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-133*237
NEGRO WOMEN WORKERS
in 1960

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
WOMEN’S BUREAU
Esther Peterson, Director
Bulletin 287

Mo.287

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NEGRO WOMEN WORKERS

in 1960

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
WOMEN’S BUREAU
Esther Peterson, Director
Bulletin 287

The front cover illustrates, from left to right:
A social worker setting up her appointments
An electronics engineer at work
A research physician in a medical laboratory

United States Government Printing Office, Washington : 1964

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price 30 cents

ii

33 L tf
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Foreword
This bulletin examines the economic status of Negro women workers
in 1960, and tells which industries employ Negro women, the occu­
pations they hold, in what States they work, what their personal and
family characteristics are, how much they earn, and how many have
jobs or are unemployed. The 1960 data are compared with those
for 1940 and 1950 wherever possible—to help determine progress
during the last two decades.
Bureau of the Census decennial reports concerning general, social,
and economic characteristics of the population are the basis of this
study. It is one of a series of bulletins being prepared by the Women’s
Bureau concerning various aspects of women’s employment. The
first bulletin, Women Workers in I960-—Geographical Differences,
published in 1962, compares women’s employment in 1950 and 1960
with special emphasis on State and regional differences. Currently
underway are studies of changes in women’s occupations and indus­
tries between 1950 and 1960, and the relationship between a woman’s
education and her employment.
This bulletin supersedes Women’s Bureau publication Negro
Women and Their Jobs, dated 1954, which was based primarily on
data collected in the 1950 census. The current publication was
prepared in the Division of Research and Manpower Program Devel­
opment under the direction of Jean A. Wells, Acting Chief. It was
written by Helen O. Nicol, Chief, Branch of Labor Force Research,
with the assistance of Merci L. Drake. Statistical tabulations were
prepared by Harriet G. Magruder and Grace R. Hipp.
Esther Peterson,

October 1963

Director, Women’s Bureau.

hi

Contents
Page

Highlights
viii
Prefatory Statement
Introduction
Women in the Population
Major regions and States
Population proportions
Women in the Labor Force
Regional changes
Percentages who work
Unemployment-______________________________________________________
Ages of Women Workers
10
Marital and Family Status
12
Educational ProgressIndustries of Employment
15
Major industry groups
15
Changes in detailed industries, 1950-60
Industry variation-by region
19
Occupational Changes
19
Occupational gains, 1950-60
Declines in occupational importance
22
Occupational patterns, I960—
Geographical variations
Income and Earnings
Income
Earnings
Recent Developments
Appendix

Chart

CHARTS

A. Number of nonwhite women employed in the United States, 1960____
B. Number of Negro women employed in the United States, 1960_______
C. Percent changes in numbers of Negro and white women employed in
selected industries, 1950-60
D. Proportion of women among all Negro workers, by occupational group,
1960

iv

vi
1
3
3
(i
7
8
8
9

13

16

21
23
24
26
26
28
29
32

Page

4
5
17
25

TABLES
A-l.
A-2.
A-3.
A-4.
A 5.

Nonwhite women in the population, by State, 1960, 1950, and 1940
Nonwhite women workers, by State, 1960, 1950, and 1940________
Employed women, by race and color, and by State, 1960_________
Age of nonwhite and white women workers, 1960 and 1950_______
Marital status of nonwhite and white women workers, 1960 and
1950
A-6. Educational attainment of nonwhite and white women, by State,
1960__________________________________________________________
A-7. Industries of Negro women employed in 1960 and 1950___________
A-8. Major occupational groups of Negro women employed in 1960, by

region-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- '
A-9. Occupations of Negro women employed in 1960 and 1950_________
A-10. Major occupations of employed Negro women, by State, 1960____
A-ll. Median income and earnings of women, by State and by race or
color, 1959

33
35
37
39
40
41
43

45
47
51
54

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
For photographs included in this bulletin, the Women’s Bureau wishes to
thank the following organizations:
Johnson Publishing Company, Inc.,
Chicago, 111. (left and center of cover and pages 2, 9, 13, 20, 27, 30).
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Public Health Service,
Washington, D.C. (p. 22).

V

Highlights
Women in the Labor Force
A total of 2,455,000 Negro women were employed in 1960, as
compared with 1,870,000 in 1950.
The number of non white women workers rose from just over
2 million in 1950 to almost 3 million in 1960—a gain of 35 percent.
The percentage of nonwhite women of working age who were in
the labor force increased from 37 to 42 percent between 1950 and
1960.
Both in 1950 and 1960, one out of eight women workers was non­
white.
Geographical Shifts
Nonwhite women continued their migration away from farms
into industrial and metropolitan centers. Many also moved out
of the South; the proportion of nonwhite women living there
dropped from almost three-fourths in 1940 to just over half in
1960.
Ages of Nonwhite Women Workers
The median age of nonwhite women workers in 1960 was 38
years-—slightly lower than the 40-year average of white women
workers.
Among those 20 years of age and over there are higher proportions
of nonwhite women than white women who work outside the
home. The difference is greatest for women between 25 and 45.
Working Wives and Mothers
Nonwhite working wives increased almost 50 percent between
1950 and 1960 and approached a total of 1.4 million. Working
wives constituted almost one-half of all nonwhite women workers
in 1960.
One out of three nonwhite mothers with small children (under 6
years) was in the labor force in 1960, as compared with less than
one out of five white mothers.
vi

Educational Attainment
In I960, half of all nonwhite woman 25 years of age and over
had received better than an eighth grade education—an average
gain of more than 1 year since 1950 and more than 2 years since
1940. The percentage of high school graduates rose from 14
to 23 percent from 1950 to 1960.
Industries of Negro Women
Relatively more Negro women were employed in professional
services and public administration in 1960 than 1950. On the
other hand, there were relatively fewer employed in personal
services and an actual decline in agriculture. In terms of detailed
industries, marked employment increases occurred in banking,
medical and other health services, State and local public admin­
istration, general merchandise stores, welfare and religious
organizations, and in several expanding divisions of manufactur­
ing.
Occupations of Negro Women
The number of Negro women employed as clerical, professional,
sales, and miscellaneous service workers increased considerably
between 1940 and 1960. More than one-third were in these
occupations in I960, as compared with less than one-fifth in 1940.
Private-household workers declined in terms of occupational
importance. Fewer Negro women were farm workers in 1960
than in 1940, as a result of the long-term decline in agricultural
employment.
Income and Earnings
Negro women’s median money income from all sources in 1959
was $905. This represented a 29-percent increase over their
1949 average of $703.
Among women workers, nonwhite women had median earnings
(full-time and part-time combined) of $1,219 in 1959—a little
more than half the median earnings of all women workers.

Vll

Prefatory Statement
Statistics for Negro women are presented wherever possible.
Otherwise, the basic data cover nonwhite women who include, in
addition to Negro women, mainly American Indian and Oriental
women, and also Aleut and other Eskimo women. Since Negro
women represented 93 percent of all nonwhite women in the United
States in 1960, the data for nonwhite women also describe Negro
women in most States. The major exceptions are Alaska, Hawaii,
and some western and West North Central States. Throughout,
however, each statistic has been identified in terms of Negro or
nonwhite.

viii

Introduction
A pattern of steadily rising gains emerges from an analysis of the
employment statistics of Negro (or non white) women from 1950 to
I960, and from 1940 to 1960 where data are available. In terms of kinds
of jobs, extent of education, industries of employment, levels of income,
and accessibility to employment opportunities, the status of Negro
women has improved partly because of concerted efforts of their
own and partly because of economic growth, better educational
facilities, and various political and social developments—all of which
have broadened their educational and employment opportunities.
The major occupational shifts of Negro women have been away from
jobs as private-household workers, farmers, and operatives and into
clerical, professional, technical, sales, and miscellaneous service jobs.
At the same time, significantly higher numbers of Negro women have
been employed in banking, retail trade, medical and other health
services, public administration, and in some branches of manufacturing
that are expanding.
These changes have been related to the continuing migration of
Negroes away from farms and into industrial and metropolitan areas,
and to a noticeable flow out of the South into other regions of the
country. With these moves has come a wider range of employment
opportunities.
Another very influential factor has been the steady rise in educa­
tional preparation—with many more nonwhite women graduating
from grammar school and high school than previously.
But despite considerable achievements, many Negro women were
still employed in low-skill and low-paid jobs in 1960, and their un­
employment rates were high. Further gains are needed before their
employment status matches that of white women workers.

1
713-934 0—64------- 2

vr-T'’1

Production manager in a lingerie manufacturing company discusses work with operatives

Women in the Population
The 1960 United States Census of Population counted 6.9 million
nonwhite women of working age 14 years and over. (Table A-l)
This number represented a rise of 18 percent since 1950 and 06 percent
since 1940. The increase was substantially greater than that for
white women, whose numbers rose 1,3 percent during the 1950-60
decade and 27 percent from 1940 to 1960. The numerical changes
follow:
Women 14 years and over
Nonwhite

1950-----------------------------------1940------------------------------------

6, 874, 000
5, 815, 000
5, 041, 000

White

58, 087, 000
51, 494, 000
45, 704, 000

These figures for nonwhite women in the population are essentially
the same as those for Negro women. The latter are not shown sepa­
rately because population statistics were not available by race for
persons 14 years of age and over.
The greater rate of population increase among nonwhite women as
compared to white women is believed to be largely the result of a
drop in the Negro death rate. By 1960 this was only slightly higher
than the rate for whites, and was a marked improvement over the
death rates of the past two decades. Better health, sanitation, and
improved living conditions have had a direct bearing on the lengthened
life span of Negroes.
As the number of nonwhite women in the working-age population
increased, so did their ratio to all women in the population. In 1960
this proportion was 11 percent—almost one percentage point greater
than in 1950 and 1940. It also exceeded slightly the proportion
that nonwhite women and men were of the total population in 1960.
Major regions and States
The geographical location of Negro women in the population
influences directly the place where Negro women work. In I960
there were Negro women, as well as other nonwhite women, living
and working in all the 50 States, but their numbers ranged widely
from State to State, (Charts A and B)
3

CHART A
Number of Nonwhite Women Employed in the United States, I960
r 14 years of age and overl

10,000 to 50,000

100,000 and over

ALASKA

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census

CHART B
Number of Negro Women Employed in the United States, 1960
[14 years of age and over]

---

Under 5,000
5,000 to 10,000

50,000 to 100,000
100,000 and over
HAWAII
ALASKA

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census

Historically, Negroes living in the United States have been concen­
trated in southern rural areas. However, since World War II the
search for better jobs, better education, and higher living standards
has caused many to leave the farm for industrial areas. In many
instances they moved to cities and towns in the South; in fact in
1960 the majority of Negroes were still living in the South. Others
moved out of the southern States into other regions. This largescale migration of Negroes away from the farm has contributed to
significant changes in the economic status of Negro women in the
last two decades. Of all nonwhite women of working age 14 years
and over, three-fourths lived in cities in 1960.
By region, over half were in the South, whereas about three-fourths
were there in 1940. Conversely, the representation of nonwhite
women was greater in all the other major regions. The following
illustrates their movement away from the South:
Percent distribution
of nonwhite women
1960

United States___
_______
Northeast_______ ______
North Central-.
South _ ______
_
West___________________

_______
_______
_______
_______
_______

1950

mo

100
17
18
55
10

100
14
15
63
8

100
11
12
72
5

Information available for Negro women shows that the southern
States in which the largest numbers were living in 1960 were Texas,
Georgia, North Carolina, Louisiana, and Alabama. Outside the
South, the numerically most important States were New York,
Illinois, California, and Pennsylvania.
Population proportions
Negro women were 92.7 percent of all nonwhite women in 1960,
as compared with 96.2 percent in 1950 and 96.4 percent in 1940. The
proportion that Negro women were of all nonwhite women within
individual States depended primarily on the number of Oriental or
Indian women residing in a State.
In 1960, Negro women constituted virtually all of the nonwhite
women in the southern States—with one exception, Oklahoma—and
in Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey,
New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. They represented between
two-thirds and three-quarters of the nonwhite women in California,
Colorado, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, and Vermont, and about half
of them in Maine, Minnesota, Oregon, and Washington. Their propor­
tion approximated one-fifth to one-third of all nonwhite women in
Arizona, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, and New Mexico, and one-tenth or
6

less in Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. In
Hawaii, they were less than one percent.
The proportion that Negro women were of all Negroes in the popu­
lation varied very little among the major regions. They were 52
percent of the total in the South and the North Central States, 54
percent in the Northeast, and 50 percent in the West. As these per­
centages were about the same in 1950 and 1940, they indicate that
Negro women were migrating generally from one region to another
to about the same extent as Negro men, and thus they also were
broadening their range of employment opportunities.

Women in the Labor Force
Almost 3 million nonwhite women 14 years of age and over were
in the labor force in 1960. (Table A-2) They exceeded by almost
three-quarters of a million their number in 1950. Their 35-percent
gain was the same as the increase reported for white women workers.
Compared with 1940, however, the growth in the number of women
workers was much less pronounced among nonwhite women, 53 per­
cent, than among white women, 77 percent.
Women workers 14 years and over
Nonwhite

I960-------------------------------------1950-------------------------------------1940--------------------------------------

2, 872, 000
2, 131, 000
1,874,000

White

19, 538, 000
14, 462, 000
11,034,000

As there are only small differences between the number of nonwhite
women workers and Negro women workers, these figures may be
considered representative of Negro women workers. The latter
group—which covers both employed and unemployed persons—cannot
be reported separately, however, because data were not available for
unemployed workers by race.
One out of eight women workers in 1960, or about 13 percent, was
nonwhite. This proportion was just about the same as in 1950 and
slightly lower than in 1940.
Employment statistics reported for Negro women in 1960 cover
only those who were actually employed. This group, numbering
2,455,000, has expanded 31 percent since 1950, an increase somewhat
smaller than the 34-percent gain of all employed women. It indicates
greater unemployment and limitations in job opportunities among
Negro women.
Negro women constituted over 90 percent of all employed nonwhite
women in a majority of the States in 1960. (Table A-3) In only
eight States there were fewer employed Negro women than other
nonwhite women who were employed.
7

Negro women account for a relatively high proportion of all em­
ployed Negroes. In 1960 they represented 40 percent of the group,
whereas white women were only 32 percent of all white employed
persons.
Regional changes
In the past two decades, relatively more nonwhite women workers
moved from one region to another than appeared to be true for women
workers as a whole. As indicated by previous population changes,
significant numbers of Negro women of working age migrated out of
the South. Mainly as a result of this, the number of nonwhite women
workers in that region declined from 1940 to 1950, but rose again
slightly between 1950 and 1960. The 15-percent increase in the number
of nonwhite women workers in the South during the 20-year period
compared with a nationwide increase of 53 percent. Six States,
Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, and West
Virginia, had fewer nonwhite women workers in 1950 and 1960 than
in 1940.
Increases recorded during the 20-year period have been greatest in
the West on a percentage basis, and in the Northeast on a numerical
basis. New York, with over 282,000 nonwhite women workers, sur­
passed every other State, including those in the South.
Percentages who work
Traditionally, a larger proportion of nonwhite women than of white
women work outside the home. In 1960, 42 percent of all nonwhite
women 14 years of age and over, and 34 percent of all white women
were in the labor force. The difference has narrowed in the past two
decades with the growing interest of white women in paid employment.
Nonwhite women showed no change between 1940 and 1950 in the
proportion who worked outside the home, and only a 5 percentagepoint increase from 1950 to 1960. In contrast, there was a full 10
percentage-point gain for white women over the 20-year period, as the
following figures show:
Percent of women who work
1960

Non white women _
White women.
_

_______
_______

1950

19^0

42
34

37
28

37
24

The percentages of nonwhite women who were in the 1960 labor
force were highest in the District of Columbia, 53 percent; Florida,
52 percent; and New York, 50 percent; followed by Connecticut,
Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Jersey, each with 48 percent;
and by Nevada, 47 percent. These were all States with relatively
high proportions of workers among all women. Similarly, the States
with the lowest proportions of non white working women—North
8

A harpist in a municipal symphony orchestra

Dakota, 19 percent; South Dakota, 21 percent; and Idaho and Mon­
tana, 23 percent—had below-average percentages of all women who
work outside the home. The latter group of States had relatively
limited employment opportunities for all women, and included only
small numbers of Negro women in their population.
Unemployment
Consistently higher unemployment among nonwhite women than
among white women also prevailed at the time of the 1960 census.
A total of almost 250,000 nonwhite women were reported to be un­
employed and seeking work in 1960. They represented 8.5 percent of
all nonwhite women in the labor force. By comparison, only 4.9
percent of white women were unemployed at that time.
9
713-934 O—04

By occupational group, nonwhite women workers with the highest
rate of unemployment during the 1960 census reference week were
farm laborers, 17.4 percent. There was much less unemployment
among white women, 6.1 percent, in the same group. Similarly, in
the other important occupational group with markedly high unem­
ployment factory operatives—the jobless rate for nonwhite women,
12.3 percent, was greater than that for white women, 9.6 percent.
Nonwhite women had consistently higher unemployment than white
women in each of the remaining major occupational groups in the
experienced labor force, with the difference ranging between 1 and 6
percentage points.
Unemployment rote, 1960
Nonwhite
women

Farm laborers_____________________
Laborers___________________________
Operatives________________________
Craftswomen______________________
Sales workers______________________
Service workers (other)____________
Private-household workers_________
Clerical workers___________________
Farmers___________________________
Managers_________________________
Professional workers_______________

17.
16.
12.
9.
8.
7.
6.
5.
5.
2.
2.

White
women

4
6
3
2
0
9
0
8
2
5
2

6.1
10.9
9.6
6.6
4.8
5.3
4.6
3.1
.8
1.8
1. 4

Similarly, in every age group higher proportions of non white women
than white women were seeking work. Among girls 14 to 19 years
of age, where the highest unemployment prevailed, 19 percent of the
nonwhite and 9 percent of the white girls were unemployed in 1960.
Reasons contributing to the especially high rate of jobless nonwhite girls
were their lack of marketable skills and their concentration in southern
rural areas where job opportunities often are limited.
In older age groups of women, unemployment rates declined.
Thirteen percent of the nonwhite women in the 20- to 24-year age
group were unemployed in 1960 and 10 percent in the 25- to 29-year
age group. Nonwhite women with the lowest rate of unemploy­
ment—about 6 percent—were those 45 years and over. By com­
parison, unemployment rates of white women in these age groups
ranged from 6 to 4 percent.

Ages of Women Workers
Nonwhite women workers tend to be slightly younger than white
women workers. In 1960, the median age was about 38 years for
nonwhite women workers and about 40 years for white. (Table
A-4) The lower figure for nonwhite women workers reflects partly
10

the relatively younger age of nonwhite women in the population, and
partly the much higher proportion of nonwhite women than of white
women who work and who are between 25 and 45 years of age.
Although the age distribution of nonwhite women workers is
basically similar to that of white women workers, two major differences
existed both in 1960 and 1950. Tn comparison to white women, there
were relatively more nonwhite women workers who were 25 to 35
years of age and relatively fewer who were 55 years and over. The
larger number in the 25- to 35-year age group resulted from their
greater rate of labor-force participation, whereas the smaller number
of those 55 years and over was related to their smaller population.
Typically, more nonwhite women than white women work outside
the home in all age groups, except those aged 14 to 19. The laborforce participation rate of nonwhite women was particularly low in
1960 among girls 14 to 19 years—a group that includes relatively
large numbers who live in rural areas of the South.
In higher age groups, the proportion of nonwhite women who are
in the labor force is also higher. From 45 percent of the 20- to 24year group of nonwhite women, the proportion who worked in 1960
increased to 56 percent of those 35 to 44 years and 55 percent of
those 45 to 54 years.
This pattern of steadily increased employment among nonwhite
women up to age 45, and continuing at a high rate through 55, differs
considerably from the work pattern of white women. Following
relatively high labor-force participation of white women in their
early twenties, there is a noticeable drop for those 25 to 35 years of
age—the time when their family responsibilities are greatest.
After age 55, there are fewer workers among both nonwhite and
white women. Nevertheless, the proportion of nonwhite women who
work is still above that of white women. The following compares
1960 labor-force participation rates of nonwhite and white women by
age group:
Percent of women who work
Nonwhite

14-19 years______
20-24 years______
25-29 years______
30-34 years______
35-44 years______
45-54 years______
55-64 years______
65 years and over

White

17
45
47
50
56
55
40
13

25
45
33
34
41
46
34
10

ii

Marital and Family Status
About three out of five nonwhite women workers in 1960, as well
as white women workers, were married. (Table A—5) However, in
comparison with white women, there were proportionately fewer non­
white women workers who were single, or married with husband
present.
Percent
Percent increase,
distribution

1950 1 to 1960

Nonwhite White

Nonwhite White

Women workers 14 years and over.

100

100

36

35

Single
______
Married.
.
Husband present.______
Husband absent
Widowed or divorced

19
63
47
16
18

24
60
56
4
15

27
43
48
29
25

2 2
60
62
35
34

1 1950 excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
2 A decrease instead of an increase.

The marked rise in the number of working wives during the 1950’s
accounted for much of the employment increase of nonwhite women
workers, although it was lower than that of white women. Non­
white working wives (married women with husband present) increased
in number from about 900,000 in 1950 to almost 1.4 million in 1960—
a gain of almost 50 percent. More moderate gains were recorded in
the numbers of nonwhite women workers in other marital groups.
Within each marital group except one, relatively more nonwhite
women than white women were in the labor force in 1960. The
exceptional group was that of nonwhite single women—a high pro­
portion of whom were living in southern rural areas, where fewer
employment opportunities were available. The labor-force partici­
pation rates of nonwhite and white women, by marital status, follow:
Women workers as
percent of all women
Nonwhite

White

Total, 14 years and over____

42

34

Single_____________________________
Married___________________________
Husband present______________
Husband absent_______________
Widow or divorced________________

36
44
41
56
42

44
30
30
45
35

In 1960, among mothers with small children, nonwhite women
engaged in work outside the home to a greater extent than white
women.
Percent
in labor
force

Married women (husband present) with children
under 6 years:
Nonwhite-__________________________________
White
18

12

31

Educational Progress
The education attained by Negro women lias a direct bearing on
their economic advancement. Some indication of the educational
gains made by Negro women is reflected in the statistics available for
non white women. These show that the median educational level of
nonwhite women, 25 years of age and over, rose from 6.1 years in
1940 to 7.2 years in 1950 and 8.5 years in 1960. At the same time,
there was also increased employment of nonwhite women in profes­
sional, technical, and clerical occupations—most, of which require
above-average educational preparation.
A total of 2.6 million nonwhite girls and women under 25 years of
age were attending school in 1960. Since education through secondary
school is available to almost everyone in the Nation, the proportion of
nonwhite girls and women under 25 enrolled in school, 68 percent,
was almost as high as that of white girls and women, 70 percent.
For both groups there was improvement over 1950, when the propor­
tions were 58 and 61 percent, respectively.
The relatively favorable • comparisons of nonwhite and white
women—with respect to the percentages of the population under 25
attending school—generally prevailed for each age group, including
mm
mmmrnr

A mathematical analyst at work in an aircraft manufacturing company

13

those 21 to 24 years of age. The only significant difference was in
the 14- to 17-year group, among whom were proportionately fewer
non white women students.
Comparisons of nonwhite women and nonwhite men show that the
proportions in school were the same through age 17. In the age
groups 18 to 24, however, smaller percentages of women than men
were students, as the following summary shows:
Percent in school in 1960
Women
Age group

Total_
5-13
14-17
18-20
21-24

Men

Nonwhite

.

years- ________ .
years .
. ._ _ _
years_
_
.
years.___

White

Nonwhite

68

70

70

74

87
82
30
8

90
88
32
7

87
82
34
11

90
89
42
18

White

In 1960, half of all nonwhite women 25 years of age and over had
received more than an eighth grade education. This amounted to an
average gain of more than 1 year since 1950, and more than 2 years
since 1940. On the average, nonwhite women over 25 years continued
to have much less formal education than white women. They were
still slightly ahead of nonwhite men, although the differences among
the various groups in the population were narrowing.
Median school years completed
I960

Women:
Nonwhite______________
White__________________
Men:
Nonwhite______________
White__________________

I960

191,01

8. 5
11. 0

7. 2
10. 0

6. 1
8. 8

7. 9
10. 6

6. 5
9. 3

5. 4
8. 7

1 Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

Within the major regions of the country, there were considerable
differences in the extent of education attained by both nonwhite and
white women. The highest level of attainment was recorded in
western States. Nonwhite women in southern States, virtually all
of whom are Negroes, had received the least education.
Median school years completed
by nonwhite women
I960

United States_____
Northeast____
North Central.
South________
West_________
1 Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

14

8.
9.
9.
7.
10.

5
5
4
6
3

I960 '

191,0 '

7.
8.
8.
6.
8.

6.
8.
8.
5.
8.

2
5
6
3
9

1
0
1
5
2

By State, in 1960, nonwhite women attained the highest education
in New Hampshire, median 12.1 years, and the lowest in South Caro­
lina, median 6.4 years. (Table A-6) The greatest differences in the
median number of school years completed by women prevailed in the
following States: Alaska, nonwhite women, 6.5 years; white women,
12.4 years; Arizona, 7.2 years, 12.0 years; New Mexico, 7.2 years, 11.8
years; Mississippi, 6.7 years, 11.3 years; and South Carolina, 6.4 years,
10.7 years. In all of these five States, higher proportions of nonwhite
women than of white women were living in rural areas. In Alaska,
Arizona, and New Mexico, less than half the nonwhite women were
Negro.
In the population 25 years of age and over, relatively fewer nonwhite
women than white women had finished grammar school in 1960.
Also a much smaller percentage of nonwhite women, 23 percent,
than of white women, 44 percent, had obtained at least a high school
education. Four percent of the nonwhite women were college gradu­
ates, as compared with 6 percent of the white women. Tn fact the
percentages of nonwhite women 25 years of age and over, in the higher
educational levels, showed noteworthy gains between 1950 and 1960.
Percent by school year completed
Years of school completed

Nonwhite women
1960

T otal _

________

College:
4 years or more
________
Less than 4 years
________
High school:
4 years
__ . ________
Less than 4 years
________
Elementary school:
8 years
_
.. ________
5 to 7 years,
____ ________
Less than 5 years _. ________

White women

I960

1960

I960

too

1 too

100

1 100

4
4

2
3

6
9

o
8

15
20

9
14

29
20

24
18

13
24
20

12
28
28

18
12
6

21
14
8

1 Includes persons who did not report school years.

Of the nonwhite women 25 years of age iand over who had 4 years
more of college and were employed in 1960, over three-quarters
had professional or related kinds of jobs. This proportion was slightly
higher than that for white college women. However, the available
statistics did not reveal how many of the nonwhite professional
women were teachers and how many were employed in other kinds of
professional work.

Industries of Employment
Major industry groups
Economic growth during the 1950’s accounted for much of the
employment increase recorded by Negro women. There were sig15

nificant differences, however, among the principal industry groups.
The major changes were substantial increases in the numbers of Negro
women employed in professional services and public administration,
only a small increase in personal services, and a noticeable decrease
in agriculture. (Chart C) The following summary shows shifts
in the percentage distribution of Negro women employed in major
industry groups:
Percent of employed
Negro women
I960

1950 i

Total_________________________

100

100

Personal services------------------------------Professional services_________________
Wholesale and retail trade___________
Manufacturing_______________________
Public administration,_______________
Agriculture__________________________
Other________________________________

45
18
10
9
4
4
10

53
11
10
0
2
9
6

i Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

Of 2.5 million Negro women employed at the time of the 1960 census,
more than one million were in various categories of the personal
service industries, including private households; over 400,000 in
professional and.related services; nearly 250,000 in wholesale and retail
trade; over 200,000 in manufacturing; and 88,000 each in agriculture
and public administration. (Table A-7) Despite this concentration
in 1960, a comparison with 1950 indicates that slightly greater propor­
tions of Negro women were employed in the remaining industry array.
Thus, the proportion of Negro women employed in these six major
industry groups declined from about 94 to 90 percent between 1950
and 1960.
Changes in detailed industries, 1950-60
Among detailed industries, shifts in the employment of Negro
women from 1950 to 1960 reflected largely the long-term growth of
service-producing industries and the relatively declining importance
of goods-producing industries. The size of the changes, percentage­
wise, frequently were more pronounced for Negro women, however.
For example, the number of Negro women more than doubled between
1950 and 1960 in banking, postal service, medical and other health
services, State and local public administration, general merchandise
and limited price variety stores, and welfare and religious organiza­
tions. The increases in the number of white women workers in the
same industries ranged from 22 to 89 percent.
Negro women also made important gains—considerably above the
percentage gains for white women—in four growing divisions of
16

CHART C
7 1 3 -9 3 4 O — 64

Percent Changes in Numbers of Negro and White Women
Employed in Selected Industries, 1950—60
Percent

Professional related services

Public administration

Wholesale, retail trade

Manufacturing
White

Personal services
*Professional services included account­
ing, auditing, and bookkeeping services
in I960, but not in 1950.

Agriculture
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census

manufacturing: aircraft, electrical machinery, knitting mills, and
rubber and plastic plants.
Industry

Percent increase
1950-60

Negro women as
percent of all
women

Negro

Aircraft manufacturing
BankingPostal service
Medical, other health services___
State, local public administration.
Electrical machinery
Knitting mills
. General merchandise, limited price
variety stores
Rubber, plastic products-__
Welfare, religious organizations.--

White

1960

1950 »

382
172
162
154
134
134
109

213
89
22
65
49
83
10

2.
1.
11.
11.
7.
3.
3.

1.
1.
5.
8.
4.
3.
1.

108
104
104

39
72
63

0
4
0
9
3
6
6

4. 0
4. 0
7. 4

3
0
4
1
8
0
9

2. 7
3. 4
6. 0

1 Data for 1950 exclude Alaska and Hawaii.

Compared with the overall 31-percent increase in employment of
all Negro women, small increases were recorded in such industries as
private households, eating and drinking places, apparel manufacturing
plants, hotels and lodging places, and insurance and real estate com­
panies. Generally, these were industries in which employment
growth was also below average for white women, although usually not
as far below as for Negro women.
In several manufacturing industries, as well as in agriculture,
railroads, and laundries and drycleaning firms, fewer Negro women
were employed in 1960 than in 1950. The decreases in employment
in these industries were mainly the result of technological changes,
and generally affected Negro women more adversely than white
women. These percent changes are noted in the following data for
employed women:
Industry

Percent decrease
1950-60
Negro

Agriculture _
. .
..
Railroads
_
. .
Primary iron and steel .
...
Yarn, thread, fabric mills ______
Sawmills
....
_____
Laundering, cleaning and dyeing..

White

49
45
35
25
12
(3)

22
27
4
32
2 1
4

Negro women as
percent of all
women
1960

1950 1

21.
6.
3.
1.
12.
28.

29.
7.
4.
1.
14.
28.

3
0
2
6
3
9

4
9
6
4
0
4

1 Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
2 A percent increase.
3 Less than 0.5 percent decrease.

In industries where Negro women’s employment had at least
doubled between 1950 and 1960, their proportions of all employed
women rose perceptibly. There were generally only small changes in
18

their representation in industries where they had minor increases or
decreases in employment.
Industry variation by region
The major industries in which Negro women were employed in 1960
were somewhat different in the South from those in other regions of
the country. The variations in industrial employment patterns
resulted from several factors: the geographical location of specific
industries and of the Negro woman population, hiring practices, and
the educational qualifications of Negro women for certain types of
work.
In the South, a high proportion of Negro women were employed in
six industries: private households, retail trade, education, agriculture,
medical and health services, and manufacturing. In the Northeast,
North Central, and Western regions, the proportions employed in
private households, education, and agriculture were much smaller
than in the South, and those in manufacturing and medical and health
services were much larger. Compared with other regions, the West
had a greater proportion of Negro women employed in public adminis­
tration, and the Northeast had more in apparel and other textile
manufacturing firms. In general, there was more dispersion in the
industrial distribution of Negro women employed outside the South.

Occupational Changes
Increased employment opportunities in white-collar and service
jobs have contributed to the most important occupational develop­
ment for Negro women workers in the past two decades—the trend
toward greater diversity. World War II stimulated their entry into
many new kinds df jobs—particularly clerical, sales, professional,
and service. (Table A-8) The proportion of Negro women employed
in these, fields, excluding private households, rose from less than
one-fifth in 1940 to more than one-third in 1960. The following
summary shows the distribution of Negro women employed in the
major occupational groups, as reported in the 1940, 1950, and 1960
censuses:
Percent distribution
1960

Total
employed
women
_

Negro

Increases:
Service workers (other) _
Clerical and sales workers___
Professional workers. _
Craftswomen
_

1960

i

190

i

too

100

100

21
9
7
1

19
5
6
1

10
1
4
(2)

See footnotes at end of table.

19

Percent distribution
1960

No change:
Managers__ .. - .
_
Decreases, 1950-60:
Private-household workers__
Operatives,-.
Farm laborers..
Farmers
Laborers____
Not reported
.

19501

1

i

i

36
13
3

41
15
7

60
6

1

2

13
3

1

2

1

8

2

1

1 Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

1

Braille worker proofreads publications for the blind

20

19401

Occupational gains, 1950-60
The employment fields in which Negro women made their greatest
progress were generally those which were expanding and which
traditionally hired significant numbers of women. Nevertheless, the
percentage gains made by Negro women frequently were higher than
those of white women. For example, between 1950 and 1960 the
percentage gains in the number of those employed as clerical, pro­
fessional, and sales workers were much greater for Negro women
than white women. On the other hand, the percentage increase for
service workers outside of private households was the same for both
Negro and white women.
Percent change
1950 i to i960

Total employed women_______
Professional workers_________________
Managerial workers__________________
Clerical workers
-|-145
Sales workers________________________
Craftswomen________________________
Operatives
Laborers
Private-household workers___________
Service (other) workers______________
Farmers-------------------------------------------Farm laborers_______________________

Negro

White

-f-67
-}-i

_|_4o
+15
_|_ 44
+24
+5
+7
—14
-f-38
+48
+ 20
—45

+ 31

+42
+37
+13
—17
+15
+48
-53
—50

+34

1 Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

Individual occupations which Negro women have recently entered
in large numbers include many clerical jobs, especially those of secre­
tary, stenographer, typist, cashier, telephone operator, and book­
keeper. (Table A-9) These require more education, skill, and
responsibility than many jobs held by Negro women prior to World
War II.
In many professional fields, where demand for workers increased
considerably between 1950 and 1960, Negro women have made im­
pressive gains. Their number more than doubled among the profes­
sional nurses, medical and dental technicians, dietitians, librarians,
accountants, and lawyers. In addition, Negro women made signifi­
cant percentage gains as social and welfare workers, therapists, natural
scientists, and physicians. Numerically, their greatest increase was
in the teaching profession.
Among service workers—-except those in private households—large
percentage increases were recorded in the number of hospital attend­
ants, practical nurses, and institutional housekeepers. There were
21

A practical nurse administers an injection under the supervision
of a professional nurse

only minor employment increases for the numerically large groups of
cooks, waitresses, and beauty operators.
The number of Negro women employed as saleswomen and as
craftswomen increased at a somewhat greater rate between 1950 and
1960 than the employment of all Negro women. Nevertheless, each
group constituted only about one percent of all Negro women employed
in both periods.
Declines in occupational importance
The major occupations from which Negro women shifted between
1950 and 1960 were private-household workers, farmers, and opera­
tives. These were fields in which there were also either decreases or
only limited increases in the number of white women.
The number of Negro women employed as private-household work­
ers rose from about 774,000 in 1950 to 888,000 in 1960. However, as
this 15-percent increase in number was less than the 31-percent gain
in the total employment of Negro women, there was a decline in the
occupational significance of this group. In the previous decade there
was a numerical decrease in employment as well. The small percent
increase recorded by Negro women in private-household work between
1950 and 1960 was exceeded by white women. The difference prob­
ably reflects the greater rise in the number of paid babysitters among
white women and girls.
22

The proportion of Negro women employed as operatives also de­
clined from 1950 to 1960, although the overall number rose from
274,000 to 310,000. Some of the principal operative groups had
smaller numbers of Negro women employees in 1960 than 1950. They
included dressmakers, and spinners and weavers, as well as operatives
in apparel firms, textile mills, and food plants. Generally, these were
occupations of decreasing importance to other workers as well as to
Negro women.
Similarly, the long-term decline in the demand for agricultural
workers affected both Negro and white women. However, mechani­
zation in this field has had a markedly greater effect on the employ­
ment of Negro women than on white women.
Occupational patterns, I960
The occupational pattern of Negro women in 1960 was quite
different from that of white women, and also from that of Negro men.
As indicated, however, there was somewhat more similarity in the
jobs held by Negro and white women in 1960 than there was in 1950.
The main distinction in the occupational distribution of the two
groups of women in 1960 was that the majority of Negro women were
service workers and the majority of white women were white-collar
workers. The percentages of blue-collar workers and of farm workers
were relatively low in both groups, as shown by the following distri­
bution of workers employed in 1960:
Percent distribution
Negro
women

White
women

Negro
men

100

100

100

_
_

7
i
7
i

14
4
33
9

3
2
5
i

_
_
_

13
1
1

16
1
(')

24
10
20

.
_
.

36
21
3

4
12
1
5

1
14
11

Total employed persons___ White-collar workers:
Professional
Managerial_______ Clerical
_
Sales
_
._
Blue-collar workers:
Operatives _____
Craftsmen _____
Laborers
_____
Service workers:
Private-household
Other service__
_
Farm laborers and farmers
Occupation not reported

8

8

1 Less than 1 percent.

Negro women, like white women, work largely in jobs that differ
from those held by men. Tn contrast to the predominance of service
23

jobs in the occupational pattern of Negro women, the largest group
of Negro men were blue-collar workers in 1960. Two other compari­
sons are significant: relatively more Negro women than men had
professional or technical jobs, and only a slightly higher percentage
of Negro women than men were doing clerical work. The greater
number of Negro women in professional jobs is explained primarily
by their extensive employment as teachers and nurses.
Of all Negro workers in 1960, Negro women constituted nearly all
the private-household workers. (Chart D) They were also more
than half the number of Negroes employed as professional workers
and as other service workers. Except for the clerical group, in which
the numbers were about equal, the remaining occupational groups
had fewer Negro women than men.
Geographical variations
Occupational variations of Negro women workers by region and
State were influenced somewhat by the geographical location of the
industries which employed them. (Table A-10) The South, where
three out of five Negro women workers lived, had relatively fewer
operatives and clerical workers and relatively more private-household
workers and farm workers. In most instances, these differences pre­
vailed for white women as well as Negro women.
There was considerable similarity in the occupational patterns of
Negro women employed in the Northeast, North Central, and Western
regions. This also was noted previously in their industrial patterns.
Principal exceptions to this similarity in occupational distribution
outside the South were the particularly high proportion of operatives
among Negro women employed in the Northeast and of miscellaneous
service workers in the North Central States. The following shows
these differences:
Percent distribution
North
Central

Total employed Negro women. _
Professional workers
----------- .
Clerical workers . _
- ----------- Sales workers
. —-----Managers
.
...
Private-household workers._ __
_
Other service workers _ -_
_
Operatives
. _
. . -----------Craftswomen
. —--------Laborers
. .
Farmers___
.
.
1 Less than 0.5 percent.

24

Northeast

100

too

100

100

100

—

Major occupational group

United
States

—

—

—

—

8
8
2
1
39
23
14
1
1
4

7

8

8

14
2
1
28
20
25
1
1
0)

14
2
1
25
29
17
1
2
(')

4

8
15
2
i
31
25
15
1
1
(>)

South

1
1
48
22
9
0)
1
6

West

CHART D
Proportion of W omen Among All Negro Workers, by Occupational Group, 1960
Percent

Total
Private-household workers

Professional workers
Service workers
(except private-household)
Clerical workers
Sales workers
Managers, officials,
proprietors

m

Operatives
Farm workers
Craftsmen, foremen
Laborers
(except farm, mine)

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census

Since a majority of all employed Negro women are located in the
South, it might be expected this also would be true for Negro women
in each of the major occupational groups. On the contrary, in four
groups—clerical, craft, operative, and sales—only from one-fourth to
two-fifths of the Negro women were in the South. Moreover, the
South included almost all the Negro women who were farmers, about
three-fourths of the private-household workers, and three-fifths of all
Negro professional women. The regional variations in the propor­
tions of Negro women employed in the major occupational groups are:
Percent distribution
North
Central

United
States

North­
east

South

West

Total employed Negro women..

100

20

17

58

6

Professional workers----------------------Clerical workers----------------------------Sales workers--------------------------------Managers
Private-household workers
...
Other service workers--------------------Operatives-------------------------------------Craftswomen---------------------------------Laborers
Farmers

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

18
34
29
18
14
17
35
30
16
1

16
29
25
19
10
20
20
24
24
1

60
28
40
56
72
57
39
38
54
97

6
10
6
7
4
6
6
8
6
1

Major occupational group

Income and Earnings
Women’s income and earnings, measures of their economic status,
are directly influenced by the extent of women’s employment, the
type of jobs they have, and the part of the country they live in. The
concentration of Negro women in unskilled jobs and in part-time or
part-year work, therefore, is reflected strongly in the income and
earnings statistics recorded in the 1960 census for the year 1959.
Income
Three out of five Negro women 14 years of age and over reported
some money income in 1959. Their median income was $905,
which is 29 percent more than the $703 average reported in 1949.
(Table A-l 1) By comparison, the income of white women increased
33 percent over the decade. However, the figures are not necessarily
comparable, since they include women with varying amounts of
part-time and part-year employment.
According to available statistics, however, the gap between the
income of Negro women and the income of white women increased
slightly from 1950 to 1960. Negro women’s median income amounted
26

This showroom manager holds one of many jobs in retail trade

to 62 percent of that of white women in 1949, but only 60 percent in
1959.
Negro women continued to receive substantially less income than
Negro men. In 1949 they averaged better than half as much as men,
but in 1959, only about two-fifths as much. Despite a high rate of
27

increase in their income, Negro men also were in a slightly less favor­
able income position in 1959 than in 1949 in relation to white men.
Women!
Negro____________________
White
Men:
Negro___________________
White

Afedian income
-----------------------------^959
19491

Percent
increase

$905
1, 510

$703
1, 139

29
33

2, 254
4, 337

1, 356
2, 582

66
68

1 Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

More than half of all Negro women with income received less than
$1,000 in 1959. About two-fifths of the white women with income
also had this small amount. Only one in 10 Negro women and one in
4 white women received $3,000 or more in 1959.
Women
Negro

Total

100

Under $1,000
$1,000-$1,999
$2,000-$2,999
$3,000-$3,999____________________________
$4,000-84,999____________________________
$5,000 and over__________________________

White

100
55
22
12
6
3
2

41
18
15
12
7
7

Among the States, the highest median income was received by
Negro women living in New York, $1,962. This amount was higher
than the median reported for white women, $1,944, because of the
greater concentration of Negro women in metropolitan and industrial
centers of that State. Negro women had relatively high income also
in the District of Columbia, $1,894; followed closely by Nevada,
$1,879; Alaska, $1,743; Illinois, $1,678; Massachusetts, $1,653;
Connecticut, $1,628; New Jersey, $1,621; and California, $1,596.
The lowest median income was reported by Negro women living in
South Carolina, $614; Arkansas, $604; and Mississippi, $588.
Earnings
Median earnings of $1,219 were reported by nonwhite women who
worked in 1959. Since earnings data were not reported by race, this
figure represents the best information available concerning Negro
women. The amount was little more than half the $2,257 averaged
by all women workers. (Table A-ll) The average earnings of
nonwhite men, $2,703, were considerably higher than those of non­
white women, but not quite two-thirds as much as those of all men
workers, $4,621.
28

The relatively low median earnings of nonwhite women workers
result mainly from the large numbers employed in low-wage industries
and in occupations where part-time and intermittent work is wide­
spread. Only 46 percent of all nonwhite women workers were
employed at least 50 weeks in 1959, as compared with 51 percent of
all women workers and 56 percent of nonwhite men workers. In
addition, within the year-round group, a higher proportion of women
than men generally are employed in part-time jobs.
As might be expected, professional workers received the highest
median earnings, $3,571, of all nonwhite women workers in 1959.
They averaged just slightly less than the median earnings of all women
professional workers, $3,625. As a result, they had one of the highest
proportions of earnings reached by nonwhite women when compared
with all women in the same occupational group. However, nonwhite
women employed as sales workers and private-household workers had
higher median earnings in 1959 than all women in these groups. In
both instances, relatively more nonwhite women were employed at
least 50 weeks in 1959.
Earnings comparisons for nonwhite men and women in the same
occupational groups reveal that professional and clerical women
averaged about three-fourths as much as their male counterparts.
In 1959 the greatest differences in the median earnings of nonwhite
men and women existed in the managerial group.
Median earnings of
nonwhite
Occupation

Professional workers .
Clerical workers
_ __
Managerial workers
Operatives . _
Sales workers _ .
Service workers. .
Private-household workers__

Women

$3,
2,
1,
1,
1,
1,

571
993
927
829
562
365
704

Men

$4,
4,
3,
3,
2,
2,
1,

563
072
869
040
809
529
216

Percent
nonwhite
women’s
earnings
of nonwhite
men's

78
74
50
60
56
54
58

Recent Developments
The preceding statistics show the progress Negro women workers
have made in the professions, in clerical work, and in other aspects
of business and industry between 1940 and 1960. More Negro women
than ever before have become nurses, technicians, secretaries, and
saleswomen. As they moved into more responsible and rewarding
occupations, they also improved their earning power. Yet, as the
figures show, there still remains a significant gap between the'employ­
ment and earnings status of Negro and white women workers.
29

There is hope that the gap will be bridged in the near future.
Since the 1960 census, there have been numerous developments in
economic, political, and social spheres that tended to have favorable
employment effects on Negro women. More employer's are re­
examining and revising their hiring policies and practices, and more
unions and companies are adopting nondiscrimination clauses in
their collective bargaining contracts.
With the growing concern about unemployment, expanded training
programs have been made possible by a number of Federal acts
designed to meet changing manpower requirements and to upgrade
skills of unemployed workers. Negro women are participating in
these training programs and thus sharing in the opportunity for
broadening their occupational qualifications. In addition, under the
public welfare amendments of 1962, families receiving such financial
benefits as Aid to Dependent Children also may seek training, counsel­
ing, guidance, and special job application services. Furthermore,
the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities is
helping to open up many occupational fields which previously were
closed to Negro women and-men.
Certain recent legislative actions also have been particularly helpful
to women workers. Extended coverage of the Fair Labor Standards
Act in 1961 gave minimum wage protection to several million addi­
tional workers, a significant proportion of whom were women. Raising

A city planner studies the progress of an urban redevelopment project

30

the minimum wage rate of those already covered by the act also was
advantageous for many Negro and white women, since large numbers
of women are in the low-wage brackets.
Women will benefit also from the new Federal legislation which
provides funds for the expansion of day care centers. A major group
to be aided are working mothers, many of whom are Negro women.
In addition, the enactment in 1963 of a provision extending the amount
of child-care expenses allowable as income tax deductions to deserted
wives will increase the real income of a large number of women with
dependents. And further improvements in Uniform Reciprocal
Enforcement of Support Acts will enable courts to collect support
payments for deserted wives and children.
Of special importance to women is the Equal Pay Act of 1963, which
will become effective June 11, 1964. This provides for employees of
firms covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act to receive the same
pay for the same work, regardless of sex. Also beneficial to Negro
women, as to all women in the Nation, are activities stimulated by
establishment in 1961 of the President’s Commission on the Status of
Women. The Commission was charged with developing recom­
mendations to overcome discrimination against women and to enable
women to make fuller use of their abilities. Although the recommen­
dations may require time for fulfillment, their scope is long-range and
promising.
While these changes cannot be assessed statistically, they do indicate
the activities underway which should enable Negro women to partici­
pate more fully in the economic life of our country.
It is important for the talents of all men and women to be developed
and used so that each may work toward attaining personal goals and
contribute to the ever-growing needs of society.

31

Appendix

Table A-1— Nonwhite Women in the Population, by State, I960, 1950, and 1940

(14 years of age and over)
Number of nonwhite women
in population

Nonwhite women
workers 1 as percent
of nonwhite women

1960

1960

1950

UNITED STATES... 6, 874, 484 5, 814, 865 5, 041, 472

42

37

37

Northeast

Region and State

_ .

.

_

Alabama
_ _
Arkansas.
Delaware .
District of
Columbia
Florida. .
Georgia.
_
Kentucky..
Louisiana
Maryland. _
Mississippi
North Carolina__

1940

829, 307

571, 330

47

43

44

37, 660
1, 697
42, 992
730
186, 924
570, 018
310, 543
6, 202
270

20, 511
850
29, 499
282
124, 295
400, 657
247, 957
5, 042
214

13, 086
823
22, 626
170
89, 909
256, 690
183, 659
4, 236
131

48
27
48
40
48
50
43
38
33

46
22
40
34
47
47
36
37
32

46
26
38
31
45
50
38
39
28

1, 217, 411

886, 532

587, 132

40

35

33

261,
66,
7,
28,
166,
9,
117,
8,
3,
196,
7,
13,

161,
48,
6,
26,
81,
7,
98,
6,
2,
131,
7,
8,

056
386
613
032
593
540
757
818
977
917
176
267

41
40
41
39
36
38
41
39
19
41
21
39

39
35
37
32
29
29
37
34
14
36
12
31

35
32
29
29
29
23
37
28
13
33
9
22

3, 803, 144 3, 643, 121 3, 618, 223

41

36

37

Illinois _ _
Indiana..
Iowa _
.
Kansas _ .
Michigan .
Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
North Dakota___
Ohio ...
South Dakota___
Wisconsin _ _
South

1940

1, 157, 036

Connecticut .
Maine _
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire..
New Jersey .
New York
Pennsylvania____
Rhode Island
Vermont ._ _
North Central

1950

366,
91,
10,
33,
243,
12,
139,
11,
3,
270,
7,
27,

024
651
000
160
218
859
017
599
410
889
965
619

049
277
574
589
234
217
909
681
085
919
219
779

329, 366
127, 692
20, 292

344, 326
148, 816
15, 991

352, 800
173, 481
13, 304

37
31
48

34
26
43

36
25
45

150,
290,
379,
76,
343,
174,
292,
370,

115,
224,
378,
77,
310,
139,
329,
361,

79,
196,
397,
83,
309,
111,
374,
345,

53
52
43
40
36
45
34
40

51
47
39
36.
30
42
29
35

52
49
40
37
33
43
33
36

914
182
280
930
173
137
110
574

715
094
349
782
580
223
162
231

284
832
900
801
917
233
043
578

See footnote at end of tat>10.

33

Table A-l.—Nonwhife Women in the Population, by State, 1960, 1950, and 1940

—Continued
Number of nonwhite women
in population
Region and State
1960

1950

South—Continued
Oklahoma
South Carolina_
_
Tennessee.- _ _
Texas___
Virginia
West Virginia____

73,
262,
202,
408,
270,
31,

West

696, 893

455, 905

13,
37,
408,
17,
134,
2,
6,
6,
21,
11,
4,
29,
1,

9,
28,
233,
10,
116,
2,
5,
3,
15,
7,
3,
18,
1,

-

-

Alaska-:.-- . - Arizona - _ _
California
Colorado
Hawaii-- - - Idaho Montana _
- .
Nevada -_
New Mexico
Oregon ____- Utah __ _
_ .- .
Washington - Wyoming.. . ..

716
347
254
036
799
342

395
678
338
343
979
803
671
581
618
266
688
641
892

71,
268,
199,
361,
256,
40,

122
540
684
499
467
540

784
511
043
277
779
192
289
243
190
814
574
516
693

i Includes members of the Armed Forces.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

34

1940

Nonwhite women
workers 1 as percent
of nonwhite women
1960

1950

454
682
939
376
166
433

32
39
41
44
39
28

28
36
36
38
34
23

28
40
39
40
35
23

264, 787

41

36

33

9, 392
21, 239
99, 347
6, 502
88, 038
1, 760
5, 439
1, 968
11, 678
4, 385
2, 180
11, 670
1, 189

26
27
44
43
44
23
23
47
27
37
33
37
28

25
28
41
38
34
16
12
35
24
33
34
31
22

19
30
37
34
32
10
12
20
40
25
25
28
18

82,
276,
197,
347,
234,
41,

1940

Table A-2.—Nonwhite Women Workers, by State, 1960, 1950, and 1940

(14 years of age and over)
Number of nonwhite women
workers 1

Region and State

Percent
increase

1960

1950

1940

2, 871, 510

2, 131, 442

1, 873, 742

35

53

549, 280

357, 178

253, 801

54

116

18, 134
452
20, 453
294
90, 592
282, 307
134, 616
2, 343
89

9, 430
190
11, 685
96
57, 854
187, 616
88, 391
1, 848
68

5, 993
217
8, 643
53
40, 223
127, 099
69, 898
1, 638
37

92
138
75
206
57
50
52
27
31

203
108
137
455
125
122
93
43
141

485, 864

311, 255

190, 942

56

154

151, 789
36, 662
4,075
12, 998
88, 464
4, 875
57, 272
4, 561
639
111, 982
1, 678
10, 869

101,
23,
2,
9,
48,
2,
43,
2,

135
379
794
241
776
695
976
954
434
70, 767
865
4, 239

55, 860
15, 632
1,918
7, 622
23, 587
1, 764
36, 494
1, 915
386
43, 242
662
1, 860

50
57
46
41
81
81
30
54
47
58
94
156

172
135
112
71
275
176
57
138
66
159
153
484

1, 547, 748

1, 296, 721

1, 342, 512

19

15

123, 628
39, 324
9, 745

115, 838
38, 053
6, 871

125, 324
43, 040
5, 946

7
3
42

2 1
29
64

79,
151,
162,
30,
122,
78,
100,

58,
104,
147,
27,
94,
58,
94,

40,
95,
161,
31,
103,
48,
122,

35
45
10
11
30
34
7

94
59
1
2 1
18
63
2 18

UNITED STATES____
Northeast_______ .

_

Connecticut_______
Maine, _ ____ __
_
Massachusetts_ __
_
New Hampshire___
New Jersey __ .
New York
_
_
Pennsylvania- _
_
Rhode Island
.
Vermont______
North Central____
Illinois - _______
Indiana. _ _____
Iowa
Kansas
_ __ _
_
Michigan
Minnesota. _ . ___
Missouri____ . .
Nebraska___
.
North Dakota_____
Ohio__________
.
South Dakota
Wisconsin______
South

.

.

Alabama . _ _
Arkansas.
. _
_
Delaware
. ._
District of
Columbia
_.
Florida
. _ __
Georgia- _ _ __
_
Kentucky ______
Louisiana____ _____
Maryland .. . .
Mississippi

556
848
694
901
711
420
595

822
812
567
841
044
331
208

912
713
033
101
704
241
777

1950­
60

1940­
60

See footnotes at end of tab e.

35

Table A-2.—Nonwhite Women Workers, by State, 1960, 1950, and 191fi

—Continued
Percent
increase

Number of nonwhite women
workers 1
Region and State
1960

1950

1940

South—Continued
North Carolina-----Oklahoma —
South Carolina,
.
Tennessee- — ,,
Texas
,
Virginia,. ---- --West Virginia , ,

148,
23,
101,
82,
178,
105,
8,

126,
19,
96,
72,
139,
87,
9,

124,
22,
109,
77,
138,
82,
9,

West

288, 618

---------

Alaska, ______
Arizona---- , ,
,
California,
-----Colorado _
Hawaii ___
-- Idaho___ _____
Montana _
,
Nevada______
New Mexico _ __
_
Oregon ___
_
Utah._
,
,
Washington
,
Wyoming,
_

3,
10,
180,
7,
58,

321
293
780
491
002
749
690

505
359
171
467
801
652
1, 522
3, 068
5, 755
4, 163
1, 546
11, 083
526

180
656
625
184
127
149
413

166, 288
2,
8,
95,
3,
40,

471
091
930
904
144
358
635
1, 125
3, 633
2, 575
1, 232
5, 816
374

1 Includes members of the Armed Forces.
2 A decrease instead of an increase.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

36

1950­
60

1940­
60

216
958
405
172
654
687
629

18
19
5
14
28
21
2 8

7
28
28
2 10

86, 487

74

234

42
28
88
91
46
82
140
173
58
62
25
91
41

95
63
392
240
106
256
143
689
23
279
187
237
150

1,
6,
36,
2,
28,

795
367
604
198
511
183
626
389
4, 680
1, 098
538
3, 288
210

19
1
2 7

Table A-3.—Employed Women, by Race and Color, and by Stale, I960

{14 years of age and over)
Number of employed women

Negro
women
as per­
cent of
all em­
ployed
women

all em­
ployed
Negroes

168, 584 18, 548, 577

94

12

40

486, 506

Region and State

Negro
women
as per­
cent of
employed
non­
white
women

16, 080 5, 295, 416

97

8

43

15, 946
190
17, 292
166
79, 177
252, 498
119, 351
1, 830
56

527
328, 788
179
110, 106
659
703, 946
87
84, 763
872
681, 795
787 2, 006, 961
676 1, 221, 015
272
111. 742
21
46, 300

97
51
91
66
98
96
99
87
73

5

40
46
44
47
42
45
41
39
31

15, 588 5, 518, 449

96

7

38

424
484
237
131
352
080
613
735
54
98, 433
93
8, 462

4, 824 1, 148, 952
584
501, 528
560
304, 521
883
232, 369
1, 546
753, 932
1, 389
388, 718
734
465, 887
464
158, 416
512
59, 572
1, 553
989, 088
1, 337
67, 823
1, 202
447, 643

96
98
85
93
98
69
99
89
10
98
7
88

10
6
1
5
9
1
10
2

2

38
36
40
40
35
40
41
39
45
38
40
36

1, 414, 932

14, 656 4, 759, 167

99

23

40

N onwhite
White
Negro

UNITED STATE,S_._ 2, 455, 140
Northeast
Connecticut
Maine,
Massachusetts___
New Hampshire,_
New Jersey
New York
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island____
Vermont,
North Central

,

Illinois
..
Indiana
Iowa__
Kansas ,
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri__
Nebraska
._
North Dakota___
Ohio ..
South Dakota___
Wisconsin,
South

414, 098
128,
32,
3,
11,
73,
3,
51,
3,

Alabama __
113,
Arkansas
35,
Delaware
8,
District of Columbia, ,
74,
Florida
_
_
140,
Georgia
___
150,
Kentucky
28,
112,
Louisiana
See footnote at end of tat le.

Other
non­
white

1,
1,
9,
1,

(>)
2
(')
10
11
9
2
(')

(>)
9
(>)

Negro
women
as per-

807
155
801

266
193
164

236, 077
135, 304
45, 195

100
99
98

33
21
16

40
35
41

009
102
795
515
0881

943
979
414
249
428

81,
459,
344,
246,
204,

99
99
100
99
100

47
23
30
10
35

44
42
42
41
39

034
829
435
452
369

37

Table A-3.—Employed, Women, by Race and Color, and by State, 1960

—Continued
Number of employed women
Nonwhite
Region and State

White
Negro

Other
non­
white

Negro
women
as per­
cent of
employed
non­
white
women

Negro
women
as per­
cent of
all em­
ployed
women

Negro
women
as per­
cent of
all em­
ployed
Negroes

South—Continued
Maryland
Mississippi
.
North Carolina__
Oklahoma^. _
South Carolina___
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
_
_
West Virginia____

69,
91,
131,
17,
95,
76,
164,
97,
7,

652
158
890
404
186
963
698
516
005

99
100
98
82
100
100
99
99
99

19
40
23
7
32
19
16
22
5

40
37
39
42
40
41
41
37
37

West

139, 604 122, 260 2, 975, 545

53

4

40

27
54
71
81

4
4
6
3

54
38
40
42
36
36
33
40
46
38
36
40
38

Alaska.
Arizona
_
_
California.
Colorado
. .
Hawaii
___ Idaho
Montana
.
Nevada
.
New Mexico_____
Oregon
._
Utah
Washington.
Wyoming___

871
746
026
664
195
974
176
044
964

754
4, 937
115, 694
5, 632
170
156
110
1, 888
2, 259
2, 160
447
5, 146
251

898
409
3, 051
3, 873
196
281
1, 530
690
92

306,
137,
428,
224,
199,
325,
885,
353,
145,

2,
4,
46,
1,
55,

017
18, 520
291
123, 502
435 1, 740, 489
297
196, 542
16, 930
449
66, 214
434
66, 838
1, 115
34, 435
849
80, 766
2, 965
1, 736
199, 445
1,'026
88. 222
4, 414
309, 075
34, 567
232

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

38

C)

26
9
69
43
55
30
54
52

(’)
(*)
C)

5
3
m

1
2
1

Table A-4.—Age of Nonwhite and White Women Workers, 1960 and 1950

(Women 14 years of age and over)
Number of women
workers
1960

Age

Percent dis­
tribution

1950

1960

1950

Percent
increase,
1950-60

NON WHITE

Total, 14 years and
over
_ _
14
20
25
35
45
55
65

2, 872, 000

2, 154, 000

100

100

33

to 19 years
_
to 24 years
_
_
to 34 years
____
to 44 years
to 54 years
_ __
to 64 years
.
years and over
Median years of age_
_

172, 000
317, 000
694, 000
742, 000
566, 000
295, 000
85, 000
38. 4

149, 000
288, 000
597, 000
561, 000
361, 000
147, 000
51, 000
35. 8

6
11
24
26
20
10
3

7
13
28
26
17
7
2

15
10
16
32
57
101
67

14, 461, 000

100

100

35

9
11
18
23
22
13
4

9
16
23
22
17
10
3

33
1 5
4
39
73
81
82

WHITE

Total, 14 years and
over_
_
14
20
25
35
45
55
65

to 19 years
to 24 years
to 34 years _
to 44 years
_
to 54 years
to 64 years
years and over
Median years of age_
_

19, 538, 000
1,
2,
3,
4,
4,
2,

720, 000
158, 000
423, 000
524, 000
328, 000
553, 000
834, 000
40. 5

1,
2,
3,
3,
2,
1,

296, 000
262, 000
288, 000
245, 000
504. 000
409, 000
457, 000
36. 2

1 A decrease instead of an increase.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

39

Table A-5.—Marital Status of Nonwhite and White Women Workers, 1960 and

1950 (Women 14 years of age and over)
Number of women
workers

Percent dis­
tribution

1960

1960 1

1960

I9601

2, 872, 000

2, 110, 000

100

100

36

541, 000
1, 822, 000
1, 361, 000
461, 000
509, 000

425,
1, 278,
921,
357,
407,

000
000
000
000
000

19
63
47
16
18

20
61
44
17
19

27
43
48
29
25

19, 538, 000

14, 443, 000

100

100

35

4, 742, 000
11, 787, 000
11, 004, 000
783, 000
3, 009, 000

4, 849, 000
7, 356, 000
6, 776, 000
580, 000
2, 238, 000

24
60
56
4
15

34
51
47
4
15

22
60
62
35
34

Marital status

Percent
increase
1950-60

NON WHITE

Total, 14 years and
over_
Single
Married
Husband present
Husband absent
Widowed or divorced

_

.

WHITE

Total, 14 years and
over
_ _ _
Single _ _ _____________
Married
_ ______
Husband present
_
_
Husband absent
_
Widowed or divorced______

1 Data for 1950 exclude Alaska and Hawaii.
2 A decrease instead of an increase.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

40

.

Table A 6.

Educational Attainment of Nonwhite and White Women, by Slate, 1960
(Women 26 years of age and over)

Region and State

N umber of women in the
population

Median years of
school completed

Nonwhite

UNITED STATES________
Northeast__ __

_____

Connecticut _ ____ __
_
Maine.._ ____
_
Massachusetts
______
New Hampshire_______
New Jersey.._ ____ .
_
New York.... _
Pennsylvania
_. .
Rhode Island
_ __
_
Vermont _ ______ ____
North Central__ __

._

Illinois____ _________
Indiana.. _
_
._
Iowa______ .
._
_
Kansas. _______
_
Michigan
_______ ._
Minnesota ______ .
Missouri________ ____
Nebraska _ _______
North Dakota...
. _
Ohio____________ _
South Dakota_ __
_
Wisconsin____ .
_
South

.. ________ _____

Alabama
_ ...
Arkansas
______
Delaware___________
District of Columbia
Florida. ...
_____
Georgia
.
._
Kentucky
_______ _
Louisiana
______ _
Maryland
_
Mississippi _. _____ __
North Carolina. . .

White

5, 185, 142

46, 322, 377

8. 5

602, 132

12, 968, 021

9. 5

28, 078
1, 175
33, 162
535
144, 212
447, 856
242, 375
4, 538
201

742,
275,
570,
180,
732,
881,
215,
259,
111,

1,
1,
4,
3,

278
189
932
074
878
136
041
386
119

Nonwhite
women

9.
10.
10.
12.
9.
9.
9.
9.
9.

5
6
5
1
1
6
3
6
4

941, 064

13, 818, 536

9. 4

2§2, 313
70, S98
7, 638
25, 559
188, 980
9, 488
108, 739
8, 943
2, 307
210, 775
5, 328
20, 096

2, 718, 144
1, 245, 886
788, 091
599, 819
1, 955, 435
928, 463
1, 199, 820
396, 356
155, 824
2, 570, 087
173, 690
1, 086, 932

9. 3
9. 4
9. 9
10. 1
9. 6
10. 2
8. 9
10. 0
8. 6
9. 5
8. 7
9. 4

2, 818, 451

12, 284, 570

7. 6

241,
96,
15,
117,
216,
278,
61,
251,
131,
209,
265,

448
359
761
791
205
932
352
632
447
119
776

638,
405,
110,
133,
1, 260,
785,
770,
606,
740,
352,
940,

973
758
108
448
760
981
755
148
719
826
776

7.
7.
8.
10.
7.
6.
8.
6.
8.
6.
7.

0
1
7
2
6
7
5
5
5
7
5

White
women
11. 0
(')
11.
11.
11.
11.
10.
10.
10.
10.
11.

4
5
8
3
8
9
5
1
6

0)
10.
11.
12.
12.
11.
11.
10.
12.
10.
11.
11.
11.

8
1
0
0
3
6
1
1
8
3
7
0

(')
10.
9.
11.
12.
11.
10.
8.
10.
11.
11.
10.

4
8
8
4
8
6
8
7
1
3
3

See footnote at end of table.

41

Table A-6.—Educational Attainment of Nonwhite and White Women, by State,

1960—Continued
Number of women in the
population
Region and State
N onwhite

White

Median years of
school completed
N onwhite
women

South—Continued
Oklahoma______ ____ ____
South Carolina. _ _______
Tennessee .
..
.
Texas
_
_ - ___
Virginia
-_
West Virginia
-----------

55,
183,
154,
310,
203,
24,

West _

523, 495

7, 251, 250

10. 3

8, 851
25, 592
314, 872
13, 516
99, 533
2,059
4, 580
4, 549
14, 196
8, 451
3, 382
22, 548
1, 366

35, 805
307, 142
4, 221, 628
469, 510
44, 496
166, 339
169, 626
71, 810
207, 891
496, 251
208, 033
769, 964
82, 759

6.
7.
10.
11.
10.
9.
8.
9.
7.
10.
10.
10.
9.

--

--------- — -- -

Alaska,.
-----------------Arizona.— ------California -________ ____
Colorado------ ----------------Hawaii . _ -------------Idaho . -. _ _ ... -.
Montana. _ _ - _ _.
Nevada ___ __
____
New Mexico_____ _____
Oregon.. - — ___ .
Utah _
_
_
- _
Washington
...
..
Wyoming__
_
_ _

943
869
791
826
042
109

621,
416,
850,
2, 285,
870,
493,

565
915
982
184
337
349

8.
6.
8.
8.
7.
8.

8
4
0
5
6
8

5
2
8
4
4
5
7
2
2
3
1
9
2

White
women

11.
10.
9.
11.
11.
9.

0
7
4
0
4
0

(')
12.
12.
12.
12.
12.
12.
12.
12.
11.
12.
12.
12.
12.

4
0
1
1
4
1
1
2
8
1
2
1
2

• Median years of school completed were not reported by region for white women.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
Note: The numbers ofwromen in the individual States do not necessarily total to the figures shown for
the regions or for the United States because different tabulations were used by the Bureau of the Census in
expanding the sample figures.

42

Table

A-7.—Industries of Negro Women Employed in 1960 and 1960
(Women 14 years of age and over)
Number of
employed Negro
women

Industry 1
1960

1950 2

Percent
distribu­
tion

Negro
women
Per­
as per­
cent incent
crease of all
1950-6C
em­
1960 1950
ployed
women,
1960

Total employed Negro
women
Agricultue, forrestry, fish­
eries *
_
Agriculture
_
_
Construction
Manufacturing 3
_
Durable goods
_
Sawmills, planing mills,
milhvork and misc.
wood products
_
Furniture, fixtures _
Stone, clay, glass prod­
ucts
_.
__
Fabricated metal indus­
tries (including not
specified metal)____
Machinery, except elec­
trical
._
Electrical machinery,
equipment, supplies___
Motor vehicle, motor ve­
hicle equipment
_
Aircraft and parts
- _
Nondurable goods
Meat products
_____
Bakery products _
_
Other food industries____
Knitting mills
_
Yarn, thread, fabric mills.
Apparel, other fabricated
textile products
Paper, allied products___
Printing, publishing,
allied industries
Chemicals, allied prod­
ucts _____
Rubber, miscellaneous
plastic products.
Footwear, except rubber.
See footnotes at end of table.

2, 455, 140 1, 869, 956 100. 0 100. 0

88,
87,
5,
219,
67,

31

12

2
2
2
3
5

4 49
4 49
16
26
43

21
21
3
5
4

195
573
268
352
479

172, 112
171,461
4, 534
174, 070
47, 191

4, 552
4, 279

5, 182
3, 368

. 2
. 2

. 3
. 2

412
27

12
7

2, 660

2, 049

. 1

. 1

30

3

8, 142

5, 284

. 3

. 3

54

4

3, 141

2, 160

. 1

. 1

45

1

18, 173

7, 782

. 7

.4

134

4

4, 526
2, 113
149, 207
9, 915
5,061
20, 603
4, 802
3, 790

4, 250
438
123, 262
6, 289
3, 589
13, 919
2, 295
5,050

6
3
2
7
1
3

6
382
21
58
41
48
109
4 25

5
2
6
13
5
8
4
2

65, 130
4, 898

57, 101
4, 207

2. 7
9

3. 1
. 2

14
16

8
4

11, 389

7, 033

. 5

. 4

62

4

4, 812

3, 902

. 2

. 2

23

3

4, 199
2, 095

2,054
1, 911

. 2
. 1

. 1
. 1

104
10I

4
2

3.
3.
.
8.
2.

.
.
6.
.
.
.
.
.

6
6
2
9
7

2
1
1
4
2
8
2
2

9.
9.
.
9.
2.

.
(5)
6.
.
.
.
.
.

2

43

Table A—7.—Industries of Negro Women Employed in 1960 and 1950—Continued

Number of
employed Negro
women
Industry 1
1960

Transportation, communica­
tions, other public utilities 3_
__
6 24, 653
Railroads and railway ex­
press service
3, 122
Street railways, bus lines...
2, 660
Wholesale and retail trade s__
245, 973
Wholesale trade.
17; 147
Retail trade___
_
228, 826
Food, dairy products
stores, milk retailing. _
21, 044
General
merchandise,
limited price variety
43, 526
stores
____
Apparel, accessories
20, 318
stores
..
____
Furniture, home furnishing, equipment stores_
4, 905
Drug stores
8, 821
Eating, drinking places..
116, 028
Finance, insurance, real es34,321
tate
.
.
Banking and other finance..
7, 526
Insurance and real estate __
26, 795
Business and repair services 3_
14, 403
Automobile repair services,
2, 086
garages _
__ _
1, 113, 062
Personal services 3___
_
Private households . _ _.
900, 119
Hotels and lodging places. _
63, 774
Laundering, cleaning and
dyeing services
102, 354
Professional and related serv7 431, 719
ices3
_
-Medical and other health
services______
__
214, 191
Educational services, gov151,716
ernment___
_
.
Educational services, pri33, 491
vate__
_____
_
Welfare, religious, mem28, 811
bership organizations___
See footnotes at end of table.

44

1950 2

Percent
distribu­
tion

Negro
women
Per­
as per­
cent incent
crease, of all
1950-60 em­
1960 19502
ployed
women,
1960

17, 066 « 1. 0
5,
1,
192,
13,
179,

0. 9

728
. 1
. 3
777
. 1
. 1
581 10. 0 10. 3
027
. 7
. 7
554
9. 3
9. 6

3
* 45
50
28
32
27

6
8
6
4
6

19, 134

. 9

1. 0

10

4

20, 890

1. 8

1. 1

108

4

13, 446

. 8

. 7

51

5

3, 207
5, 378
105, 911

. 2
. 4
4. 7

. 2
. 3
5. 7

53
64
10

4
5
11

1.
.
1.
.

1.
.
1.
7

3
1
2
2

40
172
23

3
1
4
4

239
. 1
. 1
858 45. 3 52. 7
677 36. 7 42. 1
216 2. 6
3. 1

68
13
14
11

7
40
52
20

24,
2,
21,
7 4,
1,
985,
787,
57,

544
769
775
300

102, 787

4
3
1
6

(8)

29

4. 2

5. 5

209, 661 7 17. 6

11. 2

84, 295

8. 7

4. 5

154

12

91, 224

6. 2

4. 9

66

9

18, 27C

1. 4

1. C

83

6

14, 107

1. 2

. 8

104

7

9

Table A 7.

Industries of Negro Women Employed in 1960 and
Number of
employed Negro
women

Industry 1
1960

Public administration
Postal service
Federal public administration
State and local public administration
Industry not reported

19502

1950—Continued

Percent
distribu­
tion

Negro
women
Per­
as per­
cent incent
crease, of all
1950-60 em­
1960 19502
ployed
women,
1960

87, 892
7, 499

43, 009
2, 857

3. 6
. 3

2. 3
.2

104
162

10
11

51, 308

27, 728

2. 1

1. 5

85

11

29, 085
179, 075

12, 424
33, 035

1. 2
7. 3

. 7
1. 8

134

7

^
o.uyju^jug z,uuu or more ;\egro women in 1960.
\ ^“,"!8f.and F/a,waii since detailed industry data were not reported for the territories in 1950.
Includes industries not shown separately in this category.
4 A decrease instead of an increase.
5 Less than 0.05 percent.
JIren,rnPl°r ™ radi0 broadcasting an<i television were included in entertainment and recreation
services in 1950 and in communications in 1960.

’ Women employed in accounting and auditing services were included in business services in 1950 and
in legal, engineering, and miscellaneous professional services in 1960.
s Less than 1 percent decrease.

Table AH.—Major Occupational Groups of Negro Women Employed in 1960, by
Region
(Women 14 years of age and over)
Major occupational group

United
States

North­ | North
east Central

South

West

NUMBER
Total

employed

women

Negro

_

White-collar workers:
Professional,
technical
workers
Managers, officials, propri­
etors (except farm)
Clerical workers
Sales workers

2, 455, 140 486, 506 414, 098 1, 414, 932 139, 604

175, 308 31, 192 28, 147

105, 458

10, 511

24, 757 4,377 4, 623
181, 678 61, 222 51, 797
36, 083 10, 526 8, 900

13, 967
50, 110
14, 344

1, 790
18, 549
2, 313

45

Table A-8.— Major Occupational Groups of Negro Women Employed in 1960, by

Region—Continued
United
States

Major occupational group

North- North
east Central

South

West

120, 943
6, 082

18, 684
1, 316

12, 865

1, 434

number—continued

Blue-collar workers:
Operatives--------------------------Craftsmen, .
- Laborers (except farm and
mine)- - Service workers:
Private-household workers.-Service workers (except pri­
vate household) .
Farm workers
- - Occupation not reported------ ---

310, 233 108, 146 62, 460
15, 877 4, 684 3, 795
23, 627

3, 670

5, 658

888, 206 120, 524 91, 370

637, 273 39, 039

519, 823 87, 323 106, 078
771
803
84, 031
195, 517 54, 039 50, 499

295, 094 31, 328
609
81, 848
76, 948 14, 031

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION

Total

employed

women

Negro
- --

White-collar workers:
Professional,
technical
workers. . ..
Managers, officials, propri­
etors (except farm)
Clerical workers . - .
Sales workers.
Blue-collar workers:
Operatives
Craftsmen ...
Laborers (except farm and
mine) ________
-Service workers:
Private-household workers...
Service workers (except pri­
vate-household) .
..
Farm workers
Occupation not reported . . .

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

7. 1

6. 4

6. 8

7. 5

7. 5

1. 0
7. 4
1. 5

. 9
12. 6
2. 2

1. 1
12. 5
2. 1

1. 0
3. 5
1. 0

1. 3
13. 3
1. 7

12. 6
. 6

22. 2
1. 0

15. 1
. 9

8. 5
. 4

13. 4
. 9

1. 0

. 8

1. 4

.9

1. 0

36. 2

24. 8

22. 1

45. 0

28. 0

21. 2
3. 4
8. 0

17. 9
. 2
11. 1

25. 6
. 2
12. 2

20. 9
5. 8
5. 4

22. 4
. 4
10. 1

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

46

Table A-!).—Occupations of Negro Women Employed in I960 and 1950
(Women H years of age and over)

Occupation

Number of employe d
Negro women'

1960

1950 1

Percent
distribu­
tion
1960 1950 i

Total employed
Negro women
2, 455, 14C 1, 869, 951 100. ( 100. (
White-collar workers:
Professional, technical
workers 2_
175, 308
104, 728
7.
5. 6
Accountants, auditors.
1, 342
372
. 1 (3)
Actresses, dancers,
entertainers
(n.e.c.) _ - _
556
733 (3)
(3)
Artists, art teachers.
729
394 (3)
(3)
College presidents,
professors, instructors (n.e.c.)..
1,897
1, 517
. 1
. 1
Designers, draftsmen... _
465
319 (3)
(3)
Dietitians, nutritionists.
3, 507
1, 733
. 1
. 1
Lawyers, judges____
176
83 (s)
(3)
Librarians____
3, 144
1, 469
. 1
. 1
Musicians, music
teachers
3, 566
2, 947
. 1
. 2
Natural scientists__
552
300 (3)
(3)
Nurses (professional).. _
32, 034
12, 550
1. 3
. 7
Nurses (student
professional) .
1, 718
2, 321
. 1
. l
Physicians, surgeons.
490
257 (3)
(3)
Social scientists.
392
303 (3)
(3)
Social welfare, recreation workers_
_
8, 683
4, 454
. 4
. 2
Teachers (elemen­
tary school)
75, 695'
' 3. 1
Teachers (second► 67, 857
> 3. 6
ary school)
18, 194
7
Teachers (n.e.c.)___
5, 890,
•2,
Technicians (medical, dental)
5, 613
1,317
. 2
. 1
Therapists, healers
(n.e.c.)_______
870
481 (3)
(3)
See footnotes at end of table.

Perctin t
in­
crease,
195060

Negro
women
as per­
cent of
all em­
ployed
women,
1960

31

12

67

6

261

2

4 24
85

3
2

25

5

46

2

102
1 12
114

14
2
4

21
84

3
4

155

6

4 26
91
' 29

3
3
3

95

11

i

*

«
326

7

81

4

47

Table A—9—Occupations of Negro Women Employed in 1960 and 1950—Con.

Number of employed
Negro women
Occupation
1960

White-collar workers—Con.
Managers, officials,
proprietors 2 —
Specified managers,
officials
..
Managers, officials,
proprietors
(salaried) _.
Wholesale, retail trade----Managers, officials,
proprietors (selfemployed)
. -Eating, drinking places___
Wholesale, re­
tail trade
(except eat­
ing, drinking places) —
Clerical workers 2
_
Bookkeepers-Cashiers.
..
Secretaries..- .
Stenographers, _
Typists_
_
.
Telephone operatorsSales workers 2___
Sales workers (retail trade) _ . Sales workers (except retail trade)-.
See footnotes at end of table.

1950

1

Percent
in­
crease195060

Percent
distribu­
tion
1960 1950 1

Negro
women
as per­
cent of
all cmployed
women,
1960

24, 757

1. 0

1. 3

1

3

3, 352

2, 549

. 1

. 1

32

2

8, 348

5, 644

. 3

. 3

48

3

2, 831

2, 891

. 1

. 2

4

2

3

13, 057

16, 364

. 5

.

9

4 20

5

5, 499

^

24, 557

6, 823

.

2

.4

4 19

8

716
.2
255 s 7. 4
. 3
993
897
.4
[ .8
21, 593
' 2
l 1. 1

.4
4. 0
.2

33
145
130
163

4
3

4,
181,
6,
10,
20,
4,
27,
8,
36,

524
678
887
265
650 ]
630
142
052
083 5

6,
74,
2,
3,

. 2

4

5

1

225
42

3
2
2
5
2
2

1. 1

45

2

. 1

32

2

1I1'2

2, 481
25, 492

. 3
. 1
1. 5 5 1. 4

28, 691

19, 750

1. 2

2, 421

1, 828

. 1

143

*

Table A 9.—Occupations of Negro Women Employed in 1960 and 1950__ Con.

Occupation

Number of employee
Negro women

1960

Blue-collar workers:
Operatives 2__
Dressmakers, seam­
stresses (except
factory)_______
Laundry, drycleaning operatives____
Spinners, weavers
(textile)
_____
Machinery (includ­
ing electrical
mfg.)------------------Food, kindred
products (mfg.)___
Textile mill products (mfg.)
.
Apparel, other
fabricated textile
products (mfg.)__
Craftsmen, foremen_____
Laborers (except farm
and mine)
Service workers:
Private-household
workers__ _
_
Living in
Living out___
Service workers (except
private-household)2___
Attendants (hospi­
tals, other institutions).__ ___
Charwomen, janitors, porters __
_
Cooks (except private-household) _..
Hairdressers, cosmetologists
..
See footnotes at end of table.

1950 1

Percent
distribu­
tion
1960 1950

Percen'
in­
crease,
195060

Negro
women
as per­
cent of
all em­
ployed
women,
1960

310, 233

274, 000

12. 6

14. 7

13

10

8, 528

10, 248

. 3

. 5

4 17

7

99, 494

98, 998

4. 1

5. 3

61

36

264

413

8, 017

7, 613

. 3

. 4

5

5

18, 575

18, 710

. 8

1. 0

4 1

16

5, 004

6, 063

. 2

.3

4 17

3

34, 550
15, 877

52, 910
11, 629

1. 4
. 6

2. 8
. 6

4 35
37

12
6

23, 627

28, 414

1. 0

1. 5

4 17

22

888, 206
39, 863
848, 343

773, 590 36. 2 41. 4
43, 201
1. 6
2. 3
730, 389 34. 6 39. 1

15
4 8
16

25
56

519, 823

351, 856 21. 2 18. 8

48

IS

(3)

(3)

4 36

0

66, 997

19, 324

2. 7

1. 0

247

23

50, 655

35, 456

2. 1

1. 9

43

25

80, 980

60, 385

3. 3

3. 2

34

22

31, 918

26, 584

1. 3

1. 4

20

12

49

Table A-9.—Occupation of Negro Women Employed in 1960 and 1950—Con.

Number of employed
Negro women
Occupation
1960

Service workers—Continued
Service workers (except
private household)—Con.
Housekeepers (except privatehousehold) . _
Practical nurses,
midwives
_
Waitresses, bartenders, counter
workers
_
_
Farm workers:
Farmers, farm managersFarm laborers, foremen, _

.I9601

Percent
distribu­
tion

Percent
in­
crease
1950­
60

Negro
women
as per­
cent of
all em­
ployed
women,
1960

1960 19501

10, 811

6, 220

. 4

.3

74

9

32, 192

16, 141

1. 3

. 9

99

16

54, 123

42,139

2. 2

2. 3

28

6

14, 536
69, 495
195, 517

30, 949
139, 657
30, 829

. 6
2. 8
8. 0

1. 7
7. 5
1. 6

« 53
* 50

12
29

1 Excludes Alaska and Hawaii, since detailed occupational data were not reported for the territories in
1950.
2 Includes occupations not shown separately.
3 Less than 0.05 percent.
4 A decrease instead of an increase.
5 Women employed as insurance adjustors, examiners, and investigators were included among sales
workers in 1950 and among clerical workers in 1960.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

50

Table A-10.

Region and State

UNITED STATES.

Major Occupations of Employed Negro Women, by State, 1960
(Women lj years of age and over)
Major occupational group

Number of
employed
Negro
Profes­
women 1
sional

Clerical

2, 455, 140 175, 308

181, 678

36, 083

Sales

Mana­
gers

486, 506

31, 192

61, 222

10, 526

Connecticut____
Maine__________
Massachusetts - New Hampshire
New Jersey_____
New York______
Pennsylvania___
Rhode Island___
Vermont______

15, 946
190
17, 292
166
79, 177
252, 498
119, 351
1, 830
56

756
11
1, 255
14
4, 656
17, 183
7, 200
114
3

1, 448
34
2, 233
25
6, 957
36, 635
13, 705
185

244
4
306
8
1, 460
5, 788
2, 679
37

536
2, 511
1, 146
8

414,098

28,147

51, 797

8, 900

8, 502
1, 930
199
959
5, 184

20, 921
3, 935
417
824
9, 283

2, 925
705
43
118
1, 869

_______

(>(• footnote at end of tnbli

128,
32,
3,
11,
73,

424
484
237
131
352

4, 377 120, 524

Opera­
tives

Crafts­
Laborer
men

Farmers

15, 877

23, 627

84, 031

87, 323

108, 146

4, 684

3, 670

803

2, 663
41
2, 738
5
12, 789
44, 086
24, 681
312
8

3, 455
31
5, 090
48
21, 494
52, 504
25, 147
367
10

168
3
170

131

72

104

22

673
2, 512
1, 121
37

644
1, 718
1, 047
26

416
199
89

4, 623

91, 370 106. 078

62, 460

3, 795

5, 658

771

1, 596
345
28
116
845

18, 314
8, 506
809
3, 473

27, 347
3, 999
250
1, 119
9, 530

1, 615
271
23
94
582

2. 022
517
33
138
873

83
22

65
4
107

5, 160
54
2, 749
52
20, 506
60, 030
31, 466
477
30

00
00

Illinois
Indiana___
Iowa
Kansas
Michigan

Service
(other)

24, 757 888, 206 519, 823 310, 233

Northeast__________

North Central

Private
house­
hold

24,
8,
1,
3,
19,

299
691
236
459
780

16
185

Table A-10.—Major Occupations of Employed, Negro Women, by State, 1960—Continued

W
tv

Major occupational group
Region and State

North Central—Con.
Minnesota______
Missouri_______
Nebraska_______
North Dakota ..
Ohio___________
South Dakota__
Wisconsin______
South
Alabama
Arkansas---- ------------Delaware
District of ColumbiaFlorid a
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Mississippi

Number of
employed
Negro
Profeswomen1
sional

Clerical

Sales

Private
house­
hold

Service
(other)

Opera­
tives

36
589
69
4
945

411
14, 083
817

962
13, 369
1, 412
4
30, 068
24
2, 774

475
6, 017
445
5
11, 383
12
1, 878

19
282
28

36
683
74

4
330
8

802

1, 135

95

79

147

28

13, 967 637, 273 295, 094 120, 943

6, 082

12, 865

81, 848

412
73
42
713
624
607
91
365
413
184

821
278
247
703
1, 498
1, 411
318
782
956
656

5, 381
1, 650
103
22
14, 374
7, 636
105
2, 598
509
14, 433

65
851
38

285
4, 148
184
25
6, 238
28
465

517
3, 976
377
16
10, 884
9
638

2, 191
5
90

1, 414, 932 105, 458

50, 110

14, 344

3, 080
51, 613
3, 735
54
98, 433
93
8, 462

113, 807
35, 155
8, 801
74, 009
140, 102
150, 795
28. 515
112, 088
69, 871
91, 746

9, 624
2, 703
501
6, 262
7, 926
9, 954
1, 709
8, 725
5, 258
6, 583

2, 362
521
291
17, 609
2, 435
2, 749
867
2, 410
6, 124
963

1, 289
412
118
1, 055
1, 291
1, 050
268
1, 291
1,264 !

Crafts­
Laborers Farmers
men

Mana­
gers

50

1,
1,
1,
1,

912
540
73
748
512
183
271
313
653
026

25, 653
15
1, 501

59,
18,
2,
15,
60,
78,
13,
54,
22,
43,

649
072
964
291
417
090
972
333
277
695

22,
7,
1,
17,
29,
28,
6,
26,
16,
15,

091
334
457
931
606
449
687
007
054
592

8,
2,
1,
5,
11,
14,
2,
8,
10,
5,

331
484
625
158
682
568
071
706
325
435

North Carolina _ .
Oklahoma. ....
South Carolina _ _
Tennessee _
Texas
Virginia West Virginia

131, 026
17, 664
05, 195
76, 974
164, 176
97, 044
7, 964

11,
1,
7,
5,
11,
8,

030
440
265
386
909
321
862

2, 248
742
899
2, 074
3, 778
3, 736
302

1, 102
224
538
608
1, 622
1, 337
98

959
304
693
746
2, 035
909
90

59,
7,
45,
36,
77,
38,
3,

_ __
_

139, 604

10, 511

18, 549

2, 313

1, 790

Alaska ..
_
Arizona
California
Colorado _ _ .
Hawaii .
Idaho
.
Montana.
Nevada.
_
_ .
New Mexico_______
Oregon
Utah
Washington
Wyoming

754
4, 937
115, 694
5, 632
170
156
110
1, 888
2, 259
2, 160
447
5, 146
251

86
393
8, 762
506
17
8
22
55
120
132
53
350
7

78
166
16, 370
894
21
16
6
69
113
142
71
590
13

5
52
2, 014
56
18

5
50
1, 517
52

West

__

...

20
40
12
17
75
4

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

13, 444
698
7. 149
6, 571
10, 570
11, 932
194

473
108
265
458
693
518
43

1, 461
107
548
641
1, 294
1, 100
44

12, 854
137
14, 085
2, 140
2, 705
3, 106
10

31, 328

18, 684

1, 316

1, 434

609

158
2, 345
31, 503
1, 488
40
61
22
391
1, 141
559
105
1, 121
105

5
18
29
12
9
93

101
349
187
498
164
417
170

39, 039

1
1 Includes women whose occupations were not reported.

316
614
742
686
470
085
600

22,
4,
14,
17,
41,
22,
2,

205
1, 037
23. 938
1. 721
49
55
52
908
631
875
146
1, 609
102

149
290
16, 865
273
21

34
1, 146
32

25
1, 247
54

106
473
3

4

4

4
12
10
3
71

19
6
38
9
28
4

209
81
168
14
611
3

13
9
5

Table A-ll.—Median Income and Earnings of Women, by Stale and by Race or

Color, 1959
(Women 14 years of age and over)
Median income

Median earnings

Region and State
Total
women

Northeast.

North Central . .
Illinois.
..._ __
_
Indiana
.
Iowa
.
Kansas__
Michigan
__
_
Minnesota .
Missouri
._ .
Nebraska
_
_
North Dakota
Ohio _ .
.
South Dakota
Wisconsin
_
_
South.

.

_
_

.

.

_

Alabama.
.
_
_
Arkansas
.
.. . ._
Delaware
.
_
District of Columbia
Florida___ ____.....
Georgia. ...._ __
_
Kentucky . ..
_____
Louisiana_________ _
._
Maryland
_
Mississippi
_ .
_
North Carolina____ __
__
See footnotes at end of table.

54

$1, 510

1, 724

1, 748

1, 908
1, 096
1, 713
1, 497
1, 847
1, 947
1, 495
1, 591
1, 060

1, 628
1, 058
1, 653
1, 106
1, 621
1, 962
1, 421
1, 163

1, 926
1, 099
1, 715
1, 499
1, 880
1, 944
1, 504
1, 602
1, 062

2, 733
1, 927
2, 450
2, 240
2, 677
2, 739
2, 286
2, 258
1, 846

1, 389

Connecticut_____
..
Maine.
Massachusetts_ ....
_
New Hampshire...___
New Jersey..
—
New York ...
....
Pennsylvania___
.
. .
Rhode Island.
.
Vermont

$905

1, 746

. .

White
women

$1, 415

UNITED STATES

Negro
women

1, 355

1, 393

(2)

1, 724
1, 371
1, 093'
1, 161
1, 438
1, 238
1, 263
1, 176
946
1, 428
1940
1 (267

1, 678
1, 191
1, 126
969
1, 353
1, 578
1, 021
1, 183

1, 435

1, 730
1, 386
1, 092
1, 175
1,450
1,236
1, 301
1, 178
947
1, 450
949
1, 266

2, 685
2, 273
1, 778
1, 860
2, 438
2, 031
2, 191
1, 782
1, 469
2, 390
1, 469
2, 124

1,028

732

1, 317

(2)

883
813
493
576
192
980
984
945
645
784
036

645
604
1,062
1, 894
843
685
772
729
1, 134
588
681

1, 184
914
1, 615
3, 352
1, 359
1, 465
1, 034
1, 292
1, 821
1, 126
1, 465

1,
2,
1,

1,
1,

1, 262

Total ^ onwhite
women 1
women
$2, 257
(2)

1,
1,
2,
3,
1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
1,
1,

498
339
231
288
740
653
884
489
413
016
820

$1, 219
(2)
1, 962
(3)
2, 092
(3)
1, 934
2, 300
1, 776
(3)
(3)

(2)
2, 295
1, 575
1, 374
1,276
1, 805
2, 016
1, 436
1, 386
(3)

1, 670
1, 378
1, 737
(2)
706
677
1, 322
2, 380
936
748
869
798
1, 392
627
754

Table A 11.- Median Income and Earnings of Women, by State and by Race or

Color, 1959—Continued
Median income

Median earnings

Region and State
Total
women

Negro
women

South—Continued
Oklahoma_____
South Carolina
Tennessee_____
Texas_________
Virginia_______
West Virginia. _

$1, 023
937
995
1, 046
1, 267
968

$844
614
732
770
792
772

West______________

1, 607

1, 543

1, 612

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

1, 743
924
1, 596
1, 478
1, 026
760
1, 017
1, 879
982
1, 332
1, 161
1, 526
1, 043

2,
1,
1,
1,
1,

Alaska_______
Arizona_______
California_____
Colorado______
Hawaii________
Idaho_________
Montana______
Nevada_______
New Mexico__
Oregon_______
Utah_________
Washington___
Wyoming_____

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

770
336
798
492
796
957
085
885
257
175
107
383
144

White
women

$1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

071
547
196
197
547
981

149
407
812
493
734
959
1, 112
1, 915
1, 292
1, 174
1, 107
1, 385
1, 175

Total Nonwhite
women 1 women

$1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
1,

826
583
743
783
004
883

(2)
2, 952
2, 124
2, 812
2, 263
2, 487
1, 588
1, 785
2, 646
1, 955
2, 135
1, 883
2, 351
1, 756

$968
650
826
892
908
941
(2)
1, 150
1, 057
2, 082
1, 858
2, 455
(3)
(3)
(3)
1, 203
1. 811
(3)
1, 999
(3)

1 Earnings data were not reported separately for white women.
! Earnings data were not reported separately by region.
3 Earnings data for nonwhite women were not shown separately where their number was less than 25,000.
Source: TJ.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

c

55