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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W . B. WILSON, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES )
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S \
MISCELLANEOUS

’ *

N 282
o.

SERIES

MUTUAL RELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG
GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES IN
WASHINGTON, D. C.




By VICTORIA B. TURNER

FEBRUARY, 1921

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1921




CONTENTS.
Page.

Introduction.......................................................... ....................................................
5, 6
Sick benefit associations.......................................................................................... 6-20
Organization........................................................................................................
6, 7
Officers..........................................................................................................
6
Salaries.........................................................................................................
7
Bonding of officers....................................................................................
7
Membership........................................................................................................ 7-10
8, 9
Limitations upon membership................................ .................................
Qualifications for membership...................................................................
9
Forfeiture of membership........................................................................... 9,10
Sources of income...............................................................................................
10
Administration of funds..................................................................................... 10-12
Investments, reserve funds, and loans......................................................
11
Refunds............................................... ........................................................ 11,12
Benefits................................................................................................................ 12,13
Annual dividends......................... .................................................................... 13,14
Receipts and disbursements.............................................................................. 15-20
Death benefit associations............................................................... ........................ 21-27
Organization.................................................................................................„. *.
21
Membership..............................•
-........................................................................ 21, 22
Limitations upon membership................................................................... • 21
Qualifications for membership...................................................................
22
Forfeiture of membership...........................................................................
22
Sources of income. - ............................................................................................ 22, 23
Death benefits..................................................................................................... 23-24
Time of payment......................................................................................... 23-24
Beneficiaries.................................................................................................
24
Prevention of fraud.....................................................................................
24
Surplus funds....................................................................................................... 24, 25
Receipts and disbursements............................................................................. 25-27
Sick and death benefit associations....................................................... ............. .. 28-37
Membership......................................................................................................... 28,29
Limitations upon membership..................................................................
28
Qualifications for membership................................................................... 28, 29
Forfeiture of membership...........................................................................
29
Sources of income.. ..........................................................................................
29
Administration of funds......................................................................................
29
Reserve and surplus funds.........................................................................
29
Sick benefits........................................................................................................
30
Annual dividends...............................................................................................
30
Death benefits..................................................................................................... 30, 31
Beneficiaries................................................................................................. 30, 31
Receipts and disbursements.............................................................................. 31-35
Government Employees’ Mutual Relief Association...................................... 36, 37
Conclusion................................................................................................................... 37, 38




3




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
n o .282.

WASHINGTON.

Fe b r u a r y , 1921.

MUTUAL RELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERN­
MENT EMPLOYEES IN WASHINGTON, D. C.
Relief associations organized for the purpose of paying benefits in
case of sickness and death have existed in the various Government
departments in Washington for many years. While the fact of their
existence has been generally known, only recently has any attempt
been made to ascertain the number of these organizations and tne
scope of their activities. The results of this investigation, which
was made by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics in the
latter part of 1920, are given in this study.
In a consideration of the results of this survey it must be under­
stood at the outset that the data do not purport to be exhaustive.
Every effort was made to get as complete information as possible*
Government officials gave generously of their time and of their good
offices to facilitate this result and officers of the associations them­
selves cooperated with the bureau’s agent in securing necessary facts.
But the private or semiprivate nature of the associations, which the
Government officials respect, to a degree limited the possibility of
discovering the existence of all such organizations. This was espe­
cially true in large departments where a number of small sick benefits
were in operation in the various rooms, divisions, or shops, and it
frequently happened that the only method of unearthing them was
through direct inquiry of the officers of the associations known or of
the supervisory officials in charge of rooms, shops, or work.
For these reasons every association of this character, as stated
before, may not appear in this report. The survey does nevertheless
cover 80 of them, 28 of which are in the navy yard; 23 in the Govern­
ment Printing Office; 11 in the Bureau of Engraving; 6 in the city
post office; 1 each in the following departments or branches of the
service: Bureau of the Census, Bureau of Immigration, Department
of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of the Interior,
Interstate Commerce Commission, Library oT Congress, Post Office
Department, Pension Bureau, Smithsonian Institution and its de­
pendencies (which include the United States National Museum,
National Zoological Park, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bureau of
International Exchanges, Astrophysical Observatory, Bureau of In ­
ternational Catalogue of Scientific Literature, and National Gallery
of Art, together with the Bureau of Fisheries), Treasury, and an
interdepartmental association composed of employees of the Bureau
of Mines and kindred bureaus, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Forest
Service, General Land Office, Geological Survey, Indian Service, and
Reclamation Service.
According to their latest statistical reports the associations report­
ing represent a total membership of 23,171. The total receipts
reported for the latest year available reached $256,013.92, while the




5

6

R E L IE F

A S S O C IA T IO N S

A M O N G

G O V E R N M E N T

E M P L O Y E E S .

disbursements in sick and death benefits amounted to $132,320.05. In
addition, 64 of the sick benefit societies and 2 of the associations paying
only a death benefit divide their surpluses at the close of the year in the
form of dividends, and 61 of these reporting had available for distribu­
tion for this purpose $77,682.41. Some of tne members of these associa­
tions carry membership in several organizations of this sort; and
while this fact would probably not change the total number to a
very appreciable extent, it should be borne in mind in a consideration
of the total membership.
No associations of this character were found in the War Depart­
ment, Navy Department proper, State Department, Department of
Justice, or Patent Office. One had gone out of existence in the War
Department.
The associations may be grouped generally into three classes ac­
cording to whether the benefit paid is a sick benefit, a death benefit,
or a combination of these two. Of the associations paying only sick
benefits there are 50; of the purely death benefit associations 14,
while those paying both a sickness and a death benefit number 16.
The discussion of them will be taken up by groups, as it is believed
that bv this method a more definite and more concrete idea may be
had oi the characteristics and operation of each group.

SICK BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.
ORGANIZATION.

The 50 relief associations paying only sick benefits were the first
to be organized. Chronologically they range, as shown in Table 1,
from 1883, when the Government Printing Office Mutual Relief Asso­
ciation was formed, to the founding of the Columbian Club (navy
yard) in 1920. Forty-four of those reporting have come into exist­
ence since 1899, 14 of them since 1914.
OFFICERS.

A great similarity naturally exists in the general machinery of
government adopted by the relief organizations. There are the usual
officers—president, vice president, secretary and treasurer, secretarytreasurer, or financial secretary, as the case may be, as well as a
governing board which appears under various names of board of
directors, board of trustees, governing board, or executive committee.
A tendency exists to combine the offices of secretary and treasurer
under the name of secretary-treasurer or financial secretary and thus
save expense as to salaries and bonds where these officers are bonded.
Elections follow democratic lines, the officers and governing board
in practically all cases being elected annually by ballot of the whole
membership. Their duties are such as ordinarily pertain to such
offices with the exception that in many instances they are of a more
personal nature, the officers either constituting a committee for vis­
iting the sick, or doing it voluntarily. Applications for membership
and claims for benefits must in a large percentage of the organizations
be passed upon either by the officers or by the board of governors or
both. In some associations the president appoints a special com­
mittee to visit the sick, and in all an auditing or finance committee is
appointed to make the annual or semiannual audit of the books.




S IC K

B E N E F IT

A S S O C IA T IO N S .

7

SALARIES.

Officers’ salaries are necessarily small. They vary in amount
from no salary, which is shown in two cases, or the mere allowance
of annual dues in a number of cases, to $100 per annum paid in four
of the sick benefit associations. In 26 of these relief societies only
one officer, usually the secretary-treasurer or financial secretary,
receives a salary, the aim being to keep expenditures down to the
lowest possible point. A study of the duties of the officers from
constitutions and schedules submitted leads to the conclusion that
the salaries are paid more as a recognition of services than as a
compensation for them. The secretary-treasurer in particular
must be a “ be-all,” “ do-all” sort of person, who frequently collects
dues, makes long trips to visit the sick— often paying his own
street car fare— attends to claims for benefits and pays them, in
addition to keeping the books, which must be in shape for the annual
or semiannual audit. In view of the amount of time that must
be devoted to personal work of this character, it is not surprising
that in some cases additional time can not be given to the most
approved systems of bookkeeping.
BONDING OF OFFICERS.

Only 24, or about half of the societies of this group, bond
their officers, the other 26 dispensing with this formality in admin­
istering their funds, either for reasons of economy or because such
safeguards are not considered necessary in small groups, where the
members are usually property owners and all well known to one
another. The bonds, m amounts running from $200 to $3,000, are
ordinarily taken out for the secretary-treasurer. In six of the
associations, however, where both these offices exist, bonds are
taken out for both secretary and treasurer.
MEMBERSHIP.

In a large m a jo r it y of cases the regular association year in
the organizations paying sick benefits ends November 30. An
effort was made, therefore, to obtain data from all associations for
the year 1918-19, and statistics for the year ending November 30,
1919, in large part form the basis for the tables shown. There are,
however, a few associations which close up their business at other
times, and a few others so young that the first year of their organi­
zation had not been completed when the survey was made. In such
cases the latest data were taken, as indicated in the footnotes. Accord­
ing to these various statements the latest available approximate mem­
bership of the 50 sick benefit associations reporting membership was
7,781. War-time fluctuations in the Government service ana the
prevalence of “ flu” during the past few years wrought havoc with
the membership in some of the associations, the number of members
shown for 1918-19 being much smaller than in preceding years.
While complete figures were not available for 1919-20, inquiries
showed that membership in practically all of the associations had
materially increased during the past year.




8

R E L IE F

A S S O C IA T IO N S

A M O N G

G O V E R N M E N T

E M P L O Y E E S .

LIMITATIONS UPON MEMBERSHIP.

Membership in the sick benefit associations, as shown in Table 1,
is limited generally as to color, sex, age, occupation, and length of
service. As to race and sex the total membership of these organi­
zations is made up very largely of white males. Forty-five of them
admit only persons belonging to the white race; 3, only those of the
colored race; and 2 make no distinction as to color. * There are 2 in
which the membership is confined to women, 43 to men, and 5 in
which both men and women may become members.
Maximum age limits range from 43 years in the Women's Bindery
Mutual Relief Association to 60 years in the Document Relief Asso­
ciation, both in the Government Printing Office. Ten organizations
make no requirement as to age. Of those reporting an age require­
ment 16 admit persons up to 55 years of age, 16 up to 50 years, and
the other 8 at various ages greater or less than these within the
limits indicated above. The minimum age limits are usually be­
tween 18 and 21 years, depending upon the department or the char­
acter of the association as to occupation requirement. In the navy
yard first-class apprentices 18 years of age are admitted to mem­
bership, the 21-year-old limit prevailing in most of the other asso­
ciations.
In 25 of the associations a member must have been 6 months in
the service. In other words, he must have a permanent status; 24
have no requirement as to length of service; and 1 has a 12 months’
requirement for the division. It will be noticed that 18 of those
making no requirement as to service are found in the navy yard.
This apparent lack of service requirement in this department is
due to the fact that an employee in the mechanical force of the navy
yard becomes permanent at the end of 10 days, and for this reason
most of the relief associations in “ the yard” do not consider a service
requirement necessary.
Membership in 23 of the associations is also limited to particular
occupations, as follows: Machinists, 10; plate printers, 3; printers,
3; pressmen, 2; electro typers, clerks, and proofreaders, molders,
painters, and plate makers each 1. Of these, one is a trade-union
organization, all the officers save the secretary-treasurer, who is
elected by the members, being officers in the international union of
the trade. Ten associations having a limitation as to occupation
either require membership in the union of the trade or are open to
all trade-union men of a shop or division. The men in the occupations
shown are usually so thoroughly organized that even in the organi­
zations having no trade-union requirement practically all of the
members are also members of their own trade-unions.
In addition to these general limitations upon membership there
are a number which pertain to particular divisions of departments or
to the organizations themselves. For instance, there are 2 associa­
tions in which membership is limited to members of the Masonic
order; 1, the Supervisory Relief Association of the Navy Yard, in
which all members, in addition to being master mechanics, must
belong to the supervisory force of the “ yard.” In 17 membership
is confined to a particular shop or division. This is especially
true in the navy yard, where the shops are some distance apart.
There is an advantage too from this last limitation in that the men
are better known to one another and the collections of dues can




SICK BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.

9

more easily be made. A healthy and beneficial rivalry as to benefits,
membership, dividends, and general condition of the organization
also often exists among societies confined to one shop. If the amount
paid for sickness is low in some of the societies of a shop and the
dividend at the close of the year correspondingly large, there may
he a shifting of membership from organization to organization.
Some of the associations have restrictions as to the number who
may belong, the membership being fixed at 75, 100, or 200, as the
case may be, A bar to membership seems to create a desire for it,
several of the organizations having this limitation being so popular
that waiting lists were found and membership could be secured only
through the approval of the entire official board. The number of
relief associations existing in a particular shop is often attributable
to the fact that jnembership in original organizations is closed, a con­
dition which has led to the formation of new ones from time to time.
Nine of these relief associations (see Table 2) have classes of members
within the association, according to the amount of initiation fees or
dues paid, In some membership may be had in all classes, in others
only one, and in still others a certain length of membership in one
class is required for membership in another. “ Temptation to
feigned illness” is removed in a few instances by limitation of mem­
bership to such an extent that the benefits derived shall not exceed
the weekly wage.
Q U A L IF IC A T IO N S F O R M E M B E R S H I P .

Applications for membership in a relief association are
usually indorsed by some member or members and passed upon by
the officers and governing board. The applicant must satisfy the
board, through application blank or otherwise, that he is in normal
health, has no chronic disease, can furnish a fair sickness record, and
that in other respects he will constitute a good risk. Only 3 of the
associations require a medical certificate, though in the other asso­
ciations one is demanded in doubtful cases. The point was repeat­
edly emphasized by those giving the information that both the
physical and the moral characteristics of applicants are well known
in these small groups, that great care is exercised in the selection of
members, that fraudulent statements work forfeiture of membership,
and that therefore the formality and expense of a doctor's certificate
are for these reasons dispensed with.
F O R F E IT U R E O F M E M B E R S H IP .

In all the associations fraudulent statements of any character
in the application blank or false claims for benefits and nonpay­
ment 6f dues, as indicated above, effect a forfeiture of membership.
Though practically all the constitutions provide a 30-day limit
for nonpayment of dues, leniency is usually shown in case of
delinquency, a member’s intent being accepted as long as possible.
In case of the continued illness of a member many of the associations
will pay benefits for two years, or possibly for three years, provided
his dues are kept up, and at the expiration of that time drop his
name from the rolls. The payment of benefit three consecutive
years for the same illness is also considered sufficient reason for the
forfeiture of membership, a person in either of the last-mentioned
conditions constituting too great a drain upon the finances of the
society.
2 7 0 5 4 °— 21— B u ll. 28 2 --------2




10

RELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.

In 27 of the associations retention of membership depends upon
duration of employment in the department or office. Eight continue
membership in cases of withdrawal from the service to the end of the
association year, provided dues are kept up. Membership may be
retained in 7 indefinitely upon payment of dues, and 5 others modify
this provision by specifying residence in the District of Columbia
or within a 40-mile radius, the idea being that members must live
within visiting distance. One requires employment in other Govern­
ment departments; 1 allows the retention of membership in case
members remain in the city and are employed in the printing trade,
while in 1 conducted as indicated before under trade-union auspices,
a man’s standing in the relief is dependent upon his holding a union
card.
Persons seeking reinstatement in these associations must, with a
few exceptions, enter as new members. This includes payment of
the initiation fee, if one is required, and the probationary period
necessary for benefits. Five of the societies made exceptions of
“ the boys” entering the military service during the war; 5 do not
require a second initiation fee. In 4 of the organizations a member
may become immediately beneficial by the payment of back dues,
while in 1 employment in the Government service is a requisite for
reinstatement. If a man who has received full benefits withdraws
voluntarily before the end of the association year, he finds reinstate­
ment difficult, if not impossible.
SOURCES OF INCOME.

The regular revenues of the associations paying sick benefits
are derived from initiation fees, monthly dues, and small amounts of
accrued interest on funds. The greatest source of income is naturally
the monthly dues, which rang;e in amount (see Table 2) from 50 cents
to $3, with $1 as the predominating amount.
In 11 of the organizations the membership is divided into two or
three classes dependent usually upon the amount of dues paid permonth,
an increase of dues in 8 societies of this group being accompanied by a
corresponding increase in benefits. The 3 associations forming ex- >
ceptions to this method of apportioning dues and benefits provide
that membership may be carried in all three classes, so the result as
to increased benefits may be about the same. Of the other 8 having
this class arrangement of dues, 4 restrict membership to one class, 3
make no restrictions, and 1 is not reported. The advantage of such
a division of membership and dues lies in the fact that a member may
spend as much for protection each month as he is able to afford and
if he is ill he receives increased sick benefits; if not, his investment
returns to him in a larger dividend at the close of the year.
The income from the initiation fees is obviously much smaller than
that derived from monthly dues. Only 36 of the 50 associations re­
quire an entrance fee. In some the fee constitutes the first month’s
dues Two of these have classes of fees corresponding to classes of
dues and benefits. Like the dues, the fees vary in amount from 50
cents to $3, 31 of the relief organizations charging $1.
ADMINISTRATION OF FUNDS*

The funds of these associations in most cases are deposited
in a bank either upon a savings or a checking account, some of




SICK BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.

11

them carrying two accounts, and disbursements are made in all but
8 instances by check. The 8 organizations in which cash payments
are made have adopted this method of disbursement because the
members find it more convenient than payment by check; but in
these cases the secretary-treasurer’s vouchers or orders must be
signed and they act as receipts. The ordinary bills of an association
such as salaries, printing, bond, etc., are usually paid by the secretary-treasurer or the treasurer, with the indorsement of the president.
Claims for benefits, however, must in practically all of the relief
societies be approved by the governing board or the executive com­
mittee, which personally investigates each case or acts upon the
report of the sick committee. Meetings are as a rule held weekly to
approve claims.
In order to further safeguard the finances of the benefit associa­
tions, all funds are subject to an annual or semiannual audit by the
finance or auditing committee. In some organizations the secretary
posts in a conspicuous place in the shop or division a monthly state­
ment of receipts and expenditures so that the members may know
at all times the exact financial status of the relief society to which
they belong.
IN V E S T M E N T S A N D

RESERVE FU N DS.

The financial affairs are of only a year’s duration, the object being
to close up all business at the end of the association year just as
though the association expected to disband, leaving the smallest
amount possible in the treasury. These organizations, therefore,
make no investments unless keeping their surplus funds at interest
may be considered such. Only 11 of them maintain reserve funds.
In 5 of these the funds are fixed amounts, varying from $50 to $300.
The other six establish their reserve funds in various ways. In 2
the reserve fund is made up of all initiation fees, in 2 each member
upon joining the association pays $1 toward the fund, which is kept
in a savings account; 1 association devotes the first month’s dues
to this purpose, while in 1 each member contributes $2, $1 of which
is his initiation fee, the other being paid in during the first year of
his membership. Associations not maintaining reserve funds trust
either to small amounts left in the treasury at the close of the year
being sufficient to meet immediate obligations of the new Year, or
to the fact that since a member must pay his dues by the middle
of each month or shortly thereafter to be beneficial for that month
and a waiting period of at least one week must elapse before sick
benefits are paid, the first pay day’s dues will take care of all neces­
sary expenditures. In cases of a lack of sufficient funds individual
members will advance an urgent claim for a sick benefit until such
a time as the society can reimburse them. Several of the associa­
tions, however, had already made arrangements for establishing re­
serve funds during the year 1919-20 by setting aside a certain amount
per member from the surplus before the dividend was declared.
REFU NDS.

In the case of withdrawal from membership in the relief associa­
tions all but 6 of the associations make proportionate refunds of the
amounts paid in to those members who have not received sick benefits.
The refunds are made in two ways: Either as a pro rata dividend
or by returning 50 per cent of the dues paid in for the year. Twenty-




12

BELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.

four of the associations pro rate the surplus funds in the treasury
at the time of a member’s withdrawal; 3 return the pro rata at the
close of the year; 4 include the amount paid into the reserve fund
with the pro rata, and 4 make the paying of the dividend dependent
upon a member’s leaving the service in which he is. One of the
associations in which the dues are refunded also requires continuance
in the Government service, and one organization differing from all
the rest pays a pro rata dividend in case a member is laid off or dis­
charged; if he withdraws no refund is made. Initiation fees, which
must accompany application blanks, are naturally refunded if appli­
cations are not accepted.
BENEFITS.

The outstanding features of this class of relief associations are
the returns upon the investment made, and these are of two kinds:
The sick benefit consisting of a certain amount paid weekly for a
fixed period, to those who need it, and the dividend pro rated from
the surplus funds at the close of the year to all members who have
not drawn sick benefits, according to the number of months for which
they have paid dues. Sick benefits are paid for bona fide sickness,
which includes accidents and in most instances quarantine, though full
benefit is not always paid for quarantine. Illnesses due to excesses
of any kind are not recognized as such.
The maximum period for which benefits are paid during any
association year in 32 of the associations is 6 weeks; 15 pay for 8
weeks; 1 for 10 weeks; 1 for 7 weeks; and 1 does not report this par­
ticular. The longest periods, of 8 and 10 weeks, are paid by the
relief associations of the navy yard. Many of the organizations,
especially those basing the amount of their benefit upon the working
days of the week, pay for fractional parts of a week after the first
week. In cases of continuous illness occuring at the close of an
association year the period for which benefits are paid may be
extended into the next association year if need be, for 6, 8, or 10
weeks, according to the limit of the benefit period fixed by the asso­
ciation, and thus a member may in case of real necessity receive the
sick benefits due for two years, an arrangement often affording
assistance and encouragement through an otherwise difficult time.
Data given in Table 2 show that a person to receive benefits in any
month must have been a member of his association from 30 to 365
days according to the association shown, 60 days being the predomi­
nating requirement of the organizations reporting. Furthermore, he
must have paid his monthly dues by the 15th of the month or at the
latest by the 20th or 21st, and this extension of time is allowed in but
few of the associations.
A waiting period of one full week or from 6 to 12 working days is
required in every instance before the benefit is paid. No sick benefit
is paid for less than one week and to secure this notification of illness
must be made to the officers either through the visiting committee
or another member. To receive benefit for the full first week the
notification must be made within from 2 to 5 days after the illness
begins. Likewise a member who is entering upon any week of sick­
ness after the first week and who has failed to notify the officers of the
relief association will receive benefit only from the beginning of the
notification period as fixed by the constitution.




SICK BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.

13

The amount of benefit paid ranges from $6 to $30 per week, with
$10 as a predominating amount, 18 of the associations paying it out­
right and 10 others with a class arrangement of dues and benefits
showing at least one class of members receiving that amount. There
is, as stated before, an apparent relation between the amount of dues
and the benefits paid. An investment of $1 a month in dues, in a
majority of cases, yields $10 a week in sick benefit; $2 per month in
dues, $20 per week sick benefit; $3 in dues, $30 in benefit, though
there are 13 associations which pay $12 per week sick benefit for $1 a
month dues. One association, however, which charges $1 a month
dues pays a benefit of $15 per week. Five relief organizations
having a single class of members paying $2 per month dues are able
to pay a benefit of $24 per week.
The largest amount of relief possible in any year from one member­
ship, as shown in Table 2, is $192, paid by 5 relief associations in the
navy yard. Larger yearly amounts than this, however, may be had
in organizations of this character in which the membership is divided
into classes and is unlimited as to class. Many of the associations,
moreover, make no limitation whatever as to membership, and their
members consequently often belong to as many associations as they
can afford to, thus largely augmenting the amount of benefit possible
in case of illness.
The sick benefits are paid weekly upon report of the visiting com­
mittee. In 15 of the associations a doctor’s certificate is also re­
quired for members living within the District limits and in prac­
tically all cases a doctor’s certificate sworn to before a notary must
be furnished by members residing at such a distance that the com­
mittee is unable to visit them. A very few of the relief organiza­
tions pay sick benefits only for actual loss of pay, that is, at the
expiration of all annual and sick leave, if sick leave is allowed.
In one or two others if a member is entitled to compensa­
tion under the Federal compensation act no benefit is paid until
payments under the act cease. Restrictions that decrease the
amount paid out in benefits naturally react favorably upon the
dividend at the close of the year but, in the opinion of the officers of
associations which do not follow this practice, effect a failure as a
sick benefit to this extent.
In the event of the sudden death of a member, occurring either at
his work or elsewhere, it is customary, in several of the relief asso­
ciations, to pay his family full benefits due him at that time. That
is, if he has drawn no sick benefits during the year his family receives
the entire amount allowed; if he has drawn benefits the association
pays his family the difference between what he has drawn and the
full amount due him, Four relief organizations pay the first week’s
benefits in such cases unless the deceased member has already re­
ceived this amount, and three others pay to the family of a member
dying during any of the stipulated weeks of illness the benefit for
that week. It must not be understood that this extension of the
sick benefit is not made in a larger number of associations. Ref­
erence is made only to those in whose schedules the fact is mentioned.
ANNUAL DIVIDENDS.

As stated before the mutual relief associations paying sick
benefits close up their accounts at the end of each association




14

RELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.

year, all the surplus in the treasury after the sick benefits and other
expenses are met being divided pro rata among the members who
have not drawn sick benefits. Should it happen that a member’s
sick benefits are less than the pro rata dividend, the difference is
made up to him, but these cases are rare.
Except in a few instances the dividend is based upon the whole
number of months for which dues are paid and each member receives
a proportionate share according to the number of months for which
he has paid dues. A few of the associations which have a division
of membership into classes divide their surplus into shares, one
yearly membership constituting a share, and compute their dividend
upon the whole number of shares represented.
The yearly dividends quoted in Table 2 are the amounts declared
only to such members as paid dues for the entire 12 months of the
year for which the statistics are shown, and in most cases they apply
to 1918-19. An examination of the table reveals the fact that 44
of the associations show pro rata dividends paid; 5 had been in exist­
ence less than one year and 1 reports no dividend. In 11, or onefourth, of the associations reporting dividends, the amount fell below
50 per cent of the amount invested. In three-fourths of them, there­
fore, the dividends for 12 months’ members amounted to at least 50
per cent of the amount paid in. So that in about 75 per cent of the
associations for which dividends are quoted a person upon an in­
vestment of from 50 cents to $3 per month may, if he is sick, receive
from a single membership benefits of from $6 to $30 per week for
periods of from 5 to 10 weeks in any association year; if he escapes
illness, he has been protected against possible illness and at the end
of the year 50 per cent or more of the money invested is returned to
him. In case the members in a relief association are divided into
classes and membership is held in several classes the dividend in­
creases in proportion to the increase in dues.
From this showing it appears that an investment in the ordinary
sick relief affords needed assistance, puts possible charity on a business
basis, and in a majority of the associations yields a satisfactory
return of the amount expended.
No sweeping deductions regarding the general condition of the asso­
ciations paying less than 50 per cent return upon investment should
be made from the statistics shown. These happen to be the figures
for 1918-19 when a number of the associations were very hard hit
by the influenza epidemic. Figures for another year might tell quite
a different story. Two or three of them, moreover, are in shops
where the accident rate is high and illnesses due to accidents were of
long duration. Such conditions necessarily make heavy inroads
upon funds. On the other hand, some of the associations paying
larger dividends are composed in great part of young persons, or
benefits may not be paid until a member is without leave and financial
assistance under the compensation act, or the organization may
have had a “ very good year.” Conditions modify the amount from
year to year. In general while the relief associations are liot money­
making concerns there is an effort made to conduct their affairs in
as businesslike a manner as possible under the circumstances, to
give every member his exact due, and to make as good a showing
as possible at the close of the year.




SICK BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.

15

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS.

Table 3 is a statement of the receipts and disbursements of the
50 relief associations under discussion, according to financial state­
ments available when the survey was made. In most cases the data
are for the year ending November 30, 1919. Only 15 of the relief asso­
ciations show balances from the preceding year. This is due to the
fact, as stated before, that the funds are divided at the close of the
year in such a way as to leave the smallest possible amount in the
treasury. Some of the organizations do not even carry these small
balances on their books, the remainder being presented to the secre­
tary for postage or similarly disposed of.
According to the data shown the total receipts of the 50 associa­
tions from all sources were $109,943.48 while the expenditures of
the 49 associations reporting this item reached a total of $54,807.16.
Forty-eight associations reported a total of $54,087.22 available as
dividends.
Of the 50 associations providing relief in case of sickness only, 46
made complete reports as to receipts, benefits, and amount available
as dividends. The total receipts of these 46 societies for the year
were $100,296.16. Over 96 per cent of this amount either was paid
to members as sick benefits or was available as dividends, the sick
benefits amounting to $46,289.62 and the amount available as divi­
dends (which was practically all paid out as such) being $50,129.93.
Therefore, less than 4 per cent of the receipts was used for salaries,
rent, printing, and other expenses.
Tables 1, 2, and 3, which follow, relate to the 50 associations
which provide sick benefits only.
T

able

1 .— D A T E O F O R G A N I Z A T I O N A N D G E N E R A L
S H IP O F A S S O C IA T IO N S P A Y IN G S IC K

L IM IT A T IO N S U P O N
B E N E F IT S O N L Y .

M EM BER­

M e m b e r s h ip li m it e d t o —

A s s o c ia t io n .

B u r e a u o f E n g r a v in g a n d P r i n t in g :
B u r e a u M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ..................
C e n t u r y R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ..................................
E n g in e e r in g a n d M a c h in e D iv is io n R e l i e f
A s s o c ia t io n (m a ch in e d iv is io n ).
E q u i t a b l e R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ( p r i n t in g
d iv is io n ).1
F i d e l i t y R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ................
N u m b e r i n g D iv is io n R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n
(n u m b e r in g d iv is io n ).
P la t e P r i n t e r s M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n . .
P re ss m e n ’ s R e lie f A s s o c ia tio n .
G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O ffic e :
B u i ld in g s R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ............................
C a s t in g R o o m R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ...........
C o l u m b i a B e n e f ic i a l A s s o c i a t i o n ......................
D o c u m e n t R e lie f A s s o c ia t io n .. .
F o u n d r y R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n 4.............................
F r a n k l in R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ( j o b r o o m ) ____
G . P . O . M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ................
G . P . O . R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ..................................
G r a p h ic A r t s M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n 6. .
L in o t y p e R e lie f A s s o cia tio n (lin o t y p e d i­
v is io n ).
1 D a t a N o v . 30, 1920.
2 N o t re p o rte d .
3 I n t h e d i v is i o n .




Y ear
o rg a n ­
iz e d .

1903
1911
1909

C o lo r.

w.
w.

Sex.

M a x i­
m um
a ge.

W.

M.
M.
M.

50
55
55

(2
)

w.

M.

52

1912

W.

M.
F.

50
53

M.
M.

50
55

O c c u p a t io n .

(2
)

w.
w.

1900
1906

W .

1912
1911
1899
1914
1903

W
W
W
W
W

.
.
.
.
.

(5 w. &c.
)
w.
w.
w.
1919
1909
w.
1883
1913

M.
M.
M.
M. & F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

50
55
60
45
50
55
50
50

L e n gth
of
s e r v ic e
(m o s .) .

6
6
P la t e p r in t e r s
. . . d o .............
3 12
P la t e p r in t e r s
P r e s s m e n ___

E le ctro ty p e r s .

C le r k s
and
p r o o f rea ders.
M a c h i n i s t s ____

4 D a t a S e p t . 30, 1919.
5 A b o u t 1900.
6 D a t a S e p t . 14, 1920.

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

6

16

RELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.

T a b l e 1 .— D A T E O F O R G A N I Z A T I O N A N D G E N E R A L L I M I T A T I O N S U P O N M E M B E R ­
S H I P O F A S S O C I A T I O N S P A Y I N G S I C K B E N E F I T S O N L Y — C o n c lu d e d .

M e m b e r s h ip l i m i t e d t o —
Y ear
o rg a n ­
iz e d .

A s so cia tio n .

G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O ffic e — C o n c l u d e d .
M e r g e n th a le r R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .......................
M o n o t y p e R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ..............................
M u t u a l B e n e f it A s s o c i a t i o n ..........
M u tu a l R e lie f A s s o cia tio n .
.........
N e w R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ...................
. ...
P la t e M a k e r s R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n 4. .
P r e s s m e n ’ s R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ...........................
P r o o f R o o m R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .........................
P r o v id e n t B e n e f it A s s o c i a t i o n ( p r i n t in g
d iv is io n ).
U n io n M u t u a l R e l i e f ...............................................

w .
1 16
9
W.
( 3)
1912
C.
1902
C.
11
92
W .
19 2
1
w.
1 1 w. & C .
91
11
93
W.
11
97
W.

O c c u p a t io n .

P r i n t e r s ...........

4
5
55
55
55
50
'"55

I

i

P la t e m a k e rs
P r e s s m e n ..........

55

P r i n t e r s ...........

50

10
96

P r in t e r s a n d
b o o k b in d e r s .

W.

F.

43

10
97

w.
w.
w.

M. & F.
M.

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

50
55

1919
1905

V)9

H)14__

11
97
11
97
94
H)....... 1 0
H.
11
94
11
92

(3
1)

11 0
95

I

se r v ice
, ( m o s .) .

1

M. & F.

11
95




M.
M. & F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

L e n gth

M a x i­
m um
age.

w.

C o l u m b i a n C l u b ......................................................... 1920
F o r g e S h o p R e l i e f (fo r g e O H ) ........................... 1913
F o u n d r y R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ( f o u n d r y ) ____ 1911
G u n n ers a n d G en era l S torek eep ers R e lie f
A s s o c ia t io n (g u n n e r s w o r k s h o p s u p p l y
d i v is i o n ) .
L ib e r t y R e l i e f A s s o c ia t io n ( s h o p s U a n d
1919
M a s o n ic R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n (s h o p
1918
M o ld e r s R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ...................................
M o m to r R e lie f o f th e N a v a l G u n F a c t o r y ..
M u t u a l B e n e f it A s s o c i a t i o n (s h o p
1917
M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c ia t io n o f S h o p
.
O r d n a n c e M u t u a l R e l i e f ..................................... 1891
P a in t e r s S ic k a n d A c c id e n t A s s o c i a t i o n ____ 1919
P r o g r e s s iv e U n io n R e l i e f 11..................................
S u p e r v is o r y R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ......................... 1908
U n io n R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ....................................
U n io n R e l i e f o f t h e S e c o n d a r y M o u n t S h o p
(s h o p H ).
U r e k a R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n 14..................................
W e s t G u n C a rria g e R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n 1 1906
(s h o p B ) .
2 N o t rep orted .
4 D a t a S e p t . 3 0 ,1 9 1 9 .
7 D a t a J u n e 3 0 ,1 9 2 0 .
s D a t a A u g . 3 1 ,1 9 2 0 .
® D a t a S e p t .1 5 ,1 9 2 0 .

S ex.

1900

W o m e n ’ s B i n d e r y M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c ia ­
t io n .
N a v y yard:
A tla s R e lie f A s s o cia tio n (s h o p
..................
B r o a d s id e R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n
( b r o a d s id e
m o u n t s h o p ).8
C o lu m b ia R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .............

?

;
C o lo r .

M.

w.
w.
w.

50
50

w.
w.
w.
c.
w.
w.
w.
w.
w.
w.
w.
w.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

w.
w.

M.
M.

Jou rn eym en of
I. A . o fM .

50

M.
M.
M.
M. & F.

w.

6

I

1

54
55

55

M a c h i n i s t s 10

55
50
55

M o l d e r s ..............
M a c h i n i s t s ____
......... d o ..................

50

6
6

P a i n t e r s ............
M a c h in is ts
S u p e r v i s o r s 12
M a c h in is t s
. . . . d o ............ ..

59
50
55

M a c h i n i s t s ____
;

10 I n c l u d e s a p p r e n t ic e s r e c e iv in g $5.36 p e r d a y .
« D a t a D e c . 1 4 ,1 9 1 9 .
» M a ste r m e ch a n ics ,
W A b o u t 1909 o r 1910.
*< L i m i t e d t o m e m b e r s o f t h e M a s o n ic o r d e r .

6

T a b l e 2 .— P R O V I S I O N S A S T O D U E S A N D B E N E F I T S , B E N E F I T S R E C E I V E D , A N D C O S T O F I N S U R A N C E , D U R I N G
P A Y IN G S IC K B E N E F I T S O N L Y .

306

$1 0
.0

s 124

21
1

1.00
1
.00
10
.0

10
.0
10
.0
10
.0
10
.0
10
.0
91 0
.0

150

9 2 .0 0
9 3 .0 0

F r a n k lin R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ..................................................................... .

76
77
256
147
50

10
.0
10
.0
10
.0
10
.0
10
.0
10
.0
3.00
10
.0
2
.00

$10

41
0
I1
2
41
2
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

(2
)

(*
)

260

$3. 76

$8.24

90
90
90
60
90

50f
163
23
45
161
143
18
170

$31. 77
40. 00
55. 20
26. 47
4 1 .2 8
41.43
45.24
43.59

108
61
84
107
213
171
73
172

8 .9 5
9. 25
9 .3 7
8. 77

3 .0 5
2. 75
2 .6 3
3 .2 3

5. 40
9. 74
4 .0 0

6 .6 0
2 .2 6

89
0

37
29

33.64
32.2 2

7 .64
7 .53

4 .3 6
4 .4 7

40
24

223
124
44

7. 46
9. 60
8 .4 5
6 .6 5
3 0 .0 0

4. 54
2 .4 0
3 .5 5
5 .3 5

18

26.66
3 0 .0 0
3 0 .0 0
2 8 .7 0
9 0.0 0

184

3 2.2 8

93

10 8 .6 0

10 3 .4 0

90

5 90

6.00

6
.00

8
.00

3.00

7 71
7 56

6
6

6.00

1 12 w o r k in g d a y s .
2 N o t rep o rte d .
3 A c t u a l m e m b e r s h ip , a ll cla sses, 163.
4 I n Class A b e n e fit s a re p a i d fr o m t h e b e g in n in g o f sick n e ss; in C lasses B a n d C a fte r t h e first w e e k . A f t e r t h e e x p ir a t io n o f th e w a i t in g p e r io d in e a c h o f th e s e classes fr a c t io n a l
p a r ts o f a w e e k a re p a i d fo r a t o n e -s ix t h t h e w e e k ly ra te p e r d a y .
5 T o b e e li g ib le t o C lass B i t is n e ce s sa ry t o h a v e b e e n a m e m b e r o f Class A o r C lass C for 1 y e a r . A n y m e m b e r m a y b e lo n g t o a n d r e c e iv e b e n e fit s in a ll th r e e classes.
« 6 w o r k in g d a y s .
7 A c t u a l m e m b e r s h ip , b o t h cla sses, 75.
s T o b e e lig ib le t o C lass B it is n e ce s sa ry t o h a v e b e e n a m e m b e r o f Class A 1 y e a r . A n y m e m b e r m a y b e lo n g t o a n d r e c e iv e b e n e fit s in b o t h classes.
9 A c c o r d in g t o cla s s.
10 p e r sh a re.




ASSOCIATIONS,

124
252
206
77

$ .0
10
10
.0
10
.0
10
.0
10
.0
1.0
0
10
.0
10
.0
1.0
0

M e m b e r s n o t r e c e iv in g
M e m b e r s r e c e iv in g
s i c k b e n e fit s .
s i c k b e n e fit s .
M em ­
M a x i­
b e r s h ip
m um
B e n e f it
W a it i n g
re ­
C ost o f
b e n e fit
per
A v er­
p e r io d
q u ir e d
P r o ra ta in s u r ­
p e r io d
fo r
N u m ­ A g g re­
w eek.
(w e e k s ).
age
d i v id e n d
an ce
p er year
Num ­
b er.
b e n e fit
g a te
am ount
p e r 12p e r 12(w e e k s ).
b er.
(d a y s ) .
w eek s.
re ­
m o n th s’ m on th s,
ce iv e d
m em ber. m em ­
b er.

BENEFIT

B u r e a u o f E n g r a v in g a n d P r in t in g :
B u r e a u M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .......................................................
C e n tu r y R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n :
C lass A ........................................................................................................
C lass B ........................................................................................................
C lass C .........................................................................................................
E n g in e e r in g a n d M a c h in e D iv is io n R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n .............
E q u it a b le R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ..................................................................
F id e li t y R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ......................................................................
N u m b e r in g D iv is io n R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ...........................................
P la t e P r in te r s M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ........................................
P r e s s m e n ’ s R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n o f t h e B u r e a u o f E n g r a v in g
a n d P r in t in g :
C lass A ........................................................................................................
C lass B ........................................................................................................
G o v e r n m e n t P r in t in g O ffic e :
B u ild in g s R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ...................................................................
C a stin g R o o m R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .........................................................
C o lu m b ia B e n e f ic ia l A s s o c i a t i o n ..........................................................
D o c u m e n t R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .................................................................
F o u n d r y R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n .....................................................................

M em ­
b e r s h ip I n it ia t io n D u e s p e r
fee.
N ov.
m o n th .
30,1919.

Y E A R , IN A S S O C IA T IO N S

S K
IC

27054°— 21— Bull. 282--------- 3

A s s o c ia t io n .

ONE

T a b le

^.-PROVISIONS AS TO DUES AND BENEFITS, BENEFITS RECEIVED, AND COST OF INSURANCE, DURING ONE YEAR, IN ASSOCIATIONS
PAYING SICK BENEFITS ONLY—Concluded.
.

66

G r a p h ic A r t s M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ..............................

38

1 .0 0

L in o t y p e R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ........................................................

99

1.00

M e r g e n th a le r R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ...............................................

101

1 .0 0

M o n o t y p e R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ......................................................
M u t u a l B e n e fit A s s o c ia t io n .........................................................
M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ............................................................
N e w R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ..................................................................

159
82
194
98

1.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .0 0 .

P la t e M a k e r s R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ...............................................

31

1 .0 0

P r e s s m e n 's R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ....................................................

136

1 .00

P r o o f R o o m R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .................................................

194

1.00

$1.00
/ 12 1 .00
\ 13 2 .0 0

63

1 .0 0

91
135

1.00
1 .00

217
142
234
195

2 .00

F o r g e S h o p R e l i e f ...........................................................................

129

« 1.00

F o u n d r y R e l i e f A s s o c ia t io n ..........................................................
G u n n e rs a n d G e n e ra l S to re k e e p e rs R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .,
L ib e r t y R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ........................................................... .

161
129
94

1.00




2 .0 0
2 .0 0
2 .0 0

1.00

LOO

/

1

i 4 i .o o
14 .5 0

$10
60
10
}
60
20
10
20 \ ...........
10 i
20 \
60
30 J
1
I
j

1

6

303

$ 8 .5 0

1

6

3

7

40.0 0

63

io 11.25

1

6

7

13

37.14

31

(1 3 )

1

6

10

53

5 3 .0 0

89

f 14 11.00
<14 2 2 .0 0
114 3 3 .0 0

1 .0 0
2 .0 0
3 .0 0

( 2)

( 2)

( 2)

$ 3.5 0
io.75
(13)

)
\

J

1

7

6

41

6 8.3 3

95

io 10.95

io 1 .05

60
60
60
30

01
1

6
6
6
6

22
16
16
10

80
25
67
22

3 6 .3 6
15.63
4 1 .8 8
2 2 .0 0

137
66
178
88

10

30

1

6

4

9

6 0 .0 0

27

60

1

6

8

40

50.0 0

128

60

1

6

36

95

50.83

158

7 .4 5
9 .3 7
9 .3 0
10.56
(14 U . 23
■|i4 11.23
(.14 u . 57
12.00
/i2 7.75
\12 15.50
f 1 48.75
\ 14 1 7 .5 0
I 14 26.2 5
6 .3 5
6 .4 8

4 .5 5
2.6 3
2 .7 0
1.44
.77
.7 7
.4 3

10
10
|
20

J

60

10
10
10
10
1
\

io 10

1

10 10

60

61

6

9

22

54.44

54

10
10

60
90

61
61

6
6

15
' 28

52
82

34.6 6
2 9 .2 9

76
107

24
21
24
12
12
6
12

90
60
60
60

0I
61
b1
61

8
X
8
8

68
29
47
14

18H
67?
111?
291

6 4 .0 0
5 6.0 0
7 2.1 9
25.5 7

149
113
187
181

6

35

93x25

3 1 .9 1

94

8
8
8

48
28
18

123£
54|
40*

3 0 .9 6
13.61
5 3.4 4

113
101
76

1.00
1.00

157

2 .0 0

24

}

60
60
60
60

( 1
5
6 1
6 1

5 .84
(13)

/
\

12.00
( 18)
14 4 .5 6
H 2 .2 8
3 .3 6
5 .5 0
(13 )

4 .2 5
8 .5 0
3 .2 5
6 .5 0
9 .7 5
5 .6 5
4 .5 2
18.16
(13)

12.00
(m
7.44
3 .7 2
8 .64
6 .5 0
( !3 )

EMPLOYEES,

P r o v id e n t B e n e fit A s s o c i a t i o n ...................................................
U n io n M u t u a l R e l i e f ............ ..........................................................
W o m e n ’ s B i n d e r y M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ..................
N a v y yard:
A t l a s R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ................................................................
B r o a d s id e R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ......................................................
C o lu m b ia R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .......................................................
C o lu m b ia n C l u b .................................................................................

$1.00
1 .0 0
2 .0 0
f 12 1 .0 0
1 18 2 .0 0
1 U .0 0
i* 2 .0 0
14 3 .0 0
12 1 .0 0
12 2 .0 0
123 .OO
1 .0 0
1 .0 0
1 .0 0
1 .0 0
( 1 *1.0 0
\ iU .0 0
I 14 1 .0 0
1 .0 0
/ 12 1 .0 0
\ 12 2 .0 0
f 14 1 .0 0
1 142.00
I 143.00
1 .0 0
1 .0 0

GOVERNMENT

H 400

G . P . O . R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .........................................................

AMONG

G o v e r n m e n t P r in t in g O ffice— C o n c lu d e d .
G . P . O . M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ........................................

ASSOCIATIONS

M em ­
b e r s h ip I n it i a t i o n D u e s p e r
m on th .
N ov.
fe e .
30,1919.

BELIEF

A
ssociation.

M e m b e r s r e c e iv in g
M e m b e r s n o t re c e iv in g
s i c k b e n e fit s .
s i c k b e n e fit s .
M em ­
M a x i­
b e r s h ip
m um
C ost o f
B e n e fit
re­
W a it in g
A ver­
b e n e fit
P rora ta
in s u r ­
q u ir e d
per
p e r io d
A ggre­
p e r io d
age
d i v id e n d
a n ce
Num ­
Num ­
fo r
w eek.
(w e e k s ).
p e r 1 2g a te
am ount
p e r 12per year
b er.
b e n e fit
b er.
re­
m o n t h ’s m o n th ’s
(w e e k s ).
w eek s.
(d a y s ) .
ce iv e d .
m em ber. m em ­
ber.

M

00

M a son ic R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ...................................
M old ers R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ...................................
M o n ito r R e l i e f o f t h e N a v a l G u n F a c t o r y . .
M u tu a l B e n e fit A s s o c ia t io n ..................................
M u tu a l R e l i e f A s s o c ia t io n o f S h o p H .............
O rd n a n ce M u t u a l R e l i e f .......................................
P a in ters S ic k a n d A c c id e n t R e l i e f ..................
P rog ressiv e U n io n R e l i e f ......................................
S u p e r v iso r y R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ..........................
U n io n R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ......................................
U n io n R e l ie f o f t h e S e c o n d a r y M o u n t S h o p
U r e k a R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ........................................
W e s t G u n C a rria ge R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ..........

75 i...............
140
1.00
139
1.00
100
2.00
1.00
106
.50
370
1.00
41
195
1.00
228
267
100
551

1.00
1.00
.50
1.00
1.00
.50
1.00
LOO

2.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

11
1

12
12
6
12
12
6
15
12
24
12
12
12
12

60
60
365
60
60
60
30
90
60
60

01
61
61
1
61
6I
61
61
ei
61
1
61

i
!
i
1
J
;
i
i
|
1

60 |
60

8
8
8
6
(2)

1

30

6
10
8
8
8
6
8
8

5
21
1
14
11
103
9
38
25
56
(2)
76
23

12*
76|
2
39^
44J
342#
33*
131|
76§
170§
(2
)
254
58i

9.24
7 .2 0
6. 18
6 .6 9
5 .1 5
4 .8 2

O N E Y E A R , O F A S S O C IA T IO N S P A Y IN G

S IC K B E N E F I T S

$3.00

3.0
0
3 4.00
6.00

D u es.

$ 3,533.00
1,475.
784.
1,067.
1,263
3,043.
2,502.
799.
2 ,405.

863.00
672.00

80
.0
6.00
36.00

909.00
924.00
3 ,0 7 2 .5 8
1 ,2 0 0 .CO
1 ,9 4 4.0 0

In t e r e s t
o n fu n d s .

E x p e n d it u r e s .
O th e r.

T o t a l.

$3,5 41 .40

$ 5.40
9 .0 5
4 .7 8
6 .4 4

$ 0.5 0

2 .7 2
5 .3 7

4 .1 0

.20

1,4 8 4 .5 5
788.98
1 ,0 7 3 .4 4
1 , 263.00
3 .0 4 3 .0 0
2 ,5 1 1 .8 2
838.37
2 .4 1 1 .0 0

2 .4 0

865.40
674.00

3 .3 5

920.35
930. 00
3 ,0 8 5 .7 0
1 ,2 5 2.7 4
1 ,9 7 5 .0 0

2.00
13.12
4 .6 4
3 1.00

1 .1
20

A m ount
a v a ila b le as
d iv id e n d s .

B e n e fits .

O th e r.

T o ta l.

C
1)

C)

$2,359.78

S I ,381.62
940.06
553.07
757.52
793.00
1 ,4 1 4.0 0
943.22
654.63
569.70

$508.32

200.00
276.00

$36.17
35.91
3 9.92

4 50.00
1 ,6 1 0.0 0
1 ,4 5 0 .0 0
180. 95
1,700- 00

1 9.00
118.60
2 .7 9
141.30

544.49
235.91
315. 92
470.00
1,629 00
1 ,5 6 8.6 0
183.74
1 ,8 4 1.3 0

60.25

720.25

819.15

64.75
40.00
260.00
6 5.00
232.00

464.75
280.00
1 ,2 50.00
725.00
772.00

ASSOCIATIONS,

I n it ia t io n

ONLY.

BENEFIT




(1 3 )"‘
2.76
16.80
5.82
5.31
6.85
7.18

2.78
7.02
3.00
4.64
5.88
6.00
(1 )
3

M e m b e r s h ip n o t l i m i t e d t o o n e c la s s,

R e c e ip t s .

1 N o t rep orted .

9.22
4.98
3.00
7.36
6.12

S K
IC

M A c c o r d in g t o cla s s.
is $12 a t p r e s e n t .

T a b le 3 .— T O T A L R E C E IP T S A N D D IS B U R S E M E N T S , D U R I N G

B u r e a u o f E n g r a v in g a n d P r in t in g :
B u r e a u M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .........................................................................
C e n tu r y R e l i e f A s s o c ia t io n :
C lass A ...........................................................................................................................
C las s B .............................................. ........................................................................ ..
C la s s C .......................................................................................................................
E n g in e e r in g a n d M a c h in e D iv is io n R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ..............................
E q u it a b le R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ................................................................................... .
F id e li t y R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ....................................................................................... .
N u m b e r i n g D iv is io n R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ............................................................
P la t e P r in t e r s M u tu a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .......................................................
P r e s s m e n ’ s R e l i e f A s s o c ia t io n o f t h e B u r e a u o f E n g r a v in g a n d
P r i n t in g :
C lass A ...........................................................................................................................
C lass B ...........................................................................................................................
G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t in g O ffice :
B u ild in g s R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ......................................................................................
C a s tin g R o o m R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ............................................................................
C o lu m b ia B e n e f ic i a l A s s o c i a t i o n .............................................................................
D o c u m e n t R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ....................................................................................
F o u n d r y R e l i e f A s s o c ia t io n ........................................................................................

70
119
138
86
95
267
32 "
157
203
211
(2
)
475
88

!2 A c c o r d in g t o cla s s . M e m b e r s h ip li m it e d t o o n e cla ss.
13 F ir s t y e a r o f o r g a n iz a t io n n o t c o m p le t e d .

2 N o t re p o rte d ,
e 6 w o r k in g d a y s,
w P e r s h a re,
u A p p ro x im a te .

A s s o c ia t io n .

30.00
43.81
12.00
33.57
48.36
19.97
55.11
41.47
73.60
36.57
(2)
40.11
30.35

455.60
650.00
1,8 3 5.7 0
527.74
1 ,2 0 3.0 0

370.00
|
290.00
400.00
240. 00
990 00
660.00
540.00

20.00

SO

T a b l e 3 .— T O T A L R E C E IP T S A N D D IS B U R S E M E N T S , D U R IN G O N E Y E A R , OF A S S O C IA T IO N S P A Y I N G SIC K B E N E F IT S O N L Y —Concluded.

R e c e ip t s .

44.00

20
.0
4 4.00
24.00

80
.0

9 .0 0
39.00
9 .00
41.00
37.00

60
.0

1 .1
a2 0
4 0 .5 4
49.2 1
9 .1 2

$159.00

$ 4 ,0 3 4 .0 0
4 ,3 1 9 .9 2
1 .2 5 5 .1 0
8 52 .00
3 .2 1 3 .4 3
2 .7 0 3 .9 1
1 .9 8 1 .4 3
893.00
2 ,2 2 9 .9 9
1 .1 9 4 .0 0
1 ,1 4 9 .3 3
1 ,9 2 0 .9 0
4 .0 0 6 .4 4
1 .5 5 7 .9 2
1 ,0 9 6 .1 2
1 .5 9 8 .5 4

$ 1 ,8 4 0 .0 0

4 .3 5 2 .0 0
1 .6 2 4 .0 0
3 ,3 9 3 .1 5
358 .00
1 .1 1 7 .0 0
1 .4 8 6 .0 0
381 .20
962 .00
150.00
920 .00
470.00
532.00
2 .0 5 7 .0 0
496.00
1 .5 7 6 .0 0
1 .8 4 0 .0 0
2 .0 4 8 .0 0
3 .0 4 8 .0 0
6 98.00

C
1
)

19.31

7 .8 4
3 .3 3
2 22 .40
1 9.80
15.92
2 .4 8
1 2.1 6

2 6.64
1 .6 4
1 .3 8

4 .1 0

1,191.
2,186.
577.
2,311.
5,240.
3.200.

2 0.49

5 .3 5 2 .1 0
3 .0 0 1 .0 0
5 ,9 9 2 .5 8
1 .2 9 5 .0 0
1 ,6 2 7 .2 9
1 ,9 3 3.2 1
8 62.00
1 .8 2 2 .0 0
706.00
1 .6 9 2 .0 0
4 76.25
1 .2 0 8 .0 0
1,204. 20
2 .2 2 5 .0 0
5 86.00
2 .3 5 7 .0 0
5 .2 4 0 .0 0
3 ,2 6 8 .0 d

5,851.
1,356.

5 .4 4
1 2.54

5 .8 5 6 .4 4
1 .3 7 4 .5 4

5,304.
2,722.
5,992.
1,295.
1,532.
1,884.

2 79.00
.5 8
9 3 .2 9
5.21

1,822.
706.
1,657.
264.

127.25

1 0.
,2 0

1 0.
.2 0

4. 20

5 .0 0

1 0
.20 .00

m
10 0
2 .0
2 60.00
530.00
4 10.00
8 00 .00
2 50 .00
6 70.00

20 0
2 .0
240.00
4 00 .00
1 .8 3 0 .0 0
4 90 .00
520.00
8 20.00

1 .0
20

0)

$ 0 .0
12 0
0)

$ 1,9 42 .00
1 ,7 4 3.7 5
160.50
277.46
655. 40
4 67 .4S
899.80
309. 85
787.22
285. 88
2 92.55
4 85.00
1 ,9 5 9.7 2
585.82
611.00
899.35

$ 2,0 92 .00
2 ,5 7 6.1 7
1 ,0 9 4.6 0
574.54
2 ,5 5 8.0 3
2 ,2 3 6 .4 3
1 ,0 8 1.6 3
5 83.15
1 ,4 4 2.7 7
9 08.12
856.78
1 ,4 3 5.9 0
2 ,0 4 6 .7 2
972 .10
485.12
6 99.19
9 04.10
1 ,2 6 8.4 5
2 ,4 5 5 .9 3
911.00
466.81
132.91
449. 80
807.62
493.03
747.45
322.50
641.24
612.20

130.70

4 .4 4 8 .0 0
1 ,7 3 2.5 5
3 ,5 3 6 .6 5
384.00
1,1 6 0.4 8
1,5 0 0.3 0
412.20
1 ,0 1 4.3 8
212.97
944.55
153.75
566.76
592.00
2 ,2 6 6 .4 0
496.00
1 .6 4 2.0 0
1 .9 5 0.0 0
2 ,1 7 8 .7 0

715.00
3 ,2 9 0 .0 0
1 ,0 8 9.3 9

4 3.75

3 ,1 5 0 .2 0
741.75

2 ,7 0 6 .2 4
632.79

4 0.50
17.46
125.40
57.48
99.80
59.85
117.22
65.88
5 2.55
8 5.00
1 29.72
9 5.8 2
9 1.0 0
7 9.35

9 6/0 0
108.55
143.50
26.00
43.48
14.30
31.00
5 2.38
62.97
2 4.55
141. 75
96.76
6 0.00
209.40

6 .0
60
10 0
1 .0
0)
12 0
0 .2

0)

C
1
)

C
1
)

EMPLOYEES,

3 5.00
85.00

$ 15.00

T o t a l.

GOVERNMENT

3 .0 0
5 .0 0

1 ,2^ 4.00
809.00
3 .1 6 8 .0 0
2 ,6 4 5 .7 0
1.9 2 5.0 0
879.00
2 ,2 0 4 .1 5
1 .1 8 0.0 0
1 .1 4 6.0 0
1 ,6 9 0.5 0
3 .9 2 5 .0 0
1 .5 3 0.0 0
1 .0 8 9.0 0
1 .5 8 0 .0 0

O th e r.

AMONG

1 .0
10
80
.0
35.00
1 .0
20

$ 3,8 42 .00

T o ta l.

ASSOCIATIONS




$18.00
15.00
9 .0 0
43.00
3 .00
9 .0 0
18.00
14.00
18.00

B e n e f it s .

O th er.

A m ount
a v a ila b le as
d iv id e n d s .

RELIEF

G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t in g O ffice — C o n c lu d e d .
F r a n k l in R e l i e f A s s o c ia t io n ...........................................................
G . P . O . M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ..........................................
G . P . 0 . R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ..........................................................
G r a p h ic A r t s M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ............................. .
L i n o t y p e R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ........................................................
M e r g e n th a le r R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ................................................
M o n o t y p e R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n .......................................................
M u t u a l B e n e fit A s s o c ia t io n .........................................................
M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .............................................................
N e w R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .................................................................. .
P la t e M a k e r s R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .............................................. .
P r e s s m e n 's R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n .................................................... .
P r o o f R o o m R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ................................................. .
P r o v id e n t B e n e fit A s s o c ia t io n ...................................................
U n io n M u t u a l R e l ie f.......................................................................
W o m e n 's B i n d e r y M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .................. .
N a v y yard:
A t la s R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ................................................................ .
B r o a d s id e R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ............................................*-------C o lu m b ia R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ....................................................... .
C o lu m b ia n C l u b ..................................................................................
F o r g e .S h o p R e l i e f ............................................................................. .
F o u n d r y R e l i e f A s s o c ia t io n ......................................................... .
G u n n e rs a n d G en era l S to re k e e p e rs R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ..
L ib e r t y R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .............................................................
M a s o n ic R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ............................................................
M o ld e r s ’ R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ...........................................................
M o n it o r R e l i e f o f t h e N a v a l G u n F a c t o r y ............................
M u t u a l B e n e fit A s s o c ia t io n .........................................................
M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n o f S h o p H .....................................
O r d n a n c e M u t u a l R e l i e f ................................................................
P a in te rs S ic k a n d A c c id e n t A s s o c i a t i o n ...............................
P ro g re s s iv e U n io n R e l i e f .......................................................... % ..
S u p e r v is o r y R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ....................................................
U n io n R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ................................................................
U n io n R e l ie f o f th e S e c o n d a r y M o u n t S h o p ........................
U r e k a R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n .................................................................
W e s t G u n Carriage R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ....................................

D u e s.

In te re st
o n fu n d s .

o

E x p e n d it u r e s .

A s s o c ia t io n .
I n it ia t io n

to

DEATH BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.

21

DEATH BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.
The death benefit associations among Government employees of
Washington, D. C., are 14 in number, and had, according to the latest
yearly statements which were available when the survey was made
and which vary somewhat as to time (see Table 4), a total membership
of 8,664 men and women. For the years quoted they had paid 189
death benefits, amounting to $42,795, an average of $226.43 per case,
and of about 22 deaths per 1,000 members.
Unlike the associations paying sick benefits, the death benefit
associations are not grouped in a Few departments, but are more scat­
tered in extent, existing m the various departments or offices as fol­
lows: Two each in the Departments of Commerce and the Interior;
2 in the Government Printing Office; 2 in the Treasury, and 6 dis­
tributed throughout the other branches of the service. They are
not as old a form of relief organization as the societies paying sick
benefits, the first one having been organized by the personnel of the
Smithsonian Institution and others in 1885, two years after the
formation of the first sick benefit association.
ORGANIZATION.

In the matter of formal organization these societies are simi­
lar to the sick benefit associations. The officers’ salaries and bonds
run a little higher than those in the sick relief societies, though there
are 2 associations which do not bond their officers, 2 in which no
salary is paid, and 1 in which the present secretary does not draw
his salary. The amount of time given outright to the work of vir­
tually all these relief associations is remarkable and doubtless is an
important factor in the success of many of them.
MEMBERSHIP.
L IM IT A T IO N S U P O N M E M B E R S H IP .

Limitations upon membership in the associations paying only
death benefits are neither as numerous nor as detailed as m those pay­
ing sick benefits. Only 4, the Bureau Protective Association (Bureau
of Engraving and Printing), Census Bureau Beneficial Association,
Pension Bureau Beneficial Association, and United States Immigra­
tion Service Beneficial Association, limit membership to the particular
art of a department specified. The United States Department of
ommerce Immediate Relief Association excludes employees of the
Census Bureau from membership because that Bureau nas a flourish­
ing organization of its own. The Library of Congress Beneficiary
Association includes employees in the branch printing department of
the Library of Congress. Otherwise membership in these associations
is open to employees of the whole department in which they exist.
None of them, except the Bureau Protective Association, which admits
only white persons, makes a distinction as to color. All admit both
sexes. Four require a six months’ status in the department. Twelve
of the 14 fix maximum age limits as follows: Five at 50 years of
age, 3 at 45, 2 at 60, 1 at 55, and 1 at 65.

8




22

RELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.
Q U A L IF IC A T IO N S F O R M E M B E R S H I P .

The selection of members is carefully made. An applicant for
membership in a death benefit association must, of course, certify
upon honor that physically he is a good risk, as defined by the con­
stitution of the association, only one of the organizations, the United
States Immigration Service Beneficial Association, requiring a
medical certificate. All applications are signed by some member or
members of the association and approved by the directors or by a
committee appointed for that purpose. One association takes ^the
additional precaution of requiring all applications to be approved by the
chief clerk or other administrative officer of the department. What
constitutes a risk in the moral sense is also considered, one association
refusing recently to admit one man known to be an atheist and
another who in a fit of rage had shot at his wife.
F O R F E IT U R E

OF

M E M B E R S H IP .

Membership in the death benefit associations is forfeited for about
the same reasons as prevail in this respect in the organizations
paying sick benefits. It is understood, in fact, application blanks
usually state explicitly, that fraudulent statements regarding physical
condition work such forfeiture.. Failure to pay dues and assessments
within a reasonable time, which in a majority of the organizations
is limited to 30 days, and which in others ordinarily ranges from 3 to
21 days, has the same result. One death benefit association, however,
and apparently a very successful one, both in point of members and
in the matter of finances, allows 60 days for such payment.
In 12 of these associations membership may be retained indefinitely
without reference to change of residence upon the prompt payment
of dues and assessments. The two organizations in the Government
Printing Office, following the general practice of the relief societies
paying sick benefits, make employment in the Government Printing
Office a requisite of membership.
Reinstatement may be had in eight of the associations by a payment
of arrearages, whether dues or assessments. In one case the amount
so paid is limited to $3; in another 20 per cent additional, but not to
exceed $2 is added, apparently in the nature of a fine. Five of
the organizations readmit members simply as new members, with or
without the initiation fee, in case one is required, and one of these
provides also for a fine of 25 cents in such cases. One association
makes a distinction between members who are dropped and members
who resign, those who have been dropped being reinstated upon the
payment of back assessments, while those who have resigned must
return as new members.
Generally speaking, the membership of the relief societies paying
death benefits is larger and more scattered than that of those paying
sick benefits, and the benefits paid are naturally greater.
SOURCES OF INCOME.

From a consideration of the contents of Table 4 it appears that
initiation fees and either dues or assessments, in one case both,
constitute the immediate sources of income of the death benefit
associations. While the fees range in amount from 25 cents to $2.25,
a majority of the death benefit societies charge an initiation fee of




DEATH BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.

23

$1. One association regards the first assessment as an entrance fee,
and one grades the initiation fee from 50 cents to $2.25, according
to the age of the applicant.
It is in the matter of dues and assessments, however, that numerous
differences and limitations manifest themselves. Four of the death
benefit associations require monthly dues and pay their benefits
from this source. One society bases its dues.upon age, increasing
them from 25 cents to $1.50 per month, as the age of members in­
creases, those 45 years of age and under paying 25 cents per month.
One makes a nominal charge of 50 cents per year and depends upon
its assessments to meet the greater part of its payments.
Of the 10 organizations in which benefits are paid from assess­
ments, 4 assess for each death, 1 association limiting the number of
assessments to 4 per year and 1 to 8 per year. Two of the associa­
tions levy an assessment only after every 4 deaths; 2 upon call, the ~
necessity in both cases depending upon the condition oi the reserve
fund, while in 1 the number of assessments is also limited to 7
per year. One society makes a quarterly assessment and still
another limits its assessments to one a month. The amount of the
individual assessments varies from 25 cents to $1.25, two of the asso­
ciations grading the sum paid according to the age of their members.
In addition to yearly receipts from fees, dues, and assessments,
several of the associations have additional income from their invest­
ments, as indicated in the discussion of surplus funds, the amounts
varying naturally with the amount and nature of the investment.
DEATH BENEFITS.

As the sick benefit associations were originally organized to
give prompt relief in case of sickness, so the death benefit associa­
tions exist to extend immediate financial assistance in the case of
the death of a member. The amounts paid vary in the case of
members (see Table 4) from $75 to $500, according to the associa­
tion and the method of payment. All but two of these relief organi­
zations pay stated amounts ranging from $75 to $300. In the two
exceptions the amount of the benefit depends upon the number of
members, an assessment of 50 cents per member for every death
being levied in one case, and of $1 in the other. The members of
one association are divided into classes according to length of mem­
bership and the amount of benefit paid varies from $75 to $250
accordingly. One organization extends its benefits to the husband
or wife of a married member and to the dependent father or mother
of an unmarried member, provided they are carried on the rolls
as risks, and in the case of death of such persons pays to the related
members the sum of $50 in each case.
T IM E

OF PAYM ENT.

The benefit paid by these associations is an immediate benefit,
that is, in the case of members residing in the District, it is
always paid in from 24 to 48 hours after death, and as the treasurers
of the associations are authorized to pay a death benefit, either with
or without the indoi'sement of some other officer, upon proper
notification of death, in most cases the payment is made within a
few hours.




24

RELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.

The promptness with which benefits are paid is a strong feature
of the death benefit associations. Financial assistance in case of
the death of the main support of a family, in many instances relieves
absolute need; and even families which by reason of thrifty habits
or larger pay envelopes have put by a portion of their earnings
may not always have available a sum sufficient to meet an emergency
of this kind, especially in times like the present when the high cost
of dying is as true as the high cost of living.
Only 2 of these organizations require a period of membership
before benefits arepayable, 1 fixing the time at one month, the other
at six months. The constitution of one association provides that
no benefit shall be paid for the death of a member from suicide
within one year of admission to membership.
B E N E F IC IA R IE S .

The benefit is paid to the person named in the application blank;
or if none is named, to the legal representative of the deceased
member. Some organizations allow the insured persons to name an
alternate who shall receive the death benefit in case of the death
of the first beneficiary named. The constitution of the Smithsonian
Relief provides moreover that upon the .death of the wife or husband
of a married member or the father or mother of an unmarried
member, the sum of $50 shall be paid to such member, if such per­
sons have previously been accepted by the board of directors as
risks.
P R E V E N T IO N

OF FRAU D.

Fraud in claims for death benefits is quite thoroughly guarded
against in various ways. Notification must be made promptly to
the officials of the associations, some of the organizations requiring
notice of death through departmental channels. The treasurer of
the relief association usually takes the money to the family, verifies
the death, secures a receipt in full of the beneficiary, and at the
same time represents to the member’s family the interest which the
association as a whole takes in their bereavement. While the
feeling of helpfulness and sympathy is probably not as marked in
large organizations having a scattered membership, as in the smaller
more cohesive sick relief organizations, it does nevertheless exist
and is felt. One of the death benefit associations goes a step beyond
the actual purpose for which it was founded and has a sick committee
“ whose duty it shall be to visit those who are sick or in trouble
when such fact is reported to them; to assist their families where
such assistance is required, in the many ways that may suggest
themselves and in every way to show a kindly feeling of sympathy
and good will.” Deaths oi members residing away from Wash­
ington, D. C., may be verified by sworn statements from attending
physicians, by board of health reports and in other reliable ways.
SURPLUS FUNDS.

No such noticeable unanimity of method of disposal of surplus
funds as prevails in the sick benefit associations exists in the
organizations in which death benefits are paid. Four of the asso­
ciations show investment of such funds in war savings stamps,
Liberty bonds, and various local industrial bonds; two have sav­




DEATH BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.

25

ings accounts; two, following the method employed in the sick
benefit associations, make a pro rata division of their surplus at
the end of the year. One of tnese had not completed the first year
of its organization when the data' were gathered and consequently
no dividend is shown. The other, which has been in operation
only two years, declared for 1918-19 a dividend of $10.30 to each
12 months' member, the others receiving their proportionate shares.
A disadvantage of such a disposition of surplus funds might be the
smallness of the balance remaining in the treasury at the beginning
of the year. In perfecting the organization of this association,
however, statistics of the Typographical Union were used as a basis
for death rate. These statistics showed an average death rate of
15 per thousand. From this calculation those organizing the relief
association concluded that barring the first two months the amount
of dues and fees would always provide a surplus in the treasury,
and thus far this has been the case.
Two of the death benefit associations carry only check accounts;
two maintaining both a general and a benefit fund, make up defi­
ciencies in the benefit fund from surpluses in the general fund; in
one the funds of the association are kept in cash and paid out by
the treasurer on order of the vice president, attested by the secre­
tary. This association always keeps on hand sufficient money to
pay three assessments, and attention should be called to the fact
that in addition to any efforts to increase their funds through invest­
ments of various kinds, seven of these associations keep reserve
funds of from one to three assessments always available. The
value of reserve funds has been doubly manifest during the last
few years and there is a tendency to provide for them where they
do not already exist. Two of the associations having the largest
investments have no stated reserve fund, being able at all times
to meet emergencies from the amounts on hand.
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS.

Table 5 summarizes the receipts and disbursements of the
death benefit associations as shown by their latest available data
in the fall of 1920, according to which the total receipts of the 14
organizations from various sources, for the periods quoted were
$66,821.98. During the same period they disbursed in death benefits
$42,795, and for miscellaneous expenses, such as printing, postage,
salaries, etc., $9,019.71, or a total of $51,814.71.
Tables 4 and 5, which follow, relate to the 14 associations paying
death benefits only.




T a b le 4 .— P R O V IS IO N S A S T O D U E S A N D

A SSE SSM E N TS, A N D D E A T H B E N E F IT S
B E N E F IT S O N L Y .

P A ID , D U R IN G

ONE YE A R , BY

A S S O C IA T IO N S

P A Y IN G

DEATH

A s s o cia tio n .

1902
1919

D e c . 31,1919
..........d o ......................
..........d o ......................

1,091

$ 1.00

869
386

1.00
1.00

D ues
A ssess­
per
m en t.
m on th .

T ota l
for
year.

C a ses.

A m ount
per
ca se.

i $ 1.00

11

$250

$2,750

2 .5 0

14

3 .5 0

2

250
(*)

3,500
359

454
1.00
5,600
200
28
(5)
P e n s io n B u r e a u B e n e fic ia l A s s o c i a t i o n ............................................................................
4,375
( 6)

M a r. 31,1920

1904

J u n e 3 0,1920.........

517

2.00

1920
1918
1898
1900
1891
1885

S e p t . 7 ,1920
D e c . 1 ,1 9 1 9 ...........
N o v . 1 0 ,1 9 1 9 ....
M a y , 1920..............
M a y 5 ,1 9 20 .
O c t . 31,1919

425
850
371
331
734
235

.25
.25
(9)

1915
1892

M a r. 3 1 ,1 9 2 0 ____
......... d o .......................

816
1,240

7 1.00

1

$ 1.00

1.00

1.00

ii .5 0

1.00

1° .5 0
7 .5 0
( 12)

.2 5

1.00
1.00

9

^ .25

4
3

6
14

6
8
i 7 1.00

48

( 8)
250
250

200

4 ,686
250

1,000

150
300
13 100

600
900
4 ,2 0 0
14 500

(16)
250

12,000

2,075




EMPLOYEES,

1 F o r e v e r y 4 d e a th s .
2 F o r e a c h d e a t h . L im i t e d t o 8 in o n e y e a r w h ile b a la n c e re m a in s a t $500.
3 F o r e a c h d e a t h . L im i t e d t o 4 in o n e y e a r .
4 50 c e n ts p e r m e m b e r .
5 F o r e v e r y 4 d e a th s u n d e r 35 y e a r s , 50 c e n ts ; 35 a n d u n d e r 45 y e a r s, 75 ce n ts ; 45 y ears a n d o v e r , $ 1 .
6 U p o n c a ll. R e s e r v e fu n d k e p t a t $200.
7 F o r e a ch d e a th .
8 $1 p e r m e m b e r .
9 U n d e r 25 y e a r s , 50 c e n ts ; 25 a n d u n d e r 30 y e a r s , $ 1 ; 30 a n d u n d e r 35 y e a r s, $1.50; 35 y e a r s a n d o v e r , $2.25.
10 Q u a r te r ly .
11 Y e a r l y .
12 U n d e r 25 y e a r s , 25 c e n ts ; 25 a n d u n d e r 35 y e a r s , 50 c e n ts ; 35 a n d u n d e r 45 y e a r s, 75 c e n ts ; 45 a n d u n d e r 55 y e a r s , $ 1 ; 55 y e a r s a n d o v e r , $1.25. N o t o ft e n e r t h a n o n c e a m o n t h
13 F o r m e m b e r s . $50 fo r t h e h u s b a n d o r w if e o f a m a r r ie d m e m b e r , or for th e fa th e r or m o t h e r o f a n u n m a r r ie d m e m b e r p r o v id e d t h e y a re e n r o lle d as risk s .
14 P a i d fo r 4 m e m b e r s a n d 2 o th e r ris k s . (S e e fo o t n o t e 1 3.)
15 25 c e n ts t o $1.50 a c c o r d in g t o a ge. 45 y e a r s a n d u n d e r , 25 ce n ts .
16 $75 fo r m e m b e r s h ip less th a n 1 y e a r ; $ 15 0,1 y e a r t o 2 y e a r s; $250 o v e r 2 y e a r s.
17 U p o n c a ll. L im i t e d t o 7 in 1 y e a r . M u s t h a v e $500 in tre a su r y

GOVERNMENT

1895

AMONG

D ep a rtm en t o f L ab or:
U - S . I m m ig r a t io n S e r v ic e B e n e fic ia l A s s o c i a t i o n .....................................................................................
G o v e r n m e n t P r in t in g O ffice :
G . P . O . B i n d e r y I m m e d ia t e R e l ie f S o c i e t y ..................................................................................................
J o b R o o m I m m e d ia t e R e l ie f S o c i e t y ...................................................................................................................
I n t e r s t a t e C o m m e r c e C o m m is s io n R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .........................................................................................
L ib r a r y o f C on g ress B e n e fic ia r y A s s o c i a t i o n ...........................................................................................................
P o s t O ffice D e p a r t m e n t I m m e d ia t e B e n e fit A s s o c i a t i o n .................................................................................
S m it h s o n ia n [I n s t it u t io n ] R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n
......................................................................................................
T rea su ry:
B u r e a u o f E n g r a v in g a n d P r in t in g P r o t e c t iv e A s s o c i a t i o n ...................................................................
U . S . T r e a s u r y D e p a r t m e n t B e n e fic ia l A s s o c ia t io n ..................................................................................

1906

I n it i a ­
t io n
fee.

ASSOCIATIONS

D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r ic u lt u r e I m m e d ia t e R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ...........................................................................
D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e rc e :
C en su s B u r e a u B e n e fic ia l A s s o c ia t io n ................................................................................................................
U . S. D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e I m m e d ia t e R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .........................................................
D e p a r t m e n t o f th e I n te r io r :
D e p a r t m e n t o f I n te r io r B e n e fic ia l A s s o c i a t i o n ..............................................................................................

D a t a fo r y e a r
e n d in g —

M em ­
b er­
s h ip .

O
i
RELIEF

D e a t h b e n e fit s .
Y ear
or­
gan­
iz e d .

to

T a b l e 5 . — R E C E IP T S A N D D IS B U R SE M E N T S, FO R O N E Y E A R , O F A S S O C IA T IO N S P A Y I N G D E A T H B E N E F IT S O N L Y .

E x p e n d it u r e s .

R e c e ip t s .

A s s o c ia t io n .

On hand
a t b e g in ­
n in g o f
year.

(3
)
1
.

m en ts.

In ter­
est o n
fu n d s .

O th er.

T o t a l.

D ea th
b e n e fit s .

M is c e lla ­
n eou s.

B a la n c e
on hand
at end of
year.

T o ta l.

$245.00

$ 4 ,9 2 9 .0 0

$ 5 ,9 6 9 .5 0

$ 2 ,7 5 0 .0 0

$ 0 .0
20 0

$ 8 ,0 1 9 .5 0

$ 5 ,9 6 9 .5 0

115.00

3 ,4 4 9 .5 0

$ 47 .37

5 ,2 0 4 .1 8

3 .5 0 0 .0 0

3 3 0 .0 0

1 ,3 7 4 .1 8

5 ,2 0 4 .1 8

412.00

6 6 4 .0 0

1.48

1 ,0 7 7 .4 8

3 5 9 .0 0

119.42

5 9 9 .0 6

1 ,0 7 7 .4 8

4 3.00
2.25

5 .8 1 0 .0 0
4 .3 2 2 .0 0

3.42

6 ,1 5 5 .3 5
4 ,8 3 2 .7 3

5 .6 0 0 .0 0
4 .3 7 5 .0 0

3 3 1 .4 6
138.10

2 2 3 .8 9
3 19 .63

6 ,1 5 5 .3 5
4 ,8 3 2 .7 3

15.00

4 ,8 8 5 .9 5

2 1 .2 5

$ 2 ,3 7 7 .5 0
6 ,6 3 6 .5 0
1 .1 5 9 .5 0
7 979 .00
6 .1 0 8 .5 0

2 .0
20

23.00

11 0
2 .0

7 07.00
2 ,5 0 2 .7 5
1 2,4 1 4 .0 0

5 ,3 1 3 .4 0

4 .6 8 6 .0 0

355 .11

2 272 .29

5 ,3 1 3 .4 0

25 0 .0 0

1 5 .0 0
6 .4 2

2 ,4 4 7 .5 0
6 ,7 9 8 .2 3
2 .6 4 2 .8 3
1 ,3 7 2 .7 9
7 .5 9 3 .8 3
1 ,0 2 4 .6 9

6 0 0 .0 0
9 0 0 .0 0
4 .2 0 0 .0 0
500.00

6 0 .7 0
4 5 ,7 7 0 .8 5
106 .81
152.25
421 .75
2 5 .0 0

2 ,1 3 6 .8 0
2 7 .3 8
6 1 ,9 3 6 .0 2
3 20 .54
8 2 ,9 7 2 .0 8
• 499 .69

2 ,4 4 7 .5 0
6 ,7 9 8 .2 3
6 2 ,6 4 2 .8 3
1 ,3 7 2 .7 9
8 7 ,5 9 3 .8 3
1 ,0 2 4 .6 9

4 0 .0 0
2 2 .3 0

3 ,2 7 4 .4 7
1 3 ,1 15 .00

1 0 .0
2,0 0 0

208 .68
799.58

io 990 .79
3 1 5 .4 2

3 ,2 7 4 .4 7
1 3 ,1 1 5 .0 0

2 5 .3 5
1 81 .39

$13 .21

5 2.7 5
.1 3

1,000.00

2 .0 7 5 .0 0

1 O r g a n is e d A p r i l , 1919.
3 N o t in c l u d i n g $500 i n L ib e r t y b o n d s .
3 O r g a n iz e d M a r c h , 1920.

ASSOCIATIONS*

70.0 0
82.50
5 1 5 8.7 5

5 .0 3

BENEFIT




0)

D u es.

DEATH

D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e I m m e d i a t e R e l i e f A s s o c i­
a t i o n .........................................................................................................
$799.
D e p a rtm e n t o fC a m m e rc e :
C e n s u s B u r e a u B e n e f ic i a l A s s o c i a t i o n .............................. 1,592.
U . S. D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e I m m e d i a t e R e l i e f
A s s o c i a t i o n ............................................................................
D e p a r tm e n t o f th e I n t e r io r :
D e p a r t m e n t o f I n t e r i o r B e n e f ic i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . . .
298.
P e n s i o n B u r e a u B e n e f ic i a l A s s o c i a t i o n .....................
503.
D ep a rtm en t o f L a b or:
U . S . I m m i g r a t i o n S e r v i c e B e n e f ic i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . . . 2 377.
G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O ffic e :
G . P . O . B i n d e r y I m m e d i a t e R e l i e f S o c i e t y .........
J o b R o o m I m m e d i a t e R e l i e f S o c i e t y ........................
1,143.
I n t e r s t a t e C o m m e r c e C o m m is s io n R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .
371.
L i b r a r y o f C o n g re s s B e n e f ic i a r y A s s o c i a t i o n ............
P o s t O ffic e D e p a r t m e n t I m m e d i a t e B e n e f it A s s o c i a t i o n . 1,470.
9 288.
S m it h s o n ia n [I n s t i t u t io n ] R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ..................
T rea su ry:
610.
B u r e a u o f E n g r a v in g P r o t e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n .........
678.
U . S. T r e a s u r y D e p a r t m e n t B e n e f ic i a l A s s o c i a t i o n ..

I n it ia ­
t io n fees.

* I n c l u d i n g $5,699.35 y e a r ly d i v id e n d s .
» I n c l u d e s $22 fo r r e i n s t a t e m e n t s .
6 I n c l u d i n g $955.96, L ib e r t y b o n d s b o u g h t d u r in g y e a r . I n a d d i t i o n t h is a s s o c ia t io n o w n s o t h e r s e c u r i t ie s c o s t in g $2,775.25.
7 In clu d e s d u es.
8 I n c l u d i n g $1,5 15 i n s a v in g s a c c o u n t .
9 N o t in c l u d i n g $1,000 i n L ib e r t y b o n d s .
10 N o t in c l u d i n g $3,165.57 i n L ib e r t y b o n d s a n d o t h e r s e c u r it ie s .

*9
-3

28

RELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.

SICK AND DEATH BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.
The third group of relief associations existing among Government
employees in the District of Columbia consists of 16 organizations,
which, organized generally on the plan of the sick relief associations,
combine the benefit features of the two groups already discussed,
paying both a sick and a death benefit, and which for the periods
shown had a total membership of 6,726 persons and paid total sick
and death benefits amounting to $42,739.43.
MEMBERSHIP.
L IM IT A T IO N S U P O N M E M B E R S H IP .

Membership in this group of associations (see Table 6), like that of
the associations paying only a sick benefit, is centered in a few depart­
ments, viz, Bureau o f Engraving and Printing, city post office, and
navy yard, the exception to this rule being the membership of the
Government Employees’ Mutual Relief Association, which is inter­
departmental in character.
Limitations as to color, sex, maximum age, occupation, and length
of service are again apparent in thds group of benefit societies. Three
of the associations admit only colored persons; 3, white and colored.
In 1 the limitation as to color is left optional with the board of direc­
tors, while in 9 of the associations membership is confined to the
white race. The largest association with benefit features, in which
membership is confined to women, and the largest association admit­
ting only men are found in this group, with membership lists in the
latter part of 1919 of 2,185 and 1,383, respectively. The first men­
tioned, Federal Employees Union No. 105, whose membership is
confined to the women of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, is
obviously not a relief association in the sense in which the other
associations are, its activities also covering the various phases of
working conditions of the women in the Bureau.
Membership in the Mutual Relief Association in the navy yard is
open to any man in the uyard’ 7receiving a minimum rate of mechan­
ics’ pay. Three of the associations admit both men and women and
12 only men. Maximum age limits are neither as high nor as low
as those in the associations paying only a sick benefit, but the average
age is about the same. Six of the associations have a limitation as
to occupation and 7 require six months’ service in the department
or office for membership.
Besides these general limitations there are several peculiar to a
few associations. For instance, 2 of the associations are branches of
national union organizations of Government employees, maintaining
sick and death benefit funds for their members; 2, while not allied in
any way as to management with the national union of their trade,
admit only members of the machinists’ union; 1 admits only mem­
bers of the Masonic order. Five limit their membership to the men of
certain shops, and 1 fixes its limit at 100 men. The division of mem­
bership into classes existing in the sick benefit societies does not
appear in this group.
Q U A L IF IC A T IO N S F O R M E M B E R S H I P .

Physical qualications are not more stringent than in the other
associations paying sick and death benefits, only 2 of these benefit




HICK AND DEATH BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.

29

societies requiring a medical certificate upon entrance and 1, tlie
Federal Employees Union No. 105, accepting the Bureau’s physical
entrance requirements.
F O R F E IT U R E O F M E M B E R S H I P .

Practically the same causes of forfeiture of membership and the
same variations as to retention of membership and reinstatement
exist in these societies as have been noted in the first group discussed,
with a few exceptions. Two associations provide that persons leav­
ing the service and at the same time movmg from the city may not
continue as members of the sick benefit fund but may retain mem­
bership in the death benefit fund upon payment of dues. If resi­
dence is kept in the District of Columbia the entire membership may
be retained. One association makes this distinction in the case of
retired clerks, allowing them to keep up their dues or assessments
for the death benefit, but not the sick benefit.
SOURCES OF INCOME.

The funds of these societies, like those of the associations paying
only a death benefit, are derived from three sources— namely, initia­
tion fees, monthly dues, and assessments. Monthly dues, which are
charged in all the organizations paying sick and death benefits, range
from 25 cents to $2 per month, 12 of the associations charging $1.
Initiation fees are collected in 12 and assessments in 14 of the socie­
ties of this group and range in amount from 50 cents to $2 in one
case, and from 25 cents to $2 in the other. Four of the associations
use the income from monthly dues for both classes of benefits.
ADMINISTRATION OF FUNDS.

The sick and death benefit funds of this group of associations are
in each case administered together, which in 10 of the societies is
not a difficult matter since the death benefit fund is a fixed amount
per member, the entire amount being given to the beneficiary named.
The mere operation of the general funds is like that in the other
associations.
RESERVE AN D SU RPLU S FU N DS.

Seven of these sick and death benefit societies maintain reserve
funds of different amounts made up in various ways. In 3 of the socie­
ties reporting the reserve fund is fixed at $300, in 1 society, at $5,000.
Two of the associations devote their initiation fees to this purpose and
1 association keeps a reserve fund of $1 per member. One society has
determined upon a reserve fund since 1919. Pro rata dividends are
declared from thfe surplus funds of 13 of the organizations in this
group, and 1, the Government Employees' Mutual Relief Association,
provides for such a division of its surplus after the regular disburse­
ments, which are heavy, are paid, and while the $5,000 reserve fund
is intact. Of the other 2 societies under consideration, 1 carries
its surplus on interest from year to year and the other at the time for
which the report was made had its surplus funds invested in Liberty
bonds and War Savings Stamps.




30

RELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.

SICK BENEFITS.

A comparison of the data set forth in Table 7 with that shown
in Table 2 reveals such a similarity in the matter of fees, dues, and
other requirements for sick benefits, that no special analysis of detail
is necessary, the amount of monthly dues and the maximum benefit
period per year being slightly less in one instance each. The amount
of weekly benefits maintains practically the same relation in both
groups to the sums charged for fees and dues, with the exception of
one association which, as stated before, is not purely a sick and death
benefit organization but uses its surplus funds to improve the work­
ing conditions of its members in various ways. The average amount
of sick benefit per member receiving sick benefits for the periods
shown was $39.33.
ANNUAL DIVIDENDS.

Of the 12 sick and death benefit associations in which yearly divi­
dends were paid 6 were able to return 50 per cent or more of the
amount invested in insurance. While this showing is not quite equal
to that made by the organizations paying only sick benefits, it still
bears out the conclusion that money expended for protection in sick
benefit societies yields very fair returns upon small investments.
DEATH BENEFITS.

In the group of associations paying both a sick and a death bene­
fit the periods of membership required by the 14 societies reporting
(see Table 8) before a death benefit is paid closely adhere to those
demanded for a sick benefit, and vary from 30 to 365 days. In this
respect they differ from the organizations paying merely the death
benefit, as only 2 of the associations in that group make the paying
of the death benefit dependent upon length ot membership.
The maximum amounts assessed in case of death are higher and the
minimum amounts lower than similar assessments levied by the death*
benefit associations (see Table 4), $1, however, constituting the as­
sessment in a majority of the societies. Only 6 of the associations in
this group stipulate the amount to be paid as a death benefit, the
other 10 assessing a fixed amount per member in case of death, thus
making the total amount of benefit dependent upon membership.
In this respect also they differ from the death benefit societies.
B E N E F IC IA R IE S .

In this group of associations, also, the death benefit is paid to
the beneficiary named in the application blank; or if none is named,
to the legal representative of the deceased member. Almost no
restrictions are provided regarding whom a member may name
as his beneficiary, only one association requiring that a married man
must name his wife, a married woman her husband, and any other
person his nearest relation, or friend if there is no relative. In three
of these benefit societies, viz, the Washington City Post Office
Mutual Relief Association, Letter Carriers’ Relief Association,
Post Office Relief Association No. 2, all of the city post office, the
death benefit extends to the beneficiary. In case of the death of
a beneficiary each of the associations named in the city post office




SICK AND DEATH BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.

31

levies an assessment of 50 cents per member, which amount is
given to the member losing his beneficiary.
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS.

According to statistics shown in Table 9 the total receipts of
the associations paying both sick and death benefits, from fees,
dues, assessments, interest on funds and miscellaneous sources, were
for the periods shown, $79,248.46; the total amount expended in sick
benefits, $32,286.65; in death benefits, $10,452.78.
Miscellane­
ous expenditures of 14 societies reporting this item amounted to
$6,148.26; the total disbursements, 15 societies reporting, were
$48,887.69. The amount available for distribution as dividends at
the end of the year, 12 associations reporting, was $17,895.34.
The following tables contain data relating to 16 associations which
provide both sick and death benefits:




Table 6.—D A T E

O F O R G A N IZ A T IO N A N D G E N E R A L L IM IT A T IO N S U P O N M E M B E R S H IP O F A S S O C IA T IO N S P A Y I N G B O T H S IC K A N D D E A T H B E N E F IT S .

C
O

to

M e m b e r s h ip li m it e d t o —

M a x i­
m um
a ge.

D e c . 3 1 ,1 9 1 9 ____
..........d o ......................

W.
C.

F.
M. & F.

0)

N o v . 3 0 ,1 9 1 9 ____
J u n e 3 0 ,1 9 2 0 ____
N o v . 3 0 ,1 9 1 9 ____
..........d o ......................
M a y 3 0 ,1 9 2 0
N o v . 3 0 ,1 9 1 9 ....
D e c . 3 1 ,1 9 1 9 ____

W . & C.
W.

M.
M. & F.
M.
M.
M. & F.
M.
M.

N o v . 3 0 ,1 9 1 9 ....
F e b . 1 4 ,1 9 2 0 ....
N o v . 3 0 ,1 9 1 9 ....
......... d o .....................
. . . d o .....................
......... d o ...................
S ep t. 2 3 ,1 9 2 0 ....

c.
c.
w.
w.
w. &c.
w. &c.
w.
w.
w.
w.
( 6)
w.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

O c c u p a t io n .

L e n g th
o f serv ­
ice
( m o s .) .

6

45

55
50
55
56

L e t t e r c a r r ie r s .........
C le r k s ..........................
( 3)
C le r k s ..........................

6
6
6
6

M a c h in is t s ................

6

......... 50*
56

50
50
52
50
55
’ 55

6

(7)

5 N o t rep orted ,
e O p tio n a l w ith th e b o a r d .
* A n y o c c u p a t io n w it h a m in i m u m r a t e o f m e c h a n i c s ' p a y .

GOVERNMENT

3 C le rk s , ca rrie rs a n d la b o r e r s .

Sex.

AMONG
EMPLOYEES,




1 N o p e r s o n j o in i n g a ft e r 55 y e a r s o f a ge is p a id a d e a t h b e n e fit .
2 R e o r g a n iz e d 1900.

C o lo r .

ASSOCIATIONS

B u r e a u o f E n g r a v in g a n d P r in t in g :
1908
F e d e r a l E m p lo y e e s U n io n N o . 105.............................................................................
....................
1914
L a b o r e r s ’ R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ............................................................................................................................
C it y p o s t o ffice :
L e t t e r C a rr ie rs’ R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ...........................................
..................
............. 2 1889
N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t io n o f P o s t O ffic e C le r k s . S ic k B e n e f it F u n d , L o c a l N o . 140.
1918
1904
P o s t O ffice R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n N o . 1 ........................ .. ............................................................................
P o s t O ffic e R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n N o . 2 ............................................................................................................
1917
1912
U n it e d N a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n P o s t O ffic e C le r k s , B r a n c h 15...................
...
1899
W a s h in g t o n C it y P o s t O ffice M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .................................................................
G o v e r n m e n t E m p lo y e e s ’ M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .............................................
...
1905
N a v y yard:
1915
B o ile r S h o p R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ........................................................................................................
C a rtr id g e C a se R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n (S h o p D ) .......................
1918
1905
E a s t G u n C a rria ge S h o p R e l i e f (S h o p A ) ................................................................................
. .
E l it e R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n 4.............................................................................................
( 5)
E r e c t in g S h o p M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ............................
1902
1899
M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ................................
.
. .
1920
P la n t 0 . E . R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n ( S h o p J ) .................................................................

D a t a fo r y e a r
e n d in g —

RELIEF

A s s o c ia t io n .

Y ear
o rg a n ­
iz e d .

T ABLE 7 . — P R O V I S I O N S A S T O D U E S A N D B E N E F I T S , S I C K B E N E F I T S R E C E I V E D A N D C O S T O F I N S U R A N C E , D U R I N G
T IO N S P A Y I N G B O T H S IC K A N D D E A T H B E N E F I T S

O N E Y E A R , IN

A S S O C IA ­

Sick benefits.
M e m b e rs r e c e iv in g s ic k
b e n e fit s .

10
.0
10
.0
1
.00
.5 0

197

10
.0
1
.00
10
.0
10
.0
10
.0
10
.0
(6
)
10
.0
10
.0
2.00
10
.0
2.00
10
.0
1
.00

$ 4 .0 0
5 .0 0

i 365

(8
)

1 .0
00
1 .0
00
1 .0
00
1 .0
00
1 .0
00
1 .0
00
(6
)
1 .0
20
1 .0
20
2 4.0 0
1 .0
20
24.0 0
1 .0
20
1 .0
20

2
2

20
0
46

611
172

50

160 tV

17

2
0
1
2
10
0
(8
)
39

(0

(7
)

26
24

1
2
13
2
0
232
1
0

45^
56
25f

119H
308

(8
)
6*
8
59
3H
2
2*
6

4 6 ft
802*

$2 2
1 .2

$ .0
60

18.70

302

32.15

164

$ 4 .2 5

7 .75

26.72
28.07
21.19
30.53
3 0.8 0

82
151
126
91
393

3 .9 4

8 .0 6
3 .9 8
1 .73
9 .0 0
5 .2 5

31.62
29. 50
65. 83
24.77
56.15
41.49
31.8 0

96
57

8
8

36
96
1,151
187

3 .0 0

8
.02

10.27
3 .0 0
6. 75

(9
)

1 .0
20

5.21
5 .1 8
17.20
5 .6 0
15.06
6 .9 6

6. 79
6 .8 2
6 .8 0
6 . 40
8.94
5 .01

(n
)

(u
)

ASSOCIATIONS,

42.00
10
.0
12 1
2
.00
81
1 .5 0
10
0
10
.0
49
2.00
116
10
.0
1,383

$ 0 .5 0
.2 5

BENEFIT




171
138
130
493
900

SI. 00

DEATH

1 6 m o n t h s t o d r a w 2 w e e k s ’ b e n e fit .
2 N o b e n e fit p a i d fo r fir s t w e e k .
3 6 m o n th s.
4 $1 m e d i c a l fe e ; $1 a d v a n c e a sse ss m e n t.
6 $12 p e r y e a r p a i d s e m ia n n u a lly .
6 N o t t o e x c e e d $300 p e r y e a r .

2 ,185
348

Num ­
ber.

P ro
C ost of
r a ta
in s u r ­
d iv i­
an ce
dend
p e r 12
p e r 12
m on th s
m on th s
m em ­
m em ­
b e r.
b e r.

AD
N

B u r e a u o f E n g r a v in g a n d P r in t in g :
F e d e r a l E m p lo y e e s U n io n , N o . 105.............................................................
L a b o r e r s 7 R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ............................................................................
C ity P o s t O ffic e :
L e t t e r C a r r ie r s ’ R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ...............................................................
N a t io n a l F e d e r a t io n o f P o s t O ffic e C lerk s . S ic k B e n e fit F u n d ,
L o c a l N o . 140.........................................................................................................
P o s t O ffic e R e l i e f A s s o c ia t io n N o . 1..............................................................
P o s t O ffic e R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n N o . 2 ............................................................
U n it e d N a t i o n a l A s s o c ia t io n P o s t O ffic e C lerk s , B r a n c h 15..........
W a s h in g t o n C it y P o s t O ffic e M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c ia tio n ..................
G o v e r n m e n t E m p lo y e e s ’ M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .................................
N a v y yard:
B o i le r S h o p R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n .........................................................................
C a rtr id g e C a se R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ...................................................................
E a s t G u n C a rria g e S h o p R e l i e f ......................................................................
E l it e R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .......................................................................................
E r e c t in g S h o p M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ................................................ .
M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ................................................................................. .
P la n t O . E . R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n .........................................................................

Num ­
ber.

A ver­
A g g re­
age
g a te
am ount
w ee k s.
re­
ce iv e d .

S K
IC

A s s o c ia t io n .

M a x i­
M em ­
m um
b e r s h ip
W a it­
b e n e fit
B e n e fit
re ­
D ues
M e m ­ I n it i a ­
in g
per
q u ir e d
p e r io d
per
b e rsh ip . t io n fee.
p e r io d
m o n t h . w eek ,
per
fo r
(w eek s).
b e n e fit
year
(w eek s).
(d a y s ) .

M e m b e rs n o t r e c e iv in g
s ic k b e n e fit s .

7 N o t fix e d .
9 N o t rep orted .
» A n y s u r p lu s o v e r d is b u r s e m e n ts a n d $5,000 re s e rv e f u n d is d i v id e d p r o ra ta .

10 6 w o r k in g d a y s .
u F ir s t y e a r o f o r g a n iz a t io n in c o m p le t e .

Co
CO

34

RELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.

T able 8 .— P R O V IS IO N S A S T O D U E S A N D A S S E S S M E N T S , A N D D E A T H B E N E F I T S P A I D ,
D U R IN G O N E Y E A R , IN A S S O C IA T IO N S P A Y IN G B O T H S IC K A N D D E A T H B E N E F IT S .

Death benefits.

A s s o cia tio n .

D e a t h b e n e fits .
M em ­
A s­
ber­
s e s s­
sh ip re­
m ent
q u ir e d
per
A m ount
T ota l
fo r
per
m em ­
fo r
C a ses.
b e n e fit
b er.
ca se .
year.
(d a y s ) .

B u r e a u o f E n g r a v in g a n d P r i n t in g :
F e d e r a l E m p l o y e e s U n i o n N o . 1 0 5 ....................................................
L a b o r e r s ' R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ................................................................. 1 0.2 5
C i t y p o s t o ffic e :
L e t t e r C a r r ie r s ’ R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .................................................... 4 2.00
N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f P o s t O ffic e C le rk s . S ic k B e n e f it
F u n d , L o c a l N o . 140...............................................................................
P o s t O ffic e R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n N o . 1 .................................................
P o s t O ffic e R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n N o . 2 ..................................................
U n it e d N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f P o s t O ffic e C le r k s , B r a n c h
1 5 ........................................................................................................................
W a s h i n g t o n C i t y P o s t O ffic e M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n -----G o v e r n m e n t E m p l o y e e s ’ M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .....................
N a v y yard:
B o i le r S h o p R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .............................................................
C a r t r id g e C a se R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .......................................................
E a s t G u n C a r r ia g e S h o p R e l i e f ............................................................
E l i t e R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ............................................................................
E r e c t in g S h o p M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .....................................
M u t u a l R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n ......................................................................
.2 5
P la n t O . E . R e l i e f A s s o c i a t i o n .............................................................

(6
)
1
.00
> .0
10
1
.00
1 .0
10
2.00
10
.0
10
.0
1.0
0
1
.00
(u
)

365
2 365

i $75.00
5 0.0 0 j

(5
)

1 ,2 3 0 .0 0

7 2 50.00 I

(5
)

(5 )

4
(5
)
1
2
(5
)
; 12 0 0
0 0 .0
0 ,
0
i : (5
I )
0!
0! 8
0 i
(5
>
1 ! (5
)
1 ! 150.00
1i 10 0
0 .0
o

1 P a i d fr o m d u e s .
2 6 m o n t h s fo r o n e -h a l f b e n e fit .
3 T h r e e a t $50, f o u r a t $25.
4 F o r a m e m b e r . F i f t y c e n t s fo r w if e o f m e m b e r .
5 V a r ie s w i t h m e m b e r s h i p .
6 F r o m 25 t o 35 c e n t s k e p t f r o m e a c h m e m b e r ’ s m o n t h l y d u e s .
7 45 y e a r s a n d u n d e r . F r o m 45 t o 65 y e a r s a m o u n t d e c r e a s e s g r a d u a ll y fr o m $250 t o $40.
8 50 c e n t s p e r m e m b e r fo r a b e n e fic ia r y o t h e r t h a n a m e m b e r .
9 N o t rep o rte d .
10 $200 t o $300. P a i d fr o m d u e s.
11 V a r ie s w it h a m o u n t i n tr e a s u r y .




$150.00
3 250.00

I
I

473.00

593.00
5 ,0 8 8 .0 0
613.78

22 0
2 .0
115.00
1 ,6 5 0 .0 0

T a b l e 9 _ R E C E IP T S A N D D IS B U R S E M E N T S F O R O N E Y E A R
_

OF A S S O C IA T IO N S P A Y I N G B O T H SICK A N D D E A T H B E N E F IT S .

E x p e n d it u r e s .

R e c e ip t s .
A s s o c ia t io n .

$670.00

885.00
1 .612.00
1.5 4 5.0 0

1 .0
20
10.50

1,5 8 2.3 8
5 .8 6 8.0 0
8 ,7 3 4.9 7
1 .6 2 3.0 0
1 .1 4 2.0 0
2 .3 0 0 .0 0
560.00
2 .6 3 2.0 0
15,904.00
968.00

1 N o t in c lu d in g $800 in v e s t e d i n W a r S a v in g s S ta m p s .
2 N o t rep orted .
8 P a y s n o d iv id e n d .
4 N o t in c lu d in g a b a la n c e o n h a n d a t b e g in n in g o f y e a r , a m o u n t n o t r e p o r te d ,
s N o t in c lu d in g $974, b a la n c e o n h a n d a t e n d o f y ea r.
6 F ir s t y e a r o f o r g a n iz a t io n in c o m p l e t e .




D ea th
b e n e fit s .

O th er.

T o ta l.

i $ 1 3 ,1 9 8 .5 0
4 1 ,9 7 5 .4 0

$ 2 ,4 4 4 .0 0
860.00

$150.00
250 .00

( 2)
(2)

( 2)
5 $ 1 , 110.00

$ 1 ,2 3 0 .0 0

3 ,7 2 7 .4 0

1 ,6 0 7 .4 7

1 ,2 3 0 .0 0

$183.45

3 ,0 2 0 .9 2

$706.48

4 73.00

454.28
561.43
254.26

473.00

6 7 .6 8
48.09
75.98

521.96
1 ,0 8 2 .5 2
398.24

363.04
1 ,1 7 1.5 8

593.00
5 ,0 8 8 .0 0
6 13.78

115.90
326.00
3 ,7 6 0 .1 7

1,899. 75
8,494. 00
12,4 99 .31

277.63
2 ,5 7 3 .6 4

4 2.00
59.14
32.0 0
29.00
38. 50
1,316. 05
5 4.3 0

1 ,0 8 6 .0 0
767.14
822.00
351. 00
1,276. 50
12,592. 05
372.30

771.00
395.66
1,502. 51
216.00
1 ,6 1 6.1 0
7,081. 20

$25.40

5 93.00
5 ,0 8 8 .0 0

6 .2 8
5 .6 7

$162.82
.0 7

7 .6 4
440.58

3 ,4 1 1 .5 9

2 ,1 7 7 .3 8
1 1,0 67 .64
12,8 99 .14

1,190. 85
3 .0 8 0 .0 0
8 ,1 2 5 .3 6

1 0.3 0
2 4.2 0

6 .0
80

885.00
2 ,2 5 4 .1 0
1 ,6 1 8 .7 4

.3 1

1,857. 00
1,162. 80
2,324. 51
567.00
2 ,8 9 2 .6 0
1 9,6 73 .25
968.00

822.00
708.00
790.00
322. 00
1,123. 00
9 .6 2 6 .0 0
318.00

22 0
2 .0
2 30.00
3 ,5 3 2 .2 5

17.60

6a0
0

22 0
2 .0
115.00
1,650. 00

(3
)
(3
)

(6
)

ASSOCIATIONS,

7.00
13.00
237.00

S ic k
b e n e fit s .

O th e r .

BENEFIT

20
.0
104.00
312.00

T o ta l.

$12,528.50
1 .8 4 8.0 0
2 ,4 7 7.4 0

In t e r e s t
on
fu n d s .

DEATH

12 0
0 .0
2 .0
00

A ssess­
m en ts.

AD
N

B u r e a u o f E n g r a v in g a n d P r in t in g :
F e d e r a l E m p lo y e e s U n io n , N o . 1 0 5 .......................................
L a b o r e r s ’ R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .......................................................
C it y p o s t o ffice :
L e t t e r C a rriers’ R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .........................................
N a t io n a l F e d e r a t io n o f P o s t O ffice C lerk s. S ic k B e n e fit
F u n d , L o c a l N o . 140...................................................................
P o s t O ffice R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n N o . 1 .......................................
P o s t O ffice R e l ie f A s s o c ia t io n N o . 2 .......................................
U n it e d N a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n o f P o s t O ffic e C lerks,
B r a n c h 1 5 ..........................................................................................
W a s h in g t o n C it y P o s t O ffic e M u tu a l R e lie f A s s o c ia tio n
G o v e r n m e n t E m p lo y e e s ’ M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ...........
N a v y yard:
B o ile r S h o p R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ..................................................
C a rtr id g e C a se R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ............................................
E a s t G u n C a rria ge S h o p R e l i e f .................................................
E lit e R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n .................................................................
E r e c t in g S h o p M u t u a l R e l ie f A s s o c i a t i o n ..........................
M u t u a l R e lie f A s s o c i a t i o n ...........................................................
P la n t O . E . R e lie f A s s o c i a t i o n ..................................................

D u e s.

S K
IC

I n it ia ­
tio n

A p p r o x i­
m a te
am ount
a v a il­
a b le
as
d i v i­
d en ds.

CO

C
K

36

BELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.

THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES’ MTJTUAL RELIEF ASSOCIATION.

The varied character of the membership and of the benefits paid by
the Government Employees' Mutual Relief Association makes it
impossible to adequately show them in tabular form and for this
reason a brief account of this organization is given..
Object of organization.— The association was organized in June, 1905,
"fo r the purpose of creating a fund to be used for the relief of its
members in case of death or physical disability caused by sickness or
accident in Continental United States, Porto Rico, Hawaii, or the Dis­
trict of Alaska." The necessity for such aid was especially apparent in
the field where men without funds became ill or died suddenly, leav­
ing the responsibility for all the expenses incurred by such illnesses or
deaths upon the man at the head of the party and the other men
associated with him, who in many instances were not able to bear
expenses in addition to their own. It was to relieve situations such
as these that this association was founded.
Membership.— The membership of the Government Employees'

Mutual Relief Association was originally confined to the male em­
ployees of the Geological Survey, Reclamation Service, and the
Forest Service, with the provision that the governing committee
should be authorized to admit to membership employees of bureaus
of like character. At the time of its last financial statement the
membership of the organization included, in addition to those in the
bureaus mentioned, male employees of the Coast and Geodetic Survey,
General Land Office, Indian Service, Bureau of Mines, Division of
Valuation of the Interstate Commerce Commission, Bureau of Stand­
ards, and various bureaus of the Department of Agriculture.
Funds.— The funds of the association are maintained by initiation
fees of $1 per member and dues of $12 per year per member payable
semiannually. A fund of $5,000 is always kept in reserve.
Benefits.— The benefits paid are divided into three classes, as

follows: Loss of time, medical attention, and death, and the maxi­
mum allowances provided by the constitution in each of these classes
are:
1. Loss of time.— Loss of time during disablement preventing attention to official
duties, and while not drawing salary and not having unused leave with pay; indemnity
at rate of $14 per week; total payment in any period of 12 months limited to $150.
2. Medical attention.— Medical attention, for illness or accident preventing attention
to official duties, or when not disabled but under medical care on account of accident
or under necessary surgical treatment for sickness or accident; doctor’s fees not ex­
ceeding rate of $28 per week, except in case of surgical operations, when actual charges
not exceeding amounts scheduled in constitution; medicine prescribed by doctor,
not exceeding rate of $5 per week; hire of nurse when directed by doctor, not exceeding
rate of $25 per week; hospital expenses when directed by doctor, not exceeding rate
of $15 per week; and such further amounts as the governing committee may deem
reasonable and proper for unusual expenses due wholly and necessarily to such sick­
ness or accidents, not exceeding $50; total payment in any period of 12 months, $300.
3. Death.— Death benefits, payable upon receipt of proof of death, $200, and actual
cost of transportation of body to place of interment, not exceeding $100.

Benefits are paid immediately upon the receipt of the claim, when
properly certified and accompanied by paid oills. No benefit is
paid during the period for which a man can draw compensation
under the Federal compensation act, but in such a case the asso­
ciation will pay the difference between the benefits allowable under
the act and its higher scale of benefits ‘ ‘after the claim has been duly
presented to and paid or rejected by the compensation commission."




SICK AND DEATH BENEFIT ASSOCIATIONS.

37

Since its organization in 1905 the association has disbursed for
indemnities and benefits $89,775.71.
A man engaged in extrahazardous work, an electrician, for in­
stance, is usually asked to waive benefit for injury incurred in con­
nection with his employment. And likewise, as no medical examina­
tion is required for entrance, a man who might have a recurrence of
some m alady previously suffered may be requested to waive benefit
for that particular illness.
Prevention of fraud.— In order to safeguard itself against fraud the
association provides an application blank which shows in great detail
the exact physical condition of each applicant. When claims for
benefit are made a report certified to by a claimant’s superior officer
must be filed, and in addition thereto a doctor’s certificate giving
further information regarding the claim in question must also be
submitted.

CONCLUSION.
An effort was made throughout the survey to ascertain the attitude
of officials and men toward the sick and death benefit associations.
Officials generally were sympathetic with the work of these societies,
encouraging them by letters of recommendation or by carrying mem­
bership in them, and cooperating in every possible way to insure
their success. The attitude of the members may be said to have been
an enthusiastic one. “ They are a good thing” or “ They have been
very helpful in this office” was the characterization of the work of
the benefit associations met in almost every instance, and this was
often followed by the relation of some incident of personal experience
bearing out the opinion given.
Practical and substantial assistance of a nature not admitting
of statistical treatment, furnished by these relief associations, is
illustrated in several instances selected from a number collected
during the survey.
Three years ago a fireman of foreign birth employed in the boiler
room of a department received a scratch upon his right hand. This
apparently slight injury resulted in a long and serious illness from
blood poisoning and subsequently in the loss of the arm. The
relief association of which he was a member has continued his mem­
bership ever since that time— and he is still ill— and has paid him
full benefits each year. Upon his failure, through a lack of a knowl­
edge of English, to understand just what was due him in such a
case under the Federal compensation act, the officers of the relief
association took this matter up and through their efforts and those
of the officials of the department he has also received much needed
compensation under the act. Another man while repairing his own
automobile, through some mischance started the car, which ran
over him, injuring him severely. For an accident of this unusual
character he received all the benefits due him from the association
to which he belonged. During the “ flu” epidemic one of these
relief associations paid out $1,300 in sick benefits in one month.
Another, a large organization paying both sick and death benefits
and therefore tabulated under that heading, paid out $4,000 in sick
benefits during October, 1918, in addition to $1,350 for death benefits.




38

RELIEF ASSOCIATIONS AMONG GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.

In addition to the more material features of the relief associations
such as the amount and the promptness of the relief furnished in
either sickness or death, good returns upon investment, fair division
of surplus at the close of the year, etc., the point was repeatedly
made that the societies were originally organized to “ avoid the taking
of collections” in cases of need due to sickness or death, a form of
charity exceedingly distasteful to a self-respecting man who was doing
as well as he could on the meager wages he received, and a possible
method of graft to the careless employee. Officers of the associations
believe that the provision thus made against sickness and death, by
which a man contributes a small amount for the protection of his
family, and thus avoids the possibility of charity, creates self-respect.
They point out that since the associations are not run for profit but
simply on a mutual aid or cooperative basis, they promote a com­
munity of interest and a fraternal feeling which inspire courage and
confidence and result in increased efficiency.
While this feeling regarding the activities of the relief associations
was perhaps most evident in the smaller groups composing the sick
benefit associations with their additional feature of a division of
funds at the close of the year it was not lacking in the societies paying
death benefits. The death benefit associations have greater problems
to meet than those paying sick benefits. They are larger as a rule,
their membership is more scattered, and therefore, as suggestedbefore,
to some extent they lack the fraternal feeling which is an element of
strength in the organizations paying sick benefits. The finances of these
societies must be carried forward from year to year and the proper dis­
position and investment of their funds is a responsibility. The ques­
tion of making available funds meet the actual demands upon them
in times of unusual emergency has also proved equally perplexing. The
extensive character of the assistance rendered by the death benefit
societies is evident from the amounts expended in benefits (Table 5),
one association showing $12,000 for the year quoted; one, $5,600;
and several, over $4,000.
The membership of such associations must be increased from year to
year, and furthermore it must be increased from among the younger
people in order to keep the funds on a sound actuarial basis. Some­
times it is difficult to secure such members, the younger employees
of a bureau or office being, under ordinary circumstances, farther
removed from the necessity of assistance of this character than the
older employees, are not as interested in helping to keep up benefit
societies. But notwithstanding the admittedly larger problems of
the death benefit associations, there is a conviction that they fill a
great need in offices where they exist and that this fact has been
especially apparent during the last few years.




S R S O B L E IN P B IS E B T E B R A O L B RS A IS IC
E IE F U L T S U L H D Y H U E U F A O T T T S
[The publication of the an a an special reports and of the bim
im l d
onthly bulletin was
discontinued in July, 1912, an since that tim a bulletin has been published at irregular
d
e
intervals. E
ach num contains m
ber
atter devoted to one of a series of general subjects. These
bulletins are num
bered consecutively, beginning w No. 101, and up to N 236 they also carry
ith
o.
consecutive num
bers under each series. B
eginning w No. 237 the serial num
ith
bering has been
discontinued. A list of the series is given below. Under each is grouped a the bulletins
ll
w
hich contain m
aterial relating to the subject m
atter of that series. A list of the reports a d
n
bulletin of the Bureau issued prior to July 1, 1912, w be furnished on application. The
ill
bulletins m
arked thu * are ant of print,]
s
W h o le s a le P r ic e s .
* B u i. 1 1 4 . W h o le s a le

p r ic e s ,

1890

to

1912.

B u i. 1 4 9 . W h o le s a le p r ic e s ,

1890

to

1913.

* B u i. 1 7 3 .

In d ex

n u m b ers

of

w h o le s a le

p r ic e s

in

th e

U n it e d

S ta te s

and

fo r e ig n

co u n tr ie s .
B u i. 1 8 1 .
* B u i. 2 0 0 .
B u i. 2 2 6 .
B u i.

269.

W h o le s a le p r ic e s ,

W h o le s a le p r ic e s , 1 8 9 0 t o
W h o le s a le p r ic e s ,

R e t a il P r ic e s a n d
* B u i. 1 05 .

1 89 0 to

1914.

W h o le s a le p r ic e s 1 8 9 0 t o 1 9 1 5 .
1890

1916.

to

1919.

C ost o f L iv in g .

R e t a il p r ic e s ,

1890 to

1911:

P a r t I.

,

R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 8 9 0 t o 1 9 1 1 : P a r t I I — G e n e r a l ta b le s .
* B u i. 1 0 6 .

R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 8 9 0

to J u n e , 1 9 1 2 : P a r t I.

R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 8 9 0 t o J u n e , 1 9 1 2 : P a r t I I — G e n e r a l ta b le s .
B u i. 1 0 8 .

R e t a i l p r i c e s , 1 8 9 0 t o A u g u s t , •1 9 1 2 .

B u i. 1 1 0 .

R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 8 9 0 t o

B u i. 1 1 3 .

R e t a il p r ic e s ,

B u i. 1 1 5 .

R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 8 9 0 t o

* B u i. 1 2 1 .
B u i. 1 2 5 .
* B u i. 1 3 0 .

S u g a r p r ic e s ,

1890

to

fr o m

D ecem b er, 1912.
F ebru ary, 1913.

r e fin e r t o

R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 8 9 0 t o

con su m er.

A p r il, 1 9 1 3 .

W h e a t a n d flo u r p r ic e s , fr o m

B u i. 1 3 2 .

R e t a il p r ic e s ,

B u i. 1 3 6 .

R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 8 9 0 t o

B u i. 1 3 8 .
*

O ctob er, 1 9 1 2 .

R e t a il

p r ic e s ,

1890

to

1890 to

fa r m e r t o c o n s u m e r .

June,

1913.

A u g u st, 1913.
O ctob er,

1913.

B u i. 1 4 0 . R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 8 9 0 t o D e c e m b e r , 1 9 1 3 .
B u i. 1 5 6 . R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 9 0 7 t o D e c e m b e r , 1 9 1 4 .
B u i. 1 6 4 .

B u t t e r p r ic e s , fr o m

B u i. 1 7 0 .

F o r e ig n

produ cer

to con su m er.

fo o d p r ic e s a s a ffe c te d by th e w a r .

B u i. 1 8 4 . R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 9 0 7 t o J u n e , 1 9 1 5 .
B u i. 1 9 7 . R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 9 0 7 t o D e c e m b e r , 1 9 1 5 .
B u i. 2 2 8 .

R e t a il p r ic e s , 1 9 0 7 to D e c e m b e r , 1 9 1 6 .

B u i. 2 7 0 .

R e t a il

p r ic e s ,

1913

W a ges and H on rs o f L abor.
B u i. 1 1 6 . H o u r s , e a r n in g s ,

to

and

1919.

[In

d u ra tio n

p r e s s .]

of

e m p lo y m e n t

of

w a g e -e a rn in g

w om en

in

s e le c t e d in d u s t r ie s in t h e D is t r ic t o f C o lu m b ia .
* B u i. 1 1 8 .
B u i. 1 1 9 .

T e n -h o u r m a x im u m

w o r k in g -d a y

* B u i. 1 2 8 .

W ages and
to 1912.

* B u i. 1 2 9

W a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r
trie s , 1 8 9 0 to 1 9 1 2 .

* B u i. 1 3 1 .

U n io n

* B u i. 1 3 4 .

W a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r in
in d u s t r ie s , 1 8 9 0 t o 1 9 1 2 .

* B u i. 1 3 5 .

W ages and
1912.

B u i. 1 3 7 .

fo r w om en

and

young

person s.

W o r k in g h o u r s o f w o m e n in t h e p e a c a n n e r ie s o f W is c o n s in .
h ou rs

of

la b o r in

sc a le o f w a g e s a n d

hours

of

la b o r

in

to

th e

cotton ,

w o o le n ,

lu m b e r ,

in

and

m illw o r k ,

h o u r s o f la b o r , 1 9 0 7

W a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r in
ca rs, 1 8 9 0

th e

to

s ilk
and

in d u s t r ie s ,
fu r n it u r e

th e

cig a r

and

c lo t h in g

b u ild in g a n d

in d u s ­

1912.

th e b o o t a n d sh o e a n d h o s ie r y
th e

1890

a n d k n it g o o d s

in d u s t r ie s ,

r e p a ir in g o f stea m

1911

and

r a ilr o a d

1912.

B u i. 1 4 3 .

U n io n s c a le o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r , M a y 1 5 , 1 9 1 3 .

B u i. 1 4 6 .

W a g e s a n d r e g u la r it y o f e m p lo y m e n t a n d s t a n d a r d iz a t io n
in t h e d r e s s a n d w a i s t in d u s t r y o f N e w Y o r k C it y .

of

W ages and

s k ir t in d u s t r y .

* B u i. 1 4 7 .




r e g u la r it y o f e m p lo y m e n t in t h e c lo a k , s u it, a n d

[I]

p ie ce

ra tes

W a ges

and

H o n r s o f L a b o r — C o n c lu d e d .

* B u i. 1 5 0 .

W ages and
to

B u i. 1 5 1 .

h o u r s o f l a b o r In

th e

co tto n ,

w o o le n , a n d

s ilk

in d u s tr ie s ,

1907

1913.

W ages

and

h ou rs

of

la b o r

in

th e

ir o n

and

in

th e

lu m b e r ,

in

th e

boot

ste e l

in d u s tr y

in

th e

U n ite a

S ta te s , 1 9 0 7 t o 1 9 1 2 .
B u i. 1 5 3 .

W ages

and

h ou rs

of

la b o r

m illw o r k ,

and

fu r n itu r e

in d u s ­

trie s , 1 9 0 7 to 1 9 1 3 .
B u i. 1 5 4 .

W ages

B u i. 1 6 0 .

H ou rs,

B u i. 1 6 1 .

and

W ages

h ou rs

of

w e a r in d u s tr ie s ,

la b o r

1907 to

e a rn in g s , a n d

e s ta b lis h m e n ts
and

of

la b o r

in

h o u r s o f la b o r

ca rs, 1 90 7 to

of

la b o r

sh oe

and

o f w om en

h o s ie r y

in

in

th e

c lo t h in g

th e b u ild in g

and

and

cig a r

W ages
to

and

re p a ir in g

o f ste a m

h ou rs

of

la b o r

in

th e

h o s ie r y

and

1907

to

r a ilr o a d

u n d erw ear

to

1918.

in d u s t r y ,

1907

1914.

B u i. 1 7 8 .

W ages

W ages and

h o u r s o f la b o r in t h e m e n ’ s c l o t h in g in d u s t r y , 1 9 1 1

* B u i. 1 9 0 .

W ages and

h o u r s o f la b o r in

* B u i. 1 9 4 .

1911

1913.

B u i. 1 8 7 .

to

u n d er­

m e r c a n tile

in d u s tr ie s ,

B u i. 1 6 8 . W a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r in th e ir o n a n d s te e l in d u s t r y ,
B u i. 1 7 1 . U n io n s c a le o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r , M a y 1 , 1 9 1 4 .
B u i. 1 7 7 .

and

In d ia n a

a n d g a r m e n t fa c to r ie s .

hours

1913.
B u i. 1 6 3 . W a g e s a n d

and

1913.

c o n d it io n s

and

h ou rs

o f la b o r

in

th e
th e

boot and
co tto n ,

sh oe

in d u s tr y ,

w o o le n ,

and

1907

s ilk

to

1914.

to 1914.

in d u s t r ie s ,

1907

1914.

U n io n s c a le o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r , M a y
e m p lo y m e n t in

S tre e t r a ilw a y

B u i. 2 1 4 .

U n io n s c a le o f» w a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r , M a y 1 5 , 1 9 1 6 .

B u i. 2 1 8 .

W a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r in t h e ir o n a n d s te e l in d u s t r y , 1 9 0 7 t o 1 9 1 5 .

B u i. 2 2 1 .

H ou rs,

fa tig u e , a n d

B u i. 2 2 5 .

W ages

and

h ou rs

h e a lth

in

la b o r

th e U n ite d

1, 1 9 1 5 .

B u i. 2 0 4 .

in

of

B r it is h
th e

S ta te s .

m u n itio n

lu m b e r ,

fa c to r ie s .

m illw o r k ,

and

fu r n it u r e

in d u s ­

trie s , 1 9 1 5 .
B u i. 2 3 2 .

W a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r in t h e b o o t a n d s h o e in d u s t r y , 1 9 0 7

B u i. 2 3 8 .

W ages

and

h ou rs

of

la b o r

in

w o o le n

and

w o rsted

hours

of

la b o r

in

cotton

goods

goods

to 1916.

m a n u fa c tu r in g .

1916.
B u i.

239.

W ages and
1916.

B u i. 2 4 5 . U n io n
* B u i. 2 5 2 . W a g e s
1917.
B u i. 2 5 9 . U n io n
B u i. 2 6 0 . W a g e s

m a n u fa c tu r in g

and

fin is h in g ,

s c a le o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r , M a y 1 5 , 1 9 1 7 .
a n d h o u r s o f la b o r in t h e s l a u g h t e r in g a n d m e a t - p a c k i n g
s c a le o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r , M a y 1 5 , 1 9 1 8 .
a n d h o u r s o f la b o r in t h e b o o t a n d s h o e in d u s t r y ,

in d u s t r y .

1907

to

1918^

B u i. 2 6 1 .

W a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r in w o o le n a n d w o r s t e d g o o d s m a n u fa c t u r i n g , 1 9 1 8 .

B u i. 2 6 2 .

W ages

B u i. 2 6 5 .

1918.
I n d u s t r ia l

and

of

su rvey

lim in a r y
B u i. 2 7 4 .

hours

la b o r

in

in

s e le c te d

co tto n

goods

in d u s tr ie s

in

m a n u fa c tu r in g

th e

U n ite d

and

S ta te s ,

fin is h in g ,

1919.

P re­

rep ort

U n io n s c a le o f w a g e s a n d h o u r s o f la b o r , M a y 1 5 , 1 9 1 9 .

B u i. 2 7 8 .

W a g e s a n d h o u r s o f l a b o r in t h e b o o t a n d s h o e i n d u s t r y , 1 9 0 7 - 1 9 2 0 .
[I n
p r e s s .]
B u i . 2 7 9 . H o u r s a n d e a r n i n g s in a n t h r a c i t e a n d b i t u m i n o u s c o a l m i n i n g .
[ I n p r e s s .]
E m p lo y m e n t a n d U n e m p lo y m e n t .
* B u i. 1 0 9 .

S ta tis tic s

o f u n e m p lo y m e n t a n d th e w o r k

B u i. 1 1 6 .

H ou rs,

e a r n in g s ,

B u i. 1 7 2 .

U n e m p lo y m e n t in N e w

B u i. 1 8 2 .

U n e m p lo y m e n t

s e le cte d

and

in d u s t r ie s

d u r a tio n
in

am ong

th e

of

D is tr ic t o f

Y ork

o f e m p l o y m e n t o ffic e s .

e m p lo y m e n t

of

w a g e -e a r n in g

w om en

in

stores

of

C o lu m b ia .

C ity , N . Y .

w om en

in

d ep a rtm en t

and

oth er

r e ta il

B o s to n , M ass.
* B u i. 1 8 3 . R e g u la r it y o f e m p lo y m e n t in t h e w o m e n ’ s r e a d y -t o - w e a r g a r m e n t in d u s t r ie s .
B u i. 1 9 2 . P r o c e e d in g s o f t h e A m e r ic a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f P u b l i c E m p lo y m e n t O ffic e s .
* B u i. 1 9 5 . U n e m p lo y m e n t in t h e U n it e d S ta te s .
B u i. 1 9 6 . P r o c e e d in g s o f th e E m p lo y m e n t M a n a g e r s ’ C o n fe r e n c e h e ld a t M in n e a p o lis ,
Jan u ary, 1916.
B u i. 2 0 2 .

P r o c e e d in g s o f th e c o n f e r e n c e o f th e E m p lo y m e n t M a n a g e r s ’ A s s o c ia t io n
B o s t o n , M a s s ., h e l d

B u i. 2 0 6 .

T h e B r itis h

B u i. 2 2 0 .

P r o c e e d in g s o f th e

sy stem

M ay

o f la b o r e x c h a n g e s .
F ou rth

A n n u a l M e e tin g o f th e A m e r ic a n

P u b l ic E m p lo y m e n t O ffice s , B u f fa lo , N . Y ., J u ly 2 0 a n d
B u i. 2 2 3 .

E m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n




of

10, 1916.

and

ju v e n ile s

[Hi

in G r e a t B r i t a i n

A s s o c ia tio n

21, 1916.

d u r in g t h e w a r .

of

E m p lo y m e n t a n d
* B u i. 2 2 7 .

U n e m p lo y m e n t — C o n c lu d e d .

P r o c e e d in g s

of

th e

E m p lo y m e n t

M an agers’

C o n fe re n ce ,

P h ila d e lp h ia ,

P a .,

A p r il 2 a n d 3, 1 91 7.
B u i. 2 3 5 .

E m p lo y m e n t s y s te m

B u i. 2 4 1 .

P u b l i c e m p l o y m e n t o ff ic e s in t h e U n it e d

B u i. 2 4 7 .

P r o c e e d in g s
M ay

W om en

of

o f th e L a k e C a r r ie r s ’ A s s o c ia t io n .

E m p lo y m e n t

S ta te s .

M an agers’

C o n fe re n ce ,

R o ch ester,

N.

Y .,

9 -1 1 , 1918.

in In d u s try .

B u i. 1 1 6 .

H ou rs,

e a rn in g s ,

se le cte d

and

* B u i. 1 1 7 .

P r o h ib it io n

* B u i. 1 1 8 .

T e n -h o u r m a x im u m

B u i. 1 1 9 .
* B u i. 1 2 2 .
B u i. 1 6 0 .

d u ra tio n

in d u s tr ie s

o f n ig h t w o rk

of

E m p l o y m e n t oi* w o m e n
H ou rs,

e a rn in g s ,

and

in p o w e r

w om en

in

person s.

S u m m ary

o f th e

th e U n ite d

la u n d r ie s in M ilw a u k e e .
o f la b o r

of

w om en

in

I n d ia n a

m e r c a n t ile

g a r m e n t fa c t o r ie s .

M in im u m -w a g e le g is la t io n in
rep ort

on

th e U n it e d

c o n d itio n

S ta te s a n d fo r e ig n

o f w om an

and

c h ild

c o u n tr ie s .
w age

ea rn ers

in

S ta te s .

E f fe c t o f m in im u m

w a g e d e t e r m in a t io n s in O r e g o n .

1 8 0 . T h e b o o t a n d s h o e in d u s t r y in M a s s a c h u s e t t s
182.

w a g e -e a rn in g

fo r w om en a n d y o u n g p erson s.

c o n d it io n s

* B u i. 1 6 7 .

B u i.

of

W o r k i n g h o u r s o f w o m e n in t h e p e a c a n n e r ie s o f W i s c o n s in .

* B u i. 1 7 5 .
* B u i. 1 7 6 .

e m p lo y m e n t

young

w o r k in g -d a y

e s t a b lis h m e n t s a n d

* B u i.

of

in t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o lo m b ia .

U n e m p lo y m e n t

am ong

w om en

in

a s a v o c a t io n

d ep a rtm en t

and

oth er

fo r w om en .
r e ta il

stores

of

th e

n e ce s s ity

of

d u r in g

th e w a r.

B o s to n , M a ss.
B u i. 1 9 3 .

D r e s s m a k in g a s a t r a d e f o r w o m e n in M a s s a c h u s e t t s .

B u i. 2 1 5 .

I n d u s t r ia l e x p e r ie n c e o f t r a d e - s c h o o l g ir ls in M a s s a c h u s e t t s .

B u i. 2 1 7 .

E ffe c t

of

w ork m en ’s

c o m p e n s a tio n

in d u s t r ia l e m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n
B u i. 2 2 3 .

E m p lo y m e n t o f

B u i. 2 5 3 .

W om en

in

w om en

t h e le a d

and

la w s
and

ju v e n ile s

in

d im in is h in g

c h ild r e n .

in

G rea t

B r it a in

in d u s tr y .

W o r k m e n 's I n s u r a n c e a n d C o m p e n s a t i o n

(in e in d iitg

la w s

re la tin g t h e r e to ).

B u i. 1 0 1 .

C a r e o f t u b e r c u l o u s w a g e e a r n e r s in

B u i. 1 0 2 .

B r it is h

B u i. 1 0 3 .

S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e la w

B u i. 1 0 7 .

L a w r e l a t i n g t o in s u r a n c e o f s a la r i e d e m p lo y e e s in G e r m a n y .

N a tio n a l

In su ra n ce

c o m p e n s a t io n

G erm a n y.

A ct, 1911.

la w s

o f S w itz e r la n d .

* B u i. 1 2 6 .

W ork m en ’s

* B u i. 1 5 5 .

C o m p e n s a tio n fo r a c c id e n t s t o e m p lo y e e s o f th e U n it e d S ta te s .

* B u i. 1 8 5 .

C o m p e n s a tio n

le g is la tio n

o f th e

o f 1914

U n it e d

S ta te s a n d

fo r e ig n

c o u n tr ie s .

and 1915.

B u i. 2 0 3 . W o r k m e n ’ s c o m p e n s a tio n la w s o f th e U n ite d S ta te s a n d fo r e ig n c o u n tr ie s .
B u i. 2 1 0 . P r o c e e d in g s o f th e T h ir d A n n u a l M e e tin g o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n
o f I n d u s t r ia l A c c id e n t B o a r d s a n d
B u i. 2 1 2 .

P r o c e e d in g s

of

th e

co n fe re n ce

n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n
B u i. 2 1 7 .

E ffe c t

of

w ork m en ’s

on

C o m m is s io n s .

s o c ia l

in s u r a n c e

c a lle d

o f I n d u s tr ia l A c c id e n t B o a rd s a n d
c o m p e n s a tio n

in d u s t r ia l e m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n

la w s
and

o f w o r k m e n ’s c o m p e n s a tio n

in

by

th e

In te r­

C o m m is s io n s .

d im in is h in g

th e

n e c e s s ity

of

c h ild r e n .

B u i. 2 4 0 .

C o m p a r is o n

B u i. 2 4 3 .

W o r k m e n ’ s c o m p e n s a t io n
c o u n tr ie s .

B u i. 2 4 8 .

P r o c e e d in g s o f th e F o u r t h A n n u a l M e e tin g o f th e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n

B u i. 2 6 4 .

P r o c e e d in g s

le g is la t io n

la w s o f t h e U n it e d S ta te s .

in

th e

U n ite d

S ta te s

and

fo r e ig n

o f I n d u s t r ia l A c c id e n t B o a r d s a n d C o m m is s io n s .
o f th e F ifth

A n n u a l M e e tin g

o f th e

I n t e r n a t io n a l

A s s o c ia tio n

o f I n d u s t r ia l A c c id e n t B o a r d s a n d C o m m is s io n s .
B u i. 2 7 2 .

W ork m en ’s

c o m p e n s a t io n

le g is la tio n

of

th e

U n it e d

S ta te s

and

Canada,

1919.
B u i. 2 7 3 .

P r o c e e d in g s
of

B u i. 2 7 5 .

of

I n d u s t r ia l

C o m p a r is o n

of

th e

S ix th

A c c id e n t

A nnual
B oard s

w ork m en ’s

M e e tin g
and

of

th e

I n t e r n a t io n a l

A s s o c ia tio n

C o m m is s io n s .

c o m p e n s a tio n

la w s

of

th e

U n ite d

S ta te s

M e e tin g

of

th e

I n t e r n a t io n a l

and

Canada.
B u i.

281.

P r o c e e d in g s
c ia tio n

of

of

th e

S e v e n th

I n d u s t r ia l

Annual

A c c id e n t

B oard s

and

C o m m is s io n s .

T in

A sso­

p r e s s .]

I n d u s t r ia l A c c id e n t s a n d H y g ie n e .
B u i. 1 0 4 .

Lead

p o is o n in g

w are
B u i. 1 2 0 .
* B u i. 3 2 7 .
B u i. 1 4 1 .

H y g ie n e

in

p o t t e r ie s ,

t ile

w ork s,

and

p o r ce la in

of

D a n g ers to

s a n it a r y

th e p a in te r s ’ tra d e.
w ork ers

fr o m

d u sts a n d

fu m e s , a n d m e th o d s o f p r o te c tio n .

L e a d p o i s o n i n g in t h e s m e lt in g a n d r e f in in g o f le a d .




e n a m e le d

fa c t o r ie s .

[in]

I n d u s t r ia l A c c i d e n t s a n d H y g i e n e — C o n c lu d e d .
* B u i. 1 5 7 .
B u i. 1 6 5 .
* B u i. 1 7 9 .
B u i. 1 8 8 .

I n d u s t r ia l

th e

of

b u ild in g s .

R e p o r t o f c o m m itte e o n s t a t is t ic s a n d c o m p e n s a tio n in s u r a n c e c o s t o f th e
iM t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n o f I n d u s t r ia l A c c id e n t B o a r d s a n d C o m m is ­
s io n s .

[L im it e d

A n th ra x

B u i. 2 0 7 .

C a u ses o f d e a th

B u i. 2 0 9 .

H y g ie n e

B u i. 2 1 9 .

in t h e r u b b e r in d u s t r y .

d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e o n t h e d a n g e r in t h e u s e o f le a d

p a in tin g

B u i. 2 0 5 .

* B u i. 2 1 6 .

s ta tis tic s .

I n d u s t r ia l p o is o n s u se d
R e p o r t o f B r itis h
in

* B u i. 2 0 1 .

a c c id e n t

L e a d p o i s o n i n g in t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s .

as an
o f th e

A c c id e n t s

e d it io n .]

o c c u p a t io n a l
by

d is e a s e .

o c c u p a t io n .

p r in t in g

tra d e s .

a n d a c c id e n t p r e v e n t io n

in

m a c h in e b u ild in g .

I n d u s t r ia l p o is o n s u s e d o r p r o d u c e d in th e m a n u fa c t u r e o f e x p lo s iv e s .

B u i. 2 2 1 .

H o u r s , fa t ig u e , a n d h e a lt h in B r it i s h

B u i. 2 3 0 .

I n d u s t r ia l e ffic ie n c y a n d

B u i. 2 3 1 .

M o r t a lit y fr o m

fa t ig u e in

re s p ir a to r y

m u n itio n

B r it is h

fa c t o r ie s .

m u n itio n

fa c t o r ie s .

d is e a s e s in d u s t y t r a d e s .

B u i. 2 3 4 .

S a f e t y m o v e m e n t in t h e i r o n a n d s t e e l in d u s t r y , 1 9 0 7 t o 1 9 1 7 .

B u i. 2 3 6 .

E ffe c t o f th e a ir h a m m e r o n th e h a n d s o f s t o n e c u tte r s .

B u i. 2 5 1 .

P r e v e n ta b le d e a th

B u i. 2 5 3 .

W om en

B u i. 2 5 6 .

A c c id e n ts
B u i.

in

th e

th e co tto n

and

m a n u fa c t u r in g in d u s t r y .

in d u s t r ie s .

a ccid e n t

p r e v e n t io n

in

m a c h in e

b u ild in g .

R e v is io n

of

216.

B u i. 2 6 7 .

A n th ra x

B u i. 2 7 6 .

S ta n d a r d iz a t io n

B u i.

In d u s tr ia l

280.

in

le a d

as

an

o c c u p a t io n a l d is e a s e .

(R e v is e d .)

o f in d u s t r ia l a c c id e n t

p o is o n in g

in

m a k in g - c o a l

s t a t is tic s .

ta r

dyes and

d y e in t e r m e d ia t e s .

[In

p r e s s .]
C o n c ilia t io n

and

* B u i. 1 2 4 .
B u i. 1 3 3 .

A r b itr a tio n

C o n c ilia t io n
R ep ort

of

q u ir y

(in c lu d in g

s t r ik e s

a n d a r b it r a t io n

th e

in to

in d u s t r ia l

in d u s t r ia l

and

in

lo c k o u ts ).

th e b u ild in g tr a d e s o f G r e a te r N e w

c o u n c il o f

th e

B r it is h

B oard

of

T ra d e on

Y ork.
its

In ­

a g re e m e n ts.

B u i. 1 3 9 .

M ic h ig a n

B u i. 1 4 4 .

I n d u s t r ia l c o u r t o f th e c lo a k , s u it, a n d s k ir t in d u s t r y o f N e w Y o r k C ity .

B u i. 1 4 5 .

C o n c ilia t io n , a r b it r a t io n , a n d
N ew

c o p p e r d i s t r i c t s t r ik e .

Y ork

s a n it a t io n

in

th e

d r e s s a n d w a is t in d u s t r y

of

C ity .

B u i. 1 9 1 . C o l le c t iv e b a r g a in in g in t h e a n t h r a c i t e c o a l in d u s t r y .
B u i. 1 9 8 . C o lle c t iv e a g r e e m e n t s in t h e m e n ’ s c l o t h in g in d u s t r y .
B u i. 2 3 3 .

O p e r a tio n o f th e I n d u s t r ia l D is p u te s I n v e s t ig a t io n

L a b o r L a w s o f th e U n it e d S ta te s
* B u i. 1 1 1 .
B u i. 1 1 2 .

L abor

le g is la t io n

D e c is io n s

of

o f cou rts

1912.
and

* B u i. 1 4 8 .

L a b o r la w s o f th e

* B u i. 1 5 2 .

D e c is io n s o f c o u r t s a n d

* B u i. 1 6 6 .

L abor

* B u i. 1 6 9 .

D e c is o n s

* B u i. 1 86 .

L abor

* B u i. 1 8 9 .
B u i. 2 1 1 .
* B u i. 2 1 3 .

le g is la t io n
of

D e c is io n s

of

o p in io n s

U n it e d
of

cou rts

le g is la t io n

.a f f e c t i n g

S ta te s , w ith

le g is la t io n

1912
o f cou rts

re la tin g

th ereto

la b o r , 1 9 1 3 .

1914.

a ffe c t in g - la b o r ,
of

co u rts

la b o r ,

d e c is io n s

o p in io n s a ffe c t in g
1914.

1915.
a ffe c t in g

la b o r ,

L a b o r la w s a n d th e ir a d m in is t r a t io n
L abor

A ct o f Canada.

(in c lu d in g d e c is io n s o f c o u r t s r e la t in g t o la b o r ) .

of

1915.
in t h e P a c if i c S t a t e s .

1916.

B u i. 2 2 4 .

D e c is io n s o f c o u r t s a ffe c t in g la b o r , 1 9 1 6 .

B u i. 2 2 9 .

W a g e -p a y m e n t le g is la t io n in

B u i. 2 4 4 .

L a b o r le g is la t io n

t h e U n it e d

S ta te s .

o f 1917.

B u i. 2 4 6 .

D e c is io n s o f c o u r t s a ffe c t in g la b o r , 1 9 1 7 .

B u i. 2 5 7 .

L abor

B u i. 2 5 8 .

D e c is io n s

B u i.

277.

le g is la t io n
of

of

1918.

cou rts an d

L a b o r le g is la t io n o f

F o r e ig n L a b o r L a w s .
B u i. 1 4 2 . A d m in is t r a t io n

of

o p in io n s

a ffe c t in g

la b o r ,

1918.

1919.

la b o r

la w s

and

fa c to r y

in s p e c t io n

in

c e r ta in

E uropean

c o u n tr ie s .
V o c a t io n a l E d u c a t io n .
B u i. 1 4 5 . C o n c ilia t io n , a r b it r a t io n , a n d s a n it a t io n
N e w .Y o r k
* B u i. 1 4 7 .

W ages and

in t h e d r e s s a n d w a i s t in d u s t r y

r e g u la r it y

o f e m p lo y m e n t in t h e c lo a k , s u it , a n d s k ir t in d u s t r y .

B u i. 1 5 9 .
B u i. 1 6 2 .

S h o r t -u n it c o u r s e s f o r w a g e e a r n e r s , a n d a f a c t o r y
V o c a t io n a l e d u c a tio n s u r v e y o f R ic h m o n d , V a .

B u i. 1 9 9 .

V o c a tio n a l




of

C ity .

e d u ca tio n

su rvey

o f M in n e a p o lis .

[IV ]

sch ool

e x p e r im e n t.

L a b o r a s A ffe c te d b y th e W a r .
B u i. 1 7 0 .

F o r e ig n

fo o d

p r ic e s

a s a ffe c te d b y

w ar.

In d u s tr ia l p o is o n s

B u i. 2 2 1 .

H o u r s , fa t ig u e , a n d h e a lt h

B u i. 2 2 2 .

W e lfa r e

B u i. 2 2 3 .

E m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n a n d ju v e n ile s in G r e a t B r it a in d u r in g th e w a r .

B u i. 2 3 0 .

I n d u s t r ia l e ffic ie n c y a n d

B u i. 2 3 7 .

I n d u s t r ia l u n r e s t in G r e a t B r it a in .

B u i. 2 4 9 .

I n d u s t r ia l h e a lt h
t io n

B u i. 2 5 5 .

w ork

in

u sed o r

th e

B u i. 2 1 9 .

B r it is h

and

m u n itio n

th e

m a n u fa c tu r e

e ffic ie n c y .

W ork ers

F in a l

m u n itio n

rep ort o f

fa c t o r ie s .

B r itis h

H e a lt h

of

M u n i­

C o m m itte e .
c o u n c il s in

o f e x p lo s iv e s .

fa c t o r ie s .

fa c t o r ie s .

f a t ig u e in B r it i s h

in d u s t r ia l

J o in t

p r o d u c e d in

in B r i t i s h m u n i t i o n

G rea t

B r ita in .

M is c e lla n e o u s S e r ie s .
* B u i. 1 1 7 .

P r o h ib it io n

* B u i. 1 1 8 .

T e n -h o u r m a x im u m

* B u i. 1 2 3 .

E m p lo y e r s ’ w e lf a r e

B u i. 1 5 8 .

of

n ig h t

G o v e r n m e n t a id

to

w ork

of young

person s.

w o r k in g -d a y fo r w o m e n

an d y ou n g person s.

w ork .
h o m e o w n in g

a n d h o u s in g

o f w o r k in g

p e o p le in

fo r e ig n

c o u n tr ie s .
* B u i. 1 5 9 .

S h o r t -u n it c o u r s e s f o r

* B u i. 1 6 7 .

M in im u m -w a g e

w age earn ers, a n d a

le g is la t io n

in

th e

U n it e d

fa cto r y

school

S ta te s
U n it e d

B u i. 1 7 0 .

S u b je c t

S ta te s

e x p e r im e n t.

fo r e ig n

c o u n tr ie s .

F o r e ig n fo o d p r ic e s a s a ffe c te d by th e w a r .

B u i. 1 7 4 .

and

in d e x

of

th e

p u b lic a tio n s

S ta tis tic s u p to M a y
B u i. 2 0 8 .

P r o fit s h a r in g in t h e U n it e d

B u i. 2 2 2 .

W e lfa r e w o rk

B u i. 2 4 2 . F o o d
B u i. 2 5 0 .

in

situ a tio n

W e lfa r e

w ork

B r itis h

of

th e

B ureau

of

Labor

1, 1 9 1 5 .
S ta te s .

m u n itio n fa c t o r ie s .

in C e n t r a l E u r o p e , 1 9 1 7 .
fo r

e m p lo y e e s

in

in d u s t r ia l

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

in

th e

U n ite d

S ta te s .
B u i. 2 5 4 .

I n t e r n a t io n a l la b o r le g is la t io n a n d th e s o c ie t y o f n a t io n s .

B u i. 2 6 3 .

H o u s in g b y

B u i. 2 6 6 .

P r o c e e d in g s o f S e v e n th

B u i. 2 6 8 .

H is to r ic a l

B u i. 2 7 1 .

A d u lt

of




e m p lo y e r s in t h e U n it e d

th e U n it e d

S ta te s a n d C a n a d a .

su rvey

of

w o r k in g -c la s s

S ta te s .

A n n u a l C o n v e n tio n
[I n

o f G o v e r n m e n t a l L a b o r O ffic ia ls

p r e s s .]

in te r n a tio n a l

a c t io n

a ffe c t in g

e d u c a tio n

G reat

B r it a in

in

[V]

la b o r .
and

th e

U n ite d

S ta te s .

S E IA P B IC T N IS U D B T E B R A O L B R S A IS IC
P C L U L A IO S S E Y H U E U F A O T T T S
D e s c r ip t io n s

of

o c c u p a t io n s ,

B oots an d

sh oes,

C a n e -s u g a r
C oal an d

r e fin in g

and

and
flo u r

w a te r g a s, p a in t a n d

E le c tr ic a l
L o g g in g

prep a red

h a rn ess

m a n u fa c tu r in g ,

ca m ps

M e d ic in a l

and

fo r

th e

s a d d le r y ,

U n it e d
and

and

S e rv ice ,

1 9 1 8 -1 9 .

m illin g .
v a r n is h , p a p e r , p r in t in g

d is t r ib u t io n ,

and

tra d e s , a n d

ru b b er g ood s.

m a in te n a n c e .

s a w m ills .
a n d g e n e r a l c o n s t r u c tio n , r a ilr o a d

b u ild in g .
M in e s

E m p lo y m e n t

m a n u fa c tu r in g .

M e ta l w o rk in g , b u ild in g

O ffic e

S ta te s

ta n n in g .

m in in g .

e m p lo y e e s .

S la u g h t e r in g

and

m eat

p a c k in g .

S tr e e t r a ilw a y s .
T e x t ile s a n d c lo t h in g .
W a te r tr a n s p o r t a t io n .




O

[V I]

t r a n s p o r t a t io n ,

and

s h ip ­