Full text of Negro Women in the Population and In the Labor Force
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NEGRO WOMEN IN THE POPULATION AND IN THE LABOR FORCE U.Sx DEPARTMENT OF LABOR W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary W O M E N ' S BUREAU M a r y Dublin Keyserling/Director COMTENTS Page Negro Wcmen In the Population Negro Women Workers C h i l d Care Arrangements Occupations Uneii5>lQyment Bducational Attainment Wage or S a l a i y Income Coverage by Minimum Wiage . . . - 1 3 5 ^ 5 7 7 10 CHARTS A. Percent o f Families L i v i n g i n Poverty i n 19^3j hy Type of Family and Color^ March 1964 B. Percent o f Nonfam Family Inccme i n 1963 Contributed by Wife, by Color, March 1964 k C. Unenqployment Rates, by Sex, Color, and Age, 195^-65 and A p r i l I966 . . . . . 6 D. Educational Attainment o f the Population, by Race and Sex, March 1964 8 E. Median Wage or S a l a i y Inccme of Yeai> Round Pull-Time Workers, by Sex and Color, 1939 and 1955-64 • . . . 9 F. ......... Percent Increase i n the Wage or Salary Income of Year-Round Full-Tlme Workers, by Sex and Color, Selected Periods from 1939 t o 1964 for 11 TA'Hr.Tgfl 1. 2. Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Hegro Population, by Age and Sex, I965, 1964, i960, and 1950 . . . . . . . . 12 Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Population, by Race, Faim or Nonfam Residence, and Region, 1964, 196O, and^ 1950 13 M a r i t a l Status o f Women i n the Population, by Race, March 1964 l4 Page k. Faznllles, by Type of Family and Race^ March 19614- I5 5. F a m i l i e s L i v i n g i n Poverty i n 19^3, by Type of Family and C o l o r , March 1964 16 Qnployment Status o f the P o p i i l a t i o n , by Sex and Race, Itorch 196k 17 6. 7. Qnploynent Status of P o p u l a t i o n , by Sex and Color, i960 end 1950 18 8. Women i n the C i v i l i a n Labor Force, by Age and Race, March 196k 9. M a r i t a l 196^ March Status of Negro Women i n the C i v i l i a n Labor Force, 20 Percent of Nonfarra Family Inccme i n I963 Contributed by Wife, by C o l o r , March 196k 21 Mothers i n the P o p u l a t i o n and Labor Force, by M a r i t a l Status, Ages o f C h i l d r e n , and C o l o r , March 1965 22 10. 12. 12. . 19 C h i l d Care Arrangements of Working Mothers With C h i l d r e n Under I h Years of Age, by Ages of C h i l d r e n and C o l o r , February 1965 i Zh 13. Major Occupational Groups o f Hnployed Negro Women and Men, March 1 9 ^ 26 14. Major Occupational Groups of Snployed Nonvhite Women and Men, i 9 6 0 and 1950 ' 27 Unemployment Rates by Sex, C o l o r , and Age, Selected" Years 195V. 65 and A p r i l I 9 6 6 28 Unemployment Rates, by Sex, Years o f School Completed, and Race, March 1964 29 School Enrollment of the P o p u l a t i o n 5 t o 3^ Years of Age, by Race and Sex, October 196^^ 30 L e v e l o f School Attended by Students 5 t o 3^ Years of Age, by Race and Sex, October 1 9 ^ 31 E d u c a t i o n a l Attainment o f the P o p u l a t i o n , by Race and Sex, March 1964 ' 32 Median Years o f School Conpleted, by Employment Status, Sex, and C o l o r , October 1952 and March 1957, 1939, 1962, 1964, and 1965 33 Median Wage o r S a l a r y Income o f Year-Round FiLLl-Time Workers, by Sex and C o l o r , 1939 a M 1955-64 3^ 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. ii NEGRO WMEl^ IN THE POPULATION AMD THE LABOR FORCE Negro Women i n the Population The Negro popvilation t o t a l e d i n 1965* (Table 1) Slightly more than h a l f (52 percent) vere females. About two-thirds of both the females and males vere under 35 years of age. Most of the Negro population (93 percent) were nonfarm residents i n 1964. (Table 2) This conpares w i t h about f o u r - f i f t h s (79 percent) i n 1950The movement of the Negro population avay from the South as v e i l as avay f r o n the farm over the same period i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d — o n l y percent l i v e d there i n l^Sh compared v i t h 68 percent i n 1950More than 1 out of 3 Negro women I 8 years of age and over was widowed^ divorced^ or separated from her husband i n March 196^^ (Table 3) This was true of only about 1 out of 5 'vriiite women* There were 440,000 Negro f a m i l i e s i n Kiarch 196U. (Table k) The average Negro f a m i l y had k.3 members. Nearly one-fourth of the Negro f a m i l i e s were headed by a woman. Information on the number of Negro f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n poverty l / i s not available. In 19^3^ 2,027,000^or more than 2 out of 5, nonwhite f a m i l i e s vere l i v i n g i n poverty as compared w i t h l e s s than 1 out of 8 white f a m i l i e s . (Table 5) Families most apt t o be l i v i n g i n poverty are those headed by a woman or those w i t h a l a r g e number of c h i l d r e n . In 19^3, 71 percent of the 1.1 m i l l i o n nonwhite f a m i l i e s headed by a woman were poor. (Chart A) Of the 3*8 m m i o n "riiite f a m i l i e s headed by a woman, 31 percent were poor. Of a l l f a m i l i e s w i t h 5 or more own c h i l d r e n , 76 percent of the nonwhite and 31 percent of the white vere l i v i n g i n poverty i n 1963- 2/ There were I 5 . I m i l l i o n c h i l d r e n under I 8 years of age l i v i n g i n poverty i n 1963—9*3 m i l l i o n white and 5.8 m i l l i o n nonwhite. 3 / About 60 percent of a H nonwhite c h i l d r e n were members of poor f a m i l i e s compared w i t h I 6 percent o f a l l white c h i l d r e n . About 86 percent of the c h i l d r e n i n nonwhite f a m i l i e s headed by a woman were l i v i n g i n poverty. 1 / The S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n index of poverty assumes that a person farm f a m i l y w i t h annual cash income of l e s s than $1,860 and other person f a m i l i e B w i t h l e s s than $3^100 l i v e i n poverty. This index i s adjusted t o take f a m i l y s i z e i n t o account. 2 / U.S. Departaaent of Health, Education, and Welfare, S o c i a l Security Administration: S o c i a l S e c u r i t y B u l l e t i n , January I 9 6 5 . j / U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Administration: S o c i a l S e c u r i t y B u l l e t i n , J u l y 19^5* Chart A. - Percent of Families Living in Poverty in 1963, by Type of Family and Color, March 1964 Poor Nonpoor Husband-Wife Families White families (37,799,000) Nonwhite families (3,511,000) Families with Female Head NonwhHe famili«s Whit* famOiM (1,0^,000) (3.797,000) Sotirc«:U.S. DaportimntHadHti,EducatioiMmd WMfBra,8oeiat S«eurityAdinjni«trotion. 2 Negro Wcmen Workers The percent of the Negro woman population at work or seeking work i s i n c r e a s i n g . Nearly h a l f (^9 percent) of the Negro wcmen l 8 years of age and over were i n the labor f o r c e i n March (Table 6) Figures f o r 1950 and i960, while not s t r i c t l y comparable since they r e f e r t o nonwhite women I 8 years of age and over, show that the proportion of non%rtiite women i n the labor f o r c e was kO percent and h^ percent, r e s p e c t i v e l y . (Table T) White wcmen I 8 years of age and over are l e s s l i k e l y t o be i n the l a b o r f o r c e than are Negro or nonwhite women. The labor f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of white women rose from 29 percent i n I95O t o 35 percent i n i960 and 38 percent i n 196k. (Tables 6 and 7) More than h a l f of a l l Negro women 25 t o years of age were working or seeking work i n March 1964. (Table 8) In contrast, among a l l women, only i n the age group 45 t o 5^ years were as many as h a l f i n the l a b o r f o r c e . About h a l f (5I percent) o f the Negro wcmen i n the c i v i l i a n l a b o r f o r c e i n March 1964 were married and l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r husbands. (Table 9 ) About a t h i r d (34 percent) were widowed, divorced, or separated from t h e i r husbands. Only I 5 percent were s i n g l e . Many of these married wcmen workers l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r husbands made a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the f a m i l y income. Among n o n f a m nonwhite wives, 58 percent contributed 20 percent or more of the f a m i l y income, 39 percent contributed 30 percent or more, and 25 percent contributed 40 percent or more. (Chart B, Table 10) The compai^ble percentages f o r nonfam white wives were 55 percent, 39 percent, and 22 percent, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Information i s not a v a i l a b l e on the nmber of Negro mothers who are i n the l a b o r f o r c e . However, the tendency o f Negro mothers t o seek p a i d employment i s i l l \ i s t r a t e d by recent f i g u r e s on nonwhite mothers. In March 1 9 6 5 , 1,399^000 nonwhite mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n under 18 years of age were i n the l a b o r f o r c e . (Table 11) They represented 46 percent of a l l nonwhite mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n of t h i s age. Nonwhite mothers who are widowed, divorced, or separated are more l i k e l y t o work than are those l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r husbands. T h e i r l a b o r - f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates were 55 percent and 43 percent, respectively^ i n March 1965* Many nonwhite mothers w i t h young c h i l d r e n (under 6 years of age) a l s o work or seek p a i d employment. They numbered 683,000 In March 1965 and c o n s t i t u t e d 38 percent of a H nomrtilte mothers w i t h young c h i l d r e n . White mothers are l e s s l i k e l y t o work than are nonwhite mothers. Among white wcmen w i t h c h i l d r e n under I 8 years o f age, 34 percent were I n the l a b o r f o r c e ; among those w i t h c h i l d r e n under 6, only 24 percent were working or seeklJ^ work. - 3 - Chart B. -- Percent of Nonfarm Family Income in 1963 Contributed by Wife, by Color, March 1964 Less than ZO percent 20 to 29.9 percent Source: US, Deportment of Labor, Bureau of Lobor Statistics. 30 to 39.9 percent 4 0 percent or more C h i l d Care Arrangements Working mothers (both v h l t e and nonvhlte), many of vhcm vork out of econctnic need, o f t e n f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o secure adequate day care f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Of the 12.3 m i l l i o n c h i l d r e n under i k years of age i n February 19^5 vhose mothers vorked f o r 27 weeks or more i n the l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n vere cared f o r i n t h e i r own heme, u s u a l l y by t h e i r f a t h e r or another r e l a t i v e . (Table 12) This was t r u e f o r both the 10.1 m i l l i o n white c h i l d r e n percent) and the 2.2 m i l l i o n nonwhite c h i l d r e n (kh percent). Nonwhite c h i l d r e n were cared f o r more frequently i n someone e l s e ' s home (22 percent) than were white (15 percent). About 10 percent o f a l l nonwhite c h i l d r e n and 8 percent of a l l white looked a f t e r themselves; among those 12 or 13 years o f age, 26 percent o f the nonwhite and 20 percent of the white c h i l d r e n d i d so. Only 2 percent of both white and nonwhite c h i l d r e n were provided group care such as furnished by day care centers. Occupations Most Negro wcmen are employed as s e r v i c e workers. In March 37 percent were private-household workers and 26 percent were s e r v i c e workers outside the heme. (Table 13) In contrast the majority of Negro men are craftsmen and foremen, operatives, and nonfarm l a b o r e r s . About 60 percent o f them were employed i n these occupations i n March 190^* Figures on the employment of nonwhite women and men i n 1950 and i960, although not s t r i c t l y cemparable (about 93 percent were Negro), i n d i c a t e the movement of Negro workers i n t o w h i t e - c o l l a r occxQ>atlons. (Table li^-) The p r o p o r t i o n of wonen i n t h i s type of work rose frem 13 t o 19 percent over the 10-year p e r i o d . The ceoparable percentages f o r men were 9 and 13 percent. I t would appear that more nonwhite women than inen h o l d p r o f e s s i o n a l or t e c h n i c a l Jobs. But most of these wonen are working as school teachers i n r u r a l areas i n the South. Over h a l f o f the nonwhite wonen, but only onef o u r t h of the nonwhite men, i n p r o f e s s i o n a l fend t e c h n i c a l o c c i ^ t l o n s i n 1960 were employed as teachers (except c o l l e g e ) . Itaemplcgnnent Unemployment Is more severe among Negro wcmen than among Negro men. In A p r i l 1966 the unemployment rates (aeasonally adjusted) were 8.1 percent f o r nonwhite wonen and 6.3 percent f o r nonwhite men. (Data f o r Negroes are not a v a i l a b l e . ) I n c o n t r a s t , unen^oyment rates f o r white wonen and men were h.k percent and 2.8 percent, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Unemployment Is more widespread among teenagers than adulta, among nonwhite than white teenagers, and among g i r l s than beys. In A p r i l I966 nonwhite g i r l s i k t o 19 years o f age had the highest r a t e o f unemployment (31 percent)/ (Chart C, Table 15) The rates f o r other teenagers were I 9 . 5 percent f o r nonwhite b o ^ , 12.2 percent f o r white g i r l s , ax^ 9.7 percent f o r white boys. - Chart C. - Unemployment Rates, by Sex, Color, and Age, 1954 - 65 and April 1966 (Persons 14 years of age and over) Percent Percent -i30 3.0 r 14 to 19 years of age 25 - 25 20 15 10 5 - I I I I J I L - " 0 20 years of age and over 1954 1957 I960 '61 '62 '63 '64 '''April 1966 (seasonally odjusted) Source: U.S. Department of Labor,Offlc6 of Manpower Policy, Evaluation and Research. 6 '65 'i'April 1966 Unemployment among a l l aduD.t w o r k e r s has d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y s i n c e 1961 b u t a t a more r a p i d r a t e among men t h a n araon^ v^onen. Unemployment among w h i t e t e e n a g e r s , b o t h boys and qItIs , and amon^; n o n w h i t e boys has a l s o d e c r e a s e d f a i r l y s t e a d i l y over t h e seme p e r i o d . Cn t h e o t h e r hand, imemployment among n o n w h i t e g i r l s t o 19 y e a r s o f a,2;e i s h i g h e r t o d a y t h a n i t was i n I961 o r even i n Unemployment i s a l s o higher among Negro women than among Negro men at each l e v e l of educational attainment. In March 19^^^ 8*2 percent of Negro women, but only 6.1 percent of Negro men, w i t h some college t r a i n i n g were \memployed. (Table I6) The unemployment rates f o r Negro women and men who had attended high school were 13.8 percent and 10.9 percent, respectively. Educational Attainment A l a r g e r proportion of Negro males than of Negro females 5 t o 3h years of age were e n r o l l e d i n school i n October 19^^—62 percent compared w i t h 57 percent. (Table 17) The d i s t r i b u t i o n of these enrollees by l e v e l of school, however, was almost i d e n t i c a l f o r males and females. (Table I 8 ) On the other hand, about 6,000 more Negro males than females were e n r o l l e d i n c o l l e g e . The median yeetrs of school completed by v^^iro wumcn 18 y^c^n oi" ar;e and over i n March 196U was 9.9 years; by Negro men, 9.O years. (Table I9) Both white women and men had completed 12.1 years o f schooling on the average. Although more Negro men than women had 8 years or l e s s of schooling (U9.7 percent compared w i t h U2.8 percent), a s l i g h t l y higher p r o p o r t i o n of Negro men (9-5 percent) than of Negro women' (9.I percent) had completed 1 year or more of c o l l e g e . (Chart D) Nonwhite men and women have made s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n educational attainment since 1952. (Table 20) This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of nonwhite men and women i n the labor f o r c e . (Comparable data f o r Negro men and women are not a v a i l a b l e f o r e a r l i e r y e a r s . ) The median years of school ccanpleted by nonwhite wanen 18 years of age and over i n the c i v i l i a n labor f o r c e rose from 8.1 years i n 1952 t o 11.1 years i n I965. The comparable f i g u r e s f o r nonwhite men workers were 7-2 years i n 1952 and 10.0 years i n I965. The gap i n the educational attainment of white and nonwhite workers has narrowed considerably over the 13-year period. Wage or Salary Income Among year-round f u l l - t i m e workers, the wage or s a l a r y income of nonwhite women has been c o n s i s t e n t l y lower than that of a l l other workers throughout the period from 1939 t o 1961^-. (Chart E, Table 21) However, the gap has narrowed. Between 1939 and 196^, the earnings of nonwhite - 7- Chart D. -- Educational Attainment of the Population,; by Race and Sex, March 1964 (Persons 18 years of age and over) Women Percent 100 r Men 80 60 40 42.8 20 26.8 White 8 years or less-^ Negro ^ ^ ^ White Some high school Includes persons reporting no school years completed. Source: U.S. Deportment of Commerce, Bureau of ttie Census; U.S. Department of Labor, Burwu of Labor Statistics. Negro Some c o l l e g e Chart E. - Median Wage or Salary Income of Year-Round Full-Tlme Workers, by Sex and Color, 1939 and 1955 - 64 (Median wage or salary income in I 9 6 0 constant dollars) Madion Wage or Salary Income $6,000 - $5,000 - $3,000 - $1,000 - 1939 1955 '56 '57 '58 '59 Souret: US. Daportrnffit of Comnitre*,Buraou of tti* C«ntus. 9 '60 '61 '62 '63 '64 vcHnen vho vorked year round f u l l time increased BY 266 percent. (Chart F) This compares v i t h an increase of 200 percent f o r nonvhite men, 105 percent f o r white men, and 100 percent f o r v h i t e wonen. However, nonwhite women's earnings i n 196^r were s t i l l only 62 percent of those of nonwhite men and 69 percent of those of white women. Coverage by Minimm Wa^e There were 5,611,000 Negroes employed i n nonsupervisory Jobs i n 196^— 3,lli;,000 men and 2,^1-97,000 women, h/ Of these, 57 percent of the men, but only 25 percent of the women, were "covered by the minimum wage provisions of the Federal F a i r Labor Standards A c t . Some of the remaining 1,0^0,000 Negro men and 1,877,000 Negro women were covered by State p r o t e c t i v e labor l e g i s l a t i o n . However, many Negroes, and e s p e c i a l l y women, work i n low-paying service occupations such as h o s p i t a l attendant, kitchen worker, cook, and w a i t r e s s , which are r a r e l y covered by State minimum wage laws or i n private-household work where coverage i s p r a c t i c a l l y nonexistent. NOTE Because of rounding, numbers and percentages i n s t a t i s t i c a l tables do not n e c e s s a r i l y add to totals. h/ U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hoxor and P u b l i c Contracts D i v i s i o n s , Minimum Wage and Maximum Hours Standards Under the F a i r Labor Standards A c t , January I 9 6 6 . - 10 . Chart F. -- Percent Increase in the Wage or Salary Income of Year-Round Fuli-Time Workers, by Sex and Color, for Selected Periods from 1939 to 1964 (Median wage or salary income in 1960 constant dollars) Percent Increase Nonwhite women: 1939 to 1964 1955 to 1964 I960 to 1964 Nonwhite men: 1939 to 1964 1955 to 1964 I960 to 1964 7.6 7.9 White men: 1939 to 1964 1955 to 1964 I960 to 1964 White women: 1939 to 1964 1955 to 1964 I960 to 1964 1266.1 41.1 ] 200.2 30.7 104.9 9.5 F 300 200 100 llOO.I ^ie.i 8.0 Sourc«: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Table 1,—Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Negro Population, by Age and Sex, 1965, 1961*, I960, 19^0 Hal* F«utl« •m—55S5— Nuiriser ( i n thousands) Percent Under 5 years 5 t o 13 years l U t o 19 years 20 t o 2U years 25 t o 29 years 30 t o 3 * years 1 35 t o Iti* years 1j5 t o 51i years 55 t o 6U years 65 years and over Median age 10,01*6 100.0 ll*.9 23.3 11.3 6.7 5.3 5.3 11.1 9.3 6.9 5.8 9,970 100.0 20.1* wSo 1^501/ 7,758 7,269 100.0 13.0 16.0 9.9 7.8 8.0 7.0 13.7 10.6 6.3 5.7 10,898 100.0 10,769 100.0 9,751 100.0 23.2 11.1 6.1* 5.5 5.6 11.3 9.1i 6.5 5.8 9,098 100.0 1-5:5 22.2 9.9 6.3 6.0 6.2 11.8 9.7 6.9 5.9 21.6 11.0 7.0 6.0 6.0 11.8 9.7 6.9 6.1* 21.5 10.7 6.9 6.0 6.1 12.0 9.6 6.7 6.6 20.7 9.U 6.6 6.5 6.8 12.6 10.0 7.0 6.1* 7.6 IU.3 10.3 5.7 5.9 20.1* 22.3 ?5.8 22.7 22.9 2U.5 26.h •ijrs 100.0 17.0 9.8 8.6 8.6 "y Source! U.S. Department o f Commerce, Bureau of the Census: P-20, Nos. 1U5 ami 1U2. Current Population Reports, Table 2.—Percent Dlstribu^iion of the Population, by Race, Faim or Nonfam Residence, and Region, 196k, 196o,and 1950 Bealdence end region Number ( i n thousands) 196k Vlhite l67,Olt6 Negro 1950 (census) Negro White 158,838 l8,8It9 15,02+2 i960 Negro White 20,739 Residence Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 93 A 6.6 Nonfaim FBJm 100.0 93.1 6.9 9e.5 7.5 9e.i 7.9 85.1^ l/lk.6 79.0 1/21.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 26.1 29A 27A 17.1 18.1 19. 26.1 30.2 8.1 16.3 16.0 18.3 60.0 5.7 27.7 31.2 27.3 13.8 13 A 14.8 68.0 3.8 Region I Percent Northeast North Central South Vest ^ These f i g u r e s exclude urban faim residents. (Among vhites t h i s amounted t o 0.2 percent.) Sofurce: U.S. Department of Ccoimerce, Bureau of the Census: Ko. ikZ, and 1950 U-S. Censoia of Population. Current Population Reports, P-20, Table 3 . — M a r i t a l Stattis of Women i n the Popxaation, by Race, March 196!^ (Women 18 years of age and over) White M a r i t a l statxis Ifumber Total Single Married (hiisband present) Other 1/ Percent distribution 100.0 6,686,000 38,284,000 31,085,000 1 1 . 9 68.3 1 9 . 8 Negro Percent Kumber distribution 6,152,000 7 2 7 , 0 0 0 3,290,000 2,131^,000 100.0 11.8 53.5 i j Refers t o vonen -who are vldoved, divorced, or separated, or iihose husbands are absent f o r other reasons. Source: U.S. Department o f Cccmierce, Bureau o f the Census: l a t i o n Reports, P-20, Hos. 135 and i k Z . - 14 - Current Popuf T^le Typ9 F a m i l i e s , by Type of Family and Race, March 1964 of Negro White family 1,2,663,000 Number 100.0 Percent Husband-wife Other male head Female head - 5 0 2.5 8.9 Median nuadser o f menbers per family 3.6 U,UU0,000 100.0 I T E 3.6 23.8 U.3 Source: U.S. Department o f Commerce, Bureau o f the Census: Current Population Reports, P-20, No. Ili2« - 1 5 - Table 5.—Families L i v i n g i n Poverty i n 1963, by Type o f Family and Color, March I96U All families lype of family- Poor f a m i l i e s As percent of Number a l l families White U2,663,000 Husband-wife Male head (without w i f e ) Female head 5>lg8,000 12.1 37,799,000 Total 3,818,000 10.1 ili.5 31.2 1,067,000 3,797,000 1 5 5 , 0 0 0 1,185,000 Nonwhite 773.000 2t027,000 ii2.5 3,511,000 1,20U,000 3U.3 31.2 70.8 Total Husband-wife Male head (without w i f e ) Female head 177,000 1,085,000 55,000 768,000 Sourcet U.S. Department o f Health, Education, and Welfare, S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Administration: S o c i a l Security B u l l e t i n , Januaiy 1965* - 16 . Tabl<) 6.«-aq)lo7ment Status of the Population, by Sex azid Eace« March 196U (Persons 18 years o f age and over) fi^^loyment status Number White Percent distribution Nuaber Negro Percent distribution Wcnen 55,369,000 100.0 6,081,000 100.0 C i v i l i a n labor force 21,182,000 38.3 2,958,000 U8.6 Siployed Unen^oyed 20,031,000 l,lli8,000 36.2 2.1 2,619,000 339,000 1*3.1 5.6 837,000 311,000 1.5 .6 2U8,000 91,000 U.1 1.5 3U,187,000 61.7 3,123,000 51.1* Population y Less than 2$ weeks 15 weeks or more Not i n the l a b o r f o r c e Men Population U9s576,000 100.0 5,039,000 100.0 C i v i l i a n l a b o r force 141,030,000 82.8 li. 171.000 82.8 E^loyed Unen^loyed 39,086,000 l,9Ui,000 78.8 3.9 3,757,000 1014,000 7U.6 8.2 ' 1,28U,0C0 660,000 2.6 1.3 261,000 153,000 5.2 3.0 8,5U6,000 17.2 868,000 17.2 Less than 15 weeks 15 weeks or aore Not i n the l a b o r f o r c e y Excludes ionates of i n s t i t u t i o n s and menibers of the Azised Forces. Source: U.S. D^artinent of Comaerce, Bureau o f the Census: Current Population Reports, P-20, No. Iii2, and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s * Special Labor Force Heport No. 53. - 1 7 - Table T'—Enployment Statvm of the P o p u l a t i t o , by Sex and Color, i960 and 1950 (Persons I 8 years of Rtmber Percent C i v i l i a n labor f o r c e Employed Unemployed Not i n the labor f o r c e and over) i960 Etaiployment 8t«t\UI a^e Women White Men Nororhite White Men Women Nonwhite White 53,182,610 100.0 6,177,090 100.0 »^8,509,U53 100.0 5,UIJ6,559 100.0 100.0 35.3 33.7 1.7 61^.7 1^5.3 J+1.5 3.8 5U.7 82.6 78.9 3.7 17.u 78.1 Tl.lv 6.7 21.9 29.3 28.2 1.1 70.7 Nonwhite White 5,159,190 100.0 UU,665,J+70 100.0 39.6 36.5 3.1 Nonwhite 4,716,000 100.0 83. If 79.7 3.8 16.6 60.k 1/ Excliidea members o f the Armed Forces • Source: U.S. Department o f Commerce, Bureau of the Census: i960 Census o f Population, S p e c i a l Report PC(2)~6A; and 1950 Census o f Population, S p e c i a l Report PE No. l A . 81.2 7^.9 6.3 18.8 Table 8.~\tanen i n the C i v i l i a n Labor Force, by Age and Race, March 1 6 ^ 9^ (WcDien 18 years of age and over) Hmber A l l vcmen Percent distribution 2l^,326,000 100.0 2,103,000 2,096,000 5,585,000 5,659,000 1^,1^54,000 18.2 8.6 8.6 23.0 23.3 18,3 Age Total 18 25 30 35 t o Zh t o 29 to t o Mf t o 5l^ 55 years years years years years years and over As percent of wooan population 39.3 Number 2,958,000 k99,000 - 37.8 3T.1 JA . 7 51A 2lf.7 337,000 337,000 721^,000 61t2,000 Ul9,000 Negro women Percent distribution 100.0 16.9 11.1^ 11.If 2U.5 21.7 Ik.2 As percent o f voman population W.6 k6.9 52.U 51.6 56.3 62.6 29.8 M VO Soxirce: U.S. Department of Ccomerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-20, Ko. 142, and U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s : Ehiployment and Earnings, A p r i l 1 9 ^ . .!Pal3le ^.—Marital Statxas of Negro Wcmen i n the C i v i l i a n Labor Force^ March 1964 (Women l 8 years of age and over) M a r i t a l status Total Single Married (husband present) Other y 1^39,000 1,510,000 1,012,000 As percent of woman population 100.0 Rumber Percent distribution 48.6 14.8 51.0 34.2 60.6 46.0 48.9 tJ Refers t o vmea vho are widowed, divorced, or separated, or vfaosa husbands ere absent f o r other reasons. Source: U.S. Depertaaest of Ccoimerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population ReportB, P-20, Ho. l 4 2 . - 20 - Table 10.—Percent of Nonfiam Family Income i n I963 Contributed by Wife, by C o l o r , March •196k Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n White Honwhite Wife's contribution to nonfaxm f a m i l y Income 100.0 100.0 Less than 5.0 percent 5.0 t o 9.9 percent 10.0 t o 19.9 percent 20.0 t o 29.9 percent 30.0 t o 39-9 percent ^0.0 t o 1^9.9 percent 50.0 t o 7U.9 percent 75.0 percent and over 22.8 8.1 lit.7 15.5 16.9 11.9 8.1 2.1 18. 7.2 16.3 18.8 14. U 11.6 11.2 2.2 Median percent 22.9 2U.3 Total Source: U.S. Department o f Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s : S p e c i a l Labor Force Report No. ^O* - 21 - Table 11.--Mothers i n the Population and Labor F o r c e , l y M a r i t a l Status, Ages o f Children, and Color, March 19^5 (Mothers ih years of age and over) M B r l t f i l ststiis and •ges o f c h i l d r e n Population Labor force Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n Labor Population force Percent In labor force White 8,283 Mothers v l t h c h i l d r e n under l 8 years IS I 22,5^^6 12,118 Married, fausbcuod present Other vonen ever married i j I Mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n 6 t o 17 (none under 6) 100.0 33.6 7,021 1,262 91A 8.6 81^.8 15.2 31.1 59.6 UQ.2 63.8 lfJt.5 hZ.Q 53.0 10.8 41.7 66.8 36.2 23.5 31.7 21.9 1^7.3 11,881 Married, husband present Other vcmen ever married i j Mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n under 6 100.0 10,51^5 1,336 ^ Married, husband present Other wanen ever married l / See footnotes a t end o f t a b l e . l^,392 892 5A 12,783 12,001 782 2,629 370 1*8.7 3.2 Table U.^^Mothers i n the Population and Labor Force,by M a r i t a l Status, Agea o f Children, and Color, March 196^-Continued (Mothers years o f age and over) Number ( i n thousardfl) Labor Population force M a r i t a l status and ages o f c h i l d r e n Percent d i s t r i b u t i o n Labor force Population Perceit in labor f o r c e Nonwhite 1,399 Mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n under I 8 years Married, husband present Other women ever married l / Mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n 6 t o 17 (none under 6) 2,171 850 100.0 100.0 1^6.3 932 71.9 28.1 66.6 33.^ 1(2.9 51^.9 Ifl.O 51.2 57.8 26.1 U.9 31.7 56.3 60.4 1^8.8 38.3 k67 1,238 788 1^50 W272 ^ I1T83 683 Married, hiisbaM present Other traaen ever married l / 1,383 UCX) 195 Married^ husband present Mothers w i t h c h i l d r e n under 6 km U5.8 13.2 13.9 35.3 1^8.8 } J Refers t o voaen -who are widowed, divorced or separated, or whose husbands are absent f o r other reasoiib. 2/ M ^ a l a o have o l d e r c h i l d r e n i n a d d i t i o n t o one or more under 6. Source: U.S. Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s : S p e c i a l Labor Force Report No. 6h. Table 1 2 . - - C h i l d Care Arrangements of Working Mothers With Children Under I h Years of Age, by Ages of Children and Color, Febinary I965 Type o f arrangeoent Number of c h i l d r e n ( i n thousands) Percent White Total Romrtilte 10,056 100 aamm 6 t o 11 years White Hbmrtilte 12 and 13 years White Ncsnifaite 3,066 1^,953 1,137 2,037 365 100 100 100 100 m^m 730 100 — 100 mmm — Ji§ M iil Jil ^ ^ 10 16 28 7 19 2 15 1 n 3 9 28 5 20 3 16 22 6 12 11 31 9 20 3 15 21 5 12 3 9 22 3 17 2 5 h 9 6 k 1 1 6 1 8 1 5 1 2 ^ 28 la 10 Iji k 8 12 10 13 15 2k 5 5 7 8 3 1 If 16 19 k 11 k Care I n someone e l s e ' s hone bo^Relative Hanrelative 100 — kh Care I n c h l l d a cfvn heme by-mthar Other r e l a t i v e Ibider 16 years 16 t o 6h years years and over Monrelative vfao oaLy looked after child Hdnrelatlve vho a l s o d i d household chores 2,231 Ibider 6 years Nonwhite White 7 8 18 k - - k Table 1 2 . — C h i l d Care Arramgecents of Working Mothers With Children Uader Ik Tears of Age, hy Ages of Children and Color, Bebruaay 1965--Continued l^rpe o f arrangaoent White Total Honwhite Otber arxwageo^nts I tSi Grov^ care (day care center, e t c . ) C h i l d looked a f t e r s e l f Mother looked a f t e r c h i l d v h l l e vorklng Mother vorked only during child*a school hours Other arrangements y Under 6 years White Honwhite Sit i5 6 12 and 13 years White Konwhite i2 it2 1 7 2 8 2 10 6 1 Ik 8 16 9 13 1 1 1 15 (i/) 6 t o 11. years White Nonvhlte — lo 1 26 Ik 7 11 9 21 18 1 2k 1 23 2 y ) Less than 1 percent. Source: U.S. Departaaent of Health, Education, azil Welfare, Welfare Administration, Children's Bureau, and U*S. Department o f Labor, Vonen's Bureau. Table 13^—-Major Occupational Groups of Biqployed Negro Men and Wonen^ March 196h (Persons l 8 years of age and over) Number ( i n thousands) Major occupational group Toftal P r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l workers Managers, o f f i c i a l s , p r o p r i e t o r s (except faun) C l e r i c a l , sales workers Craftsmen, foz^emen Operatives Nonfam l a b o r e r s Service workers ( i n c l u d i n g private-household) Faarm workers Percent distribution Men 100.0 178,000 h.7 107,000 27lf,000 li04,000 1,005,000 831,000 17.0 8.5 100.0 186,000 7.1 lie,000 287,000 381,000 17,000 1.8 11.0 678,000 979>000 43,000 P r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l workers Managers, o f f i c i a l s , p r o p r i e t o r s (except farm) C l e r i c a l , sales workers Craftsmen, foremen, operatives Nonfam laborers Service workers (except p r i v a t e household) Private-household workers Fann workers 638,000 321,000 1/2,619,000 WcBien Total 2.8 7.3 10.8 26.7 22.1 25.9 0.6 1.6 1 / Excludes Inmates o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and a l l members o f the Aimed Forces. Source: U.S. Department o f Coanerce, Bureau of the Census: P o p u l a t i o n Reports, P-20, No. i k Z . - 26 - Current Table i k .—Major Occupational Groxips of Bnplpyed Horrwhite Women and Men, i960 and 1950 (Persons 18 years of age and over) Major occupational groiq^ Rumber Percent P r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l vorkers Teachers (except c o l l e g e ) Managers, o f f i c i a l s , p r o p r i e t o r s (except farm) C l e r i c a l , kindred workers Sales vorkers Craftsmen, foremen Operatives Nonfarm l a b o r e r s Service vorkers (except p r i v a t e household) Private-household vorkers Esrmers, f a m managers Faim l a b o r e r s , foremen Occ\q?fttion not reported Women Mfin " W 1950 2,565,000 100.0 1,882,000 100.0 7.6 5.6 3.6 h,2 1.2 8.7 1.7 .7 13.0 1.0 21.0 33.9 .6 2.7 7.9 l.k l.k .6 lh.9 1.5 18.9 U0.9 1.8 6.9 1.5 1950 3,887,000 100.0 3,528,000 100.0 .9 2.3 .5 2.3 5.2 1.4 10.U 23.8 19.3 2.4 3.2 1.2 8.0 21.1 23.1 13.7 .7 13.5 1.1 13.9 8.8 1.3 k.o 8.2 Source: U.S. Department o f Ccemerce, Bureau of the CensuB: i960 U.S. Census of Population, S p e c i a l Report PC(2)—7A; 1950 US. Census o f population. S p e c i a l Beport P-E, No. 1-B. TaKL« l^.^lftMnplagpnaztt Ratea Ijy Sex, Color, a a l Age, Selected Years igj't-b? aad A p r i l 1966 (Psraatia 14 years of age and over) Coler taad cga White 1 ^ 1 9 years 20 y«ara and orer Boowfaita 1 ^ 1 9 yearn 20 yeara and over April 1966 1965 196k 1963 1962 1961 i960 1957 195^ 13.2 lf.6 13.6 3.3 12.6 if.O 11.5 4.1 13.5 5.7 11.9 4.6 9.1 3.8 9.9 5.1 31.0 5.8 29.8 7A 30.6 9.0 33.1 28.2 9.6 26.6 10.6 22.7 8.3 18.9 6.3 18,4 8.5 J2.2 I I'tei I Vhita llt-19 ye«ra 20 years and over floQHhite lk-19 yaars 20 years and over 9.7 2.1 11.8 2.9 13. 14.2 3.9 12.3 4.0 14.1 5.1 12.9 4.2 10.5 3.2 11.7 4.4 19-5 22.6 6.0 23.3 7.7 25.4 9.2 20.7 10.0 24.7 11.7 22.0 9.6 17.5 7.5 12.5 9.9 Source: U.S. Departnseirt o f Labor, Manpower Report of the Preaidentj A Beport on Maaqjower Requirements, Besources, U t i l i s a t i o n , aad T r a i n i n g , Iterdii I966 and Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s : BcployBient and Earnings, May 1966. Table l6.—Unemployment Rates, by Sex, Years of School Completed, and Race, March 1964 (persons l 8 years o f age and over) Years o f school ccanpleted White Negro Men Less than 8 years l / High school, 1 to% years C o l l e g e , 1 year or more 8.1 4.6 2.4 9.6 10.9 6.1 8.8 5-7 3.2 10.0 13-8 3.2 Women Less than 8 years l / High school, 1 t o years C o l l e g e , 1 year or more 1 / Incl\ides no school years completed. Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current P o p u l a t i o n Reports, P-20, No. l 4 2 . - 29- Table 17•—School BarolUnent of the Poptilation 5 t o Years of Age, tjy Bace aod Sex, October 19Sk i j G i r l s and vcnen Boys and men AB Age Ifumber percent of population Ihoiber 3?ortia 5 years 6 years 7 t o 13 years l l f t o 17 years 18 and 19 years 20 t o years 25 t o 29 years 30 t o 3 ^ years ^ 2l^.809.000 1,379,000 1,985,000 13,177,000 6,356,000 958,000 716,000 1W,000 90,000 55.3 68.1 98A 99.2 91.8 33.7 10.9 2.6 1.9 26,§'a.999 1,1^35,000 2,0lf3,000 13,5^8,000 6,658,000 1,238,000 1,332,000 lni,000 186,000 Total 5 years 6 years 7 t o 13 years l U t o 17 years 16 and 19 years 20 t o 2h years 23 t o 29 years 30 t o 3^ years 3.093.000 172,000 270,000 l,7l^5,O00 716,000 102,000 57,000 i8,ocio 13,000 56.9 61.2 99.3 99.5 88.0 31.7 8.1 2.8 2.0 3.098.000 175,000 261,000 1,706,000 752,000 116,000 51,000 17,000 20,000 As percent o f population 62.3 68.8 98.1 98.8 50.9 23.8 8.1 3.6 62.3 6U.3 97.^ 98.5 91.9 39.9 8.3 3.5 k.o i j Includes schools I n regular school system, that I s p u b l i c , p a r o c h i a l , and p r i v a t e schools o f f e r i n g a d l p l c o a or a degree* Source: U.S. Department o f Cdzsnerce, Bureau of the Census: Rq>orts, P-20, Ho. i W . - 3 0 - Current Population Table l 8 — - L e v a l B of School Attended by Students 5 t o Years of Age, by Race and Sex, October 1964 l / L e v e l o f school G i r l a and •wmen Percent Number distribution Bocsrs tmA iBfin Percent diBtrlbution Sumber T o t a l school enrollment 2l|,809,000 Elementary school or kindergarten H l ^ school College 26.851.000 100.0 16,698,000 6,353,000 1,755,000 67.3 25.6 7.1 17,505,000 6,lf59,000 2,887,000 65.2 2h.l 10.8 100.0 3,098,000 100.0 2,272,000 702,000 11U,000 73.6 22.7 3.7 2,273,000 706,000 120,000 73.3 22.8 3.9 Hegro school enrollment t VS 1 100.0 3i0?3I000 . Total Tetal KLenantaiy scheol or kindergarten Blf^ achool College y I h c l u d a i 0Chools I n regular achool Bystem; t h a t l a p u b l i c , p a r o c h i a l , and p r i v a t e schoola, o f f e r i n g a dipIoDa or a degree. Source: U-S. Departaamit of Coomierce, Bureau of the Census: uu. r o p o i a t i o n Reports, P-30, No. ihQ. Table 1 9 — E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a l m e n t of the Population, by Race and Sex, March 1964 (Persons l 8 years of age and over) Years o f school completed Number Percent White Women Men Women Negro Men 55,369,000 1^9,576,000 6,081,000 5,039,000 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 13-6 1.3 33.7 11.5 Elementary school: None Less than 8 years 8 years 11.6 Ik.O 15.0 2.2 28.8 11.8 High school: 1 t o 3 years If years 18.6 37.5 18.0 29. 25.3 22.9 21^.4 16.6 17.1 22.8 9.1 9.5 12.1 12.1 9.9 9.0 College: 1 year or more Median years of school ccBtpleted 1.2 Source: U.S. Department of Cooanerce, Bureau of the Censiis: Cunrettt Population Reports, 3^-20, No.ll|2, and U.S. Department o f Labor, Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s : S p e c i a l Labor Force Report No. 53• - 32 -