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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FRANCES PERKINS, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS ISADOR LUBIN, Commissioner BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \ BUREAU OF L A B O R S T A T IS T I C S / CQO OOL fcT • • • • IN D U S T R IA L A C C ID E N T S AN D H Y G IE N E S E R IE S OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS A GUIDE TO IMPAIRMENTS TO BE LOOKED FOR IN HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS (Revision o f Bulletin No. 306) By LOUIS I. DUBLIN, Ph. D. Third Vice President and Statistician and ROBERT J. VANE Supervisor of Occupational Ratings Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1933 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. - Price 5 cents Contents ---------------------- £age Preface_______________________________________________________________ Introduction________________________ _______ __________________________ Section I.— Alphabetical list of hazardous occupations_________________ Section II.— List of hazards, symptoms, occupations exposed, and methods of prevention_______________________________________________ A. Abnormalities of temperature and humidity____________________ 1. Extreme dry heat_______________________________________ 2. Heat and humidity__________________ ___________________ 3. Sudden variations of temperature________________________ B. Compressed air________________________________________________ C. Dampness_____________________________________________________ D. Defective illumination_________________________________________ E. Dust__________________________________________________________ 1. Inorganic dust__________________________________________ 2. Organic dust____________________________________________ F. Infections_____________________________________________________ 1. Anthrax_________________________________________________ 2. Hot>kworm (ankylostomiasis)_________________ ___________ 3. Septic infections__________________________ ______________ G. Radiant energy________________________________________________ 1. X-rays, radium, and other radioactive substances (radio thorium, mesothorium, etc.)___________________________ 2. Ultraviolet and infrared rays_____________________________ H. Repeated motion, pressure, shock, etc__________________________ J. Poisons___________________ ____________________________________ 1. Acetaldehyde___________________________________________ 2. Acetanilide______________________________________________ 3. Acetone_________________________________________________ 4. Acridine________________________________________________ 5. Acrolein_________________________________________________ 6. Aluminum______________________________________________ 7. Ammonia______ ________________________________________ 8. Amyl acetate____________________________________________ 9. Amyl alcohol____________________________________________ 10. Aniline and other amino compounds of benzol and its homologues_________________________________________________ 11. Antimony and its compounds____________________________ 12. Arsenic and its compounds______________________________ 13. Arseniuretted hydrogen (arsine)__________________________ 14. Barium_________________________________________________ 15. Benzine (naphtha-gasoline)______________________________ 16. Benzol (benzene) and its homologues (toluol and xylol)___ 17. Brass (zinc)_____________________________________________ 18. Bromine_________________________________________________ 19. Butyl acetate___________________________________________ 20. Butyl alcohol____________________________________________ 21. Cadmium_______________________________________________ 22. Carbon dioxide__________________________________________ 23. Carbon disulphide_____________________________ *________ 24. Carbon monoxide_______ _______________________________ 25. Carbon tetrachloride___________________ _________________ 26. Cellosolve (mono-ethyl ether of ethylene glycol)__________ 27. Chloride of lime_________________________________________ 28. Chlorine_________________________________________________ 29. Chlorodinitrobenzol______________________________________ 30. Chloronitrobenzol___________________________________ „ ___ 31. Chromium compounds___________________________________ in v 1 4 13 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 25 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 30 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 IV CONTENTS S ection II.— List of hazards, symptoms, occupations exposed, and methods of prevention— Continued J. Poisons— Continued 32. Cobalt__________________________________________________ 33. Copper__________________________________________________ 34. Cresol (cresylic acid)____________________________________ 35. Cyanogen compounds____________________________________ 36. Dimethyl sulphate_______________________________________ 37. Dinitrobenzol___________________________________________ 38. Dioxan (diethvlene dioxide)______________________________ 39. Ethyl benzene___________________________________________ 40. Ethyl bromide and ethyl chloride________________________ 41. Ethylene dibromide_____________________________________ 42. Ethylene dichloride______________________________________ 43. Ethylene oxide__________________________________________ 44. Formaldehyde___________________________________________ 45. Formic acid_____________________________________________ 46. Gasoline________________________________________________ 47. Hydrochloric acid_______________________________________ 48. Hydrocyanic acid________________________________________ 49. Hydrofluoric acid________________________________________ 50. Iron carbonyl___________________________________________ 51. Lead and its compounds_________________________________ 52. Lead arsenate___________________________________________ 53. Manganese______________________________________________ 54. Mercury and its compounds_____________________________ 55. Methanol (methyl alcohol)_____________________*________ 56. Methyl bromide_________________________________________ 57. Methyl chloride_________________________________________ 58. Naphtha________________________________________________ 59. Nickel carbonyl__________________________________________ 60. Nitraniline______________________________________________ 61. Nitrobenzol and other nitro compounds of benzol and its homologues___________________________________________ 62. Nitroglycerin____________________________________________ 63. Nitronaphthalene________________________________________ 64. Nitrous gases and nitric acid____________________________ 65. Oxalic acid______________________________________________ 66. Ozone______________________________________________ ____ 67. Petroleum_______________________________________________ 68. Phenol__________________________________________________ 69. Phenyl hydrazine________________________________________ 70. Phosgene________________________________________________ 71. Phosphorus______________________________________________ 72. Phosphuretted hydrogen (phosphine) ____________________ 73. Picric acid______________________________________________ 74. Potassium hydroxide____________________________________ 75. Pyridine________________________________________________ 76. Silver___________________________________________________ 77. Sodium hydroxide_______________________________________ 78. Sulphur dioxide_________________________________________ 79. Sulphuretted hydrogen__________________________________ 80. Sulphuric acid___________________________________________ 81. Sulphur monochloride___________________________________ 82. Tar_____________________________________________________ 83. Tellurium_______________________________________________ 84. Tetrachlorethane (acetylene tetrachloride)________________ 85. Tetraethyl lead__________________________________________ 86. Thallium________________________________________________ 87. Tin_____________________________________________________ 88. Titanium oxide__________________________________________ 89. Trinitrotoluol___________________________________________ 90. Turpentine______________________________________________ 91. Uranium________________________________________________ 92. Vanadium_______________________________________________ 93. Vinyl chloride___________________________________________ 94. Zinc_____________________________________________________ Section III.— Dermatoses_____________________________________________ Page 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 46 46 47 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 49 49 50 Preface The first edition of this guide to the hazards of occupations and to the symptoms of the diseases they cause was intended primarily to aid the medical examiners of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. in the discovery of impairments among applicants for insurance. The pamphlet soon attracted the attention of others not immediately interested in insurance medical examinations. Large numbers of industrial physicians, directors of compensation boards, factory in spectors, safety engineers, industrial rehabilitation agents, faculties of medical colleges, and, most important of all, general practitioners of medicine have made a call for this work and have expressed their approval of it. The favorable response encouraged us to proceed with the preparation of a second and much enlarged edition. This edi tion 1 was equally well received. Published 10 years ago, it is still in constant demand. It has been reproduced either in whole or in art in a number of works by authorities on the subject of industrial ygiene. The authors are convinced by their experience with these earlier editions that this pamphlet has served a useful purpose, and that there is a vital need for a work of this kind, which makes readily available the most recent findings on industrial hazards to those who have not the time for a thorough study. Obviously, the extension of the compensation laws of the several States to include all occupational diseases, or an increasing number of them, has made it necessary for physicians to be familiar with at least their most common symptoms. The 10 years which have elapsed since the publication of the second edition ox this guide have seen wide expansion and a marked in crease in activities in the field of industrial hygiene. They have been noteworthy for the large number of scientific investigations under taken to determine the causes of ill health among workmen and the effects of exposure to specific industrial hazards. Complete reports have been published not only on the effects of such poisons as radio active paint, methyl bromide, and other refrigerants, and tetraethyl lead, which have become of importance only recently, but our knowl edge of well-known health hazards has also been enriched. To memtion only a few, benzol, spray painting, and exposure to asbestos dust and to dusts containing free silica, have been thoroughly studied and reported upon. In preparing this, the third edition of the pamphlet, the authors have endeavored to present the most recent thought on occupational hazards expressed in this vast literature on industrial hygiene. They realize full well the inadequacy of existing knowledge of the effects of many industrial hazards, and the amount of scientific research neces sary before these effects are definitely known. They have not pre sumed to attempt to settle controversial questions, nor have they E 1 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bui. No. 306: Occupation hazards and diagnostic signs. Washington, 1922. V VI PREFACE attempted to set up standards for the guidance of those whose responsibility it is to pass upon claims for compensation or damages. The symptoms, conditions, or diseases cited are those which are reported in the best works available on the several hazards. They have not been listed in the order of their importance, and many are perhaps of rather rare occurrence. Similarly, the occupations and industries listed are those which have been reported as offering ex posure to such hazards, and not necessarily those in which specific cases of injury have occurred. The form of the pamphlet has been changed somewhat to facilitate reference to the symptoms and occupations listed under each hazard. While the number of hazard groups remains the same, we have com pletely revised the method of presenting some of the hazards. “ Ex treme light ”, now listed as “ radiant energy ”, has been subdivided to show separately the effects of “ X-rays and radium ”, and of “ ultra violet and infrared rays.” “Abnormalities of temperature ” is now subdivided to show the effects of “ heat and humidity ” in addition to those of “ extreme dry heat ” and “ sudden variations of tempera ture.” The hazards covered now include “ abnormalities of temper ature ” ; “ compressed air ” ; “ dampness ” ; “ defective illumination ” ; “ dust ” ; “ infections ” ; “ radiant energy ” ; “ repeated motion, pres sure, shock, etc.” ; and the “ poisons.” The section on “ skin irri tants ” is now listed under the heading “ dermatoses.” The number of poisonous substances considered has been increased from 52 to 94. The number of hazardous occupations listed has been increased to approximately 900. The authors desire to acknowledge their indebtedness to the mem bers of the medical profession of the United States and Canada, who have so graciously received the previous editions, and who have so enthusiastically cooperated in extending its scope. It would be impracticable to make personal acknowledgment of all the assist ance which has been received in preparing this revision. Mention, however, should be made of the following authors and organizations from whose published works so large a part of the information used in the pamphlet was secured: Drs. Alice Hamilton, George M. Kober, Emery R. Hayhurst, Yandell Henderson, Howard W. Haggard, R. Prosser White, Carey P. McCord, Henry H. Kessler, Ralph W. Webster, Frank P. Underhill, W. Gilman Thompson, and also the International Labor Office of the League of Nations, Harvard School of Public Health, United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Public Health Service, United States Bureau of Mines, and the Bureau of Industrial Hygiene of the New York State Depart ment of Labor. The authors are especially indebted to Dr. Anthony J. Lanza and Dr. William J. McConnell, assistant medical directors of the Metro politan Life Insurance Co., for reviewing the entire manuscript, for assistance in the preparation of the text, and for many valuable criticisms suggested by their broad experience in the field of indus trial medicine. The detailed work of this compilation was carried out by Thomas Dublin, Lawrence Wolff, and Sol Ungar, of the Statistical Bureau of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. T T ^ Louis I . D u b lin . R o b e r t J. V a n e . BULLETIN OF THE U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS n o . 582 WASHINGTON S e p te m b e r 1933 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS: A GUIDE TO IM PAIRMENTS TO BE LOOKED FOR IN HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS Introduction Many occupations have injurious effects on the physical condition of those engaged in them. The health of those who work with the poisons, such as lead, arsenic, mercury, picric acid, etc., or those who are exposed for long periods to dust, heat, humidity, or to the infectious materials, may be impaired seriously as the result of their work. The occupation is now recognized as of the very first im portance as a factor in the causation of disability and even of death. We see this reflected in the frequent revisions of compensation laws to include an increasing number of occupational diseases. Dr. Edsall has shown that in the clinic he conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital many of the conditions for which treatment was sought by men of working ages were the effects of occupation. Other industrial clinics are reporting similar results. With their attention directed to occupation as a possible factor, industrial physicians are able to diagnose a great many obscure cases which previously had puzzled even the most competent clinicians. In this way they discover a great many more cases of disease of occupa tional origin than had before been thought possible. Thus, in 1917, about 150 cases of lead poisoning were discovered at the Massa chusetts General Hospital, which are more than were recorded by this clinic during the 5-year period prior to the adoption of the more intensive methods of study. It is generally recognized that patients come to physicians with pains and complaints of an in definite character, and it is only wnen consideration is given to the occupation and its possible effects that many of these cases are cleared up. The medical examiner should therefore be very careful to see if any of the usual diagnostic signs of poisoning, dust? heat, or other hazards which are known to be inherent in occupations are in evi dence among their patients, where no other explanation of the case is readily available. In the case of those exposed to lead, such as employees of storage-battery plants, white-lead workers, paint mixers, painters, etc., the blue line on the g;um, the pale, sallow ap pearance, and the trembling fingers are significant as indications of chronic lead poisoning, and the physician should look for these signs. Physical symptoms and conditions which ordinarily might be passed by, in this way become very important if they point to the possible effect of the occupation. 2 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS This handbook has been prepared to aid physicians in general prac tice, industrial hygienists, safety engineers, and others who come into close professional contact with those who are engaged in industrial processes. Nine major hazards of employment are listed; namely, “ abnormalities of temperature ” ; “ compressed air ” ; “ dampness ” ; “ defective illumination ” ; “ dust ” ; “ infections” : “ radiant energy ” ; 6 repeated motion, pressure, or shock ” ; and the poisons.” A sepa 6 rate section of the bulletin is devoted to a discussion of the der matoses. Long exposure to any of these will usually leave definite physical signs which the medical examiner can discover if he will look for them. To aid him in detecting the hazards and their effects on the worker, two lists are presented. The first consists of the more common hazardous occupations, arranged alphabetically; the second consists of hazards, together with their effects or symptoms, as well as the occupations affected. After each occupation in the first list is a reference in code to the particular hazard in the second list. The capital letters after each occupation, A, B, C, etc., refer to the general hazard. The arabic numerals signify the particular hazard, as E 1, inorganic dust; E 2, organic dust. The following example will show how this guide may be of value to the general practitioner: A man, who works in a garage, suffering from continuous headaches visits his physician. The latter can find no cause for the patient’s illness. The patient shows no sign of disease other than the subjective symptoms which he describes. Per haps the physician will recommend an examination of the subject’s eyes, ears, and sinuses, which will prove negative. A correct diag nosis in a puzzling case such as this is much easier to determine when the occupation is ascertained and this guide is utilized. Alongside of “ garage workers ” in the Alphabetical List of Hazardous Occupa tions, the physician finds the symbols J 15, 24, 51, 85. “J ” represents the hazard poisons ”, and 15, 24, 51, 85, the particular poisons— gasoline, carbon monoxide, lead, and tetraethyl lead, respectively. Upon looking up the symptoms of these poisons in the second list, he finds that all produce headache. In such a case an effort should be made to discover which of these poisons exists as a hazard in the plant where the patient is employed. The remedy consists in the removal of the etiological factor—the specific poison. The following procedure is therefore recommended: The medical examiner or physician should ascertain the occupation of the person undergoing examination. He should then look for it in the Alpha betical List of Hazardous Occupations (p. 4). If found there, it is possible that the person has been exposed to and is possibly suf fering from the effects of some hazard of his occupation. The num erals will indicate the ^articular hazards of the occupation. The physician should then make special effort to discover the symptoms or signs referred to in the second list. By this means he can readily determine whether the person examined is in fact suffering from the effect of his occupation. His examination is in this way made more illuminating. Physicians, not specialists in occupational hygiene, can thus learn to detect the effects of industry and, conversely, can eliminate the occupation as the cause when certain symptoms are ob served which do not fit the usually observed effects of the occupation. INTRODUCTION 3 Medical examiners should remember that it is often necessary to keep in mind not only the present occupation but the former one as well. Persons suffering from certain ailments may no longer be engaged in the industry which was responsible for tneir condition. But careful inquiry into their occupational history will sometimes result in the recording of an occupation the effects of which are clearly those from which the patient is suffering. The medical profession must give occupational findings greater weight in form ing their judgments regarding physical conditions and in diagnosing and treating disease. It is hoped in this way that the medical profession will become more and more acquainted with occupational diseases and help in the movement to discover and eliminate cases thereof. In our country, it is still true that very large numbers of working people are con stantly exposed to serious occupational hazards and suffer, often unnecessarily, very seriously from the effects of such exposure. The greater interest of medical practitioners will help materially in the campaign of prevention. Medical schools can aid greatly in bring ing about this result by giving due weight to the subject in their courses of study. Already the form and content of the pamphlet have recommended it to several schools, which report its value. In the same way, plant executives and safety engineers must take cog nizance of the existence of these occupational diseases and look care fully into their own establishments to see to what degree the proc esses in their shops are devoid of the dangers which are usually associated with industrial operations. Factory inspectors, labor officials, and workmen’s compensation boards will find it helpful in inspecting and evaluating the hazards of numerous industries. Many hazards may be revealed which they have not known were associated with the processes of manufacture and of which the employers themselves have been ignorant. The rapidly expanding field of industrial rehabilitation should find this bulletin an aid in selecting occupations for those with arrested cases of tuberculosis and for others weakened by disease. 181218°— 33------ 2 Section I.—Alphabetical List of Hazardous Occupations Abrasives workers, E 1. Acetaldehyde makers, J 1, 54. Acetanilide workers, J 10. Acetic-acid makers, J 47, 54. Acetone workers, J 3, 54. Acetylene workers, E 1, J 3, 7, 13, 23, 24, 27, 31, 72. Acid dippers, 0, J 13, 35, 47, 64, 80. Acid finishers (glass), J 47, 51, 80. Acid makers. See particular acid. Acid mixers, J 47, 64, 80. Acid recoverers, J 47, 64, 80. Acid transporters, J 47, 64, 80. Acridine workers, J 4. Acrolein workers, J 5. Airplane-dope makers, J 3, 8, 16, 25, 84. Airplane-wing varnishers, J 84. See also Varnishers. Alcohol-distillery workers, J 8, 9, 16, 45, 54. Aldehyde pumpmen, J 1, 55. Alkali-salt makers, C, J 22, 28, 47, 78, 79. Aluminum extractors, J 49. Alum workers, J 80. Amalgam makers, J 54. Amber workers, J 51. Ammonia workers, J 7, 24. Ammonium-salts makers, A 1, J 7, 23, 35, 47, 80. Ammonium-sulphate makers, J 80. Amyl-acetate workers, J 8, 9. Amyl-nitrite makers, J 9. Anesthetic makers, J 40. Aniline-compound workers, J 10, 31. Aniline-dye makers. See Dye makers. Aniline makers, J 10, 13, 16, 47, 61, 64. Animal-hair dressers. See Hair work ers. Animal handlers, F 1, 3. Annealers, A 1. Antifreeze makers, J 55. Antimony extractors (refiners), A 1, J 11. Antimony fluoride extractors, J 49. Antipyrin makers, J 69. Arsenic roasters, A 1, J 12. Arseniuretted-hydrogen makers, J 13. Art-glass workers, J 8, 15, 49, 51, 55, 90. Artificial-amber makers, J 44. Artificial-flower makers, H, J 12, 31, 51, 54, 55. Artificial-gem makers, J 86. Artificial-ice makers, A 3, C, J 7, 78. Artificial-leather workers, A 2, J 3, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 64, 80. 4 Artificial-manure makers. See Ferti lizer makers. Artificial-pearl makers, J 8, 51, 64, 84. Artificial-resin makers, J 34. Artificial-silk makers, A 2, C, J 7, 8, 13, 20, 23, 35, 44, 47, 55, 77, 79, 80, 84. Artificial-stone makers, J 82. Art-printing workers, J 35. Asbestos workers, A 1, E 1. Asphalt workers, A 1, J 23, 82. Auto painters, C, J 55. See also Painters. Babbitters, J 51. Bakelite makers, J 44, 68. Bakers, A 3, E 2, G 2, J 22, 24. Balloon (hydrogen) workers, J 13. Balloon infiators, J 24. Barbers, H. Barium carbonate makers, J 14, 79. Bar-mill workers (iron and steel), A 1. Barometer makers, J 54. Basic-slag (artificial-manure) workers, E 1. Batch makers (glass works). See Glass mixers. Batch makers (rubber works). See Compounders (rubber). Baters (tannery), C, F 1. Battery (dry) makers, E 1, J 8, 16, 31, 47, 51, 53, 54. 82. Battery (storage) makers. See Storage-battery makers. Beamers (textiles), E 2. Beamhouse workers (tannery), C, F 1. Beatermen (paper and pulp), C, J 28. Bed rubbers (marble and stone), E 1. Bench molders (foundry), E 1, J 17, 51. Benzene purifiers, J 80. Benzol-still men, A 1, J 16. Bessemer-converter workers (iron and steel), A 1. Beta-still operators (beta-naphthol), A 1, J 80. Bevelers, E 1. Bicyclists, H. Billet-mill workers (iron and steel), A 1. Bisque-kiln workers, A 1, E 1, J 24. Blacksmiths, A 1, G 2, H, J 22, 24, 35, 51. Blasters, E 1, J 24. Blast-furnace workers, A 1, J 22, 24, 35, 78, 79. Bleachers, A 2, 3, J 27, 28, 31, 47, 49, 64, 65, 66, 74, 77, 78. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF HAZABDOUS OCCUPATIONS Bleachery driers, A 2. Bleaching-powder makers, J 13, 27, 53. Blenders (motor fuel), J 16. Blockers (felt hats), A 2, J 24. Blooders (tannery), J 51. Blooming-mill workers (iron and g^00^[j ^ ^ ^ Blowers (felt hats), E 2, J 54. Blowers (glass manufacturing). See Glass blowers. Blowers-out (zinc smelting), A 1, J 17. Blueprint makers, J 31. Bluers (revolvers), A 1. Boiler cleaners and washers, C, J 24. Boiler-room workers, A 1 , J 22, 24. Boneblack makers, J 7, 71. Bone Tenderers, J 5. Bone workers, E 1, J 5, 35, 78. Bookbinders, J 8, 12, 51, 55. Bottle-cap makers, J 51. Bottlers (mineral waters), J 70. Brake-lining makers, J 16. Brass founders, A 1, J 11, 12, 17, 22, 24, 51, 71, 78. Brass polishers, J 51. See also Pol ishers and cleaners (metal). Brazers, G 2. Braziers, A 1, J 17, 51. Brewers, A 2, 3, 0, J 22, 44, 49, 68. Brick burners, A 1, J 22, 24, 51. Bricklayers, E 1. Brick makers, A 1, C, E 1, F 2, J 51, 78. Briquet makers, J 12, 82. Bromine makers, J 18, 28. Bromine-salt makers, J 18. Bronzers, E 1, J 7, 8, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 35, 47, 51, 54, 55, 79. Broom makers, E 2, J 28, 44, 78. Browners (gun barrels), J 35, 51, 54, 67. Brushers (felt hats), E 2, J 54. Brush makers, E 2, F 1, J 44, 51, 55, 82. Buffers, D, E 1, 2. Buffers (rubber), J 8, 15, 51. Burners (enameling), A 1, J 51. Burnishers (iron and steel), D. J 11, 80. Burnishers (rifle barrels), J 11. Burrers (needles), E 1. Burr filers, E 1. Butchers, A 3, F 1, 3. Button makers, E 1, 2. Butyl alcohol makers, J 20. Cable makers, J 51. Cable splicers, C, J 24, 51, 79, 90. Cadmium-alloy makers, J 21. Cadmium a n d cadmium-compound makers, J 21. Cadmium platers, J 21. Cadmium-vapor-lamp makers, J 21. Caisson workers, A 3, B, C, D, J 22,79. Calcium-carbide makers, J 7. Calenderers (rubber), A 3, E 1. Calico printers, A 2, 3, J 8, 10, 11, 12, 21, 24, 28, 31, 35, 44, 47, 51, 53, 54, 55, 64, 68, 80, 90. 5 Camphor makers, J 8, 10, 47, 90. Candle (colored) makers, J 5, 12, 31. Candy makers, A 2, 3. Canners, A 2, 3, C, F 3, J 51. Can (sanitary) makers, J 16. Cap loaders, J 54. Cappers (window glass), A 1. Carbanilide makers, J 23. Carbide makers, A 1, E 1, J 7, 24. Carbolic-acid makers, J 16, 68, 78, 80. Carbonated-water makers, J 22. Carbon-black workers, A 1, E 1. Carbon-brush makers, E 1. Carbon-dioxide-ice workers, J 22. Carbon-disulphide makers, J 23, 79. Carbonic-acid makers, J 22. Carbonizers (shoddy), E 2, J 13,47,80. Carbon printers (photographic), J 31. Carbon-tetrachloride workers, J 25,70, 81. Carborundum makers, A 1, E 1. Carders (textiles), E 2. Card grinders (textiles), E 1, 2. Carpenters, H. Carpet makers, E 2, F 1, J 12. Carroters (felt hats), J 12, 54, 64. Cartridge-cup washers, C. Cartridge dippers, J 47, 64, 80. Cartridge felt and wad makers, O. Cartridge makers, J 51, 54. Cartridge shot shell paraffin dippers, A 3, C. Case hardeners, A 1, J 35. Casters (brass foundry). See Brass founders. Casters (iron and steel), A 1. Casting cleaners (foundry), E 1. See also Acid dippers. Cast scrubbers (electroplaters), J 15, 16. Catchers (iron and steel), A 1. Cattle salesmen, F 1. Cellophane. See Transparent-wrap ping-material workers. Cellosolve makers, J 26. Celluloid. See Pyroxylin plastics workers. Cellulose-acetate makers, J 3, 84. Cellulose-formate makers, J 45. Cellulose workers, J 3, 23, 45, 78, 79, 84. Cementers (rubber shoes), J 15, 16, 23, 25, 55, 90. Cement mixers (rubber), J 15, 16, 23, 25, 81. Cement workers, A 1, E 1, J 47. Ceramic workers. See Pottery work ers. Chambermen (sulphuric acid), J 78, 80. Charcoal burners, J 22, 24, Charcoal workers (sugar refining), A 2, 3, E 1. Chargers (smelting), A 1, E 1, J 24. 6 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS Chargers (zinc smelting), A 1, E 1, J 11, 12, 17, 21, 24, 51, 78. Chasers (steel), E 1. Chauffeurs, H, J 15, 24. Chemists (radium research), G 1. Chimney masons, J 24. Chimney sweepers, E 1, J 12, 24, 82. Chippers, E 1, J 51. Chloride of lime makers, J 27, 28. Chlorine-compound makers, J 47. Chlorine makers, J 28, 47, 53, 54. Chloroform makers, J 3, 27, 57. Chrome workers, J 31. Chromium platers, J 31. Cigar makers, E 2. Clay and bisque makers (pottery), A 3, C, E 1, J 78. Clay-plug makers (pottery), C, E 1. Clay-products workers. See Pottery workers. Cleaners (foundry), J 24. Clerks, D, H. Cloth preparers, A 2, C. See also Bleachers. Cloth singers, J 24. Coal miners. See Miners. Coal passers, E 1. Coal-tar workers, J10, 10, 24, 34, 35, 68,82. Cobalt miners, J 32. Cobblers, E 2, F 1, H. Coke-oven workers, A 1, J 7, 16, 24, 78, 79, 82. Cold-storage-plant workers. See Refrigerating-plant workers. Collodion makers, J 64. Colored-paper workers, J 12. Colorers (white) of shoes, J51. Color makers, A 1, E 1, J 7, 11, 12, 16, 18, 21, 28, 31, 51, 54, 57, 80, 84, 86. Comb makers, E 2. Compositors, D, E 1, H, J 10, 11, 15, 51. Compounders (rubber), E 1, J 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 31, 51. Concentrating-mill workers (lead and zinc), C, E l , J 51. Coners (felt hats), E 2, J 54. Confectioners. See Candy makers. Construction-camp workers, F 2. Construction laborers, E 1. Cooks, A 3, G2, J 24. Copper founders, J 12, 33. Copper miners. See Miners. Copper refiners and smelters, A 1, J 11, 12, 24, 33, 51, 78, 83. Coppersmiths, J 33. Cord makers, J 82. Core makers, A l , E l, J17, 24. Cork workers, E 2. Corn-products workers, A 1, 2, 3. Cosmetic workers, J 54. Cotton-mill workers, A 2, C, E 1, 2. Cotton-seed-oil workers, A 2. Cotton twisters, E 2, H. Cranemen (glass industry), A l . Cranemen (iron and steel), A l . Crayon (colored) makers, J 31. Creosoting-plant workers, C, J 82. Cresol-soap makers, J 34. Cresylic-acid makers, J 34. Crucible mixers. E 1. Crucible-steel-department employees, Al. Crushermen (clay and stone), E l . Cupola men (foundries), A l , J 22, 24. Curers, vapor (rubber). See Vulcanizers. Curriers (tannery), E2, F I , J 12, 15. Cut-glass workers, E l , J 12, 51. Cutlery makers, E l , J 8, 51. Cutters (oxyacetylene and other gases). See Welders. Cyanamid makers, A l , E l . Cyanide workers, J 7, 35. Cyanogen makers, J 54, 79. Damascening workers, J 64. Dancers, H. Decorators (pottery), J12, 15, 16, 51, 90. • Degreasers (fertilizer; leather), J 15, 16. Degreasers (textiles), J 25. Denatured-alcohol workers. See par ticular denaturant. Dental workers, J 51. Dentists, J 54. Depilatory makers, J 86. Detinning workers, J 28. Detonator cleaners, J 54. Detonator fillers, J 54. Detonator packers, J 54. Devil operators (felt hats), E 2, J 54. Diamond cutters, E 1, H. Diamond polishers, J 51. Diatomaceous-earth workers, E 1. Digester-house workers (paper and pulp), A 2, 3, J 78, 79. Dimethyl-sulphate makers, J 13, 36, 55, 64, 80. Dioxan makers, J 38. Dippers (gun cotton), J 64. Dippers (rubber), J 15, 16. Dippers. See also Acid dippers. Disinfectant makers, J 1, 18, 27, 28, 34, 35, 44, 54, 68, 78, 86. Divers, B, J 22. Doffers (textiles), A 2, C, E 2. “ D ope” workers. See Airplane-dope makers. Dressers (glass), A 1. Dresser tenders (textile), A 2, 3, C. Driers (felt hats), A 3, J 55. Driers (rubber), J 15, 16, 23. Drier workers (foundries), J 24. Drillers (rock), E 1. Drivers, A 3, C. Drop forgers, A 1. Dry-battery workers. See B a t t e r y (dry) makers. Dry cleaners, A 3, J 15, 16, 23, 25, 55, 65, 90. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS Drying-room workers (miscellaneous), A 3, J 22, 24. Dye makers, A 2, 3, J 1, 3, 4, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 18, 27, 28, 31, 34, 35, 36, 44, 45, 47, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57, 61, 64, 65, 68, 69, 70, 73, 78, 79, 80, 86, 90. Dyers, A 3, J 3, 7, 8, 10, 15, 31, 47, 49, 51, 53, 61, 68, 73, 81. See also Mordanters, and other preparatory process workers. Electricians, G 2, J 66. Electric - induction - furnace workers, J 54. Electric linemen, G 2. Electrode makers, J 82. Electrolytic process (copper) workers, J 13. Electroplaters, C, J 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 21, 23, 25, 31, 35, 45, 47, 51, 54, 64, 80. Electrotypers, A 3, E 1, J 11, 51. See also Electroplaters. Elevator runners, H. Embalmers, J 44, 54. Embossers, J 54. Embroidery workers, D, J 51. Emery-wheel makers, E 1, J 51. Enamelers, A 1, O, H, J 8, 12, 15, 16, 23, 24, 31, 51, 53, 84, 90. Enamel makers, J 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 23, 24, 31, 47, 51, 53, 64, 84, 90. Engineers (stationary), A 1, 3, E 1, J 24. Engravers, E 1, H, J 16, 47, 65, 80. See also Steel engravers. Etchers, J 13, 47, 49, 64, 68, 80. Ether makers, J 80. Ethyl benzene makers, J 39. Ethyl-bromide makers, J 40. Ethyl-chloride makers, J 40. Ethylene-dibromide makers, J 18, 41. Ethylene dichloride makers, J 42. Ethylene oxide makers, J 43. Explosives workers, C, J 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10,16, 23, 31, 34, 44, 54, 55, 61, 62, 64, 68, 73, 80. See also particular oc cupation. Extractor operators (soap), A 3, 0. Extractors (gold and silver), J 28, 35, 54. Extractors (oils and fats), J 16. Farmers, F 1, 2, J 12, 51. Fat Tenderers, A 3, J 5, 79, 80. Feather curers, E 2, J 12. Feather workers, E 2, F 3, J 10, 12,15, 16, 55, 67, 78, 90. Felt extractors, A 2. Felt-hat makers, A 2, 3, E 2, J 12, 54, 55, 80. See also particular occupa tion. Felt makers, A 2. Ferrosilicon workers, J 12, 13, 72. Fertilizer makers, 0, E 1, F 1, 3, J 7, 13, 22, 35, 47, 49, 53, 64, 71, 78, 79, 80. See also Phosphate-mill workers. 7 Fiber workers, E 2. Filament makers and finishers (in candescent lamps), J 24, 55, 86. File cutters, E 1, J 51. Filers, E 1, J 11, 51. Filling-station workers, J 51, 85. Film makers. See Pyroxylin-plastics workers. Filter-press workers, O. Finishers (leather), E 2. Fire-extinguisher makers, J 25. Firemen (city), A 1, 3, O, J 24, 25. Firemen (stationary), A 1, 3, E 1, J 24. Fireworks makers, J 11, 12, 53, 54, 71, 73. See also Explosives workers. Fishermen, A 3, 0. Fitters (shoes), J 55. Flangers (felt hats), A 3, J 24. Flatteners (glass), A 1. Flax-rettery workers, J 79. Flax spinners, A 2, E 2. Flint workers, E 1. Floor molders (foundry), A 1, E 1, J 17, 51. Floor-polish makers, J 61. Flour workers, E 2. Flue cleaners, E 1, J 24, 78, 82. Flush tenders (aluminum), G. Forgemen, A 1. Formaldehyde workers, J 44. Formers (felt hats), E 2. Formic-acid workers, J 45. Foundry workers, A 1, E 1, J 22, 24. See also particular metal. Frosters (glass and pottery), J 31. Fruit-essence makers, J 8, 9. Fruit preservers, J 78. Fulminate mixers, J 35, 54. Fumigators, J 24, 34, 35, 78. Fur carders, E 2, F 1. Fur clippers, E 2, F 1. Fur cutters, E 2, F 1. Fur handlers, E 2, F 1, J 12, 54. Furnace workers, A 1, G 2, J 22, 24. Furniture polishers, E 2, H, J 8, 15, 31, 55, 67, 90. Fur preparers, E 2, F 1, J 12, 54, 64. Fur pullers, E 2, F 1. Fusel-oil workers, J 9. Galvanizers, A 2, 0, J 5, 7, 12, 13, 17, 47, 51, 64, 78, 80. Garage workers, J 15, 24, 51, 85. Garbage workers, F 3. Gardeners, J 12, 51. Gas (illuminating) workers, A 3, J 7, 13, 16, 24, 35, 68, 79, 82. Gasoline blenders, J 51, 85. Gasoline-engine workers, J 15. Gas purifiers, J 7, 35, 68, 79. Gassers (textile), J 24. Gatherers (glass), A 1. Gelatine makers, J 78. Germicide makers, J 10, 44. 73. Gilders, J 8, 15, 16, 35, 54, 55, 64, 75. Glass blowers, A 1, E 1, G 2. Glass colorers, J 21, 31, 83. 8 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS Glass cutters, C, E 1. Glass etchers, J 44, 49. Glass finishers, C, E 1, J 47, 49, 51, 80. Glass-furnace workers, A 1, G 2. Srlass mixers, E 1, J 11, 12, 47, 51, 53. Glass polishers, J 51. Glass workers, J 22, 78, 86. Glaze dippers (pottery), C, J 11, 12, 31, 47, 51, 53. Glaze mixers (pottery), E 1, J 11, 12, 31, 47, 51, 53. Glost-kiln workers, A 3, J 24, 51. Glove makers (leather preparers), C, E 2. See also Tannery workers. Glue workers, A 3, C, E 2, F 3, J 5, 7, 15, 16, 22, 23, 47, 78, 79, 80. Glycerine refiners, J 65. Gold beaters, E 1, II. Gold extractors. J 13, 18, 81. Gold refiners, E 1, J 12, 35, 44, 49, 51, 54. Grain-elevator workers, E2. Granite workers. See Stonecutters. Graphite workers, A 1, E 1. Grinders (colors). See Color makers. Grinders (metals), C, E 1, J 11, 51. Grinders (rubber), E 2, J 11, 51. Guncotton dippers, J 64, 80. Guncotton pickers, E 2. Guncotton washers, O. Gypsum workers, A 3, E 1, J 79. Hair workers, C, E 2, F 1, 3. Hammermen, H. Hardeners (felt hats), J 54, 55. Hardeners (metals). See Temperers. Harness makers, E 2. Hat makers, felt. See Felt-hat makers. Heater boys (riveters), J 51. Heel makers (shoes), E 2. Hemp workers, E 2. Horn workers, E 1. Hospital attendants, G 1. Hothouse workers, A 3. Hot-rod rollers (iron and steel), A 1. House wreckers, E 1. Hydrochloric-acid makers, J 47, 79, 80. Hydrocyanic-acid makers, J 35, 80. Hydrofluoric-acid makers, J 49. Hydrogen-sulphide workers, J 79. Ice (artificial) makers. See Artificialice makers. Ice-cream makers, A 3, C. Imitation. See Artificial. Incandescent-lamp makers, J 24, 51, 54. 55. See aim particular occupation. Incandescent-mantle hardeners, G 2. Ink makers, J 18, 24, 28, 31, 44, 47, 55, 61, 65. Insecticide makers, J 12, 23, 44, 51, 71, 81. Instrument dial (luminous) painters, G 1. Insulators, J 82. Iodine makers, J 28. Iron and steel workers (all depart ments), A 1, E 1, G 2. See also particular occupation. Ironers, A 3, J 24. Japan makers, A 3, J 12, 15, 51, 55, 90. Japanners, J 12, 15, 51, 55, 90. Jewelers, D, E 1, H, J 8, 13, 35, 47, 51, 54, 64, 80. Junk-metal refiners, A 1, E 1, J 17, 51. Jute workers, E 1, 2. Kiln tenders, A 1, J 24. Knitters, H. Knitting-mill workers, E 2. Labelers (paint cans), J 51. Laboratory w o r k e r s (radium re search), G 1. Lace makers, E 2. Lacquerers, J 3, 8, 9, 12, 15, 16, 25,45, 51, 55, 75, 84, 90. Lacquer makers, J 3, 7, 8, 9, 12,15, 16, 25, 26, 39, 45, 51, 55, 75, 84, 90. Lampblack makers, J 67, 68. Lapidaries, E 1. Lard makers, J 5. Lasters (shoes), A 3, C, E 2, J 55. Lathe turners, H. Laundry workers, A 2, 3, C, J 24, 27, 28, 66. Lead burners, J 13, 51. Lead-foil makers, A 1, J 51. Lead miners, J 51. See also Miners. Lead-pipe makers, J 51. Lead-salts makers, J 51. Lead smelters, A 1, E 1, J 11, 12, 24, 51, 78, 83. Leather workers, E 2, F 1, J 8, 47. See also Tannery workers. Leer tenders (glass), A 1. Letter sorters, D, H. Levermen (iron and steel), A 1. Lifters-over (glass)., A 1. Lime burners, A 1, E 1, J 13, 22, 24. Lime-kiln chargers, E 1, J 22, 24. Lime pullers (tannery), C, F 1. Lime workers, E 1. Linen workers, E 2. Linoleum colorers, J 12. Linoleum makers, A 2, 3, C, E 1, J 5, 8, 15, 16, 31, 51, 53, 55, 80, 90. Linotypers, J 11, 24, 51. Linseed-oil boilers, J 5, 51. Lithographers, E 1, H, J 10, 12, 15, 16, 31, 47, 51, 54, 64, 65, 80, 84, 90. Lithopone makers, J 21. Lithotransfer workers, J 51. Locksmiths, H. Longshoremen, F 1. Lumbermen, A 3, F 2. Luters (zinc smelting), A 1, J 17. Machinists, H. Mail sorters, D, H. Manganese-dioxide workers, J 53. Manganese grinders, J 53. Manganese-ore separators, J 53. ALPHABETICAL LIST OP HAZARDOUS OCCUPATIONS Manganese-steel makers, J 53. Manometer makers, J 54. Marble cutters, E 1. Marblers (glass), A 1. Masons, C, E 1, H. Match-factory workers, C, E 1, 2, J 23, 31,51, 53, 71, 74, 79. Mattress makers, E 2. Meat inspectors, F 1. Mechanics (gas engines), J 24. Melters (foundry; glass), A 1, G 2. Mercerizers, J 77, 80. Mercury-alloy makers, J 54. Mercury-boiler workers, J 54. Mercury bronzers, J 54. Mercury miners, J 54. See also Miners. Mercury-pump workers, J 54. Mercury-salt workers, J 54. Mercury smelters, A 1, J 24, 54, 78. Mercury-solder workers, J 54. Mercury-still cleaners, J 54. Mercury-switch makers, J 54. Mercury-vapor-lamp makers, J 54. Metal polishers and cleaners. See Polishers and cleaners (metal). Metal-polish makers, J 15, 25, 65. Metal refiners, J 47. Metal turners, E 1. Metal workers. See particular occu pation. Methane (synthetic) makers, J 24. Methyl-alcohol workers, J 3, 24, 55. Methyl-bromide makers, J 56. Methyl-chloride makers, J 57. Methyl-compound makers, J 55. Mica strippers or splitters, E 1. Mica workers, E 1. Microscopists, H. jMilksrs jt f Millinery workers, j 10, 15, 16, 55, 67, 90 Miners, A 2, 3, C, D, E 1, F 2, H, J 22, 24, 79. Mirror silverers, A 3, C, J 1, 7, 16, 35, 44, 45, 51, 54, 76. Mixers (felt hats), E 2, J 54. Mixers (rubber), A 3, E 1, J 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 31, 51. Mixing-room workers (miscellaneous), E 1, 2. Mold breakers (foundry), E 1. Mold breakers (pottery), J 24. Molders. See Bench molders; Floor molders. Monotypers, J 11, 24, 51. Mordanters, J 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 27, 31, 35, 45, 64, 92. See also Dyers. Motion-picture-film workers, J 20, 24, 84. See also Pyroxylin-plastics workers. Motion-picture-machine operators, G 2. Motion-picture-studio workers and ac tors, G 2. Motormen, A 3. Mottlers (leather), J 8, 55. Muffle tenders, A 1. Muriatic-acid makers. See Hydro chloric-acid makers. 9 Muriatic-acid mixers. See Acid mix ers. Musical-instrument makers, J 51. Musicians, H. Neon lights letter makers, J 24. Nickel platers, G. See also Electro platers. Nickel-purification workers (Mond process), J 59. Ni tramline workers, J 10. Nitrators, J 64, 80. Nitric-acid workers, J 7, 51, 64, 80. Nitrobenzine makers, J 16, 80. Nitrobenzol workers, J 61. Nitrocellulose workers, J 3, 8, 9, 13, 16, 38, 64, 80. Nitroglycerine makers, J 13, 51, 62, 64, 80. Nitrous-oxide workers, J 64. Nurses, G 1. Oilcloth makers. See Linoleum mak ers. Oil extractors, J 3, 23, 42, 84. Oil-flotation-plant workers, J 67, 78, 79. Oil purifiers, J 80. Oil refiners. See Petroleum refiners. Oil-well workers, J 67, 79. Open-hearth-department workers (iron and steel), A 1. Oxalic-acid makers, J 35, 65, 74. Oxyacetylene cutters. See Welders. Packing-house employees, A 2, 3, O. Painters, H, J 3, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 23, 31, 51, 53, 54, 55, 90. Painters (luminous watch and instru ment dials), G 1. Painters (tar), J 82. Paint makers, C, J 3, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 23, 31, 47, 51, 53, 54, 55, 68, 82, 88, 90. Paint-remover makers, J 16, 68, 84. Paint removers, E 1, J 3, 8, 16, 51, 68, 84. Pair heaters (tin plate), A 1. Paper-box makers, H. Paper glazers, J 12. Paperhangers, E 1, J 12, 31, 51. Paper makers, A 2, 3, C, J 13, 28, 44, 47, 77, 78, 79, 80. See also par ticular occupation. Paraffin workers, J 3, 16, 23, 25, 67, 82. Paris-green workers, J 12. Patent-leather makers, A 3, J 8, 24, 51, 55, 80, 90. Pavers, A 1, H, J 82. Pencil makers, J 10, 12, 31, 75. Perfume makers, J 3, 8, 10, 20, 25, 34, 36, 45, 55, 61, 68, 80. Petroleum refiners, A 1, O, J 7, 15, 47, 51, 67, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82. Phenol makers, J 16, 68, 78, 80. Phenyl-hydrazine workers, J 69. Phosgene makers, J 24, 28, 70. Phosphate extractors, J 47. 10 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS Phosphate-mill workers, A 3, C, E 1, J 71. See also Fertilizer makers. Phosphine workers, J 72. Phosphor-bronze workers, J 71. Phosphoric-acid makers, J 35, 64, 80. Phosphorus-compound makers, J 71,79. Phosphorus-evaporating-machine oper ators, A 3, C, J 80. Phosphorus extractors, J 49, 71, 72. Phosphorus (red) makers, J 72. Phosphuretted-hydrogen workers, J 72. Photo-engravers, J 16, 31, 55, 64. Photographers, D, G 2. See also Pho tographic workers. Photographic workers, J 1, 3, 8, 10, 16, 18, 20, 28, 31, 35, 44, 47, 54, 55, 73, 76, 80. Photograph retouchers, J 51. Photogravure workers, J 31. Physicians, G 1. Picklers, A 2, C, J 13, 35, 47, 64, 80. Picric-acid makers, J 16, 64, 68, 73, 80. Pigment makers. See Color makers. Pipe fitters, J 51. See also particular liquid piped. Pitch workers, J 12, 82. Pit molders (foundry), A 1, E 1. Planer men (stone; metal), E 1. Plasterers, O, E 1. Plaster-of-paris workers, E 1. Platers. See Electroplaters. Platinum extractors, J 18. Plumbers, J 13, 24, 51. See also par ticular substance piped. Pneumatic-tool workers, E 1, H. Polishers and cleaners (metal), D, E 1, 2, H, J 15, 35, 47, 51, 65. Polishers (furniture). See Furniture polishers. Polish makers, E 1, J 8, 15, 55, 90. Porcelain makers. See Pottery work ers. Porters, H. Pot fillers (glass), A 1. Pot lifters (iron and steel), A 1. Pot pullers (foundry), A 1. Pot-room workers (aluminum foundry; carbide plant), A 1. Pot setters, A 1. Pottery workers, A 1, 2, C, E 1, J 12, 22, 24, 47, 51, 53, 54, 78. See also particular occupation. Pouncers (felt hats), E 1, 2. Pourers (brass foundry). See Brass founders. Powder (smokeless) makers. See Smokeless-powder makers. Preparers (tannery), C, F 1, 3. Preservative makers and handlers, J 44. Pressers, H, J 24. Pressmen (oil refining), C. Pressmen (printers), E 1. Pressroom workers (rubber), A 3, J 10, 11, 12, 15, 16. Primers (explosives), J 54. Printers, E 1, J 10, 11, 12, 15, 51, 90. Puddlers (iron and steel), A 1, J 24. Pullers-out (felt hats), A 2. Pulp-mill workers. See Paper makers. Putty makers, E 1, J 15, 23, 51. Putty polishers (glass), E 1, J 51. Pyridine workers, J 75. Pyrites burners, A 1, E 1, J 12, 78, 79. Pyroxylin-plastics workers, E 2, J 1, 3, 5, 8, 15, 16, 20, 24, 35, 51, 55, 64, 79, 80. Quarrymen, E l , F 2. Radioactive-paint makers, G l. Radioactive-water makers, G l. Radiologists, G l . Radium ore reduction workers, G 1. Radium-research workers, G 1. Rag workers, E 2, F 3. Rayon makers, A 2, C, J 7, 8, 13, 23, 35, 44, 47, 55, 79, 80, 84. Reclaimers (rubber), E 2, J 10, 16, 23, 47, 51, 68, 80. Red-lead workers, J 51. Refiners (metals), A l , J 12, 13, 24, 51, 54, 64, 78, 80. See also particu lar occupation. Refiners (sugar). See Sugar refiners. Refrigerating-plant workers, A 3, O, J 7. Refrigerator (mechanical) makers and repairmen, J 5, 40, 56, 57, 78. Repairers (foundries), J 24. Resin (synthetic) makers, J 1, 34, 44, 68. Riveters, H, J51. Road repairers, A l . Roentgenologists, G l . Roller coverers (cotton mills), A 2, E 2. Rollers (metals), A 1. Roll setters (iron and steel), A l . Roll wrenchers (iron and steel), A l . Roofers, A 3, J 51, 82. Roofing-material workers, A l , 2. Roofing-paper workers, J 82. Ropemakers, E 2. Roughers (iron and steel), A 1. Rubber-cement makers. See Cement mixers (rubber). Rubber-glove makers, J 15, 16. Rubber (red) workers, J 11. Rubber-substitute makers, J l , 9, 28, 34, 81. Rubber-tire builders, J 15, 16. Rubber workers, A 3, E 1, 2, J 3, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 23, 25, 31, 44, 45, 51, 55, 78, 79, 81, 84, 90. See also particular occupation. Sagger makers, C, E 1, J 51. Sailors, A 3, H. Salt extractors (coke oven by-prod ucts), J 7, 80. Salt preparers, A 2, 3, E 1. Sand blasters, E l . Sand cutters, E l . Sanders, E 1. ALPHABETICAL LIST OP HAZAKDOTJS OCCUPATIONS Sanding-machine operators, E 1. Sandpaperers (enameling and painting auto bodies, etc.), E l, J 51. Sandpaper makers, E 1. Sand pulverizers, E 1. Saw filers, E 1. Sawmill workers, E 2, F 2. Sawyers, H. Scissors sharpeners, E l , H. Scourers (metals), J 64, 80. Scourers, wood lasts (shoes), E 2. Scouring-powder makers, E 1. Scrapers (foundry), E l. Screen tenders (pulp mill), 0. Screen workers (lead and zinc smelt ing), E l , J 51. Sealers (incandescent lamps), J 24. Sealing-wax makers, J 12, 90. Seamstresses, H. Sewer workers, C, J 7, 22, 24, 79. Sewing-machine operators, H. Shade-cloth makers, J 15, 16. Shale-oil workers. See Petroleum re finers. Shavers (felt hats; fu r; tannery), C, E 2, F 1, 3. Shaving-brush makers, E 2, F 1. Sheep-dip makers, J 12. Sheet-metal workers, J 51. Shellackers, J 8, 15, 16, 20, 51, 55, 90. Shellac makers, J 7, 8, 15, 16, 20, 51, 55, 90. Shell fillers, J 62, 73. Shepherds, F 1. Shoddy workers, E 2, F 3, J 13, 28, 47, 80. Shoe dyers, J 61. Shoe-factory operatives, E 2, J 8, 15, 16, 55. See also particular occupa tion. Shoe finishers, A 3, J 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 55. Shoe makers. See Cobblers. Shot makers, J 11, 12, 51. Shove-in boys (glass), A 1. Sifters, E 1, 2. Silicate extractors, J 49. Silk workers, E 2, F 3. Silo workers, J 22. Silverers (mirrors). See Mirror silverers. Silver-foil makers, J 76. Silver melters and refiners, A 3, J 24, 35, 44, 76. Silver-nitrate makers, J 76. Silver platers, J 76. Silversmiths, J 76. Singers (cloth), J 24. Sintering-plant workers, E 1. Sizers (felt hats), A 2, J 54. Skimmers (glass), A 1, G 2. Slag-machine tenders (iron and steel), A 1, E 1. Slate workers, E 1. Slip makers (pottery), C, E 1, J 51. Slushers (porcelain enameling), J 51. Smelters. See particular metal. 181218°—33------3 11 Smokeless-powder makers, J 8, 8, 9, 16, 23, 61, 64, 68, 73. Smoothers (glass), C, E 1. Soap (abrasive) workers, E 1. Soap makers, A 3, C, F 3, J 5, 16, 44, 45, 47, 53, 55, 61, 74, 77, 79, 80. Soda makers, C, J 7, 13, 22, 24, 28, 64, 79, 80. Sodium-hydroxide makers, C, J 77. Sodium-sulphide makers, J 79. Softeners (tannery), E 2. Solderers, J 13, 21, 24, 35, 47, 51. Solder makers, J 21, 51. Sole stitchers (Blake machine), J 54. Soot packers, J 12. Spinners (asbestos), E 1. Spinners (textiles), E 2, H. Spongers, A 2, C. Sprayers (trees), J 12, 35, 51. Spreaders (rubber), A 3, J 15, 16. Stablemen, F 1, J 7. Stainers (shoes), J 51. Stamp-mill workers, A 2, C, E 1. Starch makers, E 2, J 22, 79. Starters (felt hats), A 2, J 54. Statuary workers, E 1. Steam fitters. See Pipe fitters. Stearic-acid makers, A 3, J 5. Steel (chrome) workers, J 31. Steel engravers, D, J 51, 54. See also Engravers. Steeple jacks, J 24. Stereotypers, A 3, J 11, 51. Stiffeners (felt hats), J 54, 55. Still (coal tar) cleaners, A 1, J 16, 82. Stillmen (carbolic acid), A 1, J 68. Stillmen, A 1. See also particular chemical. Stitchers (shoes), J 55. Stokers, A 1, E 1, G 2, J 24. Stonecutters (dry), E 1, H. Stonecutters (wet process), C, E 1, H. Stonemasons, E 1. Storage-battery chargers, J 78, 80. Storage-battery makers, J 11, 13, 21, 51, 54, 78, 80. Straw-hat makers, A 3, E 2, J 44. Street repairers, A 1. Submarine workers, J 13, 22, 28. Sugar refiners, A 2, 3, C, E 1, 2, J 7, 22, 47, 78, 79, 80. Sulphates makers, J 80. Sulphides makers, J 79. Sulphite cooks (pulp mills), A 2, 3, J 78. Sulphur burners, A 1, E 1, J 12, 78. Sulphur-chloride makers, J 28, 47, 79. Sulphurers (malt and hops), J 78. Sulphur extractors, J 23. Sulphuric-acid workers, J 12, 13, 51, 64, 78, 79, 80. Sulphur miners, S 79. Sulphur-monochloride workers, J 81. Sumackers (tannery), C, F 1. Surgical-dressing makers, J 68. 12 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS Table hands (tannery), C, F 1. Table operators (iron and steel), A 1. Table turners (enameling), A 3, E 1, J 51. Tailors, H. Takers-down (glass), A 1. Talc workers, E 1. Tallow refiners, F 3, J 5, 23, 80. Tankmen, A 2, 0. Tannery workers, C, F 1, 3, J 7, 8, 10, 12, 15, 22, 27, 31, 35, 44, 45, 47, 51, 54, 65, 77, 78, 79, 80. Tapers (airplanes), J 84. Tappers (smelting), A 1. See also particular metal. Tar-distillery workers, J 34, 82. Taxidermists, E 2, F 1, J 12, 54. Tear-gas makers, J 18, 28, 73. Teazers (glass), A 1, J 24. Telegraphers, H. Telephone linemen (trench work), O, J 24. Temperers, A 1, 2, J 24, 35, 51, 67, 80. Tetraethyl-lead makers, J 18, 51, 85. Textile-comb makers, E 1. Textile printers. See Calico printers. Textile workers, A 2, 3, C, E 2. See also particular occupation. Thallium workers, J 86. Thermometer makers, J 54, 86. Thread glazers, A 2, 3. Tile makers, A 2, 3, C, E 1, J 51. Tin-foil makers, A 1, J 51. Tinners, A 1, 0, J 5, 7, 12, 13, 47, 51. Tin-plate-mill workers. See Iron and steel workers. Tire builders. See Rubber-tire build ers. Tobacco moisteners, O, J 22. Tobacco rollers, E 2. Tobacco workers, E 2. Tongsmen (iron and steel), A 1. Toolmakers, E 1. Topfillers (foundry), A 1, E 1, J 24. Towermen (sulphuric acid), J 13, 64, 78, 80. Toy makers, J 8, 12, 51. Train dispatchers, D. Transfer workers (pottery), J 51, 90. Transparent-wrapping-material work ers, A 3, J 3, 23, 47, 77, 79, 80. Transporters of hides and wool, F 1. Tree sprayers. See Sprayers (trees). Trench diggers, F 2. Trinitrotoluol makers, J 16, 61. Tube makers (glass), A 1. Tubulators (incandescent l a m p s ) , J 24. Tumbling-barrel workers, E 1. Tunnel workers, B, D, F 2, J 22, 79. Turners-out (glass), A 1. Turpentine extractors, A 2, J 90. Type cleaners, J 15, 55. Type founders, J 11, 51. Type melters, J 5, 51. Typesetters, J 51. Typists, H, Ultramarine-blue makers, J 78. Upholsterers, E 2, J 55. Vanadium-steel workers, J 92. Vapor curers. See Vulcanizers. Varnishers, J 1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 20. 45, 51, 53, 55, 84, 90. Varnish makers, A 3, J 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 20, 45, 51, 53, 55, 84, 90. Vatmen, A 2, O, J 22. Vault workers, J 22. Velvet makers, A 2, J 12. Veterinarians, F 1, 3. Vignetters, J 47. Vinegar workers, J 1, 22. Vintners, J 22. Vinyl chloride makers, J 93. Vulcanizers, A 3, J 10, 11, 15, 16, 22, 23, 25, 31, 55, 78, 79, 81. Vulcanizers (steam), A 2, C. Wall-paper printers, A 2, 3, J 12, 31, 51. Warming-house employees (guncot ton), A 3. Washers, O. Washwomen, 0, H. Watch-dial (luminous) painters, G 1. Watchmakers, D, H. Water gilders, J 54. Waterproofers (paper and textile), J 15, 16, 31, 44. Wax-ornament makers, J 12, 31. Wax refiners, J 80. Weavers, E 2, H. Weighers, E 1, 2. Welders, A 1, G 2, J 16,17, 21, 24, 51, 54. Well workers, J 22. White-lead workers, J 22, 51. Window-shade makers, J 15, 16. Wire drawers, J 12, 47, 80. Wirers (incandescent lamps), J 8. Wood-alcohol distillers, J 3, 24, 55. Wood-last scourers (shoes), E 2. Wood preservers, J 12, 54, 68, 82. Wood polishers. See Furniture polish ers. Wood stainers, J 31, 51. Woodworkers, E 2, J 15, 55. Wool carders, E 2, F 1. Wool scourers, A 3, 0, F 1. Wool spinners, E 2, F 1. Wool workers, E 2, P 1 See also particular occupation. Wringers (guncotton), J 64. X-ray photographers, G 1. X-ray technicians, G 1. Yeast makers, J 1, 22, 80. Zincers, J 35. Zinc-chloride makers, J 13, 28, 47. Zinc-electrode makers, J 54. Zinc miners, J 12, 51, 53. See also Miners. Zinc smelters and refiners, A 1, E 1, J 11, 12, 17, 21, 24, 51, 78. Section II.—List of Hazards, Symptoms, Occupations Exposed, and Methods of Prevention A. Abnormalities of Temperature and Humidity Exposure to environmental temperature beyond the action of the body’s thermostatic control primarily results in disturbances of the circulatory system. The cutaneous circulation responds to heat stimulation in the skin by increasing the blood flow through the capillaries. The capillaries, responding to a reflex action of the nerves in the skin, dilate and induce the flow of a greater volume of blood through the cutaneous circulation. Cold, on the other hand, constricts the blood vessels of the skin, causing a diminished blood supply through the cutaneous circulation and not infrequently a serious congestion of the internal organs. Abrupt changes of tem peratures, particularly from extreme heat to cooler temperatures and often to cold currents of air or drafts, are of more frequent occur rence, resulting in much bodily discomfort, and are contributory causes of neuralgia and respiratory diseases. Extremes of tempera ture may produce acute symptoms in the body directly attributable to the temperature. Thus, exposure to excessively high tempera tures results in heat exhaustion or heat stroke; to excessively low temperatures in frostbite or gangrene and death. The relative humidity is an important factor to consider in con nection with temperature. It is contended that a low relative humid ity tends to dry up the mucous membranes of the nose, throat, and lungs, thus lowering the resistance of these organs to infection. An excessively high relative humidity, on the other hand, is undesirable because of its interference with the normal evaporation of moisture from the skin. Under extreme conditions of high temperatures and high relative humidities there occurs a marked increase in the pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, and in the body temperature. Low tem peratures and high relative humidities have the effect of undermin ing the general vitality of the organism, weakening its resistance to diseases of the respiratory passages, and to neuralgia and rheumatic affections. With the above data in mind, abnormalities of tempera ture have been classified under three headings, namely, “ sudden variations of temperature ”, “ extreme dry heat ”, and “ heat and humidity.” “ Extreme cold ” has not been listed as a distinct hazard, because temperature so low as to cause the direct effects mentioned above is rarely met in industry. It is evident that the occupations listed in the divisions “ extreme dry heat ”, and “ heat and humid ity,” are exposed not only to the danger of the direct action of the high temperatures but also to the hazard, “ sudden variations of temperature.” The prevention of diseases due to exposure to extremes of tempera ture consists, obviously, in the avoidance of sudden variations of 13 14 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS temperature. Workers in cold processes should keep active and avoid chill. The hot-process worker should allow his body to cool off gradually after completion of the day’s work. He should carefully regulate his diet, drinking plenty 01 water. As direct preventive measures for the effects of extreme heat, it is advisable to make use of shields, helmets, goggles, water-cooled furnace doors, exhaust systems, cold air, fans, etc. Our knowledge of the responses of the body to atmospheric con ditions has been greatly enhanced recently by studies of American and foreign investigators. Men undergoing exposure to varying degrees ox temperature, humidity, and movement of air have been medically examined. It has been amply demonstrated that these variable factors must be jointly considered in determining whether working conditions are inimical to health. Zones of comfort and discomfort and of effective working conditions have been charted. Means to mitigate the hazards of high temperature and humidity in certain industries have been devised. Those who have need for technical data on these subjects will find much of value in the paper by Dr. R. R. Sayers and Sara Davenport, entitled “ Review of Literature on the Physiological Effects of Abnormal Temperatures and Humidity ”, in the United States Public Health Service Reports, April 8, 1927, page 933, and in reports of cooperative studies con ducted by the United States Public Health Service, United States Bureau of Mines, and the Research Laboratory of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers. A. Abnormalities of Temperature and Humidity 1. Extreme Dry Heat Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Heat stroke preceded by a rise in body temperature, increase in pulse rate, flushing of skin, profuse sweating, faU of diastolic pressure with rise in systolic blood pressure. Anemia, general debility, catarrh, stiff joints, cramps, lumbago, Bright’s disease. Skin eruptions. Cataracts, retinitis, conjunctivitis. Occupations which offer such exposure workers Ammonium salts makers Blooming-mill (iron and steel) Annealers A n t i m o n y extractors B l o w e r s - o u t ( z i n c (refiners) smelting) Arsenic roasters Bluers (revolvers) Asbestos roofing makers Boiler-room workers Asphalt workers Brass founders Bar-mill workers (iron Braziers and steel) Brick burners Benzol-still men Brick makers B essem er converter Burners (enameling) workers (iron a n d Cappers (window glass) steel) Carbide makers Beta-still o p e r a t o r s Carbon-black workers (beta naphthol) Carborundum makers Billet-mill workers (iron Case hardeners and steel) Casters (iron and steel) Bisque-kiln workers Catchers (iron and steel) Blacksmiths Blast-furnace workers Cement workers Chargers ( smelting) Chargers (zinc smelting) Coke-oven workers Color makers Copper smelters Core makers Corn-products workers Cranemen (glass indus try) Cranemen (iron a n d steel) Crucible-steel-department employees Cupola men (foundries) Cyanamid makers Dressers (glass) Drop forgers Enamelers Engineers (stationary) Firemen (city) LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, BTO. Firemen (stationary) Flatteners (glass) Floor molders (foundry) Forgemen Foundry workers Furnace workers Gatherers (glass) Glass blowers Glass-furnace workers Graphite workers Hardeners (metals) Hot-rod rollers (iron and steel) Iron and steel workers (all departments) Junk (metal) refiners Kiln tenders Lead-foil makers Lead smelters Leer tenders (glass) Levermen (iron a n d steel) Lifters-over (glass) Lime burners Luters (zinc smelting) Marblers (glass) Melters (foundry; glass) Mercury smelters Muffle tenders Ope n-hearth-department w o r k e r s (iron and steel) Pair heaters (tin plate) Pavers Petroleum refiners Pit molders (foundry) Pot fillers (glass) Pot lifters (iron and steel) Pot pullers (foundry) Pot-room workers (alu minum foundry; car bide plant) Pot setters Pottery workers Pourers (foundry) Puddlers (iron and steel) Pyrites burners Refiners (metals) Road repairers Rollers (metals) Roll setters (iron and steel) Roll wrenchers (iron and steel) 15 Roofing-material work ers Roughers (iron and steel) Shove-in boys (glass) Skimmers (glass) Slag-machine t e n d e r s (iron and steel) Still (coal tar) cleaners Still men (carbolic acid) Still men, operating Stokers Street repairers Sulphur burners Table operators (iron and steel) Takers-down (glass) Tappers (smelting) Teazers (glass) Temperers Tin-foil makers Tinners Tongsmen (iron and steel) Top fillers (foundry) Tube makers (glass) Tumers-out (glass) Welders Zinc smelters 2. Heat and Humidity Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Heat stroke preceded by a rise in body temperature, increase in pulse rate, flushing of skin, profuse sweating, fall of diastolic pressure with rise in systolic blood pressure. Anemia, general debility, catarrh, stiff joints, cramps, lumbago, Bright's disease. Skin eruptions. Occupations which offer wh exposure Sizers (felt hats) Artificial-leather workers Dye makers Felt extractors Spongers Artificial-silk workers Felt-hat makers Stamp-mill workers Bleachers Felt makers Starters (felt hats) Bleachery driers Sugar refiners Flax spinners Blockers (felt hats) Galvanizers Sulphite cooks (pulp Brewers Laundry workers miU) Calico printers Linoleum makers Tank men Candy makers Miners Canners Temperers Charcoal workers (sugar Packing-house employees Textile workers refinery) Paper makers Thread glazers Cloth preparers Picklers Tile makers Pottery workers Com-products workers Turpentine extractors Cotton-mill workers Pullers-out (felt hats) Vatmen Pulp-mill workers Velvet makers Cottonseed-oil workers Digester house workers Roller coverers (cotton Vulcanizers (steam) Wall-paper printers mill) (paper and pulp) Roofing-material workers Doffers (textile) Dresser tenders (textile) Salt preparers 3. Sudden Variations of Temperature Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Congestion of internal organs, catarrh, neuralgic and rheumatic affections, gastrointestinal and vesical catarrh, pneumonia, Bright’s disease. 16 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS Occupations which offer such exposure Artificial-ice makers Felt-hat makers Firemen (city) Bakers Firemen (stationary) Bleachers Fishermen Brewers Fiangers (felt hats) Butchers Gas ( i l l u m i n a t i n g ) Caisson workers Calenderers (rubber) workers Glost-kiln workers Calico printers Glue workers Candy makers Gypsum workers Canners Hothouse workers Cartridge shot s h e l l Ice-cream makers paraffin dippers Charcoal workers (sugar Ironers Japan makers refining) Clay and bisque makers Lasters (shoes) Laundry workers (pottery) Linoleum makers Cooks Lumbermen Corn-products workers Digester-house workers Miners Mirror silverers (paper and pulp) Mixers (rubber) Dresser tenders (textile) Motormen Driers (felt hats) Drivers Packing-house em Dry cleaners ployees Drying-room w o r k e r s Paper makers (miscellaneous) Patent-leather makers Dye makers Phosphate-mill workers Dyers Phosphorus evaporating Electrotypers machine operators Engineers (stationary) Pressroom workers (rub Extractor o p e r a t o r s ber) (soap) R e f r i g e r a t ing-plant Fat Tenderers workers Hoofers Rubber workers Sailors Salt preparers Shoe finishers Silver melters Soap makers Spreaders (rubber works) Stearic-acid makers Stereotypers Straw-hat makers Sugar refiners Sulphite cooks (pulp mill) Table turners (enamel ing) Textile workers Thread glazers Tile makers Tran sparent-w ra p p in g material coaters and driers Varnish makers Vulcanizers Wall-paper printers W a r mi n g - h o u s e em ployees (guncotton) Wool scourers See also Occupations ex posed to extreme dry heat. B. Compressed Air In building tunnels, laying deep foundations for large buildings, etc., it is necessary for the work to be carried on under increased air pressure in order to prevent the entrance of water into the exca vations. The laborer is lowered gradually and, at short intervals, the pressure of the air in the compartment is increased. The first sensation of compression is felt on the eardrums, which may be re lieved by the act of swallowing. If the air is too quickly compressed hemorrhage may occur. The greater part of the danger of working in compressed air lies in hasty decompression. While under com pression the blood and tissue juices dissolve an increased amount of air, the gases of which are released when the pressure is suddenly decreased. The bubbles of nitrogen thus formed cut off the blood supply from various parts of the body by blocking up the capillaries. The symptoms of compressed-air illness, the so-called “ bends ”, are the result. Workers in compressed air must follow strictly the rules govern ing gradual compression and decompression. State regulations re garding work in compressed air cover limits of pressure, hours of labor under varying pressures, time of compression and of decom pression, physical requirements, and other safety measures; see, for example, Industrial Code: Rules Relating to Work in Compressed Air, Bulletin No. 22, of the New York State Department of Labor, 1922, and the amendment to these rules reported in Special Bulletin No. 135 of the New York State Department of Labor, 1925, page 24. LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETO. 17 B. C om pressed A ir Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Weakness, vertigo, pains in the back and legs, paralysis of legs and arms, painful constriction of the chest, cerebral hemorrhage and aphasia, coma, sub cutaneous hemorrhages, impairment of hearing. Occupations which offer such exposure Caisson workers | Divers I Tunnel workers C. Dampness Most processes in which dampness is a hazard are associated with high or low temperature and high relative humidity, and have been dealt with under “ abnormalities of temperature.” There remains, however, to be considered, exposure to wet conditions where tem perature and humidity are apparently not abnormal. Such condi tions are brought together under the heading “ dampness.” Tank and vat men, washers and flushers, for example, are required to carry on their duties constantly in wet clothes. Drivers and other out door workers are also subject to frequent wetting from exposure to the weather. Exposure to dampness generally has been considered to be a con tributing factor in diseases of the respiratory system, neuralgic and rheumatic affections. Possibly dampness, like sudden variations in temperature, taxes the heat-regulating mechanism of the body. When dampness is a feature of any industrial process, work places should be supplied with drain channels to prevent the accumulation of water, or use should be made of duck boarding. Adequate water proof clothes should be supplied, such as rubber boots, rubberized aprons, etc. C. D am pness Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Diseases of the respiratory passages, neuralgic and Occupations which offer such exposure Clay-plug makers (pot Acid dippers tery) Alkali-salt makers Cloth preparers Artificial-ice makers Concentrating-mill work Artificial-silk makers ers (lead And zinc) Auto painters Cotton-mill workers Baters (tannery) Beamhouse w o r k e r s Creosoting-plant workers Doffers (textile) (tannery) Beatermen (paper and Dresser tenders (textile) Drivers pulp) Electroplaters Boiler washers Enamelers Brewers Explosives workers Brickmakers Extractor o p e r a t o r s Cable splicers (soap) Caisson workers Fertilizer makers Canners Filter-press workers Cartridge-cup washers Cartridge felt and wad Firemen (city) Fishermen makers Cartridge shot shell par Flush tenders (alumi num) affin dippers Clay and bisque makers Galvanizers Glass cutters (pottery) rheumatic affections. Glass finishers Glaze dippers (pottery) Glove makers (leather preparers) Glue workers Grinders (metals) Guncotton washers Hair workers Ice-cream makers Lasters (shoes) Laundry workers Lime pullers (tannery) Linoleum makers Masons Match-factory workers Miners Mirror silverers Nickel platers Packing-house employees Paint makers Paper makers Petroleum refiners Phosphate-mill workers 18 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS Phosphorus evaporating machine operators Picklers Plasterers Pottery workers Preparers (tannery) Pressmen (oil refining) Pulp-mill employees Refrigerating - p l a n t workers Sagger makers Screen tenders (pulp mill) Sewer workers Shavers (felt hats; fu r; tannery) Slip makers (pottery) Smoothers (glass) Soap makers Soda makers Sodium hydroxide mak ers Spongers Stamp-mill workers Stonecutters (wet procSugar refiners Sumackers (tannery) Tablehands ( tannery) Tank men Tannery workers Telephone linemen (trench work) Textile workers Tile makers Tinners Tobacco moisteners Vatmen Yulcanizers (steam) Washers Wool scourers D. Defective Illumination Defective illumination, characterized by insufficient quantity of light, glare, unsuitability of color, and improper diffusion and dis tribution of light, is the cause of eye fatigue, headache, dizziness, and errors of refraction. Miners’ nystagmus, a condition in which the eyeball acquires a peculiar oscillatory movement, is an outstanding example 01 the effects of insufficient illumination. This disease is very common among British miners, but apparently is not found to any extent among American miners. The explanation for the favor able situation of the American miner probably lies in the better illumination of the American mines. Not only is defective illumina tion the cause of these serious impairments of vision but it is an important factor in reduced working efficiency in industry generally, and it is a very frequent cause of industrial accidents. The hazard of defective illumination is not limited to any single industry or group of industries. It may be present in any plant. Men engaged in occupations requiring close, fine work, such as jewelers, engravers, clerks, and mail sorters, are especially liable to suffer from exposure to this hazard. It is a comparatively simple matter to provide for all the require ments for properly illuminating workplaces in some industries, while in others the advice of illuminating engineers is required. The American Standard Code of Lighting for Factories, Mills, and Other Work Places, prepared by the Illuminating Engineering Society of New York City, is an excellent reference work for those who have need of a knowledge of the technical requirements of the work. D. Defective Illumination Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Nystagmus, eyestrain, deficient vision due to astigmatism or hyperopia, head ache, giddiness. Eyestrain contributes to neurasthenia. Occupations which offer such exposure Virtually all occupations. The following and similar occupations are espe cially subject to this hazard: Buffers Embroidery workers Steel engravers Burnishers (iron and Jewelers Train dispatchers steel) Mail sorters Tunnel workers Caisson workers Metal polishers Watchmakers Miners Clerks Compositors Photographers LIST 03? HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC. E. Dust Dusts have been divided into two kinds—organic and inorganic. Organic dusts do not cause pulmonary lesions, while inorganic dusts produce fibrosis of the lung tissue, the extent of which depends upon the kind of dust, the size of the dust particles, the concentration of dust, and the length of exposure to the particular dust inhaled. Dr. H. R. M. Landis found that, when fibrosis was present in the lungs of men exposed to organic dust, the latter was always mixed with some form of inorganic dust. Workers exposed to organic dust for years showed no pulmonary changes other than those found in people living in the city. Dust, whether organic or inorganic, by acting as a carrier of bacilli, may increase their number in the lungs. In this way men exposed to dust may be in greater danger of con tracting tuberculosis than others. Whether or not all inorganic dusts, per se, are capable of produc ing lung fibrosis, given a sufficient length of exposure and a high enough concentration of dust, is still an open question. Many inor ganic dusts found in industry have been inhaled for long periods without noticeable injury. Dusts containing free silica, however, are definitely known to be extremely harmful, producing serious pul monary damage in a comparatively short time. The pathological condition resulting from exposure to silica dust is properly referred to as silicosis. X-ray pictures of the silicotic lung show a character istic mottling due to the formation of fibrotic nodules where silica has lodged in the lymphatic system. Symptoms of the disease may not show until it is well advanced, when there is a decreased lung expan sion, marked shortness of breath, and cough. The silicotic lung is a fertile field for the tubercle bacillus; a very large percentage of cases of silicosis terminate in a fatal tuberculosis. The action of silica on the lungs is to promote the growth of connective tissue. Asbestos dust is another dust which, it has recently been definitely determined, produces a lung fibrosis under existing industrial condi tions, although its action is apparently milder than that of free silica. The relation of tuberculosis and asbestos dust is not entirely clear. Complete protection for workmen exposed to silica dust has been found difficult in many processes. X-ray pictures, therefore, should be taken at regular intervals of all workmen exposed. It is of the utmost importance that these pictures be interpreted by a physician familiar with the appearance of the lungs at various stages in the development of silicosis. Workmen who are found to be affected should be transferred to other jobs, where they will not be exposed to dust. There are four methods that may be used to keep down the amount of dust generated through industrial processes. No one of these can apply to all conditions, but the particular method to be used must be adapted to the peculiarities of the process. 1. The use of water or oil to wet the dust, thus preventing it from rising and filling the atmosphere. This method is now believed to be of doubtful value in some processes, and in these should not be relied upon when other methods are practicable. 2. The use of exhaust systems which remove the dust at the point of origin. 181218°— 83------ 4 20 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS 3. The use of enclosed chambers in which the dust-producing proc esses are confined, the processes being regulated by the operator from the outside. 4. The use of helmets covering the head and neck, preferably those which permit supplying air through a pipe from a nondusty area. E. Dust 1. Inorganic Dust Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Cough, dyspnea, pleuritic pains, hemoptysis, deficient expansion, dullness, diminished resonance, mucous rales, fibrosis, inflammatory condition of eyes, ears, nose, and throat, colds, chronic catarrh of respiratory tract, chronic catarrh of digestive tract, pleurisy, tuberculosis. Occupations which offer such exposure Construction laborers Abrasives workers Core makers Acetylene makers Cotton-mill openers Asbestos workers Basic s l a g (artificial Crucible mixers Crushermen (clay and manure) workers stone) Battery (dry) makers Bed rubbers (marble and Cut-glass workers Cutlery makers stone) Bench molders (foun Cyanamid makers Diamond cutters dry) Diatomaceous - e a r t h Bevelers workers Bisque-kiln workers Drillers (rock) Blasters Electrotypers Bone workers Emery-wheel makers Bricklayers Engineers (stationary) Brickmakers Engravers Bronzers Fertilizer makers Buffers File cutters Burrers (needles) Filers Burr filers Firemen ( stationary) Button makers Flint workers Calenderers (rubber) Floor molders (foundry) Carbide makers Flue cleaners Carbon-black workers Foundry workers Carbon-brush makers Glass blowers Carborundum workers Glass cutters Card grinders (textiles) Glass finishers Casting cleaners (foun Glass mixers dry) Glaze mixers (pottery) Cement workers Gold beaters Charcoal workers (sugar Gold refiners refining) Graphite workers Chargers (smelting) Grinders (metals) Charges (zinc smelting) Gypsum workers Chasers (steel) Horn workers Chimney sweepers House wreckers Chippers Iron and steel mill Clay and bisque makers workers (pottery) Jewelers Clay-p7 ug makers (pot Junk (metal) refiners tery) Jute workers Coal passers Lapidaries Color makers Lead smelters Lime burners Compositors Lime-kiln chargers Compounders (rubber) Concentrating-mill work Lime workers Linoleum makers ers (lead and zinc) Lithographers Marble cutters Masons Match-factory workers Metal turners Mica strippers or split ters Mica workers Miners Mixers (rubber) Mixing-room w o r k e r s (miscellaneous) Mold breakers (foundry) Paint removers Paper hangers Phosphate-mill workers Pit molders (foundry) Planer men ( s t o n e ; metal) Plasterers Plaster of paris workers Pneumatic-tool workers Polishers Polish makers Pottery workers Pouncers (felt hats) Pressmen (printers) Printers Putty makers Putty polishers (glass) Pyrites burners Quarrymen Rubber workers Sagger makers Salt preparers Sand blasters Sand cutters Sanders Sanding-machine opera tors Sandpaperers (enamel ing and painting auto bodies, etc.) Sandpaper makers Sand pulverizers Saw filers Scissors sharpeners Scouring-powder makers LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC, Scrapers (foundry) Screen workers (lead and zinc smelting) Sifters Sintering-plant workers Slag workers Slate workers Slip makers (pottery) Smelters (metal) Smoothers (glass) Soap (abrasive) workers Spinners (asbestos) Stamp-mill workers Statuary workers Stokers Stonecutters (dry) Stonecutters (wet proc ess) Stonemasons Sugar refiners 21 Sulphur burners Table turners (enamel ing) Talc workers Textile comb makers Tile makers Toolmakers Top fillers (foundry) Tumbling-barrel workers Weighers 2. Organic Dust Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Dryness of nose, throat and mouth, cough, anaphylaxis, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis. Occupations which offer such exposure Bakers Fur clippers Roller coverers (cotton Beamers (textiles) mills) Fur cutters Blowers (felt hats) Fur handlers Ropemakers Broom makers Fur preparers Rubber workers Sawmill workers Brushers (felt hats) Fur pullers Scourers, wood lasts Brush makers Furniture polishers Buffers (shoes) Glove makers (leather preparers) Button makers Shavers (felt hats; fu r; Glue workers tannery) Carbonizers (shoddy) Grain-elevator workers Carders (textiles) Shaving-brush makers Card grinders (textiles) Grinders (rubber) Shoddy workers Guncotton pickers Carpet makers Shoe-factory operatives Cigar makers Hair workers Sifters Harness makers Cobblers Silk workers Comb makers Heel makers (shoe) Softeners (tannery) Coners (felt hats) Hemp workers Spinners (textiles) Jute workers Starch makers Cork workers Knitting-mill workers Cotton-mill workers Straw-hat makers Lace makers Sugar refiners Cotton twisters Taxidermists Curriers ( tannery) Lasters (shoes) Textile workers Devil operators (felt Leather workers Tobacco rollers Linen workers hats) Match-factory workers Tobacco workers Doffers (textiles) Upholsterers Mattress makers Feather curers Weavers Mixers (felt hats) Feather workers Mixing-room w o r k e r s Weighers Felt-hat makers (miscellaneous) Wood-last scourers Fiber workers (shoes) Polishers Finishers ( leather) Pouncers (felt hats) Wood workers Flax spinners Pyroxylin-plastics work Wool carders Flour workers ers Wool spinners Formers (felt hats) Wool workers Rag workers Fur carders F. Infections Infectious diseases are frequently of occupational origin. Among the more common of these are anthrax, hookworm, tetanus, trachoma, glanders, tularemia, actinomycosis, ringworm, athlete’s foot, undulant fever, and septic infections. Anthrax, hookworm, and septic infections are of especial interest because of the frequency of their occurrence in industry. A brief summary, therefore, of the symp toms of these diseases and the principal occupations in which infection is likely to occur have been included. Prevention of these diseases lies in the observance of the wellestablished rules of general sanitation. The following special meas ures are also recommended: 22 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS 1. Anthrax.—All hides and animal hair must be thoroughly steri lized. Foreign skins or hair should not be carried on the unpro tected shoulder. The hands should be frequently washed with bichloride of mercury. Hair sorters should wear respirators. 2. Hookworm.—Workers in mines and others who are exposed to infected soil should make special effort to keep the skin clean. Shoes must always be worn and gloves are also of value in preventing the entrance of the hookworm through the skin. Infected soil should be disinfected and kept dry. The utmost attention should be given to the prevention of soil pollution. 3. Septic infections.—Cuts, scratches, or abrasions should be treated at once to avoid infection. Men having open wounds should not be allowed to work with putrid material. F. Infections 1. Anthrax Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Anthrax (extern al): ( a) Malignant pustule.—Begins as inflamed pimple or boil. Papule becomes hard, with a purple center and deep red zone of infiltration surrounding, ap pearance of minute vesicular areola. Central papule becomes vesicular, dis charges thick, bloody serum, later forming a brown gangrene. A painful lymphangitis with hard edema extending over neck and arm. Local phlebitis in the edematous area, chilUness, anorexia, vomiting, prostration, high tempera ture, feeble pulse. (&) Malignant edema.—A spreading inflammation of loose connective tissue accompanied by sloughing and gangrene. Constitutional symptoms those o f pyemia. Anthrax (internal) : High fever, pains in head and back, vomiting, constipation, pain and tender ness in the abdomen, rapid, feeble pulse, palpable spleen, dyspnea, cyanosis. May be hemorrhage from bowels. When lungs are involved, there are addi tional symptoms—cough, pain in the chest, suffocation. Occupations which, offer such exposure Fur clippers Animal handlers Shaving-brush makers Baters (tannery) Fur cutters Shepherds Beamhouse workers (tan Fur handlers Stablemen nery) Sumackers (tannery) Fur preparers Brush makers Fur pullers Table hands (tannery) Hair workers Butchers Tannery workers Carpet makers Leather workers Taxidermists Lime pullers (tannery) Cattle salesmen Transporters of hides Longshoremen Cobblers and wool Curriers Meat inspectors Veterinarians Preparers (tannery) Farmers Wool carders Fertilizer makers Shavers (felt hats; fu r; Wool spinners tannery) Fur carders Wool workers 2. Hookworm (ankylostomiasis) Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Anemia, pallor of the face, even when the blood count is not very lo w ; a dull, heavy, listless expression, manner, speech, and gait; itching sores; perversion of taste; increasing muscular weakness; occurrence of parasites in stool. Vic tims often complain of gastrointestinal pains and cramps; in exaggerated cases there are edema, a spites, progressive emaciation, protuberant abdomen, and increasing stupor. LIST OP HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC. 23 Occupations which offer such exposure Brick makers Lumbermen Sawmill workers Construetion-camp work- Miners Trench diggers ers Quarrymen Tunnel workers Farmers N ote.—This disease occurs in the Southeastern States, and is prevalent also among the gold miners of California. 3. Septic Infections Symptom, condition, or diseme to look for Skin infections, such as boils, carbuncles, blood poisoning, localized lymphan gitis or cellulitis. Occupations which offer such exposure Animal handlers Handlers of putrid or de composing animal prod Butchers Canners ucts Feather workers Preparers (tannery) Fertilizer makers Rag workers Garbage workers Shavers (felt hats; fu r; tannery) Glue makers Hair workers Shoddy makers Silk workers Soap makers Tallow refiners Tannery workers Veterinarians G. Radiant Energy 1. X-rays, Radium, and Other Radioactive Substances (radiothorium, mesothorium, etc.) The increasing use of X-rays and of radium in the detection and treatment of disease and the more extended use of X-rays in indus try as an aid in detecting hidden defects in metals have greatly added to their importance as potential sources of occupational dis ease. Recently, radioactive substances (radium, radiothorium, mesothorium) have been added to the list of occupational hazards found in manufacturing industries following upon the discovery that these substances were responsible for the serious impairment and death of several young women who had been employed in the painting of luminous watch dials with radioactive paint. The hazard is now known to be present also in several other industries. Exposure to X-rays and emanations from radium and other radio active substances may produce serious burns and cancer, while the blood and blood-forming organs are profoundly affectea. Anemia and leukopenia are frequently associated with exposure to radiations. Much has been learned concerning adequate measures for the pro tection of workers exposed to X-rays and radioactive substances since the early days of their discovery, when many pioneers in medi cal treatment with these new agencies, suffered severe mutilating disabilities because of their unmitigated exposure. Protective meas ures today have been worked out in considerable detail for the variety of conditions met with. See for example, The Journal of the American Medical Association, April 27, 1929, pages 1428-1430, and the Monthly Labor Review for June 1929, pages 22-24. Also, the brochure entitled “ Protective Measures Against Dangers Resulting from the Use of Radium, Roentgen, and Ultra-Violet Rays ”, pub lished by the League of Nations Health Organization, August 1931. 24 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS G. Radiant Energy 1. X-rays, Radium, and Other Radioactive Substances (radiothorium, mesothorium, etc.) Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Anemia, leukemia, leukopenia, necrosis of bones, burns, dermatitis, cancer, sterility. Occupations which offer such exposure Chemists and laboratory workers (ra dium research) Painters of luminous watch dials and painters of instrument dials, and other workers in plants manufac turing luminous dials Physicians, nurses, and hospital at tendants Kaaioactive-pamt makers Radioactive-water makers Radiologists Radium ore reduction workers Radium specialists Roentgenologists X-ray technicians and photographers 2. Ultraviolet and Infrared Rays Ultraviolet and infrared rays are an industrial hazard in a num ber of occupations, chiefly welding and cutting. Although we can not see ultraviolet and infrared rays, they are very active and powerful and are usually coexistent with excessive radiance. Ultraviolet rays are chemical in their action, and cause intense irritation of the eyes and burns of the skin, similar to sunburn. Snow blindness, desert blindness, and the “ eye flashes ” of welders are one and the same condition, all due to the action of ultraviolet rays upon the eye; their effects can be very painful and cause dis ability for several days, though usually they do not cause permanent damage. Infrared rays act upon the eyes simply as heat, but may cause permanent damage. There is little definite evidence that welding may cause cataract, similar to glassblower’s cataract, but it is prob able that prolonged exposure to infrared rays may cause haziness of the cornea (part of eyeball). The injurious effects resulting from excessive light due to defective illumination are not considered here, but treated as a separate hazard. See Hazard D. Goggles, helmets, shields, and masks, equipped with colored lenses especially designed to exclude the kinds and intensities of rays met with, afford protection to the eye. Booths should be provided for welders working indoors to protect others working nearby. Clothing which covers the body completely protects the skin from irritation caused by the rays. 2. Ultraviolet and Infrared Rays Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Burns, cataract, conjunctivitis, dermatitis, electrical retinitis. Occupations which offer such exposure Cooks Bakers C u t t e r s (oxyacetylene Blacksmiths and other gases) Brazers ophthalmia, photophobia, Electricians Electric linemen Furnace workers LIST OP HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC. Glass blowers Glass-furnace workers Incandescent - m a n t l e hardeners Iron and steel mill work ers Motion - picture - studio workers and actors 25 Motion - picture - machine operators Photographers Stokers Welders H. Repeated Motion, Pressure, Shock, etc. Under this heading are included the occupational neuroses, those muscle-strain conditions which are caused by continuous repetition of movements, pressure, or blows peculiar to many occupations. This section is not concerned with the neurasthenic phenomena fol lowing accidental injuries, commonly referred to as traumatic neu rosis. Everyone is familiar with the muscular strain experienced in performing for the first time some exercise, such as rowing, long walking, etc. Men newly introduced into a process requiring such repeated action are affected similarly but often much more severely, so as to disable them temporarily for the particular job. After long-continued exposure the muscles involved do not function when called upon to perform the accustomed task, although their function is unimpaired for other activities. The injuiy does iiot stop with muscular strain but may even cause inflammation of the surrounding sheaths or paralysis of the parts concerned. Where continuous pressure or shock is the cause, pads or cushions are often beneficial. Workers who have to grasp tools tightly would do well frequently to change their method of holding the instrument, if this is possible. Occasional rest periods will do much toward the prevention of muscular pains and cramps/ H. Repeated Motion, Pressure, Shock, etc. Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Pain of muscle used, set up by a myositis, bursitis, synovitis, or other local changes of a chronic inflammatory nature; trembling, gradual emaciation and partial paralysis o f parts, acroparesthesia. Occuptions which offer such exposure Artificial-flower makers Jewelers Porters Knitters Barbers Pressers Lathe turners Bicyclists Riveters Letter sorters Blacksmiths Sailors Lithographers Carpenters Sawyers Locksmiths Chauffeurs Scissors sharpeners Machinists Seamstresses Clerks Mail sorters Sewing-machine opera Cobblers Masons tors Compositors Microseopists Spinners (textiles) Cotton twisters Milkers Stonecutters Dancers Miners Tailors Diamond cutters Musicians Elevator runners Telegraphers Painters Enamelers Typists Paper-box makers Washwomen Engravers Pavers Furniture polishers Watchmakers Pneumatic-tool workers Weavers Gold beaters Polishers Hammermen 26 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS J. Poisons The continued introduction of new processes making use of new poisonous substances and the increasing use in industry of other substances well known to be injurious to health make this section of more and more importance. During comparatively recent years the highly poisonous chemicals, tetraethyl lead and radio-active paints, have been introduced into manufacturing processes and have been productive of serious poisoning. A group of refrigerants (methyl bromide, methyl chloride, etc.) have found widespread use in the manufacture of refrigerators and have proved injurious to the health of workmen. Phosphorus, tetrachlorethane, and certain other chemi cals, on the other hand, have decreased in importance. Industrial poisoning caused by these substances is comparatively rare today. Since we cannot foretell, however, when a new use will be found m industry for a poisonous substance, the inclusion of these chemicals in our list has been thought desirable. The revised List of Industrial Poisons, compiled by Sommerfeld and Fischer for the International Association for Labor Legislation, has formed the basis for the data presented in this section.1 The material in that list has been revised and brought up to date. A number of poisons have been added, and the occupations exposed are given for each poison. The symptoms cited are those which are reported in the best works available. In order to avoid swelling the list of poisons to unwarranted proportions, substances, the effects of which are similar, have been grouped. Thus all nitro compounds of benzol and its homologues have been included under one heading, and the same procedure has been followed with amino compounds. The next section (p. 50) is devoted to the substances occurring in industry which produce typical occupational dermatoses. Because of the very large number of substances in the latter class it has not been possible to treat them as fully as the other poisons. To prevent industrial poisoning the following precautions should be taken: Workers must be instructed as to the toxicity of the substance handled. Frequent medical examinations of workers must be made to detect early symptoms of disease. Before new substances are employed in industrial processes their toxicity should be determined. Personal cleanliness must be maintained, and proper washroom facilities, therefore, should be provided. Men should not be allowed to eat in workrooms where poisonous substances are handled. Work clothes should receive special attention and should be removed at the end of the day’s work. The use of gloves and boots is often necessary. Mechanical devices for confining the poisons are of prime impor tance. Reference should be made m this connection to the preventive measures discussed under “ Dust.” Fumes and gases should be taken care of by proper ventilation, the use of exhaust systems, fans, and blowers. Men who work in an atmosphere polluted by poisonous fumes and gases should always wear gas masks properly suited for the obtaining conditions. 1 See U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 100. Washington, 1912. LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC. 27 J . P oisons 1. Acetaldehyde Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract, dyspnea and cough, acceleration of heart, profuse night sweats. Occupations which offer such exposure Photographic workers Acetaldehyde workers Varnishers Aldehyde pumpmen Pyroxylin-plastics work Varnish makers Vinegar workers Disinfectant makers ers Resin (synthetic) makers Yeast makers Dye makers Explosives workers Rubber (synthetic) mak ers Mirror silverers 2. Acetanilide. See Aniline 3. Acetone Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of skin and mucous membranes of eyes Occupations which offer i ch exposure Lacquer makers Acetone workers Methyl-alcohol makers Acetylene workers Nitrocellulose workers Airplane-dope makers Artificial-leather makers Oil extractors Cellulose acetate makers Painters Paint makers Chloroform makers Paint removers Dye makers Paraffin workers Dyers Perfume makers Explosives workers Lacquerers Photographic workers and respiratory tract Pyroxylin-plastics work ers Rubber workers Smokeless-powder mak ers Transparent - wrapping material workers Varnishers Varnish makers Wood-alcohol distillers 4. Acridine Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of skin and mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract, violent sneezing. Occupations which offer such exposure Acridine workers I Dye makers 5. Acrolein Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of skin and mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract, bronchial catarrh. Occupations which offer such exposure Linoleum makers Stearic-acid makers Acrolein workers Tallow refiners Linseed-oil boilers Bone Tenderers Pyroxylin-plastics work Tinners Candle makers ers Type melters Fat Tenderers Refrigerator makers and Varnish makers Galvanizers repair men Glue makers Soap makers Lard makers 6. Aluminum Not generally regarded as an industrial poison. 28 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS 7. Ammonia Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of respiratory passages, cough and dyspnea, pulmonary edema, bronchitis, severe irritation of eyes, conjunctivitis, caustic action on skin. Occupations which offer , \ exposure ch Acetylene workers Explosives workers Salt extractors (cokeAmmonia workers Fertilizer makers oven byproducts) Ammonium-salts makers Galvanizers Sewer workers Artificial-ice makers Gas ( i l l u m i n a t i n g ) Shellac makers Artificial-silk makers Shoe finishers workers Boneblack makers Gas purifiers Soda (Solvay) makers Stablemen Bronzers Glue makers Calcium carbide makers Lacquer makers Sugar refiners Coke-oven workers Mirror silverers Tannery workers Color makers Nitric-acid makers Tinners Varnish makers Cyanide makers Petroleum refiners Refrigerating-plant Dye makers Dyers workers 8. Amyl Acetate Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of mucous membranes of eyes, nose, throat, and bronchial tubes, headache and vertigo, fullness of the head, drowsiness, oppression in chest, cough, nausea. Occupations which offer such exposure Polish makers Explosives workers Airplane-dope makers Alcohol-distillery work Fruit-essenee makers Pyroxylin-plastics work Furniture polishers ers ers Gilders Amyl acetate workers Shellackers Jewelers Shellac makers Art-glass workers Shoe-factory workers Lacquerers Artificial - l e a t h e r Lacquer makers Shoe finishers workers Leather workers Smokeless-powder mak Artificial-pearl makers Linoleum makers ers Artificial-silk makers Mottlers (leather) Tannery workers Battery (dry) makers Nitrocellulose workers Bookbinders Toy makers Painters Varnishers Bronzers Paint makers Buffers (rubber) Varnish makers Paint removers Calico printers Wirers ( i n c a n d e s c e n t Patent-leather makers Camphor makers lamps) Perfume makers Cutlery makers Photographic-film mak Dyers ers Enamelers Polishers (wood) Enamel makers 9. Amyl Alcohol Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of eyes and respiratory tract, headache and vertigo, dyspnea and cough. Occupations which offer such exposure Alcohol-distillery work Lacquer makers Mordanters ers Amyl-acetate makers Nitrocellulose workers Amyl-nitrite makers Painters Explosives workers Paint makers Fruit-essence makers ( synthetic) Rubber Fusel-oil workers makers Lacquerers Shoe finishers S m ok eless - p o w d e r makers Varnishers Varnish makers LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC. 29 10. Aniline and Other Amino Compounds of Benzol and Its Homologues Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Pallor followed by cyanosis, especiaUy of lips and finger tips, weakness, somnolence, irritability, mental confusion, headache and vertigo, unsteady gait, muscular tremor and convulsions, eczematous eruptions, anemia, weak pulse, brownish discoloration of the blood and urine, disorders (tumors, etc.) of the bladder. Occupations which offer such exposure Acetanilide workers Feather workers Germicide makers Aniline makers Artificial-leather makers Lithographers Millinery workers Calico printers Mixers (rubber) Camphor makers Nitraniline workers Coal-tar workers Painters Compositors Paint makers Compounders (rubber) Pencil (colored) makers Dye makers Perfume makers Dyers Photographic workers Explosives workers Pressroom workers (rub ber) Printers Reclaimers (rubber) Rubber workers Tannery workers Varnishers Varnish makers Yulcanizers 11. Antimony and Its Compounds Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation and eczematous eruptions of the skin, inflammation of mucous membranes of nose, mouth, and throat, gastro-intestinal disorders with vomit ing, diarrhea, intestinal colic. Occupations which offer such exposure Linotypers Compounders (rubber) A n t i m o n y extractors Mixers (rubber) Copper refiners (refiners) Monotypers Battery (storage) mak Dye makers Mordanters Electroplaters ers Pressroom workers Electrotypers Brass founders (rubber) Burnishers (iron and Enamel makers Filers Printers steel) Rubber (red) workers Burnishers (rifle bar Fireworks makers Glass mixers Shot makers rels) Glaze dippers (pottery) Stereotypers Calico printers Glaze mixers (pottery) Type founders Chargers (zinc smeltGrinders (metals) Vulcanizers ing) Color makers Zinc refihers Grinders (rubber) Lead smelters Compositors 12. Arsenic and Its Compounds Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Headache, eruptions and bronzing of skin, loss of nails and hair, keratosis, inflammation of mucous membranes, gastro-intestinal disturbances with nausea, vomiting, and severe diarrhea and abdominal pains, peripheral polyneuritis, muscular weakness and paralysis, perforation of nasal septum. Occupations which offer such exposure Arsenic roasters Carroters (felt hats) Artificial-fiower makers Chargers (zinc smelting) Artificial-leather makers Chimney sweepers Bookbinders Colored-paper workers Brass founders Color makers Briquet makers Compounders (rubber) Bronzers Copper founders Calico printers Copper smelters Candle (colored) makers Curriers (tannery) Carpet makers Cut-glass workers Decorators (pottery) Dye makers Electroplaters Enamelers Enamel makers Farmers Feather curers Feather workers Felt-hat makers Ferrosilicon workers 30 OCCUPATION HAZABDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS Fireworks makers Fur handlers Fur preparers Galvanizers Gardeners Glass mixers Glaze dippers (pottery) Glaze mixers (pottery) Gold refiners Insecticide makers Japan makers Japanners Lacquerers Lacquer makers Lead smelters Linoleum colorers Lithographers Mixers (rubber) Mordanters Painters Paint makers Paper glazers Paper hangers Paris-green workers Pencil (colored) makers Pitch workers Pottery workers Pressroom workers (rub ber) Printers Pyrites burners Refiners (metals) Rubber workers Sealing-wax makers Sheep-dip makers Shot makers Soot packers Sprayers (trees) Sulphur burners Sulphuric-acid workers Tannery workers Taxidermists Tinners Toy makers Velvet makers Wallpaper printers Wax ornament makers Wire drawers Wood preservers Zinc miners Zinc refiners 13. Arseniuretted Hydrogen (arsine) Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Feeling of faintness and weakness, intense headache, nausea and vomiting, jaundice, abdominal pains, hemoglobinuria, shivering and chills, gastric disorders. Occupations which offer such exposure Dye makers Acetylene workers Electrolytic-process (cop Acid dippers per) workers Aniline workers Arseniuretted hydrogen Electroplaters makers Etchers Ferrosilicon workers Artificial-silk makers Balloon ( h y d r o g e n ) Fertilizer makers Galvanizers workers Battery workers Gas workers Bleaching-powder makers Gold extractors Jewelers Bronzers Carbonizers (shoddy) Lead burners Chemical workers Lime burners Nitrocellulose makers Di methyl - s u l p h a t e Nitroglycerine makers makers Paper makers Picklers Plumbers Refiners (metals) Shoddy workers Soda makers Solderers Submarine workers Sulphuric-acid workers Tinners Towermen ( s u l p h u r i c acid) Zinc-chloride makers 14. Barium Most of the salts o f barium are poisonous when ingested. Few cases of industrial poisoning, however, have been reported. The symptoms reported in industrial poisoning include whitening and loss of hair, paralysis, acceleration of the heart, cyanosis of the skin, gastric pain, and vomiting. 15. Benzine (naphtha-gasoline) Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Headache and vertigo, nausea and vomiting, irregular respiration, drowsi ness, irritation of skin and mucous membranes, “naphtha ja g ” (a condition resembling mild alcoholic intoxication), visual disturbances, twitching of the muscles. Occupations which offer such exposure Chauffeurs Driers (rubber) Art-glass workers Compositors Bronzers Dry cleaners Compounders (rubber) Buffers (rubber) Dyers Electroplaters Cast scrubbers (electro Curriers ( tannery) Decorators (pottery) platers) Enamelers Cementers (rubber Degreasers (fertiliser; Enamel makers leather) Feather workers Furniture polishers Cement mixers (rubber) Dippers (rubber) LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC. Garage workers Gasoline-engine workers Gilders Glue workers Japan makers Japanners Lacquerers Lacquer makers Linoleum makers Lithographers Metal-polish makers Millinery workers Mixers (rubber) Mordanters Painters Paint makers Petroleum refiners Polishers Polish makers P r e s s r o o m workers (rubber) Printers Putty makers Pyroxylin-plastics work ers Rubber-glove makers Rubber-tire builders Rubber workers 31 Shade-eloth makers Shellackers Shellac makers Shoe-factory workers Shoe finishers Tannery workers Type cleaners Varnishers Tarnish makers Vulcanizers Waterproof-cloth makers Window-shade makers Woodworkers 16. Benzol (benzene) and Its Homologues (toluol and xylol) Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Headache and vertigo, hemorrhages, spots of extravasated blood on the skin, anemia, injury to blood-forming organs, kidneys, liver and nervous system, marked susceptibility to infection, local irritation (bronchitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, etc.), narcosis (acute poisoning). Occupations which offer such exposure Airplane-dope workers Enamel makers A l c o h o l ( denatured) Engravers Explosives workers workers Extractors (oils a n d Aniline makers fats) Artificial-leather makers Feather workers Battery (dry) makers Benzol-still men Gas ( i l l u m i n a t i n g ) Blenders (motor fuel) workers Brake-lining makers Gilders Bronzers Glue workers Can (sanitary) makers Lacquerers Lacquer makers Carbolic-acid makers Linoleum workers Cast scrubbers Lithographers Cementers (rubber) Cement mixers (rubber) MiUinery workers Mixers (rubber) Coal-tar workers Coke-oven workers Mordanters Nitrobenzene makers Color makers Nitrocellulose workers Compounders (rubber) Oilcloth makers Decorators (pottery) Degreasers (fertilizer; Painters leather) Paint makers Paint-remover makers Dippers (rubber) Paint removers Driers (rubber) Parafiin makers Dry cleaners Phenol makers Dye makers Photo-engravers Electroplaters Enamelers Photographic workers Picric-acid makers P r e s s r o o m workers (rubber) Pyroxylin-plastics work ers Reclaimers (rubber) Rubber-tire builders Rubber workers Shade-cloth makers Shellackers Shellac makers Shoe-factory workers Shoe finishers Silverers S m o k e l e s s-powder makers Soap makers Still (coal tar) cleaners Treaders (rubber) Trinitrotoluol makers Varnishers Varnish makers Vulcanizers W a t e r p r o o f-f abric makers Welders Window-shade makers 17. Brass (zinc) Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Headache, general malaise, irritation of throat, cough, slight nausea, severe chills with fever, profuse perspiration, trembling, muscular pains, exhaustion. Occupations which offer such exposure Bench molders (foundry) Bronzers Blowers-out (zinc smelt Chargers (zinc smelting) Core makers ing) Brass founders Floor molders (foundry) Galvanizers Braziers Junk-metal refiners Luters (zinc smelting) Pourers (brass foundry) Welders Zinc smelters 32 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS 18. Bromine Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Violent irritation of air passages, bronchitis, and conjunctivitis, sensation of suffocation, skin eruptions, brownish discoloration of skin and mucous membranes. Occupations which offer such exposure Bromine salts makers Ethylene dibromide makers Color makers Disinfectant workers Gold extractors Dye makers Ink makers 19. Butyl Acetate. Platinum extractors Tear-gas makers Tetraethyl-lead makers Photographic-film mak ers See Amyl Acetate 20. Butyl Alcohol Animal experimentation showed marked dermatitis, early liver degeneration, a definite increase in red blood cells, with an absolute and relative lympho cytosis. Occupations which offer such exposure Artificial-leather work Perfume makers Shellac makers Photographic-film mak Varnishers ers Varnish makers Artificial-silk workers ers Butyl-alcohol makers Pyroxylin plastics work Motion-picture-film work ers Shellackers ers 21. Cadmium Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, headache, shivering, dryness o f throat, rapid pulse, fatty degeneration of liver, inflammation of kidneys, brown urine. Animal experimentation shows generalized pneumonia. Occupations which offer such exposure Cadmium-alloy makers Calico printers Cadmium and cadmium- Chargers (zinc smelting) compound makers Color makers Cadmium platers Electroplaters Cadmium - vapo r -1 a m p Glass colorers makers Lithopone makers Solderers Solder makers Storage-battery makers Welders Zinc smelters and refiners 22. Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide is now generally regarded as a simple asphyxiant. The symptoms preceding asphyxia are: Headache and vertigo, dyspnea, drowsiness, muscular weakness, flushing of face, tinnitus aurium. Occupations which offer such exposure Alkali-salt makers Divers Drying-room workers Bakers Blacksmiths Fertilizer workers Blast-furnace workers Foundry workers Boiler-room workers Furnace workers Brass founders Glass workers Glue makers Brewers Brick burners Lime burners Caisson workers Lime-kiln workers Carbonated-water makers Miners Carbon - d i o x i d e - i c e Pottery workers Sewer workers workers Silo workers Carbonic-acid makers Soda makers Charcoal burners Cupola men (foundries) Starch makers Submarine workers Sugar refiners Tannery pit men Tobacco m o i s t e n e r s (storehouse) Tunnel workers Vatmen Vault workers Vinegar makers Vintners Vulcanizers Well workers White-lead makers Yeast makers LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC. 33 23. Carbon Disulphide Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Headache, vertigo, weakness, psychical effects (hilarity, agitation, irritabil ity, hallucinations, mania), disturbances of sensation, particularly of sight, peripheral neuritis, digestive disturbances. Occupations which offer such exposure Paint makers Driers (rubber) Acetylene workers Paraffin workers Ammonium-salts makers Dry cleaners Putty makers Electroplaters Artificial-silk makers Reclaimers (rubber) Enamelers Asphalt testers Smokeless-powder mak Enamel makers Oarbanilide makers ers Carbon-disulphide mak Explosives workers Sulphur extractors Glue workers ers Tallow refiners Insecticide makers Cellulose workers Transparent-w r a p p in g Cementers (rubber Match-factory workers material workers Oil extractors shoes) Yulcanizers Cement mixers (rubber) Painters 24. Carbon Monoxide Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Tightness across forehead, painfulness of the eyeball, dilatation of cutaneous vessels, headache (frontal and basal), throbbing in temples, weariness, weak ness, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, loss o f strength and muscular control, increased respiration and pulse, collapse, anemia, polycythemia, presence of carbon monoxide hemoglobin. Note.—Poisoning may proceed in some persons to the stage o f collapse with out causing any subjective symptoms. Exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide for short periods, may, through the effect of oxygen deprivation, cause degenerative changes in va rious tissues of the body. Chronic exposure to low concentrations for long periods of time according to some investigators, may produce permanent injury. Occupations which offer such exposure Drier workers (found Lime-kiln chargers Acetylene workers Ammonia makers (Haries) Linotypers ber-Bosch method) Drying-room w o r k e r s Mechanics (gas engines) Bakers (miscellaneous) Mercury smelters Balloon inflaters Enamelers Methane ( s y nt he t i c ) Bisque-kiln workers Enamel makers makers Blacksmiths Engineers ( stationary) Methyl alcohol (synthet Filament makers and Blasters ic) makers Blast-furnace workers finishers (incandescent Miners Blockers (felt hats) lamps) Mold breakers (pottery) Firemen (city) Boiler cleaners Monotypers Firemen ( stationary) Boiler-room workers Motion-picture-film work Brass founders ers Flangers (felt hats) Flue cleaners Neon lights letter makers Brick burners Foundry workers Cable splicers Patent-leather makers Fumigators Phosgene makers Calico printers Furnace workers Carbide makers Plumbers Pottery (kiln) workers Charcoal burners Garage .workers Gas ( i l l u m i n a t i n g ) Pressers Chargers (foundries) workers Chargers (zinc smelting) Puddlers (foundries) Gassers (textiles) Pyroxylin-plastics work Chauffeurs Glost-kiln workers ers Chimney masons Incandescent-lamp mak Refiners (metals) Chimney sweepers Repai rers ( foundries) ers Cleaners (foundries) Ink (printer’s) makers Sealers ( incande s c e n t Cloth singers Ironers lamps) Coal-tar workers Kiln tenders Sewer workers Coke-oven workers Silver melters Laboratory workers Cooks Laundry workers Singers (cloth) Copper smelters Core makers Lead smelters Soda makers (Leblanc) Cupola men (foundries) Lime burners Solderers 34 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS Steeple jacks Stokers Teazers (glass) Telephone l i n e m e n (trench work) Temperers Top fillers (foundry) Tubulators (incandescent lamps) Welders Wood-alcohol distillers Wood-charcoal workers Zinc smelters 25. Carbon Tetrachloride Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of nose, eyes, and throat, headache, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, mental dullness, confusion and excitement, dermatitis. Occupations tvhich offer such exposure Metal-polish makers Dry cleaners Airplane-dope workers Paraffin workers Carbon-tetr a c h l o r i d e Electroplaters Fire-extinguisher makers Perfume makers workers Firemen (city) Rubber workers Cementers (rubber) Vulcanizers Cement mixers (rubber) Lacquerers Lacquer makers Degreasers (textiles) 26. Cellosolve (mono-ethyl ether of ethylene glycol) This compound is used as a solvent for nitrocellulose and resins in the manu facture of lacquers. According to the United States Bureau of Mines, animal experimentation shows inactivity, weakness, dyspnea, and death following exposure for 18 to 24 hours to air saturated with cellosolve vapor (0.6 percent by volume). 27. Chloride of Lime Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritating cough, inflammation of upper air passage, difficulty in breathing, asthma, bronchitis, conjunctivitis, lachrymation, hyperhidrosis, burning erup tions on the skin. Occupations which offer such exposure Chloride of lime makers Laundry workers Acetylene workers Chloroform makers Bleachers Mordanters Tannery workers Bleacliing-powder mak Disinfectant makers ers Dye makers 28. Chlorine Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract, bronchitis, cough, pulmonary edema, dyspnea, pallid countenance and emaciation, gastric disturbances, decayed teeth, irritation of skin, and chloracne. Occupations which offer such exposure Detinning workers Alkali-salt makers Beatermen (paper and Disinfectant makers Dye makers pulp) Bleachers Extractors (gold and silver) Bromine makers Ink makers Broom makers Iodine makers Calico printers Chloride of lime makers Laundry workers Paper makers Chlorine workers Phosgene makers Color makers 29. Chlorodinitrobenzol. 30. Chloronitrobenzol. Photographic workers Rubber-substitute mak ers Shoddy makers Soda makers Submarine workers Sulphur-chloride makers Tear-gas makers Zinc-chloride makers See Nitrobenzol See Nitrobenzol LIST OP HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETO. 35 31. Chromium Compounds Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Pitlike phagedenic ulcers, very difficult to heal and very painful, occurring on the skin, most frequently on the hands, and on the mucous membranes; inflam mation and perforation of the nasal septum at the cartilaginous portion; eczematous eruptions, irritations of the conjunctiva and o f the respiratory pas sages with rare inflammation of small areas in the lungs. Occupations which offer Acetylene workers Aniline-compound work ers Artificial-flower makers Battery (dry) makers Bleachers Blueprint makers Calico printers Candle (colored) makers Carbon printers (photog raphy) Chrome workers Chromium platers Color makers Compounders (rubber) Crayon (colored) makers Dye makers Dyers ich exposure Electroplaters Enamelers Enamel makers Explosives (ammonal and pyroxylin) workers Frosters ( g l a s s a n d pottery) Furniture polishers Glass colorers Glaze workers (pottery) Ink makers Linoleum workers Lithographers Match-factory workers Mixers (rubber) Mordanters Painters Paint makers Paper hangers Pencil (colored) makers Photo-engravers Photographic workers Photogravure workers Rubber workers Steel (chrome) makers Tannery ( c h r o m e ) workers Vulcanizers Wall-paper printers Waterproofers ( p a p e r and textile) Wax-ornament workers Wood polishers Wood stainers 32. Cobalt There is little information available on the effects of cobalt. A case o f poisoning with severe damage to the liver and kidneys was reported from a French tile factory. Cancer of the lungs is a recognized occupational injury among European cobalt miners, but the cause of the condition has not been definitely established. The presence of arsenic in the ore, and the fact that there are radioactive emanations in the mines, have been advanced as causes of the cancer. 33. Copper Whether or not copper is toxic to human beings is still unestablished. The inhalation of copper dust is reported to produce “ copper chills ” , headache, gastro-enteritis; the inhalation of fumes, to produce symptoms similar to those caused by zinc fumes. Impurities such as lead and arsenic have been ad vanced as possible causes of reported cases of copper poisoning. Occupations which offer such exposure Copper founders I C o p p e r refiners a n d I Coppersmiths I smelters 34. Cresol (cresylic acid) Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Toxic effects resemble those of phenol but are less severe. The chief symp toms are irritation and erosion of skin and mucous membranes, and nephritis. Occupations which offer such exposure Artificial-resin makers Dye makers Resin (synthetic) mak Coal-tar workers Explosives workers ers Cresol-soap makers Fumigators Rubber (artificial) Cresylic-acid makers P e r f u m e (synthetic) workers Disinfectant makers Tar-distillery workers makers 36 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS 35. Cyanogen Compounds Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Headache and vertigo, nausea and vomiting, unsteady gait, bitter almond odor in breath, gastro-intestinal disorders, weakness, irregular pulse and respiration, irritation and inflammation of skin and mucous membranes, mus cular pain and trembling, convulsions, paralysis of legs and arms, functional disturbances of nervous system. Occupations which offer such exposure Acid dippers Dye makers Mirror silverers Ammonium-salts makers Electroplaters Mordanters Artificial-silk makers Extractors (gold and Oxalic acid makers Art-printing workers silver) Phosphoric acid makers Blacksmiths Fertilizer makers Photographic workers Blast-furnace workers Fulminate mixers Picklers Bone distillers Fumigators Polishers (metals) Bronzers Gas ( i l l u m i n a t i n g ) Pyroxylin-plastics work Browners (gun barrels) workers ers Calico printers Gas purifiers Silver refiners Case hardeners Gilders Solderers Coal-tar-distillery work Gold refiners Tannery workers ers Hydrocyanic-acid mak Temperers Cyanide workers ers Tree sprayers Disinfectant workers Jewelers Zincers 36. Dimethyl Sulphate Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Strongly corrosive effect on the skin and mucous membranes, hoarseness, laehrymation, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, pulmonary edema with hemorrhages, photophobia. Occupations which offer such exposure Dimethyl-sulphate rnak- I Dye makers I Perfume makers ers I I 37. Dinitrobenzol. See Nitrobenzol 38. Dioxan (diethylene dioxide) This compound may be used in the manufacture of a number of chemicals, and is a solvent for nitrocellulose, etc. According to the United States Bureau of Mines, men exposed to air con taining 0.16 percent of dioxan vapor by volume, immediately noted irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. It is stated that “ as in the case of practically all comparatively nontoxic volatile liquids, dioxan presents a hazard to life under conditions o f exposure to air confined over the liquid in tanks, vats, and similar places where high concentrations would accumulate.” 39. Ethyl Benzene This compound is used as an “ antiknock” , as a lacquer diluent, general solvent, etc. According to the United States Bureau of Mines, animal experimentation shows irritation of eyes and nose, apparent vertigo, static and motor ataxia, apparent unconsciousness, tremor of extremities, rapid jerky respiration, then shallow respiration, and finally slow, gasping respiration, followed by death. All these symptoms and death resulted from 1 percent exposure in from 2 to 3 hours. List of h a za r d s , s y m p t o m s , e t c . 37 40. Ethyl Bromide and Ethyl Chloride Symptom, condition, or disease to look for See note under Methyl Chloride Occupations which offer such exposure Anesthetic makers Refrigerator (mechanical) makers and Ethyl-bromide makers repair men Ethyl-chloride makers 41. Ethylene Dibromide Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of eyes and respiratory tract, vomiting, pallor, weakness, vertigo. Occupations which offer exposure Ethylene dibromide makers. 42. Ethylene Dichloride This compound is used as a solvent, particularly in the extraction of oil and fats. According to the United States Bureau of Mines, animal experimentation shows irritation of eyes and nose, vertigo, static and motor ataxia, retching movements, semiconsciousness and unconsciousness accompanied by uncoordi nated movements of the extremities, and death if exposure is continued. Ex posure to 6 percent vapors caused all these symptoms, excepting death, to occur in less than 10 minutes, and death in about 30 minutes. 43. Ethylene Oxide This compound is principally used as an intermediate in the synthesis of other compounds as ethel, methyl, and butyl cellosolve, and as a fumigant. According to the United States Bureau of Mines, animal experimentation shows irritation of the eyes and nose; blood-tinged, frothy, serous exudate from nostrils; unsteadiness on feet and staggering inability to stand; respira tory disturbances; dyspnea and gasping; and death. Most of these symptoms occurred with exposure to concentrations of 8.5 to 0.3 percent by volume. 44. Formaldehyde Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of mucous membranes, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, dyspnea, severe dermatitis, destruction of finger nails. Systemic effects, including degeneration of the liver, have been reported. Occupations which offer such exposure Artificial-amber makers Formaldehyde workers Artificial-silk makers Germicide makers Glass etchers Bakelite makers Ink makers Brewery workers Broom makers Insecticide makers Mirror silverers Brush makers Paper makers Calico printers Photographic workers Disinfectant workers Preservative makers and Dye makers handlers Embalmers Resin (synthetic) makers Explosives workers Recoverers (gold a n d silver) Rubber workers Soap makers Straw-hat makers Tannery workers Textile printers Waterproofers (paper) 38 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS 45. Formic Acid. See also Formaldehyde Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Dermatitis (blisters, ulcerations, necrosis), irritation of mucous membranes of eyes, nose, and throat. Occupations which offer such exposure Rubber workers Alocohol fermenters Lacquerers Soap makers Cellulose-formate makers Lacquer makers Tannery workers Mirror silverers Dye makers Varnishers Electroplaters Mordanters Perfume makers Varnish makers Formic-acid workers 46. Gasoline. See Benzine 47. Hydrochloric Acid Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Caustic and irritating action on skin and mucous membranes, conjunctivitis, coryza, pharyngeal and bronchial catarrh, dental caries, pulmonary hemor rhages. Occupations which offer such exposure Dye makers Paper-mill workers Acetic-acid makers Petroleum refiners Acid dippers Dyers Acid finishers (glass) Electroplaters Phosphate extractors Acid mixers Enamel makers Photographic workers Acid recoverers Picklers (metals) Engravers Pottery workers Etchers Acid transporters Alkali-salt makers Fertilizer makers Reclaimers (rubber) Ammonium-salts makers Galvanizers Shoddy workers Glass finishers Soap makers Aniline makers Artificial-silk makers Glass mixers Solderers Glaze mixers (pottery) Sugar refiners Battery (dry) makers Glazers (pottery) Sulphur-chloride makers Bleachers Glue makers Tannery workers Bronzers Hydrochloric-acid makers Tinners Calico printers Ink makers Transparent - wrappingCamphor makers material workers Jewelers Carbonizers (shoddy) Leather workers Vignetters Cartridge dippers Wire makers Lithographers Cement makers Metal cleaners Zinc chloride makers C h i o r i n e -com p ou n d Metal refiners makers Paint makers Chlorine makers 48. Hydrocyanic Acid. See Cyanogen Compounds 49. Hydrofluoric Acid Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Intense irritation of eyelids and conjunctiva, coryza, bronchial catarrh with spasmodic cough, ulceration of the nostrils, gums, and oral mucous membranes, painful ulcers of the cuticle, erosion and formation o f vesicles, suppuration under the finger nails. Occupations which offer such exposure Aluminum extractors Gold refiners Brewers Hydrofluoric-acid makers A n t i m ony-fluoride ex Dyers Etchers Phosphorus extractors tractors Fertilizer makers Silicate extractors Art-glass workers Glass finishers Bleachers 50. Iron Carbonyl. See Nickel Carbonyl LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC. 39 51. Lead and Its Compounds Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Ashen pallor, metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, constipation, abdominal pains, lead line on gums, asthenia, lassitude, headache, backache, pain about joints, weakness of grip, tremors of fingers and tongue, lead paralysis, especially of muscles used most, stippling of red blood cells, ocular disturbances, mental symptoms (lead encephalopathy). Occupations which offer such exposure Galvanizers Acid finishers (glass) Garage workers Amber workers Gardeners Art-glass workers Gasoline blenders Artificial-flower makers Glass finishers Babbitters Glass mixers Battery (dry) makers Bench molders (foundry) Glass polishers Glaze dippers (pottery) Blacksmiths Glaze mixers (pottery) Blooders (tannery) Glost-kiln workers Bookbinders Gold refiners Bottle-cap makers Grinders (metals) Brass founders Grinders (rubber) Brass polishers Heater boys (riveters) Braziers Imitation-pearl makers Brick burners I n c a n d e s c e n t -lamp Brick makers makers Bronzers Browners (gun barrels) Insecticide makers Japan makers Brush makers Buffers (rubber) Japanners Burners (enameling) Jewelers Junk-metal refiners Cable makers Labelers (paint cans) Cable splicers Lacquerers Calico printers Canners Lacquer makers Lead burners Cartridge makers Chargers (zinc smelting) Lead-foil makers Chippers Lead miners Colorers (white) of shoes Lead-pipe makers Color makers Lead-salts makers Compositors Lead smelters Compounders (rubber) Linoleum makers Concentrating-mill work Linotypers ers (lead and zinc) Linseed-oil boilers Copper refiners Lithographers Cut-glass workers Lithotransfer workers Cutlery makers Match-factory workers Cutters (oxyacety 1 e n e Mirror silverers and other gases) Mixers (rubber) Decorators (pottery) Monotypers Dental workers M u s i c a 1-instrument Diamond polishers makers Dye makers Nitric-acid workers Dyers Nitroglycerin makers Electroplaters Painters Electrotypers Paint makers Embroidery workers Paint removers Emery-wheel makers Paper hangers Enamelers Patent-leather makers Enamel makers Petroleum refiners Farmers Photograph retouchers File cutters Pipe fitters Filers Plumbers Filling-station workers Polishers Floor molders (foundry) Pottery workers Printers Putty makers Putty polishers (glass) Pyroxylin-plastics work ers Reclaimers ( rubber) Red-lead workers Refiners (metals) Riveters Roofers Rubber workers Sagger makers Sandpaperers (enamel ing and painting auto bodies, etc.) Screen workers (lead and zinc smelting) Sheet-metal workers Shellackers Shellac makers Shot makers Slip makers (pottery) Slushers (porcelain enameling) Solderers Solder makers Stainers (shoes) Steel engravers Stereotypers Storage-battery makers Sulphuric-acid workers Table turners (enamel ing) Tannery workers Temperers Tetraethyl lead makers Tile makers Tin-foil makers Tinners Toy makers Transfer workers (pot tery) Tree sprayers Type founders Typesetters Varnishers Varnish makers Wall-paper printers Welders White-lead workers Wood stainers Zinc miners Zinc smelters 40 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS 52. Lead Arsenate. See Arsenic; Lead 53. Manganese Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Languor and sleepiness, stolid mask-like facial expression, low monotonous voice, muscular twitching, cramps and stiffness of muscles in legs, increase in tendon reflexes, ankle and patellar clonus, retropulsion and propulsion, slapping gait, uncontrollable laughter. Occupations which offer such exposure Battery (dry) makers Fireworks makers Manganese-steel makers Bleaching-powder makers Glass mixers Match-factory workers Glaze dippers (pottery) Painters Calico printers Glaze mixers (pottery) Paint makers Chlorine makers Dye makers Linoleum makers Pottery workers Soap makers Dyers Manganese d i o x i d e workers Enamelers Varnishers Enamel makers Varnish makers Manganese grinders Fertilizer makers Manga nese-ore separators Zinc miners 54. Mercury and Its Compounds Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Stomatitis and gingivitis, salivation, blue line on gums, gastro-intestinal disorders, metallic or fetid breath, tremor, mercurial erethism, loss of memory, insomnia and depression, anxiety and irritability, mercurial eczema. Occupations which offer such exposure Disinfectant makers Mercury-solder workers Acetaldehyde makers A c e t i c-acid ( synthetic) Dye makers Mercury-still cleaners Electric induction fur Mercury-switch makers makers M e r c u r y-vapor - lamp Acetone ( synthetic) nace workers makers Electroplaters makers Alcohol (synthetic) mak Embalmers Mirror silverers Embossers ers Mixers (felt hats) Explosives workers Amalgam makers Painters Extractors (gold and Paint makers Artificial-flower makers silver) Barometer makers Photographic workers Felt-hat makers Battery (dry) makers Porcelain makers Fireworks makers Blowers (felt hats) Primers (explosives) Fulminate mixers Bronzers Refiners (metals) Fur handlers Browners (gun barrels) Sizers (felt hats) Fur preparers Brushers (felt hats) Sole stitchers (Blake Gilders Calico printers machine) Gold refiners Cap loaders Starters (felt hats) Hardeners (felt hats) Carroters (felt hats) Steel engravers Ineandescent-lamp mak Stiffeners (felt hats) Cartridge makers ers Chlorine makers (elec Storage-battery makers Jewelers trolytic) Tannery workers Laboratory workers Color makers Taxidermists Lithographers Coners (felt hats) Thermometer makers Manometer makers Cosmetic workers Water gilders Cyanogen gas makers Mercury-alloy makers Welders Mercury-boiler workers Dentists Wood preservers Mercury bronzers Detonator cleaners Zinc-electrode makers Detonator fillers Mercury miners Mercury-pump workers Detonator packers Devil operators (felt Mercury-salt workers Mercury smelters hats) LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC. 41 55. Methanol (methyl alcohol) Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Headache, nausea and vomiting, vertigo, irritation of mucous membranes, severe colic, convulsions, paralysis, chilliness and cold sweats, cyanosis, loss of reflexes and of sensation, irregular and intermittent heart action, rapid breathing followed by retardation, rapid and marked drop in temperature, affections of sight including amblyopia, optic neuritis, conjunctivitis, mydriasis, nystagmus, visual hallucinations, blindness. Occupations which offer such exposure Aldehyde pumpmen Fitters (shoes) Photographers Aniline-dye makers Furniture polishers Polishers (wood) Antifreeze makers Polish makers Gilders Art-glass workers Pyroxylin-plastics work Hardeners (felt hats) Incandescent-lamp mak Artificial-flower makers ers Rubber workers ers Artificial-silk makers Shellackers Automobile painters Ink makers Shellac makers Japan makers Bookbinders Shoe-factory operatives Bronzers Japanners Brush makers Shoe finishers Lacquerers Soap makers Lacquer makers Calico printers Stiffeners (felt hats) C e m e n t e r s (rubber Lasters (shoes) Stitchers (shoes) Linoleum makers shoes) D im e t h y l - s u l p h a t e Methyl-alcohol workers Type cleaners Methyl-compound mak Upholsterers makers Varnishers ers Driers (felt hats) Varnish makers Millinery workers Dry cleaners Mottlers (leather) Vulcanizers Dye makers Wood-alcohol distillers Painters Explosives workers Paint makers Woodworkers Feather workers Patent-leather makers Felt-hat makers Filament makers (incan Perfume makers Photo-engravers descent lamps) 56. Methyl Bromide Symptom, condition, or disease to look for See note under Methyl chloride. Occupations which offer such exposure Refrigerator (mechanical) Methyl bromide makers and repair men makers 57. Methyl Chloride Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Progressive drowsiness, vertigo, nausea, staggering gait, mental confusion, weakness, visual disturbances, tremors, presence of formates and acetone in urine, insomnia. Note.—Experiments conducted by the United States Bureau of Mines on guinea pigs showed that air containing methyl chloride, methyl bromide, ethyl bromide, and ethyl chloride produced similar symptoms, including excitement, loss of equilibrium, inability to walk, rapid pulse, convulsive rapid respiration with rales, frothy (often blood-tinged) exudate from nostrils. The signs of lung irritation were not as pronounced for exposure to ethyl chloride as for the other compounds. Occupations which offer such exposure Dye makers Chloroform makers Methyl chloride makers Color makers Refrigerator (mechani cal) makers and repair men 42 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS 58. Naphtha. See Benzine 59. Nickel Carbonyl Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Headache, giddiness, nausea, dyspnea, cough, cyanosis, edema, pain in the loins. Occupations which offer such exposure Nickel-purification workers (Mond process) 60. Nitraniline. See Aniline 61. Nitrobenzol and Other Nitro Compounds of Benzol and Its Homologues Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Cyanotic face and lips, nausea and vomiting, odor of bitter almonds in breath, irritation of skin, icterical skin, visual disturbances, anemia, dark-brown blood, methemoglobin formation, presence of hematoporphyrin, albumin, and some times free poison in urine, tremors, muscular twitching, and other manifesta tions of nerve injury. Occupations which offer such exposure Ink makers Aniline makers Dye makers Nitrobenzol workers Explosives workers Perfume makers Floor-polish makers Shoe dyers Smokeless-powder makers Soap makers Trinitrotoluol makers 62. Nitroglycerin Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Intense headache, nausea and vomiting, flushing of face, gastro-intestinal disturbances, tachycardia, skin eruptions (characterized by dryness and the formation of rhagades). Occupations which offer such exposure Explosives workers | Nitroglycerin workers Shell fillers 63. Nitronaphthalene. See Nitrobenzol 64. Nitrous Gases and Nitric Acid Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of air passages, spasmodic cough, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, bronchitis, feeling of suffocation, pain in chest, digestive disturbances, corrosion of teeth, severe burns on the skin. Occupations which offer such exposure Electroplaters Acid dippers Enamel makers Acid mixers Etchers Acid recoverers Acid transporters Explosives workers Fertilizer makers Aniline makers Artificial-leather makers Fur preparers Galvanizers Artificial-pearl makers Gilders Bleachers Guncotton workers Calico printers Jewelers Carroters (felt hats) Lithographers Cartridge dippers Mordanters Collodion makers Nitrators Damascening workers Nitric-acid workers Di met hyl - s u l p h a t e Nitrocellulose makers makers Nitroglycerin makers Dippers (guncotton) Nitrous-oxide workers Dye makers Phosphoric-acid makers Photo-engravers Picklers (metals) Picric-acid makers Pyroxylin-plastics work ers Refiners (metals) Scourers (metals) Sm o k e l e s s - p o w d e r makers Soda makers Sulphuric-acid makers T o w e r m e n (sulphuric acid) Wringers (guncotton) LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC. 43 65. Oxalic Acid Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Local caustic action on skin and mucous membranes, bluish discoloration and brittleness of nails, irritation of mucous membranes of esophagus, stomach and intestines, peripheral circulatory trouble, cardiac weakness, convulsions. Occupations which offer such exposure Dry cleaners Polishers (metal) Ink makers Dye makers Straw bleachers Lithographers Tannery workers Engravers Metal-polish makers Glycerin refiners Oxalic-acid workers 66. Ozone Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of eyes and respiratory tract. Occupations which offer such exposure Bleachers | Electrical workers 67. Petroleum. | Laundry workers See also Benzine Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Inflammation of the skin, acne, suppurating ulcers, papilloma, numbness and irritation of the Schneiderian membrane, headache and sensory disturbances, affections of the respiratory organs. Occupations which offer such exposure Browners (gun barrels) Millinery workers Paraffin workers Feather workers Oii-flo t a t i o n - p l a n t Petroleum refiners Temperers Furniture polishers workers Oil-well workers Lampblack makers 68. Phenol Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Erosion of the skin, eczema, irritation of respiratory organs, digestive dis turbances, symptoms o f degeneration of blood, emaciation, nephritis, gangrene, jaundice. Occupations which offer such exposure Explosives workers Phenol workers Bakelite makers G a s ( i l l u mi n a t i n g ) Picric-acid makers Brewers workers Calico printers Powder (smokeless) Carbolic-acid makers Gas purifiers makers Lampblack makers Reclaimers (rubber) Coal-tar workers Disinfectant workers Paint makers Resin (synthetic) makers Paint-remover makers Dye makers Stillmen (carbolic acid) Paint removers Surgical-dressing makers Dyers Perfume makers Wood preservers Etchers 69. Phenyl Hydrazine Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Vesicular eruptions of the skin with itching and burning, diarrhea, anorexia, granular degeneration of blood corpuscles, formation o f methemoglobin, a sense of general malaise. Occupations which offer such exposure Antipyrin makers | Dye makers | Phenyl-hydrazine workers OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS 70. Phosgene Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Violent lung inflammation with edema, necrosis o f lung tissue, emphysema, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, dysfunction of the heart, dyspnea. Occupations which offer such exposure C a r b o n - tetrachloride I Dye makers I Phosgene makers workers I J 71. Phosphorus Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Increasingly severe toothache, inflammation and sclerosis o f the bones and of the periosteum, swelling and ulceration of the gums and buccal membrane, loosening and falling out of the teeth, suppuration and destruction of jawbone with fistulous channels burrowing through the cheek, meningeal inflammation, brittleness of bones, digestive disturbances, emaciation. Occupations which offer such exposure Bone-black makers Insecticide makers Phosphorus-c o m p ou n d Brass founders Match-factory workers makers Phosphate-mill workers Phosphorus extractors Fertilizer makers Fireworks makers Phosphor-bronze workers 72. Phosphuretted Hydrogen (phosphine) Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Oppression in chest, headache and vertigo, gastro-intestinal irritation, dyspnea, general debility, tinnitus aurium, tremors and convulsions. Occupations which offer such exposure Acetylene workers Phosphorus extractors Ferrosilicon workers Phosphorus (red) mak Phosphine workers ers Phosphuretted hydrogen workers 73. Picric Acid Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation and inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes, yellow color ing of skin, headache, vertigo, digestive disorders, gastric pain, nephritis. Occupations which offer such exposure Dye makers Germicide makers Smokel e s s - p o w d e r Photography workers makers Dyers Picric-acid workers Explosives workers Tear-gas (chloropicrin) Shell fillers Fireworks makers makers 74. Potassium Hydroxide Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Severe chemical burning of the skin and mucous membranes, formation of deep-seated and persistent ulcers, loss of nails. Occupations which offer such exposure Bleachers I Oxalic-acid makers Match-factory workers | I Soap makers I 75. Pyridine Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation o f respiratory tract and o f eyes, cough, dermatitis. Symptoms following ingestion include headache, vertigo, trembling of extremities. LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETO* Occupations which offer such exposure Denatured - a l c o h o 1 Lacquerers Lacquer makers workers Pencil makers Gilders 45 Pyridine makers 76. Silver Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Argyrosis, a grayish blue or black discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes, is the chief effect reported in industry. Symptoms of intoxication are reported from ingestion of soluble silver salts. Occupations which offer such exposure Photographic-film makers Silver melters and re Silverers (mirrors) finers Silver-foil makers Silver-nitrate makers Silver platers Silversmiths 77. Sodium Hydroxide Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Severe chemical burning of the skin and mucous membranes, Formation of deep-seated and persistent ulcers, loss of nails. Occupations which offer such exposure Tannery workers Paper makers Artificial-silk workers Transparent - wrappingSoap makers Bleachers Mercerizers S o d i u m - h y d r o x id e material workers Oil refiners makers 78. Sulphur Dioxide Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation and inflammation of mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract, spasmodic cough, bronchial catarrh, digestive disturbances, blood-tinged mucous, inflammation of lungs. Occupations which offer such exposure Alkali salt makers Refiners (metals) Disinfectant workers Refrigerator (mechani Artiflcial-ice makers Dye makers Feather workers Blast-furnace workers cal) makers and re Bleachers Fertilizer makers pairmen Flue cleaners Bone extractors Smelters Storage-battery chargers Brass founders Fruit preservers Fumigators Brick makers Sugar refiners Broom makers Galvanizers Sulphite cooks Sulphur burners Gelatine makers Carbolic-acid makers Sulphurers (malt and Glass makers Cellulose workers Glue makers Ceramic workers hops) Sulphuric-acid workers Chambermen (sulphuric Lead smelters Mercury smelters acid) Tannery workers Chargers (zinc smelt Oil-flotation-plant work T o w e r m en (sulphuric ers acid) ing) Paper-mill workers Ultramarine blue makers Coke-oven workers Petroleum refiners Copper smelters Vulcanizers (rubber) Pottery workers Digester-house workers Zinc smelters Pyrites burners (paper and pulp) 79. Sulphuretted Hydrogen Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, rhinitis pharyngitis and laryngitis, pulmonary edema, headache and vertigo, hyperpnea, gastro-intestinal disturbances, brachycardia. 46 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS Occupations which offer such exposure Alkali-salt makers Flax-rettery workers Artificial-silk makers G as (illuminating) Barium-carbonate makers workers Blast-furnace workers Gas purifiers Bottlers (mineral water) Glue workers Bronzers Gypsum workers Cable splicers Hydrochloric-acid makers Hydrogen - s u l p h i d e Caisson workers Carb o n - d i s u l p h i d e workers makers Match-factory workers Cellulose extractors Miners Coke-oven workers Oil-flotation-plant work Cyanogen makers ers Digester-house workers Oil-well workers (paper and pulp) Petroleum refiners Dye makers Phosphorus-comp o u n d Fat Tenderers makers Fertilizer makers Pulp-mill workers Pyrites burners Pyroxylin-plastics work ers Sewer workers Soap makers Soda (Leblanc) makers Sodium-sulphide makers Starch makers Sugar refiners Sulphides makers Sulphur-chloride makers Sulphuric-acid makers Sulphur miners Tannery workers Tran sparent-w ra p p in g material workers Tunnel workers Vulcanizers 80. Sulphuric Acid Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Corrosive action on the skin, severe inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract, injury to the teeth through softening of the dentine, chronic catarrh. Occupations tohich offer such exposure Acid dippers Explosives workers Acid finishers (glass) Fat purifiers Acid mixers Felt-hat makers Acid recoverers Fertilizer makers Acid transporters Galvanizers Alum workers Glass finishers Ammonium salts makers Glue makers Ammonium s u l p h a t e Guncotton dippers Hydrochloric-acid mak makers Artificial leather makers ers Hydrocyanic-a c i d mak Artificial silk makers ers Benzene purifiers Jewelers Beta still o p e r a t o r s Linoleum makers (beta naphthol) Burnishers (iron and Lithographers Mercerizers steel) Nitrators Calico printers Nitric-acid makers Carbolic-acid makers Nitrobenzene makers Carbonizers (shoddy) Nitrocellulose makers Cartridge dippers Chambermen (sulphuric Nitroglycerine makers OU purifiers acid) Paper makers Color makers Dimethyl sulphate mak Patent-leather makers Perfume makers ers Petroleum refiners Dye makers Phenol makers Electroplaters Phosphoric-acid makers Engravers Phosphorus evaporating Etchers machine workers Ether makers Photographic workers Picklers (metals) Picric-acid makers Pyroxylin-plastics work ers Rayon makers Reclaimers (rubber) Refiners (metals) S a l t extractors (cokeoven byproducts) Scourers (metals) Shoddy workers Soap makers Soda (Leblanc) makers Storage-battery workers Sugar refiners Sulphates makers Sulphuric-acid makers Tallow refiners Tannery workers Temperers T o w e r m e n (sulphuric acid) Transparent-wrappingmaterial workers W ax refiners Wire drawers Yeast makers 81. Sulphur Monochloride Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Compound of questionable toxicity. In contact with water it decomposes, forming hydrochloric acid, sulphurous, and sulphuric acid, Injury may result from the presence of these compounds. LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETC. Occupations which offer such exposure Gold extractors C a rb o n -te tra ch lo rid e Insecticide makers makers Rubber substitute mak Cement mixers (rubber) Dyers ers 47 S u l p h u r monochloride workers Yulcanizers 82. Tar Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Tar itch, acne, eczema or psoriasis, ulcers of the skin and cornea, epitheliomatous cancer, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, headache, vertigo, irritation of the respiratory tract, conjunctivitis, albuminuria, edema, ischuria. Occupations which offer such exposure Artificial-stone makers Creosoting-plant workers Pavers Petroleum refiners Asphalt workers Electrode makers Pitch workers Battery (dry) makers Flue cleaners Roofers Gas (ill u m i n a t i n g ) Briquet makers Roofing-paper workers Brush makers workers Still (coal tar) cleaners Insulators Chimney sweepers Tar workers Painters (tar) Coal-tar workers Wood preservers Paint makers Coke-oven workers Paraffin workers Cord makers 83. Tellurium Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Garlic-like odor of breath and of secretions and excretions, suppression of sweat, dryness of the mouth. Dry itching skin, metallic taste, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, indigestion, constipation, and somnolence. Occupations which offer such exposure Copper refiners | Glass colorers | Lead refiners 84. Tetrachlorethane (acetylene tetrachloride) Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Abnormal fatigue, profuse perspiration, general discontent and nervousness, headache and vertigo, insomnia, anorexia, gastro-intestinal disorders, abdominal pains, jaundice, increase o f immature large mononuclear cells in blood, eleva tion of white cell count, slight anemia, slight increase in number of platelets in blood, petechiae, polyneuritis. Occupations which offer such exposure Enamelers Airplane-dope makers Paint-rem over makers Airplane-wing varnishers Enamel makers Paint removers Artificial-pearl makers Lacquerers Rubber workers Artificial-silk makers Lacquer makers Tapers (airplanes) Cellulose acetate work Lithographers Varnishers Moving-picture-film mak Varnish makers ers ers Color makers Oil extractors “ D ope” workers 85. Tetraethyl Lead. See also Lead and Its Compounds Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Insomnia, nausea and vomiting, anorexia, vertigo and headache, muscular weakness, pallor, subnormal blood pressure, subnormal temperature, loss of weight, abdominal cramps, tremors, lead in feces and urine, lead encephalopathy. Occupations which offer such exposure Filling-station workers I Gasoline blenders Garage workers | I Tetraethyl lead makers | 48 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS 86. Thallium Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Reddish discoloration and falling out of the hair, pains in the limbs, severe eye affections, inflammation of the kidneys. Occupations which offer such exposure Thallium workers Dye makers Artificial-gem makers Filament makers (incan Thermometer makers Color makers descent lamps) Depilatory makers Glass workers Disinfectant makers 87. Tin Not generally regarded as an industrial poison. 88. Titanium Oxide This compound is used as a substitute for white lead in the manufacture o f paint. No ill effects have been reported as a result of its use in industry. 89. Trinitrotoluol. See Nitrobenzol 90. Turpentine Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Irritation of mucous membranes of eyes, nose, and upper air passages, cough, bronchial inflammation, salivation, headache and vertigo, irritation of kidneys and bladder, strangury, odor of violets in urine, severe irritation o f skin, hardening of the epidermis. Occupations which offer such exposure Japan makers Art-glass workers Printers Cable splicers Japanners Rubber workers Calico printers Lacquerers Sealing-wax makers Lacquer makers Shellackers Camphor makers Cemen ters (rubber) Linoleum makers Shellac makers Decorators (pottery) Lithographers Transfer workers Dry cleaners Millinery workers (pottery) Dye makers Painters Turpentine extractors Enamelers Paint makers Varnishers Enamel makers Patent-leather makers Varnish makers Polishers Feather workers Polish makers Furniture polishers 91. Uranium Uranium is a source of radiant energy. It is reported to be the most toxic of metals. Symptoms following ingestion or injection o f the soluble salts o f uranium are reported to be nephritis, glycosuria, gastro-intestinal disorders, degeneration of the liver, affections of the nervous system, respiratory paralysis. No cases of industrial poisoning have been reported upon. 92. Vanadium Symptom, condition, or disease to look for Anemia, cachexia, irritation of respiratory tract, dry cough resulting in hemorrhages, diarrhea or constipation, emaciation, hysterical manifestations, melancholia. Occupations which offer such exposure Mordanters I Vanadium-steel workers LIST OF HAZARDS, SYMPTOMS, ETO. 49 93. Vinyl Chloride This compound is used in the synthesis of organic compounds, principally resins. According to the United States Bureau of Mines, animal experimentation shows unsteadiness and motor ataxia, incomplete and finally complete narcosis. Men exposed to 2.5 percent for approximately 3 minutes soon began to feel dizzy and disoriented as to space and size of surrounding objects and complained of a burning sensation in the soles of the feet. They immediately recovered on leaving the chamber, and complained only of a slight headache which lasted about 30 minutes. 94. Zinc. See Brass Section III.—Dermatoses Skin affections resulting from exposure to the hazards discussed in the foregoing section have been recorded with the symptoms, con ditions, or diseases to be looked for in men employed in occupations where such hazards are present. Because the dermatoses form so large a proportion of all disabling occupational diseases, the more important occupations exposed to agencies producing skin affec tions have been listed separately. A complete enumeration of such occupations would be impracticable. Almost any foreign substance can become a skin irritant if it is in continuous contact with the skin. Thus, soap and water, which ordinarily do not irritate the skin, may cause severe dermatitis in laundresses. Under the derma toses are included the effects on the skin of such causative agencies as poisonous and irritating chemicals, heat and cold, dust, radiant energy, friction, plants and woods, proteins, and vegetable and animal parasites. Occupational dermatoses are frequently distinguished by their grouping, situation, mode of appearance, spread, and evolution. They crop up in series, retaining their initial type throughout, un less they are secondarily infected. They are most often local, except when they are a differentiating sign of the toxemias. The onset and development are usually sudden. The inflammation is sharply outlined. Exudation is excessive, and there is a deep-seated edema. The eruption usually predominates on the right side. Skin affec tions caused by different external irritants often, however, may show the same clinical picture. A number of occupational skin eruptions have no specific lesions or special pathology, which makes their differential diagnosis very difficult. For these reasons, the symptoms for each irritating substance have not been listed as has been done for the other hazards. The excellent work of Dr. R. Prosser White entitled “ The Dermatergoses, or Occupational Affections of the Skin ”, admirably covers the entire subject of causative agencies and differential diagnosis. It should be consulted by anyone who has a need for an extensive treatment of the subject. The data presented in this section are based largely on Dr. White’s compilation. The following is a list of the more common occupations exposed to agencies causing dermatoses. It is a partial list only. Reference should also be made to the specific hazards listed for the occupation under consideration in section I. 50 51 DERMATOSES Occupations Exposed to Specified Skin Irritants Occupation exposed Skin irritants Acetylene makers..................... Acid workers............................ Alkali salt makers.................... Artificial-flower makers............ Calcium carbide. Acids. Caustic ftllraK. Caustic alkali, dyes. Bakelite makers. ...................... Bakers....................................... Barbers..................................... Battery (dry) makers___ ____ Beatermen (paper and pulp)— Bleachers (cloth)...................... Formaldehyde, phenol. Dough, potassium persulphate, heat. Soap, hair tonics. Acids, zinc chloride, ammonium salts, charcoal. Caustic alkali, dyes. Acids, bleaching powder, caustic alkali, hydrogen peroxide, sodium silicate. Dyes. Nitrobenzol, aluminum salts, formaldehyde, magnesium salts, sodium fluosilicate. Lime. Dyes. Dyes, vegetable dust. Blooders (tannery)................... Bobbin carriers......................... Bricklayers................................ Bronzers.................................... Broom makers.......................... Calico printers.......................... Candy makers.......................... Canners....... ............................. Cap loaders............................... Carbide makers........................ Carbolic-acid makers................ Cardboard stickers................... Carroters (felt hats).................. Cartridge dippers...................... Celluloid makers...... ................ Cementers (rubber shoes)____ Cement workers______ ______ Chemical workers..................... Chromium platers.................... Cloth preparers......................... Confectioners........................... Cotton sizers......... ................... Curriers (tannery).................... Dampers (conditioning cotton) Dentists............... ................... Detonator cleaners.................... Detonator f i l l e r s .................... Detonator packers___________ Disinfectant makers................. Druggists................................... Dye makers.............................. Dyers....... ............ Electroplaters____ Embalmers........ . Engravers............. . Etchers................. Explosives workers. Dyes. Sugar. Fruit acids, lacquer, organisms. Mercury compounds. Calcium carbide. Caustic alkali, phenol. Sodium silicate. Acids, mercury compounds. Acids, soap. Dyes. Benzine, coal-tar products, naphtha, methyl alcohol. Lime. See specific chemical in section II J. Chromium compounds. Acids, caustic alkali, lime, soap, potassium salts, sodium salts, sodium silicate. Sugar. Acids, zinc, chloride, arsenic salts, phenol. Paraffin, benzine. Nitrobenzol, aluminum salts, formaldehyde, magnesium salts, sodium fluosilicate. Procain. Mercury compounds. Mercury compounds. Mercury compounds. Formaldehyde. Bleaching powder, soap, iodoform, sodium salts, sugar. Acids, benzine, caustic alkali, coal-tar products, dye interme diates, dyes, turpentine, antimony compounds, barium salts, calcium salts, cresol, dextrins, ferrocyanides, formaldehyde, gums, hydroquinone, lead salts, phenol, potassium chlorate. Dyes. Acids, benzine, caustic alkali, lime, potassium cyanide, soap, nickel sulphate. Formaldehyde. Acids, caustic alkali, ferric chloride, potassium cyanide. Acids, caustic alkali. Dye intermediates, explosives (TNT, etc.), ammonium salts, bromine, mercury compounds. Fur workers................... . Ivy and other plants, fertilizers, insecticides. Adids, mercuric nitrate, dyes. Calcium cyanimide. Brine. Lime, brine. Heat. Benzine, caustic alkali, naphtha, turpentine, methyl alcohol, pyridine, rosin. Dyes. Galvanizers.................... . Gardeners— ........ ........ . Gas-mantle impregnators. Glass blowers................. . Glass mixers................... . Ammonium chloride. Ivy and other plants, fertilizers, insecticides. Thorium compounds. Charcoal, pitch, rosin. Caustic alkali. Ink makers...................... Insecticide makers........... Dyes. Arsenic. Farmers.......................... Felt-hat makers............. Fertilizer makers............ Fish dressers................... Flax spinners.................. Furnacemen................... . Furniture polishers........ . 52 OCCUPATION HAZARDS AND DIAGNOSTIC SIGNS Occupations Exposed to Specified Skin Irritants— Continued Skin irritants Occupation exposed Lampblack makers____ Laundry workers.......... Lime burners................ Lime pullers (tannery). Linoleum makers.......... Soot. Caustic alkali, soap. Lime. Lime. Dyes. Machinists.................... Masons......................... Match-factory workers.. Mercerizers................... Mixers (rubber)............ Mordanters............ . Mottlers (leather).. Cutting compounds, lubricants, oils. Lime. Dyes, dextrins, gums. Acids, caustic alkali. Accelerators (hexamethylenetetramine). Acids, caustic alkali, chromates, zinc chloride, aluminum salts, antimony compounds, arsenates, chromium salts, copper salts, iron salts, lead salts, phosphates, silicates, tin salts. Dyes. Nickel platers............ Nitroglycerin makers. Zinc chloride, nickel sulphate. Acids, explosives. Packing-house employees.. Painters........................... . Paint makers................... . Paper-box makers_______ Paraffin workers.............. . Parchment makers.......... . Pencil (colored) makers.... Petroleum refiners______ Photographers................... Photographic-plate cleaners.. Pitch workers....................... Plasterers............................. Polishers.............................. Polishers (silver and brass).. Printers............................... Brine. Acids, caustic alkali, paints, zinc chloride. Paints. Glue. Paraffin. Zinc chloride. Dyes. Caustic alkali, paraffin. Acids, caustic alkali, chromates, metol, pyrogallic acid, tur pentine, amidol, bronzing powder, hydroquinone, rodinal. Caustic alkali. Pitch. Lime. Caustic alkali, naphtha. Potassium cyanide. Ink, benzine. Radium workers__ Rock-salt workers. Ropemakers........ . Rubber workers. . . Radiant energy. Brine. Oil, tar. Accelerators (hexamethylenetetramine). Salt preparers............................. Scratch brushers (electroplating).. Shell fillers................................... Shoe finishers-.............................. Sizers (cotton).............. .............. Smelters____ _________ _______ Soap makers................................. Sodium hydroxide makers........... Solderers...................................... Sugar refiners.............................. Brine. Acids, benzine, lime, oils. Explosives (TNT, etc.). Benzine, coal-tar products, naphtha, methyl alcohol. Zinc chloride, aluminum salts, calcium salts, magnesium salts. Arsenic. Caustic alkali, soap, vegetable oils, sodium silicate. Caustic alkali. Acids, zinc chloride. Sugar. Tannery workers. Typists........ Acids, lime, sodium sulphide, arsenic salts, brine, calcium hydrosulphide, chromium salts. Tar. Oil, brine. Zinc chloride. Vegetable dust, vegetable oils. Nitrobenzol, aluminum salts, formaldehyde, magnesium salts, sodium fiuosilicate. Carbon paper. Vulcanizers.. Accelerators (hexamethylenetetramine). Washers........................ W ashwomen................. Watchmakers............. Waterproofers (paper).. Wax-omament makers.. Wet-bobbin winders_ _ Wood preservers........ Caustic alkali. Caustic alkali, soap, sodium salts. Potassium cyanide. Paraffin. Dye intermediates, potassium cyanide. Lime, aluminum salts, formaldehyde, magnesium salts, sodium fiuosilicate. Tar, zinc chloride. X-ray workers............ Radiant energy. Zinc-chloride makers. Acids, zinc chloride. Tar workers................................... Temperers..................................... Tinners.......................................... Tobacco rollers.............................. Tube layers (cotton conditioning) _ LIST OF BULLETINS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS The following is a list of all bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics published since July 1912, except that in the case of bulletins giving the results of periodic surveys of the Bureau only the latest bulletin on any one subject is here listed. A complete list of the reports and bulletins issued prior to July 1912, as well as the bulletins published since that date, will be furnished on application. Bulletins marked thus (*) are out of print. Conciliation and arbitration (including strikes and lockouts). ♦No. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York. [1913.] ♦No. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade on its inquiry into industrial agreements. [1913.] ♦No. 139. Michigan copper district strike. [1914.] ♦No. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City. [1914.] ♦No. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of New York City. [1914.] ♦No. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry. [1916.] ♦No. 198. Collective agreements in the men's clothing industry. [1916.] No. 233. Operation of the industrial disputes investigation act of Canada. [1918. No. 255. Joint industrial councils in Great Britain. [1919.] No. 283. History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1919. No. 287. National War Labor Board: History of its formation, activities, etc. [1921. ♦No. 303. Use of Federal power in settlement of railway labor disputes. [1922.] No. 322. Kansas Court of Industrial Relations. [1923.] No. 341. Trade agreement in the silk-ribbon industry of New York City. [1923.] No. 402. Collective bargaining by actors. [1926.] No. 468. Trade agreements, 1927. No. 481. Joint industrial control in the book and job printing industry. [1928.] Cooperation. No. 313. ♦No. 314. No. 437. No. 531. Consumers’ cooperative societies in the United States in 1920. Cooperative credit societies (credit unions) in America and in foreign countries. [1922.] Cooperative movement in the United States in 1925 (other than agricultural). Consumers’, credit, and productive cooperative societies, 1929. Employment and unemployment. ♦No. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices in the United States. [1913.1 ♦No. 172. Unemployment in New York City, N .Y. [1915.] ♦No. 183. Regularity of employment in the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries. [1915.] ♦No. 195. Unemployment in the United States. [1916.] ♦No. 196. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, held at Minneapolis, Minn., January 19 and 20,1916. ♦No. 202. Proceedings of the conference of Employment Managers’ Association of Boston, Mass.. held May 10,1916. No. 206. The British system of labor exchanges. [1916.] ♦No. 227. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., April 2 and 3,1917. ♦No. 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers’ Association. [1918.] ♦No. 241. Public employment offices in the United States. [1918.] ♦No. 247. Proceedings of Employment Managers’ Conference, Rochester, N .Y., M ay 9-11,1918. ♦No. 310. Industrial unemployment: A statistical study of its extent and causes. [1922.] No. 409. Unemployment in Columbus, Ohio, 1921 to 1925. No. 542. Report of the Advisory Committee on Employment Statistics. [1931.] No. 544. Unemployment-benefit plans in the United States and unemployment insurance in foreign countries. [1931.] ♦No. 553. Fluctuation in employment in Ohio, 1914 to 1929. No. 555. Social and economic character of unemployment in Philadelphia, April 1930. Foreign labor laws. ♦No. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European countries. [1914.] No. 494. Labor legislation of Uruguay. [1929.] No. 510. Labor legislation of Argentina. [1930.] No. 529. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the Latin American countries. [1930. No. 549. Labor legislation of Venezuela. [1931.] No. 554. Labor legislation of Paraguay. [1931.] No. 559. Labor legislation of Ecuador. [1931.] No. 569. Labor legislation of Mexico. [1932.] Housing. ♦No. 158. No. 263. No. 295. No. 545. Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign countries. [1914.] Housing by employers in the United States. [1920.] Building operations in representative cities in 1920. Building operations in the principal cities of the United States in [1921 to] 1930. Industrial accidents and hygiene. ♦No. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain-enameled sanitary ware factories. [1912.] No. 120. Hygiene of the painters' trade. [1913.] ♦No. 127. Dangers to workers from dusts and fumes, and methods of protection. [1913.] (i) Industrial accidents and hygiene—Continued. ♦No. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead. [1914. *No. 157. Industrial accident statistics. [1915.] ♦No. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries. [1914.] ♦No. 179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry. [1915.] No. 188. Report of British departmental committee on the danger in the use of lead in the painting of buildings. [1916.] ♦No. 201. Report of the committee on statistics and compensation insurance cost of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. [1916.] No. 209. Hygiene of the printing trades. [1917.] •No. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives. [1917.] No. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories. [1917.] No. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories. [1917.] ♦No. 231. Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades (inorganic dusts). [1918.] *No. 234. The safety movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917. No. 236. Effects of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters. [1918.] ♦No. 249. Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Munition Workers' Committee. [1919.] ♦No. 251. Preventable death in the cotton-manufacturing industry. [1919.] No. 256. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. [1919.] No. 267. Anthrax as an occupational disease. [1920.] No. 276. Standardization of industrial accident statistics. [1920.] *No. 280. Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates. [1921.] ♦No. 291. Carbon monoxide poisoning. [1921.] No. 293. The problem of dust phthisis in the granite-stone industry. [1922.] No. 298. Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steel industry, 1910-1919. No. 392. Survey of hygienic conditions in the printing trades. [1925.] No. 405. Phosphorus necrosis in the manufacture of fireworks and in the preparation of phosphorus. [1926.] No. 427. Health survey of the printing trades, 1922 to 1925. No. 428. Proceedings of the Industrial Accident Prevention Conference, held at Washington, D.C., July 14-16,1926. No. 460. A new test for industrial lead poisoning. [1928.] No. 466. Settlement for accidents to American seamen. [1928.] No. 488. Deaths from lead poisoning, 1925-1927. No. 490. Statistics of industrial accidents in the United States to the end of 1927. No. 507. Causes of death, by occupation. [1929.] Industrial relations and labor conditions. No. 237. Industrial unrest in Great Britain. [1917.] ♦No. 340. Chinese migrations, with special reference to labor conditions. [1923.] No. 349. Industrial relations in the west coast lumber industry. [1923.] ♦No. 361. Labor relations in the Fairmont (W.Va.) bituminous-coal field. [1924.] No. 380. Postwar labor conditions in Germany. [1925.] No. 383. Works council movement in Germany. [1925.] No. 384. Labor conditions in the shoe industry in Massachusetts, 1920-1924. No. 399. Labor relations in the lace and lace-curtain industries in the United States. [1925. No. 483. Conditions in the shoe industry in Haverhill, Mass., 1928. No. 534. Labor conditions in the Territory of Hawaii, 1929-1930. Labor laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor). ♦No. 211. Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States. [1917.] ♦No. 229. Wage payment legislation in the United States. [1917.] No. 285. Minimum wage laws of the United States: Construction and operation. [1921. No. 321. Labor laws that have been declared unconstitutional. [1922.] No. 343. Laws providing for bureaus of labor statistics, etc. [1923.] No. 370. Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto. [1925. No. 408. Laws relating to payment of wages. [1926.] No. 548. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1929-1930. No. 552. Labor legislation, 1930. No. 581. Laws relating to employment agencies in the United States, as of January 1, 1933. Proceedings of annual conventions of the Association of Governmental Officials in Industry of the United States and Canada. (Name changed in 1928 from Association of Governmental Labor Officials of the United States and Canada.) ♦No. 266. Seventh, Seattle, Wash., July 12-15,1920. No. 307. Eighth, New Orleans, La., May 2-6,1921. ♦No. 323. Ninth, Harrisburg, Pa., May 22-26,1922. ♦No. 352. Tenth, Richmond, Va., May 1-4,1923. ♦No. 389. Eleventh, Chicago, 111., May 19-23,1924. ♦No. 411. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 13-15,1925. ♦No. 429. Thirteenth, Columbus, Ohio, June 7-10, 1926. ♦No. 455. Fourteenth, Paterson, N.J., May 31 to June 3, 1927. ♦No. 480. Fifteenth, New Orleans, La., May 21-24,1928. No. 508. Sixteenth, Toronto, Canada, June 4r-7,1929. No. 530. Seventeenth, Louisville, Ky., May 20-23,1930. ♦No. 563. Eighteenth, Boston, Mass., May 18-22,1931. Proceedings of annual meetings of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. No. 210. Third, Columbus, Ohio, April 25-28, 1916. No. 248. Fourth, Boston, Mass., August 21-25,1917. No. 264. Fifth, Madison, Wis., September 24^27,1918. ♦No. 273. Sixth, Toronto, Canada, September 23-26,1919. No. 281. Seventh, San Francisco, Calif., September 20-24,1920. No. 304. Eighth, Chicago, 111., September 19-23,1921. No. 333. Ninth, Baltimore, Md., October 9-13, 1922. ♦No. 359. Tenth, St. Paul, Minn., September 24-26, 1923 (H ) Proceedings of annual meetings of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions—Continued. No. 385. Eleventh, Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 26-28, 1924. No. 395. Index to proceedings, 1914-1924. No. 406. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 17-20, 1925. No. 432. Thirteenth, Hartford, Conn., September 14-17, 1926. No. 456. Fourteenth, Atlanta, Ga., September 27-29, 1927. No. 485. Fifteenth, Paterson, N.J., September 11-14, 1928. No. 511. Sixteenth, Buffalo, N .Y., October 8-11, 1929. No. 536. Seventeenth, Wilmington, Del., September 22-26,1930. No. 564. Eighteenth, Richmond, Va., October 5-8,1931. No. 577. Nineteenth, Columbus, Ohio, September 26-29,1932. Proceedings of annual meetings of the International Association of Public Employment Services. No. 192. First, Chicago, December 19 and 20,1913; second, Indianapolis, September 24 and 25,1914: third, Detroit, July 1 and 2,1915. ♦No. 220. Fourth, Buffalo, N .Y., July 20 and 21,1916. No. 311. Ninth, Buffalo, N .Y., September 7-9,1921. No. 337. Tenth, Washington, D.C., September 11-13, 1922. No. 355. Eleventh, Toronto, Canada, September 4-7,1923. No. 400. Twelfth, Chicago, 111., May 19-23, 1924. No. 414. Thirteenth, Rochester, N .Y., September 15-17,1925. No. 478. Fifteenth, Detroit, Mich.. October 25-28,1927. No. 501. Sixteenth, Cleveland, Ohio, September 18-21,1928. No. 538. Seventeenth, Philadelphia, Pa., September 24-27, 1929; eighteenth, Toronto, Canada, Sep tember 9-12,1930. Productivity of labor and technological unemployment. No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.] No. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, 1923. No. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry 11926] ♦No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925. No. 441. Productivity of labor in the glass industry 11927.] No. 474. Productivity of labor in merchant blast furnaces. [1928.] No. 475. Productivity of labor in newspaper printing. [1929.] No. 550. Cargo handling and longshore labor conditions. [1932.] No. 574. Technological changes and employment in the United States Postal Service. [1932.1 Retail prices and cost of living. ♦No. 121. Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer. [1913.] ♦No. 130. Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer. [1913.] ♦No. 164. Butter prices, from producer to consumer. [1914.1 ♦No. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war. [1915.J No. 357. Cost of living in the United States. [1924.] No. 369. The use of cost-of-living figures in wage adjustments. [1925.] No. 495. Retail prices, 1890 to 1928. Safety codes. ♦No. 336. Safety code for the protection of industrial workers in foundries. No. 350. Rules governing the approval of headlighting devices for motor vehicles. ♦No. 351. Safety code for the construction, care, and use of ladders. No. 375. Safety code for laundry machinery and operations. ♦No. 382. Code of lighting school buildings. No. 410. Safety code for paper and pulp mills. ♦No. 430. Safety oode for power presses and foot and hand presses. No. 447. Safety code for rubber mills and calenders. No. 451. Safety code for forging and hot-metal stamping. No. 463. Safety code for mechanical power-transmission apparatus—first revision. No. 509. Textile safety code. No. 512. Code for identification of gas-mask canisters. No. 519. Safety code for woodworking plants, as revised 1930. No. 527. Safety code for the use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels, as revised 1930. No. 556. Code of lighting: Factories, mills, and other work places. (Revision of 1930.) No. 562. Safety codes for the prevention of dust explosions. Vocational and workers’ education. ♦No. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment. [1915.] ♦No. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va. [1915.] ♦No. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, Minn. [1917.] No. 271. Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States. [1920.J No. 459. Apprenticeship in building construction. 11928.] Wages and hours of labor. ♦No. 146. Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in the dress and waist industry of New York City. [1914.] ♦No. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry. [1914.] No. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913. ♦No. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam-railroad cars, 1907 to 1913. ♦No. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907 to 1914. No. 204. Street railway employment in the United States. [1917.] ♦No. 218. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1915: With a glossary of occupations. ♦No. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1915. No. 265. Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919. No. 297. Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry, 1920. No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.] No. 358. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile-tire industry, 1923. No. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes, 1923. No. 365. Wages and hours of labor in the paper and pulp industry, 1923. No. 407. Labor cost of production and wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry. [1926.3 (in) Wages and hours of labor—Continued. *No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1026. No. 416. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining, 1922 and 1924. No. 484. Wages and hours of labor of common street laborers, 1928. No. 499. History of wages in the United States from colonial times to 1928. No. 502. Wages and hours of labor in the motor-vehicle industry, 1928. No. 504. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industries, 1907 to 1928. No. 514. Pennsylvania Railroad wage data. Prom Report of Joint Fact Finding Committee in the wage negotiations in 1927. No. 516. Hours and earnings in bituminous-coal mining, 1929. No. 523. Wages and hours in the manufacture of airplanes and aircraft engines, 1929. No. 525. Wages and hours of labor in the Portland cement industry, 1929. No. 532. Wages and hours of labor in the cigarette manufacturing industry, 1930. No. 533. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1930. No. 534. Labor conditions in the Territory of Hawaii, 1929-1930. No. 535. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 1929. No. 537. Wages and hours of labor in the dyeing and finishing of textiles, 1930. No. 539. Wages and hours of labor in cotton goods manufacturing, 1910 to 1930. No. 546. Wages and hours in rayon and other synthetic yarn manufacturing, 1930. No. 547. Wages and hours in cane sugar refining industry, 1930. No. 557. Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1930. No. 560. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber industry in the United States, 1930. No. 566. Union scales of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1931. No. 567. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1931. No. 568. Wages and hours of labor in the manufacture of silk and rayon goods, 1931. No. 570. Wages and hours of labor in foundry and machine shops, 1931. No. 571. Wages and hours of labor in the furniture industry, 1910 to 1931. No. 573. Wages and hours of labor in metalliferous mines, 1924 to 1931. No. 575. Wages and hours of labor in air transportation, 1931. No. 576. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 1931. No. 578. Wages and hours of labor in gasoline filling stations and motor-vehicle repair garages, 1931. No. 579. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1910 to 1932. No. 580. Wages and hours of labor in the bakery industry—bread and cake departments, 1931. Welfare work. ♦No. 123. Employers’ welfare work. [1913.] No. 222. Welfare work in British munition factories. [1917.] ♦No. 250. Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United States. 11919.] No. 458. Health and recreation activities in industrial establishments, 1926. Wholesale prices. ♦No. 284. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign countries. [1921.] ♦No. 453. Revised index numbers of wholesale prices, 1923 to July, 1927. No. 572. Wholesale prices, 1931. Women and children in industry. ♦No. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries in the District of Columbia. [1913.] ♦No. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons. [1913.] ♦No. 118. Ten-hour maximum working day for women and young persons. [1913.] ♦No. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin. [1913.J ♦No. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee. [1913.] ♦No. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments and garment factories. [1914.] ♦No. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries. [1915.] ♦No. 175. Summary of the report on conditions of woman and child wage earners in the United States. [1915.] ♦No. 176. Effect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon. [1915.] ♦No. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women. [1915.1 ♦No. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass. [1916.] No. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts. [1916.] ♦No. 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts. [1917.] ♦No. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of industrial employ ment of women and children. [1918.1 ♦No. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war. [1917.] No. 253. Women in the lead industries. [1919.] No. 467. Minimum-wage legislation in various countries. [1928.] No. 558. Labor conditions of women and children in Japan. 11931.] Workmen’s insurance and compensation (including laws relating thereto). ♦No. 101. Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany. [1912.] ♦No. 102. British national insurance act, 1911. ♦No. 103. Sickness and accident insurance law in Switzerland. [1912.] No. 107. Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany. [1913.] ♦No. 155. Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States. [1914.] ♦No. 212. Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions, Washington, D.C., December 5-9, 1916. ♦No. 243. Workmen’s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign countries, 1917 and 1918. No. 301. Comparison of workmen’s compensation insurance and administration. [1922.] No. 312. National health insurance in Great Britain, 1911 to 1921. No. 379. Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States as of January 1, 1925. No. 477. Public-service retirement systems, United States and Europe. [1929.] No. 496. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada as of January 1,1929. (With text of legislation enacted in 1927 and 1928.) No. 529. Workmen’s compensation legislation of the Latin American countries. L1930.] [IV] Miscellaneous series. *No. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics up to May 1,1915. No. 208. Profit sharing in the United States. [1916.] No. 242. Food situation in central Europe, 1917. No. 254. International labor legislation and the society of nations. [1919.] ♦No. 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor. [1920.] No. 282. Mutual relief associations among Government employees in Washington, D.O. [1921.] No. 319. The Bureau of Labor Statistics: Its history, activities, and organization. [1922.] No. 326. Methods of procuring and computing statistical information of the Bureau of Labor Statis tics. 11923.1 No. 342. International Seamen’s Union of America: A study of its history and problems. U923.] No. 346. Humanity in government. [1923.] No. 372. Convict labor in 1923. No. 386. Cost of American almshouses. 11925.] No. 398. Growth of legal-aid work in the United States. [1926.] No. 401. Family allowances in foreign countries. 11926.] No. 461. Labor organizations in Chile. [1928.] *No. 465. Beneficial activities of American trade-unions. [1928.] No. 479. Activities and functions of a State department of labor. [1928.] No. 489. Care of aged persons in United States. [1929.] No. 505. Directory of homes for the aged in the United States. [1929.] No. 506. Handbook of American trade-unions, 1929 edition. No. 518. Personnel research agencies, 1930 edition. No. 541. Handbook of labor statistics, 1931 edition. No. 561. Public old-age pensions and insurance in the United States and in foreign countries. [1932.] No. 665. Park recreation areas in the United States, 1930. (V)