
.0 0
.0 2
.03
.13
.03
.05
.02
.02
.55

2.77
1.24
.00
.00
.01
.0 0
.04
.07
.1 1
.07
.1 1
.04
.0 1
1.07

M A N A G E R S , O F F 1C l A L S , P R O P R I E T O R S

3.45

2.38

24.18

19.72

2 2 .1 0

21.46

27.16

28.17

17.23

18.31

CONDUCTORS,RA ILRCAD
CREDITMEN
OFFICERS,PILOTS,ENGRS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
MANAGERS,OFFICE,PROP. NEC

.0 0
.0 1
.0 1
.00
.0 1
3.46

.0 0
.01
.01
.00
.03
2.33

.00
.22
.00
.00
.15
23.81

.0 0
.26
.00
.0 0
.15
15.30

.00
.30
.01
.0 0
.45
21.34

.00
.33
.0 1
.00
.47
20.65

.00
.27
.0 1
.0 0
.88
26.01

.00
.2 1
.01
.0 0
.57
27.38

.00
.44
.0 0
.00
.45
16.34

.00
.27
.0 0
.0 0
.2 2
17.82

PROFESSIONAL

T F C h M C A l ,K lN D R E D

ENGINEERS,!ECFN1CAL
ENGINEERS,AERONAUTICAL
ENGINEERS,CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS.CIVIL
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS,INDLSTR1AL
ENGINEERS,MECHANICAL
ENGINEERS.METALLORG.ETC
ENGINEERS,MINING
OTHER ENGINEERS.! ECHNICAL




144
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, i9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975
SANIIARY
SERVICE S

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
STENCS.
C E E ICE

ANC

K1NDREC

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

CFERATCRS

OTHER CLERICAL,K1NCREC WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BCOKKEE FERS.HANt
BANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
S UPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE CFERATCRS
C L E R I C A L AN! K I N C K E C , N E C

RATIO

7b

WHOLESALE
ANC
RETAIL TRADE

R A I 10

60

KAI1C

75

RATIO

WHOLESALE

60

RATIO

75

TRACE

RATIO

C ontinu ed

MOTOR

VEHICLES
AND
EQUIPMENT

60

RATIO

75

DRUGS
AND
CHEMICALS

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

2-92

3.25

13.58

17.12

21.83

22.16

29.00

29.05

29.72

29.95

.73

. lo

2.03

2.30

5.12

5.15

3.69

2.55

7.25

6.39

.01

.01

1.62

2.19

1.89

2-93

1.9E

2.27
20.79
.75
.0 0
.00
.26
.00
.00
1.93
.26
17.59

2.LE
.29
. 11
.0 0
.02
.00
.0 0
.00
.09
1.76

.75

.57

2.9b
.25
. 11
.00
.03
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.09
2.09

1 1 .2 1
.77
2.02
•D C
2.61
.00
.00
.72
.17
9.92

13.65
.77
2.05
.0 0
9.19
.00
.00
.60
.23
6.C2

15.09
1.97
2 .21
.0 0
.19
.00
.00
1.98
.27
6.97

19.63
1.97
2.13
.0 0
.16
.CO
.00
1 .35
.33
5.35

16.97
1.19
3.60
.00
.08
.00
.00
2.79
.27
10.60

18.71
1.03
3.09
.00
.05
.0 0
.0 0
1.96
.25
12.29

20.96
1 .01
.19
.0 0
.26
.00
.00
3.05
.38
15.57

.16

.10

23.10

22.92

20.98

20.28

27.91

26.03

27.19

25.10

10.13

13.20

6.71

8 . 20

5 .6 6

8.13

9.83

6.29

2.37

2.87

C O N S T R U C T ION C R A F T S M E N
CARPENTERS
6 R I C K M A S C NS A N C T I L E S E 1 R S
CEMENT,CCNCRE1E FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNC- MACH OPER
PAINTERS ANC FAFERHANGERS
PLASTERERS
PLUM P E R S ANC F 1 F E FI1TEKS
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

1.33
.07
.09
.0 0
.19
.78
.00
.20
.00
.01

1.98
.07
.03
.0 0
.1 1
1.08
.09
.0 0
.15
.00
.01

.52
.2 1
.09
.00
.06
.0 2
.05
.00
.05
.01
.0 0

.52
.23
.05
.0 0
.05
.02
.08
.00
.08
.02
.0 0

.92
.13
.01
.0 0
.09
.09
.07
.0 0
.06
.00
.0 0

.38
.15
.01
.00
.07
.03
.06
.0 0
.05
.0 0
.01

.17
.00
.00
.0 0
.06
.00
.08
.0 0
.0 2
.0 0
.0 0

.1 0
.00
.00
.00
.09
.0 0
.09
.00
.02
.0 0
.00

.16
.07
.00
.00
.0 1
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
.00

.15
.12
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.03
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00

FOREMEN

SALES

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

AND

K I N C k ED

NEC

.Cl

3.19

3.77

.79

1.01

1.53

2.25

1.83

2.5S

1.91

1.53

ME I A LWKNG C R A F T S EXC M ECH
M A C H I N I S T S A N C R E L A T E D ClCC
BLKSMI TPS,FCRGMN,HAMMERMEN
FOILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALEFS
MILLWRIGHTS
M U L D E R S , M E T A L ,EXC C C R E M K R S
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL,WCGC
ROLLERS AND ROLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
T O O L M A K E R S ANC C I E M A K E k S

.17
.13
.03
.CO
.00
.01
.CO
.0 0
.0 0
-CO
.0 0

. 15
.11
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0

.06
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 1
.00
.00
.0 0
.09
.01

.09
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.03
.00

.1 1
.0 1
.01
.00
.0 0
.01
.0 0
.01
.0 0
.05
.0 1

.07
.0 1
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.01
.0 0
.03
.0 0

.Ob
.0 1
.01
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 1
.03

.09
.00
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 2

.01
.00
.OC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.0 0
.00
.00

.0 1
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 1
.00
.00
.00

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITORS,TYPESETTERS
EL E C T R O 1 YPE R S ,S T E R E C T Y P E R S
E N G R A V E R S EXC P E C T C E N G R V E R
PHCTOENGRVRS.LITHOGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.0 0
.GO
.0 0
.00
.00
.00

• CO
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00

.03
.02
.0 0
.00
.OC
.GO

.09
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1

.09
.03
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.09
.03
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.01

.03
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 1

.03
.02
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.01

.06
.05
.00
.01
.00
.00

.09
.03
.00
.01
.00
.0 0

TRANSPORT ANC PCE LTIL CRAFT
L I N EMEN AND SERVIC E M E N
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.0 1
.0 0
.0 1
.00

.0 1
.00
.01
.0 0

.00
.00
.00
.oo

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.0 1
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.CO

.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0

.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.0 0
.00

MECHANICS ANC REPAIRMEN
A I R P L A N E MEOH ANC R E P A I R M N
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO AND TV MECEANICS
RR A ND CAR SHCR M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

2.72
.00
.69
.00
.0 0
.00
2.09

9 . 11
.00
1.06
.00
.0 0
.0 0
3.05

9.01
.0 1
2.90
.25
.29
.GO
1 .11

5.05
.02
2.69
.91
.21
.00
1.72

2.79
.0 2
.32
.77
.05
.00
1.63

9.93
.09
.37
1.33
.09
.0 0
2.65

2.61
.00
1.72
.00
.00
.0 0
.89

3.28
.0 0
1.79
.0 0
.0 0
.00
1.59

.52
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.51

.59
.01
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.58




145
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed
SANITARY
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

60
OTHER C R A F T S M E N ANC KINDRED
BAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,HCIST MEN
GLAZIERS
J E W E L E R S ANC W A K K M A K E K S
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
INSPECTORS,LOC- AND LUMPER
INSPECTORS,OTFER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N A N D KIND-RED N E C

OPERATIVFS

AND

KINCREC

WORKERS

PATIO
2.76

.00
.00
.42
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.0 0
1.32
.00
1 .02

73

WHOLESALE
AND
RETAIL TRADE

RATIO
3.6V
.00
.00
.78
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
1.65
.0 0
1.26

60

RATIO
1.36
• IE
.13
.05
•C 5
.13
.0 0
.0 J
.01
.05
.07
.63

75

RATIO

WHOLESALE

60

TRADE

RATIO

RATIO

75

MOTOR

VEHICLES
AND
EQUIPMENT

60

RATIO

75

DRUGS
AND
CHEMICALS

RATIC

60

RATIC

75

RATIO

1.55
.16
.14
.07
.07
.1 0
.00
.07
.01
.05
.09
.78

.76
.0 1
.0 2
.16
.04
.03
.00
.07
.0 2
.12
.0 2
.28

.91
.01
.01
.27
.07
.0 2
.00
.0 2
.02
.12
.0 0
.39

.14
.0 0
.02
.0 1
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.06
.0 1
.04

.20
.0 0
.03
.0 1
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.03
.00
.13

.2 2
.00
.00
.00
.00
•OC
.00
.00
.00
.09
.00
.13

.15
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
.09

30.29

36.61

12.72

12.55

19.48

16.16

10.71

10.37

14.34

14.54

22.63
22.07
.57

27.57
27.17
.40

4.62
3.15
1.47

4.38
2.43
1.95

10.55
7.98
2.57

9.38
5.46
3.92

5.62
3.52
2 .10

6 .00
3.20
2.81

6.51
4.90
1.61

8.45
5.84
2.61

T R A N S P A N C PUE LTIL C F E R A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATICN LFEFA1UHS
SAILORS AND CICKFANCS

.05
.00
.01
.04

.07
.0 0
.0 1
.06

.01
.00
.OC
•00

.0 1
.00
.0 1

.0 2
.00
.0 0
.02

.03
.0 0
.0 0
.02

.0 0
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

S E M I S K I L L E D H E T A L W C R K I N C OCC
F U R N A C t M N . S M E l TRMN, FOU R EPS
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME- C U T T E R S
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS.MTLkRK.CLASS 6
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS B
MACHINE ICCL C F E R , C L A S S B
ELECTROPlATERS
ELECTROPLATERS HELPERS

• 10
• 00
.0 0
• 10
.0 0
• 00
.00
.0 0
• 00
.0 0

-07
.00
.00
.0 /
.0 0
• oo
• 00
.0 0
• 00
• 00

.1 2
.00
•C O
.1 2
•0 0
•00
.00
.0 0
•G O
.0 0

.14
.0 0
.0 0
.14
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0

.40
.00
.0 0
.40
.00
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0

.47
.0 0

.24
.00
.0 0
.24
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.37
.00
.00
.37
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0 0

.02
.00
.00
.0 2
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.0 1
.00
.00
.01
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00

S E M I S K I L L E D 1 E X T IL E O C C L P
KMTTERS,LOOPERS,TOPPERS
Sf I N N E R S . 1 E X I H E
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
SEWERS ANC STITCHERS,MFG

.0 0
.0 0
• 00
• 00
• 00

.0 0
.0 0
• 00
• 00
• 00

.00
•00
.0 0
•O G
.0 0

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0
.00

.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0

.00
.00
.CO

.00

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
.0 0

.00

.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

KINDRED

7.51

9.10

7.97

6 .02

8.51

8.30

4.84

4.00

7.81

6.07

ASBESTOS, INSULATICN WRKS
A T T E N D , A L T O S E R V 1C E , P A K K N D
BLAS T E R S ANC F C W D ERMEN
L A U N D R Y , C R Y C L E A N I N G CPER
MEAT CUT 1ERS,EXC MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATES,lAtCRERS,NEC
O P E R A T I V E S ANC KINUR E D , N E C

.0 0
.00
.00
.0 0
•00
• 00
7.51

.0 0
.00
.00
• 00
.00
• 00
9.10

•0 1
2.63
.0 0
.01
1.36
•00
3.96

.01

.0 2

2.58
.00
.0 1
1.15
.00
4.27

.0 1
.07
.00
.00
.44
.00
7.99

.0 0
.1 1
.0 0
.0 0
.00
.00
4.74

.0 0
.11
.0 0
.00
.0 0
.00
3.89

.00
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.00
7.79

.0 0
.0 2
.00
.0 0
.00
.00
6.05

.90

D R I V E R S ANC CEL IVERYMEN
DRIVERS.ELS,TRUCK.TRACTCR
DELIVERYMEN AND RDUTEMEN

OTHER

A M

.47
.0 0
.CO
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.01
.0 0
.0 0
.45

.00
7.82

.00

.00

.00
.00

.8 2

.75

1 3 .0 E

13.81

1 .00

.51

.81

.70

.96

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.00

.0 0

.00

.0 0

O
o

WORKERS

.00

o
o

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

.00

PRCTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS.WATCHME N »CCORK EEPKS
P O L I C E , C T F LAW E N E G R C E OFF

.48
.00
.45
.03

.35
.00
.29
.06

.13
.00
.1 2
.01

. 10
.0 0
.09
.01

.21
.00
.2 0
.00

.1 0
.0 0
.09
.0 1

.1 1
.00
.1 1
.00

.04
.CO
.04
.0 0

.08
.0 0
.06
.0 0

.03
.00
.03

FOOD SERVICF WCRKERS
EARTENDERS
CLCKS.EXC PRIV HCUSEHCLDS
COUNTER AND E L LNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES

.OG
.00
.0 0
.00
.00

• 00
• 00
• 00
.00
.0 0

9.39
1 .11
2.o6
.69
5.21

9.89
1.11
2.60
.97
5.20

.06
.0 0
.04
.01
.02

.04
.CO
.0 2
.0 0
.0 1

.07
.0 0
.03
.0 1
.03

.05
.00
.01
.0 1
.03

.08
.OC
.07
.0 2
.00

.13
.00
.09
.0 0
.04

CTFER SERVICE WCRKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRDSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , H G S F . O T E E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
J A N I T O R S ANC SEXICNS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

.34
.00
.00
.03
.19
.01
.11

.40
.00
• 00
.03
.14
.0 0
.2 2

3.56
.0 0
.00
.18
.35
.00
3.03

3.62
.0 0
.0 0
.30
.37
.0 0
3.15

.73
.00
.00
.08
.25
.00
.39

.78
.0 0
.0 0
.17
.24
.00
.37

.62
.00
.00
.0 2
.35
.00
.26

.61
.0 0
.0 0
.02
.33
.0 0
.26

.60
.0 0
.0 0
.1 2
.2 1
.00
.47

.74
.00
.0 0
.17
.19
.00
.38

50.28

41.38

4.31

4.02

7.08

5.44

3.41

2.85

3.97

3.35

.0 0

.00

.0 0

.00

.0 0

.00

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.00

PRIVATE

HGUSEFCIC

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

WCRKERS

ANC

WCRKERS




MINE

.00

146
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C ontinued
0KY
0CCUPA7ION

60
INDUSTRY

GROCERIES
AND
RELATED PRUCUCTS

g o o d s

AND
APPAREL

TCilAl

RATIO

76

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RAT 1C

100.00

100.00

100.00

I C O . .00

1,05

.50

2.88

3.68

3.95

6.17

2.09

2 ..96

.04

.03

.84

1.25

.85

1.54

.27

.31
-

.CG
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.01
.13
.01
.08
.00
.00
.61

.GO
.00
.01
.02
.00
.CE
.00
.00
1.13

.00
.01
.01
.06
.02
.07
.00
.01
.68

.00
.01
.00
.20
.00
.04
.00
.00
1.25

.00
.01
.04
.01
.01
.03
.00
.01
.15

.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.01
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00

.04
.01
.CG
.CG
.00
.03
.00
.00

.15
.00
.00
.00
.OG
.13
.02
.00

.35
.00
.CC
.GO
.00
.34
.01
.00

.03
.03
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.,03

.00

.03
.03
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00

.26
.00
.00
.00
.12
.14

. 36
.00
.00
.00
.00
.36

.24
.02
.00
.UO
.00
.22

.25
.02
.00
.00
.00
.a3

.59
.05
.00
.00
.00
.54

.76
.GO
.00
.00
.00
.76

.99
.20
.01
.00
.00
.77

1.57
.24
.04
.00
.00
1.25

.34
.12
.01
.00
.00
.20

,53
.,21

.05
.00
.00
.05
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
• 00
.00
• 00
.00
• CO
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.cc
.00
.GO
.00
.GC
.00

.Oo
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.OG
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.OG
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

,01
.,00

2.22

2.82

.05

.28

.00
.01
.00
.01
.02
.03
.00
.00
.03

.t o

• 02
.00
.05
.07
.07
• 00
.00
.07

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
E I C L O G I CAL S C I E N T I S T S
GEOLOGISTS,EEC PHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
CThER NATLRAL SCIENTISTS

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

T E C E M C I A N S . E A C M E C 1C AL , D E N T
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C C N T P C L L E R S
RADIO OPtEATCRS
IF C H N I C I A N S , C T E t R
MEDICAl,OTHER HEALTH RUFKERS
DENTISTS
DIETITIANS,NUTRITIONISTS
NURSES,PROFESSIONAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PhYSICIANS AND SURGEONS
PSYCHOLOC-ISIS
TECHNIC IANS.MFCIOAL.UENTAL
V E T E R I N A R IANS
CTHFK MECIOAL.EEALTF RRKRS

ENGINEER'.AERONAUTICAL
ENGINEERS,CLERICAL
ENGINEERS,CIVIL
ENGINEERS.ELEC1RKAL
ENGINEERS,INCESTRIAL
E N G I N E E R S . M E C F A NICAL
e n g i n e e r s .m e t a l l u r g .e t c
ENGINEERS,MINING
OTHER ENGINE EPS,TECHNICAL

RATIO

100.00

100.00

Tt C H M C A l , K I N U R t D

60

MISCELLANEOUS
WHOLESALE
TRADE

100.00

100.00

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL

RATIO

MACHINERY
AND
EQUIPMENT

I C O . 00

100.00

PROFESSIONAL

75

ELECTRICAL
HARDWARE AND
PLUMBING

.o o

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.o o

.00
.03
•.01
•.02
.. 01
•.00

.01
•.22

,00
.,00
*,00

,00
,00
•,00

, 01
,00

00
•

•

31

00

.,01
.,00
•,00
•00
.,00
•,00
.,00
.,00
00
•

TEACHERS
TEACHERS.ELEMENTAFY
TEACHERS,SECt M A R Y
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEACHERS.OTHER

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.GO
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.00
.00
.00
.05

.07
.CC
.00
.00
•C 7

.14
.00
.00
.00
.14

.25
.00
.00
.00
.25

.0^
.00
.00
.00
.02

06
.00
. 00
•,00
.06
•

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
EC C N U M I S I S
STATISTICIANS 4 ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.0 1
.01
.00

.02
.01
.01
.00

.07
.05
.02
.00

.13
•CS
.04
•CO

.06
.04
.02
.00

.06
.05
.01
.00

.07
.04
.03
.00

m
,12

CTH E R P R O F . T e c h AND KINCREO
A C C O U N T A M S ARC A L C I T L R S
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
fcRKRS I N A R T S . E N T E R T A I N M M
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNEES,EAC DESIGN CRAFT
ECITORS AND REPORTERS
L A W Y E R S ARC JUCftS
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND LAE REL m RKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL AND WELFARE VURKERS
F R O F . T E C F ,K I N C R E C , N E C

l.dC
.65
.00
.00
.12
.00
.64
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.36

2.13

.70
.54
.01
.00
.02
.00
.00
.01
.01

1.29
1.03
.01
.00
.01
.00
.02
.03
.01
.00
.06
.01
.00
.11

1 .42
l.Ct
.03
.00
•c c
.00
.02
.08
.00
.CO
.09
.03
.00
.12

1.70
.98
.02
.00
.03
.00
.06
.01
.04
.00
.10
.02
.00
.42

2. 35
1.05
.05
.00
.04
.00
.12
.00
.04
.00
. 10
.02
.00
.93

1.36
.57
.01
.00
.03
.00
.04
.01
.04
.00
.08
.00
.00
.17

1..92
1..13

.07

.55
.25
.03
.00
.03
.00
.00
.01
.01
.00
.04
.00
.00
.18

MANAGEKS.tJFE ICIALS.P R C P R I E T C R S

24.52

24.95

16.52

15.22

22.79

24.52

22.21

21.05

23.71

2 1 . ,22

CONDUCTCR S.RAILRCAD
CREDITMEN
CFFICERS,PILOTS,ENGRS,SHIP
P O S T M A S T E R S ARC A S S I S T A N T S
PURCHASING AGENTS
M A N AGER S,t F FIC E,PROP. NFC

.GO
.44
.00
.00
.38
23.70

.GO
.42
.00
.00
.43
2 4 . 10

.00
.08
.01
.oo
.10
16.33

.00
.04
.01
.00
.03
15.14

.00
.55
.00
.00
1.0 3
21.15

.00
.47
.00
.CO
1.40
22.64

.00
.30
.03
.00
.55
21.29

.GO
.36
.00
.00
.52
20.17

.00
.25
.01
.OC
.28
23.13

.00
. .40
. ,01
•
,00
•
,30
2 0 ..51




.u o

.7/
.00
.00
.15
.00
.42
• 00
•CO
.00
.00
.05
•00
. /4

•oo

.04
.00
.o o

.
,06
•,06
•,00

•,01

•,00
•
.01
•,00
•
.07
..01
•.04
•,00
•,14
•.00
•.00
•,50

147
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed
GROCERIES
AND
RELATED PROOLCTS

CRY

GOODS
AND
APPAREL

STENOS,
OFFICE

ANt

WORKER S

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
M A C E INF

CPERA1CKS

CTFER CLERICAL,KINOPEC WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BECKKEEPERS.HANC
DANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
PAIL C A R R I E R S
FCSTAL CLERKS
SKIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
C L E R I C A L ANl K I N C R E C , N E C

SALES

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

RATIO

76

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

ANC

KINCKEU

CCNSTRUCTICN CRAFTSMEN
CARPFNTERS
B R I C K M A S C N S ANC TILE SETRS
CEMENT, CCNCFETE F I M S E E R S
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GPACNG MACh CPER
PAINTERS A M
EAPEPKANCEPS
PLASTERERS
PLUMBERS A M
PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS ANC SIATERS
STRUCTURAL METALRCRKERS

60

RATI0

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

MISCELLANEOUS
WHOLESALE
TRAOE

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

26.53

23.09

22.32

19.68

20.97

7.40

6.85

7.34

8.35

4.52

4.25

1.69

1.91

1.10

1.91

1.7c

2.37

10.43
1.42
2.14
.00
.31
.00
.00
.78
.20
5.55

20.93
1.11
2.93
.00
.23
.00
.00
3.68
.42
12.56

17.77
.79
2.91
.00
.11
.00
.00
2.23
.48
11.23

14.66
1.58
1.23
.00
.13
.00
.00
1.85
.31
9.56

12.06
1.93
1.17
.00
.11
.00
.00
1.28
.39
7.18

13.40
1.65
2.39
.00
.19
.00
.00
1.28
.25
7.65

14.35
1.67
2.36
.00
.15
.00
.00
.91
.33
8.93

15.73

16.33

25.38

28.30

26.29

22.54

15.34

14.36

2.97

3.50

5.31

5.05

13.23

18.71

4.85

6.94

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CG
•CC
.00
•00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
-00
.00
.00

.13
.05
.00
.00
.03
.01
.03
.00
.01
.00
.00

.09
.04
.00
.00
.01
.01
.02
.00
.01
.00
.00

.77
.07
.00
.00
.38
.00
.07
.00
.24
.00
.01

.56
.08
.00
.00
.34
.00
.01
.00
.11
.00
.04

.54
.09
.00
.00
.08
.08
.15
.00
.13
.00
.00

.41
.06
.00
.00
.04
.06
.14
.00
.12
.00
.00

.52
.24
.03
.00
.05
.07
.07
.00
.03
.01
.01

.54
.33
.02
.00
.04
.04
.06
.00
.04
.00
.01

27.67

27.03

14.74

14.46

6.04

5.34

2.42

2.18

1.59

1.97

1.53

1.85

20.03
1.4V
3.02
.00
.16
.00
.00
4.09
.26
11.02

19.72
1.57
3.23
.00
. 15
.oo
.00
3.51
.25
11.00

1 0 . ao
1.43
2.16
.00
.27
.00
.00
1.34
.15
5.96

29.43

KINDRED

29.73

1.92

2.50

©

60
CLERICAL

MACHINERY
ANC
EOUIPHENT

ELECTRICAL
HARDWARE ANC
PLUMbING

©

OCCUPATION

1.19

1.81

1.81

2.56

1.22

1.66

1.19

1.63

l.o4

2.82

M E T A L W K N G C F AFT S EX C M E C H
M A C H I N I S T S ANC RELATFC OCC
BLKSMITES.FCRC-MN.EAMMERMtN
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT'TREATERS,ANNEALERS
M ILLWRI GETS
MCLDEKS,METAL,EXC CCREMKRS
PATTEHNMAKFES.METAL.WtCD
R O L L E R S AND RCtl LANCS
SHEET METAL WCRKEES
T C O L M A K E P S ANC C I E M A K E R S

.00
.00
•0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
•00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.03
.00
.00
.00
.GG
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.04
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.23
.01
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.15
.01

.10
.Cl
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00

.16
.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.10
.01

.07
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00

.12
.01
.01
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.01
.05
.01

.10
.01
.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01
.05
.00

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
CCMPGSITEES,TYPESETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS,STERECTYPERS
ENGRAVERS EXC PEGIUENGRVE A
P E Q T O E N G R VK i , 1 I T K E G R A F h E K S
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

•00
.00
.00
.00
•00
• 00

.00
• 00
.00
•00
.00
.00

•04
.03
.00
.00
.01
.01

.05
.03
.00
.00
.01
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.07
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.04
.00
.01
.00
.01

.04
.02
.00
.01
.00
.01

T R A NSPORT AND PCE LT1L CRAFT
LINEMEN ANC SERVICEMEN
LCCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

• CO
.00
•00
.00

• 00
.00
• 00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.04
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.CO

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN
A I R P L A N E M E C H ANC R E P A 1 R M N
MCTOR V E H C E E MECEAN1CS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RACIO A M
TV M E C H A N I C S
RR A N D CAR SHCF M E C H A N I C S
OILER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

.13
.00
.00
.01
• CO
.00
.12

.15
.00
.00
.02
.00
• 00
. 13

. 71
.00
.14
.00
.01
.00
.56

.60
.00
.11
.00
.01
.00
.49

2.78
.02
.02
.03
.37
.00
2.34

2.39
.08
-02
.10
.32
.00
1.87

10.10
.10
.22
4.76
.01
.00
4.95

15.26
.14
.17
6.58
.01
.00
8.36

1.34
.00
.35
.01
.00
.00
.98

1.91
.00
.45
.04
.00
.00
1.43

FOREMEN

NEC




148
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d fo r 1 9 7 S— C ontinu ed
DRY

GOODS
ANC
APPAREL

OCCUPATION

60
OTHER c r a f t s m e n a n c KINDRED
FAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,htlST MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWELERS ANC WA1CEMAKERS
LOOM FIXERS
O P T I C I A N S , L E N S C-RINOERS
I N S P E C T O R S , L O G ANC LUMBER
INSPECTORS,OTHER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC KINDRED NEC

RATIO

76

GROCERIES
AND
RELATED PRODUCTS
R A T IU

60

R A U C

75

RATIO

.60
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.20
.01
.37

.56
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.13
.01
.36

.23
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
.00
.12

.16
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
•C O
.08

11.52

10.78

37.70

40.88

1.68
.89
.80

2.04
1.00
1.04

17.31
11.79
5.52

1 7. 16
8.85
8.31

TRA N S P ANC PU8 LTIL L P ERATVS
F R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
P C W E R ST A 1 ICN C E E R A T O R S
SAILORS AND CICKEANCS

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.01

SEMISKILLED METALWORKING OCC
FURNACEMN.SMELTRMN.PDLRERS
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-CLTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,RTLKRK.CLASS A
A S S E M B L ER S . R I I N R K , C L A S S B
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS 8
M A C H I N E TCCl C E E R , C L A S S 8
ELECTROPLATERS
ELFCTRCPLATERS HELPERS

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CCCUP
KNITTERS.LOLPEPS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,1EXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
SEWERS ANC S T I T C H E R S , M F G

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

KINDRED

9.84

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERVICE,PARKNG
BLASTERS ANC FCWLERMEM
LAUNORY,CRY CLEANING CPER
MEAT CUTTERS,EXC MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATVS,LAECRERS,NEC
OPERATIVES AND KINDRED,NEC

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
9.64

ELECTRICAL
HARDWARE ANC
PLUMBING
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RAT1C

75

MISCELLANEOUS
WHOLESALE
TRADE

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.31
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.27

1.19
.00
.03
.07
.00
.00
.00
.42
.00
.09
.01
.56

1 .25
.00
.01
.07
.00
.00
.00
.08
.00
.14
.01
.94

1.17
.00
.04
.38
.09
.06
.00
.00
.06
.18
.03
.32

1.53
.00
.01
.69
.18
.05
.00
.00
.04
.21
.00
.35

8.55

8.16

7.48

6.35

23.19

23.70

4.86
4.10
.76

5.78
4.67
.51

3.79
2.61
1.16

3.96
2. 17
1.79

14.62
11.76
2.85

12.75
7.32
5.43

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02

.02
.00
.00
.02

.04
.01
.00
.03

.06
.01
.00
.05

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.14
.00
.00
.14
.00
.00
.00
.00
.oo
.00

.09
.00
.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.63
.00
.00
.63
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

. 74
.00
.00
.74
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.67
.00
.00
.67
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.76
.00
.00
.76
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.oo
.00

.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.oo
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

8.73

20.36

23.70

3.54

2.28

3.03

1.63

7.86

10.13

. 00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
8.68

.00
.00
.00
.01
2.64
.00
17.71

.00
.00
.00
.01
3.61
.00
20.08

.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
3.53

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
2.28

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
3.02

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.61

.03
.15
.00
.00
.01
.00
7.67

.03
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
1C.09

1.30

1.11

1.1C

.79

.72

.61

.51

.68

1.06

1.21

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WATCHMEN,CCCRKEEPRS
P O L I C E , G T E LAW EN F O R C E OFF

.17
.00
.14
.02

.Id
.00
.13
.05

.20
.00
.20
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00

.06
.00
.08
.00

.01
.00
.01
-CO

.14
.00
.13
.01

. 12
.00
.08
.04

.32
.00
.32
.00

.16
.00
. 16
.00

F O O D S E K V ICE W O R K E R S
FARTENOEPS
C O C K S , E X C P R IV HC L S E H C L D S
COUNTER AND F01N1A1N WKRS
WAITERS ANC WAITRESSES

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.13
.00
.09
.03
.02

.13
.00
.09
.02
.03

.01
.00
.01
.00
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00
.00

.02
.00
.01
.00
.01

.02
.00
.01
.00
.01

.07
.00
.03
.01
.02

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.11
.00
.00
.02
. 12
.00
.96

. 31
.00
.00
.02
. 10
.00
.79

.77
.00
.00
.08
.27
.00
.42

.64
.00
.00
.13
.27
.00
.24

.62
.00
.00
.10
.20
.00
.33

.58
.00
.00
.18
.16
.00
.23

.75
.00
.00
.08
.32
.00
.35

.54
.00
.00
.15
.28
.00
.12

.69
.00
.00
.09
.23
.00
.37

1.05
.00
.00
.24
.24
.00
.57

1.43

1.08

10.19

7.91

4.36

3.14

2.84

2.16

10.05

6.64

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

OPERATIVES

ANC

KINCREC

WORKERS

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
DR I V E R S , E L S , T R L C K , T R A C T O R
D E L I V E R Y M E N ANC R C L T E M F N

OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HEUSEECLC

WORKERS

CTEER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARCS.STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , H C S P . L T h E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTONS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

ANC

WORKERS




MINE

.27
.00
.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.18

MACHINERY
ANC
EUUIPMENT

149
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 a n d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
TUTAL
RETAIL TRADE

OCCUPATION

LUMBER
FARM

60
INDLSTRY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

T F C E M C A l ,K I N L R E D

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

BUILDING
AND
EQUIPMENT

RATIO

75

RATIO

GENERAL
MERCHANDISING

60

KATIU

75

LIMITED PRICE
STORES

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

DTHER
GENERAL
MERCHANDISING

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

I CO.00

100.00

I C O . 00

100.00

1.75

.68

.70

1.21

1.53

.59

.74

1.36

1.65

100.00

100.00

1.78
.03

.02

.14

.11

.04

.03

.01

.00

•C5

.03

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.04
.00
.00
.09

.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.08

.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.01
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.01
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.01

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGISTS.GEOPhYSICIST S
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.DC

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

T E C H N I C I A N S , E X C M E C 1C A L , U E N T
DRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C O N T R O L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS,OTHER

.05
.02
.00
.00
.00
.03

.05
.02
.00
.00
.00
.03

.16
.11
.00
.00
.00
.05

.18
.12
.00
.00
.00
.06

.06
.04
.00
.00
.00
.02

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.11
.02
.00
.00
.00
.09

.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.11

.04
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

MEDICAL,OTHER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
D I E T I T I A N S . N U T R IT 1 C M S T S
NURSES,PROF ESSICNAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS ANC SLFCECNS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNIC IANS.MECICAL.DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MECICAL.HEALTH WRKKS

1.08
.00
.01
.01
.03
.00
1.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.81
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
. 79
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.00
.01
.03
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.00
.01
.03
.00
.00
.01
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00

.GO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.09
.00
.01
.04
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.00
.01
.04
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS.ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECCNEARY
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEACHERS,CTFER

.04
.00
.00
.00
.04

.08
.00
.oo
.00
.08

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.08
.00
.00
.00
.08

.12
.00
.00
.00
.12

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.10
.00
.00
.00
.10

.14
.00
.00
.00
.14

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.01
.03
.00

.04
.01
.03
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.01
.03
.00

.05
.01
.04
.00

O T H E R P R O F , T E C H ANC K I N D R E D
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC A U DITORS
AIRPLANE FILGTS,NAV1GATORS
ARCHITECTS
W R K R S IN A R T S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS.EXC CES1GN CRAFT
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
LAWYERS ANC JLCCES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L A N C LAB REL W R K S
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC WE L F A R E W O R KERS
PROF.TECH,KINCREC,NEC

.56
.20
.oc
.00
.16
.00
.04
.01
.00
.00
.06
.01
.00
.07

.78
.20
.OO
.00
.21
.00
.06
.03
.01
.00
. 10
.01
.00
.16

.37
.30
.00
.01
.01
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.02

.41
.30
.00
.00
.01
.00
.02
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.06

.93
.24
.00
.01
.15
.00
.05
.07
.01
.00
.25
.02
.00
.13

1.27
.26
.00
.00
.14
.00
.07
.14
.01
.00
.34
.02
.00
.29

.44
.03
.00
.01
.02
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.32
.01
.00
.05

.62
.03
.00
.01
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.46
.00
.00
.09

1.06
.30
.00
.00
.18
.00
.06
.OS
.01
.00
.23
.02
.00
.16

1.36
.30
. 00
.00
.16
.00
.08
.16
.01
.00
.32
.03
.00
.32

MANAGERS,OFFICIALS,PROPRIETORS

24.83

19.17

28.11

22.99

20.28

15.06

20.67

17.52

20.16

14.71

CONDUCTORS,RAILROAD
CREDITMEN
OFFICERS,PILOTS,ENGRS,SHIP
P O S T M A S T E R S ANC A S S I S T A N T S
PURCHASING AGENTS
MANAGERS.OFFICE,PROP. NEC

.00
.19
.00
.00
.06
24.58

.00
.24
.00
.00
.05
18. 88

.00
.28
.00
.00
.22
27.60

.00
.29
.00
.00
.20
22.50

.00
.40
.00
.00
.06
19.82

.00
.49
.00
.00
.06
14.52

.00
.13
.00
.00
.02
20.52

.00
.28
.00
.00
.04
17.20

.00
.48
.00
.00
.07
19.63

.00
.52
.00
.00
.06
14.14

ENGINEFRStTECFMTAL
E N G I N E E R S . A F R C N A L 1 I CAL
ENGINEERS,CLERICAL
E N G I N F E R S , C I V II
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS,INDUSTRIAL
ENGINEERS.MECHANICAL
ENGINEERS,METALLLRG*tTC
ENGINEERS,MINING
OTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL




150
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1975 -C o n tin u ed
TOTAL
RETAIL TKAOE

OCCUPATION

LUMBER
FARM

60

RAIIO

75

KATIU

60

BUILDING
ANO
EQUIPMENT

RATIO

75

RATIO

LIMITED PRICE
STORES

GENERAL
MERCHANDISING

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

15.55

14.35

15.77

17.14

21.67

1.05

1.40

2.13

2.96

1.65

.47

.60

.54

.54

.90

5.58
.54
1.96
.00
3.37
.00
.00
.33
.13
3.65

13.55
.55
2.02
.CO
5.45
• 00
.00
.36
. 19
4.S8

11.66
.64
5.57
.00
.25
.00
.00
.50
.10
4.22

12.28
.68
5.93
.00
.53
.00
.00
.38
.09
4.66

23.92

^3.09

21.77

17.80

7.05

8.23

14.11

19.72

3.69

CONSTRUCTION CRAE1SMEN
CARPENTERS
ERICKMASONS ARC 1ILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNG EACH OPER
P A I N T E R S ANC PAPERHANC-ERS
PLASTERER S
PIUMBERS AND PIPEFITTERS
ROOFERS ANO SLATERS
STRUCIURAl METALWORKERS

.55
.23
.04
.00
.06
.01
.05
.00
.09
.01
.00

.56
• 25
.06
• 00
.04
.01
.ca
• 00
.06
.02
.00

4.71
1.97
.-,0
.01
.25
.12
.30
.01
1.25
.15
.00

6.13
2.65
.79
.03
.14
.20
.38
.01
1.54
.40
.00

.3 7
.17
.00
.00
.05
.00
.14
.00
.01
.00
.00

ECREMEN

STENOS,
OFFICE

AND

KINORED

WORKERS

TYPIS1S,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

OPERATORS

OTHER CLERICAL,KINGFEC WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
ECCKKEEPERS.HANC
EANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL CARRI E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
S U P P I N G , R E C E I V I N G CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
C L E R I C A L ANE K I N C R E C , N E C

SALES

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

ANE

KINDRED

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

12.01

17.15

18.50

22.55

1.85

.83

1.33

1.87

1.92

1.09

.22

.26

1.08

1.21

14.59
.90
.92
.00
2.58
.00
.00
.87
.41
8.91

18.53
.63
.75
.00
4.32
.GO
.00
.56
.62
11.60

10.96
1.18
.00
.00
3.82
.00
.00
.33
.03
5.60

15.55
.83
.00
.00
6.70
.00
.00
.46
.02
7.54

15.55
.83
1.16
.00
2.25
.00
.00
1.02
.51
9.78

18.41
.60
.91
.00
3.98
.00
.00
1.03
.71
12.19

CO
r-

11.51

CLtRICAL

01HER
GENERAL
MERCHANDISING

45.31

53.40

48.17

43.76

44.90

4.65

1.72

2.25

4.22

5.04

.40
.22
.CO
.00
.07
•CO
.12
.00
.CO
.00
.00

.20
.12
.00
.00
.00
.00
.08
.00
.00
.00
.00

.23
.14
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00

.42
.15
.00
.00
.06
.00
.15
.00
.01
.00
.00

.43
.23
.00
.00
.08
.00
.12
.00
.00
.00
.00

.45

.60

1.51

2.06

.81

.56

.69

.75

.84

.99

METALWKNG CRAFTS EXC MECH
MACHINISIS ANO RELATfC OCC
8LKSMITHS,EGRGMN,EAFMEKMEN
BCILERMAKEPS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHIS
MELDERS,METAL,EXC CGREMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS,METAL.WOOD
R O L LERS ANO REtl HANCS
SHEET METAL WCRKERS
T C O L M A K E R S ANC ClEMAKEPS

.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00

.03
• GO
.00
.00
• CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
-00

.46
.02
.01
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.40
.OC

.44
.02
.Cl
.CO
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.38
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.CO
.00
.00
.cc
.CO
.00
.cc
.CO
.cc
.00
.CO

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.CC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITERS,TYPESETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS,STERhCTYPfcKS
E N G R A V E R S E X C FHCTCfcNGRVfcR
PHCTOtNGRVRS.LITECGRAPhERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.02
.02
.00
.01
.00
.00

.04
.02
.00
•GO
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.OC

.CO
.GO
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.04
.00
.01
.00
.00

.07
•C6
.00
• Cl
.00
.00

.03
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.05
.00
.01
.00
.00

.08
.07
.00
.01
.00
.00

T R A N S P O R T ANC PLE L T I L C R A F T
LINEMEN ANC S E RVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
• GO
• 00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.GO
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

MECHANICS ANL REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH AND REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
R A D I O AN C TV M E C H A N I C S
RR A N D C A R S H C R M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

4.40
.01
3.05
.05
.30
.00
.94

5.24
.01
3.42
.12
.27
.00
1.43

5.71
.01
.90
.01
.10
.00
4.65

7.62
.01
.70
.01
.09
.00
6.82

1.24
.00
.10
.01
.18
.00
.95

2.24
.CO
.18
.01
.36
.00
1.69

.11
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.10

.18
.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.15

1.54
.00
.13
.01
.22
.00
1.18

2.54
.00
.21
.01
.41
.00
1.92

NEC




151
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
TOTAL
RETAIL TRADE

OCCUPATION

LUMBER
FARM

BO

RATIC

75

RATIO

60

RATIC

75

RATIO

LIMITED PRICE
STORES

GENERAL
MERCHANDISING

60

RATIC

75

RATIO

1.71
.00
.25
.08
.62
.02
.00
.00
.16
.01
.00
.33

3.46
.00
1.21
.13
1.33
.01
.00
.00
.29
.02
.00
.46

1.20
.10
.05
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.09
.04
.66

1.01
.13
.02
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.04
.04
.76

10.59

10.79

12.50

15.70

3.97

2.75
1.63
1.12

2.81
1.48
1.33

9.03
8.04
1.00

1 0 . IB
8.74
1.44

.95
.46
.50

TRA N S P A NC PUE LTIL CPE R A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N FR
POWER STATICN CFERATORS
SAILORS AND DECKHANCS

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.01

S E M I S K I L L E D M E T A L W O R K I N G OCC
FORNACEMN.SMELTRMN,POCRERS
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-CUTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMRLERS.MTLWRK.CLASS B
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS B
MACHINE TILL CPER,CLASS 6
ELECTROPLATERS
ELECTROFL ATERS HELPERS

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.21
.00
.00
.21
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CCCCP
KMTTERS,LOLPERS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
SEWERS ANC S T I T C H E R S , M E G

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00

KINDRED

7.80

ASBESTOS,INSULATION WRKS
ATTEND,ALTC SERVICE,PARKNG
B L ASTERS ANC P C W D E R M E N
L A U N D R Y , C R Y C L E A N I N G CHER
MEAT CUTTERS,EXC MEATFCKNG
MINE O P E F AIVS,LABCRERS,NEC
OPERATIVES ANC KINDRED,NEC

OPERATIVES

ANC

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

WORKERS

AND

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HOUSEHOLD

WORKERS

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GOARCS,WATCHMEN,DCORKEEHRS
POL ICE,C TH L AW E N F C R C E CEE
FCCD SERVICE WORKERS
EARTENDERS
CCOKS,EXC PRIV HCUSEHOODS
C O U N T E R AND F OUNTAIN WKRS
W A I TERS ANC WAITR E S S E S
OTHER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,5TWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , H O S P , O T H E R INST
C H A R W O M E N ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTONS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

LABORERS,EXCEFT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

RATIC

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

FARM

ANC

WORKERS




MINE

.69
.20
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.48

1.11
.26
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.85

1.34
.06
.06
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.11
.05
.99

1.00
.11
.02
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.05
.05
.74

3.75

.76

1.15

4.62

4.17

1.24
.52
.71

.05
.04
.05

.15
.07
.08

1.16
.56
.62

1.39
.59
.80

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.OG

.00
.00
.00
.00

.43
.00
.00
.43
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OG
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

7.93

3.25

5.06

3.01

2.55

.69

1.00

3.63

2.77

.01
3.43
.00
.01
l.c5
.00
2.70

.00
3.38
.00
.01
1.37
.00
3.16

.06
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
3.14

.07
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
4.55

.00
.12
.00
.01
.08
.00
2.79

.00
.16
.00
.00
.10
.00
2.29

.00
.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.66

.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.98

.00
.15
.00
.02
.10
.00
3.36

.00
-IB
.00
.00
.11
.00
2.48

16.88

KINDRED

DRIVERS AND DELIVERYMEN
DRIVERS,BOS,TRUCK,TRACTOR
DEIIVERYMEN ANC RCOILMEN

OTHER

60

17.65

.91

.96

5.69

5.06

7.62

9.38

5.13

4.44

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.10
.00
.05
.01

.10
.00
.09
.01

.20
.00
.20
.00

.19
.00
.19
.00

.26
.00
.19
.06

.23
.00
.18
.05

.08
.01
.06
.01

.06
.00
.05
.01

.30
.00
.23
• 07

.25
.00
.20
.05

12.33
1.46
3.12
.90
6.84

12.98
1.46
3.41
1.28
6. 6 3

.03
.00
.01
.01
.01

.02
.00
.01
.00
.01

1.93
.00
.26
.37
1.29

1.99
.00
.23
.55
1.21

5.27
.00
.64
1.04
3.59

6.33
.00
.66
1.64
4.03

1.04
.00
.17
.19
.66

1.36
.00
.17
.40
.80

4.45
.00
.00
.21
.39
.00
3.66

4.77
.00
.00
.34
.41
.00
4.02

.68
.00
.00
.14
.35
.00
.18

.75
.00
.00
.17
.34
.00
.24

3.51
.00
.01
.14
.43
.00
2.92

2.64
.00
.00
.15
.31
.00
2.39

2.46
.00
.00
.10
.35
.00
2.02

2.99
.00
.00
.18
.41
.00
2.40

3.76
.00
.01
.15
.45
.01
3.16

2.82
.00
.00
.14
.29
.00
2.38

3.44

3.57

7.56

6.36

2.23

2.69

3.00

3.59

2.03

2.56

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

O
c

1.75
.21
. LB
.01
.07
. 13
.oo
.09
.01
.03
.12
.51

OTHER
GENERAL
MERCHANDISING

o
o

1-54
.23
.16
.01
.05
.16
.00
.07
.01
.03
.09
• 74

c
o

O T HER C R A F T S M E N AND K I N D R E D
BAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,HEIST MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWELERS AND WATCHMAKERS
LICM FIXERS
OFTICIAKS,LENS GRINDERS
INSPE C T O R S , L O G ANC LUMBER
INSPECTORS,OTHER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC K I N C R E D NEC

BUILDING
AND
EUUIPMC-NT

152
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinued
F O O D ANO
DAIRY STORES

OCCUPATION

AUTO
GAS

60
INDUSTRY

TOTAL

R A 1IC,
100.00

75

RATIO
100.00

60

DEALERS
AND
STATIONS

RATIO

75

AND

PATIO

60

GAS

AUTO
ACCESSORY
DEALERS

RATIO

75

RATIO

6C

STATIONS

RATIO

100.00

I C O . 00

100.00

100.00

100.00

75

APPAREL
AND
ACCESSORIES

PATIO

60

100.00

RATIO

75

RATIO

.53

.32

• 46

•46

.46

.73

.69

.11

.13

.55

.02

.03

.01

.00

.02

.00

.00

.00

o
o

100.00

O
o

100.DC

.DO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00

.00
.o c
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
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.01

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.00
.00
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.00
.00
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.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
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.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.o c
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
EIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GFOLOGISTS'GECFFYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

.00
.00
.00
.o c
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
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.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
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.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TECHNICIANS,EXC MEDICAL.DENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
A I K T R A F F I C CL N T R C L L E R S
RADIO OPERATCRS
TECHNICIANS,OTHER

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.Cl
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.02
.00
.00
.00
.03

.09
.03
.00
.00
.00
.05

.08
.04
.00
.00
.00
.04

. 14
.05
.00
.00
.00
.05

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.o c
.00
.o c
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

MEDICAL,CTHER HEALTH HUNKERS
DENTISTS
CIETITIANS.NLTRIT I C M S T S
NURSES.PPLEESSILNAl
OPTOMETRISTS
C S T E O P A 1H S
PHARMACISIS
P H Y S I C I A N S A N D SLPC-EtNS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
T E C H N I C I A N S , N E C 1C A L . D E N T A L
VETERINARIANS
O T H E R N E T I C AL. HEALTH. R R K R S

.01
.00
• CO
.00
.00
•DO
.00
.00
.00
.00
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.00
.00
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.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
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.00
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.00
.00
.00
.00
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.00
.00
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.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
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.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS.SECONDARY
TEACHERS, COLLEGE
TEACHERS,OTHER

.01
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.02
.00
.00
.00
•G2

.01
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.00
.00
.01

.02
.00
.00
.00
.02

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

SC C l A L S C I E N T I S T S
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
CTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.01
.00
.01
.o c

.01
. 00
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.c o

.01
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

OTHER P R O F , T E C H ANC KINDRED
ACCOUNTANTS ANC AUDITORS
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
APCHITEClS
RRKRS IN A P T S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC DESIGN DRAFT
EDITORS ANC REPORTERS
LAWYERS ANC JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L A NC LAB REL W R K S
PHOTCGRAPEERS
SOCIAL ANL RELEARE RORKERS
PROF,TELE.KINCREC.NEC

.25
.17
.00
.00
.01
.00
.o c
.00
.01
.00
.03
.00
.00
.03

.<*0
.22
.00
.00
.01
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.00
.00

.35
.33
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00

.00
.00

.02

.36
.26
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.04

.62
.54
.01
.00
.02
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.02

.54
.41
.02
.00
.02
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.04

.08
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01

.11
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.02

.54
.17
.00
.00
.05
.00
.13
.00
.01
.00
.05
.00
.00
• 06

.48
.11
.00
.00
.11
.00
.08
.00
.01
.00
.08
.00
.00
.05

MANAGERS.UFFIlIALS.PfcCPRIETCRS

27.82

20.64

26.51

23.41

25.49

22.24

32.59

25.04

27.34

21.54

CONDUCTORS.RAILPCAD
CKFDITMEN
OFFICERS.PILCTS.ENGRS.SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
P U R C H A S I N G A C-ENTS
MANAGERS,CEEICE,PROP. NEC

.00
.01
.00
.00
.03
27.78

.00
.01
.00
.00
.03
20.60

.00
.15
.00
.00
.05
28.28

.00
.31
.00
.00
.04
23.06

.00
.31
.00
.00
.07
25.06

.00
.46
.CO
.00
.06
21.72

.00
.02
.00
.00
.01
32.55

.00
.09
.00
.00
.01
24.94

.00
.48
.00
.00
.03
26.83

.00
.57
.00
.00
.01
20.96

PRC FFSSIONAL

T E C h M C A l ,KI N C R E U

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
ENGINEERS,# EPCNAUTICAl
ENGINEERS.ChERICAL
E N G I N E E R S . C IVIL
ENGINEERS'ELECTPICAL
ENGINEERS'INDLSTRIAL
ENGINEERS,MICHANICAL
ENGINEERS'MITALL UPG,ETC
ENGINEERS.MINING
CTHER ENG I N F E R S . T E C H M C A L




.00

• 06
.00
.00
.09

.01
.00

.00

.00

'

•

153
R a t io s of O ccu p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
fOCD AND
DA I P Y STGKfcS

OCCUPATION

AUTO
GAS

60

RATIO

7a

RATIO

6C

DEALERS
AND
STATIONS

RATIO

75

AND

RATIO

60

AUTC
ACCESSORY
DEALERS

RATIO

75

GAS

RATIO

6G

STATIONS

RATIO

75

APPAREL
AND
ACCESSORIES

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

18.03

28.7/

7.19

7.78

10.81

1C.86

2.38

3.45

12.00

16.67

.39

. 74

l.OC

1.11

1.63

1.63

.16

.39

.91

1.21

.45

.75

.34

.44

.54

.64

.08

.16

.87

1.05

17.15
.4 7
.64
.00
12.37
.00
.00
.19
.03
3.46

27.27
.48
• o7
.00
2 0 . 52
.00
.00
.24
.03
5.32

5.E5
. 58
3.06
.00
.23
.00
.00
.05
.14
1.75

6.2 3
.55
3.35
.00
.24
.00
.00
.06
.14
1.88

8.64
.94
4.25
.00
.32
.00
.00
.16
.23
2.73

8.61
.62
4.27
.00
.31
.00
.00
. 11
.23
2.67

2.14
.09
1.48
.00
.11
.00
.00
.00
.01
.45

2.9C
.16
2.07
.00
.15
.00
.00
.00
.01
.51

10.22
.76
2.14
.00
2.64
.00
.00
.54
.15
3.55

14.42
.87
2.40
.00
4.54
.00
.00
.52
.31
5.77

25.17

16.68

13.06

11.42

22.39

15.24

.67

.49

44.35

45.46

1.83

1. 74

20.6 5

24 . £ 1

25.57

33.13

5.36

13.17

3.62

3.86

CONSTRUCTIC N CRAFISHEN
CARPENTERS
E R I C K M A S C N S ANC TILE S E TKS
C E M E N T , C C N C R E T E EINI SEERS
ELECTRICIANS
E X C A V A T N G » G R A C M - M A C H EJPER
P A I N T E R S ANC F APtRRiANGERS
PLASTERER S
F I C M E E R S ANC P I P E F I T T E R S
ROOFERS AND SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

.15
.07
•OC
.00
.01
.00
.05
.CC
.00
.CO
-OC

. 14
.07
.00
.00
.02
.00
• 05
.00
.00
.00
.00

.14
.07
.00
.00
.01
.00
.0 5
.00
.00
.00
.00

.15
.09
.00
.00
.01
.00
.04
.00
.01
.00
.CO

.19
.10
.00
.00
.02
.00
.07
.00
.00
.00
.00

.20
.11
.00
.00
.02
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.01
.00
.00

.08
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.01
.00
.00

.06
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01
.03
.00
.OC
.00
.00

.08
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00

FCREMEN

CLERICAL
STENUS,
GFEICE

AND

KINDRED

WORKERS

T Y P I S I S . S E C F E I A r IES
MACHINE

CFEr ATCKS

CTHER C L E R 1 C A L , K INCHED VRKRS
A C C O U N T INC C L E R K S
B L C K K E E P E R S » H A NO
HANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A H F 1ERS
POSTAL CLERKS
S U P P I N G . REDE IVING C L E R K S
T E L E P H O N E OF E R A TORS
CLERICAL ANL K I N D RED,NEC

SALES

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

AND

KINDRED

.45

.57

.55

.79

.89

1.24

.10

. 16

.30

.35

ME T A L W K N G C R A f T S END M E C H
M A C H I N I S 1 S A N D R El A T E C I C C
P I K S M ITHS . P C R O - M N . H A M M E R M E N
8CILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS.ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
MULDERS,METAL,EXC CCREMKRS
P A T T E R N M A K E R S ,MET A L ,W O O D
RLLLERS ANC ROLL PANES
SEEET METAL WORKERS
T C C L M A N E R S A N C Cl E M A K E R S

NEC

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.00
•O C
.0 0
.00
.00
.00
.01
.02

.01
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.01

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

PRINTING TRADES CRAFISMEN
CCMPOSITORS,TYPE SETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS.STERECTYPERS
E N G R A V E R S EXC FEE T C E N G R V E R
PHUTOENGRVR S,lITECGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.01
.01
.00
.OC
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
-GO
.uO

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.08
.00
.00
.00
.00
.08

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.20
.00
.00
.00
.00
.20

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.GO

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

TRA N S P O R T AND PIE L1IL CRAET
LINEMtN AND SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE PIREREN

.00
.00
.OC
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

•O C
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH AND REPA1RMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
CEHICE MACHINE MECHANICS
R A D I O A N D IV ME DhA N I C S
RR A N D C A R S E L F M E C H A N I C S
CTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

•29
.00
.05
•C O
.00
.00
.23

. 50
.00
.05
.00
.OG
.00
.46

19.95
.06
15.37
.01
.03
.00
.46

23.35
.07
22.45
.01
.03
.00
.75

2b.1 7
.09
27.31
.01
.05
.00
.70

31.05
.10
25.64
.01
.05
.00
1.26

9.03
.02
8.63
.01
.00
.00
.18

12.53
.02
12.45
.01
.00
.00
.00

.15
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.14

.20
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.20




154
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed
F O O D AND
DAIRY STORES

OCCLPATiON

AUTO
GAS

60
OTHER C R A F T S M E N ANC KINDRED
PAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
C R A N E , D E R R I C K , H I 1ST M E N
G1 A Z I E R S
J E W E L E R S INC W A T C H M A K E R S
LOOM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
I N S P E C T O R S , L O G AND LUMBER
INSPECTORS.GTEER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N AND KINCRED NEC

RATIO
.33
. BA

75

RATIO

.71

60

DEALERS
AND
STATIONS

RATIO
.31
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

75

ANC

RATIO

60

AUTO
ACCESSORY
DEALERS

RATIO

75

GAS

RATIO

60

STATIONS

RATIO

75

APPAREL
ANC
ACCESSORIES

RAIIG

60

KATIC

75

RA1I0

.10

.42
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.02
.11
.24

.2d
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.17
.08

.59
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OG
.02
. 19
.38

.13
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.12

.18
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.GO
.11
.00
.01
.00
.06

3.29
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OG
.OC
.05
.00
3.23

3.22
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
.00
3.14

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.01

.43
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
. Ic

17.23

1 7. id

25.15

26.94

4.79

6.tl

52.17

55.37

7.41

7.01

3.13
1.10
2.03

2 . 70
1.04
1.66

1.23
.89
.40

1.68
1.05
.63

1.43
.86
.57

1.E4
1.03
.62

1.11
.94
.17

1.45
1.07
.38

.23
.09
.15

.30
.12
.16

T R A N S P ANC PUE LTll C PERATVS
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N PR
PLWER STATILN OPERATORS
SAILORS AND CELKPANCS

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.ou
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

.02
.CO
.02
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED METALWORKING OCC
E U R N A C E M N , SME L T R M N , POL R ERS
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC PLAME-CLTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,KTLWkK,CLASS &
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS B
M A C H I N E TC CL C E E R , C L A S S 6
PLECTHOFLATERS
ELECTROFLATERS PELPERS

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.u o
.o o

.05
.00
.00
.05
.00

.08
.00
.00
.08
.00
.00
.00

.09
.00
.00
.08
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OC

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CCDLP
KNITTERS,LOCPERS,IOPPEk S
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,!EXTILE
SEWERS ANC STITCP ERS.MFG

.00

.00

.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00

KINDRED

14.10

ASBESTOS, I N S U L A T I O N WRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERV ICE,PARKNG
B L A S T E R S ANC F O W C E R N E N
LAUNDRY,CRY CLEANING CPER
MEAT C U T T E R S , F X C N E A T P C K N G
M I N E O P ER AT VS » L A E C R ER S , N E C
O P E R A T I V E S ANC K I N C P E C . N E C

.CO
.05

OPERA IIVES

ANE

KINCREE

WORKERS

DRIVERS ARC D E L I V E R Y M E N
[RIVERS,ELS,TRUCK,TRACTCR
DELIVERYMEN ANC RCUTEMEN

OTHER

OPERATIVES

AND

.00
.00

.01
. 10

.00

.12
.00
.00
.12
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00

.00
•C O
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.CO
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1 5 .r 8

23.79

25.17

3.28

4.65

51.03

5 3 . 89

7.18

6.71

.00
.06

.0 0
2 2 . 14

.00

.00

.00

.03
9.20
.00
4.82

.03
8.20

.00
.00

.00
22,35
.00
.00
.00

.00
.93
.00
.00
.00

.00
1.01
.00
.00
.00

.01
50.31
.00
.00
.00
.00
.71

.00
52.22
.00
.00
.01
.00
L. 6 6

.00
.04
.00
.03
.00
.00
7.11

.00
.02
.00
.02
.00
.00
6.67

3.17

.00
.00
.00

.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00

.00

.00

2.82

2.34

3.64

1.98

2. 12

1.09

l.oa

1.54

1.51

.45

.47

3.01

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WATCFMFN,DCGRKEEPRS
POLICE,OTP. LAW E N F O R C E OFF

.06
.00
.06
.01

.07
.00
.06
.01

.05
.00
.05
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00

.08
.00
•08
.00

.05
.00
.05
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.06
.00
.06
.01

.07
.00
.04
.03

FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
EARTENOEPS
C L O K S . E X C PR IV HCISE H C L D S
COUNTER AND FCLNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES

.91
.00
.24
.19
.49

.95
.00
.25
.29
.40

.03
.00
.01
•O C
.02

.03
.00
.00
.01
.02

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.06
.00
.02
.01
.04

.05
.00
.01
.01
.03

.06
.00
.01
.01
.04

.03
.00
.01
.00
.02

1.00
.00
.00
.13
.23
.00
.64

1.11
.00
.00
.23
.29
.00
.59

1.00
.00
.00
.09
.26
.00
.65

1.02
.00
.00
.12
.24
.00
.65

1.44
.00
.00
.13
.44
.00
.87

1.46
.00
.00
.14
.35
.00
.53

.42
.00
.00
.03
.02
.00
.37

.41
.00
.00
.10
.04
.00
.27

2.85
.00
.00
.23
.50
.00
2.16

3.07
.00
.00
.37
.66
.00
2.03

7.62

9.41

3.65

4.11

4.73

5.70

2.22

1. 88

1.47

1.76

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

SERVICE

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HCLSEEC1D

WORKERS

OTHER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRDSSES
ATTENDANTS,HOSP,ETHER INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITUKS ANC SEXTONS
NURSES.PFACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

AND

WORKERS




MINE

O
c

.00

1.64

O
o

.00

7.00

O
o

.00

155
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C ontinu ed

F U R N I T U R E ,
O C C U P A T I O N

F U R N I S H I N G S

t s f l M i
AN D

M I S C E L l A N E G U S

AND

D R I N K I N G

60
I N C L S 1 R Y

75

O T H E R

S T O R E S

R E T A I L
S T O R E S

S T G R E S

KA 110

6 0

R A I I O

75

R A T I O

6 0

R A T I U

75

R A T I O

6 0

R A T I O

75

R A T I O

. 60

R A T I O

75

R A T I O

1 0 0 . 0 0

T O T A L

P R O F E S S I O N A L

R A T I O

D R U G

R E T A I L

P L A C E S

A P P L I A N C E S

T E C F M C A L , KI N U K E D

1 0 0 . 0 0

1 0 0 . 0 0

L O O . 00

I C O . 00

I C C . 00

I C O . 0 0

1 0 0 . 0 0

1 0 0 . 0 0

1 0 0 . 0 0

1.46

1.87

.70

1. 04

9 . 0 1

6 . SI

2 5 . 9 2

2 0 . 4 4

1 . 14

1.01

.05

.09

E N G I N E E R S , A E R C N A L T I C A L

. Uo

.01

.CD

.04

.03

.01

.0 0

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E N G I N E E R S . T E C F M C A L

.05

.00

.00

.00

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.00

.00

.00

.00

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E N G I N E E R S , C E E M I C A L

.00

.00

•OC

.00

.00

.00

.00

. 0 0

.00

E N G I N E E R S , C I V I L

.00

.00

.00

.00

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.00

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.00

E N G I N E E R S . E L E C T R I C A L

.02

.01

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E N G I N E E R S . INCL S T R IA L

.00

.GO

.00

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.00

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.00

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E N G I N E E R S . M I C E / M E A L

.02

.01

.00

.00

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.00

.00

.00

.00

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E N G I N E E P S , M E T A L L O R G , E T C

.00

.00

.0 0

.GO

E N G I NE ER S, R1 N1 NC -

•DC

• 00

.00

.00

.00

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O T H E R

.04

.0 4

.o c

.00

.02

.03

.00

.00

.03

.05

.00

.01

E N G I N E E R S , T I C F N 1 C A L

N A T U R A L

A G R I C U L T U R A L
B I O L O G I C A L

-00

.00

.00

.01

.01

.02

.02

.01

.00

.00

.0 0

.00

.00

.0 0

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.00

S C I E N T I S T S

.02

. 00

.00

S C I E N T I S T S

.01

.00

S C I E N T I S T S

C H E M I S T S

.00

. c c

.00

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

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.00

.00

.00

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. 0 0

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-00

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.00

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. 0 0

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M A T H E M A T I C I A N S
C 1 H E H

.00

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P h Y S I C I S I S

GE C L O G I S I S , G E O P H Y S I C I S T S

.00

.00

S C I E N T I S T S

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

.00

.0 0

.00

.00

RE LI C A L . C E N T

N A T U R A L

T E C H N I C I A N S , E X C

.18

.28

.01

.00

.10

.08

.10

.1 1

.0 9

.06

D R A F T S M E N

.02

.03

.02

.04

.01

.00

.00

.00

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.00

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.00

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.0 0

. 0 0

.0 0

.16

.25

.01

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.06

.06

.06

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.07

.0 4

.01

.01

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2 4 . 9 7

1 8 . 9 4

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.0 6

O t N I I S T S

•00

.00

-OC

.00

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.0 0

.0 0

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D I E T I T I A N S . N U T R I T I O N I S T S

.00

.00

.04

.04

.00

.00

.01

.01

.00

.00

N U R S E S , P R O F E S S I O N A L

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.01

.01

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.0 0

C F T O M E T R 1ST S

.00

.00

•00

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.23

.00

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.34

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.0 0

.00

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T R A F F I C

R A D I O

C C N T R C L L E R S

G F F F A 1 C R S

T F C H N I C I A N S , O T H E R

M E D I C A L , O T H E R

H E A L IE

W O R K E R S

.00

.02

P H A R M A C I S T S
A M

S L F C E O N S

.00

.00

.0 0

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

.01

.01

.00

.00

7 . 9 0

5 . 7 2

2 4 . 8 6

i e . 7 9

.01

.01

.00

O S T E O P A T H S
P H Y S I C I A N S

.01

.02

•CO

.00
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S U R V E Y O R S
AIR

.00

.00

.00

.0 3

.04

.10

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•0 0

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.0 0

T E C H N I C I A N S . M E CIC A L . D E N T A L

.00

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.00

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.0 0

.01

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V E T E R I N A R I A N S

.00

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•0

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.00

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. 0 0

.0 0

. 0 0

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-00

.GO

.01

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.01

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P S Y C H O L O G I S T S

O T h E R

M l t l C A L , H E A L T H

W K K R S

.0 0

.19

.22

•0 4

.16

.03

.04

.01

.0 0

.0 4

.06

T E A C H E R S , E L E M E N T A R Y

.00

.CO

.0 0

.00

.00

.0 0

.00

. 0 0

.0 0

.0 0

T E A C H E R S , S E C C N C A R Y

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

. 0 0

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.0 0

IE AC h E R S , C O L L E G E

.00

•0 0

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

. 0 0

.00

.00

T E A C H E R S , O T H E R

.19

.22

.0 4

.16

.03

.04

.01

.0 0

. 0 4

.06

.02

.03

.00

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.00

. 0 0

.00

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T E A C H E R S

S O C I A L

S C I E N T I S T S

O T H E R

+

P R O F , T E C H

A C C O O N T A M S
A I R P L A N E

A C T U A R I E S

S C I E N T I S T S
ANC

A M

K I N C R E O

A I D I T E R S

H I L C I S . N A V I G A I O R S

A R C H I T E C T S
W K K R S

IN

A R I S . L N T E R T A I N M N T

C L E R G Y M E N

.02

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

.0 0

.00

.01

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

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.0 0

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.96

1. 30

.60

.as

.64

.96

.80

1 . 3 7

.56

.31

.31

•0

5

.07

.15

.16

.11

.11

.18

.18

.00

.0 0

.00

.00

.00

.00

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.00

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.38

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.39

.00

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. 12

.68

.0 7

.08

.05

.08

.07

.07

.00

S O C I A L

.01
.00

E C O N O M I S T S
S T A T I S T I C I A N S
O T H E R

.0 0

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.0 0

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.78

.00

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ANC

R E F C R T E R S

.00

.00

.0 0

.00

.01

.0 0

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L A W Y E R S

AN C

J L C C E S

.01

.01

.00

.00

.01

.01

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.0 0

.01

.01

.01

.01

C F S I G N E R S , E > C

C E S I G N

C

k

AFT

l i e r a r i ans
P E R S O N N E L

.00
AN D

A M

.00

.00

.00

.07

.00

.01

.00

.0 0

.00

.10

.21

RE L

WEI F A R E

W O R K E R S

P R O F . T E C H . K I N L R E C . N E C

M A N A G E K S . O F F I C I A L S . P R L P R I E I C R S
C O N D U C T O R S . R A I L R C

a

.00

.02

.06

.02

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.04

.0 4

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.00

.00

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WR KS

.00
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P H O T t G R A P E E P S
S O C I A L

.20

. iu

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.05

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.46

.48

.99

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2 5 . 3 4
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2 0 . 9 6

17 .1 2

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3 1 . 5 2

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. 0 0

.0 0

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19.

j

C K E D I T M E N

.43

.41

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.20

.21

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.28

O F F I C E R S , F I L C I S . E N G P S , S H I P

.00

.oo

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.00

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P O S T M A S T E R S

.00

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.0 0

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.0 0

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. 0 0

P U R C H A S I N G

ANC

A S S I S T A M S

.01

A C - f M S

M A N A G E R S , O F F I C E , P R O P .




.30

NEC

.01

.04

.03

.08

.11

.01

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.11

.1 6

2 4 . 9 0

19 .2 3

2 0 . 9 2

1 7 . C9

2 4 . 4 /

1 9 . 0 2

1 0 . 1 5

6. 69

3 1 . 1 3

2 3 . 5 2

156
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t,
F L ’R N I T U K f c *
O C C U P A T I O N

F U R N I S H I N G S

F A T I N G
AN U

AN D

0 R I N K 1 N G

M I S C E L L A N E O U S

P L A C E S

C L E R I C A L

A N I

S T E M S .
O F F I C E
O T E E R

75

O T H E R

S T O R E S

R E T A I L

S T O R E S

RA ' I 1 0

6 0

R A T I O

75

R A T I O

60

R A T I O

S T O R E S
75

R A T I O

6C

R A T I O

75

R A T I O

60

R A T I O

75

R A T I O

C P E R A T C K S

C L E R I C A L , K I M R E C

R R K R S

2. 91

A . 64

1 1 . 1 0

15 .1 1

5 . 3 4

1 5 . 1 6

1 1 . 9 2

1 5 . Od

2 . 49

4.28

.15

.33

1 . 6 6

2 . 3 8

.51

.84

2 . 1 6

3 . 0 o

. 51

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R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975--- C o n tin u ed

F I N A N C E ,
O C C U P A T I O N

6 G
I N D U S T R Y

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I N S U R A N C E
R E A L

T O T A L

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75

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P E R S O N N E L

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M A N A G E R S , O F PI CE ,PRC P.




NEC

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159
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o ie c te d f o r 1975 ■ C o n tin u ed
FIN^NCfc.
INSUKANCfc A N D
REAL ESTATE

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
STENUS,
0 EPICE

ANt

KORKEKS

TYPIS1S,SECRETARIES
CPERAICkS

OTHER CLERICAL,KINLHEC KkKRS
A C C O U N T INC- C L E R K S
BCCKKEEPERS.HANL
BANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
PCSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVINC CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
C L E R I C A L A N l K 1NO R E C , N E C

SALES

MORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

75

KAl 1U

60

H A T IL

73

H A T 10

60

H A T 10

75

INSURANCE

STOCK BROKERS
AND
INVESTMENT

BANKS
ANC CREDIT
AGENCIES
RATIO

6C

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RA1I0

75

RATIO

ANC

K I N O k EC

45.18

<♦3. 9 9

61.43

54.36

64.5 8

56.79

40.94

36.69

47.25

45.71

12.57

13.11

11.35

11.20

11.04

11.16

13.43

11.48

18.21

18.53

2.75

3.87

4.80

5.43

5.16

5.60

2.34

4.22

2.31

4.06

29.56
1.47
4.65
4.45
1.06
.00
.00
.04
.47
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1.02
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6.61
1.31
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45.27
1.37
10.9t
11.66
1 • 96
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.65
16.57

37.72
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6.27
14.49
2.51
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48.36
1.41
12.26
13.45
1.93
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• 00
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18.64

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.86
9.09
16.49
2.63
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10.21

25.17
1.16
2.55
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2.02
.00
.00
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1.19
18.10

20.99
.56
2.31
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1.61
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.00
.18
1.25
14.64

26.73
2.25
.53
.00
.73
.00
.00
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.35
22.77

23.13
1.66
.44
.00
.39
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.07
.31
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2 C .S 0

KINDRED

MACHINE

RATIO

FINANCE

19.34

2.61

3.32

.59

.71

15.77

22.21

33.50

33.23

.54

.75

.67

.63

.75

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.00
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.00
.00
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1.65

1.65

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
PRICK M A S C N S ANC TILE SETRS
CtMENT.CCNCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
E K C A V A T N G ,GKAONL- M A C H O P E R
P A I N T E R S AN C E A R t RHANC-ERS
PLASTERERS
P L U M B E R S ANC PIP C R I T T E R S
ROLJFERS A N C S I A I E R S
S T R U C T U R A L KE T A l K L R K E R S

.50
.19
.01
.00
.04
.01
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NEC

METALNKNG CRAFTS tX C MEg H
M A C H I N I S T S ANC R E L A T E L OCC
8LKSMITRS,ECRC-MN,EAMMEkMEN
EOLLERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS.ANNEALERS
MILLIaKIGHlS
MULDERS.METAL,EXC COKEMKRS
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R O L LERS ANC RLLL LANDS
SHEET METAL WCRKEHS
TOOLMAKERS ANC CIEM A K E r S
PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
CCMPOSI TORS.TYPESETTERS
FLECTROTYPEKS.STEi-ECTYPEftS
E N G R A V E R S E K C PEL T O E N G R V E R
PHOTOENGRVRS.lITPCGRAPHERS
PPFSSMEN,ELATE P R I M E R S

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T R A N S P O R T A N D P U B L 1 IL C R A F T
L I N E M E N AND SERVJtEMsEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENCINFERS
LLCOHCTIVE FIREMEN

.00
.00
.00

.00
.00

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ME C H A N I C S AND R E P A IRMEN
A I R P L A N E ME L H AN C K t P A I R M N
MOTOR VERICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
R A D I O A N C TV M E C H A N I C S
RR A ND CAR SRCR M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

.57

-54
.00
.01
.01




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.00

.11
.09
.00
.00
.00
.02

.10
.08
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.01
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00

.53
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.51

.41
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.39

.56
.00

.CG

.00
.02

.00
.GO

.O C

.02
.00
.CO

.54

.C O
,c c
.o c

.00
.00
.00

.00

.C O

.CG

.o c

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.12
.10
.00
.o c

.00
.01

.06

.05
.00
.00
.00
.01

160
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C ontinu ed
FINANCE

FINANCE,
INSURANCE «ND
REAL ESTAT c

O C C liP A T IG N

60
G T H E R C K A E I S M E N ANC K I N C R E C
FAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK.FOIST MEN
GLAZItRS
JtWELERS AND WATCEMAKEKS
LOOM PIXIES
CPTICIANS.LENS GRINFERS
INSPECTORS,EOC- ANC IUMHER
INSPECTORS,CTEER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A E T S M E N ANC KINDRED NEC

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.12
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.06

.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.05

60

RATIO
.09
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.07

75

RATIO

6C

RATIO

.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.OB

.30
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.10
.00
.21

75

KAT1U

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.27
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
.00
.20

.31
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.25
.00
.05

.34
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.26
.00
.06

.67

.37

.40

.37

.53

.40

.21

.13

.05
.06
.03

.10
.05
.05

.08
.04
.OA

.10
.03
.07

.0 7
.03
.04

.05
.02
.0 7

.14
.11
.03

.13
.11
.02

.03
.01
.02

.03
.01
.02

T R ANSP AN D PDE H I E
CPERATVS
E R A K E M E N A N C S B I T C h M E N RR
POWER STATION OPERAIORS
SA1LURS AND DEOKEANCS

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.DO

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.GO
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED MEIALBCRKING CCC
FURNACEMN.SMELTRMN.POURERS
RENTERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FEAMf-COTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLBKK.CLASS A
ASSEMBLEKS.MTLWRK.CLASS B
INSPFCTCRS.MTLBRK.CLASS B
MACHINE TCCL CPER,CLASS E
ELECTROELATERS
E L E C T r O P L AT E P S P E L P E K S

.00
.00
.00
.00
.OG
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.oc
.00
•0 0
.00
.oc
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.DO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CCCUP
KNITTPRS.LOCPERS.TCFPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
BEAVERS.IEXTILE
S PBERS ANC SI1 T C P E R S . M E G

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00

.00
.GO

.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

OTEEK

KINDRED

.31

.27

•34

.26

.33

• r8

.40

.27

.17

.10

ASPESTCS, INSULATION WRKS
AT1EN0.ALT0 SERVICE,PARKNG
B L A S T E R S ANC P C B C E R M E N
L A U N D R Y , C R Y C L E A N I N G CPER
MEAT CUT 1 E R S .EXC MEAT PCKNG
MINE OPERATES,LABORERS,NEC
O P E R A T I V E S ANC K I N D R E D . N E C

.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.26

.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.22

.00
.08
.00
•0 0
.00
.00
.26

.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.18

.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00
.24

.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.17

.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.37

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.27

.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.16

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.10

7.25

A . 6ti

4.97

4.4 7

5.51

4.69

1.47

1.45

1.59

1.53

.00

.CO

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
EIREMFN
GUARDS,WATCPMEN.CCORKEEPKS
PC L I C E , C T P L A B E N F O R C E O F F

.60
.00
.65
.04

.32
.00

1.22

.49

1.16
.04

.50
.00
.66
.02

1.36
.00
1 .32
.04

.58
.00
.56
.02

.31
.00
.2d
.03

.29
.00
.25
.01

.10
.00
.09
.01

.03
.00
.02
.01

FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
FAR IENC ERS
CCO'KS , E X C P R I V h C O S E H C O D S
C O U N T E R ANC F C L M A I N BKRS
WAITERS ANC WAITRESSES

.16
.00
.05
.04
.06

. 10
• 00
.04
.03
.04

.17
.oc
.07
.03

.19
.00
.07
.03
.09

. 13
.00
.05
.03
.05

.06
.03
.00
.03

.05
.00
.02

.OE

.12
.00
.05
.02
.04

.02

.19
.00
.05
.06
.06

.14
.00
.04
.05
.05

6.45
.00
.00
-S3
2.62
.01
2.89

A . 03
.00
.00
.64
1.65
.00
1. 76

3.56
.00
.00
.63
1.61
.00
1.34

3.45
.00
.00
.83
1.6b
.00
.55

3.96
.00
.00
.71
1.78
.00
1.4o

3.76
.00
.00
.92
1.62
.00
1.C4

1.11
.00
.00
.11
.48
.00
.52

1.12
.00
.00
.17
.63
.00
.32

1.30
.00
.00
.29
.36
.01
.64

1.37
.00
.00
.32
.40
.00
.65

1.59

1.34

.16

.11

.15

.11

.26

.15

.11

.09

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HOLSEPOLC

WORKERS

CTPFR SERVICE wCRKtRS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STBRCSSES
A T T E NDANTS,POSP,OTHER INST
CHARwUMEN ANC CLEANERS
J A M T U R S ANC S I X T C N S
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE BCRKE RS.NEC

LABCRERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

ANC

WCRKtRS




NINE

.03

.OC

O
o

.40

OPEKAliVES

BURNERS

.2b
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.10
.00
. 15

o
o

KINDRED

RATIO

INSURANCE

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
CRIVFKS,ElS,TRUCK.TRACTOR
DELIVERYMEN ANT RCCTEMEN

SERVICE

AND

7b

.25
.00
.U1
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.11
.00
.17

STUCK 3RCKERS
AND
INVESTMENT

O
O

OPERATIVES

RA1IU

BANKS
ANC CREDIT
AGENCIES

.00

.Cl

.oc

.uo

161
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an.d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C ontinu ed
*6AL

f ST AT t
c

TOTAL
SERVICES

OCCLPATION

60
INDLSTRY

TOTAL

tfAlIG

75

60

RATIO

75

75

RATIO

LAUNDRY,
CLEANERS AND
VALET

OTHER
PERSONAL
SERVICES

KAU C

fcC R A T I O

100.GO

100.00

ICO.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

k

A rIU

HOTELS
AND GThER
LODGING PLACES
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO
100.00

.16

.52

1.12

32.04

23. oe

1.59

2.32

4.17

3.17

.13

.05

.07

.62

1.03

.01

.01

.01

.00

.01

o
o

100.00

.00
.00
.02
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.01

• 00
.00
.02
.00
.02
.01
.00
.00
.01

.01
.02
.15
.13
.04
.10
.01
.OC
.16

.03
.03
.17
.23
.09
.15
.01
.00
.31

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
-Cl
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.OC
.OC
.00
.00
.00
.OC
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

N ATOk AL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
EIOLOGIC A L SCIENTISTS
GECLOGISTS.GECPhYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

.Cl
.00
.GO
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.01

• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
•00

.42
.12
.02
.10
.01
.03
.06
.0 7

.65
.16
.06
.15
.02
.08
.13
.07

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.CO

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OC
.00

.00
.00
.GO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TECHNICIANS.tXC REDICAL,DENT
Craftsmen
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C CINT F L L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNIC IANS,CTEER

.06
.00
.04
.00
.00
.Cl

.08
. 00
.07
•00
.00
.01

.9 2
.34
.1 1
.00
.00
.46

1.38
.44
.11
.00
.00
.63

.01
.00
.00
.oo
.00
.01

.02
.00
.00
.oo
.00
.02

.03
.00
.01
.00
.00
.02

.05
.00
.01
.00
.00
.04

.01
.00
.OC
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

MEDICAL,OTHER EEALTE TURNERS
0ENTIST5
DIETITIANS,NUTRIT I L M S T S
NURSES.PROF ESSIINAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISIS
P H Y S I C I A N S ANT S U R G E O N S
PSYCHOLOGISTS
T E C H N I C I A N S , R E T It A L , D E N T A L
VETERINARIANS
OTHER RECITAL,EEALTE RKKRS

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

• 01
• 00
.00
.01
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

7.65
.5 1
.17
3.25
.09
.05
.04
1.4b
.10
.91
.01
1.15

8.25
.50
.14
3.37
.06
.07
.05
1.47
.14
1.54
.01
.89

.09
.00
.03
.01
•o o
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05

.10
.00
• C3
.61
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05

.31
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.30

.26
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.28

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OC

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS.ELEMENTARY
Tfc A C H E R S , S E C C N T A R Y
.
TEACHERS,CCLLEC-E
TEACHERS,CTEER

.01
.DC
.00
.00
.01

.01
-00
.00
.CO
.01

13.00
6 .6 1
4.07
1.35
.93

12.11
4.50
4.41
1.63
.51

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.oo
.00
.00

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS * ACTUARIES
OTHER SCCIAl SCIENTISTS

.02
.01
.01
.00

.01
.01
• 00
.00

.06
.03
.0 2
.01

.06
.04
.03
.02

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

OTHER P R O F ,TECH ANC KINCRED
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC A 0 0 ITCRS
AIRPLANE PILOTS.NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
W R K K S IN A R T S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CES1GN DRAFT
FCITORS AND REFCRTERS
LAWYERS AND JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L A ND LAE REL W RKS
PHOTOGRAFEERS
SODIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PRCF.TECF ,KINCREL,NEC

.76
.34
•O C
.01
.01
.00
.01
.01
-IS
.00
.02
.00
.02
.16

.54
.32
• GO
.01
.01
.00
• 01
.01
.11
.00
.02
.00
.02
.43

5.17
.64
.01
.17
2.6 3
1.35
.11
.11
1.13
.51
.10
.20
.25
1.70

5.53
.53
.01
.16
2.67
.56
.15
.10
1.00
.49
.14
.11
.30
2.52

1.46
.57
.00
.00
.40
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.02
.00
.01
.44

2.16
.61
1 .00
.00
.60
.00
.CO
.CO
.01
.00
.01
.CO
.01
.91

3.80
.05
.00
.00
.21
.00
.02
.00
.01
.00
.01
1.60
.00
1.89

2.82
.04
.00
.00
. 16
.00
.03
.00
.02
.00
.04
.66
.01
1.87

.11
.06
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01

.16
.05
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.01

MANAGERS,OFFICIALS.ERCPRIETOKS

21.76

2 6 . 54

6.29

5.74

20.45

19.69

10.10

6.76

16.16

15.25

CGNUUCTGRS,RAILROAD
CREOITMEN
OFFICERS,PILOTS,6NGRS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
M A N A G E R S , C F F I C E , P R O P . NEC

.01
.01
.01
.00
.12
21.63

.00
.01
.00
.GO
. 16
26.37

.00
.02
.01
.00
.07
6.19

.00
.03
.01
.00
.08
5.62

.00
.03
.00
.00
.11
20.31

.00
.03
.00
.00
.13
19.73

.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
10.09

.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
6.75

.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
18.17

.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
15.25

PROFESSIONAL

T£ LENIT A L ,K I N O R E C

ENGINEERS, TECENKAl
ENGINEERS,ATRtNALTICAL
ENGINEERS, C E E M C A E
ENGINEERS,CIVIL
ENGINEERS.ELECTRlfAL
ENGINEERS,INClSTRIAL
ENGINEERS ,MECEAMCAl
tNGINFERS,RETA1LLRG,ETC
ENGINEERS, N 1 M N G
LIFER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL




162
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C o n tin u ed
REAL

ESTATE

TOTAL
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

OFFICE

KINDRED

WORKERS

TYPISTS.SECRETARIES
M A C E INE

OPERATOR S

OTHER CLERICAL,KINCFEO WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BC G K K E E F E R S . H A N D
BANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SLIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
C L E R I C A L ANC K 1 N 0 F E C , N E C

SALES

75

R A T 1U

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

LAUNDRY V
CLEANERS AMD
VALET

OTHER
PERSONAL
SEKV ICES
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

15.66

19.04

11.75

14.64

9.52

10.64

7.66

7.79

13.29

7.21

a. 76

4 . SC

6.03

.64

.99

.43

.31

.47

.47

. 17

.24

.17

.30

.34

.47

.26

.26

.54

.60

6.o8

6.31
.26
.72
.00
.35
.00
.00
.05
.37
6.56

8.34
.62
.03
.00
.97
.00
.00
.04
1.11
5.58

9.39
.72
.05
.00
1.06
.00
.00
.02
1.44
6.C6

6.99
.40
.47
.00
.34
.00
.00
.15
.07
5.55

7.21
.33
.35
.00
.37
.00
.00
.12
.05
5.99

12.29
.52
.69
.00
.61
.00
.00
.30
.09
9.87

15 . 34
.44
.78
.00
.79
.00
.00
.23
.07
13 . 0 3

6.48
.30
1.92
.00
.15
.00
.00
.00
.24
5.62

.33

.2c

2. 19

.71
.00
.37
•o o
.00
.05
.33
4.45

.co
.16
.00
.00
.00
.17
7.20

16 .4 1

3 0 . 13

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

RATIO

c

STENUS,

ANC

o

60
CLERICAL

HOTELS
ANO OTHER
LODGING PLACES

ANC

KINDRED

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
BRICKMASC NS ANC TILE SETHS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRADNG MACH OPER
P A I N T E R S ANC P A F E R H A N G E R S
PLASTERERS
P L U M B E R S A N C E I EE E 1 T T E R S
RCCEERS ANC SLA1ERS
S T R U C T U R A L M E T A L V C R K E RS

32- Ob

.61

.62

.24

.18

1.21

.89

l.ac

1.35

4.30

4. 55

5.33

4.67

3.49

3.94

3.51

3.24

3.78

5.12

2.02
.71
.03
.00
. 10
.05
.97
.06
.09
.01
.00

2-6B
.9*
-02
.00
-05
-05
1*39
. 10
• 06
• 00
-CO

.73
.19
.01
.DC
.14
.01
.30
.01
.06
.00
.00

.64
.21
.01
.00
.12
.02
.21
.01
.06
.00
.00

1.10
.40
.00
.00
.12
.00
.51
.03
.04
.00
.00

1.26
.56
.00
.00
.12
.00
.48
.04
.06
.CO
.00

.06
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01

.06
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.01
.00
.00
.00

.05
.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01

.06
.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01

.32

.40

.25

.30

.12

.17

.65

.62

1.39

1.57

M F T A L W K N G C RAEIS EXC MECH
M A C H I N I S T S ANC R E L A T E C OCC
PLKSHITHS.ECRGMN.HAMMERMEN
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILL Wk I G F 1S
Ml.LOERS,METAL ,EXC C C R E M K R S
PATTERNMAKERS.METAL,WOOD
RO L L E R S ANC RCLl H ANDS
SHEET METAL WCRKERS
TOOLMAKERS ANC CI1MAK1RS

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.01
-00
.00
• 00
.00
-CO
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.11

.02
.04
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.02
.01

.08
.02
.01
.01
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.03
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
•C O
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
C O M P O S 1T O R S , T Y P E S E T TERS
ELECTROTYPERS,STERECTYPERS
E N G R A V E R S EXC P E C T O E N G R V E R
P H O T Q t N G R V R S ,L I T H C G R A P E E R S
P R E S S M E N , F L A T ! FRINTERS

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
-01
•C O
.00
.00
.00

.04
.03
.00
.00
.00
.01

.04
.02
.00
.00
.00
.01

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.o c
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

T R A N S P O R T ANC PUB UTII CRAFT
LINEMEN AND SE R V I C E M E N
LtCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LCCOMUTIVE FIREMEN

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

M E C H A N I C S ANC R E P A I R M E N
A I R P L A N E M E C H ANC R 6 P A I R M N
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV MECHANICS
RR A N D C A R S H O P M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

1.40
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
1.36

1.04
.00
-04
.00
.00
.00
1.00

3.15
.01
1.56
.0 7
.35
.00
1.14

2.95
.02
1.18
.07
.28
.00
1.40

1.47
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
1.45

1.74
.CO
.01
.CO
.00
.00
1.73

.47
.00
.08
.00
.00
.00
.38

.94
.00
.11
.00
.01
.00
.82

.86
.00
.16
.00
.00
.00
.69

2.09
.00
.27
.00
.00
.00
1.82

FOREMEN

NEC




163
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C ontinued
REil

ESTATE

60
C T U R C R A F TSMEN AND KINDRED
BAKERS
CABINETRAKFRS
CRANE,DERRICK,EXIST MEN
GLAZIERS
J E W E L E R S ANE W A T C H M A K E R S
LCCM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
I N S P E C T O R S , L O G ANC LUMBER
INSPECTORS,OTHER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N A N D K I N C R E U NEC

HOTELS
AND OTHER
LODGING PLACES

TOTAL
SERVICES

O C C U R * I ION

RAIIO

K AT 1U

.52
.00
.01
.01
.01
.00
.OG
.00
.00
.00
.00
.49

.41
.00
.01
.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.36

60

RATIO
1.05
.06
.04
.00
.00
.07
.00
.01
.00
.0 7
.13
.67

75

RATIO
.86
.0 7
.02
.01
.00
.04
.00
.01
.01
.09
.11
.50

60

RATIO

75

LAUNDRY ,
C L EANERS ANC
VALET

OTHER
PERSONAL
SERVICES

RATIO

6 C RATIO

.78
• 18
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
.55

.76
.24
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.47

2.31
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
2.30

75

1.59
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
1.55

1.46
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.01
1.45

1.37
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
1.36

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.6 8

.75

5.45

4.62

2.05

2.61

31.60

25.04

60.01

58.80

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
D R I V E R S , E L S . T R U C K , T R A C TOR
DELIVERYMEN ANC RCUTEMEN

.2U
- 16
.03

.21
. 17
.04

.55
.52
.47

.96
.56
.40

.12
.07
.04

.12
.06
.03

4.45
1.23
3.23

4.64
.67
3.96

8.5 3
2.55
6.43

11.37
1.69
5.69

TRANSP ANC PUE UTIL OFERATVS
B R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATION CPERAIORS
S A I L O R S ANC D I C K E A N L S

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

S E M I S K I L L E D M E T A L W O R K I N G CCC
FURNACEMN.SMELTRRN,FOURERS
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-CUTTERS
ASSEMBLERS.MTLWRK.CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS.MTLWRK.CLASS 8
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS 8
MACHINE TCCL LE E R , C L A S S 0
ELECTROPLATERS
ELECTROPLATERS HELPERS

.00
.00
.00
.00
•0 0
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.GO
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.18
.00
.00
.18
.00
.00
.oc
.00
.00

.18
.00
.00
.18
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.oo
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEWISKILLEC IEXTILE CCCUP
KMTTHRS.LOCPERS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TFXIILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
S E W E R S A N C ST I T C H E R S , M F G

.00
•0 0
.00
.00
.00

.00
.oo
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.c c

.00
.00
.GO

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

ANC

KINDRED

WORKERS

.C o

.c c

4.32

3.47

1 .92

2.48

27.13

20.40

51.02

47.42

.50

.00
.15
.00
2.60
.02
.00
1.55

.00
.15
.00
1.78
.03
.00
1.52

.00
.14
.00
.84
.11
.00
.84

.00
.16
.00
1.38
.15
.00
.80

.00
.00
.00
23.97
.00
.00
3.16

.00
.00
.00
18.66
.00
.00
1.74

.00
.01
.00
5 0 . 6C
.00
.00
.41

.00
.01
.00
47.15
.00
.00
.25

20.08

10.03

35.76

33.93

61.43

41.00

52.71

1.70

2.17

.00

•00

14.98

10.85

.oo

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WATCHMEN.DCCRKEEPRS
POLICE,ETh LAW ENFORCE OFF

.75
.00
• o7
.08

.48
.00
.38
. 10

.52
.01
.42
.05

.51
.01
.46
.05

.43
.00
.34
.09

.37
.DO
.33
.05

.11
.00
.09
.02

.07
.00
.06
.01

.16
.00
.16
.00

.09
.00
.09
.00

FOOD SERVICE WORKERS
BARTENDER S
C O O K S , E X C P R IV H C L S E H O L D S
COUNTER AND FOUNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS ANC WAITRESSES

.08
.00
.02
.02
.04

.00
.01
.00
.01

2.84
.16
1.40
.37
.91

3.01
.11
1.38
.52
1.00

13.95
1.33
4.20
.15
8.19

13.98
.91
3.97
.24
8.86

.04
.00
.01
.01
.03

.03
.00
.01
.01
.01

.08
.00
.02
.01
.05

.06
.00
.02
.Cl
.04

19.25
.00
.00
2.42
7.85
.01
8.98

9.53
.00
• 00
.76
3.53
• 00
5.24

17.43
.00
2.99
.72
2.28
1.50
9.94

19.55
.00
4.33
.94
2.68
1.86
9.75

47.04
.00
.02
2.16
1.26
.06
43.54

44.61
.00
.01
4.10
1.02
.04
39.44

40.85
.00
.01
.33
.48
.03
40.01

52.62
.00
.01
.49
.69
.04
51.38

1.46
.00
.01
.02
.60
.00
.82

2.02
.00
.03
.02
.98
.00
.99

6.24

5.93

2.73

2.49

1.24

1.27

.73

.41

1.12

. 73

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

SERVICE

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HOLSEECIC

WORKERS

OTHER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRDSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , H C S P , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN AND CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTONS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

LABORERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM.

FARM

ANC

WORKERS




MINE

.o o

.00

.00

o
o

.54
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00

OPERATIVES

o
o

.46
.00
.05
.00
.01
.00
•0 0
.41

OTHER

o
o

KINDRED

ASBFSTOS,INSULATION WRKS
A T T E N D , A U T O S E R V I C E ,PAHK N G
B L A S T E R S ANC F C W L E R M E N
LAUNDRY,CRY CLEANING OPER
MEAT C U T T E R S , E X C MEA T P C K N G
MINE uPERATVS,LABORERS.NEC
O P E R A T I V E S ANT K I N D R E D , N E C

CC

OPERATIVES

164
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d fo r 1975
ALL OTHER
PERSONAL
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

MISCELLANEOUS
BUSINESS
SERVICES

fcC R A T I u
100.00

1 00.CO

ICO.00

100.00

17.86

14.54

16.27

14.46

4.6b

.04

.10

3.7 7

.1C
.16
.10
1.1C
.45
.47
.0 ?
.01
.El

.23
.16
.10
1.49
.74
.62
.07
.01
1.26

.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
.00
.00
.02

.CO
.00
.00
•Cl
.01
.01
.00
.00
.07

.01
. GO
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
• 00

1.15
.4 7
.13
.04
.04
.IE
.24
.06

1.71
.70
.14
.07
.09
. 36
.31
.02

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.Oc
.01
.01
.00
.00
.04

.06
.00
.01
.00
.00
.07

J.l 1
1.07
.OS
.00
.02
1.95

4.33
1.18
.11
.00
.05
3.00

M E C I C A L , O T H E R H E A L T H RCiRKERS
DENTISTS
D I e T I T I A N S . N C T R I T I C M STS
N O R S E S , F R O E ESS IENAL
CFT0METR1STS
CSTEGPATFS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS AND SCRGEONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNIC TANS.MLOICAL,DENTAL
VLTFRINARIANS
OTHER MELICAL,HEALTH RRKRS

• 59
.00
.00
• cc
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.57

.46
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
-00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.46

.12
.00
.01
.01
•oo
.00
.01
.01
.05
.02
.00
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECCNEARY
TEACHERS,COLLEGE
TEACHtRS.CTEER

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

SCCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS - ACT0AR1ES
*
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.01
.00
.00
.00

.01
-o u
.01
.00

.30
.07
.00

C T E F R PKClF,TECH ANC K I N D R E D
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC A U D I T O R S
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
R R K R S IN A R T S , E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC EESIGN CRAFT
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
LAMYERS ANC JUCGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND LAB REL MRKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANU WELFARE MURKERS
PRCF,TECH,KINEREC,NEC

7.09
.03
.00
.00
.36
.00
.03
.00
-03
.00
.01
3.03
-01
3.57

4.56
.03
.00
• 00
.23
.00
.05
.00
.03
.00
- 02
1.06
.02
3.09

MANAGERS.OFFICIALS,PRCPRIETCRS

2.88

CCNOUCTORS.PAILRCAC
CkEOITHEN
O F F I C E R S , P I L C T S,E N G R S , S H I P
PCSTMASTEPS ANC ASSISTANTS
P U R C H A S I N G AC-ENIS
M A N A G E R S , O F F I C E , P R O F . NFC

.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
2.87

RATIO

75

RATIO

10C.CG

100.00

100.00

7-76

5.13

.00

.00

3.26

.ec
• OC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

• GO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
G E O L O G I S T S , C E L PHY SIC I STS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
01 H E R N A T U R A L S C I E N T I S T S

-02
.OC
.OC
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00

TECHNICIANS.EXC MECICAL.OEM
DRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR TRAEF1C CCNTRCLIERS
RAOIC UPERAICRS
TECHNIC IANS.CTFER

PROFESSIONAL

T E C E M C A l , K I NL'RED

ENGINEERS.TECHNICAL
ENGINFERS,A ERINALTICAL
ENGINEERS,CEEPICAL
ENGINEERS,CIVIL
ENGINFtRS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS,INDUSTRIAL
ENGINEERS,NEC! A M C A L
FNGINFERS,METALLURG.EIC
ENGINEERS,PININCCIHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL




75

AUTU
REPAIR
SERVICES

HAT 10

TUTAL

K A 11L

OTHER MISC.
BUSINESS
SERVICES

100.00

60
INDUSTRY

60

ADVERTISING

C ontinu ed

76

RATIO

60

RATIC

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

7b

RATIO

100.00

100.00

17.83

.44

. 78

5.01

.01

.01

.11
.IS
.12
1.27
.52
.54
.08
.01
.93

.25
.17
.11
1.60
.80
.66
.Ob
.01
1.34

.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.01
.00
.OC
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00

•C2
.02
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.33
.54
.15
.04
.05
.20
.27
.07

1.83
.75
. 15
.Ob
.10
.39
.33
.02

.CO
.OC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.01
.04
.00
.00
.02

.11
.01
.CE
.00
.00
.02

3.59
1.23
•OB
.00
.02
2.25

4.63
1.26
.11
.00
.05
3.21

.02
.00
.OC
.OC
.00
.01

.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03

. 14
.00
.04
.01
.00
.00
.01
.01
.04
.02
.01
.00

.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.02
.00
.00
.o u

•C4
.CO
.CO
•CO
.00
.GO
.00
.Cl
.03
.00
.CO
.00

.13
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.01
.01
.05
.02
.01
.00

.15
.00
.04
.01
.00
.00
.01
.01
.04
.02
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.OC
.CO
• OC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.o o
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.o o
.00
.03

.05
.00
.00
.00
.05

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
•C O
.CO
.00

.04
.00
.00
.00
.04

.06
.CO
.00
.00
.06

.24
.00
.00
.00
.24

.52
.00
.00
.00
.52

.it

.40
.32
.08
.00

.33
.25
•O B
.00

.44
.30
.14
.00

.39
.31
.03
.00

.40
.32
.08
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

6.4 1
1.04
.01
.01
1.3 1
•o o
. 72
.o o

6.55
.61
.03
.01
.71
.00
.73

.03
.63
.IS
.03
1.4 b

.03
.07
.69
.23
.01
2.82

17.56
1.42
.00
.00
6.57
.00
1.00
5.04
.07
.22
.26
.36
.00
2.63

5.20
.98
.01
.01
.54
.00
.76
.31
.06
.03
.71
.20
.03
1.55

5.77
.55
. C3
.01
.30
.00
.71

.06

14.03
1.40
.01
.00
6.15
.00
.42
4.57
.03
.07
.14
.17
.00
1.06

.05
.06
.72
.22
.01
2.83

.18
.17
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.22
.18
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03

1.21

21.44

1 5 . 70

30.75

31.58

19.96

14.57

16.34

15.98

.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
1.20

.Ou
.17
.01
.00
.34
2C.S2

.00
.18
.01
.00
.31
15.21

.00
.14
.02
.00
.33
30.27

.00
.26
.02
.00
.19
31.11

.00
.17
.01
.00
.34
19.44

.00
.17
.01
.00
.32
14.08

.00
.01
.00
.00
.04
16.29

.00
.01
.00
.00
.05
15.51

14.4 7

.59

•2 e

165
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 197 5— C ontinu ed
—
ALL O T H E R
PERSONAL
SERVICES

O C C U P A I ION

60
CLERICAL
STENDS,
OFFICE

ANl

KINOREE

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

CPERATORS

OTHER CLERICAL,K1NCREC wRKRS
ACCOUNT1NG CLERKS
8COKKEEFERS,HANL
RANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
WAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SLIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
C L E R I C A L ANl K I N C R E L , NEC

RAT1U

75

MISCELLANEOCS
BUSINESS
SERVICES
RATIO

60

RATIO

75

OThER MISC.
BUSINESS
SERVICES

ADVERTISING

RATIO

60

R A 110

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

AUTO
REPAIR
SERVICES
RA1 10

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

7*66

2. 15

26.33

28.58

32.40

33.49

27.67

28.23

4.36

.40

.21

10.52

10.72

11.8u

12.05

10.31

10.62

.42

.46

.01

.03

.52

1.13

.53

1.35

.52

1.11

.23

.25

2.25
-TO
.OS
.00
.11
.00
.00
.03
.04
1.65

1.91
.26
.00
. 10
.00
.ou
.04
.04
1. 39

17.26
.61
1.27
•C O
.13
.00
.00
.22
1.16
13.66

16.73
.50
1.10
.00
.06
.00
.00
.25
1.05
13.76

20.15
.96
1.52
.00
.05
.Ou
.00
.25
.49
16.8b

20.04
.56
1.58
.00
.05
.00
.00
.20
.48
16.37

16.63
.56
1.23
.00
.14
.00
.00
.23
1.27
13.40

16.49
.47
1.04
.00
.06
.00
.00
.26
1.05
13.57

3.71
.38
1.72
.00
.30
.00
.00
.03
.02
1.26

5.94
.46
2.49
.00
.47
.00
.00
.08
.02
2.43

.01

6.65

.b 9

. 59

4.35

4.07

10.04

8.05

3.50

3.75

1.15

1.06

3.28

2.00

8.72

8.68

5.59

3.4 1

5.22

9.05

58.38

51.50

CONSTRUCTION CRAEISMEN
CARPENTERS
P K I C K M A S C N S A N D IILE SE T R S
C E M E N T , C D N C R E 11 F I N I S H E R S
ELrCTRICIANS
F X C A V A T N G . G R A C N C - l>ACh O P E R
P A I N T E R S ANL P A F L R F A N C E R S
PLASTERERS
P L U M B E R S ANL P I P E F I T T E R S
ROOFERS AND SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS

•U 6
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.01
.GO
.GO
.00

.06
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.01
.00
. 00
.00

2.75
.22
.00
.00
•2 6
.06
2.11
.00
.05
.00
.00

1.64
.37
.00
.00
.30
.11
.81
.00
.04
.00
.00

2.55
.38
.00
.00
.17
.01
1.98
.00
.01
.00
.00

1.56
.33
.00
.00
.16
.01
1.08
.00
.01
.00
.00

2.78
.19
.00
.00
.27
.07
2.13
.01
.10
.00
.00

1.64
.37
.00
.00
.31
.12
.79
.00
.05
.00
.00

.28
.04
.01
.00
.05
.01
.18
.00
.00
.00
.00

.30
.01
.01
.00
.03
.01
.24
.00
.00
.00
.00

FOREMEN

SALES

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

ANL

KINDRED

.00

.00

.52

1.24

.51

.32

.99

1.30

.85

.92

M E T A L W K N G C R A F T S EXC MFC h
M A C H I N I S T S A N C R EL A T E C G C C
B L K S M I T H S ,FGRC-MN,HAMMER MEN
BOILERMAKERS
HFa T TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
MULOERS,METAL,EXC CCREMKRS
PA1TERNMAKERS.ME IAL.WLGD
KILLERS AND RCLL LANDS
SHEET METAL WLRKERS
T O O L M A K E R S ANL D 1 E M A K E R S

.00
.00
.00
.GC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• oo
.00
.00
.00
.00

.27
.03
.uC
.00
.00
.02
.00
.06
.00
.12
.03

.43
.05
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
.11
.00
.21
.00

.22
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.19
.00

.17
.00
.00
.cc
.00
.00
.GO
.02
.00
.15
.00

.27
.03
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.07
.00
.11
.03

.44
.05
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
.12
.00
.21
.00

.07
.02
.01
.CC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.01

.05
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOS ITDRS,TYPE SETTERS
ELECTROTYFERS,STEREDTYPERS
F N G RAVERS EXC PECTCEN G K V E R
P H L Tf E N G R V R S . L IT E C G R A P E E R S
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.03
.02
.00
.00
.01
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.26
.15
.00
.00
.02
.04

.15
.04
.00
.00
.02
. 10

.50
.37
.00
.00
.05
.Od

.13
.06
.00
.00
.01
.06

.22
.16
.00
.00
.02
.04

.15
.04
.00
.00
.02
.10

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

T R A N S P O R T A N C P L E 1 1 II C R A F T
LINEMEN AND SE R V I C E M E N
LECCMOIIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

-00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.go
.00

.03
.03
.00
.00

.13
.13
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.04
.00
.00

.13
.13
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

MECHANICS

. 12
.00
-01
•G O
.01
.00
.10

.19
. 00
.01
.00
.01
.00
. 17

2.73
.03
.07
.36
.07
.00
2.20

3.27
.07
.14
.55
.10
.00
2.42

1.43
.00
.02
.02
.00
.00
1.40

1.13
.00
.02
.02
.00
.00
1 . 10

2.93
.03
.08
.42
.08
.00
2.32

3.43
.07
-15
.58
.11
.00
2.51

56.25
.04
55.47
.03
.04
.00
.71

49.06
.04
47.85
.03
.04
.00
1.10

NEC

ANC REPAIRMEN

AIRP L A N E MECH ANC REPA I K M N
MuTOR VEHICLE R E C L A M E S
C’ E I C E M A C H I N E M E C H A N I C S
F
RADIO ANC TV MECHANICS
RR AND CAR SRC F M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECEANICS AND REPAIR




166
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, 19 C an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C o n tin u ed
T
—
ALL OTHER
PERSONAL
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

60

RATIO
3.07
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
•CO
.00
.00
.01
3.06

75

R A f ID

60

RA1IG

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

OTHER MISC.
BUSINESS
SERVICES
RATIO

I. 14
.00
.00
.00
.00
.oo
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
1.66

1.77
.00
.02
.05
.00
.02
.00
.00
.02
• 34
.03
1.28

1.83
.00
.04
.11
.00
.05
.00
.00
.07
.41
.07
1.08

.38
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.36

.08
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.oo
.00
.00
.00
.08

.02

6C

RATIO

75

AUTC
REPAIR
SERVICES
RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

1.09
.00
.03
.06
.00
.02
.00
.00
.03
.35
.03
1.42

1.95
.00
.05
.12
.00
.05
.00
.00
.07
.44
.07
1.15

.86
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.71
.10

1.16
.00
.oo
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.75
.34

5.08

4.63

3.55

8.74

9.47

12.05

16.56

.41
.04
.37

-23
.01
.22

I.h O
•80
.60

1.16
.91
.25

.70
.16
.55

.90
.11
.75

1.51
.90
.60

1.18
.97
.21

1.25
.91
.34

2. 16
1.57
.58

T PANSP ANC PUE UTIL O F E K A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N D S W I T C H M E N RR
POWER STATICN OPERATORS
SAILORS AND DECKEANCS

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
•0 0

.CO
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.cc
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMI S K I LLFC M E T A L W O R K I N G CCC
F U R N A C E M N .SPEC TRMN. P O U R E R S
HEATERS,METAL
-ELDERS ANC F L A M E-CUTTERS
ASSEMBLERS.MTLWRK.CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS.MTLWRK,CLASS B
INSPECTORS,MTLWRK,CLASS t
)
M A C HINE TECC O P E R , C L A S S 8
ELECTRCFLATERS
ELECTROfl ATERS HELPERS

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
•00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.10
•00
.00
.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.19
.00
.00
.19
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
•co
.CO
.03
.00
•CO
.00
.00
.00
.00

.11
.00
.00
.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.20
.00
.00
.20
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.4b
.00
.00
.46
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.72
.00
.00
.72
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE CCCUP
KNITTERS.COCPERS.TQFRERS
SFINNERS.IEXTUE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
SEWERS AND S T i i c e e r s .m f g

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.CO
• 00
.00

•0 0
.00
•0 0
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
•oo
.00

.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

KINDREO

5.75

2. 76

6.6 6

7.73

3.90

2.62

7.12

10.34

13.68

ASBESTOS,INSCCATICN WRKS
ATTEND.ALTEi S E R V I C E , P A R K N G
BLASTERS AND FCWLERMEN
L A U N D R Y , D R Y C L E A N I N G CPER
MEAT CUTTERS,EXC MEATPCKNG
MINE OPERATVS.LAECRERS.NEC
O P E R A T I V E S ANE K I N D R E D , N E C

.00
.00
.00
.16
.00
.00
5.62

.00
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
2. 71

•0 0
.01
.00
•01
.00
.00
6.66

.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
7.70

.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
3.88

.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
2.61

.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
7.10

.00
.03
.00
.00
.CO
.00
6.06

.00
4.63
.00
.06
.00
.00
5.65

.00
5.27
.00
.13
.00
.00
6.29

76.13

85.7^

12.76

14.48

.79

. 72

14.6b

15.46

.60

.63

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

o
o

.00

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
E IREM.EN
G U A R D S , W A T C H M E N , C C G K K EL P R S
P O L I C E , D T E LAW E N F O R C E OFF

.06
.00
.02
.03

.05
.00
.04
.02

4.63
.02
3.64
.97

4.11
.00
3.97
.14

.10
.00
.10
.00

.08
.00
.08
.Oo

5.35
.02
4.20
1.12

4.35
.00
4.24
.15

.06
.00
.06
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

FCOD SERVICE WCRKERS
EAKTENDEES
CCGKS.EXC PEIV HOUSEHOLDS
C O U NTER AND FOUNTAIN WKRS
WA I T E R S ANC WA I T R E S S E S

.02
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00

.07
.00
.04
.02
.01

.05
.00
.03
.CO
.03

.04
.00
.01
.01
.01

.03
.00
.01
.01
.01

.08
.00
.04
.03
.01

.06
.00
.03
.00
.03

.00
• OC
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

76.06
.00
.01
.61
.37
.05
75.03

85.07
.00
.00
.60
.51
.07
64.30

10.32
.00
.00
3.66
4.12
.13
2.41

.65
.00
.00
.16
.15
.00
.34

.62
.00
.00
.27
.17
.00
.17

9.25
.00
.01
4.48
2.76
.17
1.83

1 1 . Cl
.00
.00
3.90
4.40
.14
2.57

.53
.00
.00
.05
.14
.00
.30

.61
.00
.00
.13
.15
.00
.34

.38

.20

1.70

1.55

1.17

•S3

1.79

1.60

6.67

6.80

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

OPERATIVES

OIEER

SERVICE

ANC

KINDRED

OPERATIVES

AND

WORKERS

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HUUSEECLC

WCRKERS

OTHER SERVILE WORKERS
AIRLINE SIEWARCS.STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , E O S F , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
J A N I T O R S ANC S E X TCNS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

LABCRtRS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

ANC

WCRKERS




MINE

E.2C

8.0 1
.00
.01
3.65
2.4C
.15
1.63

©

6.17

D R I VERS ANC D E L I V E R Y M E N
CPIVERS.ECS,TRUCK.TRACTOR
DELIVERYMEN AND RCUTEMEN

00

CTEER CRAFT SMEN AND KINCRED
eAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
C R A N E,DERRICK,HLIST HEN
GIAZIERS
J E W E L E R S ANC W A T C E H A K E R S
LCCH FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINCERS
I N S P E C T C R S . L O G ANC L U M B E R
INSPECTCES.GrEER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC KINDRED NEC

AOVfcKTISING

MISCELLANEOUS
BUSINESS
SERVICES

167
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C o n tin u ed
C1HER
REPAIR
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

60
INDUSTRY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

TECHNICAL,KINDREC

RATIO

75

MOTION PICTURES
AND
THE A IERS
RATIO

60

RATIO

75

P A 1 10

M E D I C A L AND
OTHER HEALTH
SERVICES

M1SCELLANEGUS
ENTE RTA1NMENT
A NO R E C R E A T I O N
60

RATIO

75

RATIU

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

HOSPITALS

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

I C O . 00

100.00

100.00

ICO.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

35.63

.77

1.15

24.56

25.80

17.42

16.14

42.09

38.31

35.80

.17

. 23

.10

.11

.01

.00

.11

.05

.11

.10

.00
.00
.01
.06
.01
.05
.00
.00
.04

.00
.GO
.02
.06
-02
.04
.00
.00
• 03

.00
.00
.00
.05
.01
.03
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
•D 5
.02
.03
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.05
.01
.01
.02
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.06
.01
.00
.01
.00
.30
.01

.00
.00
.05
.01
.01
.02
.00
.00
.02

.00
.00
.05
.01
.01
.02
.00
.00
.02

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
0ICLOGICAl SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGISTS.!EC PHYSIC!STS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
CTHER NATIROL SCIENTISTS

.05
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
-CD
.01

.06
.00
• 00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
•D C
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.00
.00
.GC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.34
.19
.01
.24
.00
.01
.01
.08

.46
.15
.01
.22
.00
.00
.01
.05

.35
.17
.01
.16
.00
.00
.01
.00

.35
.20
.01
.17
.00
.00
.01
.00

TECHNICIANS,EXC PECICAL.OENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A E F I C C C M R L L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
1ECHNICIANS.CTEFR

.26
.01
.00
.00
.00
.24

.44
-02
.00
.00
. CO
.*1

•66
.00
•u O
.00
.00
.6 5

.76
.00
.00
.00
.00
.76

.03
.01
.01
.00
.00
.01

•G 6
.01
.01
.00
.00
.03

.07
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06

.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05

.08
.00
.00
.00
.00
.08

.07
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07

MEDICAL,OTEER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
CiETITIANi.NUlRITICMSIS
NURSES,PROFESSIONAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
P H Y S I C I A N S ANC S L R CEONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
T E C H N I C I A N S , ME Cl C 1L . C E N T A L
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MEE ICAL.EEALTE WRKRS

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.15
.01
.o o
.04
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00

.21
.01
.00
.11
.00
.00
.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00

.11
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.09

.12
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.05

39.58
3.08
.67
16.54
.45
.47
.21
7.57
.13
4.67
.01
5.73

36.21
2.26
.47
14.94
.37
.31
.21
6.62
.13
7.04
.01
3.83

33.36
.06
.96
17.51
.01
.06
.26
2.46
.10
4.55
.01
7.34

33.42
.02
.72
17.59
.03
.04
.28
2.08
.09
6.32
.00
4.26

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELtMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECCNCARY
TEACHER S.CCLLECE
TEACHERS,ETHER

.03
.00
.00
.00
.03

.04
.CO
• 00
.00
.04

.07
.00
.00
.00
.07

.18
.00
.00
.00
.18

.74
.00
.00
.o o
.74

1.56
.00
.00
.00
1.56

.17
.01
.02
.00
.14

.16
.OG
.00
.00
.16

.20
.02
.02
.00
.15

.17
.00
.00
.00
.17

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
CTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.00
.00
.00
.CO

.u o
.00
.00
.00

.08
.01
.07
.00

.08
.01
.07
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.00
.03
.01

.03
.00
.02
.00

.03
.00
.02
.01

.02
.00
.02
.00

OTHER PROF,TECH AND KINCHED
ACCOUNTANTS ANC ALCITCRS
AIRPLANE FILGTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
WRKRS IN A R T S . E M E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
CESIGNERS.EXC CESIGN CRAFl
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
LAWYERS AND JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND LAE REL w R K S
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SCCIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PROF.TECH.KINCREC,NEC

.26
.10
.00
.00
.08
.00
.01
.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.05

.38
.08
.00
.00
.09
.00
.01
.03
• 00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.15

23.54
.72
.00
.00
20.16
.00
.15
1.05
.16
.02
.03
.75
.00
.4 7

28.46
.75
.00
.00
23.56
.00
.17
1.35
.19
.02
.06
.83
.00
1.13

16.52
.24
.00
.01
12.13
.00
.01
.03
.01
.00
.06
.02
.15
3.84

16.41
.25
.00
.01
10.35
.00
.01
.02
.01
.00
.09
.02
. 14
5.32

1.58
.13
.00
.00
.05
.08
.00
.01
.07
.11
.15
.06
.38
.52

1.50
.12
.00
.00
.02
.04
.00
.00
.05
.15
.15
.05
.47
.45

1.65
.17
.00
.00
.03
.05
.00
.00
.17
.19
.05
.41
.51

1.46
.16
.00
.00
.02
.03
.00
.00
.00
.22
.16
.05
.40
.42

MANAGERS,OFFICIALS.PRCPRIETGRS

13.96

12.36

16.85

17.03

16.91

13.27

2.08

2.23

1.86

1.78

CONDUCTORS,RAILROAD
CREDITMEN
OFFICERS,PILOTS,ENGPS,SHIP
P O S T M A S T E R S ANC A S S I S T A N T S
PURCHASING A G E M S
M A N A G E R S , C F F I C E , F R C P . NEC

.00
.01
.00
.00
.05
13.90

.00
.01
.00
.00
.04
12.31

.00
.02
.00
.00
.21
16.62

.00
.02
.00
.00
.32
16.69

.00
.02
.06
.00
.03
16.79

.00
.02
• C6
.00
.03
13.15

.00
.03
.00
.00
.09
1.96

.00
.05
.00
.00
.10
2.08

.00
.04
.00
.00
.12
1.69

.00
.06
.00
.00
.14
1.58

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
ENGINEERS tAERCNALlICAL
ENGINEERS,CEEPICAL
ENGINEERS,CIVIL
ENGINEERS,ELFCTPICAL
ENGINEERS,INOLSTRIAL
ENGINEERS,MECHANICAL
ENGINFERS,ME IALLCRG.ETC
ENGINEERS,PINING
CTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL




.00

168
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t,
OTHER
REPAIR
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
STEM3S.
OFFICE

ANC

KINGREC

NUPKERS

TYPISTS, SECRETARIES
MACHINE

CPEPATCRS

OTHER CLERICAL,KINCREC WKKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BOOKKEEPERS,HANC
BANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
RAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TtLEPHONE OPERATORS
C L E R I C A L ANC K I N C R E C , N E C

SALES

ANC

KINCREO

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
EPICKMttSCNS AN C TIL E SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE EINISFERS
tLECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNG EACH C P E r
P A I N T E R S ANE E A P E F H A N C E R S
PLASTERERS
PLUM P E R S ANE E 1 P E I I 1 T E R S
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
STRUCTURAL MLTAC MEEKERS
FLRtMEN

75

KATIU

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

MISCELLANEOUS
ENTERTAINMENT
ANU RECREATION
6C

RA1IU

75

RATIO

HOSPITALS

M E D I C A L AND
OTHER HEALTH
SERVICES
6G

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

5.51

6.3y

17.65

17.83

8.14

8.C2

15.96

16.56

12.04

11.43

1.05

i.U3

2.55

2 . SI

1.56

1.6 5

5.27

5.53

4 . IS

4.17

.58

1.35

.04

.11

.10

.20

.11

.20

13.72
1.09
.36
.00
8.11
.oo
.00
.27
.17
3.72

13.57
1.45
.49
.00
7.37
.00
.00
.27
.13
3.85

6.54
.14
.97
.00
2.00
.00
.00
.02
.19
3.22

6.2 7
.15
1.13
.00
2.17
.00
.GO
.02
.28
2.52

10.55'
.29
.66
.00
.22
.00
.00
.03
.59
8.80

10.83
-23
.58
.00
.20
.00
.00
.03
.50
9.2S

7.74
.35
.45
.00
.33
.00
.00
.04
.86
5.64

7.06
.30
.37
.00
.30
.00
.00
.05
.76
5.29

.06
A . 37
.04
1.80
.00
.04
.UO
.00
.11
.02
2.3e

5.^8
• 05
1.55
• 00
.05
.00
.00
.16
• O^t
3.03

1.22

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

RATIO

NOTION PICTURES
ANU
THEATERS

I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinued

NEC

1.21

3.06

3.00

1.05

1.16

.06

.01

.06

.02

5E.74

5 5 . 75

11.44

11.85

4.76

6.C5

2.37

2.02

2.89

2.36

2.56
.33
.03
.00
1.66
.01
.40
.01
.12
.OG
.00

2.32
. 24
.02
.00
1.46
.01
.41
.01
. 14
.00
.00

1.4E
.25
.01
.00
.61
.00
.37
.02
.02
.00
.00

1.51
.20
.01
.00
.72
.00
.54
.01
.02
.00
.00

1.54
1.11
.02
.00
.11
.03
.24
.00
.03
.00
.00

1.84
1.32
.05
.00
.15
.05
.24
.00
.04
.00
-cc

.69
.17
.01
.00
.13
.00
.24
.01
.11
.00
.00

.47
.11
.01
.00
.11
.00
.14
.02
.09
.00
.00

.96
.23
.01
.00
.20
.00
.34
.02
.16
.00
.00

.66
.13
.01
.00
.17
.00
.20
.03
.12
.00
.00

. 72

.50

.24

.31

.28

.24

.14

.14

.16

.15

M E T A L W K N G C R A F T S EXC M E C H
M A C H I N I S T S ANC R E L A T E C O CC
81K S M I T H S . E C R G M N , H A M M E R M E N
ec1LEKMAKERS
FEAT T R E A T E R S , A N N E A L E R S
M ILLMKIGHT5
M L L O E R S . M E T A L ,EXC C C R E N K R S
PAT T E R N M A K E R S , M E T A L , W C O U
PC C L E M S A N C R E E L L A N C S
SEEtT ME1 A L NCPKERS
T C U L M A K E P S ANE C l E M A K E R S

3.03
.01
2.13
.38
.01
.03
.00
.01
.00
.21
.25

1.41
.01
.64
• 56
.01
.02
.00
.01
.00
. 16
.00

•0 6
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OG
.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.14
.09
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.12
.08
.01
.00
.00
•CO
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00

.03
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.03
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

P R I M I N G TRACES CRAFTSMEN
CCMPCSITCRS,TYPESETTERS
ELtCTROTYFERS.STERECTYPERS
F N G RAVERS EXC FEG T U E N G R V E R
PEOTOENGR VRS,L1TEIGRAFHERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

. Cu
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.01
.00
.00
.01
.0 1

.07
.01
.00
.00
.03
.03

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.oo

.01
.01
.00
.00
.CO
.CO

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

T R A N S P C RT A N C P L e L TIL C R A F T
LINEMEN ANC SERVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.06
.06
.00
.00

.05
.05
.00
.00

.uO
.00
.00
.00

.00
.UO
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.cc

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

M E C H A N I C S ANC R E P A IRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH ANC REPA I R M N
ML TO R V E H I C L E M E C E A M C S
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANE TV M E C HANICS
RR A N D C A R S H C F M E C H A N I C S
OTHER M E C E A M C S ANC REPAIR

40.35
.19
1.61
2.16
17.61
.03
Lfc.77

42.51
.22
1.17
1.58
17.69
.03
21.61

.83
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.81

.1 9

2.46
.01
.11
.00
.01
.00
2.36

3.48
.01
.14
.00
.01
.CO
3.33

.80
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.78

.91
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.90

1.07
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
1.05

1.22
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
1.20




.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.77

169
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C o n tin u ed
OTHER
REPAIR
SERVICES

C C C U P A T ICN

60

RA1I0

75

MOTION P l d U K t S
ANC
THEATERS
RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

MISCELLANEOUS
ENTERTAINMENT
AND RECREATION
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

MEOICAL AND
OTHER HEALTH
StRVICES
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

HOSPITALS

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.01
.00
2. 16
.01
.00
.GO
.03
4.33
1-2U

8.80
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.12
.03
8.65

9.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
• C7
.02
9.01

.30
.09
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.19

.36
.13
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.22

.70
.08
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
.00
.18
.01
.35

.48
.06
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.07
.00
.21
.00
. 14

.66
.12
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.01
.49

.31
.08
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.20

1 6 . Et

20.16

4.12

3.17

1.80

2.16

2.29

1.84

3.05

2.50

1.05
. 74
.31

1.60
1.06
.74

.42
.27
.15

.36
.22
.13

.28
.24
.04

.33
.25
.04

.21
.10
.11

.10
.04
.06

.23
.11
.12

.10
.05
.06

T R A N S P ANC PUE LTIL C F E R A 1 V S
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I 1 C H M E N RR
POWER S T a IICN CEEFATURS
SAILORS A M
CICKEANCS

.DO
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03

.03
.00
.00
•G3

.01
.00
.01
.00

.02
.00
.02
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.03
.00
.03
.00

SFM1S K I L L F C MET A L W O R K I N G UCC
F L R N A C E M N ,S M I L T R M M . P O O R E R S
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-CL1TERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTlWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,RTLWPK,CLASS 8
INSPECTCFS.RTLWRK,CLASS B
MACHINE TILL LPER,C L A S S 8

7.90
.01
.00
7.89
.00
.00
.00
.00
.oo
.00

9.31
.01
.00
5. 2 9
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.uO
.00
.00

.Cl
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
•CO
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.CO

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.01
.02
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00

.oo
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

KINDRED

7.89

9.04

3.65

2.80

1.48

1.77

2.06

1.72

2.80

2.35

ASBESTOS, INSULATION WRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERVItE,PAkKNG
BLASTERS A M
PCWCERAEN
L A U N D R Y , C R Y C L EANING CPER
MEAT CUTTERS,EXC MEATPCKNG
MINE O P E R A ! V S . L A E E R E R S , N E C
OPERATIVES ANC KIACREC,NEC

.01
.04
.00
.01
.00
.00
7.84

.02
.05
.00
.02
.00
.00
8.55

.00
•C 8
.00
.01
.00
.00
3.60

.00
•C5
.00
.03
.00
.00
2.72

.00
.20
.00
.06
.04
.00
1.18

.00
.25
.00
.11
.08
.00
1.32

.00
.02
.00
1.19
.05
.00
.80

.00
.01
.00
1.21
.03
.00
.47

.00
.02
.00
1.71
.07
.00
1.00

.00
.02
.00
1.73
.04
.00
.57

41.28

43.22

34.60

38.55

43.67

46.07

.00

.00

OTHER C R A F T S M E N ANC KINDRED
FAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,EC1ST MEN
GLAZIERS
J E W E L E R S A ND W A T C E M A K ERS
LOOM FIXERS
OETICIAAS.LENS GRINDERS
INSPECTORS,LOG A M
LUMBER
INSPECTORS,OTHER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M F N ANC KINCRFD NEC

O P E R A 1 1 VE S

A M

K I N C R EC

WLKKERS

D R I VERS ANC DEL 1VERYMEN
CRIVFRS,ELS,TRUCK,TRACTOR
OELIVERYMEN A M
RCL1EMEN

e l e c t h c e l a t e r s

ELECTROPL ATERS

HELPERS

SEMISKILLEC TEXTILE OCCUR
K M TTcRS.LCiCPERS.T OFFERS
SPINNERS.TFXT1LE
WE A V E R S , 1 EXTILE
SEWERS ANC S T l l CEERS.MEG
OTHER

ANC

WORKERS

8.57
.00

21.33

I t . 86

.00

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
EIRFMEN
GUARDS,WA1CEMEN.CECRKEEPRS
POLICE.C!P LAW ENFORCE OFF

.06
• 00
.06
.00

.04
.00
.04
.00

.35
.02
. 4
.13

• IS
.01
.02
. 16

1.63
.01
1.49
.14

1.50
.01
1.33
.16

.30
.02
.26
.02

FOOD SERVICE WCRKERS
EARTENOERS
Cl OKS.EXC PRIV HCCSEHCLOS
C O U N T E R A N C F.CLNTA1N W K R S
WAITERS ANC WAITRESSES

.00
.00
.00
•00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.17
.00
.14
.28
.75

1.26
.00
.12
.28
.87

11.52
2.04
2.32
.49
6.66

16.76
2.15
3.35
.59
10.62

CIEER SERVICE WCRKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,SIWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , E C S F , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
J A N I T O R S ANC SEXTCNS
NLRSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WCRKERS,NEC

.34
.00
.00
.07
.16
.00
.09

.61
.00
.00
.18
.34
.00
.09

19.77
.00
.00
1.05
2.66
.02
16.00

15.39
.00
.00
.75
1.62
.00
12.97

28.13
.00
.00
.47
3.59
.03
24.04

2.54

2.32

.95

.47

.00

.00

•0 0

.00

LABCRERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

ANC

FARM

FARM

WCRKERS

ANC

WCRKERS




MINE

.00

.00

. 14
.02
.11
.01

.42
.03
.36
.03

.19
.02
.15
.02

2.77
.00
1.85
.44
.47

1.63
.00
1.03
.34
.26

3.52
.00
2.22
.64
•6 6

1.81
.00
.98
.49
.34

24.56
.00
.00
.68
4.66
.01
15.55

31.53
.00
15.17
.91
1.07
5.75
8.63

36.82
.00
15.15
.96
.98
7.91
7.76

39.73
.00
20.53
.86
1.25
5.53
11.53

44.07
.00
25.16
•66
.98
6.85
10.42

8.65

7.57

.56

.23

.63

.21

.00

.00

.00

o
o

• 65
.00

HCLSERLIL

o
o

.40
.00

PRIVATE

.00

.00

o
o

SERVICE

OPERA!IVES

11.97
.00
1.25
.02
.00
3.38
.01
.01
.00
.05
5.50
1.71

170
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, 1960 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975—-C o n tin u ed
OTHER MEDICAL
AND HEALTH
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

LEGAL
SERVICES

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

EDUCATIONAL
SERVICES

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

NONPROFIT
MEMBER
ORGANIZATIONS
60

RATIC

75

RATIO

W E L F A R E AND
RELIGIOUS
ORGANIZAIIGNS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

I C O . 00

100.00

100.00

100.00

1 0 0 . OC

ICO.00

100.00

53.81

43.45

56.56

54.52

67.80

60.66

37.31

35.03

45.63

42.42

.11

.07

.00

.00

.23

.44

.07

.18

.02

.02

.DO
.00
.06
.00
.00
.02
.00
.UU
.03

. OU
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.UQ
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.02
.08
.01
.05
.00
.00
.03

.03
.04
.02
.16
.02
.08
.00
.00
.11

.00
.00
.02
.00
.03
.01
.00
.00
.01

.04
.01
.04
.00
.06
.01
.00
.00
.03

.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
GEOLOGISTS.GEOPHYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
ETHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

.88
.22
.01
.41
.00
.01
.00
.24

.62
.17
.01
. 31
.00
. 01
.00
. 13

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.80
.17
.06
.17
.03
.07
.13
.17

1.21
. le
.17
.25
.04
.10
.32
.16

.11
.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.37
.37
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.15
.15
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.50
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

TECHNICIANS,tXC HELICAL,DENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C C M FE L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNICIANS,CTHER

.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03

.Ul
.00
.00
.oo
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.DC
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.67
.05
.01
.00
.00
.60

1.35
.07
.01
.00
.00
1.27

.14
.02
.01
.00
.01
.11

.15
.03
.00
.OC
.01
.11

.03
.01
.00
.00
.00
.02

.04
.01
.00
.00
.00
.02

MEDICAL,OTHER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
DIETITIANS,NUTRITIONISTS
NURSES.PROFESSIONAL
OPTOMETRISTS
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
P H Y S I C I A N S AN! SUR G E O N S
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNIC IANS,MECICAL,DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
CTHER MEDICAL,HEALTH WRKKS

51. 13
6.67
.11
14 . 74
1.39
1.23
.11
17.06
.17
4.90
.02
2.73

40.97
6.14
.04
10.42
. 96
. 77
.10
14.35
• 2D
4.65
.0^
3 . 10

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.22
.04
.00
.06
.CO
.00
.00
.11
.00
.01
.00
.00

1.16
.01
.13
.40
.00
.00
.01
.11
.24
.11
.03
.12

1.12
.01
• C5
.37
.00
.00
.01
.10
.34
.05
.02
.10

.81
.02
.12
.44
.00
.00
.01
.06
.04
.02
.00
.11

l.OS
.06
.13
.54
.00
.00
.01
.10
.05
.04
.00
.16

1.03
.03
.14
.63
.00
.00
.01
.06
.05
.02
.00
.08

1.36
.09
.16
.73
.00
.00
.01
.12
.08
.05
.00
.15

T EACHERS
TEACHERS,ELtMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECC NIAPY
TEACHERS.COLLEGE
TEACHERS,CTHER

.13
.00
.00
.00
.13

.14
.00
.00
.00
. 14

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

53.28
27.20
16.79
5.76
3.53

43.42
17.54
16.01
6.66
2.62

.61
.32
.05
.00
.24

1.52
.48
.31
.00
.73

.55
.48
.07
.00
.00

1.50
.67
.44
.00
.40

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS . ACTUARIES
CTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.06
.01
.05
.Ul

.05
. Cl
. 05
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.02
.02
.04

.05
.02
.02
.05

.11
.01
.05
.05

.15
.00
.06
.09

.06
.00
.02
.06

.15
.00
.04
.11

C T H E R P R O F , T E C H ANE K I N C H E D
A C C O U N T A N T S AND A U 0 1 T C R S
AIRPLANE FllCTS.NAVIGATCRS
ARCHITECTS
W R K R S IN A H T S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CIERGYMEN
DESIGNERS.EXC CES1GN CRAFT
ECITORS ANC REFCRTERS
LAWYERS ANC JLCGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L AND LAE KEL W RKS
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL ANC WELFARE WORKERS
PROF,TECH,K1NCREC.NEC

1.47
.07
.00
.00
.04
.07
.01
.02
.20
.02
. 10
.06
.32
.54

1.58
.05
.00
.oo
.02
.05
.01
.01
. 14
.02
. 13
.05
.58
. 52

56.55
.44
-OC
.00
.00
.00
.oo
.00
55.48
.03
.02
.00
.00
.56

54.27
.42
.00
.01
.03
.00
,
.01
.01
52.55
.04
.02
.01
.00
.77

11.57
.12
.02
.01
6.27
.05
.01
.07
.01
1.95
.08
.03
.19
2.71

13.04
.07
.01
.01
5.75
.05
.01
.04
.01
1.61
.11
.04
.15
5.14

35.45
.30
.02
.02
3.52
20.72
.01
.20
.16
.09
.12
.02
2.56
7.72

31.57
.29
.03
.05
4.75
17.23
.00
.21
.14
.11
.15
.02
2.48
6.11

47.77
.21
.03
.03
4.38
30.56
.00
.10
.06
.05
.08
.02
3.51
8.70

3 b . 83
.23
.05
.06
5.70
24.16
.00
.09
.07
.11
.14
.02
3.24
4.94

MANAGERS,OFFICIAlS,FRCPR1ETCKS

2.50

2.99

.79

.85

2.82

3.52

9.17

6.37

2.77

3.30

CONDUCTORS,RA1LRCAD
CREOITMEN
OFFICERS,PILOTS,ENGRS.SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
M A N A G E R S , C F F I C E , P R O P . NEC

.00
.01
.00
.00
.02
2.47

.00
.02
.00
.00
.02
2.95

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.79

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.65

.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
2.76

.00
.00
.00
.00
.06
3.46

.00
.00
.01
.00
.05
9.11

.00
.00
.00
.00
.05
6.31

.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
2.73

.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
3.26

INDUSTRY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

IECHNICAl,KINDRED

ENGINEERS.TECHNICAL
ENG I N F E R S , A f R E N A L TICAL
ENGINEERS.CHEMICAL
FNGINFERS,CIVIL
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS,INOLSTRIAl
ENGINEERS,MECHANICAL
ENGINEEk S.METALLURG.ETC
ENGINEERS,MINING
OTHER ENG INEEFS,TECHNICAL




171
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— o n tin u e d
-C
OTHER MEDICAL
M O
HEALTH
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
SIENCS,
OFFICE

AN I K1 N D R E L

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

IPERATCKS

CTHER C L E R I C A l . K I N C F E C Wk KRS
A C C O U N T INC C L E R K S
BOOKKEEPERS,HANC
BANK T E L L E R S
CASHIERS
MAI L C A R R 1ERS
PCSTAL CLERKS
SLIPPING,RECEIVINC CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
CLERICAL A M
KINEREC.NEC

SALES

A M

KINDRED

CC N S T R O C T I C N C R A F T S M E N
CARPENTERS
E R I C K M A S C N S AN D TILE SETKS
CERENT,CCNCPETE FINISHERS
ELtCTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNG EACH OPEN
PAI N T E R S ANE PAPERHANC-ERS
PLASTERERS
P L UMBERS AND R I R E E I T T E k S
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
STRUCTURAl PETAL WCRKERS
FCREMEN

7b

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

EDUCATIONAL
SERVICES

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

NONPROFIT
MEMBER
ORGANIZATIONS
60

RATIO

76

RATIO

W E L F A R E AND
RELIGIOUS
ORGANIZATIONS
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

23.28

2 b . 33

4 1 . 7ti

43.70

9.42

15.11

21.25

22.46

15.34

17.69

7.29

7. b6

36.02

37.40

4.83

7.C7

12.91

13.67

10.47

11.97

.07

.20

.03

.05

.13

.19

.19

.34

.11

.21

l b . 92
.11
.98
.00
.03
.00
.00
.01
. 10
14.69

17.27
.11
.55
.00
.02
.00
.00
.01
.06
16.13

5.73
.14
1.20
.00
.01
.00
.00
.oo
.28
4.10

6.25
.14
1.17
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.19
4.73

4.46
.19
.17
.00
.28
.00
.00
.02
.23
3.57

7.65
.19
.18
.CO
.29
.00
.00
.01
.26
6.90

8.16
.16
1.52
.00
.23
.00
.00
.05
.27
5.92

6.44
.17
1.50
.00
.23
.00
.00
.06
.29
6.19

4.76
.11
.97
.00
.09
.00
.00
.04
.19
3.3c

5.51
.14
1.11
.00
.15
.00
.00
.05
.23
3.82

.06

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

RATIO

LEGAL
SERVICES

NEE

.01

.04

.04

.18

.17

.63

.80

.56

.81

1.35

1.44

.05

.05

2.59

2.46

2.16

3.14

2.06

3.32

.19
.06
.00
.00
.02
.01
.06
.00
.02
.00
.00

.16
.08
.00
.oo
.02
.01
.02
.00
.02
.00
• oo

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.01
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.76
.25
.02
.00
.14
.01
.23
.01
.09
.01
.00

.56
.20
.02
.00
.09
.Cl
.14
.01
.07
.01
.00

.61
.24
.03
.00
.09
.01
.15
.02
.07
.01
.01

.72
.29
.04
.00
.C8
.02
.17
.02
.09
.00
.01

.53
.25
.02
.00
.04
.01
.16
.00
.03
.00
.00

.65
.31
.02
.00
.04
.02
.22
.00
.04
.00
.00

.10

.11

.00

.00

.16

.19

.09

.09

.11

.11

M E T A L W K N G C R A E I S EXC R E C H
E A C H IN I S I S A N C R E L A T E D C C C
ELK SM IT F S , F C R C R N , F A R M E R M E N
BOILERMAKERS
EFAT TREATERS .ANNEALERS
MILLWRIC-FTS
MOLDERS, R ITAL.EXC CCREEKRS
FATTERNRAKERS,PETAL.WOOD
R O L LERS ANC Rtll L ANDS
SLEET METAL WERKERS
T C C LMAK ERS ANC C I t M A K E R S

.02
.01
.oo
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.uo

.o o

.01
.00

.01

.co

.00
•0 0
•0 0
.00
•00
.00
•oc
•oc
• 00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
."co
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.03
.02
.00
.00
.00
.CC
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

P R I M I N G TRADES CRAFTSMEN
CCR.POSI T C R S , T Y P E S E T T E R S
E L E C T R O T Y P E R S , S T E P EC T Y P E R S
E N G R A V E R S EXC FFC T C E N G R V E R
P P C T U E N G R V R S . L 1 TECC-EAFHEKS
PRESSMEN,ELATE PRINTERS

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
.GO
.00

.00
•00
.00
.00
•0 0
.CC

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.05
.00
.00
.00
.01

.04
.04
.CO
.00
.CO

.07
.05
.00
.00
.00
.02

.08
.05
.00
.00
.00
.03

.07
.06
.00
.00
.00
.01

.08
.06
.00
.00
.00
.02

T R A N S P O R T ANC PCE LTI L C R AFT
LINEMEN ANC S E RVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LLCGMOTIVE e i r e r e n

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.CD
.00

.00
.00

•oc
.oc

.CO
.00
.CO
.00

.00
.00
.00
.ou

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

R E C H A M C S AND REPAIRMEN
A I R P L A N E R E C F ANC R E P A l R M N
MOTOR VEP1CLE RECFANICS
O F F I C E RAC LINE M E C H A N I C S
R A D I O A NC TV R E C F A N I C S
RR A N D C AR SHCF R E C H A M C S
ETHER M F C P A M C S AND REPAIR

.29
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.29

.37
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.CO
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.01

1.06
.02
.06
.01
.01
.00
.59

1.22
.02
.04
.01
.01
.00
1.14

.95
.00
.01
.00
.02
.00
.92

1.56
.00
.01
.00
.03
.00
1.52

.55
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.96

1.60
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
1.77




.37

.o o

172
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C o n tin u ed

tTHER MLUACAL
AND HEALIH
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

60
DTHER C R A F T S M E N AND KINCKEQ
LAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
C R A N E , D E R R i l K , H C 1ST M E N
GLAZIERS
J E W E L E R S ANC W A T C F M A K E R S
LUCM FIXERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINDERS
INSPECTORS,LOG A M
LUMPER
INSPECTORS,CTRER
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N ANC K I N C R E O NEC

OPERATIVES

ANC

KINCREC

WORKERS

RATIO
.77
.02
.00
.00
.00

-o o
.00
.16
.00
.50
.00
.05

75

KAI1U

LEGAL
SERVICES

60

RAU L

75

RATIO

. 16
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
. 17
.00
.55
.00
.03

.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00

.oc
.00
.00
.00

•u o

EDUCATIONAL
SERVICES

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

NONPROFIT
MEMBER
O R G A N IZAT IONS
6C

RATIU

75

RATIO

W E L FARE AND
RELIGIOUS
ORGANIZATIONS
60

RATIC

75

RATIO

.46
.11
.02
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.30

.41
. 14
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.24

.43
.05
.04
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04
.03
.26

.68
.06
.05
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.06
.10
.39

.35
.04
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• OC
.01
.05
.20

.63
.04
.07
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.03
.14
.39

• bo

.72

.05

.05

1.82

1.E4

1.57

1.56

2.21

2.08

DRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
DRIVERS,BLS,TRUCK.TRACTOR
DELIVERYMEN A M
RCUTEMEN

.17
.07
. 10

. 10
.04
.06

.03
.00
.03

.03
.00
.03

1.10
1.05
.04

1.23

l.ie
.05

.46
.40
.06

•64
.57
.07

.53
.48
.05

.76
.70
.06

T R A N S P ANC PUP UTIL C P E R A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N L S W I T C H M E N RR
P O . E R S T A T I C N CEERATliRS
SAILURS ANC CLCKEANCS

• GO
•0 0
•0 0
.00

.JO
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.UO
.00

.00
.00
.00
.CO

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.CO
.00
.CO
.00

.CC
.OC
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

S E M I S K I L L E D M E I A L W C P K 1 N G CCC
FURNACEMN.SMELIRMN.PULRERS
HEATERS,METAL
WELOERS ANC FlAME-CLTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMPLERS.MTLWRK.CLASS 8
INSPECTCRS,MTLWRK,CLASS b
MACHINE TCOL CPER,CLASS B
ELECTRORLATERS
ELECTRCPLATERS HELPERS

•O o
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.0 0

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00

.01
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00

.oo

.00
.GO

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.CG
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.CO
.00
.DC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED TEXTILE OCCUP
KN1FTERS,LOOP EPS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
W E A V F R S . T E X l IL E
SEWERS ANC ST I T C E E R S . M F G

.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

CTFER

•00
.00

•oc

.GO
.00
.00
•oo

.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.GO
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

KINDRED

.68

.62

.02

.02

.71

•6C

1.4B

1.30

1.68

1.32

ASBESTOS,INSULATICN WRKS
ATTEND.ALTO SERVICE,PARKNG
B L A S T E R S ANT P C W D E R M E N
L A U N D R Y , C R Y C L E A N I N G LPER
M E A T C U T T E R S , E X C M E A T PC K N G
MINE O P E R A T V S , L A E C R E K S , N E C
OPERATIVES ANC KINDRED.NEC

.00
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.31

.oo

.02
.00
.43

.02

•o c
.o c

.00
.01
.00
.13
.02
.00
.55

.00
.01
.00
.13
.04
.00
.43

.00
.04
.00
.41
.01
.00
1.02

.00
.04
.00
.52
.02
.00
.72

.00
.02
.00
.55
.01

.02

.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.02

1.09

.00
.02
.00
.67
.02
.00
.61

I 7.68

. 5. ai
1

.6 7

. 75

14.49

15.57

26.00

27.18

25.95

2 5 . 16

•DO

•OO

•0 0

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.05
.01
.07
.01

.05
.01
.03
.01

.02
•0 0
.00
.03

.03
.00
.00
.03

.31
.00
.25
.Oo

.18
.00
.10
.08

.45
.03
.38
.04

.43
.07
.32
.04

.25
.00
.24
.01

.24
.00
.23
.01

1.36
.00
1. 1 7
.06
.13

1.32

.00
.GO
.00
.00
.00

2.72
1.05
.71

5.14
.00
2.87
1.47
.80

5.06
.83
2.23
.17
1.84

4.53
.39
2.26
.22
1.64

2.70

.12

.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

4.48

1.11

2.05
.10
.51

3.04
.00
2.28
.13
.64

16.23
.00
5.17
1.00
.67
6.17
3.22

24.43
.00
8.59
1.47
.58
9. 73
3.27

.64
.00
.CC
.26
.22
.00
.16

.73
.00
.00
.31
.29
.01
.11

5.70
.00
.08
.38
4.83
.04
4.37

1C.24
.00
.13
.47
4.56
.02
4.64

20.45
.00
1.45
.59
7.82
1.00
9.55

22.22
.00
2.51
.77
8.83
.72
9.39

23.05
.00
2.1b
.55
9.50
1.46
9.37

25.88
.00
3.48
.77
10.70
1.00
9.94

.43

• 2!>

.07

.04

.90

.66

1.51

1.06

1.43

1.22

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

•GO

.00

.00

.00

.00

SERVICt

OPERATIVES

ANC

WORKtRS

PRIVATE

HOUSEHOLD

WLRKERS

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS,WATCPMFN.CCORKEtPRS
P O L I C E , O T H LAW E N F O R C E OFF
FOCI) S F R V I C F W O R K E R S
PAKTENUEPS
COOKS.EXC FPIV HCUSEHLLDS
COUN T E R AND FOUN T A I N WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES
CTFER SERVICE WORKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWROSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , F C S f . O T H E R INST
CHARWUMEN ANO CLEANERS
JANITORS ANC SEXTONS
NURSFS.PRACIICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

LABCRERS,EXCEPT

FARMERS

ANC

FARM

FARM

ANC

WORKERS




MINE

.00
.29

.Gu
.09

.00

.oc

.00
.00
.00

.00
.00

.oo

.cc

.oc
.cc

.oc

.cc

.o c

.00

c
c

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
. CO
.00

.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00

.uo

173
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
OTHER
NCNPRuPIT
ORGANIZATIONS

OCCUPATION

60

RAI10

75

RATIO

PR][ V A T E
HOUSEHOLDS

60

RATIO

75

ENGINEERING AND
ARCHITECTURAL
SERVICES

OTHER
P R O F E S S I O N A L AND
RELATED SERVICES

RATIO

100.00

100.00

16.65

.16

. 39

.00

.01
.01
.05
.00
.07
.01
.00
.00
•04

. 14
.02
.11
.00
. 16
.02
.00
.00
.11

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.oo
.00
.00
.00

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
B I O L O G I C A L SC 1ENT ISIS
GEOLOGISTS.GELPPYSICISlS
MA T H E M A T I C IANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

.03
.02
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.05
.03
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

TECENICIANS.EXC KEL1CAL.0ENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C C M R C L L E P S
RADIO 0FERA10RS
TECHNIC IANS,CTREE

.37
.05
.01
.00
.02
.25

MEDICAL,CTEER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
DIETIT1ANS.NUTRIT1CNISTS
NURSES,PRCEESSICNAL
G H T O M E T R I ST S
OSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
P H Y S I C I A N S ANC S U R G E O N S
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNICI ANS,MEDICAL,DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MECICAL,HEALTH WkKRS

60

KAIIU

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

. IS

64.21

£6.20

.00

10.09

12.19

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.04
.21
3.69
1.23
.31
1.60
.10
.11
2.60

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00

.42
.06
.00
.00
.03
.34

.00
.oo
.00
.00
.00
.00

. 36
•oo
.Ob
.05
.00
.00
.00
.04
.oo
.02
.00
.15

.39
. 00
.06
.Oo
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.02
.00
. 19

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS, SECCNCARY
T E A C H E R S , CCILEC-E
T E A C H E R S , ! THER

. 74
•oo
.00
.00
. 74

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS ♦ ACTUARIES
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

75

RATIO

ACCOUNTING AND
BOOKKEEPING
SERVICES
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

68.07

72.88

56.19

60.65

19.50

24.90

.16

.27

.07
.20
3.47
1.59
.47
1.61
.12
.06
4.38

.06
.32
7.54
2.23
.50
3.16
.05
.21
5.42

.11
.32
7.57
2.98
.82
3.76
.06
.17
9.08

.00
.00
.00
.00
.14
.00
.00
.00
.04

.00
.00
.03
.04
.14
.01
.00
.00
.05

1.40
.33
.02
.32
.14
.11
.25
.24

2.39
.39
.06
.56
.17
.51
.43
.26

.66
.14
.00
.04
.18
.09
.18
.03

1.27
.13
.00
.04
.16
.58
.31
.06

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

15.84
7.89
2.95
.00
.01
4.99

15.47
6.08
2.45
.00
.00
4.94

30.82
16.04
5.99
.00
.02
8.77

31. 38
17.56
5.33
.00
.01
8.48

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.15
.04
.00
.00
.00
.10

.10
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

. 14
.00
.00
.12
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.59
.01
.01
.07
.00
.00
.01
.09
.31
.06
.00
.02

.76
.01
.01
.09
.00
.00
.01
.14
.37
.09
.01
.04

.09
.00
.02
.04
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
.00
.00

.09
.00
.02
.04
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.56
.00
.oo
.00
1.56

.02
.01
.00
.00
.01

.03
.01
.00
.00
.02

.06
.00
.00
.00
.06

.11
.00
.00
.00
.11

.04
.00
.00
.00
.04

.08
.00
.00
.00
.08

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

. 17
.03
.11
.02

. 13
.02
. C9
.02

.oo
.00
.00
.oo

.00
.00
.00
.00

.24
.07
.14
.03

.29
.07
.17
.05

.09
.02
.07
.00

.08
.01
.06
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

OTHER PROE.TECH ANC KINDRED
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC A U D I T O R S
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
WRKRS IN A R T S . E N T E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC DESIGN CRAFT
EDITORS AND REPORTERS
LAWYFRS ANC JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L ANC LAE REL W R K S
PHOTOGRAPHERS
S O C I A L A N C WEI F A R E W O R K E R S
PROF,TFCH.KINCRED,NEC

9.52
.46
.00
.01
1.72
.00
.01
.42
.36
.08
. 19
.03
.56
5.63

13.51
.42
.00
.01
2.37
.00
.01
.46
.32
. 11
.lo
.04
.59
8.99

.03
.00
.00
.00
.01
.oo
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.oo
.00
.01

.02
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

36.00
19.0b
.06
4.91
7.20
.00
1-93
.25
.17
.05
.09
.14
.11
2.03

34.99
19.05
. 10
3.76
6.24
.00
1.93
.33
.13
.11
.10
.24
.16
2.84

16.36
.76
.11
10.00
.75
.00
3.62
.15
.16
.03
.06
.07
.00
1.15

15.10
.85
.20
8.05
.64
.00
3.53
.20
.14
.07
.06
.13
.00
1.23

58.01
57.61
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.10
.02
.03
.00
.00
.05

60.23
55.93
.00
.11
.01
.00
.05
.00
.05
.02
.03
.00
.03
.00

MANAGERS,OFFICIALS,PECPRIEICHS

22.64

20.99

.04

.03

4.65

4.25

6.03

5.24

2.79

1.85

CCNOOCTORS,RAILROAD
CREOITMEN
CFEICERS,PILU1S,ENGRS,SHIP
FCSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
P U R C H A S I N G AC-E M S
M A N A G E R S , O F F I C E , P R O P . NEC

.00
.01
.02
.00
.09
22.52

.00
.01
.00
.00
.09
20.89

.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.16
4.69

.00
.01
.00
.00
.13
4.11

.00
.00
.00
.00
.25
5.77

.00
.00
.00
.00
.20
5.04

.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
2.78

.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
1.82

INDUSTRY

TOTAL

PROFESSIONAL

T E C E M C A L , KI N D R E C

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
ENGINEERS,AERCNAET1CAL
ENGINEERS,CLERICAL
ENGINEERS,CIVIL
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAl
ENGINEERS,INDLS1R1AL
E N G I N F E R S , * I C E A N ICAL
ENGINEERS,*!!ALLURE.ETC
ENGINEERS, P I M M
OTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL




ICO.00

LoO.OO

11.37
.15

174
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinu ed
PRIVATE
HUUSEhULOS

O T h E R

NONPROFIT
ORGANIZATIONS

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
STENGS.
CfFICE

ANC

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

OPERATORS

OTHER CLERICAL,KINCREC WRKRS
ACCOUNTINC- CLE R K S
BOOKKEEPERS.HANT
BANK T E L LERS
CASHIERS
MAIL CARRIERS
PLSTAL CLERKS
SHIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE GPFRAICRS
CI E k ICAL ANC KINCR ED,NE C

SALES

WORKERS

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

RATIO

75

•<a r i o

ANC

KINCKED

33.69

34.31

18.04

17.90

.35

• So

15.25
.27
2.67
.00
.53
.00
.00
.07
.45
11.31

lb. 75
-24
2.48
.00
.43
.OJ
.00
• Utt
.44
1 2 . Ob

.76

K IN C R E C

2.42

60

RAU L
.16

75

r

UTKER
PROFESSIONAL ANC
RELATED SERVICES

ATIC

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

ENGINEERING AND
ARCHI1ECTCRAL
SERVICES
EC

RATIO

75

RATIU

ACCOUNTING AND
BOOKKEEPING
SERVICES
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.31

23.76

21.98

16.54

13.26

3 b . 26

36. b5

.11

.22

11.45

1C.C8

9.95

7.51

15.21

14.13

.00

.00

.46

.76

.28

.35

.35

. 78

.04
.UO
.01
.00
.00
.oo
.00
.00
.00
.03

.10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.10

11.85
.59
5.74
.00
.03
.00
.00
.03
.19
5.27

11.12
.48
5.16
.00
.04
.CO
.00
.03
.19
5.22

6.31
.55
.54
.00
.02
.00
.00
.03
.15
4.98

4.56
.25
.27
.00
.03
.00
.00
.03
.06
4.30

22.72
.71
16.84
.00
.03
.OC
.00
.OC
.14
5.01

21.75
.60
16.13
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.24
4.5 8

.7b

.00

.00

.51

.55

.47

.28

.22

.15

2.71

• tl

.35

3.03

3.30

4.41

4.44

.16

.13

.57
.13
.01
.00
.16
.06
.05
.00
.14
.00
.02

.02
.OC
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
Bk I C K M A S O N S AN C TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNG MACH GPER
PAINTERS ANC EAPERHA N G E R S
PLASTERERS
P L U M P E R S ANC P I P E F I T T E R S
ROOFERS ANL SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWCRKERS

. 79
.22
.05
.01
.20
.02
.0 7
.04
.15
.01
.02

.90
.24
•C 7
.01
.19
.01
. Cb
. Ob
.20
.01
.02

.Id
.0 9
.01
.00
.00
.oo
.08
.00
.00
.00
.00

.22
.13
.00
.00
.00
.00
.09
.00
.00
.00
.00

.52
.05
.01
.00
.16
.04
.15
.00
.07
.00
.01

.56
.C9
.Cl
.00
.14
.03
.20
.00
.05
.00
.01

.63
.13
.01
.00
.21
.08
.06
.00
.11
.00
.01

FOREMEN

,

.05

.02

.00

.00

.3o

.43

.48

.57

.04

.03

M E T A L W K N G C R A F T S EXC MEC H
M A C H I N I S T S ANC RELA T E C OOC
flLKSMITHS.FCRC-MN.HAMMERMSEN
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS.ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
MOLUERS,METAL,EXC CCKEMKRS
PATTERNMAKERS.METAL.WOOD
ROLLERS AND RCLL HANDS
ShEET MEIAL WORKERS
T O U L M A K E R S ANC C I E M A K E R S

.04
.00
•O 0
.01
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00

.04
.00
.00
.01
• 00
.01
.00
• 01
.00
.01
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.oo
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.13
.03
.oo
.01
.00
.01
.00
.02
.00
.04
.07

.11
.Cl
.01
.01
.GO
.01
.00
.01
.00
.05
.00

.27
.06
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.04
.00
.08
.07

.15
.02
.00
.02
.00
.01
.00
.03
.00
.11
.00

.00
.OG
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

PRINTING TRACES CRAFTSMEN
CLMPOSITCPS,TYPE SETTERS
ELECTRO TYPERS,STEREOTYPERS
ENGRAVERS EXC PHCTOENGRVER
PHUTOENGRVR S,LITHOGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE FRINTERS

.09
.04
.00
.00

.o o

.05

.09
.02
.00
.00
• 00
.07

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.08
.04
.00
.02
.00
.02

.05
.04
.00
.02
.00
.04

.11
.06
.00
.03
.00
.02

.11
.07
.00
.03
.00
.01

.01
.01
.00
.CO
.00
.00

.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00

T R A N S P O R T ANC PLE OTIL CRAFT
LINEMEN AND StRVICEMEN
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.00
.00
.oo
.00

• OO
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.OG
.00
.00

.01
.01
.01
.00

.00
.00
.GC
.00

.03
.02
.01
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

MECHANICS ANC REPAIRMEN
AIRPLANE MECH AND REPAIRMN
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO ANC TV MECHANICS
RT< A N C C A R S H C F M E C H A N I C S
OTHFR MECHANICS AND REPAIR

.86
.00
.03
.00
.01
.00
.83

.96
.00
.03
• 00
.03
• 00
.90

.08
.00
.00
.00
.00
.oo
.08

.12
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.12

.53
.03
.06
.01
.02
.00
.41

.76
.03
.05
.Cl
.02
.00
.61

.55
.03
.02
.00
.02
.00

.72
.03
.01
.00
.03
.00
.65

.04
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.02

.04
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.02

NEC




-oo

.48

175
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C ontinued
CTHER
NONPROFIT
ORGANIZATIONS

OCCUPATION

bC
O T H t R C R A F T S M E N ANC K I N D R E D
FAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,FEIST MEN
GLAZIFRS
J E W E L E R S A N D W A T C E M A K ERS
LCOM FIXERS
GPTICIANS.LENS GRINDERS
I N S P E C T E R 5 , ICG ARC LUMBER
I N S P E C T CP S * G T F E R
UPHOLSTERERS
CRA F T S M E N ARC KINDRED NEC

RATIO

75

RATIO

PRIVATE
HOUSEHOLDS

60

RATIO

75

OTHER
P R O F E S S I O N A L AND
RELATED SERVICES

R A T 10

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

ENGINEERING ANO
ARCHITECTORAL
SERVICES
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

A C C O U N T I N G AND
BOOKKEEPING
SERVICES
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.60
• 06
.00
.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.11
.d o
.38

.70
.11
.00
.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
. 14
.DO
.41

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.01

1.36
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.17
.01
1.17

1.35
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.03
.16
1.14

2.35
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.29
.00
2.03

2.28
.00
.00
.01
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.33
1.92

.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.04

.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.03

.20

2.29

2.15

3.10

2.46

.11

.11

.42
.01
.40

.15
.00
.15

.15
.09
.05

.21
.12
.09

.21
.15
.06

.39
.24
.15

.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00

T RANSP ANC PDF UTIL LPER A T V S
E R A K E M E N A N D S R I T C H M E N PR
PURER STATICN CPERATORS
SA I L O R S ANC D E C K F A N D S

.01
.00
.00
.01

.01
.CD
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMISKILLED METALWORKING OCC
FURNACEMN.SMELTRMN.POUKERS
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-CLTTERS
ASSEMdLERS,MTLWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS,FTLWRK.CLASS B
INSPECTORS,MTLWNK,CLASS B
M A C H I N E TOOL O F E R , C L A S S 8
ELECTROPLATERS
ELtCTRCPL ATERS HELPERS

.05
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.00
.00
.06
.OU
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.01
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.07
.01
.00
.06
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.12
.01
.00
.11
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.le
.02
.00
.13
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

SEMI SKILL EC T E X T I L E CCC L P
KNITTERS.LOLPERS,TOPPERS
SPINNERS.TEXTILE
WEAVERS,TEXTILE
SEWE R S AND S T I T C H E R S , M E G

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.OU
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

KINDRFD

1.07

1.23

.13

.05

2.07

1.66

2.77

1.92

.11

.11

ASBESTOS,INSULATICN WRKS
ATTEND.ALTO SERVICE,PARKNG
BLA S T E R S AND FCWCE R M E N
LAUNDRY,DRY CLEANING OPER
MEAT C U T T E R S , E X C MEA T P C K N G
MINE GPERATYS.LAECRERS.NEC
OPERATIVES AND KINCREC,NtC

.01
.07
.00
.11
.01
.00
.67

.01
.07
.00
.15
-01
.00
.99

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.12

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.05

.00
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
2.05

.00
.00
.CO
.04
.00
.00
1.81

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
2.77

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OG
1.92

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.11

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.11

26.01

22.27

89.27

86.44

1.02

1.30

.89

1.13

.24

.40

.00

• 00

66.77

85.04

.00

.00

.66
.09
.67
.10

.24
.56
.10

.02
.00
.02
.00

.01
.00
.01
.00

.24
.01
.20
.02

.32
.02
.24
.06

.14
.00
.12
.02

.14
.00
.05
.05

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

FOOD SERVICE WORKER S
BARTENDERS
COCKS.EXC PflV HCLSEHOLCS
C O U N T E R AND FCL N T A I N WKRS
WAITtRS AND WAITRESSES

10.05
2.37
2.52
.31
4.63

8.24
1.37
2-27
. 45
4.14

.01
.00

.06
.01
.03
.02
.01

.06
.01
.03
.02
.02

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00

.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

CTHER SERVICE WCRKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWRCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S . F C S P . O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
J A N I T O R S ANC S E X TONS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WCRKERS,NEC

15.09
.00
.05
.68
4.28
.04
10.05

13.14
.00
.11
.76
4. 1 9
.03
8.04

2.46
.00
.18
.12
.21
1.92
.05

1.39
.00
.20
.14
.24
.73
.07

.72
.00
.01
.10
.30
.03
.28

.50
.00
.CO
.17
.42
.01
.31

.74
.00
.02
.09
.40
.02
.21

.55
.00
.00
. 11
.52
.00
.35

.24
.00
.00
.12
.06
.00
.06

.40
.00
.00
.22
.11
.00
.08

1.66

.65

5.55

12.48

.33

.24

.50

.30

.01

.02

.00

• OU

.UO

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

OTHER

SERVICE

CPERA1IVES

ANC

WORKERS

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HCLSEFCLD

WORKERS

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GUARDS.WATCFMEN.CCORKEEPRS
P O L I C E , C T H LAW ENEORCL OFF

LABORERS.EXCEFf

FARMERS

ANC

EARM

FARM

AND

WCRKERS




MINE

.00

.00

O
o

.55

.53
.25
.10

KINCREC

o
o

1.65

.32
.24
.08

AND

.0 0

O
O

1-45

CRIVERS ANC DELIVERYMEN
DRlVERS,ElS,TRUCK.TRACTOR
D E L I V E R Y M E N ANC R CLTEMEN

OPERATIVES

176
R a t io s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 and P r o je c t e d fo r 1975
ALL C I H E K
PROFESSIONAL
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

60

TOTAL
GOVERNMENT PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION

RATIO

60

76

RATlu

RATIO

76

RATIO

POSTAL

FEDERAL PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION

60

RATIO

75

C ontinu ed

RATIO

100.00

1 U O . 00

100.00

1GU.OO

100.00

ICC.CO

64.43

6C.7,>

1 3 . 6c

17.77

14.07

2.85

4.51

1.82

2.12

2.26

.05
.12
.76
.12
.32
.36
.01
• HO

.06
.23
. 14
.95
.22
.43
•3d
.01
i. 1 0

.11
•U2
.66
.05
.26
.01
.02
.35

.29
.02
.67
.65
.12
.26
.01
.01
.31

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CEEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
G E O L O G I S T S , CEGPE.YS ICI S T S
MATHEMATICIANS
PEYSICIS1S
CTHER NA1LRAL SCIENTISTS

5.57
1.36
.11
1.55
.26
.32
.51
1.17

7. i>l
1.36
.25
2.25
.42
1.04
1.21
. SB

1.15
.13
.61
.17
.05
.16
.13
.11

TECHNICIANS,EXC MEDICAL,DENT
DRAFT SMEN
SURVEYORS
AIK TRAFFIC C C M R C L L E R S
R A D I O O P E R A ICRS
TECHNIC IANS,OTHER

A. 'll
•4 5
.17
.00
.DO
3.77

j.12
• 5^:
. 14
.00
.00
4.46

MEDICAL,01EER HEALTH WORKERS
DENTISTS
DIET IEIANS.NDTRIIICNISTS
NORSES,FROFESSICNAL
C P T U M F T R I ST S
CSTEOPATHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS AND SLRGtONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNICIANS,MEEltAL.DENTAL
VETERINARIANS
DTHER MEDICAL,HEALTH WRKRS

2.75
.06
.02
.25
.00
.00
.03
.65
1.5/
.25
.01
.12

tC

SERVICE

RATIO

7b

RATIO

OTHER
FEDERAL PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION
60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

10O.00

100.00

15.27

.66

1.37

20.14

2 7 . 16

3.34

.03

.03

3.27

5.08

.19
.03
.66
.52
.09
.37
.02
.03
.55

.63
.04
.50
.65
.15
.47
.02
.02
.61

.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.01

.00
.00
.00
.00
.03
.00
.GO
.00
.00

.28
.04
.67
.76
.13
.53
.03
.04
.79

.96
.07
.77
1.37
.21
.72
.03
.04
.93

1.17
.15
.31
.24
.10
.12
.13
.11

1.71
.19
.58
.20
.11
.23
.23
.18

1.95
.28
.45
.32
.14
.23
.29
.22

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

2.49
.27
.84
.29
.16
.34
.33
.2 7

3.02
.43
.74
.49
.22
.36
.45
.34

2.3 I
.20
.23
.37
.c6
1.26

2.71
.20
.29
.26
.30
1.66

3.04
.21
.12
•u6
.17
1.88

3.59
.15
.15
.57
. 15
2.55

.02
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01

.04
.01
.00
.00
.00
.03

4.41
.31
.17
.95
.25
2.73

5.46
.23
.24
.86
.19
3.94

3.00
.04
.00
.31
.UU
.00
.04
• 56
1.50
.35
.03
. 17

.6 5
.01
.01
.11
.00
.00
.02
.07
.06
.05
.07
.02

.69
.02
.01
.13
.00
.00
.02
.10
.08
.06
.05
.02

.45
.02
.01
.10
.00
.00
.02
.08
.02
.07
.10
.02

.46

.02

.02
.01
.09
.00
.CO
.02
.09
.02
.08
.13
.02

.o u

.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.64
.03
.02
.14
.00
.00
.03
.12
.03
.10
.15
.03

.72
.03
.02
. 13
.00
.00
.03
.14
.03
.12
.20
.03

. 15
.00
.00
.00
.16

.31
.00
.00
•00
.31

.36
.02
.02
.00
.30

.69
.00
.03
.00
.45

.38
.01
.02
.00
.36

.55
.01
.08
.00
.51

.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.55
.01
.03
.00
.52

.91
.01
.12
.00
.78

1.01
.30
• 56
.16

1.05
.27
. 19

.57
.12
. lc
.09

.43
. 17
.17
.09

.49
.16
.19
.13

.69
.30
.24
.15

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.71
.24
.28
.19

1.05
.46
.36
.23

C T H F R P R O F , T E C H AND KI N D R E D
A C C O U N T A N T S AND ALDI T C R S
AIRPLANE PILOTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECTS
W K K k S IN A R T S . E M E R I A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CES1GN CRAFT
E D I T O R S AND REPC R T E R S
LAWYERS AND J C C G E 5
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L A N C LAE KEL W R K S
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL AND WELFARE WORKERS
PRCF,TECH,KINDRED,NEC

67.61
1.01
.02
• 26
35.22
.00
.56
.63
.26
.15
.25
.55
.55
7.65

40.22
1.23
• 04
. 35
24.65
.00
1.32
• 99
.24
.29
.2d
.75
.63
9.47

7.52
1.80
.07
.06
.17
.00
.02
.11
1.11
.05
.5 7
.10
1.9 1
1.28

10.37
1. 78
.07
.03
.16
.00
.02
.ID
.93
.05
1.18
.07
2.78
3.18

5.74
1.91
.10
.04
.21
.01
.02
.15
.76
.07
.60
.13
.09
1.66

7.59
1.E9
.10
.04
.23
.00
.01
. 18
.58
.06
.73
.11
.07
3.59

.60
.21
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.14
.00
.00
.24

1.27
.48
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.19
.00
.00
.59

8.0 7
2.68
.14
.05
.30
.01
.03
.22
1.1C
• 1C
.81
.19
.13
2.30

10.92
2.64
.15
.05
.35
.00
.02
.27
.8b
.12
1.01
.16
.10
5.17

MANAGERS,OFF IClALS.PRCPRIETORS

5.32

5.43

9.62

10.03

8.11

7.91

8.29

5.58

8.02

9.13

CONDUCT!RS.RAIIPCAD
CKEDITMEN
OFFICER S,PILCTS,ENGRS,SHIP
POSTMASTERS ANC ASSISTANTS
PURCHASING AGENTS
M A N A G E R S , G P F I C E , P R O F . NEC

.00
.00
.01
.00
.17
5.13

.00
.00
.01
.00
• lo
5.26

.uQ
.00
.01
1.22
.21
8.17

.00
.00
.01
.67
.23
9.13

.01
.00
.01
2.14
.26
5.68

.Cl
.00
.01
1.46
.31
6.13

.00
.00
.00
6.87
.00
1.42

.00
.00
.00
4.22
.00
1.36

.01
.CG
.02
.00
.38
7.61

.01
.00
.02
.00
.47
8.64

INDISTRY

TOTAl

PROFESSIONAL

TEIFiMf Al,KIN D R E D

ENGINEERS,TECFN1CAL
ENGINFERS,AERONAUTICAL
ENGINEERS,CFEM1C A1
ENGINEERS.CIVIL
ENGINEERS,ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS,INDUSTRIAL
ENGINI E K S , M E C F A N I C A l
E N G I N E E R S , M E 1A L L O R G , E TO
ENGINEERS,M1NINCCTHFR ENGINEERS,TEOHNIOAL

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS,SECCNEARY
TEACHERS,CCLLECE
TEACHERS,ETHER
SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS * ACT0AP1FS
OTHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS




.26

• S'*

.33

.o o

.00
.02
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.o o

.00

177
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n al C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975--- C ontinu ed

60
CLERICAL
STEALS.
OFFICE

TOTAL
GOVERNMENT PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION

ALL C T H E R
PROFESSIONAL
SERVICES

OCCUPATION

AN L

KINCREL

WORKERS

TYPISTS,SECRfclARIES
MACHINE

CPEPATCRS

CTHER C L E R I C A L , K 1 N C R E C WRKR S
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
BGOKKI E F E R S . H A N C
HANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL C A R R I E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SLIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OEER/TCRS
CLERICAL A M
KINCREL.NEC

R A I 40
17.92

78

RATIO

60

RA1IU

75

RATIO
38.99

POSTAL

FEDERAL PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

7.80
.49
.44
.00
.Ob
.00
.00
.09
.30
6.42

9.08
.43
• 39
.00
• 08
.00
.00
• 06
. 36
7.76

33.79
1.21
.00
.00
.20
6. j 9
7.59
.CE
.30
17.57

28.66
1.05
.00
.00
.18
5.69
6.61
.07
.28
19.83

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

.36

.31

11.3?

11.10

.82

.16

• 28

1.61

1.11

95.07
1.C6
.00
.00
.06
12.39
19.97
.13
.21
1 6 . BO

62.49
.51
.00
.00
.00
36.05
42.58
.00
.03
3.32

81.25
.53
.00
.00
.00
35.80
41.98
.GG
.01
2.94

30.14
1.54
.00
.00
.19
.00
.00
.It
.37
27.86

26.03
1.34
.00
.00
. 10
.00
.00
.20
.31
24.08

96.95
1.22
.00
.00
.13
11.23
13.26
.12
.26
20.22

1.05

RATIO

7.3B

7.99
1.16

8.55

1.53

75

38.24

8.63

9.00

1.09

RATIO

93.12

1.20

9.02

6C

81.84

53.27

42.69

OTHER
FEDERAL PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION

83.01

55.55

19.02

SERVICE

1. 71

. 12

.10

.09

.08

o
o

.00

.14

♦13

5. Id

8.41

8.04

10.24

10.12

.60

1.30

14.51

14.76

1.05
.11
•cc
.00
.27
.00
.60
.00
.07
.00
.00

1.22
. 15
.00
.00
. 26
.00
.71
.00
. 10
.00
.00

2.16
.43
.05
.00
.22
.44
.01
.28
.01
.01

1.63
.24
.02
.00
.49
.19
.36
.01
.28
.01
.01

2.72
.56
.02
.00
.96
.19
.35
.01
.38
.01
.02

2.25
.34
.03
.00
.82
.16
.42
.01
.45
.01
• Cl

.06
.02
.00
.00
.03
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

.06
.02
.00
.00
.03
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00

3.92
.61
.04
.00
1.39
.28
.79
.01
.53
.02
.04

3.40
.51
.04
.00
1.23
.24
.64
.01
.68
.02
.02

.57

.87

.64

.86

.88

.90

o
o

1.2b

1.37

M E T A L W K N G C R A M S EXC M E C H
M A C H I N I S T S ANC RE L A T C L CCC
ELKSMITES.ECRGMN.HAMMERMEN
F C 1 L E R M A K ERS
FEAT TREATERS,ANNEALtRS
M1LLWKIGE1S
HOLDERS,METAL.EXC CCREMKRS
PAT T E R N M A K E R S , ME TAL.wCCiC
R O L L E R S ANC RCLL LANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
TOOLMAKERS ANC CIEMAKERS

.25
.01
.02
.00
.00
.02
.00
.02
.00
.01
.16

.08
.01
.04
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.71
.34
-01
.01
.01
.01
.00
.04
.00
.26
.04

.48
.19
.01
.00
.01
.00
.00
.04
.00
.20
.02

1.16
.54
.01
.02
.01
.01
.00
.07
.00
.45
.06

.94
.33
.01
.Cl
• Cl
.01
.00
.09
.00
.41
.04

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

1.69
.78
.01
.02
.02
.02
.00
.10
.00
.65
.09

1.42
.53
.01
.01
.02
.01
.00
.14
.00
.63
.06

PRIMING
IRACES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITERS.1YPESETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS.STEPLOTYPEKS
ENGRAVERS EXC PECTOENGRVER
PH0TUENGRVKS.CI1ECGPAPHERS
PRESSMEN,ELATE PRINTERS

.12
.03
.00
.03
.00
.06

. 15
.01
.00
.02
.00
. 12

.14
.07
.00
.01
.02
.04

.14
.07
.00
.01
.02
.04

.19
.07
.00
.02
.03
.06

.21
.06
.00
.02
.03
•C7

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.27
.11
.00
.03
.04
.09

.32
.12
.00
.04
.05
.11

TRA N S P O R T AND PLB 11IL CRAFT
LINEMEN AND S E R V I C E M E N
LCCGMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.00
.00
.00
.CO

.00
.00
.00
.00

.09
•C E
.01
.00

.10
.09
.00
.00

.11
.10
.01
.00

.14
.14
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00

.16
.14
.01
.00

.21
.21
.00
.00

M E C H A N I C S AND REPAIRMEN
A I R P L A N E M ECF ANC R E P A I R M N
MOTOR VEHICLE M E C E A M C S
OFFICE MACHINE MECEANICS
RADIO ANC TV M E C E A M C S
RR A N D C A R S H O P M E C H A N I C S
CThER M E C E A M C S AND REPAIR

1.26
.06
.23
.02
.06
•GO
.40

1.76
.05
.35
.03
.04
.00
1.31

3.72
.97
.46
.01
.27
.00
2.00

4.06
.63
.41
.01
.27
.00
2.54

4.43
1.56
.43
.02
.33
.00
2.04

4.65
1.56
.28
.02
.39
.01
2.60

.53
.00
.27
.00
.01
.00
.26

.69
.00
.29
.00
.01
.00
.39

6.19
2.27
.50
.03
.55
.01
2.84

7.05
2.36
.26
.03
.58
.01
3.77

WORKERS
A M

KINDRED

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
E RI C K M A S C N S A N C T I L E S E T R S
CEMENr.CCNCRElE EINISEtRS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRADM- MACH CPER
PA I N I E R S ANC E A P E R H A N G E R S
PLASTERERS
P L U M B E R S ANC P I P E F I T T E R S
ROOFERS ANC SLATERS
STRUCTURAL METALWORKERS
FCREMEN

NEC




.Lb

c
o

1.09
4.30

SALES

CRAFTSMEN,FOREMEN

178
R a tio s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n o f In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d f o r 1975— C ontinu ed
A L L OTHER
P R O F E S S IO N A L
S E R V IC E S
6G

R A T IO

6C

75

R A T IO

K A T IC

75

FEDERAL P U B L IC
A D M IN IS T R A T IO N

R A T IO

60

R A T IO

75

POSTAL

R A T IO

1 -0 4
-00
.0 0
.0 0
-D C
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.1 3
.0 3
.0 9

1 .2 5
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
. 14
.0 5
1 . 10

.7
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.o
.0
.0
.6

6
1
2
6
0
0
0
0
o
0
2
3

.7 3
.0 1
.0 2
.0 3
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 2
.6 5

.7 5
.0 1
.0 4
.0 3
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 4
.5 7

.6 4
.0 1
.0 4
.0 5
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.0 4
.7 0

3 .6 4

4 . 15

3 .4 0

2 .5 0

4 .0 6

D R IV E R S AND D E L IV E R Y M E N
D R IV E R S .E L S .T R U C K .T P A C T C R
D E L IV E R Y M E N AND R C U T E M E N

.2 1
.1 1
.1 1

.1 4
.U /
• 08

1 .1 4
1 .0 1
.1 2

1 .0 5
.5 5
.1 0

T R A N S P AND POE L T 1 L C F E R A TVS
I R A K E M E N A N D S R I T C H M E N RR
PCWER S T A T I O N O P E R A T O R S
S A IL O R S ARC DECKHANDS

.0
.0
.0
.0

2
0
0
2

.0 2
.0 0
• 00
.0 2

.0
.0
.0
.0

4
1
1
2

.0
.0
.0
.0

S E M IS K IL L E D M E T A L W O R K IN G OCC
F O R N A C E M N .S M E LTR M N .FO LR E R S
H E A T E R S ,M E T A L
W ELDERS AND F lA M E -C U T T E R S
A S S EM B L E R S ,M T L W R K ,C L A S S A
A S S E M B L E R S ,M T L W R K .C L A S S b
IN S P E C T O R S .K T L H k K ,C L A S S B
M A C H IN E Tf CL C F E R ,C L A S S B
ELECTROFLATERS
ELECTROFLATERS EELPERS

.0 4
.0 0
.0 0
.0 4
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
• 00
.0 0
.0 0

.1
.0
.0
.1
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

2
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0

S E M IS K I L L E D T E X 1 U E CCCUP
K M T T E R S .L O C P E R S ,T O P P E R S
S P IN N E R S ,T E X T IL E
H E A V E R S ,T E X T IL E
SEW ERS ARC S T IT C E E R S .M F G

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.D C

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

0
0
0
0
0

•oo
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.o o

3 .5 7

3 .5 8

2 .1 8

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
3 .4

0
0
0
9
0
0
8

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
• 18
• 00
.0 0
3 .8 0

•U1
.0 3
.0 0
.0 6
.0 2
.0 0
2 .0 6

2.66

2.77

.o o

.00

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
C-LAROS, W A T C H M E N , C C O P K E E P R S
P O L I C E . O T H LAW E N F O R C E CEE

.87
.06
.72
.08

FC00 SERVICE WORKERS
EARTENDERS
C C O K S . E X C P R IV H O U S E H O L D S
COUNTER AND FOUNTAIN WKRS
WAITERS AND WAITRESSES

OPERA 11V E S

OTHER

ARC

K IN D R E D

O P E R A T IV E S

AND

WORKERS

K IN D R E D

A S B E S T O S ,IN S U IA T IC N HRKS
A T T E N D ,A L T O S E R V IC E .P A K K N G
B L A S T E R S ANC F C H O E R M E N
L A U N D R Y , C RY C L E A N I N G O P E R
MEAT C O T T E R S ,E X C M EATPCKNG
M IN E O P E R A T V S .L A E C R E R S ,N E C
O P E R A T IV E S AND K IN D R E D ,N E C

HOCSEHCLC

WORKERS

CTEER SERVICE WCRKERS
AIRLINE STEWARDS,STWROSSES
ATT EN D A M S , H G S P , O T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
J A N I T O R S ANC SEXTCNS
NURSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WORKERS,NEC

LAECRERS.EXCtFT

FARMERS

AND

I ARM

FARM

ANC

WCRKERS




MINE

75

60

R A T IO

75

R A T IO

.2 1

1 .0 0
.0 2
.0 5
.0 3
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.0 0
.0 0
.0 6
.7 7

3 .3 7

1 -4 5

1 .3 0

5 .2 4

4 .4 5

.5 9
.6 7
• 13

.9 9
.9 1
.0 9

.6 5
.6 5
.0 0

.6 2
.6 2
.0 0

1 .1 5
.9 7
.1 8

1 .1 9
1 .0 6
.1 3

.0 6
.0 1
.0 1
.0 3

.0
.0
.0
.0

4
0
2
2

.0
.0
.0
.0

0
0
0
0

.0
.0
.0
.0

0
0
0
0

.0
.0
.0
.0

9
2
2
5

.0 6
.0 0
.0 3
.0 3

.1 1
.0 0
.0 0
.1 1
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.1
.0
.0
.1
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

9
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
0

.2 1
.0 0
.0 0
.2 1
.C O
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.2
.0
.0
.2
.0
.0
.0
.0
.o
.0

7
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
c
0

.3
.0
.0
.3
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

0
0
0
0
0

.C O
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

0
0
0
0
0

.0
.o
.0
.0
.0

0
c
0
0
0

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

0
0
0
0
0

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0

1 .6 8

2 .8 2

2 .1 2

.7 9

.6 3

3 .7 4

2 .8 8

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
1 .5

0
3
0
4
2
0
5

.0 1
.0 2
.0 0
.0 3
.0 3
.0 0
2 .6 3

.C l
.0 1
.0 0
.0 6
.0 4
.0 0
2 .0 2

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.7

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.6

.0
.0
.0
.1
.0
.0
3 .5

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
2 .7

18.06

19.75

4.20

3.22

2.0b

.00

.00

.00

.00

1.06
.09
.62
. 15

15.20
4.46
2 .c6
8.08

17.20
4.74
2.55
9.51

1.96
.54
.81
.61

1.33
.30
.43
.60

.33
.04
.14
• 1C
.06

.34
. 06
.13
. C3
.08

.33
.o o
.21
.04
.07

.31
.00
.23
.03
.05

.35
.00
.20
.04
.11

1.46
.00
.00
.10
.42
.11
.82

1.37
.00
.00
.22
.62
.02
.51

2.53
.OG
.06
.23
1.30
.06
.86

2.25
.00
.11
.18
.77
.05
1.13

.44

.40

3.67

2.91

.u o

.00

.00

0
0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

R A T IO

.5 5
.0 2
.0 5
.1 2
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 1
.0 1
.0 0
.0 5
.7 4

3
0
1
1

.2
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

.uo

0
0
0
0
0
0
9

0
0
0
0
0
0
8

1
3
0
2
5
0
3

3
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
0
9
6
0
2

1.62

5.16

.00

■OO

.00

.14
.00
.13
.01

.11
.00
.07
.04

2.78
.76
1.12
.89

1.98
.46
.62
.89

.23
.00
.21
.04
,C6

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.51
.00
.25
.06
.16

.50
.00
.31
.06
.12

1.89
.00
.06
.17
1.06
.02
.58

1.56
.CO
.08
.10
.38
.01
1.00

1.93
.00
.00
.00
1.79
.00
.15

1.71
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.71

1.86
.00
.05
.25
.73
.03
.77

1.49
.00
.12
.15
.57
.02
.63

3.68

3.76

3.70

6.79

3.67

2.16

.00

.00

.00

.00

o
o

WORKERS

PRIVATE

R A T IO

OTHER
FEDERAL P U B L IC
A O M IN IS T R A T IO N

o
o

SERVICE

6C

S E R V IC E

.5 5
.0 0
.C O
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.5 5

O
o

O T H E R C R A F T S M E N AND K IN D R E D
PAKERS
C A B IN E T M A K E R S
C R A N E . D E R R I C K ,H O I S T MEN
G L A Z IE R S
J E W E L E R S AND M A T C H M A K ER S
IC O M F IX E R S
O P T IC IA N S ,L E N S G R IN D E R S
I N S P E C T O R S , I C G AN D L U M B E R
IN S P E C T O R S ,O T H E R
UPHOLSTERERS
C R A F T S M E N AND K IN D R E D NEC

TOTAL
GOVERNMENT P U B L IC
A D M IN IS T R A T IO N

c
c

O C C U P A T IO N

3.96

179
R a tio s o f O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t, I9 6 0 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 197 5--- C ontinu ed
STATE PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION

OCCLPAUCN

oO

RATIO

75

RAIIO

LOCAL PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

2 2 . C5

2d.04

10.27

12.18

.54

.40

1.54

1.43

.00
.DC
• 25
.15
.00
.06
.00
.00
• 04

.00
.00
.21
. 13
-00
.03
.oo
.00
.02

.00
.00
1.21
.05
.10
.06
.00
.00
.11

.CO
.00
1.11
.05
.14
.05
.00
.00
.03

NATURAL SCIENTISTS
CHEMISTS
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTISTS
C-EOLOGISTS.CECPEYSICISTS
MATHEMATICIANS
PHYSICISTS
OTHER NATURAL SCIENTISTS

1.19
.13
.50
.37
.05
.05
.00
.05

1.33
.09
-4o
. 50
.15
.08
.00
.05

•0 8
.02
.04
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00

.0 7
.01
.02
.01
.01
.01
.00
.00

TECHNICIANS,EXC MECICAL.DENT
CRAFTSMEN
SURVEYORS
AIR T R A F F I C C L N T R C L L E R S
RADIO OPERATORS
TECHNIC IANS,OTHER

1.6b
.12
.23
.00
.32
1.00

2.48
.07
.15
.00
.40
1.56

1.19
.23
.43
.00
.32
.21

1.70
.32
.54
.00
.46
.40

M E D I C A L . O T H E R HEALTH, W O R K E R S
DENTISTS
DIETITIANS,NUTRIT1CNISTS
NURSES.PRCEESSICNAL
OFTOMFTRIST S
OSTEOPAIHS
PHARMACISTS
PHYSICIANS ANC SURGEONS
PSYCHOLOGISTS
TECHNICIANS,MEClCAL,CENTAL
VETERINARIANS
OTHER MEL ICAL,HEALTH WRKRS

.83
.03
.02
.20
.00
.00
.04
.12
.22
.06
• Oc
.06

1.00
.04
.01
.28
.00
.00
.03
. 19
.24
.10
.Oo
.05

.26
.00
.00
.11
.00
.00
.02
.04
.06
.01
.01
.01

.27
.00

TEACHERS
TEACHERS,ELEMENTARY
TEACHERS.SHCCNCARY
TEACHtRS.CCILEGE
TEACHERS,CTHFR

.63
.05
.06
.uC
.52

.68
.00
.00
.00
•68

.15
.03
.01
.00
.11

.26
.00
.00
.00
.26

SOCIAL SCIENTISTS
ECONOMISTS
STATISTICIANS + ACTUARIES
CIHER SOCIAL SCIENTISTS

.5E
• It
.33
.08

.55
.17
. 30
.09

.06
.00
.03
.03

.05
.01
.02
.03

O T H E R P R O F , T E C H ANC K I N D R E D
A C C O U N T A N T S ANC A U D I T O R S
AIRPLANE PILCTS,NAVIGATORS
ARCHITECT 5
W R K R S IN A R T S . E M E R T A I N M N T
CLERGYMEN
DESIGNERS,EXC CESIGN DRAFT
E D I T O R S ANC R E P O R T E R S
LAWYERS ANC JUDGES
LIBRARIANS
P E R S O N N E L A ND LAE REL N R K S
PHOTOGRAPHERS
SOCIAL AND WELFARE WORKERS
P R O F . T E C H . K IN C R E D , NEC.

16.66
3.61
.12
.07
.14
.00
.01
.09
2.14
.06
3.75
.05
4.93
1.65

21.59
3.67
. 16
•Oh
. 13
.00
.01
.09
1.88
.09
4.36
.07
5.59
5.50

6.57
.82
.00
.02
.11
.00

8.40
.73
.00
.01
.08
.00
.02
.02
.52
.00
.22
.03
4.82
1.55

MANAGERS.OEEIC1ALS,PRCFPI ETURS

12.35

11.37

11.27

12.04

C L N D U C T C R S . R A ILRCA 0
CREDITMEN
OFFICER S , F U C 7 S , E N G P S .SHIP
P O S T M A S T E R S ANC AS S I S T A N T S
PLRCHASINC- A G H M S
M A N A G E R S . O F F I C E , P R O F . NEC

.00
.00
.01
.00
.16
12.21

.00
.00
.00
.00
.21
11.16

.00
.00
.01
.00
.12
11.14

.00
.00
.00
.00
.15
11.50

INDLS1RY

TOTAL

PRCEESSICNAl

1ECPN1CAI ,KINDRE0

ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL
ENGINEERS »A£RCNALTICAL
ENGINEERS»CHEMICAl
ENGINEERS *C1VIL
ENGINEER S,ELEC1R1CAI
ENGINEERS,INClSIR1AL
ENGINEERS,MECHANICAL
ENGINEERS,MET AllURG,ETC
ENGINEERS,PINING
OTHER ENGINEERS,TECHNICAL




.01
.02
1.32
.02
.16
.04
4.04
.4 1

.00
.10

.00
.00
.01
.06
.07
.01
.01
.01

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

180
R a t io s of O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u str y E m p lo y m e n t, 1960 an d P r o je c t e d fo r 1975— C ontinued
S1ATE PUBLIC
ACMINISTk ATICN

OCCUPATION

60
CLERICAL
STENCS,
OEEICE

AN!

KINDRED

WORKERS

TYEISTS,SECRETARIES
MACHINE

OPERATORS

GTHER CLERICAl,KINDRED WRKRS
ACCOUNTING CLERKS
eCOKKEEPERS.HANC
PANK TELLERS
CASHIERS
MAIL CARRI E R S
POSTAL CLERKS
SLIPPING,RECEIVING CLERKS
TELEPHONE OPERATORS
C L E R I C A L AN! KINDR E D , N E C

SALES

AND

KINDRED

CONSTRUCTION CRAFTSMEN
CARPENTERS
PRICKMASCNS ANC TILE SETRS
CEMENT,CONCRETE FINISHERS
ELECTRICIANS
EXCAVATNG.GRACNG MACH OPER
PAINTERS ANC RAPERHANGERS
PLASTERERS
P L U M B E R S ANC P I P E F I T T E R S
ROOFERS AND SLATERS
S T R U C T U R A L ME I A L K C R K E R S
FOREMEN

7b

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

3 7.96

34. 43

20.45

21.98

13.45

12.41

o.92

6.37

1.95

3.04

.44

.77

22.46
1-41
.00
.00
.36
.00
.00
.04
.38
20.27

18.58
1.23
.00
.00
.22
.00
.00
.05
.32
1 7 . 14

13.12
1.05
.00
.00
.25
.00
.00
.01
.34
11.44

12.64
.54
.00
.00
.31
.00
.00
.01
.34
11.24

.25

WORKERS

CRAFISMEN,FCR EMEN

RATIO

LOCAL PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION

NEC

.20

.05

.06

6.83

7.07

5.64

5.52

1.11
.26
.06
.01
.22
.12
.32
.00
.12
.01
.00

.78
. 15
.04
.01
. 16
.10
.21
.00
.11
.01
.00

1.55
.24
.03
.00
.34
.31
.45
.01
.16
.01
.00

1.26
.17
.01
.00
.25
.28
.37
.01
.15
.01
.00

.96

1.11

.69

.70

METALWKNG CRAFTS EXC MECH
M A C H I N I S T S ANC R E L A T E D UCC
BLKSMITFS.FCRGMN,HAMMERMEN
BOILERMAKERS
HEAT TREATERS,ANNEALERS
MILLWRIGHTS
MULDERS.METAL,EXC CCREMKRS
PAT T E R N M A K E R S , M E T A L , W O O D
ROLLERS ANC ROLL HANDS
SHEET METAL WORKERS
TOOLMAKERS A M
CI E M A K E R S

.09
.07
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.oo
.01
.01

.07
.03
.01
.00
.oo
.00
.00
.01
.00
.01
.01

.13
.08
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00

.10
.07
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.02
.00

PRINTING TRADES CRAFTSMEN
COMPOSITORS.TYPESETTERS
ELECTROTYPERS.STERECTYPERS
ENGRAVERS EXC PECTCENGRVER
PHOTUENGRVRS,LITHCGRAPHERS
PRESSMEN,PLATE PRINTERS

.13
.05
.00
.00
.01
.03

. 09
.05
.00
• oo
.01
.03

.05
.04
.00
.00
.00
.01

.07
.06
.00
.00
.00
.01

T R A N S P O R T ANC PCE UTIL CRAFT
LINEMEN ANC SERVICEMEN
LLCUMOTIVE ENGINEERS
LOCOMOTIVE FIREMEN

.01
.01
.00
.00

.01
.01
.00
.00

.05
.08
.01
.00

.05
.08
.01
.00

MECHANICS AND REPAIRMEN
A I R P L A N E M ECH ANC REPA I R M N
MOTOR VEHICLE MECHANICS
OFFICE MACHINE MECHANICS
RADIO A N D TV M E C H A N I C S
RR A N D C A R S H I P M E C H A N I C S
OTHER MECHANICS AND REPAIR

3.10
.60
-4C
.02
.29
.00
1.75

3.44
.60
.42
.04
.39
.00
1.53

2.66
.00
.56
.00
.06
.00
2.03

3.38
.00
.56
.00
.06
.00
2.76




6C

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

181
Ratios of Occupational Composition of Industry Employment, 1 9 6 0 and Projected for 1 9 7 5 — Continued
STATE PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION

OCCUPATION

60
OTHER CRAFTSMEN ANC KINCRFD
FAKERS
CABINETMAKERS
CRANE,DERRICK,ECIST MEN
GLAZIERS
JEWE L E R S ANC K A T C EMAKERS
LCCM HIKERS
OPTICIANS,LENS GRINCERS
INSPECTORS,IOC- A M
LUMBER
INSPECTORS,ETHER
UPHOLSTERERS
CRA F T S M E N ANC K INCHED NEC

OPERATIVES

ANC

KIMREC

WORKERS

R A 110

75

RATIO

LOCAL PUBLIC
ACM INISTRATION

KATIE

RATIO

1.44
.01
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
1.41

1.55
.01
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
1. 52

.46
.01
.01
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.41

.32

.00
.00

1.61

i. 4 5

3.16

3.02

.04

1. 7 4
1.55
.16

1.61
1.47
.13

.26
.22

60

.01
.01
.02
.00

.00
.0 0

.00
.00
.27

DRIVERS ANC CEL IVERYMEN
DRIVERS,ElS,TRUCK,TRACTOR
D E L I V E R Y M E N ANC RCLTENtN

.35
.31
.04

TRANSP ANC POE LTIL C FERATVS
E R A K E M E N A N C S W I T C H M E N HR
P O W E R STA1.ICN C E E R A T O R S
SAILORS AND DECKHANCS

.02
.00
.01
.02

.02
.00
.00
.02

.01
.oo
.01
.oo

SEMISKILLED METALWORKING CCC
F L R N A C E M N ,SMEL T R M N , P O O R E R S
HEATERS,METAL
WELDERS ANC FLAME-CLTTERS
ASSEMBLERS,MTEWRK,CLASS A
ASSEMBLERS.MTLWKK,CLASS B
INSPECTORS,NTLWRK,CEASS B
MA C H I N E TCCT C P E R , C L A S S B
ELECTROPLATERS
ELECTROPtATERS EELPEkS

.04
.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.03
.00
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
•oo
.00
.00

S E H I S K I L L E C T E X T IE E C C C U P
KMTTERS.LOCPERS.TCPPERS
SPINNERS,TEXTILE
WEAVERS,T ENTILE
SEWERS ANC STITCH ERS.NFG

.00
.00
.00
.oo
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

KINDRED

1.20

1.13

1.35

ASBESTOS, INSUEATICN WRKS
ATTEND,ALTO SERVICE,PAHKNG
Bl A S T E R S A M
FCWCEPMEN
LAUNDRY,CRY CLEANING CPER
MEAT CUTIERS.EXf MEATPCKNU
MINE O P E R ATVS,LAECRERS,NEC
O P E R A T I V E S ANC K 1N C P E C . N E C

.00
.01
•oo
.07
.01
.00
1.11

.00
.01
.00
.04
.01
.00
l.OB

.00
.07
.00
.02
.00

.oc

.01
.00
.00

1.30

1.32

17.16

16.47

44.55

42.00

.00

.00

.00

.00

13.25
.20
7.06
6.01

13.06
.20
6.45
6.41

40.58
13.68
4.25
23.05

35.03

.36
.00
.24
.04
.07

.32
• 00
.24
.03
.06

.26
.00
.22
.03
.01

3.53
.00
.24
.23
1.33
.18
1.56

3.09
.00
.36
. 14
1.17
.13
1.26

3.32
•00
.04
.35
1.76
.08
1.09

2.70

1.65

.98

4.51

2.76

.00

.00

•OC

OTHER

SERVICE

OPERATIVES

ANC

WORKERS

PRIVATE

HEISEHCIC

WCRKERS

PROTECTIVE SERVICE WORKERS
FIREMEN
GLARDS,WATCHMEN,CCCRKEEPRS
P C L I C E , C I H LAW E N F O R C E OFF
ECOD SERVICE WIFKERS
EARTENDERS
C u O K S . E X C P R IV H C L S E H C L D S
COUNTER ANC FCLK T A I N WKRS
WAITERS ANC WAITRE S S E S
CTHFR SERVICE WCRKERS
AIRLINE SIEWARCS.STWKCSSES
A T T E N D A N T S , E C S E . C T H E R INST
CHARWOMEN ANC CLEANERS
JANITORS A M
SEXTCNS
NLRSES,PRACTICAL
SERVICE WCRKERS,NEC

LABORERS.EXCEPT

FARMERS

AND

FARM

FARM

ANC

WCRKERS




MINE

.01
.00

.01
.00
.01

.00
.00
• Cl
.00

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

.00
.00
1.39

.00
.06

.00

12.4S
4.41
22.14
.27

.00
.25

.0 1

.01
.00
.04
.31
1.06
.06
1.23

.00

60

RATIu

75

RATIO

6C

RATIO

75

RATIO

60

RATIO

75

RATIO

Appendix D
P r o je c t e d O c c u p a tio n a l C o m p o sitio n of In d u stry E m p lo y m e n t f o r 1975, and D e ta ile d O c c u p a tio n s and I n d u s tr ie s by N u m b e r and P e r c e n t
(E m p lo y e e s in th o u sa n d s)
TOTAL
ALL
INDUSTRIES

OCCUPATION

NUMBER

AGRICULTURE
F O R E S T R Y AND
FISHERIES
TOTAL

PERCENT

NUMBER

PERCENT

AGRICULTURE

NUMBER

FORESTRY

PERCENT

NUMBER

FISHERIES

PERCENT

NUMBER

PERCENT

88,660.1

100.00

3,875.0

100. 0 0

3,745.0

100. 0 0

70.0

100. 0 0

60.0

12,924.2

14.58

92.6

2.39

53.8

1.44

36.2

51.67

2.6

4.29

1,450.0

1.64

2.2

.06

.4

.01

1.7

2.41

.1

.11

68. 6
61.7
248.2
319.8
169.9
254.6
33.2
15.2
278.8

.08
.07
.28
.36
. 19
.29
. 04
. 02
. 31

.0
.1
1.5
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.5

.00
.00
.04
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.4

.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.Cl

.0
.1
1.4
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.1

. 00
.07
1.98
.01
.05
.05
.00
.03
.21

.0
.0
.1
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

.00
.00
.11
. 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00

465. 2
174.6
53. 3
63. 7
29.3
51.2
58.0
3 5.0

. 52
. 20
. 06
. 07
.03
. 06
.07
.04

17.2
1.0
13.5
2.6
.0
.0
.0
.L

.44
.03
. 35
.07
.00
.00
.00
.00

4.7
.9
3.0
.8
.0
.0
.0
.0

.12
.02
.08
.02
.00
.00
• CO
.00

11.1
.1
10.4
.5
.0
.0
.0
. 1

15.86
.14
1 4. 87
. 69
.01
.04
.01
.09

1.4
.0
.1
1.3
.0
.0
.0
.0

2.38
.02
. 17
2. 1 9
.00
.00
.00
.00