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NEGRO WOMEN
IN THE POPULATION AND
IN THE LABOR FORCE

U.Sx DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
W O M E N ' S BUREAU
M a r y Dublin Keyserling/Director

COMTENTS
Page
Negro Wcmen In the Population
Negro Women Workers
C h i l d Care Arrangements
Occupations
Uneii5>lQyment
Bducational Attainment
Wage or S a l a i y Income
Coverage by Minimum Wiage

.
.

. -

1
3
5
^
5
7
7
10

CHARTS
A.

Percent o f Families L i v i n g i n Poverty i n 19^3j hy Type
of Family and Color^ March 1964

B.

Percent o f Nonfam Family Inccme i n 1963 Contributed
by Wife, by Color, March 1964

k

C.

Unenqployment Rates, by Sex, Color, and Age, 195^-65
and A p r i l I966
. . . . .

6

D.

Educational Attainment o f the Population, by Race and
Sex, March 1964

8

E.

Median Wage or S a l a i y Inccme of Yeai> Round Pull-Time
Workers, by Sex and Color, 1939 and 1955-64 • . . .

9

F.

.........

Percent Increase i n the Wage or Salary Income of
Year-Round Full-Tlme Workers, by Sex and Color,
Selected Periods from 1939 t o 1964

for
11

TA'Hr.Tgfl

1.

2.

Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Hegro Population, by Age
and Sex, I965, 1964, i960, and 1950 . . . . . . . .

12

Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Population, by Race, Faim
or Nonfam Residence, and Region, 1964, 196O,
and^ 1950

13

M a r i t a l Status o f Women i n the Population, by Race,
March 1964

l4




Page
k.

Faznllles, by Type of Family and Race^ March 19614-

I5

5.

F a m i l i e s L i v i n g i n Poverty i n 19^3, by Type of Family and
C o l o r , March 1964

16

Qnployment Status o f the P o p i i l a t i o n , by Sex and Race,
Itorch 196k

17

6.

7.

Qnploynent Status of P o p u l a t i o n , by Sex and Color,

i960

end 1950

18

8.

Women i n the C i v i l i a n Labor Force, by Age and Race, March 196k

9.

M a r i t a l 196^
March Status of Negro Women i n the C i v i l i a n Labor Force,

20

Percent of Nonfarra Family Inccme i n I963 Contributed by Wife,
by C o l o r , March 196k

21

Mothers i n the P o p u l a t i o n and Labor Force, by M a r i t a l Status,
Ages o f C h i l d r e n , and C o l o r , March 1965

22

10.

12.

12.

.

19

C h i l d Care Arrangements of Working Mothers With C h i l d r e n Under
I h Years of Age, by Ages of C h i l d r e n and C o l o r , February
1965

i

Zh

13.

Major Occupational Groups o f Hnployed Negro Women and Men,
March 1 9 ^

26

14.

Major Occupational Groups of Snployed Nonvhite Women and Men,
i 9 6 0 and 1950
'

27

Unemployment Rates by Sex, C o l o r , and Age, Selected" Years
195V. 65 and A p r i l I 9 6 6

28

Unemployment Rates, by Sex, Years o f School Completed, and
Race, March 1964

29

School Enrollment of the P o p u l a t i o n 5 t o 3^ Years of Age, by
Race and Sex, October 196^^

30

L e v e l o f School Attended by Students 5 t o 3^ Years of Age, by
Race and Sex, October 1 9 ^

31

E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment o f the P o p u l a t i o n , by Race and Sex,
March 1964 '

32

Median Years o f School Conpleted, by Employment Status, Sex,
and C o l o r , October 1952 and March 1957, 1939, 1962, 1964,
and 1965

33

Median Wage o r S a l a r y Income o f Year-Round FiLLl-Time Workers,
by Sex and C o l o r , 1939 a M 1955-64

3^

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.




ii

NEGRO WMEl^ IN THE POPULATION
AMD THE LABOR FORCE

Negro Women i n the Population
The Negro popvilation t o t a l e d
i n 1965* (Table 1)
Slightly
more than h a l f (52 percent) vere females. About two-thirds of both the
females and males vere under 35 years of age.
Most of the Negro population (93 percent) were nonfarm residents i n
1964.
(Table 2) This conpares w i t h about f o u r - f i f t h s (79 percent) i n 1950The movement of the Negro population avay from the South as v e i l as avay
f r o n the farm over the same period i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d — o n l y
percent l i v e d
there i n l^Sh compared v i t h 68 percent i n 1950More than 1 out of 3 Negro women I 8 years of age and over was widowed^
divorced^ or separated from her husband i n March 196^^ (Table 3) This was
true of only about 1 out of 5 'vriiite women*
There were
440,000 Negro f a m i l i e s i n Kiarch 196U.
(Table k) The
average Negro f a m i l y had k.3 members. Nearly one-fourth of the Negro f a m i l i e s
were headed by a woman.
Information on the number of Negro f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n poverty l / i s not
available.
In 19^3^ 2,027,000^or more than 2 out of 5, nonwhite f a m i l i e s vere
l i v i n g i n poverty as compared w i t h l e s s than 1 out of 8 white f a m i l i e s .
(Table 5)
Families most apt t o be l i v i n g i n poverty are those headed by a woman
or those w i t h a l a r g e number of c h i l d r e n .
In 19^3, 71 percent of the 1.1
m i l l i o n nonwhite f a m i l i e s headed by a woman were poor.
(Chart A) Of the 3*8
m m i o n "riiite f a m i l i e s headed by a woman, 31 percent were poor. Of a l l
f a m i l i e s w i t h 5 or more own c h i l d r e n , 76 percent of the nonwhite and 31 percent
of the white vere l i v i n g i n poverty i n 1963- 2/
There were I 5 . I m i l l i o n c h i l d r e n under I 8 years of age l i v i n g i n poverty
i n 1963—9*3 m i l l i o n white and 5.8 m i l l i o n nonwhite. 3 / About 60 percent of
a H nonwhite c h i l d r e n were members of poor f a m i l i e s compared w i t h I 6 percent
o f a l l white c h i l d r e n . About 86 percent of the c h i l d r e n i n nonwhite f a m i l i e s
headed by a woman were l i v i n g i n poverty.

1 / The S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n index of poverty assumes that a
person farm f a m i l y w i t h annual cash income of l e s s than $1,860 and other
person f a m i l i e B w i t h l e s s than $3^100 l i v e i n poverty. This index i s adjusted
t o take f a m i l y s i z e i n t o account.
2 / U.S. Departaaent of Health, Education, and Welfare, S o c i a l Security
Administration:
S o c i a l S e c u r i t y B u l l e t i n , January I 9 6 5 .
j / U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y
Administration:
S o c i a l S e c u r i t y B u l l e t i n , J u l y 19^5*



Chart A. - Percent of Families Living in Poverty in 1963,
by Type of Family and Color, March 1964
Poor

Nonpoor

Husband-Wife Families

White families
(37,799,000)

Nonwhite families
(3,511,000)

Families with Female Head

NonwhHe famili«s

Whit* famOiM

(1,0^,000)

(3.797,000)

Sotirc«:U.S. DaportimntHadHti,EducatioiMmd WMfBra,8oeiat S«eurityAdinjni«trotion.




2

Negro Wcmen Workers
The percent of the Negro woman population at work or seeking work
i s i n c r e a s i n g . Nearly h a l f (^9 percent) of the Negro wcmen l 8 years of
age and over were i n the labor f o r c e i n March
(Table 6) Figures
f o r 1950 and i960, while not s t r i c t l y comparable since they r e f e r t o nonwhite women I 8 years of age and over, show that the proportion of non%rtiite
women i n the labor f o r c e was kO percent and h^ percent, r e s p e c t i v e l y .
(Table T)
White wcmen I 8 years of age and over are l e s s l i k e l y t o be i n the
l a b o r f o r c e than are Negro or nonwhite women. The labor f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n
of white women rose from 29 percent i n I95O t o 35 percent i n i960 and 38
percent i n 196k.
(Tables 6 and 7)
More than h a l f of a l l Negro women 25 t o
years of age were working
or seeking work i n March 1964.
(Table 8) In contrast, among a l l women,
only i n the age group 45 t o 5^ years were as many as h a l f i n the l a b o r f o r c e .
About h a l f (5I percent) o f the Negro wcmen i n the c i v i l i a n l a b o r
f o r c e i n March 1964 were married and l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r husbands.
(Table 9 )
About a t h i r d (34 percent) were widowed, divorced, or separated from t h e i r
husbands. Only I 5 percent were s i n g l e .
Many of these married wcmen workers l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r husbands made
a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the f a m i l y income. Among n o n f a m nonwhite
wives, 58 percent contributed 20 percent or more of the f a m i l y income, 39
percent contributed 30 percent or more, and 25 percent contributed 40 percent
or more.
(Chart B, Table 10) The compai^ble percentages f o r nonfam white
wives were 55 percent, 39 percent, and 22 percent, r e s p e c t i v e l y .
Information i s not a v a i l a b l e on the nmber of Negro mothers who are
i n the l a b o r f o r c e . However, the tendency o f Negro mothers t o seek p a i d
employment i s i l l \ i s t r a t e d by recent f i g u r e s on nonwhite mothers. In March
1 9 6 5 , 1,399^000 nonwhite mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n under 18 years of age were i n
the l a b o r f o r c e .
(Table 11) They represented 46 percent of a l l nonwhite
mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n of t h i s age. Nonwhite mothers who are widowed, divorced,
or separated are more l i k e l y t o work than are those l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r husbands.
T h e i r l a b o r - f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates were 55 percent and 43 percent, respectively^
i n March 1965* Many nonwhite mothers w i t h young c h i l d r e n (under 6 years of age)
a l s o work or seek p a i d employment. They numbered 683,000 In March 1965 and
c o n s t i t u t e d 38 percent of a H nomrtilte mothers w i t h young c h i l d r e n .
White mothers are l e s s l i k e l y t o work than are nonwhite mothers. Among
white wcmen w i t h c h i l d r e n under I 8 years o f age, 34 percent were I n the l a b o r
f o r c e ; among those w i t h c h i l d r e n under 6, only 24 percent were working or
seeklJ^ work.




-

3 -

Chart B. -- Percent of Nonfarm Family Income in 1963 Contributed by Wife,
by Color, March 1964

Less than
ZO percent

20 to 29.9
percent

Source: US, Deportment of Labor, Bureau of Lobor Statistics.




30 to 39.9
percent

4 0 percent
or more

C h i l d Care Arrangements
Working mothers (both v h l t e and nonvhlte), many of vhcm vork out
of econctnic need, o f t e n f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o secure adequate day care
f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Of the 12.3 m i l l i o n c h i l d r e n under i k years of age
i n February 19^5 vhose mothers vorked f o r 27 weeks or more i n
the
l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n vere cared f o r i n t h e i r own heme, u s u a l l y by t h e i r
f a t h e r or another r e l a t i v e .
(Table 12) This was t r u e f o r both the 10.1
m i l l i o n white c h i l d r e n
percent) and the 2.2 m i l l i o n nonwhite c h i l d r e n
(kh percent). Nonwhite c h i l d r e n were cared f o r more frequently i n someone
e l s e ' s home (22 percent) than were white (15 percent). About 10 percent
o f a l l nonwhite c h i l d r e n and 8 percent of a l l white looked a f t e r themselves;
among those 12 or 13 years o f age, 26 percent o f the nonwhite and 20 percent of the white c h i l d r e n d i d so. Only 2 percent of both white and nonwhite
c h i l d r e n were provided group care such as furnished by day care centers.
Occupations
Most Negro wcmen are employed as s e r v i c e workers. In March
37 percent were private-household workers and 26 percent were s e r v i c e
workers outside the heme. (Table 13) In contrast the majority of Negro
men are craftsmen and foremen, operatives, and nonfarm l a b o r e r s . About 60
percent o f them were employed i n these occupations i n March 190^*
Figures on the employment of nonwhite women and men i n 1950 and i960,
although not s t r i c t l y cemparable (about 93 percent were Negro), i n d i c a t e
the movement of Negro workers i n t o w h i t e - c o l l a r occxQ>atlons.
(Table li^-)
The p r o p o r t i o n of wonen i n t h i s type of work rose frem 13 t o 19 percent over
the 10-year p e r i o d . The ceoparable percentages f o r men were 9 and 13 percent. I t would appear that more nonwhite women than inen h o l d p r o f e s s i o n a l
or t e c h n i c a l Jobs. But most of these wonen are working as school teachers
i n r u r a l areas i n the South. Over h a l f o f the nonwhite wonen, but only onef o u r t h of the nonwhite men, i n p r o f e s s i o n a l fend t e c h n i c a l o c c i ^ t l o n s i n
1960 were employed as teachers (except c o l l e g e ) .
Itaemplcgnnent
Unemployment Is more severe among Negro wcmen than among Negro men.
In A p r i l 1966 the unemployment rates (aeasonally adjusted) were 8.1 percent
f o r nonwhite wonen and 6.3 percent f o r nonwhite men. (Data f o r Negroes are
not a v a i l a b l e . )
I n c o n t r a s t , unen^oyment rates f o r white wonen and men
were h.k percent and 2.8 percent, r e s p e c t i v e l y .
Unemployment Is more widespread among teenagers than adulta, among
nonwhite than white teenagers, and among g i r l s than beys. In A p r i l I966
nonwhite g i r l s i k t o 19 years o f age had the highest r a t e o f unemployment
(31 percent)/
(Chart C, Table 15) The rates f o r other teenagers were I 9 . 5
percent f o r nonwhite b o ^ , 12.2 percent f o r white g i r l s , ax^ 9.7 percent
f o r white boys.




-

Chart C. - Unemployment Rates, by Sex, Color, and Age, 1954 - 65 and April 1966
(Persons 14 years of age and over)
Percent

Percent

-i30

3.0 r

14 to 19 years of age

25 -

25

20

15

10

5 -

I

I

I

I

J

I

L

- " 0

20 years of age and over

1954

1957

I960

'61

'62

'63

'64

'''April 1966 (seasonally odjusted)
Source: U.S. Department of Labor,Offlc6 of Manpower Policy, Evaluation and Research.




6

'65

'i'April 1966

Unemployment among a l l aduD.t w o r k e r s has d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y s i n c e
1961 b u t a t a more r a p i d r a t e among men t h a n araon^ v^onen.
Unemployment
among w h i t e t e e n a g e r s , b o t h boys and qItIs
, and amon^; n o n w h i t e boys has
a l s o d e c r e a s e d f a i r l y s t e a d i l y over t h e seme p e r i o d .
Cn t h e o t h e r hand,
imemployment among n o n w h i t e g i r l s
t o 19 y e a r s o f a,2;e i s h i g h e r t o d a y
t h a n i t was i n I961 o r even i n
Unemployment i s a l s o higher among Negro women than among Negro men
at each l e v e l of educational attainment.
In March 19^^^ 8*2 percent of
Negro women, but only 6.1 percent of Negro men, w i t h some college t r a i n i n g
were \memployed.
(Table I6) The unemployment rates f o r Negro women and
men who had attended high school were 13.8 percent and 10.9 percent,
respectively.
Educational Attainment
A l a r g e r proportion of Negro males than of Negro females 5 t o 3h
years of age were e n r o l l e d i n school i n October 19^^—62 percent compared
w i t h 57 percent.
(Table 17) The d i s t r i b u t i o n of these enrollees by
l e v e l of school, however, was almost i d e n t i c a l f o r males and females.
(Table I 8 ) On the other hand, about 6,000 more Negro males than females
were e n r o l l e d i n c o l l e g e .
The median yeetrs of school completed by v^^iro wumcn 18 y^c^n oi" ar;e
and over i n March 196U was 9.9 years; by Negro men, 9.O years.
(Table I9)
Both white women and men had completed 12.1 years o f schooling on the
average.
Although more Negro men than women had 8 years or l e s s of schooling
(U9.7 percent compared w i t h U2.8 percent), a s l i g h t l y higher p r o p o r t i o n of
Negro men (9-5 percent) than of Negro women' (9.I percent) had completed 1
year or more of c o l l e g e .
(Chart D)
Nonwhite men and women have made s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n educational
attainment since 1952.
(Table 20) This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of nonwhite
men and women i n the labor f o r c e .
(Comparable data f o r Negro men and women
are not a v a i l a b l e f o r e a r l i e r y e a r s . ) The median years of school ccanpleted
by nonwhite wanen 18 years of age and over i n the c i v i l i a n labor f o r c e rose
from 8.1 years i n 1952 t o 11.1 years i n I965. The comparable f i g u r e s f o r
nonwhite men workers were 7-2 years i n 1952 and 10.0 years i n I965. The gap
i n the educational attainment of white and nonwhite workers has narrowed
considerably over the 13-year period.
Wage or Salary Income
Among year-round f u l l - t i m e workers, the wage or s a l a r y income of
nonwhite women has been c o n s i s t e n t l y lower than that of a l l other workers
throughout the period from 1939 t o 1961^-. (Chart E, Table 21) However,
the gap has narrowed. Between 1939 and 196^, the earnings of nonwhite




-

7-

Chart D. -- Educational Attainment of the Population,; by
Race and Sex, March 1964
(Persons 18 years of age and over)

Women

Percent
100 r

Men

80

60

40

42.8

20
26.8

White
8 years or less-^

Negro
^ ^ ^

White
Some high school

Includes persons reporting no school years completed.
Source: U.S. Deportment of Commerce, Bureau of ttie Census; U.S. Department of Labor,
Burwu of Labor Statistics.




Negro
Some c o l l e g e

Chart E. - Median Wage or Salary Income of Year-Round Full-Tlme Workers,
by Sex and Color, 1939 and 1955 - 64
(Median wage or salary income in I 9 6 0 constant dollars)
Madion
Wage
or
Salary Income

$6,000 -

$5,000

-

$3,000

-

$1,000 -

1939

1955

'56

'57

'58

'59

Souret: US. Daportrnffit of Comnitre*,Buraou of tti* C«ntus.




9

'60

'61

'62

'63

'64

vcHnen vho vorked year round f u l l time increased BY 266 percent.
(Chart F)
This compares v i t h an increase of 200 percent f o r nonvhite men, 105 percent f o r white men, and 100 percent f o r v h i t e wonen. However, nonwhite
women's earnings i n 196^r were s t i l l only 62 percent of those of nonwhite
men and 69 percent of those of white women.
Coverage by Minimm Wa^e
There were 5,611,000 Negroes employed i n nonsupervisory Jobs i n 196^—
3,lli;,000 men and 2,^1-97,000 women, h/ Of these, 57 percent of the men, but
only 25 percent of the women, were "covered by the minimum wage provisions of
the Federal F a i r Labor Standards A c t . Some of the remaining 1,0^0,000 Negro
men and 1,877,000 Negro women were covered by State p r o t e c t i v e labor l e g i s l a t i o n . However, many Negroes, and e s p e c i a l l y women, work i n low-paying service
occupations such as h o s p i t a l attendant, kitchen worker, cook, and w a i t r e s s ,
which are r a r e l y covered by State minimum wage laws or i n private-household
work where coverage i s p r a c t i c a l l y nonexistent.

NOTE

Because of rounding, numbers and percentages
i n s t a t i s t i c a l tables do not n e c e s s a r i l y add
to totals.

h/ U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hoxor and P u b l i c Contracts
D i v i s i o n s , Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the F a i r Labor
Standards A c t , January I 9 6 6 .




-

10

.




Chart F. -- Percent Increase in the Wage or Salary Income of Year-Round
Fuli-Time Workers, by Sex and Color, for Selected Periods from 1939 to 1964
(Median wage or salary income in 1960 constant dollars)
Percent
Increase

Nonwhite women:
1939 to 1964
1955 to 1964
I960 to 1964
Nonwhite men:
1939 to 1964
1955 to 1964
I960 to 1964

7.6

7.9

White men:
1939 to 1964
1955 to 1964
I960 to 1964
White women:
1939 to 1964
1955 to 1964
I960 to 1964

1266.1

41.1
] 200.2

30.7
104.9

9.5

F

300

200

100

llOO.I

^ie.i

8.0

Sourc«: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

Table 1,—Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Negro Population, by Age and Sex,
1965, 1961*, I960, 19^0
Hal*

F«utl«

•m—55S5—
Nuiriser ( i n thousands)
Percent
Under 5 years
5 t o 13 years
l U t o 19 years
20 t o 2U years
25 t o 29 years
30 t o 3 * years
1
35 t o Iti* years
1j5 t o 51i years
55 t o 6U years
65 years and over
Median age

10,01*6
100.0
ll*.9
23.3
11.3
6.7
5.3
5.3
11.1
9.3
6.9
5.8

9,970
100.0

20.1*

wSo

1^501/
7,758

7,269
100.0
13.0
16.0
9.9
7.8
8.0
7.0
13.7
10.6
6.3
5.7

10,898
100.0

10,769
100.0

9,751
100.0

23.2
11.1
6.1*
5.5
5.6
11.3
9.1i
6.5
5.8

9,098
100.0
1-5:5
22.2
9.9
6.3
6.0
6.2
11.8
9.7
6.9
5.9

21.6
11.0
7.0
6.0
6.0
11.8
9.7
6.9
6.1*

21.5
10.7
6.9
6.0
6.1
12.0
9.6
6.7
6.6

20.7
9.U
6.6
6.5
6.8
12.6
10.0
7.0
6.1*

7.6
IU.3
10.3
5.7
5.9

20.1*

22.3

?5.8

22.7

22.9

2U.5

26.h

•ijrs

100.0
17.0
9.8

8.6
8.6

"y
Source! U.S. Department o f Commerce, Bureau of the Census:
P-20, Nos. 1U5 ami 1U2.




Current Population Reports,

Table 2.—Percent Dlstribu^iion of the Population, by Race, Faim or Nonfam Residence,
and Region, 196k, 196o,and 1950

Bealdence end region

Number ( i n thousands)

196k
Vlhite
l67,Olt6

Negro

1950
(census)
Negro
White

158,838

l8,8It9

15,02+2

i960
Negro

White

20,739

Residence
Percent

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

93 A
6.6

Nonfaim
FBJm

100.0

93.1
6.9

9e.5
7.5

9e.i
7.9

85.1^
l/lk.6

79.0
1/21.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

26.1
29A
27A
17.1

18.1
19.

26.1
30.2

8.1

16.3

16.0
18.3
60.0
5.7

27.7
31.2
27.3
13.8

13 A
14.8
68.0
3.8

Region

I

Percent
Northeast
North Central
South
Vest
^

These f i g u r e s exclude urban faim residents.

(Among vhites t h i s amounted t o 0.2 percent.)

Sofurce: U.S. Department of Ccoimerce, Bureau of the Census:
Ko. ikZ, and 1950 U-S. Censoia of Population.




Current Population Reports, P-20,

Table 3 . — M a r i t a l Stattis of Women i n the Popxaation,
by Race, March 196!^
(Women 18 years of age and over)
White
M a r i t a l statxis

Ifumber

Total
Single
Married (hiisband present)
Other 1/

Percent
distribution
100.0

6,686,000
38,284,000
31,085,000

1 1 . 9

68.3
1 9 . 8

Negro
Percent
Kumber
distribution
6,152,000
7 2 7 , 0 0 0

3,290,000
2,131^,000

100.0

11.8

53.5

i j Refers t o vonen -who are vldoved, divorced, or separated, or iihose husbands
are absent f o r other reasons.
Source: U.S. Department o f Cccmierce, Bureau o f the Census:
l a t i o n Reports, P-20, Hos. 135 and i k Z .




-

14 -

Current Popuf




T^le

Typ9

F a m i l i e s , by Type of Family and Race,
March 1964

of

Negro

White

family

1,2,663,000

Number

100.0

Percent
Husband-wife
Other male head
Female head

- 5 0
2.5
8.9

Median nuadser o f menbers
per family

3.6

U,UU0,000

100.0
I T E

3.6

23.8
U.3

Source: U.S. Department o f Commerce, Bureau o f
the Census: Current Population Reports, P-20, No. Ili2«

- 1 5 -

Table 5.—Families L i v i n g i n Poverty i n 1963, by Type o f
Family and Color, March I96U

All
families

lype of family-

Poor f a m i l i e s
As percent
of
Number
a l l families
White

U2,663,000

Husband-wife
Male head (without w i f e )
Female head

5>lg8,000

12.1

37,799,000

Total

3,818,000

10.1
ili.5
31.2

1,067,000
3,797,000

1 5 5 , 0 0 0

1,185,000
Nonwhite

773.000

2t027,000

ii2.5

3,511,000

1,20U,000

3U.3
31.2
70.8

Total
Husband-wife
Male head (without w i f e )
Female head

177,000
1,085,000

55,000
768,000

Sourcet U.S. Department o f Health, Education, and Welfare, S o c i a l
S e c u r i t y Administration: S o c i a l Security B u l l e t i n , Januaiy 1965*




-

16

.

Tabl<) 6.«-aq)lo7ment Status of the Population, by Sex azid Eace«
March 196U
(Persons 18 years o f age and over)

fi^^loyment status

Number

White
Percent
distribution

Nuaber

Negro
Percent
distribution

Wcnen
55,369,000

100.0

6,081,000

100.0

C i v i l i a n labor force

21,182,000

38.3

2,958,000

U8.6

Siployed
Unen^oyed

20,031,000
l,lli8,000

36.2
2.1

2,619,000
339,000

1*3.1
5.6

837,000
311,000

1.5
.6

2U8,000
91,000

U.1
1.5

3U,187,000

61.7

3,123,000

51.1*

Population

y

Less than 2$ weeks
15 weeks or more
Not i n the l a b o r f o r c e

Men
Population

U9s576,000

100.0

5,039,000

100.0

C i v i l i a n l a b o r force

141,030,000

82.8

li. 171.000

82.8

E^loyed
Unen^loyed

39,086,000
l,9Ui,000

78.8
3.9

3,757,000
1014,000

7U.6
8.2 '

1,28U,0C0
660,000

2.6
1.3

261,000
153,000

5.2
3.0

8,5U6,000

17.2

868,000

17.2

Less than 15 weeks
15 weeks or aore
Not i n the l a b o r f o r c e

y

Excludes ionates of i n s t i t u t i o n s and menibers of the Azised Forces.

Source: U.S. D^artinent of Comaerce, Bureau o f the Census: Current Population
Reports, P-20, No. Iii2, and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s *
Special Labor Force Heport No. 53.




- 1 7 -

Table T'—Enployment Statvm of the P o p u l a t i t o , by Sex
and Color, i960 and 1950
(Persons I 8 years of

Rtmber
Percent
C i v i l i a n labor f o r c e
Employed
Unemployed
Not i n the labor f o r c e

and

over)

i960

Etaiployment
8t«t\UI

a^e

Women
White

Men

Nororhite

White

Men

Women
Nonwhite

White

53,182,610
100.0

6,177,090
100.0

»^8,509,U53
100.0

5,UIJ6,559
100.0

100.0

35.3
33.7
1.7
61^.7

1^5.3
J+1.5
3.8
5U.7

82.6
78.9
3.7
17.u

78.1
Tl.lv
6.7
21.9

29.3
28.2
1.1
70.7

Nonwhite

White

5,159,190
100.0

UU,665,J+70
100.0

39.6
36.5
3.1

Nonwhite
4,716,000
100.0

83. If
79.7
3.8
16.6

60.k

1/ Excliidea members o f the Armed Forces •
Source:
U.S. Department o f Commerce, Bureau of the Census: i960 Census o f Population, S p e c i a l Report
PC(2)~6A; and 1950 Census o f Population, S p e c i a l Report PE No. l A .




81.2
7^.9

6.3
18.8

Table 8.~\tanen i n the C i v i l i a n Labor Force, by Age and Race,
March 1 6 ^
9^
(WcDien 18 years of age and over)

Hmber

A l l vcmen
Percent
distribution

2l^,326,000

100.0

2,103,000
2,096,000
5,585,000
5,659,000
1^,1^54,000

18.2
8.6
8.6
23.0
23.3
18,3

Age

Total
18
25
30
35

t o Zh
t o 29
to
t o Mf
t o 5l^
55 years

years
years
years
years
years
and over

As percent of
wooan
population
39.3

Number

2,958,000
k99,000

-

37.8
3T.1
JA . 7
51A
2lf.7

337,000
337,000
721^,000
61t2,000
Ul9,000

Negro women
Percent
distribution

100.0
16.9
11.1^
11.If
2U.5
21.7
Ik.2

As percent o f
voman
population
W.6
k6.9

52.U
51.6
56.3
62.6
29.8

M
VO

Soxirce: U.S. Department of Ccomerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-20, Ko. 142,
and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s : Ehiployment and Earnings, A p r i l 1 9 ^ .




.!Pal3le ^.—Marital Statxas of Negro Wcmen i n the C i v i l i a n Labor Force^
March 1964
(Women l 8 years of age and over)

M a r i t a l status
Total
Single
Married (husband present)
Other y

1^39,000

1,510,000
1,012,000

As percent
of woman
population

100.0

Rumber

Percent
distribution

48.6

14.8

51.0

34.2

60.6

46.0
48.9

tJ Refers t o vmea vho are widowed, divorced, or separated, or
vfaosa husbands ere absent f o r other reasons.
Source: U.S. Depertaaest of Ccoimerce, Bureau of the Census:
Current Population ReportB, P-20, Ho. l 4 2 .




-

20 -

Table 10.—Percent of Nonfiam Family Income i n I963 Contributed
by Wife, by C o l o r , March •196k

Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n
White
Honwhite

Wife's contribution to
nonfaxm f a m i l y Income

100.0

100.0

Less than 5.0 percent
5.0 t o 9.9 percent
10.0 t o 19.9 percent
20.0 t o 29.9 percent
30.0 t o 39-9 percent
^0.0 t o 1^9.9 percent
50.0 t o 7U.9 percent
75.0 percent and over

22.8
8.1
lit.7
15.5
16.9
11.9
8.1
2.1

18.
7.2
16.3
18.8
14. U
11.6
11.2
2.2

Median percent

22.9

2U.3

Total

Source: U.S. Department o f Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s :
S p e c i a l Labor Force Report No. ^O*




-

21 -

Table 11.--Mothers i n the Population and Labor F o r c e , l y M a r i t a l Status,
Ages o f Children, and Color, March 19^5

(Mothers ih years of age and over)

M B r l t f i l ststiis and
•ges o f c h i l d r e n

Population

Labor
force

Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n
Labor
Population
force

Percent
In
labor force

White
8,283

Mothers v l t h c h i l d r e n under l 8 years

IS
I

22,5^^6
12,118

Married, fausbcuod present
Other vonen ever married i j

I

Mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n 6 t o 17
(none under 6)




100.0

33.6

7,021
1,262

91A
8.6

81^.8
15.2

31.1
59.6

UQ.2

63.8

lfJt.5

hZ.Q

53.0
10.8

41.7
66.8

36.2

23.5

31.7

21.9
1^7.3

11,881

Married, husband present
Other vcmen ever married i j
Mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n under 6

100.0

10,51^5
1,336
^

Married, husband present
Other wanen ever married l /
See footnotes a t end o f t a b l e .

l^,392
892

5A

12,783
12,001
782

2,629
370

1*8.7
3.2

Table U.^^Mothers i n the Population and Labor Force,by M a r i t a l Status,
Agea o f Children, and Color, March 196^-Continued
(Mothers

years o f age and over)

Number ( i n thousardfl)
Labor
Population
force

M a r i t a l status and
ages o f c h i l d r e n

Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n
Labor
force
Population

Perceit
in
labor f o r c e

Nonwhite
1,399

Mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n under I 8 years
Married, husband present
Other women ever married l /
Mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n 6 t o 17
(none under 6)

2,171
850

100.0

100.0

1^6.3

932

71.9
28.1

66.6
33.^

1(2.9
51^.9

Ifl.O

51.2

57.8

26.1
U.9

31.7

56.3
60.4

1^8.8

38.3

k67

1,238
788
1^50

W272

^

I1T83

683

Married, hiisbaM present
Other traaen ever married l /

1,383
UCX)

195

Married^ husband present
Mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n under 6

km

U5.8
13.2

13.9

35.3
1^8.8

} J Refers t o voaen -who are widowed, divorced or separated, or whose husbands are absent f o r other
reasoiib.
2/ M ^ a l a o have o l d e r c h i l d r e n i n a d d i t i o n t o one or more under 6.
Source:




U.S. Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s :

S p e c i a l Labor Force Report No. 6h.

Table 1 2 . - - C h i l d Care Arrangements of Working Mothers With Children Under
I h Years of Age, by Ages of Children and Color, Febinary I965

Type o f arrangeoent

Number of c h i l d r e n
( i n thousands)
Percent

White

Total
Romrtilte

10,056
100

aamm




6 t o 11 years
White
Hbmrtilte

12 and 13 years
White
Ncsnifaite

3,066

1^,953

1,137

2,037

365

100

100

100

100

m^m

730
100

—

100

mmm

—

Ji§

M

iil

Jil

^

^

10

16

28
7
19
2

15
1
n
3

9
28
5
20
3

16
22
6
12

11
31
9
20
3

15
21
5
12
3

9
22
3
17
2

5

h

9

6

k

1

1

6

1

8

1

5

1

2

^

28

la

10

Iji

k

8

12
10

13
15

2k

5
5

7
8

3
1

If

16
19
k
11
k

Care I n someone e l s e ' s hone bo^Relative
Hanrelative

100

—

kh

Care I n c h l l d a cfvn heme by-mthar
Other r e l a t i v e
Ibider 16 years
16 t o 6h years
years and over
Monrelative vfao oaLy looked
after child
Hdnrelatlve vho a l s o d i d
household chores

2,231

Ibider 6 years
Nonwhite
White

7
8

18

k

- -

k

Table 1 2 . — C h i l d Care Arramgecents of Working Mothers With Children Uader
Ik Tears of Age, hy Ages of Children and Color, Bebruaay 1965--Continued

l^rpe o f arrangaoent
White

Total
Honwhite

Otber arxwageo^nts

I

tSi

Grov^ care (day care center, e t c . )
C h i l d looked a f t e r s e l f
Mother looked a f t e r c h i l d v h l l e
vorklng
Mother vorked only during child*a
school hours
Other arrangements

y

Under 6 years
White Honwhite

Sit

i5
6

12 and 13 years
White Konwhite

i2

it2
1
7

2
8

2
10

6
1

Ik

8

16

9

13
1

1

1

15
(i/)

6 t o 11. years
White Nonvhlte

—

lo

1
26

Ik

7

11

9

21

18
1

2k
1

23
2

y )

Less than 1 percent.

Source: U.S. Departaaent of Health, Education, azil Welfare, Welfare Administration, Children's Bureau,
and U*S. Department o f Labor, Vonen's Bureau.




Table 13^—-Major Occupational Groups of Biqployed Negro Men and
Wonen^ March 196h
(Persons l 8 years of age and over)
Number
( i n thousands)

Major occupational
group

Toftal
P r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l workers
Managers, o f f i c i a l s , p r o p r i e t o r s
(except faun)
C l e r i c a l , sales workers
Craftsmen, foz^emen
Operatives
Nonfam l a b o r e r s
Service workers ( i n c l u d i n g
private-household)
Faarm workers

Percent
distribution

Men

100.0
178,000

h.7

107,000
27lf,000
li04,000
1,005,000
831,000

17.0
8.5
100.0

186,000

7.1

lie,000
287,000
381,000
17,000

1.8
11.0

678,000
979>000
43,000

P r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l workers
Managers, o f f i c i a l s , p r o p r i e t o r s
(except farm)
C l e r i c a l , sales workers
Craftsmen, foremen, operatives
Nonfam laborers
Service workers (except p r i v a t e household)
Private-household workers
Fann workers

638,000
321,000
1/2,619,000

WcBien

Total

2.8
7.3
10.8
26.7
22.1

25.9

0.6

1.6

1 / Excludes Inmates o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and a l l members o f the Aimed Forces.
Source: U.S. Department o f Coanerce, Bureau of the Census:
P o p u l a t i o n Reports, P-20, No. i k Z .




- 26 -

Current

Table i k .—Major Occupational Groxips of Bnplpyed Horrwhite Women and Men,
i960 and 1950
(Persons 18 years of age and over)
Major occupational
groiq^
Rumber
Percent
P r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l vorkers
Teachers (except c o l l e g e )
Managers, o f f i c i a l s , p r o p r i e t o r s (except farm)
C l e r i c a l , kindred workers
Sales vorkers
Craftsmen, foremen
Operatives
Nonfarm l a b o r e r s
Service vorkers (except p r i v a t e household)
Private-household vorkers
Esrmers, f a m managers
Faim l a b o r e r s , foremen
Occ\q?fttion not reported

Women

Mfin
" W

1950
2,565,000
100.0

1,882,000
100.0

7.6

5.6
3.6

h,2

1.2
8.7
1.7
.7
13.0
1.0
21.0
33.9
.6
2.7
7.9

l.k
l.k

.6
lh.9

1.5
18.9
U0.9
1.8
6.9
1.5

1950

3,887,000
100.0

3,528,000
100.0

.9

2.3
.5

2.3
5.2
1.4
10.U
23.8
19.3

2.4
3.2
1.2
8.0
21.1
23.1

13.7
.7

13.5
1.1
13.9
8.8
1.3

k.o

8.2

Source: U.S. Department o f Ccemerce, Bureau of the CensuB: i960 U.S. Census of Population,
S p e c i a l Report PC(2)—7A; 1950 US. Census o f population. S p e c i a l Beport P-E, No. 1-B.




TaKL« l^.^lftMnplagpnaztt Ratea Ijy Sex, Color, a a l Age, Selected Years
igj't-b? aad A p r i l 1966
(Psraatia 14 years of age and over)
Coler taad cga

White
1 ^ 1 9 years
20 y«ara and orer
Boowfaita
1 ^ 1 9 yearn
20 yeara and over

April
1966

1965

196k

1963

1962

1961

i960

1957

195^

13.2
lf.6

13.6

3.3

12.6
if.O

11.5
4.1

13.5
5.7

11.9
4.6

9.1
3.8

9.9
5.1

31.0
5.8

29.8
7A

30.6
9.0

33.1

28.2
9.6

26.6
10.6

22.7
8.3

18.9
6.3

18,4
8.5

J2.2

I

I'tei
I

Vhita
llt-19 ye«ra
20 years and over
floQHhite
lk-19 yaars
20 years and over

9.7
2.1

11.8
2.9

13.

14.2
3.9

12.3
4.0

14.1
5.1

12.9
4.2

10.5
3.2

11.7
4.4

19-5

22.6
6.0

23.3
7.7

25.4
9.2

20.7
10.0

24.7
11.7

22.0
9.6

17.5
7.5

12.5
9.9

Source: U.S. Departnseirt o f Labor, Manpower Report of the Preaidentj A Beport on Maaqjower Requirements,
Besources, U t i l i s a t i o n , aad T r a i n i n g , Iterdii I966 and Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s : BcployBient and Earnings,
May 1966.




Table l6.—Unemployment Rates, by Sex, Years of School Completed,
and Race, March 1964
(persons l 8 years o f age and over)
Years o f school ccanpleted

White

Negro

Men
Less than 8 years l /
High school, 1 to% years
C o l l e g e , 1 year or more

8.1
4.6
2.4

9.6
10.9
6.1

8.8
5-7
3.2

10.0
13-8
3.2

Women
Less than 8 years l /
High school, 1 t o
years
C o l l e g e , 1 year or more

1 / Incl\ides no school years completed.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census:
Current P o p u l a t i o n Reports, P-20, No. l 4 2 .




-

29-

Table 17•—School BarolUnent of the Poptilation 5 t o
Years of Age,
tjy Bace aod Sex, October 19Sk i j
G i r l s and vcnen

Boys and men

AB

Age
Ifumber

percent of
population

Ihoiber

3?ortia
5 years
6 years
7 t o 13 years
l l f t o 17 years
18 and 19 years
20 t o
years
25 t o 29 years
30 t o 3 ^ years
^

2l^.809.000
1,379,000
1,985,000
13,177,000
6,356,000
958,000
716,000
1W,000
90,000

55.3
68.1
98A
99.2
91.8
33.7
10.9
2.6
1.9

26,§'a.999
1,1^35,000
2,0lf3,000
13,5^8,000
6,658,000
1,238,000
1,332,000
lni,000
186,000

Total
5 years
6 years
7 t o 13 years
l U t o 17 years
16 and 19 years
20 t o 2h years
23 t o 29 years
30 t o 3^ years

3.093.000
172,000
270,000
l,7l^5,O00
716,000
102,000
57,000
i8,ocio
13,000

56.9
61.2
99.3
99.5
88.0
31.7
8.1
2.8
2.0

3.098.000
175,000
261,000
1,706,000
752,000
116,000
51,000
17,000
20,000

As
percent o f
population

62.3
68.8
98.1
98.8
50.9
23.8
8.1
3.6

62.3
6U.3
97.^
98.5
91.9
39.9
8.3
3.5
k.o

i j Includes schools I n regular school system, that I s p u b l i c , p a r o c h i a l , and
p r i v a t e schools o f f e r i n g a d l p l c o a or a degree*
Source: U.S. Department o f Cdzsnerce, Bureau of the Census:
Rq>orts, P-20, Ho. i W .




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Current Population

Table l 8 — - L e v a l B of School Attended by Students 5 t o
Years of Age,
by Race and Sex, October 1964 l /

L e v e l o f school

G i r l a and •wmen
Percent
Number
distribution

Bocsrs tmA iBfin
Percent
diBtrlbution
Sumber

T o t a l school enrollment
2l|,809,000

Elementary school or kindergarten
H l ^ school
College

26.851.000

100.0

16,698,000
6,353,000
1,755,000

67.3
25.6
7.1

17,505,000
6,lf59,000
2,887,000

65.2
2h.l
10.8

100.0

3,098,000

100.0

2,272,000
702,000
11U,000

73.6
22.7
3.7

2,273,000
706,000
120,000

73.3
22.8
3.9

Hegro school enrollment

t
VS
1

100.0

3i0?3I000

. Total

Tetal
KLenantaiy scheol or kindergarten
Blf^ achool
College

y
I h c l u d a i 0Chools I n regular achool Bystem; t h a t l a p u b l i c , p a r o c h i a l , and p r i v a t e schoola, o f f e r i n g
a dipIoDa or a degree.
Source:




U-S. Departaamit of Coomierce, Bureau of the Census:

uu.

r o p o i a t i o n Reports, P-30, No. ihQ.

Table 1 9 — E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a l m e n t of the Population, by
Race and Sex, March 1964
(Persons l 8 years of age and over)
Years o f school
completed

Number
Percent

White
Women

Men

Women

Negro
Men

55,369,000

1^9,576,000

6,081,000

5,039,000

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

13-6

1.3

33.7
11.5

Elementary school:
None
Less than 8 years
8 years

11.6
Ik.O

15.0

2.2
28.8
11.8

High school:
1 t o 3 years
If years

18.6
37.5

18.0
29.

25.3
22.9

21^.4
16.6

17.1

22.8

9.1

9.5

12.1

12.1

9.9

9.0

College:
1 year or more
Median years of school
ccBtpleted

1.2

Source: U.S. Department of Cooanerce, Bureau of the Censiis: Cunrettt Population
Reports, 3^-20, No.ll|2, and U.S. Department o f Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s :
S p e c i a l Labor Force Report No. 53•




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