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NEGROES
IN THE UNI T E D S T AT E S

THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SITUATION

INITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ S T A T I S T I C S
U R E A U OF L A B O R
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Billetin No. 1511
June 1966

W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
Arthur

M.

Ross ,

Commissioner




NEGROES
IN THE UNI T E D S T AT E S

THEIR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SITUATION

Bulletin No. 1511
June 1966

UNITED STA TES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU

OF

LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S

W. W illard Wirtz, Secretary
A rth u r

M . R oss, C o m m i s s i o n e r

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $1.25







Preface
T his bulletin brings up to date the study on the “E conom ic Status of the
N e g r o /’ w hich was prepared at the request of the Planning Session for the
W hite H ouse Conference “To Fulfill These R igh ts,” held N ovem ber 17-18,
1965. T he 1965 study was used as a reference by the T ask Force on Jobs,
Incom e, and E conom ic Status.
A dditional data, including findings from new studies, have been incorpo­
rated in this analysis. The appendix, w hich has been updated, contains the
sourcebook of tabulations used by working staff in advance of the Conference.
T he bibliography has been expanded.
T he bulletin was planned and prepared by D orothy K . N ew m an of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, w ith the cooperation of m any staff m em bers of the
Bureau and persons in other G overnm ent agencies who provided substantial
am ounts of data, som e of w hich were as y et unpublished.
A m ong Bureau staff m em bers who participated, Laurie D . Cum m ings
assisted M rs. N ew m an directly in the initial developm ent of the basic data
and concepts; staff m em bers of each of the B ureau’s operating offices supplied
substantive data for analysis; and E llen B ussey contributed to the analytic
content of charts and appendix. T he R esearch Statistics Service of the
Veterans A dm inistration prepared special tabulations from unpublished source
data, som e of which appear here for the first tim e. I wish to express m y
appreciation for their interest and support of this project.
A rthur M . R oss ,




Commissioner of Labor Statistics.

iii




Contents
C hapter I. T he Negro population________________________________________
Chapter II. E m ploym ent, unem ploym ent, and the labor force__________
C hapter III. Incom e, earnings, and the incidence of p o v erty_________
C hapter IV. E stim ated effects of selected Federal program s on em ploy­
m ent and unem ploym ent_________________________________
C onclusion_________________________________________________________________
B ibliography_______________________________________________________________
A ppendix (Background sta tistics)________________________________________
Tables 1-17 0______________________________________________________________




Page

1
19
35

43
47
49
55
57
v




Chapter I. The Negro Population
T he keys to advancing Negro achievem ent in
the U jiited States are work at a living wage for all
who w ant it, equal advancem ent opportunity, and
equal pay for equal work. W ork provides m ore
than a livelihood; on it depends dignity in the
com m unity. W ork leads to the econom ic security
that supports social goals.
W hether or not N egroes and other Am ericans
are fully em ployed depends on m any things, not
the least of which is the state of the econom y.
As this is being w ritten, the econom y is boom ing;
y et the econom ic situation of N egroes continues
to be far less than is considered acceptable for the
population as a whole.
N o Am erican is m erely an econom ic being. A
purely econom ic analysis of the N egro Am erican
is likely to leave m any significant questions un­
answered. This report does not presum e to be a
com prehensive socioeconom ic analysis of the op­
portunity of the N egro to work and achieve; but,
using social as well as econom ic m aterial, it does
attem pt to illum inate how the N egro Am erican is
faring. I t also attem pts, through presentation of
facts about education and living conditions such
as health and housing, to suggest som e elem ents
that are retarding progress and that m ay need
continuing attention.
Earlier studies of the Negro worker have m ade
it clear that to cope effectively w ith the econom ic
issues it is necessary to know m ore about the
distribution and characteristics of the N egro
population in general and the w ays in w hich the
conditions of the N egro correspond to or differ
from those of the w hite population.
T he N egro population appears proportionately
greater nationw ide than it really is, largely because
m assive m igration of N egroes into the central cities
of large m etropolitan areas has been accentuated
b y outm igration of w hites from the cities to the
suburbs.
A ctually, the percentage of N egroes in the total
population has changed little w ithin this century.
T he greatest change in the N egro population has
been not in numbers but in location— aw ay from



the South and farms and into the metropolitan
areas (chart 4).
However, in spite of the increasing concentration
of Negroes in central cities, which have served as
magnets to Negro migrants, only Washington,
D.C., among the larger cities, had more Negroes
than whites in 1960. In all other cities of 250,000
population or more, the ratio of Negroes to the
total population was 40 percent or below in 1960;
and, in most instances, it was less than 30 percent
(see table 1).
Except in the South, where they constitute
about one-fifth of the population, Negroes repre­
sent only a small fraction (about 11 percent) of
the total population of the United States; 7 percent
each in the Northwest and the North Central
regions; and 4 percent in the West.
Over half (54 percent) of all Negroes still live in
the South, despite the mass exodus of about 3.3
million Negroes from this region since 1940. By
1964, the Northeast and North Central regions
each had almost 20 percent of the Negro popula­
tion; the West had 8 percent. Most recent statis­
tics indicate that a migration from other regions
to the West has begun and is increasing (chart 1).
In the West, including Alaska and Hawaii,
Negroes accounted for half of the region’s non­
white residents in 1960; in the conterminous
West (excluding Alaska and Hawaii), Negroes
made up 62 percent of the nonwhite population.
In contrast, virtually all nonwhite residents in
each of the other regions were Negro (95 percent
of all nonwhites in the North Central region; 96
percent in the Northeast; and 98 percent in the
South).
The great majority of Negroes are city dwellers.
Almost all of the Nation’s Negroes who still lived
in rural areas or on farms in 1960 were in the
South. Even there, 3 out of 5 Negroes live in
urban areas. The northern or western Negro has
been a city dweller at least since the turn of the
century. In the North and West combined,
almost all Negroes (as compared with three-fourths
1

CHART 1.

THE SOUTH LOST 3.3 M ILLION NONWHITE PERSONS, 1940-63
(M ILLIO N S OF NONW HITE MIGRANTS)

-

3

-

2

-

1

0

1

2

3

----------------- 1
----------------- 1
----------------- 1
----------------- 1
----------------- r
i ----------------- 1
NORTHEAST

BUT AVERAGE ANNUAL NET OUTMIGRATION OF NONWHITES
FROM THE SOUTH HAS DRUPPEU SHARPLY
NORTHEAST

NORTH CENTRAL

100

50
AVERAGE NET
ANNUAL
NONWHITE
MIGRANTS
(IN THOUSANDS)

o

-100

-150

SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS




SOUTH

WEST

of the w hite population) live in urban areas
(chart 2).
Like im m igrant groups in general, N egroes
show distinct patterns of concentration. T hey
are especially num erous in central cities,
CHART 2.

URBANIZATION, 1910-60
NEGROES HAVE BECOME MORE URBAN,
AND MORE RAPIDLY URBANIZED THAN
WHITES IN THE

URBANIZATION HAS RISEN SHARPLY
AND ABOUT THE SAME FOR BOTH
GROUPS IN THE

NEGROES WERE CHIEFLY URBAN TO
START WITH IN THE

NEGRO

□

WHITE

* EXCLUDING ALASKA AN D HAWAII.
SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS




particularly the large cities w hich are part of
m etropolitan areas and w hich are technically
know n as Standard M etropolitan Statistical Areas,
or S M SA ’s. For exam ple, in 1960, the six cities
w ith the largest N egro population had alm ost a
fifth of all N egroes in the U nited States, and all
but one of these cities were outside the South
(see table 1). T he exception w as W ashington,
D .C ., a border city to which southern N egroes
are particularly attracted (chart 3). T he in­
creasing N egro concentration w ithin the central
city and the outm igration of w hites has been far
greater and m ore dram atic in the largest SM SA ’s
(chart 5). T he opposing m igratory trends, par­
ticularly the w hite out-m igration, have been m uch
m ore m oderate in S M SA ’s of 100,000 to 500,000
population. In the sm allest S M SA ’s (50,000 to
100,000 population in 1960) the proportion of
both w hites and N egroes who live in central cities
has continued to increase. M ajor differences
exist am ong regions and cities, and m uch of the
concentration in central cities results from internal
shifts w ithin the SM SA ’s.
W ithin the central cities, the m ain problem
is not num ber or proportion of N egroes, b u t their
spatial arrangem ent and econom ic status. In
m ost large cities in 1960 (charts 6 -9 ), half or m ore
of the N egroes lived in census tracts in w hich the
population w as 90 percent or m ore N egro and
in which population density per square m ile
was especially high (table 2). B esides being
confined to a disproportionately sm all space
w ithin the city, the N egro tracts were usually
contiguous or form ed one or m ore pockets w ithin
the city. Color w as the only com m on character­
istic of these pockets of N egro residence (charts
6 -9 ). Other socioeconom ic characteristics of the
population were unusually heterogeneous, for
exam ple, the range of incom e and education.
T he spatial confinem ent of urban N egroes to
densely populated areas raises serious econom ic
issues for the N ation. B ecause of segregation,
the residents of N egro neighborhoods tend to be
m ore socially and econom ically heterogeneous, but
the choices available to them as consum ers are
m ore lim ited and m ore hom ogeneous than am ong
w hites. Segregation frequently lim its the Negro
consum er in his choice of such item s as housing,
public services, transportation, superm arket facil­
ities, recreation, banking, insurance, m edical and
legal services^ and m any others. Such artificial
narrowing of consum er choice can and often does

3

CHART 3

OVER HALF THE NEGROES LIVE IN THE SOUTH
(PERCENT)

8

WEST

19

NORTHEAST

19

NORTH CENTRAL

54

SOUTH

*AS OF 1964

BUT
THE FIRST 6 CITIES IN NEGRO POPULATION ARE NOT
SOUTHERN, EXCEPT FOR WASHINGTON, D.C., A BORDER CITY

NEW YORK

1,087,931

CHICAGO

812,637

PHILADELPHIA

529,240

DETROIT

482,223

WASHINGTON

411,737

LOS ANGELES

334,916

250,000

500,000

750,000

1,000,000

NEGRO POPULATION, 1960
SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

4



1,250,000

CHART 4.

THE NEGRO POPULATION HAS INCREASED LEAST
(PROPORTIONATELY) OF ALL THE RACES IN THE U.S.*
AND HAS REMAINED CLOSE TO 10 OR 11 PERCENT OF
TOTAL POPULATION, 1900-1960

FROM THE SOUTH AND FARMS TO CITIES AND ESPECIALL
TO CENTRAL CITIES OF SMSA’ S **




CHART 5

NEGROES’ INCREASING CONCENTRATION IN CENTRAL CITIES OF
SMSA’S HAS ACCOMPANIED DECENTRALIZATION AMONG WHITES
RATIO:

400

CENTRAL CITY TO
OUTSIDE CENTRAL
CITY POPULATION
300

200

10
0

0
1900

'10

'20

'30

'40

'50

'60

THESE OPPOSING TRENDS HAVE BEEN
SHARPEST IN THE LARGEST SMSA’ S
RATIO:
700
CENTRAL CITY
TO OUTSIDE
6(X)
CENTRAL CITY
POPULATION
500
400
300

200

10
0
0
1900

10

'20

'30

'40

'50

'60

MINOR IN SMALLER SM SA ’S

* IN 1960

6



IN THE SMALLEST SM SA ’S IN C R EA SIN G
C O N C E N T R A T IO N IS T A K IN G PLACE IN
BOTH GROUPS

SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

CHART 6A

CHICAGO 1960
23% O F TH E C I T Y 'S T O T A L P O P U L A T IO N O F 3,550,0 00 W ERE N E G R O E S
6 7% O F TH E N EG R O E S L IV E D IN N EG R O T R A C T S .

54 OF THE N EGRO TRACTS (WITH 4 3 % OF THE POPULATION IN
THESE TRACTS) FELL INT O THE LOWEST QUARTILE FOR IN C O M E
A N D EDUCATION A N D HIGHEST QUARTILE FOR UNEMPLOYMENT.

TRACTS FALLING IN HIGHEST QUARTILE FOR
MALE UNEMPLOYMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR INCOME
AND HIGHEST QUARTILE FOR MALE UNEMPLOYMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR INCOME,
ANDEDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND HIGHEST QUARTILE
FOR MALE UNEMPLOYMENT
RANGE OF MEDIAN FAMILY INCOME, LOWEST QUANTILE

TRACT MEDIAN
$2,452 - 5,835

RANGE OF MEDIAN EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT,

TRACT MEDIAN

LOWEST QUARTILE (years)

5.7-8.8
TRACT RATE

RANGE OF MALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE. HIGHEST QUARTILE
( PERCENT)




35.5 - 7.2




CHART 6B

CHICAGO 1960
Detail of Negro
Concentration

CHART 7A

LOS ANGELES 1960

1 4 % O F T H E C I T Y 'S 2 ,4 7 9 ,0 0 0 P O P U L A T I O N W E R E N E G R O E S
6 9% O F T H E N E G R O E S L I V E D

IN N EG R O T R A C T S .

13 OF THE N E G R O TRACTS (W ITH 6 9 % OF THE PO PU LATIO N
IN THESE TRACTS ) FELL IN T O THE LOWEST QUART1LE
FOR IN C O M E A N D E D U C A T IO N A N D HIGHEST QUARTILE
FOR U N E M P L O Y M E N T .
N E G R O TRACTS C O M PR ISED 3 % O F THE C IT Y 'S TOTAL
P O PU LATIO N A N D LESS TH AN . 0 5 % OF THE C IT Y 'S
TOTAL AREA.




TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR INCOME
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR BOTH
INCOME AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN HIGHEST QUARTIlf FOR
MALE UNEMPLOYMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR INCOME
AND HIGHEST QUARTILE FOR MALE UNEMPLOYMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR INCOME.
AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND HIGHEST QUARTILE
FOR MALE UNEMPLOYMENT
RANGE OF MEDIAN FAMILY INCOME LOWEST QUARTILE
RANGE OF MEDIAN EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
LOWEST QUARTILE I years I

TRACT MEDIAN
7.3 - 9.7

TRACT RATE
RANGE OF MALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE. HIGHEST QUARTILE 12.6 - 6.3
(PERCENT)

9

CHART 7B

Mil

10



CHART 8A

MANHATTAN 1960
23% OF THE BOROUGH’S TOTAL POPULATION OF 1,698,000 WERE NEGROES.
5 9% OF THE NEGROES LIVED IN NEGRO TRACTS.

10 Of THESE TRACTS (29%) SHOWED LOW INCOME ALTHOUGH
THEY FELL NEITHER INTO THE LOWEST QUARTILE WITH RESPECT
TO EDUCATION, NOR THE HIGHEST WITH RESPECT TO
UNEMPLOYMENT.
ONLY 6 OF THE NEGRO TRACTS (WITH 17% OF THE POPULATION
IN THESE TRACTS) FELL INTO THE LOWEST QUARTILE FOR
INCOME AND EDUCATION AND THE HIGHEST QUARTILE FOR
UNEMPLOYMENT.

[=□

TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUART!II FOR INCOME
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR BOTH
INCOME AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN HIGHEST QUARTILE FOR
MALE UNEMPLOYMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTI LI FOR INCOME
AND HIGHEST QUARTILE FOR MALE UNEMPLOYMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR INCOME.
AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND HIGHEST QUARTILE
FOR MALE UNEMPLOYMENT
RANGE OF MEDIAN FAMILY INCOME LOWEST QUARTILE

T
F
%

RANGE OF MEDIAN EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

TRACT MEDIAN

LOWEST QUARTILE (years)
RANGE OF MALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE. HIGHEST QUARTILE

6. 7 -8.7
TRACT RATE
25.4 - T 8

(PERCENT)

MDiOCS ISLAHO

11
217-817 O— 66

2




CHART 8B

MANHATTAN 1960
Detail of
Negro Concentration

12




CHART 9A

W ASH ING TO N 1960
54% O F TH E C I T Y 'S T O T A L P O P U L A T I O N O F 754,000 W E R E N E G R O E S .
50% O F T H E S E N E G R O E S L I V E D IN N E G R O T R A C T S .

O N L Y 5 OF THE N E G R O TRACTS (WITH 1 0 % OF THE
POPULATION IN THESE TRACTS) FELL IN T O THE LOWEST
QUARTILE FOR IN C O M E A N D EDU CATION A N D THE HIGHEST
QUARTILE FOR UNEM PLO YM ENT.
N EG R O TRACTS COMPRISED 2 7 % OF THE C IT Y'S TOTAL
POPULATION BUT O N L Y 5 % OF THE C IT Y'S TOTAL AREA.

E=□
■
■
m

TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUART Ilf FOR INCOME
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR BOTH
INCOME AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN HIGHEST QUARTILf FOR
MALE UNEMPLOYMENT

TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR INCOME
AND HIGHEST QUARTILE FOR MALE UNEMPLOYMENT
TRACTS FALLING IN LOWEST QUARTILE FOR INCOME,
AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND HIGHEST QUARTILE
FOR MALE UNEMPLOYMENT
TRACT MEDIAN
RANGE OF MEDIAN FAMILY INCOME.LOWEST QUARTILE

*2.341 - 5,401

RANGE OF MEDIAN EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT,

RACT MEDIAN

LOWEST QUARTILE (years)

5.6-10.7
TRACT RATE

RANGE OF MALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, HIGHEST QUARTILE

29.8-8.8

(PERCENT)




13

CHART 9B

WASHINGTON 1960
Detail of
Negro Concentration

14



drastically reduce real incom e and curtail im ­
portant increm ents to hum an, business, and
com m unity resource developm ent.
T he rising proportion of children in the densely
populated N egro neighborhood^ in the central
cities and the crow ding in central city schools
present serious problem s. Am ong these are policy
questions relating to expansion of neighborhoods
and the housing m arket, econom ic opportunity,
and access to inform ation and resources for fam ily
planning.
CHART 10

THE NEGRO POPULATION ON
THE AVERAGE IS SLIGHTLY YOUNGER
THAN THE WHITE

W hile there is a rising trend in the proportion
of N egro children (under 5) in the total preschool
population, chiefly in cities (chart 10), it is quite
possible that N egro fertility rates, especially in
places where N egroes live in large num bers, could
fall below the w hite average, if econom ic expansion
continues and if increased com m itm ents to
program s for education, em ploym ent, and housing
opportunity are effective.
Several factors point to this conclusion. A nal­
yses indicate that the nonw hite to w hite fertility
ratio falls rapidly as urbanization and incom es
increase. T he m ajority of N egroes already are
city dwellers and their earnings are rising. T he
N egro m igrants to cities have m ore years of
schooling and higher incom es than the N egro
population w hence th ey originated. A bout half
the N egroes in the six cities of largest N egro
population, were born elsewhere (chart 11). In
areas of inm igration, nonw hite m en get a larger
proportion of relatively high status jobs in w hitecollar occupations and the crafts, and substantially
better pay, than in the South, which contains the
areas of outm igration (chart 12). N egro w ives at
all fam ily incom e levels are m ore likely than w hite
w ives to hold a paid job outside of the hom e, an
im portant factor in reducing fertility as w ell as
sustaining or increasing fam ily incom e. F ertility
rates for nonw hite w om en age 25-34, w ith fam ily
incom es of $6,000 or more, approach the rates for
w hite m others of sim ilar age and fam ily incom e
(chart 13).

NEGRO CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE
ARE INCREASING AS A PROPORTION
CHART 11.
ONE OF EVERY
OF THE TOTAL PRESCHOOL POPULATION,
TWO NONWHITES IN NORTHERN AND
BUT ONLY IN NONFARM AREAS OR
WESTERN CITIES OF GREATEST NEGRO
IN C IT IES - DESTINATION OF YOUNG
POPULATION WERE IN M IGRANTS,
MIGRANTS OF CHILDBEARING AGE
CHIEFLY FROM THE SOUTH




15

CHART 12.

NONW HITE MIGRANTS AVERAGE MORE SCHOOLING
THAN OTHER NONW HITES
NONWHITE MALES (25 - 29 YEARS OLD)
S C H O O L IN G O F
P O P U L A T IO N ,
I960

i—
11 + years o f
1
____1 H IG H S C H O O L
SO UTH

S C H O O L IN G O F
IN T E R R E G IO N A L
M IG R A N T S ,

1955-60

fr & iv S S l
------------------------------------------------------------ L “ “ " —

K v X ] 1 + YEARS O F
CO LLEG E

U .S .
SO UTH
______________________ 1
______________________1
______________________1
____________________
25

50

75

10
0

PERCENT O F M IG R A N T S , 1955-60

IN REGIONS OF GREATEST INM IG RATION,
PERCENT

NONWHITES GETHIGHER STATUS JOBS
AND
BETTER PAY
THAN AVAILABLE TO THEM WHERE INMIGRATION IS LOW

EAST

W HITE CO LL A R
A N D CRAFTS

SO U RC E: U .S.
U .S.

16



CE N T R A L

EAST

P R O D U C T IO N
W O RKERS IN
IN D U ST R Y

DEPARTM ENT O F LABOR, BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS;
BUREAU O F THE C E N S U S

CEN T RAL

Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Newark, and
Los Angeles. Most of the cities having an
AT MAJOR CHILDBEARING AGES,*
extensive Negro population gained more than the
THE NONWHITE TO WHITE FERTILITY RATIO national average in the service and trade indus­
tries, which include business, household, and
DECREASES WITH INCREASING INCOME, personal services, and both retail and wholesale
enter skilled
AND TENDS TO BE LOWEST IN CITIES trade. Negro men have begun toare command­
occupations in manufacturing and
ing improved earnings and seniority, and most of
the cities having a large Negro population showed
more increase in this area of employment than
the national average. However in the two cities
vWWWWWN
having the largest Negro population in their
region, as well as substantial Negro immigration—
Los Angeles and New York—there was no increase
1 if
....
in manufacturing employment (see table 1). Six
of the cities showing an employment gain of at
least as much as the national average were in
the South, where Negroes are not yet readily
employed outside of service and laboring jobs
(chart 14).
No unemployment rates for central cities, by
Although the national economy has shown
healthy growth for 5 years, the large cities to which color, are available since the 1960 census of
Negroes have migrated to find employment have population, except for those obtained in a recent
not shared proportionately in the Nation’s rate of survey in south and east Los Angeles by the
economic growth; unemployment in these cities Bureau of the Census.1 This survey, and other
may generate frustration and a host of other clues about employment and unemployment,
suggest that Negroes may benefit less than others
problems.
Six cities among those having 100,000 Negroes when employment gains take place in SMSA’s.
or more in 1960 showed less employment gain
1 U.S. Department of Commerce,
than the national average of 7 percent between Current Population Reports, S p e c ia l CBureauSofrvthe oCensus,
en sus u ey f th e
1963 and 1965. These cities included such places S ou th a n d E a st L os A n geles A re a s: November 1965.
of heavy Negro immigration as New York, Series P-23, No. 17, Mar. 23, 1966.
CHART 13.

TOTAL UNITED STATES

URBANIZED AREAS

R A T IO * *
1.40_______K30_______K20_______K10_______ K 00
------------- 1
--------------1
-------------- 1
--------------

R A T IO * *
1.00______ KIO_______K20_______K30_______ K40
------------- 1
--------------1
--------------1
--------------

k

\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \

INCOME
UNDER
$4,000

$10,000$14,999^

EQUAL RATIO

T

1

............—

’

AGE
E 3
CD
513

IN I960
20-24
25-29
30-34

* AGES 20 - 34.
* * NUMBER OF NONWHITE TO NUMBER OF WHITE CHILDREN EVER BORN PER 1,000 MOTHERS.

SOURCE: 1960 CENSUS OF POPULATION




17

CHART 14.

OF THE U.S. CITIES' WITH 100,000 NEGROES OR MORE
IN 1960
NEW ORLEANS

]

ATLANTA
DETROIT___________________
W A SH IN G T O N , D.C. (S M S A )
DALLAS
CLEVELAND * *
C IN C IN N A T I * *

8 SHOWED GREATER
NONAGRICULTURAL
EMPLOYMENT GAIN THAN
THE U.S. AVERAGE,
BETWEEN 1963-65

ST. LOUIS

MEMPHIS
PITTSBURGH

9 SHOWED LESS NON­
AGRICULTURAL EM­
PLOYMENT GAIN THAN
THE U.S. AVERAGE
BETWEEN 1963-65

BIRM IN GHAM
C H IC A G O
NEWARK
LOS ANGELES
BALTIMORE
PHILADELPHIA
NEW YO RK (SM SA)

0

1

2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
PERCENT GAIN IN NONAGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT

13

14

* CITES WITH 250,000 OR MORE TOTAL POPULATION A N D AT LEAST 100,000 NEGRO
POPULATION. 1/3 OF THE TOTAL U.S. NEGRO POPULATION LIVED IN 18 CITIES.
HOUSTON, TEXAS, WHICH MEETS THE CITY CRITERIA,WAS EXCLUDED FROM THE
GRAPH BECAUSE DATA O N NONAGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT ARE NO T AVAILABLE
FOR IT.
* * THE G A IN SHOWN M AY BE SOMEWHAT EXAGGERATED DUE TO A C H A N G E IN AREA
DEFINITION IN 1964.
SOURCE:

18



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS, A N D U.S.
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS.

15

Chapter II. Employment, Unemployment, and the Labor Force
In M arch 1966, nonw hite workers constituted
about 11 percent of the civilian labor force of the
U nited States, but accounted for over 21 percent
of the unem ployed and 25 percent of the long-term
unem ployed. Throughout the period since W orld
W ar II, nonw hite unem ploym ent rates have con­
sisten tly exceeded the rates for w hite workers,
but the gap varies w ith the business cycle.
T able

1.— C ities

In the m ost recent full year of the current upswing)
w hen unem ploym ent rates for w hite workers
averaged 4.1 percent, the rate for nonw hites was
tw ice as high— 8.3 percent. Som e of the reasons
for the persistence of the relative disadvantage of
nonw hite workers can be isolated from an exam i­
nation of each segm ent of the labor force.

w ith 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 N egroes or M o re in 1960, a n d P ercen t C hange in T h eir N o n a g ric u ltu ra l E m p lo y m en t, by
I n d u stry G rou p, 1 9 6 3 -6 5

Cities (in order of Negro population)

1960 population
(Number in thousands)
Total

New York, N.Y_____________________
7, 782
3, 550
Chicago, 111_____ _
_______ __
2, 003
Philadelphia, Pa_ ____
_ _____
Detroit, M ich ___ _ _ __ _ ___
1, 670
764
___
Washington, D.C__ _
Los Angeles, Calif______
2, 479
_____
Baltimore, Md__
939
Cleveland, Ohio__
876
New Orleans, La__ __ ._
_ _ ___
628
___
Houston, Tex _ __ _
938
St. Louis, Mo___
_ ____
750
Atlanta, Ga__ _ _ ____ _ ___
487
______
Memphis, Tenn. __
498
Newark, N.J_ __
405
Birmingham, Ala__ . . . ___
341
Dallas, Tex__
680
Cincinnati, Ohio _
503
Pittsburgh, Pa_
604
Total, 18 cities__
25, 897
Total, United S ta te s..__ __
179, 323
Population in the 18 cities, as a
percent of total U.S. popula­
tion
14

Negro
Number

Percent

1, 088
813
529
482
412
335
326
251
234
215
214
186
184
138
135
129
109
101
5, 881
18, 872

14
23
26
29
54
14
35
29
37
23
29
38
37
34
40
19
22
17
23
11

1 For the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, or its approximation.
2 Includes industries other than manufacturing, services, and trade not
shown separately, such as finance, transportation, and government.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
* Not available.
Source C ensus of P o p u la tio n , 1960, U .S . S u m m a ry , PC(1)-1D, table 304;
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Incom e, E du cation ,




Percent change in nonagricultural
employment, 1963-65 1
Total2 Manufac- Services
turing
3
6
5
12
10
5
5
9
15
(4)
7
12
7
6
7
10
9
7
(4)
7

—1
7
2
15
9
(3)
1
8
20
(4)
5
13
6
3
8
12
5
7
(4)
6

7
7
6
8
12
9
9
13
13
(4)
9
14
5
8
7
14
10
6
(4)
8

Trade
5
6
7
14
11
8
7
11
11
(4)
7
10
6
5
3
12
10
6
(4)
7

31
an d U n em p lo ym en t in N eighborhoods, J a n u a ry 1963, table B-4 for Negro popu­
lation in individual cities; U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, E m p lo y m e n t an d E a rn in g s S ta tistics for States an d A re a s 1939-63,
Bulletin No. 1370-1, tables on page 8, 58, 134, 169, 201, 265, 282, 305, 343, 387,
424, 472, 474, 531, 536, 591, 605, and 607 for 1963 figures for individual SMSA’s;
E m p lo y m e n t an d E a rn in g s, \ ol. 11, No. 11, May 1965, table B-l, p. 13 for
total U.S. nonagricultural employment in 1963; and unpublished Bureau of
Labor Statistics data for 1965 nonagricultural employment.

19

T able 2.— E xten t o f N egro C on cen tration in N egro C en sus T racts 1 a n d Selected C h aracteristics o f T hese T ra cts, W a sh in g to n ,
D .C ., C hicago, L os A n geles, a n d M a n h a tta n , 196 0

Central city

Total
popula­
tion (in
thou­
sands)

Negro tracts 1
in lowest
Negro
quartile for
population
Negro
income and
population
living in Percent of
education and
City Total Percent
Negro tracts 1 city’s
highest
(borough) (bor­ area of of city quartile for
total
ough) Negro area oc­ unemployment
popula­ area in tracts 1 cupied
tion in square (sq.
by
Negro
miles
mi.) Negro
Percent
Num­
Num­
tracts 1
tracts 1
of
ber (in Per­ ber (in Per­
Num­ popula­
thou­ cent thou­ cent
ber tion in
sands)
sands)
all
Negro
tracts 1

Manhattan1, 698
2, 479
Los Angeles___
Chicago__
3, 550
Washington, D.C___
764

397
335
813
412

23
14
23
54

236
73
541
204

59
22
66
50

1 Tracts in which 90 percent or more of the population was Negro in April
1960.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

14
3
15
27

22
455
224
61

2
1
8
3

(2)

9
4
5

6
13
54
5

17
69
43
10

Source U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Income,
Education, and Unemployment in Neighborhoods, January 1963; U.S. Depart­
ment of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population: I960,
Number of Inhabitants, U.S. Summary, Final Report PC(1)-1A, table 30;
and Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population: 1960, Number of In­
habitants, New York, PC(1)-34A, table 6.

The total nonwhite labor force
CHART

15.

THE GAP BETWEEN
NONWHITE AND WHITE
UNEM PLOYM ENT RATES PERSISTS IN
BOOM YEARS AS W ELL AS RECES­
SION , BUT NARROWS SUBSTANTIALLY
IN AN EXPANDING ECONOMY

SOURCE: U .S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

20



Econom ic expansion has created job opportunities unevenly. A lthough shortages have appeared
in som e occupations and industries, and vacancies
are opening in greater num bers to non w hite
workers, the im proved prospects h ave not yet
rem oved the handicaps from substantial groups
within the nonw hite segm ent of the labor force.
Betw een 1964 and 1965, teenagers, w ho m ake up
10 percent of the nonw hite labor force, began to
seek jobs in growing num bers. W om en over the
age of 20, already am ounting to 38 percent of the
nonw hite force, accounted for another m ajor
portion of the increase betw een 1964 and 1965.
B oth of these groups have been at a relative
disadvantage when they enter— or reenter— the
job m arket.
The adult nonw hite m an fared best of the
groups of non w hite workers in the expanding
econom y (chart 16). M en over the age of 20
constituted 52 percent of the total non w hite force.
N early three-fourths of these 4.5 m illion m en were
married and living w ith their w ives. T he un­
em ploym ent rate for this group was 4.3 percent
in 1965. A lthough tw ice the rate for w hite
married m en, this was lower than for other w hite
men.

CHART 16

proportion of nonw hite workers engaged in the
search for work, even when conditions are not
favorable for finding it. N onw hite wom en are
m uch m ore likely than are w hite wom en to be
heads of their fam ilies. And in fam ilies w ith
husbands at their head (the usual situation),
nonw hite w om en tend to participate in the labor
force at higher rates than w hite w om en, regardless
of incom e.

NONWHITE UNEM PLOYM ENT RATES
SWING SHARPLY WITH THE BUSINESS
CYCLE, AND WHEN CONDITIONS
IM PROVE, RATES FOR NONWHITE
ADULT MEN DROP MUCH MORE THAN
Nonwhite teenagers in the labor force
FOR MOST OTHER NONWHITES
Largely because of sharply increasing school

NONWHITE TO WHITE UNEMPLOYMENT
RATES HAS REMAINED OVER 2.0 AND
HAS BEEN CONSISTENTLY HIGHER FOR
NONWHITE ADULT MEN THAN FOR
OTHER NONWHITES

Differences betw een the com position of the
nonw hite segm ent of the labor force and the
w hite segm ent help to explain w hy overall unem ­
ploym ent w ithin the two groups responds differ­
ently to changes in econom ic conditions. There
is a higher proportion of wom en in the nonw hite
force, and a sm aller proportion of adult men,
but the sam e proportion of teenagers. Sim ilarly,
their greater need for incom e keeps a higher



enrollment, the great increase in the number of
nonwhite youths between 14 and 19 years of age
has not brought about as much growth in the
labor force as had been expected. Yet the
growth of job opportunities has attracted many
youths into seeking jobs, whether or not they are
in school. The nonwhite youths are not as
likely to be seeking work as the white youths.
But when they are, they are more likely to need
and hold full-time jobs or to work long hours.
Well over one-third of the non white teenagers
lived in families with less than $3,000 income in
March 1965. The median income for the families
of unemployed nonwhite teenagers was $3,667.
For the families of the employed youths, the
median rose less than $1,000. Most white teen­
agers, in contrast, come from families with incomes
above $7,000.
Unemployment rates are especially high for all
youths. When the disadvantages of inexperience
and limited training are compounded by the
results of discrimination and impoverishment, the
barriers to employment become formidable. In
the early months of 1966, for example, 25 to 30
percent of the nonwhite girls who sought work
were unable to find it. This was the highest
unemployment rate of any group in the labor
force but it was scarcely more severe than the rate
for the nonwhite boys, which ranged between 20
and 25 percent. These rates for non white young­
sters exceed those for white youths two- to three­
fold. The difference was especially pronounced
in the 18- and 19-year age groups.
Despite the frustrations of the job search, few
non white teenagers withdraw from the job
market.2 In 1965, only 57,000 were neither in
school nor in the labor force. Of this group,
2 See Research in Labor Force Concepts, by Robert L.
Stein and Daniel B. Levine, paper presented at the 1965
Conference of the American Statistical Association in
Philadelphia, Pa., September 1965.

21

m any were girls who were married or working at
hom e.

Work and school
T he connection betw een work and school is
especially im portant for youths from low -incom e
fam ilies. Part-tim e work becom es a m eans to
secure an education, and education in its turn
provides the m eans to secure satisfactory full-tim e
work. T hese relationships have been strengthen­
ing for nonw hite youths in recent years. M uch
more will be required at each stage of this process,
how ever, if the com ing generation of nonw hite
youths are to attain adequate representation in
the occupations of the future.

B etw een 1960 and 1964, school enrollm ents of
non w hite boys and girls betw een 14 and 17
increased m ore than the group itself did.
As chart 17 shows, betw een 1960 and 1964 the
population of nonw hite youths 18-19 years old
increased m ore than that of the w hite you th s in
the sam e age range. T he increase in school
enrollm ent kept pace w ith this grow th, and both
groups advanced at the sam e rate. T he w hite
and non w hite age groups from 7 through 17 have
about the sam e school enrollm ent rates, b u t rates
for nonw hites in the kindergarten and college ages
(under 7, and from 18 through 24) are n ot nearly
as high as the rates for the com parable w hite

CHART 17A.

AMONG TEENAGERS 14-17 YEARS OLD
RISING NONWHITE
AND WHITE SCHOOL
ENROLLMENT ABSORBED
MORE THAN THEIR
POPULATION INCREASE

22



REVEALING
SHARPER ADVANCES
IN ENROLLMENT
THAN POPULATION

groups, which have readier access to public schools
at these ages (chart 18).
The desire and capacity to provide m ore school­
ing for nonw hite youths are reflected in the data
showing that nonw hite high school graduates are
m uch more likely than w hite graduates to have
parents who did not finish high school, and to
com e from low -incom e hom es (chart 19).
H ow well does it pay off?
N onw hite graduates do less w ell than w hite
graduates in getting and keeping a job. T hey
earn less than w hite youths who have left school
before graduation. M ore of them begin in the
low est status jobs.
Thus, the advantages of education to nonw hite
youths are barely beginning to m ake them selves

felt in the job m arket. U nem ploym ent rates for
m ale graduates dropped sharply betw een October
1964 and 1965, while the rates for m ost dropouts
rose substantially (chart 20). B u t nonw hite girl
graduates had even higher unem ploym ent than
the year before. Clearly, nonw hite youths are
preparing for tod ay’s jobs faster than existing
practices are changing to absorb them (chart 21).
Y et the outlook for future jobs urges that the
tem po of increase in nonw hite schooling be con­
tinually increased. Im aginative governm ent and
private programs will be needed to further
strengthen both the educational and the job m ar­
ket links to job im provem ent. It is necessary, of
course, to continue to stress and expand training,

17B.

AMONG TEENAGERS 18-19 YEARS OLD
(WORK OR COLLEGE ENTRANCE YEARS)
THE RATIO OF CHANGE IN
ENROLLMENT TO POPULATION
WAS SUBSTANTIALLY LOWER
THAN IN YOUNGER AGES
AMONG BOTH NONWHITE
AND WHITE
RATIO, CH A N G E IN SCHOOL ENROLLMENT
TO CH A N G E IN POPULATION, 1960-64

EE3 NONW HITE
□
WHITE
SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS




BUT THE NONWHITE YOUTH
SHOWED PROPORTIONATELY
AS LARGE AN ADVANCE IN
ENROLLMENT AS THE WHITE,
ALTHOUGH A GREATER
POPULATION INCREASE

PERCENT C H A N G E, 1960-64

E23 POPULATION
j— , SCHOOL
1 ENROLLMENT

23

CHART 18.

CHART 20.

SCHOOL ENROLLMENT RATES ARE ABOUT
AS GREAT AMONG NONWHITE AS WHITE
YOUTH 7-17 , BUT ARE MUCH LESS FOR
NONWHITES IN THE KINDERGARTEN AND
COLLEGE YEARS

UNEM PLOYM ENT RATES WERE HIGHER
FOR NONW HITE HIGH-SCHOOL
GRADUATES* THAN FOR
WHITE DROPOUTS’ *
OCTOBER 1965
PERCENT O F
C IV IL IA N LABOR

FOR_ UNEMPLOYMENT RATES OF 16 TO 21 YEAR-OLD MALES
CE

15

10

5

NONWHITE
* COM PLETED 4 YEARS O F H IG H SH O O L .
* * COM PLETED LESS TH AN 4 YEARS
O F HIG H SC H O O L .

WHITE
H D
1

GRADUATES
1 DROPOUTS

CHART 19.

NONWHITE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES W EEKLY EARNINGS ON FU LL TIME IOBS
WERE LOWER FOR NONWHITE
(AGED 16 -2 1) ARE MUCH MORE
GRADUATES THAN FOR
LIK ELY THAN THE WHITE TO HAVE
WHITE DROPOUTS
PARENTS WHO ARE NOT HIGH SCHOOL
FEBRUARY 1963
GRADUATES AND TO COME FROM VERY
MEDIAN WEEKLY EARNINGS ( IN DOLLARS) ON
LOW-INCOME FAMILIES
FULL-TIME JOB OF 16 TO 21 YEAR-OLD YOUTHS
(MALE AND FEMALE) NOT IN SCHOOL

H

NON WHITE
WHITE

* * OATA FOR UNMARRIED STUDENTS 16-21 YEARS OLD LIVING WITH AND RELATED TO THE HOUSEHOLD
HEAD, AND GRADUATED BY OCTOBER 1965.
SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, BUREAU Of LABOR STATISTICS

24



SOU RCE: U .S. DEPARTMENT O F LABOR,
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS

n

GRADUATES

□

DROPOUTS

CHART 22.
CHART 21.

LITTLE MORE THAN HALF OF ALL
A LARGER PROPORTION OF NONWHITE
NONWHITE MALES WHO WORKED IN 1964
THAN WHITE MALE HIGH SCHOOL
HAD FULL-TIME YEAR-ROUND JOBS,
GRADUATES* HOLD BLUE-COLLAR JOBS**
COMPARED WITH TWO-THIRDS OF ALL
BUT A HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA
WHITE MALES
IMPROVES THE NONWHITE WORKER'S
CHANCES OF MOVING FROM LABORER
TO PRODUCTION AND CRAFTS JOBS

PERCENT

PART-TIME
IN BLUE COLLAR JOBS

“

PRODUCTION WORKERS

-

FULL-TIME
1-26 WEEKS
FULL-TIME
27-49
WEEKS

NONFARM LABORERS

••IN MARCH 1965.
SOURCE: U.S.DEPARTMENT Of LABOR, BUREAU Of LABOR STATISTICS

especially on-the-job training, and to improve the
quality of education in schools and neighborhoods
serving residents who do not have much time or
resources to devote to improving facilities or in­
struction. As matters stand now, many Negro
youngsters have more education than they need
for the jobs they get, and community recognition
of the costs of wasted talent is required.

Adult workers

Beginning in the middle age groups, nonwhite
men have somewhat lower rates of labor force
participation than do white men in the same age
groups. Rates of participation in the labor
force among those past middle age are partly
a function of educational level and health.
Differences between the groups in educational
level is most pronounced among older men
In addition, of the older nonwhite men who are
not working or looking for work, larger proportions
are unable to work than are any other segments
of the civilian noninstitutional population. About
95 percent of all nonwhite men 25 to 44 years
old were in the labor force in March 1966, com­
pared to not quite 98 percent of the white men.
In the ages 45 to 64, the gap is a little wider
(chart 23).
Long-term unemployment is especially prev­
alent among older nonwhite men.3 They tend



PART-TIME

/
/

FULL-TIME
- — 1-26
WEEKS
FULL-TIME
27-49
WEEKS

FULL-TIME
50-52
WEEKS

FULL-TIME
50-52
WEEKS

NONW HITE
MALES

WHITE
MALES

SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,
BUREAU OF LABOR STASTISTICS

to have relatively little education and training
and they are likely to be employed in heavy
manual labor, and in occupations particularly
subject to seasonality or high turnover.
Because of higher unemployment rates, more
spells of unemployment, and higher disability
rates, only a little more than half of the non white
men with work experience in 1964 worked 50 to
52 weeks, compared with two-thirds of the white
men (chart 22); lower life expectancy and higher
mortality rates also explain differences in labor
force participation (charts 24 and 25).

Occupations of nonwhite workers

Between 1962 and 1965, the largest gains in
employment of nonwhite workers occurred in
3 See “Long-Term Unemployment in the 1960’s,”
September 1965, p. 1073.

Monthly Labor Review,

25

CHART 23A

LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES
(PERCENT OF POPULATION)

SHARP DECINES ALSO
OCCURRED AMONG MEN
65 AND OVER
PERCENT

IN PRIME WORKING YEARS,
THE RATE HAS REMAINED
RELATIVELY STABLE FOR
WHITES, BUT HAS DECLINED
FOR NONWHITES SINCE THE
KOREAN WAR
PERCENT
100

98
96
94
92

IN THE 55-64 AGE GROUP,
RATES HAVE DROPPED MORE
AMONG THE NONWHITE, BUT
THE NONWHITE/WHITE GAP
HAS REMAINED SUBSTANTIAL
SINCE THE KOREAN WAR
PERCENT

SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, BUREAU OF UBOR STATISTICS

26



CHART 23B

LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES
(PERCENT OF POPULATION)

UNTIL RECENTLY, RATES FOR
TEENAGERS HAVE DROPPED
BETWEEN 1948 AND 1965,
DUE TO INCREASING SCHOOL
THE DECLINE IN RATES WAS ENROLLMENT AND THE
GREATER FOR NONWHITE
DROP HAS BEEN GREATER
MEN THAN FOR WHITE
FOR NONWHITES
PERCENT

PERCENT

SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

27
217-817 0 — 6
1

3




fields from which they have tended to be excluded,
such as professional and technical jobs, the
crafts, and sales occupations. N onw hite in­
creases in these occupation groups from 1962
through 1965 were m uch greater than in any
3-year interval since 1954. Gains were less than
average, however, in m anagerial and proprietors'
jobs, and the strong retreat from agricultural
work has continued.
F aster entry recently into professional, sales,
clerical, and crafts jobs has been accom panied by
greater differentiation w ithin these broad occupa­
tion groups. Thus, the professional and tech­
nical group of occupations traditionally followed
b y educated N egro m en, such as clergym en,
doctors, and teachers, is now expanded by other
professionals in callings such as dentists, lawyers,
m edical and dental technicians, professional
nurses, dietitians and nutritionists, and science
technicians.
B u t the occupational distributions have n ot y et
been greatly affected. W ithin each broad occupa­
tional group, non w hite workers are m ore likely
than the w hite to be em ployed in the least skilled
categories, and at the low est levels of the w ell-paid
jobs. Penetration into desirable occupations has
been m uch slower in the South than elsewhere.
To be useful, evaluation of achievem ent m ust be
m ade on a regional basis.4 For exam ple, in the

4 See “Recent Trends in the Occupational Mobility of
Negroes, 1930-1960: An Intracohort Analysis,” by Nathan
Hare, in S o c ia l F orces, December 1965, pp. 166-173.
CHART 24.

IN 1964, LIFE EX P EC TA N C Y* IN PRIME
WORKING YEARS WAS CONSISTENTLY
LOWER FOR THE NONWHITE

CHART 25

NONWHITE DEATHRATES REMAINED
STRIKINGLY HIGHER IN 1964
THAN WHITE DEATHRATES
THE NONWHITE/WHITE GAP HAS WIDENED FOR
MATERNAL A N D INFANT MORTALITY
DEATHS PER 100,000
LIVE BIRTHS

3

2.11T MT
0
uuLi

LIVE BIRTHS
—

g g .m ..

ST!

NONW HITE*

NFANT MORTALITY____________

~

w HITiE
1947

49

51

53

55

57

59

61

63

‘ IN F L U E N Z A E P ID E M IC S ARE K N O W N TO AFFECT N O N -

-WHITE INFANTS MORE SERIOUSLY THAN WHITE INFANTS.
THE GAP HAS CHANGED LITTLE FOR EITHER SEX, BUT THE
RATE HAS FALLEN CONSIDERABLY MORE A M O N G WOMEN.
DEATHS PER 1,000
POPULATION

DEATHS PER 1,000
POPULATION
NONW HITE'

mui
B MALE H
In
\
— M

WHITE
__ 1 __
__
AGF AC JU STED DEATH RA1 ES

Li_

*

AVERAGE NUMBER OF YEARS OF LIFE REM AINING AT GIVEN AGES.

SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, A N D WELFARE, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE

28



1 1 1 1 - 1 1 1
1947 49
5
1
53
55
57
59
61
63
SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION,
AN D WELFARE, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE

CHART 26A

NONW HITE W ORKERS IN 1965
(1 1 % OF THE CIVILIAN LAB O R FORCE) HAD
------------ 1
------------- 1
------------- 1
------------ 1
—

LESS THAN THEIR PROPORTIONATE SHARE OF:
6 % P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D TECHNICAL JOBS
3 % M A N A G E R , O FFIC IAL A N D PROPRIETOR JOBS

13
2

6 % CLERICAL JOBS
. 3 % SALES JOBS

{3
Z

6 % CRAFTSMAN A N D FO REM AN JOBS
6 % FARMER A N D FARM M A N A G E R JOBS

AND
MORE THAN THEIR PROPORTIONATE SHARE OF:
12% PRODUCTIO N JOBS
26% N O N F A R M LABORER JOBS
44% PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD JOBS
21 % SERVICE JOBS , EXCEPT FOR PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD
24 % FARM LABORER A N D FO REM AN JOBS

white-collar group, advances in nonw hite m ale
em ploym ent from M arch 1960, to M arch 1966,
ranged from 24 percent in sales to over 50 percent
in the professional and technical group outside of
the South. Changes in the South were sub­
stan tially less, ranging downward from 24 percent
in the m anagerial or proprietor occupations.
O utside of the South, alm ost 4 in 10 of all non­
w hite m ales had either w hite-collar or craftsm an
jobs in M arch 1966. In the South the proportion
was less than 2 in 10.
As already noted, nonw hite m en and wom en are
already better prepared for m ore responsible jobs
than they are getting. N evertheless, the trend
toward im proving N egro qualifications calls for
encouragem ent. D esp ite a steady increase in the
rate of school and college enrollm ent, educational
attainm ent right now, in prime working years
(25 to 44 years of age), is lower in the nonw hite
than the w hite population. A bout 12 percent of
the nonw hites, com pared w ith 24 percent of the
whites, had 1 year or m ore of college in 1964.
T he N egro entry into the fastest growing oc­



cupations has been rapid since 1961. B u t recent
B L S studies indicate that unless these fast growing
occupations are opened still wider to N egro
entrants, relative unem ploym ent rates m ay not
im prove. T he fields that are growing faster than
they have accom m odated nonw hite workers over
the past decade include the professions, the crafts,
and the m anagerial occupations (charts 26 and
27).

Industrial distribution
As of 1964, the only im portant differences in the
distribution betw een m ale nonw hite and w hite
workers was a som ew hat larger percentage of non­
w hites in agriculture and the services, and a
greater proportion of w hite m en in m anufacturing
(chart 28). B oth groups shared equally in occu­
pations in the private econom y, and had alm ost
an identical proportion represented in public
adm inistration. H ow ever, a larger percentage of
nonw hites than w hites worked in Federal service
and a sm aller percentage were in State and local
governm ent.

29

CHART 26B

YET DIFFERENCES IN NONWHITE-WHITE
OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTIONS REMAIN GREAT
1965
MALE

FEMALE

(PERCENT
D IST RIB U TIO N )

(S0 N W H , TE
J

WHITE
W H ITE -C O LLA R
WORKERS

NONWHITE

WHITE
W H IT E-C O LLA R
WORKERS

B LU E-C O LLA R
WORKERS

BLU E-CO LLAR
WORKERS

SERVICE
WORKERS

ol R n S S n I

FARM
WORKERS

SO URCE: U .S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

30



SERVICE
WORKERS
FARM
WORKERS

Because nonwhite males continued to hold a
greater share than whites of all jobs in agriculture,
they had proportionately fewer private nonagricultural jobs.
In the private nonagricultural sector, nonwhite
workers were less likely than the white to be in
finance, insurance, and real estate, but more likely
to be in the professional services group, and in
personal services. Retail trade (other than eating
and drinking places) had a notably larger propor­
tion of white than nonwhite male or female
workers.
The most important increases in the proportion
of nonwhite males between 1962 and 1964 occurred
in the local gas, electric, and water utilities. The
next most significant rise was in educational
services, reflecting increasing educational attain­
ment and the accessibility and high regard in
which teaching jobs are held by nonwhite men.
Important increases also occurred in Federal
administration and in entertainment and recre­
ation (chart 29).
Three of the four largest decreases in the ratio
of nonwhite males to all males in each industry
took place in relatively low-wage industries—
apparel, lumber and wood products, and agricul­
ture. A decrease in the Federal postal service
probably reflects more choices for white-collar
work among non white men, for whom the postal
service has long served as one of the main sources
of “middle-class” jobs.




CHART 27.

OCCUPATIONS OF NONWHITE LAG
FAR BEHIND EDUCATION
(W HITE-COLLAR I0BS COMPARED WITH
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINM ENT)
PERCENT O F N O N W H IT E S IN THE
PERCENT O F ALL EM PLO YED N O N W H ITE S W HO
C IV IL IA N LABOR F O R C E * WITH HIGH
W O RK IN O C C U P A T IO N S E M P H A SIZ IN G A

M ALE

FEM ALE
* 18 YEARS O LD A N D OVER.
SOURCE: U .S. DEPARTMENT O F LABOR, BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS.

31

CHART 28.

THE INDUSTRIAL DISTRIBUTION OF NONWHITE AND
WHITE MALES WAS SIMILAR IN 1964
BUT
NONWHITES NUMBERED RELATIVELY FEWER THAN
WHITES IN MANUFACTURING AND GREATER IN
AGRICULTURE AND SERVICES
"\

NONAGRI- >
CULTURAL |

"

AGRI­
CULTURAL

________ )
PUBLIC
1/
2/

INCLUDES 1 PERCENT FOR FORESTRY, FISHERIES, AND M IN IN G .
INCLUDES 1 PERCENT FOR ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATIONAL SERVICES.

SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

32



PRIVATE

CHART 29.

EM PLOYM ENT RATIO OF NONWHITE MEN
INCREASED MOST IN POBLIC UTILITIES
AND DECREASED MOST IN THE APPAREL
INDUSTRIES BETWEEN 1962 AND 1964*




33




Chapter III. Income, Earnings, and the Incidence of Poverty
G lobal averages of fam ily and individual in­
com e, and sim ple ratios of N egro to w hite incom e,
reveal a wide gap betw een N egro and w hite
incom e, and a sm all im provem ent recently. B u t
they do not tell the w hole story.
Negro fam ily incom es were about 56 percent
of w hite incom es in 1964, com pared w ith 53 per­
cent in 1961-63. T he ratios have been consist­
ently m uch higher in the N orth and the W est (70
percent or more) and in m etropolitan areas, and
m uch lower in the South (less than 50 percent).
In rural areas in 1960, they were below 40 percent.
T he ratio tends to be highest am ong young people
(w ho usually have more formal schooling than their
elders). Am ong the occupations, there is little
or no gap in public em ploym ent (as for m ail car­
riers, postal clerks, firemen, and policem en), or in
jobs such as nonfarm labor and private household
work where there is negligible com petition with
w hites, or am ong young professional and clerical
workers in the N orth and W est.
The incom e gap is less betw een nonw hite and
w hite workers who work full tim e throughout the
year. Y et, even for year-round, full-tim e work,
the m edian yearly earnings of nonw hite m en in
1964 were only a little over $4,000 and the m edian
for nonwhite wom en was less than $3,000.
N egro earnings are so low that, regardless of
whether N egroes are em ployed, unem ployed, or
out of the labor force, their incom es fall w ithin a
narrow range at a low level. On the other hand,
the factor of em ploym ent causes a great widening
of the range and level of w hite incom es.
In 1964, 37 percent of Negro fam ilies had in­
com es below $3,000, com pared w ith only 15
percent of w hite fam ilies. In the N orth and the
W est, about one-fourth of the Negro fam ilies had
incom es below $3,000 in 1964, com pared w ith
about half of such fam ilies in the South. N on ­
w hite farm fam ilies had less than half the incom e
of w hite farm fam ilies in 1964. N onw hite fam ilies
off the farm averaged higher incom es than w hite
farm fam ilies (chart 30).
W hatever recent year is the base, and whether
farm residents are included or excluded, m edian
incom es of Negro m en exceed those of w hite




CHART 30.

MEDIAN INCOME OF NONWHITE FAMILIES
IN 1964 WAS LESS THAN HALF THE
INCOME OF WHITES ON FARMS AND
AOOUT THREE-FIFTHS THE WHITE IN
NONFARM PLACES
M EDIAN INCOME OF FAM ILIES

E 3 NONWHITE
□

WHITE

SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

wom en and of Negro wom en. This is true also of
year-round full-tim e workers (chart 31).
A m uch larger proportion of nonw hite than
w hite fam ilies had incom es under $3,000 in 1964,
even though a m uch larger percentage of nonw hite fam ilies had m ore than one earner. W hen
the nonw hite w ife works full tim e, the ratio of
nonw hite to w hite m edian fam ily incom e is sub­
stantially higher than w hen she does not work
or works only part tim e. T he working w ife in the
N egro fam ily also usually contributes a greater
proportion of fam ily incom e than the w hite
working w ife although adult nonw hite w om en’s
earnings average less, and her unem ploym ent rates
are higher than those of nonw hite adult m en.
Incom e alone is not the only criterion of eco­
nom ic security. Required also are stead y work,
opportunity for advancem ent, and financial inde­
pendence in old age.
The extensive effort of the N egro fam ily to
ensure its security m eets n ot only discrim inatory
hiring practices, b u t also the situation that m any
of the occupations and industries in which N egroes

35

CHART 31.

IN 1964, WOMEN’ S INCOMES WERE
ABOUT 3/5 THOSE OF MEN,
AND NONWHITE MEN AVERAGED
MORE THAN WHITE WOMEN.
T H O U SA N D S
OF do lla rs

( W A G E - A N D - S A L A R Y W O R K E R S , 14 Y E A R S O L D A N D
O V E R , EM P LO Y ED Y E A R -R O U N D AT F U L L -T IM E JO B S )

♦ m e d ia n .
SOURCE: U .S. BUREAU O F THE C E N SU S

1553
'

N O N W H IT E

* W H IT E

are num erous have a large degree of seasonality
and high unem ploym ent, even in good tim es. A
larger proportion of N egroes than w hite workers
are n ot covered b y collective bargaining agree­
m ents, m inim um wage law s, and social security;
this is especially true am ong the older workers.
T hose Negroes who are covered b y union contracts
are likely to be newer em ployees than their w hite
coworkers and thus have less seniority and other
forms of security.5

Poverty

A bout 40 percent of nonw hite fam ilies, com ­
pared to 12 percent of w hite fam ilies, were judged
poor in 1964.6 A lthough there has been m ore
im provem ent am ong them since 1959, the incidence
of nonw hite poverty rem ains very great, particu­
larly in the fam ily types especially prone to
poverty— those w ith very young household heads,
those headed b y wom en or b y the elderly, and
those w ith m any dependents.

5 See "Intra-Plant Mobility of Negro and White
Workers,” by A. P. Garber and John Ballweg, in A m e ric a n
J o u rn a l o f S ociology, November 1965, pp. 315-319, which
discusses variations in occupational mobility between
white and nonwhite workers with equal seniority in a
union plant.
6 “Counting the Poor—A Five-Year Review,” by
Mollie Orshansky in S o c ia l S e c u rity B u lletin , April 1965.
(Many more whites than nonwhites are poor because the
white population is much greater.)

36



Fam ilies headed b y wom en are particularly
vulnerable to poverty because of w om en’s low
earnings and the num ber of children they support.
In the 1960’s, wom en have headed about 23 per­
cent of all non w hite fam ilies, com pared to ab out
9 percent of the w hite fam ilies. A bout 8 in 10
of the nonw hite fam ilies headed b y w om en in ­
cluded children. Regardless of m arital status
(widowed, divorced, single, or separated), non­
w hite wom en who are heads of households are
m ore prone to poverty than w hite wom en who
head households— about 7 in 10 as com pared to
3 in 10.
A startling ratio of 6 in 10 of all nonw hite
children were in poor fam ilies in 1963. Y et
relatively few poor fam ilies receive assistance from
Aid to Fam ilies w ith D ependent Children (A F D C ),
the largest public assistance program. O nly 30
percent of the nonw hite fam ilies w ith less than
$3,000 incom e in 1959 received A F D C in 1961
(chart 32).
N egro children receiving A F D C aid in 1961 were
m ore than three tim es as likely as w hite children
to live in the central cities of large m etropolitan
areas. In these cities, three-fourths of the children
aided were nonw hite, b u t in rural nonfarm areas,
nearly three-fourths receiving aid were w hite.
In the aggregate, how ever, N egro children con­
stitu ted less than half of all children receiving
A F D C in the country in 1961.
M edian and per capita A F D C paym ents were
larger for w hites than for N egroes, and m ore
CHART 32.

AFDC* FAM ILIES ARE A SMALL
PROPORTION OF BOTH NONWHITE AND
WHITE POOR FAMILIES IN CITIES”

often their sole support. A m uch larger propor­
tion of the Negro than w hite A F D C hom em akers
are em ployed outside the hom e while receiving
aid. According to social welfare experts, N egroes
suffer discrim ination in the distribution of welfare
funds, and welfare service, at the sam e tim e ex­
hibiting the general tendency of all groups to
avoid welfare grants or “the dole” as a w ay of
life.7

at the sam e incom e level. According to the
1960-61 consum er expenditures survey of the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, m ost N egro and
w hite urban consum ers fell into a large m iddleincom e group—$3,000 to $7,500. H ow ever, al­
m ost all of the rem aining N egroes had less than
$3,000 to spend, whereas the rem ainder of the
w hites tended to have $7,500 or m ore (charts
33 and 34).

Patterns of Negro consumption

7 See M. Elaine Burgess and Daniel O. Price, A n
A m e ric a n D ep en d en cy C hallenge, Durham, N.C., Seeman
Printery, 1963; and A id to D ep en d en t C h ildren , by Winifred

The Negro urban consum er has about the sam e
spending pattern as the w hite urban consum er

Bell, New York, Columbia University Press, 1965.

CHART 33.

URBAN NEGRO FAMILIES SPENT SOMEWHAT MORE,
PROPORTIONATELY, THAN WHITE FAMILIES ON BASIC EXPENSES,
BUT SPENDING PATTERNS OF THE TWO GROUPS WERE SIMILAR
IN BOTH 1950 AND 1900-01*
70

60

50

40

1950
30

20

10

0

0

10

20

1960 - 61
30
40

50

60

70

FOR 1950,TOTAL AVERAGE EXPENDITURES FOR CURRENT CONSUMPTION WERE $2,614 FOR NEGROES, $3,938 FOR WHITES.
FOR 1960-61, EXPENDITURES WERE $3,707 AND $5,609 RESPECTIVELY.
•INCLUDES FAMILIES AND SINGLE CONSUMERS.
SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




37

CHART 34.

PROPORTIONATE EXPENDITURES ARE QUITE SIMILAR AMONG
URBAN NEGROES AND WHITES IN LIKE INCOME GROUPS’
INCOME** UNDER $3,000
70

60

50

40

30

20

INCOME **$3,000 - $7,499
10

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

* URBAN FAM ILIES A N D SIN G LE CON SU M ER S
**1960-61 A N N U A L AVERAGES, AFTER TAXES
SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT O F LABOR, BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS

BUT NEGROES HAD CONSIDERABLY LESS TO SPEND FOR EACH
ITEM*
1950

1960 - 1961

N EG RO EXPENDITURES AS PERCENT OF WHITE
20

NEGROA $2,614

0

□

W jd
^*4

0

20

40

60%

E

N EGRO. $ 3,707

AVERAGE TOTAL
EXPENDITURES

Y^

£

WHITE $3,938

L
HOUSEHOLD
OPERATIONS
M EDICAL CARE

WHITE $5,609

.

i r

TRANSPORTATION

M ISCELLANEOUS
•INCLUDES URBAN FAMILIES A N D SIN GLE CONSUM ERS
SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

38




c
negro

I

I WHITE

T he m ost notable differences betw een N egro
and w hite consum ers were the degrees to which
they w ent into debt, saved, and bought durable
goods. R elatively low -incom e N egroes ($3,000 to
$4,999) averaged less debt than w hite consum ers
of the sam e incom e group. M iddle-incom e
Negroes ($5,000-$7,499) averaged larger net
increases in savings than m iddle-incom e whites.
For the sam e incom e groups, N egro and w hite
consum ers averaged about the sam e am ount of
personal insurance, but few er N egroes than w hites,
proportionately, bought autom obiles or were
hom eowners (charts 35 and 36). T hese findings
m ay possibly reflect a differential in the avail­
ability and cost of credit, regardless of collateral
or other assets. T h ey m ay reflect also fam ily
size and responsibility. N egro fam ilies, in general,
had m ore persons in the fam ily at each incom e
level than w hite fam ilies. B ecause th ey m ore
often have more than one earner, job-related ex­
penses have to be budgeted.
H om e ownership presents special problem s for
N egroes. T hey generally buy in a highly re­
stricted m arket. The lim itations on N egro hom e
ownership m ake one of the m ost serious im balances
of supply and dem and in the econom y.
The urge toward hom e ownership is am ply
dem onstrated b y nonw hite fam ilies. A lthough
about half of all nonw hite fam ilies were poor in
1960 and m any were in very large cities where
apartm ent living is usual, 38 percent were hom eowners. This is far low er than the 64 percent
for w hite fam ilies. M oreover, about half the
nonw hite hom eowners owned their houses free
and clear, com pared w ith a little m ore than 40
percent of the w hite hom eowners.
Of the hom eowners w ith m ortgages in 1960, the
nonw hites were m uch less likely to have received
F H A or VA assistance than the w hites or to have
bought a new house. In addition, nonw hite
hom eowners in 1960 were m ore than tw ice as
likely as w hite hom eowners to be spending 30
percent or more of their incom e on housing and
over three tim es as likely to be paying over 6
percent interest on a first m ortgage (charts 37
a and b).
A t every incom e level, relatively m ore nonw hite
than w hite households occupied substandard
housing in 1960 (chart 38). D esp ite the greater
housing need am ong N egroes, alm ost 9 in 10 of
the 16.8 m illion housing units added to the
“standard housing” supply betw een 1950 and
1960 w ent to w hite occupants. In that period



CHART 35.

NEGRO URBAN FAMILIES SHOWED A
SMALLER INCREASE IN DEBT AND A
GREATER INCREASE IN ASSETS THAN
WHITE FAMILIES IN SIMILIAR INCOME
GROUPS IN 1960-1961*
'

NET INCREASE IN DEBT

'

'

1

'

'

'
'
1
INCOME** S ,000 - $4,999

1
INCOME ** S5,000 - S7,499

NET INCREASE IN SAVINGS

f
_ i_ ,
_ _ ___i___i— i— ■— i— i—

*
**

INCLUDES URBAN FAMILIES AND SINGLE CONSUMERS.
AFTER TAXES.

___i___,
___i— i— i—
NEGRO
Q WHITE

SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF OF LABOR, BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

CHART 36

NEGRO URBAN FAM ILIES, IN LOW AS
W ELL AS MIDDLE INCOME GROUPS,
WERE FAR LESS LIK ELY THAN WHITE
FAM ILIES TO OWN AUTOM OBILES OR
HOMES IN 1960 - 1961*

39

w hite-occupied substandard units dropped 50
percent, com pared to less than 20 percent for
nonw hite-occupied substandard units. N onw hite
households occupied a m uch larger proportion of
all substandard housing in 1960 than they did in
1950, although their proportion of the population
increased very little during the decade (chart 39).
A b out 40 percent of all nonw hite children in 1960
lived in seriously overcrowded housing and in
housing w ith out plum bing (chart 41).
N on w hite housing is m uch m ore likely to be
substandard in rural than in urban areas and
outside, rather than inside, m etropolitan areas
(chart 40). N evertheless, about 40 percent of
the housing of non w hites in the central cities of
S M S A ’s in 1960 was substandard.

CHART 37B.

NONWHITE HOMEOWNERS WERE MORE
LIKELY THAN OTHERS T 0 -

CHART 37A.

NONWHITE FAMILIES WERE ABOUT HALF
AT EVERY INCOME LE V EL R ELA T IV ELY
AS LIKELY AS THE WHITE TO
BE HOMEOWNERS
MORE NONW HITE THAN WHITE
(1960)
HOUSEHOLDS OCCUPIED SUBSTANDARD
HOUSING
PERCENT HOMEOWNERS IN I960

NONWHITE 38%
WHITE

PERCENT IN SUBSTANDARD H O U SIN G , 1960
A LARGER PROPORTION OF NONWHITE THAN WHITE
HOMEOWNERS OWNED THEIR HOMES FREE AND CLEAR

OF HOMEOWNERS WITH A MORTGAGE, NONWHITES
WERE MUCH LESS LIKELY THAN WHITES TO HAVE A
GOVERNMENT ASSISTED LOAN

PERCENT HOMES NONMORTGAGED

PERCENT OF ONE-DWELLING-UNIT PROPERTIES IN 1960
29%
71%

INCO M E IN 1959
ALL INCO M ES

0

20

40

UNDER $3,000

$7,000 A N D OVER

80

30%
■ ]3 %
3

$3,000-$4,999

$5,000 -$6,999

60

--------- 1
--------- 1
--------- 1
--------.• ...
.
14 %
4
J 1%
3

115%
20%
J 7%

Eli
]

NONWHITE
WHITE

,2%
J 3%
1

__________ _____ _____ 1
__________ 1
__________

SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

40



CHART 39

NONWHITE SUBSTANDARD HOUSING
UNITS INCREASED G R EATLY, IN
PROPORTION TO ALL HOUSING UNITS,
1950 - 60, WHEREAS THE RELATIVE
NUMBER OF NONWHITE HOUSEHOLDS
SCARCELY CHANGED

CHART 40.

NONWHITE HOUSEHOLDS
IN RURAL AREAS AND IN THE SOUTH
ARE MOST LIKELY TO LIVE
IN SUBSTANDARD HOUSING
PERCENT OF NONW HITE H OUS IN G UN ITS S UBS TA N D AR D , 1960

PERCENT

1950
SOURCE: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT, HOUSING AND
HOME FINANCE AGENCY




1960
CITIES

SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

CHART 41.

40 PERCENT OF ALL NONWHITE
CHILDREN IN 1960 LIVED IN
OVERCROWDED HOUSING OR HOUSING
LACKING SOME FACILITIES*

41




Chapter IV. Estimated Effects of Selected Federal Programs
on Employment and Unemployment
Antipoverty and training programs
T he antipoverty program s which affect em ploy­
m ent directly are concerned chiefly w ith youth,
16-21 years old. M ost of the youth reached are
in their teens and about one-third are Negro.
Of alm ost 200,000 youths in the N eighborhood
Y outh Corps and programs, that affect persons
not in college, about 65,000 are teenage N egro
youth being paid for training and work on pro­
ductive jobs.
Perhaps fewer than 20,000 of the 100,000 college
people in w ork-study programs during the 1965-66
school year are N egro. Of the approxim ately
80,000 persons in M anpow er D evelopm ent and
Training projects, either in institutions or on the
job, about 23,000 are nonw hite, and over 3,000
of these are nonw hite teenagers.
Several thousand additional nonw hite persons
are trainees enrolled in Area R edevelopm ent
projects.
I t is estim ated that close to 100,000 Negro you th
are on jobs or in training under governm ent
initiated or supported programs in the spring of
1966— enough to have reduced the unem ploym ent
rate for all boys and girls by well over 1 per­
centage point and b y even m ore for the nonw hite.
The effect of the enrollm ent figures for adults
is more m odest because of the large adult labor
force. A dult enrollm ent in training and em ploy­
m ent in antipoverty programs is close to 150,000,
and about one-third are Negroes.

Federal employment
Negroes in Federal em ploym ent increased 9 per­
cent betw een 1961 and 1965—from 12.9 percent
of all Federal em ployees to 13.5 percent—a larger
proportion than in the total labor force. In 1965,
for the first tim e, N egroes on C lassification A ct
payrolls exceeded those on the predom inantly bluecollar W age Board rolls. The W age Board pay
plans still had the largest proportion of Negro
em ploym ent in 1965—20 percent com pared to 9

percent under the Classification A ct and 15 percent
under other plans. T he G overnm ent Printing
Office and the General Services A dm inistration
had the largest proportion of N egro em ploym ent
in 1965 (41 and 34 percent) but, as in the case
of the w hites, the D efense and P ost Office D ep art­
m ents had the largest num ber.
M ore N egroes were em ployed by the Federal
G overnm ent in the W ashington area in 1965—
63,000—-than in any other place; N ew York and
Chicago, w ith about 25,000 each, followed next.
In all cities and regions except W ashington D .C .,
proportionately m ore N egro workers were in the
P ostal Field Service or under W age Board plans
than under the Classification A ct (chart 42).
T he greatest proportionate gains in the Federal
em ploym ent of N egroes occurred in the upper
grades of each pay plan (chart 42). H ow ever,
the num erical increase of N egro Federal workers
was greatest in the lower or m iddle grades, except
for W age Board work, in w hich N egroes have been
em ployed longer and have gained substantial
seniority. E xpansion for N egroes in W age Board
jobs took place alm ost exclusively in the $6,500 to
$7,999 bracket.
E ven w ith these notable im provem ents in
N egroes’ status in Federal em ploym ent betw een
1961 and 1965, N egroes nevertheless still occupy a
disproportionate share of low -paid jobs and bluecollar work on Federal payrolls, just as they do in
private industry. T he disparities also follow'
regional lines, w ith the largest proportions on
W age Board work tending to be in the South, and
the largest percentage in the Classification A ct
pay plans in the N orth and the W est.

Federal contractor employment
Negro em ploym ent in Federal contractor firms
in general reflect no startling breakthroughs so far,
according to the operating statistics recorded in
the past fewr years. In firms w ith Federal con­
tracts in 1964, the N egro proportion of total em -

43
217-817 0 - 6 6 -

4




CHART 42.

FEDERAL EMPLOYMENT OF NEGROES
NEGROES HAVE FARED PRO­
PORTIONATELY BETTER THAN OTHERS
IN EACH FEDERAL PAY PLAN, 1962-65

BUT RELATIVELY FEWER
NEGROES ARE EMPLOYED
UNDER THE CLASSIFICATION ACT,
THAN UNDER OTHER PAY PLANS
PERCENT IN EACH PAY PLAN, 1965

PERCENT CHANGE IN EMPLOYMENT, 1962-65
-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

CLASSIFICATION
ACT

WAGE BOARD

POSTAL FIELD
SERVICE AND
OTHER

NEGROES HAVE GAINED
PROPORTIONATELY MORE
THAN OTHERS IN THE HIGHER
FEDERAL SALARY RANGES, 1962-65
PERCENT CHANGE, 1962-65
-20

-10

0

10

20

30

40

*
LOWER SALARY RANGE

HIGHER
SALARY
RANGE

.

* LESS THAN 0.5%
1/ GS 1-8, PFS 1-8, OR LESS THAN $6,500.
2/ GS 9 - 18, PFS 9-20, OR $6,500 AN D OVER
SOURCE: U.S. CIVIL SERVICE CO M M ISSIO N

44




50

YET IN 1965 NEGROES STILL
REMAINED A RELATIVELY SMALL
PROPORTION OF THOSE IN
HIGHER SALARY GROUPS
PERCENT IN
EACH SALARY RANGE, 1965
60

ploym ent was close to 7 percent, com pared w ith
11 percent in the total labor force.
N egro workers in firms w ith Federal contracts
were relatively m ost com m on (11 percent of the
work force) in services, transportation and public
utilities (9 percent), and in construction (8 per­
cen t). Negroes constituted 28 percent of the
em ploym ent in personal services and 21 percent
in m edical and health services.
M ore than 9 in 10 of all Negro m en em ployed
in firms w ith Federal contracts in 1964 were in
blue-collar work, com pared w ith about 2 in 3 of
all m en in these firms. The largest proportion of
both m en and wom en Negro workers in w hitecollar em ploym ent, am ong reporting Federal con­
tractor firms, were in finance, insurance, and real
estate.

The Negro veteran

Am ong the returns accruing from m ilitary
service and from the special benefits voted for
veterans are those which have m ade veterans m ore
em ployable, productive, and affluent than non­
veterans.
Analysis of the econom ic differences in the
veteran and nonveteran populations and w hite
and nonw hite veterans at sim ilar ages illustrates
the effects of a public policy to benefit a particular
group. I t also illustrates w ays in which public
policy m ay have been circum vented to the dis­
advantage of the Negroes, even under legislation
applying equally to all.
To som e exten t because of selection, but also
because of m ilitary service benefits, including
financial security from serving w ith the m ilitary,
all m ale war veterans had higher incom es and
more years of school, at every working age and
occupational level, and better quality housing
than did other m en in 1960. The greatest gains




in relation to their nonmilitary counterparts were
made by nonwhite veterans.

On the other hand, a sm aller proportion of
nonw hite than w hite war veterans were receiving
V A com pensation, pension, or m ilitary retirem ent
pay in late 1962 or early 1963. A lesser pro­
portion of nonw hites had GI life insurance.
T hese differences m ay, in part, reflect a lower
age distribution am ong nonw hite veterans, in
the first instance, and relatively lower fam ily
incom es, in the second.

With respect to major benefits under the GI
Bill of Rights (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act
of 1944), however, the variations between non­
white and white veterans lead to different con­
clusions. According to Veterans Administration
data, a somewhat larger proportion of nonwhite
than white war veterans took advantage of the
postservice education, training, and vocational
rehabilitation programs, as of late 1962 and early
1963— 53 percent compared to 48 percent. The
veteran could apply to an accepted school as a
matter of right.
In contrast, a much smaller proportion of non­
white than white war veterans obtained a home,
farm, or business loan, although a larger proportion
of the nonwhite than white war veterans tried but
failed. In each instance, the ratio of those non­
white war veterans who did not obtain the loan
was a little higher in the South than in the country
as a whole. For these benefits, application could
be made as a matter of right, but credit institutions
had substantial latitude for refusal.

These data suggest that a new opportunity was
m et by a high degree of aspiration, and paid large
dividends. Som e restrictions on fulfillm ent oc­
curred because of lim ited m eans or denial of
opportunity.

45




Conclusion
The Negroes’ struggle for equality is taking
many forms, as are the programs supporting this
struggle. The foregoing pages reveal in part
to what extent the Negro is gaining.
The Negro household presents a picture of
substantial effort to insure and sustain security,
through multiple workers, multiple jobs per
worker, high labor force participation, plus sub­
stantial increases in school enrollment and
educational attainment.
As Negroes persevere and surmount long­
standing hurdles, as the spotlight on discrimi­
nation in American society probes wider and
deeper, and as civil rights and antipoverty




legislation penetrate further and are widely
implemented, the strides will lengthen.
In the meantime, Negroes still hold a dis­
proportionately large number of manual and lowpaying jobs, their children are more likely to
attend inferior schools; they have limited choice
of residence; and they suffer discrimination and
prejudice.
The changes taking place in American in­
stitutions could bring about the most important
condition of all—that of equality among Ameri­
cans of varying color, origin, or creed. The
only conclusion the facts permit is that the
measures taken and the changes they have made
so far are not nearly enough.

47




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Nye, F. Ivan and Hoffman, Lois Wladis. T he E m p lo y ed
M oth er in A m eric a (Chicago, Rand McNally and Co.,
1963) . 406 pp.
Orshansky, Mollie. “Children of the Poor,” S ocial
S e c u rity B u lle tin , July 1963, pp. 3-13.
-------- . “The Aged Negro and His Income,” S ocia l
S e c u rity B u lle tin , February 1964, pp. 3-13.
-------- . “Counting the Poor, Another Look at the
Poverty Profile,” S o cia l S ec u rity B u lle tin , January
1965, pp. 3-29.
-------- . “ Recounting the Poor—A Five Year Review,”
S o cia l S e c u rity B u lle tin , April 1966, pp. 20-37.
-------- . “Who’s Who Among the Poor,” S o cia l S ec u rity
B u lle tin , July 1965, pp. 3-32.
Patterson, Barbara, et al. T he P rice W e P a y F or D is ­
c rim in a tio n (Atlanta, Ga., Southern Regional Council
and the Anti-Defamation League, June 1964). 44 pp.
Perlman, Helen Harris. “An Approach to Social Work
Problems: Perspectives on the Unmarried Mother on
AFDC,” P ro gra m D evelopm en t fo r S ocia l S ervices in
P u b lic A ssista n c e , 1964, pp. 35-51.
Perry, Jane G. “The Job Outlook for Negro Youth,”
J o u rn a l o f N egro E d u c a tio n , spring 1964, pp. 111-116.
Pettigrew, Thomas F. A P rofile o f the N egro A m eric a n
(Princeton, N.J., D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc.,
1964) . 250 pp.
Population Reference Bureau, Inc. T he A m eric a n N egro
at M id -C e n tu ry (Washington, November 1958).
The Potomac Institute, Inc. T he F ederal R ole in E q u a l
H o u sin g O p p o rtu n ity : A n A ffirm ative P ro g ra m to I m p le ­
m en t E xecu tive O rder 1 10 63 (Washington, 1964).
Southern Regional Council. “Racial Work and Negro
Waste in Southern Employment,” N ew Sou th, May 1962,
15 pp.
Rapkin, Chester and Grigsby, Wm. G. T he D em a n d fo r
H o u sin g in R a c ia lly M ix e d A re a s (Berkeley, University
of California Press, 1960). 177 pp.
Reid, Ira De Augustine. T he N egro Im m ig ra n t, H is B ack ­
g rou n d C h aracteristics, a n d S o c ia l A d ju stm e n t, 1 8 9 9 -1 9 3 7
(New York, Columbia University Press, 1949). 261 pp.
Rose, Arnold. “Social Change and the Negro Problem,”
T he N egro in A m eric a , 1964, 24 pp.
Rose, Arnold M., editor, A ssu rin g F reedom to the F ree, A
C en tu ry o f E m a n c ip a tio n in the U .S .A . (Detroit, Wayne
State University Press, 1964). 305 pp.
Rosen, Bernard. “Race, Ethnicity, and the Achievement
Syndrome,” A m e ric a n S ocio lo gica l R eview , February
1959, pp. 47-60.
Ross, Arthur M. U n em p lo ym en t an d the A m e ric a n
E co n om y R esearch P ro g ra m on U n em p lo ym en t (New
York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1963). 216 pp.
Ross, Arthur M., editor. Jobs a n d R ace (New York,
Harcourt, Brace and World, to be published in 1966).
Rustin, Bayard. “From Protest to Politics, The Failure
of the Civil Rights Movement,” C om m en ta ry, February
1965, pp. 25-31.

52



----- —. “The Watts 'Manifesto’ and The McCone Re­
port,” C om m en ta ry, March 1966, pp. 29-35.
Sawyer, Broadus E. “An Examination of Race as a Factor
in Negro-White Consumption Patterns,” R eview o f
E con om ics' a n d S ta tistic s, May 1962, pp. 217-220.
Schnore, Leo F. and Sharp, Harry. “The Changing Color
of Our Big Cities,” T ra n s-a ctio n , January 1964, pp.
12-14.
Schorr, Alvin L. “Slums and Social Insecurity,” R e­
search R ep o rt N o . 1, U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, Social Security Administration,
Division of Research and Statistics. 168 pp.
Sellin, J. Thorstein and Wolfgang, Marvin F. T he
M ea su rem en t o f D elin q u e n c y (New York, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1964). 423 pp.
Sharp, Harry and Schnore, Leo F. “The Changing Color
Composition of Metropolitan Areas,” L a n d E co n om ics,
May 1962, pp. 169-185.
Silberman, Charles E. “The Businessman and the
Negro,” F ortu n e, September 1963, pp. 97ff.
•——-—. “The City and the Negro,” F ortu n e, March 1962,
pp. 88-91, 139-54.
C risis in B la ck a n d W h ite (Toronto, Random
House, 1964). 370 pp.
Southern Regional Council and Greater Atlanta Council
on Human Relations. The N egro a n d E m p lo y m e n t
O p p o rtu n itie s in the S ou th (Atlanta, Ga., 1962). 21 pp.
Speck, William H. “Enforcement of Nondiscrimination
Requirements for Government Contract Work,” Co­
lu m b ia L a w R eview , February 1963, pp. 243-265.
Taeuber, Irene B. “Migration, Mobility, and the Assimi­
lation of the Negro,” P o p u la tio n B u lle tin , November
1958, pp. 127-150.
Taeuber, Karl E. “Residential Segregation,” S cien tific
A m e ric a n , August 1965, pp. 12-19.
Thompson, Charles H. “The Southern Association and
the Predominantly Negro High School and College,”
(Editorial Comment), J o u rn a l o f N egro E d u c a tio n ,
spring 1962, pp. 105-107.
Thompson, Daniel C. T he N egro L ea d ersh ip C lass with
a foreword by Martin Luther King, Jr. (Englewood
Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1963). 174 pp.
Titmuss, Richard M. “The Role of Redistribution in
Social Policy,” S o c ia l S e c u rity B u lle tin , June 1965,
pp. 14-20.
U.S. Civil Service Commission. S tu d y o f M in o r ity G rou p
E m p lo y m e n t in the F ederal G overnm ent, prepared for the
President’s Committee on Equal Employment Oppor­
tunity, 1963.
U.S. Congress, 88th Cong., 2d sess., House of Representa­
tives. H ea rin g s B efore the S u bcom m ittee on the W a r on
P o v erty P ro g ra m o f the C om m ittee on E d u c a tio n a n d
L abor, Parts 1 and 2.
U.S. Congress, 88th Cong., 2d sess., House of Representa­
tives, Committee on Education and Labor. P o v erty in
the U n ite d S ta tes, 1964.
U.S. Congress, 88th Cong., 2d sess., Senate Select Sub­
committee on Poverty of the Committee on Labor and
Public Welfare. The W a r on P o verty, 1964.
—* •—. Agricultural Research Service. C on su m er E x ­
—
p en d itu re s S u rv ey R ep o rts. (Many of the reports on
rural consumer expenditures in 1961 include data by
race.)

U.S. Department of Agriculture. Economic Research
Service. “Characteristics of the Population of Hired
Farmworker Households,” A g ric u ltu ra l R esearch R ep o rt
N o. 84, August 1965, 21 pp.
U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census
Current Population Reports, Consumer Income. In com e
in 196 4 o f F a m ilie s a n d P erson s in the U n ite d S ta tes,
Series P-60, No. 47, Sept. 24, 1965.
———, •——•—. Current Population Reports. N egro
P o p u la tio n : M a rch 1964, Series P-20, No. 142. (Other
bulletins in the Series P-20 group provide many non­
white-white comparisons, such as those on education,
school enrollment, households and families, and popula­
tion mobility.)
* -—•—, •—•—•—. N egro P o p u la tio n : M a rch 196 5 (Current
—
Population Reports, Series P-20, No. 145).
■—■—•—, —•——. M o b ility o f the P o p u la tio n o f the U n ited
S ta tes, M a rch 1964 to M a rch 196 5 (Current Population
Reports, Series P-20, No. 150.)
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
H ealth , E d u catio n , a n d W elfa re In d ic a to rs. (See espe­
cially monthly issues in 1965 and 1966 for a number of
salient articles.)
-------- . Welfare Administration. See recent and current
issues of W elfa re in R eview for selected items on the
economic welfare of the Negro.
U.S. Department of Labor. T he E con om ic S itu a tio n of
N egroes in the U n ite d S tates, Bulletin S-3, revised 1962.
32 pp.
----- -—. M a n p o w er R ep o rt o f the P re sid e n t, Washington,
March 1965. 276 pp.
-------- . Bureau of Labor Statistics. A n tid isc rim in a tio n
P ro visio n s in M a jo r C on tracts, 1961, Bulletin No. 1336,
July 1962. 17 pp.
-------- ,
. Im p a c t o f Office A u to m a tio n in the I n ­
tern a l R evenue S ervice: a S tu d y of the M a n p o w er Im p lic a ­
tio n s D u rin g the F irst S tages o f the C hangeover, Bulletin

No. 1364, July 1963. 74 pp.
--------,
. Im p lic a tio n s

of A u to m a tio n a n d O ther
T ech n ological D evelopm en ts; a Selected A n n o ta te d B ib lio g ­
ra p h y . Bulletin No. 1319-1, December 1963. 90 pp.
--------,
. Incom e, E d u ca tio n a n d U n em p lo ym en t in
N eigh borh oods. Washington, January 1963. (Analysis

by census tracts of the economic characteristics of 36
United States cities, including information by race.)
--------,
. M o n th ly R eport on the L abor F orce.
Various issues.
-------- , ---------. O ccu pa tio n al O utlook Q u arterly. Various
issues.




U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
S p e c ia l L abor Force R ep o rts. These reports, which
usually include substantial amounts of data by color
appear, in summary, in the M o n th ly L ab o r R eview .
The most recent several reports of particular interest
in this connection are: Special Labor Force Report,
No. 53 “Educational Attainment of Workers in March
1964,” May 1965, by Dennis F. Johnston; Special
Labor Force Report, No. 54, “Employment of High
School Graduates and Dropouts in 1964,” June 1965,
by Forrest A. Bogan, and Special Labor Force Report,
No. 58, “Long-Term Unemployment in the 1960’s,”
September 1965, by Susan S. Holland.
-------- ,
. E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s. (Monthly
publication with detailed statistics, many by color.)
-------- ,
. S u rv ey o f C on su m er E x p e n d itu res 196 0 61. (Many of the reports for urban and nonfarm
United States and for selected metropolitan areas and
cities show data by race.)
-------- ,
. E m p lo y m e n t o f S ch ool A ge Y ou th ,
October 1965. Advance Summary, Special Labor Force
Report, April 1966. 6 pp.
-------- . Manpower Administration. E m p lo y m en t S ervice
R eview .
. M a n p o w er T ra in in g F acts. (Monthly
—------ ,
administrative bulletin which provides statistics by
training program, and by color of trainees.)
-------- . Women’s Bureau. N egro W om en W orkers in
1960. Bulletin 287, Washington, 1964. 55 pp.
U.S. Housing and Home Finance Agency. Office of the
Administrator. S e n io r C itize n s a n d H o w T h ey L ive:
A n A n a ly s is o f 1 96 0 C en sus D a ta : P a r t I I : T he A g in g
N o n w h ite a n d H is H o u sin q , November 1963.
-------- . O u r N o n w h ite P o p u la tio n a n d I ts H o u sin g : The
C hanges B etw een 1 95 0 a n d 1960. Washington, May
1963. 60 pp.
Vander Zanden, James W. “The Non-Violent Resistance
Movement Against Segregation,” A m e ric a n J o u r n a l o f
S o cio lo g y, 1963, pp. 544-550.
Welch, Frank J. “The Evolving Low Income Problems
in Agriculture,” A m e ric a n E con om ic R eview , May 1960,
pp. 231-241.
Williams, Robin M. S tra n g ers N ex t D oor (Englewood
Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1964). 434 pp.
Wilson, James Q. N egro P o litic s (Glencoe, 111., The Free
Press, 1960). 342 pp.
Wolf, Eleanor P. “The Tipping Point in Racially
Changing Neighborhoods,” A m e ric a n In s titu tio n a l
P la n n e rs J o u r n a l, August 1963, pp. 217-222.
Zimmer, Basil G. R eb u ild in g C itie s: T he E ffects o f
D isp la c e m e n t a n d R elocatio n on S m a ll B u sin e ss (Chicago,
Quadrangle Books, 1964). 384 pp.

53




APPENDIX

Background Statistics
The reader will find that totals and percentages for the same year or items
may not always agree exactly between some tables. Rounding of figures
accounts for most of the variation. Minor differences result also from vari­
ations in the sources used; the base on which particular details are available in a
survey or census; or, in a few instances, because of technicalities, such as the
need to use data based on less than the most recent revisions, to provide the
detail necessary.




55




APPENDIX

Background Statistics
Tables
A. Growth and distribution
T able IA -1 .—-Population b y R ace, Conterm inous
U nited States, D ecennial Years, 1890-1960.
T able IA -2 .— Percent D istribution of the Popula­
tion by R ace, for All R egions and the W est, by
Selected W estern States and Standard M etro­
politan Statistical Areas, U nited States, 1960.
Table IA -3 .— Percent D istribution of the Negro
and W hite Population, by Farm and N onfarm
Residence, and Region, 1960 and 1964.
T able IA -4 .— Percent D istribution of the Popula­
tion by R egion, Selected W estern States, and
Standard M etropolitan Statistical Areas, by
Race, U nited States, 1960.
T able IA -5 .— R atio of N egro to T otal Population,
U nited States, by R egion, and U rban-R ural
R esidence, Conterm inous U nited States, D ecen ­
nial Years, 1900-1960.
T able IA -6 .— Proportion of Negro and W hite
Population in Urban Areas by R egion, C onter­
m inous U nited States, D ecennial Years, 19101960.
Table IA -7 .— Negro and W hite Population in
Standard M etropolitan Statistical Areas, by
Inside and O utside of Central C ity R esidence,
Conterm inous U nited States, D ecennial Years,
1900-1960.
T able IA -8 .— D istribution of Negro and W hite
Population in Standard M etropolitan Statistical
Areas, b y R egion, and Inside or O utside Central
C ity, Conterm inous U nited States, 1950 and
1960, and Change, 1950-60.
Table IA -9 .— Negro and W hite Population in
Standard M etropolitan Statistical Areas, by
Inside and O utside of Central C ity R esidence,
and by Size of SM S A in 1960, Conterm inous
U nited States, D ecennial Years, 1900-1960.
T able IA -1 0 .— Negro and W hite Population in
F ive M ajor Standard M etropolitan Statistical
Areas, and in all S M SA ’s, by Inside and O utside




of Central C ity R esidence, and Change, U nited
States, 1950-60.
T able IA -1 1 .— Percent D istribution of Negro and
W hite Population by Age, Urban and Rural
Location, and by R egion, Conterm inous U nited
States, D ecennial Years, 1930-60.
T able IA -1 2 .— Percent D istribution of the Negro
Population in E ach A ge Group, Urban and
Rural Location, Conterm inous U nited States,
D ecennial Years, 1930-60.

B. Mobility
T able IB -1 .— M igrants’ R esidence, Sam e or N ew
R egion, by R egion and Color, A nnual Averages,
U nited States, 1959-64 (3-year m oving average,
1958-65).
Table IB -2 .— E stim ated N et M igration, by R e­
gion and Color: 1940-50, 1950-60, 1960-63.
Table IB -3 .— R egion of R esidence in 1960 by
R egion of B irth for the Negro and W hite N a tive
Population, U nited States, 1960.
T able IB -4 .— Area of Birth of the N on w hite
Population in the 10 Northern and W estern
Cities of G reatest Negro C oncentration, by
C ity of R esidence, U nited States, 1960.
T able IB -5 .— Interregional M igrants 1955-60,
by Age and Color, and by R egion of R esidence
in 1955.
Table IB -6 .— E ducational A ttainm ent of M ales,
25-29 Years Old, by Color, for the T otal
Population, and for 1955-60 Interregional
M igrants, U nited States and South.
T able IB -7 .— Proportion of 25-29 Year-Old M ale
O ut-M igrants, 1955-60, b y E ducational A ttain­
m ent and Color, and by R egion and the D iv i­
sions of the South.
T able IB -8 .— Percent of the N ative Experienced
Civilian Labor Force Born in A nother R egion,
by O ccupation Group, Color, and Sex, U nited
States, 1960.

57

The Negro Worker
A. Labor force status
Table IIA -1 .— E m ploym ent and U nem ploym ent
Status of the Civilian Labor Force, b y Color,
1957-65 (annual averages).
T able IIA -2 .— U nem ploym ent R ates, by Color,
Sex, and Age Group, 1954-65 (annual averages).
T able IIA -3 .— E m ployed and U nem ployed Per­
sons, b y Color, Sex, and Age Group, 1954-65
(annual averages).
Table IIA -4 .— U nem ploym ent R ates, b y Color,
Sex, and Age D etail, 1957 and 1965 (annual
averages).
Table IIA -5 .— U nem ploym ent R ates, b y Color,
Sex, and Age D etail, 1948-65 (annual averages).
Table IIA -6 .— Long-Term U nem ployed, b y Color
and Sex, 1957-65 (annual averages).
Table IIA -7 .— U nem ployed Persons, by Color,
Sex, and Age D etail, 1957 and 1965 (annual
averages).
Table I I A -8 .— U nem ployed Persons and U nem ­
ploym ent R ates, by Sex, Color, Age, and
M arital Status, 1965 (annual averages).
Table IIA -9 .— U nem ployed R ates, b y O ccupation
of L ast Job and Color, 1955 and 1965 (annual
averages).
Table IIA -1 0.— U nem ploym ent R ates, by Indus­
try of L ast Job and Color, 1955 and 1965
(annual averages).
Table IIA -1 1.-—Percent D istribution of U nem ­
ployed Persons, b y Industry, O ccupation, and
Color, 1965 (annual averages).
Table IIA -1 2.— E m ployed Persons, b y Color, Sex,
and Age D etail, 1947-65 (annual averages).
Table IIA -1 3.— E m ployed Persons, b y Color, Sex,
and Age D etail, and Percent Change, 1957 and
1965 (annual averages).
Table IIA -1 4.-—Persons Em ployed in N onagricultural Industries, by Color and F ull- or PartTim e Status, 1957 and 1965 (annual averages).
Table IIA -1 5.— Persons Em ployed in N onagricultural Industries on Full-Tim e Schedules or
V oluntary Part Tim e, by Color and Sex, 1957-65
(annual averages).
Table IIA -1 6.-—Persons E m ployed in N onagricultural Industries on Part-T im e for Econom ic
R easons, b y U sual Full-T im e or Part-T im e
Status, and b y Color and Sex, 1957-65 (annual
averages).
Table IIA -17.-—C ivilian Labor Force, by Sex,
Color, and Age D etail, 1947-65 (annual
averages).

58



Table IIA -1 8.— Percent D istribution of the C ivil­
ian Labor Force, b y R ace and Sex, 1950 and 1960.
Table IIA -1 9.— Labor Force Participation R ates
and U nem ploym ent R ates, b y R ace, 1960.
Table IIA -2 0 .— Civilian Labor Force Participa­
tion R ates, b y Color, Sex, and Age D etail,
1948-65 (annual averages).
Table II A -2 1.— C ivilian Labor Force Participa­
tion R ates, by Sex, Color, and Age D etail, and
R atio of N onw hite to W hite, 1957 and 1965
(annual averages).
Table IIA -2 2 .— Men 25-64 Years Old Not in the
Labor Force, by Color, 1965 (annual averages).
T able IIA -2 3 .— Persons 14-24 Years Old N o t in
the Labor Force and N ot in School, b y Color,
1965 (school year averages).
Table IIA -2 4 .— E xten t of E m ploym ent of Persons
W ith W ork Experience D uring the Year, b y
Color and Sex, 1950, 1957, and 1964.
Table IIA -2 5.— E xten t of E m ploym ent of Persons
W ith W ork Experience D uring the Year, b y
Age, Color, and Sex, 1959 and 1964.
Table IIA -2 6 .— E xten t of U nem ploym ent D ur­
ing the Year, by Color and Sex, 1959 and 1964.

B. Occupation
T able IIB -1 .— E m ployed Persons, b y O ccupation
Group, Color, and Sex, 1955, 1961, and 1965
(annual averages).
T able IIB -2 .— E m ploym ent of N onw hite
W orkers, b y O ccupation Group, 1954-65.
T able IIB -3 .— E m ployed M en and W om en, b y
O ccupation Group, R egion, and Color, 1965
(annual averages).
Table IIB -4 .— Percent D istribution of N egro and
W hite M ale E m ploym ent, b y O ccupation Group
and R egion, 1950 and 1960.
Table IIB -5 .— Percent D istribution and Percent
Change of E m ployed Persons, b y D etailed Oc­
cupation, Sex, and Color, 1962 and 1965.
Table IIB -6 . —Negro and White Male Employ­
ment in Selected Occupations, 1950 and 1960.
Table IIB -7 .— E m ployed Persons, b y Industry
D etail, Color, and Sex, 1962 and 1964 (annual
averages).
Table IIB -8 .— Percent D istribution of E m ployed
M ales, b y R ace and Broad O ccupation Group,
C onterm inous U nited States, 1950 and 1960.

C. Youth
Table IIC -1 .— Percent of Persons 5-24 Years Old
Enrolled in School, b y A ge and Color, October
of Selected Years, 1953-65.

Table IIC -2 .— Percent of M ales 14-19 Years Old
Enrolled in School, b y Color and Age Group,
1948-63 (3-year m oving averages, centered,
annually).
Table IIC -3 .— Percent of Persons 14-29 Years
Old Enrolled in School, by Age, R ace, and Sex,
Conterm inous U nited States, 1960.
Table IIC -4 .— E m ploym ent Status of Teenagers,
b y Color, Sex, and Age, 1954, 1961, and 1965
(annual averages).
Table IIC -5 . —U nem ploym ent R ates for All
W orkers and Teenagers, b y Color and Sex,
1954-65.
Table IIC -6 .— U nem ploym ent R ates A m ong H igh
School G raduates N o t Enrolled in School and
H igh School D ropouts, Persons 16-24 Years
Old, by Color and Sex, O ctober 1959 and
O ctober 1965.
Table IIC -7 .— Percent D istribution of E m ployed
Persons 16-24 Years Old, b y O ccupation
Group for H igh School G raduates N o t Enrolled
in School and H igh School D ropouts, b y Color
and Sex, O ctober 1959 and O ctober 1965.
Table IIC-8.-— W eekly Earnings on Full-T im e
Jobs of 16-21-Year-Old Y ouths N o t in School,
b y Years of School Com pleted and Color,
February 1963.
Table IIC -9 .— E m ploym ent Status and H ours
W orked Am ong Y outh (aged 16-22) Enrolled
in School, b y Sex, Age, and Color, U nited
States, 1960.

of Persons and of Y ear-R ound Full-T im e
W orkers, by Color and Sex, 1957 and 1963.
T able II I A -4.— M edian F am ily Incom e, by Color
and Region, 1960-64.
T able IIIA -5 .— Percent D istribution of Fam ilies
by Incom e, Color, and R egion, 1964.
T able IIIA -6 .— P ercent D istribution of Fam ilies
by Incom e, Color, and Farm and N onfarm
R esidence, 1959 and 1964.
Table IIIA -7 .— Percent D istribution of Persons
14 Years Old and Over, b y Incom e, Color, Sex,
and Farm and N onfarm R esidence, 1959 and
1964.
T able IIIA -8 .— Percent D istribution of N onfarm
H usband-W ife Fam ilies, b y Incom e, W ork
Experience of W ives, and Color, 1963.
T able IIIA -9 .— Labor Force P articipation R ates
of N onfarm M arried W om en W ith H usband
Present, b y Incom e of H usband, Age of Children
and Color, M arch 1959 and M arch 1964.
Table IIIA -1 0 .— Percent D istribution of Fam ilies
W ith H ead 65 Years Old and Over, b y Incom e
and Color, U nited States, 1960 and 1963.
Table IIIA -1 1 .— R atio of N onw hite to W hite
M edian Earnings of M ales, 18-64 Years Old, in
the Experienced Labor Force, b y O ccupation
Group, Age, and R egion, 1960.
T able IIIA -1 2 .— M edian Earnings of M ales in
the Experienced C ivilian Labor Force, by A ge
and Color, in Selected O ccupations, 1959.

D. Federal employment

T able IIIB -1 .— Sum m ary of Incom e and Spend­
ing of Fam ilies, b y R egion and Race, Urban
U nited States, 1960-61 (annual average).
Table IIIB -2 .— Average Expenditures of Fam ilies,
by R ace, Urban U nited States, 1950 and 1960-61.
T able IIIB -3 .— Percent D istribution of F am ily
Expenditures, by Incom e and R ace, Urban
U nited States, 1950 and 1960-61 (annual
average).
Table I IIB -4 .— Percent D istribution of F am ily
Expenditures, by Incom e and R ace, in Urban
Places in Southern and N orth Central R egions,
1960-61 (annual average).
T able IIIB -5 .— Savings, Insurance, and Selected
Characteristics of Fam ilies in Selected Incom e
Classes, by R egion and R ace, Urban U nited
States, 1960-61 (annual average).

Table I I D -1 .— Federal E m ploym ent, by Race,
1961-65.
Table I I D -2 .—Federal Em ploym ent, b y Grade
and Salary Group, and Race, 1965; and Percent
Change from 1964 and 1962 to 1965.
T able I I D -3 .— T otal and Negro Federal E m ploy­
m ent, b y P ay Plan and A gency, June 1965.
T able I I D -4 .— T otal and Negro Federal E m ploy­
m ent, by Selected P ay Plans in the Civil
Service Regions and Selected Standard M etro­
politan Statistical Areas, June 1965.

The Negro Consumer
A. Income, earnings
Table I I I A -1 .— M edian Fam ily Incom e, by Color
of F am ily H ead, 1947-64.
Table IIIA -2 .— R atio of N onw hite to W hite
M edian Incom e of Persons, b y Sex, 1948-64.
Table IIIA -3 .— M edian W age or Salary Incom e

B. Expenditures

C. Poverty
T able IIIC -1 .— T otal N um ber of the Poor,
According to Social Security Adm inistration

59
217-817 O— 6i




5

Criteria, by Color, F am ily Status, and Age,
1963-64.
T able IIIC -2 .— Poor Persons, by Age, Location,
and Color, M arch 1965.
Table IIIC -3 .— W ork Experience of Poor F am ily
H eads, b y A ge and Color, 1964.
T able IIIC -4 .— T otal N um ber of the Poor in
1963, According to Social Security A dm inis­
tration Criteria, and Percent D istribution by
Color, F am ily Status, and Age D etail, as of
M arch 1964.
T able IIIC -5 .— Incidence of P overty in 1963,
According to Social Security A dm inistration
Criteria, b y Color and Sex of H ousehold H ead,
and b y R egion, as of M arch 1964.
T able IIIC -6 .— Proportion of Fam ilies Poor in
1963, According to Social Security A dm inistra­
tion Criteria, and D istribution of the Poor, by
Color and by Selected F am ily Characteristics in
M arch 1964.
T able IIIC -7 .— H ouseholds W ith 1963 Incom e
B elow P overty Level, According to Social Se­
curity A dm inistration Criteria, b y Color and
F am ily Status, as of M arch 1964.
T able IIIC -8 .— Incidence of P overty Am ong
Children in 1963, According to Social Security
A dm inistration Criteria, b y Color, Age, and Sex
of F am ily H ead, M arch 1964.
T able IIIC -9 .— Proportion of Fam ilies Poor in
1963, According to Social Security A dm inistra­
tion Criteria, and D istribution of Poor Fam ilies
b y Selected Characteristics of F am ily H eads, as
of M arch 1964.
Table IIIC -1 0 .— Fam ilies W ith Incom e Under
$3,000 (in 1963 dollars) b y Color, for Selected
Years, 1950-64.
T able IIIC -1 1 .— Persons in Fam ilies, T otal and
N onw hite, b y M arch 1965 E m ploym ent Status,
Age, and F am ily Incom e in 1964 (B elow $3,000
and M edian).
T able IIIC -1 2 .— F am ily H eads, T otal and N o n ­
w hite, b y W eeks W orked and F am ily Incom e,
1964 (B elow $3,000 and M edian).
T able IIIC -1 3 .— E m ploym ent Status of F am ily
H eads in M arch 1965, T ype of F am ily, and
N um ber of Own Children Under 18, by F am ily
Incom e in 1964, T otal and N on w hite (Under
$3,000 and M edian).
T able IIIC -1 4 .— F am ily R esponsibilities of Per­
sons in the Experienced C ivilian Labor Force
and in Selected N onagricultural Low -W age
O ccupations, b y Color, U nited States, 1960.

60



T able IIIC -1 5 .— F am ily R esponsibilities of All
E m ployed W om en and W om en E m ployed in
Selected N onagricultural Low -w age O ccupa­
tions, b y Color, 1960.
T able IIIC -1 6 .— Farm W age W orkers, by A verage
N um ber of D ays W orked, W ages Earned at
Farm and N onfarm W ork, and b y Color, Sex,
R egion, and M igratory Status, 1964.
Table IIIC -1 7 .— Percent D istribution of A F D C
Children b y R egion of R esidence and R ace,
N ovem ber-D ecem ber 1961.
Table IIIC -1 8 .— Percent D istribution of Children
R eceiving Aid to Fam ilies of D ependent C hil­
dren (A F D C ), b y Urban-R ural and Large Cen­
tral C ity R esidence, N ovem ber-D ecem ber 1961.
Table IIIC -1 9 .— Incom e of A D C Fam ilies by
R ace, early 1961.
T able IIIC -2 0 .— M arital Status of A D C H om e­
m akers, b y R ace, 1961.
Table I I I C -2 1.— B irth Status of A D C Children,
by R esidence, R ace, and Status of Case, 1961.
Table IIIC -2 2 .— Selected C haracteristics of A D C
H om em akers and A D C Fam ilies b y Size of
C om m unity and R ace, E arly 1961.
T able IIIC -2 3 .— Percent of A D C Fam ilies by
Tenure and H ousehold C onveniences, b y R ace
and Urban-R ural R esidence, E arly 1961.
Table IIIC -2 4 .— Proportion of Population R e­
ceiving O ld-Age A ssistance (R ecipient R ates)
b y Color, Selected States, July-Septem ber 1960.
Table IIIC -2 5 .— O ld-Age A ssistance R ecipients,
b y R ace, 50 States, July-Septem ber 1960.

Social Conditions
A. The family
Table IV A -1 .— Fam ilies by T ype and Color,
U nited States, M arch of 1960-64 (3-year m ov­
ing averages, M arch of 1959-65).
Table IV A -2 .— Fam ilies b y T ype and Color, by
R egion and U rban-R ural R esidence, U nited
States, 1950 and 1960.
T able IV A -3 .— Fam ilies by T ype and Color, by
R egion and U rban-R ural R esidence, U nited
States, 1950-60 Change.
Table IV A -4 .— Fem ale F am ily H eads b y Age,
Color, and R egion, U nited States, 1950 and
1960.
Table IV A -5 .— T ype of F am ily b y Incom e Group
in 1959, by Color, Selected R egions, and Areas,
U nited States, 1960.
T able IV A -6 .— M arital Status, by Sex and Color,
1950 and 1960-65.

Table IV A -7 .— A verage N um ber of Persons in
Fam ily, M em bers of F am ily 18 Years Old and
Over, and Fam ilies W ith Own Children Under
6 Years Old, by T ype of F am ily and Color,
U nited States, 1960.
Table IV A -8 .— F ertility R ates, by Color, U nited
States, 1940-64.
T able IY A -9 .— Birth R ates, by Order of Birth
and Color, U nited States, 1940-64.
Table IV A -10.— Birth R ates, by Age of M other
and Color, U nited States, 1940-64.
T able IV A -1 1 .—Children E ver Born Per 1,000
M others 20-39 Years Old, b y A ge Group,
Color, and Selected F am ily Incom e Group,
Selected Areas, U nited States, 1960.
T able IV A -1 2.— N um ber of Births Per EverM arried W om an 35-59 Years Old, b y L evel of
Educational A ttainm ent as of 1960.
Table IV A -13.— Average T otal N um ber of Births
E xpected and Children W anted, W hite and
N onw hite W ives, b y E ducation, 1960.
T able IV A -14.— E stim ated Illegitim acy R ate, by
Color, 1947-64.
T able IV A -15.— Illegitim acy R ates as R elated to
Incom e and E ducation, by Color, in Integrated
Census Tracts (30 to 70 percent non w hite), in
W ashington, D .C .

B. Education
Table IV B -1 .— Percent Illiterate in the Popula­
tion, by Color, 1870-1959.
Table IV B -2 .— E ducational A ttainm ent of Per­
sons 25 Years Old and Over, by A ge and Color,
M arch 1959 and M arch 1964.
T able IV B -3 .— E ducational A ttainm ent of the
Population 14 Years and Over, b y R ace,
U nited States, 1950 and 1960.
Table IV B- 4.— Percent D istribution b y E duca­
tional L evel of M en 20-64 Years Old and of
Their Fathers, by Color, M arch 1962.
Table IV B -5 .— E ducational A ttainm ent of the
Population 18 Years Old and Over, b y Labor
Force Status, Color, Sex, R esidence, and
R egion, M arch 1959 and M arch 1965.
Table IV B -6 .— Percent of the C ivilian Labor
Force 18 Years Old and Over, by Selected
Levels of E ducational A ttainm ent and by Color
and Sex, Selected Years, 1952-65.
T able IV B -7 .— Labor Force Participation R ates
of Persons 18 Years Old and Over, by A ge
Group, Color, Sex, and Years of School Corm
pleted, M arch 1965.



T able IV B -8 .—Labor Force Participation R ates
of Persons 25 Years Old and Over, b y Sex,
Color, and E ducational A ttainm ent, U nited
States, 1950 and 1960
T able IV B -9 .— Percent D istribution of E m ployed
Persons 18 Y ears Old and Over, b y Y ears of
School C om pleted, O ccupation Group, Color,
and Sex, M arch 1959 and M arch 1965.
T able IV B -1 0 .— Percent D istribution of E m ployed
Persons, b y O ccupation Group, Years of School
C om pleted, Color, and Sex, M arch 1959 and
M arch 1965.
T able I V B -1 1.— U nem ploym ent R ates of Persons
18 Years Old and Over, by Years of School
C om pleted, and b y Age, Sex, and Color,
M arch 1962 and M arch 1965.
T able IV B -1 2 .— Percent D istribution of U n ­
em ployed Persons 18 Years Old and Over, by
Years of School C om pleted and b y Age and
Color, M arch 1962 and M arch 1965.
Table IV B -1 3 .—M edian Y early Incom e of M ales
14 Years Old and Over W ith Incom e, b y Color
and Years of School C om pleted, 1958 and 1963.
C. Housing
Table IV C -1 .— C ondition of H ousing b y Incom e
Class of H ousehold in 1959 and b y Color,
U nited States, 1960.
Table I V C -2 .— Selected C haracteristics of H ous­
ing U n its by Color of H ousehold H ead, by
Region, Inside and O utside SM SA ’s, Urban
and Rural, 1960.
Table I V C -3 .— Shifts in H ousing Characteristics,
b y Color of O ccupants, 1950-60.
Table I V C -4 .— H ousing C onditions Am ong H ouse­
holds W ith N onw hite H eads, b y Urban-R ural
Location, U n ited States, 1950 and 1960.
Table IV C -5 .— Percent of H ousing Seriously
Overcrowded, Inside and O utside S M SA ’s,
U rban and Rural, by Tenure and Color of
O ccupants, 1960.
Table I V C -6 .— Percent D istribution of Ownerand Renter-O ccupied H ousing U nits by Value
or Gross M onthly R ent, Inside and O utside
S M SA ’s, U rban and Rural, by Color of Occu­
pants, 1960.
Table I V C -7 .— Substandard H ousing U n its by
Incom e Class of H ousehold in 1959, by Color,
Region, and R esidence Inside and O utside
S M S A ’s, 1960.
Table I V C -8 .— M ortgage and G overnm ent In ­
surance Status of O ne-unit H om eowner Proper­
ties, by Color of H ousehold H ead, 1960.
61

Table IV C -9 .— Percent D istribution of H om es b y
A ge of Owner and Financial O bligation In ­
curred, T otal and N onw hite, 1960.
T able IV C -1 0.— Percent D istribution of M ort­
gaged H om es for Selected Property Character­
istics, T otal and N onw hite, 1960.
T able IV C -1 1.— Percent D istribution of H om eowner Properties, b y M ortgage Characteristics,
and Owner (T otal and N onw hite), 1960.

D. Health
T able IV D -1 .— D eath R ates, b y Age and Color,
1900 and 1964.
T able IV D -2 .—A ge-A djusted D eath R ates, by
Color and Sex, 1947-64.
T able IV D -3 .— M aternal and Infant M ortality
R ates, b y Color, Selected Periods, 1915-64.
T able IV D -4 .— A ge-A djusted D eath R ates for
Selected Com m unicable D iseases, b y Color,
Selected Years, 1930-64.
T able IV D -5 .— Life E xpectancy in Prim e W ork­
ing Years, b y Color and Sex, 1964.
Table IV D -6 .— Life E xpectancy in Prim e W ork­
ing Years, b y Age, Color, and Sex, U nited States
and G eographical D ivisions, 1959-61.
Table IV D -7 .—Suicide R ates, b y Sex and Color,
1947-63.
Table IV D -8 .— D istribution of Population, by
H ospital and Surgical Insurance Coverage,
F am ily Incom e, and Color, July 1962-June
1963.
T able IV D -9 .— N um ber and Percent of Persons
in the Population W ith One or M ore Chronic
C onditions and A ctiv ity Lim itations, b y Color
and Age, Ju ly 1957-June 1961.
T able IV D -1 0 .— N um ber and Percent of M ales in
the Labor Force W ith One or M ore Chronic
Conditions and A ctiv ity L im itations, by Color,
Age, and E m ploym ent Status, July 1961-June
1963.
T able I V D -1 1.— N um ber of D isab ility D ays and
R ates Per Person Per Year b y Sex, A ge, and
Color, July 1961-June 1963.
Table IV D -1 2.— N um ber of D isab ility D ays and

62



R ates Per Person Per Year for N on w hite and
W hite M ales in the Labor Force, b y A ge Group
and E m ploym ent Status, July 1961-June 1963.
Table IV D -1 3 .— N um ber and Percent of Persons
w ith L ast Physician V isit W ithin a Year, by
Sex, F am ily Incom e, Color, and A ge, July
Color, 1963-June 1964.
Table IV D -1 4 .— Percent D istribution of Physician
V isits, b y Place of V isit, F am ily Incom e, and
and Color, Ju ly 1963-June 1964.
T able IV D -1 5.— Prevalence of R eaction to T ests
for Syphilis in A dults, b y R ace, Sex, and T est
U sed, 1960-62.

E. The veteran
Table IV E -1 .— W ork Experience of M ale W ar
V eterans (N oninstitutional) b y Age Group and
Color, 1964.
T able IV E -2 .— M ale W ar V eterans’ Participation
in Life Insurance and B enefit Program s, b y
Program and Color, U nited States, L ate 1962E arly 1963.
Table IV E -3 .— M ale W ar V eterans’ U se of GI
Loan E ntitlem ent, b y Color, U nited States and
South, L ate 1962-E arly 1963.
T able IV E -4 .— M ale W ar V eterans’ R eceipt of
VA M edical Benefits Since 1947, b y Color,
L ate 1962-E arly 1963.
Table IV E -5 .— Incom e in 1959 of All Fam ilies
W ith M ale H ead and Fam ilies W ith M ale W ar
Veteran H ead, b y A ge and Color, 1960.
Table IV E -6 .— Earnings, E ducational A ttain ­
m ent, and A ge of All M ales and M ale W ar
V eterans, b y O ccupation Group and Color, 1960.
Table IV E -7 .— E ducational A ttainm ent of All
M en and of W ar V eterans, b y A ge and Color,
1960.
Table IV E -8 .— C haracteristics of H ousing Am ong
All Fam ilies w ith M ale H ead and Fam ilies
H eaded b y W ar V eterans, b y Tenure and Color,
1960.
T able IV E -9 .— V alue of N onfarm Owner-Occu­
pied H ousing U nits of W ar Veterans and Others,
b y Age and Color, 1960.

N egroes rem ained 10 to 11 percent of the total population betw een 1910 and 1960 and were about
12 percent betw een 1890 and 1900.
T a b l e I A - 1 .— P o p u la tio n by R ace, C o n term in o u s U n ite d S ta te s, D ec en n ia l Y ea rs, 1 8 9 0 -1 9 6 0

Decennial years

Race

1890

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

Percent distribution
Total nonwhite- _
Negro
Other races
Other races
Indians _
Japanese..
Chinese-- All others 1___

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

95
5

96
4

96
4

96
4

95
5

96
4

95
5

94

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

64
17
17

57
26
15

56
23
13
9

22

57
13
8

48
20
17
15

44
23
17
16

.
9. 8
.4

10. 5
10. 0
.5

13, 454
12, 866
589
334
127
78
50
118, 215
131, 669

15, 755
15, 042
713
343
142
118

69
1
30

68

7
26

1

2

6

Percent of total population
Total nonwhite_____
Negro
Other races - _

_

12. 5
11. 9
.6

.
11. 6
.5

12 1

.
10. 7
.4

11 1

10. 3
9. 9
.4

.
9. 7
.5

10 2

10 2

.
10. 6
.6

11 2

Population (in thousands)
Total nonwhite.- __Negro
Other races_____________
Indians. __ .. . .
Japanese.____ _
Chinese..
All others 1
White_____________________
Total population. __

7, 846
7, 489
358
248
2
107

9, 185 10, 240
8 , 834
9, 828
413
351
237
266
72
24
72
90
3
55, 101 6 6 , 809 81, 732
62, 948 75, 995 91, 972

10, 890
10, 463
427
244
111
62
9
94, 821
105, 711

12, 488
11, 891
597
332
139
75
51
110, 287
122, 775

110

134, 942
150, 697

20, 009
18, 860
1, 149
509
260
199
181
158, 455
178, 464

1All others include Filipinos, Hawaiians, Part-Hawaiians, Aleuts, Eskimos, etc.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: Census of Population: 1960, General Population Characteristics, United States Summary, PC(1)-1B, table 44 (U.S. Bureau ol the Census).




63

N egroes were about 20 percent of the total population in the South b u t less than 10 percent in other
regions in 1960.
T a b l e I A -2 . — P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f the P o p u la tio n by R ace, fo r A ll R eg io n s a n d the W e st,1 by S elected W estern S ta te s an d
S ta n d a rd M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A re a s, U n ite d S ta te s, 196 0

Region, State, and SMSA

Total
(in thousands)

Total

White

Non white
Total

Negro

Other

Total

Negro

Other

Percent distribution
United States .
179, 323
Northeast. __
44, 678
North Central__
51, 619
South _ _ __
54, 973
West__ _- _ __ 28, 053
27, 194
Conterminous W est____
West:
California
15, 717
W ashington___ __ 2, 853
Arizona and Mew Mexico. _ 2, 253
633
Hawaii_____ _________
A laska_______________
226
Other S tates____ _ _ 6 , 371
Western SMSA’s..
__ 20, 131
All California SMSA’s___ 13, 591
Los Angeles.
6 , 743
2, 783
San Francisco___
Others, California___
4, 065
6 , 540
Others, West__ __

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

89
93
93
79
92
94
92
96
91
32
77
97
91
91
91
88
94
92

11

7
7

21
8
6

8

11

7
7
21
4
4
6
2

1

(2)
(2)
(2)

100

4
3

100
100
100
100
100

2
2

3
1
3
1
5

7
67
4

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

6

2

100

7
9
4

2

12
6

4
2

100
100
100

9

2

6

100

4
9
68
23
3
9
9
9

20
1

92
96
95
98
49
62
70
48
29
1
13
48
58
72
78
69
61
28

8

4
5
2
51
38
30
52
71
99
87
52
42
28
22

31
39
72

1 Total West, including Alaska and Hawaii except where noted.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: Census of Population: 1960, General Population Characteristics, United States Summary, PC(1)-1B, table 56; Census of Population: 1960, Selected
Area Reports, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, PC(3)-1D, table 1 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

64



B etw een 1960 and 1964, the decline in the
proportion of Negroes in the South and on farms
continued, and there was a further increase in
the W est and N orth, and in cities, reflecting the
patterns of m igration of the 1950’s. Over half
of the Negroes in the U nited States lived in the
South, how ever, in 1964.
T a b l e 1A-3.— P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f the N egro a n d W h ite
P o p u la tio n , by F a rm a n d N o n fa rm R esiden ce, a n d R egion ,
196 0 a n d 1964

Residence and
region

1960 1
Negro

White

T a b l e IA -4 .'— P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f the P o p u la tio n by
R egion , S elected Western S ta tes, a n d S ta n d a rd Metro­
p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A re a s, by R ace, U n ite d S ta tes, 196 0

Region, State, and
SMSA
Total

1964 2
Negro

White

Total population
(in thousands) __ 18, 849 158, 838 20, 739 167, 046
Residence:
Percent___
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
Nonfarm____ 92. 1 92. 5 93. 1
93. 4
Farm
7. 9
7. 9
6.9
6.6
Regions:
Percent
__ _ 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
Northeast___ 16. 0
26. 1
26. 1
18. 1
North Central. 18. 3 30. 2 19. 4
29. 4
South
60. 0
27. 4 54. 4
27. 4
West
__
5. 7 16. 3
8. 1
17. 1
* From the 1960 Census.
2 Based on the Current Population Survey of the U.S. Bureau of the
Census.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: Current Population Reports, Population Characteristics, Negro
Population, Series P-20, No. 142, October 11, 1965, table A.




Of the sm all proportion of N egroes who lived in
the W est in 1960 (less than 10 percent), 8 in 10
were in California, chiefly in the large cities.

Non white
Total Negro Other

W hite

Percent distribution
United States . __ _
Northeast _ _ __
North Central___
South _____ _
W est.. _ ______
West, total 1 - __
California
Washington__
Arizona and New
Mexico - _ _
Hawaii
Alaska Other States

100

100

100

100

100

25
29
31
16

15
18
56

16
18
60

8
11
11

6

70

26
30
27
16

100

100

100

100

100

56

57
5
9
19

81
5

33
5
13
37
4

56

10

8
2
1

23

11

2
8

6
1
1
8

8

11

8
1
1

24

Percent of total West1
In western SMSA’s-.
Not in California. _
In California..
Los Angeles___
San Francisco__
Others_____ -_
Outside western
SMSA’s_________

72
23
48
24
10
15
28

78
25
53
27
16
10

92
14
78
43
22
13

22

8

64
35
29
8

71
23
48
24
9
15

36

29

11

9

1 Total West, including Alaska and Hawaii.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
Source: Census of Population: 1960, General Population Characteristics,
United States Summary, PC(1)-1B, table 56; Census of Population: 1960,
Selected Area Reports, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, PC(3)-1D,
table 1 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

65

Since the turn of the century, the proportion of N egroes has risen from 2 to 7 percent of the Northern
population, but declined steadily from alm ost % to about % in the South, largely through m igration.
W hile the proportion of N egroes alm ost doubled in the cities and declined on farms, it rem ained relatively
stable in rural nonfarm places.
T able

IA-5.— R a tio

o f N egro to T otal P o p u la tio n , U n ite d S ta tes, by R egion , a n d U rb a n -R u ra l R esiden ce, C on term in ou s
U n ite d S ta tes, D ecen n ia l Y ea rs, 1 9 0 0 -6 0

Conterminous United States

Percent Negro by—

Population (in thousands)

Decennial
year

Region

Residence

Total
1900_____
1910_____
1920_____
1930_____
1940_____
1950_____
1960_____

Negro

White

Rural
North- N orth
Other Total east Cen- South West Urban
tral
Total Non- Farm
farm

75, 995
91, 972
105, 711
122, 775
131,669
150, 697
178,464

, 834
9, 828
10, 463
11,891
12,866
15, 042
18,860

66,809
81,732
94, 821
110,287
118,215
134,942
158,455

351
413
427
597
589
713
1, 149

8

1 1 .6
10

.7
9.9
9.7
9.8
10.0
10.6

N otes.—Dashes indicate data not available. Because of rounding, sums
of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1957,
table series 95-122; Sixteenth Census of the United States: 1940, Population,

66



.
1.9
2.3
3. 3
3.8
5. 1
1 8

6 .8

1. 9
.
2.3
3.3
3.8
5. 1
6.8
1 8

32. 3
29. 8
26.9
24. 7
23. 8
21.7
2 0 .6

0. 7
.7
.9
1.0
1.2
2.9
3.9

.3
7.5
8.4
9.7

6
6 .6

1 1 .0

14. 5
13.4
12.4
1 1 .6
10. 5
9. 4

9.0
8.5
7.8
8.0
8.9

16.3
15.5
14.9
13.8
1 1 .0

Vol. II, Characteristics of the Population, Pt. 1, tables 4, 5; Census of Popula­
tion: I960, Detailed Characteristics, United States Summary, PC(1)-1D, table
158; Census of Population: 1960, General Population Characteristics, United
States Summary, PC(1)-1B, tables 44, 51, 56 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

In the N orth and W est, N egroes have been
highly urban throughout this century, and con­
tinue to be substantially m ore urban than the
w hite population. In the South, how ever, urban­
ization has proceeded at about the sam e pace
am ong N egroes and w hites.
T a b l e IA- 6 .—P ro p o rtio n o f N egro a n d W h ite P o p u la tio n
in U rb a n A re a s by R eg io n , C on term in ou s U n ite d S ta tes,
D ecen n ia l Y ears, 1 9 1 0 -6 0

Percent urban
United States South

Year

North
and West

Negro White Negro White Negro White
1910_______
1920_______
1930_______
1940_______
1950 1 ______
1960 2 ______

27
35
44
49
62
73

49
53
58
59
64
70

23
29
35
37
49
59

21

27
32
37
48
58

77
84
88
89
94
95

57
62
66
67
70
74

1 Urban definition for 1940 and before not strictly comparable to 1950,1960
definitions.
2 Does not include Alaska and Hawaii.
Source: A b stra ct of the Thirteenth C ensus (1910), table 28, p. 103; 1920-40
Sixteenth C ensus of the U n ited States: 1940 P o p u la tio n , Vol. II, C haracteristics
o f the P o p u la tio n , Pts. 1-7, tables 4, 5, for each State; C ensus o f P o p u la tio n ,
1950, Vol. II, C haracteristics o f the P o p u la tio n , Pt. 1, U nited S tates S u m m a ry ,
table 145; 1960—C ensus o f P o p u la tio n , D etailed C haracteristics, U n ited S tates
S u m m a ry , Final Keport PC(1)-1D, tables 158, 233 (U.S. Bureau of the
Census).

A bout the sam e proportion of N egroes as w hites lived in S M SA ’s in 1960; how ever, the ratio of
the population in central cities to the population outside tripled am ong N egroes betw een 1900 and 1960,
whereas it decreased by nearly half am ong w hites.
T able

1A-7.— N egro

Decennial
years

a n d W h ite P o p u la tio n in S ta n d a rd M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A re a s, by I n s id e a n d O u tside o f C en tra l
C ity R esiden ce, C o n term in o u s U n ite d S ta te s, D ec en n ia l Y ea rs, 1 9 0 0 -6 0

Total U.S.
population
(in thousands)

Total SMSA
population
(in thousands)

Negro
1900______
1910_____
1920______
1930______
1940______
1950_____
1960_____

White

8 , 834
9, 828
10, 463
11, 891
12, 866
15, 042
18, 860

, 809 2, 352
81, 732 2 , 820
94, 821 3, 547
110, 287 4, 991
118, 215 5, 840
134, 942 8 , 360
158, 455 12, 194
66

Negro

Population (i n thousands)

Percent
of U.S.
population
in SMSA’s

Central city

White N egro White Negro
29, 399
38, 985
48, 779
61, 470
6 6 , 487
80, 249
99, 509

27
29
34
42
45
57
65

44
48
51
56
56
60
63

, 281
1, 703
2, 382
3, 634
4, 358
6 , 456
9, 704
1

Outside
central city

Ratio:
central city
population
to outside
central city
population

White

Negro

White N egro W hite

18, 467
25, 286
32, 168
39, 298
40, 971
45, 441
47, 575

1, 071
1, 117
1, 165
1, 357
1, 482
1, 904
2, 490

10, 932
13, 699
16, 611
22, 172
25, 517
34, 808
51, 934

120

153
205
268
294
339
390

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: C ensus o f P o p u la tio n : 1960, Selected A re a R ep o rts, S tan dard M e tro p o lita n S ta tistica l A re a s, PC(3)-1D, table 1; C ensus of P o p u la tio n :
P o p u la tio n C haracteristics, U nited S tates S u m m a ry , PC(1)-1B, table 44 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).



169
185
194
177
161
131
92

1960, General

67

W ell over half of the increase in Negro population betw een 1950 and 1960 was in the central cities
of S M SA ’s in the N orth— the only areas w hich lost w hite population during the decade.
T able

IA- 8 .— D istrib u tio n

o f N egro a n d W h ite P o p u la tio n in S ta n d a rd M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A re a s, by R egion , a n d I n s id e
or O u tside C en tral C ity , C on term in ou s U n ited S ta tes, 1 95 0 a n d 1960, a n d C hange, 1 9 5 0 -6 0

Total population
Region and residence

Percent
distribution
1950

Percent
change

1960

1950-60

Number
(in thousands)
1950

N egro W hite N egro W hite N egro W hite Negro
Total U.S. population. _
Total SMSA’s. .
. . . .
Central city__________ _ __
Outside central city..
__
Northeastern SMSA’s. ____ _
Central city___ _ _ ___
Outside central city.. .
North Central SMSA’s. .
Central city.
Outside central city _
Southern SMSA’s..
Central city____
Outside central city. ___
Western SMSA’s__ _ _____
Central city.
Outside central c it y .___

100

100

100

100

56
43
13
17
14
3
13

60
34
26
24
13

65
52
13

63
30
33

20

22

11
2

11

22

10

15
7
4
2
1

11

17
7
6

4
9
5
5

16
4
17
15
2

23
17

1Includes Baltimore, Md.; Washington, D.C.-Maryland-Virginia; and
Wilmington, Del.-New Jersey whose population in other tables by region is
included largely in the South, and partially in the Northeast.

68



6

5
4

2

10
12

18
9
9
11
6

5
12

5
7

25
46
50
31
49
50
42
58
62
34
29
34
17
92
99
75

White

1960
Negro

White

17 15, 042 134, 942 18, 860 158, 455
24 8,360 80, 249 12, 194 99, 509
5 6 , 456 45, 441 9, 704 47, 575
49 1, 904 34, 808 2,490 51, 934
12
2, 526 31, 762 3, 757 35, 500
-1 0
2, 050 17, 640 3, 082 15, 949
476 14, 123
674 19, 551
38
20
2 , 001
23, 076 3, 165 27, 769
- 3 1,718 14, 108 2,786 13, 695
57
282 8 , 968
379 14, 074
39 3, 313 12, 954 4,276 18, 019
34 2,323 7, 507 3, 113 10, 090
46
989 5, 445 1 , 161 7, 930
46
520 12, 458
997 18, 2 2 0
364 6 , 185
27
723 7, 841
66
157 6,272
274 10, 379

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
: C ensus o f P o p u la tio n : 1960,
Selected A re a R e p o rts, S ta n d a rd
M etro p o lita n Statistical A re a s, PC (3)-lD, table 1 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).
s o u r c e

T he concentration of N egroes in central cities of SM SA ’s and the w hites’ exodus to the outside have
been greatest since 1900 in the larger SM SA ’s. T he shift am ong N egroes from outside to inside the
central city has been least sharp, how ever, in the sm allest SM SA ’s (up to 250,000 population), where
w hites as well as Negroes were living chiefly in central cities in 1960.
T a b l e IA-9.—N egro a n d W h ite P o p u la tio n in S ta n d a rd M e tro p o lita n S ta tistic a l A re a s ,1 by I n s id e a n d O u tside o f C en tral
C ity R esiden ce, a n d by S ize o f S M S A in 1960, C on term in ou s U n ite d S tates, D ecen n ia l Y ea rs, 1 9 0 0 -1 9 6 0

Size of SMSA in 1960
3,000,000 and over
Decennial years

1,000,000 to 3,000,000

White

Negro

Negro

500,000 to 1,000,000

White

Negro

White

Cen- Outside Cen- Outside Cen- Outside Cen- Outside Cen- Outside Cen- Outside
tral central tral central tral central tral central tral central tral central
city city city city city city city city city city city city
Percent SMSA population inside and outside central cities, by race of residents
1900___________
1910___________
1920___________
1930___________
1940___________
1950___________
1960___________

74
77
83
85
86
87
85

27
23
17
15
14
13
15

81
82
80
75
73
67
52

19
18
20
25
27
34
48

64
67
71
72
74
75
80

250,000 to 500,000
1900___________
1910___________
1920___________
1930___________
1940___________
1950___________
1960___________

50
58
63
68
69
72
73

50
42
37
32
31
28
27

50
53
58
57
55
51
47




20

60
59
60
56
53
48
38

40
41
41
44
47
52
62

63
69
74
79
80
80
81

100,000 to 250,000
50
47
42
43
45
49
53

41
45
52
59
61
65
69

1As defined by the 1960 census.
—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
N o t e .

36
33
29
28
26
25

59
55
48
41
39
35
31

52
56
60
60
58
57
55

37
31
26
21
20
20

19

58
62
63
64
62
56
49

42
38
37
36
38
44
51

Less than 100,000
48
44
41
40
42
44
45

34
44
42
47
54
65
74

67
57
58
53
46
35
27

67
66
71
71
72
75
77

33
34
29
29
28
25
23

Source: C ensus o f P o p u la tio n : 1960, Selected A re a R e p o rts, S tan dard M etrop o lita n S ta tistica l A re a s, PC(3)-1D, table 1 (U.S. Bureau of the Census),

69

A lm ost all of the 1950-60 Negro increase in the five S M S A ’s of largest Negro population (all of
which are outside the South) was in the central city. All of the S M SA ’s, except Los Angeles, lost w hite
population in the central city.
T a b l e IA -1 0 . — N eg ro a n d W h ite P o p u la tio n in F ive M a jo r S ta n d a rd M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A re a s, a n d in a ll S M S A ’s, by
I n s id e a n d O u tside o f C en tra l C ity R esiden ce, a n d C hange, U n ite d S ta tes, 1 9 5 0 -6 0

SMSA population (in thousands)
Change, 1950-60

Standard
metropolitan
statistical
area

1950
Negro

All metropolitan areas._
New York- _
Los Angeles
Chicago.
Philadelphia. _
Detroit. .
Source

8

White

1960
Negro

White

, 360 80, 249 12,194 99, 509
820 8 , 706 1,228 9, 407
465 6,148
219 4, 092
536 4, 623
890 5, 301
480 3,187
671 3, 662
358 2,654
559 3.195

70

Outside
central city

White

Negro

White

Negro

3,834 19,260
408
701
246 2, 056
354
678
475
191
201
541

3,248
340
169
321
153
181

2,134
-475
388
-399
-226
-363

586
67
77
34
38

Negro

C en su s o f P o p u la tio n : 1960, Selected A re a R eports, S ta n d a rd M etro p o lita n S ta tistica l A re a s,




Inside
central city

Total

20

White
17,126
1,177
1 ,6 6 8
1, 076
700
904

PC(3)-1D, table 1 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

T he distribution of the population b y age, 1950-60, and 1930-60, show s m ore of an increase in the
proportion of Negroes under 5 than am ong w hites of this age. Since 1950, the increase was entirely in
urban and rural nonfarm areas. T he proportion of N egroes in other age groups declined, except am ong
the elderly whose ratio increased slightly, chiefly in rural areas. T he w hite population has shown
similar trends, but w ith som ew hat greater increases in the percent of elderly.
T a b l e IA —11.— P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f N egro a n d W h ite P o p u la tio n by A ge, U rb a n a n d R u ra l L ocatio n , a n d by R eg io n ,
C on term in ou s U n ite d S ta tes, D ec en n ia l Y ea rs, 1 9 3 0 -6 0

Age
Total United States:
All ages____
Under 5
_
5-14_________________________
15-19________________________
20-29________________________
30-49________________________
50-64________________________
65 and over
Urban:
all ages.
Under 5__ _
__
5-14_________________________
15-19________________________
20-29________________________
30-49________________________
50-64________________________
65 and over.. _ _____ _ _
Rural nonfarm:
All ages_ __
___
Under 5_
________ . 5-14_________________________
15-19________________________
20-29________________________
30-49________________________
50-64________________________
65 and over
__
___
Rural farm:
All ages___ _
. .
Under 5_____ _
5-14_________________________
15-19________________________
20-29________________________
30-49________________________
50-64________________________
65 and over
_____ _

1930
Negro
.
10. 3
22.0
10.5
19. 1
25.9
8 .8
3. 1

100 0

.

100 0
8 .2

16. 9
8 .6
22.3
32. 4
8 .8
2.7

1940

White
.
9.2
19. 8
9.3
16.6
27.3
12.0
5.7

100 0

.
8.1
17.7
8.7
17. 9
29.9
12. 3
5.4

100 0

100 0

.

1 0 0 .0

1 0 .6
21 2
1 0 .2
2 0 .0

2 0 .8
8 .8

.

10.4

25. 0
9. 0
3.8

16.0
25.3
11.6
6.8

1 0 0 .0

100 0

12.6
28. 1
12.8
15.3
19.0
8.9
3.4

24. 4
11.1
13.9
2 2 .8
11.7
5.5

.

1 0 .8

Negro

White

Negro

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

100 0

9.7
20. 4
10. 1
18.2
27. 1
9. 7
4.8
.
7.4
16.7
8.9
19. 3
33.0
10.3
4.5

100 0

1 0 0 .0

7.8
16.7
9.3
17. 1
28. 1
13. 9
7. 1
.
6.7
14. 5
8.7
18.0
30.4
14.6
7. 1

100 0

.
9.3
18. 1
9. 1
16.9
26.6
12. 5
7.4

100 0

.
12.6
19. 2
8.2
16. 5
27. 1
10.7
5.8

.
11.5
16. 0
7.0
18.0
30.8
11.3
5.3

100 0

1 0 0 .0

1960

White
.
10.6
16. 0
7.0
15.6
27.9
14.6
8.5

100 0

1 0 0 .0
10. 1
14.0
6.4
16.5
29. 2
15.4
8 .6

1 0 0 .0

.
18.
7.4
15.4
25.8
12. 5

Negro
.
14. 4
23. 2
7.9
1 2 .6
24. 2
11.4

White

100 0

1 0 0 .0

6 .2

10. 9
19.3
7.3
1 2 .0
26.4
14.5
9.4

1 0 0 .0

14.4
7. 1
13. 2
26.0
11.7
5.8
2 1 .8

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

10. 7
18.5
7.0
12.3
27.0
14.8
9.5
1 0 0 .0

8 .8

14. 6
25.6
9.6
1 1 .8
19. 9
1 0 .6
7.7

1 0 0 .0

100 0

100 0

C ensus o f P o p u la tio n , C haracteristics o f the P o p u la tio n ,

vol. II, pt. 1,

.
.
19. 1
25.7
9.4
5. 6
10 0
20 1
1 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
1 2 .8

25.7
12.0
16.3
19. 5
8 .8
5.0

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: 1960 C en su s o f P o p u la tio n , U nited S tates S u m m a ry , PC(1)-1D, table 158; 1940
U n ited S tates S u m m a ry , table 7 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).




1950

.
9.5
20.9
10.9
15.0
23. 2
13.6
6.9

100 0

13.6
20. 9
8 .8
16. 2
23. 2
9. 9
7.3
.
15.0
27. 1
1 1 .0
12.3
19. 5
9.3
5.9

100 0

12 1
1

.
.
8.9
12.0
25.0
14.4
7.8

10 8
21 1

.
14.8
29.7
1 1 .8
9.2
17.4
1 1 .0
6.3

1 1 .8
2 1 .2

7.8
25. 1
12.9
9. 1
1 2 .2

.
9.2
21. 7
9. 1
8.3
24.8
17.2
9.8

71

T he proportion of Negro children under 5
in the total population of that age increased m ost
in the cities from 1930-60; the destination of
N egro m igrants who tend to be young and of
childbearing age.

IA-12.— P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f the N egro P o p u la ­
tio n in E ach A g e G rou p, U rb a n a n d R u ra l L ocatio n ,
C on term in ou s U n ite d S ta tes, D ecen n ia l Y ea rs, 1 0 3 0 -6 0

T able

Age

1930 1940 1950 1960

TOTAL UNITED STATES

Under 5__- -------- ---------5-9_____________________
10-14___________________
15-19___________________
20-24___________________
25-29___________________
30-34___________________
35-39___________________
40-44___________________
45-49______________ ____
50-54___________________
55-59___________________
60-64___________________
65-69___________________
70-74___________________
75 years and over___

10.7
10.9
10.4
1 0 .8
11. 1
10.9
9.5
9.7
8 .6
9.0
8.4
6.7
6.5
5.6
5. 1
6 .2

1 1 .8
1 2 .1

1 1 .6
1 1 .6
12 1

.
11.3
11. 5
10.3 1 0 . 8
10.3 10.3
9.7 9.6
10.3 1 0 . 2
9.3 9.6
8.4 9.6
7.6 8 . 6
7.2
6 .8
6 .2
6.4
7.8 8 . 1
6.3 6.5
5.9 6 . 0
1 0 .6

13. 5
12. 9
1 1 .8
11.3
11.3
10.9
10. 3
9.8
9.4
9.3
8 .8
8.9
7.7
7.9
7.0
6.7

URBAN

Under 5 _ _ _ _ —
5-9_____________________
10-14___________________
15-19___________________
20-24___________________
25-29___________________
30-34___________________
35-39___________________
40-44 __________________
45-49___________________
50-54___________________
55-59___________________
60-64___________________
65-69___________________

72



7.6
7.5
6.9
7.4
8.7
9.7
8 .6
8 .6

7.5
7.5
6.5
5.0
4.5
4.0

9.3 1 1 . 0
9.8 1 0 . 8
9.2 11.4
8.5 1 0 . 6
8.5 10.4
9.4 1 0 . 6
9.3 1 0 . 2
1 0 .8
1 0 .1
8.9 1 0 . 0
7.8 9.9
6.7 8 . 6
5.9 7.0
5.3 6 . 1
6.3 7.4

14.2
13.4
1 2 .0
1 1 .2

11. 7
11.9
11.4
1 0 .8
10.3
1 0 .0
9.3
9.3
8 .0
7.8

Age

1930

1940

1950

7 0 -7 4 ________________________
75 years and o v e r. ______ __

3 .6
4 .3

5 .0
4 .5

5 .8
5 .4

6 .8
6 .4

Under 5_
.
8 .6
5 -9 ___________________________ 8 .8
1 0 -1 4 ________________________ 8 .5
1 5 -1 9 ________________________ 9 .7
2 0 -2 4 ________________________ 1 0 .9
2 5 -2 9 ________________________ 1 0 .0
3 0 -3 4 ________________________ 8 .5
3 5 -3 9 ________________________ 8 .8
4 0 -4 4 ________________________ 8 .0
4 5 -4 9 ________________________ 8 .2
5 0 -5 4 ________________________ 7 .8
5 5 -5 9 ________________________ 6 .0
6 0 -6 4 ________________________ 5 .9
6 5 -6 9 ________________________ 5 .0
7 0 -7 4 ________________________ 5 .6
75 years and over___________ 5 .4

8 .4
8 .7
8 .5
8 .5
8 .9
8 .5
7 .6
8 .0
7 .5
7 .0
6 .6
5 .8
5 .4
6 .9
5 .7
5 .2

8 .9
8 .8
9 .3
9 .4
9 .1
7 .7
7 .0
7 .4
7 .3
7 .5
7 .2
6 .2
5 .8
7 .8
6 .2
6 .2

1 0 .7
10. 7
1 0 .4
1 0 .7
9 .4
7 .9
7 .2
7 .0
7 .1
7 .5
7 .5
7 .8
7 .2
8 .1
7 .4
7 .3

1960

RURAL NONFARM

RURAL FARM
U nder 5 _ . _ ________
1 7 .6
5 -9 ___________________________ 17.7

10-14___________________
15-19___________________
20-24___________________
25-29___________________
30-34___________________
35-39___________________
40-44___________________
45-49___________________
50-54___________________
55-59. _________________
60-64___________________
65-69___________________
70-74___________________
75 years and over__ ______
Not reported. _ _ _ _ _

17.2
17.5
17.4
16.0
13. 5
13.9
12.5
13.4
13.7
11. 1
11.5
1 0 .0
9.0
11. 1
19. 2

19. 1

18.5
17. 1
16.3
16.5
15.4
13.7
13.7
10.3
11.4
10.9
9.9
9.6
12.2
1 0 .6
1 0 .2

18. 1

17.2
16.8
16.4
15.5
1 2 .6
1 1 .0

11.5
11. 1
1 0 .8
10.1
9.1
8.5
1 1 .8
1 0 .1

9.9

1 6 .4

14.9
14.1
13.9
13.8
1 0 .1
8.7
7.9
7.8
7.9
7.6
7.5
6 .8
7.6
6.9
7.2

Source: I960 C ensus o f P o p u la tio n , U n ited S tates S u m m a ry , PC(1)-1D,
table 158,1940 C en su s o f P o p u la tio n , C haracteristics o f the P o p u la tio n , Vol. II,
Pt. 1, U nited S tates S u m m a ry , table 7 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

The num ber of nonw hite m igrants leaving the South has accelerated in recent years, especially to
the W est and N orth C entral regions. Substantial num bers are m igrating to the W est from Northern
States.
T able

IB- 1 .— M ig ra n ts'

R esiden ce, S a m e or N ew R egion , by R eg io n a n d C olor, A n n u a l A verages, U n ite d S ta tes, 1 9 5 9 -6 4
(3 -year m ovin g average,1 1 9 5 8 -6 5 )

Migrants
Moved to different region
Color and
year

Remain­
Total 2 ing in
same
region

Remain­
Moved
to dif­ Total ing in
same
ferent
region
region

Percent distribution

In thousands
Non white;
1959-60-_1960-61-.1961-62.-1962-63-__
1963-64.-White;
1959-60..1960-61.-1961-62--1962-63.-1963-64.--

820
829
868
915
972
10,174
10, 343
10, 673
10, 956
11,473

621
608
625
640
681
7, 495
7,582
7,698
7, 939
8 , 336

198
243
276
291
2 , 680
2,761
2, 975
3,017
3, 137
221

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

76
73
72
70
70
74
73
72
72
73

1Figures given are averages of annual reports for three consecutive years;
average represents middle year.
N ote:—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
Source: C u rren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, P o p u la tio n Characteristics, “Mobility
of the Population of the United States, April 1958 to 1959,” Series P-20, No.
104, table 10; “. . . March 1959 to 1960,” Series P-20, No. 113, table 13;
“. . . March 1960 to March 1961,” Series P-20, No. 118, table 13; “. . . April




To North­ To North
To West
from
Moved east: from Central from
To
to dif­
South
ferent
from
N orth
North­
region
North 3
Cen­
and
east
South tral South and South North 3 West
and
West
West

24
27
28
30
30
26
27
28
28
27

In thousands
45
54
58
61

17
18

68

20
11

198
180
177
188
183

189
209
202
214
255

8

43
45
47
56
56
337
350
411
410
389

6
6
8
11
12

309
287
321
308
317

39
38
31
43
48
369
399
386
391
403

4

8
21

26
26
453
497
598
618
610

54
53
59
60
70
824
841
879
888
981

2 April to April, 1958-59 and 1961-62; other years, March to March.
3 Includes Northeast and North Central.
1961 to April 1962,” Series P-20, No. 127, table 9; “. . . March 1962 to March
1963,” Series P-20, No. 134, table 14, “. . . March 1963 to March 1964,”
Series P-20, No. 141, table 14, “. . . March 1964 to March 1965,” Series P-20,
No. 150, table 14 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

73

N onw hite n et outm igration from the South totaled 3 m illion 1940-60, and another 235,000 in
1960-63. Since 1960, nonw hite out-m igrants from the N orth C entral exceeded in-m igrants, whereas
m igration to the N ortheast and W est has accelerated.
T able

IB-2.— E stim a te d

N et M ig r a tio n ,* by R eg io n a n d C olor: 1 9 4 0 -5 0 , 1 9 5 0 -6 0 , 1 9 6 0 -6 3 2

[In thousands]

Net migrants
Region

1940-50

Average net migrants per year

1950-60

1960-63

1940-50

1950-60

1960-63

Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
white
white
white
United States___
Northeast _ .
North Central. _
S o u th .__
W est..
. .

-160
483
632
-1,597
323

1,522
-2 5 2,685 138 1,162 -1 6 152 - 3
-173
542 -206 237 138 48 -1 7
54
63 -9 5
-948
558 -679 -2 3 -957
56
52 -235 843 -160 -5 4 -146
-538 -1,457
332 3,519 159 1,138 32 318 33
3,181

269

46 387
-2 1
79
46
-6 8
-8
-319
5 -7 8
281
352 53 379

>Includes net migration from abroad.
and Alaska excluded 1940-50, but included for all other comparisons.
Source: C u rren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, P o p u la tio n E stim a tes “Estimates of the Components of Population Change by Color, for States: 1950 to 1960,” Series
P-25, No. 247, tables 2, 3, and 4 (U.S. Bureau of the Census); and “Recent Patterns of Internal Migration,” S ta tistica l B u lletin , page 2, Vol. 46, April 1965 (Met­
ropolitan Life Insurance Company).
2 Hawaii

N egroes born in the W est or the N orth east and N orth C entral regions are far m ore likely to rem ain
there than those born in the South.
T able

IB-3.—R eg io n o f R esid en ce in

196 0 by R eg io n o f B ir th fo r the N egro a n d W h ite N a tiv e P o p u la tio n , U n ite d S ta te s, 1 96 0

Region of birth
Region of residence

Northeast
Negro

United States (number in thousands) _
Percent. _
Northeast___
. . . .
North Central
South
West.

North Central

White

1, 607 38,172
100

92
2
5
1

100
88

4
5
4

Negro
1

West

White

Negro

, 806 48, 430 14, 056 43, 240

381

15, 059

100
2

100
2

100
1

100
2

91
3
4

White

South

100
2

82
5
11

Negro

100
8
11

77
4

7
85
7

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: C ensus o f P o p u la tio n : 1960, Su bject R ep o rts, State o f B irth , PC(2)-2A, tables 19, 20, 23, 24 {U.S. Bureau of the Census).

74




3
4
92

White

3
4
92

A bout one-half of the Negro residents in the 10 cities of the N orth and W est that led in Negro pop­
ulation in 1960 were not born there. Of this group, m ost were born in the South.
T able

IB-4 .— A re a o f B irth o f the N o n w h ite P o p u la tio n

in the 10 N o rth e rn 1 a n d W estern C ities o f G reatest N egro C on cen tra­
tion , by C ity o f R esiden ce, U n ite d S ta tes, 1 96 0

City of residence

Negro 2
New York. . _________ _______________
Chicago__________________________________
Philadelphia 5 ___ _ _ . _ ________________
Detroit____ ________ _________ ___
Washington____ _ __ . - ______________
Los Angeles_________ ____ ______ - Cleveland.
St. Louis__
____ __
Newark__
- . _
. _____
Cincinnati-

Percent distribution

1960 population
(in thousands)

1,085
813
529
482
412
335
251
214
137
109

Native
non­
white 3
1,047
828
531
483
413
393
252
216
138
109

Total
native
non­
white 3
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

Born in
State or
region
of 1960
residence
49
42
53
45
e44
39
45
52
46
52

Born
in
South
39
44
40
48
43
46
48
40
42
41

Born in
remaining
regions
or other
areas 4
12

14
8
8

13
16
8
9
11
7

1Washington, D.C. included.
*Includes regions other than present region of residence and South, U.S.
small proportion of Negro immigrants from other countries.
outlying areas, born abroad or at sea, and not reported.
This column is shown to illustrate the close conformance In these cities
{ County.
between Negro and nonwhite population.
6 Proportion born in Washington, D.C.
3 Includes native born Negroes, Indians, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos.
Source: C en su s o f P o p u la tio n : 1960, D etailed C haracteristics, PC(1) Series, for each State represented tables 96, 98 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).
1 Includes

75

217-817 0 - 6 6 -

43




T he m odal age group am ong w hite and nonw hite m igrants betw een 1955-60 was 20-29 years in
every region.
T able

IB-5 .— In terregio n a l M ig ra n ts

1 9 5 5 -6 0 , by A g e a n d C olor, a n d by R egion o f R esid en ce in 195 5

Percent of 1955 residents who moved to another region between 1955-60
Age

Northeast

North Central

South

West

Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Nonwhite White
Total, 5 years and over___
5-9 years..
.
10-19 years . . .
20-24 years
25-29 years.
... . . .
30-34 years
. _
35-44 years.. _ . . . .
45-54 years.
. _ ...
55-64 years . . .
65 and o v e r ..___ _ .
Median age in 1960:
Population living in specified
area in 1955 . . .
. _
Interregional migrants
leaving specified areas,
1955-60________________
Source:

76

3. 1
3.0
2 .8
7.6
5.4
4. 1
2 .6
1. 7
1.4

4.3
4.5
4.4
10.9
8 .2
5.6
3.9
2.4
2.4
2 .8

3.8
3.4
3.4
9.4
7.0
5. 1
3.3
2.2
1 .8
1. 7

5. 6
12.7
10.4
7.6
5.5
3.4
3.0
3. 2

32.3

36.6

31. 1

34.6

26. 6

27.8

26.3

27. 0

1 .6

C en su s o f P o p u la tio n : 1960, D etailed C haracteristics, U n ited S tates S u m m a ry ,




5.7
6 .2

4. 1
3.5
3.4
11.7
9. 1
5.4
3.2

5.4
6.3
4. 9

1 .6

2.4
6.7
7.2
4.0
2 .1
1.3
1 .0
.9

4. 9
5.9
4.3
9.8
1 2 .8
7.2
4.7
2.4
1 .8
1.7

27.2

32.7

30.0

34.2

23.7

25.8

26.3

26.9

2 .0
1 .6
1 1

.

2 .8
2 .0

1 1 .8
1 2 .8

7.4
5.0
2.7
1.9

PC(1)-1D, table 238 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

and

A bout y2 of the 1955-60 non w hite m ale m igrants 25 to 29 years old had som e high school education
som e college training.

% had

T able IB- 6 .—E d u c a tio n a l A tta in m e n t o f M a le s, 2 5 - 2 9 ye a rs old, b y C olor, fo r the T otal P o p u la tio n , an d fo r 1 9 5 5 -6 0
In terre g io n a l M ig ra n ts, U n ite d S ta te s an d S o u th

Nonwhite
Educational attainment

White

Interregional
migrants

Population

Population

Interregional
migrants

United South United From the United South
States
States South States

United From the
States South

Percent distribution
Total, males 25-29 years__
No school___________
8 th grade or less______
High school, 1-4 years.
College, 1 year or more.

100
2

35
50
14

100
2

47
42

J

100

100

23
55

28
53
19

22

10

f

1

100

100

‘

23
49
27

17

53
29

1

100

100

45
44

13
45
42

536

197

} 1
1

Number (in thousands)
Total, males 25-29 years__
No school___________
8 th grade or less______
High school, 1-4 years.
College, 1 year or more.

606
9
210
305
82

297
6

138
124
28

48
1

)

26
10

30

4, 733
31
8 /
{ 801
16 2, 519
6
1, 382

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: C en su s o f P o p u la tio n : 1960, Su bject R eports, E du cation al A tta in m e n t, PC(2)-5B, table 2; C en su s o f P o p u la tio n :
R ecen t M ig ra tio n , PC(2)-2D, table 8 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).




1, 345
12

314
658
361

1

I

57

241
238

26
88

83

1960, Subject R ep o rts, L ifetim e an d

77

A m ong nonw hite as w ell as w hite, a larger proportion of the educated m igrate than those w ith
lim ited schooling, so that betw een 1955-60, the South lost % of all nonw hite m en 25-29 years old who
had som e college training, but only 6 percent w ith elem entary schooling.
T able

IB-7.—P ro p o rtio n

Educational attainment

1 o f 2 5 - to 2 9 -Y e a r O ld M a le O u t-M ig ra n ts, 1 9 5 5 -6 0 , by E d u c a tio n a l A tta in m e n t a n d C olor

a n d by R egion a n d the D iv isio n s o f the S o u th

North­
east

South

North
Central

South
Atlantic

Total

West

East south West south
central
central

Non­ White Non­ White Non­ W hite Non­ W hite Non­ W hite Non­ W hite Non­ W hite
white
white
white
white
white
white
white
Total _ .
___ . 6
Elementary, 8 years or
4
less_____
High school, 1-4 years __ 5
College, 1 year or more__ 14

9
4
7
16

8

11

10

6

8
8

13

7
18

19

6

20

15

10

20

17

22

13

8

5
13

9
19
33

12
21

14
35

16
25

14
23

21

21

33

6

21
12
20

29

9
5

10
10

15
12

15
17

1 Of 1955 population.
Source: C en su s o f P o p u la tio n , 1960, Subject R ep o rts, L ifetim e an d R ecen t M igration , PC(2)-2D, table 8 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

Clerical and production jobs in industry— occupations w hich N egroes have sought— claim ed the
largest proportion of nonw hite workers born outside of their region of residence in 1960.
T able

IB- 8 .—P ercen t o f the N a tiv e E xp erien ced

C iv ilia n L ab o r F orce 1 B orn in A n o th er R egion , by O ccu p a tio n G ro u p,C olo r,
a n d S ex, U n ite d S ta te s, 196 0

Male

Occupation group

Nonwhite

Professional, technical, and kindred workers
Farmers and farm managers ____
Managers, officials, and proprietors, except farm
Clerical and kindred workers _
..........................
Sales workers
.
____ _
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers __ __
Operatives and kindred workers _
_
Private household workers.
Service workers, except private household
Farm laborers and foremen _
_
__ __
Laborers, except farm and mine
114 years old and over.
Source: C ensus of P o p u la tio n ,

78



1960, O ccupational C haracteristics, P C ( i) 7A ,

Female
White

27
2
31
36
25
33
34
27
33
5
26

table 8 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

24

6
21

16
18
18
15
20
17
13
15

Nonwhite
24
2
28
32
30
41
43
22
30
4
30

White
20
11

23
17
17
17
13
19
19
11
14

N onw hites constituted 11 percent of the labor force from 1957-65, b u t accounted for about 20
percent of the unem ployed and about 25 percent of those unem ployed 6 m onths or more.
T able

IIA- 1 .— E m p lo y m e n t a n d

Employment status
Civilian labor force (thousands):
Nonwhite _
_. _
White___________________
Nonwhite as a percent of
total. _
Employed (thousands):
Nonwhite____
White _
_
Index of employment
(1957=100):
Nonwhite __
White______
Unemployed (thousands):
Nonwhite___
White____ ___
Nonwhite as a percent of
total
Unemployment rate:
Nonwhite__
White___________________
Ratio of nonwhite to white. _
Long-term unemployed—Non­
white as a percent of total:
Unemployed 15 weeks and
over
Unemployed 27 weeks and
over. . _________ _

U n em p lo ym en t S ta tu s o f the C iv ilia n L ab o r F orce, by C olor, 1 9 5 7 -6 5 (a n n u a l averages)

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

7, 306 7, 455 7, 539 7, 844 7, 924 7, 976 8 , 119 8 , 292
60, 640 61, 194 61, 855 62, 767 63, 679 63, 878 64, 855 65, 940
11. 2
11. 1
11. 1
11. 1
10. 8
10. 9 10. 9 1 1 . 1
6 , 721
6 , 517
6 , 730
7, 040 6 , 936 7, 097 7, 234 7, 480
58, 290 57, 450 58, 851 59, 640 59, 860 60, 749 61, 574 62, 877

8 , 448
67, 187
11. 2
7, 747
64, 432

100. 0
100. 0

585
2, 351
19. 9
8. 0
3. 9
2. 05
.
24. 1

22 6

97. 0
98. 6
938
3, 744
20. 0
12. 6
6. 1
2. 07
.
23. 0

22 0

809
3, 004
21. 2
10. 7
4. 9
2 . 18

104. 7
102. 3
804
3, 127
20. 5
10. 2
5. 0
2. 04

103. 2
102. 7
988
3, 819
20. 6
12. 5
6. 0
2 . 08

105. 6
104. 2
879
3, 129
21. 9
11. 0
4. 9
2. 24

107. 6
105. 6
885
3, 281
21. 2
10. 9
5. 1
2. 14

111. 3
107. 9
812
3, 064
20. 9
9. 8
4. 6
2. 13

115. 3
110. 5
702
2, 754
20. 3
8. 3
4. 1
2. 02

24. 3
26. 2

24. 9
26. 0

22. 5
23. 6

25. 9
28. 4

26. 0
28. 2

22. 9
25. 3

22. 9
25. 4

100. 1
101. 0

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Data are from regular monthly Current Population Survey. Annual figures are averages
of 12 monthly surveys.




79

In 1965 the total non w hite unem ploym ent rate was the low est since 1957, b u t rem ained about
tw ice the w hite rate, as it has for over a decade. U nem ploym ent has dropped m ost sharply for nonw hite
men 20 years and over, am ong whom the rate has been low er than for non w hite wom en since 1963.
T able

Year

1954_______
1955_______
1956_______
1957________
1958_______
1959_______
1960_______
1961_______
1962_______
1963_______
1964________
1965_______

IIA-2.— U n em p lo ym en t

R ates, by C olor, Sex, a n d A ge G rou p, 1 9 5 4 -6 5 (a n n u a l averages )

Males, 20 years and over Females, 20 years and
over

Total

Both sexes, 14 to 19
years of age

NonRatio NonRatio NonRatio
Ratio Nonwhite W hite nonwhite white W hite nonwhite white W hite nonwhite white W hite nonwhite
to white
to white
to white
to white
.
.
7. 5
8.0
12. 6
10. 7
10. 2
12. 5
11. 0
10. 9
9. 8
8. 3
8 8
8 0

4. 5
3. 6
3. 3
3. 9
6. 1
4. 9
5. 0
6. 0
4. 9
5. 1
4. 6
4. 1

.
9. 0
.
7. 7
2. 3 6 . 7
2. 1
7. 6
12. 7
2. 1
2. 2
10. 5
2. 0
9. 6
2. 1
11. 7
2. 2
10. 0
2. 1
9. 2
2. 1
7. 7
2. 0
6. 0

2 0
2 2

3. 9
3. 0
2. 7
3. 2
5. 5
4. 1
4. 2
5. 1
4. 0
3. 9
3. 4
2. 9

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

80



2. 3
2. 6
2. 5
2. 4
2. 3
2. 6
2. 3
2. 3
2. 5
2. 4
2. 3
2. 1

7. 4
6. 8
6. 8
6. 4
9. 5
8. 3
8. 3
10. 6
9. 6
9. 4
9. 0
7. 4

4. 4
3. 4
3. 3
3. 8
5. 6
4. 7
4. 6
5. 7
4. 7
4. 8
4. 6
4. 0

1. 7
.
.
1. 7
1. 7
1. 8
1. 8
1. 9
2. 0
2. 0
2. 0
1. 9

2 0
2 1

13. 8
14. 2
15. 9
17. 8
25. 0
23. 5
22. 1
25. 4
23. 7
28. 4
26. 2
25. 3

10. 3
9. 2
8. 8
9. 9
13. 0
11. 9
12. 4
13. 8
12. 0
14. 0
13. 3
12. 2

1. 3
1. 5
1. 8
1. 8
1. 9
2. 0
1. 8
1. 8
2. 0
2. 0
2. 0
2. 1

T he increase in total em ploym ent from 1954-65 was evenly sp lit betw een m en and wom en, in both
w hite and nonw hite groups. Am ong teenagers, the increase in em ploym ent w ent alm ost entirely to
whites. W hite and nonw hite adult m ales were the only groups w hich decreased in the num ber of
unem ployed.
T able

IIA-3.— E m p lo y e d

a n d U n em p lo yed P erso n s, by C olor, S ex, a n d A ge G rou p, 1 9 5 4 -6 5 (a n n u a l averages)

[In thousands]

Males, 20 years and over

Total
Year

Non white
1954_________________
1955_________________
1956_________________
1957_________________
1958_________________
1959_________________
1960_________________
1961_________________
1962_________________
1963_________________
1964_________________
1965_________________

Unemployed

Employed

, 335
, 495
, 706
, 711
, 517
, 730
7, 040
6 , 936
7, 097
7, 234
7, 480
7, 747
6
6
6
6
6
6

White

Non white

54, 903
56, 698
58, 274
58, 298
57, 450
58, 851
59, 640
59, 860
60, 749
61, 574
62, 877
64, 432

615
561
547
585
938
809
804
988
879
885
812
702

White
2, 615
,
2, 003
2, 350
3, 744
3, 004
3, 127
3, 819
3, 129
3, 281
3, 064
2, 754
2 101

2, 270
2, 313
2 , 387
2, 444
2, 454
2, 527
2 , 618
2 , 610
2 , 686
2, 757
2, 855
2, 979

14, 855
15, 787
16, 481
16, 607
16, 589
16, 998
17, 487
17, 687
18, 006
18, 499
19, 048
19, 652

182
168
175
167
259
228
237
308
284
285
283
239

Nonwhite
3, 548
3, 657
3, 775
3, 753
3, 604
3, 734
3, 880
3, 809
3, 897
3, 979
4, 088
4, 190

White
36, 279
36, 990
37, 573
37, 484
36, 808
37, 533
37, 663
37, 533
37, 918
38, 272
38, 798
39, 232

Unemployed
Nonwhite

White

350
306
269
307
526
437
413
504
435
402
339
267

1, 491
1, 154
1, 042
1,234
2, 156
1, 585
1, 647
2, 014
1, 581
1, 569
1,379
1, 169

Both sexes, 14 to 19 years of age

Females, 20 years and over
1954_________________
1955_________________
1956_________________
1957_________________
1958_________________
1959_________________
1960_________________
1961_________________
1962_________________
1963._ ______________
1964_________________
1965_________________

Employed

691
559
554
654
983
836
843
1 , 060
891
931
912
817

517
524
544
514
459
469
543
517
514
498
537
578

3, 769
3, 921
4, 221
4, 207
4, 052
4, 321
4, 491
4, 641
4, 824
4, 803
5, 030
5, 549

83
87
103
111
153
144
154
176
180
198
191
196

433
388
407
463
605
584
638
745
657
781
773
769

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




81

T he greatest drop in unem ploym ent rates (1957-65) was for nonw hite m en in the prim e working
years (20-44), b u t the greatest increase was for nonw hite wom en in the sam e age group. Y et the
nonw hite/w hite gap in unem ploym ent rates was over 2 for m ature m en in 1965 and under 2 for m ature
wom en.
T a b l e I I A -4 . — U n em p lo ym en t R ates, by C olor, S ex, a n d A ge D e ta il, 1 95 7 a n d 1 96 5 (a n n u a l averages )

Age and sex
Total, 14 years and over___ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
14 to 19 years, both sexes___________ _ _
2 0 years and over:
Men__
__ _ ____ ----Women _ __ — _ ------Men, 14 years and over____ _ __ --------14 to 19 years.
-----------------20 to 24 years. _
_____
..............................
25 to 34 years..
_ -----35 to 44 y e a rs._______
45 to 54 years.
55 to 64 years. _ __ ______ ----65 years and ov er_____ ____ —
Women, 14 years and over._ _ _ __
_ __
14 to 19 years.
_ __ ___
20 to 24 years.. _ . . _
_
25 to 34 years.
35 to 44 years..
_ _ _.
45 to 54 years.. _ _
55 to 64 years.
65 years and over. __ __ __

Non white
1957
8. 0
17. 8
7. 5
6. 3
8. 4
17. 5
12. 7
8. 5
6. 4
6. 2
5. 5
5. 9
7. 4
18. 9
12. 2
8. 1
4. 7
4. 2
4. 0
4. 3

White
1965
8. 3
25. 3
6.0
7. 4
7. 6
22. 6
9. 3
6. 2
5. 1
5. 1
5. 4
5. 2
9. 3
29. 8
13. 7
8. 4
7. 6
4. 4
3. 9
3. 1

1957
3. 9
9. 9
3. 2
3. 8
3. 7
10. 5
7. 1
2. 7
2. 5
3. 0
3. 4
3. 2
4. 3
9. 1
5. 1
4. 7
3. 7
3. 0
3. 0
3. 5

Ratio of
nonwhite to white
1965

1957

4. 1
.
2. 9
4. 0
3. 6
11. 8
5. 9
2. 6
2. 3
2. 3
3. 1
3. 4
5. 0
12. 6
6. 3
4. 8
4. 1
3. 0
2. 7
2. 7
12 2

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

82



2. 05
1 . 82
2. 34
1. 66
2. 27
1. 67
1. 79
3. 15
2. 56
2. 07
1 . 62
1. 84
1. 72
2 . 08
2. 39
1. 72
1. 27
1. 40
1. 33
1. 23

1965
.
2. 07
2. 14
1. 85
2 . 11
1. 92
1. 58
2. 38
2. 22
2. 22
1. 74
1. 53
1. 8 6
2. 37
2. 17
1. 75
1. 85
1. 47
1. 44
1. 15
2 02

E xcept for teenagers, unem ploym ent rates for non w hite m en and wom en were lower in 1965 than
at any tim e in the 1960’s. T he jobless rate am ong nonw hite teenagers, 16-19, how ever, has not been
below 20 for boys, nor below 25 for girls since 1958.
T able

Color and
sex

IIA-5.— U n em p lo ym en t R ates,

Total,
14
years
and
over

by C olor, S ex, a n d A g e D etail, 1 9 ^ 8 -6 5 (a n n u a l averages)

65
20 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 years
years years years years years
and
over
14 and 16 and 18 and
17
19
15
14 to 19 years

Total

NONWHITE
MALE

1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953 1_______
1954________
1955________
1956 2_______
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960 1_______
1961________
1962 i_______
1963________
1964________
1965________

5. 1
8.9
4.4
4.5
4.4
9.2
8 .2
7.3
8.4
13.7
11.5
10.7
12.9
8 .8

1 1 .0
1 0 .6

9.1
7.6

2 2 .6

3.2
6.1
9.7
6.1
5.5
5.1
5. 1
12.7
11.7
14. 1
13.0
12.7
13.3
14.3
15. 2
16.9
19. 1
20.3

15. 1
12.9
7.9
7.2
7.6
13.4
14. 1
15.0
16.3
27. 1
22.3
22.7
31.0
21.9
27. 0
25.9
27. 1

2 0 .2

14.9
12.4
6 .0
6.7
7.1
14.9
1 1 .2
10.9
12.7
19.5
16.3
13. 1
15.3
14.6
15.5
1 2 .6
9.3

10.4
14.3
14.0
1 0 .2
10.4
7. 5
17. 1
16. 2
19.6
18.9
26. 2
24. 9
22. 7
26.6
28. 2
33. 1
30.6
29.8

5.9
7.3
13. 0
4.4
4.3
2.4
1 0 .6
5. 9
13. 6
12. 5
13. 2
11. 9
10.6
13.6
17. 9
23.4
23.6
19.0

10.5
18.8
16.2
11.7
7.9
7.0
17.6
15. 4
20.7
18.3
25. 4
25.8
25.7
31. 1
27.8
40. 1
36.5
37.8

.
15.0
13. 1
14. 1
14. 9
8.9
2 0 .8
19.7
21.0
21.3
30.0
29.9
24. 5
28. 2
31.2
31.9
29. 2
27.8

8.9
11. 5
12.0
8.0
9. 2
4. 9
11.7
11.4
13. 2
12.2
18. 9
14. 9
15.3
19. 5
18. 2
18.7
18.3
13.7

7.6
13.9
13.2
7.9
7.7
7.1
11.7
13.2
13.6
17.5
24.3

2 2 .8
2 2 .0

24.7
20.7
25.4
23.3

8 .6

9.9
16. 6
16.3
9.0
9.3
7.5
13.5
1 1 .8
13.8
2 0 .0
26.7
27. 2
25. 1
23.9
2 1 .8
27.4
23. 1

1 0 .6

4.2
7.8
9.4
4.8
4.6
3.7
9.2
8 .0
6.9
8.5
14.7
12.3
10.7
12.9
10.5
9.5
7.7

4.5
7.4
7.3
3.2
3.8
3. 1
7. 1
7.4
6 .0
6.4
11.4
8.9
8 .2
10.7

6 .2

.
7.6
8.4
6.5
5.4
4. 2
9. 6
9. 1
7. 9
8.1
11. 1
9. 7
9. 1
11. 1
11.5
11.7
11.2
8.4

5.1

3.1
7. 1
7.0
3.4
3.6
4.3
8 .2
5.8
5.0
6 .2
10.3
7.9
8.5
10.2
8.3
7. 1
5.9
5. 1

3.3
6.5
7.4
3.9
3.2
3.2
6.9
8.3
7.4
5.5
10. 1
8.7
9.5
10.5
9.6
7.4
8.1
5.4

3.3
5. 5
6.1
4.7
3.3
2 .8
6.3
4. 9
5.9
4.7
9.2
7.6
8 .6
10. 7
8.9
8 .2
7.8
7.6

2.4
3.4
5.4
2.4
2 .8
1.7
5.0
4. 6
4.8
4. 2
4. 9
6.1
5.7
7.4
7. 1
6.1
6.1
4.4

2.4
4.8
4.3
2 .8
1. 9
1. 5
4.0
4.7
4.5
4. 0
6 .2
5. 0
4. 3
6.3
3.6
4.8
3.8
3.9

8 .6
8 .0
6 .2

4.0
6 .2
7.0
4.7
4. 1
2 .6
6.9
6 .6
4.3
5.9
9.0
8.4
6.3
9.4
11.9
10. 1
8.3
5.2

NONWHITE
FEMALE

1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953 1_______
1954________
1955________
1956 2_______
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960 1_______
1961________
1962 i_______
1963________
1964________
1965________

5.2
7.2
7.8
5.4
4. 8
3.7
8 .2
7.5
8 .0
7.4
1 0 .8
9. 5
9. 5
11.9
11. 1
11.3
1 0 .8
9.3

See footnotes a t end of tal)le.




12 6

6 1

1 .6
1 6

.
4.3
1 .6
1.5
1 .6
5. 1
3.4
2.7
4.3
5. 6
2.3
4. 1
6.5
3.7
3.6
2 .2
3. 1

83

T able

Color and
sex

11A-5.— U n em p lo ym en t R ates,
Total,
14
years
and
over

by C olor, S ex, a n d A g e D eta il, 1 9 4 8 -6 5 ( a n n u a l averages )—Continued

65
20 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 years
years years years years years
and
over
14 and 16 and 18 and
17
19
15
14 to 19 years

Total

WHITE
MALE

1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953 1_______
1954________
1955________
1956 2_______
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960 1_______
1961________
1962 1_______
1963________
1964________
1965________

3. 1
5. 2
4. 5
2. 4
2. 2
2. 2
4. 4
3. 4
3. 1
3. 7
6. 1
4. 6
4. 8
5. 7
4. 6
4. 7
4. 2
3. 6

8. 3
11. 7
10. 5
6. 8
7. 6
6. 3
11. 0
9. 6
8. 9
10. 5
14. 0
12. 5
12. 9
14. 1
12. 3
14. 2
13. 4
11. 8

5. 4
4. 6
5. 5
4. 2
5. 1
4. 0
4, 4
4. 9
5. 8
6. 8
7. 9
7. 2
8. 1
8. 0
7. 6
7. 9
7. 7
7. 1

9. 4
12. 9
12. 8
8. 9
10. 3
7. 9
13. 5
11. 8
10. 5
11. 9
14. 9
15. 0
14. 6
16. 5
15. 1
17. 8
16. 1
14. 7

8.5
13. 6
11. 0
6. 2
6. 5
5. 8
11. 9
9. 7
9. 2
11. 2
16. 5
13. 0
13. 5
15. 1
12. 7
14. 2
13. 4
11. 4

5. 8
9. 3
7. 3
3. 2
3. 7
3. 7
9. 0
6. 3
5. 6
7. 1
11. 7
7. 5
8. 3
10. 0
8.0
7. 8
7. 4
5. 9

2. 4
4. 5
3. 7
1. 8
1. 6
1. 6
3. 8
2. 5
2. 5
2. 7
5. 6
3. 8
4. 1
4. 9
3. 8
3. 9
3. 0
2. 6

1. 9
3. 6
3. 0
1. 6
1. 5
1. 5
3. 2
2. 4
2. 0
2. 5
4. 4
3. 2
3. 3
4. 0
3. 1
2. 9
2. 5
2. 3

3. 4
5. 2
4. 9
3. 7
2. 9
2. 6
4. 9
3. 9
3. 8
4. 3
6. 2
5. 3
5. 3
6. 5
5. 5
5. 8
5. 5
5. 0

6.9
10. 7
9. 8
7. 1
6. 6
5. 4
9. 3
8. 2
8. 6
9. 1
11. 6
10. 6
11. 9
13. 5
11. 5
13. 6
13. 2
12. 6

7. 1
7. 4
7. 5
6. 6
6. 1
3. 1
6. 3
6. 7
7. 1
6. 8
5. 8
5. 2
6. 3
6. 6
5. 6
5. 9
4. 1
4. 4

8. 7
13. 0
12. 9
9. 1
8. 4
7. 1
11. 1
10. 6
11. 0
11. 9
15. 6
13. 3
14. 5
17. 0
15. 6
18. 1
17. 1
15. 0

5.
.
.7
.
5. 4
4. 7
9. 0
7. 0
7. 5
7. 9
11. 0
11. 1
11. 5
13. 6
11. 3
13. 2
13. 2
13. 4

3. 6
6. 0
5. 6
3. 4
3. 2
3. 3
5. 9
4. 5
4. 5
5. 1
7. 4
6. 7
7. 2
8. 4
7. 7
7. 4
7. 1
6. 3

3. 2
4. 9
4. 7
3. 7
2. 8
2. 3
5. 0
3. 8
3. 5
4. 7
6. 6
5. 0
5. 7
6. 6
5. 4
5. 8
5. 2
4. 8

2. 3
4. 0
3. 7
3. 0
2. 4
1. 8
4. 3
3. 4
3. 0
3. 7
5. 6
4. 7
4. 2
5. 6
4. 5
4. 6
4. 5
4. 1

.
3. 7
3. 5
2. 0
1. 7
1. 7
3. 4
2. 8
2. 5
3. 0
4. 8
3. 7
3. 6
4. 4
3. 5
3. 3
2. 9
2. 3

2 2

.7
4. 8
4. 5
2. 4
2. 1
2. 2
3. 8
3. 7
2. 9
3. 4
5. 2
4. 2
4. 1
5. 3
4. 1
4. 0
3. 5
3. 1

2. 9
4. 7
4. 4
3. 2
2. 5
2. 1
3. 8
3. 5
3. 1
3. 2
5. 0
4. 5
4. 0
5. 2
4. 1
4. 1
3. 6
3. 4

.
3.
3. 9
3. 5
2. 1
1. 8
3. 9
3. 2
3. 1
3. 0
4. 3
4. 0
3. 3
4. 3
3. 4
3. 5
3. 5
2. 7

2. 0
3. 9
2. 9
2. 7
1. 9
1. 2
2. 3
1. 8
1. 9
3. 5
3. 5
3. 4
2. 8
3. 7
4. 0
3. 0
3. 4
2. 7

2

WHITE
FEMALE

1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953 1_______
1954________
1955________
1956 2 _______
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960 1_______
1961________
1962 2 _______
1963________
1964________
1965________

8
10 1
8
6 0

2. 5
3. 5
4. 1
3. 2
2. 0
1. 7
3. 9
2. 9
2. 9
3. 0
4. 9
4. 0
4. 0
4. 8
3. 7
3. 9
3. 6
3. 0

2 8
8

1 Not strictly comparable with prior years due to introduction of data from decennial censuses and the inclusion of Alaska and Hawaii.
2 Data through 1956 have not been adjusted to reflect changes in the definitions of employment and unemployment adopted in January 1957.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

84



The proportion of nonw hite workers am ong the long-term unem ployed (nearly one in four) has
changed little since 1957, after a slight decline in 1964.
T able

IIA- 6 .— L on g -term

Color and sex

1957

U n em p lo yed , by C olor a n d S ex, 1 9 5 7 -6 5 (a n n u a l averages)

1958

1959

1

1960

1961

1

1962

1963

1964

1965

Unemployed 15 weeks and over
Total:
Number (In thousands)____
Percent
__
Nonwhite
Male _
__
Female _ _ ____ ____
White
______
Male
__
Female

560
.
22. 6
15. 8
6. 8
77. 4
53. 0
24. 4

100 0

1, 452
100. 0
22. 0
16. 0
6. 0
78. 0
56. 7
21. 3

1, 040
100. 0
24. 3
17. 9
6. 4
75. 7
53. 4
22. 4

956
.
24. 9
17. 1
7. 8
75. 1
52. 4
22. 7

100 0

1, 532
100. 0
22. 5
15. 3
7. 2
77. 5
53. 9
23. 6

1, 119
100. 0
25. 9
16. 7
9. 2
74. 1
50. 7
23. 4

, 088
.
26. 0
16. 4
9. 7
74. 0
49. 4
24. 6

1
100 0

973
.
22. 9
13. 3
9. 7
77. 1
49. 2
27. 9

100 0

755
.
22. 9
13. 0
9. 9
77. 0
47. 9
29. 2

100 0

Unemployed 27 weeks and over
Total:
Number (In thousands)
Percent
Nonwhite
Male
_.
-_
Female __
White
Male
___
Female
__ _

239
.
24. 1
16. 6
7. 5
75. 9
53. 9
22. 0

100 0

667
.
23. 0
17. 3
5. 7
77. 0
56. 3
20. 7

100 0

571
.
26. 2
20. 3
5. 9
73. 8
52. 6
21. 2

100 0

454
.
26. 0
18. 9
7. 2
74. 0
53. 1
20. 9

100 0

804
.
23. 6
17. 1
6. 5
76. 4
53. 7
22. 7

100 0

585
.
28. 4
19. 3
9. 1
71. 6
50. 4
21. 2

100 0

553
.
28. 2
18. 4
9. 8
71. 8
50. 8
21. 0

100 0

482
.
25. 3
14. 7
10. 6
74. 7
50. 2
24. 5

100 0

351
.
25. 4
15. 4
10. 0
74. 6
49. 6
25. 1

100 0

1 Not strictly comparable with prior years due to introduction of data from the 1960 decennial census and the inclusion of Alaska and Hawaii.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.




85

The percent of non w hite m en am ong all unem ployed m en declined slightly, 1957-65, reflecting a
sharp drop in the unem ploym ent rate for the age groups 20-44; nonw hite wom en as a percent of all
unem ployed wom en increased for virtually all age groups.
T a b l e I I A -7 . — U n em p lo ye d P erso n s, by C olor, Sex, a n d A ge D eta il, 1 95 7 a n d 196 5 (a n n u a l averages )
[In thousands]

Age and sex

1965

1957
Total, 14 years and over---------14 to 19 years, both sexes___
2 0 years and over:
Men_
_ ------- --------- Women____ __
____
Men, 14 years and o v e r---- -------- _ __
14 to 19 years. _ . . .
. .. ..
20 to 24 years.
. .
25 to 34 years. _ ------ -------._
35 to 44 years. _ _
— __
....
45 to 54 years. __ . . ___
55 to 64 years__
65 years and over__
Women, 14 years and over..
..
___
14 to 19 years.____ _
20 to 24 years__
25 to 34 years.
__
__
35 to 44 years. _
45 to 54 years
55 to 64 years. _ _
65 years and over_______ ______ ______

White

Non white

585
112

306
165
374
67
60
92
65
52
27
10

211

44
38
56
34
23
11
3

702
196
267
239
377
111

57
67
56
47
31
9
324
85
62
64
64
30
15
3

Nonwhite as a
percent of total

1957

1965

2, 350
462
1, 236
657
1, 519
284
223
257
239
250
193
74
832
178
109
168
161
123
70
26

1957

2, 754
769
1, 169
817
1, 603
434
254
226
228
206
190
67
1, 152
335
183
173
199
152
86
24

1 Percent not shown where base is less than 50,000.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

86



19. 9
19. 5
19. 8
20. 1
19. 8
19. 1
21. 2
26. 4
21. 4
17. 2
12. 3
11. 9
20. 2
19. 8
25. 9
25. 0
17. 4
15. 8
13. 6
0)

1965

0

)

20. 3
20. 3
18. 6
22. 6
19. 0
20. 4
18. 3
22. 9
19. 7
18. 6
14. 0
11. 8
22. 0
20. 2
25. 3
27. 0
24. 3
16. 5
14. 9

A t 4.3 percent, the average unem ploym ent rate in 1965 for adult nonw hite married m en was the
low est for any group am ong nonw hite m en or wom en. A lthough it was tw ice the rate for w hite married
m en, it was m uch lower than the rate for other groups of w hite m ales— the single or the widowed,
separated, or divorced.
T able

II A -8 .— U n em p lo ye d

P erso n s a n d U n em p lo ym en t R ates, by S ex , C olor, A g e ,a n d M a r ita l S ta tu s, 1 96 5 {a n n u a l averages)

Unemployed persons
Sex, age, and marital status

(In tho usands)
Nonwhite

Men, 14 years and over __ _______
Single.. _ . --------Married, wife present__ ___ __
Other marital status 1 .
Men, 20 years and over. _
Single _________
Married, wife present. _ _ _ _ _
Other marital status 1 _. _ ______
Women, 14 years and over _ _
Single ----------- —
----Married, husband present _
Other marital status 1 _________________
Women, 20 years and over..
___
Single..
— - _ __
Married, husband present______
__
Other marital status 1 __

377
185
141
51
267
78
138
51
323
113
123
87
240
41
113
86

White
1,603
724
742
137
1 , 168
303
729
136
1,152
409
541
202

815
121

501
193

Unemployment rates

Nonwhite
as a Nonwhite
percent
of total
19.0
20.4
16. 0
27. 1
18.6
20. 5
15.9
27.3
21. 9
2 1 .6

18. 5
30. 1
22.7
25.3
18.4
30.8

White

7. 6
16. 5
4.4
8.7
6 .0

11.9
4.3
8.7
9.2
16.0
7.3
7.9
7.5
8.9
6 .8
7.9

3.6
9.2
2 .2
6.7
2.9
6.9
2.1
6.7
5.0
7.2
4. 1
4.7
4.0
3.6
3.9
4.5

Ratio of
nonwhite
to white
2 .1 1

1.79
.
1.30
2.07
1.72
2. 05
1.30
1.84
2 . 22
1.78
2 00

1 .6 8
1 .8 8

2. 47
1.74
1.76

1 Includes widowed, divorced, or separated.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.




87

B y occupation, the ratio of nonw hite to w hite unem ploym ent narrowed appreciably over the
1955-65 period am ong all w hite-collar groups except sales workers, and for m ost other groups also,
except those in dom estic, laborer, and farm jobs.
T able

IIA-9.— U n em p lo ym en t

R ates, by O ccu pa tio n o f L a st J o b a n d C olor, 1 95 5 a n d 1 96 5 (a n n u a l averages )

Non white

Occupation
1955 1
Total 2
_
— _
White-collar workers
Professional and technical.
Managers, officials, and proprietors _ _
Clerical workers.
.
Sales workers . .
. . ...
Blue-collar workers. _ . . — . .
Craftsmen and foremen
...
Operatives. ____ _
Nonfarm laborers._ ____ _ _ _ ____
Service workers _
....
. _
Private household workers
Other service workers. _
Farm workers
Farmers and farm managers. __
Farm laborers and foremen__

1965

7. 9
5. 1
2.6
3.3
8.1
3. 6
9.7

8.3
4. 1
2.6
1. 9
5.4
7. 0
7. 9
6 .0
7.4
9.7
7. 1
5.9
7.8
6.5
.7
7.5

8 .8
8 .2
1 2 .0

7.2
5. 6
8.7
4. 4
.6
6.3

>Except for total, figures are based on an average of January, April, July,
and October; data have not been adjusted to 1957 definitions of employment
and unemployment.

White
1955 1

Ratio of nonwhite
to white
1965

3. 6
1.7
1 .0
.9
2.4
2. 5
5. 5
3. 9
5. 5
9.8
4.8
3.0
5. 2
1. 4
.4
3.0

4. 1
2.2
1.4
1. 1
3. 1
3.2
4. 9
3.4
5.2
7.9
4. 5
2 .8
4. 8
1. 9
.4
4. 0

1955
2 .2

3.0
2 .6
3.7
3.4
1.4
1 .8
2.3
1. 5
1 .2
1. 5
1. 9
1.7
3. 1
1. 5
2.1

1965
.
1. 9
1.9
1.7
1.7
2.2
1.6
1 .8
1.4
1.2
1 .6
2.1
1 .6
3. 4
1 .8
1. 9
2 0

2 Includes persons with no previous work experience, not shown separately,
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are
from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

Experienced non w hite workers had low er unem ploym ent rates in 1965 than in 1955 in every industry
group except agriculture, whereas the trend varied by industry am ong w hite workers. T he ratio of
non w hite to w hite unem ploym ent declined in every industry group over this period.
T able

IIA-10.

—

Unem ploym ent Rates, by In du stry of Last Job and Color, 1955 and 1965 (annual averages)

Industry group

Nonwhite
1955 1

Total 2 __
Experienced unemployed__
Agriculture____ _ .
Nonagricultural industries. _ . . . .
Mining, forestry, fisheries__ _ _
Construction. _ _
Manufacturing
Durable goods___
Nondurable goods__
Transportation and public utilities
Wholesale and retail trade .
Service and finance__
Public administration. _

7.9
7.5
4.8
8 .0
7.7
16.0
7.8
7.2
8 .6
8 .2

9. 1
5.5

6 .6

1 Data have not been adjusted to 1957 definitions of employment and
unemployment.
2 Includes those with no previous work experience, not shown separately.
88



Ratio of nonwhite to
white

White

1965
8.3
6 .8
6.3
6 .8
2.5
14. 6
6 .6
5.9
8 .0
4.4
8.7
5.7
3.8

1955 1
3.6
3.2
1.4
3.5
7.7
7.4
3.8
3.6
4.0
3. 1
3. 1
2.3
1.4

1965
4. 1
3.4
2.1
3.5
5.3
7.3
3.6
3.2
4.2
2.5
3.8
2.7
1 .6

1955
2 .2

2.3
3.4
2.3
1 .0
2 .2
2 1
2 0
2 2
2 .6

.
.
.
2.9
2.9
3.9

1965
.
3.0
1.9
0.5
2 0
2 .0

2 .0
1 .8
1 .8

1.9
1 .8
2.3
2.1
2. 4

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data
are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

The occupational and industrial pattern of un­
em ploym ent was sim ilar am ong w hite and non­
w hite experienced workers in 1965. W ithin in­
dustries, the largest percentage of the unem ployed
were in the services. A m ong occupations, jobless
production workers were the largest group.
T a b l e IIA-11.—P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f U n em p lo ye d P e r ­
son s, by I n d u stry , O ccu pation , a n d Color, 1 96 5 (a n n u a l
averages )

Industry
Total (in thousands)__
__.
Percent
_
Experienced wage and salary
workers . _
Agriculture
Nonagricultural industries
Mining, forestry, fisheries ___
Construction
Manufacturing
Durable goods . .
Nondurable goods
Transportation and public
utilities
Wholesale and retail trade, .
Finance, insurance, and real
estate




Nonwhite White
702 2, 754
. 100. 0
78. 5 79. 8
2. 7
6. 0
72. 5 77. 1
.1
1. 2
11. 2
10. 1
16. 4 24. 2
12. 0
8. 0
12. 2
8. 4
3. 8
2. 8
15. 1 17. 6
2. 3
1. 1

100 0

Industry
Total—Continued
Experienced etc.—Continued
Nonagricultural industries—Con.
Service industries
__
Public administration
Self-employed and unpaid family
workers _
_ ______ ____
No previous work experience__
White-collar workers ____ _ _ _
Professional and technical _
Managers, officials, and pro­
prietors . . .
____
Clerical workers __
Sales workers
Blue-collar workers_________ ____
Craftsmen and foremen
Operatives __
_
Nonfarm laborers _ _ _
Service workers____ _ __ __
Private household workers
Other service workers.
__
Farm w orkers.__ ________ _
Farmers and farm managers.
Farm laborers and foremen . _
No previous work experience

Nonwhite White

25. 1
2. 1
1. 9
19. 7
9. 3
2.0
.6
5. 1
1. 6
38. 5
4. 7
18. 7
15. 1
26. 6
8. 8
17. 8
5. 8
.1
5. 7
19. 8

14. 6
2. 1
2. 9
17. 2
25. 0
4. 3
2. 9
12. 3
5. 5
43. 5
11. 3
23. 3
8. 9
11. 7
1. 3
10. 4
2. 6
.3
2. 3
17. 1

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are
from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

89

In 1954-65, em ploym ent of w hite m en in prim e working years (20-54) dropped in the 25-34-yearold group (by 727,000), whereas em ploym ent am ong nonw hite m ales in all prim e age groups increased.
Sharpest em ploym ent increases in the period were am ong w hite teenagers and m ature w om en (w hite
and nonw hite) 45 to 54 years old.
T able

Color and
sex

IIA-12 .— E m p lo y ed

Total,
14 years Total
and over

MALE

1947________
1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953 2 _______
1954________
1955
19563_______
1957________
1958________
1959________
I9602_______
1961________
1962 2_______
1963________
1964________
1965________

P erso n s, by C olor, S ex, a n d A ge D eta il, 1 9 4 7 - 6 5 1 (a n n u a l averages)

lln thousands]

14 to 19 years
20 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 65 years
14 and 16 and 18 and years years years years years and over
17
19
15

41, 677
42, 428
41,660
42, 287
42, 490
42, 391
43, 125
42, 377
43,290
44,148
43, 990
43, 042
44, 089
44, 485
44, 318
44, 892
45, 330
46, 139
47, 034

2, 795
2,911
2 , 687
2, 787
2, 753
2, 674
2 , 686
2, 550
2, 642
2 , 802
2, 750
2, 631
2 , 821
2, 941
2, 976
3, 077
3, 079
3, 253
3, 612

559
543
549
585
584
555
537
547
532
621
633
619
623
581
662
715
673
665
694

16, 349
16, 950
17, 049
17,670
18, 515
18, 902
19, 088
18, 861
19, 904
20, 831
2 1 , 021
20, 924
21, 492
22, 196
22, 478
22,954
23,479
24,218
25, 145

1,921
1, 930
1,826
1,777
1, 863
1,857
1, 829
1,736
1,803
1, 962
1,970
1 , 881
1,968
2 , 091
2 , 181
2 , 262
2,223
2, 316
2, 515

215
231
225
245
240
230
230
234
241
288
307
311
328
322
388
429
374
387
397

999
, 006
916
914
985
991
981
885
941
1 , 016
987
948
1, 015
1, 089
989
990
1, 073
1, 242
1, 284

1,237
1, 362
1, 2 22
1,288
1, 184
1 , 128
1 , 168
1 , 118
1, 169
1, 165
1, 130
1, 064
1, 183
1, 271
1, 325
1,372
1, 333
1, 345
1,634

587
611
560
531
601
647
607
548
570
647
626
571
655
680
632
617
678
771
790

1, 119
1 , 088
1, 041
1, 001
1, 0 22
980
992
954
992
1, 027
1, 037
999
985
1,089
1 , 161
1 , 216
1, 171
1, 158
1, 328

1

4, 262
4, 380
4, 222
4, 274
3, 797
3,204
2,922
2, 752
2,997
3, 266
3, 343
3,293
3, 597
3, 754
3, 798
3, 898
4, 118
4,370
4, 583

9,881
, 068
9, 918
10, 092
1 0 , 166
10, 390
10, 535
10, 303
10,476
10, 371
10, 222
9, 790
9, 863
9, 759
9, 591
9, 475
9, 431
9, 531
9, 611

9, 266
9, 393
9, 343
9,467
9, 631
9,778
10, 258
10,123
10, 295
10, 414
10,427
10,291
10,492
10, 551
10,505
10, 711
1 0 , 801
10, 832
10, 837

7, 659
7,761
7,691
7, 804
8 , 033
8 , 172
8,403
8 , 366
8 , 576
8,755
8 , 851
8,828
9, 048
9, 182
9, 194
9, 333
9, 479
9, 637
9, 792

5, 499
5, 604
5,465
5, 521
5,724
5, 822
5, 830
5, 861
5, 872
6 ,0 2 0
6 ,002
5, 954
6 , 058
6 , 106
6 , 156
6 , 260
6 , 385
6,477
6 , 542

2, 316
2, 312
2, 335
2, 341
2, 387
2, 351
2, 492
2, 422
2,430
2, 519
2, 394
2, 254
2 , 210
2, 191
2, 098
2, 137
2, 039
2, 039
2, 057

, 606
2, 604
2,481
2, 507
2, 557
2,405
2, 340
2 , 266
2, 314
2, 318
2, 295
2, 277
2, 273
2, 366
2, 433
2, 548
2,697
2,934
3, 119

3, 628
3,787
3, 785
3, 876
4, 117
4, 185
4, 043
3,970
4, 053
4, 095
4, 031
3,885
3, 846
3, 871
3,838
3,836
3, 8 8 8
3,918
4, 093

3, 594
3, 706
3, 821
3, 993
4, 159
4, 327
4, 570
4, 494
4, 633
4, 858
4, 921
4,866
4, 961
5, 046
5, 047
5, 190
5,313
5, 335
5,457

2 , 673
2,898
2,990
3, 185
3, 426
3, 561
3,613
3, 667
4, 024
4, 266
4,469
4, 620
4, 867
5, 055
5, 124
5, 158
5, 272
5,457
5, 528

1, 490
1, 522
1 , 612
1, 766
1, 856
1, 990
2, 009
2, 079
2, 312
2, 527
2, 550
2, 604
2,764
2,884
2,964
3,086
3,211
3, 326
3, 486

438
503
536
566
537
579
684
649
765
805
784
791
812
882
889
875
877
934
948

336
372
401
413
397
445

977
998
1, 015
996
929
951

916
923
942
947
905
932

723
765
786
784
767
787

421
429
448
460
454
470

174
171
177
160
151
150

10

FEMALE

1947________
1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953 2 _______
1954________
1955________
1956 3 _______
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960 2 _______
1961________
1962 2 _______
1963________
1964________
1965________

2

NONWHITE
MALE

1954________ 3, 8 8 6
1955________ 4,001
1956 3 _______ 4, 112
1957________ 4, 080
1958________ 3,891
1959________ 4, 041
See footnotes it end of ta ble.

90




338
342
343
321
289
307

75
69
68
67
60
69

110

116
119
113
97
101

153
157
156
140
132
137

T able IIA-12.— Employed Persons, by Color, Sex, and Age Detail, 1947-651 (annual averages)—Continued
[In thousands]

Color and
sex
NONWHITE
MALE--Con.

1960 2_______
1961________
1962 2 _______
1963________
1964________
1965________

Total,
14 years Total
and over

14 to 19 years
20 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 65 years
14 and 16 and 18 and years years years years years and over
17
19
15

4, 220
4, 133
4, 220
4, 293
4, 429
4, 568

340
324
323
314
341
378

72
60
64
70
72

116
98
106
101
114
126

152
160
157
149
158
181

490
487
472
471
514
558

982
961
961
968
993
1,013

963
938
993
1, 019
1, 032
1, 043

809
800
821
828
850
869

487
485
510
541
533
543

148
137
140
151
167
165

2, 448
2, 495
2,588
2, 641
2, 624
2, 689
2 , 821
2, 803
2, 878
2, 941
3, 052
3, 179

179
181
201
189
170
162
202
194
191
183
196

200

42
32
38
35
33
37
42
38
34
30
28
32

56
55
65
58
53
50
55
51
53
49
53
57

81
94
98
96
84
75
105
105
104
104
116

288
272
258
273
265
288
298
284
298
307
346
392

616
642
660
638
618
614
627
633
647
661
662
698

641
640
651
685
681
691
705
708
736
754
754
779

452
477
494
527
568
577
608
613
604
617
649
649

217
224
254
263
257
289
310
300
324
337
355
369

56
58
70
67
67
67
70
72
78
81
90
93

,
2, 299
2, 459
2, 430
2,342
2, 515
2 , 602
2, 652
2, 754
2, 765
2, 911
3, 234

473
463
552
566
558
554
510
597
656
609
596
622

774
824
898
874
852
915
973
891
883
972
1 , 128
1, 159

964
,
1, 009
990
932
1, 046
1, 119
1, 164
1, 215
1, 184
1 , 188
1, 453

, 417
2, 625
2, 865
2,930
2,896
3, 153
3, 264
3, 311
3,426
3, 646
3, 856
4, 025

9, 325
9, 478
9,355
9, 226
8 , 861
8 , 911
8,777
8 , 630
8 , 514
8,463
8 , 538
8 , 598

9, 207
9,372
9, 472
9,480
9, 386
9, 560
9, 589
9, 566
9, 718
9, 782
9, 800
9, 795

7, 643
7, 812
7, 970
8 , 067
8 , 061
8 , 261
8 , 372
8 , 394
8 , 512
8 , 650
8 , 787
8 , 924

5, 441
5, 443
5, 572
5, 542
5, 501
5, 588
5, 618
5, 670
5, 749
5, 844
5, 945
5, 998

2, 248
2 , 260
2, 342
2, 234
2 , 103
2 , 060
2, 043
1, 961
1, 998
1, 887
1, 872
1, 892

1, 558
1 , 622
1, 760
1,781
1,711
1,806
1, 890
1,988
2, 071
2, 038
2, 119
2, 315

192
209
250
272
278
292
281
351
395
344
359
365

492
515
582
568
518
605
625
581
564
628
718
733

874
898
928
941
915
909
984
1, 056
1, 112
1 , 066
1, 042
1, 217

1,977
2, 042
2 , 060
2 , 022
2 , 012
1,985
2, 067
2, 149
2, 250
2,390
2, 588
2, 727

3, 354
3, 411
3, 435
3, 393
3, 267
3, 233
3, 244
3, 205
3, 189
3, 226
3, 256
3, 394

3,853
3, 992
4, 208
4, 236
4, 185
4, 270
4, 341
4, 339
4, 455
4, 559
4, 580
4, 678

3, 215
3, 547
3, 772
3, 942
4, 052
4, 291
4,448
4, 512
4, 554
4, 654
4, 809
4, 880

1,862
2, 089
2, 272
2, 287
2, 348
2, 475
2, 574
2, 665
2, 762
2,874
2,971
3, 118

593
707
734
717
725
745
812
817
797
796
845
856

66

NONWHITE
FEMALE

1954________
1955________
1956 3 _______
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960 2 _______
1961________
1962 2_______
1963________
1964________
1965________

111

WHITE MALE

1954________
1955________
1956 3_______
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960 2 _______
1961________
1962 2_______
1963________
1964________
1965________

38, 491
39,289
40, 036
39, 909
39,150
40,047
40, 265
40, 185
40, 672
41, 037
41, 710
42, 466

2 211

1 012

2

WHITE FEMALE

1954________
1955________
1956 3 _______
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960 2 _______
1961________
1962 2 _______
1963________
1964________
1965________

16,412
17,409
18,243
18,381
18, 300
18, 804
19,376
19,675
20, 077
20, 538
21, 167
21, 966

1Absolute numbers by color are not available prior to 1954.
2 Not strictly comparable with prior years, due to the introduction of data
from decennial censuses and the inclusion of Alaska and Hawaii.
217-817 0 — 66------- 7




* Data through 1956 have not been adjusted to reflect changes in the definitions of employment and unemployment adopted in January 1957.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data
are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

91

N onw hite em ploym ent increased relatively more than w hite em ploym ent betw een 1957 and 1965,
reflecting m ainly em ploym ent growth am ong nonw hite adults. E m ploym ent am ong w hite teenagers
increased relatively m uch m ore than non w hite teenage em ploym ent in that period.
T able

IIA-13.—E m p lo y e d

P erso n s, by C olor, Sex, a n d A ge D eta il, a n d P ercen t C hange, 195 7 a n d 196 5 (a n n u a l averages)

[In thousands]

Age and sex
Total, 14 vears and over
14 to 19 years, both sexes__
2 0 years and over:
Men
Women
Men, 14 years and over__
14 to 19 years.
20 to 24 years
25 to 34 years.
35 to 44 vears
45 to 54 years
55 to 64 vears
65 vears and over
Women, 14 vears and over
14 to 19 years
20 to 24 vears
25 to 34 years
35 to 44 vears
45 to 54 vears
55 to 64 vears
65 years and over

Nonwhite
1957

1965

, 721
509
3, 760
2,452
4, 080
321
413
996
947
784
460
160
2, 641
189
273
638
685
527
263
67

7,747
578
4,190
2, 979
4, 568
378
558
1,013
1, 043
869
543
165
3,179

6

200

392
698
779
649
369
93

White
Percent
change
15. 3
13. 6
11. 4
21. 5
12. 0
17. 8
35. 1
1. 7
10. 1
10.8
18. 0
3. 1
20. 4
5. 8
43. 6
9. 4
13. 7
23. 1
40. 3
38. 8

1957

1965

58, 290
4, 211
37, 479
16, 600
39, 909
2, 430
2, 930
9, 226
9,480
8 , 067
5, 542
2,234
18, 381
1, 781
2 ,022
3, 393
4, 236
3, 942
2,287
717

64, 432
5, 549
39, 232
19, 652
42,466
3,234
4, 025
8 , 598
9, 795
8 , 924
5, 998
1, 892
21, 966
2, 315
2 , 727
3,394
4, 678
4, 880
3, 118
856

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

92



Percent
change
10. 5
31. 8
4. 8
18. 4
6.4
33. 1
37. 4
- 6.8
3. 3
10.6
8.2
-15. 3
19. 5
30. 0
34. 9
0. 0
10. 4
23. 8
36. 3
19. 4

T he nonw hite are m uch m ore likely to be working part tim e involuntarily than w hite workers, and
the proportion of nonw hites on involuntary part-tim e work increased as a proportion of all workers so
em ployed betw een 1957 and 1965. H ow ever, the likelihood of being em ployed part tim e for econom ic
reasons declined more for nonw hite than w hite workers.
T able

IIA-14.— P erso n s

E m p lo y ed in N o n a g r{cu ltu ra l In d u strie s, by C olor a n d F u ll- or P a r t-T im e S ta tu s, 195 7 a n d 1 96 5
(a n n u a l averages)

Percent distribution
Full- or part-time status

Nonwhite
1957

Total employed:
Number (in thousands) _
_______
Percent
Full-time schedules. _ _ _
_
Voluntary part time
Part time for economic reasons 1____
Usually work full time
Usually work part time ._

1965

1957

1965
57, 492
100.0
85.7
11.9
2. 5
1.3
1.2

6

, 735

53,034

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

6 .0

1 Mainly slack work, job turnover, and inability to find full-time work.
.
_ , .
... . . .
, . . .,
NTote.—Employed persons with a job .but not. at. work during the survey
week have been distributed proportionately.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.




White

5, 755
79. 4
10. 9
9.7
3.7

Nonwhite as a percent
of total in each group

80. 9
11.4
7.7
2.4
5. 3

87.7
9. 1
3. 2
1. 9
1.3

1957

9. 8
8.9
11.5
24. 5
17. 3
33. 1

1965

10. 5
1 0 .0
10 1

.
27.0
18.3
34. 5

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are
from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

93

V oluntary part-tim e em ploym ent rose relatively m ore than full-tim e em ploym ent betw een 1957
and 1965, but the color-sex distribution in both series changed little during the period.
T a b l e I I A -1 5 . — P erso n s E m p lo y e d in N o n a g ric u ltu ra l I n d u strie s on F u ll-T im e S ch edu les or V o lu n ta ry P a r t T im e, by
C olor a n d S ex, 1 9 5 7 -6 5 (a n n u a l averages )
[Percent distribution]

Color and sex

On full-time schedules 1
1957

1958

1959

I9602

1961

1962 3

1963

1964

Total:
48, 617 47, 077 48, 865 49, 542 49, 427 50, 619 51, 439 52, 872
Number (in thousands)
Percent - - - 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
8. 8
9. 2
9. 2
8. 8
,9. 1
9. 4
9. 7
9. 0
Nonwhite - —
—
5. 9
5. 8
6. 0
5. 7
5. 9
5. 6
6. 2
5. 9
Male_
3. 3
3. 3
3. 2
3. 1
3. 3
3. 4
3. 5
3. 1
Female __
90. 9 90. 8
90. 6
90. 3
White_______________________ 91. 0 91. 2 91. 2 90. 8
63. 8
63. 7 63. 6
64. 4 64. 2 64. 3 63. 8
63. 2
Male
27. 0 27. 1 27. 1 27. 0 27. 2
26. 7 27. 0 26. 8
Female___ _ __

1965
54, 692
100. 0

9. 9
6. 3
3. 6
90. 1
62. 6
27. 4

On voluntary part-time schedules 4
Total:
Number (in thousands).
Percent
Nonwhite
Male
Female.
White_______________________
M ale.. _
. .
Female___ .. ._ ___

5, 181

5, 215

5, 569

5, 815

6

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

11. 5
2. 7
8. 8
88. 5
31. 8
56. 7

10. 7
2. 6
8. 1
89. 3
32. 1
57. 2

10. 5
2. 7
7. 9
89. 5
32. 3
57. 2

10. 5
2. 7
7. 7
89. 5
31. 2
58. 3

9. 4
2. 2
7. 2
90. 6
31. 2
59. 3

1 Includes those who worked 35 hours or more during the survey week and
those who usually work full time but worked part time because of illness,
bad weather, holidays, personal business, or other temporary noneconomic
reasons.
2 Not strictly comparable with prior years due to the inclusion of Alaska
and Hawaii.
3 Not strictly comparable with prior years due to the introduction of data
from the 1960 decennial census.

94



, 148

, 808

7, 263

7, 607

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

9. 9
2. 3
7. 6
90. 1
31. 8
58. 3

10. 5
2. 8
7. 7
89. 5
31. 5
58. 0

10. 5
2. 9
7. 6
89. 5
31. 8
57. 6

.
2. 9
7. 2
89. 9
32. 1
57. 8

6

, 597

6

10 1

4 Those who wanted part-time work only.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data
are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

The distribution of nonw hite and w hite nonfarm workers em ployed for econom ic reasons on parttim e work changed little betw een 1957 and 1965. In 1965, nonw hite part-tim e workers were alm ost onefifth of those (white and nonw hite) who usually hold full-tim e jobs, and they were about one-third of all
part-tim e workers who w anted full-tim e work.
T a b l e I IA -1 6 . — P erso n s E m p lo y e d in N o n a g r{cu ltu ra l In d u strie s on P a r t T im e fo r E con om ic R ea so n s, by U su a l F u ll-T im e
or P a r t-T im e S ta tu s, a n d by Color a n d S ex, 1 9 5 7 -6 5 (a n n u a l averages)
[Percent distribution]

Color and sex
Total:
Number (in thousands)
Percent.
Nonwhite
Male _ - _
Female----- ----------- -------White_______________________
Male _Female

Usually work full time 1
1957

1958

1959

I9602

1961

1962 3

1963

1964

1, 183

1, 638

1, 032

1, 243

1,297

1, 049

1, 069

986

897

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

17. 3
11. 2
6. 1
82. 7
53. 9
28. 8

15. 6
10. 6
5. 0
84. 4
58. 1
26. 3

17. 7
11. 6
6. 0
82. 3
54. 1
28. 2

16. 8
11. 7
5. 2
83. 2
56. 3
26. 9

15. 2
10. 2
5. 0
84. 8
56. 0
28. 8

15. 9
10. 7
5. 2
84. 1
54. 1
30. 0

16. 4
11. 0
5. 3
83. 6
52. 0
31. 7

17. 8
11. 2
6. 6
82. 2
49. 8
32. 4

18. 3
11. 5
6. 8
81. 7
48. 7
33. 0

1965

Usually work part time 4
Total:
Number (in thousands).
Percent
Nonwhite
Male
Female
White_______________________
Male.
Female.

986

1, 315

1, 304

1, 317

1, 516

1, 287

1, 219

1, 151

1, 031

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

33. 2
13. 1
20. 1
66. 8
37. 0
29. 8

31. 6
13. 0
18. 6
68. 4
37. 7
30. 7

33. 6
13. 7
19. 9
66. 4
35. 4
31. 0

32. 5
12. 5
20. 0
67. 5
35. 4
32. 1

31. 7
13. 3
18. 5
68. 3
37. 4
30. 9

34. 8
14. 5
20. 3
65. 2
34. 3
30. 9

33. 8
14. 0
19. 9
66. 2
34. 4
31. 8

34. 7
15. 0
19. 7
65. 3
33. 0
32. 3

34. 4
12. 8
21. 6
65. 6
32. 3
33. 3

1Includes those who worked 35 hours or more during the survey week and
those who usually work full time but worked part time because of illness,
bad weather, holidays, personal business, or other temporary noneconomic
reasons.
2 Not strictly comparable with prior years due to the inclusion of Alaska
and Hawaii.




3 Not strictly comparable with prior years due to the introduction of data
from the 1960 decennial census.
4 Those who wanted part-time work only.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are
from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

95

T he largest gains in both the w hite and nonw liite labor force betw een 1947 and 1965 occurred am ong
wom en aged 35-64.
T able

Sex and
color

IIA-17 .— C iv ilia n

Total,
14
years
and
over

L abor F orce, by S ex, C olor, a n d A g e D eta il, 1 9 4 7 -6 5 1 (a n n u a l averages)

[In thousands]

14 to 19 years

Total

65
20 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 years
years years years years years
and
14 and 16 and 18 and
over
15
17
19

MALE

1947________
1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953 2_______
1954________
1955________
1956________
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960 2 _______
1961________
1962 2_______
1963________
1964________
1965________

43, 272
43, 858
44,075
44, 442
43, 612
43, 454
44,194
44, 537
45, 041
45, 756
45, 882
46, 197
46,561
47, 025
47, 378
47, 380
47, 867
48,410
49, 014

3, 074
3, 173
3, 054
3, 127
2, 957
2, 896
2 , 880
2 , 868
2, 935
3, 098
3, 102
3, 104
3, 273
3, 423
3, 518
3, 549
3, 645
3, 806
4, 157

586
573
577
623
611
585
561
572
566
665
685
676
676
637
725
780
738
731
759

, 106
1, 109
1, 056
1, 047
1 , 080
1, 101
1, 070
1, 024
1, 070
1, 142
1, 127
1, 133
1, 207
1, 290
1, 210
1, 177
1, 321
1, 498
1, 531

1,382
1, 491
1,421
1,457
1 , 266
1, 2 1 0
1, 249
1, 273
1, 299
1, 292
1 , 290
1, 295
1,391
1, 496
1, 583
1, 592
1, 586
1, 576
1, 866

4, 629
4, 674
4, 681
4, 632
3, 935
3, 338
3, 054
3, 052
3, 221
3,485
3, 626
3,771
3, 940
4, 123
4, 255
4, 279
4, 514
4, 754
4, 894

10, 207
10, 327
10, 410
10, 527
10, 375
10, 585
10, 737
10, 772
10, 805
10, 685
10, 571
10, 475
10, 346
10, 252
10, 176
9, 921
9, 875
9, 875
9, 902

, 067
2, 083
2, 053
1, 980
2, 013
1, 996
1, 945
1, 933
1, 982
2, 176
2, 192
2, 165
2, 244
2, 402
2, 560
2, 607
2, 636
2, 725
2, 934

232
248
242
268
256
244
239
253
258
313
332
333
349
347
419
460
405
411
421

643
671
648
611
662
706
656
620
641
736
716
685
765
805
774
742
850
950
954

1, 192
1, 164
1, 163
1, 101
1, 095
1, 046
1, 050
1 , 062
1, 083
1, 127
1, 144
1, 147
1, 131
1, 250
1, 368
1, 405
1, 381
1, 364
1, 559

2, 716
2, 719
2, 659
2 , 675
2, 659
2, 502
2, 428
2, 424
2, 445
2, 455
2, 442
2, 500
2,473
2, 580
2, 697
2 , 802
2, 959
3, 210
3,364

3, 740
3, 932
3, 997
4, 092
4, 292
4, 320
4, 162
4, 212
4, 251
4, 276
4, 255
4, 193
4, 089
4, 131
4, 143
4, 103
4, 174
4, 180
4, 329

384
392
398
388
382
397

79
79
77
78
69
79

127
135
140
135
133
130

178
178
181
175
180
188

396
419
450
473
493
532

1, 075
1, 085
1, 090
1 , 088
1, 089
1, 085

1

9, 492 7, 847
9, 596 7, 942
9, 722 8 , 008
9, 793 8 , 117
9, 798 8 , 204
9, 945 8 , 326
10,436 8 , 570
10, 513 8 , 703
10, 595 8 , 839
10, 663 9, 002
10, 731 9, 153
10, 843 9, 320
10, 899 9, 437
10,967 9, 574
9, 667
11, 012
11, 115 9, 715
11, 187 9, 836
11, 155 9, 956
11, 121
10, 045

5, 647
5, 764
5, 748
5, 794
5, 874
5, 950
5, 974
6 , 105
6 , 122
6 ,220
6 ,222
6 , 304
6 , 345
6 , 400
5, 530
6 , 560
6 , 674
6 , 740
6,763

2, 376
2, 384
2, 454
2, 454
2, 469
2,415
2, 544
2, 525
2, 526
2, 603
2, 478
2, 379
2, 322
2,287
2 ,2 2 0
2, 241
2, 135
2, 123
2, 131

3, 676
3, 800
3, 989
4, 161
4, 301
4, 438
4, 662
4, 709
4, 805
5, 031
5, 116
5, 185
5, 227
5, 303
5, 389
5, 474
5, 600
5, 614
5, 720

2, 731
2, 972
3, 099
3, 327
3, 534
3, 636
3, 680
3, 822
4, 154
4, 405
4, 615
4, 859
5, 081
5, 278
5, 403
5, 381
5, 503
5, 680
5, 712

1, 522
1, 565
1,678
1, 839
1, 923
2, 032
2, 048
2, 164
2, 391
2 , 610
2,631
2, 727
2, 883
2,986
3, 105
3, 198
3, 332
3, 447
3, 587

445
514
556
584
551
590
693
666
780
821
813
822
836
907
926
911
905
966
976

997
998

790
813
827
836
855
849

451
468
484
487
505
512

187
183
185
170
166
163

FEMALE

1947________
1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953 2 _______
1954________
1955________
1956________
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960 2_______
1961________
1962 2_______
1963________
1964________
1965________

16, 896
17, 583
18, 030
18, 657
19,272
19, 513
19, 621
19, 931
2 0 , 806
21, 774
22,064
22, 451
22,833
23,587
24,225
24, 474
25, 109
25, 823
26, 621

2

NONWHITE
MALE

1954________
1955________
1956________
1957________
1958________
1959________

4, 282
4, 358
4, 436
4,454
4, 511
4, 569

See footnotes at end of table.

96



,
,
,
1, 023

1 002
1 012
1 021

T able IIA-17.— Civilian Labor Force, by Sex, Color, and Age Detail, 1947-651 (annual averages)— Continued
Sex and
color
NONWHITE
MALE
1960 2_________
1961__________
1962 2_________
1963__________
1964__________
1965__________
NONWHITE
FEMALE
1954__________
1955__________
1956__________
1957__________
1958__________
1959__________
1960 2_________
1961__________
1962 2_________
1963__________
1964__________
1965__________
WHITE MALE
1954__________
1955__________
1956__________
1957__________
1958__________
1959__________
1960 2_________
1961__________
1962 2_________
1963__________
1964__________
1965__________
WHITE
FEMALE
1954__________
1955__________
1956__________
1957__________
1958__________
1959__________
1960 2_________
1961__________
1962 2_________
1963__________
1964__________
1965__________

Total,
14
years
and
over

14 to 19 years

20 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64
years
years
years
years
years

65
years
and
over

T otal

14 and
15

16 and
17

18 and
19

4, 728
4, 743
4, 739
4, 802
4, 871
4, 945

436
429
408
421
445
489

83
77
71
77
86
90

150
142
136
138
154
172

203
210
201
206
205
226

564
575
553
558
588
614

1, 099
1, 103
1, 074
1, 070
1, 074
1, 079

1, 049
1, 050
1, 087
1, 109
1, 101
1, 098

884
891
895
891
903
916

538
542
564
584
580
575

158
151
159
168
181
173

2, 668
2, 697
2 ,8 1 2
2, 852
2 ,9 4 3
2, 970
3, 116
3, 180
3, 237
3 ,3 1 8
3 ,4 2 1
3, 503

216
216
250
233
229
215
260
264
266
274
283
285

47
34
44
40
38
42
47
44
42
39
37
39

68
65
82
71
71
66
74
74
73
82
83
92

101
117
124
122
120
107
139
146
151
153
164
154

326
307
297
311
328
338
352
353
364
377
424
454

680
706
717
694
695
680
690
712
730
749
744
761

684
673
692
719
750
748
771
793
809
821
818
844

476
499
519
550
597
614
645
662
650
656
690
680

226
235
266
274
274
304
324
320
336
354
370
383

59
60
72
70
72
69
73
77
82
84
92
96

40, 255
40, 683
4 1 ,3 2 0
41, 428
41, 686
41, 993
42, 297
42, 635
42, 641
43, 065
43, 539
44, 069

2, 484
2, 542
2, 700
2 ,7 1 4
2, 723
2, 875
2, 988
3, 088
3, 142
3, 224
3, 361
3, 668

495
487
586
607
606
596
555
649
710
661
646
669

895
934
1, 003
992
1, 001
1, 077
1, 140
1, 067
1, 041
1, 183
1, 345
1, 359

1, 094
1, 121
1, 111
1, 115
1, 116
1, 202
1, 293
1, 372
1,391
1 ,3 8 0
1, 371
1, 639

2, 656
2, 802
3, 034
3, 153
3 ,2 7 8
3, 408
3, 559
3, 681
3, 726
3, 955
4, 166
4, 279

9, 695
9, 720
9, 594
9, 483
9, 386
9, 261
9, 153
9, 072
8, 846
8, 805
8, 800
8, 823

9, 516
9, 598
9, 662
9, 719
9, 822
9, 876
9, 919
9, 961
10, 029
10, 079
10, 055
10, 023

7, 914
8, 027
8, 175
8 ,3 1 7
8, 465
8, 581
8, 689
8, 776
8, 820
8, 944
9, 053
9, 129

5, 654
5, 653
5, 736
5, 735
5, 800
5, 833
5, 861
5, 988
5, 995
6, 090
6, 160
6, 188

2 ,3 3 8
2, 342
2, 417
2 ,3 0 8
2 ,2 1 3
2, 158
2, 129
2, 068
2, 082
1, 967
1, 943
1, 958

17, 262
18, 110
18, 962
19,212
19, 508
19, 863
20, 471
21, 044
2 1 ,2 3 7
21, 791
22, 402
2 3 ,1 1 8

1, 717
1, 766
1, 926
1, 959
1, 937
2, 028
2, 143
2 ,2 9 8
2 ,3 4 0
2 ,3 6 0
2, 442
2, 649

205
224
269
292
295
307
300
376
418
365
374
382

552
576
654
645
614
698
731
700
668
767
867
862

960
966
1, 003
1, 022
1, 028
1, 023
1, 112
1,222
1,254
1, 228
1, 201
1, 405

2, 098
2, 137
2, 158
2, 131
2, 172
2, 135
2, 228
2, 345
2 ,4 3 8
2, 582
2, 786
2, 910

3, 532
3, 546
3, 559
3, 561
3 ,4 9 8
3, 409
3 ,4 4 1
3, 431
3 ,3 7 2
3, 424
3, 435
3, 568

4, 025
4, 131
4, 340
4, 397
4, 435
4, 479
4, 531
4, 596
4, 666
4, 780
4, 797
4, 876

3, 346
3, 654
3, 886
4, 065
4 ,2 6 2
4, 467
4, 633
4, 741
4, 731
4, 845
4, 989
5, 032

1, 937
2, 156
2, 344
2, 357
2, 454
2, 577
2, 661
2, 785
2, 861
2, 977
3, 077
3 ,2 0 3

607
720
748
743
751
767
835
849
830
823
874
879

1Absolute numbers by color are not available prior to 1954.
s Not strictly comparable with prior years, due to the introduction of data
from decennial censuses and the inclusion of Alaska and Hawaii.



Source U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are
from the regular monthly Current Population Survey,

97

In both 1950 and 1960, N egroes com prised nearly all nonw hite workers (over 90 p ercen t); all non­
w hite workers accounted for about 10.5 percent of the total civilian labor force.
T able

IIA-18.— P ercen t D istrib u tio n

o f the C iv ilia n L ab o r F orce, b y R ace a n d S ex, 1 9 5 0 a n d 1 96 0

1950

Race

Total

Total, all races:
Number (in thousands) _
Percent distribution. __
-- Nonwhite__Negro_____
Other nonwhite. _ _
White________________________________

Male
42, 126
100. 0
9. 5
9. 0
.5
90. 5

58, 646
100. 0
10. 4
10. 0
.4
89. 6

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
Source: 1950 Census of Population, U nited Stales S u m m a ry , D etailed
C haracteristics, P-Cl table 118, and N o n w h ite P o p u la tio n by R ace, P-E No.

1960
Female

Total

16, 520
100. 0
12. 8
12. 4
.3
87. 2

, 144
.
10. 7
9. 8
.8
89. 3

68
100 0

IIA-19.'—L abor F orce

P a r tic ip a tio n R ates a n d
U n em p lo ym en t R ates, by R ace, 196 0

Participation
rate

Unemployment
rate

Total labor force Unemployed as
as percent of percent of civil­
population
ian labor force
Negro _ _ _
Japanese__
Chinese __
White. _______ __

57. 6
61. 3
65. 8
56. 0

.
.
3. 9
4. 7

8 8
2 8

Source: 1960 C ensus of P o p u la tio n , N o n w h ite P o p u la tio n by R ace, PC(2)-1C,
tables 32, 34, 35; U .S . S u m m a ry , D etailed C haracteristics, PC(1)-1D, tables
182,194. (U.S. Bureau of the Census.)

98



45, 763
100. 0
9. 6
8. 7
.9
90. 4

Female
22, 381
100. 0
12. 8
12. 0
.8
87. 2

3B, table 9; 1960 Census of Population, N o n w h ite P o p u la tio n by R ace, PC (2)1C, table 32 and U n ited States S u m m a ry , D etailed C haracteristics, PC(1)-1D,
table 194.

In 1960, Japanese and C hinese labor force
participation rates were significantly higher and
their unem ploym ent rates lower than for both
w hites and N egroes.
T able

Male

Labor force participation rates betw een 1947 and 1965 fell for teenagers, especially non w hite teen­
agers whose school enrollm ent rates have risen sharply in this period; they dropped also for all older
workers except w hite wom en 65 and over. The decline am ong m ature m en appears at earlier ages for
the nonw hite than the w hite.
T able

IIA-20.— C iv ilia n

Color and
sex

Total,
14
years
and
over

L abor Force P a r tic ip a tio n R a te s,1 by C olor, Sex, a n d A ge D eta il, 1 9 4 8 -6 5 (a n n u a l averages)

14 to 19 years

Total

65
20 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 years
years years years years years
and
14 and 16 and 18 and
over
17
19
15

NONWHITE,
MALE

1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953________
1954________
1955________
1956________
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960________
1961________
1962________
1963________
1964________
1965________

84. 8
84. 5
83. 3
83. 6
83. 8
83. 0
82. 0
81. 8
81. 8
80. 8
80. 4
79. 1
79. 4
78. 0
76. 4
75. 8
75. 6
75. 2

58. 3
59. 2
56. 1
55. 3
49. 5
50. 3
48. 7
48. 8
48. 3
46. 0
44. 0
44. 0
45. 0
41. 5
38. 4
37. 8
37. 7
39. 1

44. 4
45. 8
45. 7
44. 9
44. 2
42. 3
44. 7
44. 4
45. 6
45. 5
46. 2
45. 8
46. 3
46. 2
45. 6
45. 6
46. 0
46. 0

30. 5
32. 8
31. 0
28. 9
28. 3
25. 4
25. 7
25. 3
28. 6
25. 9
24. 8
22. 7
25. 8
24. 6
24. 0
23. 4
22. 8
21. 7

39. 3
36. 6
37. 7
34. 6
30. 5
27. 8
27. 2
27. 1
25. 5
24. 7
21. 3
23. 9
23. 3
19. 2
16. 5
17. 2
18. 7
18. 9

59. 8
60. 4
57. 4
54. 7
52. 3
53. 0
46. 7
48. 2
49. 6
47. 5
45. 1
41. 7
45. 6
42. 5
40. 2
37. 2
37. 3
39. 3

77. 8
80. 8
78. 2
80. 8
79. 1
76. 7
78. 4
75. 7
76. 4
72. 0
71. 7
72. 0
71. 2
70. 5
68. 8
69. 1
67. 2
66. 7

85. 6
89. 7
91. 4
88. 7
92. 8
92. 3
91. 1
89. 7
88. 9
89. 6
88. 7
90. 8
90. 4
89. 7
89. 3
88. 6
89. 4
89. 8

95. 3
94. 1
92. 6
95. 7
96. 2
96. 7
96. 2
95. 8
96. 2
96. 1
96. 3
96. 3
96. 2
95. 9
95. 3
94. 9
95. 9
95. 7

97. 2
97. 3
96. 2
96. 4
97. 2
97. 3
96. 6
96. 2
96. 2
96. 5
96. 4
95. 8
95. 5
94. 8
94. 5
94. 9
94. 4
94. 2

94. 7
95. 6
95. 1
95. 1
95. 0
93. 9
93. 2
94. 2
94. 4
93. 5
93. 9
92. 8
92. 3
92. 3
92. 2
91. 1
91. 6
92. 0

.
.
81. 9
84. 6
85. 7
86. 7
83. 0
83. 1
83. 9
82. 4
83. 3
82. 5
82. 5
81. 6
81. 5
82. 5
80. 6
78. 8

50. 3
51. 4
45. 5
49. 5
43. 3
41. 1
41. 2
40. 0
39. 8
35. 9
34. 5
33. 5
31. 2
29. 4
27. 2
27. 6
29. 6
27. 9

.
23. 5
22. 0
17. 3
18. 5
14. 9
16. 2
11. 4
14. 4
12. 6
11. 6
12. 6
13. 2
11. 0
9. 7
8. 7
8. 0
8. 1

29. 1
30. 1
30. 2
30. 4
27. 4
24. 2
24. 5
22. 7
28. 3
24. 1
23. 2
20. 7
22. 1
21. 6
21. 0
21. 5
19. 5
20. 5

41. 2
44. 8
40. 6
40. 2
44. 7
37. 8
37. 7
43. 2
44. 6
42. 8
41. 2
36. 1
44. 3
44. 6
45. 5
44. 9
46. 5
40. 0

47. 1
49. 8
46. 9
45. 4
43. 9
45. 1
49. 6
46. 7
44. 9
46. 6
48. 3
48. 8
48. 8
47. 7
48. 6
49. 2
53. 6
55. 2

50. 6
50. 9
51. 6
51. 1
50. 1
48. 1
49. 7
51. 3
52. 1
50. 4
50. 8
50. 0
49. 7
51. 2
52. 0
53. 3
52. 8
54. 0

53. 3
56. 1
55. 7
55. 8
54. 0
54. 9
57. 5
56. 0
57. 0
58. 7
60. 8
60. 0
59. 8
60. 5
59. 7
59. 4
58. 4
59. 9

51. 1
52. 7
54. 3
55. 5
52. 7
51. 0
53. 4
54. 8
55. 3
56. 8
59. 8
60. 0
60. 5
61. 1
60. 5
60. 6
62. 3
60. 2

37. 6
39. 6
40. 9
39. 8
42. 3
35. 9
41. 2
40. 7
44. 5
44. 3
42. 8
46. 4
47. 3
45. 2
46. 1
47. 3
48. 4
48. 9

17. 5
15. 6
16. 5
14. 0
14. 3
11. 4
12. 2
12. 1
14. 5
13. 6
13. 3
12. 6
12. 8
13. 1
12. 2
11. 8
12. 7
12. 9

88 6
86 0

NONWHITE,
FEMA LE

1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953________
1954________
1955________
1956________
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960________
1961________
1962________
1963________
1964________
1965________

See footnotes it end of ta ble.




21 0

99

T able IIA-20.—Civilian Labor Force Participation Rates,1 by Color, Sex, and Age Detail, 1948-65 (annual averages)— Con.

Sex and
color

Total,
14
years
and
over

14 to 19 years

Total

65
20 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64 years
years years years years years
and
14 and 16 and 18 and
over
17
15
19

WHITE, MALE

1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953________
1954________
1955________
1956________
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960________
1961________
1962________
1963________
1964________
1965________

84.2
84.0
84. 1
84.0
83.6
83. 1
83.0
82.8
83.0
82. 0
81.3
81. 0
80. 5
79.7
78.6
78. 1
77.9
77.6

50.7
49.4
50.3
49.2
47. 6
46.4
45.4
45.6
47.4
45.4
43.5
44. 0
43.6
41. 7
40.8
40.7
41. 0
42.6

30.6
31.0
31.8
32.6
32.7
32.0
32. 5
33.7
34. 8
34. 7
34. 8
35. 0
35. 5
35. 8
35.6
35. 9
36. 4
36.9

32.8
32.4
31.6
32. 5
31.7
30.5
30.3
30.5
32. 3
31.2
29.7
30.2
30.7
30.6
29.7
29. 0
29. 0
30.3

26.1
26.3
27.6
26.9
25.3
23.6
24.5
23.5
26.7
25.1
24.1
24.2
2 2 .2
2 2 .2

22.3
21.4
2 1 .2
21.7

51. 2
50. 1
50.5
52.7
51.9
49.8
47. 1
48.0
51. 3
49. 6
46.8
45.4
46. 0
44. 3
42.9
42.4
43. 5
44. 6

76.2
74.8
75.6
74. 2
72.7
72.8
70.4
71.7
71.9
71.6
69.4
70.3
69. 0
6 6 .2
66.4
67.8
66.6
65.8

84.4
86.5
87.5
88.4
87.6
87.4
86.4
85.6
87.6
86.7
86.7
87.3
87.8
87.6
86.5
85.8
85.7
85.3

96.0
95.9
96.4
97.0
97.6
97.5
97.5
97.8
97.4
97.2
97. 2
97.5
97.7
97.7
97.4
97.4
97. 5
97. 4

98. 0
98. 0
97.7
97.6
97.9
97.9
98.2
98.3
98. 1
98.0
98.0
98.0
97.9
97.9
97.9
97.8
97.6
97.7

95.9
95.6
95.9
96.0
96.3
96.4
96.8
96.7
96. 8
96.6
96.6
96.3
96. 1
95.9
96.0
96.2
96. 1
95.9

89.6
87.6
87.3
87.4
87.7
87.7
89.2
88.4
88.9

31.7
31.4
30. 1
32.4
34. 1
31.2
29.3
29.9
33. 5
32. 1
28.8
29.9
30. 0
29.4
27. 9
27.9
28. 5
28.7

53.5
54. 0
52.6
54. 1
52.0
51.9
52. 1
52.0
53.0
52.6
52. 3
50. 8
51. 0
51.9
51.6
51. 3
49. 6
50. 6

45. 1
44.4
45.9
46.7
44.8
44. 1
44.4
45.8
46. 5
45.8
46. 1
44. 5
45.7
46.9
47. 1
47. 3
48.8
49. 2

31.3
31.7
32. 1
33.6
33.8
31.7
32. 5
32. 8
33.2
33.6
33.6
33. 4
34. 1
34.3
34. 1
34. 8
35.0
36.3

35. 1
36. 1
37.2
38.0
38.9
38.8
39.4
39.9
41. 5
41. 5
41.4
41.4
41. 5
41. 8
42.2
43. 1
43.3
44.3

33.3
34.3
36.3
38.0
38.8
38.7
39.8
42.7
44. 4
45.4
46. 5
47.8
48.6
48.9
48.9
49. 5
50.2
49.9

23.3
24.2
26.0
26.5
27.6
28.5
29. 1
31.8
34. 0
33.7
34.5
35.7
36.2
37. 2
38.0
38. 9
39.4
40.3

8 8 .0
8 8 .2

87.9
87.2
87.8
86.7
8 6 .6
86. 1
85.2

46.5
46.6
45. 8
44.5
42.5
41.3
40.4
39.5
40. 0
37.7
35.7
34.3
33.3
31.9
30.6
28. 4
27.9
27.9

WHITE,
FEMALE

1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953________
1954________
1955______ _
1956________
1957______ _
1958________
1959________
1960________
1961________
1962______
1963________
1964________
1965________

1 1 .1

10.3
11.5
1 1 .2
1 0 .2

9.9
10.5
1 1 .2
12.7
12.5
1 2 .2
13.0
12.5
13.5
13.7
1 2 .2
12.7
12.9

1 Percent of civilian noninstitutional population in the civilian labor force.

100



8 .6

9.1
9.2
8.5
8.7
9.4
9. 1
10.5
1 0 .6
10.2
10. 1
1 0 .2
1 0 .6

10. 5
9.8
9. 4
9.9
9.7

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are
from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

The ratio of nonw hite to w hite labor force participation rates declined slightly from 1957 to 1964,
w ith the reduction chiefly am ong teenagers and w om en 35 to 64. The ratios increased am ong elderly
m en, and am ong wom en 20 to 24 years old.
T able

IIA-21.— C iv ilia n

L ab o r F orce P a r tic ip a tio n R a te s,1 by S ex, C olor, a n d A g e D eta il, a n d R a tio N o n w h ite to W h ite,
195 7 a n d 1 9 6 5 (a n n u a l averages )

Nonwhite

White

Age and sex
1957
Men, 14 years and over _
14 to 19 years.
14 and 15 years
16 and 17 years. .
18 and 19 years
20 to 24 years. _.
_ .
25 to 34 years.
35 to 44 years
. .
45 to 54 years..
....
....
55 to 64 years.
65 years and over _
—
.
Women, 14 years and over
_______ —
14 to 19 years.
14 and 15 years _ _
16 and 17 years
18 and 19 years _
_
__
20 to 24 years.
25 to 34 years
35 to 44 years __
45 to 54 years.
__
55 to 64 years
65 years and over____ _ _____ _.

80. 8
46. 0
24. 7
47. 5
72. 0
89. 6
96. 1
96. 5
93. 5
82. 4
35. 9
45. 5
25. 9
12. 6
24. 1
42. 8
46. 6
50. 4
58. 7
56. 8
44. 3
13. 6

1965
75. 2
39. 1
18. 9
39. 3
66. 7
89. 8
95. 7
94. 2
92. 0
78. 8
27. 9
46. 0
21. 7
8. 1
20. 5
40. 0
55. 2
54. 0
59. 9
60. 2
48. 9
12. 9

1957
82. 0
45. 4
25. 1
49. 6
71. 6
86. 7
97. 2
98. 0
96. 6
88. 0
37. 7
34. 7
31. 2
12. 5
32. 1
52. 6
45. 8
33. 6
41. 5
45. 4
33. 7
10. 2

Ratio of nonwhite
to white
1965

1957

77. 6
42. 6
21. 7
44. 6
65. 8
85. 3
97. 4
97. 7
95. 9
85. 2
27. 9
36. 9
30. 3
12. 9
28. 7
50. 6
49. 2
36. 3
44. 3
49. 9
40. 3
9. 7

. 99
.
. 98
. 96
1. 0 1
1. 03
. 99
. 98
. 97
. 94
. 95
1. 31
. 83
1. 01
. 75
. 81
1. 0 2
1. 50
1. 41
1. 25
1. 31
1. 33

1 01

1965
. 97
. 92
. 87
. 88
1. 01
1. 05
. 98
. 96
. 96
. 92
1. 0 0
1. 25
. 72
. 63
. 71
. 79
1. 12
1. 49
1. 35
1. 2 1
1. 21
1. 33

1 Percent of the civilian noninstitutional population in the civilian labor force.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.




101

Lower rates of labor force participation am ong nonw hite than w hite m en in 1965 were partly the
result of a higher incidence of illness and disability.
T able

IIA-22.— M e n

2 5 -6 4 Y ea rs O ld N o t in the L abor F orce, by C olor, 1 9 6 5 (a n n u a l averages)

Color and age
Nonwhite men:
Total, 25 to 64 years. __ --------- --- - - - 25 to 34 years. . ..
— . . .
35 to 44 years .. —
45 to 54 years.
55 to 64 years . . .
. .
55 to 59 years.
60 to 64 years
White men:
Total, 25 to 64 years ..
25 to 34 years . . .
- 35 to 44 years
45 to 54 years
- 55 to 64 years
55 to 59 years _
60 to 64 years__
. .

Thousands of persons
All
Total Unable to other
work
350
47
68
80
155
64
91

104
9
19
26
50
28

246
38
49
54
105
42
63

1,934
234
240
387
1,073
364
709

501
39
86
124
252
116
136

Percent of civilian noninstitutional
population
All
Total Unable to other
work

1,433
195
154
263
821
248
573

22

.7
4. 2
5.8
8

2 .6

8 .0
2 1 .2

1 .6
2 .6
6 .8

5.6
8.3

.
3.4
4. 2
5.4
14.4
10. 7
18.8

1.4
.4
.8
1.3
3.5
2.9
4. 1

4.0
2.2
1.5
2 .8
11.3
6.3
17.4

16. 2
27. 1
5.4
2 .6

2.3
4. 1
14. 8
9. 2
21. 5

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

T he percentage of you th 18-24 out of school
and not in the labor force w as about the sam e in
1965 for nonw hite and w hite teenage girls b u t
higher am ong the other nonw hite young w om en
and m en.
T a b l e IIA-23.—P erso n s 14~ 24 Y ea rs O ld N o t in the L abor
F orce a n d N o t in School, by Color, 1 96 5 (school yea r
averages *)

Sex and age
Male :2
Total, 14 to 24 years 14 to 19 years
14 to 17 years..
18 and 19 years__ __
20 to 24 years____ _ _
Female :3
Total, 14 to 24 years
14 to 19 years ___
14 to 17 years______
18 and 19 years___
20 to 24 years _-

Percent of
civilian
noninstitu­
tional
population
Non­
Non­
white White white White
Thousands
of
persons

61
37
21
17
24
33
20
14
8
13

281
193
120
73
88

192
144
90
54
48

3. 2
3. 0
2. 3
5. 0
3. 5
1. 5
1. 5
1. 5
2. 1
1. 6

.
.
.
2. 9
1. 8
1. 3
1. 6
1. 5
1. 9
.8

2 1
2 2
2 0

1 Excludes June, July, and August.
2 Excludes unable to work.
3 Excludes unable to work and keeping house.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular
monthly Current Population Survey.

102



.8

6 1

The proportion of both w hite and nonw hite m en w ith som e work experience during the year de­
clined betw een 1950-64. H ow ever, the proportion of non w hite men and women w ith work experience
em ployed the entire year at a full-tim e job increased sharply, especially since 1957, in contrast w ith
little change am ong w hite workers.
T able

IIA-24.—E xten t o f E m p lo y m en t o f P erso n s w ith W o rk E xperien ce D u rin g the Y ear, by C olor a n d Sex, 1950, 1957, a n d 1964
1950
Nonwhite

1957
White

Nonwhite

.

1964
White

Non white

.

White

MALE

Percent of population with work experience
Percent distribution of those with work exper­
ience, total. _
Worked at full-time jobs___
__
50-52 weeks__
- __
27-49 weeks
1-26 weeks__
Worked at parttime jobs_

87. 3

86 8

85. 2

86 1

79. 9

82. 8

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

.
50. 2
24. 8
11.0
14. 1

90. 4
66.8
16. 0
7. 6
9. 4

81. 7
52. 7
19. 9
9. 1
18. 3

.
67. 3
14. 6
6.9
11. 3

83. 1
55. 0
17. 9
10.2
17. 0

87. 7
67. 5
12. 4
7. 8
12. 4

58. 4

39. 4

59. 9

45. 1

56. 5

46. 4

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

.9
25. 2
19. 7
24. 0
31. 2

74. 1
38. 6
17. 5
18. 0
25. 9

61. 1
27. 6
17. 4
16. 1
38. 8

70. 3
38. 5
15. 8
16. 0
29. 8

65. 1
32. 2
16. 1
16. 8
35. 0

.3
38. 2
14. 8
15. 3
31. 7

86 0

88 8

FEMALE

Percent of population with work experience .
Percent distribution of those with work experience, total
Worked at full-time jobs
50-52 weeks __ _
- ___
27-49 weeks. _ _ _
1-26 weeks _ _
__
Worked at part-time jobs..

68

68

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the February supplement to the Current Population Survey. They per­
tain to persons’ employment and unemployment experience during the entire calendar year.




103

In every age-sex group (except teenage boys) a larger proportion of w hite than nonw hite workers
had full-tim e yearround jobs in 1964, but this gap in the extent of full-tim e em ploym ent experience
tended to narrow from 1959 to 1964, especially am ong m en and w om en 25-64.
T able

IIA-25.—E x ten t

o f E m p lo y m e n t o f P erso n s W ith W o rk E xp erien ce D u rin g the Y ea r, b y A ge, C olor, a n d S ex , 1 9 5 9
a n d 196 J+

Population
Age and color

Percent distribution of those with work experience

Number
(thou­
sands)

Percent
with
work
experi­
ence

58, 222
5, 913
52, 309
7, 667
950
6 , 716
4, 628
616
4, 012
39, 056
3, 843
35, 213
6 , 871
504
6 , 367

84. 1
82. 5
84. 3
58. 0
58. 3
58. 0
92. 0
91. 7
92. 0
95. 6
92. 4
96. 0
42. 4
41. 6
42. 5

63, 973
6 , 678
57, 296
7, 840
990
6 , 851
5, 560
716
4, 844
42, 218
4, 407
37, 812
8 , 353
565
7, 789

45. 6
56. 6
44. 3
45. 6
43. 4
45. 9
61. 3
55. 4
62. 2
49. 8
64. 6
48. 1
13. 9
18. 8
13. 5

Total

Worked at full-time jobs

Worked
at parttime
jobs

50 to 52
weeks

27 to 49
weeks

64. 3
51. 1
65. 8
8.9
12. 8
8. 4
48. 8
47. 9
49. 0
74. 4
58. 7
76. 0
42. 5
33. 2
43. 2

16. 0
20. 3
15. 5
6.9
8. 7
6. 7
20.6
19. 5
20. 8
16. 9
22. 9
16. 3
11. 7
9. 6
11. 8

7. 5
11. 3
7. 1
22. 7
27. 8
22. 0
18. 4
18. 8
18. 3
4. 1
7. 6
3. 8
11. 2
11. 1
11. 2

.
17. 3
11. 6
61. 4
50. 7
62. 9
12. 2
13. 8
11. 9
4. 6
10. 9
3. 9
34. 6
46. 2
33. 7

36. 1
26. 9
37. 4
8. 2
4. 4
8. 7
35. 8
25. 2
37. 3
41. 4
31. 2
43. 0
25. 2
8. 6
26. 8

16. 0
16. 3
16. 0
7. 9
7. 2
8. 0
20. 3
20. 7
20. 3
17. 0
17. 3
17. 0
10. 8
9. 5
10. 9

16. 4
18. 6
16. 1
29. 0
37. 6
27. 8
26. 9
29. 2
26. 6
13. 0
14. 5
12. 7
9. 6
11. 4
9. 4

31. 5
38. 2
30. 5
54. 9
50. 7
55. 4
17. 0
24. 9
15. 9
28. 6
37. 0
27. 2
54. 4
70. 5
52. 8

to 26
weeks

1

MALE, 1959

Total, 14 years and over, ,
Nonwhite. ----------------White___ _
— —
14 to 19 years_____________ _____
Nonwhite__ . . --------------—
White________ _
20 to 24 years. . .. — -----Nonwhite .
. .. —
White______
. . —
25 to 64 years. .
. .
Nonwhite___ __
_
White__ ____
65 years and over
Nonwhite. _
_ ___ ____
White______________________

100. 0

.

100 0
100. 0
100. 0

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

100. 0
100. 0

12 2

FEMALE, 1959

Total, 14 years and over.
Nonwhite_______ — . . .
White---------------------14 to 19 years___
. . __
Nonwhite. .
White__ ______________ ____
20 to 24 years. _ _ ____________
Nonwhite___________________
White__ ___ ________
25 to 64 years
._
. _
Nonwhite. _ ..
____
White__ _______ _ _ _
65 years and over _
Nonw hite__
.
White__ . . .
_ ____
See source at end of table.

104



100. 0

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

100. 0
100. 0

100. 0

100. 0
100. 0

T able IIA-25.—Extent of Employment of Persons With Work Experience During the Year, by Age, Color, and Sex, 1959

and 1964—Continued

Population
Age and color

Percent distribution of those with work experience

Number
(thou­
sands)

Percent
with
work
experi­
ence

62, 991
6 , 522
56, 469
9, 632
1, 220
8,412
5, 696
679
5,017
40, 044
4, 006
36,038
7,619
617
7, 0 0 2

82.5
79.9
82.8
57.4
50.4
58.4
92.5
90.3
92. 8
95. 7
93.2
96.0
37.3
39.4
37. 1

69, 773
7, 546
62, 227
9, 896
1,287
8 , 609
6 , 653
809
5, 844
43, 514
4,716
38, 798
9,710
734
8 , 776

47.5
56. 5
46.4
42. 9
36.5
43.9
65.6
65.8
65.6
53.2

Total

Worked at full-time jobs
50 to 52
weeks

27 to 49
weeks

to 26
weeks

1

Worked
at parttime
jobs

MALE, 1964

Total, 14 years and over____
Nonwhite__ _ _
White___ _ _ - ----------- _
14 to 19 years___
Non white.. _ _ -----------W hite.. __ - ______________
20 to 24 years.- _
Nonwhite_________________ _
White. __
25 to 64 years. _ _ _ .
Nonwhite..
W hite.. _ _ .
65 years and over. _ _ __
Nonwhite__
__ ____
White. _ _
______

1 0 0 .0

.

6 6 .2

100 0
1 0 0 .0

55.0
67. 5

1 0 0 .0

6 .6

.
.

100 0
100 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

100. 0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

100. 0

8 .8

6.3
47.8
46.3
47.9
79.2
65.7
80.7
41. 1
28.4
42.3

12.9
17.9
12.4
5.6
7.5
5.4
20.3
25.9
19.6
13.3
18.9
1 2 .6

9.2
8 .2

8 .0
1 0 .2

7.8
25. 1
28.3
24.7
19.8
13.5
2 0 .6

3.8
6.9
3.5
9.2
6 .2

9.3

9. 5

15.0
16. 1
14.8

15.5
16.8
15.3
24. 7
33.6
23.6
26. 1
33.6
25.0

1 2 .8

17.0
12.4
62.7
55.4
63.6
1 2 .2

14.2
11.9
3.7
8.5
3.2
40.4
57.2
38.8

FEMALE, 1964

Total, 14 years and over. _ __ _
Non white
White___ ___ _ . _ _ .
14 to 19 years____
_ _____
Nonwhite. _
___
. .
__
White___ 20 to 24 years___
Nonwhite. _
W hite__
_
___
25 to 64 years _ __
____
Nonwhite. _ .
. _
White. __
65 years and over _
Nonwhite. _
White___
_ __
to

6 6 .0

51.6
14. 4
20.4
13.9

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
1 0 0 .0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

37.5
32.2
38.2
5.7
3.0
6.1
34. 9
21.4
36.8
44. 5
39.5
45.3
25.6
10.7
27.3

6 .8

7.4
6.7
20.5
17.7
20.9
15.8
17.3
15.6
9.3
11.3
9.2

1 2 .0

11.7
.

12 1
1 1 .2

8.7
11.4

32. 1
35.0
31.7
62.8
56.0
63.7
18.5
27.3
17.4
27.7
31.5
27. 1
53.9
69.3
52.0

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the February Supplement to the Current Population Survey. They pertain
persons’ employment and unemployment experience during the entire calendar year.




105

B oth m en and wom en nonw hite workers are m uch m ore likely than w hite workers to have three
or more spells of joblessness during the year. The ratios were little changed from 1959 to 1964.
T able

IIA-26 .'— E xten t o f

U n em p lo ym en t D u rin g the Y ea r, hy C olor a n d S ex, 195 9 a n d 1964

Year, color, and sex
1959
Both sexes:
Nonwhite _____
White__ __ _ ____ _____
Male:
NonwhiteWhite___ ______ __ _ _ _ __
Female:
Nonwhite
____ _ _ . _ _
White____
_
__
1964
Both sexes:
Nonwhite
_
White_____________________________
Male:
Nonwhite
White_____________________________
Female:
Nonwhite.- _ ________
White__
.
_

Total working Unemployed
or looking for as percent of
work (in
total working
or looking
thousands)
for work

8 , 958
70, 535
5, 001
44, 524
3, 957
26, Oil

24. 0
14. 2
27. 8
15. 2
19. 2
12. 5

9, 865
76, 972
5, 354
47, 291
4, 511
29, 681

25. 5
15. 0
27. 7
15. 0
23. 0
15. 0

Percent of unemployed who worked
during the year having unemploy­
ment of—
15 weeks
or more

2

spells

3 spells or
more

14. 5
17. 1
14. 0
17. 6
14. 8
16. 0

)
)
0)
0)
0)
0)

0
0

40. 8
31. 6
40. 7
32. 3
40. 9
30. 1

31. 3
20. 4
33. 4
23. 0
27. 0
14. 1

18. 8
19. 0
18. 1
20. 3
2 P. 1
16. 6

27. 9
17. 8
31. 4
20. 1
22. 1
13. 7

1 Not available.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the February supplement to the Current Population Survey. They pertain
to persons’ employment and unemployment experience during the entire calendar year.

106



Over the past decade, a notable shift in the occupational pattern of nonw hite workers has taken
place toward w hite-collar jobs, especially am ong wom en.
T able

IIB-1.— E m p lo y ed

P erso n s, by O ccu pation G rou p, C olor, a n d S ex, 1955, 1 961, a n d 1 96 5 (a n n u a l averages )

Percent distribution
Nonwhite

Occupation group
1955 1
Total employed:
Number (thousands) __
6 , 438
100.0
Percent _
12.0
White-collar workers .. — ._
Professional and technical--3. 5
Managers, officials, and
proprietors.
2.3
4. 9
Clerical workers.1.3
Sales workers
Blue-collar workers
41.8
5.2
Craftsmen and foremen------20. 9
Operatives _
Nonfarm laborers
15.8
31.6
Service workers
Private household workers__ 14.8
16. 8
Other service workers
14. 5
Farm workers__
5. 0
Farmers and managers
Farm laborers and foremen. _ 9. 5
Male employed:
3, 978
Total (thousands)
100.0
Percent
White-collar workers _
1 0 .8
2. 5
Professional and technical —
Managers, officials, and
2.7
proprietors. _
4.4
Clerical workers _
1.2
Sales workers.
Blue-collar workers
57. 7
8.0
Craftsmen and foremen-----24. 8
Operatives
24.9
Nonfarm laborers
14. 9
Service workers
.5
Private household workers__
14. 4
Other service workers
16.6
Farm workers
Farmers and farm managers.
7.6
9. 0
Farm laborers and foremen..
See footnote at end of table.

21 7-817 0 — 66—

8




Non white as a percent
of total

White

1961

1965

6,936
100.0
16.4
4. 6
2. 5
7.7
1 .6
39. 1
6.1
20. 1
12. 9
32.8
14. 5
18.3
11.7
2.9

7, 747 56, 561 59, 860 64, 432
100.0
100.0
100.0
1 0 0 .0
19. 5 42. 1 46.7
47.5
6 .8
9. 8
12.3
13. 0
11.1
2 .6
11. 1
1 1 .6
8 .2
14. 2 15.6
16. 3
7.2
1.9
6.9
7. 1
40.7
39. 0 35.3
36. 2
14. 1 13.7
6.7
13. 5
21. 3 2 0 . 2
17.3
18.2
12.7
4. 3
4. 5
4.7
31. 7
9.0
10.6
10.7
12. 7
2.2
1 .8
2 .0
19. 0
7. 2
8.4
8.7
8.1
9.9
7. 3
5.6
6 .0
4.2
1.8
3.3
6.3
3.9
3. 1
2.4
4, 568 39,196 40, 185 42, 466
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
16. 5 35.4
40. 2 40. 5
5.6
8.9
11.9
12.6
3.4
14. 6
14. 3
13. 6
5.7
6.7
7. 1
7. 1
1 .8
6.1
6.6
6.5
58.0 47. 5 44. 7 46.3
10. 9 19.9
19. 9 19.9
21.0
26. 1
18. 5 19. 8
21.1
6.6
6.3
6.6
15. 5
5. 3
5.8
6.1
.4
.1
.1
.1
5.2
15. 2
5.7
6.0
9. 2
9.9
11.9
7. 1
8.4
4. 7
6.0
2.7
3.2
2. 4
3. 5
7. 2

8 .8

4, 133
100.0
15. 0
4. 0
3. 1
6.3
1 .6
55. 0
9.9
24. 0
21.1
15.7
.4
15. 3
14. 3
4.4
9.9

1955 1

1961

1965

1955 1

1 0 .2

3. 1
3.9
2.3
3.8
2 .0
10.9
4.0
1 0 .6
27.6
28. 6
48. 8
21.0
14. 3
8.6
2 1 .8

9.2
3. 0
2.7
2 .0

6.3
1. 9
11.0
3.9
10. 7
27.8
22.3
47.6
21.9
12. 4
8.4
20.9

1961

1965

10.4
3.9
4. 1
2.4
5.4
2.5
11.4
4.9
11.9
25.7
26.3
43.4
20. 1
15.7
7.4
24.8

5.7
3. 1
11.9
5.6
12.3
25. 6
26. 3
43. 6
20.8
14.7
6.1
24. 3

9.3
3.7
3. 3
2.1
8.3
2.4
1 1 .2
4.9
11.7
25.7
21.7
29.0
21.6
13.8
7. 1
24. 2

9.7
4.2
4. 6
2. 5
7.9
2.9
11.9
5.6
12. 4
25.7
21.6
29.8
21. 5
13. 1
5.8
24. 4

10.7
4. 7
5.9
2 .8

107

T able IIB -1.—Employed Persons, by Occupation Group, Color, and Sex, 1955, 1961, and 1965 (annual averages)— Con.

Percent distribution
Nonwhite

Occupation group
1955 1
Female employed:
Total (thousands) _ _ __
2, 460
Percent _
_
100.0
White-collar workers _ _
14. 1
Professional and technical--5. 2
Managers, officials, and
1 .6
proprietors__ ___ _
5.8
Clerical workers 1. 4
Sales workers
_Blue-collar workers
16. 2
Craftsmen and foremen. .
.6
------Operatives _
14.6
Nonfarm laborers
.9
58.7
Service workers.
Private household workers__ 37.9
Other service workers
2 0 .8
11. 1
Farm workers___
Farmers and farm managers.
.9
Farm laborers and foremen.. 10. 3

Nonwhite as a percent
of total

White

1961

1965

2,803
100.0
18.2
5.4

3, 179 17,366 19,675 21,967
100.0
100.0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
23. 7 57. 2 59.9
60.9
8.4
1 1 .8
13. 2 13.7
5. 5
5.4
1.5
4.8
1 1 .8
31. 2 32.9
34. 1
2 .0
8 .6
8.4
8 .2
15. 9 19. 9 16. 1
16.6
1 .2
.7
1.0
1. 1
14. 5 18. 2
14. 8
15. 1
.5
.7
.3
.4
54. 8
17.4 20. 4 19.6
5.6
30.3
6.4
5.6
24. 5 11. 7 14. 0 14. 0
2 .8
5. 5
5. 5
3.5
.5
.7
.6
.5
5. 1
4.8
2.9
2.3

1 .6

9.7
1.5
15. 8
.6
14. 5
.7
58. 1
35.4
22.7
7.9
.7
7. 2

1955 1

1961

1965

1955 1
12.4
3. 4
5.9
3.9
2 .6
2.2
10. 3
7.0
10.2
21.7
32.4
48.8
20.0
22.2
14. 2
23. 2

1961
12. 5
4. 2
5.6
4. 1
4. 0
2.5
1 2 .2
7.9
12.2
23. 8
28.8
43.9
18.7
24. 7
15.4
26. 2

1 Based on an average of January, April, July, and October; data have not been adjusted to 1957 definitions of employment and unemployment.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

108



1965
.
5. 3
8.1
4.4
4.8
3.4
1 2 .2
8.5
1 2 .2
20.7
28.8
43.9
2 0 .2
22.0
11.4
24. 0
12 6

Principal gains since 1954 in the occupational distribution of nonw hite em ploym ent were m ade in
the 1960’s and have com e in relatively w ell-paying occupations, such as professional and technical,
clerical, and the skilled blue-collar jobs.
T able

IIB-2 .— E m p lo y m e n t o f N o n w h ite

Occupation group
Total, all occupations _
______
Professional, technical, and kindred workers.
Managers, officials and proprietors (exeluding farm). _ _
__ __
Clerical and kindred workers
Sales workers
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers __
Operatives and kindred workers.
Private household workers __
Service workers, excluding private household
Farmers and farm managers __
Farm laborers and foremen.
Laborers, excluding farm and mine

Number of nonwhite workers (in thousands)
1954

1955 1

6,312
217
130
308
89
316
1, 313
897
1, 057
389
589
1, 009
1960

Total, all occupations.
Professional, technical, and kindred workers.
Managers, officials, and proprietors (exeluding farm) _
Clerical and kindred workers
Sales workers _
__
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. _
Operatives and kindred workers _
Private household workers _
Service workers, excluding private household
Farmers and farm managers
Farm laborers and foremen
Laborers, excluding farm and mine.

W orkers, by O ccu pa tio n G rou p, 1 9 5 4 -6 5

7, 041
331
176
507
113
415
1, 415
1, 007
1,232
218
655
972

1956 1

, 438
228
147
318
81
332
1 , 346
952
1 , 084
322
612
1 , 016

6

, 692
224
141
334
76
366
1, 441
990
1 , 166
311
663
982

6

1957 1
, 751
246
139
400
79
381
1,411
1, 007
1, 152
276
652
1 , 008

6

1958
, 723
272
159
404
89
391
1,345
1, 044
1, 183
246
603
986

6

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

, 936
319
173
534
111
423
1,394
1 , 006
1,269
201
610
895

7, 097
373
188
512
115
427
1, 412
1, 040
1 , 286
195
587
962

7, 234
435
192
523
132
468
1,475
1, 035
1,340
168
536
932

7, 480
499
192
572
136
525
1, 520
1, 013
1,398
145
506
974

7, 747
525
204
633
146
520
1, 651
981
1, 472
138
491
985

6

1959
, 730
303
162
404
94
390
1, 326
996
1, 151
236
632
1, 036

6

Percent
change,
1954-65
22. 7
141. 9
56. 9
105. 5
64. 0
64. 6
25. 7
9. 4
39. 3
64. 5
16. 6
2. 4

See footnote at end of table.




109

T able IIB -2. — Employment of Nonwhite Workers, by Occupation Group, 1934-65—Continued

Percent of all workers
1954
Total, all occupations._
_ _ _ . __
Professional, technical, and kindred workers.
Managers, officials, and proprietors (ex­
cluding farm). ___
_ __ . . .
Clerical and kindred workers___________
Sales workers____ — .
._ __
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. _
Operatives and kindred workers. _
Private household workers_______
Service workers, excluding private house­
hold_______________________________
Farmers and farm managers___
Farm laborers and foremen______
__
Laborers, excluding farm and mine_______

10. 3
3. 9
2. 1
3. 7
2. 3
3. 8
10. 7
51. 4
21.2
10. 0
23. 6
27. 6
1960

Total, all occupations. ------ ----------- -----------Professional, technical, and kindred workers.
Managers, officials, and proprietors (ex­
cluding farm). _ ___________________
Clerical and kindred workers__ __
Sales workers__
_______ — _____
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. _
Operatives and kindred workers._
Private household workers___ _______
Service workers, excluding private house­
hold____________________: __________
Farmers and farm managers__
. .
Farm laborers and foremen___
Laborers, excluding farm and mine_______

.
4. 4
2. 5
5. 2
2.6
4. 8
11. 8
45. 4
20. 1
7. 8
25. 0
26. 5
10 6

1955 1
.
3. 9
2. 3
3. 8
2.0
4. 0
10. 6
48. 8
21. 0
8. 6
21. 8
27. 6
10 2

1961
10. 4
4. 1
2. 4
5. 4
2. 5
4. 9
11. 9
43. 4
20. 1
7. 4
24. 8
25. 7

1956 1
10. 3
3. 7
2.2
3. 8
1. 8
4. 2
11. 2
46. 3
21.2
8. 5
22. 8
26. 7
1962
10. 5
4. 6
2. 5
5. 1
2.6
4. 9
11. 7
44. 4
19. 9
7. 5
25. 8
27. 0

1957 1

1958

10. 4
3. 8
2. 1
4. 4
1. 9
4. 4
11. 3
48. 0
20.8
8. 3
23. 9
27. 4
1963

10. 5
3. 9
2. 3
4. 4
2. 1
4. 6
11. 8
47. 4
21. 1
8. 0
24. 0
27. 4
1964

10. 5
5. 3
2. 6
5. 1
3. 0
5. 2
11. 8
44. 9
19. 9
7. 0
24. 2
26. 2

1 Averages based on data for January, April, July, and October.
N ote —Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.

110



.
5. 8
2.6
5. 4
3. 1
5. 8
11. 8
43. 6
20.2
6. 3
23. 8
26. 9
10 6

1959
10. 3
4. 2
2. 3
4. 3
2. 1
4. 6
11. 2
45. 3
19. 7
7. 8
24. 7
27. 7
1965
10. 7
5. 9
2.8
5. 7
3. 1
5. 6
12. 3
43. 6
20. 8
6. 1
24. 3
25. 6

In the South, nonw hite em ploym ent is concentrated m uch m ore heavily in low-paid, unskilled
occupations than in other regions, whereas w hite em ploym ent is distributed about the sam e in the
South as elsewhere.
T able

IIB-3.— E m p lo y e d

M en a n d W om en , by O ccu pa tio n G rou p, R egion , a n d C olor, 1 96 5 (a n n u a l averages )

[Percent distribution]

Occupation group
Men, total__________ __________ ___________
White-collar workers ______ ______
Professional and technical _ _ _ _ _
Managers, officials, and proprietors__
Clerical w orkers.____ _____ ___ __ _ _
Sales workers _______ ______ _ __ _ __
Blue-collar workers. _ _________
Craftsmen and foremen_____ __ __
Operatives _ __ _______ _____ ____
Nonfarm laborers.
___
Service workers.____ _ _
______ _______
Private household. _ ____
__
__
Other service workers___
Farm workers. __ ___ _____ _
Farmers and farm managers__ ____
Farm laborers and forem en____
Women, total
_____ ____________ ___________
White-collar workers ____ _ ______ _ __
Professional and technical__ ___ _____
Managers, officials, and proprietors..__
Clerical workers___ . __ _ ____
Sales workers. __ ._ ___ __ __________
Blue-collar workers____ .. _____ .. _
Craftsmen and foremen_____ _______
Operatives _ ___ ____ _ _________ _
Nonfarm laborers_______ _
Service workers__ ___ _
Private household__ _____
_ ______ _
Other service workers._ _
______ ___
Farm workers ___ _ _____ _ _______
Farmers and farm managers __ _
Farm laborers and foremen ______

United States
Non­
white
.
16. 5
5. 6
3. 4
5. 7
1. 8
58. 0
10. 9
26. 1
21. 1
15. 5
.4
15. 2
9. 9
2. 7
7. 2
100. 0
23. 7
8. 4
1. 5
11. 8
2. 0
15. 9
.7
14. 5
.7
54. 8
30. 3
24. 5
5. 5
.5
5. 1
100 0

White
.
40. 5
12. 6
14. 3
7. 1
6. 5
46. 3
19. 9
19. 8
6. 6
6. 1
.1
6. 0
7. 1
4. 7
2. 4
100. 0
60. 9
13. 7
4. 8
34. 1
8. 2
16. 6
1. 1
15. 1
.4
19. 6
5. 6
14. 0
2. 8
.5
2. 3
100 0

South
Non­
white
.
10. 7
3. 9
2. 2
3. 6
1. 0
57. 8
9. 3
23. 5
25. 0
14. 4
.5
13. 9
17. 1
4. 6
12. 5
100. 0
16. 1
8. 3
1. 6
5. 0
1. 2
9. 9
.4
9. 0
.5
63. 9
40. 5
23. 4
10. 2
.7
9. 5
100 0

All other regions
White
.
40. 2
11. 1
15. 5
6. 9
6. 7
46. 4
20. 9
19. 5
6. 4
5. 0
.1
5. 0
8. 4
5. 6
2. 8
100. 0,
61. 2
13. 3
5. 6
33. 3
8. 9
18. 7
1. 1
17. 3
.4
16. 9
4. 2
12. 7
3. 2
.9
2. 3
100 0

Non­
white
.
22. 6
7. 5
4. 6
7. 8
2. 6
58. 2
12. 6
28. 7
17. 0
16. 7
.2
16. 4
2. 5
.8
1, 8
100. 0
31. 8
8. 5
1. 5
18. 9
2. 8
22. 4
1. 2
20. 2
1. 0
45. 5
19. 7
25. 8
.6
.2
.4
100 0

White
.
40. 6
13. 1
13. 9
7. 2
6. 4
46. 3
19. 7
20. 0
6. 6
6. 5
.1
6. 3
6. 6
4. 3
2. 3
100. 0
60. 8
13. 8
4. 5
34. 5
8. 0
15. 8
1. 1
14. 3
.4
20. 6
6. 1
14. 5
2. 7
.4
2. 3
100 0

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.




Ill

N egro participation in professional, clerical, skilled, and sem i-skilled jobs increased in all regions of
the country betw een 1950 and 1960, but all regions except the South shared in the declining proportion
of N egroes working as nonfarm laborers.
T able

IIB-4 .— P ercen t D istrib u tio n

United States
Occupation group

1950

o f N egro a n d W h ite M a le

Northeast
1960

1950

1960

Negro
Total, experienced civilian labor
force_____ _ _ . ______ _ _ .
Professional, technical and kindred
workers.
Farmers and farm managers___
Managers, officials, and proprietors, exeluding farm _____ ___________
Clerical and kindred workers _ __ _
Sales workers___ ____ _ _________ . .
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers..
Operatives and kindred workers.
Private household workers___________ _
Service workers__ _ _________ .
Farm laborers . . .
____
Laborers, excluding farm and mine ___
Occupations not reported______________

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

9. 0

3.6

1 2 .0

12. 5
8.1
7.3
21.1
2 2 .8
.1
6.7
1.7
7. 1

2.7
8.9
1. 9
11.4
27.2
.8
15.6
.8
15. 2
11.4

2.2
13. 3
1. 9
3. 1
1. 1
7.7
21.1
1.0
13. 3
10.3
23.7
1.5

7.8

1 0 .0
1 1 .6
6 .8

6.9
19.7
20.0
.1
5. 1
4. 2
6.6
1. 1

3. 1
4.3
1.7
4. 9
1.3
9.8
24.4
.7
13. 9
7. 1
20. 4
8.4

.
5.
11. 5
7. 1
7.4
20.5
19. 5
.1
5.2
2. 3
5.6
4.2
11 0
6

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not total 100.0.
Source: 1960 C ensus o f P o p u la tio n , D etailed C haracteristics, U nited States S u m m a ry, PC(1)-1D, table 257.
o f the P o p u la tio n , Part 1, U nited States S u m m a ry , table 159.

112



2 .8
2

.
3.5
7.2
2 .0
10. 5
26.4
1. 5
20.1
1.3
22. 7
1.7

2 .6

1. 0

I960 C ensus of P o p u la tio n ,

.2

Vol. II,

1.5
11.3
8.5
7.6
20. 9
20. 4
.1
6.5
.9
5. 6
4.7
C haracteristics

E m p lo ym en t, by O ccu pa tio n G rou p a n d R egion , 1 95 0 a n d 1 96 0

South

North Central
Negro
1 0 0 .0

2.4
.9
2.4
5. 1
1.5
10.5
29.0
.9
18.6
1. 1
25.4
2 .0

1960

1950

1960

1950

West
1950

1960

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

2 .8

1 0 .0

4.3
.5
2.4
7.2
1.4
12.9
21. 1
.5
17.7
2.4
18.2

12.9
3.6
12.5
6.5
7.4
20. 5
16.5
.1
5.7
3.5
6.5
4.2

7.1
13.3
10.3
6 .6
6.4
19.4
20.3
.1
4.7
4.5
6.3
1 .1




3. 1
.3
1 .8
6 .8
1 .6
11 1

.
29.1
.6
15.0
.7
17.7
12.7

9. 9
8.9
1 0 .2

6.7
6.9
20. 1
2 0 .6
.1
4.8
2.4
5 .5
3.9

2 .0

19.3
1. 4
1 .6
.8

6.3
18.4
.9
1 0 .2
14. 5
23.2
1. 3

6.9
15.5
11.4
5.8
6.9
18.3
18.4
.1
3.6
6.1
5.7
1.3

7. 1
1.4
2.9
.9
8 .6
22.3
.8
12.7
11.4
23. 1
5.9

7.2

1 2 .6
6 .6

7.7
20. 5
19.2
.1
4.0
3.0
5.2
4.0

2.3
.1
3. 1
5.5
1 .6
10. 9
18.8
1 .6
23.4
4.7
27.3
1 .6

9. 1
7.0
13.0
6 .1
7.6
20.4
16.4
.1
5.8
5.4
8.1
1 .0

1 1 .0

White

113

W ithin each major occupation group, and both for m en and w om en, jobs of least skill and low est
wages tended to be more im portant sources of em ploym ent for nonw hites than for w hites both in 1962
and 1965. H ow ever, significant gains occurred during this period in the proportion of nonw hite workers
in white-collar jobs and in the crafts.
T able

IIB-5.—P erce n t

D istrib u tio n a n d P ercen t C hange o f E m p lo y e d P erso n s, by D e ta ile d O cc u p a tio n ,1 S ex , a n d C olor,
1 9 6 2 a n d 1965

Percent
Sex and occupation 1

1962
Nonwhite

Percent change,
1962-65

1965
White

Non white

White

Nonwhite

White

MALES

Total employed__________
White-collar workers __ ----------------- ----Professional and technical________ ______
Engineers ----------- -------------- ----Teachers, elementary and secondary__
Social and welfare workers (except
group), religious workers, and clergy­
men __ _______________________
Managers, officials and proprietors_______
Clerical workers________________________
Postal clerks--------- ------------------------Shipping and receiving clerks --------Stock clerks and storekeepers______ _
Sales workers__ ----- ------------------------Blue-collar workers _ _ ------------Craftsmen and foremen _ — . -------Brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile
setters. _______________________
Excavating, grading and road machin­
ery operators _______________ _
Carpenters
Foremen, n.e.c_ __________________
Automobile mechanics___________ __
Other mechanics_______________ —
Painters, construction, and mainte­
nance _ _____________________
----------...
Operatives.--__
Assemblers.. __ ______ _
Attendants, auto service and parking__
Deliverymen and routemen___ ______
Filers, grinders, and polishers, metal__
Laundry and dry cleaning operatives__
Packers and wrappers, n.e.c _____ __
Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs _____
Truck and tractor drivers
Welders and flame-cutters._ .. _____
See footnote at end of table.

114



.
14.
4. 4
.3
.8

.
40.
.
2. 4
1. 0

100 0
6

100 0
8
12 2

100 0

.
16. 7
5. 5
.6
1. 0

100 0
6

.
40.
12. 5
2. 4
1. 1

8. 2
23. 1
35. 3
115. 4
33. 3

4. 5
4. 0
7. 1
3. 6
5. 4

.5
3. 3
5. 4
.9
.7
.8
1. 5
56. 2
10. 1
.6
.4
1. 0
.6
1. 4
1. 8
.8
24. 3
.5
1. 1
1. 2
.4
1. 2
.8
.8
4. 9
.7

.6
15. 1
7. 1
.4
.7
.7
6. 4
44. 8
19. 8
.4
.6
1. 9
2. 7
1. 5
3. 4
.9
18. 9
.7
.8
1. 1
.4
.1
.4
.3
3. 3
.8

.7
3. 5
5. 8
.7
.8
1. 1
1. 8
57. 8
10. 9
.6
.3
1. 0
.7
1. 3
1. 9
.8
26. 1
.8
1. 0
1. 2
.4
.8
1. 0
.7
4. 9
.7

.6
14. 4
7. 1
.4
.6
.7
6. 5
46. 2
19. 9
.4
.6
1. 9
2. 7
1. 7
3. 4
1. 0
19. 7
.8
.8
1. 2
.4
.1
.5
.3
3. 2
1. 0

.4
15. 7
16. 4
-18. 4
22. 6
48. 5
27. 7
11. 3
17. 6
16. 7

-7 . 7
-. 2
4. 2
-2 . 9
- 6. 9
11. 0
7. 4
7. 7
5. 2
7. 9
10. 3
4. 1
4. 1
18. 9
3. 4
15. 6
9. 5
17. 1
-. 9
18. 2
12. 2
18. 2
-3 . 3
1. 4
31. 6

68

2. 3
32. 0
- 1. 6
14. 7
12. 5
16. 5
63. 6
8. 2
26. 7
-24. 0
40. 6
8. 7
3. 4

T able IIB -5. — Percent Distribution and Percent Change of Employed Persons, by Detailed OccupationSex, and Color,

1962 and 1965—Continued

Percent
Sex and occupation 1

1962
Nonwhite

Percent change,
1962-65

1965
White

Nonwhite

White

Nonwhite

White

males—continued

Nonfarm laborers. _______ _ ___ ___
Carpenters’ helpers, except logging and
mining_____ _ _ --------------Garage laborers, and car washers and
greasers_____________________________
Gardeners, except farm, and groundskeepers. _________________________ .
Longshoremen and stevedores.
__
Lumbermen, raftsmen, and woodchoppers. _
Warehousemen, n.e.c.. _ ------------ —
Service workers. ______________ __________
Private household workers____________ __
Other service workers___________________
Attendants. ____ _______________ _
Barbers__________________________
Cleaners _ _ _____________________
Cooks, except private household
Janitors and sextons
_ ____
Kitchen workers, n.e.c., except private
household___________ — _____
Porters ____________ ____ ____
Protective service workers___________
Waiters_______ ___________________
Farm workers____________________ -------Farmers and farm managers___ _
Farmers__________________________
Farm laborers, and foremen______________
Farm laborers, wage workers _______
Farm laborers, unpaid family workers. _

21. 9
.5
1. 2
1. 3
.7
.5
.5
15. 9
.6
15. 4
1. 2
.5
.5
1. 4
4. 3
1. 3
2. 7
.8
.8
13. 2
4. 2
4. 1
9. 0
7. 6
1. 4

.
.1
.2
.7
.1
.2
.2
5. 9
.1
5. 8
.5
.4
.1
.4
1. 0
.3
.1
1. 8
.2
8. 5
5. 6
5. 5
2. 9
2. 0
.8
6 2

.
.5
1. 1
1. 4
.6
.7
.4
15. 6
.4
15. 2
1. 2
.5
.5
1. 4
4. 6
1. 3
2. 2
.8
.9
9. 9
2. 6
2. 6
7. 2
6. 5
.7

20 8

.
.2
.2
.8
.1
.2
.2
6. 1
.1
6. 0
.4
.4
.2
.4
1. 2
.3
.1
1. 9
.2
7. 1
4. 7
4. 6
2. 4
1. 7
.7

.
19. 0
- 2. 0
16. 1
-3 . 3
30. 4
-4 . 8
5. 9
25. 0
7. 1
10. 2
9. 1
3. 3
15. 9
5. 4
-10. 5
9. 1
21. 2
-19. 0
-31. 3
-30. 1
-13. 4
-7 . 2
-48. 3

.
12. 1
10. 4
18. 5
3. 2
5. 3
7. 1
7. 7
4. 9
7. 8
- 8. 1
- 1. 1
20 4
18. 2
16. 9
11. 3
5. 4
8. 6
-7 . 3
-12. 3
- 12. 2
- 12. 1
-12. 4
-14. 2
-10. 7

.
60.
13. 7
2. 8
5. 0
.8
4. 9
33. 9
4. 5
2. 4
1. 3
12. 3
1. 4
8. 2

10. 5
31. 1
35. 4
12. 9
28. 8
111. 1
18. 2
30. 4
35. 7
126. 7
52. 6
15. 4
61. 5
30. 0

9. 7
.
.
.4
9. 3
39. 1
- 1. 6
12. 8
6. 8
20. 6
9. 6
16. 3
4. 0
9. 4

6 6

2 6

10 8

FEMALES

Total employed_____________________
White-collar workers_______________________
Professional and technical. ___ _ _ _ __
Nurses, student and professional
Teachers, elementary and secondary__
Technicians_______________________
Managers, officials and proprietors _____ _
Clerical workers_______________ _____
Bookkeepers __________ _ . _
Cashiers___________________ _ _
Office machine operators.__
Secretaries, stenographers, and typists. _
Telephone operators. ____ _________
Sales workers__ _____ _______________
See footnote at end of table.




.n
19. 7
6. 7
1. 1
3. 6
.3
1. 5
9. 7
.5
.5
.7
3. 1
.4
1. 7

100

.
60.
13. 4
2. 9
5. 0
.6
5. 4
33. 0
4. 6
2. 2
1. 4
11. 6
1. 5
8. 3

100 0
1

.
23. 3
8. 2
1. 1
4. 2
.6
1. 6
11. 5
.6
1. 1
.9
3. 3
.7
2. 0

100 0

100 0
8

11 0
12 6
6

115

T able IIB-5.—Percent Distribution and Percent Change of Employed Persons, by Detailed Occupation,x Sex, and Color,

1962 and 1965—Continued

Per cent
Sex and occupation 1

1962
Nonwhite

Percent change,
1962-65

1965
White

Nonwhite

White

Nonwhite

White

females—continued

Blue-collar workers __ ----- — --------------Craftsmen and foremen
—
Operatives____
- --------------Assemblers __ ----- -----Dressmakers and seamstresses, except
factory_________ ___
____
Laundry and dry cleaning operatives__
Packers and wrappers, n.e.c -----------Sewers and stitchers, manufacturing---Nonfarm laborers ----- ----------Service workers---- ----------------- — -Private household workers----------------Babysitters _ _ _
Housekeepers. _ — . _ _ _ _
Laundresses____________ ____
Other private household workers,
n.e.c
------ . —
Other service workers. _ -----------------------Attendants._ _. ------ --------------Boarding and lodging housekeepers----Chambermaids and maids, except private household-------- -------------Charwomen and cleaners.
Cooks, except private household _
Counter and fountain workers ______
Hairdressers and cosmetologists. ------Housekeepers, except private household.
Janitors and sextons_____
—
Kitchen workers, n.e.c. except private
household _ --------------—
Practical nurses______ ____
Waitresses. ------ ---------Farmworkers
— ----------Farmers and farm managers -----Farmers---------- .
Farm laborers and foremen___ _ _
Farm laborers, wage workers __ __
Farm laborers, unpaid family
workers._ ________ _ _____

15. 4
.6
14. 0
.7
.4
4. 4
1. 3
1. 6
.9
57. 5
35. 7
2. 2
1. 8
1. 2
30. 4
21. 8
4. 0
.7
3. 3
1. 0
2. 9
.4
1. 7
.5
.6
2. 2
1. 7
1. 8
7. 4
.6
.6
6. 8
4. 3
2. 5

16. 2
1. 1
14. 8
1. 3
.7
.9
1. 4
3. 1
.3
20. 4
6. 4
3. 5
.7
.3
1. 9
14. 0
1. 7
1. 0
.4
.5
1. 4
.5
1. 5
.7
.3
.8
1. 0
3. 7
3. 2
.6
.6
2. 7
.5
2. 1

15. 8
.7
14. 4
.9
.5
4. 1
1. 3
1. 9
.7
55. 2
30. 9
2. 2
1. 4
.8
26. 5
24. 2
4. 6
.8
3. 8
1. 3
3. 5
.6
1. 4
.7
.7
1. 8
2. 4
1. 7
5. 7
.5
.5
5. 2
3. 8
1. 4

16. 6
1. 1
15. 0
1. 4
.6
.9
1. 3
3. 2
.4
19. 9
5. 8
3. 5
.5
.3
1. 5
14. 0
1. 8
.9
.4
.6
1. 4
.6
1. 6
.6
.3
.8
.9
3. 5
2. 8
.5
.5
2. 3
.4
1. 9

13. 1
.
14. 0
45. 0
15. 4
3. 9
10. 8
32. 6
- 8. 0
5. 9
-4 . 2
10. 9
-11. 5
-25. 0
-3 . 8
22. 5
28. 4
28. 6
26. 0
40. 0
34. 9
38. 5
- 8. 2
53. 3
35. 3
-7 . 8
55. 1
7. 8
-15. 3
- 11. 8
- 11. 8
-15. 7
-2 . 4
-37. 8
22 2

11. 9
17. 3
11. 2
16. 3
14. 9
3. 5
14. 8
24. 6
6. 6
- 0. 2
10. 8
-14. 5
- 8. 8
-13. 9
9. 6
20. 5
-3 . 5
8. 3
18. 3
10. 0
28. 9
21. 9
3. 8
16. 9
1. 2
3. 1
2. 9
-4 . 3
-1 . 7
- 2. 6
-4 . 9
-9 . 3
-4 . 2

1 Not all detailed occupations are shown. Those not shown separately represent less than 0.5 percent of nonwhite male or nonwhite female employment in
that occupation in 1965.
N ote.—Dashes (...) indicate no change.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; data are from a special detailed analysis by occupation of each year’s statistics from the Current Population Survey.

116




Am ong detailed m ale occupations, significant increases am ong nonw hites occurred in the 1950-60
decade in law, dentistry, and teaching. Sharp increases also took place am ong m ail carriers, painters
and welders in industry. M ajor declines were in farm ing, m anagerial occupations, and the m inistry, as
well as in private household work.
T able

IIB - 6 .— N egro

a n d W h ite M a le E m p lo y m e n t in Selected O ccu pa tio n s, 195 0 a n d 1960

1950

Occupation
Total
Employed males, 14 and
over
_ _ ____ __
Professional, technical, and
kindred workers__ ______
Clergymen
__ _
Dentists_____ ____
Lawyers and judges. ______
Musicians and music
teachers _
Physicians and surgeons___
Teachers. . . .
Farmers and farm managers
Managers, officials, and
proprietors _ . . .
Clerical and salesworkers__
Mail carriers . _ .
__
Real estate agents and
brokers______ .
Craftsmen, foremen, and
kindred workers . _ _ _
Bakers___ _
__
Cabinetmakers and pattern­
makers____ _ _ _ __ _
Carpenters
Compositors and type­
setters. __
___ _
Electricians__________ ___
Masons, tile setters_______
Painters. . .
Plasterers and cement
finishers____
Plumbers and pipefitters___
Operatives and kindred workers __
Painters, excluding con­
struction and mainte­
nance__
Welders and flame cutters __
Service, excluding private
household
__
Private household workers..
Farm laborers and foremen
Laborers, excluding farm and
mine..
__
Occupation not reported

Negro

40, 510

(In tho usands)
3, 500 36, 830 43, 467

120

2

7, 537
106
107
908
164
307
173
410
89
276
8 , 127

269

17
8
738

103
251
2, 373
73
1, 950
3, 290
458

7
9
464
36
360
828
51

96
241
1, 883
34
1, 556
2, 442
405

N ote.—Totals include occupations not shown separately.
Source: 1960 C ensus o f P o p u la tio n , Detailed, C haracteristics,
the P o p u la tio n , Part 1, U n ited S ta tes S u m m a ry , table 159.



White

2, 887
142
71
173
70
176
266
3, 699
4, 258
5, 042
149
118
7, 256
99
104
872
162
303
155
387
72
267
7, 368

2, 970
161
73
174
76
180
286
4, 190
4, 341
5, 199
162

75
18
1
1

6

4
19
464
67
145
12

6

2

35
2

3
18

22

Negroes as
percent of
employment

1960
Total

4, 479
196
81
205
82
213
475
2, 388
4, 630
5, 993
192
147
8 , 489
91
103
816
164
335
191
386
87
303
8 , 642
125
344
2, 599
61
1, 202
2, 998
1, 987

U n ited S tates S u m m a ry ,

Negro

White 1950 1960 Negro White

3, 644 39, 462
113
14
2
2

4, 324
181
78
202

76
205
442

6

4
31
154
63
226
20

2

357
7
2

Percent
change
1950-60

,
4, 539
5, 732
172
144
8 , 082
83

2 212

101

36
4
5
22
26
19
10
887

773
160
327
168
357
67
292
7, 702

13
19
508
27
257
745
307

322
2, 050
32
916
2, 221
1, 652

PC(1)-1D, table 205,1 9 5 0

111

9
3

11
2
1

7
7

2
11

2

3
8

2

4

6
2

4
1
1
10

5
19
3
9
7
4
20

49
19
25
11

C ensus o f P o p u la tio n ,

4

7

3 49
7 -2 3
3 31
1
47
7
3
2
12
6
65
6
-6 7

50
28
10
17
9
17
66
-4 0
7
14
15

8

1

4

-6

55
64
2
16
4 32
8
16
2
-1 6
4
4
2
63
1
54
11
21
7 20
22
9
3 22
10

22
11

-1 6
-4
-1 1
-1

8
-8

9

-6

20

9
5

74
109
9
20
45 -2 4
21
-2 9
25 - 1 0
16 506

16
34
9
-8
-41
-9
308

10

10
6

Vol. II, C haracteristics o f

1X7

T he m ost significant recent advances (1962-64) in nonw hite m ale em ploym ent were in construction,
retail and wholesale trade, and in educational services; for nonw hite w om en, how ever, advances were
greatest in retail trade, entertainm ent and recreation, education services, and in the health field (m edical
and hospital services).
T able

IIB-7 .— E m p lo y e d

P e rso n s, by I n d u s tr y

Males
Industry

1962
Nonwhite

Total employed (in thousands) _ __
—
Percent distribution
__
Agriculture____________________________________
Nonagricultural industries, ___ _
_ ___
Forestry, fisheries, and mining
Construction------- -------------- - ----------------- ---------- --------------Manufacturing
Durable goods ._ --------Lumber and wood products._ __ —
Furniture and fixtures_________ _____
Stone-clay-glass products________ _ _
Primary metal industries___________
Fabricated metal products----------------Machinery, except electrical--------Electrical machinery __ . -------------Transportation equipment
_ ...
Automobiles.. _________________
All other. _ _ — — -----------Instruments___________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing— -------Nondurable goods ----- -------- ----------Food and kindred products______ —
Textile mill products. --------------Apparel --------------------- ------------Printing and publishing industry--------Chemicals and allied products------Other nondurable goods
--------Transportation and public utilities. _ —
Railroads and railway express.. ------------Other transportation. _ __________ —
Communications------------------------Other public utilities________ ________
Trade _ ------------- --------------- --------------Wholesale trade. __ ----------Retail trade___ ._ ----------------- ._
Eating and drinking places. _ _
Other retail trade. _ ____________
See footnotes at end of table.

118



4, 220
100. 0
14. 4
85. 6
.6
9. 5
24. 5
15. 0
2. 8
.5
1. 1
2. 9
1. 6
.9
1. 1
3. 5
2. 1
1. 4
.2
.4
9. 5
3. 5
.8
.8
1. 1
1. 2
2. 1
8. 3
1. 7
4. 2
.2
2. 2
16. 1
3. 8
12. 3
3. 2
9. 1

1964
White
40, 672
100. 0
9. 0
91. 0
1. 5
9. 1
29. 8
18. 3
1. 1
.8
1. 0
2. 1
2. 7
3. 4
2. 4
3. 4
1. 6
1. 8
.7
.7
11. 5
2. 9
1. 2
.7
2. 1
1. 8
2. 8
8. 4
1. 9
3. 5
1. 0
2. 0
18. 2
4. 5
13. 7
1. 8
11. 9

Nonwhite
4, 429
100. 0
11. 2
88. 8
.7
10. 3
24. 3
15. 5
2. 5
.6
1. 0
3. 3
1. 9
1. 2
1. 1
3. 4
2. 2
1. 2
.1
.4
8. 8
3. 4
.8
.6
.9
1. 2
1. 9
8. 7
1. 6
4. 1
.3
2. 7
17. 3
4. 1
13. 2
3. 6
9. 6

White
41, 710
100. 0
8. 1
91. 9
1. 4
9. 1
30. 5
19. 0
1. 2
.8
1. 0
2. 4
2. 6
3. 6
2. 3
3. 8
1. 8
2. 0
.6
.1
11. 5
3. 1
1. 2
.7
2. 0
1. 7
2. 8
8. 3
1. 7
3. 6
1. 1
1. 9
18. 3
4. 4
13. 9
1. 8
12. 1

Detail, Color, and Sex, 1962 and 1964 (annual averages)

Females

Nonwhite as a percent
of total males
1962
9. 4
14 3
8. 9
4. 4
9. 8
7. 8
7. 8
20. 7
6. 9
9. 9
12. 4
5. 9
2. 8
4. 5
9. 3
11. 5
7. 2
2. 9
5. 4
7. 9
11. 0
6. 4
10. 5
5. 4
6. 6
7. 2
9. 2
8. 3
11. 0
2. 4
10. 0
8. 4
8. 1
8. 5
15. 4
7. 4

1964
9. 6
12. 8
9. 3
4. 9
10. 7
7. 8
8. 0
18. 8
7. 5
9. 6
12. 8
7. 1
3. 3
4. 8
8. 8
11. 9
5. 9
2. 2
6. 2
7. 5
10. 6
6. 8
8. 3
4. 7
7. 1
6. 5
10. 1
9. 2
10. 8
3. 2
13. 1
9. 1
9. 1
9. 1
17. 4
7. 7




1962
Nonwhite
, 878
.
7. 7
92. 3
0)
.2
9. 6
3. 3
.1
.2
.1
.1
.3
.2
1. 1
.3
.1
.2
.1
.8
6. 3
1. 6
.3
2. 7
.6
.2
.9
1. 1
.1
.3
.6
.1
10. 5
.9
9. 6
45
5. 1
2
100 0

Nonwhite as a percent
of total females

1964
White
20, 077
100. 0
3. 5
96. 5
.2
.9
20. 5
8. 3
.2
.3
.4
.3
1. 1
1. 1
2. 5
1. 0
.4
.6
.6
.8
12. 2
1. 7
1. 9
40
1. 5
.8
2. 3
40
.2
1. 0
2. 1
.7
22. 9
2. 4
20. 5
5. 3
15. 2

Nonwhite
3, 052
100. 0
6. 2
93. 8
0)
.1
10. 0
2. 9
.1
.1
.1
.1
.3
.2
.9
.3
.2
.1
.1
.7
7. 1
1. 3
.5
3. 0
.7
.3
1. 3
1. 4
.1
.3
.9
.1
11. 0
.6
10. 4
4. 6
5. 8

White
21, 167
100. 0
3. 2
96. 8
.2
.9
20. 7
8. 4
.1
.3
.3
.4
1. 2
1. 2
2. 5
1. 0
.4
.6
.5
.9
12. 3
1. 8
1. 9
4. 1
1. 4
.8
2. 3
3. 5
.2
.9
1. 9
.5
22. 4
2. 1
20. 3
5. 1
15. 2

1962

1964

12. 5
23. 9
12. 1
(2)
3. 1
6. 2
5. 3
(2)
7. 5
3. 2
3. 1
3. 8
2. 2
6. 1
46
5. 4
41
2. 4
11. 6
6. 9
11. 6
2. 5
8. 8
5. 4
3. 0
5. 3
3. 8
(2)
44
4. 0
1. 5
6. 2
5. 2
6. 3
10. 9
4. 6

.
21. 7
12. 3
(2)
1. 5
6. 5
48
(2)
5. 5
41
45
3. 8
2. 0
49
46
7. 6
2. 4
1. 7
10. 4
7. 7
9. 6
3. 8
9. 4
6. 4
5. 3
7. 8
5. 1
47
4. 3
6. 1
3. 5
6. 6
4. 1
6. 9
11. 5
5. 2
12 6

119

T able IIB -7. — Employed Persons, by Industry

Males
Industry

1962
Nonwhite

Nonagricultural industries—Continued
Service and finance . ________ __ . ----Finance, insurance, and real estate
Service industries _____
Business and repair services _ _ __
Business services
Repair services _
Personal services ____ . ____ _
Private household
__
Other personal services
Entertainment and recreation
- _
Professional services _
Medical services _.
_. _
Hospital________ ________ —
Welfare and religion
Educational services .
-----Other professional services _ .
Public administration
____ _
Postal service
__
—
Federal administration _ _
---------State administration
...
_
Local administration _ _
__ _
1 Less than 0.05 percent.
2 Percent not shown where base is less than 50,000.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

120



20. 4
2. 3
18. 1
3. 4
.9
2. 5
6. 3
2. 2
4. 1
1. 2
7. 2
.5
2. 7
.8
2. 5
.7
6. 2
2. 1
2. 4
.5
1. 2

1964
White
18. 3
3. 8
14. 5
3. 3
1. 3
2. 0
2. 7
.6
2. 1
.9
7. 6
.9
1. 0
.8
3. 2
1. 7
5. 6
1. 1
2. 0
.7
1. 8

Nonwhite
21. 2

2. 3
18. 9
3. 1
1. 0
2. 1
5. 9
2. 3
3. 6
1. 3
8. 6
.6
2. 7
.8
3. 7
.8
6. 2
1. 7
2. 6
.5
1. 4

White
18. 5
4. 0
14. 5
3. 2
1. 3
1. 9
2. 6
.6
2. 0
.9
7. 8
.9
1. 0
.8
3. 3
1. 8
5. 8
1. 1
1. 9
.8
2. 0

Detail, Color, and Sex, 1962 and 196^ (annual averages)—Continued

Females

Nonwhite as a percent
of total males
1962
10. 3
6. 0
11. 4
9. 7
6. 5
11. 6
19. 1
26. 5
16. 7
11. 4
9. 0
6. 1
22. 3
8. 6
7. 7
4. 1
10. 3
16. 3
11. 0
6. 8
6. 7

1964
10. 8

5. 8
12. 1
9. 4
7. 8
10. 5
19. 3
28. 8
15. 9
13. 0
10. 4
6. 6
22. 9
9. 9
10. 4
4. 1
10. 3
14. 9
12. 5
6. 2
7. 1




1962
Non white
66. 9
1. 8

65. 1
.6
.5
.1
45. 3
35. 7
9. 6
.6
18. 6
1. 8
8. 2
.9
7. 1
.6
4. 2
.2
2. 2
.6
1. 2

Nonwhite as a percent
of total females

1964
White
44. 0
6. 6
37. 4
1. 9
1. 5
.4
12. 4
6. 6
5. 8
.9
22. 2
2. 8
5. 9
1. 3
10. 3
1. 9
4. 1
.3
1. 7
.8
1. 3

Non white
67. 2
1. 8
65. 4
.7
.6
.1
42. 5
33. 1
9. 4
.6
21. 6
2. 4
8. 9
.9
8. 7
.7
4. 1
.4
2. 1
.7
.9

White
44. 5
6. 8
37. 7
2. 0
1. 7
.3
11. 9
6. 3
5. 6
.8
23. 0
3. 1
6. 1
1. 2
10. 6
2. 0
4. 4
.3
1. 7
1. 0
1. 4

1962
17. 9
3; 7
20. 0
3. 9
4. 1
2. 7
34. 5
43. 7
19. 3
8. 9
10. 7
8. 4
16. 6
9. 3
9. 0
4. 1
12. 8
10. 4
15. 2
9. 7
12. 0

1964
17. 9
3. 7
20. 0
4. 6
4. 5
5. 5
34. 1
43. 2
19. 5
10. 2
11. 9
10. 2
17. 3
9. 5
10. 6
4. 6
11. 8
14. 9
15. 4
9. 0
8. 3

121

Over the decade 1950-60, most of the relative decline in labor or service jobs among Negroes and
whites reflected gains in the skilled and semiskilled occupations, but among the Chinese and Japanese,
most of the shift was toward white-collar jobs.
T a b l e IIB - 8 .— P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f E m p lo y e d M a le s, by R ace a n d B ro a d O ccu pa tio n G rou p, C on term in ou s U n ite d S ta tes,
1 95 0 a n d 196 0

Occupation group

Negroes

Chinese

Japanese

White

1950
All occupations__
__
Professional, managerial, clerical, sales 1
Farmers and farm managers. _
Craftsmen and operatives 2 __
Laborers and service 3 _
Occupation unknown__

—

.
41. 1
1.4
19.8
37.8
1.3

1 0 0 .0

100 0

2 1 .6

13.3
28.8
48. 5
1.5

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

39.4
15.3
17.4
42. 1
1. 1

43. 1
1 0 .0
39. 7
16. 0
1. 1

1960
All occupations _
Professional, managerial, clerical, sales 1
Farmers and farm managers. _
Craftsmen and operatives 2_
Laborers and service 3 _
Occupation unknown____
__. . .

-

.
47. 3
.7
17. 6
28.0
7. 1

1 0 0 .0

100 0

15. 3
4.3
34. 2
42. 1
8.4

_ ...
-----

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

42.6
5.6
40. 0
13.2
4. 2

56.7
17. 1
20.1
18. 5
4. 8

Source:

1 Covers professional, technical, and kindred workers; farmers and farm
managers; managers, officials, and proprietors; clerical and kindred workers;
and sales workers.
2 Covers craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers, and operatives and
kindred workers.
3 Covers all laborers (farm, nonfarm, and mine), private household workers,
and service workers.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not total
100.0.

I960 C en su s o f P o p u la tio n , D etailed C haracteristics, U n ited S tates
Final Report PC(1)-1D, table 205; 1950 C en su s o f P o p u la tio n ,
Vol. II, Part 1, U nited S tates S u m m a ry , table 159; 1960 C en su s o f P o p u la tio n ,
Su bject R ep o rts, N o n w h ite P o p u la tio n by R ace, PC(2)-1C, tables 39 and 40;
and 1950 C en su s o f P o p u la tio n , Vol. IV, S p ecia l R e p o rts, Part 3, Chapter B,
N o n w h ite P o p u la tio n by R ace, tables 11 and 12.
S u m m a ry ,

The proportion of nonwhite children enrolled in school has increased since 1953, so that almost
equal proportions of nonwhite and white 5-17 year olds were in school in 1964, but a much smaller propor­
tion of nonwhites were of college age.
T a b l e IIC-1.— P ercen t o f P erso n s 5 -2 4 Y ea rs O ld E n ro lled in School, by A g e a n d C olor, O ctober o f S elected Y ea rs, 1 9 5 3 -6 5
Percentage points by
1953
1958
1960
1965
which white exceed
nonwhite
Age
Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non- White 1953 1958 1960 1965
white
white
white
wrhite
5 and 6 _
7-13_______________________
14-17______________________
18-19______________________
20-24______________________

63
97
82
28
5

81

100
86

32
12

74
99
83
34
9

81
90
38
14

100

73
99
87
35
8

82
91
39
14

100

79
99
92
40
10

85
99
93
47
20

18
3
4
4
7

7
1
7
4
5

9
1
4
4
6

0

)

6
1

7

10

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
Source: C u rren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, P o p u la tio n C haracteristics, “ School Enrollment, October 1963,” Series P-20, No. 129, p. 3, table D for 1953, 1958, and
1963; unpublished data from Current Population Survey for 1965 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

122



School enrollment among 14-17 and 18-19 year olds has risen more sharply for non whites than
whites, during 1948-63. The white/nonwhite gap has been virtually eliminated among 14-17 year olds
and has been substantially reduced for the others.
T a b l e IIC-2.— P ercen t o f M a le s 1J+-19 Y ea rs O ld E n ro lled in School, by C olor a n d A ge G rou p, 1 9 4 8 -6 4 (3 -y e a r m oving
averages, centered, a n n u a lly )

Year

White

Nonwhite 1

14 to 17 18 and 19 14 to 17 18 and 19
years
years
years
years
.4
70.7
74.3
75.6
75.5
78.1
82.4
83. 1
83.7

1948_____
1949_____
1950_____
1951_____
1952_____
1953_____
1954_____
1955_____
1956— . . .

68

82. 7
84.5
85. 2
8 6 .2
87.2
8 8 .2
88.9
89.6
90.4

23. 6
23.3
23. 2
(2)
(2)
(2)
29.7
30.4
36. 1

33. 5
35. 1
34. 4
36. 5
36.7
39.9
41.8
44.5
44. 8

1 The percentage figures for nonwhite males, and especially for those aged
18 and 19 years, have an especially large standard error because they are
computed from a small base.
2 Data not available.

Non white 1

Year

White

14 to 17 18 and 19 14 to 17 18 and 19
years
years
years
years
84. 5
86.2
87. 5
87.8
8 8 .8
90.2
91.4
92. 1

1957_____
1958_____
1959_____
1960_____
1961_____
1962_____
1963_____
1964_____

39. 6
39. 1
38. 6
38.0
39.6
42. 8
42. 5
45. 0

91. 0
91.7
91.6
92. 1
92.9
93.8
94.4
94.3

46. 2
46.4
48.2
48.7
50.6
51.3
52.2
53.8

N ote.—Enrollment as of October in each year. Alaska and Hawaii
included beginning 1960.
Source: C u rren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, Series P-20, Nos. 19, 24, 30, 34, 40, 45,
52, 54, 66, 74, 80, 93,101, 110,117,126, 129,148, and unpublished data from the
current Population Survey (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

At ages 14-17, Negro boys and girls were enrolled in school in equal proportions in 1960. At
ages 18-29, a larger proportion of Negro young men then young women were enrolled. Among the
white and other races, however, the ratio of male to female enrollment was higher at all ages 14-29.
T able

IIC-3.—P ercen t o f P erso n s

14~%9 Y ears O ld E n ro lled in School, by A ge, R ace, a n d Sex, C on term in ou s U n ite d S ta tes,
1 96 0

Percent enrolled in school
Age
14 and 15 years__
16 and 17 years
18 and 19 years
20 and 24 years
25 and 29 years

Negro

Other nonwhite 1

Male

Female

90
73
39

90
73
36
9
4

11
6

Male Female
91
78
54
33
23

1Includes Chinese, Japanese, Indians, Koreans, Hawaiians, Aleuts, etc.
Source: 1960, C en su s o f P o p u la tio n : Subject R eports, E m p lo ym en t S ta tu s an d

217-817 0-H&6------- 9




Enrolled males per 100 females
White
Male

92
77
45
19
7
W ork E xperien ce,

95
82
48
21
10

Female
94
82
38
10
3

Negro
100
100

99
109
127

Other
nonwhite
106
108
121
189
285

White
105
105
123
197
312

PC(2)-6A, table 10 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

123

Labor force participation rates among teenagers (14 to 19 years old) have tended to decline (195465) as more remained in school, but the decline has been least in the 16-17 year old group. Also, be­
cause the 16-17-year-olds compete for jobs with those 18 and 19— who have more education and
experience— and because they are more often looking for part-time and intermittent work, they tend to
show the highest unemployment rates among all teenagers.
T a b l e IIC-4.— E m p lo y m e n t S ta tu s o f T eenagers, by C olor, S ex, a n d A ge, 1954, 1961, a n d 196 5 (a n n u a l averages )
Year

Employed persons
(in thousands)

Unemployment rates

Female

Male

Male

Female

Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Nonwhite White
18- AND 19-YEAR-OLDS

1954_________________________
1961_________________________
1965_________________________
Percent change:
1954-65__________________
1961-65__________________

153
160
181
18. 3
13. 1

964
1, 164
1, 453
50. 7
24. 8

81
105
111

37. 0
5. 7

874
1, 056
1, 217
39. 2
15. 2

13. 5 11. 9
23. 9 15. 1
11. 4
20. 2
49. 6 -4 . 2
-15. 5 -24. 5

.
28.
27.
33. 7
-1 . 4

9. 0
13. 6
13. 4
48. 9
-1 . 5

17. 6
31. 1
37. 8
114. 8
21. 5

.
17. 0
15. 0
35. 1
- 11. 8

10. 5
13. 6
19. 0
79. 2
39. 7

.3
.
4. 4
-30. 2
-33. 3

20 8
2
8

16- AND 17-YEAR-OLDS

1954_________________________
1961_________________________
1965_________________________
Percent change:
1954-65__________________
1961-65__________________

110

98
126
14. 5
28. 6

774
891
1, 159
49. 7
30. 1

56
51
57
1. 8
11. 8

492
581
733
49. 0
26. 2

13. 4 13. 5
31. 0 16. 5
27. 1 14. 7
102. 2
8. 9
- 1 2 . 6 -10. 9

11 1

14- AND 15-YEAR-OLDS

1954_________________________
1961_________________________
1965_________________________
Percent change:
1954-65__________________
1961-65__________________

124




75
66
72
-4 . 0
9. 1

473
597
622
31. 5
4. 2

42
38
32
-23. 8
-15. 8

192
351
365
90. 1
4. 0

4. 4
5. 1
14. 3
8. 0
20. 3
7. 1
298. 0 61. 4
42. 0 -11. 3

6
6 6

T able IIC -4.—Employment Status of Teenages,by Color, Sex, and Age, 1954,1961, and 1965 (annual averages)—Continued

Labor force participation rates
Year

Female

Male

Nonwhite to white ratios
Unemployment
rate

Nonwhite White Nonwhite White

Male

Female

Labor force partici­
pation rate
Male

Female

18- AND 19-YEAR-OLDS

1954
1961
1965
Percent change:
1954-65.-.
1961-65...

78. 4
70. 5
66. 7
-14. 9
-5 . 4

70. 4
66. 2
65. 8
- 6. 5
- 0. 6

37. 7
44. 6
40. 0
6. 1
-10. 3

52. 1
51. 9
50. 6
-2 . 9
-2 . 5

1. 13
1. 58
1. 77

2. 31
2. 07
2 . 07

1 11
1
1 01

.
. 06
.

0. 72
. 86
. 79

1. 59
1. 83
2. 52

0. 99
. 96
. 88

0. 84
. 73
. 71

.
. 06
4. 32

1 11
86

.
.
. 87

1. 54
. 81
. 63

16- AND 17-YEAR-OLDS

1954
1961
1965
Percent change:
1954-65...
1961-65...

46. 7
42. 5
39. 3
-15. 8
-7 . 5

47. 1
44. 3
44. 6
-5 . 3
0. 7

24. 5
21. 6
20. 5
-16. 3
-5 . 1

29. 3
29. 4
28. 7
- 2. 0
-2 . 4

0. 99
1. 8 8
1. 84

14- AND 15-YEAR-OLDS

1954
1961
1965
Percent change:
1954-65...
1961-65...

27. 2 24. 5
19. 2 2 2 . 2
18. 9 21. 7
—30. 5 -11. 4
- 1 . 6 -2 . 3

16. 2
11. 0
8. 1
—50. 0
-26. 4

10. 5
13. 5
12. 9
22. 9
-4 . 4

. 16
. 79
.

1
1
2 86

1 68
2

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are annual averages from the regular monthly Current Population Survey.




125

The ratio of nonwhite to white unemployment rates has become greatest in recent years for teenage
girls; unemployment rates for the nonwhite girls are usually the highest in the labor force.
T able

IIC-5.— U n em p lo ym en t R ates fo r

A ll W orkers a n d fo r T een agers,1 by C olor a n d Sex, 1 9 5 4 -6 5

Total civilian labor force
All ages

Male
All ages

Teenage

Teenage

Total Nonwhite White Total Nonwhite White Total Nonwhite White Total Nonwhite White
1954________
1955________
1956________
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960________
1961_______
1962________
1963________
1964________
1965________

5. 6
4. 4
4. 2
4. 3
6. 8
5. 5
5. 6
6. 7
5. 6
5. 7
5. 2
4. 6

.9
.
7. 5
8. 0
12. 6
10. 7
10. 2
12. 5
11. 0
10. 9
9. 8
8.3
8
8 0

4. 6
3. 6
3. 3
3. 9
6. 1
4. 9
5. 0
6. 0
4. 9
5. 1
4. 6
4. 1

11. 4
.
10 4
10. 8
14. 4
13. 2
13. 6
15. 2
13. 3
15. 6
14. 7
13. 6
10 2

13. 8
14. 2
15. 9
18. 0
25. 0
23. 5
22. 1
25. 4
23. 7
28. 4
26. 2
25. 3

10. 3
9. 0
8. 8
9. 9
13. 0
11. 9
12. 4
13. 8
12. 0
14. 0
13. 3
12. 2

4. 9
3. 9
3. 5
4. 1
6. 8
5. 3
5. 4
6. 5
5. 3
5. 3
4. 7
4. 0

9. 2
8. 2
7. 3
8. 4
13. 7
11. 5
10. 7
12. 9
11. 0
10. 6
9. 1
7. 6

Female
Total

Total Non white White Total Nonwhite White All
ages
1954_________
1955_________
1956_________
1957_________
1958_________
1959_________
1960_________
1961_________
1962_________
1963_________
1964_________
1965_________

5. 4
4. 3
4. 3
4. 7
6. 8
5. 9
5. 9
7. 2
6. 2
6. 5
6. 2
5. 5

.
7. 5
8. 0
7. 4
10. 8
9. 5
9. 5
11. 9
11. 1
11. 3
10. 8
9. 3
8 2

4. 9
3. 9
3.8
4. 3
6. 2
5. 3
5. 3
6.5
5. 5
5. 8
5. 5
5. 0

.
9. 0
9. 9
10. 1
13. 1
12. 3
12. 9
14. 8
13. 2
15. 7
15. 0
14. 3
10 0

.
9. 9
9. 6
11. 3
15. 2
13. 8
14. 0
15. 4
13. 3
15. 5
14. 5
13. 1

11. 7
13. 2
13. 6
17. 5
24. 3
22. 8
22. 0
24. 7
20. 7
25. 4
23. 3
22. 6

11 2

.
9.
.9
10. 5
14. 0
12. 5
12. 9
14. 1
12. 3
14. 2
13. 4
11. 8
11 0
6
8

Ratio, nonwhite to white
Teenage

All ages

4. 4
3. 4
3. 1
3. 7
6. 1
4. 6
4. 8
5. 7
4. 6
4. 7
4. 2
3. 6

17. 1
16. 2
19. 6
18. 9
26. 2
24. 9
22. 7
26. 6
28. 2
33. 1
30. 6
29. 8

9. 3
.
.
9. 1
11. 6
10. 6
11. 9
13. 5
11. 5
13. 6
13. 2
12. 6
8 2
8 6

1. 93
.
2. 27
2. 05
2. 07
2 . 18
2. 04
2 . 08
2. 24
2. 14
2. 13
2 . 02
2 22

Male

Female

Teen­
age

All
ages

Teen­
age

All
ages

1. 34
1. 58
1 . 81
1 . 82
1. 92
1. 97
1. 78
1. 84
1. 98
2. 03
1. 97
2. 07

2. 09
2. 41
2. 35
2. 27
2. 25
2. 50
2. 23
2 . 26
2. 39
2 . 26
2. 17
2 . 11

. 06
1. 38
1. 53
1. 67
1. 74
1 . 82
1. 71
1. 75
1. 6 8
1. 79
1. 74
1. 92

1. 67
1. 92
2 . 11
1. 72
1. 74
1. 79
1. 79
1. 83
2 . 02
1. 95
1. 96
1. 8 6

1

Teen­
age
1. 84
1. 98
2 . 28
2 . 08
2 . 26
2. 35
1. 91
1. 97
2. 45
2. 43
2. 32
2. 37

1 Civilian labor force, 14-19 years old.
Source: M a n p o w e r R ep o rt o f the P residen t, March 1965, appendix, tables A-4, A-ll, A-12, A-13, and E m p lo y m e n t an d E a rn in g s, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
U.S. Department of Labor, February 1965, page x.

126



The unemployment rate was lower for nonwhite and white male high school graduates and dropouts
16-24 years old in October 1965 than in October 1959. The rate for young women rose among both
graduates and dropouts.
T a b l e IIC- 6 .— U n em p lo ym en t R ates A m o n g H ig h School G ra d u a tes N o t E n ro lled in School a n d H igh School D ro p o u ts,
P erso n s 1 6 - 2 4 Y ea rs O ld, by C olor a n d Sex, O ctober 1 9 5 9 a n d October 196 5
School status and color

October 1959
Nonwhite

High school graduates: 1
Male .
_
__
Female.
High school dropouts: 1
Male __ __ _ _ .. _
Female.
_____

White

10. 4
14. 6
18. 1
16. 6

1 Graduates have completed 4 years of high school or more; dropouts
completed less than 4 years of high school.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data
are from “Employment of High School Graduates and Dropouts in 1964,”




Unemployment rate
ratios, nonwhite.to
white

October 1965
Non white

.
.
12. 2
16. 1
6 0
6 6

9. 8
19. 4
16. 0
24. 8

White
.
.9
11. 8
18. 2
6 1
8

October 1959 October 1965
1. 7
.
1. 5
1. 0

2 2

.
.
1. 4
1. 4

1 6
2 2

Special Labor Force Report No. 54, tables A and B, and “Employment of
June 1959 High School Graduates, October 1959,” Special Labor Force Report
No. 5, table B. Unpublished data for high school graduates in 1959 are from
the October supplement to the Current Population Survey.

127

A larger proportion of nonwhite than white high school graduates in October 1965 were in jobs
requiring little or no skill. Since 1959, however, a substantial decrease took place in the proportion of
nonwhite male graduates and dropouts employed as nonfarm laborers, and a significant increase in
production work.
T a b l e IIC-7.— P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f E m p lo y ed P erso n s 1 6 -2 4 Y ea rs O ld, by O ccu pa tio n G rou p fo r H ig h School G ra d u a tes
N o t E n ro lled in School a n d H igh School D ro p o u ts, by C olor a n d S ex, October 1 9 5 9 a n d O ctober 196 5

Female

Male
Occupation group and education status

1959
Non­
white

Graduates: 1
All occupation groups:
Number (in thousands) __ ___
Percent _
___
Professional, technical, and kindred
workers.
Managers, officials, and proprietors,
except farm
Clerical and kindred workers.
Salesworkers. _
____
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred
workers
Operatives and kindred workers
Private household workers__ _ .
Service workers, except private household
Farmers, farm managers, laborers and
foremen__ __
Laborers, except farm and mine
Dropouts: 1
All occupation groups:
Number (in thousands)
Percent
Professional, technical, and kindred
workers _
Managers, officials, and proprietors,
except farm. _
Clerical and kindred workers
Salesworkers
_
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred
workers.
Operatives and kindred workers_____
Private household workers
Service workers, except private household .
Farmers, farm managers, laborers and
foremen
Laborers, except farm and mine___ _

180
100.0
.

1965

White

Non­
white

White

Non­
white

White

Non­
white

, 116
100.0

365

2, 877
100.0

173

2, 097

336

3, 071

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

2

1 0 0 .0

.
5. 4
14.9
7.7
15. 9
25.4

2. 7
8 .2
1. 4
9. 3
37.8

3. 1
6.1
9.8

15.6
3.0
15. 1

406

1, 523

370

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

2 2

.
.
11. 1
25. 0
1. 1
17.8
4.4
26. 1
10 0
2 2

.

0 2

3.0
.5
5.7
19. 0
1 1 .8

23. 9
36. 0

1965

1959

11 6

.
1. 4
3.2
3. 1
14.2
37.9
.1
6.4
13. 5
19.3

6 .8

10.4
6.4
11.5
7. 1
14. 4
31. 2
.1
4. 8
4.3
9.8

.
1. 2
26. 5
3. 5
1.2
1 1 .6
15. 6
19. 6
8.1
1.2

13. 0
.9
65. 9
4.4
.5
6.6
1. 6
5.8
.9
.5

1, 561
100.0

203

630
100.0

33.2

1. 3
2.8
3.4
2. 7
13.7
42. 5

11. 9
15. 1
29. 5

4. 5
9. 1
20.1

1 0

1. 9
.

2 2
6 .2

11 6

1 0 0 .0

2. 5
1.5
3. 0
.5
12.8
31. 0
26. 1
22. 7

.
1. 1
14.8
7. 5
2.5
34.0
9. 8
21.4
6 .7
.2

.

6 0

29.2
5. 1
17.6
15. 2
24. 7
1. 2
1.2

White

12. 5
.8
57.8
4. 9
.5
9. 4
1.8
1 1 .0

.9
.3

187
100.0

636
100.0

4.8
1. 6
1. 1
17.6
29. 9
25. 7
18. 2
1. 1

.
.5
13. 1
8.0
.9
37. 9
11.0
21. 7
5. 0
1. 3
0 6

2 1

1 Graduates completed 4 years of high school or more; dropouts completed less than 4 years of high school.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Buieau of Labor Statistics. Data are unpublished from the October 1959 and 1965 supplements to the Current
Population Survey.

128




The median wage or salary of nonwhite high school graduates 16 to 21 years old in February 1963
was about 15 percent below wages of white dropouts in the same age group.
T a b l e IIC- 8 .— W e ek ly E a rn in g s 1 on F u ll-T im e Job s o f 1 6 -2 1 Y ea r-O ld Y ou th s N o t in School, by Y ea rs o f School C om p le te d
a n d C olor, F eb ru a ry 196S

Years of school completed
and color
High school graduates: 2
Nonwhite..
___
White______________________
School dropouts: 2
N onw hite..__White- - _ ______

Total
.
.
100. 0
100. 0

100 0
100 0

Under
$40
28. 8
7. 4
63. 2
15. 9

$40 to
$49
23. 8
14. 5
18. 4
19. 1

$50 to
$59
16. 9
.
2. 5
19. 3

22 1

$60 to
$69
17. 5
35. 7
9. 2
29. 1

$70 and
over

Median
income

13. 1
20. 3
6. 7
16. 5

$49
62
34
58

1 From wages or salary.
2 Graduates completed 4 years of high school or more; dropouts completed less than 4 years of high school.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are from the February 1963 supplement to the Current Population Survey.




129

At every age group among young men 16-22 years old, a larger proportion of nonwhite than white
students worked 35 hours or more a week in 1960, but a larger proportion of white than nonwhite students
were employed.
T a b l e IIC —9 .— E m p lo y m e n t S ta tu s a n d H o u rs W o rk ed A m o n g Y ou th s (a g ed 16—2 2 ) E n ro lle d in S ch ool, by S ex , A ge, a n d
C olor, U n ite d S ta te s, 196 0

Age and color
Sex and employment status

16 years

17 years

18 years

19 years

20

years

21

and 2 2
years

Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
white
white
white
Percentage distribution
MALE

Enrolled in school__
In the labor force.
Civilian labor force_______
Employed__
With a job, not at
at work___
At work _
1-14 hours
15-34 hours
35 hours or more___
Unemployed___
Not in the labor force

.
16. 7
16. 7
14. 3
.7
13. 6
7. 1
4. 3
2. 3
2. 4
83. 3

.
27. 9
27. 8
25. 2
.6
24. 5
13. 8
8. 9
1. 8
2. 7
72. 1

100 0 100 0

.
22. 7
22. 4
19. 4
.9
18. 5
8. 4
6. 1
4. 0
3. 0
77. 3

100 0

.
37. 7
37. 3
34. 3
.8
33. 5
16. 0
14. 2
3. 3
3. 0
62. 3

100 0

.
31. 1
30. 2
26. 5
1. 1
25. 4
9. 3
7. 7
8. 4
3. 7
68. 9

100 0

.
43. 2
41. 9
38. 4
1. 0
37. 4
14. 5
14. 4
8. 4
3. 5
56. 8

100 0

.
38. 3
36. 9
32. 4
1. 1
31. 4
9. 6
8. 7
13. 0
4. 4
61. 7

100 0

.
46. 7
43. 8
40. 5
1. 2
39. 3
13. 8
12. 7
12. 8
3. 3
53. 3

100 0

.
45. 2
42. 8
37. 7
1. 0
36. 7
9. 5
10. 2
17. 0
5. 1
54. 8

100 0

.
50. 5
46. 7
43. 8
1. 4
42. 4
13. 8
12. 7
15. 9
2. 9
49. 5

100 0

.
54. 7
50. 5
45. 6
1. 3
44. 3
8. 9
10. 6
24. 9
4. 9
45. 3

100 0

.
56. 8
53. 1
50. 0
1. 4
48. 6
12. 7
13. 6
22. 3
3. 1
43. 2

100 0

FEMALE

Enrolled in school. _
100. 0
In the labor force
7. 6
Civilian labor force_______ 7. 6
Employed_____________ 6 . 3
With a job, not at
work __
.6
At work .
5. 7
1-14 hours
3. 4
15-34 hours
1. 4
35 hours or more___ . 8
Unemployed
1. 3
92. 4
Not in the labor force
Source:

.
14. 8
14. 8
13. 4
.5
12. 9
8. 5
3. 6
.7
1. 4
85. 2

100 0

1960 C en su s o f P o p u la tio n : D etailed C haracteristics

130



.
11. 6
11. 6
9. 7
.7
9. 0
5. 0
2. 5
1. 5
1. 9
88. 4

100 0

.
24. 1
24. 1
22. 0
.7
21. 3
12. 3
7. 3
1. 7
2. 0
75. 9

100 0

.
18. 8
18. 8
15. 9
.7
15. 2
6. 4
4. 0
4. 8
2. 8
81. 2

100 0

. 100. 0 100. 0
30. 9 26. 0 37. 2
30. 8 26. 0 37. 1
28. 5 2 2 . 6 35. 1
. 9 1. 0 1 . 0
27. 7 2 1 . 6 34. 0
12. 8
7. 5 14. 5
5. 1 8 . 2
8. 1
6. 8
9. 0 11. 4
2. 3 3. 4 2 . 1
69. 1 74. 0 62. 8

100 0

PC(1)-1D, table 197 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

.
32. 2
32. 1
28. 7
1. 0
27. 7
9. 3
6. 5
11. 9
3. 4
67. 8

100 0

.
41. 1
41. 0
39. 4
1. 1
38. 3
15. 5
8. 7
14. 1
1. 5
58. 9

100 0

.
36. 3
36. 2
‘32. 4
1. 1
31. 4
8. 1
6. 7
16. 6
3. 8
63. 7

100 0

.
44. 8
44. 7
42. 8
1. 3
41. 5
13. 5
9. 1
18. 9
1. 9
55. 2

100 0

In the 4 years 1961-65, there was a gain of 92,000 Federal employees of whom 26,000 were Negro,
representing a 9-percent increase in the Federal employment of Negroes and a 3-percent increase for all
others. In 1965, 13.5 percent of all Federal employees were Negroes, compared to 12.9 percent in 1961.
T a b l e IID-1 .— F ederal E m p lo y m e n t, by R ace, 1 9 6 1 -6 5
[In thousands]

Year
1961__________________________
1962__________________________
1963__________________________
1964__________________________
1965__________________________
Change, 1961-65

Negro

Total
Number
2 , 197
2, 252
2, 300
2, 270
2, 289
92

Percent
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
+4

100
100
100
100
100

Number
283
293
302
299
309
26

White and other 1
Percent
12. 9
13. 0
13. 1
13. 2
13. 5
+9

Number
1, 915
1, 959
1, 998
1, 971
1, 980
65

Percent
87. 1
87. 0
86. 9
86. 8
86. 5
+3

1 White workers, and non white workers other than Negroes.
Source: Civil Service Commission, S tu d y of M in o rity G rou p E m p lo ym en t in the F ederal G overn m ent, 1964, table series 1; and S tu d y o f M in o rity G rou p E m p lo y ­
m en t in the F ederal G overnm ent, 1965, table 1-1.




131

The greatest proportionate gain in Negro Federal employment from 1962 to 1965 took place in
the upper grades of the Classification Act, Wage Board, and Postal Field Service pay plans. However,
the numerical increase of Negro workers was greatest in the lower or middle grades of all pay plans
except the Wage Board, where expansion took place almost exclusively in the $6,500 to $7,999 bracket.
Yet, in 1965, almost half of the lowest grade ($4,499 or less) Federal employees under the Wage Board
plan were Negroes, compared to slightly under 20 percent under the Classification Act (GS 1-4) and
Postal Field Service (PFS 1-4).
T a b l e IID-2 .— F ederal E m p lo ym en t, by G rade a n d S a la r y G ro u p,
1965
Negro
Other
Total
Pay category
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
. . __ 2, 288, 615
Total, all pay plans. ___
------ 1, 124, 281
Classification Act 1------ .
GS 1-4_______________________________ 335, 642
GS 5-11______________________________ 575, 380
GS 5-8___________________________ 310, 681
GS 9-11__________________________ 264, 699
GS 12-18_____________________________ 213, 259
Wage Board..
. ...
520, 819
$4,499 or less
63,172
$4,500-$7,999_________________________ 411,403
$4,500-$6,499__ __________________ 239, 675
$6,500-$7,999_____________________ 171,728
$8 ,0 0 0 and over
46, 244
585,935
Postal Field Service 2_
PFS 1-4______________________________ 495, 772
PFS 5-11_____________________________ 8 6 , 270
PFS 5-8_______________ __________ 72, 572
PFS 9-11.. ______________________ 13, 698
PFS 12-20____________________________
3, 893
All other pay plans.. .
57, 580
$4,499 or less
19, 162
$4,500-$7,999_________________________ 15,589
$4,500-$6,499_____________________ 10, 136
$6,500-$7,999_____________________
5, 453
$8 ,0 0 0 and over.. _
____ 22, 829
1 Or similar pay plan. Per annum salary ranges for QS ratings are as
follows: GS-1: $3,507-$4,578; GS-2: $3,814-$4,975; GS-3: $4,149-$5,409; GS-4:
$4,641—
$6,045; GS-5: $5,181-$6,720; GS-6: $5,702-$7,430; GS-7: $6,269-$8,132;
GS-8: $6,869-$8,921; GS-9: $7,479-$9,765; GS-10: $8,184-$10,704; GS-11:
$8,961—
$11,715; GS-12: $10,619-$13,931; GS-13: $12,510-$16,425; GS-14: $14,680-

132




100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

308, 675
106, 456
64, 651
38, 987
29, 897
9, 090
2,818
102, 794
29, 736
72, 035
58, 138
13, 897
1, 023
92, 022
84, 944
7, 023
6 , 765
258
55
7, 403
6 , 140
869
715
154
394

13 1, 979, 940
9 1,017, 825
19 270,991
7 536,393
280, 784
10
3 255, 609
1
210,441
418, 025
20
47 33, 436
18 339, 368
24 181,537
157,831
8
2
45, 221
16 493,913
17 410,828
8
79, 247
9 65,807
2
13, 440
1
3, 838
13 50, 177
32 13,022
14, 720
6
9, 421
7
3
5, 299
2
22, 435

87
91
81
93
90
97
99
80
53
82
76
92
98
84
83
92
91
98
99
87
68

94
93
97
98

$19,252; GS-15: $17,055-$22,365; GS-16: $19,619-$25,043; GS-17: $22,217$25,325; GS-18: $25,382.
2 PFS-1-4 includes 4th class postmasters and rural carriers. Per annum
salary ranges for PFS ratings are as follows: PFS-1: $4,086-$5,571; PFS-2:
$4,424-$6,019; PFS-3: $4,780-$6,551; PFS-4: $5,181-$7,062; PFS-5: $5,536-

and Race, 1965; and Percent Change From 1964 and 1962 to 1965

Change from 1962
Change from 1964
Other
Total
Negro
Negro
Other
Total
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

18, 420
14, 634
-1,280
6 , 641
1, 058
5, 583
9, 273
-11, 152
- 7 , 821
- 9 , 134
-21, 638
12,504
5, 803
4, 437
-1,090
5, 262
4, 645
617
265
10, 501
9, 488
-233
-243
10

1, 246

1
1
—

1
—

2

5
-2
-1 1
-2
-8
8

14
1
—

6

7
5
7
22

98

-1

-2

—

6

9, 511
3, 759
740
2, 538
1,593
945
481
-124
-3 , 750
3, 227
297
2, 930
399
2, 307
1, 627
665
629
36
15
3, 569
3, 408
119
91
28
42

3
4
1

7
6
12
21

—
-1 1

5
1

27
64
3
2
10
10

16
38
93
125
16
15
22

12

, 909
10, 875
- 2 , 020
4, 103
-535
4, 638
8 , 792
-11,028
-4 , 071
-12, 361
-21, 935
9, 574
5, 404
2, 130
-2,717
4, 597
4, 016
581
250
6 , 932
6 , 080
-352
-334
-1 8
1, 204
8

—
1
-1
1
—

2

4
-3
-1 1

-4

-1 1
6

14
—
-1
6
6

5
7
16
88
-2

-3
—
6

$7,582; PFS-6: $5,941-$8,108; PFS-7: $6,361-$8,481; PFS-8: $6,888-$8,940
PFS-9: $7,449—
$9,681; PFS-10: $8,110-$10,585; PFS-11: $8,961-$11,715; PFS-12
$9,914-$12,947; PFS-13: $10,956-$14,358; PFS-14: $12,077-$15,857; PFS-15
$13,349-$17,498; PFS-16: $14,751-$19,368; PFS-17: $16,320-$21,450; PFS-18
$18,078-$23,766; PFS 19: $20,042-$24,935; PFS-20: $22,217-$25,325.




36, 281
60, 633
-27, 984
43, 694
6 , 418
37, 276
44, 923
-47, 794
-40, 745
-29, 706
-93, 687
63, 981
22, 657
15, 367
3, 855
11, 254
9, 997
1, 257
258
8 , 075
6 , 532
-5 , 228
-3 , 973
-1 , 255
6 , 766

2
6
-8
8
2

16
27
-8

-3 9
-7
-2 8
59
96
3
1

15
16

10

7
16
52
-2 5
-2 8
-1 9
42

15, 590
9, 919
-1,289
9, 797
6 , 577
3, 220
1,411
- 2 , 860
-14, 937
11, 204
1,832
9, 372
873
5, 142
3, 057
2, 046
1, 933
113
39
3, 389
3, 450
-233
-162
-71
172

5
10
-2

34
28
55

100

-3
-33
18
3
207
582
6

4
41
40
78
244
84
128

-2 1

-1 8
-3 2
77

20, 691
50,714
-26, 695
33, 897
-159
34, 056
43, 512
-44, 934
-25, 808
-40, 910
-95, 519
54, 609
21,784
10, 225
798
9, 208
8 , 064
1, 144
219
4, 6 8 6
3, 087
-4 , 995
-3 , 811
-1 , 184
6 , 594

N ote.—Dashes (—) equal zero or round to zero.
Source: Civil Service Commission, S tu d y o f M in o rity
in the F ederal G overnm ent, 1965, tables 1-1 and 1-3.

1

5
-9
7
—

15
26
-1 0

-4 4
-1 1

-3 4
53
93
2
—

13
14
9
6
10

31
-2 5
-2 9
-1 8
42

G roup E m p lo ym en t

133

Of the various Federal pay plans, the Wage Board plan showed the highest proportion of Negroes
in 1965— 20 percent, compared with 9 percent under the Classification Act and 15 percent under other
plans. The Government Printing Office and the General Services Administration had the largest pro­
portion of Negro employees in 1965— 41 percent and 34 percent respectively. However, the Defense
Department and the Post Office Department together employed almost two-thirds of all Negroes in the
Federal service.
T able IID-3 .— T o ta l a n d N egro F ederal E m p lo ym en t, by P a y P la n a n d A g e n cy , J u n e 1 96 5 1
[Agencies with 5,000 or more employees in June 1965 are listed separately] 2
All pay plans
Selected agencies

All
employees

2, 288, 615
All agencies 3 _
922,937
Department of Defense__
__ —
Office of the Secretary
38, 298
Army _.
__- ------315, 004
299,775
N avy._
269, 860
Air Force.
Post Office Department. _ _ _
_
587, 780
149, 090
Veterans Administration-Department of Agriculture _
95, 769
Department of the Treasury _ _
8 8 , 561
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. _
84,171
62,032
Department of the Interior
41, 641
Federal Aviation Agency _
General Services Administration _
35, 049
National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
33, 859
32, 492
Department of Justice
28, 483
Department of Commerce___
2 2 , 207
Department of State 4__
16,315
Tennessee Valley Authority. _
13,336
Housing and Home Finance Agency__
9, 198
Department of Labor
7, 198
Atomic Energy Commission
6 , 993
Government Printing Office
5, 585
Selective Service System
See footnotes at end of table.

134



Classification Act (or similar
pay plans)

Negro
Number Percent
308, 675
106, 788
7, 351
37, 021
41, 267
21, 149
92,265
36,811
4, 321
12,194
16, 711
2, 529
1, 506
11, 910
1, 092
1 , 682
3, 803
2, 407
1, 144
1, 728
1, 910
308
2, 864
320

13
12

19
12
14
8

16
25
5
14
20
4
4
34
3
5
13
11
7
13
21
4
41
6

All
employees
1, 124, 281
513,169
29, 131
2 0 1 , 121
130, 184
152, 733
1, 795
1 1 1 ,201
83, 152
80, 552
70,979
47, 956
38, 320
17, 434
26, 644
30, 196
25, 191
7, 759
13, 092
8 , 962
6 , 957
1, 271
955

Negro
Number Percent
106, 456
38, 260
4, 048
16, 834
9, 966
7, 412

9
7
14

222
2 2 211

12
20

,
3,090
8 , 760
12, 659
1, 395
1, 005
3, 115
648
1, 489
2, 995
1, 797
1, 580
1, 772
261
486
50

8
8

5

4
18
3
3
18
2
5
12
23
11

12
20

4
38
5

T a ble

IID-3 .— T o ta l a n d N egro F ederal E m p lo y m e n t, b y P a y P la n a n d A g en cy, J u n e 1 9 6 5 1—Continued
[Agencies with 5,000 or more employees in June 1965 are listed separately] 2
All pay plans
Selected agencies

All
employees

Classification Act (or similar
pay plans)

Negro
Number Percent

Wage Board
All agencies3
. . .
-- —
Department of Defense. _
Office of the Secretary —
Army__ - - —
Navy__ ___ _ - . — - -- - Air Force.
Post Office Department. .
. .
Veterans Administration..
Department of Agriculture
Department of the Treasury----------- . . .
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare..
Department of the Interior
Federal Aviation Agency. .
General Services Administration__ _ _ _
National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Department of Justice_____ . .
Department of Commerce__
Department of State 4__
Tennessee Valley Authority
Housing and Home Finance Agency. _
Department of Labor__
Atomic Energy Commission __
__
Government Printing Office__
Selective Service System
__

520, 819
399, 122
7, 273
110,948
168, 305
112,596
40
33, 755
10, 165
7, 678
6 , 488
13,515
3, 142
17, 610
6 , 451
1, 404
1, 763
469
9, 727
238
105
76
5, 440
16

1 Includes full-time employees in all executive departments and agencies,
except the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency.
The Government Printing Office was also included.
2 Agencies not listed separately employed 29,826, or 1.3 percent of all
employees.
3 Includes agencies not listed separately.




102, 794
65, 221
2, 241
19, 343
31, 274
12, 363
21

13,392
1,008
3,427
3, 390
1, 103
413
8 , 795
346
93
579
242
767
147
91
22
2, 371
13

All
employees

Negro
Number Percent

Other pay plans (including
Postal Field Service) 5
20

16
31
17
19
11

53
40
10
45
52
8
13
50
5
7
33
52
8
62
87
29
44
81

643, 515
10, 646
1, 894
2, 935
1,286
4, 531
585, 945
4, 134
2, 452
331
6 , 704
561
179
5
764
892
1, 529
13,979
6 , 588
6
131
165
282
4, 614

99, 425
3, 307
1 , 062
844
27
1,374
92, 022
1,208
223
7
662
31
88

98
229
368
377
1
47
25
7
257
100

15
31
56
29
2
30
16
29
9
2
10
6

49
13
11
15
3
6
17
36
15
2
6

* Includes Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, and the
the International Boundary and Water Commission.
3 The Post Office is the only agency using the postal field service pay plan.
Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission, S tu d y of M in o rity G rou p E m p lo y ­
m en t in the F ederal G overnm ent, 1965, tables 1-1 and 1-4 through 1-26.

135

More Negroes— over 63,000—were employed by the Federal Government in the Washington, D.C.,
area in 1965 than in any other place, followed by New York and Chicago with about 25,000 each.
Chicago has the largest proportion of Negro Federal workers (36 percent), followed by Detroit and
Cleveland. In all cities and regions except Washington, D.C., however, proportionately more Negro
workers were under the postal field service or the wage board plan than under the Classification Act.
T a b l e IID-4.— T otal a n d N eg ro F ederal E m p lo y m e n t,1 by S elected P a y P la n s in the C iv il S ervice R e g io n s 2 a n d S elected
S ta n d a rd M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A re a s,3 J u n e 1 9 6 5

All pay plans 4
Civil Service region and selected standard metro­
politan statistical areas

All
employees

2, 288, 615
Summary, worldwide........ ............ . —
All regions 5__ __
_
- -------- 2, 250, 143
Atlanta region___
_.
277, 110
Atlanta, _
___ _
21,383
1 2 , 188
Charleston, S.C_______________ ___ _
Huntsville___ _ - _
___
18, 014
. ___
Macon____
16, 783
Mobile___ _ ------------14, 659
Boston region____ _ ________ . -------108, 071
Boston, _____
_
__
39, 830
Chicago region,
_ — _
_ _ 313, 501
Chicago,
_, — _____ _ ,,
6 8 , 247
Cincinnati___
11, 865
Cleveland____
19, 906
Detroit__ ___ _ ------------25, 475
Indianapolis__ __ ________
__
15, 392
Dallas region______
_
_
__
2 0 2 , 180
9, 778
Dallas,,, _ , _____
Houston, _ — _
13,318
New Orleans, _
10, 934
San Antonio
32, 526
Denver region, . ,, --- ----117, 247
Denver___
_
20, 038
New York region, _
, ,
227, 932
New York,
123,952
Philadelphia region_____
258, 451
___
30, 278
Baltimore_____
Philadelphia, _ _
__
67, 081
Pittsburgh,
16, 702
Newport News,,
13, 659
Norfolk-Portsmouth__ __
29, 360
St. Louis region.
140, 517
Kansas City__
__
18, 063
St. L o u is,__
30, 708
San Francisco region, .
—
255,684
Los Angeles-Long Beach, __
55, 372
San Francisco-Oakland
72, 092
Seattle region___
90, 263
Washington, D.C, _ ___
259, 187
See footnotes at end of table.

136



Classification Act (or similar pay
plans)

Negro
Number Percent
308, 675
307, 887
31, 805
3, 245
1, 990
459
1, 902
2, 165
3, 830
1, 847
61, 095
24, 721
2,417
5, 785
8,220
4, 024
17, 359
1, 124
2, 777
2, 542
2, 045
3, 836
1,796
34, 452
25, 367
46, 595
7, 938
15, 910
2, 761
2 , 688
7,551
11,248
2, 939
5, 882
32,176
11,446
14, 074
2,236
63, 255

13
14
11
15
16
3
11
15
4
5
19
36
20
29
32
26
9
11
21

23
6
3
9
15
20
18
26
24
17
20
26
8
16
19
13
21
20
2

24

All
employees
1, 124, 281
1, 105, 594
126, 157
12, 838
4,360
14, 158
7, 553
6 , 761
40, 095
16, 177
136, 439
29, 621
5, 129
9, 024
11, 813
8 , 757
98, 852
5, 754
7, 478
6 , 351
15, 946
67, 297
13,413
8 6 , 448
43, 058
123, 713
18,449
35, 593
5, 746
7, 781
9, 060
6 6 , 343
10, 412
17, 794
112, 914
23, 871
28, 410
46, 046
201, 290

Negro
Number Percent
106, 456
106, 087
5, 133
567
84
161
123
289
1 , 181
621
20, 141
6 , 431
663
1, 766
3, 060
1, 976
3, 754
246
614
488
474
1, 742
838
10,213
6 , 876
14, 856
3, 242
7, 016
689
640
652
4, 387
970
2,425
8,260
3, 287
3, 360
620
35, 800

9
4
4

10

2
1
2

4
3
4
15
22
13
20
26
23
4
4
8
8

3
3

6
12

16
12
18

20
12
8

7
7
9
14
7
14
12
1

18

T able

IID-4.— T otal a n d

N eg ro F ederal E m p lo y m e n t,1 by S elected P a y P la n s in the C iv il S ervice R e g io n s 2 a n d S elected
S ta n d a rd M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A re a s,3 J u n e 1 9 6 5 —Continued

All pay plans 4
Civil Service region and selected standard metro­
politan statistical areas

Classification Act (or similar pay
plans)

Negro

All
employees

Number Percent

520, 819
515, 303
82,280
3, 152
7, 301
3,231
8 , 812
7, 013
25, 236
7, 852
48, 505
6,518
609
2, 424
1,982
2, 540
54, 789
637
1 , 116
1, 543
14, 749
32, 965
2, 482
38, 912
17, 825
72,375
5, 561
15, 860
1, 519
5, 164
18, 373
15, 349
1, 151
3, 913
82, 754
8 , 271
30, 299
24, 532
37, 606

1 Includes full-time employees in all executive departments and agencies,
except the National Security Council and Central Intelligence Agency.
The Government Printing Office was also included.
2 Civil Service regions are defined as follows: Atlanta: Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and
Virgin Islands; Boston: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hempshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Chicago: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky,
Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin; Dallas: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma,
and Texas; Denver: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming;
New York: New Jersey and New York; Philadelphia: Delaware, Maryland,
except Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties, Pennsylvania, Virginia,
except Alexandria and Falls Church cities, and Arlington and Fairfax



102, 794
102, 709
19, 433
1, 192
1, 787
220
1, 684
1, 633
1, 025
450
10, 198
2, 645
256
584
926
577
7, 544
266
466
575
1, 404
1,293
431
6 , 810
4, 181
19, 629
2, 704
4, 118
416
1, 667
6 , 250
2, 054
402
1, 120
13,215
2, 245
7, 016
923
20, 585

Negro
Number Percent

Postal field service

Wage board
Summary, worldwide__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
All regions 5 __
_
Atlanta region___
Atlanta____ ______ - ____
. __
Charleston, S.C. _ . __ _ _ _
__
Huntsville
Macon. _ _
______
Mobile . . . __
____ __
...
Boston region
Boston__ ____ _ _____ _ ___
Chicago region. _
.
Chicago
Cincinnati. _________ _____ ______
Cleveland________ __. . .
Detroit___________ ____________
Indianapolis...
...
. . . __
Dallas region__ _ .
_ ____
__
_ ...
Dallas... __
Houston. _ ___
._
New Orleans
San Antonio
Denver region__
_ __
Denver__ __________ .
New York region.
New York.
. . .
Philadelphia region _
Baltimore___
Philadelphia.
... ...
Pittsburgh.. . . . . .
.
.
...
Newport News
Norf olk-Portsmouth
St. Louis region___
__
...
Kansas City__ .
_.
St. Louis_____ _
__
San Francisco region _
Los Angeles-Long Beach.
San Francisco-Oakland..
Seattle region _
Washington, D.C__

All
employees

20
20

24
38
24
7
19
23
4

6
21

41
42
24
47
23
14
42
42
37
10
4
17
17
23
27
49
26
27
32
34
13
35
29
16
27
23
4
55

585, 935
585,935
58, ‘487
5, 003
485
373
376
715
41, 523
15, 272
123, 878
31, 344
5, 844
8 , 214
11,275
3,988
45, 343
3,217
4, 513
2, 683
1, 772
15, 315
3, 916
100, 001
61, 674
57, 783
5, 629
15, 178
9,276
519
1 , 660
57, 074
6,297
8 , 685
56, 855
22, 550
12,719
18, 029
11,647

92, 022
92, 022
5, 970
1,434
99
14
92
215
1, 549
737
29, 870
15, 393
1, 475
3,362
4, 139
1,443
5, 330
577
1, 641
1, 387
164
657
505
16, 955
14, 002
10, 505
1,899
4, 622
1, 624
297
638
4, 590
1, 518
2, 251
10, 189
5, 803
3, 576
606
5, 801

16
16
10
29
20
4
24
30
4
5
24
49
25
41
37
36
12
18
36
52
9
4
13
17
23
18
34
30
18
57
38
8
24
26
18
26
28
3
50

counties, and West Virginia; St. Louis: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota; San Francisco: California
and Nevada; Seattle: Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.
2 Standard metropolitan statistical areas as defined by the U.S. Bureau
of the Budget in 1961.
* Includes 57,580 employees (of whom 7,403 or 13 percent were Negroes)
under other pay plans.
s Includes Washington, D.C., SMSA.
N ote.—Data exclude employment in Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico.
Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission, Study of Minority Group
Employment in the Federal Government, 1965, tables 1-1; 2-1 through 2-10;
4-1, 2, 4-8; 10-12, 15-17, 20, 22, 24, 27, 30, 32-36, 38-41.

137

The median income of nonwhite families was
less than three-fifths that of white families through­
out the 1947-64 period. It was highest during the
Korean war, and in 1964, the most recent full year
for which data are available.
T a b l e IIIA-1.—M e d ia n F a m ily In com e, by C olor of
F a m ily H ea d , 1 9 4 7 -6 4

Year
1947__________
1948___________
1949___________
1950___________
1951__________
1952___________
1953___________
1954___________
1955__________
1956___________
1957___________
1958___________
1959__________
1960__________
1961___________
1962__________
1963___________
1964__________

Nonwhite
$1, 614
1, 768
1, 650
1, 869
2, 032
2, 338
2, 461
2, 410
2, 549
2 , 628
2, 764
2, 711
2, 917
3, 233
3, 191
3, 330
3, 465
3, 839

White
$3, 157
3,310
3, 232
3, 445
3, 859
4, 114
4, 392
4, 339
4, 605
4, 993
5, 166
5, 300
5, 643
5, 835
5, 981
6 , 237
6 , 548
6 , 858

Nonwhite
as percent
of white
51. 1
53. 4
51. 1
54. 3
52. 7
56. 8
56. 0
55. 5
55. 4
52. 6
53. 5
51. 2
51. 7
55. 4
53. 4
53. 4
52. 9
56. 0

Source: C u rren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, Incom e o f F am ilies an d P erson s in the
U n ited S ta tes, Series P-60, No. 43, and unpublished Current Population

Reports tabulations (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

The ratio of nonwhite to white median income
is usually less for men than for women, and has
risen or declined appreciably with the economic
cycle. The ratio for men and women in 1964 was
most similar for year-round, full-time workers— 66
percent for men and 69 percent for women.
T a b l e I I I A -2 . — R a tio o f N o n w h ite to W h ite M e d ia n
In com e o f P e rso n s,1 by S ex, 1 9 4 8 -6 4
[Percent]

Year

All persons
Male

1948________
1949________
1950________
1951________
1952________
1953________
1954________
1955________
1956________
1957________
1958________
1959________
1960________
1961________
1962________
1963________
1964________

54. 3
48. 4
54. 3
55. 1
54. 8
55. 1
50. 0
52. 7
52. 3
53. 1
49. 8
47. 0
52. 5
51. 7
49. 2
52. 1
58. 5

Female
43. 4
46. 3
44. 7
42. 4
38. 6
58. 4
54. 3
52. 3
57. 4
57. 8
58. 6
61. 6
62. 0
67. 0
67. 1
66. 8
58. 1

Year-round, full­
time workers 2
Male

60. 8
59. 1
61. 2
62. 9
58. 4
66. 1
63. 5
59. 7
64. 4
66. 0

Female

51. 3
55. 4
58. 4
58. 8
64. 4
67. 8
66. 0
61. 0
61. 8
69. 3

114 years old and over. Includes income from all sources, including wages
and salaries.
2 Year-round, full-time data not available for years 1948-54.
Source: C u rren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, Incom e o f F a m ilies a n d P erso n s in the
U n ited S ta tes, Series P-60, Nos. 6-43, and 47. (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

138



Among all workers and year-round, full-time workers, the lower ratio of nonwhite to white median
earnings among men as compared to women, in addition to larger increases in the ratio for women
(1957-63), obscures the fact that nonwhite men average more income than either white or nonwhite
women.
T able IIIA -3 . — M e d ia n W age or S a la r y in com e o f P erso n s 1 a n d o f Y ea r-R o u n d , F u ll-T im e W orkers, by C olor a n d S ex ,
195 7 a n d 196 8

Median wage or salary income
1957

Sex
Nonwhite
All workers:
MaleFemale__
Year-round, full-time workers:
Male__________
____
Female
114 years old and over.
Source: C u rren t P o p u la tio n
(U.S. Bureau of the Census.)

$2, 436
1, 019
3, 137
1, 8 66

White

1963
Nonwhite
as percent
of white

Nonwhite

55. 4
45. 5
63. 4
60. 1

$3, 217
1, 448
4, 104
2, 368

$4, 396
2, 240
4, 950
3, 107

R ep o rts, Incom e o f F am ilies an d U nrelated In dividu als in the U n ited S tates,

White

Nonwhite
as percent
of white

$5, 663
2, 723
6 , 277
3, 723

56. 8
53. 2
65. 4
63. 6

Series P-60, No. 35, table 37, and No. 43, table 33.

The ratio of nonwhite to white family income in 1964 varied from 49 percent in the South to over
70 percent in the North Central and West, so that the average ratio of 56 percent (which has changed
little in the 1960’s) masks wide variations among regions.
T able IIIA-4.— M e d ia n F a m ily In com e, by C olor a n d R egion , 1 9 6 0 -6 4
Region
Year and color
North
South
West
Northeast
United
Central
States
1960:
___
Nonwhite___
White __ ___ _ _ ___ _____
Ratio
1961:
Nonwhite _
White______________________________
Ratio
_ _
1962:
Nonwhite
White________________________________
Ratio
- ._
1963:
Nonwhite________ _ _
White______________________________
Ratio _ _
_____
1964:
Nonwhite__
White ___
Ratio ___ _
__

$3, 233
835
55
$3, 191
$5, 981
53
$3, 330
$6 , 237
53
$3, 465
$6 , 548
53
$3, 839
$ 6 , 858
56
$5,

)
(i)

0

)
(i)

0
68

)
(x)
0

74

0)
C)

67
$4, 424
$6 , 740

72
$4, 339
$6 , 384

$4, 615
$7, 082
65
$4, 943
$7, 418
67

$4, 926
$6 , 712
73
$5, 063
$7, 000
72

66

68

$2, 117
$4, 905
43
$2 , 1 1 2
$4, 945
43
$2, 455
$5, 213
47
$2, 520
$5, 565
45
$2, 898
$5, 889
49

)
(')

0

81

)
(■ )
0

87
$4, 973
$6 , 858
73
$5, 417
$7, 153
76
$5, 774
$7, 408
78

Ratio obtained from source, but median income not available by region.
Source: C u rren t P o p u la tio n R eports, C onsum er Incom e, Incom e o f F am ilies an d P erson s in the U nited S tates, Series P-60; No. 37, table 16; No. 39, table 18;
No. 41, table 11; No. 43 table 13. Additional data for 1960, 1961, and 1964 are from unpublished Current Population Survey tabulations (U.S. Bureau of the
Census).
217-817 O— 66------10




139

One in live nonwhite families had incomes under $3,000 in 1964 in the Northeast and West, but
one in four in the North Central region, and one in two in the South.
T able IIIA-5 .— P ercen t D istrib u tio n of F a m ilie s by In com e, C olor, a n d R egion , 1964
Region
Family income

Northeast

South

North Central

West

Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Nonwhite White
Percent
Under $3,000
$3,000 to $4,999_______________
$5,000 to $6,999_______________
$7,000 to $9,999_______________
$1 0 ,0 0 0 and over___
Median income ___
Head year-round full-time
worker:
Percent of total, excluding
Armed Forces.
Median income

100. 0

100. 0

21. 5 11. 3
29. 2 13. 6
23. 4 20. 7
14. 8
26. 2
11. 4 28. 2
$4, 943 $7, 418

100. 0

26. 9 14. 8
22. 3 15. 2
25. 5 2 0 . 0
15. 0 26. 1
23. 9
10. 0
$5, 063 $7, 000

100. 0

100. 0

51. 6
20. 7
26. 8
19. 9
9. 8
20. 9
8. 0
20. 5
3. 8
18. 0
$2, 898 $5, 889

100. 0

100. 0

19. 7
23. 2
19. 0
19. 3
18. 9
$5, 774

13. 5
14. 5
18. 1
25. 3
28. 7
$7, 408

55. 3 6 8 . 3
$5,960 $8 , 395

51. 8
68. 2
$6 , 203 $7, 814

51. 0 65. 9
$3, 791 $6 , 979

61. 5
$7, 447

63. 8
$8 , 805

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: Data are from unpublished Current Population Reports tabulations (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

N o t e .—

140




100. 0

The ratio of nonwhite to white family income in 1964 was considerably less for farm than nonfarm
families—45 percent compared to 57 percent—partly explaining low median earnings and lower non­
white to white ratios in the South where much more of the non white population is rural than in the other
regions.
T able

IIIA- 6 .— P ercen t D istrib u tio n

o f F am ilies by Incom e, Color, a n d F arm a n d N o n fa rm R esiden ce, 195 9 a n d 1964

Total money income

United States

Nonfarm

Farm

Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Nonwhite White
1959
Number (in t h o u s a n d s ) ______
Percent___
_
_ __ _
Under $3,000______
_ _ _
$3,000 to $4,999_________________________________
$5,000 to $6,999_________________________________
$7,000 to $9,999_________________________________
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 and o v e r .__ _
Median income __
Ratio, nonwhite to white income__
Head year-round full-time worker:
Percent of total, including Armed Forces _ _ _
Median income. _

4, 234 40, 828
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
51. 5 19. 9
25.8 21.4
12. 3 25.4
8.1
20.1
2.4
13.3
$2 , 917 $5, 643
51.7
64. 6
46.6
$4, 064 $6 , 518

3, 776 37, 486
100.0
1 0 0 .0
46. 1 17. 0
28.4 2 1 . 0
13. 6
26. 6
9. 1 21. 3
2.7
13.9
$3, 225 $5, 825
55.4
(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

458
.
89.7
6.9
3.0

100 0

.6

)
$1, 136
36. 1
0

(2)
(2)

3,342
1 0 0 .0
47. 5
26.2
13. 1
7.5
6 .0
$3,151
(2)
(2)

1964
Number (in thousands) ____ __
Percent
Under $3,000._ __
_
$3,000 to $4,999_________________________________
$5,000 to $6,999_________________________________
$7,000 to $9,999_________________________________
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 and over__
Median income
Ratio, nonwhite to white income
Head year-round full-time worker:
Percent of total, excluding Armed Forces
Median income.
._
_______ _ _

4, 754 43, 081
100.0
1 0 0 .0
15.4
37.3
25.9
15.9
16. 4 2 0 . 1
12. 1
24.4
24. 1
8.3
$3,839 $6 , 858
56. 0
53.3
66.9
$5, 184 $7,913

1 Entry rounds to zero.
2 Not available.
—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: Data for 1959, from C u rren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, Incom e of F am ilies an d P erson s in the
from unpublished Current Population Reports tabulations (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

4, 471 40, 266
100.0
1 0 0 .0
34.8
13.6
26.7
15. 5
17.2 20.4
12.6
25.3
8.7
25. 2
$4, 021 $7, 045
57. 1
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

N o t e .




U nited S tates, 1959,

283 2, 815
1 0 0 .0
80.
39.0
14. 2
21. 7
1.9
16.9
2 .8
1 2 .6
.9
9.7
$1,750 $3, 8 6 8
45. 2
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
1 0 0 .0
1

Series P-60, No. 35, table 1; and for 1964,

141

Little improvement occurred between 1959 and 1964 in the ratio of nonwhite to white farm income,
and the difference continued substantially larger for the nonfarm families.
T a b l e IIIA-7.—P ercen t D istrib u tio n of P erso n s 14 Y ea rs O ld a n d Over, by Incom e, C olor, S ex, a n d F arm a n d N o n fa rm
R esiden ce, 1 95 9 a n d 196 4

United States
Total money income

Non white

White

Nonfarm
Nonwhite

Farm

White

Nonwhite

White

1959
MALE
Total persons with income:
Number in thousands
Percent __ __
Under $1,000____
__
$1,000 to $2,999___________________________
$3,000 to $4,999___________________________
$5,000 to $6,999___________________________
$7,000 to $9,999___________________________
$1 0 ,0 0 0 and over__ __
Median income. _ _ _ _
_ ___
Ratio, nonwhite to white.
___
Year-round full-time workers:
Percent of all income recipients .
____
__
Median income
.
FEMALE
Total persons with income:
Number in thousands.
Percent.
...
Under $1,000
$1,000 to $2,999____________________________
$3,000 to $4,999___________________________
$5,000 to $6,999. . . . ___ . . . . . . .
$7,000 to $9,999 . . . . .
.
_. . . . .
$1 0 ,0 0 0 and over__
__
Median income _
_
_
. . .
Ratio, nonwhite to white.
Year-round full-time workers:
Percent of all income recipients.
Median income. _
See footnote at end of table.

142



5, 294 48, 991
100.0
1 0 0 .0
32. 3
14. 4
32. 7
20. 9
24. 5
25.3
22. 5
8 .8
1.2
11.0
6.0
.6
$1, 977 $4, 208
47.0
46. 1
59. 8
$3, 150 $5, 391

4, 597 44, 567
1 0 0 .0
100. 0
12.8
25.3
34.4
19.3
28. 1
25.7
1 0 .2
24. 0
1. 4
11. 9
.7
6.3
$2, 347 $4, 425
53. 0

4, 243 30, 137
100.0
100.0
58. 0
43. 3
33.2
32.7
8.3
18. 2
.7
4. 1
.2
.8
.2
.5
$809 $1, 313
61 . 6
2 2 .0
28. 1
$2, 125 $3, 300

3, 752
100.0
53. 2
36.3
19. 1
.9
.4
.2
$928

0
0

0)
C)

)
)

6 8 .2

(0
0

)

28, 409
1 0 0 .0
42. 2
33. 5
18. 6
4. 3
.8
.5
$1, 361
C)

(')

697
.
73.3
2 2 .6
3.3
.8

4, 424
100.0
30. 1
36.3

100 0

$664
33.2
)
()

0

2 0 .0
8 .0

2. 4
3. 1
$2, 003
0
0

491
91.9
6.7
1. 3

1, 728
100.0
62. 1
26. 0
9. 4
1. 9
.4
.4
$665

1 0 0 .0

$311
46. 8
)
C)
0

)
)

0

)

C)

T able

IIIA-7.—P ercen t

D istrib u tio n o f P erso n s 14 Y ea rs O ld a n d Over, by Incom e, C olor, S ex, a n d F arm a n d N o n fa rm
R esiden ce, 1 95 9 a n d 1 96 4 —Continued

Nonfarm

United States
Total money income

Nonwhite

White

Non white

Farm

White

Nonwhite

White

1964
MALE

Total persons with income:
Number in thousands ---Percent
Under $1,000 _ .
$1,000 to $2,999___________________________
$3,000 to $4,999___________________________
$5,000 to $6,999___________________________
$7,000 to $9,999 _______ _ _ . _
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 and over _
__
Median income
Ratio, nonwhite to white.
Year-round full-time workers:
Percent of all income recipients.
Median income..
._ . . . _ — _

5, 784 52, 749
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
22.5
13.4
29. 9
18. 6
25.4
18. 6
14. 1
21. 1
17. 1
6.1
11.2
2.1
$2, 797 $4, 936
56.7
50.3
60. 5
$4, 234 $6 , 457

5, 320 48, 992
1 0 0 .0
100.0
19. 6
12.3
29.4
17. 6
27. 0
18.6
15.4
21.8
6.5
18. 0
2.2
11.8
$3, 052 $5, 135
59.4

5, 090 36,614
1 0 0 .0
100.0
48.3
38.9
34.4
31. 7
19. 1
12.3
7.4
3. 5
2.2
1. 3
.2
.8
$1 , 066 $1, 513
70. 5
28. 5
26. 1
$2, 663 $3, 835

4, 769 34,832
1 0 0 .0
100.0
45.6
37.9
36. 2
32.0
13. 1
19. 5
3. 8
7. 6
1. 4
2 .2
.2
.8
$ 1 , 162 $1, 572
73.9

C1)
0)

0)
0)

464
55. 5
37. 4
6.6

1 0 0 .0

.6

$883
37. 1
0)
0)

3,757
1 0 0 .0
27. 0
31.4
19.0
12. 5
6.1
3. 9
$2, 379
0)
0)

FEMALE

Total persons with income:
Number in thousands.
Percent
Under $1,000
$1,000 to $2,999_________________________
$3,000 to $4,999___________________________
$5,000 to $6,999___________________________
$7,000 to $9,999
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 and over
Median income
Ratio, nonwhite to white
Year-round full-time workers:
Percent of all income recipients___ . . —
M edian incom e

0)
0)

(*)
(')

321
90. 1
8.3
.8
.8

1 0 0 .0

$379
46.4
(0
0)

1, 782
100.0
56. 7
26. 0
1 1 .2
4. 1
1. 6
.2
$816
0)
0)

1 Not available.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: Data for 1959 are from Current Population Reports, Income of Families and Unrelated Individuals in the United States, 1959, No. 35, table 21, and
for 1964, from unpublished Current Population Reports tabulations (U.S. Bureau of the Census).




143

In 1963, nonwhite working wives contributed relatively more to the family income than white
working wives, although they earned less.
T a b l e IIIA- 8 .— P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f N o n fa rm H u sb a n d -W ife F a m ilie s,1 by Incom e, W o rk E x p e rie n ce o f W ives, a n d
C olor, 196 3

Family income

Work experience of wife

Total
Worked during the year___
50 to 52 weeks, full
time 2_____________
27 to 49 weeks, full
time 2____________
1 to 26 weeks, full
time,2 or 1 to 52
weeks, part time 3 __
Did not work during the
year..
. . .

Ratio of
nonwhite to
Under
$3,000 to
$5,000 to $7,000 and Median family
white
over
income
median
$3,000
$4,999
$6,999
family
income
Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ W hite Non­ White (percent)
white
white
white
white
white
47. 0 23.9 46.9 34.7 56. 2 40.4 74. 8
4. 1 14. 5
2 .8
8.3

7. 6 17. 9
5. 7 13. 0

144

37. 5 23.0
7. 1 16. 1 8 . 5

63.3
63. 7

, 227
5, 906

9, 229
7, 942

67. 5
74. 4

19. 0

4, 020

6

, 836

58. 8

53.0 76. 1 53. 1 65.3 43. 8 59.6 25. 2 49. 5

3, 911

6

, 445

60. 8

.
4.6

10 1

1 1 .0

32.3 17. 1 24. 1 21. 4 25.3 22.4

1 Data relate to the civilian noninstitutional population 14 years of age and
over. The proportion of wives with work experience is slightly understated
by the exclusion of a relatively small number of wives with work experience
whose earnings and/or family income were not reported.
2 Worked 35 hours or more per week during a majority of the weeks worked.




$4, 443 $7,024
50. 5 5, 058 7, 939

100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0

.

21 2

6

3 Worked less than 35 hours per week during a majority of the weeks worked.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are
from “Marital and Family Characteristics of Workers in March 1964,” Special
Labor Force Report No. 50, table P.

Labor force participation rates of nonfarm married women with husbands presept are greater for
the nonwhite than the white regardless of husband’s income and presence or ages of children.
T able IIIA-9.— L abor F orce P a r tic ip a tio n R ates 1 o f N o n fa rm M a rr ie d W o m en W ith H u sb a n d P re se n t, by In c o m e of
H u sb a n d , A g e o f C h ildren , a n d C olor, M a rch 195 9 a n d M a rch 1964

Income of husband

Total
Non­
white

White

Color and age of children
No children
under 18 years

Children 6 to
17 years only

Children under
6 years

Non­
white

Non­
white

Non­
white

White

White

White

MARCH 1959
INCOME IN 1958

Total______________
43. 9 30. 2 54. 4 35. 6
52. 0 39. 7 29. 3
Under $3,000 .
_
47. 1 33. 0 55. 0 31. 2 51. 7 52. 1 35. 2
42. 6
34. 8
$3,000 to $4,999______________________
55. 3 42. 4 53. 0 46. 0 26. 7
34. 3 29. 1 (2)
$5,000 to $6,999______________________
39. 2 (2)
38. 5 (2)
$7,000 and over___
20. 5 (2)
27. 2 (2)
26. 6
(2)
(2)
Median income____
_
_ _ $2, 794 $4, 360 $2 , 648 $4, 016 $3, 126 $4, 826 $2 , 756

17. 4
25. 8
20. 2
15. 0
9. 1
$4, 363

MARCH 1984
INCOME IN 1963

46. 1 33.4 50.5
37.4
56. 7 41.3
36.1
Total _ .
_
—
46. 2
30. 7 46. 7 28. 4 63. 3 46. 3 38. 4
Under $3,000.
38. 6
51. 2 41. 6
56. 7 49. 6
$3,000 to $4,999______________________ 44. 8
35. 5
44. 9 53. 6
48. 1 35. 3
$5,000 to $6,999______________________ 48. 1 37. 5 58. 8
$7,000 and over
46. 4 28. 2
39. 1 (2)
32. 2 (2)
(2)
$3, 385 $5, 566 $2, 969 $5, 123 $4, 012 $6 , 079 $3, 385
Median income.. . . .
___
1 Labor force as percent of population in March 1959 and March 1964.
2 Rate not shown where base is less than 100,000.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data




2 1 .2

28. 3
27. 5
22. 3
14. 3
$5, 438

are from “Marital and Family Characteristics of Workers in March 1964,”
Special Labor Force Report No. 50, table M, and “ Family Characteristics
of Workers, 1959,” Special Labor Force Report No. 7, table Q.

145

Nonwhite families with heads 65 years or over and having an annual income under $2,000 dropped
from two-thirds of all nonwhite families in 1960 to one-half in 1963; among white families, the proportion
is much lower and declined less (from 29 to 24 percent).
T able IIIA-10.—P erce n t D is trib u tio n of F a m ilie s W ith H ea d 65 Y ea rs O ld a n d Over, by In c o m e a n a C olor, U n ite d S ta te s,
1 96 0 a n d 196 3

Percent distribution of families
Family income

1963

1960
Nonwhite

Number of families:
In thousands ............................
Percent ______
Under $3,000 __ _
Under $2,000__
$2,000 to $2,999____________________________________
$3,000 to $4,999________________________________________
$5,000 to $6,999________________________________________
$7,000 to $9,999________________________________________
$1 0 ,0 0 0 and over _
__
Median income..Source:

C u rren t P o p u la tio n R eports, Incom e o f the E ld erly in 1963,

White

430
81. 2
66. 2
15. 0
13. 7
3. 9
.7
.6
$1, 457

Nonwhite

770
49. 5
28. 6
20. 9
21. 0
11. 9
9. 1
8. 5
$3, 041

, 214
42. 7
24. 0
18. 7
22. 1
13. 8
10. 4
10. 9
$3, 512

545
71. 1
50. 0
21. 0
15. 7
7. 8
2. 3
3. 1
$2 , 0 0 0

5,

100. 0

White
6

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

Series P-60, No. 46, table 1 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

The nonwhite to white earnings ratio by occupation is usually narrowest in the youngest age groups
in which education and experience levels are more nearly similar.
T able

IIIA-11.—R a tio

o f N o n w h ite to W h ite M e d ia n E a rn in g s o f M a le s, 1 8 -6 4 Y ea rs O ld, in the E x p erien ced L abor Force,
by O ccu pation G rou p, A ge, a n d R egion , 196 0

Male experienced civilian labor force by age group
Occupation group

18-24

55
69
50
86

54
61
80
81

88

1960 C ensus of P o p u la tio n , O ccu pation by E arn in gs an d E du cation ,

146



45- 54

55--64

North
North
North
North
North
and South and South and South and South and South
West
West
West
West
West

82
Total___
_
_ __
Professional, technical, and kindred
workers
86
Farmers and farm managers__
Managers, officials, and proprietors (except farm) __
Clerical and kindred workers.
93
79
Salesworkers__
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. _ 78
Operatives and kindred workers _
Service workers (including private house. _
hold)_____________________________ 115
Farm laborers and foremen. _
81
93
Laborers except farm and mine
Source:

35-44

25-34

74
82

112

75
84
69
78
82
71
75
85

51
64
33
51
76
53
56
62
60
62
79

73
77
143
66
86

70
79
83
73
88
87

48
59
35
49
80
49
54
63
63
59
83

72
70
129
57
88
70
78
85
79
99
87

PC(2)-7B, tables 1 and 4 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

49
59
40
41
78
50
56
66

68

63

86

71
66

123
55
87
68
79
88

86
110

94

47
48
45
47
74
51
53
71
75
68
87

The nonwhite to white ratio of earnings among men of all ages was greatest in 1959 in government
(Federal or local) employment, in which an equal pay for equal work policy generally prevails.
T able IIIA-12 .— M e d ia n E a rn in g s o f M a le s in the E xp erien ced C iv ilia n L abor F orce, by A g e a n d C olor, in S elected O ccu­
p a tio n s, 195 9

Occupation and age
Automobile mechanics and
repairmen:
18-24________________
25-34________________
35-44________________
45-54________________
55-64________________
Brickmasons, stonemasons,
and tilesetters:
18-24________________
25-34________________
35-44________________
45-54________________
55-64________________
Carpenters:
18-24________________
25-34________________
35-44________________
45-54________________
55-64________________
Mail carriers:
18-24________________
25-34________________
35-44________________
45-54________________
55-64________________
Mechanics, and repairmen:
18-24________________
25-34________________
35-44________________
45-54________________
55-64________________
Painters, construction and
maintenance:
18-24________________
25-34________________
Source:

Median earnings
Non­
white

Ratio,
nonwhite to
White white

$2, 114 $2, 772
3, 267 4, 495
3, 494 4, 962
3, 246 4, 648
3, 060 4, 405

76. 3
72. 7
70. 4
69. 8
69. 5
51. 4
59. 8
64. 3
58. 0
46. 2
57. 6
55. 8
56. 2
55. 9
48. 7

4, 783
5, 269
5, 346
5, 278
2, 174
3, 506
3, 849
3, 643
3, 447

3, 529
5, 525
5, 462
5, 137
4, 8 6 8
3, 008
4, 790
4, 918
4, 231
3, 754
3, 701
5, 192
5, 389
5, 430
5, 459
3, 008
4, 960
5, 337
5, 011
4, 678

92. 1
97. 8
98. 5
96. 7
72. 3
70. 7
72. 1
72. 7
73. 7

1, 712
2, 712

2, 374
4, 262

72. 1
63. 6

1, 813
3, 032
3, 510
2, 982
2, 249
1, 733
2, 671
2, 765
2, 365
1, 829

1960 C ensus o f P o p u la tio n , O ccupation by E a rn in g s an d E d u ca tio n




Occupation and age
Painters, construction and
maintenance—Continued
35-44________________
45-54________________
55-64________________
Postal clerks:
18-24________________
25-34________________
35-44________________
45-54________________
55-64________________
Protective service workers:
18-24_______________
25-34________________
35-44________________
45-54________________
55-64________________
Shipping and receiving
clerks:
18-24________________
25-34________________
35-44________________
45-54________________
55-64________________
Teachers:
18-24________________
25-34________________
35-44________________
45-54________________
55-64. . . __________
Truck-tractor drivers:
18-24________________
25-34________________
35-44________________
45-54________________
55-64________________

Median earnings Ratio,
non­
white to
Non­ White white
white
$2, 833 $4, 438
2, 599 4, 073
1, 8 86
3, 584
3, 761 3, 494
4, 962 5, 270
5, 248 5, 470
5, 316 5, 555
5, 338 5, 604
3, 605
4, 732 5, 162
4, 936 5, 475
3, 970 5, 112
3, 762 4, 284
2, 697
3, 395
3, 6 8 6
3, 810
3, 678
2, 403
3, 988
4, 776
5, 340
1, 721
2, 701
2, 903
2, 877
2 , 750

2, 823
4, 390
4, 803
4, 787
4, 520
3, 065
5, 121
6 , 406
6 , 738
6 , 551
2, 866
4, 621
5, 042
4, 621
4, 267

63. 8
62. 8
52. 6
107. 6
94. 2
94. 9
95. 7
95. 2
91. 7
90. 2
77. 7
87. 8
95. 5
77. 3
76. 7
79. 0
81. 4
78. 4
77. 9
74. 6
79. 2
60. 0
58. 5
57. 6
62. 3
64. 4

PC(2)-7B, tables 1 and 4 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

147

About half of Negro as well as white urban families had incomes in the middle range of $3,000 to
$7,500 in 1960-61, but among the remaining city families Negroes were concentrated below $3,000 and
whites above $7,500. Food took about one-quarter of expenditures in both groups, but Negroes spent
more of their smaller incomes than white consumers on the other “basic expenses”—shelter and clothing.
T able IIIB-1.—S u m m a r y o f In com e an d S p e n d in g o f F a m i l i e s b y R eg io n a n d R ace, U rb a n U n ite d S ta te s, 1 9 6 0 -6 1
(a n n u a l average )
Item

United States

Northeast

North Central

South

West

Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro White
Percent distribution of families:
Negro
__ _
100
23
22
7
48
White
100
30
29
23
18
Money income after taxes (average)- $3, 840 $6 , 169 $4, 440 $6 , 479 $4, 391 $6 , 095 $3, 200 $5, 653 $4, 431 $6 , 439
Percent of families having
incomes of:
Under $3,000
__
42
18
30
16
33
18
55
33
16
23
$3,000 to $7,499_________
50
54
55
60
42
54
55
55
55
56
$7,500 and over, _ __
12
8
27
10
30
27
3
22
11
30
Total expenditures for current consumption (annual average)__
$3, 707 $5, 609 $4, 329 $5, 981 $4,218 $5, 378 $3, 110 $5, 186 $4, 103 $5, 907
Percent distribution of total
expenditures_____ ______ 1 0 0
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
“Three basic expenses”
58
52
59
56
53
58
50
52
55
55
Food ._ _
24
24
25
26
23
24
26
26
23
23
Shelter, fuel, light, refrigeration, and w a te r__
20
21
17
20
18
19
19
19
20
18
Clothing, including upkeep.
13
13
12
12
10
10
10
13
10
10
41
All other. _
42
44
42
48
45
47
50
45
48
Household operations and
11
12
furnishings
11
11
12
12
12
12
11
11
4
Medical care
5
7
6
5
5
7
7
7
5
14
16
Transportation .
12
14
12
15
10
13
13
17
14
14
14
14
14
Miscellaneous___
15
15
15
15
13
1Including single consumers.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal total.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

148




Urban Negro consumers spent about two-thirds as much as urban whites in both 1960-61 and 1950.
Both groups increased their outlays for shelter and medical care proportionately more than for other
goods and services, and least of all, for food.
T able IIIB-2 .— A verage E x p e n d itu res of F a m ilie s,1 by R ace, U rban U n ite d S ta tes, 1 9 5 0 2 a n d 1 9 6 0 -6 1
[Current and constant dollars]

Type of expenditures

1950 expenditures
(current dollars)
Negro

White

Expenditures for cur­
rent consumption,
total. _ _ __
$2,614 $3, 938
“Three basic ex­
penses”. _
1,618 2 , 2 2 2
834 1 , 162
Food. . _______
Shelter, fuel, light,
refrigeration,
and water____
614
428
Clothing, includ­
ing upkeep
356
446
All other___
995 1, 717
Household opera­
tions and fur­
nishings __ _
455
295
96
208
Medical care___
Transportation___
253
538
Miscellaneous _ _
351
516

1950 expenditures Percent change,
(in 1960 dollars) 3 1950 to 1960-61
(current dollars)

1960-61 expenditures
(current dollars)

Percent,
Negro Negro
of white

66

White

$3, 707 $5, 609

Percent,
Negro Negro
of white

66

73
72

2, 125
929

2, 956
1,357

72

70
80
58

732
464
1, 582

65
46
47

431
178
435
538

68

White

Negro

$3, 201 $4, 864

42

42

White

2, 695
1,378

31

68

1,958
989

11

33
17

1,028
571
2, 654

71
81
60

567
402
1, 243

813
504
2, 169

71
30
59

67
28
55

619
378
839
818

70
47
52

341
139
329
434

532
301
700
636

46
85
72
53

36
82
56
59

66

1 Including single consumers.
2 Alaska and Hawaii not included in 1950.
3 After adjustment for the change in the Consumer Price Index.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




149

In 1960-61 and in 1950, and at each income level, Negro urban consumers spent a somewhat larger
share of living expenses for clothing but smaller shares for medical care and transportation than the
white, in part because Negro families tended to be younger and larger. At each income level, smaller
proportions of Negro than white families owned homes or automobiles. Among both groups, the lower
the income the more was spent, relatively, on the 3 basic expenses—food, shelter, and clothing.
T able IIIB-3.—P erce n t D is tr ib u tio n o f F a m ily 1 E x p e n d itu re s, by In com e a n d R ace, U rb a n U n ite d S ta te s, 1 95 0 a n d 1 9 6 0 -6 1
(ia n n u a l average )
Money inconle after taxes
Item
1950 2
1960-61
Negro
White
Negro
White
All incomes
Total expenditures for current consumption (average)
Percent distribution of total expenditures
“Three basic expenses”
.
-------------Food
. .
Shelter, fuel, light, refrigeration, and water
Clothing, including upkeep
All other. _ __
__
Household operations and furnishings
Medical care _ _
_
Transportation . . .
. . .
. .
Miscellaneous
_
_
__ _______
Family characteristics:
Size (number of persons)
____ ___ ___
Age of family head (years)
Percent homeowners ____
Percent automobile owners

$2 , 614

$3, 938

$3, 707

$5, 609

62
32
16
14
38

57
30
16

52
24
18

43

58
25
20
13
42

11

12

11

11

12

5
12
14

3. 0
47
50
62

3. 2
46
31
43

3. 1
48
56
76

100

100

11

4
10
13

5
14

3. 1
45
32
25

See footnotes at end of table.

150




100

10

48
7
15
15

Under $3,000

Under $2,000
Total expenditures for current consumption (average)
Percent distribution of total expenditures
“Three basic expenses” _____ __________
Food..
______
Shelter, fuel, light, refrigeration, and water _
Clothing, including upkeep
A llother.. ____
Household operations and furnishings.
Medical care
..
. . _ _
Transportation . . .
. _
Miscellaneous__. . . . . .. _____ . . . ___
Family characteristics:
Size (number of persons) _ _ . . . ___
__
Age of family head (years) _
.
. ___.
Percent homeowners _
_ _ _
Percent automobile owners

100

$1, 373

$1, 656

$1, 978

$2, 192

70
37

65
34
23

64
29
25

35
9

36

63
29
27
7
37

100

21
12

30
11

4
4

11

2. 4
49
28
8

100

8

6
8
12

.
59
41
26

1 8

100

10

11

5
6
14
2. 4
50
24
17

100

9
9

8
11

.
61
41
31

1 8

T able IIIB -3.—Percent Distribution of Family 1 Expenditures, by Income and Race, Urban United States, 1950 and 1960-61

(iannual average)—Continued

Money income after taxes
Item

1960-61

1950 2
Negro

White

Negro

White

$2,000 to $5,999
___
Total expenditures for current consumption (average)
Percent distribution of total expenditures
_ _
‘'Three basic expenses” _
_ _
_ ________
Food
Shelter, fuel, light, refrigeration, and water
- ____ _
Clothing, including upkeep _ __
All other __
_
Household operations and furnishings _ _________
Medical care.
Transportation
Miscellaneous. _
Family characteristics:
Size (number of persons)
... __
Age of family head (years)
_
_
—
Percent homeowners.___
_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _
___
Percent automobile ow ners___

$3,000 to $7,499

$3, 244

$3, 838

$4, 537

$5, 100

60
31
15
14
40

57
30
16

54
25
19

43

57
25
19
13
43

46

11

11

11

11

3. 5
43
34
35

3. 2
43
49

3. 8
42
33
59

3. 1
44
52
82

100

4
11
14

100

11

5
14
13

68

100

100

10

7
15
13

5
13
14

$6 ,0 0 0 and over
Total expenditures for current consumption (average)
Percent distribution of total expenditures
“Three basic expenses” _ __
-------Food
__ —
Shelter, fuel, light, refrigeration, and water
Clothing, including upkeep
All other
Household operations and furnishings.
Medical care
Transportation
Miscellaneous _
Family characteristics:
Size (number of persons)
Age of family head (years)
Percent homeowners.
Percent automobile owners. _
____
1 Including single consumers.
and Hawaii not included in 1950. The 1950 income classes were
selected to represent approximately equivalent purchasing power of 1960-61
income classes.
2 Alaska




_

$6 , 536

$7, 285

$7, 983

$8 , 942

59
26
13

__
---------

$7,500 and over

53
26
14
13
47
13
5
15
14

53

50
23
16

3. 8
48
72

4. 1
44
54

100

20

41
13
3
10
15
4. 8
44
48
58

100

86

100

21

16
16
47
13
4
14
16

88

100

11

50
12
6

16
16
3. 9
46
75
95

N ote —Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal total.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
151

Negro and white urban consumers spent about the same proportion on the “three basic expenses”
of food, shelter, and clothing in the South as in the North Central in 1960-61 at each income level except
the lowest (under $3,000), in which both Negro and white consumers tended to spend a larger share for
necessities in the North Central than in the South.
T a b l e IIIB-4.—P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f F a m ily E x p e n d itu re s,1 by In com e a n d R ace, U rb a n P la ces in S ou th ern a n d N o rth C en tral R egion s, 1 9 6 0 -6 1 (a n n u a l average)

Item

All income
classes
Negro

White

Money income after taxes
Under $3,000
Negro

White

$3,000 to $7,499 $7,500 and over
Negro

White

Negro

White

Southern Region
Total expenditures for current consumption
(average)__________________________ $3, n o $5, 186 $1, 889 $2, 164 $4, 326 $4, 984 $7, 410
Percent distribution of total expendi­
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
tures__________________________
51
52
50
63
58
“Three basic expenses”____________
58
56
30
28
24
21
26
23
25
Food________________________
Shelter, fuel, light, refrigeration,
22
19
17
23
17
17
17
and water__________________
11
10
7
14
14
13
10
Clothing, including upkeep_____
42
42
50
37
44
49
All other_________________________
48
Household operations and furnish­
12
12
11
12
12
11
13
ings—
5
7
6
10
7
Medical care_________________
5
5
12
10
17
6
14
17
14
Transportation_______________
14
11
14
13
13
16
13
Miscellaneous_________________
Family characteristics:
2. 5
2.0
4. 1
3.2
3. 0
4. 2
3. 2
Size (number of persons)___________
59
44
43
49
47
53
45
Age of family head (years)_________
64
59
30
48
55
37
43
Percent homeowners_______________
44
64
90
84
39
81
18
Percent automobile owners_________
See footnote at end of table.

152




$8, 887
100

48
21

15

12

52
13
6
17
16
3. 7
44
78
98

T able IIIB-4.—Percent Distribution of Family Expenditures,l by Income and Race, Urban Places in Southern and North-

Central Regions, 1960-61 ( annual average)—Continued

Item

Money income after taxes

All income
classes
Negro

$3,000 to $7,499 $7,500 and over

Under $3,000

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

Negro

White

North-Central Region
Total expenditures for current consumption (average) _
Percent distribution of total expenditures
“Three basic expenses” __
Food.
Shelter, fuel, light, refrigeration,
and w a te r.__
Clothing, including upkeep
All other
Household operations and furnishings
Medical care.
Transportation
Miscellaneous _
Family characteristics:
Size (number of persons)
Age of family head (years) . .
Percent homeowners___
. ..
Percent automobile owners__

4, 218

5, 378

2, 193

2, 159

4, 588

4, 901

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

56
23

53
24
19

62
28
28

56
24

54
25

50

21
11

20

6

38

44

9
46

51
18
16
17
49

11

11

21
12

10

44

47

12

11

66

28
29
9
34

5
13
14

7
14
15

9
4
8
13

3.4
42
31
50

3. 1
47
61
79

2. 5
45
16
22

9
9
7
13
1

.7
61
48
31

8

, 345

8

, 461

22

16
12

50

5
14
14

7
15
13

14
4
16
15

17
16

3.8
41
34
57

3. 2
44
56
85

3.8
42
55
97

3. 9
45
78
96

11
6

i Including single consumers.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.




153

White families with incomes of $3,000-$4,999 showed a larger net increase in debt than nonwhite
families in 1960-61, and those in the $5,000-$7,499 income group showed less savings. In both income
groups, nonwhite families were larger than white families; also, white families were more likely to own
homes and automobiles.
T a b l e IIIB-5.-—S a vin g s, In su ra n c e, a n d S elected C h aracteristics o f F a m ilie s 1 in S elected In com e C lasses, by R egion a n d
R ace, U rban U n ite d S ta tes, 1 9 6 0 -6 1 (A n n u a l A verage )
Item

United States

Northeast

North-central

South

West

Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro White Negro White
Money income after taxes, $3,000 to $4,999

Savings—net change in assets and
—$85 -$163 -$115 -$317 —$39 —$15 —$79 -$125 -$180 -$198
debts.
$74 $129 —$3 -$122 -$212 $304 $261 $313 $94 —$9
Net change in assets. _
Net change in debts. _
$159 $292 $113 $195 -$173 $320 $340 $438 $275 $188
Personal insurance (including
148 163
social security)____
204 199 194 213
199 205 221
199
Family characteristics:
Size (number of persons). .
3. 6 2. 7 3. 2 2. 6 3. 5 2. 8 4. 0 2. 9 3. 4 2. 5
44
42
45
47
45
Age of family head (years)
47
40
48
43
43
41
22
36
Percent homeowners _ _
29
13
36
30
46
38
45
72
34
60
47
76
59
83
76
51
73
Percent automobile owners____
Money income after taxes, $5,000 to $7,499
Savings—net change in assets and
$120
debts _.
_.
$504
Net change in assets__
$384
Net change in debts._
Personal insurance (including
341
social security) _ _
Family characteristics:
Size (number of persons)______ 4. 0
Age of family head (years)
42
42
Percent homeowners.
Percent automobile owners. _ __ 71

$73
$568
$495
352
3. 5
43
60
90

$53 —$14 —$42
$177 $454 $550
$124 $468 $591

$227
$562
$334

$293
$564
$271

373
4. 3
38
40
74

355
3. 5
42
64
91

383
4. 4
45
57
75

288
3. 4
43
35
59

1 Including single consumers.
N ote —Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

154




357
3. 4
45
52
81

$95 $207 —$59
$631 $1, 099 $685
$536 $892 $744
343
3. 5
42
66
96

305
3. 8
38
24
89

330
3. 4
41
59
95

The number of poor persons is estimated to have declined slightly in both the nonwhite and white
populations between 1963 and 1964. Preschool children remained over 20 percent of all the poor
among the nonwhite, compared to about 15 percent in the white population. In contrast, the
elderly (65 years old and over) continued to comprise about 20 percent of the white poor, but were
less than 10 percent of the nonwhite poor.
T able IIIC-1.— T o ta l N u m b er o f the P oor, A cco rd in q to S o c ia l S e c u rity A d m in istra tio n C rite r ia ,* bu C olor, F a m ily S ta tu s
a n d A ge, 1 9 6 3 -6 4
[In millions]

Family status and age

Non white

White

1963 1964 1963

10. 9 10. 6 24. 4
Total persons
Family status:
Unrelated individuals__ . 8 . 9 4. 1
Members of families___ 10. 1 9. 7 19. 3

1964

11




Family status and age

23. 7 Age groups:
Under 6_
6-64________________
4. 4
65 and over
19. 3

1 Based on 1963 and 1964 incomes of $1,580 a year for a nonfarm single person
under 65 ($1,470 aged 65 and over) to $5,090 for a nonfarm family of 7 or more
persons. The 1964 income level was the same as that in 1963 because the
food plan that is the core of the index did not go up in price.
N ote.—The figures for 1964 are based on a 70-percent farm-nonfarm equiva­
lence ratio, based on the assumption that farm families need 70 percent as
much cash income as a nonfarm family of the same size and composition.

217-817 O —

Nonwhite

White

1963 1964 1963 1964
2. 3
7. 8
.7

2. 3 3. 6
7. 5 15. 7
. 8 4. 7

3. 5
15. 6
4. 6

The figures for 1963 have been adjusted from a 60- to the 70-percent approxi­
mation.
Source: Mollie Orshansky, “ Who’s Who Among the Poor: A Demo­
graphic View of Poverty,’’ Social Security Bulletin, July 1965, p. 4, table A,
p. 27; Dimensions of Poverty in 1964, Office of Economic Opportunity, October
1965, table 2, p. 4.

155

Within each population group—white and nonwhite, farm and nonfarm,— there tended to be more
poor persons in the prime years of 22-54 than at any other age.
T a b l e IIIC-2 .— P o o r P e rso n s,1 by A ge, L ocatio n , a n d C olor, M a rch , 1965
Age

United States

Nonfarm

Farm

Total Nonwhite White

Total Nonwhite White

Total Nonwhite White

Numbers (in millions)
All ages. _
Under 6 _
6-15_______________
16-21______________
22-54______________
55-64______________
65 and over__ __

34. 3
5. 8
8. 1
3. 0
9. 3
2. 7
5. 4

10. 6
2. 3
3. 1
.9
2. 9
.6
.8

23. 7
3. 5
5. 0
2. 1
6. 4
2. 1
4. 6

29. 9
5. 1
6. 8
2. 6
8. 0
2. 4
5. 0

9. 3
2. 0
2. 7
.7
2. 6
.6
.7

20. 6
3. 1
4. 1
1. 9
5. 4
1. 8
4. 3

4. 4
.7
1. 3
.4
1. 3
.3
.4

1. 3
.3
.4
.2
.3
.1

3. 1
.4
.9
.2
1. 0
.3
.3

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

30
43
31
50
23
25

70
57
69
50
77
100
75

100
23
31
15
23
8

100
13
29
6
32
10
10

Percent of each age group
All ages.
Under 6
6-15_______________
16-21______________
22-54______________
55-64______________
65 and over___

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

31
40
38
30
31
22
15

69
60
62
70
69
78
85

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

31
39
40
27
33
25
14

69
61
60
73
67
75
86

Percent distribution by location and color
All ages
Under 6
_
6-15_______________
16-21______________
22-54______________
55-64______________
65 and over. __ __

100
17
24
9
27
8
16

100
22
29
8
27
6
8

100
15
21
9
27
9
19

1 Based on 1964 annual family cash income, and according to criteria
established initially by the Social Security Administration (see table IIIC-1).
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

156



100
17
23
9
27
8
17

100
22
29
8
28
6
8

100
15
20
9
26
9
21

100
16
30
9
30
7
9

Source: Dimensions of Poverty in 196J,[, Office of Economic Opportunity,
October 1965, table 2, p. 4.

Nonwhite family heads who were poor were more likely than white family heads to be employed
and working full time in 1964, especially in the age group 22-54.
T a b l e IIIC-3.— W o rk E x p erien ce o f P o o r F a m ily H e a d s / by A ge a n d C olor, 1964
Percent distribution
Worked in 1964
Age

Total family
heads

40-52 weeks

Total

Full time

Did not work

1-39 weeks
Full time

Part time

Part time

Total Non­ Total Non­ Total Non­ Total Non­ Total Non­ Total Non­ Total Non­
white
white
white
white
white
white
white
All ages..
100
Under 22__ __
3
22-54__________ 61
14
55-64_________
22
65 and over__

100
3
72
12
14

65
2
48
9
5

74
2
58
9
5

38
1
31
5
2

43

6

7

36
5
1

3
1
1

4
1
2

14
1
11
2
1

15
1
11
2
1

7

9

4
1
1

7
1
1

35
1
13
5
17

26
14
3
9

1 Data are preliminary and relate only to heads of families of 2 or more.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: Dimensions of Poverty in 1964, Office of Economic Opportunity, October 1965, table 4a, p. 13.




157

Nearly half of the nonwhite population and 60 percent of nonwhite children (under 18) lived in
poverty in 1963, according to Social Security Administration criteria.
T a b l e IIIC-4.— T otal N u m ber o f the P oo r in 1963, A ccordin g to S o cia l S ec u rity A d m in istra tio n C rite ria ,1 a n d P ercen t
D istrib u tio n by C olor, F a m ily S ta tu s, a n d A g e D eta il, as o f M a rch 196 f

Nonwhite
Age, sex, and family status

Number
poor

Total persons
Unrelated individuals. _
Members of family units
Children under 18 3
Under 6
6-13______________________________________________
14-17_____________________________________________
Persons 18-45.
Unrelated individuals 4
Members of family units . _
Persons 45-64..
Unrelated individuals.
Members of family units
Persons 65 and over____ _
Unrelated individuals.
Members of family units___
1 Based on 1963 income of $1,580 a year for a nonfarm single person under 65
($1,470 aged 65 and over) to $5,090 for a nonfarin family of 7 or more persons.
The poverty line for single persons and families living on a farm was put at
60 percent of the above. This percentage was recently revised to 70 percent,
but information incorporating the 70 percent measure (using income data
for 1964 and characteristics as of 1965) is not yet available.
2 Noninstitutional. As of March 4 there were 2 million persons in institu­
tions, including 270,000 children under age 18; 1,100,000 persons aged 18-64;
and 700,000 persons aged 65 or older. These persons, as well as the 200,000
children under age 14 who live with a family to no member of which they are
related, are not represented in the poverty index because income data are not
collected for inmates of institutions or unrelated individuals under age 14.
3 Includes never-married own children of the family head and all other
never-married relations under 18; excludes an additional 300,000 children
under age 14 (200,000 in households of nonrelatives and 100,000 in institu­
tions) .

158



M illio n s

10.7
.8
9.9
5. 8
2.3
2.6
.9
2. 9
.2
2.6
1. 4
.4
.

1 0

.7
.3
.4

White

Percent of
total popu­
lation 1 in
2
category
49
58
49
60
60
62
53
40
43
39
39
61
35
55
74
48

Number
poor
M illio n s

23.9
4. 1
19.8
9. 3
3. 6
4. 1
1. 5
6. 2
.7
5. 4
3. 9
.

1 0

2.8
4. 6
2. 3
2. 3

Percent of
total popu­
lation 2 in
category
14
42
13
16
17
16
13
11
30
10
11
31
9
29
58
19

4 Also includes all unrelated individuals aged 14-17.
N ote.—Numbers in this report based on actual counts of individual
persons in the households sampled, weighed and aggregated by family weights
with units, then adjusted by Bureau of the Census procedures to conform to
known population characteristics, such as age, sex, and race. Group totals
may therefore differ slightly from corresponding totals in other Census
reports based on person rather than family weights. The counts of persons
in families may also differ slightly from those in “Counting the Poor,” which
were derived from distributions of family units with an estimated average
number assumed for units including 7 or more persons, or 6 or more related
children under age 18.
Source: Mollie Orshansky, “ Who’s Who Among the Poor: A Demographic
View of Poverty,” Social Security Bulletin, July 1965, table A, page 27.

The incidence of poverty among whites, as well as nonwhites, is greatest in the South. Within
each region, it is greatest among unrelated individuals first, and then among families with female heads.
However, in all instances, the nonwhite incidence is greater than the white.
T a b l e IIIC-5.—In cid en ce o f P overty in 196 3, A cco rd in g to S o cia l S e c u rity A d m in istra tio n C rite ria ,1 by C olor a n d S ex of
H ouseh old H ea d a n d by R egion , as o f M a rch 1 9 6 f
[Numbers in thousands]

Sex and race of head

Total, United
States

Northeast

South

v

North central

West

Total Percent Total Percent Total Percent Total Percent Total Percent
of poor
of poor
of poor
of poor
of poor
Families of 2 or more

Male head
Non white
White___________
Female headNonwhite
White___________

42, 550
3, 690
38, 870
4, 880
1, 090
3, 800

12. 3 10, 700
34. 1
680
10.2 10,020
40. 1 1, 210
70.8
210
31. 2 1,000

7. 5 12, 720
19.9 1, 820
6.6 10, 900
30.4 1, 670
49.4
570
26. 4 1, 100

21. 0 12, 150
51.0
700
16. 0 11,450
51.9 1, 200
81.2
190
36. 3 1, 020

9. 1
17.0
8. 7
35. 7
71. 6
28. 6

6, 980
490
6, 490
800
120
680

9. 0
14.5
8. 5
36.4
51. 2
33.7

36. 1
47. 1
34.8
51.0
68.9
49. 6

1, 030
130
900
1, 220
70
1, 150

26.6
21. 6
27.4
39. 0

Unrelated individuals
Male.
Nonwhite_
White.
F emale
Nonwhite_
White

4, 280
680
3, 590
6, 910
780
6, 130

33. 7
46. 2
31. 3
50.3
67.8
48. 1

1, 130
130
1, 000
1,990
210
1, 790

28.0
40.6
26.3
50. 2
46.4
50. 5

1 Based on 1963 income of $1,580 a year for a nonfarm single person under
65 ($1,470 aged 65 and over), to $5,090 for a nonfarm family of 7 or more persons.
The poverty line for single persons and families living on a farm was put at
60 percent of the above. This percentage was recently revised to 70 percent,
but information incorporating the 70 percent measure (using income data




1, 030
300
730
1, 800
360
1, 440

44. 6
58.4
38. 5
57. 3
84. 6
50. 7

1, 090
120
970
1, 890
140
1,750

(2)
38. 9

for 1964 and characteristics as of 1965) is not yet available.
2 Not shown for base less than 100,000.
Source: Mollie Orshansky, “Who’s Who Among the Poor: A Demographic
View of Poverty,” Social Security Bulletin, July 1965, table G, p. 32.

159

The incidence of poverty is 3 % times as great
among nonwhite as white families. Among the
nonwhite, poverty is concentrated in families in
which there are 2 or more children, and the heads
are in the prime of life, in contrast to white
families, among whom poverty is most prevalent
among the aged and in households with 1 or no
children.
T able IIIC-6.— P ro p o rtio n o f F am ilies P oo r in 1 96 3,
A ccordin g to S o cia l S ec u rity A d m in istra tio n C rite ria ,1 a n d
D istrib u tio n o f the P oor, by C olor a n d by Selected F a m ily
C h aracteristics in M a rch 196 4

Family characteristics

Percent dis­
Percent poor tribution of
in each poor families
in each
category
category
Non­ White Non­ W hite
white
white

All families

43

12

100

100

RESIDENCE

All families
Nonfarm__
Farm____

_ _ ____

43
41
62

12
12
19

100
91
9

100
90
10

AGE OF HEAD

All families__ - ___
14-24_________________
25-34_________________
35-44_________________
45-54_________________
55-64_________________
65 and over.

43
60
43
40
35
38
53

12
21
11
11
7
11
21

100
10
22
24
17
12
14

100
10
18
21
12
14
25

NUMBER OF PERSONS IN
FAMILY

All families _
2_____________________
3_____________________
4_____________________
5_____________________
6_____________________
7 or more

160



Family characteristics

Percent dis­
Percent poor tribution of
in each poor families
in each
category
category
Non­ W hite Non­ W hite
white
white

NUMBER OF RELATED
CHILDREN UNDER AGE 18-- COn.

All families
3_____________________
4_____________________
5_____________________
6 or more.
_________

48
61
74
77

14
17
27
35

12
12
10
15

14
8
6
6

43
27
30
58
21

12
8
10
18
11

100
12
13
69
6

100
18
25
42
15

All families__
43
Male head _
34
Married, wife present... 34
Wife in paid labor
force ____
26
Wife not in paid
41
labor force. _
Other marital status__ 2 31
Female head __ _ ___ __ 71

12
10
10
4
13
15
31

100
62
59
19
40
27
38

100
77
75
10
64
3
23

12
49
13
6
4

100
19
44
26
11

100
31
46
19
4

REGION

All families __
Northeast. _ _
North Central__
South _____ _
West

___

TYPE OF FAMILY

NUMBER OF EARNERS

43
33
29
42
45
54
68

12
14
9
8
11
14
25

100
22
13
16
12
11
26

100
39
15
13
13
8
12

43
27
33
43

12
12
10
8

100
20
15
16

100
40
15
13

NUMBER OF RELATED
CHILDREN UNDER AGE 18

All families___
None
1_____________________
2_____________________

IIIC-6.—P ro p o rtio n o f F am ilies P oo r in 196 3,
A ccordin g to S o c ia l S ec u rity A d m in istra tio n C rite ria ,1 a n d
D istrib u tio n o f th e P oor, by C olor a n d by S elected F a m ily
C h aracteristics in M a rch 196 4 —Continued

T able

All families __
None...
1_____________________
2_____________________
3 or more.

43
84
49
29
35

1 Based on 1963 income of $1,580 a year for a nonfarm single person under 65
($1,470 aged 65 and over), to $5,090 for a nonfarm family of 7 or more persons.
The poverty line for single persons and families living on a farm was put at
60 percent of the above. This percentage was recently revised to 70 percent,
but information incorporating the 70 percent measure (using income data for
1964 and characteristics as of 1965) is not yet available.
2 Base between 100,000 and 200,000.

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
Source: Mollie Orshansky, “Counting the Poor: Another Look at The
Poverty Profile,” Social Security Bulletin, January 1965, table 8, p. 19.

Nonwhite families with children and a female
head have almost twice the incidence of poverty
as similar white families, or 78 percent compared
to 45 percent. In contrast, families of 2 or more
with a male head are much more numerous and
more are poor, but the percent of poor is less— 34
percent of the nonwhite and 10 percent of the
white.
T a b l e IIIC-7.— H ou seh olds W ith 196 3 Incom e B elow
P overty Level, A ccordin g to S o c ia l S ec u rity A d m in istra tio n
C r i t e r i a b y C olor a n d F a m ily S ta tu s, as o f M a rch 1964

Family status
Unrelated individuals
Male__ __
Nonwhite_ __
_____
White__
Female__
Non white. __
White_____________
Families of two or more__
Male head___
Nonwhite. ____ __
White_____________
Female head___
Non white
White__
With children, total----Male head
Nonwhite.
White__
Female head
Nonwhite__
White_____________

The incidence of children’s poverty in 1963 was
almost 4 times as great among the nonwhite as the
white in families with male heads. In families
with female heads the nonwhite-white difference
in the incidence of children’s poverty was not
quite as large, and was least when the children
were under 6 years old.
T a b l e IIIC-8.—In cid en ce o f P o v erty A m o n g C h ild ren in
1963, A ccordin g to S o c ia l S e c u rity A d m in istra tio n C ri­
te ria ,1 by Color, A ge, a n d S ex o f F a m ily H ead, M a rch 1964

Nonwhite

Total Households below
poverty level
number
of house­
holds in
population Number Percent
of total
Millions

11.2
4.3
.7
3.6
6.9
.8
6. 1
47.4
42.6
3.7
38.9
5. 9
1. 1
3.8
28.3
25. 5
2.4
23. 1
2. 8
.9
2.0

Millions

4.9
1.4
.3
1. 1
3. 5
.5
2.9
7.2
5. 2
1.3
3. 9
2.0
.8
1.2
4.8
3.2
.9
2. 2
1. 6
.7
.9

44
34
46
31
50
68
48
15
12
34
10
40
71
31
17
12
37
10
55
78
45

White

All Percent All Percent
children of poor children of poor
All children under
18____________

M illio n s

9. 7

60

7. 1
3. 0
2. 9
1. 2
2. 6
.9
1. 2
.5

M illio n s

59. 2

16

50
50
52
41

55. 1
19. 9
24. 5
10. 6

13
14
12
11

86
88
87
80

4. 1
1. 1
1. 9
1. 1

55
72
57
34

MALE HEAD

Children under 18.
Under 6.
6-13________
14-17_______
FEMALE HEAD

Children under 18.
Under 6
6-13________
14-17_______

1 Based on 1963 income of $1,580 a year for a nonfarm single person under 65
($1,470 aged 65 and over), to $5,090 for a nonfarm family of 7 or more persons.
The poverty line for single persons and families living on a farm was put at
60 percent of the above. This percentage was recently revised to 70 percent,
but information incorporating the 70 percent measure (income data for 1964
and characteristics as of 1965) is not yet available.
Source: Mollie Orshansky, “ Who’s Who Among the Poor: A Demographic
View of Poverty,” Soical Security Bulletin, July 1965, table 5, p. 17.

1 Based on 1963 income of $1,580 a year for a nonfarm single person under 65
($1,470 aged 65 and over), to $5,090 for a nonfarm family of 7 or more persons.
The poverty line for single persons and families living on a farm was put at
60 percent of the above. This percentage was recently revised to 70 percent,
but information incorporating the 70 percent measure (using income data for
1964 and characteristics as of 1965) is not yet available.
N ote —Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals •
Source: Mollie Orshansky, “Who’s Who Among the Poor: A Demographic
View of Poverty,” Social Security Bulletin, July 1965, table 2.



161

Of all the nonwhite heads of poor families, 72 percent worked in 1963 and about half worked at full­
time jobs. In comparison, 62 percent of white family heads who were poor were employed, with half
working at full-time jobs.
T a b l e IIIC-9.— P ro p o rtio n o f F a m ilie s P o o r in 1963, A ccordin g to S o c ia l S e c u rity A d m in istra tio n C rite ria ,l a n d D is tr i­
bu tio n o f P o o r F a m ilie s by S elected C h aracteristics o f F a m ily H ea d s, a s o f M a rch 1964

Employment status, occupation, and work
experience of family head
All families________________________________
Not in labor force * _________________________
2
1
9
3
Unemployed_______________________________
Employed_________________________________
Professional, technical, and kindred workers.
Managers, officials, and proprietors_______
Farmers and farm managers_____________
Clerical and sales workers_______________
Craftsmen and foremen_________________
Operatives____________________________
Service workers, including private household.
Laborers______________________________
All families________________________________
Worked in 1963 4 ___________________________
Worked at full-time jobs________________
50-52 weeks___________________ ___
40-49 weeks_______________________
39 weeks or less____________________
Worked at part-time jobs___________________
Did not work in 1963_______________________
111 or disabled__________________________
Keeping house_________________________
Could not find work____________________
Going to school________________________
Other________________________________

Percent of poor in Percentage distribution of poor families in
each category
each category
Non white
43
65
53
35
11
3 22
3 77
17
21
30
40
50
43
37
32
26
39
53
68
70
68
83
3 53

1 Based on 1963 income of $1,580 a year for a nonfarm single person under 65
($1,470 aged 65 and over), to $5,090 for a nonfarm family of 7 or more persons.
The poverty line for single persons and families living on a farm was placed
at 60 percent of the above. This percentage was recently revised to 70 per­
cent, but information incorporating the 70-percent measure is not yet avail­
able.
2 Includes members of the Armed Forces.

162



White

Nonwhite

12
30
24
8
2
5
27
4
5
9
12
21
12
9
7
5
11
25
29
34
41
43

100
35
6
59
1
1
4
2
4
13
16
18
100
72
53
32
8
14
19
28
10
11

25

5

s 42

White

Nonwhite

100
45
6
50
100
2
2
6
2
9
7
3
3
7
6
11
22
5
27
7
30
100
62 (100)
49 (74)100
27
59
7
14
15
27
13 (26)
39
100
12
37
11
40
1
14
16

White

100
4
12
18
7
12
23
10
14
(100)
(79)100
56
14
31
(21)
100
30
29
3
37

3 Base between 100,000 and 200,000.
4 Work-experience data, including data for year-round full-time workers,
limited to civilian workers.
N ote .—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: Mollie Orshansky, “ Counting The Poor: Another Look At the
Poverty Profile,” Social Security Bulletin, January 1965, table 8, p. 19.

The proportion of nonwhite families with incomes under $3,000 (in constant dollars) has declined
substantially since 1950, and even since 1960, from 45 to 38 percent. Among white families the ratio
has declined also, but has not even been as high as 20 percent since 1956 and was about 16 percent in
both 1963 and 1964.
T a b l e IIIC-10.— F a m ilies W ith Incom es U n der $ 3 ,0 0 0 (in 196 3 dollars ) by C olor, fo r Selected Y ears, 1 9 5 0 -6 4
[Numbers in thousands. Families as of the following year]
Year
1950

Families
Non­
white

White

3, 300 36, 522
All families____
With incomes under
$3,000___________ 2, 000 10, 357
Percent of all
families
60.6 28.4

1956
Non­
white

1960

White

White

Non­
white

1964

White

Non­
white

White

3, 994 39, 451

4, 331 41, 104

4, 773 42, 663

4, 754

43,081

2, 021
50.6

1,945
44. 9

2, 057
43. 1

1, 805
38.0

6, 762
15.7

7, 646
19.4

Source: Data are from Current Population Reports, Low Income Families
and Unrelated Individuals in the United States: 1963, Series P-60, No. 45, table




Non­
white

1963

7, 499
18. 2

6, 776
15. 9

2 for 1950-1963 and No. 47, table 1 for 1964. (U.S. Bureau of the Census.)

163

A large proportion of both employed and unemployed nonwhite persons were in families with less
than $3,000 income in 1964 (26 and 36 percent, respectively). In fact, median family income was
similar among nonwhite families regardless of employment status, but varied appreciably among white
families according to whether individual family members were employed or not.
T a b l e IIIC-11.— P e r so n s 1 in F a m ilies, T otal a n d N on w h ite, by M a rch 196 5 E m p lo ym en t S ta tu s, A ge, a n d F a m ily Incom e
in 1964. (below $ 3 ,0 0 0 a n d m ed ia n )

Item
Total persons in families _. ___
Employed. _
Unemployed . . .
Not in labor force . . .
Keeping house, going to school, unable to
work. _
All other _ _ _ _ _
65 years of age and over..
Teenagers
Employed
Unemployed
Not in labor force. _ _
. _
Keeping house, going to school, unable to
work
__ _
All other____
_ . . . .

Total
Nonwhite
Percent
Percent
Persons with family Median Persons with family Median
(in
family
(in
income
family
income
thousands) under
income thousands) under
income
$3, 000
$3, 000
12, 504
$4, 238
121,861
15.4 $6,960
33.7
4, 885
64, 626
7, 731
6, 473
9. 6
25.9
3, 361
5, 806
660
4, 003
20. 2
36.4
5, 372
53,874
22. 1
6, 148
3, 535
42. 7
47, 552
6, 322
4, 356
19, 400
4, 767
773
13,861

19. 3
42. 6
45.8
14. 7
11.7
18.9
15.5

6, 437
3, 681
3, 405
7, 258
8, 000
6, 019
7, 038

4, 765
608
304
2,490
394
147
1, 949

41. 6
51.3
54.9
36. 6
29. 2
40. 1
37.8

3,614
2,934
2, 801
3, 948
4,617
3, 667
3, 847

13,593
268

15.3
25. 0

7, 102
4, 860

1, 876
72

38. 1
31.9

3, 854
3, 749

114 years of age and over.

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unpublished data from the March 1965 supplement to the Current Population Survey.

Nearly one-fourth of the nonwhite families headed by a full-time year-round worker had incomes
under $3,000 compared to only 8 percent of all families headed by a full-time worker in 1964.
T a b l e IIIC-12.-—F a m ily H ea d s, T otal a n d N o n w h ite, by W eeks W orked, a n d F a m ily In com e, 1964 (below $3, 0 0 0 a n d
m ed ia n )

Weeks worked in 1964
Total family heads
Worked 50-52 weeks
Usually worked full time
Usually worked part time.
Worked 27-49 w eeks.__
Worked 14-26 weeks
Worked 1-13 weeks
Did not work in 1964
Not available _.

Persons
(in thou­
sands)
47, 729
30, 515
29, 553
962
5, 582
1, 565
1, 071
6, 375
2, 621

Total
Nonwhite
Percent with Median Persons Percent with Median
family in­ family
family in­ family
come under income (in thou­ come under income
sands)
$3,000
$3,000
4, 749
37. 4
$3, 970
17. 5 $6, 569
4, 956
23. 5
7, 745
2, 553
7. 9
5, 201
7, 864
20. 7
6. 8
2, 380
2, 390
62. 4
44. 0
3, 457
173
40. 9
3, 684
5, 960
746
17. 8
2, 503
59. 9
36. 7
4, 017
269
72. 9
1, 887
55. 5
2, 737
177
2, 259
732
66. 3
2, 923
51. 7
3, 854
272
35. 7
18. 7
5, 526

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unpublished data from March 1965 supplement to the Current Population Survey.

164



The percent of families with under $3,000 income in 1964 was nearly identical for nonwhite families
with e m p lo y e d heads and all families with u n e m p lo y e d heads. The lowest incidence among nonwhite
families of those with incomes under $3,000 in 1964 was for husband-wife families with the wife in the
labor force and children present. Families of this type, in general, had the highest median family
income in 1964— $5,763 among nonwhite families and $8,086 in all such families.
T a b l e IIIC-13.—E m p lo y m e n t S ta tu s o f F a m ily H ea d s in M a rch 1965, T y p e o f F a m ily , a n d N u m b e r o f O w n C h ild ren
U n der 18, by F a m ily In com e in 1 96 4, T otal a n d N o n w h ite ( U n der $ 3 ,0 0 0 a n d M e d ia n )

Total
Item

Employment status:
Total family heads
No children under 18
One child under 18
Two children under 18
Three children under 18
Four or more children under 18
Head employed
No children under 18
One or more children under 18___ _
Head unemployed__
No children under 18.
One or more children under 18__
Head not in the labor force
No children under 18
One or more children under 18 .
Type of family:
Male head, married, spouse present, wife in
labor force
No children under 18
One or more children under 18
Male head, married, spouse present, wife not
in labor force
No children under 18...
One or more children under 18
All other family heads
No children under 18
One or more children under 18

Nonwhite

Persons Percent with Median
(in thou­ family in­ family
sands) come under income
$3,000

Persons Percent with Median
(in thou­ family in­ family
sands) come under income
$3,000

47, 729
20, 637
8, 431
8, 053
5, 272
5, 337
38, 671
13, 938
24, 733
1, 208
518
690
7, 850
6, 181
1, 670

17. 5
23. 6
14. 3
9. 7
12. 1
16. 3
10. 4
12. 7
9. 1
27. 8
24. 3
30. 3
51. 0
48. 1
61. 6

$6, 569
5, 965
6, 857
7, 254
7, 098
6, 363
7, 265
7, 292
7, 253
4, 949
5, 177
4, 771
2, 953
3, 169
2, 390

4, 749
1, 865
787
656
503
939
3, 589
1, 261
2, 329
233
82
151
927
522
405

37. 4
38. 3
35. 2
30. 6
37. 0
42. 4
28. 4
27. 4
29. 0
51. 9
42. 7
56. 3
68. 7
64. 2
74. 6

$3, 970
3, 933
4, 381
4, 349
4, 065
3, 495
4, 572
4, 738
4, 489
2, 912

14, 534
6, 673
7, 860

7. 8
10. 3
5. 8

8, 081
8, 071
8, 086

1, 635
711
923

19. 6
26. 0
14. 7

5, 554
5, 219
5, 763

27, 126
10, 552
16, 573
6, 069
3, 412
2, 655

17. 7
29. 4
10. 2
40. 1
31. 6
51. 0

6, 361
5, 033
6, 945
3, 870
4, 724
2, 944

1, 846
632
1, 214
1, 268
520
748

37. 3
42. 4
34. 5
60. 6
50. 4
67. 4

3, 855
3, 475
4, 081
2, 475
2, 988
2, 219

1 Median income not computed where base was less than 100,000.
2 Under $2,000.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.



0)
2, 683
2, 136
2, 347
(2)

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unpublished data from March 1965 supplement to Current Population Survey.

165

Of all persons in the experienced civilian labor force in 1960, those in selected very low-wage occu­
pations (which include a number of jobs in which women predominate) were much less likely to be heads
of families than workers in higher wage occupations. Among family heads, however, about two-thirds
of both the white and nonwhite workers in the low-wage jobs had children under 18.
T a b l e IIIC-14.— F a m ily R e sp o n sib ilitie s o f P erso n s in the E x p erien ced C iv ilia n L ab o r F orce a n d in S elected N o n a g ric u ltu ra l L o w -W a g e O cc u p a tio n s,1 by C olor, U n ited S ta tes, 196 0

Nonwhite

Occupation

Family
Heads of families as a
Heads of families as a heads—per­
cent with
Total
percent of total ‘ Total
percent of total
experi­ civilian labor force experi­ civilian labor force children under
enced
enced
18
civilian
civilian
With Fam­
labor
With Fam­ labor
chil- ily size force
chil- ily size
force
(in thou­ Total dren 5 or (in thou­ Total dren 5 or
under more sands)
under more Non­ White
sands)
white
18
18

Total experienced civilian labor force.
7, 217
Total, those in selected low-wage occupations__
3, 026
Professional, technical, and kindred workers: Musicians and music teachers
10
Managers, officials, and proprietors, ex­
cept farm:
Salaried, retail trade (n.e.c.) .
12
Salaried, personal services__
4
Clerical and kindred workers:
Attendants, physician’s and dentist’s
office. _
3
Bookkeepers .
14
Cashiers. _ .
20
File clerks. . . .
11
Messengers and office boys.. _
9
Receptionists. _
__ ._ _
5
Stock clerks and store keepers _
39
Wholesale and retail trade (n.e.c.)___
20
Sales workers—’retail trade:
Food and dairy products stores
27
General merchandise, retailing.
13
Limited price variety stores
4
Apparel and accessories. _
8
Other retail trade
22
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers:
Shoemakers and repairers, except factory
5
Operatives and kindred workers:
Attendants, auto service and parking.
38
Checkers, examiners, and inspectors,
manufacturing__
21
Dressmakers and seamstresses, except factory. .
12
Laundry and dry cleaning operatives..
156
Packers and wrappers (n.e.c.)
61
Sawyers. _
17
Sewers and stitchers, manufacturing._
38
Spinners, textile__
(2)
See footnotes at end of table.

166



White

46
34
33

32
23
19

18 60, 790
12 14, 329
186
7

56
33
32

37
20
20

15
8
6

69
68
58

65
61
62

60
44

41
23

21
13

606
74

77
60

54
34

21
12

70
(2)

70
57

14
23
23
20
51
15
52
31
34
17
10
21
37
61
58
46
22
31
41
67
20
(2)

10
14
16
15
28
11
36
21
22
11
7
13
24
40
40
32
14
22
29
50
14
(2)

4
6
7
6
15
1
18
12
10
6
2
4
11
20
23
14
6
10
15
35
5
(2)

71
926
475
130
55
136
311
406
493
582
181
333
829
32
342
497
113
254
436
75
578
54

9
19
16
12
25
8
56
27
34
19
7
24
48
79
49
50
13
28
27
79
13
26

6
11
9
6
8
5
34
16
20
11
4
12
29
36
33
33
5
17
18
54
7
16

1
3
3
2
3
1
12
5
7
3
1
4
11
14
13
13
1
6
7
27
2
7

(2)
64
68
(2)
55
(2)
70
68
66
(2)
(2)
(2)
64
65
69
69
64
71
70
74
71
(2)

69
56
58
53
33
58
61
58
60
56
59
51
61
45
67
66
39
59
66
68
55
(2)

T able

IIIC-14 .— F a m ily

R e sp o n sib ilitie s o f P erson s in the E xperien ced C iv ilia n L ab o r F orce a n d in S elected N o n a g ric u ltu ra l L o w -W a g e O cc u p a tio n s,1 b y C olor, U n ited S ta tes, 1 96 0 —Continued

Nonwhite

Occupation

Operatives and kindred workers—Con.
Food and kindred products___
Knitting mills __ ______
Yarn, thread, and fabric mills. _
Apparel and accessories.
Paper and allied products.
Footwear, except rubber
Wholesale and retail trade___ .
Private household workers: Private house­
hold workers, except babysitters. _
Service workers, except private household:
Attendants, hospital and other insti­
tutions. ______
Attendants, professional and personal
service (n.e.c.)_____ _______
Chambermaids and maids, except
private household. _ . . _ _
Charwomen and cleaners__
Cooks, except private households___
Counter and fountain workers.
Elevator operators__ _
___
Hairdressers and cosmetologists. . . .
Housekeepers and stewards, except
private household.. _
. _
. _
Janitors and sextons____
Kitchen workers (n.e.c.) except pri­
vate household __ _ . __
Porters. _
Practical nurses__
Waiters and waitresses..
Laborers, except farm and mine:
Garage laborers, car washers, and
greasers.. _ ___
Wardens and groundskeepers..
Lumberman, raftsmen, and woodchoppers. _
Sawmills, planning mills—millwork
(n.e.c.)__
Wholesale and retail trade (n.e.c.)___
Personal services (n.e.c.) __

White

Family
Heads of families as a
Heads of families as a heads—per­
cent with
Total
Total
percent of total
percent of total
experi­ civilian labor force experi­ civilian labor force children under
18
enced
enced
civilian
civilian
With Fam­
labor
With Fam­ labor
chil- ily size
chil- ily size force
force
(in thou­ Total dren 5 or (in thou­ Total dren 5 or
under more Non­ White
sands)
under more sands)
white
18
18
79
4
9
45
16
2
41
941

51
36
64
25
65
(2)
52
20

37
26
48
17
50
(2)
37
14

22
13
31
6
30
(2)
21
6

389
57
244
352
212
145
175
521

57
23
47
27
66
39
54
11

39
14
32
15
49
23
35
3

18
5
13
4
21
8
15
1

72
(2)
75
66
76
(2)
71
73

69
64
68
57
74
(2)
66
22

104
21
112
52
150
20
24
37
19
180
96
117
37
88

31
25
20
32
38
21
41
16
30
65
24
62
20
31

23
17
15
22
26
15
22
11
18
39
17
36
14
21

10
8
6
11
13
5
11
3
8
23
8
19
5
9

303
54
70
142
449
147
54
274
134
444
236
39
182
807

23
24
13
27
31
17
55
15
21
64
19
55
13
14

13
13
8
15
18
10
22
10
10
29
10
26
7
10

5
5
2
6
7
3
10
2
4
13
4
13
2
2

76
69
73
69
69
71
53
65
59
60
70
57
72
67

60
56
59
55
59
60
40
63
50
45
54
48
54
73

41
47
42
30
71
34

50
57
57
66
50
47

35
32
43
52
36
24

21
20
32
36
21
14

51
167
94
68
298
44

39
55
70
69
30
30

26
27
52
48
19
13

11
13
29
25
9
6

70
56
77

66
49
75
69
64
44

(2)
(2)
(2)

1 Occupations in which a third of the workers earned less than $3,000 in 1959.
2 Number less than 500. Base less than 2,500.
Source: 1960 Census of Population, Subject Reports, Occupational Characteristics, PC(2)-7A, tables 3 and 33 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).




167

Among women employed in selected nonagricultural low-wage occupations, a larger proportion of
nonwhite (54 percent) than white women (44 percent) were self-supporting or supported families they
headed in 1960. Nonwhite women in low-wage jobs were twice as likely to be supporting children as
were white women in low-wage jobs.
T a b l e IIIC-15.— F a m ily R e sp o n sib ilitie s o f A ll E m p lo y e d W om en a n d W om en E m p lo y e d in S elected N o n a g ric u ltu ra l L ow wage O cc u p a tio n s,l by C olor, 196 0

Non white

White

Percent
Occupation

Total
Ever
Ever
Total
number Total
married number Total
married
(in single,
(in single,
spouse
spouse
thou­ and
absent
thou­ and
absent
sands) ever Single
sands) ever Single
married,
married,
With No
spouse
With No
spouse
chil­ chil­
absent
chil­ chil­
absent
dren 2 dren
dren 2 dren

Total, employed women_____ _
2, 618
Total, employed in 14 low-wage
occupations .
_.
1, 321
Professional, technical, and kindred
workers: Musicians and music
teachers.
4
Clerical and kindred workers:
Bookkeepers__
10
14
Cashiers
Sales workers: Retail trade_____
37
Operatives and kindred workers:
Checkers, inspectors, and exami­
ners, m anufacturing.___
9
Dressmakers and seamstresses,
excluding factory.
10
Laundry and drycleaning oper­
104
atives
____ __ __
Operatives and kindred workers
(n.e.c.): Food and kindred prod­
22
ucts. _
_ __
Private household workers .
889
Service workers, excluding private
household:
Attendants, hospital and other
67
institutions _
84
Cooks.
Hairdressers and cosmetologists. _
35
12
Housekeepers and stewards.
Laborers, except farm and mine.. .
26

52
54

18
16

11
11

23 18, 538
27 4, 846

44
44

24
21

5
5

14
17

52
51
48
46

26
31
24
23

6
9
10
7

20
11
14
16

105
754
356
1,357

41
38
40
37

26
23
23
19

2
5
6
4

12
10
11
14

42
52
50

11
8
15

11
9
11

20
35
24

207
106
171

32
49
40

13
12
14

6
3
7

14
33
20

41
56

15
15

11
11

15
30

94
767

32
70

12
36

7
4

13
31

51
47
43
47
60

20
10
13
11
25

14
14
10
7
10

17
22
21
29
26

222
278
237
106
85

44
33
35
61
43

19
6
17
21
25

6
7
6
4
6

19
21
12
36
12

1 14 nonagricultural occupations in which a third of the workers earned less
than $3,000 in 1959, and for which data relating to family responsibilities were
available.
2 Own children under 18 years in household.

168



Percent

Mote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
Source: 1960 Census of Population, Subject Reports, Occupational Charac­
teristics, PC(2)-7A, table 34 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

Nonwhite farm wage workers with wages from nonfarm plus farm work earned approximately half
the annual average wages of similar white farm workers in 1964, although they averaged only 15 percent
fewer days of work.
T a b l e I I I C - 1 6 .— F arm W age W orkers, by A verage N u m b er o f D a y s W orked, W ages E a rn ed a t F arm a n d N o n fa rm W o rk ,
a n d by Color, Sex, R egion , a n d M ig ra to ry S ta tu s, 1964-

Farm and nonfarm
Number
of
workers
Wages earned
(thou- Days
Days
worked
sands) worked
Per Per
year day 1

Selected characteristics

All workers, 1964 _
Color and sex:
Nonwhite.
White____ ______ ________
Male
_
Nonwhite. _
White.
Female. _
_ _ __
Nonwhite. _____
White___________ ..

Nonfarm

Farm
Wages earned
Per Per
year day 1

3, 370

118 $956 $8 . 05

80 $578 $7. 15

1, 048
2, 322
2, 398
603
1, 795
972
445
527

105 586 5. 55
124 1, 123 9. 05
139 1 , 2 0 2 8 . 60
125 790 6 . 30
144 1, 340 9. 25
66
349 5. 25
79 311 3. 95
55 381 6 . 90

79
81
95
96
95
44
56
34

401
657
719
529
782
229
228
230

5. 05
. 05
7. 50
5. 50
8. 20
5. 15
4. 00
6 . 71
8

Days
worked

Wages earned
Per Per
year day 1

38 $378 $1 0 . 1 0
26
43
44
29
49

21

185 7. 10
466 10. 90
483 1 1 . 0 0
261 9. 00
558 11. 40
120
5. 55
83 3. 70
151 7. 15

22

23

REGION AND COLOR

Northeast__
____
Nonwhite2
White __
North Central.
Nonwhite 2__
White_____________
South___
Nonwhite.
White_______
West.
Nonwhite 2__ _
White__
See

292
__

_____

22

270
632
28
603
1, 797
958
839
649
40
609

. 55

102

763 7. 45

60

625 10. 40

. 50
8 . 50

108
75

806 7. 50
538 7. 10

55
49

582 10. 55
525 10. 75

126 1 , 086 8 . 65
108 690 6 . 40
104 528 5. 10
112
875 7. 75
121 1, 395 11. 50

76
79
80
78
80

546
454
379
540
874

7. 20
5. 70
4. 75
6 . 95
10. 90

50
29
24
34
41

540 10. 85
236 8 . 2 0
149 6 . 35
335 9. 75
521 12. 75

1, 383 11. 50

79

861 10. 85

41

522

162 1, 388
163 1, 388
124 1, 063

120

8
8

12

. 80

footnotes at end of table.




169

T able

IIIC-16.—F arm

W age W orkers, by A verage N u m b e r o f D a y s W orked, W ages E a rn ed at F a rm a n d N o n fa rm W ork,
a n d by Color, S ex, R egion , a n d M ig ra to ry S ta tu s, 196 4 —Continued

Selected characteristics

Farm and nonfarm
Number
of
workers
Wages earned
(thou­ Days
Days
sands) worked
worked
Per Per
year day 1

Farm

Nonfarm

Wages earned
Per Per
year day 1

Days
worked

Wages earned
Per Per
year day 1

REGION, MIGRATORY STATUS, AND
COLOR

All workers:
Migratory:
Nonwhite_
89
297
White___
Nonmigratory:
Nonwhite _
959
2, 025
White ___ ____
South:
Migratory__ __ _
178
Nonwhite_
55
123
White___________________
Nonmigratory
1, 619
903
Nonwhite_
716
White___________________
West:
102
Migratory
Nonwhite 2 ___ _ __
13
White. _ _____
89
Nonmigratory
547
Nonwhite 2_ _
27
520
White___________________

151 1, 104 7. 30
125 1 , 281 10. 25
101
538 5. 30
124 1 , 1 0 0 8 . 85
133 1, 091 8 . 15
148 930 6 . 30
127 1, 163 9. 15
105 645 6 . 15
101
503 4. 95
110
825 7. 50
120

1, 520

12

. 70

117 1, 541 13. 15
1 2 1 1, 372 11. 35
121

1. 356 11. 15

740 6 . 75
795 9. 80
370 4. 80
637 7. 80

42
44
25
43

364 :8 . 60
486 11. 05
168 6 . 85
463 10. 90

776 7. 75
802 6 . 2 0
764 8 . 75
419 5. 45
353 4. 55
502 6 . 55

33
19
40
28
24
34

315 9. 55
128 3 6 . 90
399 3 10. 05
226 8 . 1 0
150 6 . 30
323 9. 65

. 80

33

491 315. 35

87 1, 043 11. 90
78 846 10. 75

30
43

498 316. 85
526 12. 45

78

43

526

109
81
76
81
100

129
87
77
77
76

87 1, 029

11

830 10. 55

1 Rounded to the nearest 5 cents.
Averages not shown where base is less than 50,000 persons.
3 Number of workers who did nonfarm wage work is less than 50,000.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, The Hired Farm Working Force of 1964, August 1965, table 7.
2

170



.

12 20

United States 1___
Northeast1
North central
South
West 1

Ameri­
Total Negro White can Other
Indian
100
100
100
100
100

46
43
52
53
26

49
45
46
46
66

(2)

2
2
1

5

3
3 12
(2)
(2)
3

1 Does not include Massachusetts (Northeast) and Oregon (West).
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
3 Most families reported under “Other” in Northeast are of Puerto Rican
descent.
Source: Characteristics of Families Receiving Aid to Families With Depend­
ent Children, Not ember-December 1961, table 3 (U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, April 1963).

Distribution of Color distri­
each race by bution within
location
each location
Location

Total
Central cities of
250,000 or more
population
Other urban__
Rural nonfarm.
Rural farm _

Non white
White

Region

ceivin g A id to F a m ilie s o f D ep en d en t C h ild ren {A F D C ),
by U rb a n -R u ra l a n d L arge C en tra l C ity R esiden ce,
N ovem ber-D ecen^ ber 1961

White
American
Indian
Total

by R egion o f R esiden ce a n d R ace, N o v em b er-D ecem b er
1961

Of children receiving AFDC in 1961, Negroes
were nore than 3 times as likely as whites to live
in large central cities. In these cities, % of the
children aided were nonwhite whereas in rural
nonfarm areas, nearly % were white.
T able IIIC-18.—P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f C h ild ren R e­

Negro

Negro children constituted somewhat less than
half of all children receiving AFDC in the country
in 1961r but slightly more than half in the South
and North Central regions.
T able IIIC-17.'—P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f A F D C C h ildren

100

100

100

100

50

50

50
34

16
47
32

21

7
63
9

100
100
100
100

75
42
28
47

25
58
72
53

11
6

6

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Welfare
Administration, Bureau of Family Services, unpublished data.

217-817 0 — 61

12




171

In 1961 the median monthly income from all
sources for Negro families receiving ADC was
$125, compared to $137 for white families.
T able IIIC-19.—I n c o m e 1 o f A D C 2 F a m ilie s by R ace,
ea rly 1961

Total monthly income

Families
Negro

100
All incomes
__
Less than $40
6
16
$40 to $80____________________
24
$80 to $ 1 2 0 ___________________
26
$ 1 2 0 to $160__________________
16
$160 to $ 2 0 0 __________________
7
$200 to $240__________________
5
$240 and above______
Median income
$125. 12 1

White

by R ace, 1961

100
6
12
21

26
17
10
8

$136. 77

1 Includes ADC payments.
2 Aid to Dependent Children. Program designation before Aid to De­
pendent Children of the Unemployed (PL 87-31) and the Social Security
Amendments of 1961 established Aid to Families of Dependent Children
(AFDC) including unemployed fathers.
Source: M. Elaine Burgess and Daniel O. Price, An American Dependency
Challenge, table 4.5, page 66 (Durham, N.C., Seeman Printery, 1963).

172



Among Negroes as well as whites the largest
proportion of ADC recipients were married, or
widowed in 1961; a much larger proportion of
Negro than white recipients were single, leaving
about the same proportion of Negro and white
ADC homemakers in families broken by marital
discord (divorced, legally separated, or deserted).
T able IIIC-20.— M a rita l S ta tu s o f A D C 1 H o m em a kers,
Marital status
Total. _ __ _ _ _
Single.
_
_______
Married
__
Widowed _
Divorced___ _ _
__
Legally separated
Deserted

Negro

White

100

100

18
37
11
5
2
28

54
8
14
2
16

6

1 Aid to Dependent Children. Program designation before Aid to D e­
pendent Children of the Unemployed (PL 87-31) and the Social Security
Amendments of 1962 established Aid to Families of Dependent Children
(AFDC) including unemployed fathers.
N ote.— Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
Source: M. Elaine Burgess and Daniel O. Price, An American Dependency
Challenge, table 2.4, page 19 (Durham, N.C., Seeman Printery, 1963).

Most Negro as well as white children receiving ADC in 1961 were legitimate. For both Negro
and white, illegitimacy among ADC recipients was substantially higher in urban than in rural areas.
In a study of cases closed early in 1961, one-third of the Negro and one-fourth of the white illegiti­
mate children in ADC families were born after the first ADC payment.
T able

IIIC-21.— B irth

S ta tu s o f A D C 1 C h ildren by R esiden ce, R ace, a n d S ta tu s o f C ase, 1961
[Percent distribution]

Cases closed in early 1962 2
Negro

Birth status

Active case,
late ] 961 3

White

Non­ White 4
white

Total
Total
Born in wedlock. _
__
Illegitimate.
Born before first ADC payment. __
Born since first ADC payment ___
Unknown

Urban

Rural

Total

Urban

Rural

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

64
36
23

74
26

89

87
13
9
4
(5)

93
7
5

62
37

86

66

34
23
(5)

11

(5)

1 Aid to Dependent Children. Program designation before Aid to Depend­
ent Children of the Unemployed (PL 87-31) and the Social Security Amend­
ments of 1962 established Aid to Families of Dependent Children (AFDC)
including unemployed fathers.
2 Every third case closed during the month of January, February, or March
1961. Study made by Institute for Research in Social Science of the Uni­
versity of North Carolina for the American Public Welfare Association.
3 A minimum sample of 500 cases or 1 percent of the active caseload of each
State for either November or December 1961.
4 Includes children for whom the color was unknown.




12

(5)

20
6

11
8

3
1

1
1

(5)

13
1

5 Less than 0.5 percent.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals. Dashes indicate data not available.
Source: M. Elaine Burgess and Daniel O. Price, An American Dependency
Challenge, table 6.2, page 95 (Durham, North Carolina: Seeman Printery,
1963); and Characteristics of Families Receiving Aid to Families with Dependent
Children, November-December 1961, table 34 (U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, Welfare Administration, Bureau of Family Services,
Division of Program Statistics and Analysis, April 1963).

173

Median and per capita ADC payments were larger for whites than for Negroes in 1961, and were
the sole income for a larger proportion of white than Negro recipients.
T a b l e IIIC-22 .— S elected C h aracteristics o f A D C H o m em a kers a n d
Metropolit an counties
Selected characteristics

Cities 500,000
and over
Negro

Cities 50,000 to
499,999

White

Negro

White

Median
Median years of school of ADC homemakers
Median number of months ADC payments received.
Median size assistance group.
. .
Median ADC payment per assistance group. _
Median ADC payment per person _
Median number persons per room
.

9. 4
3. 2
$107.20
$33.50
1. 04
2 0 .8

.

8 .6

11. 5
3.5
$118. 2 0
$33.80
.94

8.7
22.9
3.3
$80. 40
$24.40
.99

9.4
12.3
3.4
$103.20
$30. 40
.87

Percent of ADC families
No income except ADC
Mother not in labor force. _
...
Homemaker not employed during ADC___
.

.

__

54
35
77

57
43
84

44
54

21

56
35
74

1 Aid to Dependent Children. Program designation before Aid to Dependent Children of the Unemployed (PL 87-31) and the Social Security
Amendments of 1962 established Aid to Families of Dependent Children (AFDC) including unemployed fathers.
2 Based on less than 50 cases.

174



ADC 1 Families by Size of Community and Race, Early 1961

Nonmetropolitan counties

Metropolitan counties—Continued
Rural nonfarm

Cities 2,500 to
49,999
Negro

White

Negro

Rural nonfarm

Cities 2,500 to
49,999

White

Negro

White

Rural farm

Negro

White

Negro

6.9
24. 1
3.9
$63.40
$16.30
1.30

7.7
19.3
3. 5
$82.20
$23.50
.90

5.3
32.2
3. 5
$40. 80
$11.70
1.39

6.9
19. 2
3. 3
$72. 40
$21. 90
1. 00

54
55
73

39
16
27

58
57
79

White

Median—Continued
8 .6

19.0
3. 6
$78.20
$21.70
1 . 16

1 0 .0
1 0 .2

3. 4
$99.20
$29.20
.84

7.7
17.6
3.1
$70.00
$22.60
2 1 . 18
2

8.5
14. 5
3.7
$101.40
$27.40
.90

7.7
4.0
$72.40
$18.10
1 . 16
2 0 .0

8.5
16.8
3.3
$8 6 . 2 0
$26.10
. 85

Percent of ADC families—Continued
44
32
56

53
36
74

48
30
44

58
50
74

37
16
42

45
39
67

48
30
44

Source: M. Elaine Burgess and Daniel 0. Price, An American Dependency Challenge, tables III, XX I, XXII, 3.6, 4.9, pp. 50, 74, 246, 264 (Durham
N.C., Seeman Printery, 1963).




175

The proportion of Negro ADC recipients with
household conveniences, cars or trucks, or appli­
ances, including especially washing machines,
telephones, and television sets, was smaller than
among white ADC recipients, according to a
1961 national sample survey.
T a b l e IIIC-23.— P ercen t o f A D C 1 F a m ilie s by T en u re
a n d H ouseh old C onveniences, by R ace a n d U rb a n -R u ra l
R esiden ce, E a r ly 1961

Housing characteristics
Tenure:
Owner occupied.
Renter occupied.
Rent free
Facilities:
Electricity — . _
No running water in
house __ ___
Pump in house or
porch ...
Cold running water___
Hot and cold running
water. _
Bathroom facilities:
None____
None but share one
with others _

176



Negro

White

Urban Rural Urban Rural
13
85
2

99
5
1

17
76
9
9

34
36
30
90
73
8
12

7
90
1

20

78
2

100

3
1

9
87
7
5

41
46
12

97
35
7
16
42
55
1

T a b l e IIIC-23.— P ercen t o f A D C 1 F a m ilie s by T en u re
a n d H ouseh old C on ven iences, by R ace a n d U rb a n -R u ra l
R esiden ce, E a r ly 1961 —Continued

Housing characteristics

Negro

White

Urban Rural Urban Rural
Bathroom facilities—Con.
P a rtia l___
1 complete______
i y 2_________________
2 or more__
Beds: 3 or more persons
than beds... _ ____
Appliances:
Car or truck. . .
Washing machine__
RefrigeratorIce box..
Telephone .
Radio . .
Television__
Sewing machine _ .
None of the above. .

10

69
1
1

26
9
36
89
4
32
68
66

13
(2)

1

7
1

47
24
41
73
11
10

61
38
27
3

7
78
2
1

16
29
63
93
2
40
73
73
31
(2)

6

36
(2)

1

25
53
79
88
2

30
70
64
47
1

1Aid to Dependent Children. Program designation before Aid to De­
pendent Children of the Unemployed (Public Law 87-31) and the. Social
Security Amendments of 1962 established Aid to Families of Dependent
Children (AFDC) including unemployed fathers.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
Source: M. Elaine Burgess and Daniel O. Price, An American Dependency
Challenge, tables 5.3, 5.5, 5.6, 5.8, 5.9, XXIII, pp. 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 265 (Dur­
ham, N.C., Seeman Printery, 1963).

Old-age assistance rates, which reflect the inability to earn adequate social security credits during
the work life, were over 3 times as high in the nonwhite as the white population aged 65 and over in 1960
(on the basis of the number of recipients per 1,000 population of this age). They tended to be highest
in nonindustrial States.
T a b l e IIIC-24. — P ro p o rtio n o f P o p u la tio n R eceivin g O ld -A g e A ssista n c e (R e c ip ie n t R a te s ) by C olor, S elected S ta tes, J u ly S ep tem b er 196 0

State

Number of recipients per
1,000 population aged 65
and over
Total

Total1. . ___
Alabama Alaska _
Arizona
Arkansas
California.
Colorado 2 _
Connecticut .
Delaware. _____ _
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia . ____
Hawaii
__
Idaho
Illinois.
Indiana
Iowa _
. .
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland ________ _ .
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

140
380
266
155
287
185
298
58
36
44
125
332
49
123
73
59
102
116
191
519
109
43
134
95
127
421

Non­
white
378
542
638
498
438
329
(3)
245
145
108
510
559
58
(3)
264
192
(3)
214
311
786
(3)
151
247
323
(3)
596

White
119
315
114
130
249
179
296
54
23
18
90
253
23
122
61
54
102
112

182
394
108
28
132
83
126
310

State

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee .. .
Texas.
Utah____________________
Vermont. _.
...
Virginia__ __ . . . .
Washington .
West Virginia
Wisconsin__ __
Wyoming

Number of recipients per
1,000 population aged 65
and over
Total

Non­
white

228
103
90
143
73
34
214
46
155
119
97
355
90
44
75

437
425
(3)
475
(3)
157
550
143
269
648
259
579
(3)
179
256
367
366
338
556
(3)
(3)
111
290
116
337
(3)

212
122

176
297
129
127
50
173
111
83
125

White
215
97
88
127
73
28
195
42
126
114
89
335
89
38
73
140
117
147
263
128
127
36
171
111
81
123

1 Includes Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
2 Rates based on data excluding 3,689 white recipients aged 60-64; male 1,263, female 2,426.
s Not computed; number of recipients in sample too small.
Source: Social Security Administration, Characteristics and Financial Circumstances of Recipients of Old-Age Assistance, 1960, pt. II, State data, Public as­
sistance Report No. 48, June 1962, table 7.




177

During July-September 1960, about 8 in 10 of the old-age assistance recipients were white and the
remainder virtually all Negroes. There was wide variation among States, but Negroes were the majority
of recipients only in the District of Columbia, Mississippi, and South Carolina.
T able IIIC-25.— O ld-A ge A ssista n c e R e c ip ie n ts, by R ace, 5 0 S ta tes, J u ly -S e p te m b e r 1 96 0
State

Total
recipients

Percen t of recipien ts of specifk)d race
Nonwhite
Total

Total L.
2, 336, 595
Alabama.
...
_
__
99, 139
Alaska _
1, 432
Arizona. _ .
—
. .
... . —
13, 977
Arkansas
55, 781
California
_
----—
254, 401
Colorado..
— -50, 809
Connecticut
_ _ _ __
14, 065
Delaware _
__
1, 270
District of Columbia____ — . . — ___
3, 072
Florida__
_— 69, 050
96, 523
Georgia
1, 434
Hawaii _ - ____ _________ - ___ ______ - -_
7, 169
Idaho___ - —
-------70, 970
Illin o is.___ __
26, 497
Indiana _ __ - ___ - ____________
33j 460
27, 882
Kansas.
.
.
.
55, 951
Kentucky. _ _.
__
__
125, 362
. —
Louisiana___ . . . - - 11, 655
Maine_____ . — — —
- -- - - —
9, 662
Maryland _ _
Massachusetts ----- _ ------ --------— —
76’ 583
60, 510
Michigan . . .
44, 933
Minnesota __ .
80, 081
Mississippi__
Missouri __
_ __
_ __ ___
115, 015
6 , 745
----- - -Montana___ .
14, 730
Nebraska___ .. - - —
Nevada..
. . .
2 , 600
New Hampshire. _ _
__
_.
4, 931
18, 950
New Jersey__ . . .
10, 963
New Mexico . . .
78, 468
New York _ __
48, 266
North Carolina----6 , 982
North Dakota. .
87, 419
Ohio___
_.
. .
8 8 , 289
Oklahoma. _
16, 571
Oregon._
. .
50, 101
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
6 , 755
31, 945
South Carolina__
__
South Dakota. _
8 ’ 729
54, 442
Tennessee.
.
_
__
2 2 l" 727
.
.
Texas______
See footnote at end of table.

178



20. 7
40. 8
69. 6
22. 0
30. 6
7. 3
2. 4
7. 9
42. 9
71. 7
34. 2
43. 6
88. 1
2. 3
20. 4
11. 9
1. 2
6. 6
12. 3
48. 3
1. 2
42. 8
2. 6
17. 2
1. 3
55. 2
11. 9
7. 7
3. 1
14. 9
.1
22. 3
13. 9
12. 7
35. 2
4. 8
13. 2
13. 0
2. 3
18. 7
4. 8
55. 0
6. 1
29. 2
22. 0

Negro
19. 9
40 8
.6
7. 6
30. 5
5. 8
2. 1
7. 5
42. 6
71. 0
34. 1
43. 6
.2
20. 2
11. 9
1. 1
6. 2
12. 3
48. 0
.4
42. 8
2. 2
16. 5
.6
55. 2
11. 9
.5
2. 3
4. 8
.1
22. 2
1. 0
12. 0
34. 1
13. 2
11. 1
1. 2
18. 4
4. 7
55. 0
.1
29. 2
22. 0

Other
.

0 8

69. 0
14. 3
.1
1. 5
.3
.3
.4
.7
.1
88. 1
2. 1
.2
.2
.5
.2
.8
.4
.7
.7
7. 1
.8
10. 1
.2
12. 9
.6
1. 1
4. 8
1. 9
1. 0
.2
.1
6. 0

White
79. 3
59 2
30. 4
78. 0
69. 4
92. 7
97. 6
92. 1
57. 1
28. 3
65. 8
56. 4
11. 9
97. 7
79. 6
88. 1
98. 8
93. 4
87. 7
51. 7
98. 8
57. 2
97. 4
82. 8
98. 7
44. 8
88. 1
92. 3
96. 9
85. 1
99. 9
77. 7
86. 1
87. 3
64. 8
95. 2
86. 8
87. 0
97. 7
81. 3
95. 2
45. 0
93. 9
70. 8
78. 0

T able

IIIC-25.—O ld -A g e

A ssista n c e R e c ip ie n ts, by R ace, 5 0 S ta te s, J u ly -S e p te m b e r 1 96 0 —Continued

Percent of recipients of specified race

Total
recipients

State

Non white
Total

Utah__ .
___ ______ _
__
__ _ _ _ _
Vermont. _
_
_
Virginia__
Washington
_
West Virginia________ ___ __
Wisconsin.
Wyoming

7, 759
5, 554
14, 552
48, 283
19, 185
33, 373
3, 227

__

Negro

.
.
41.
2. 9
5. 5
3. 1
2.2

Other
.
.
.
2. 3
.3
1. 5
1. 5

.5
.1
41. 5
.6
5. 2
1. 6
.7

2 6
2
8

White
97. 4
99. 8
58. 2
97. 1
94. 5
96. 9
97. 8

2 0
1
2

1 Includes Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
Source: Social Security Administration, Characteristics and Financial Circumstances of Recipients of Old-Age Assistance, 1960, pt. II, State Data, Public
Assistance Rpt. No. 48, June 1962, table 2.

From 1960 to 1964, the ratio of husband-wife families to all families continued to be 3 in 4 among
nonwhites, and 9 in 10 for whites.
T able IV A -1. — F a m ilie s by T y p e an d C olor, U n ite d S ta te s, M a rc h of 1 9 6 0 -6 4 (8 -y e a r m ovin g averages, M a rch o f 1 9 5 9 -6 5 )!
Type of family

1960

1962

1961

1963

1964

Change
1960-64

Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
white
white
white
Percent distribution

All families.
...
Husband-wife__
Other male head
Female head___ __

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

11

73
4

89
3
9

73
4

89
3
9

73
4
23

89
3
9

73
4
23

89
3
9

73
3
23

89
2
9

11
-8

22

22

15

(2)

5
5
6

Number (in thousands)
All families.
Husband-wife.
Other male head
Female head ___

4, 186 40, 714 4, 339 41, 273 4, 431 41, 765 4, 558 42, 253 4, 645 42, 625 459 1, 911
3, 073 36, 109 3, 187 36, 601 3, 231 37, 058 3, 322 37, 511 3, 401 37, 827 328 1, 718
172 1 , 068 179 1, 063 179 1, 085 175 1, 089 158 1, 064 -1 4
-4
941 3, 537 973 3, 609 1 , 0 2 1 3, 623 1 , 061 3, 653 1 , 086 3, 734 145 197

1 Figures given are averages of annual reports for 3 consecutive years;
average represents middle year.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.




Source: Current Population Reports, Population Characteristics, “House­
hold and Family Characteristics, March 1960,” series P-20, No. 106, table 4;
“* * * April 1960,” series P-20, No. 100, table 4; “* * * March 1961,” series
P-20, No. 116, table 4; “* * * March 1962,” series P-20, No. 125, table 4;
“Households and Families by Type: 1963,” series P-20, No. 124, table 1;
“* * * 1964,” series P-20, No. 130, table 1; “* * * 1965,” series P-20, No.
140, table 1 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

179

In 1950 and 1960, nonwhite and white families with a female head were more likely to live in urban
areas than any other type of family. However, during this decade, the urban portion of nonwhite
families with a female head increased much more than similar white families.
T able IV A -2. — Families by Type and Color, by Region and

Type of family

Region and residence
(percent distribution by
region and residence)

Region and residence (percent by type of family)

United North­ NorthRural Rural United North­ NorthStates east central South W est 1 Urban non­ farm States east central South
farm

TYPE OF FAMILY AND COLOR,
1950

All families
Nonwhite_______ ______
White.. __. . . ___
Husband-wife
Nonwhite______________
White______ . . . . . .
Other male head
Non white_________ _ _.
White.. ______ . _
Female head
Nonwhite____ .. . _. __
White__________________

100
100

100
100

100
100

79
89
5
4
17

78
89
5
3
18

82
89
5
3
13

76
87
5
3

8

20
10

77
90
5
3
18
7

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

72

76
90
4
3

74
89
4

81
90
4

74

77
91
5

84
92
5
4

20

22
8

100
100

100
100

78

73

5
4
18
9

5
4
22
10

100
100

75
89
4
3

88

86

100
100

8

8

100
100

100
100

100
100

86

100
100

91
5
5
9
4

100
100
100
100

14
28
13
27
15
34
17
32

16
32
16
32
15
32
15
29

64
27
64
27
63
23
64
26

16
26
16
26
17
33
18
30

18
30
19
31
17
30
18
27

55
27
54
27
55
23
56
28

TYPE OF FAMILY AND COLOR,
1960

All families
Nonwhite______________
White__ ______ _____
Husband-wife
Nonwhite______________
White______________
Other male head
Nonwhite_______ ______
White------------- - --------Female head
Nonwhite______________
White__________________

21
8

88

4
3
23
9

7

2

1 Includes Alaska and Hawaii In 1960.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

180



88

2

4
3

15

22

8

9

2

19
7

11

4

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

U rb a n -R u ra l R esiden ce, U n ite d S tates, 1 9 5 0 a n d 1 9 6 0

Region and residence (percent distri­
bution by region and residence)—
Continued
Urban

W est 1

6

14
7
14
7
11

4
13

11

16
12

16
11

14
8

16

66
66

64
65
64
63
74
76
76
70
75
70
74
70
81
78

Region and residence (number in thousands)

Rural
non­
farm

Rural
farm

16

18
14

20

15

21

16
18
16
17
18

22

18
23
18
19
16
18

United North­ NorthStates east central South

3, 432
021
20
2, 665
14 30, 821
162
20
19 1,234
10
605
7 2, 966

471
9, 691
344
8,316
25
420

545

2, 205
9, 348
1,717
8 , 291

West 1 Urban

Rural
non­
farm

Rural
farm

285
386
772

211
2 , 271
4, 880 23, 088
174 1,717
4, 348 2 0 , 068
104
11
141
774
26
450
392 2, 246

534
7, 095
411
6 , 363
26
97
512

627
4, 838
537
4, 390
32
240
58
208

694
780 2, 323
4, 256
40, 873 10, 780 12, 339 11, 189
7 3, 186
501
591 1,723
9, 430 1 1 , 128 1 0 , 006
8 36, 455
31
8
181
31
99
332
11
369
1, 113
259
162
3
889
158
500
4 3, 305
924
981
878

459 3, 229
, 565 28, 711
370 2, 378
5, 891 25, 346
20
134
781
153
69
718
521 2, 584

747
9, 109
573
8 , 303
33
215
141
591

279
3, 053
235
2 , 806
14
117
30
129

7
8

35,

102

955

,

11 102

430
9, 8 6 6
25
389
90
848

102

6

220

Source: I960 Census of P opulation, General Characteristics of Fam ilies, Sp ecial R ep o rts, v o l. IV , p t. 2, ch . A , ta b les 4 a n d 5; 1960 Census of P opulation, D e­
tailed Characteristics, U .S . Sum m ary, P C (1 )-1 D , ta b les 188 an d 247 (U .S . B u rea u o f th e C en su s).




181

All other regions gained proportionately much more than the South in nonwhite families headed
by women between 1950 and 1960. In numbers, however, the increases were much larger in the South
than elsewhere, and occurred chiefly in urban areas.
T a b l e IVA-3.— F a m ilies by T y p e a n d Color, by R egion a n d U rb a n -R u ra l R esiden ce, U n ite d S ta tes, 1 9 5 0 -6 0 C h an ge
Type of family, color
Region and residence

Husband-wife

All families
Nonwhite

White

Nonwhite

White

Other male head

Female head

Nonwhite White Nonwhite White

Percent change
United States. _
Northeast.
North-central _.
South _
West 2_
...
Urban. _
_
Rural nonfarm...
Rural farm. _ . . .

24
47
43
5
118
42
40
-55

17

11
11
20

35
24
28
-3 7

20

46
37
0
113
39
39
-5 6

18
13
13
21
36
26
31
-3 4

11

23
24
-3
90
29
27
-5 6

-1 0
-1 2

-1 5
-9
9
1
-3
-51

47
59
75
30
161
59
46
-4 7

3
4
20
33
15
15
-3 8

284
60
68
114
43
268
44
-2 8

339
26
30
152
129
338
79
-7 9

11

Number (in thousands)
824
223
235
118
248
959
213
-348

5, 852
1 , 087
1, 237
1,841
1, 685
5, 623
2, 014
-1,785

521
157
161
6
196
661
162
-302

5, 634
1, 114
1 , 262
1,715
1, 543
5, 278
1, 940
-1,584

19
6
6

-3
9
30
7
1
00

United States. _ _
Northeast _
North-central.
South__ . . .
West 2__
______
Urban
Rural nonfarm. _
Rural farm_____ __

-1 2 1

-51
-5 7
-2 6
12
7
-5
-123

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
2 Includes Alaska and Hawaii in 1960.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: Census of Population: 1950, General Characteristics of Families, Special Reports, vol. IV, pt. 2, ch. A, tables 4, 5; and Census of Population: 1960,
Detailed Characteristics, U.S. Summary, PC(1)-1D, tables 188, 247 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

182



In 1960, female family heads were proportion­
ately younger among nonwhites than among
whites. The difference in age distribution was
least in the South and greatest in the North-Central
region. In general, female heads tended to be
younger in both the white and nonwhite groups in
1960, as compared with 1950.
T a b l e IVA-4.— F em ale F a m ily H ea d s by A ge, C olor, a n d
R egion , U n ite d S ta tes, 1 9 5 0 a n d 1 96 0
[Cumulative distribution]

1950

1960

Region and age of family Non­ White Non­ W hite
head
white
white
Percent
United States:
Under 35 years______
Under 45 years
Under 65 years. _ __
Northeast:
Under 35 years.. _ _ .
Under 45 years . _ _
Under 65 years.. ____
North-Central:
Under 35 years.
Under 45 years.
Under 65 years.
South:
Under 35 years____ _
Under 45 years.
Under 65 years..
West:
Under 35 years _
Under 45 years.
Under 65 years.. . . .

26
49
85
36
59
92
35
59
90
20

43
82
36
62
89

12

29
73
10

26
72
11

27
71
13
31
73
17
37
77

29
53

86

33
60
92
38
64
91
23
46
82
38
64
91

15
34
75
11

29
73
13
31
72
16
36
75
22

46
81

Number (in thousands)
United States. _ _ _ _ _ 605 2, 966
Northeast___
102
955
North-Central _
90 848
South . . . ________ .
386 772
W est.____ _______ __ 24 392

889 3, 305
162 981
158 878
500 924
69 521

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
Source: Census of Population: 1950, General Characteristics of Families,
Special Reports, vol. IV, pt. 2, ch. A, tables 5 and 6; Census of Population:
1960, Detailed Characteristics, U.S. Summary, PC(1)-1D, table 247 (U.S.
Bureau of the Census).




183

Among whites as well as nonwhites, the proportion of husband-wife families rose and the propor­
tion of families headed by women decreased with each higher income group, in 1960.
T able IVA-5. — T y p e o f F a m ily by In com e G ro u p in 1959, by C olor, S elected R egion s, a n d A re a s, U n ite d S ta te s, 1 9 6 0 1
Family income in 1959
Type of family, residence, and region

Total

$3,000-$7,999

Under $3,000

$8 ,0 0 0 and over

Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Nonwhite White
United States:
All families (in thousands) __ __ __
Percent__________ _ _____ ____
Husband-wife____ ____ _
Other male head______ _
Female family head _ ____
Head under 35
_______
Head 35-64. ___ _
Head 65 and ov er______
Central cities of urbanized areas, United
States:
All families (in thousands) . . .
Percent_______________________ ..
Husband-wife_____ ___________
Other male head_______ _____
Female head__ . . .
Head under 35____ . . .
Head 35-64_______________
Head 65 and over________
North : 3
All families (in thousands)___ . . .
Percent___
_ _ . ______
Husband-wife.. .. __ _ .
Other male head_______
.
Female head__ _____ ____ _ _
Head under 35__ . . .
Head 35-64_______________
Head 65 and over... _____
South:
All families (in thousands)____
Percent____
. . . . . _____
Husband-wife.___ _
Other male head______ _ . . __
Female head
Head under 35. ____ ___ _
Head 35-64_______________
Head 65 and over. __ .. _
See footnotes at end of table.

184



4, 262 40, 887

2, 034

7, 616

1, 840 21, 683

388

11, 587

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

75
4

89
3

78
4
19
4
10
5

85
4

91
3
7
1
4

87
5

2

8
1
6
1

94
2
4

2

64
4
32
10
17
5

2, 293 12, 461

806

1, 783

, 676

281

4, 002

100

100

100

100

100

100

69
4
27
7
14

84
4
12
3

87
3
9

3

54
4
42
17
21
4

1, 475 23, 131

454

3, 623

21
6
12

3

8
1

5

100

100

73
4

86

22
8

13
2

3

11
2
6

6

11
2
8
1

1

, 206

6

92
3
5
(2)
3

823 12, 505

198

7, 003

100

100

8
1

1
6
2

100

100

100

100

100

74
4

89
3

76
4
20
4
10
5

84
4
12
3

2

52
4
44
19
21
3

90
3
7
1
4

2, 325 11, 187

1, 460

3, 014

8
1

5

100

100

100

74
4
22
5
13
4

89

68

2
8
1

5
2

4
28
7
16
5

2
1

5
9
1
7

100

22
8
12
2

(2)

86

1

2

2

5
9
1
7

2

93
3
4
(2)
3

773

5, 791

93

2, 383

100

100

100

100

100

80
3
16
3
9
4

85
4

92

86

4

10
1
8
2

8
1

11
1
8
2

2
6
1

1

86

1

4
(2)

95
2
3
2
1

T able

IVA-5.— T y p e

o f F a m ily by In com e G rou p in 1 95 9, by C olor, S elected R egion s, a n d A re a s, U n ited S ta te s. 1 9 6 0 1—

Continued

Family income in 1959
Type of family, residence, and region

Total

Under $3,000

$3,000--$7,999

$8 ,0 0 0 and over

Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Nonwhite White
West:
All families (in thousands) __ -----Percent--- -------- --------------------Husband-wife. _ ____
Other male head.. _________
__
Female head
Head under 3 5 ___
_
Head 35-64 ___ _ _
Head 65 and over____

462

, 569

120

980

245

3, 388

97

2 201

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

81
4
15

90

61
4
35
16
17

74
3
23

87
4
9

91
2
7
1
5

91
4
4
(2)
3

95
2
3

6

6
8
1

1These data are from a 5-percent sample, so that totals do not exactly agree
with those in other tables derived from the full census.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
3 Includes Northeast and North Central.




2
8
2

5
1

2

8
11

4

2
6
1

1

1

,

(2)

2
1

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
Source: Census of P opulation: 1960, Subject R eports, Fam ilies, PC(2)-4A,
table 14 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

185

V irtually no change has occurred from 1950-65 in the m arital status of nonw hite m ales or fem ales.
A lm ost 9 in 10 were either single, married w ith spouse present, or w idow ed or divorced. T hose
separated from their spouse rem ained an alm ost constant percentage of the total during this period.
T a b l e I V A - 6 .— Marital

Status, by Sex and Color, 1950 and 1960-65 1
Female

’otal population (14 years old
and over)___
—

White

Nonwhite
i

White

1965

i

Nonwhite

1964

White

Nonwhite

White

1963

i

White

Nonwhite

Nonwhite

1962

1961

White

White

Non white

1960

1950
Nonwhite

Marital status

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

100

Single __ - _ ---------Married, spouse present ..
Widowed or divorcedMarried, spouse absent----

21
51
17
11

20
64
14
3

22
49
17
12

19
64
15
3

21
49
18
12

19
63
15
3

22
47
18
12

19
63
15
3

23
46
18
13

20
63
15
3

22
49
17
12

20
62
15
3

23
47
17
13

20
62
15
3

Separated2 — - — Other 3 (including in
Armed Forces) _ __

9

1

8

1

9

1

9

1

9

1

9

1

9

2

3

1

4

2

3

1

3

2

4

2

4

1

4

1

Male
Total population (14 years old
and over)_______ — -- - -- 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Single____ _ - - -- 29 26 30 24 32 25 32 25 32 25 33 26 33
55 65 53 68 54 68 52 68 52 68 54 67 53
Married, spouse present
7
5
6
5
7
6
8
5
7
5
6
5
7
Widowed or divorced
2
3
8
2
2
2
3 10
8
9
7
8
10
Married, spouse absent. _
1
1
1
5
6
1
6
6
6
1
1
6
6
Separated 2 -------—
Other 3 (including in
4
2
2
2
1
3
1
2
1
2
3
1
Armed Forces)------ . 4
1 Data for 1950 and 1960 are from the decennial census, and for the remaining
years, from the Current Population Survey. Comparable Census and CPS
data were matched for 1960 and found to be similar; such comparable data
are not available for 1950.
2 Separated persons include those with legal separations, those living
apart with intentions of obtaining a divorce, and other persons permanently
or temporarily estranged from their spouse because of marital discord.
3 Includes those with spouse in Armed Forces, those with spouse employed
and living for several months at a considerable distance from their home,
immigrants whose spouse remained in other areas, husbands or wives of
inmates of institutions, and all other (except those reported as separated)
whose place of residence was not the same as that of their spouse.

186



100
26
66
5
2
1
1

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
Source: Census of Population: 1950, Vol. I I, Part I, United States Summary,
table 104, Census of Population: 1960, Detailed Characteristics, United States
Summary, PC(1), table 176 (U.S. Bureau of the Census); Current Population
Reports, Population Characteristics, “Marital Status and Family Status,”
Series P-20, tables 1 and 3, No. 114 (March 1961); tables 1 and 3, No. 122
(March 1962); tables 1 and 4, No. 135 (March 1964 and 1963); tables 1 and 3,
No. 144 (March 1965). (U.S. Bureau of the Census.)

A t every age level and w ith each type of fam ily com position nonw hite fam ilies averaged m ore m em ­
bers than w hite fam ilies in 1960.
T able

IVA-7.—Average Number of Persons in Family, Members of Family 18 Years Old and Over, and Families With Own
Children Under 6 Years Old, by Type of Family and Color, United States, 1960
Type of family and age

Average number
of persons in family
Nonwhite

_
...
Husband-wife. . . . ___
Head:
Under 25 y e a r s ..__ __ . . ------------25-34 years . . . . __
...
35-44 years . . _______ .
45-54 years . . . __ . . .
55-64 years. ............................. .........
65-74 years. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ----- --75 and over. _____ _ ------------------Other male head. _ . . _ _ ____ __
_ _
Female h e a d .___ __ ____ __
Head:
Under 35 years____________
__ _
35-44 years. _ _________
__
45-64 years _ . ______
65 and over.
_ _
1 Less than

Source:

0.5 percent.

White

217-817 0 — 66------- 13

Nonwhite

White

Percent of families
with one or more own
children under 6 years
Nonwhite

White

4.4

3.7

27

19

38

33

3.7
4.8
5. 1
4.5
3.8
3.3
3.0
3.6
4.0

3. 1
4. 2
4.5
3.7
2.8
2.5
2.4
2.8
2.9

11
13
25
38
38
34
31
81
57

4
6
16
33
29
23
21
87
68

73
70
46
21
8
3
2
11
29

64
75
43
11
2
1

4. 2
4.4
3.9
3.4

3.3
3.4
2.8
2.6

22
52
77
87

21
41
80
97

66
32
5
1

C ensus of P o p u la tio n : 1960, D etailed C haracteristics, U nited S tates S u m m a ry,




Percent of family
members 18 years
old and over

(9

6
13
60
19
2
1

PC(1)-1D, table 187 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

187

F ertility rates for w hite and nonw hite wom en dropped sharply betw een 1961 and 1964, but the
nonw hite drop lagged slightly behind the w hite, so that the nonw hite/w hite fertility ratio increased to
1.42— the highest recorded in recent years.
T able

IVA-8.— Fertility Rates, by Color, United States, 1940-64 (per 1,000 women age 15-44)

Year

Nonwhite

White

Ratio,
nonwhite
to white

Year

Births adjusted for under­
registration
1940________________
1941________________
1942________________
1943________________
1944________________
1945________________
1946________________
1947________________
1948________________
1949________________
1950________________
1951 1_______________
1952________________
1953________________
1954________________
1955________________

102. 4
105. 4
107. 6
111. 0
108. 5
106. 0
113. 9
125. 9
131. 6
135. 1
137. 3
142. 1
143. 3
147. 3
153. 2
155. 3

77. 1
80. 7
89. 5
92. 3
86. 3
83. 4
100. 4
111. 8
104. 3
103. 6
102. 3
107. 7
110. 1
111. 0
113. 6
113. 8

1. 33
1. 31
1. 20
1. 20
1. 26
1. 27
1. 13
1. 13
1. 26
1. 30
1. 34
1. 32
1. 30
1. 33
1. 35
1. 36

1 Based on a 50-percent sample of births, since 1951. Before 1951, based on
total count.
2 Excludes data for New Jersey.
N ote.—Refers only to births occurring within the United States. Alaska
included beginning 1959, and Hawaii, 1960. Rates for 1940, 1950, and 1960 are

188



Nonwhite

White

Ratio,
nonwhite
to white

Births adjusted for underregistration— Continued
1956________________
1957________________
1958________________
1959________________

160. 9
163. 0
160. 5
162. 2

116. 0
117. 7
114. 9
114 6

1. 39
1. 38
1. 40
1. 42

Registered births
1959________________
1960________________
1961________________
1962 _______________
1963 1
2_______________
1964________________
2

156. 0
153. 6
153. 5
148. 7
144 8
141. 5

113. 9
113. 2
112. 2
107. 5
103. 7
99. 8

1. 37
1. 36
1. 37
1. 38
1. 40
1. 42

based on population enumerated as of April 1; for all other years, estimated
as of July 1.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, 1963, Vol. I, Natality, table 1-2
for 1940-63; Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 14, No. 8 , table 1 for 1964.
(U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.)

N onw hite m others average m ore children than w hite m others, but the difference is greatest at
fifth and later births, for which the birth-rate decline in recent years has been greater am ong nonw hite
than w hite m others.
T able

IVA-9.— Birth Rates, by Order of Birth and Color, United States, 19^0-64
[Per 1,000 women, age 15-44]

Live-birth order
Year

1st
Non­
white

3d

2d
White

Non­
white

White

Non­
white

4th
White

5th and over
White

Non­
white

10. 5
10.6
10.8
11. 4
11.7
11.3
11.8
12. 1
12.9
14.0
15.3
16.9
18. 1
18.4
19. 1
19. 1
19. 7
19.8
19. 5
19.8

5.9
5.9
6. 1
6.9
7. 1
7.0
7.3
7.4
7.4
7.9
8.4
9.4
10.4
11.1
12.0
12. 6
13. 1
13.7
13. 8
14. 1

29. 5
29.9
29.7
31.0
31.5
31.9
31.7
31.8
32.5
33.8
35.0
36.9
39.0
41. 5
44.2
46. 1
48.7
49.9
49.9
51. 1

11. 2
10.7
10.5
11.0
11.2
10.9
10.7
10. 5
10.2
10.5
10. 3
10.9
11. 5
12.2
13.0
13. 6
14.4
15.3
15.6
16. 2

19. 1
18. 6
18.8
17.8
16.9
16. 0

13.9
14. 1
14. 0
13.3
12.6
11.7

48. 8
48. 1
48. 5
47. 0
44. 8
42.3

16.0
16. 4
17.0
16.6
16. 1
15.0

Non­
white

White

Births adjusted for under registration
1940_________________
1941_________________
1942 ________________
1943_________________
1944_________________
1945_________________
1946_________________
1947_________________
1948_________________
1949_________________
1950_________________
1951 1________________
1952_________________
1953_________________
1954_________________
1955_________________
1956_________________
1957_________________
1958_________________
1959_________________

28.6
29.8
31. 0
31.0
28.7
27.9
31. 1
38.4
37.3
35.4
33.8
34. 1
33. 1
34. 1
35. 6
35. 0
35.9
36. 1
34.7
34.9

29.4
32.5
38.3
35.2
30.4
29.0
39. 5
47.8
39.9
36. 3
33.3
35.0
34. 1
33.3
33.3
32.6
33.2
33.4
31.9
31.3

19.6
20.6
21. 1
22.2
21. 1
20. 1
23.4
26. 2
29. 5
30.8
30.3
29.9
29. 2
29. 5
29.7
30. 7
31. 7
31.6
31. 0
30.9

20.0
20.7
23. 1
25.9
24. 2
23.3
28.5
30. 8
31. 1
32.2
32.3
32. 9
33. 1
32.9
32.8
32. 0
31.9
31. 7
30.6
30.0

14. 1
14. 5
14.9
15. 5
15.6
14.7
16.0
17.3
19.4
21. 2
22.9
23.9
24. 0
23.8
24. 4
24.4
25. 2
25.7
25.4
25.3

10. 5
10.7
11. 5
13.2
13.6
13. 2
14.4
15.3
15.7
16.6
17.9
19. 5
21. 0
21. 6
22. 6
22.9
23.4
23.7
23. 1
23.0

Registered births
1959_________________
1960_________________
1961_________________
1962 2________________
1963 2________________
1964_________________

33.9
33.6
33.6
33. 0
33.8
34. 8

31. 2
30.8
30. 7
29.7
29.4
29.7

29.8
29. 3
28. 8
28.0
27.6
27.4

29.9
29.2
28.3
26. 9
25. 9
24. 8

1 Based on a 50 percent sample of births since 1951. Before 1951 based on
total count.
2 Figures exclude data for residents of New Jersey.
N ote.—Refers only to births occurring within the United States. Alaska
included beginning 1959, and Hawaii, 1960. Rates are enumerated as of
April 1 for 1940, 1950, and 1960 and estimated as of July 1 for all other years.




24.4
24.0
23.7
22.8
21.8
21. 1

22.9
22.7
22. 2
20.9
19.6
18.4

Live-birth order refers to number of children born alive to 1 mother. Figures
for order of births not stated are distributed.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, 196S, vol. I Natality, table 1-9
for 1940-63; Monthly Vital Statistics Report, vol. 14, No. 8 , table 5 for 1964
(U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare).

189

T he nonw hite-w hite gap in birth rates is greatest in the youngest and oldest age groups, although,
at all ages, nonw hites have a higher birth rate than whites.
T a b l e IV A -1 0 . — Birth

Rates, by Age of Mother and Color, United States, 1940-64
[Live births per 1,000 Women]

Age of mother
Year

10-14 years
Nonwhite

20-24 years

15-19 years

White

Nonwhite

White

Nonwhite

White

25-29 years
Nonwhite

White

Births Adjusted For Under Registration
1940__________________
1941__________________
1942__________________
1943__________________
1944__________________

3.7
4.0
3.9
4. 0
3.9

0.2
.2
.3
.3
.3

121.7
128.3
131.8
133. 4 ,
121. 5

45.3
47.6
51.8
52. 1
45. 3

168.5
175.0
182.3
187.2
182.4

131.4
141.6
162.9
161.1
147.9

116.3
118. 1
119.6
125. 1
126.8

123.6
130. 1
145.6
150.7
137.7

1945__________________
1946__________________
1947__________________
1948__________________
1949__________________

3.9
3.7
4.6
4.9
5.1

.3
.3
.4
.4
.4

117.5
121.9
146.6
157.3
162.8

42. 1
50.6
69.8
71. 1
72. 1

172.1
197.3
223.7
237.0
241.3

134. 7
179.8
207.9
195.5
194.6

125.4
139. 2
150.6
159.6
167.0

133. 1
164.0
179. 1
163.9
165.2

1950__________________
1951 2_________________
1952__________________
1953__________________
1954__________________

5. 1
5.4
5.2
5.1
4.9

.4
.4
.4
.4
.4

163.5
166. 7
162.9
165.4
170. 3

70.0
75.9
75.0
77.2
79.0

242.6
252. 5
254.0
261.4
274.7

190.4
206.0
212. 5
219.6
230.7

173.8
184.2
194.2
206.4
215.7

165.1
174.2
180.5
181.5
185.0

1955__________________
1956__________________
1957__________________
1958__________________
1959__________________

4.8
4.7
5.6
4. 3
4.0

.3
.3
.5
.5
.4

168.3
172.5
172.8
167. 3
167. 1

79.2
83.2
85.2
81. 0
79.8

283.4
299. 1
307.0
305.2
308.9

236. 0
247. 1
253.8
251.4
253.3

219.6
225. 9
228. 1
224. 2
227.3

186.8
190. 6
195.8
194.8
196.7

251.7
252.8
247.9
238.0
224.9
212. 9

220. 2
214.6
221.6
216.8
211.2
200. 8

195.5
194.9
194.3
187.4
181.2
175. 7

Registered Births
1959__________________
1960__________________
1961__________________
1962 3_________________
1963 3_________________
1964__________________
See footnotes at end of table.

190



4.2
4.0
4.0
3.9
4.0
4. 0

.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
.3

160. 5
158.2
152.8
144.6
139.9
138. 7

79.2
79.4
78.8
73.2
68.2
63. 4

297.9
294. 2
292.9
285.7
278.1
269. 3

T able

IVA-10.— Birth Rates, by Age of Mother and Color, United States, I 94.O-64—Continued
[Live births per 1,000 women]

Age of mother
Year

30-34 years
Nonwhite

White

40-44 years

35-39 years
Nonwhite

White

Nonwhite

45-49 years 1

White

Nonwhite

White

Births Adjusted For Under Registration
83.4
85.2
92.3
100.2
98.2

53.7
54. 1
54.0
56.9
58.4

45.3
45. 1
47.2
52.2
54. 1

21.5
21. 5
20.8
21.5
21. 5

15.0
14.3
14. 1
15.0
15. 5

5.2
4. 1
4.0
3.7
3.2

1.6
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.2

100.5
113.0
103.6
101.5

61.3
61.0
62.7
62.5
63.9

56.3
58.4
58.4
53.5
52.2

22.3
21.8
21.4
20.4
21.1

16. 0
15.9
16.1
15.2
14.6

3.7
3.5
3. 1
2.8
2.5

1.4
1.3
1.2

112.6
117. 9
122.0
125.7
131.3

102.6
106.5
111.4
111.9
115. 1

64.3
66.5
66.6
70.0
72.9

51.4
52.6
54.4
55. 1
56.2

21.2
22.6
21.9
23.0
22.5

14. 5
14.6
14.8
15.0
15.4

2.6
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1

133.5
139.4
143.5
142.3
143.3

114. 1
114.4
115.9
113.0
112.0

75.4
78.8
78.7
78.4
78.5

56.7
57.0
57.4
55.8
55.7

22. 1
23.6
23.5
21.8
23.3

15.4
15.4
15.4
14.8
14.8

2. 1
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.8

.9
.8
.8
.8
.8

14.7
14.7
14.8
14. 1
13.4
12. 9

1.8
1.7
1.5
1. 5
1.5
1. 5

.9
.8
.9
.8
.8
.7

1940__________________
1941__________________
1942__________________
1943__________________
1944__________________

83.5
86.2
88.1
93.9
97.3

1945__________________
1946__________________
1947__________________
1948__________________
1949__________________

97. 1
99.3
102.4
104.1
107.3

1950__________________
1951 2_________________
1952__________________
1953__________________
1954__________________
1955__________________
1956__________________
1957__________________
1958__________________
1959__________________

110. 0

1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0

.9
.9
.9

Registered Births
1959__________________
1960__________________
1961__________________
1962 3_________________
1963 3_________________
1964__________________

138.1
135.6
136.0
132.2
128.9
126.8

111.3
109.6
110. 1

105.0
102.3

100. 1

75.0
74.2
74.9
72.0
68.9
67. 5

1 Rates computed by relating births to mother aged 45 years and over to
female population aged 45-49 years.
2 Based on a 50-percent sample of births since 1951. Before 1951, based on
total count.
3 Figures exclude data for residents of New Jersey.
N ote.—Refers only to births occurring within the United States. Alaska




55.1
54.0
53.1
50.2
48.8
47. 6

21. 2
22.0
22.3
21. 7
21.0
20. 8

included beginning 1959, and Hawaii, 1960. Birth rates are enumerated as
of April 1, for 1940,1950, and 1960 and estimated as of July 1 for all other years.
Figures for age of mother not stated are distributed.
Source: Vital Statistics of the United States, 1963, vol. I, Natality, table 1-6
for 1940-63; Monthly Vital Statistics Report, vol. 14, No. 8 , table 4 for 1964 (U.S.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare).

191

F ertility and the ratio of nonw hite/w hite fertility fall w ith rising incom e, and are usually least in
urban areas. In 1960, for the incom e group $10,000-14,999 in urbanized areas, the fertility of
nonw hite m others approxim ated that of w hite m others.
T able

IVA-11.— Children Ever Born Per 1,000 Mothers 20-39 Years Old, by Age Group, Color, and Selected Family Income
Group, Selected Areas, United States, 1960
Age groups
20-24 years

Color and income
class

Total
Total United
States: 1
Nonwhite _ _
W hite_________
Ratio— Non­
white to white_
Under $4,000
income:
Non white
W hite_________
Ratio_________
$4,000-5,999:
Nonwhite
White _ .
R a tio .___ __
$6,000-9,999:
Non white.
White __
____
Ratio
$10,000-14,999:
Nonwhite
White
Ratio _ _____

30-34 years

25-29 years

35-39 years

U rban­
U rban­
U rban­
U rban­
ized South Total ized South Total ized South Total ized South
areas
areas
areas
areas

2, 498 2, 337 2, 696 3,325 3,075 3, 653 3, 868 3, 431 4, 356 4, 059 4, 112
1,844 1,776 1, 841 2, 497 2, 388 2, 469 2, 861 2, 736 2, 834 2, 953 2, 778
1.48

1. 56

2, 609 2,417 2, 752 3, 688 3,383 3, 865 4,448 3, 834 4, 728 4, 690 3, 794
1,911 1,842 1, 926 2, 755 2, 620 2, 783 3, 271 3, 050 3,368 3, 462 3,076
1. 37 1.31 1.43 1.34 1. 29 1. 39 1.36 1.26 1.40 1.35 1. 23

5, 044
3,633
1.39

2, 366 2, 327 2, 506 3, 151 3, 128 3, 259 3, 621 3, 479 3, 820 3, 879 3, 692
1, 860 1, 807 1,825 2, 525 2, 438 2, 444 2, 913 2, 794 2,817 3, 009 2, 831
1. 27 1.29 1.37 1. 25 1.28 1.33 1. 24 1.25 1.36 1.29 1.30

4, 225
3, 003
1.41

2, 112 2, 071 2, 255 2, 565 2, 519 2, 612 3, 036 2, 972 3, 048 3, 284 3, 114
1, 750 1,707 1, 697 2, 377 2, 325 2, 256 2, 734 2, 686 2, 577 2, 829 2, 751
1. 21 1.21 1.33 1.08 1. 08 1. 16 1. 11 1. 11 1. 18 1. 16 1. 13

3, 697
2, 722
1.36

2, 059 2, 024
2, 410 2, 360 2, 579 2, 628 2, 532 2, 905 2, 884 2, 777
1,752 1, 684 1, 742 2, 289 2, 227 2, 205 2, 628 2, 587 2, 492 2, 724 2, 651
1. 18 1. 20
1. 05 1. 06 1. 17 1.00 0. 98 1. 17 1.06 1.05

3, 235
2, 636
1.23

1.35

1 Includes data

1. 32

1.46

1.33

1. 29

1.48

1.35

1. 25

1. 54

4, 676
2, 999

1.37

for all income classes.
N ote —Rate and ratio not shown where base is less than 1,000.
Source: 1960 Census of Population, Subject Reports, Women by Number of Children Ever Born, PC(2)-3A, table 38 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

192



F ertility rates tend to decline w ith increasing
educational attainm ent. W hite and nonw hite
married wom en 35-59 years old in 1960 w ith 4
years or less of school averaged about 4 children,
while those who com pleted high school averaged
about 2.5 children. College educated nonw hite
wom en had fewer children than sim ilarly educated
w hite wom en.
T a b l e IVA-12.—Number of Births per Ever Married
Woman 35-59 Years Old, by Level of Educational Attain­
ment as of 1960
Births
Years of school completed
Non white White
Elementary school:
None______ __
1— years
4
5-8 years
8 years
_
High school:
1-3 years __ _ _
4 years _ _ _ _ _
College:
1-3 years
4 y e a r s .___ _
4 years or more. _

_ ______

4. 2
4. 0
3. 6
3. 3

4. 2
3. 8
3. 0
2. 9

_________
_ __

3. 1
2. 5

2. 7
2. 5

_ __ _
__ __ __

2. 2
1. 9
1. 7

2. 5
2. 5
2. 4

___ ______

Source: I960 C en su s o f P o p u la tio n . Su bject R ep o rt. W om en by N u m b er of
C hildren E ver B orn. PC(2)-3A. table 25. (U.S. Bureau of the Census.)

N onw hite wom en at all but the low est level of
schooling reported w anting fewer children than
w hite wom en of the sam e education, according to
a 1960 study.
T a b l e IVA-13.—Average Total Number of Births Expected
and Children Wanted, White and Nonwhite Wives, by
Education, 1960
Average total number of—
W ife’s education
Births expected Children wanted
Nonwhite White Nonwhite White
Total______________
College.
High school:
4 years.
1-3 yeras____
Elementary school
(8 years) _ _ _ .

3. 6
2. 4

3. 1
3. 0

2. 9
2. 4

3. 3
3. 3

2. 9
3. 8

3. 0
3. 3

2. 7
2. 7

3. 7

3. 5

T able

IVA-14.—Estimated1 Illegitimacy Rate, by
Color, 19^7-64

Year
1947 ___________________________
1948_________________ ______
1949_____________________________
1950____________________ -__ _.
1951_____________________________
1952 ___________________________
1953_____________________________
1954_____________________________
1955_____________________________
1956_____________________________
1957_____________________________
1958_____________________________
1959_____________________________
1960_____________________________
1961 ___________________________
1962 2___________________________
1963 2___________________________
1964_____________________________

Nonwhite
168. 0
164. 7
167. 5
179. 6
182. 8
183. 4
191. 1
198. 5
202.4
204.0
206. 7
212.3
218.0
215. 8
223. 4
229.9
235.9
245. 0

White
18. 5
17. 8
17. 3
17. 5
16. 3
16. 3
16. 9
18. 2
18. 6
19. 0
19. 6
20. 9
22.1
22. 9
25. 3
27.5
30.7
33. 9

1 34 States and the District of Columbia report legitimacy status on birth
certificates. For the remaining States the illegitimacy ratio is estimated
from the reporting States in each of the 9 geographic divisions. Nevada and
Wyoming did not begin reporting until some time between 1947 and 1950.
The following States do not report legitimacy: Arizona, Arkansas, California,
Colorado, Connecticut, Idaho, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New
Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Vermont, Georgia, and
Montana. The last 2 States reported before 1957. Alaska has reported
legitimacy status since 1959, and Hawaii since 1960. Since 1951, estimates
have been based on a 50-percent sample of births; prior to that year, the data
are based on a total count.
2 Excludes New Jersey which in 1962-63 only did not require reporting by
color.
N ote.—As stated in the source cited, “No estimates are included for mis­
statements on the birth record or for failure to register births * * * The deci­
sion to conceal the illegitimacy of births is likely conditioned by attitudes in
the mother’s social group towards her and towards children born out of
wedlock. Also, the ability (economic or otherwise) to leave a community
before the birth of the child is an important consideration. These factors
probably result in proportionately greater understatement of illegitimacy
in the white group than in the nonwhite * *
Source: V ita l S ta tistics o f the U n ited S tates, 1963, vol. I, N a ta lity , table
1-26, and unpublished data for 1964 (U.S. Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare).

3. 2
3. 3

4. 7

In 1964, illegitim acy rates were estim ated to be
7 tim es as high for nonw hites as w hites. H ow ever,
this gap has narrowed som ew hat since 1954,
reflecting a relatively greater increase in illegiti­
m acy rates am ong the w hites.

3. 5

Source: John E. Patterson and Arthur A. Campbell, “Educational Attain­
ment and Fertility in the United States, 1960,” paper read at the annual
meeting of the Population Association of America, Chicago, April 22-25,1965.
Data from the 1960 Growth of American Families Study, by the Scripps
Foundation for Research in Population Problems.



193

According to a census tract analysis for W ash­
ington, D .C ., illegitim acy rates tend to fall w ith
rising incom e and education.
T a b l e IVA-15.—Illegitimacy Rates as Related to Income
and Education, by Color, in Integrated Census Tracts (30
to 70 percent nonwhite), in Washington, D.C.1
[Tracts grouped and arrayed in ascending order of median family income]

Non white
Median family
income 2

336
280
(3)
190
138

8. 7
9. 3
(3)
11. 7
12. 5

(3)
(3)
203
91
42

(3)
(3)
12. 1
12. 2
12. 2

1 Birth data relate to 1963; other data to 1959-60.

2 Relates to the group for which illegitimacy rates are given.
3 No census tracts in this income class, for the group shown.

Source: Birth data from Washington, D.C., Department of Public Health;
other data from 1960 C ensuses o f P o p u la tio n an d H ou sin g, Final Report
PHC(1)-166, Census Tracts, Washington, D.C., Standard Metropolitan
Statistical Area, tables P-1 and P-4 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

194



T able

IVB— .—Percent Illiterate1 in the Population,
1
by Color, 1870-1959

[Data for 1870-1940 are for the population 10 years old and over; data for
1947, 1952, and 1959 are for the population 14 years old and over]

Year

White

Illegiti­ Median Illegiti­ Median
macy years macy years
of
rate
rate
of
(per school (per school
1,000 com­ 1,000 com­
births) pleted births) pleted

$3,000-$3,999____
$4,000-$4,999____
$5,000-$5,999____
$6,000-$7,499____
$7,500 or more___

There has been a steady and sharp rise in the
past century in nonwhite literacy, which reached
almost 93 percent by 1959.

1870________________
1880________________
1890___________
1900___________
1910________________
1920____ ___________
1930________________
1940 2__________
1947_____________
1952________________
1959________________

Total
20. 0
17. 0
13. 3
10. 7
7. 7
6. 0
4. 3
2. 9
2. 7
2. 5
2. 2

Non white
79. 9
70. 0
56. 8
44. 5
30. 5
23. 0
16. 4
11. 5
11. 0
10. 2
7. 5

White
11. 5
9. 4
7. 7
6. 2
5. 0
4. 0
3. 0
2. 0
1. 8
1. 8
1. 6

1 Persons who could not both read and write a simple message either in
English or any other language were classified as illiterate.
2 Estimated.
Source: C u rren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, Series P-20, No. 99, table A. (U.S.
Bureau of the Census.)

Increases in educational attainm ent of both the w hite and nonw hite population 25 years and over
were substantial even in the relatively short period 1959-64. T he rise was especially sharp am ong the
younger nonw hite adults, 25 to 44 years old, for whom those w ith 4 years of high school or m ore
rose from alm ost 3 in 10 to alm ost 4 in 10.
T able

IVB-2.— Educational Attainment of Persons 25 Years Old and Over, by Age and Color, March 1959 and March 1964.
Total

25 to 44 years
1964

1959

Years of school completed

1959

1964

Non­
white

White

Non­
white

White

Non­
white

White

Non­
white

____

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

-N o n e ____ _ .
Elementary, 1 to 8 years _______
High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years _
------------- _ _
College:
1 to 3 years _ _ _____
___
4 years
___
___
5 years or more. _ —
8 years or less of school
4 years or more of high school
1 year or more of college____ ______

6. 1
55.4

1.8
33.7

4.4
47.0

1. 5
30.6

2.6
43.9

.6
18.4

1.4
31.4

.4
15.4

17.8
13.6

18.4
28.8

21. 1
17.9

17.6
31.3

24.9
19.5

20. 1
39.9

28. 0
26.7

18.7
41.5

3.7
2.1
1. 2
61. 5
20. 6
7.0

8.7
5.5
3.0
35. 5
46.0
17. 2

4.9
3.0
1.7
51.4
27.5
9.6

9.3
6.0
3.6
32. 1
50.2
18. 9

5. 1
2.6
1.4
46.4
28.6
9. 1

10.3
6.9
3.8
19.0
60.9
21. 0

6.4
3.8
2.3
32.8
39.2
12. 5

11.3
8.0
4.6
15.8
65.4
23.9

Total __ ___ ...

45 to 64 years
Total___________ _______
N o n e__ . ____ _ _ _ _
__
Elementary, 1 to 8 years __ _ ____ _____
High school:
1 to 3 years._ .
___
4 years __
_______
College:
1 to 3 years
____
4 years. ______ . . .
5 years or more _
. .
8 years or less of school
4 years or more of high school _. .
1 year or more of college__ . .

65 years and over

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

7. 1
69.4

1.7
41.9

4. 1
62.5

.9
35. 5

19.8
66. 9

5.6
61. 0

17.0
66.2

5.3
58.3

11.0
7.2

18.7
22. 2

15.9
10.2

18.7
27.9

5.2
5.4

12.3
11. 1

12.8
13. 1

2.6
1.6
1. 1
76. 5
12. 5
5.3

.1
4.8
2. 7
43.6
37.8
15.6

3.7
2.3
1.2
66. 6
17.4
7.2

8.7
5.0
3.3
36.4
44. 9
17. 0

.6
1.5
.6
86. 7
8. 1
2.7

5.4
3. 1
1. 5
66. 6
21. 1
10. 0

7.8
4.7
2.4
1.4
.4
83. 2
8.9
4.2

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: C urren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, P o p u la tio n C haracteristics, L itera cy an d E du cation al A tta in m e n t:
E du cation al A tta in m e n t: M arch 1964, Series P-20, No. 138, table 1. (U.S. Bureau of the Census.)




White

M arch 1959,

5. 5
3.3
1. 7
62.6
23. 6
10. 5

Series P-20, No. 90, tables 1 and 2; and

195

B etw een 1950 and 1960, N egroes show ed the greatest relative increase in those attaining a high
school education or more. H ow ever, in 1960, N egroes had the low est m edian years of schooling
of all races except Indians.
T a b l e IVB-3.— Educational Attainment of the Population 14 Years and Over, by Race, United States, 1950 and 1960
Years of school completed

Indian

Negro

Japanese

Chinese

Filipino

White

1950 1960 1950 1960 1950 1960 1950 1960 1950 1960 1950 1960
-------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

8 years or less. _ _ _______
High school:
1 to 3 years______
4 years__
College:
1 to 3 y ears._
4 years or more.

69

55

71

59

27

26

52

40

59

49

42

35

18
9

24
14

17
9

23
12

15
40

18
36

14
17

14
19

18
14

19
17

21
23

23
26

3
2

4
3

2
1

4
1

11
7

11
9

9
9

12
15

7
3

8
7

8
6

9
7

7. 3

8. 6

7. 4

8. 8 11. 1

8. 3

9. 2 10. 1

11. 0

86

79

88

82

42

44

66

54

76

68

64

58

5

7

3

5

18

20

17

27

10

15

14

16

T otal..

Median years of school _ _
Percent with less than 4 years
of high school.
Percent with 1 year or more of
college__

8. 4 12. 2 12. 2

N ote.—Does not include persons with school years not reported in 1950.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: 1960 Census of Population: Detailed Characteristics, United Stales
Summary, PC(1)-1D, table 173; 1950 Census of Population: Special Reports,
Vol. IV, Part 5, Chapter B, Education, table 5; 1960 Census of Population:

196



Subject Reports, Nonwhite Population by Race, PC(2)-1C, tables 9, 10,11, 12,
and 13; 1950 Census of Population: Special Reports, Vol. IV, Part 3, Chapter
B, Nonwhite Population by Race, tables 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 (U.S. Bureau of
the Census).

Com parison of the educational levels of m en 20-64 years old in 1962 w ith that of their fathers re­
veals substantial upward m ovem ent betw een the generations. The uptrend was slightly sharper am ong
nonw hite m en, of whom 1 in 4, as com pared to 1 in 10 of their fathers, had at least 4 years of high school.
T a b l e IVB-4. — Percent Distribution by Educational Level of Men 20-64 Years Old and of Their Fathers, by Color, March 1962
[Excludes cases with no report on education of the father]

Men

Years of school completed and color
Nonwhite

_

Ratio of
men to
fathers

100. 0

100. 0

_ _ _
__
Less than 8 years__ __ _ _
Elementary 8 to high school 3 years . _______ ______
High school 4 years or more_________ _____ _________

36. 8
34. 6
28. 5

63. 4
25. 2
11. 4

-2 6 . 6
+ 9. 4
4-17. 1

.6
1. 4
2. 5

High school 4 years_ _
__
College 1 year or more______
__

18. 1
10. 4

7. 0
4. 4

4-11. 1
4-6. 0

2. 6
2. 4

100. 0

100. 0

12. 6
32. 2
55. 2

36. 5
38. 8
24. 7

-2 3 . 9
-6 . 6
4-30. 5

.3
.8
2. 2

29. 6
25. 6

14. 4
10. 3

4-15. 2
+ 15. 3

2. 1
2. 5

__

___ ____

Difference

_ _____

White _ _

_

Fathers

_
_ _ ____
__ ___

Less than 8 years.__ _____
T_
Elementary 8 to high school 3 years____
High school 4 years or more______
__
High school 4 years__ __ __
College 1 year or more. _ ___

__ __
_ _ __ __

_

_

_ __
_ _. ___

____
_ __ __
__ ____
__
__

1. 0

1. 0

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: C u rren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, E du cation al Change in a G eneration: M arch 1962, Series P-20, No. 132, table E. (U.S. Bureau of the Census.)




197

A m ong both w hites and nonw hites, m edian years of school com pleted was greater am ong persons
in the labor force than outside. A lthough nonw hite m ales in the civilian labor force averaged less
schooling than w hite m ales in M arch 1965— 10 versus 12 years— the difference had decreased since 1959.
T he nonw hite/w hite education difference was greater in farm than in nonfarm areas, and in the South
than in other regions of the country.
T a b l e I V B - 5 . — Educational Attainment of the Population 18

Years Old and Over, by Labor Force Status, Color, Sex, Residence
and Region, March 1959 and March 1965
Male

Years of school completed, residence,
region, and year

In labor
force
Non­
white

Female
Not in labor
force

White

Non­
white

White

In labor
force
Non­
white

Not in labor
force

White

Non­
white

White

Percent distribution, by years of school completed
1959

Total:
Number (in thousands)
Percent
No school years completed. __
Elementary :
1 to 4 years
5 to 7 years _
8 y ears.. . . . _ .
High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years. .
------College:
1 to 3 years _
_
4years_.
__ __
5 years or more__
School years not reported. _

4, 330 39, 956
100. 0 100. 0

721
100. 0

6, 945
100. 0

2, 786 18, 770
100. 0 100. 0

3, 015
100. 0

33,113
100. 0

4. 4

.8

14. 8

5. 5

2. 3

.4

5. 2

2. 0

17. 1
22. 9
11. 7

3. 5
9. 6
16. 1

28. 5
19. 0
7. 4

12. 2
18. 0
20. 3

9. 9
21. 1
12. 8

1. 8
6. 5
12. 7

14. 9
22. 7
12. 6

4. 6
11. 6
16. 9

19. 4
13. 3

19. 9
28. 2

15. 9
6. 6

12. 4
12. 7

22. 5
19. 7

18. 3
40. 2

23. 0
15. 3

19. 1
31. 2

4. 1
2. 0
1. 5
3. 6

9. 5
6. 4
4. 6
1. 4

3. 3
1. 1
.4
3. 1

11. 0
2. 9
2. 1
2. 9

5. 0
3. 3
1. 3
2. 2

10. 3
6. 1
2. 4
1. 3

3. 6
.9
.1
1. 6

8. 9
3. 7
.8
1. 3

Median school years completed, by residence and region
Total
Nonfarm_____ __ ____
United States, excluding South______
South___
Farm ____ _
____
____
See footnotes at end of table.

198




8. 3
8. 7
9. 7
7. 4
5. 9

11. 9
12. 1
12. 1
11. 7
8. 9

5. 8
5. 9
7. 7
4. 3
5. 4

8. 6
8. 7
8. 7
8. 9
8. 2

9. 4
8. 7
10. 8
8. 5
8. 1

12. 2
12. 3
12. 3
12. 2
11. 7

8. 5
8. 8
9. 7
7. 7
6. 9

11. 2
11. 6
11. 6
11. 5
9. 0

T able

IVB-5.— Educational Attainment of the Population 18 Years Old and Over, by Labor Force Status, Color, Sex, Resi­
dence and Region, March 1959 and March 1965—Continued
Male

Years of school completed, residence,
region, and year

In labor
force
Non­
white

Female
Not in labor
force

White

Non­
white

White

In labor
force
Non­
white

Not in labor
force

White

Non­
white

White

Percent distribution, by years of school completed
1965

Total:
Number (in thousands)____ - _
Percent__
_
_
No school years com pleted.______ __
Elementary :
1 to 4 years
__
5 to 7 years
_ ■__
8 years._ _
_
_.
High school:
1 to 3 years . . . .
4 years._
College:
1 to 3 years
4 years__
__
__
5 years or more___ _____
_____

4, 603 41, 651
100. 0 100. 0

1, 030
100. 0

8, 763
100. 0

3, 262 21, 607
100. 0 100. 0

3, 383
100. 0

34, 727
100. 0

2. 1

.5

12. 6

4. 8

.9

.3

5. 0

1. 8

13. 3
16. 0
10. 4

2. 7
7. 7
13. 1

24. 8
18. 1
9. 5

10. 2
16. 9
21. 1

5. 9
13. 6
11. 3

1. 4
5. 0
10. 3

13. 4
19. 7
12. 0

3. 8
9. 9
15. 3

24. 4
21. 4

18. 8
33. 2

16. 1
11. 2

14. 4
14. 7

25. 7
28. 6

17. 7
43. 9

25. 8
18. 0

19. 3
34 8

6. 0
3. 7
2. 7

11. 0
7. 7
5. 4

5. 6
1. 1
1. 0

12. 8
2. 9
2. 2

6. 3
5. 6
2. 2

11. 0
7. 1
3. 3

4. 4
1. 4
.4

10. 2
4. 1
.9

Median school years completed, by residence and region
____ ________
Total___
Nonfarm_____
____ _______
United States, excluding South. __ .
South _
__ __ ___
__
Farm___ . . . __

10. 0
10. 3
11. 1
9. 1
6. 1

12. 2
12. 3
12. 3
12. 1
9. 4

7. 1
7. 0
8. 3
5. 6
C
1)

8. 9
8. 9
8. 9
8. 8
8. 5

11. 1
11. 2
12. 0
10. 1
8. 5

12. 3
12. 4
12. 4
12. 3
12. 1

9. 0
9. 2
10. 2
8. 2
6. 9

12. 0
12. 0
12. 2
11. 4
10. 2

1 Median not shown where base is less than 100,000.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data for 1959 are from “Educational Attainment of Workers, 1959,” Special Labor Force
Report No. 1, table F. Data for 1965 are unpublished from the March 1965 supplement to the Current Population Survey.




199

A m ong persons 18 years old and over in the civilian labor force, the proportion of non w hite workers
com pleting at least 4 years of high school doubled from 1952 to 1965, rising to 38 percent, w hile the
proportion of w hite workers has risen by nearly one-third to 60 percent.
T a b l e IVB-6.— Percent of the Civilian Labor Force 18 Years Old and Over, by Selected Levels of Educational Attainment
and by Color and Sex, Selected Years, 1952-65
Years of school completed and period

Nonwhite
Elementary—8 years or less:1
October 1952_______ __ _____ ______
March 1957__
__________ ______
March 1959____ _
March 1962___ _ _ _
_____
_____
March 1964__
March 1965___ __ __ _ . _ _
High school—4 years or more:
October 1952._
__ _
March 1957.. ..............
March 1959__ _ _____________ ______
March 1962..
_
__ ______. . .
March 1964.. . . .
March 1965____
_ _ _ _ _ . ___
College—4 years or more:
October 1952___________ __________ _ __
March 1957__ _________ ____
March 1959_____________________________
March 1962. ________________ _________
March 1964__ _
____ _____ _ __
March 1965___ _____________________ _.
1 Includes persons reporting no
2 Not available.

Male

Both sexes
White

Nonwhite

Female
White

Non white

66. 5
57. 6
53. 8
45. 2
40. 8
37. 6

34. 9
30. 5
27. 7
24. 7
22. 6
21. 6

69. 5
(2)
58. 1
50. 5
44. 7
41. 8

38. 7
(2)
30. 4
27. 2
24. 8
23. 9

62. 3
(2)
47. 1
37. 6 '
35. 1
31. 6

17. 4
22. 7
25. 0
31. 5
34. 6
37. 5

46. 1
50. 1
52. 6
56. 6
58. 9
60. 0

15. 1
(2)
21. 7
27. 3
30. 8
33. 8

42. 1
(2)
49. 4
53. 5
56. 2
57. 3

20. 4
(2)
29. 9
37. 6
39. 7
42. 7

2. 6
3. 5
4. 0
4. 8
5. 8
7. 0

8. 6
9. 8
10. 3
11. 8
11. 8
12. 2

1. 9

8. 6
(2)
11. 2
12. 6
12. 7
13. 1

(2)

3. 6
3. 6
6. 0
6. 4

(2)

3. 6
4. 7
6. 7
5. 2
7. 8

White
26. 5
(2)
21. 7
19. 5
18. 1
17. 1
(2)

55. 1
59. 8
62. 7
64. 2
65. 2

(2)

8. 3
8. 6
10. 0
10. 1
10. 3

school years completed.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data for 1952-64 are from “Educational Attainment of Workers, March 1964,” Special
Labor Force Report No. 53, table 2. Data for 1965 are unpublished from the March 1965 supplement to the Current Population Survey.

200



The labor force participation rate for nonwhite men 18 years old and over was almost the same as
for white men in March 1965, and for both groups the rates increased with education. At each edu­
cational level, nonwhite women were more likely to be in the labor force than white women.
T able

IVB-7.— Labor Force Participation Rates 1 of Persons 18 Years Old and Over, by Age Group, Color, Sex, and Years
of School Completed, March 1965

Years of school completed
and sex
MALE

Total. __ _
Elementary:
Less than 8 years.
Less than 5 years _
5 to 7 years
8 years______________
High school:
1 to 3 years__________
4 years
College:
1 year or more __
1 to 3 years
4 years or more______
FEMALE

T otal.. __ ______
_____
Elementary:
Less than 8 years. _ . _
Less than 5 years_____
5 to 7 years__________
8 years______________
High school:
1 to 3 years__________
4 years . . . _____
College:
1 year or more___^___
1 to 3 years
4 y e a r s or m ore

Total 18 years
and over

18 to 24
years

25 to 34
years

35 to 44
years

45 to 54
years

55 years
and over

Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
white
white
white
81. 8 82. 6 78. 0 75. 3 96. 4 97. 2 92. 6 97. 7 92. 4 95. 8 55. 4
71. 7
64. 9
79. 9
83. 0

61. 7 78. 1
50. 2 (2)
68. 2 (2)
74. 7 (2)
87. 1 86. 1 77. 9
89. 7 91. 5 83. 2

83. 3 91. 7 91. 4
(2)
(2) 85. 6
96. 5 95. 9 94. 4
93. 4 (2) 98. 0
75. 2 98. 0 98. 3
84. 9 97. 2 98. 7

87. 0
81. 9
91. 0
92. 4

91. 4
86. 5
93. 4
95. 9

91. 2
88. 1
94. 1
92. 9

49. 9
49. 0
51. 7
63. 2

40. 7
32. 3
46. 3
54. 9

95. 0 97. 5 90. 9 95. 3 68. 7
96. 3 98. 9 (2) 97. 3 (2)

67. 4
69. 5

87. 8 86. 5 61. 3 58. 5 97. 3 95. 9 95. 2 99. 1
82. 8 80. 3 61. 2 53. 9 96. 0 96. 0 (2) 98. 8
93. 1 92. 4 (2) 77. 9 98. 4 95. 8 (2) 99. 2

(2)
(2)

(2)

90. 6
84. 6
93. 2
95. 0

98. 4
98. 1
98. 6

(2)
(2)

(2)

49. 1 38. 4 47. 0 47. 5 54. 3 36. 6 57. 3 44. 2 60. 6 49. 2 29. 5
33. 8
25. 9
39. 9
47. 7

21. 4
16. 3
24. 0
29. 6

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

19. 9 38. 2 26. 8
(2)
(2) 26. 8
16. 3 44. 3 26. 8
30. 5 45. 6 33. 0

57. 5

43. 8
35. 5
47. 7
58. 0

38. 5
30. 1
41. 6
45. 2

52. 9
50. 4
54. 1
59. 4

49. 1 36. 3 40. 3 33. 2 50. 6 34. 4 55. 2 44. 0 60. 6
60. 4 43. 9 57. 9 53. 3 55. 2 36. 6 66. 6 44. 8 69. 1
68. 9 46. 7 52. 4 53. 4 79. 4 41. 9 73. 7 44. 6 (2)
58. 0 40. 1 40. 7 45. 7 74. 8 35. 7 (2) 37. 7 (2)
81. 2 56. 6 (2) 80. 8 84. 0 49. 4 (2) 54. 0 (2)

74. 1
70. 8
76. 6
24. 5

22. 1
18. 2
27. 0
34. 8

14. 0
10. 6
16. 1
19. 6

46. 7 38. 8
51. 8 (2)
57. 4 (2)
50. 8 (2)
66. 0 (2)

26. 2
32. 1

36. 2
32. 2
37. 5
46. 1

39. 6
31. 8
49. 5

1 Civilian labor force as percent of civilian noninstitutional population.
2 Rate not shown where base is less than 100,000.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data are unpublished from the March 1965 supplement to the Current Population Survey.




201

Labor force participation rates for men aged 25 and over with 8 years or less of schooling declined
substantially between 1950 and 1960 for both whites and nonwhites, since these were mostly older
persons. However, participation rates for men with some college education increased, especially for
nonwhites. Participation rates for women, both white and nonwhite, increased considerably at all
levels of educational attainment.
T able

IVB-8.—Labor Force Participation Rates 1 of Persons 25 Years Old and Over, by Sex, Color, and Educational
Attainment, United States, 1950 and 1960
Male
Educational attainment

Nonwhite
1950

Total

._

_

_

Elementary, 8 years or less___
High school:
1-3 years
4 years.
College:
1-3 years_____ __________
4 y ears.. . _

Female
White

1960

1950

Nonwhite

1960

1950

White

1960

1950

1960

79

85

84

40

46

27

34

74

80

71

37

40

20

24

87
88
__

82
83

. .

87
90

92
93

89
93

44
49

50
54

28
32

36
38

81
87

88
91

88
91

91
94

54
70

58
76

35
46

40
51

1 Civilian labor force as percent of civilian noninstitutional population.

Source:

A tta in m e n t,

202

1950: C ensus of P o p u la tio n , vol. IV, Special Reports, part 5, chapter 3, Education, table 9; 1960 C ensus o f P o p u la tio n , Su bject R e p o rts, E du cation al
PC(2)-5B, tables 4 and 5 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).




A sharp increase in educational level of nonwhite workers in blue-collar occupations occurred from
1959 to 1965. In white-collar jobs, the proportion of white and nonwhite men with at least 4 years of
high school rose at almost the same rate in that period. In 1965, a somewhat larger proportion of
nonwhite than white women in white-collar occupations had 4 years or more of high school.
T able

IVB-9.—Percent Distribution of Employed Persons 18 Years Old and Over, by Years of School Completed, Occupation
Group, Color, and Sex, March 1959 and March 1965

Year, sex, and years of school
completed

Total
employed

White-collar
occupations 1

Blue-collar
occupations 2

Service
occupations 3

Farm
occupations 4

Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
white
white

1959 5

Male:
Total: Number (in thousands). 3,597 37,230
Percent _
_ __
Elementary: 8 years or less 6__
High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years or m ore.. ____
Female:
Total: Number (in thousands).

495 2, 034

499

3, 462

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 100. 0
58.3 29.7 19.9 13.0 64.3 37.4 45.6 40.3 79.7

100.0
57.5

19.7
22. 1

19.9
50.4

2, 426 17, 539

453 14, 793 2, 150 16,941

12.8
67.3

12.4
74.7

431 10, 764

23.2
36.4

11.8
8.4

15.8
26.8

358 3,004 1, 553 3,212

84

559

22.0
13.8

26.9
35.7

23.8
30.7

100. 0 100.0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
. ____
P ercen t___ __
Elementary: 8 years or less__ 47.3 21.2 13.2
7.9 44.7 41. 5 55.2 41.3
High school:
22. 1 17. 9
1 to 3 years __ __
9. 5 12. 2 29. 6 30. 3 24. 5 25. 6
4 years or more________ 30. 6 60. 9 77. 2 79. 8 25. 7 28. 2 20. 3 33. 0

(7)

100.0
52.6
15. 9
31. 6

1965

Male:
Total: Number (in thousands). 4, 236 39, 983
Percent
_ _ __
Elementary: 8 years or less 6_.
High school:
1 to 3 years
.
_
4 years or more
_.
Female:
Total: Number (in thousands).
..
Percent_________
Elementary: 8 years or less__
High school:
1 to 3 years
4 years or m o re________

349

2, 620

100. 0 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100. 0 100.0
9.3 45. 0 31. 3 40. 3 30.4 83. 1
41.8 23.5 12.6

100.0
55.3

9.2
7.7
51

14.2
30.4

23.3
34.9

18.4
58.0

2, 969 20, 581

736 16, 891 2,513 18, 147

13.3 10.4
74.0 80.3
771 12, 976

100. 0

32. 5

100.0
16.9

100. 0

100. 0

23. 9
43.7

17. 3
65.8

11. 0
85.2

11. 6
82.7

3.8

1 Includes professional, technical, managerial, clerical, and sales workers.
2 Includes craftsmen, foremen, operatives, and laborers, except farm and

mine.
3 Includes private household workers.
4 Includes farmers and farm managers, foremen, and laborers.
s Excludes persons not reporting years of school completed.
8 Includes persons reporting no school years completed.
7 Percent not shown where base is less than 100,000.

217-817 O— «<

14




5.8

638 2, 325

25.9 28.7 23.3
42.8 31.0 46.3
487 3, 607 1,660 3, 560

26.8
28.2

100.0 100.0
35.1 38.5

100. 0

100. 0

29.2
32.3

29. 0
27.5

26. 0
42.2

28. 1
36.8

43.6

31.8

(7)

438
100.0
47. 5
16. 7
35.8

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data
for 1959 are from “Educational Attainment of Workers, March 1964,” Special
Labor Force Rpt. No. 53, table 7. Data for 1965 are unpublished from the
March 1965 supplement to the Current Population Survey.

203

A much larger proportion of white than nonwhite men with high school or college training were
likely to be in white-collar jobs in 1965, and the proportions had not changed appreciably since 1959.
The proportion of nonwhite women with at least a high school diploma holding white-collar jobs in­
creased significantly, however, with most of the gain in clerical positions.
T able

IVB-10.—Percent Distribution of Employed Persons, by Occupation Group, Years of School Completed, Color and
Sex, March 1959 and March 1965
Years of school completed and color
Total

Year, sex, and occupation group

Elementary
8 years or less

High school
1 to 3 years

4 years

College
1 year or more

Non­ White Non­ White Non- White Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
•white
white
1959
MALE

All occupation groups :
Number (thousands)________

3, 597 37, 230 2, 130 11, 055

688 7, 401

480 10, 768

299

8, 006

___ 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
Percent. . . .
.
White-collar workers _ _ ___
12. 5 39. 8
4. 2 17. 4
8. 3 24. 8 22. 6 42. 3 64. 7
Professional and technical__
4. 2 11. 4
2. 2
2. 3
6. 5 40. 7
1. 2
.5
1. 0
Managers, officials, and pro2. 2 15. 0
proprietors- .
_ .
2. 0 10. 4
1. 2 12. 4
3. 3 16. 4
47
Clerical workers .
.
5. 1 7. 0
1. 4
4. 9
3. 0
5. 8 15. 4 11. 0 15. 7
____
.9
6. 3
2. 8
1. 2
4. 3
1. 7
Sales workers___
.3
8. 4
3. 7
Blue-collar w o rk ers.__
59. 6 45. 4 64. 7 57. 1 68. 3 61. 4 48. 5 46. 0 20. 7
Craftsmen and foremen _.
7. 5 22. 2 13. 5 27. 1 10. 6 23. 7 10. 3
9. 3 20. 5
O peratives.. __ ________ 23. 6 19. 1 23. 6 25. 1 32. 0 27. 2 22. 6 18. 2
5. 3
4. 1
Nonfarm laborers.. . . .
7. 1 15. 4
26. 7
5. 8 33. 6
9. 8 22. 8
5. 0
Service w orkers__ __ _____ 13. 8
5. 5 10. 6
7. 5 17. 1
6. 4 23. 0
5. 1 14. 0
14. 2
6. 6
Farm w orkers__ _____
7. 4
5. 8
.7
9. 3 20. 5 18. 0
6. 4
Farmers and farm managers__ 5. 7
7. 1
5. 5
8. 4 13. 2
1. 7
5. 8
3. 1
Farm laborers and foremen___ 8. 4
2. 2 12. 0
4. 8
46
2. 7
1. 2
1. 6
.7

100. 0
81. 3
40. 6
22. 1
8. 3
10. 3
13. 6
7. 7
48
1. 2
2. 5
2. 6
2. 2
.5

1965
MALE

All occupation groups:
Number (thousands)__ __

561

9, 826

Percent___
_ __ 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
White-collar workers
17. 4 42. 2
5. 3 16. 7
9. 9 23. 9 20. 2 41. 0
Professional and technical___
6. 7 13. 4
.5
1. 2
1. 1
2. 0
45
7. 2 39. 6
Managers, officials, and proprietors._ __ _ _ _
3. 8 15. 5
2. 6 11. 4
3. 3
9. 9
7. 5
3. 6 16. 6
Clerical workers.
5. 5
7. 4
4. 8
.9
6. 1
9. 4 10. 4 15. 2
3. 2
Sales workers.
1. 4
4. 4
5. 9
1. 4
2. 7
2. 0
.6
2. 3
6. 7
Blue-collar workers. .
59. 3 45. 4 63. 9 60. 4 68. 3 63. 7 61. 2 48. 3 26. 2
Craftsmen and foremen. _
10. 8 19. 7 10. 0 23. 2 11. 6 25. 8 13. 2 22. 7
7. 7
Operatives_____
27. 6 20. 0 26. 6 27. 0 33. 7 30. 2 32. 0 21. 0 12. 8
Nonfarm laborers .
21. 0
5. 7 27. 2 10. 2 23. 0
7. 7 16. 0
46
5. 7
Service workers .
__
15. 1
5. 8 14. 5
7. 5 18. 5
7. 4 16. 1
6. 0
8. 9
Farm w o rk ers__ _
__
8. 2
6. 6 16. 4 15. 4
2. 5
4. 7
3. 2
5. 1
.7
Farmers and farm managers__ 2. 5
.4
5. 0
1. 1
3. 5
5. 0 11. 3
.5
3. 9
Farm laborers and foremen___ 5. 7
4. 1
2. 1
2. 0
.4
1. 6 11. 3
1. 5
.8

100. 0

204




4, 236 39, 983 1, 771 9, 411

987 7, 370

917 13, 376

41. 9
22. 6
8. 3
9. 5
13. 3
7. 6
4. 4
1. 3
2. 7
1. 8
1. 4
.3

IVB-10.—Percent Distribution of Employed Persons, by Occupation Group, Years of School Completed, Color and
Sex, March 1959 and March 1965— Continued
Years of school completed and color
Elementary
High school
College
Total
4 years
1 year or more
8 years or less 1 to 3 years
Year, sex, and occupation group
Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non- White
white
white
white
white
white

T able

1959
FEMALE

All occupation groups:
Number (thousands) __ _

2, 426 17, 539 1, 147 3, 733

537 3, 142

489 7, 229

253

3, 435

100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
P ercen t___ ._
White-collar workers _
17. 7 61. 3
5. 0 22. 9
7. 6 42. 0 29. 2 75. 1 74. 3
2. 3
4. 5
7. 9 52. 2
.2
1. 0
Professional and technical____ 6. 8 14. 2
1. 5
Managers, officials, and
2. 4
2. 3
5. 9
1. 4
proprietors. _ _ _
6. 0
6. 0
1. 3
6. 1
3. 1
Clerical workers. _
7. 4 33. 0
4. 1 23. 4 21. 5 52. 3 17. 0
.9
8. 2
1. 8
2. 8
8. 7
8. 1
.8
7. 7
. 7 10. 3
Sales workers. .
1. 2
14. 6 17. 1 13. 8 33. 5 19. 4 29. 0 15. 7 10. 7
5. 5
Blue-collar w orkers__
.2
1. 2
1. 2
1. 0
Craftsmen and foremen
.5
1. 0
1. 7
.6
9. 4
5. 5
Operatives __
13. 4 15. 7 13. 0 30. 9 18. 2 27. 4 13. 1
.7
.4
.4
Nonfarm laborers
1. 4
.3
.6
.8
.6
Service workers
64. 2 18. 4 75. 1 35. 7 70. 9 26. 2 54. 2 12. 3 20. 2
5. 0 21. 3
2. 2 10. 3
4. 8 53. 6 13. 6 36. 9
Private household workers___ 38. 8
9. 9
Other service workers__
25. 4 13. 5 21. 6 22. 1 34. 1 21. 3 32. 9 10. 1
2. 8
Farm workers. _
3. 5
3. 2
2. 0
.8
2. 0
6. 1 7. 9
.2
.2
.5
Farmers and farm managers
.6
.5
1. 9
2. 3
2. 6
1. 7
Farm laborers and foremen___ 3. 3
2. 0
.8
5. 6
6. 1

100. 0
91. 8
52. 8
5. 9
28. 0
5. 2
2. 2
.3
1. 8
5. 0
.7
4. 4
1. 0
.2
.8

1965
FEMALE

All occupation groups:
Number (thousands) _

452

4, 491

Percent...
. ...
100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0
White-collar workers _
26. 0 63. 0
3. 0 21. 5 12. 0 42. 2 34. 7 73. 1 80. 5
Professional and technical.
7. 5 52. 4
9. 7 15. 3
2. 5
3. 2
3. 1
.8
1. 1
Managers, officials, and
4. 4
4. 7
proprietors.
2. 0
1. 3
5. 5
5. 2
1. 1
4. 3
2. 3
Clerical workers__
12. 6 34. 6
.5
8. 7
5. 6 22. 3 27. 7 51. 5 21. 2
2. 4
Sales workers___ ._
2. 6
8. 6
1. 6
8. 1
.5
1. 6 11. 9
7. 4
4. 6
Blue-collar workers____
16. 4 17. 5 17. 7 39. 9 19. 3 29. 7 18. 7 11. 7
.4
Craftsmen and foremen._ _
1. 0
2. 1
1. 2
.4
.6
1. 3
.3
1. 8
3. 3
Operatives.
14. 9 15. 9 15. 9 37. 1 18. 1 27. 0 17. 3 10. 4
.2
.9
Nonfarm laborers
__ __
.2
.4
.6
.9
1. 6
1. 0
.8
Service workers. _
55. 9 17. 3 75. 0 32. 6 67. 8 26. 1 46. 2 13. 9 14. 6
3. 3
1. 7
Private household. . . .
4. 1 21. 0
3. 4 50. 1 10. 7 35. 4
31. 2
Other service workers. _
24. 7 13. 9 24. 9 21. 9 32. 4 22. 0 25. 2 12. 2 11. 3
.2
Farm workers___ __
. . . .
.4
1. 3
2. 1
1. 7
2. 1 4. 3
.8
6. 0
.2
.2
.7
.7
Farmers and farm managers
.5
1. 5
.2
.4
1. 1
Farm laborers and foremen___ 1. 5
4. 5
.8
1. 4
1. 6
3. 5

100. 0
91. 4
51. 3

2, 969 20, 581

964 3, 479

709 3, 551

844 9, 060

5. 5
30. 2
4. 3
2. 4
.6
1. 7
.1
5. 4
.7
4. 7
.8
.4
.4

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of the individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data for 1959 are from “Educational Attainment of Workers, March 1964,” Special Labor
Force Rpt. No. 53, table 7, and unpublished data from the 1959 supplement to the Current Population Survey. Data for 1965 are unpublished from theMarch
1965 supplement to the Current Population Survey.



205

In 1965, unemployment rates for white and non white persons tended to decline with increasing
age (up to 45 years) and were generally lower for high school graduates than for workers with less ed­
ucation.
T able

IVB-11.— Unemployment Rates of Persons 18 years Old and Over, by Years of School Completed, and by Age, Sex,
and Color, March 1962 and March 1965

Yeai, sex, and years of school
completed

Total, 18 years 18 to 24 years
and over

25 to 34 years

35 to 44 years

45 years and
over

Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
white
white
1962
Total, male___________ - ___
Elementary: 8 years or less
High school:
1 to 3 years . . ____
4 years or more__________
Total, female. . _ ____________
Elementary: 8 years or less
High school:
1 to 3 y e a r s .__ __ . _ _
4 years or more_________

12.7
12.8

5.2
7.5

18.3
19.2

11.2
18.6

11.2
7.5

4.9
9.8

12.5
13.4

3.9
6.9

11.6
13.0

4.5
6.4

16.6
9. 5
11.2
9. 6

6.7
3.5
5.2
6.2

15.3
8.5
9.2
17.4

19.2
8.0
12.0
13.6

6.5
3.3
5.6
8.4

14. 1
9.9
8.9
10.0

5.7
2. 1
4.7
6.7

8.6
8.0
6.0
5. 1

4.4
2.6
3.6
5.0

13.6
11. 1

8.3
4.0

23.4
12.7
24.0
(2)
26.7
19.2

17.3
7.0

15.4
9.2

9.2
4.3

10.2
6.8

7.5
3.5

5. 1
9.3

5. 1
2.2

4.0
5.5

13.2
5.9

8.6
11.8

7.9
8.3

3.1
7.0

6.5
8.4

3. 1
5.3

6.7
7.9

3.5
4.8

6.0
2.7
4.8
5.6

25.3
6. 1
18.4
(2)
31. 0
13. 1

12.2
7.0
8.9
13.3

10.9
6.2
10.4
15.8

5.4
1.9
5.5
7. 1

5.3
5.8
6.7
6. 1

5.1
1.8
4.0
8.4

5.9
2.5
5.1
4.9

4.4
2.0
3.0
4.3

19. 9
6.8

12. 7
7.5

6. 6
5. 1

9. 5
5.2

4. 2
3.0

10. 3
1.9

4. 4
1.9

1965
8. 1
Total, male _ _ _ _ _ _
Elementary: 8 years or less 1__ 7.8
High school:
12. 1
1 to 3 years. ___
4 years or more _
5.4
Total, female___ __ . ___________ 9.0
Elementary: 8 years or less L . 6.6
High school:
1 to 3 y e a rs ------------ ._ 15. 3
4 years or m ore.. ---------- 7.0

7. 1
3.9

1 Includes persons reporting no school years completed.
2 Rate not shown where base is less than 100,000.

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data for 1962 are from “Educational Attainment of Workers, March 1962”, Special Labor
Force Rpt. No. 30, table K. Data for 1965 are unpublished from the March 1965 supplement to the Current Population Survey.

206



Among nonwhite workers, the drop in unemployment between 1962 and 1965 was relatively greater
at the ends of the educational scale—among those with only grade school training (usually older workers
with experience) and those who attended college—than among those who attended high school. Among
whites, the decline was greatest among those with least schooling.
T able

IVB-12. Percent Distribution of Unemployed Persons 18 Years Old and Over, by Years of School Completed and by
Age and Color, March 1962 and March 1965
Years of school

Total, 18
years and
over

18 to 24
years

25 to 34
years

35 to 44
years

45 to 54
years

55 years
and over

Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
white
white
white
1962

Total: Number (thousands)___
__
Percent._
_
Elementary:
Less than 5 years
__
5 to 7 years______________
8 years________
High school:
1 to 3 years______________
- 4 years____
College: 1 year or more_______

911 3, 138 249

843

205

622

206

608

143

574

108

491

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
16.0 5.0 2.0
13.4 12. 5 11. 2
14.4 16r 4 14. 0

.8
6.5
7.5

4.9 2.7 19.4 3.0 25.2 7.5 51.9
9.2 10.0 14.6 11. 5 16. 1 20. 2 20.4
9.7 12.8 16.5 17.8 16. 1 24.4 17.6

14.9
17.5
25.3

29.4 26. 1 38.0 31.3 45.6 25.7 24.8 30. 1 16.8 22.0
21. 5 29.5 28. 4 43. 1 24.3 33.7 19.9 26.2 23. 1 18. 1
5.3 10.5 6.4 10.8 6.3 15. 1 4.9 11.5 2.8 7.8

4.6
.9
4.6

17.7
17.9
6.7

442

69

441

1965

Total: Number (thousands)___

666 2, 700 206

Percent..
100 . 0
Elementary:
Less than 5 years 1________ 10. 8
5 to 7 years______________ 14. 0
8 years__
_____ 8. 1
High school:
1 to 3 years__
39.6
__ 23.7
4 years________
College: 1 year or more_______ 3.8

834

167

475

124

508

100

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
4. 6
9.5
13. 9

1. 9
2. 9

1. 4 3. 6 2. 7 8. 9 3. 9 26. 3 6. 3
2.4 13.3 6.8 19.4 15. 1 25.3 14.7
5. 4 8. 4 11. 8 10. 5 12. 9 12. 1 19. 7

27.5 63.3 32.4 36. 1 24.7 29. 0 27. 1 24.2 27.7
32. 1 27.5 43. 2 33. 1 36. 3 26. 6 28. 0 12. 1 26. 1
12. 4 4.3 15. 2 5.4 17.7 5.6 12. 9
5.4 —

(2)

100.0
11. 8
14. 5
27. 4
21. 5
17. 0
7.7

1 Includes persons reporting no school years completed.
2 Percent not shown where base is less than 100,000.

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data for 1962 are from “Educational Attainment of Workers, March 1962,” Special Labor
Force Report No. 30, table L. Data for 1965 are unpublished from the March 1965 supplement to the Current Population Survey.




207

The median income of nonwhite men lagged behind that of white men at every educational level
in both 1958 and 1963, but incomes in both groups increased substantially during that period. In both
years, nonwhite men’s income more closely approximated the income of the least educated white men
than that of men with some college education.
T able

IVB-13.— Median Yearly Income of Males 14- Years Old and Over With Income, by Color and Years of School Com­
pleted, 1958 and 1963

Years of school
completed

Nonwhite

Total
1958

1963

1958

1963

Percent change 1958 to Nonwhite as
1963
a percent
of white

White
1958

1963

Elementary:
Less than 8
years______ _ $1, 905 $2, 194 $1, 447 $1, 731 $2, 076 $2, 408
3, 214 3, 610 2, 328 2, 740 3, 276 3, 749
8 years _____
High school:
3, 594 3, 902 2, 224 2, 459 3, 774 4, 150
1 to 3 years
4 years _ ___ 4, 548 5, 482 2, 994 3, 821 4, 654 5, 600
College: 1 year or
5, 702 6, 674 3, 679 4, 070 5, 810 6, 829
more____

Total Non white White 1958 1963

15
12

20
18

16
14

70
71

72
73

9
21

11
28

10
20

59
64

59
68

17

11

18

63

60

N ote.—All income data are expressed in current dollars.
Source: Data are from C u rren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, C onsum er Incom e, “Income of Families and Persons in the United States: 1958,” series P-60, No. 33,
table 26, and C u rren t P o p u la tio n R ep o rts, C onsum er Incom e, “Income of Families and Persons in the United States: 1963,” series P-60, No. 43, table 21 (U.S.
Bureau of the Census).

At every income level a substantially larger proportion of housing occupied by nonwhite than white
households was substandard (according to Census definition). At the lowest income level (under $3,000),
only 30 percent of white housing was substandard, compared to 61 percent of nonwhite housing.
T able

IVC-1.— Condition of Housing by Income Class of Household in 1959 and by Color, United States, 1960
Total number
(in thousands)

Income class

Nonwhite
Total__________ ________

.

White

Perce nt in
Standard 1 housing
Nonwhite

White

Substandard housing
Nonwhite

White

. ___

5, 144

47, 880

56

87

44

13

Less than $3,000_____. . _______
$3,000 to $4,999______________________________
$5,000 to $6,999______________________________
$7,000 and over. _ _ _ ___ _________ _

2, 755
1, 186
645
558

12, 047
9, 536
10,512
15, 786

39
67
81
89

70
85
93
97

61
33
20
12

30
15
7
3

1 Standard housing, as defined by the Census, had slight or no defects, hot
and cold running water and exclusive use of a flush toilet and bathtub (or
shower) within the unit.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

208



Source: 1960 C ensus o f H ou sin g, vol. II, M etro politan H ou sin g, pt. I, U nited
States an d D ivision s, tables A-4, A-13 (U.S. Bureau of the Census),

Among white and nonwhite households in all regions, the extent of substandard housing and over­
crowding was greatest outside of SMSA’s, and tended to be least in central cities of SMSA’s.
T able

IVC-2.— Selected Characteristics of Housing Units by Color of Household Head, by Region, Inside and Outside SM SA ’s
Urban and Rural, 1960
Percent of units 1
Location

Substandard 2
Non white

United States. _ .
__ __ _________ ______ __ _ _ _ ___
Inside SMSA
. . . ___________________________________
..
_____ ______
In central cities__
Not in central cities.. __ _________ ____ . _. __
Outside SMSA. __
___ _____________
Urban _ _ _ _. _______ _ _ _ ________ _____
Rural
Nonfarm
________ ______________ _______
Farm __
__
__________
REGIONS
Northeast__ _____
____ _ . _____ . . . __ ____
Inside S M S A __
_
____
__
In central cities
_ _ ______ __ _ _ _ _
Not in central cities
. ______ _
Outside SMSA
. ____________________________
Urban _ _
_
____ ______
______________ .
_____ _ _
___ _______ _
Rural
_
_
Nonfarm
...
_
__ __ _
Farm
_
__
..
_ _ _ _ .
North Central ________________
________ _ _ . _______
Inside SMSA__________________________________________________
. . . __
______ ___ __
In central cities______
Not in central cities_. __ . . ___ __________ ________
Outside SMSA. _
______ _ _ .
____ __
________
____
U rb a n ___ _
Rural__ . _ _ .
________ . _ _
Nonfarm
___ __ .
___ ___ _________
Farm ________ _______ .
_
_ _______
South_______ ._ _
___ __
___
__________
Inside SMSA __
_ _ __
________
_
_______
In central cities__
Not in central cities____
__ _________ _________ _
Outside SMSA_____________ _________________________________
Urban __
_ _ ____ __
Rural _ .
______
_ __________
Nonfarm _
_____ _
__ __ __________
Farm __ . . .
.
. . _____ _ _ _
See footnotes at end of table.




White

With 1.01 or more
persons per room
Nonwhite

White

56. 0
43. 2
40. 8
53. 7
82. 8
46. 4
88. 6
86. 8
93. 9

23. 1
15. 6
16. 9
14. 1
35. 5
15. 6
40. 1
38. 8
45. 0

28. 3
24 7
23. 5
29. 8
36. 0
24 7
40. 8
38. 4
47. 6

9. 7
8. 8
8. 4
9. 0
11. 5
8. 5
12. 9
13. 5
11. 4

42. 1
41. 4
41. 3
42. 2
55. 1
41. 4
61. 3
60. 4
76. 0
43. 0
40. 4
39. 1
51. 1
69. 1
41. 5
76. 3
74. 8

18. 0
15. 3
17. 5
13. 0
26. 7
14. 9
28. 9
28. 4
34. 8
24. 5
16. 4
18. 3
14 2
34. 9
16. 6
39. 8
39. 4
40. 9
30. 3
17. 3
17. 2
17. 5
42. 5
17. 6
48. 9
46. 9
56. 3

20. 3
20. 2
20. 3
19. 9
22. 3
20. 2
24 6
24 3
29. 5
23. 7
23. 3
23. 0
25. 7
28. 1
23. 2
34 9
34. 9

7. 3
7. 2
8. 2
6. 3
7. 2
7. 0
8. 1
8. 4
5. 9
9. 2
9. 1
8. 2
10. 2
9. 2
8. 6
10. 2
11. 4
8. 6
12. 5
10. 4
10. 1
11. 1
14 5
8. 3
16. 5
16. 9
14 9

84. 6

69. 4
51. 8
46. 5
70. 4
85. 9
56. 6
91. 9
90. 5
95. 8

35. 0

33. 1
29. 5
27. 3
37. 1
36. 5
28. 6
41. 0
38. 3
48. 2

209

T able

IVC-2.—Selected Characteristics of Housing Units by Color of Household Head, by Region, Inside and Outside S M S A ’s
Urban and Rural, 1960—Continued
Percent of units 1
Substandard 2

Location

Non white
regions —continued
West____ ______________________ - - ________________ _________
Inside SMS A__________________________________________________
In central cities__________
__
----- -----------Not in central cities________ _____ ____________ ______ _ _
- - ___ _____—
Outside SMSA
_ _____
U rb a n _______ _____________ _ _ _ _________________ ____
Rural__________
- _ __ _________________________________
Nonfarm__
_ ________ _ _
Farm __ _________
_______ _____
__ -- - - - 1 Occupied units in all instances except in the case of data on condition.
The data for whites include vacant units.
2 Standard housing as defined by the Census had slight or no defects, hot
and cold running water and exclusive use of a flus toilet and bathtub (or

210




33. 4
26. 5
26. 0
28. 0
63. 5
26. 7
67. 1
67. 2
66. 3

White
17. 1
19. 0
13. 2
12. 4
28. 2
12. 7
32. 4
33. 1
28. 6

With 1.01 or more
persons per room
Non white
25. 2
21. 5
19. 7
26. 3
41. 5
21. 2
45. 5
45. 5
45. 4

White
10. 3
8. 9
7. 1
10. 5
14. 0
8. 9
15. 9
16. 4
14. 3

shower) within the unit.
Source: 1960 C ensus o f H ou sin g, HC(1) No. 1, tables 2, 22, and 23 (U.S.
Bureau of the Census).

Of the 16,836,000 housing units added to the “standard housing” supply between 1950 and 1960,
almost 9 in 10 went to white occupants. In that period the number of white-occupied substandard
units dropped by 50 percent compared to less than a 20-percent decline in the nonwhite-occupied
substandard units.
T able

IVC-3.— Shifts in Housing Characteristics, by Color of Occupants, 1950-60
Nonwhite

Occupied housing units and characteristic

1950

White

1960

Difference, 1950-60

1950

1960

Nonwhite

__

3, 868

5, 144

39, 101

47, 880

Standard1____________________ ______
Substandard-_
_
_
- _____

1, 068
2, 800

2, 881
2, 263

26, 646
12, 455

41, 669
6, 211

_____

100

100

100

100

Standard1 __ ________________ _ _ _____
_____
Substandard _
__

28
72

56
44

68
32

85
15

Number (thousands of units)___

Percent______

-

___

_

Owner-occupied (percent)
_
Northeast____
North Central______________ _ .
South. _
___ __________ _
West ________________
Tenant-occu'pied (percent) _ _ _ _
Northeast____
_ _ _
North Central.
South.
.
West____ _________ ______ _-

_____

55

57
50
62
58
58
43
50
38
42
52

64
58
69
66
63
36
42
31
34
37

548

633

1, 450

442

106

156
477

18
$27
$3, 000

__ __
_ _____

35
22
34
37
40
65
78
66
63
60

38
27
36
42
45
62
73
64
58

Seriously overcrowded,2 total number of non­
farm housing units (in thousands)__ _ ____
Owner-occupied
Tenant-occupied______ _______ ________
Overcrowded as a percent of all occupied__
Median rent of tenant-occupiedMedian value of owner-occupied _

_______
____________
__ __

__ __ _

White

(number change)
1,276
8, 779
1,813
-5 3 7

15, 023
- 6 , 244

(percent change)
22
33
170
-1 9

56
-5 0

(percenta ge points
chaiage)
3
7
5
8
2
7
5
8
5

—3

5

-7

-8

—5
—2
—5
—5

—8

1, 071

85

-3 7 9

480
970

439
632

50
35

—41
-3 3 8

13

4

2

$58
$6, 700

$44

$75
$12, 230

$7, 700

—7
-5

(numbei change)

(percent change)
115
70
123
59

1 Standard housing, as defined by the Census, had slight or no defects, hot and cold running water, and exclusive use of a flush toilet and bathtub (or
shower) within the unit.
2 With 1.51 persons per room.
Source: O ur N o n w h ite P o p u la tio n an d Its H ou sing; The Change B etw een 1950 an d 1960, May 1963, pp. 12,13,16, and 19 (Housing and Home Finance Agency).




211

The sharpest decline in the proportion of substandard units among nonwhite households from 1950
to 1960 occurred in urban areas. There was little change in rural farm areas.
T able

IVC-4.— Housing

Conditions Among Households With Nonwhite Heads, by Urban-Rural Location, United States,
1950 and 1960

1950 1
Location

Number
(in
thou­
sands)

1960
Number
(in
thou­
sands)

Percent
Total Standard2

Sub­
standard

Percent
Total Standard2

Sub­
standard

3, 868

United States ______ . . _ _
Urban___ _ _ ___
Rural nonfarm
___
Rural farm .

100

28

72

5, 144

100

56

44

2, 544
644
679

100
100
100

40
6
3

61
93
97

3, 978
866
299

100
100
100

68
17
8

32
83
92

1 1950 figures adjusted to include Alaska and Hawaii.
2 Standard housing as defined by the Census had slight or no defects, hot

and cold running water, and exclusive use of a flush toilet and bathtub
(or shower) within the unit.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

Source: 1960 United States Census of H ousing, Vol. 1, States and Sm all
A reas, United States Sum m ary, HC(1)-1, table 27; 1950 Census of H ousing,
Vol. 1, General Characteristics, U .S . Sum m ary, Pt. 1 (U.S. Bureau of the
Census); Our N onw hite P opulation and Its H ousing, The Changes Between
1950 and 1960, table 24 (Housing and Home Finance Agency).

A much larger proportion of the housing for nonwhites than for whites in 1960 was seriously over­
crowded (1.51 persons or more per room) regardless of location or tenure. Overcrowding was high in
renter-occupied housing and highest of all among nonwhite household tenants in rural areas and outside
of SMSA’s.
T able

IVC-5.— Percent of Housing Seriously Overcrowded,1 Inside and Outside SMSA’s,

Urban and Rural, by Tenure and

Color of Occupants, 1960

Renter-occupied

Location

Nonwhite
United States total

...

_______

Owner-occupied

White

Non white

White

17

4

9

2

Inside SMSA’s . .
_ ________ __
Outside SMSA’s_______________________________________

13
27

3
6

6
14

i
2

Urban _____ _ ________ _ _
_____ . . _ _ _
Rural__
________ . . .
__________

14
31

3
7

6
17

1
3

11.51 persons per room or more.
Source: Our N onw hite P opulation and Its Housing; The Changes Between 1950 and 1960, May 1963, table 35 (Housing and Home Finance Agency).

212



Most of the owner-occupied nonwhite housing in 1960 was valued at less than $7,500 whereas most
of the housing owned by whites was valued at $10,000 or more. Likewise, in renter-occupied housing,
nonwhite families tended to live in low-rent houses or apartments. Home values and rents were highest
in SMSA’s and lowest in rural areas for whites and nonwhites.
T able

IVC-6.— Percent Distribution of Owner- and Renter-Occupied Housing Units by Value or Gross Monthly Rent, Inside
and Outside SM SA ’s, Urban and Rural, by Color of Occupants, 1960
Inside SMSA’s

Total
Non­
white

White

Outside SMSA’s

Non­
white

Non­
white

White

White

Urban

Rural

Non­
white

White

Non­
white

White

Renter occupied

GROSS RENT

Median________

100
12
21
12
12
10
12
5
3
14

100
4
15
12
14
13
19
10
9
6

100
6
22
15
15
13
16
7
4
4

100
2
11
11
14
13
21
11
11
4

100
28
20
5
3
2
2
1
(2)
38

100
9
21
13
13
11
14
5
3
10

100
9
23
14
14
12
15
6
4
3

100
2
13
12
14
13
21
10
10
4

100
25
10
3
2
1
2
(2)
(2)
56

100
12
21
11
11
9
12
5
4
15

$58

T o ta L __ __________
Less than $30_
$30-$49____________
$50-$59____________
$60-$69____________
$70-$79____________
$80-$99____________
$100-$119 _________
$120 or more _ _ _
N o c a sh re n t.. _ _ _

$75

$64

$79

$33

$65

$61

$76

$27

$66

Owner occupied
VALUE 1

Total_________________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Less than $5,000-__
$5,000-$7,400_______
$7,500-$9,900_______
$10,000-$12,400_____
$12,500-$14,900 ___
$15,000-$17,400_____
$17,500-$19,900_____
$20,000-$24,900 ___
$25,000 or more __

36
20
15
11
7
5
2
2
2

11
12
13
16
14
11
8
8
8

19
21
19
15
10
6
3
3
3

5
8
12
16
16
13
9
9
10

68
17
7
4
2
1
1
1

22
18
16
15
10
7
4
4
3

27
21
17
13
9
6
3
3
2

6
10
13
17
16
13
9
9
9

72
15
5
3
1
1
1
1

25
18
14
13
9
7
4
5
5

Median. _ _

(2)
(2)
_____ $6,700 $12, 230 $8, 800 $13, 810 $5, 000 $9, 002 $7, 800 $13, 088 $5, 000

1 Single housing unit properties without business.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

N ote.—Because of rounding, sum of individual items may not equal totals.




$8, 695

Source: Out N onw hite P opulation and Its Housing; The Changes Betw een
May 1963, tables 38 and 40 (Housing and Home Finance
Agency).
1960 and 1960,

213

The greatest concentration of substandard housing in 1960 was in the South—over three-fifths of
the units occupied by nonwhite households and one-fifth of those occupied by whites. The incidence
of substandard housing rises with declining income in each region in each location (inside or outside
SMSA’s).
T able

IVC-7. — Substandard Housing

1

Units by Income Class of Household in 1959, by Color, Region, and Residence Inside
and Outside SMSA’s, I960

Total
Location

Under $3,000 $3,000 to 4,999 $5,000 to 6,999 $7,000 and over

Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
white
white
Percent substandard

United States________ . _ _ _ _
Inside SMSA’s __________
Outside SMSA’s _________
N ortheast.. ________ ____
Inside SMSA’s __________
Outside SMSA’s. _ _____
North Central . .
__ _ _
Inside SMSA’s __________
Outside SMSA’s _________
South____ __
Inside SMSA’s __________
Outside SMSA’s __ ______
___ __ ________
West
Inside SMSA’s __________
Outside SMSA’s _________

44
28
77
22
22
38
27
24
56
62
40
82
21
14
53

13
7
23
8
7
14
14
8
22
20
9
31
7
5
12

61
42
85
32
31
50
40
35
70
73
52
87
38
26
72

30
19
41
20
17
28
31
22
38
41
22
51
18
14
25

33
25
61
21
21
35
25
23
44
45
32
67
20
14
45

15
10
22
11
9
16
17
13
22
19
10
27
9
7
13

20
15
47
15
14
26
16
15
32
31
21
55
11
8
32

7
5
12
5
5
8
9
6
13
9
5
14
4
3
6

11
9
34
9
9
17
9
8
22
21
13
44
7
4
23

3
2
6
2
2
4
3
2
7
3
2
7
1
1
3

126
83
43
23
21
2
28
24
3
64
30
33
12
7
5

734
332
402
160
108
52
279
122
156
225
63
161
70
38
32

64
43
21
13
12
1
14
12
2
29
14
15
8
5
3

430
206
224
103
73
30
169
76
93
115
35
79
43
22
21

Number (in thousands)
United States_________
Inside SMSA’s __________
Outside SMSA’s ______
Northeast___________________
Inside SMSA’s __________
Outside SMSA’s _________
North C e n tral_____ ______
Inside SMSA’s __________
Outside SMSA’s _____ __
South__________
__ __
Inside SMSA’s __________
Outside SMSA’s _________
West_______________________
Inside SMSA’s__________
Outside SMSA’s . _ __

2, 263
982
1, 281
196
180
16
251
203
48
1, 697
535
1, 162
120
64
56

6, 210 1, 686 3, 615
2, 230
629 1, 143
3, 981 1, 057 2, 472
1, 054
107
515
686
97
330
368
9
185
2, 033
150 1, 106
693
324
116
34
1, 340
783
2, 556 1, 357 1, 668
549
379
314
2, 007
978 1, 354
72
568
326
302
36
176
266
36
150

388 1, 431
227
549
160
883
54
276
176
50
4
100
60
478
51
170
9
308
247
549
111
136
136
413
27
128
15
66
12
62

1 Substandard housing includes units lacking some or all plumbing facilities, and all delapidated units.
N ote: Because of rounding, sum of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: 1960, Census of Housing: vol. II, M etropolitan H ousing, pt. 1, United States and Divisions, tables A-4, B-4, C-4, A-13, B-13, C-13 (U.S. Bureau of
the Census).

214



A smaller proportion of nonwhite than white one-family homeowner properties were mortgaged in
1960. FHA or VA financing was less prevalent for nonwhite than white owners who had mortgages.
T able

IVC-8.— Mortgage and Government Insurance Status of 1-Unit Homeowner Properties,

by Color of Household Head,

1960

Mortgage and Government insurance status

Total
1-dwelling
unit
properties

Nonwhite

White

Percent distribution
Total properties..............

100

100

100

Nonmortgaged properties
Mortgaged properties___

42
58

51
49

42
58

FHA _____ ________
VA________________
Conventional...........

11
14
34

5
9
35

11
14
34

Mortgaged properties___

100

100

100

FHA ______________
VA________________
Conventional______

19
23
58

10
19
71

19
24
58

Number (in thousands)
Total properties................

24, 954

1, 321

23, 633

Nonmortgaged properties
Mortgaged properties___

10, 501
14, 454

673
648

9, 828
13, 805

FH A ______________
VA........ ...................
Conventional______

2, 667
3, 381
8, 406

68
124
457

2, 600
3, 257
7, 949

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of Individual Items may not equal total.
Source: 1960 Census of H ousing, Residential Finance, Hom eow ner Properties, vol. V, pt. 1, tables 1, 2; R esidential Finance, H om eowner Properties, N onw hite
fam ilies, vol. V, pt. 1, supplement, tables 1, 2 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).




215

Most of the homes purchased or acquired by nonwhite occupants had been previously occupied
(74 percent), according to the 1960 Census of Housing. Housing costs were over one-fourth of family
income among nonwhite homeowners with conventionally financed mortgages, but only one-fifth among
those with FHA or VA financing.
T a bl e IVC-9.— Percent

Distribution of Homes by Age of Owner and Financial Obligation Incurred,
Nonwhite, 1960

Total and

1

Properties with
All properties

FHA first
mortgage

Owner characteristics

VA first
mortgage

Conventional
first mortgage

Non­
white
Age of household head:
Under 35 years_____________
35 to 44 years _
. _. __
45 to 64 years ._
_ __ _____
65 years and over__ ___________ _
Median years___________________
Previous tenure:
New____
_ __ _
_ __
Previously occupied. _____________
Manner of acquisition:
By purchase or construction_______
Made new mortgage__ __ _____
Assumed mortgage from former owner.
Assumed mortgage from former owner,
made new second mortgage
Borrowed, other than mortgage__ __
All cash ___
_ __ __
By gift, inheritance, or other nonpurchase transaction
Total housing costs as a percent of income:
Acquired before 1959 (number in
thousands)_______________________
Less than 10 percent ________
10-14 percent. _. _____________
15-19 percent__________________
20-29 percent _ _ ______ _
30-39 percent _ _______________
40 percent or more__________ .
Median percent____ _________ .
Purchase price-annual income ratio:
Acquired by purchase 1957 to 1960
(part) (number in thousands)______
Less than 1.0 _____________
1.0 to 1.4______________________
1.5 to 1.9______________________
2.0 to 2.4______________________
2.5 to 2.9______________________
3.0 to 3.9______________________
4.0 or more . . . _________
Median ratio___________________
See footnotes at end of table.

216



Total

Non­
white

Total

Non­
white

Total

Non­
white

19
35
39
8
44

29
34
32
5
41

41
34
25
38

31
35
31
3
40

24
52
22
2
40

36
46
16
2
38

14
30
46
11
48

25
30
39
7
44

26
74

43
57

37
63

47
53

33
67

48
52

23
77

40
60

99
77
11

99
82
13

100
83
12

100
81
16

100
86
6

100
76
20

98
74
12

99
85
9

2
4
4
1

2
2
1

3
3

3

6
22

3

1
5
5

1
2
2

2

1

3, 042
4
24
31
32
6
3
19

383
5
10
17
27
17
25
27

7, 141
6
19
25
31
9
10
20

995
3
19
31
25
14
7
3
2. 0

141
7
23
18
16
15
9
12
2. 1

3, 122
10
17
23
22
12
9
7
2-0

(2)
(2)

1

(2)

545 12, 333
4
6
21
14
27
20
31
29
8
14
7
20
19
24

50
7
22
29
27
5
10
19

2, 149
6
25
29
29
6
4
18

111

5, 274
7
17
27
24
12
8
6
2. 0

35

1, 157
2
17
35
26
13
5
3
2. 0

34

210
5
22
19
20
15
8
12
2. 1

(2)

26
22
29
14
3
5

22
25
38
6
8
21

14
22
23
16
10
15

Total

T able IVC-9.— Percent Distribution of Homes by Age of Owner and Financial Obligation Incurred, Total and

Nonwhite, 1960 1—Continued

Properties with
All properties
Owner characteristics
Non­
white
Interest and principal payments on first
mortgage as percent of income:
Regular payments of interest and/or
principal (number in thousands)___
Less than 5 percent___
_ __
5 to 9 percent____ ______
10 to 14 percent__________ __
15 to 19 percent. _ _ _ _ _
20 to 29 percent- __
____
30 to 39 percent__ __
40 percent or more__ _____
Median percent____ _________
Real estate tax as percent of income:
Acquired before 1959 (number in
thousands). _ _ ----------- ----Less than 1.0 percent. _ . . .
1.1 to 1.9 percent._ __ _ __
2.0 to 2.9 percent. ________
3.0 to 3.9 percent. _ _________
__________
4.0 to 4.9 percent
5.0 to 9.9 percent__ __'_________
10 percent or more _ _ _
Median percent ______ ______ _____

FHA first
mortgage

VA first
mortgage

Conventional
first mortgage

Total

Non­
white

Total

Non­
white

646 14, 402
5
6
25
36
35
28
12
16
14
6
2
6
7
3
14
11

68
5
42
37
8
6
3

2, 667
7
41
37
9
3
1
2
10

124
1
37
40
12
5
3
3
11

3, 381
3
44
39
9
3
1
1
10

455
6
19
23
18
18
7
9
15

8, 354
7
32
33
14
9
2
3
12

2, 149
12
21
25
17
9
13
3
2. 7

111
11
17
31
10
18
11
2
2. 7

3, 042
8
22
22
20
12
14
2
2. 9

383
30
18
19
9
5
13
6
2. 1

7, 141
16
22
20
14
10
14
5
2. 6

1
545 12, 333
24
13
22
20
21
21
10
16
8
10
13
14
4
5
2. 3
2. 7

11
50
7
34
21
23
4
11
2. 4

Total

Non­
white

Total

1 Financial and income statistics relate to annual data.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: 1960 Census of H ousing, R esidential Finance, H om eowner Properties, vol. V, pt. 1, table 2; Residential Finance, Hom eow ner Properties, N onw hite
Fam ilies, vol. V, pt. 1, supplement, table 2 (U.S. Bureau of Census).




217

The m edian price paid for m ortgaged houses bought b y nonw hite hom eowners from 1957 to 1960
was more than the estim ated value in 1960. T w o-fifths of nonw hite-ow ned m ortgaged hom es had been
built in 1929, or earlier, but relatively few were dilapidated.
T able

IVC-10.— P ercen t D istrib u tio n

o f M o rtga ged H om es fo r S elected P ro p e rty C h aracteristics, T o ta l a n d N o n w h ite, 1 9 6 0

Properties with—

All mortgaged
properties

FHA first
mortgage

Property characteristics
Non­
white
Year built:
1958-59__________________________
1955-57__________________________
1950-54__________________________
1940-49__________________________
1930-39__________________________
1929 or e a rlie r.,__ _____ _
_
Condition:
Not dilapidated___ __ - ________
Dilapidated _ ------------------------Rooms:
Less than 4 rooms____ ____
4 rooms _ __
---------------5 rooms___ - - _
—
- -------- 6 rooms___
7 rooms or more__
Median__
______ _ _
Purchase price as percent of value:
Purchased 1957 to 1960 (part) (number in thousands)
Less than 80 percent___________
80 to 89 percent. __ -------90 to 99 percent
1 0 0 percent or m ore_________ _
Median
_ _ _ _ ______ _ _
Purchased 1950 to 1956 (number in
thousands)______ — —
Less than 60 percent___
60 to 79 percent _______ - _
80 to 89 percent. __ _
90 to 99 percent.
- _______
1 0 0 percent or more________
Median
____ _______ __
Real estate tax per $1,000 value:
Acquired before 1959____ _____ _
Less than $5_ _
_ _ _ __
$5 to $9 ____________________
$10 to $14____________________
$15 to $19____________________
$20 to $29____________ ______
$30 or more. .
_____ Median
____ _

7
9
17
14
13
40
93
7
4
17
31
29
20
5.5
210
10

15
26
50

Total
10

19
25
18
7
21

99
1

2

Non­
white
12

16
39
10
9
14
97
3

Total

Non­
white

14
18
32
22
4
99
1

2

13
35
32
18
5.5

5, 274

35
16
42
42

1, 157
5
16
45
35
97
1, 221
3
26
33
20
19
87
2, 149

34
8
17
17
58

88

86

545
21
24
21
18
12
5

12, 333
11
19
28
22
16
4
14

12
20

50
18
9
38
9
19
7
13

8
21

75
16
21
33
30
94
111
10

27
22
19
3
14

than 0.5 percent.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: 1960 C ensus o f H ou sin g, R e sid en tia l F inance, H om eow n er P ro p erties, vol. v, pt. 1, table 2; R e sid en tia l
F am ilies, vol. v, pt. 1, supplement, table 1 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

18
15
33
21
4
16

Non­
white
8
6
11

2

15
43
29
13
5.3
995

141
13
14
24
50

10

17
29
28
20
5. 5

12

98
(!)

6
20

38
36
96
2, 133
3
26
33
23
14
86

3,042
7
14
31
26
19
3
15

2

3
14
31
29
23
5. 6

6

100

186
7
25
25
14
28
87
383
24
27
20
15
9
5
10

Total

17
19
18
9
29
98

16
14
46
91
9

1

15
45
27
12
5.3

31
6
46
17

6

26
35
17
4

32
99

10

1

Total

11
11

19
36
26
19
5.3

11
20

Conventional
first mortgage

4
14
29

14
36
28
19
5.4

33
37
96
100 +
293 7, 028
5
6
25
27
23
29
19
20
28
18

11

YA first
mortgage

+

3, 122
14
21
26
38
95
3,674
10
27
26
18
19
85
7, 141
14
21
26
20
15
5
13

1 Less

218



F in a n ce, H om eow n er P ro p erties, N o n w h ite

A lthough m ortgage loans as a percent of purchase price for nonw hite hom eowners tended to be
higher and the interest on their loans was higher than for w hite hom eowners, outstanding debt as a
percent of the value of their hom es was about the sam e, according to the 1960 Census of H ousing.
T able

IVC-11.— P ercen t

D istrib u tio n o f H om eow n er P ro p e rties, by M ortgage C h aracteristics, a n d O w ner ( T otal a n d N o n ­
w h ite), 196 0

Mortgage characteristics

All properties
Non­
white

Total

Properties with
FHA
first mortgage

VA
first mortgage

Conventional
first mortgage

Non­
white

Non­
white

Non­
white

Total

Total

Number of mortgages:
84
1 mortgage ____
_ ____
87
93
90
95
95
85
2 mortgages or more _ _ _ _ _ _
i 16
1 10
5
13
7
5
15
First mortgage loan:
(2)
Less than $2,000___ __ ____ ___
12
3
17
11
1
3
3
$2,000-$3,999_____________________
19
26
21
$4,000-$5,999_____________________
16
16
15
13
7
22
34
$6,000-$7,999_____________________
17
16
23
18
17
11
$8,000-$9,999_____________________
19
23
22
18
17
33
14
$10,000-$l 1,999___________________
18
10
7
15
15
23
5
4
14
4
$12,000-$13,999___________________
12
16
19
2
12
___ _ ____
3
12
9
3
11
$14,000 or more
2
Median amount. __ _______ _ __ $5, 900 $8 , 700 $8 , 800 $9, 500 $8 , 0 0 0 $ 1 0 , 2 0 0 $4, 600
Term of first mortgage:
1
3
Indefinite. ________ _____ ______ _
5
1
1
On demand___ _ _______ ___ _
2
(2)
Less than 8 years _
_
17
8
25
1
3 (2)
8 to 1 2 years _____ __ ____
25
16
36
18
3
18
13 to 17 years_______________ ____
15
5
6
20
34
18 to 2 2 years__ _ _ ____ ____
17
32
30
26
12
28
29
43
23 to 27 years
10
20
31
39
2
11
22
21
28 to 32 years____ ___ ___ ____
6
19
28
1
1
33 years or more_______________ _
10
(2)
Median____ ____ ____ _
14 yrs. 2 0 yrs. 25 yrs. 24 yrs. 23 yrs. 25 yrs. 11 yrs.
Selected interest rates of first mortgage:
11
4
34
38
4.0 percent._ _ _ __ ____________
7
24
16
4.5 percent
_ __ --------50
43
49
56
2
1
(i)
5.0 percent _ _________ _
5
15
5
7
5.1 to 5.4 percent____
___
5
7
43
28
3
3
5.5 percent___ _ __________
6
8
9
0)
22
6 . 0 percent_______
________ __
39
55
11
4
6.1 to 7.9 percent._______ ___ _
15
1
8 . 0 percent or more__ _ ________
6
9
4
All other rates___ ______ ___
8
7
19
8
7
3
Median amount _ _______ __
4. 6
4. 6
6. 0
5. 1
4. 5
4. 5
6. 1
Year first mortgage made or assumed:
1959 and 1960 (part). _ _ _
23
19
25
20
10
10
26
24
1957 and 1958____________________
27
25
26
17
27
19
1955 and 1956____________________
22
23
23
20
22
28
30
24
1950 to 1954______________________
34
25
25
25
33
23
1949 or earlier___ _ ____ ___ __
6
3
10
5
10
7
3
See footnotes at end of table.

217-817 0 -6 6 -1 5



Total
92
8

5
17
18
15
13

11
8

13
$7, 300
2
2

13
27
22
27
6
1

(2)
15 yrs.
4
5
24
1
13
39
7
2
5
5. 6
23
30
22
21

4

219

T able IVC-11.—Percent Distribution of Homeowner Properties, by Mortgage Characteristics, and Owner (Total and Non­

white), 1960—Continued

Mortgage characteristics

All properties

FHA
first mortgage

VA
first mortgage

Conventional
first mortgage

Total

Non­
white

Total

Non­
white

Non­
white

7
35
7
7
26

14
14
16
34
15
7

25
16
15
33

8

17
12
34
17
5
11
4

19
17

12
21

Non­
white
Holder of first mortgage:
Commercial bank or trust company__
Mutual savings bank__ __ _ _
Savings and loan associations______
Life insurance company____________
Federal or State agency____ _ ___
Individual or individual’s estate____
Other_____ ________ — _
Total outstanding debt as a percent of
value:
Less than 20 percent. . ________
20-39 percent_________ _______
40-59 percent__ ______
-----60-79 percent___ — ----- -------80-99 percent __ ___ __—
1 0 0 percent or more______________
Median-------------- ----------All mortgage loans as a percent of purchase
price: 3
than percent
__
50-69 percent._ ______
—
70-79 percent. ---------80-89 percent______ _____ — . ..
90-99 percent___ ______ — —
1 0 0 percent or more... _____ _____
Median_________________________
T jp ss

50

Properties with

11

22
22

17
4
54
4
15
13
23
24

21
88

26
26
14
1
53

3

3
25
21
41
8
78

21
21
11

81

4
5
13
27
29
26
1
64

18
13
32
26
6
69

2

8

23
16

6
10

26
36
22
93

16
17
32
28
5
85

15
24
25

11
20

35
7
24
4

6

Total

6

3
7
14
11
39
27
94

22

12

(i)

10

3
37
3
1
37

Total
15
6
44
9
2
20

10

4

3
14
21
37
23
2
67

24
19
24
19
11
3
46

17
27
28
20
7
1
44

2
8
10

6
20

2

25
34
21
91

14
26
16
19
85

14
35
19
14
10
8

70

1 Second mortgages are not permitted at the time FHA insures a first trust. FHA cannot exercise control, however, over second mortgages assumed at a
later date.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
• Acquired by purchase with first mortgage made or assumed at time of purchase.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal total.
Source: 1960 C en su s o f H o u sin g , Vol. V, pt. 1, R e sid en tia l F in a n ce, H om ew orker P ro p erties, table 2 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

220



D eath rates in 1964 were higher for nonw hites than for w hites in all age groups except 75 or over.
A lthough death rates for the nonw hite have im proved m ore on the average than for the w hite population
since 1900, they were m ore than double the w hite rates for the prim e ages 25 to 44 in 1964.
T a ble

IVD-1.—Death Rates, by Age and Color, 1900 and 1964
[Rates per 1,000 population in each age group]

Percent decrease

1964

1900 1

1900-1964

Age
Non­
white
25.0
333.9
43.5
9.0
11.5
1 2 .1
14.8
24.3
42. 1
68.9
120.9
215.2

All ages_ ______
Under 1_____
1-4______________
5-14_____________
15-24____________
25-34____________
35-44____________
45-54____________
55-64____________
65-74____________
75-84____________
85 and over_____

Nonwhite to white
ratio of rates per
1 , 0 0 0 population

White

Non­
white

17.0
159.4
19.4
3.8
5.7
8.1
10. 1
14. 8
27.0
56.2
123.3
262. 0

White

Non­
white

9.4
21. 5
.8
.4
1 .0
1.3

9.7
40.9
1 .6
.6
1 .6

3.3
6 .6
13.2
27. 1
50.6
69.9
126. 5

2 .6
6 .8

15.9
36.7
82. 8
206. 5

i Death Registration States included 10 States and the District of Columbia.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, White an d N o n w h ite
published data for 1964 from the same agency.

White

61.2
87.8
96.3
93.3
86.1
72.7
55.4
45.7
35.6
26.6
42.2
41.2

1900

44.7
86.5
95.9
89.5
82.5
84.0
74.3
54. 1
41.1
34.7
32.8

1964

1.47
2.09
2. 24
2.37
2 . 02
1.49
1.47
1.64
1.56
1.23
.98
.82

2 1 .2

M ortality D ifferen tials in the U n ited S tates,

1.03
1.90
2 . 00
1.50
1.60
2.54
2. 54
1.94
1.70
1.38
.84
.61

June 1965, table 2, and un­

A ge-adjusted death rates have decreased steadily from 1947 to 1964, but the nonw hite/w hite gap
has rem ained substantial for both m en and wom en.
T able

IVD-2.-—Age-adjusted 1 Death Rates, by Color and Sex, 1947-64
[Rates per 1,000 population in specified group]

Year
1947__
1948—
1949______ _____
1950___
1951___
1952_____________
1953___
.
1954___ -1955_____________

Nonwhite
Male Female
13. 6
13. 8
13. 5
13. 6
13. 3
13. 2
13. 0
12. 0
11. 8

11. 4
.
.
10. 9
10. 6
10. 3
10. 0
9. 3
9. 1

11 2
11 1

White
Male
.
.
9. 7
9. 6
9. 6
9. 4
9. 4
9. 0
9. 0

10 1
10 0

Female
7. 1
.8
.6
.5
.3
.2
.1
5. 7
5. 7

6
6
6
6
6
6

>Population groups differ in age composition among groups as well as from
year to year. Since death rates tend to be higher in some age groups than in
others (see table IVD-1) differences in age composition are important in
analyzing overall ueath rates for a population group. The age adjustment
eliminates the difference in age composition as a factor in analyzing overall
death rates.




Year
1956___________ 1957____________
1958_____________
1959_____________
1960_____________
1961_____________
1962 2 ___________
1963 2 ___________
1964_____________

Nonwhite

White

Male Female
11. 9
12. 3
12. 1
11. 8
12. 1
11. 6
12. 0
12. 5
12. 2

9. 1
9. 4
9. 2
8. 8
8. 9
8. 6
8. 7
8. 9
8. 6

Male
9. 0
9. 2
9. 1
9. 0
9. 2
8. 9
9. 0
9. 2
9. 0

Female
5. 7
5. 7
5. 6
5. 5
5. 6
5. 4
5. 4
5. 5
5. 3

2 Excludes

New Jersey, which did not require reporting of color in 1962-63.
N ote.—Alaska included beginning 1959, and Hawaii, 1960.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, V ita l S tatistics
of the U n ited S tates, 1963, vol. II, pt. A, table 1-2, and unpublished data for
1964 from the same agency.

221

T he m aternal death rate for nonw hites was still 4 tim es that of w hite w om en in 1964. In fant
m ortality was also m uch higher in the nonw hite than the w hite population.
T able

IVD-3.— M a te rn a l a n d

I n fa n t M o rta lity R ates, by C olor, S elected P erio d s, 1 9 1 5 -6 4

Mortality
Period

Nonwhite
1915-19_________________________ 1, 253. 5
1920-24 _ _____ ________ _____ 1, 134. 3
\ , 163.7
1925-29 ____ ____
1930-34 ____________ _______ 1, 080. 7
875. 5
1935-39 ______ ____ _________
596.4
1940-44_________________________
328.4
1945-49_____ __________ _____
1950-54 _____ ______ . . . _ __
182.7
112. 4
1955-59_______________________ .
97.9
1960 ____
_______ _____
101.3
1961 ______ ______ _ - ________
95.9
1962 5 _____________ ________
96.9
1963 s_ _ _____________________
89.9
___ _ _______
1964
1 Deaths per 100,000 live births.
2 Deaths under 1 month (or 28 days)

222

Neonatal2

White

Nonwhite

700. 3
649. 2
615. 0
575. 4
439. 9
238.0
1 1 0 .8
48.9
28.2
26.0
24.9
23.8
24.0
22.3

per 1,000 live births.
* Deaths from 1 month (or 28 days) through 11 months of age per 1,000 live
births.
«Average for 1916-19. 1915 data not available by age.
6 Excludes New Jersey since no provision was made for white-nonwhite




Infant

Maternal1

4

58. 1
51. 1
47. 9
48.2
41.4
35.6
30. 3
27.4
27.7
26. 9
26.2
26. 1
26. 1
26. 5

Postneonatal3

White
4

42.3
38.7
36. 0
32. 5
29. 5
24. 9
2 1 .8
18.6
17.6
17. 2
16.9
16. 9
16. 7
16. 2

Nonwhite
4

89. 5
64. 2
57. 6
47. 5
39.9
31.3
19. 1
17.3
15. 9
16. 4
14. 5
15. 3
15.4
14. 6

White
4

49. 6
34. 5
29. 1
22. 9
19.7
14. 1
9.2
6.8
5. 8
5.7
5. 5
5.5
5.5
5.4

distinction on birth and death certificates.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, White an d
N o n w h ite M ortality D ifferen tials in the U nited S tates, Washington, D.C.,
June 1965, table 3; Advance Report, Final Mortality Statistics, 1964, 1964
from M onth ly V ita l S ta tistics R e p o rt, vol. 14, No. 10, Supplement, Jan. 14,1966,
table 1 and p. 1 2 .

N onw hites show ed a considerably higher death rate for selected com m unicable diseases than w hites
in 1964, particularly for tuberculosis, syphilis, and influenza and pneum onia.
T able

IVD-4.— A g e -A d ju ste d

D ea th R ates fo r S elected C om m u n icab le D isea se s, b y C olor, S elected Y ea rs, 1 9 3 0 -6 4

[Rates per 100,000, adjusted for age distribution to 1940 population]

1930

Cause of death

1940

1950

1960

1963 1

1964

Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
white
white
white

Tuberculosis, all forms________ 199. 4 60. 6 132. 9 36. 1 67. 5 16. 6 15. 1 4. 4 1 2 . 8 3. 4 11. 5
Syphilis and its sequelae.
60. 2 12. 5 61. 6 9. 7 18. 3 2 3. 3 2 5. 2 1 . 0 4. 3 . 9 3. 8
Typhoid fever____ _ ___ 14. 0 3. 6 3. 0 . 8 2. 3 2 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 0
.0
Dysentery, all forms_________ 7. 6 2. 4 4. 2 1 . 6 2 1 . 2
. 4 2. 5 2 . 1 2 . 5 2 . 1 . 4
Diphtheria__
_____
4. 4 2 1. 5 1 . 0 2.4 2 . 2 2. 1 . 0 2 . 1 2 . 0
2 3. 8
.0
Whooping cough_____________ 2 8 . 6 2 3. 6 2 4. 9 2 1 . 8 2 1 . 6 2.4 2 . 2 2 . 0
.2
.0
.2
Meningococcal infections______ 6 . 2 3. 0 2. 6
. 5 2. 7 . 5 2. 5 2. 3 2. 5 2.3
.6
Acute poliomyelitis___________ 2 1 . 0 1 . 1 2. 5 . 8 2. 5 1. 4 2 . 1 2 . 1 2 . 0 2 . 0 . 0
Measles____________________ 2 2 . 6 2. 9 2.7 2. 5 2 .4 2 . 2
. 3 . 1 2 . 2 2. 1 . 2
Influenza and pneumonia, except pneumonia of newborn. _ 194. 3 99. 1 138. 1 63. 0 56. 9 22. 9 55. 2 24. 6 55. 4 24. 4 40. 8
1 Excludes New Jersey which did not require reporting of color in 1963.
2 More than half of the age-specific rates are based on frequencies of less than 20 deaths.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, W hite an d N o n w h ite M o rta lity
1964, from unpublished data provided by the same agency.

3. 0
.9
.0
.1
.0
.0
.3
.0
.2
20. 3

June 1965, table 4, and, for

D ifferen tials in the U n ited S tates,

Life expectancy in 1964 was lower for nonw hites than w hites at all ages in prim e working years
(ages 25-55). N onw hite-w hite differences were greater am ong w om en than m en at each age level.
T able

IVD-5.—L ife E x p ecta n cy in P rim e W o rk in g Y ea rs, by C olor a n d S ex,
[Average number of years of life remaining at given ages, 1964]
Both sexes

Age

25_________
30_________
35_________
40_________
45_________
50........ .........
55_________

Non­
white
43. 4
38.9
34. 6
30. 5
26. 6
22. 9
19.6

Males

White

Difference
nonwhite
to white
(in years)

48. 6
43. 9
39.2
34.6
30. 1
25.8

-5 .2
-5 .0
-4 .6
-4 . 1
-3 .5
-2 .9
- 2.2

2 1 .8

Non­
white
40.9
36. 6
32.4
28.5
24.7
21.2
18.0




Females

White

Difference
nonwhite
to white
(in years)

45. 6
41.0
36.3
31.8
27.4
23.2
19. 4

-4 .7
-4 .4
-3 .9
-3 .3
-2 .7
- 2 .0
-1 .4

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, L ife
sec. 5, table 5-4.

1964

Non­
white
45.9
41.4
36.9
32.7
28.7
24. 8
21.4

Difference
nonwhite
to white
(in years)

White
51.8
47. 0
42.2
37. 5
32.9
28.5
24. 2

T ables, V ita l S ta tistics o f the U nited S tates,

-5 .9
-5 .6
-5 .3
-4 .8
-4 .2
-3 .7
- 2 .8

1964, vol. II,

223

T he disadvantage of the nonw hite com pared to the w hite population w ith respect to life expectancy
is greatest in the South A tlantic and W est N orth Central States, both for m ales and fem ales.
T able

IVD- 6 .—Life Expectancy 1in Prime Working Years, by Age, Color, and Sex, United States and Geographical Divisions,
1 9 5 9 -6 1

Males

Non­
white
United States. . __
_____ _____
New England. .
Middle Atlantic________ _________
East North Central___
West North Central . . .
South Atlantic_________ __________
East South Central..
West South Central __ .
Mountain_________________________
Pacific___________ ________ ____

40-41

30-31

Divisions

37. 05
37. 71
36. 42
37. 37
36. 69
35. 35
36. 89
38. 14
39. 07
41. 35

White
40. 98
40. 77
40. 43
41. 01
42. 08
40. 67
41. 07
41. 40
41. 25
41. 18

Difference
nonwhite
to white
(in years)

Non­
white

-3 . 93
-3 . 06
-4 . 01
-3 . 64
-5 . 39
-5 . 32
-4 . 18
-3 . 26
- 2 . 18
+ . 17

White

Difference
nonwhite
to white
(in years)

28. 72
29. 12
28. 14
28. 85
28. 37
27. 21
28. 71
29. 87
31. 10
32. 54

31. 73
31. 42
31. 09
31. 71
32. 81
31. 52
32. 02
32. 25
32. 16
31. 94

-3 . 01
-2 . 30
-2 . 95
- 2. 86
-3 . 44
- 4 31
-3 . 31
-2 . 38
- 1 . 06
+. 60

32. 16
33. 32
32. 31
32. 06
31. 80
31. 28
31. 69
32. 95
34 6 6
35. 95

37. 13
36. 6 8
36. 0 2
36. 83
38. 11
37. 61
37. 67
38. 36
37. 74
37. 64

- 4 97
-3 . 36
-3 . 71
- 4 77
- 6 . 31
- 6 . 33
-5 . 98
-5 . 41
-3 . 14
-1 . 69

Females
United States_____ . ______________
New England___ ________
Middle Atlantic____________________
East North Central______ ___ _.
West North Central___ _____
South Atlantic_____________ ___
East South Central. _ _
.
West South Central __
Mountain________________ _____
Pacific____________________________

40. 83
42. 10
40. 97
40. 8 8
40. 48
39. 76
40. 15
41. 62
43. 14
45. 04

• Average number of years of life remaining at beginning of age interval.
Source U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public
Health Service, U nited States L ife, tables: 1950-61, vol. 1, No. 1, December

224




46. 63
46. 20
45. 53
46. 34
47. 63
47. 09
47. 14
47. 85
47. 16
47. 11

-5 . 80
-4 . 10
-4 . 56
-5 . 46
-7 . 15
-7 . 33
- 6 . 99
- 6 . 23
—4 0 2
-2 . 07

1964, tables 6 , 6 , 8 ,9, and U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare
Public Health Service, L ife T ables for the Geographic D ivision s o f the U n ited
Slates: 1959-61, vol. 1, No. 3, May 1965, tables 1-36.

W hite suicide rates are far higher than nonw hite b u t in recent years the difference has decreased
slightly. Suicide rates are consistently low est am ong nonw hite wom en.
T a b l e IVD-7.— S u ic id e R ates, by S ex a n d C olor, 1 9 4 7 -6 3
[Rate per 100,000 population In specified group excluding deaths among Armed Forces overseas]

Year

Nonwhite
Male

1947________
1948_________
1949________
1950_________
1951_________
1952_________
1953_________
1954________
1955_________

6.5
6.9
7. 1
7.0
6 .6
6.1
6.4
6 .8
6.1

White

Female
1 .6

1.5
1.5
1.7
1.7
1.3
1.3
1. 5
1.5

Male
18.9
18.4
19.1
19. 0
17.3
16.9
17. 2
17. 5
17.2

Year

Female
6 .0

5.7
5.5
5. 5
5.0
4.7
4. 6
4. 5
4.9

Nonwhite
Male

1956_________
1957_________
1958_________
1959_________
1960_________
1961_________
1962 1 _______
1963 1 _
1964_________

.
7.0
7.4
7.2
7.6
7. 2
8.3
7.2
6 1
6 .8

White

Female
1 .6

1.4
1 .8
1.9
2 .0
1.9
2 .2
2.0
2 .2

Male
16.9
16.5
18.0
17.8
17.6
17. 1
17. 8
17. 3
17.2

Female
4.8
4.6
5.1
5.0
5.3
5.3
5. 9
5.9

6 .1

1 Excludes

New Jersey, which did not require reporting of color in 1962 and 1963.
Source: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, V ita l S ta tis tic s -S p e c ia l R ep o rts, vol. 43, No. 30; V ita l S ta tistics of the U n ited S tates (annual reports,
1950-62); M onthly V ita l Statistics R e p o rts, vol. 12, No. 13, Annual Summary for the United States, 1963; M onth ly V ita l Statistics R ep o rt, Advance Reports, vol.
14, No. 10, Supplement, 1964.




225

A m ong the nonw hite as well as w hite population the proportion w ith hospital or surgical insurance
increases w ith incom e. R elatively fewer nonw hites had insurance at each incom e level, according to a
1962-63 national survey, but the gap lessens w ith rising incom e.
T able

IVD- 8 .— D is tr ib u tio n

o f P o p u la tio n , by H o sp ita l a n d S u rg ic a l In su ra n c e C overage, F a m ily In com e, a n d C olor, J u ly
1 9 6 2 -J u n e 1 96 8 1

[Data are based on household interviews of the civilian, noninstitutional population]

Total pop- Percent
Family income and race ulation (in with hosthousands) pital insurance
All incomes:
Total ___ _______ 183, 146
Nonwhite ___ 21, 402
White__________ 161, 744
Under $2,000:
22, 590
Total
6 , 249
Nonwhite ___
____ 16, 341
White
$2,000-3,999:
Total __________ 32, 485
6 , 352
Nonwhite
White ____ __ _ 26, 133
$4,000-6,999:
Total____ ______ 61, 675
Nonwhite_______
5, 281
W hite_________ 56, 394
1 Includes persons

Percent
with surgical insurance

70
45
74

65
40
69

34
25
38

29
19
33

52
39
55

47
34
50

79

Total pop- Percent Percent
Family income and race ulation (in with hos- with surthousands) pital in- gical insurance surance
$7,000-9,999:
Total________ _____
Nonwhite. ___
W hite_________
$1 0 , 0 0 0 + :
Total ___ ________
Nonwhite______
White. ________
Income unknown:
Total______________
Nonwhite ___
White. _ ______

226

83
71
84

74
60
75

66

80

of unknown insurance status.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, H ealth In su ra n ce
1964, table 2.




32, 652
1, 481
31, 171
24, 430
854
23, 576
9, 314
1 , 186
8 , 128

87
74

88

81
88

83
77
83

59
37
62

51
31
54

88

Coveraqe, U n ited S tates, J u ly 196t~J u n e 1963, August,

A larger proportion of the w hite than nonw hite population reported chronic health conditions in a
1957-61 survey, but of those w ith chronic conditions, relatively more nonw hites had activity lim itations.
T able

IVD-9 .— N u m b e rs a n d

P ercen t o f P e rso n s in the P o p u la tio n W ith O ne or M o re C h ron ic C o n d itio n s a n d A c tiv ity
L im ita tio n s , by C olor a n d A ge, J u ly 1 9 5 7 -J u n e 1 9 6 1 1

[Numbers in thousands]

Population: Both sexes
Age, condition, activity limitations

Nonwhite

Males

White

Non white

White

Num­ Percent Num­ Percent Num­ Percent Num­ Percent
ber
ber
ber
ber
All persons aged 17 and over______ ___
With 1+ chronic conditions ________
With activity limitations 2_ ___
17 to 44 _______________ __________
With 1 -f chronic conditions._______
With activity limitations 2 ___ __
45 to 64___________ ________ ________
With 1 + chronic conditions..______
With activity limitations 2 ___ _
65 and over________ _ _ _____________
With 1 + chronic conditions _______
With activity limitations 2 ______

11, 300
5, 218
1, 745
7, 009
2, 491
515
3, 248
1, 917
685
1, 043
809
545

46. 2
33. 4
35. 5
20. 7
59. 0
35. 7
77. 5
67. 4

1Average number of persons with one or more chronic conditions during
4-ycar period July 1957 through June 1963.
The qualitative measure of health behavior is the prevalence of one or more
chronic conditions or permanent impairments, ranging in severity from
disabilities which would have little or no effect on employment (depending
on job requirements) to disabilities which would result in total incapacity.
Subjects with one or more chronic conditions reported whether or not these
conditions resulted in activity limitations.
2 Percentage cells for activity limitations show percent of all persons with
one or more chronic conditions reporting activity limitations.
N ote.—Health Interview Survey data represent health behavior, rather




101, 491
55, 740
15,312
55, 404
25, 324
3, 835
32, 128
19, 521
5, 467
13, 959
10, 895
6, 010

54. 9
27. 5
45. 7
15. 1
60. 8
28. 0
78. 0
55. 2

5, 267
, 186
792
3,217
962
216
1, 558
854
310
492
370
267
2

41. 5
36. 2
29. 9
22. 5
54. 8
36. 3
75. 2
72. 2

48, 207
25, 415
7, 404
26, 354
11, 411
1, 795
15, 552
9, 161
2, 690
6 , 301
4, 842
2, 919

52. 7
29. 1
43. 3
15. 7
58. 9
29. 4
76. 8
60. 3

than the state of health in an “objective” clinical sense. The survey repre­
sents a series of self-appraisals of physical capabilities in functional terms:
what the subject himself believes he can or cannot do.
The Health Interview Survey is based on household interviews conducted
in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The present data are
based on the cumulative sample for 8 quarters of interviewing during the
period July 1961 through June 1963, covering approximately 80,000 house­
holds containing about 259,000 persons.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public
Health Service, Division of Health Interview Statistics.

227

A higher proportion of chronic conditions was reported for w hite m en in the labor force than for
nonw hite m en in 1962-63, am ong both the em ployed and unem ployed. H ow ever, in all age groups,
activ ity lim itations, resulting in absence from work, were m ore prevalent am ong the em ployed nonw hite
than w hite men.
T able

IVD-10.— N u m ber

a n d P ercen t o f M a le s in the L abor Force W ith One or M o re C h ron ic C o n d ition s, a n d A c tiv ity
L im ita tio n s, by Color, A ge, a n d E m p lo ym en t S ta tu s, J u ly 1 9 6 1 -J u n e 196 3 1

[Numbers in thousands]

Labor force
Age, condition, activity
limitations

All males aged 17 and
over_ _______
With 1+ chronic contions__ ________
With activity limitations 2 ___ _
1
17 to 24______________
With 1+ chronic conditions____ _
With activity limitations 2 __ 25 to 44___ __________
With 1-(- chronic conditions__________
With activity limitations 2 __
45 to 64 _ _____
With 1+ chronic conditions____ _
With activity limitations 2
65 and over___________
With 1+ chronic conditions_________
With activity limitations 2 ______

Non white

White

Num- Per- Number cent ber
4, 699
1,980
510
853
214
38
2 , 186
843
166
1,482
793
240
178
131
67

42. 1
25.8
25. 1
17.8
38.6
19.7
53.5
30.3
73.6
51.1

Currently employed

42, 008
2 2 , 267
4, 989
5, 908
2 , 111
277
18, 998
9, 495
1,580
14,905
9, 059
2, 383
2, 197
1,611
749

228

White

Per- Num- Per- Numcent ber cent ber

53.0
22. 4
35.7
13. 1
49.9
16. 7
60.8
26.3
73.3
46.5

1 Average number of persons with one or more chronic conditions during
2-year period July 1961 through June 1963.
The qualitative measure of health behavior is the prevalence of one or more
chronic conditions or permanent impairments, ranging in severity from
disabilities which would have little or no effect on employment (depending
on job requirements) to disabilities which would result in total incapacity.
Subjects with one or more chronic conditions reported on whether or not
these conditions resulted in activity limitations.
2 Percentage cells for activity limitations show percent of all persons with
one or more chronic conditions reporting activity limitations.
3 Not shown where number of persons is less than 30,000.
N ote.—Health Interview Survey data represent health behavior, rather
than the state of health in an “objective” clinical sense. The survey repre­




Nonwhite

4, 268
1 , 801
456
692
170
31
2, 035
778
149
1,372
729
213
168
124
64

42.2
25.3
24. 6
18. 2
38.2
19.2
53. 1
29. 2
73.8
51.6

Currently unemployed

40, 366
21,430
4, 690
5, 421
1,944
251
18, 416
9,203
1,491
14, 423
8 , 743
2, 240
2 , 106
1,539
709

Nonwhite

White

Per- Num- Per- Num- Percent ber cent ber cent

53. 1
21.9
35.9
12.9
50.0
16.2
60.6
25. 6
73. 1
46. 1

1,642
431
179 41. 5 837
54 30.2 299
161
487
44 27.3 167
(3) (3)
151
65 43.0
(3)

110

(3)

64 58.2
(3)
(3)

(3)

(3)
582
282
89
482
316
143
91
72
40

51.0
35.7
24.3
(3)
48.5
31.6
65.5
45.3
79. 1
55.6

sents a series of self-appraisals of physical capabilities in functional terms:
what the subject himself believes he can or cannot do.
The Health Interview Survey is based on household interviews conducted
in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The present data are
based on the cumulative sample for 8 quarters of interviewing during the
period July 1961 through June 1963, covering approximately 80,000 households
containing about 259,000 persons. The Health Interview Survey data are not
intended as official labor force estimates, and procedural differences, in the
collection of data concerning employment status result in a lower estimated
rate of unemployment in the Health Interview Survey than in the Current
Population Survey.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public
Health Service, Division of Health Interview Statistics.

A fter age 25, nonw hite persons reported a higher rate of restricted activity, bed disability, and a
greater num ber of days lost from work than w hite persons in 1961-63.
T able

IVD-11 — N u m ber o f D is a b ility D a y s 1 a n d

R ates P er P erso n P e r Y ea r by S ex, A ge, a n d C olor, J u ly 1 9 6 1 -J u n e 196 3

[Numbers in thousands]

Sex, age, and color

Restricted activity
Days

ALL PERSONS

All a g e s _____________ ___________________ 2, 968, 965
Under 17____ _ ______ _ __ _ 706, 649
17 to 24________________________
196,644
25 to 44_________________________
630, 318
45 to 64________________________
809, 329
65 and over_______ _____ _ _ _ 626, 026
Nonwhite: All a g e s____ - ___ ______
389, 876
82, 156
Under 17__________ ________ ___
21, 944
17 to 24________________________
25 to 44________________________
95, 858
45 to 64_________ _ _ _ _ _ —
117, 989
65 and over______________________
71, 929
White: All ages. _____ ______ _____ 2, 579, 089
Under 17____ _____________ _____
624, 492
17 to 24________________________
174, 700
25 to 44________________________
534, 460
45 to 64________________________
691, 340
554, 097
65 and o v e r.____ _______________

Bed disability

Rate
16.2
10.9
10.4
13.9
21.9
37.1
18.2
8.9
9.4
18.9
33.7
54.9
15. 9
11.2
10.5
13.3
2 0 .6
35.6

Days
,

, 843
317, 553
89,015
247, 116
291,458
267,700
172,683
41, 622
11,410
40, 153
46, 967
32, 531
1, 040, 159
275, 932
77,605
206,963
244, 490
235, 168
1 212

Work loss

Rate
6 .6

4.9
4.7
5.4
7.9
15.9
8.1
4.5
4.9
7.9
13.4
24.9
6.4
4.9
4.7
5. 1
7.3
15. 1

Days

Rate

415, 414

6 .1

(2)
42, 833
157,775
184, 841
29, 966
63,912

(2)

(2)
4, 079
27, 277
29, 400
3, 156
351,502

(2)

(2)
38,754
130, 498
155, 441
26, 809

(2)

4.1
5.3
7.6
9.3
8.7

3.5
7.6
12.4
1 1 .0

5.8
4.1
5.0
7.1
9. 1

See footnotes at end of table.




229

T

able

IVD-11 — N u m ber

o f D is a b ility D a y s 1 a n d R ates P e r P erso n P e r Y ea r by S ex, A ge, a n d C olor, J u ly 1 9 6 1 -J u n e
1963 —Continued
[Numbers in thousands]

Sex, age, and color

Restricted activity
Days

ALL MALE

All ages ______ _ ________________ _ 1,291,455
375, 115
Under 17___ _ ________________
17 to 24________________________
65, 749
25 to 44________________________
217,164
45 to 64________________________
368,086
65 and over_______ ______ _____
265, 341
Nonwhite: All ages__ _______________
163,303
40, 005
Under 17___ _ ____ ___ _____
17 to 24_________________________
6 , 448
25 to 44________________________
32, 870
45 to 64 ________________________
53, 743
65 and over. ______ _ . . . __
30, 237
White: All ages ______ ______________ 1, 128, 152
335, 111
Under 17_____________ _________
17 to 24________________________
59, 301
25 to 44________________________
184, 294
314, 342
45 to 64_________________________
235, 104
65 and over____________ _ ____
1 Disability days are estimated annual average for 2 years, July 1961 through
June 1963. Disability days are the quantitative measure of health which
include days of restricted activity, bed disability days, and work loss days.
Disability days reflect short-term illnesses as well as chronic impairments.
The rates based on disability days represent approximate attributes of an
entire population (or a sublcass thereof), since they are computed as the total
number of disability days accumulated by a group as a whole, rather than
as the sums of individual rates.
2 Not shown where number of days is less than 500,000.
N ote.—Health Inverview Survey data represent health behavior, rather
than the state of health in an “objective” clinical sense. The survey repre­
sents a series of self-appraisals of physical capabilities in functional terms:
what the subject himself believes he can or cannot do.

230



Rate
14. 5
11.4
7. 5

1 0 .0
2 0 .6

35.3
15.9
8.7
6 .0
14.4
32.0
49.8
14.4
1 1 .8

7.7
9.5
19.4
34. 1

Bed disability
Days
507, 304
165, 780
25, 063
84, 326
124, 820
107,314
67, 308
21,616
2 , 628
11,471
19, 608
11,986
439,996
144, 164
22, 435
72,856
105, 212
95, 328

Work loss

Rate
5.7
5.0
2.9
3.9
7.0
14.3
6 .6

4.7
2.4
5.0
11.7
19.7
5.6
5. 1
2.9
3.8
6.5
13.8

Days

Rate
5.9

261, 824
(1
2)
23, 029
93, 553
120,903
24, 339
38, 370

(2)

(2)
2 , 662
15, 979
17, 029
2, 701
223, 454

(2)

(2)
20, 367
77, 574
103, 875
21,638

(2)

3.7
4.6
7.6
10.9
9.0

4.0
7.8
12.5
14.1
5.5
3.7
4.2
7.2

1 0 .6

The Health Interview Survey is based on household interviews conducted
in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The present data are
based on the cumulative sample for 8 quarters of interviewing during the
period July 1961 through June 1963, covering approximately 80,000 house­
holds, containing about 259,000 persons. H.I.S. data are not intended as
official labor force estimates, and procedural differences in the collection of
data concerning employment status result in a lower estimated rate of un­
employment in the H.I.S. than in the Current Population Survey.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health
Service, Division of Health Interview Statistics.

For all persons in the labor force and for the employed, days of restricted activity, bed disability,
and work loss were proportionately higher for nonwhites than whites after age 25. Among the unem­
ployed, however, days of restricted activity as well as bed disability were generally lower among non­
whites than whites.
T a b l e IVD-12.— N u m ber o f D is a b ility D a y s 1 a n d R ates P er P erso n P er Y ea r fo r N o n w h ite a n d W h ite M a les in the L abor
F orce, by A g e G rou p a n d E m ploym en t S ta tu s, J u ly 1 9 6 1 -J u n e 1963
[Days in millons, rate per person per year]

For persons in the labor force
Age group

Restricted Bed disability
activity

Work
loss

For currently employed persons

For currently
unemployed persons

Work
loss

Restricted Bed disactivity
ability

Restricted Bed disactivity
ability

Days Rate Days Rate Days Rate Days Rate Days Rate Days Rate Days Rate Days Rate
All nonwhite males
aged 17 and
over.
____
17 to 24_____. . . .
25 to 44________
45 to 6 4 _____
65 years and over.
All white males aged
17 and over___
17 to 24_________
25 to 44_________
45 to 64______
65 years and over.

64
5
26
29
4

13.7
5.5
12. 1
19. 5
24. 7

21

4.5

2

2 .1

9 4.2
9 6.0
1 7.7

33 7. 1
2

2 .6

14 6.4
15 10.4
2 10.5

56
3
24
25
4

13.2
4.8
11. 7
18.3
25. 1

19 4. 5
2
8
8
1

2 .2

4.1
5.8
8.1

33 7.6
2 3.2
14 6 . 8
15 1 0 . 6
2 11. 1

472 1 1 . 2 160 3.8 230 5. 5 440 10. 9 150 3.7 224 5. 6
40 6 . 8 16 2 . 6 19 3.2 37 6 . 8 14 2.7 19 3.4
169 8.9 64 3.4 81 4.3 158 8 . 6 60 3.2 79 4.3
217 14. 5 65 4.4 109 7.3 2 0 1 13.9 61 4. 2 106 7.4
47 2 1 . 2 15 7. 0 2 1 9.7 44 20.9 14 6 . 8 2 1 9.8

8

18. 4

1

8 .6

3 17.8
4 33.6
(2) (2)
33
4
10
16
3

2

(2)

4.9

1
1

(2)

(2)
4.8
9.7
(2)

10

6 .2

19. 8
7.4
17.9
32.8
29.8

1

4
4
1

2 .2

7.0
8.4
12.2

Differences in rates between non white and white males (excess of nonwhite, + )
All males aged 17
and over______
17 to 24_________
25 to 44________
45 to 64_________
65 years and over.

+ 2.5
-1 .3
+ 3.2
+ 5.0
+ 3.5

+ 0.7
- .5
+ .8
+ 1 .6
+ .7

+ 1 .6
-.6
+ 2 .1
+ 3.1
+ .8

1 Disability days are estimated annual average for 2 years, July 1961 through
June 1963. Disability days are the quantitative measure of health which
include days of restricted activity, bed-disability days, and work-loss days.
Disability days reflect short-term illnesses as well as chronic impairments.
The rates based on disability days represent approximate attributes of an
entire population (or a subclass thereof), since they are computed as the total
number of disability days accumulated by a group as a whole, rather than as
the sums of individual rates.
2 Not shown where number of days is less than 500,000.
N ote.—Health Interview Survey (HIS) data represent health behavior,
rather than the state of health in an “objective” clinical sense. The survey
represents a series of self-appraisals of physical capabilities in functional




+ 2.3
- 2 .0
+ 3.1
+ 4.4
+ 4.2

+ 0 .8
-. 5
+ .9
+ 1 .6
+ 1.3

+ 2 .0
-.2
+ 2.5
+ 3.2
+ 1.3

-1 .4
+ 1 .2
-. 1
+ .8
(2)

-1 .3
(2)
- 2 .2
+ 1.3
(2)

terms: what the subject himself believes he can or cannot do.
The Health Interview Survey is based on household interviews conducted
in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The present data are
based on the cumulative sample for 8 quarters of interviewing during the
period July 1961 through June 1963, covering approximately 80,000 households,
containing about 259,000 persons. HIS data are not intended as official labor
force estimates, and procedural differences in the collection of data concerning
employment status result in a lower estimated rate of unemployment in the
HIS than in the Current Population Survey.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public
Health Service, Division of Health Interview Statistics.

231

Family income influenced the relative number of persons who visited a doctor in 1963-64, among
both nonwhites and whites, regardless of color.
T a b l e IVD-13.'—N u m b e r a n d P ercen t o f P erso n s W ith L a st P h y sic ia n V is it W ith in a Y ea r, b y Sex, F a m ily In com e, C olor,
a n d A ge, J u ly 1 9 6 3 -J u n e 1964
[Data are based on household interviews of the civilian noninstitutional population]

Both sexes
Family income, color, and age

All
persons

Under $4,000:
All ages___ _ __
51, 599
Under 15 years __ __ 14, 217
15-44 years ____
16, 896
45-64 years _______ 10, 145
65+ years
_ _ _ _ 10, 341
Nonwhite:
All ages__ ___
12, 438
Under 15 years _ _ 5, 038
15-44 years
4, 382
45-64 years
2 , 021
65+ years____
__ 998
White:
All ages_ _
__
39, 161
Under 15 years
9, 180
15-44 years
12, 514
45-64 years
8 , 124
65+ years.. __
9, 343
$4,000+:
All ages _
_ _____ 124, 257
42, 238
Under 15 years .
15-44 years
51, 898
45-64 years _ . ____ 24, 726
65+ years___ ____ 5, 395
Nonwhite:
All ages._____
_____ 7, 994
Under 15 years ____ 3, 064
15-44 years.
. _
3, 453
_____ 1, 246
45-64 years.
65+ years
231
White:
All ages
116, 263
Under 15 years ___ 39, 174
15-44 years
__
48, 445
45-64 years . _ 23, 480
65+ years
5, 164

Male

With visit
within a year
Number Percent
31, 375
7, 875
10, 360
6 , 103
7, 038
6 , 657
2, 354
2, 524
1, 122
656
24, 718
5, 520
7, 836
4, 980
6 , 382
85, 493
30, 621
34, 793
16, 216
3, 863
4, 859
1, 889
2, 099
729
142
80, 634
28, 732
32, 693
15, 487
3, 721

60. 8
55. 4
61. 3
60. 2
68. 1
53. 5
46. 7
57. 6
55. 5
65. 7
63. 1
60. 1
62. 6
61. 3
68. 3
68. 8
72. 5
67. 0
65. 6
71. 6
60. 8
61. 7
60. 8
58. 5
61. 5
69. 4
73. 3
67. 5
66. 0
72. 1

N ote.—For official population estimates for more general use, see Bureau
of the Census reports on the civilian population of the United States, in
Current Population Reports: Series P-20, P-2S, and P-60. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

232



All
males

Female

With visit
within a year
Number Percent

All
females

With visit
within a year
Number Percent

13, 152
4, 015
3, 996
2, 234
2, 907
2, 791
1, 192
857
443
299
10, 361
2, 823
3, 139
1, 790
2 , 608
40, 787
15, 748
15, 459
7, 869
1, 710
2, 328
988
905
373

56. 3
56. 0
52. 8
54. 6
64. 0
49. 1
48. 2
45. 8
50. 5
64. 6
58. 6
60. 2
55. 1
55. 7
63. 9
65. 8
73. 3
61. 3
61. 6
67. 5
57. 5
63. 8
53. 3
53. 8

28, 233
7, 051
9, 327
6 , 057
5, 799
6 , 750
2, 563
2, 508
1, 144
535
21, 483
4, 488
6 , 819
4, 913
5, 264
62, 225
20, 744
26, 667
11, 953
2 , 861
3, 946
1, 514
1, 755
533

18, 233
3, 860
6 , 364
3, 869
4, 131
3, 8 6 6
1 , 162
1, 668
679
357
14, 357
2, 698
4, 696
3, 190
3, 774
44, 707
14, 873
19, 333
8 , 347
2, 153
2, 531
901
1, 195
356

64. 5
54. 7
68. 2
63. 9
71. 2
57. 3
45. 3
66. 5
59. 4
66. 7
66. 8
60. 1
68. 9
64. 9
71. 7
71. 8
71. 7
72. 5
69. 8
75. 3
64. 1
59. 5
68. 1
64. 4

57, 984 38, 459
19, 944 14, 760
23, 534 14, 555
12, 079 7, 496
2, 427 1, 648

66. 3
74. 0
61. 8
62. 1
67. 9

58, 279 42, 175
19, 230 13, 972
24, 912 18, 139
11, 400 7,991
2, 737 2, 073

72. 4
72. 7
72. 8
70. 1
75. 7

23, 366
7, 167
7, 569
4, 088
4, 542
5, 6 8 8
2, 474
1, 873
877
463
17, 678
4, 692
5, 696
3, 211
4, 079
62, 032
21, 494
25, 231
12, 773
2, 534
4, 048
1, 549
1, 698
693

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public
Health Service, Physician Visits, Interval of Visits and Children’s Routine
Checkup, United States, July 1968-June 1961, June 1965, table 17.

Nonwhite as well as white persons saw physicians most frequently at the office in 1963-64, and this
number rose with income. Regardless of income, however, a much larger proportion of nonwhite than
white patients sought medical attention at hospital clinics.
T a b l e IVD-14.—P ercen t D istrib u tio n o f P h y sic ia n V isits, by P la ce o f V is it, F a m ily In com e, a n d Color, J u ly 1 9 6 3 -J u n e 1964
Place of visit
Family income and color

Under $2,000:
Total____
_ — __ .
Nonwhite __ ________ __
White_________ ____ ___
$2,000-$3,999:
T o ta l.___ _ _____________
Nonwhite__ _ __ ____
White. ___ ___
$4,000-$6,999:
Total--------- -----------------------Nonwhite.. ___
White__ ___ _ _____
$7,000-$9,999:
Total___ __
___ . .
Nonwhite _ _
_____
White__________________
$ 1 0 , 0 0 0 plus:
Total
Nonwhite.
__
W h ite .__ _ _____ _
Unknown:
Total____ ___ _
_.
Nonwhite __ _ ________
White_____ ____________

All places

.
.
.
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100 0
100 0
100 0

Office

65. 2
54. 3
67. 9
66.4
56. 3
68. 3
69. 8
57. 0
70. 8
72. 3
66. 0
72. 5
73. 5
68. 9
73. 6
68. 5
47. 0
71. 0

Home

8.3
4. 8
9. 2
6. 0
5. 0
6. 2
4. 6
2. 8
4. 7
4. 1
4. 9
4. 0
5. 1
1. 1
5. 2
9. 0
9. 3
8. 9

Company
Hospital or indus­ Telephone Other and
clinic try health
unknown
units
19. 3
36. 2
15. 1
19. 7
34. 7
16. 8
11. 2
29. 9
9. 7
7. 5
15. 9
7. 3
6. 7
22. 4
6. 2
11. 6
37. 8
8. 6

.
.
.
.3
.4
.3
.6
1. 0
.5
1. 1
2. 9
1. 1
.7
2.2
.7
.5
1. 0
.4
0 2
2
1

5. 4
3. 5
5. 9
6. 5
2. 5
7. 3
11. 8
5. 3
12. 3
13. 6
7. 8
13. 8
12. 6
5. 4
12. 8
8. 5
3. 6
9. 1

1. 5
.
1. 7
1. 1
1. 2
1. 1
2. 1
4. 0
2. 0
1. 4
2. 4
1. 4
1. 4
1. 5
1. 9
1. 3
2. 0
1 0

N ote—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Volume of Physician Visits by Place of Visit and Type of Service, United
States, July 1963-June 1964, June 1965, table B.




233

Reaction to syphilis tests was considerably higher among Negroes (particularly Negro men) than
whites in 1960-62.
T

able

I

VD- 1 5 . -—P revalen ce

Race and sex

o f R eaction to T ests fo r S y p h ilis in A d u lts, by R ace, Sex, a n d T est U sed, 1 9 6 0 -6 2

VDRL 2

KRP 1

KRP 1

Race and sex

Reac­ Weakly Reac­ Weakly
tive reactive tive reactive

Reac­ Weakly Reac­ Weakly
tive reactive tive reactive

Number of positive reactions per
1 0 0 adults in specified group
Negro m ales_____
Negro fem ales___

.
16.

20 2
1

3. 0
.3

.3
5. 4

6

Number of positive reactions per
1 0 0 adults in specified group

11. 3 White males ___
5. 5 White fem ales___

i Kolmer Reiter Protein, a method of determining serologic evidence of
syphilis.
4 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory, a method of determining serologic
evidence of syphilis.

VDRL 2

.
.

2 0
1 6

.3
.5

2. 5
3. 3

.9
.5

N ote.—Sample too small to permit adequate representation of other races.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public
Health Service, Findings on the Serologic Test for Syphilis in Adults, United
States, 1960-62, June 1965, table A.

Nonwhite male war veterans in all age groups were about 20 percent less likely than white vet­
erans to have had year-round full-time work in 1964, and were much more likely to have been partyear or part-time workers, or without work.
T a b l e IVE- 1 .— W o rk E xp erien ce o f M a le W a r V eteran s ( N o n in stitu tio n a l) by A ge G rou p a n d C olor, 196 4
Age in March 1965
Work experience in 1964

All ages

Under 30 years

Ratio,
Ratio,
Ratio,
Non­
non­ Non­
non­
non­ Non­
white White white white White white white White white
to
to
to
white
white
white

Total (in thousnads)__
____
1 , 608 19, 260
Percent____ ___ _______________ _ 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0
Year-round, full-time workers____ 61. 9 75. 0
Part-time, full-time workers____ 2 0 . 1 13. 4
Part-time workers_________
7. 3 3. 2
Did not work___ ______ _
10. 7 8 . 4

48
.
62. 5
29. 2
8. 3
0)

100 0

. 83
1. 50
2 . 28
1. 27

40-49 years
____
Total (in thousands)__
623 7, 840
Percent__ _ _
___
100. 0
100. 0
Year-round, full-time workers____ 65. 8 82. 3
Part-year, full-time workers____ 2 1 . 8 14. 4
Part-time workers.
7. 7 1. 5
Did not work. ________
4. 7 1 . 8
1 Less than 0.05 percent.
Source: U.S. Veterans Administration, Office of Controller.

234




30-39 years

415
.
79. 3
16. 6
2. 9
1. 2

. 79
1. 76
2. 86

. 82
. 61
3. 46
4. 36
1

173 2, 317
. 100. 0
17. 9 23. 4
5. 8
8. 5
16. 8 14. 4
59. 5 53. 7

100 0

100 0

. 80
1. 51
5. 13
2 . 61

, 162
.
84. 2
13. 4
1. 3
1. 1

6
100 0

60 years and over

50-59 years
226 2, 526
. 100. 0
67. 7 76. 8
14. 1
20. 8
5. 3 3. 2
6. 2
5. 9

538
.
69. 1
21. 6
4. 5
4. 8

100 0

100 0

.
. 48
.
1. 05

88
1
1 66

. 76
. 68
1. 17
1 . 11

A larger proportion of nonwhite than white war veterans had availed themselves of GI bill training
by early 1961, but proportionately fewer had received other benefits, such as VA compensation, pension,
or military retirement pay; GI life insurance; or VA home, farm, or business loans.
T a b l e IVE-2.— M a le W a r V eteran s 1 P a r tic ip a tio n in L ife In su ra n c e a n d B en efit P ro g ra m s, by P ro g ra m a n d C olor
U n ited S ta tes, L ate 1 9 6 2 -E a r ly 1 9 6 3

Life insurance and benefit programs

All war

veterans

All war veterans participating (percent)___
VA compensation, pension, or military retirement pay:
Receiving___
___
Not receiving__ _____ _ ___ _ _ __
GI life insurance:
Insured__ __ ______________ _
_ _ ___
Not insured____
_________ _ _
___ ___
GI bill training and vocational rehabilitation programs: 2
Trained___ _
_________
Did not tr a in __ ____ _______ ___ ___________
VA home, farm, or business loan:
Obtained loan.. _ _ ____ __ _ ___ __
_ _ _ ___
Did not obtain loan___ ______

Nonwhite
100

100
11

7

100

5
7
5

11

8

92
19
81
53
47
14

89
29
71
46
54
33
67

Percent non­
white of all
war veterans
participating

White

89
30
70
45
55
35
65

86

8
8

6

3
9

* World War II and Korean war (noninstitutional).
2 Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, as amended.
Source: U.S. Veterans Administration, Office of the Controller.

Nonwhite war veterans were less than half as likely as white war veterans to have obtained a GI
home loan by 1962-63, and less than % as likely in the South. Of those who did not get a GI home
loan, relatively more nonwhite than white veterans tried but failed.
T a b l e IVE-3.— M a le W a r V eteran s’ 1 U se o f G I L o a n E n titlem e n t, by C olor, U n ite d S ta tes, a n d S ou th , L ate 1 9 6 2 -E a r ly 1 96 3
GI loan program and use of entitlement

__
All war veterans 1 (percent)________
Obtained GI home loan 2 ____ _____
Never obtained GI home loan. _
Tried but failed__
Bought home otherwise (including some
who tried but failed) _. . _ _ _____
Have not bought home since service 3 _ _

United States
Nonwhite
100

14

86
12

26
53

Percent of nonwhite
war veterans in
group

South

White
100

34
66
7
37
25

Non white
100
10

91
10

26
56

White
100

34
7
40
23
66

United
States

South
3
9

12

5
14

3
14
15
7
23

1 World War II and Korean war (noninstitutional).
Farm and business loans not included.
8 Includes small proportion who already owned homes before service.
N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: U.S. Veterans’ Administration, Office of the Controller.
2

217-817 0 -6 6 -1 6



235

Proportionately twice as many nonwhite as white war veterans received VA or Armed Forces
hospitalization between 1947 and 1963, but the proportions receiving VA outpatient care were similar.
T a b l e IVE-4.— Male War Veterans 1 Receipt ofVA Medical Benefits Since 1947, by Color, Late 1962-Early 1963
Color

Received VA
(or Armed Forces)
hospitalization 2
Since 1947

All war veterans 1 (percent)______________________________
Nonwhite____________ _ _ -------------- --------------White______________________________________ _____
i W orld W ar I I a n d K o rea n co n flict. (N o n in stitu tio n a l.)
J R e la tiv e ly few v e te r a n s w ere p a tie n ts in A rm ed F orces h o sp ita ls.
Source: U .S . V etera n s A d m in istra tio n , O ffice o f th e C on troller.

236




10

18
9

Received VA
outpatient care

Since
November
1961
2
6
2

Within 2
Since 1947 months prior
to survey
16
18
16

1
1
1

T he incom e advantage of fam ilies headed by m ale w ar veterans, com pared to all other fam ilies
w ith a m ale head, was m uch greater am ong nonw hites than w hites at all age levels, according to the
1960 Census.
T

able

IVE-5.—Income in 1959 of All Families With Male Head and Families With Male War Veteran Head, by Age and
Color, 1960

Income in 1959

Head, all ages Under 35 years

35-44 years

45-64 years

65 and over

Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
white
white

100
100
100
100
All families, male h e a d ________
100
100
100
100
100
100
41
17
Under $3,000_____________
39
13
31
8
41
14
70
47
44
44
49
57
50
44
$3,000 to $6,999 ___________
43
40
23
33
14
12
42
34
28
18
$7,000 to $14,999___________
15
39
6
16
1
2
1
$15,000 and over......................
5 0)
6
1
8
1
4
Median income____________ $3, 610 $6 , 007 $3, 621 $5, 672 $4, 275 $6 , 854 $3,672 $6 , 664 $1, 857 $3, 249
Ratio: Nonwhite to white
60.1
62.4
median income_______ _
63.8
57.2
55.1
100
100
100
100
War veteran head..................... 1 0 0
100
100
100
100
100
24
32
28
9
25
7
6
11
Under $3,000______________
60
33
51
46
56
56
53
43
49
39
$3,000 to $6,999 ___________
31
39
22
19
39
19
35
21
45
18
40
8
$7,000 to $14,999___________
1
1
2
1
6
1
$15,000 and over__________
1
6
10
6
Median income___ _____ ___ $4, 557 $6 , 593 $4, 636 $6 , 2 1 0 $4, 935 $7, 003 $4, 352 $6 , 943 $2, 420 $4, 441
Ratio: Non white to white
69.1
74.7
70.5
62.7
54.5
median income___________
Percent difference between
median income of families
with war veteran head and
9.5 15.4 2 . 2 18.5 4.2 30.3 36.7
of all families with male head_ 26.2 9.8 28.0
i L ess th a n 0.5 p ercen t.
N ote.— B eca u se o f ro u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta ls.
Source: 1960 Census of P opulation: Subject R eports, Veterans, P C (2 )-8 C , ta b le s 21, 22; 1960 Census of P opulation: D etailed Characteristics, United States
Sum m ary, P C (1 )-1 D , ta b le 224 (U .S . B u rea u o f th e C e n su s).




237

E ducational attainm ent for both w hite and nonw hite m ale war veterans w as higher in 1960 than
am ong all m ales (w hite and nonwhite) in every occupational category. L evel of schooling and m edian
earnings, how ever, tended to be lower for nonw hite than w hite m ales in each occupation group, regardless
of veteran status.
T able

IVE-6 .—Earnings,

Educational Attainment, and Age of All Males and Male War Veterans, by Occupation Group
and Color, 1960

Median
Major occupation group and war veteran status

Earnings
Non­
white

Total, males 1------------- -------------------------------Professional, managerial, and kindred work­
ers___________
_ ___ _ ____
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers___
Operatives and kindred workers_________
Clerical and sales workers. ____
__
Service workers _ -------------------—
Farmers, farm managers, farm laborers..
Laborers, except farm and mine____ ____
War veterans 1________ ______ ___________
Professional, managerial and kindred work­
. ___________ _
ers _______ __
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers___
Operatives and kindred workers_____ —
Clerical and sales workers________ _
Service workers__ ______________
Farmers, farm managers, farm laborers.. _ _
Laborers, except farm and mine_______ —

Years of
school

Ratio: Nonwhite to
white medians for—
Age

White Non­ W hite Non- W hite
white
white

$2, 566 $4,735 8 . 6 11.4
4, 220 6 , 634 1 2 . 6 14. 0
3, 400 5, 281 8.9 1 0 . 6
2, 958 4, 392 8.5 9.8
3,738 4, 846 1 2 . 1 12.3
2, 365 3, 443 8 . 8 9.9
706 1,689 5.4 8 . 0
2, 285 3, 076 7.4 8.7
3, 372 5, 479 1 0 . 0 1 2 . 2
4, 757 7, 002 15.4 14.6
3, 852 5, 603 10.3 11.5
3, 485 4, 949 9.6 10.4
4, 381 5, 507 12.4 1 2 . 6
2, 926 4, 416 1 0 . 0 1 1 . 2
883 2, 304 6 . 2 1 0 . 0
2, 914 4, 075 8 . 1 9.3

39
40
40
38
35
41
42
39
39
38
39
38
37
40
42
39

41
42
42
38
39
44
48
36
39
39
39
38
39
41
41
39

Years
Earn- of Age
ings school
.54
.64
.64
.67
.77
.69
.42
.74
.62
.6 8

.69
.70
.80
.6 6
.38
.72

.75
.90
.84
.87
.98
.89
.6 8
.85
.82
1.05
.90
.92
.98
.89
.62
.87

.95
.95
.95
1 .0 0
.90
.93
.8 8
1.08
1 .0 0

.97

1 .0 0
1 .0 0

.95
.98

1 .0 2
1 .0 0

1 In c lu d e s d a ta for p erson s w ith o ccu p a tio n n o t rep orted , for w h o m d a ta are n o t sh o w n sep a ra tely .
Source: C en su s o f P o p u la tio n : 1960, Su bject R ep o rts, V eteran s, PC(2)-8C, tables 16, 17; D etailed C haracteristics, U n ited States S u m m a ry , PC(1)-1D, tables
205, 208; and Su bject R e p o rts, O ccu pation al C haracteristics, PC(2)-7A, tables 9, 10; unpublished tables 14 and 15; and Su bject R e p o rts, E d u ca tio n a l A tta in m e n t,

PC(2)-5B, table 8 (U.S. Bureau of the Census).

238




T he nonw hite lag in m edian years of schooling in 1960 tended to be less am ong m ale war veterans
than am ong all m ales. In the group 25-29 years old, m edian years of schooling for nonw hite war veterans
were virtually the sam e as for w hite war veterans, in contrast w ith a 2-year gap am ong all m ales in that
age group.
T

able

IVE-7 .— E d u c a tio n a l A tta in m e n t o f A ll

Years of school completed

M e n a n d o f W a r V eteran s, b y A g e a n d C olor, 196 0

25-29 years 30-34 years 35-44 years 45-54 years 55 and over
Non­ White Non­ White Non­ W hite Non­ White Non­ White
white
white
white
white
white

Total males__________ _____ _______ ____ 1 0 0 1 0 0
Less than 4 years high school_____ ___ 64 37
High school, 4 years_______
23 33
14
College, 1-3 years___ _ ____________
8
College, 4 years or more__ _____ ___
5 16
Median years___ ________ __
10.5 1 2 . 6
War veterans___ ____ ___ ___ ___ _
100
100
Less than 4 years high school__________ 50 33
High school, 4 years_______ _______ 32 37
College, 1-3 years_____ ______ _
13 17
College, 4 years or more_______________
6
13
Median years___ __ ______ __ 1 2 . 0 12. 5

100

100

100

100

70
18

44
29
11
16

76
15
5
4

47
30

1 2 .8
100

8 .2
100

12 1
100

61 39
23 30
9 13
7 18
11. 0
12.7

69
20
7
5

43
32
11
14

6
6

9.7
100

1 1 .2

10
12

.

1 2 .8

100

100

100

100

62
21
3
9
9
3
6 .2
10.7

92
4

78

2
2

10
6
6

100

100

5.3

7.6

79
12
5
4
7.5

53
23
11
13
9.5

89
5
3
3
5.6

69
13
9

86
8

100

100

10

8.4

N otes.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.
Source: I960 Census of P opulation: Subject R eports, Educational A ttainm ent, P C (2 )-5 B , ta b le 2; 1960 Census of P opulation: Subject R eports, Veterans, P C (2 )8 C , ta b le 7 (U .S . B u rea u o f th e C e n su s).




239

V eterans’ housing was generally superior to that of nonveterans in 1960, but the im provem ent was
m ore pronounced am ong nonw hites.
T able

IVE- 8 .— Characteristics of Housing Among All Families With Male Head and Families Headed by War Veterans, by
Tenure and Color, 1960

Households—families with male head
Total
Housing characteristics

In owner-occupied units

War veteran head

In renter-occupied units

In owner-occupied units

In renter-occupied units

Nonwhite White Nonwhite White Non white White Non white White
Total------------------------------------------ - Cooking equipment for exclusive use and
direct access in:
Sound and deteriorating housing units.
With all plumbing. _ __________
Lacking some or all plumbing----Dilapidated housing units__________
Without cooking equipment for exclusive
use and direct access.______________
Lacks flush toilet for exclusive use_______
Lacks hot running water_______________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

89
65
24

98
91
7
2

80
54
26
19

95
84
11
5

92
76
16
7

99
94
5

7
7

30
37

82
63
19
14
4
22
25

93
84
9
4
3

11

0

)

26
31

0

)

2

0

)

11
11

1

16

20

1

0

)

5
4

1 L ess th a n 0.5 p ercen t.

N ote.—Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Source: U .S . V e te r a n s’ A d m in istra tio n ; 1960 Census of P opulation: Subject R eports, Fam ilies, P C (2 )-4 A , ta b le 34 (U .S . B u r e a u o f th e C en su s.)




11
8

In all age groups the m edian value of hom es ow ned by nonw hite war veterans was m uch low er .than those owned by w hite nonveterans in 1960.
T

able

IVE-9.— Value of Nonfarm Owner-Occupied Housing Units of War Veterans and Others, by Age and Color, 1960
Head, all ages

Value of unit

Nonwhite

White

Under 35 years
Non white

White

35-44 years
Non white

White

War Other 1 War Other 1 War Other 1 War Other 1 War Other 1 War Other 1
veteran
veteran
veteran
veteran
veteran
veteran
All units. _____ _________ _____
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
Less than $7,500_______________
41
57
15
25
34
57
14
25
37
13
21
51
$7,500 to $14,900_______________
44
32
44
34
43
49
49
43
41
33
48
46
$15,000 to $24,900______________
13
9
32
25
14
32
8
34
23
15
11
29
$25,000 to $34,900______________
2
1
6
5
1
4
1
3
2
2
7
6
$35,000 or more. ______________
1
1
3
3 (2)
1
1
1
1
3
3
(2)
Median value______ _______ ____ $8 , 774 $6 , 550 $13, 629 $11, 960 $9, 412 $6 , 557 $13,265 $11, 505 $9, 313 $7, 323 $14, 101 $12,946
45-54 years

55-64 years

65 years and over

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1966

All units. _ _ ______________ ___
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
Less than $7,500_______________
43
54
16
21
24
51
58
19
65
69
25
33
$7,500 to $14,900_______________
42
41
42
33
37
42
24
44
31
43
27
43
$15,000 to $24,900______________
13
10
31
27
11
9
24
27
8
6
23
18
$25,000 to $34,900______________
1
1
7
2
6
1
7
5 (2)
5
3
(2)
$35,000 or more. ______ _
1
4 (2)
5
2
1
4 (2)
1
6
5
(2)
Median value. _ ___________ ___ _ $8,511 $7, 006 $13, 896 $12,855 $7, 303 $6 , 510 $13, 210 $12, 035 $5, 914 $5, 449 $11,891 $ 1 0 , 282

O — 2 1 7 -8 1 7

1 H e a d n o t a w a r v e te r a n .
* L e ss th a n 0.5 p e r cen t.
N o t e . — B e ca u se o f r o u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l item s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta ls.
Source: 1960 C ensus of P opulation: Subject R eports, Veterans, P C (2 )-8 C , ta b le s 23, 24 ( U .8 . B u r e a u o f C e n su s).

H*